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Title: Illustrative Anecdotes of the Animal Kingdom
Author: Goodrich, Samuel G. (Samuel Griswold), 1793-1860
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS.--LONDON.]


ANECDOTES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.

BOSTON:
C. H. PEIRCE AND G. C. RAND.



ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM:


BY THE AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY'S TALES.

BOSTON:
PUBLISHED BY RAND AND MANN,
No. 3 Cornhill.
1849.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845,

By S. G. GOODRICH,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.

PRESS OF GEORGE C. RAND & CO.



CONTENTS.


                                                                 PAGE

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION,                                             9

VERTEBRATA,                                                        10

CLASS MAMMALIA,                                                    10

ORDER I.--BIMANA,                                                  11
    Man,                                                           11

ORDER II.--QUADRUMANA,                                             13
    Apes,                                                          14
    Orang-Outang,                                                  14
    Chimpansé,                                                     22
    Gibbon,                                                        23
    Baboon,                                                        25
    Monkeys,                                                       38

ORDER III.--CARNARIA,                                              45
    Bats,                                                          45
    Hedgehog,                                                      47
    Mole,                                                          49
    Bear,                                                          50
    White Bear,                                                    68
    Raccoon,                                                       74
    Coati,                                                         76
    Badger,                                                        76
    Glutton,                                                       78
    Weasel,                                                        79
    Polecat,                                                       85
    Ferret,                                                        86
    Mink,                                                          86
    Marten,                                                        87
    Sable,                                                         87
    Skunk,                                                         88
    Otter,                                                         90
    Dog,                                                           92
    Wolf,                                                         113
    Fox,                                                          118
    Hyena,                                                        120
    Lion,                                                         122
    Tiger,                                                        129
    Panther,                                                      132
    Leopard,                                                      134
    Jaguar,                                                       136
    American Panther,                                             144
    Cat,                                                          151

ORDER IV.--AMPHIBIA,                                              162
    Seal,                                                         162
    Walrus,                                                       164

ORDER V.--MARSUPIALA,                                             165
    Opossum,                                                      165
    Kangaroo,                                                     166

ORDER VI.--RODENTIA,                                              169
    Squirrel,                                                     169
    Mouse,                                                        172
    Dormouse,                                                     174
    Rat,                                                          174
    Beaver,                                                       176
    Porcupine,                                                    179
    Hare,                                                         180

ORDER VII.--EDENTATA,                                             184
    Sloth,                                                        184
    Platypus,                                                     186

ORDER VIII.--PACHYDERMATA,                                        188
    Elephant,                                                     188
    Hippopotamus,                                                 199
    Rhinoceros,                                                   200
    Wild Boar,                                                    203
    Domestic Hog,                                                 205
    Tapir,                                                        208
    Horse,                                                        209
    Pony,                                                         222
    Ass,                                                          224
    Zebra,                                                        227

ORDER IX.--RUMINANTIA,                                            229
    Camel,                                                        229
    Deer,                                                         232
    Moose,                                                        233
    American Elk,                                                 233
    Red Deer,                                                     233
    Virginia Deer,                                                235
    Reindeer,                                                     236
    Giraffe,                                                      238
    Goat,                                                         240
    Sheep,                                                        242
    Ox,                                                           246
    Bison,                                                        249

ORDER X.--CETACEA,                                                251
    Dolphin,                                                      251
    Grampus,                                                      252
    Porpoise,                                                     253
    Whale,                                                        254

CLASS II.--AVES,                                                  256

ORDER I.--ACCIPITRES,                                             257
    Vultures,                                                     257
    Condor,                                                       257
    Turkey Buzzard,                                               258
    Carrion Crow,                                                 258
    Hawk,                                                         259
    Peregrine Falcon,                                             259
    Kestrel,                                                      260
    Sparrow Hawk,                                                 261
    Buzzard,                                                      261
    Eagle,                                                        262
    Owl,                                                          265

ORDER II.--PASSERINÆ,                                             267
    Shrike,                                                       268
    King-Bird,                                                    268
    Cedar-Bird,                                                   269
    Scarlet Tanager,                                              269
    Mocking-Bird,                                                 270
    Baltimore Oriole,                                             272
    Wren,                                                         273
    Purple Martin,                                                274
    Swallow,                                                      275
    Skylark,                                                      276
    Titmouse,                                                     277
    Canary-Bird,                                                  277
    Bulfinch,                                                     280
    Sparrow,                                                      281
    Crow,                                                         281
    Raven,                                                        283
    Magpie,                                                       284
    Humming-Bird,                                                 286
    Blue Jay,                                                     287

ORDER III.--SCANSORIÆ,                                            288
    Cuckoo,                                                       288
    Red-headed Woodpecker,                                        289
    Ivory-billed Woodpecker,                                      289
    Parrot,                                                       290

ORDER IV.--GALLINACEA,                                            293
    Cock,                                                         293
    Pheasant,                                                     294
    Ruffed Grouse,                                                295
    Pigeon,                                                       296
    Passenger Pigeon,                                             296
    Musical Pigeon,                                               297
    Carrier Pigeon,                                               297

ORDER V.--STILTED BIRDS,                                          298
    Adjutant,                                                     298
    Stork,                                                        299
    Heron,                                                        300
    Flamingo,                                                     300

ORDER VI.--PALMIPEDES,                                            301
    Gull,                                                         301
    Cormorant,                                                    303
    Swan,                                                         303
    Goose,                                                        304

CLASS III.--REPTILIA,                                             305

ORDER I.--CHELONIA,                                               305
    Tortoise,                                                     305

ORDER II.--SAURIA,                                                306
    Crocodile,                                                    306
    Alligator,                                                    307
    Salamander,                                                   308

ORDER III.--OPHIDIA,                                              309
    Serpents,                                                     309

ORDER IV.--BATRACHIA,                                             311
    Frog,                                                         311
    Toad,                                                         312

CLASS IV.--PISCES,                                                313

    Mackerel,                                                     313
    Sword-fish,                                                   314
    Pike,                                                         314
    Golden Carp,                                                  316
    Salmon,                                                       316
    Herring,                                                      317
    Shark,                                                        317

INVERTEBRATA,                                                     318

CLASS I.--MOLLUSCA,                                               318

    Squid,                                                        318
    Nautilus,                                                     320
    Snail,                                                        320
    Oyster,                                                       321
    Scallop,                                                      322

CLASS II.--ARTICULATA,                                            322

    Leech,                                                        322
    Crab,                                                         323
    Spider,                                                       324
    Scorpion,                                                     325
    Death-watch,                                                  325
    Glowworm,                                                     326
    Fire-fly,                                                     326
    Beetle,                                                       326
    Earwig,                                                       328
    Cricket,                                                      329
    Locust,                                                       330
    Ant,                                                          330
    Caterpillar,                                                  332
    Butterfly,                                                    332
    Moth,                                                         332
    Silkworm,                                                     333
    Flies,                                                        334

CLASS III.--RADIATA,                                              334

    Polypi,                                                       335



ANECDOTES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.


The purpose of the present volume is to exhibit a series of
well-authenticated anecdotes, calculated to illustrate the character
and habits of the more prominent species of the animal kingdom. The
plan of the work, of course, excludes full scientific descriptions; but
it has been thought that it may be more useful, as well as interesting,
to arrange the subjects according to the most approved system of
classification, and to indicate, briefly, the leading traits of the
several orders and genera.[1]

      [1] For a more scientific account of the animal kingdom, the
      reader is referred to "A Pictorial Natural History," &c.,
      published by James Munroe & Co., Boston.



GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM


FIRST GRAND DIVISION, VERTEBRATA, or back boned animals, having a bony
skeleton, and including four classes.

_Class_ I. MAMMALIA, or sucking animals; as, man; bats, monkeys, bears,
oxen, sheep, deer, and many other four-footed beasts; as well as seals,
walruses, whales, &c.

  "  II. AVES, birds of all kinds.

  " III. REPTILIA, or reptiles; as, lizards, frogs, serpents, toads, &c.

  "  IV. PISCES, fishes generally.


SECOND GRAND DIVISION, INVERTEBRATA, or animals without a bony spine,
or a bony skeleton, and including three classes.

_Class_ I. MOLLUSCA, embracing pulpy animals mostly enclosed in shells;
as, the nautilus, oyster, clam, cuttle-fish, &c.

  "  II. ARTICULATA, or jointed animals; as, crabs, lobsters, spiders,
insects, leeches, earthworms, &c.

  " III. RADIATA, branched or radiated animals; as, the star-fish,
tape-worm, coral insect, sea anemone, &c.



VERTEBRATA.


CLASS MAMMALIA.

The mammalia include not only man, the head of creation, but, generally,
those animals which have the most numerous and perfect faculties, the
most delicate perceptions, the most varied powers, and the highest
degrees of intelligence. All the species have a double heart; red, warm
blood; and a nervous system more fully developed than that of any other
animals. This class is divided into nine orders, under each of which we
shall notice some of the more remarkable species.



ORDER I.

BIMANA,

TWO-HANDED.


MAN.

Of this race there is one species, yet divided into many nations,
kingdoms, and tribes. These are all grouped under five races: 1. The
_Caucasian_, or white race, including the most highly civilized
nations; 2. The _Mongolian_, or yellow race, including the Tartars,
Chinese, Japanese, &c.; 3. The _Malay_, or brown race, including the
people of Malacca, and most of the Oceanic islands; 4. The _American_,
or red race, including the American Indians; and 5. The _African_, or
black race, including Negroes.

Philosophers have been a good deal puzzled for a definition of man; yet
it would seem by no means difficult to point out characteristics which
distinguish him from all other animated beings. He is not only the
acknowledged lord and master of the animal kingdom, but he is the only
being that knows God, yet the only one that worships stones, apes, and
idols; the only being that has the Bible, and the only one that makes
systematic warfare on his own species. He is the only created being
that perceives the force of moral obligation, and the only one that
makes slaves of his fellow-beings; he is the only creature that has
reason, and yet the only one that besots himself with intoxicating
drugs and drinks. Man is the only being that has tasted of the tree
of knowledge, and yet the only one that appears, in all ages and
countries, to be a _fallen being_,--one not fulfilling, here on the
earth, the purposes of his creation. Must we not, from the analogy of
the works of God, look to a future state, to find the true end of human
existence?

That we may not omit to give at least one illustrative and characteristic
anecdote, under the head of "_homo sapiens_," we copy the following from
the quaint pages of Carlyle:--

"What, speaking in quite unofficial language, is the net purport of
war? To my own knowledge, for example, there dwell and toil, in the
British village of Dumdrudge, usually, some five hundred souls. From
these, by certain 'natural enemies' of the French, there are
successively selected, during the French war, say thirty able-bodied
men. Dumdrudge, at her own expense, has suckled and nursed them; she
has, not without difficulty and sorrow, fed them up to manhood, and
even trained them to crafts--so that one can weave, another build,
another hammer, and the weakest can stand under thirty stone
avoirdupois. Nevertheless, amid much weeping and swearing, they are
selected, all dressed in red, and shipped away at the public charge
some 2000 miles, or, say, only to the south of Spain, and fed there
till wanted.

"And now to that same spot, in the south of Spain, are thirty similar
French artisans, from a French Dumdrudge, in like manner wending; till,
at length, after infinite effort, the parties come into actual
juxtaposition, and thirty stand fronting thirty, each with a gun in his
hand. Straightway the word 'Fire' is given, and they blow the souls out
of one another; and instead of sixty brisk, useful craftsmen, the world
has sixty dead carcasses, which it must bury, and anon shed tears for.
Had these men any quarrel? Busy as the devil is, not the smallest. They
lived far enough apart, were the entirest strangers; nay, in so wide a
universe, there was indeed unconsciously, by commerce, some mutual
helpfulness between them. How then? Simpleton! their governors had
fallen out; and instead of shooting one another, had the cunning to
make these poor blockheads shoot."



ORDER II.

QUADRUMANA,

FOUR-HANDED ANIMALS.


This numerous order of animals is divided into three families: 1.
_Apes_, which are destitute of tails; 2. _Baboons_, having short tails;
3. _Monkeys_, having long tails. The whole group are confined to warm
countries, and none but the latter kinds are met with in America. They
are not found in Europe, except at Gibraltar. Here, among the rocks,
are considerable numbers of apes; and it has been conjectured that they
come hither from the African coast, by means of passages under the
Straits. This idea, however, is groundless. No doubt these animals were
once common in Europe; but they have been gradually extirpated, except
at Gibraltar, where they have made a stand. Its rocks and caverns seem
to have proved as impregnable a garrison to them as to the British.


APES.

The ORANG-OUTANG;--a native of Cochin China, Malacca, and the large
adjacent islands. It has a countenance more like that of man than any
other animal. It seldom walks erect, and seems to make its home in the
trees. It is covered with reddish brown hair.

_An Orang-Outang in Holland._--This was a female, brought to that
country in 1776. She generally walked on all fours, like other apes,
but could also walk nearly erect. When, however, she assumed this
posture, her feet were not usually extended like those of a man, but
the toes were curved beneath, in such a manner that she rested chiefly
on the exterior sides of the feet. One morning she escaped from her
chain, and was seen to ascend with wonderful agility the beams and
oblique rafters of the building. With some trouble she was retaken, and
very extraordinary muscular powers were, on this occasion, remarked in
the animal. The efforts of four men were found necessary in order to
secure her. Two of them seized her by the legs, and a third by the
head, whilst the other fastened the collar round her body.

During the time she was at liberty, among other pranks, she had taken a
bottle of Malaga wine which she drank to the last drop, and then set
the bottle again in its place. She ate readily of any kind of food
which was presented to her; but her chief sustenance was bread, roots,
and fruit. She was particularly fond of carrots, strawberries, aromatic
plants, and roots of parsley. She also ate meat, boiled and roasted, as
well as fish, and was fond of eggs, the shells of which she broke with
her teeth, and then emptied by sucking out the contents. If
strawberries were presented to her on a plate, she would pick them up,
one by one, with a fork, and put them into her mouth, holding, at the
same time, the plate in the other hand. Her usual drink was water; but
she also would drink very eagerly all sorts of wine, and of Malaga, in
particular, she was very fond. While she was on shipboard, she ran
freely about the vessel, played with the sailors, and would go, like
them, into the kitchen for her mess. When, at the approach of night,
she was about to lie down, she would prepare the bed on which she slept
by shaking well the hay, and putting it in proper order; and, lastly,
would cover herself up snugly in the quilt.

One day, on noticing the padlock of her chain opened with a key, and
shut again, she seized a little bit of stick, and, putting it into the
keyhole, turned it about in all directions, endeavoring to open it.
When this animal first arrived in Holland, she was only two feet and a
half high, and was almost entirely free from hair on any part of her
body, except her back and arms; but, on the approach of winter, she
became thickly covered all over, and the hair on her back was at least
six inches long, of a chestnut color, except the face and paws, which
were somewhat of a reddish bronze color. This interesting brute died
after having been seven months in Holland.

_An Orang-Outang killed in Sumatra._--This specimen measured eight feet
in height when suspended for the purpose of being skinned. The form and
arrangement of his beard were beautiful; there was a great deal of the
human expression in his countenance, and his piteous actions when
wounded, and great tenacity of life, rendered the scene tragical and
affecting. On the spot where he was killed, there were five or six tall
trees, which greatly prolonged the combat; for so great were his
strength and agility in bounding from branch to branch, that his
pursuers were unable to take a determinate aim, until they had felled
all the trees but one. Even then he did not yield himself to his
antagonists till he had received five balls, and been moreover thrust
through with a spear. One of the first balls appears to have penetrated
his lungs, for he was observed immediately to sling himself by his feet
from a branch, with his head downwards, so as to allow the blood to
flow from his mouth. On receiving a wound, he always put his hand over
the injured part, and distressed his pursuers by the human-like agony
of his expression. When on the ground, after being exhausted by his
many wounds, he lay as if dead, with his head resting on his folded
arms. It was at this moment that an officer attempted to give him the
_coup-de-grace_ by pushing a spear through his body, but he immediately
jumped on his feet, wrested the weapon from his antagonist, and
shivered it in pieces. This was his last wound, and his last great
exertion; yet he lived some time afterwards, and drank, it is stated,
great quantities of water. Captain Cornfoot also observes, that the
animal had probably travelled some distance to the place where he was
killed, as his legs were covered with mud up to the knees.

_An Orang-Outang brought to England._--Dr. Clark Abel has given the
following interesting account of an orang-outang which he brought from
Java to England: "On board ship an attempt being made to secure him by
a chain tied to a strong staple, he instantly unfastened it, and ran
off with the chain dragging behind; but finding himself embarrassed by
its length, he coiled it once or twice, and threw it over his shoulder.
This feat he often repeated; and when he found that it would not remain
on his shoulder, he took it into his mouth. After several abortive
attempts to secure him more effectually, he was allowed to wander
freely about the ship, and soon became familiar with the sailors, and
surpassed them in agility. They often chased him about the rigging, and
gave him frequent opportunities of displaying his adroitness in
managing an escape. On first starting, he would endeavor to outstrip
his pursuers by mere speed; but when much pressed, eluded them by
seizing a loose rope, and swinging out of their reach. At other times,
he would patiently wait on the shrouds, or at the mast-head, till his
pursuers almost touched him, and then suddenly lower himself to the
deck by any rope that was near him, or bound along the main-stay from
one mast to the other, swinging by his hands, and moving them one over
the other. The men would often shake the ropes by which he clung with
so much violence, as to make me fear his falling; but I soon found that
the power of his muscles could not be easily overcome. When in a
playful humor, he would often swing within arm's length of his pursuer,
and having struck him with his hand, throw himself from him.

"Whilst in Java, he lodged in a large tamarind-tree near my dwelling,
and formed a bed by intertwining the small branches, and covering them
with leaves. During the day, he would lie with his head projecting
beyond his nest, watching whoever might pass under; and when he saw any
one with fruit, would descend to obtain a share of it. He always
retired for the night at sunset, or sooner if he had been well fed, and
rose with the sun, and visited those from whom he habitually received
food.

"Of some small monkeys on board from Java, he took little notice whilst
under the observation of the persons of the ship. Once, indeed, he
openly attempted to throw a small cage, containing three of them,
overboard; because, probably, he had seen them receive food, of which
he could obtain no part. But although he held so little intercourse
with them when under our inspection, I had reason to suspect that he
was less indifferent to their society when free from our observation;
and was one day summoned to the top-gallant-yard of the mizzen-mast, to
overlook him playing with a young male monkey. Lying on his back,
partially covered with a sail, he for some time contemplated, with
great gravity, the gambols of the monkey, which bounded over him; but
at length caught him by the tail, and tried to envelop him in his
covering. The monkey seemed to dislike his confinement, and broke from
him, but again renewed its gambols, and although frequently caught,
always escaped. The intercourse, however, did not seem to be that of
equals, for the orang-outang never condescended to romp with the
monkey, as he did with the boys of the ship. Yet the monkeys had
evidently a great predilection for his company; for whenever they broke
loose, they took their way to his resting-place, and were often seen
lurking about it, or creeping clandestinely towards him. There appeared
to be no gradation in their intimacy, as they appeared as confidently
familiar with him when first observed, as at the close of their
acquaintance.

"This animal neither practises the grimaces and antics of other
monkeys, nor possesses their perpetual proneness to mischief. Gravity,
approaching to melancholy, and mildness, were sometimes strongly
expressed in his countenance, and seemed to be the characteristics of
his disposition. When he first came among strangers, he would sit for
hours with his hand upon his head, looking pensively at all around him;
and when much incommoded by their examination, would hide himself
beneath any covering that was at hand. His mildness was evinced by his
forbearance under injuries, which were grievous before he was excited
to revenge; but he always avoided those who often teased him. He soon
became strongly attached to those who kindly used him. By their side he
was fond of sitting; and getting as close as possible to their persons,
would take their hands between his lips, and fly to them for
protection. From the boatswain of the Alceste, who shared his meals
with him, and was his chief favorite, although he sometimes purloined
the grog and the biscuit of his benefactor, he learned to eat with a
spoon; and might be often seen sitting at his cabin door, enjoying his
coffee, quite unembarrassed by those who observed him, and with a
grotesque and sober air, that seemed a burlesque on human nature.

"On board ship he commonly slept at the masthead, after wrapping
himself in a sail. In making his bed, he used the greatest pains to
remove every thing out of his way that might render the surface on
which he intended to lie uneven; and, having satisfied himself with
this part of his arrangement, spread out the sail, and, lying down upon
it on his back, drew it over his body. Sometimes I preoccupied his bed,
and teased him by refusing to give it up. On these occasions he would
endeavor to pull the sail from under me, or to force me from it, and
would not rest till I had resigned it. If it were large enough for
both, he would quietly lie by my side.

"His food in Java was chiefly fruit, especially mangostans, of which he
was extremely fond. He also sucked eggs with voracity, and often
employed himself in seeking them. On board ship his diet was of no
definite kind. He ate readily of all kinds of meat, and especially raw
meat; was very fond of bread, but always preferred fruits, when he
could obtain them.

"His beverage in Java was water; on board ship, it was as diversified
as his food. He preferred coffee and tea, but would readily take wine,
and exemplified his attachment to spirits by stealing the captain's
brandy bottle. Since his arrival in London, he has preferred beer and
milk to any thing else, but drinks wine and other liquors.

"I have seen him exhibit violent alarm on three occasions only, when he
appeared to seek for safety in gaining as high an elevation as
possible. On seeing eight large turtles brought on board, whilst the
Cæsar was off the Island of Ascension, he climbed with all possible
speed to a higher part of the ship than he had ever before reached,
and, looking down upon them, projected his long lips into the form of a
hog's snout, uttering, at the same time, a sound which might be
described as between the croaking of a frog and the grunting of a pig.
After some time, he ventured to descend, but with great caution,
peeping continually at the turtles, but could not be induced to
approach within many yards of them. He ran to the same height, and
uttered the same sounds, on seeing some men bathing and splashing in
the sea; and since his arrival in England, has shown nearly the same
degree of fear at the sight of a live tortoise."

This animal survived his transportation to England from August, 1817,
when he arrived, to the 1st April, 1819; during which interval he was
in the custody of Mr. Cross, at Exeter 'Change, as much caressed for
the gentleness of his disposition as he was noticed for his great
rarity. There was no need of personal confinement, and little of
restraint or coercion; to his keepers, especially, and to those whom he
knew by their frequent visits, he displayed a decided partiality.
During his last illness, and at his death, his piteous appearance,
which seemed to bespeak his entreaties to those about him for relief,
did not fail to excite the feelings of all who witnessed them--an
excitement evidently heightened by the recollection of human suffering
under similar circumstances, which the sight of this animal so strongly
brought to mind.

The CHIMPANSÉ;--a native of Guinea and Congo, in Africa. Its frame is
more analogous to that of man than to that of any other tribe, and it
is the only one that can walk erect with ease. It lives in troops, uses
stones and clubs as weapons, and was mistaken for a species of wild
man, by early voyagers along the African coast.

_The Chimpansé on Board a Vessel._--M. De Grandpré, speaking of the
Chimpansé, says that "his sagacity is extraordinary; he generally walks
upon two legs, supporting himself with a stick. The negro fears him,
and not without reason, as he sometimes treats him very roughly. He
saw, on board a vessel, a female chimpansé, which exhibited wonderful
proofs of intelligence. Among other arts, she had learnt to heat the
oven; she took great care not to let any of the coals fall out, which
might have done mischief in the ship; and she was very accurate in
observing when the oven was heated to the proper degree, of which she
immediately apprized the baker, who, relying with perfect confidence
upon her information, carried his dough to the oven as soon as the
chimpansé came to fetch him. This animal performed all the business of
a sailor, spliced ropes, handled the sails, and assisted at unfurling
them; and she was, in fact, considered by the sailors as one of
themselves.

"The vessel was bound for America; but the poor animal did not live to
see that country, having fallen a victim to the brutality of the first
mate, who inflicted very cruel chastisement upon her, which she had not
deserved. She endured it with the greatest patience, only holding out
her hands in a suppliant attitude, in order to break the force of the
blows she received. But from that moment she steadily refused to take
any food, and died on the fifth day from grief and hunger. She was
lamented by every person on board, not insensible to the feelings of
humanity, who knew the circumstances of her fate."

The GIBBON;--a native of Sumatra, Borneo, and Malacca. The arms are of
immense length, and the hands and feet are formed for clinging to the
limbs of trees, where it throws itself from branch to branch with
surprising agility. The expression of the face is gentle, and rather
melancholy. There are many species, all of which utter loud cries.

_The nimble Gibbon, at the Zoological Gardens in London._--"This
specimen," says the editor of the Penny Magazine, "was a female, and
had been four years in captivity at Macao, previous to her arrival in
this country. On entering the apartment in which she was to be kept,
where a large space, and a tree full of branches, were allotted for her
accommodation, she sprang upon the tree, and, using her hands in
alternate succession, she launched herself from bough to bough with
admirable grace and address, sometimes to the distance of twelve or
eighteen feet. Her flight might be termed aërial, for she seemed
scarcely to touch the branches in her progress. It was curious to
witness how abruptly she would stop in her most rapid flight. Suddenly
as thought, she would raise her body, and sit quietly gazing at the
astonished spectators of her gymnastics.

"She possessed great quickness of eye; and apples, and other fruit,
were often thrown at her with great rapidity, but she always caught
them without an effort. On one occasion, a live bird was set at liberty
in her apartment. She marked its flight, made a spring to a distant
branch, caught the bird with one hand, on her passage, and attained the
branch with her other hand. She instantly bit off the head of the bird,
picked off its feathers, and threw it down, without attempting to eat
it.

"While exerting herself in feats of agility, the gibbon ever and anon
uttered her call-notes, consisting of the syllables _oo-ah_, _oo-ah_,
in a succession of ascending and descending semitones, during the
execution of which, the lips and frame vibrated. The tones were not
unmusical, but deafening, from their loudness.

"In disposition, this creature was timid, being apparently afraid of
men, but allowing women to come near her, and stroke her fur, and pat
her hands and feet. Her eye was quick, and she seemed to be perpetually
on the watch, scrutinizing every person who entered the room. After
exercising in the morning from three to four hours, she would, if
allowed, spend the rest of the day quietly on one of the branches."


THE BABOON.

This is a large and ferocious species of ape, common in the south of
Africa, and Asia.

_Le Vaillant's Baboon._--This celebrated traveller, while in Africa,
had a dog-faced baboon, whom he called _Kees_. He accompanied his
master in his wanderings, and of his way of life we have the following
sketches: "I made him," says Le Vaillant, "my taster. Whenever we found
fruits, or roots, with which my Hottentots were unacquainted, we did
not touch them till Kees had tasted them. If he threw them away, we
concluded that they were either of a disagreeable flavor, or of a
pernicious quality, and left them untasted. The ape possesses a
peculiar property, wherein he differs greatly from other animals, and
resembles man--namely, that he is by nature equally gluttonous and
inquisitive. Without necessity, and without appetite, he tastes every
thing that falls in his way, or that is given to him.

"But Kees had a still more valuable quality: he was an excellent
sentinel; for, whether by day or night, he immediately sprang up on the
slightest appearance of danger. By his cry, and the symptoms of fear
which he exhibited, we were always apprized of the approach of an
enemy, even though the dogs perceived nothing of it. The latter at
length learned to rely upon him with such confidence, that they slept
on in perfect tranquillity. I often took Kees with me when I went
a-hunting; and when he saw me preparing for sport, he exhibited the
most lively demonstrations of joy. On the way, he would climb into the
trees, to look for gum, of which he was very fond. Sometimes he
discovered to me honey, deposited in the clefts of rocks, or hollow
trees. But if he happened to have met with neither honey nor gum, and
his appetite had become sharp by his running about, I always witnessed
a very ludicrous scene. In those cases, he looked for roots, which he
ate with great greediness, especially a particular kind, which, to his
cost, I also found to be very well tasted and refreshing, and therefore
insisted upon sharing with him. But Kees was no fool. As soon as he
found such a root, and I was not near enough to seize upon my share of
it, he devoured it in the greatest haste, keeping his eyes all the
while riveted on me. He accurately measured the distance I had to pass
before I could get to him, and I was sure of coming too late.
Sometimes, however, when he had made a mistake in his calculation, and
I came upon him sooner than he expected, he endeavored to hide the
root--in which case, I compelled him, by a box on the ear, to give me
up my share.

"When Kees happened to tire on the road, he mounted upon the back of
one of my dogs, who was so obliging as to carry him whole hours. One of
them, that was larger and stronger than the rest, hit upon a very
ingenious artifice, to avoid being pressed into this piece of service.
As soon as Kees leaped upon his back, he stood still, and let the train
pass, without moving from the spot. Kees still persisted in his
intention, till we were almost out of his sight, when he found himself
at length compelled to dismount, upon which both the baboon and dog
exerted all their speed to overtake us. The latter, however, gave him
the start, and kept a good look-out after him, that he might not serve
him in the same manner again. In fact, Kees enjoyed a certain authority
with all my dogs, for which he perhaps was indebted to the superiority
of his instinct. He could not endure a competitor if any of the dogs
came too near him when he was eating, he gave him a box on the ear,
which compelled him immediately to retire to a respectful distance.

"Like most other domestic animals, Kees was addicted to stealing. He
understood admirably well how to loose the strings of a basket, in
order to take victuals out of it, especially milk, of which he was very
fond. My people chastised him for these thefts; but that did not make
him amend his conduct. I myself sometimes whipped him; but then he ran
away, and did not return again to the tent until it grew dark. Once, as
I was about to dine, and had put the beans, which I had boiled for
myself, upon a plate, I heard the voice of a bird with which I was not
acquainted. I left my dinner standing, seized my gun, and ran out of
the tent. After the space of about a quarter of an hour, I returned,
with the bird in my hand; but, to my astonishment, found not a single
bean upon the plate. Kees had stolen them all, and taken himself out of
the way.

"When he had committed any trespass of this kind, he used always, about
the time when I drank tea, to return quietly, and seat himself in his
usual place, with every appearance of innocence, as if nothing had
happened; but this evening he did not let himself be seen. And on the
following day also he was not seen by any of us; and, in consequence, I
began to grow seriously uneasy about him, and apprehensive that he
might be lost forever. But, on the third day, one of my people, who had
been to fetch water, informed me that he had seen Kees in the
neighborhood; but that, as soon as the animal espied him, he had
concealed himself again. I immediately went out and beat the whole
neighborhood with my dogs. All at once, I heard a cry like that which
Kees used to make when I returned from my shooting, and had not taken
him with me. I looked about, and at length espied him, endeavoring to
hide himself behind the large branches of a tree. I now called to him
in a friendly tone of voice, and made motions to him to come down to
me. But he could not trust me, and I was obliged to climb up the tree
to fetch him. He did not attempt to fly, and we returned together to my
quarters: here he expected to receive his punishment; but I did
nothing, as it would have been of no use.

"When any eatables had been pilfered at my quarters, the fault was
always laid first upon Kees; and rarely was the accusation unfounded.
For a time, the eggs, which a hen laid me, were constantly stolen away,
and I wished to ascertain whether I had to attribute this loss also to
him. For this purpose I went one morning to watch him, and waited till
the hen announced, by her cackling, that she had laid an egg. Kees was
sitting upon my vehicle; but, the moment he heard the hen's voice, he
leaped down, and was running to fetch the egg. When he saw me, he
suddenly stopped, and affected a careless posture, swaying himself
backwards upon his hind legs, and assuming a very innocent look; in
short, he employed all his art to deceive me with respect to his
design. His hypocritical manoeuvres only confirmed my suspicions;
and, in order, in my turn, to deceive him, I pretended not to attend to
him, and turned my back to the bush where the hen was cackling, upon
which he immediately sprang to the place. I ran after him, and came up
to him at the moment when he had broken the egg, and was swallowing it.
Having caught the thief in the fact, I gave him a good beating upon the
spot; but this severe chastisement did not prevent his soon stealing
fresh-laid eggs again.

"As I was convinced that I should never be able to break Kees off his
natural vices, and that, unless I chained him up every morning, I
should never get an egg, I endeavored to accomplish my purpose in
another manner: I trained one of my dogs, as soon as the hen cackled,
to run to the nest, and bring me the egg, without breaking it. In a few
days, the dog had learned his lesson; but Kees, as soon as he heard the
hen cackle, ran with him to the nest. A contest now took place between
them, who should have the egg: often the dog was foiled, although he
was the stronger of the two. If he gained the victory, he ran joyfully
to me with the egg, and put it into my hand. Kees, nevertheless,
followed him, and did not cease to grumble and make threatening
grimaces at him, till he saw me take the egg,--as if he was comforted
for the loss of his booty by his adversary's not retaining it for
himself. If Kees got hold of the egg, he endeavored to run with it to a
tree, where, having devoured it, he threw down the shells upon his
adversary, as if to make game of him. In that case, the dog returned,
looking ashamed, from which I could conjecture the unlucky adventure he
had met with.

"Kees was always the first awake in the morning, and, when it was the
proper time, he aroused the dogs, who were accustomed to his voice,
and, in general, obeyed, without hesitation, the slightest motions by
which he communicated his orders to them, immediately taking their
posts about the tent and carriage, as he directed them."

_A droll Mimic._--A clergyman of some distinction, in England, had a
tame baboon, which became so fond of him, that, wherever he went, it
was always desirous of accompanying him. Whenever, therefore, he had to
perform the service of his church, he was under the necessity of
shutting it up in his room.

Once, however, the animal escaped, and followed his master to the
church; and, silently mounting the sounding-board above the pulpit, he
lay perfectly still till the sermon commenced. He then crept to the
edge, and, overlooking the preacher, imitated his gestures in so
grotesque a manner, that the whole congregation was unavoidably made to
laugh.

The minister, surprised and confounded at this levity, severely rebuked
his audience for their conduct. The reproof failed of its intended
effect. The congregation still laughed, and the preacher, in the warmth
of his zeal, redoubled his vociferation and action. This last the ape
imitated so exactly, that the congregation could no longer restrain
themselves, but burst into a long and loud roar of laughter.

A friend of the preacher at length stepped up to him, and pointed out
the cause of this apparently improper conduct; and such was the arch
demeanor of the animal, that it was with the utmost difficulty that the
parson himself could maintain his gravity, while he ordered the sexton
to take the creature away.

MISCELLANEOUS ANECDOTES.--Immense troops of baboons inhabit the
mountains in the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope, whence they
descend to the plains, to devastate the gardens and orchards. In their
plundering excursions they are very cunning, always placing sentinels,
to prevent the main body from being surprised. They break the fruit to
pieces, cram it into their cheek-pouches, and keep it until hungry.
Whenever the sentinel discovers a man approaching, he sets up a loud
yell, which makes the whole troop retreat with the utmost precipitation.
They have been known to steal behind an unwary traveller resting near
their retreats, and carry off his food, which they would eat at a
little distance from him; and with absurd grimaces and gestures, in
ridicule, offer it back; at the same time greedily devouring it.

The following account is given by Lade: "We traversed a great mountain
in the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope, and amused ourselves with
hunting large baboons, which are very numerous in that place. I can
neither describe all the arts practised by these animals, nor the
nimbleness and impudence with which they returned, after being pursued
by us. Sometimes they allowed us to approach so near that I was almost
certain of seizing them. But, when I made the attempt, they sprang, at
a single leap, ten paces from me, and mounted trees with equal agility,
from whence they looked at us with great indifference, and seemed to
derive pleasure from our astonishment. Some of them were so large that,
if our interpreter had not assured us they were neither ferocious nor
dangerous, our number would not have appeared sufficient to protect us
from their attacks.

"As it could serve no purpose to kill them, we did not use our guns.
But the captain levelled his piece at a very large one, that had rested
on the top of a tree, after having fatigued us a long time in pursuing
him; this kind of menace, of which the animal, perhaps, recollected his
having sometimes seen the consequences, terrified him to such a degree,
that he fell down motionless at our feet, and we had no difficulty in
seizing him; but when he recovered from his stupor, it required all our
dexterity and efforts to keep him. We tied his paws together; but he
bit so furiously, that we were under the necessity of binding our
handkerchiefs over his head."

The common baboon is very numerous in Siam, where they frequently sally
forth in astonishing multitudes to attack the villages, during the time
the peasants are occupied in the rice harvest, and plunder their
habitations of whatever provisions they can lay their paws on. Fruits,
corn, and roots, are their usual food, although they will also eat
flesh. When hunted, baboons often make very formidable resistance to
dogs--their great strength and long claws enabling them to make a stout
defence; and it is with difficulty a single dog can overcome them,
except when they are gorged with excessive eating, in which they always
indulge when they can.

Some years ago, Mr. Rutter, doing duty at the castle of Cape Town, kept
a tame baboon for his amusement. One evening it broke its chain unknown
to him. In the night, climbing up into the belfry, it began to play
with, and ring the bell. Immediately the whole place was in an uproar,
some great danger being apprehended. Many thought that the castle was
on fire; others, that an enemy had entered the bay; and the soldiers
began actually to turn out, when it was discovered that the baboon had
occasioned the disturbance. On the following morning, a court-martial
was summoned, when Cape justice dictated, that, "Whereas Master
Rutter's baboon had unnecessarily put the castle into alarm, the master
should receive fifty lashes;" Mr. Rutter, however, found means to evade
the punishment.

The following circumstance is characteristic of the imitative
disposition of the baboon: The army of Alexander the Great marched, in
complete battle array, into a country inhabited by great numbers of
these apes, and encamped there for the night. The next morning, when
the army was about to proceed on its march, the soldiers saw, at some
distance, an enormous number of baboons, drawn up in rank and file,
like a small army, with such regularity that the Macedonians, who could
have no idea of such a manoeuvre, imagined at first that it was the
enemy, prepared to receive them.

The ape-catchers of Africa, it is said, take a vessel filled with
water, and wash their hands and face in a situation where they are sure
to be observed by the apes. After having done so, the water is poured
out, and its place supplied by a solution of glue; they leave the spot,
and the apes then seldom fail to come down from their trees, and wash
themselves in the same manner as they have seen the men do before them.
The consequence is, that they glue their eyelashes so fast together,
that they cannot open their eyes, or see to escape from their enemy.

The ape is fond of spirituous liquors, and these are also used for the
purpose of entrapping them. A person places, in their sight, a number
of vessels filled with ardent spirits, pretends to drink, and retires.
The apes, ever attentive to the proceedings of man, descend, and
imitate what they have seen, become intoxicated, fall asleep, and are
thus rendered an easy conquest to their cunning adversaries.

The people of India make the proneness of apes to imitation useful;
for, when they wish to collect cocoa-nuts, and other fruits, they go to
the woods where these grow, which are generally frequented by apes and
monkeys, gather a few heaps, and withdraw. As soon as they are gone,
the apes fall to work, imitate every thing they have seen done; and
when they have gathered together a considerable number of heaps, the
people approach, the apes fly to the trees, and the harvest is conveyed
home.

Apes and monkeys, in many parts of India, are made objects of religious
veneration, and magnificent temples are erected to their honor. In
these countries, they propagate to an alarming extent; they enter
cities in immense troops, and even venture into the houses. In some
places, as in the kingdom of Calicut, the natives find it necessary to
have their windows latticed, to prevent the ingress of these intruders,
who lay hands without scruple upon every eatable within their reach.
There are three hospitals for monkeys in Amadabad, the capital of
Guzerat, where the sick and lame are fed and relieved by medical
attendants.

Bindrabund, a town of Agra, in India, is in high estimation with the
pious Hindoos, who resort to it from the most remote parts of the
empire, on account of its being the favorite residence of the god
Krishna. The town is embosomed in groves of trees, which, according to
the account of Major Thorn, are the residence of innumerable apes,
whose propensity to mischief is increased by the religious respect paid
to them, in honor of Hunaman, a divinity of the Hindoo mythology,
wherein he is characterized under the form of an ape. In consequence of
this degrading superstition, such numbers of these animals are
supported by the voluntary contributions of pilgrims, that no one dares
to resist or molest them. Hence, access to the town is often difficult;
for, should one of the apes take an antipathy against any unhappy
traveller, he is sure to be assailed by the whole community, who follow
him with all the missile weapons they can collect, such as pieces of
bamboo, stones, and dirt, making at the same time a most hideous
howling.

A striking instance of the audacity of the ape, in attacking the human
species, is related by M. Mollien, in his Travels in Africa. A woman,
going with millet and milk to a vessel, from St. Louis, which had been
stopped before a village in the country of Golam, was attacked by a
troop of apes, from three to four feet high; they first threw stones at
her, on which she began to run away; they then ran after her, and,
having caught her, they commenced beating her with sticks, until she
let go what she was carrying. On returning to the village, she related
her adventure to the principal inhabitants, who mounted their horses,
and, followed by their dogs, went to the place which served as a
retreat to this troop of marauders. They fired at them, killed ten, and
wounded others, which were brought to them by the dogs; but several
negroes were severely wounded in this encounter, either by the stones
hurled at them by the apes, or by their bites; the females, especially,
were most furious in revenging the death of their young ones, which
they carried in their arms.

D'Obsonville, speaking of the sacred haunts of apes in different parts
of India, says that, in the course of his travels through that country,
he occasionally went into the ancient temples, in order to rest
himself. He noticed always that several of the apes, which abounded
there, first observed him attentively, then looked inquisitively at the
food which he was about to take, betraying, by their features and
gestures, the great desire which they felt to partake of it with him.
In order to amuse himself upon such occasions, he was generally
provided with a quantity of dried peas; of these he first scattered
some on the side where the leader stood,--for, according to his
account, the apes always obey some particular one as their
leader,--upon which the animal gradually approached nearer, and
gathered them eagerly up. He then held out a handful to the animal;
and, as they seldom meet a person who harbors any hostile intentions
against them, the creature ventured slowly to approach, cautiously
watching, as it seemed, lest any trick might be played upon him. At
length, becoming bolder, he laid hold, with one of his paws, of the
thumb of the hand in which the peas were held out to him, while, with
the other, he carried them to his mouth, keeping his eyes all the while
fixed upon those of M. d'Obsonville.

"If I happened to laugh," he observes, "or to move myself, the ape
immediately gave over eating, worked his lips, and made a kind of
growling noise, the meaning of which was rendered very intelligible to
me by his long, canine teeth, which he occasionally exhibited. If I
threw some of the peas to a distance from him, he sometimes seemed
pleased to see other apes pick them up; though, at other times, he
grumbled at it, and attacked those who approached too near to me. The
noise which he made, and the apprehensions he showed, though they
might, perhaps, proceed in some measure from his own greediness,
evidently proved, however, that he feared I might take advantage of
their weakness, and so make them prisoners. I also observed, that those
whom he suffered to approach the nearest to me were always the largest
and strongest of the males; the young and the females he obliged to
keep at a considerable distance from me."


MONKEYS.

Of this numerous and frolicsome family, there is a great variety in the
hot regions of both continents. In some portions of South America, they
enliven the landscape by their gambols, and make the forests resound
with their cries. They are the smallest and most lively of the
four-handed family, and in all caravans, they are the favorites of
young observers.

_The Fair Monkey._--This is one of the most beautiful of the tribe. Its
head is small and round: its face and hands are of scarlet, so defined
and vivid that it has more the appearance of art than nature. Its body
and limbs are covered with long hairs of the purest white, and of a
shining and silvery brightness: the tail is of a deep chestnut color,
very glistening, and considerably longer than the body. This animal is
somewhat larger than the striated monkey. It is an inhabitant of South
America, and is frequently to be met with on the banks of the Amazon.

The following circumstance, exhibiting the fickleness of the fair
monkey, was communicated to Mr. Bewick by Sir John Trevelyan. "Pug was
a gentleman of excellent humor, and adored by the crew; and, to make
him perfectly happy, as they imagined, they procured him a wife. For
some weeks he was a devoted husband, and showed her every attention and
respect. He then grew cool, and became jealous of any kind of civility
shown her by the master of the vessel, and began to use her with much
cruelty. His treatment made her wretched and dull; though she bore the
spleen of her husband with that fortitude which is characteristic of
the female sex of the human species. Pug, however, like the lords of
creation, was up to deceit, and practised pretended kindness to his
spouse, to effect a diabolical scheme, which he seemed to premeditate.
One morning, when the sea ran very high, he seduced her aloft, and drew
her observation to an object at some distance from the yard-arm; her
attention being fixed, he all of a sudden applied his paw to her rear,
and canted her into the sea, where she fell a victim to his cruelty.
This seemed to afford him high gratification, for he descended in great
spirits."

_A Trick._--In 1818, a vessel that sailed between Whitehaven, in
England, and Jamaica, embarked on her homeward voyage, and, among other
passengers, carried Mrs. B., and an infant five weeks old. One
beautiful afternoon, the captain perceived a distant sail; and, after
he had gratified his curiosity, he politely offered the glass to the
lady, that she might obtain a clear view of the object. She had the
baby in her arms, but now she wrapped her shawl about it, and placed it
on a sofa, upon which she had been sitting.

Scarcely had she applied her eye to the glass, when the helmsman
exclaimed, "See what the mischievous monkey has done!" The reader may
judge of the mother's feelings, when, on turning round, she beheld the
animal in the act of transporting her child apparently up to the top of
the mast. The monkey was a very large one, and so strong and active,
that, while it grasped the infant firmly with one arm, it climbed the
shrouds nimbly by the other, totally unembarrassed by the weight of its
burden.

One look was enough for the terrified mother; and had it not been for
the assistance of those around her, she would have fallen prostrate on
the deck, where she was soon afterwards stretched, apparently a
lifeless corpse. The sailors could climb as well as the monkey, but the
latter watched their motions narrowly; and, as it ascended higher up
the mast the moment they attempted to put a foot on the shroud, the
captain became afraid that it would drop the child, and endeavor to
escape by leaping from one mast to another.

In the mean time, the little innocent was heard to cry; and though many
thought it was suffering pain, their fears on this point were speedily
dissipated, when they observed the monkey imitating exactly the motions
of a nurse, by dandling, soothing, and caressing, its charge, and even
endeavoring to hush it to sleep.

From the deck, the lady was conveyed to the cabin, and gradually
restored to her senses. In the mean time, the captain ordered the men
to conceal themselves carefully below, and quietly took his own station
on the cabin stairs, where he could see all that passed, without being
seen. The plan happily succeeded. The monkey, on perceiving that the
coast was clear, cautiously descended from his lofty perch, and
replaced the infant on the sofa, cold, fretful, and perhaps frightened,
but, in every other respect, as free from harm as when he took it up.
The captain had now a most grateful office to perform; the babe was
restored to its mother's arms, amidst tears, and thanks, and blessings.

_A Tragedy in the Woods._--An Englishman travelling in India tells
the following interesting, though painful, story:--

"I was strolling through a wood, with my gun on my shoulders, my
thoughts all centred in Europe, when I heard a curious noise in a tree
above me. I looked up, and found that the sounds proceeded from a white
monkey, who skipped from branch to branch, chattering with delight at
beholding a 'fellow-creature,' for so he decidedly seemed to consider
me. For a few moments I took no notice of his antics, and walked
quietly along, till suddenly a large branch fell at my feet, narrowly
escaping my head. I again paused, and found that the missile had been
dropped by my talkative friend. Without consideration, I instantly
turned round and fired at him.

"The report had scarcely sounded, when I heard the most piercing, the
most distressing cry, that ever reached my ears. An agonized shriek,
like that of a young infant, burst from the little creature that I had
wounded. It was within thirty paces of me. I could see the wretched
animal, already stained with blood, point to its wound, and again hear
its dreadful moan.

"The agony of a hare is harrowing, and I have seen a young sportsman
turn pale on hearing it. The present cry was, however, more
distressing. I turned round, and endeavored to hurry away. This,
however, I found no easy task; for, as I moved forward, the unhappy
creature followed me, springing as well as he could from bough to
bough, uttering a low, wailing moan, and pointing at the same time to
the spot whence the blood trickled. Then, regarding me steadily and
mournfully in the face, it seemed to reproach me with my wanton
cruelty. Again I hastened on, but still it pursued me. Never, in my
life, did I feel so much for a dumb animal: never did I so keenly
repent an act of uncalled-for barbarity.

"Determined not to allow the poor monkey thus to linger in torture, and
at once to end the annoying scene, I suddenly came to a halt; and,
lowering my gun, which was only single-barrelled, I was about to reload
it for the purpose of despatching the maimed creature, when, springing
from a tree, it ran up to within a dozen paces of me, and began to cry
so piteously, and roll itself in agony, occasionally picking up earth,
with which it attempted to stanch the blood by stuffing it into the
wound, that, in spite of my resolution, when I fired, I was so nervous,
I almost missed my aim, inflicting another wound, which broke the
animal's leg, but nothing more. Again, its piercing shriek rang in my
ears. Horrified beyond endurance, I threw down my gun, and actually
fled.

"In about half an hour, I returned, for the purpose of getting my gun,
fully expecting that the poor animal had left the spot. What, then, was
my surprise, to find a crowd of monkeys surrounding the wretched
sufferer, and busily employed in tearing open its wounds! A shout drove
them all away, except the dying animal. I advanced. The little creature
was rolling in agony. I took up my gun, which lay beside him, and
fancied he cast one look of supplication on me--one prayer to be
relieved from his misery. I did not hesitate; with one blow of the
butt-end, I dashed out his brains. Then turning round, I slowly
returned to my quarters, more profoundly dispirited than I had felt for
many months.--Take my advice, reader; if you must live in India, never
shoot a monkey."

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--We are told of a king of Egypt who was so
successful in training monkeys to the art of dancing, that they were
long admired for the dexterity and gracefulness of their movements. On
one occasion, his majesty had a ball, at which a vast number of these
animals "tripped it on the light, fantastic toe." A citizen, who
enjoyed fun, threw a few handfuls of walnuts into the ball-room, while
these picturesque animals were engaged in a high dance, upon which they
forgot all decorum, and sprang to the booty.

A monkey, which was kept on board a British frigate, was the favorite
of all on board but the midshipmen. This animal knew well of a large
store of apples being in a locker in the wardroom, which was kept
constantly secure, in consequence of his propensity for plundering it.
He, however, fell upon ways and means to secure his booty. He procured
a piece of wadding, swung himself from the stern gallery by one hand,
and, with this in the other, broke a pane of glass in the wardroom
window; and, after carefully picking out all the broken pieces of
glass, made his entrance, where he gorged himself so fully, that he was
unable to effect his retreat by the place where he entered. He was
caught in the fact, and soundly flogged.

A singular piece of ingenuity was once practised by a monkey, in
defending himself against fire-arms. This animal belonged to Captain
M----, of the navy, who had also another small monkey, of which he was
very fond, from its lively playfulness. The larger animal was often
exceedingly troublesome, and could not be driven from his cabin,
without _blazing_ at him with a pistol loaded with powder and currant
jelly,--a discharge which produced a painful and alarming effect. The
old monkey was at first astounded at the sight of the weapon, which
stung him so sore, that he at last learned a mode of defence; for,
snatching up the little favorite, he used to interpose him as a shield
between the pistol and his body.

In one of his excursions, Le Vaillant killed a female monkey, which
carried a young one on her back. The latter continued to cling to her
dead parent till they reached their evening quarters; and the
assistance of a negro was even then required to disengage it. No
sooner, however, did it feel itself alone, than it darted towards a
wooden block, on which was placed the wig of Le Vaillant's father. To
this it clung most pertinaciously by its fore paws; and such was the
force of this deceptive instinct, that it remained in the same position
for about three weeks, all this time evidently mistaking the wig for
its mother. It was fed, from time to time, with goat's milk; and, at
length, emancipated itself voluntarily, by quitting the fostering care
of the peruke. The confidence which it ere long assumed, and the
amusing familiarity of its manners, soon rendered it a favorite with
the family. The unsuspecting naturalist had, however, introduced a wolf
in sheep's clothing into his dwelling; for, one morning, on entering
his chamber, the door of which had been imprudently left open, he
beheld his young favorite making a hearty breakfast on a collection of
insects which he had made. In the first transports of his anger, he
resolved to strangle the monkey in his arms; but his rage immediately
gave way to pity, when he perceived that the crime of its voracity had
carried the punishment along with it. In eating the beetles, it had
swallowed several of the pins on which they were transfixed. Its agony,
consequently, became great, and all his efforts were unable to preserve
its life.



ORDER III.

CARNARIA,

BUTCHERING ANIMALS.


This order includes bats, hedgehogs, bears, dogs, wolves, foxes, lions,
weasels, &c.


BATS.

These creatures, partaking both of the nature of quadrupeds and birds,
have excited the wonder of mankind in all ages. There is a great
variety of species, from the common bat of our climate to the vampyre
of South America, whose wings stretch to the extent of two feet. These
animals live in caves and crevices during the day, and sally forth at
evening to catch their prey. For this reason, there is a popular
disgust of the whole tribe; yet the species in our climate are a
harmless race. We cannot say as much of the larger kinds, which
sometimes darken the air, by their abundance, in hot climates. One
species, already mentioned, is a formidable animal.

Captain Stedman, in his "Narrative of a Five Years' Expedition against
the revolted Negroes of Surinam," relates that, on awaking about four
o'clock one morning in his hammock, he was extremely alarmed at finding
himself weltering in congealed blood, and without feeling any pain
whatever. "The mystery was," says Captain Stedman, "that I had been
bitten by the vampyre, or spectre of Guiana, which is also called the
flying dog of New Spain; and by the Spaniards, _perrovolador_. This is
no other than a bat of monstrous size, that sucks the blood from men
and cattle, while they are fast asleep, even, sometimes, till they die;
and, as the manner in which they proceed is truly wonderful, I shall
endeavor to give a distinct account of it.

"Knowing, by instinct, that the person they intend to attack is in a
sound slumber, they generally alight near the feet, where, while the
creature continues fanning with his enormous wings, which keeps one
cool, he bites a piece out of the tip of the great toe, so very small,
indeed, that the head of a pin could scarcely be received into the
wound, which is, consequently, not painful; yet, through this orifice,
he continues to suck the blood, until he is obliged to disgorge. He
then begins again, and thus continues sucking and disgorging until he
is scarcely able to fly, and the sufferer has often been known to pass
from time to eternity. Cattle they generally bite in the ear, but
always in places where the blood flows spontaneously. Having applied
tobacco ashes as the best remedy, and washed the gore from myself and
hammock, I observed several small heaps of congealed blood, all round
the place where I had lain, upon the ground; on examining which, the
surgeon judged that I had lost at least twelve or fourteen ounces of
blood."

"Some years ago," says Mr. Waterton, in his "Wanderings in South
America," "I went to the River Paumaron, with a Scotch gentleman, by
name Tarbet. We hung our hammocks in the thatched loft of a planter's
house. Next morning, I heard this gentleman muttering in his hammock,
and now and then letting fall an imprecation or two, just about the
time he ought to have been saying his morning prayers. 'What is the
matter, sir?' said I, softly; 'is any thing amiss?' 'What's the
matter?' answered he, surlily; 'why, the vampyres have been sucking me
to death.' As soon as there was light enough, I went to his hammock,
and saw it much stained with blood. 'There,' said he, thrusting his
foot out of the hammock, 'see how these infernal imps have been drawing
my life's blood.' On examining his foot, I found the vampyre had tapped
his great toe. There was a wound somewhat less than that made by a
leech. The blood was still oozing from it. I conjectured he might have
lost from ten to twelve ounces of blood. Whilst examining it, I think I
put him into a worse humor, by remarking that a European surgeon would
not have been so generous as to have blooded him without making a
charge. He looked up in my face, but did not say a word. I saw he was
of opinion that I had better have spared this piece of ill-timed
levity."


HEDGEHOG.

This animal belongs exclusively to the eastern continent, and is well
known from the thick and sharp prickles with which its back and sides
are covered, and the contractile power by which it can draw its head
and belly within the prickly covering of its back, so as to give it the
appearance of a ball. It is found near hedges and thickets, from the
fruits and herbage of which it obtains its food. It also feeds upon
small animals, such as snails and beetles.

The sagacity of the hedgehog is celebrated in antiquity. We are
informed by Plutarch, that a citizen of Cyzicus thus acquired the
reputation of a good meteorologist: A hedgehog generally has its burrow
open in various points; and, when its instinct warns it of an
approaching change of the wind, it stops up the aperture towards that
quarter. The citizen alluded to, becoming aware of this practice, was
able to predict to what point the wind would next shift.

Though of a very timid disposition, the hedgehog has been sometimes
tamed. In the year 1790, there was one in the possession of a Mr.
Sample, in Northumberland, which performed the duty of a turnspit as
well, in all respects, as the dog of that denomination. It ran about
the house with the same familiarity as any other domestic animal.

In the London Sporting Magazine for 1821, there is an account of one,
which, after having been tamed in a garden, found its way to the
scullery, and there made regular search for the relics of the dinner
plates; having its retreat in the adjoining cellar. It was fed after
the manner itself had selected. Milk was given in addition to the meat;
but it lost its relish for vegetables, and constantly rejected them. It
soon became as well domesticated as the cat, and lived on a footing of
intimacy with it.


THE MOLE.

Of this animal there are several species; they burrow in the earth, and
form avenues from one nest to another, like the crossing streets of a
city. Their eyes are small, and so buried in fur as to be invisible,
except on close inspection.

_Mole-Catching._--It has been a common opinion that moles were
destructive to the crops; and in Europe, much pains have been taken to
destroy them. The mole-catcher--in general a quiet old man, who passes
his winter in making his traps, in the chimney-corner--comes forth, in
the spring, with his implements of destruction. His practised eye soon
discovers the tracks of the mole, from the mound which he throws up to
some neighboring bank, or from one mound to another. It is in this
track, or run, that he sets his trap, a few inches below the surface of
the ground. As the mole passes through this little engine of his ruin,
he disturbs a peg which holds down a strong hazel rod in a bent
position. The moment the peg is moved, the end of the rod which is held
down flies up, and with it comes up the poor mole, dragged out of the
earth which he has so ingeniously excavated, to be gibbeted, without a
chance of escape.

There was a Frenchman, of the name of Le Court, who died a few years
since,--a man of great knowledge and perseverance, and who did not
think it beneath him to devote his whole attention to the observation
of the mole. He established a school for mole-catching; and taught many
what he had acquired by incessant perseverance--the art of tracing the
mole to his hiding-place in the ground, and cutting off his retreat.
The skill of this man once saved, as was supposed, a large and fertile
district of France from inundation by a canal, whose banks the moles
had undermined in every direction.

More recently, it has been doubted whether moles are really so
mischievous to the farmer as has been supposed. It is said that they
assist in draining the land, and thus prevent the foot-rot in sheep.
Mr. Hogg, the Ettrick shepherd, says, "If a hundred men and horses were
employed on a common-sized pasture-farm--say from 1500 to 2000
acres--in raising and draining manure for a top-dressing to the land,
they would not do it so effectually, so equally, and so neatly, as the
natural number of moles on the farm would do for themselves."

Moles are said to be very ferocious animals; and, as an evidence of
this, we are told that a mole, a toad, and a viper, were enclosed in a
glass case; the mole despatched the other two, and devoured a great
part of both of them.


THE BEAR.

Of this animal there are many species; among which, the white bear of
the polar regions, and the grisly bear of the eastern slope of the
Rocky Mountains, are the largest and most formidable. The brown bear is
common to both continents. The most remarkable of the other species are
the Bornean, spectacled, large-lipped, Thibetian, and Malayan.

The BROWN or BLACK BEAR.--_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--This species,
like the rest of the family, is a solitary animal; for he only remains
associated with his mate for a short period, and then retires to his
winter retreat, which is usually in the hole of a rock, the cavity of a
tree, or a pit in the earth, which the animal frequently digs for
himself. He sometimes constructs a kind of hut, composed of the
branches of trees, which he lines with moss. In these situations he
continues, for the most part, in a lethargic state, taking no food, but
subsisting entirely on the absorption of the fat which he has
accumulated in the course of the summer.

The modes that are adopted, by the inhabitants of different countries,
for taking or destroying bears, are various. Of these, the following
appear to be the most remarkable: In consequence of the well-known
partiality of these animals for honey, the Russians sometimes fix to
those trees where bees are hived a heavy log of wood, at the end of a
long string. When the unwieldy creature climbs up, to get at the hive,
he finds himself interrupted by the log; he pushes it aside, and
attempts to pass it; but, in returning, it hits him such a blow, that,
in a rage, he flings it from him with greater force, which makes it
return with increased violence; and he sometimes continues this, till
he is either killed, or falls from the tree.

In Lapland, hunting the bear is often undertaken by a single man, who,
having discovered the retreat of the animal, takes his dog along with
him, and advances towards the spot. The jaws are tied round with a
cord, to prevent his barking; and the man holds the other end of this
cord in his hand. As soon as the dog smells the bear, he begins to show
signs of uneasiness, and, by dragging at the cord, informs his master
that the object of his pursuit is at no great distance.

When the Laplander, by this means, discovers on which side the bear is
stationed, he advances in such a direction that the wind may blow from
the bear to him, and not the contrary; for otherwise, the animal would,
by his scent, be aware of his approach, though not able to see the
enemy, being blinded by sunshine. The olfactory organs of the bear are
exquisite. When the hunter has advanced to within gunshot of the bear,
he fires upon him; and this is very easily accomplished in autumn, as
he is then more fearless, and is constantly prowling about for berries
of different kinds, on which he feeds at this season of the year.
Should the man chance to miss his aim, the furious beast will directly
turn upon him in a rage, and the little Laplander is obliged to take to
his heels with all possible speed, leaving his knapsack behind him on
the spot. The bear, coming up to this, seizes upon it, biting and
tearing it into a thousand pieces. While he is thus venting his fury,
the Laplander, who is generally a good marksman, reloads his gun, and
usually destroys him at the second shot; if not, the bear in most cases
runs away.

Bear-baiting was a favorite amusement of our English ancestors. Sir
Thomas Pope entertained Queen Mary and the Princess Elizabeth, at
Hatfield, with a grand exhibition of a "bear-baiting, with which their
highnesses were right well content." Bear-baiting was part of the
amusement of Elizabeth, among "the princely pleasures of Kenilworth
Castle." Rowland White, speaking of the queen, then in her
sixty-seventh year, says,--"Her majesty is very well. This day she
appoints a Frenchman to do feats upon a rope, in the Conduit Court.
To-morrow she has commanded the bears, the bull, and the ape, to be
bayted, in the tilt-yard. Upon Wednesday, she will have solemn
dauncing." The office of chief master of the bear was held under the
crown, with a salary of 16d. _per diem_. Whenever the king chose to
entertain himself or his visitors with this sport, it was the duty of
the master to provide bears and dogs, and to superintend the baiting;
and he was invested with unlimited authority to issue commissions, and
to send his officers into every county in England, who were empowered
to seize and take away any bears, bulls, or dogs, that they thought
meet, for his majesty's service. The latest record, by which this
diversion was publicly authorized, is a grant to Sir Saunders Duncombe,
October 11, 1561, "for the sole practice and profit of the fighting and
combating of wild and domestic beasts, within the realm of England, for
the space of fourteen years." Occasional exhibitions of this kind were
continued till about the middle of the eighteenth century.

We are told, in Johnston's _Sketches of India_, that "bears will often
continue on the road, in front of a palanquin, for a mile or two,
tumbling, and playing all sorts of antics, as if they were taught to do
so. I believe it is their natural disposition; for they certainly are
the most amusing creatures imaginable, in a wild state. It is no wonder
they are led about with monkeys, to amuse mankind. It is astonishing,
as well as ludicrous, to see them climb rocks, and tumble, or rather
roll, down precipices. If they are attacked by a person on horseback,
they stand erect on their hind legs, showing a fine set of white teeth,
and make a crackling kind of noise. If the horse comes near them, they
try to catch him by the legs; and, if they miss him, they tumble over
and over several times. They are easily speared by a person mounted on
horseback, that is bold enough to go near them."

Bears ascend trees with great facility. Of their fondness for climbing,
we have the following curious instance: In the end of June, 1825, a
tame bear took a notion of climbing up the scaffolding placed round a
brick stalk, erecting by Mr. G. Johnstone, at St. Rollox. He began to
ascend very steadily, cautiously examining, as he went along, the
various joists, to see if they were secure. He at length, to the
infinite amusement and astonishment of the workmen, reached the summit
of the scaffolding, one hundred and twenty feet high. Bruin had no
sooner attained the object of his wishes, than his physiognomy
exhibited great self-gratulation; and he looked about him with much
complacency, and inspected the building operations going on. The
workmen were much amused with their novel visitor, and every mark of
civility and attention was shown him; which he very condescendingly
returned, by good-humoredly presenting them with a shake of his paw. A
lime bucket was now hoisted, in order to lower him down; and the
workmen, with all due courtesy, were going to assist him into it; but
he declined their attentions, and preferred returning in the manner he
had gone up. He afterwards repeated his adventurous visit.

"Bears," says Mr. Lloyd, "are not unfrequently domesticated in
Wermeland. I heard of one that was so tame, that his master, a peasant,
used occasionally to cause him to stand at the back of his sledge when
on a journey; but the fellow kept so good a balance, that it was next
to impossible to upset him. When the vehicle went on one side, bruin
threw his weight the other way, and _vice versa_. One day, however, the
peasant amused himself by driving over the very worst ground he could
find, with the intention, if possible, of throwing the bear off his
equilibrium, by which, at last, the animal got so irritated, that he
fetched his master, who was in advance of him, a tremendous thwack on
the shoulders with his paw. This frightened the man so much, that he
caused the beast to be killed immediately."

Of the ferocity of the bear there are many instances on record. A brown
bear, which was presented to his late majesty, George III., while
Prince of Wales, was kept in the Tower. By the carelessness of the
servant, the door of the den was left open; and the keeper's wife
happening to go across the court at the same time, the animal flew out,
seized the woman, threw her down, and fastened upon her neck, which he
bit; and without offering any further violence, lay upon her, sucking
the blood out of the wound. Resistance was in vain, as it only served
to irritate the brute; and she must inevitably have perished, had not
her husband luckily discovered her situation. By a sudden blow, he
obliged the bear to quit his hold, and retire to his den, which he did
with great reluctance, and not without making a second attempt to come
at the woman, who was almost dead, through fear and loss of blood. It
is somewhat remarkable, that, whenever he happened to see her
afterwards, he growled, and made most violent struggles to get at her.
The prince, upon hearing of the circumstance, ordered the bear to be
killed.

But the bear is also capable of generous attachment. Leopold, Duke of
Lorraine, had a bear called Marco, of the sagacity and sensibility of
which we have the following remarkable instance: During the winter of
1709, a Savoyard boy, ready to perish with cold in a barn, in which he
had been put by a good woman, with some more of his companions, thought
proper to enter Marco's hut, without reflecting on the danger which he
ran in exposing himself to the mercy of the animal which occupied it.
Marco, however, instead of doing any injury to the child, took him
between his paws, and warmed him by pressing him to his breast, until
next morning, when he suffered him to depart, to ramble about the city.
The young Savoyard returned in the evening to the hut, and was received
with the same affection. For several days he had no other retreat; and
it added not a little to his joy, to perceive that the bear regularly
reserved part of his food for him. A number of days passed in this
manner without the servants' knowing any thing of the circumstance. At
length, when one of them came to bring the bear its supper, rather
later than ordinary, he was astonished to see the animal roll his eyes
in a furious manner, and seeming as if he wished him to make as little
noise as possible, for fear of awaking the child, whom he clasped to
his breast. The bear, though ravenous, did not appear the least moved
with the food which was placed before him. The report of this
extraordinary circumstance was soon spread at court, and reached the
ears of Leopold, who, with part of his courtiers, was desirous of being
satisfied of the truth of Marco's generosity. Several of them passed
the night near his hut, and beheld, with astonishment, that the bear
never stirred as long as his guest showed an inclination to sleep. At
break of day, the child awoke, was very much ashamed to find himself
discovered, and, fearing that he would be punished for his temerity,
begged pardon. The bear, however, caressed him, and endeavored to
prevail on him to eat what had been brought to him the evening before,
which he did at the request of the spectators, who afterwards conducted
him to the prince. Having learned the whole history of this singular
alliance, and the time which it had continued, Leopold ordered care to
be taken of the little Savoyard, who, doubtless, would have soon made
his fortune, had he not died a short time after.

Munster relates the following story of a man being strangely relieved
from a perilous situation: A countryman in Muscovy, in seeking for
honey in the woods, mounted a stupendous tree, which was hollow in the
centre of its trunk; and, discovering that it contained a large
quantity of comb, descended into the hollow, where he stuck fast in the
honey, which had been accumulated there to a great depth; and every
effort on his part to extricate himself proved abortive. So remote was
this tree, that it was impossible his voice could be heard. After
remaining in this situation for two days, and allaying his hunger with
the honey, all hope of being extricated was abandoned, and he gave
himself up to despair. At last a bear, who, like himself, had come in
search of honey, mounted the tree, and descended the hollow cleft,
"stern forward." The man was at first alarmed, but mustered courage to
seize the bear with all the firmness he could; upon which the animal
took fright, made a speedy retreat, and dragged the peasant after it.
When fairly out of the recess, he quitted his hold, and the bear made
the best of its way to the ground, and escaped.

It would appear that, in the remote regions of the United States, the
common black bear is occasionally found of a cinnamon color, and
sometimes even white. Tanner gives us the following account: "Shortly
after this, I killed an old she-bear, which was perfectly white. She
had four cubs; one white, with red eyes and red nails, like herself;
one red, and two black. In size, and other respects, she was the same
as the common black bear; but she had nothing black about her but the
skin of her lips. The fur of this kind is very fine, but not so highly
valued by the traders as the red. The old one was very tame, and I shot
her without difficulty; two of the young ones I shot in the hole, and
two escaped into a tree.

"I had but just shot them when there came along three men, attracted,
probably, by the sound of my gun. As these men were very hungry, I took
them home with me, fed them, and gave them each a piece of meat, to
carry home. Next day, I chased another bear into a low poplar-tree; but
my gun being a poor one, I could not shoot him.

"A few days after, as I was hunting, I started, at the same moment, an
elk and three young bears; the latter ran into a tree. I shot at the
young bears, and two of them fell. As I thought one or both must only
be wounded, I sprang towards the root of the tree, but had scarcely
reached it when I saw the old she-bear coming in another direction. She
caught up the cub which had fallen near her, and, raising it with her
paws, while she stood on her hind feet, holding it as a woman holds a
child, she looked at it for a moment, smelled the ball-hole, which was
in its belly, and perceiving it was dead, dashed it down, and came
directly towards me, gnashing her teeth, and walking so erect that her
head stood as high as mine. All this was so sudden, that I scarce
reloaded my gun, having only time to raise it, and fire, as she came
within reach of the muzzle. I was now made to feel the necessity of a
lesson the Indians had taught me, and which I very rarely
neglected--that is, to think of nothing else before loading it again."

Some years ago, a boy, of New Hampshire, found a very young cub, near
Lake Winnipeg, and carried it home with him. It was fed and brought up
about the house of the boy's father, and became as tame as a dog.

Every day its youthful captor had to go to school at some distance,
and, by degrees, the bear became his daily companion. At first, the
other scholars were shy of the creature's acquaintance; but, ere long,
it became their regular playfellow, and they delighted in sharing with
it the little store of provisions which they brought, for their
sustenance, in small bags. After two years of civilization, however,
the bear wandered to the woods, and did not return. Search was made for
him, but in vain.

Four succeeding years passed away, and, in the interval, changes had
occurred in the school alluded to. An old dame had succeeded to the
ancient master, and a new generation of pupils had taken the place of
the former ones. One very cold, winter day, while the schoolmistress
was busy with her humble lessons, a boy chanced to leave the door half
way open, on his entrance, and, suddenly, a large bear walked in.

The consternation of the old lady, and her boys and girls, was
unspeakable. Both schoolmistress and pupils would fain have been
abroad; but the bear was in the path, and all that could be done was to
fly off, as far as possible, behind the tables and benches. But the
bear troubled nobody. He walked quietly up to the fireplace, and warmed
himself, exhibiting much satisfaction in his countenance during the
process.

He remained thus about a quarter of an hour, and then walked up to the
wall where the provender bags and baskets of the pupils were suspended.
Standing on his hind feet, he took hold of these successively, put his
paws into them, and made free with the bread, fruit, and other
eatables, therein contained. He next tried the schoolmistress's desk,
where some little provisions usually were; but finding it firmly shut,
he went up again to the fire, and, after a few minutes' stay before it,
he walked out by the way he came in.

As soon as the schoolmistress and her pupils had courage to move, the
alarm was given to the neighbors. Several young men immediately started
after the bear, and, as its track was perfectly visible upon the snow,
they soon came up with it, and killed it. Then it was that, by certain
marks upon its skin, some of the pursuers recognized, in the poor bear,
no enemy, but an old friend of their own recent school days. Great
regret was felt at the loss of the creature. It was like killing a
human friend rather than a wild animal.

Landor furnishes us with the following account: A man in Sweden set off
one morning to shoot the cock of the woods. This bird is so extremely
shy, that he may rarely be met with, except in the pairing season,
when, every morning, he renews his song. He usually commences just
before sunrise, beginning in a loud strain, which gradually sinks into
a low key, until he is quite entranced with his own melody; he then
droops his wings to the earth, and runs to the distance of several
feet, calling, _Cluck, cluck, cluck_! during which time, he is said to
be incapable of seeing, so wrapped up is he in his own contemplations,
and may be caught even with the hand by those who are near enough, as
the fit lasts only a few moments. If unready, wait for the next
occasion; for, should he advance a step, except when the bird is thus
insensible, he will certainly be overheard, and the victim escape.

The man I began to speak of, being, early one morning, in pursuit of
this bird, heard his song at a short distance, and, as soon as the
_clucking_ commenced, of course advanced as rapidly as he could, and
then remained motionless, till these particular notes were again
sounded. It was quite dusk, the sun not having yet risen; but the song
seemed to come from an open space in the forest, from which the sun was
just emerging. He could not see many yards before him, and only
followed the direction of the sound. It so happened that, from another
point, but at no great distance, a bear was advancing on the bird, just
in the manner of, and with the same steps as the man.

The hunter, whilst standing motionless, thought he perceived a dark
object on one side of him; but it did not much engage his attention; at
the usual note, he moved on toward the game, but was surprised to see
that the black object had also advanced in an equal degree, and now
stood on a line with him. Still he was so eager after the bird, that he
could think of nothing else, and approached close to his prey before he
perceived that a large bear stood within a few feet of him; in fact,
just as they were about to spring on the bird, they caught sight of one
another, and each thought proper to slink back. After having retreated
a short distance, the man began to think it would be rather inglorious
to yield the prize without a struggle; and there being now more light,
he returned to the spot, when it appeared that the bear had also taken
the same resolution, and was actually advancing over the same open
space I have mentioned, growling, and tearing up the grass with her
feet. Though the man had only shot in his gun, he fired without
hesitation, and immediately took to his heels and fled, conceiving the
bear to be close in his rear, and returned not to pause till he gained
his own habitation. Having armed himself anew, and taken a companion
with him, he again repaired to the spot, where he found the bear lying
dead on the ground, some of the shots having entered her heart.

The American black bear lives a solitary life in forests and
uncultivated deserts, and subsists on fruits, and on the young shoots
and roots of vegetables. Of honey he is exceedingly fond, and, as he is
a most expert climber, he scales the loftiest trees in search of it.
Fish, too, he delights in, and is often found in quest of them, on the
borders of lakes and on the sea-shore. When these resources fail, he
will attack small quadrupeds, and even animals of some magnitude. As,
indeed, is usual in such cases, the love of flesh, in him, grows with
the use of it.

As the fur is of some value, the Indians are assiduous in the chase of
the creature which produces it. "About the end of December, from the
abundance of fruits they find in Louisiana and the neighboring
countries, the bears become so fat and lazy that they can scarcely run.
At this time they are hunted by the Indians. The nature of the chase is
generally this: the bear chiefly adopts, for his retreat, the hollow
trunk of an old cypress-tree, which he climbs, and then descends into
the cavity from above. The hunter, whose business it is to watch him
into this retreat, climbs a neighboring tree, and seats himself
opposite to the hole. In one hand he holds his gun, and in the other a
torch, which he darts into the cavity. Frantic with rage and terror,
the bear makes a spring from his station; but the hunter seizes the
instant of his appearance, and shoots him.

"The pursuit of the bear is a matter of the first importance to some of
the Indian tribes, and is never undertaken without much ceremony. A
principal warrior gives a general invitation to all the hunters. This
is followed by a strict fast of eight days, in which they totally
abstain from food, but during which the day is passed in continual
song. This is done to invoke the spirits of the woods to direct the
hunters to the places where there are abundance of bears. They even cut
the flesh in divers parts of their bodies, to render the spirits more
propitious. They also address themselves to the manes of the beasts
slain in the preceding chases, and implore these to direct them, in
their dreams, to an abundance of game. The chief of the hunt now gives
a great feast, at which no one dares to appear without first bathing.
At this entertainment, contrary to their usual custom, they eat with
great moderation. The master of the feast touches nothing, but is
employed in relating to the guests ancient tales of feasts in former
chases; and fresh invocations to the manes of the deceased bears
conclude the whole.

"They then sally forth, equipped as if for war, and painted black. They
proceed on their way in a direct line, not allowing rivers, marshes, or
any other impediment, to stop their course, and driving before them all
the beasts they find. When they arrive at the hunting-ground, they
surround as large a space as they can, and then contract their circle,
searching, at the same time, every hollow tree, and every place capable
of being the retreat of a bear; and they continue the same practice
till the chase is expired.

"As soon as a bear is killed, a hunter puts into his mouth a lighted
pipe of tobacco, and, blowing into it, fills the throat with the smoke,
conjuring the spirit of the animal not to resent what they are about to
do to its body, or to render their future chases unsuccessful. As the
beast makes no reply, they cut out the string of the tongue, and throw
it into the fire. If it crackle and shrivel up, which it is almost sure
to do, they accept this as a good omen; if not, they consider that the
spirit of the beast is not appeased, and that the chase of the next
year will be unfortunate."

When our forefathers first settled in America, bears were common in all
parts of the country along the Atlantic. Many adventures with them took
place, some of which are recorded in the histories of the times. The
following is said to have occurred at a later period:--

Some years since, when the western part of New York was in a state of
nature, and wolves and bears were not afraid of being seen, some
enterprising pilgrim had erected, and put in operation, a sawmill, on
the banks of the Genesee. One day, as he was sitting on the log, eating
his bread and cheese, a large, black bear came from the woods towards
the mill. The man, leaving his luncheon on the log, made a spring, and
seated himself on a beam above; when the bear, mounting the log, sat
down with his rump towards the saw, which was in operation, and
commenced satisfying his appetite on the man's dinner. After a little
while, the saw progressed enough to interfere with the hair on bruin's
back, and he hitched along a little, and kept on eating. Again the saw
came up, and scratched a little flesh. The bear then whirled about,
and, throwing his paws around the saw, held on, till he was mangled
through and through, when he rolled off, fell through into the flood,
and bled to death.

The GRISLY BEAR.--This creature, which is peculiar to North America,
is, perhaps, the most formidable of the bruin family in magnitude and
ferocity. He averages twice the bulk of the black bear, to which,
however, he bears some resemblance in his slightly elevated forehead,
and narrow, flattened, elongated muzzle. His canine teeth are of great
size and power. The feet are enormously large--the breadth of the fore
foot exceeding nine inches, and the length of the hind foot, exclusive
of the talons, being eleven inches and three quarters, and its breadth
seven inches. The talons sometimes measure more than six inches. He is,
accordingly, admirably adapted for digging up the ground, but is unable
to climb trees, in which latter respect he differs wholly from most
other species. The color of his hair varies to almost an indefinite
extent, between all the intermediate shades of a light gray and a black
brown; the latter tinge, however, being that which predominates. It is
always in some degree grizzled, by intermixture of grayish hairs. The
hair itself is, in general, longer, finer, and more exuberant, than
that of the black bear.

The neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains is one of the principal haunts
of this animal. There, amidst wooded plains, and tangled copses of
bough and underwood, he reigns as much the monarch as the lion is of
the sandy wastes of Africa. Even the bison cannot withstand his
attacks. Such is his muscular strength, that he will drag the ponderous
carcass of the animal to a convenient spot, where he digs a pit for its
reception. The Indians regard him with the utmost terror. His extreme
tenacity of life renders him still more dangerous; for he can endure
repeated wounds which would be instantaneously mortal to other beasts,
and, in that state, can rapidly pursue his enemy; so that the hunter
who fails to shoot him through the brain is placed in a most perilous
situation.

One evening, the men in the hindmost of one of Lewis and Clark's canoes
perceived one of these bears lying in the open ground, about three
hundred paces from the river; and six of them, who were all good
hunters, went to attack him. Concealing themselves by a small eminence,
they were able to approach within forty paces unperceived; four of the
hunters now fired, and each lodged a ball in his body, two of which
passed directly through the lungs. The bear sprang up, and ran
furiously, with open mouth, upon them; two of the hunters, who had
reserved their fire, gave him two additional wounds, and one, breaking
his shoulder-blade, somewhat retarded his motions. Before they could
again load their guns, he came so close on them, that they were obliged
to run towards the river, and before they had gained it, the bear had
almost overtaken them. Two men jumped into the canoe; the other four
separated, and, concealing themselves among the willows, fired as fast
as they could load their pieces. Several times the bear was struck, but
each shot seemed only to direct his fury towards the hunters; at last
he pursued them so closely that they threw aside their guns and
pouches, and jumped from a perpendicular bank, twenty feet high, into
the river. The bear sprang after them, and was very near the hindmost
man, when one of the hunters on the shore shot him through the head,
and finally killed him. When they dragged him on shore, they found that
eight balls had passed through his body in different directions.

Richardson relates the following story of a grisly bear. A party of
voyagers, who had been employed all day in tracking a canoe up the
Saskatchewan, had seated themselves, in the twilight, by a fire, and
were busy in preparing their supper, when a large grisly bear sprang
over their canoe that was behind them, and, seizing one of the party by
the shoulder, carried him off. The rest fled in terror, with the
exception of a man named Bourasso, who, grasping his gun, followed the
bear as it was retreating leisurely with its prey. He called to his
unfortunate comrade that he was afraid of hitting him if he fired at
the bear; but the latter entreated him to fire immediately, as the
animal was squeezing him to death. On this he took a deliberate aim,
and discharged his piece into the body of the bear, which instantly
dropped its prey to pursue Bourasso. He escaped with difficulty, and
the bear retreated to a thicket, where it is supposed to have died. The
man who was rescued had his arm fractured, and was otherwise severely
bitten by the bear, but finally recovered.

The WHITE BEAR.--The polar bear is considerably larger than the brown
or black bear, and is covered with a long, thick fur, of a bright white
beneath and of a yellowish tinge above. Besides the difference in
external appearance, there is a remarkable distinction between the
brown and the polar bears; for the former prefers, as his abode, the
wooded summits of alpine regions, feeding principally on roots and
vegetables; while the latter fixes his residence on the sea-coast, or
on an iceberg, and seems to delight in the stormy and inhospitable
precincts of the arctic circle, where vegetation is scarcely known to
exist, feeding entirely on animal matter. But it cannot be regarded as
a predatory quadruped, for it seems to prefer dead to living animal
food, its principal subsistence being the floating carcasses of whales.
It also preys upon seals, which it catches with much keenness and
certainty, as they ascend to the surface of the ocean to breathe; and
sometimes fish are caught by them, when they enter shoals or gulfs.
They move with great dexterity in the water, and capture their prey
with apparent ease. It is only when these bears quit their winter
quarters, and especially when the female has to protect her young, that
they manifest great ferocity.

While the Carcass, one of the ships of Captain Phipps's voyage of
discovery to the north pole, was locked in the ice, early one morning
the man at the mast-head gave notice that three bears were making their
way very fast over the Frozen Ocean, and were directing their course
towards the ship. They had no doubt been invited by the scent of some
blubber of a sea-horse, which the crew had killed a few days before,
and which, having been set on fire, was burning on the ice at the time
of their approach. They proved to be a she-bear and her two cubs; but
the cubs were nearly as large as the dam. They ran eagerly to the fire,
and drew out from the flames part of the flesh of the sea-horse that
remained unconsumed, and ate it voraciously.

The crew of the ship threw great lumps of the flesh they had still left
upon the ice, which the old bear fetched away singly, laying every
piece before the cubs as she brought it, and, dividing it, gave each a
share, reserving but a small portion to herself. As she was fetching
away the last piece, they levelled their muskets at the cubs, and shot
them both dead, at the same time wounding the dam in her retreat, but
not mortally. It would have drawn tears of pity from any but the most
unfeeling, to have marked the affectionate concern expressed by this
poor animal, in the dying moments of her expiring young. Though she was
sorely wounded, and could but just crawl to the place where they lay,
she carried the lump of flesh she had just fetched away, as she had
done the others, tore it in pieces, and laid it down before them. When
she saw they refused to eat, she laid her paws first upon the one, then
upon the other, and endeavored to raise them up, making, at the same
time, the most pitiable moans.

Finding she could not stir them, she went off, and, when she had got to
some distance, looked back, and moaned; and that not availing to entice
them away, she returned, and, smelling round them, began to lick their
wounds. She went off a second time, as before, and having crawled a few
paces, looked again behind her, and for some time stood moaning. But
still her cubs not rising to follow, she returned to them anew, and,
with signs of inexpressible fondness, went round, pawing them
successively. Finding, at last, that they were cold and lifeless, she
raised her head towards the ship, and growled a curse upon the
destroyers, which they returned with a volley of musket-balls. She fell
between her cubs, and died licking their wounds.

The polar bears are remarkably sagacious, as the following instances
may prove. Those in Kamtschatka are said to have recourse to a singular
stratagem, in order to catch the _bareins_, which are much too swift
of foot for them. These animals keep together in large herds; they
frequent mostly the low grounds, and love to browse at the base of
rocks and precipices. The bear hunts them by scent, till he comes in
sight, when he advances warily, keeping above them, and concealing
himself among the rocks, as he makes his approach, till he gets
immediately over them, and near enough for his purpose. He then begins
to push down, with his paws, pieces of rock among the herd below. This
manoeuvre is not followed by any attempt to pursue, until he finds he
has maimed one of the flock, upon which a course immediately ensues,
that proves successful, or otherwise, according to the hurt the barein
has received.

The captain of a Greenland whaler, being anxious to procure a bear
without injuring the skin, made trial of a stratagem of laying the
noose of a rope in the snow, and placing a piece of kreng within it. A
bear, ranging the neighboring ice, was soon enticed to the spot by the
smell of burning meat. He perceived the bait, approached, and seized it
in his mouth; but his foot, at the same time, by a jerk of the rope,
being entangled in the noose, he pushed it off with his paw, and
deliberately retired. After having eaten the piece he had carried away
with him, he returned. The noose, with another piece of kreng, having
been replaced, he pushed the rope aside, and again walked triumphantly
off with the bait. A third time the noose was laid; but, excited to
caution by the evident observations of the bear, the sailors buried the
rope beneath the snow, and laid the bait in a deep hole dug in the
centre. The animal once more approached, and the sailors were assured
of their success. But bruin, more sagacious than they expected, after
snuffing about the place for a few moments, scraped the snow away with
his paw, threw the rope aside, and again escaped unhurt with his prize.

A Greenland bear, with two cubs under her protection, was pursued
across a field of ice by a party of armed sailors. At first, she seemed
to urge the young ones to an increase of speed, by running before them,
turning round, and manifesting, by a peculiar action and voice, her
anxiety for their progress; but, finding her pursuers gaining upon
them, she carried, or pushed, or pitched them alternately forward,
until she effected their escape. In throwing them before her, the
little creatures are said to have placed themselves across her path to
receive the impulse, and, when projected some yards in advance, they
ran onwards, until she overtook them, when they alternately adjusted
themselves for another throw.

In the month of June, 1812, a female bear, with two cubs, approached
near a whale ship, and was shot. The cubs, not attempting to escape,
were taken alive. These animals, though at first very unhappy, became,
at length, in some measure reconciled to their situation, and, being
tolerably tame, were allowed occasionally to go at large about the
deck. While the ship was moored to a floe, a few days after they were
taken, one of them, having a rope fastened round his neck, was thrown
overboard. It immediately swam to the ice, got upon it, and attempted
to escape. Finding itself, however, detained by the rope, it endeavored
to disengage itself in the following ingenious way: Near the edge of
the floe was a crack in the ice, of considerable length, but only
eighteen inches or two feet wide, and three or four feet deep. To this
spot the bear turned, and when, on crossing the chasm, the bight of the
rope fell into it, he placed himself across the opening; then,
suspending himself by his hind feet, with a leg on each side, he
dropped his head and most part of his body into the chasm, and, with a
foot applied to each side of the neck, attempted, for some minutes, to
push the rope over his head. Finding this scheme ineffectual, he
removed to the main ice, and, running with great impetuosity from the
ship, gave a remarkable pull on the rope; then, going backwards a few
steps, he repeated the jerk. At length, after repeated attempts to
escape this way, every failure of which he announced by a significant
growl, he yielded himself to hard necessity, and lay down on the ice in
angry and sullen silence.

Like the brown and black bear, polar bears are animals capable of great
fierceness. Brentz, in his voyage in search of the north-east passage
to China, had horrid proofs of their ferocity in the Island of Nova
Zembla, where they attacked his seamen, seizing them in their mouth,
carrying them off with the utmost ease, and devouring them even in
sight of their comrades.

About twenty years ago, the crew of a boat belonging to a ship in the
whale fishery, shot at a bear some little distance off, and wounded
him. The animal immediately set up a dreadful howl, and scampered along
the ice towards the boat. Before he reached it, he had received a
second wound. This increased his fury, and he presently plunged into
the water, and swam to the boat; and, in his attempt to board it, he
placed one of his fore paws upon the gunwale, and would have gained his
point, had not one of the sailors seized a hatchet and cut it off. Even
this had not the effect of damping his courage; for he followed the
boat till it reached the ship, from whence several shots were fired at
him, which hit, but did not mortally wound him: he approached the
vessel, and ascended the deck, where, from his dreadful fury, he spread
such consternation, that all the crew fled to the shrouds, and he was
in the act of pursuing them thither, when an effective shot laid him
dead on the deck.


THE RACCOON.

This animal is peculiar to America. He resembles the bear, but is much
smaller and more elegantly formed. He is an active and lively animal;
an excellent climber of trees, in which the sharpness of his claws
greatly aids him; and he will even venture to the extremity of slender
branches. He is a good-tempered animal, and, consequently, easily
tamed; but his habit of prying into every thing renders him rather
troublesome, for he is in constant motion, and examining every object
within his reach. He generally sits on his hinder parts when feeding,
conveying all his food to his mouth with his fore paws. He will eat
almost every kind of food, but is particularly fond of sweetmeats, and
will indulge in spirituous liquors even to drunkenness. He feeds
chiefly at night, in a wild state, and sleeps during the day.

Brickell gives an interesting account, in his "History of North
Carolina," of the cunning manifested by the raccoon in pursuit of its
prey. "It is fond of crabs, and, when in quest of them, will take its
station by a swamp, and hang its tail over into the water, which the
crabs mistake for food, and lay hold of it; as soon as the raccoon
feels them pinch, it pulls up its tail with a sudden jerk, and they
generally quit their hold upon being removed from the water. The
raccoon instantly seizes the crabs in its mouth, removes them to a
distance from the water, and greedily devours its prey. It is very
careful how it takes them up, which it always does from behind, holding
them transversely, in order to prevent their catching its mouth with
their nippers."

When enraged, or desirous of attacking a person, the raccoon advances
with arched back and bristling hair, and with its chin or under jaw
close to the ground, uttering gruff sounds of displeasure. If once
injured, it seldom forgives its enemy. On one occasion, a servant
struck a tame raccoon with a whip: in vain did he afterwards attempt a
reconciliation; neither eggs, nor food most coveted by the animal,
availed in pacifying it. At his approach, it flew into a sort of fury;
it darted at him with sparkling eyes, uttering loud cries.

Its accents of anger were very singular; sometimes one might fancy them
the whistling of the curlew, at others, the hoarse bark of an old dog.
If any one beat it, it opposed no resistance; it concealed its head and
its paws, like the hedgehog, by rolling itself into a ball. In this
position it would suffer death. When its chain broke, it would allow no
one to approach it, and it was with great difficulty refettered.


THE COATI.

This animal, which frequents the woods of South America, resembles the
raccoon, but is smaller. He is in the habit of rooting under trees, and
thus overturns many of them, even those of large size. The most curious
incident in his history, is that he eats his own tail! This is
explained by Godman as follows: "The extreme length of its tail, in
which the blood circulates but feebly, exposes it to the influence of
cold or frost; and the exceedingly tormenting irritation produced
thereby leads the animal to gnaw and scratch the tail, to relieve the
excessive itching. The disease spreads, and the anguish induces the
coati to gnaw more furiously, and eventually its life is destroyed by
the extension of the inflammation and irritability to the spine."


THE BADGER.

Of this animal there are two species, one European, the other American;
but they have a strong resemblance. It has short legs, and a long body;
lives in burrows by day, and goes forth at night to prey on roots,
snails, and worms. The American species seems to be more carnivorous
than his foreign relation: in this respect he has high example, for the
people of America eat more butcher's meat than those of Europe--for the
reason, however, that they are so fortunate as to be able to get it.

In Europe, the badger is hunted as a matter of sport, the chief
amusement being derived from the fierce resistance he makes to the
dogs. In South America, the creature is eaten, and badger hams are
deemed a delicacy. Catching this animal is a great source of interest
to the Indians. We are told that a "party of eight, in one of their
expeditions, will destroy two or three hundred badgers, and a quantity
of deer on their return home, besides guanas. These hunting parties are
so delightful, even to the women, that the hopes of being allowed to
accompany the men will make them behave well all the year. On these
excursions they live well, and seem more happy than during the rainy
season; in their way home, they travel day and night rapidly, in spite
of obstructions, carrying long poles between them, on which the animals
are slung--the boys carrying the skins and lard; the dogs too are well
fed during this period, and seem to return with regret. A cloud of
vultures generally hover over them, and are seen by their clans a day
or two before they arrive, who make every preparation to receive them;
their return is greeted like that of victors. The rainy nights are
passed in recounting their exploits one to another."

The habits of the badger are said to be "the most social of any
quadruped in the universe; it is not known to quarrel with any other
animal; even the fox, polecat, opossum, land crab, and snake, make it
resign its abode, although it is much stronger than any of them. It
also lives in the greatest harmony with its own species, subsisting
principally on nuts, roots, and vegetables; it is cleanly in its
habits, being observed to perform its ablutions while the dew is on the
ground."


THE GLUTTON.

This animal, which is called _wolverene_ in this country, and _carcajou_
by the Canadians, is about three feet long, and of a dark-brown color.
It is strong and courageous, and will even attack and destroy the fox
in its burrow. Its extraordinary voracity gives the impulse to all its
exertions. Incessantly in search of food, it kills animals larger and
stronger than itself, seizes the deer which the hunter has just shot,
plunders the baits on his traps, or the game these have taken. A proof
at once of the strength, the cunning, and the strong appetite, of the
glutton, was afforded by one, at Hudson's Bay, some years since, which
overset the greatest part of a pile of wood of great extent, which
contained a whole winter's firing; his object was to get at some
provisions that had been hidden there by the company's servants when
going to the factory to spend the Christmas holidays.

This animal had for many weeks been lurking about their tent, and had
committed many depredations on the game caught in their traps and
snares, as well as eaten many of the foxes that were killed by guns set
for the purpose; but he was too cunning to touch either gun or trap
himself. The people thought they had adopted the best method to secure
their provisions, by tying them in bundles, and laying them on the top
of wood piles. To their astonishment, when they returned, they found
the greatest part of the pile thrown down, notwithstanding some of the
trees with which it was constructed were as much as two men could
carry. The wood was very much scattered about; and it was supposed
that, in the animal's attempting to carry off the booty, some of the
small parcels of provisions had fallen down into the heart of the pile,
and sooner than lose half his prize, he was at the trouble of pulling
away the wood. The bags of flour, oatmeal, and peas, though of no use
to him, he tore all to pieces, and scattered the contents about on the
snow; but every bit of animal food, consisting of beef, pork, bacon,
venison, salted geese, and partridges, in considerable quantities, he
carried away.

When attacked by other animals, the glutton fights desperately, and
three stout dogs are scarcely its match. A man who had tamed one of
them threw it one day into the water, and set a couple of dogs upon it,
when it immediately seized one of them by the head, and held it under
water till it was drowned.


THE WEASEL.

The weasel stands as the type of a large number of animals, such as the
marten, sable, polecat, otter, skunk, &c.; all being characterized by a
long body, short legs, and considerable energy of disposition. Some of
the species are celebrated for their abominable odor.

The weasel is an active, bloodthirsty little animal, not exceeding
seven inches in length from the nose to the tail. It is much about the
same size as a rat, though more slender; but it is a mortal enemy to
this animal, pursuing them to their holes, and killing them in great
numbers. It is also often fatal to the hare, as it will either creep
upon it when at rest, or, lying unseen amidst the rubbish or furze,
will spring at its throat; where, as in the case of other animals which
it kills, it fixes its bite, and then sucks the blood till its victim
expires. It makes a hole in the ends of eggs, and sucks the
contents--differently from the rat, which breaks the shell to pieces.
It is a destructive enemy to pigeons, as it creeps into the holes of a
dove-cot in the evening, and surprises its prey while they are asleep;
and, from the peculiar construction of its body, there are few
situations it is incapable of reaching; for it can clamber up an almost
perpendicular wall. When it sees a man, it endeavors as quickly as
possible to get out of the way, and hide itself amidst the grass or
loose stones; but if trodden on, or seized, it will turn and bite, like
a serpent. An ordinary dog does not wish to attack it, for it instantly
fastens itself on his lips.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Weasels seem to unite, in many cases, for
mutual defence, or the attack of man. In January, 1818, a laborer in
the parish of Glencairn, Dumfriesshire, was suddenly attacked by six
weasels, which rushed upon him from an old dike in the field where he
was at work. The man, alarmed at such a furious onset, instantly betook
himself to flight; but he soon found he was closely pursued. Although
he had about him a large horsewhip, with which he endeavored, by
several back-handed strokes, to stop them, yet, so eager was the
pursuit of the weasels, that he was on the point of being seized by the
throat, when he luckily noticed, at some distance, the fallen branch of
a tree, which he made for, and, hastily snatching it up, manfully
rallied upon his enemies, and had such success, that he killed three of
them, and put the remaining three to flight.

A similar case occurred some years ago at Gilmerton, near Edinburgh,
when a gentleman, observing a person leaping about in an extraordinary
manner, made up to him, and found him beset, and dreadfully bitten, by
about fifteen weasels, which continued their attack. Being both strong
persons, they succeeded in killing a number, and the rest escaped by
flying into the fissures of a neighboring rock. The account the person
gave of the commencement of the affray was, that, walking through the
park, he ran at a weasel which he saw, and made several attempts to
strike it, remaining between it and the rock to which its retreat lay.
The animal, being thus circumstanced, squeaked aloud, when an
instantaneous sortie was made by the colony, and an attack commenced.

The weasel is exceedingly difficult to tame. When kept in a cage, it
seems in a perpetual state of agitation, is terrified at the sight of
all who approach to look at it, and generally endeavors to hide itself
behind the straw, or other substances, which may be at the bottom of
its cage. Yet instances are not wanting to prove that the weasel may be
brought into complete subjection. Mademoiselle de Laistre, in a letter
on this subject, gives a very pleasing account of the education and
manners of a weasel which she took under her protection, and which
frequently ate from her hand, seemingly more delighted with this manner
of feeding than any other. "If I pour," says this lady, "some milk into
my hand, it will drink a good deal; but if I do not pay it this
compliment, it will scarcely take a drop. When satisfied, it generally
goes to sleep. My chamber is the place of its residence; and I have
found a method of dispelling its strong smell by perfumes. By day it
sleeps in a quilt, into which it gets by an unsewn place which it has
discovered on the edge; during the night, it is kept in a wired box or
cage, which it always enters with reluctance, and leaves with pleasure.
If it be set at liberty before my time of rising, after a thousand
little playful tricks, it gets into my bed, and goes to sleep on my
hand or on my bosom.

"If I am up first, it spends a full half hour in caressing me; playing
with my fingers like a little dog, jumping on my head and on my neck,
and running round on my arms and body with a lightness and elegance
which I never found in any other animal. If I present my hands at the
distance of three feet, it jumps into them without ever missing. It
shows a great deal of address and cunning in order to compass its ends,
and seems to disobey certain prohibitions merely through caprice.
During all its actions it seems solicitous to divert, and to be
noticed; looking, at every jump, and at every turn, to see whether it
be observed or not. If no notice be taken of its gambols, it ceases
them immediately, and betakes itself to sleep; and when awakened from
the soundest sleep, it instantly resumes its gayety, and frolics about
in as sprightly a manner as before. It never shows any ill-humor,
unless when confined, or teased too much; in which case it expresses
its displeasure by a sort of murmur very different from that which it
utters when pleased. In the midst of twenty people, this little animal
distinguishes my voice, seeks me out, and springs over every body to
come to me. His play with me is the most lovely and caressing; with his
two little paws he pats me on the chin, with an air and manner
expressive of delight. This, and a thousand other preferences, show
that his attachment is real.

"When he sees me dressed to go out, he will not leave me, and it is not
without some trouble that I can disengage myself from him. He then
hides himself behind a cabinet near the door, and jumps upon me, as I
pass, with so much celerity, that I often can scarcely perceive him. He
seems to resemble a squirrel in vivacity, agility, voice, and his
manner of murmuring. During the summer he squeaks and runs all the
night long; and since the commencement of the cold weather, I have not
observed this. Sometimes, when the sun shines while he is playing on
the bed, he turns and tumbles about, and murmurs for a while.

"From his delight in drinking milk out of my hand, into which I pour a
very little at a time, and his custom of sipping the little drops and
edges of the fluid, it seems probable that he drinks dew in the same
manner. He very seldom drinks water, and then only for the want of
milk; and with great caution, seeming only to refresh his tongue once
or twice, and to be even afraid of that fluid. During the hot weather,
it rained a good deal. I presented to him some rain water in a dish,
and endeavored to make him go into it, but could not succeed. I then
wetted a piece of linen cloth in it, and put it near him, when he
rolled upon it with extreme delight. One singularity in this charming
animal is his curiosity; it being impossible to open a drawer or box,
or even to look at a paper, but it will examine it also. If he gets
into any place where I am afraid to let him stay, I take a paper or a
book, and look attentively at it, when he immediately runs upon my
hand, and surveys, with an inquisitive air, whatever I happen to hold.
I must further observe, that he plays with a young cat and dog, both of
some size; getting about their necks and paws without their doing him
the least harm."

The following story regarding the weasel is told in Selkirkshire: "A
group of haymakers, while busy at their work on Chapelhope meadow, at
the upper end of St. Mary's Loch,--or rather of the Loch of the Lowes,
which is separated from it by a narrow neck of land,--saw an eagle
rising above the steep mountains that enclose the narrow valley. The
eagle himself was, indeed, no unusual sight; but there is something so
imposing and majestic in the flight of this noble bird, while he soars
upwards in spiral circles, that it fascinates the attention of most
people. But the spectators were soon aware of something peculiar in the
flight of the bird they were observing. He used his wings violently;
and the strokes were often repeated, as if he had been alarmed and
hurried by unusual agitation; and they noticed, at the same time, that
he wheeled in circles that seemed constantly decreasing, while his
ascent was proportionally rapid. The now idle haymakers drew together
in close consultation on the singular case, and continued to keep their
eyes on the seemingly distressed eagle, until he was nearly out of
sight, rising still higher and higher into the air. In a short while,
however, they were all convinced that he was again seeking the earth,
evidently not, as he ascended, in spiral curves; it was like something
falling, and with great rapidity. But, as he approached the ground,
they clearly saw he was tumbling in his fall like a shot bird; the
convulsive fluttering of his powerful wings stopping the descent but
very little, until he fell at a small distance from the men and boys of
the party, who had naturally run forward, highly excited by the strange
occurrence. A large black-tailed weasel or stoat ran from the body as
they came near; turned with the _nonchalance_ and impudence of the
tribe; stood up upon its hind legs; crossed its fore paws over its
nose, and surveyed its enemies a moment or two,--as they often do when
no dog is near,--and bounded into a saugh bush. The king of the air was
dead; and, what was more surprising, he was covered with his own blood;
and, upon further examination, they found his throat cut, and the
weasel has been suspected as the regicide unto this day."


THE POLECAT.

This animal, which is confined to the eastern continent, is thrice the
size of the weasel, but its prey is nearly the same. It has as high a
reputation in Europe, for its offensive smell, as the skunk has here.
The following fact is recorded in Bewick's Quadrupeds: "During a severe
storm, one of these animals was traced in the snow from the side of a
rivulet to its hole at some distance from it. As it was observed to
have made frequent trips, and as other marks were to be seen in the
snow, which could not easily be accounted for, it was thought a matter
worthy of greater attention. Its hole was accordingly examined, the
polecat taken, and eleven fine eels were discovered to be the fruits of
its nocturnal exertions. The marks on the snow were found to have been
made by the motions of the eels while in the creature's mouth."


THE FERRET.

This animal is a native of Africa, and requires much care to preserve
it alive in cold countries. It is kept for the purpose of dislodging
rabbits from their warren, and has such a natural antipathy to these
animals, that, if a dead one be presented to a young ferret, though it
has never seen a rabbit before, it will eagerly seize it. Like the rest
of the species, it is remarkable for the pertinacity with which it
retains the bite which it has once taken. This circumstance is
illustrated by the following occurrence: A man, of the name of Isles, a
bargeman, finding himself much incommoded by the repeated mischief done
in his barge by rats, procured a ferret to destroy them. The ferret
remaining away a considerable time, he thought it was devouring some
rats that it had killed, and went to sleep, but was awakened early next
morning by the ferret, who was commencing an attack upon him. The
animal had seized him near his eyebrow; and the man, after endeavoring
in vain to shake him off, at length severed the body from the head with
a knife,--the latter still sticking so fast, as to be with difficulty
removed.


THE MINK.

This animal is found throughout a great extent of country, from
Carolina to Hudson's Bay, and in its habits and appearance resembles
the otter. The favorite haunts of this species are the banks of
streams, where it inhabits holes near the water. It is an excellent
swimmer and diver, and feeds on frogs and fish. It also commits great
depredations in the poultry-yard. When provoked, it ejects a fetid
liquor, which is exceedingly unpleasant.


THE MARTEN.

Of this animal there are two or three species, confined to the northern
regions of the eastern continent. Of all the weasel tribe it is the
most pleasing; all its motions show great grace as well as agility; and
there is scarcely an animal in our woods that will venture to oppose
it. Quadrupeds five times as large are easily vanquished; the hare, the
sheep, and even the wild-cat itself, is not a match for it. We are told
of a marten which had been tamed, and was extremely pretty and playful
in its manners. It went among the houses of the neighborhood, and
always returned home when hungry. It was extremely fond of a dog that
had been bred with it, and used to play with it as cats are seen to
play, lying on its back, and biting without anger or injury.


THE SABLE.

This animal, as well as several others of the tribe, is greatly valued
for its fur. It resembles the marten, and is found in the northern
parts of both continents. The enterprise, perseverance, and hardships
of the hunters, in America as well as Siberia, in pursuit of this
creature, are almost incredible. In the latter country, the hunting of
the sable chiefly falls to the lot of condemned criminals, who are sent
from Russia into these wild and extensive forests, that for the
greatest part of the year are covered with snow; and in this instance,
as in many others, the luxuries and ornaments of the vain are wrought
out of the dangers and miseries of the wretched. These are obliged to
furnish a certain number of skins every year, and are punished if the
proper quantity is not provided.

The sable is also killed by the Russian soldiers, who are sent into
those parts for the purpose. They are taxed a certain number of skins
yearly, and are obliged to shoot with only a single ball, to avoid
spoiling the skin, or else with cross-bows and blunt arrows. As an
encouragement to the hunters, they are allowed to share among
themselves the surplus of those skins which they thus procure; and
this, in the process of six or seven years, amounts to a considerable
sum. A colonel, during his seven years' stay, gains about four thousand
crowns for his share, and the common men earn six or seven hundred
each.


THE SKUNK.

Of this animal there are several varieties upon the American continent,
to which it is confined; though we have but one in this quarter of the
United States. This is of the size of a cat, and striped with black and
white. Its celebrity depends exclusively upon its peculiar mode of
defence--that of discharging upon its foe a liquid of the most
revolting and intolerable odor, and of such vigor as to fill the air
for half a mile around.

Some years ago, a Frenchman, who had settled at Hartford, Connecticut,
was going home from Wethersfield, a place renowned for raising
_onions_. It was evening, and in the twilight the man saw a little
animal crossing the path before him. Not knowing or suspecting its
character, he darted upon it, caught it, and put it in his pocket. When
he reached home, he took it out, and a general exclamation of
astonishment burst from the household, at the extraordinary flavor of
the little beast. "What is it?" "What can it be?"--was the general
inquiry. "I cannot say," said the Frenchman; "but I suppose it must be
a _Wethersfield_ kitten!"

On a certain occasion, Dr. B----, an eminent divine, was walking at
evening in a by-way, when he saw a small animal trotting along before
him. He easily guessed its true character, and having a volume of
Rees's Cyclopedia under his arm, he hurled it with all his might at the
suspicious quadruped. It took effect, but the animal retorted by
discharging, both upon the Cyclopedia and the D.D., a shaft from his
abominable quiver. It seems that the event made an indelible impression
both upon the garments and the memory of the divine; the former he
buried; and when, some years after, he was advised to write a book
against a rival sect, he replied, "No, no!--I once threw a quarto at a
skunk, and got the worst of it. I shall not repeat such folly."

"In the year 1749," says Kahn, "one of these animals came near the farm
where I lived. It was in winter time, during the night; and the dogs
that were on watch pursued it for some time, until it discharged
against them. Although I was in a bed at some distance from the scene
of action, I thought I should have been suffocated, and the cows and
oxen, by their lowing, showed how much they were affected by the
stench.

"About the end of the same year, another of these animals crept into
our cellar, but did not exhale the smallest scent when undisturbed. A
foolish woman, however, who perceived it one night by the shining of
its eyes, killed it, and at that moment the fetid odor began to spread.
The cellar was filled with it to such a degree that the woman kept her
bed for several days; and all the bread, meat, and other provisions
that were kept there, were so infected, that they were obliged to be
thrown out of doors."


THE OTTER.

The otter is a native of the greater part of Europe and America. Its
principal food being fish, it makes its habitation on the banks of
rivers, where it burrows to some depth.

_Anecdotes._--The females produce from four to five at a birth. Their
parental affection is so powerful, that they will frequently suffer
themselves to be killed rather than quit their progeny; and this has
frequently been the occasion of their losing their lives, when they
might, otherwise, have escaped. Professor Steller says, "Often have I
spared the lives of the female otters, whose young ones I took away.
They expressed their sorrow by crying like human beings, and followed
me as I was carrying off their young ones, which called to them for
aid, with a tone of voice which very much resembled the wailing of
children. When I sat down in the snow, they came quite close to me, and
attempted to carry off their young. On one occasion, when I had
deprived an otter of her progeny, I returned to the place eight days
after, and found the female sitting by the river, listless and
desponding; she suffered me to kill her on the spot without making any
attempt to escape. On skinning her, I found she was quite wasted away,
from sorrow for the loss of her young. Another time I saw, at some
distance from me, an old female otter sleeping by the side of a young
one, about a year old. As soon as the mother perceived us, she awoke
the young one, and enticed him to betake himself to the river; but, as
he did not take the hint, and seemed inclined to prolong his sleep, she
took him up in her fore paws and plunged him into the water."

The otter is naturally ferocious; but when taken young, and properly
treated, it can be rendered tame, and taught to catch fish, and fetch
them to its master. James Campbell, near Inverness, procured a young
otter, which he brought up and domesticated. It would follow him
wherever he chose; and, if called on by its name, would immediately
obey. When apprehensive of danger from dogs, it sought the protection
of its master, and would endeavor to spring into his arms for greater
security. It was frequently employed in catching fish, and would
sometimes take eight or ten salmon in a day. If not prevented, it
always made an attempt to break the fish behind the anal fin, which is
next the tail; and, as soon as one was taken away, it always dived in
pursuit of more. It was equally dexterous at sea-fishing, and took
great numbers of young cod, and other fish, there. When tired, it would
refuse to fish any longer, and was then rewarded with as much as it
could devour. Having satisfied its appetite, it always coiled itself
round, and fell asleep; in which state it was generally carried home.

It appears that the otter, in its native haunts, is of a playful and
sportive humor. We are told that, on the banks of the northern rivers,
where they dwell unmolested, they may be sometimes seen sliding down
the soft, muddy banks into the water, like a parcel of boys coasting
upon the snow. They become quite animated with the sport, seeming to
emulate each other in the vigor and frolic of their performances.

The sea otter is a larger species, living in pairs along the northern
shores of the Pacific Ocean.


THE DOG.

The dog, in its wild state, differs little in its habits from those of
the same order of quadrupeds; it resembles the wolf rather than the
fox, hunts in troops, and, thus associated, attacks the most formidable
animals--wild boars, tigers, and even lions. They are said, however,
even while in this condition, to exhibit a disposition to yield to man;
and, if approached by him with gentleness, will submit to be caressed.
On the other hand, if dogs that have been once tamed are driven from
the haunts of men, and the protection to which they have been
accustomed, they readily become wild, and associate together in troops.
In Asia, there are multitudes of these animals around the towns, which
live in a half-wild state, calling no man master.

But when domesticated, the dog presents the appearance of the most
thorough submission to the will, and subservience to the use of man. If
we look at the individual, we perceive it attached to a person whom it
acknowledges as master, with whom it has formed a very humble alliance,
and whose interest it considers its own. It answers to its name, is
willing to follow its master wherever he goes, and exerts all its
energies in any service to which he may command it, and that without
any constraint except what arises from its own disposition. A more
perfect image of obedience and subservience cannot be conceived. If, on
the other hand, we survey the species, we find it in every variety of
size, and shape, and disposition, according to the various services of
which it is capable. The division of labor is almost as complete, among
the different species of the dog, as among men themselves. It, like its
masters, gives up the exercise of one faculty that it may bring another
to a greater perfection.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--The anecdotes which go to display the
intelligence and fidelity of dogs, are almost innumerable. Of these, we
can give only a few specimens. "My dog Sirrah," says the Ettrick
shepherd, "was, beyond all comparison, the best dog I ever saw. He was
of a surly and unsocial temper. Disdaining all flattery, he refused to
be caressed; but his attention to my commands and interests will never
again, perhaps, be equalled by any of the canine race. When I first saw
him, a drover was leading him in a rope. He was both lean and hungry,
and far from being a beautiful animal, for he was almost all black, and
had a grim face, striped with dark-brown. The man had bought him of a
boy, somewhere on the Border, for three shillings, and had fed him
very ill on his journey. I thought I discovered a sort of sullen
intelligence in his countenance, notwithstanding his dejected and
forlorn appearance. I gave the drover a guinea for him, and I believe
there never was a guinea so well laid out; at least, I am satisfied I
never laid one out to so good a purpose. He was scarcely a year old,
and knew so little of herding, that he had never turned a sheep in his
life; but as soon as he discovered that it was his duty to do so, and
that it obliged me, I can never forget with what anxiety and eagerness
he learned his different evolutions. He would try every way
deliberately, till he found out what I wanted him to do; and, when I
once made him understand a direction, he never forgot or mistook it
again. Well as I knew him, he often astonished me; for, when hard
pressed in accomplishing the task that he was put to, he had expedients
of the moment that bespoke a great share of the reasoning faculty."

Among other remarkable exploits of Sirrah, illustrative of his
sagacity, Mr. Hogg relates that, upon one occasion, about seven hundred
lambs, which were under his care at weaning time, broke up at midnight,
and scampered off, in three divisions, across the neighboring hills, in
spite of all that he and an assistant could do to keep them together.
The night was so dark that he could not see Sirrah; but the faithful
animal heard his master lament their absence in words which, of all
others, were sure to set him most on the alert; and, without more ado,
he silently set off in quest of the recreant flock. Meanwhile, the
shepherd and his companion did not fail to do all in their power to
recover their lost charge; they spent the whole night in scouring the
hills for miles round, but of neither the lambs nor Sirrah could they
obtain the slightest trace. It was the most extraordinary circumstance
that had ever occurred in the annals of pastoral life. They had nothing
to do, as day had dawned, but to return to their master, and inform him
that they had lost his whole flock of lambs, and knew not what was
become of one of them. "On our way home, however," says Mr. Hogg, "we
discovered a lot of lambs at the bottom of a deep ravine called the
Flesh Cleuch, and the indefatigable Sirrah standing in front of them,
looking round for some relief, but still true to his charge. The sun
was then up; and when we first came in view, we concluded that it was
one of the divisions, which Sirrah had been unable to manage until he
came to that commanding situation. But what was our astonishment when
we discovered that not one lamb of the whole flock was wanting! How he
had got all the divisions collected in the dark is beyond my
comprehension. The charge was left entirely to himself from midnight
until the rising sun; and if all the shepherds in the Forest had been
there to have assisted him, they could not have effected it with
greater propriety. All that I can further say is, that I never felt so
grateful to any creature under the sun, as I did to my honest Sirrah
that morning."

Sir Walter Scott has furnished an anecdote on this subject, concerning
a dog, which, though meritorious in himself, must ever deserve the
greatest share of fame and interest from the circumstance of having
belonged to such a master. "The wisest dog," says Sir Walter, "I ever
had, was what is called the bull-dog terrier. I taught him to
understand a great many words, insomuch that I am positive that the
communication betwixt the canine species and ourselves might be greatly
enlarged. Camp once bit the baker, who was bringing bread to the
family. I beat him, and explained the enormity of his offence; after
which, to the last moment of his life, he never heard the least
allusion to the story, in whatever voice or tone it was mentioned,
without getting up and retiring into the darkest corner of the room,
with great appearance of distress. Then, if you said, 'The baker was
well paid,' or 'The baker was not hurt after all,' Camp came forth from
his hiding-place, capered, barked, and rejoiced. When he was unable,
towards the end of his life, to attend me when on horseback, he used to
watch for my return, and the servant used to tell him 'his master was
coming down the hill, or through the moor;' and although he did not use
any gesture to explain his meaning, Camp was never known to mistake
him, but either went out at the front to go up the hill, or at the back
to get down to the moor-side. He certainly had a singular knowledge of
spoken language."

It has been made a question, whether the dog remembers his master after
a long period of separation. The voice of antiquity favors the
affirmative. Homer makes the dog of Ulysses to recognize him after many
years' absence, and describes Eumenes, the swineherd, as being thus led
to apprehend, in the person before him, the hero, of seeing whom he had
long despaired. Byron, on the other hand, was skeptical on this point.
Writing to a friend, who had requested the results of his experience on
the subject,--he states that, on seeing a large dog, which had belonged
to him, and had formerly been a favorite, chained at Newstead, the
animal sprang towards him, as he conceived, in joy--but he was glad to
make his escape from it, with the comparatively trivial injury of the
loss of the skirts of his coat. Perhaps this circumstance may have
suggested the following verses of the poet:--

    "And now I'm in the world alone,
      Upon the wide, wide sea;
    But why should I for others groan,
      When none will sigh for me?
    Perchance my dog will whine in vain,
      Till fed by stranger hands;
    But long ere I come back again,
      He'd tear me where he stands."

The affection of the dog for his master does not end with his life; and
innumerable are the anecdotes on record of dogs, which have continued
to pine after their master's death, or died immediately after. We shall
select but one or two well-authenticated instances, for they are all so
much alike, that it is unnecessary to produce many. It is said, in the
Life of Mary, Queen of Scots, lately published at Glasgow, that, after
her head was cut off, her little favorite lapdog, which had
affectionately followed her, and unobserved had nestled among her
clothes, now continued to caress her, and would not leave the body till
forced away, and then died two days afterwards.

Mr. Renton, of Lammerton, had a herdsman, who, pursuing a sheep that
had run down the steep bank of Blackadder Water, fell into the river
and was drowned. His dog, a common shepherd's dog, returned home next
morning, and led his wife to the spot, holding her by the apron. The
body was found. The dog followed it even to the grave, and died in a
few days.

A mastiff dog belonging to the Honorable Peter Bold, England, attended
his master in his chamber during the tedious sickness consequent on a
pulmonary consumption. After the gentleman expired, and his corpse had
been removed, the dog repeatedly entered the apartment, making a
mournful, whining noise; he continued his researches for several days
through all the rooms of the house, but in vain. He then retired to his
kennel, which he could not be induced to leave; refusing all manner of
sustenance, he soon died. Of this fact, and his previous affection, the
surgeon who attended his master was an eye-witness.

The regret of the dog for its master's death is not confined to
inactive sorrow; if his death has been caused by violence, it discovers
a singular and persevering hatred of the murderers, which in some cases
has led to their detection. The following instance is related in a
letter, written in 1764, by a gentleman at Dijon, in France, to his
friend in London: "Since my arrival here, a man has been broken on the
wheel, with no other proof to condemn him than that of a water-spaniel.
The circumstances attending it being so very singular and striking, I
beg leave to communicate them to you. A farmer, who had been to receive
a sum of money, was waylaid, robbed, and murdered, by two villains. The
farmer's dog returned with all speed to the house of the person who had
paid the money, and expressed such amazing anxiety that he would follow
him, pulling him several times by the sleeve and skirt of the coat,
that at length the gentleman yielded to his importunity. The dog led
him to the field, a little from the roadside, where the body lay. From
thence the gentleman went to a public house, in order to alarm the
country. The moment he entered, (as the two villains were there
drinking,) the dog seized the murderer by the throat, and the other
made his escape. This man lay in prison three months, during which time
they visited him once a week with the spaniel; and though they made him
change his clothes with other prisoners, and always stand in the midst
of a crowd, yet did the animal always find him out, and fly at him. On
the day of trial, when the prisoner was at the bar, the dog was let
loose in the court-house, and, in the midst of some hundreds, he found
him out, though dressed entirely in new clothes, and would have torn
him to pieces had he been allowed; in consequence of which he was
condemned, and at the place of execution he confessed the fact. Surely
so useful, so disinterestedly faithful an animal, should not be so
barbarously treated as I have often seen them, particularly in London."

Other cases might be produced, but we shall only present that of the
dog of Montargis, which has become familiar to the public by being made
the subject of a melodrame frequently acted at the present time. The
fame of this English blood-hound has been transmitted by a monument in
basso-relievo, which still remains in the chimney-piece of the grand
hall, at the Castle of Montargis, in France. The sculpture, which
represents a dog fighting with a champion, is explained by the
following narrative: Aubri de Mondidier, a gentleman of family and
fortune, travelling alone through the Forest of Bondy, was murdered,
and buried under a tree. His dog, a bloodhound, would not quit his
master's grave for several days; till at length, compelled by hunger,
he proceeded to the house of an intimate friend of the unfortunate
Aubri, at Paris, and, by his melancholy howling, seemed desirous of
expressing the loss sustained. He repeated his cries, ran to the door,
looked back to see if any one followed him, returned to his master's
friend, pulled him by the sleeve, and, with dumb eloquence, entreated
him to go with him. The singularity of all these actions of the dog,
added to the circumstance of his coming there without his master, whose
faithful companion he had always been, prompted the company to follow
the animal, who conducted them to a tree, where he renewed his howl,
scratching the earth with his feet, and significantly entreating them
to search the particular spot. Accordingly, on digging, the body of the
unhappy Aubri was found. Some time after, the dog accidentally met the
assassin, who is styled, by all the historians that relate this fact,
the Chevalier Macaire; when, instantly seizing him by the throat, he
was with great difficulty compelled to quit his victim. In short,
whenever the dog saw the chevalier, he continued to pursue and attack
him with equal fury.

Such obstinate violence in the animal, confined only to Macaire,
appeared very extraordinary--especially as several instances of
Macaire's envy and hatred to Aubri de Mondidier had been conspicuous.
Additional circumstances created suspicion, and at length the affair
reached the royal ear. The king, Louis VIII., accordingly sent for the
dog, which appeared extremely gentle till he perceived Macaire in the
midst of several noblemen, when he ran fiercely towards him, growling
at and attacking him, as usual. The king, struck with such a
combination of circumstantial evidence against Macaire, determined to
refer the decision to the chance of battle; in other words, he gave
orders for a combat between the chevalier and the dog. The lists were
appointed in the Isle of Notre Dame, then an unenclosed, uninhabited
place, and Macaire was allowed, for his weapon, a great cudgel. An
empty cask was given to the dog as a place of retreat, to enable him to
recover breath. Every thing being prepared, the dog no sooner found
himself at liberty, than he ran round his adversary, avoiding his
blows, and menacing him on every side, till his strength was exhausted;
then springing forward, he seized him by the throat, and threw him on
the ground. Macaire now confessed his guilt in presence of the king and
the whole court. In consequence of this, the chevalier, after a few
days, was convicted upon his own acknowledgment, and beheaded on a
scaffold in the Isle of Notre Dame.

The instances in which persons have been saved from drowning by the
Newfoundland dog, are innumerable. The following anecdote is the more
remarkable, as it does not appear that the affectionate animal was of
that species. A young man belonging to the city of Paris, desirous of
getting rid of his dog, took it along with him to the River Seine. He
hired a boat, and, rowing into the stream, threw the animal in. The
poor creature attempted to climb up the side of the boat, but his
master, whose intention was to drown him, constantly pushed him back
with the oar. In doing this, he fell himself into the water, and would
certainly have been drowned, had not the dog, as soon as he saw his
master struggling in the stream, suffered the boat to float away, and
held him above the water till assistance arrived, and his life was
saved.

Of the alertness of the dog in recovering the lost property of its
master, we shall furnish a striking instance. M. Dumont, a tradesman of
the Rue St. Denis, Paris, offered to lay a wager with a friend that, if
he were to hide a six-livre piece in the dust, his dog would discover
and bring it to him. The wager was accepted, and the piece of money
secreted, after being carefully marked. When they had proceeded some
distance from the spot, M. Dumont signified to his dog that he had lost
something, and ordered him to seek it. Caniche immediately turned back,
while his master and his companion pursued their walk to the Rue St.
Denis.

Meanwhile a traveller, who happened to be just then returning in a
small chaise from Vincennes, perceived the piece of money, which his
horse had kicked from its hiding-place; he alighted, took it up, and
drove to his inn in Rue Pont-aux-Choux, and Caniche had just reached
the spot in search of the lost piece when the stranger picked it up. He
followed the chaise, went into the inn, and stuck close to the
traveller. Having scented out the coin, which he had been ordered to
bring back, in the pocket of the latter, he leaped up incessantly at
and about him. The gentleman, supposing him to be some dog that had
been lost or left behind by his master, regarded his different
movements as marks of fondness; and as the animal was handsome, he
determined to keep him. He gave him a good supper, and, on retiring to
bed, took him with him to his chamber. No sooner had he pulled off his
breeches, than they were seized by the dog; the owner, conceiving he
wanted to play with them, took them away again. The animal began to
bark at the door, which the traveller opened, under the idea that he
wanted to go out. Caniche instantly snatched up the breeches, and away
he flew. The stranger posted after him with his night-cap on, and
nearly _sans culottes_.

Anxiety for the fate of a purse full of double Napoleons, of forty
francs each, which was in one of the pockets, gave redoubled velocity
to his steps. Caniche ran full speed to his master's house, where the
stranger arrived a moment afterwards, breathless and furious. He
accused the dog of robbing him. "Sir," said the master, "my dog is a
very faithful creature, and if he has run away with your breeches, it
is because you have in them money which does not belong to you." The
traveller became still more exasperated. "Compose yourself, sir,"
rejoined the other, smiling; "without doubt there is in your purse a
six-livre piece with such and such marks, which you picked up in the
Boulevard St. Antoine, and which I threw down there with a firm
conviction that my dog would bring it back again. This is the cause of
the robbery which he has committed upon you!" The stranger's rage now
yielded to astonishment; he delivered the six-livre piece to the owner,
and could not forbear caressing the dog which had given him so much
uneasiness and such an unpleasant chase.

A shepherd on the Grampian Mountains, having left his child at the foot
of the hill, was soon enveloped in mist; and, unable to return to the
precise place, he could not discover the child. In vain he searched for
it in the midst of the mist, not knowing whither he went; and when, at
length, the moon shone clearly, he found himself at his cottage, and
far from the hill. He searched in vain next day, with a band of
shepherds. On returning to his cottage, he found that the dog, on
receiving a piece of cake, had instantly gone off. He renewed the
search for several days, and still the dog had disappeared, during his
absence, taking with it a piece of cake. Struck with this circumstance,
he remained at home one day, and when the dog, as usual, departed with
his piece of cake, he resolved to follow him. The dog led the way to a
cataract at some distance from the spot where the shepherd had left his
child.

The banks of the waterfall almost joined at the top, yet, separated by
an abyss of immense depth, presented that abrupt appearance which so
often astonishes and appals the traveller amidst the Grampian
Mountains. Down one of these rugged and almost perpendicular descents
the dog began, without hesitation, to make his way, and at last
disappeared in a cave, the mouth of which was almost upon a level with
the torrent. The shepherd with difficulty followed; but, on entering
the cave, what were his emotions when he beheld his infant eating, with
much satisfaction, the cake which the dog had just brought him, while
the faithful animal stood by, eyeing his young charge with the utmost
complacence. From the situation in which the child was found, it
appears that he had wandered to the brink of the precipice, and either
fallen or scrambled down till he reached the cave, which the dread of
the torrent had afterwards prevented him from leaving. The dog, by
means of his scent, had traced him to the spot, and afterwards
prevented him from starving by giving up to him his own daily
allowance. He appears never to have quitted the child by night or day,
except when it was necessary to go for its food, and then he was always
seen running at full speed to and from the cottage.

The memory of the dog Gelert has been preserved by tradition, and
celebrated in poetry. In the neighborhood of a village at the foot of
Snowdon, a mountain in Wales, Llewellyn, son-in-law to King John, had a
residence. The king, it is said, had presented him with one of the
finest greyhounds in England, named Gelert. In the year 1205, Llewellyn
one day, on going out to hunt, called all his dogs together; but his
favorite greyhound was missing, and nowhere to be found. He blew his
horn as a signal for the chase, and still Gelert came not. Llewellyn
was much disconcerted at the heedlessness of his favorite, but at
length pursued the chase without him. For want of Gelert the sport was
limited; and, getting tired, he returned home at an early hour, when
the first object that presented itself to him at the castle gate was
Gelert, who bounded with the usual transport to meet his master, having
his lips besmeared with blood. Llewellyn gazed with surprise at the
unusual appearance of his dog.

On going into the apartment where he had left his infant son and heir
asleep, he found the bed-clothes all in confusion, the cover rent and
stained with blood. He called on his child, but no answer was made,
from which he hastily concluded that the dog must have devoured him;
and, giving vent to his rage, plunged his sword to the hilt in Gelert's
side. The noble animal fell at his feet, uttering a dying yell which
awoke the infant, who was sleeping beneath a mingled heap of the
bed-clothes, while beneath the bed lay a great wolf covered with gore,
whom the faithful and gallant hound had destroyed. Llewellyn, smitten
with sorrow and remorse for the rash and frantic deed which had
deprived him of so faithful an animal, caused an elegant marble
monument, with an appropriate inscription, to be erected over the spot
where Gelert was buried, to commemorate his fidelity and unhappy fate.
The place to this day is called Beth-Gelert, or the Grave of the
Greyhound.

    "Here never could the spearman pass,
      Or forester, unmoved;
    Here oft the tear-besprinkled grass
      Llewellyn's sorrow proved.
    And here he hung his horn and spear,
      And oft, as evening fell,
    In fancy's piercing sounds would hear
      Poor Gelert's dying yell."

The bull-dog would appear the least likely to combat with a heavy sea,
and yet the following circumstances are well authenticated: On board a
ship, which struck upon a rock near the shore, there were three dogs,
two of the Newfoundland variety, and one a small but firmly-built
English bull-dog. It was important to have a rope carried ashore, and
it was thought that one of the Newfoundland dogs might succeed; but he
was not able to struggle with the waves, and perished; and the other
Newfoundland dog, being thrown over with the rope, shared the same
fate. But the bull-dog, though not habituated to the water, swam
triumphantly to land, and thus saved the lives of the persons on board.
Among them was his master, a military officer, who still has the dog in
his possession.

Among the instances of sagacity, mingled with an affection for its
master, may be mentioned those cases in which the dog notices or
detects thefts, and restores lost or stolen articles to its master. An
acquaintance of Lord Fife's coachman had put a bridle belonging to the
earl in his pocket, and would have abstracted it, had he not been
stopped by a Highland cur, that observed him, barked at him, and
absolutely bit his leg. This was unusual conduct in the dog; but the
wonder of the servants ceased when they saw the end of the bridle
peeping out of the visitor's pocket; and it being delivered up, the dog
became quiet. It is well known that in London, the other year, a box,
properly directed, was sent to a merchant's shop to lie there all
night, and be shipped off with other goods next morning, and that a
dog, which accidentally came into the shop with a customer, by his
smelling it, and repeatedly barking in a peculiar way, led to the
discovery that the box contained not goods, but a rogue who intended to
admit his companions and plunder the shop in the night-time.

A man who frequented the _Pont Neuf_ in Paris, and whose business it
was to brush the boots of persons passing by, taught his dog, which was
a poodle, to roll himself in the mud, and then brush by gentlemen so as
to soil their boots. In this way, the animal largely contributed to
support the trade of his master.

There were two friends--one living in London, the other at Guildford.
These were on terms of the greatest intimacy, and for many years it had
been the custom of the London family to pass the Christmas with the one
at Guildford. Their usual practice was to arrive to dinner the day
before, and they were always accompanied by a large spaniel, who was as
great a favorite of the visited as of the visitors.

At the end of about seven years, the two families had an unfortunate
misunderstanding, which occasioned an omission of the usual Christmas
invitation. About an hour before dinner, the Guildford gentleman, who
was standing at the window, exclaimed to his wife, "Well, my dear, the
W.'s have thought better of it, for I declare they are coming as usual,
although we did not invite them; for here comes Cæsar to announce
them;" and the dog came trotting up to the door, and was admitted, as
usual, into the parlor.

The lady of the house gave orders to prepare beds; dinner waited an
hour; but no guests arrived. Cæsar, having staid the exact number of
days to which he had been accustomed, set off for home, and reached it
in safety. The correspondence which subsequently occurred had the happy
effect of renewing the intercourse of the estranged friends; and as
long as Cæsar lived, he paid the annual visit in company with his
master and mistress.

A terrier, belonging to the Marchioness of Stafford, having lost a
litter of puppies, was quite disconsolate, till, perceiving a brood of
young ducks, she immediately seized them, and carried them to her lair,
where she kept them, following them out and in, and nursing them in her
own way with the most affectionate anxiety. When the ducklings, obeying
their instinct, went into the water, their foster-mother exhibited the
utmost alarm, and as soon as they returned to land, she snatched them
up, one by one, in her mouth, and ran home with them.

The next year, the same animal, being again deprived of her puppies,
seized two cock chickens, which she reared with infinite care. When
they began to crow, their foster-mother was as much annoyed as she had
been with the swimming of the young ducks, and never failed to repress
their attempts at crowing.

A man engaged in smuggling lace into France from Flanders, trained an
active and sagacious spaniel to aid him in his enterprise. He caused
him to be shaved, and procured for him the skin of another dog of the
same hair and the same shape. He then rolled the lace round the body of
the dog, and put over it the other skin so adroitly that the trick
could not be easily discovered. The lace being thus arranged, the
smuggler would say to the docile messenger, "Homeward, my friend." At
these words, the dog would start, and pass boldly through the gates of
Malines and Valenciennes in the face of the vigilant officers placed
there to prevent smuggling.

Having thus passed the bounds, he would await his master at a little
distance in the open country. There they mutually caressed and feasted,
and the merchant placed his rich package in a place of security,
renewing his occupation as occasion required. Such was the success of
this smuggler, that, in less than five years, he amassed a handsome
fortune, and kept his coach.

Envy pursues the prosperous. A mischievous neighbor at length betrayed
the lace merchant; notwithstanding all his efforts to disguise the dog,
he was suspected, watched, and discovered. But the cunning of the dog
was equal to the emergency. Did the spies of the custom-house expect
him at one gate, he saw them at a distance, and ran to another; were
all the gates shut against him, he overcame every obstacle; sometimes
he leaped over the wall; at others, passing secretly behind a carriage,
or running between the legs of travellers, he would thus accomplish his
aim. One day, however, while swimming a stream near Malines, he was
shot, and died in the water. There was then about him five thousand
crowns' worth of lace--the loss of which did not afflict his master,
but he was inconsolable for the loss of his faithful dog.

A dog belonging to a chamois-hunter, being on the glaciers in
Switzerland, with an Englishman and his master, observed the former
approaching one of the crevices in the ice, to look into it. He began
to slide towards the edge; his guide, with a view to save him, caught
his coat, and both slid onward, till the dog seized his master's
clothes, and preserved them both from inevitable death.

Dogs have a capacity to act upon excitements of an artificial nature. A
dog, in Paris, at the commencement of the revolution, was known to
musicians by the name of Parade, because he regularly attended the
military at the Tuileries, stood by and marched with the band. At night
he went to the opera, and dined with any musician who intimated, by
word or gesture, that his company was asked; yet always withdrew from
any attempt to be made the property of any individual.

The Penny Magazine furnishes a still more singular instance of the
desire of excitement, in a dog which, for several years, was always
present at the fires in London. Some years ago, a gentleman residing a
few miles from London, in Surrey, was roused in the middle of the night
by the intelligence that the premises adjoining his house of business
were on fire. The removal of his furniture and papers, of course,
immediately called his attention; yet, notwithstanding this, and the
bustle that is ever incident to a fire, his eye every now and then
rested on a dog, whom, during the progress of the devouring element, he
could not help noticing, running about, and apparently taking a deep
interest in what was going on--contriving to keep himself out of every
body's way, and yet always present amidst the thickest of the stir.

When the fire was got under, and the gentleman had leisure to look
about him, he again observed the dog, who, with the firemen, appeared
to be resting from the fatigues of duty, and was led to make inquiries
respecting him. Stooping down, and patting the animal, he addressed a
fireman near him, and asked him if the dog were his.

"No, sir," replied the man, "he does not belong to me, nor to any one
in particular. We call him the firemen's dog."

"The firemen's dog? Why so? Has he no master?"

"No, sir; he calls none of us master, though we are all of us willing
to give him a night's lodging, and a pennyworth of meat; but he won't
stay long with any of us. His delight is to be at all the fires of
London, and, far or near, we generally find him on the road as we are
going along; and sometimes, if it is out of town, we give him a lift. I
don't think that there has been a fire for these two or three years
past which he has not been at."

Three years after this conversation, the same gentleman was again
called up in the night to a fire in the village where he resided, and,
to his surprise, he again met "the firemen's dog," still alive and
well, pursuing, with the same apparent interest and satisfaction, the
exhibition of that which generally brings with it ruin and loss of
life. Still he called no man master, disdained to receive bed or board
from the same hand more than a night or two at a time, nor could the
firemen trace out his ordinary resting-place.

To this long list, we might add many other anecdotes, in evidence of
the varied powers of the canine family. We have endeavored to select
those only which are well authenticated. Some of these are sufficiently
marvellous, but there are many other well-attested accounts equally
wonderful. Mr. Hogg seems to imagine that mankind are prepared to
believe any thing in respect to dogs which partakes of the mysterious,
and accordingly plays off the following quiet joke upon his readers:--

"It's a good sign of a dog when his face grows like his master's. It's
proof he's aye glow'ring up in his master's e'en to discover what he's
thinking on; and then, without the word or wave of command, to be aff
to execute the wull o' his silent thocht, whether it be to wean sheep,
or to run doon deer. Hector got so like me, afore he dee'd, that I
remember, when I was owre lazy to gang to the kirk, I used to send him
to take my place in the pew, and the minister never kent the
difference. Indeed, he once asked me next day what I thocht of the
sermon; for he saw me wonderfu' attentive amang a rather sleepy
congregation.

"Hector and me gied ane anither sic a look! and I was feared Mr. Paton
would have observed it; but he was a simple, primitive, unsuspecting
old man--a very Nathaniel without guile, and he jaloused nothing; tho'
both Hector and me was like to split; and the dog, after laughing in
his sleeve for mair than a hundred yards, couldn't stand't nae longer,
but was obliged to loup awa owre a hedge into a potato field,
pretending to scent partridges."


THE WOLF.

This is a fierce and savage beast, resembling in form and size the
Newfoundland dog. It hunts in packs, and attacks deer, sheep, and
sometimes even man himself. When taken young, it may be tamed. It is
found in the northern portions of both continents. In North America,
there are several varieties.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Mr. Cuvier gives an account of a wolf that
had all the obedience and affection that any dog could evince. He was
brought up by his master in the same manner as a puppy, and, when full
grown, was sent to the menagerie at Paris. For many weeks, he was quite
disconsolate at the separation from his master, refused to take food,
and was indifferent to his keepers. At length he became attached to
those about him, and seemed to have forgotten his old affections.

On his master's return, however, in a year and a half, the wolf heard
his voice among the crowd in the gardens, and, being set at liberty,
displayed the most violent joy. He was again separated from his friend;
and again, his grief was as extreme as on the first occasion.

After three years' absence, his master once more returned. It was
evening, and the wolf's den was shut up from any external observation;
yet, the moment the man's voice was heard, the faithful animal set up
the most anxious cries, and, on the door of his cage being opened, he
rushed to his friend, leaped upon his shoulders, licked his face, and
threatened to bite his keepers when they attempted to separate them.
When the man again left him, he fell sick, and refused all food; and
from the time of his recovery, which was long very doubtful, it was
always dangerous for a stranger to approach him.

A story is told of a Scotch bagpiper, who was travelling in Ireland one
evening, when he suddenly encountered a wolf who seemed to be very
ravenous. The poor man could think of no other expedient to save his
life, than to open his wallet, and try the effect of hospitality; he
did so, and the savage beast swallowed all that was thrown to him with
such voracity, that it seemed as if his appetite was not in the least
degree satisfied.

The whole stock of provisions was of course soon spent, and now the
man's only resource was in the virtues of his bagpipe; this the monster
no sooner heard than he took to the mountains with the same
precipitation with which he had left them. The poor piper did not
wholly enjoy his deliverance; for, looking ruefully at his empty
wallet, he shook his fist at the departing animal, saying, "Ay! Are
these your tricks? Had I known your humor, you should have had your
music before your supper."

In Sweden, frequent attacks are made upon the people by wolves, during
the winter, as they are then often in a famishing condition. In one
instance, a party of sixteen sledges were returning from a dance on a
cold and starlight night. In the middle of the cavalcade was a sledge
occupied by a lady; at the back of the vehicle sat the servant; and at
her feet, on a bear skin, reposed her favorite lapdog. In passing
through a wood, a large wolf suddenly sprang out, and, jumping into the
sledge, seized the poor dog, and was out of sight before any steps
could be taken for his rescue.

A Swedish peasant was one day crossing a large lake on his sledge, when
he was attacked by a drove of wolves. This frightened the horse so much
that he went off at full speed. There was a loose rope hanging from the
back of the vehicle that had been used for binding hay; to the end of
this a noose happened to be attached. Though this was not intended to
catch a wolf, it fortunately effected that object; for one of the
ferocious animals getting his feet entangled in it, he was immediately
destroyed, owing to the rapidity with which the horse was proceeding.

The poor man at length reached a place of safety. Though he had been
dreadfully frightened during the ride, he not only found himself much
sooner at the end of his journey than he expected, but richer by the
booty he had thus unexpectedly gained--the skin of a wolf in this
country being worth about two dollars and a half.

A peasant in Russia was once pursued in his sledge by eleven wolves.
Being about two miles from home, he urged his horse to the very extent
of his speed. At the entrance to his residence was a gate, which being
shut at the time, the frightened horse dashed open, and carried his
master safely into the courtyard. Nine of the wolves followed them into
the enclosure, when fortunately the gate swung back, and shut them all
as it were in a trap. Finding themselves thus caught, the animals
seemed to lose all their ferocity; and, as escape was impossible, slunk
into holes and corners, molesting no one, and offering no resistance.
They were all despatched without further difficulty.

The prairie wolf is said to be wonderfully cunning and sagacious.
Instances have been known of his burrowing under ground to procure the
bait from a trap, rather than run the chance of being caught above.
Many and curious are the devices prepared to ensnare this animal, but
very few have succeeded. This variety of wolf is common in the prairies
of the western country, where it hunts deer by running them down.
Sometimes a large number associate together, and, forming a crescent,
creep slowly towards a herd of deer, so as not to alarm them. They then
rush on with hideous yells, and drive the poor animals towards a
precipice, seeming to know that, when they are once at full speed, they
will all follow one another over the cliff. The wolves then descend at
leisure, and feed upon their slaughtered victims.

A farmer in France, one day looking through the hedge in his garden,
observed a wolf walking round a mule, but unable to get at him on
account of the mule's constantly kicking with his hind legs. As the
farmer perceived that the beast was so well able to defend himself, he
did not interfere. After the attack and defence had lasted a quarter of
an hour, the wolf ran off to a neighboring ditch, where he several
times plunged into the water.

The farmer imagined that he did this to refresh himself after the
fatigue he had sustained, and had no doubt that his mule had gained a
complete victory; but in a few minutes the wolf returned to the charge,
and, approaching as near as he could to the head of the mule, shook
himself, and spouted a quantity of water into the animal's eyes, which
caused him immediately to shut them. That moment, the wolf leaped upon
him, and killed the poor animal before the farmer could come to his
assistance.

In the commencement of the reign of Louis XIV., of France, in the depth
of winter, a party of dragoons were attacked, at the foot of the
mountains of Jurat, by a multitude of wolves; the dragoons fought
bravely, and killed many hundreds of them; but at last, overpowered by
numbers, they and their horses were all devoured. A cross is erected on
the place of combat, with an inscription in commemoration of it, which
is to be seen at this day.


THE FOX.

This animal, which resembles a small dog, is widely distributed over
the colder portions of both continents. There are several species, as
the red, gray, black, silver, arctic, &c. In all ages and countries,
the fox has been remarkable for his cunning, and, from the time of Æsop
to the present day, has figured, in allegory and fable, as the
personification of artifice and duplicity.

_Fruitless Enterprise._--A fox finding himself hard run by the hounds,
at a hunt in Ireland, ran up a stone wall, from which he sprang on the
roof of an adjoining cabin, and mounted up to the chimney-top. From
that elevated station, he looked all around him, as if reconnoitring
the coming enemy. A wily old hound approaching, and having gained the
roof, was preparing to seize the fox, when, lo! renard dropped suddenly
down the chimney. The dog looked wistfully down the dark opening, but
dared not pursue the fugitive.

Meanwhile renard, half enrobed in soot, had fallen into the lap of an
old woman, who, surrounded by a number of children, was gravely smoking
her pipe, not at all expecting the entrance of this abrupt visitor.
"_Emiladh deouil!_" said the affrighted female, as she threw from
her the red and black quadruped. Renard grinned, growled, and showed
his fangs; and when the huntsmen, who had secured the door, entered,
they found him in quiet possession of the kitchen, the old woman and
children having retired, in terror of the invader, to an obscure corner
of the room. The fox was taken alive without much difficulty.

_Unavailing Artifice._--Two gentlemen in New Jersey went out to hunt
rabbits. In a low, bushy swamp, the dogs started a fox, and off they
went in swift pursuit. After a chase of two miles, he entered a very
dense thicket, and, making a circuit of the place, returned to the
point whence he first started. The dogs closely pursuing the fox, he
again started for the thicket, when one of the sportsmen shot at him,
and he fell apparently dead at his feet. As he stooped to pick him up,
however, he rose upon his legs and escaped. For two hours and a half,
the thicket was the scene of the wiles of renard; but at last he was
taken, and, being carried home by the men, was thrown, apparently quite
dead, into the corner of the room.

The family sat down to supper. Finding them all busily engaged, he
ventured to reconnoitre, and had cautiously raised himself on his fore
legs for the purpose, but, on finding himself observed, resumed his
quiescent state. One of the party, to ascertain whether the fox was
alive or not, passed a piece of lighted paper under his nose; but the
inanimate stone or log appeared not more senseless at that moment.
Finding all attempts to get away unavailing, renard submitted to his
destiny with a very good grace, and the next morning was as well as
ever, bating a slight wound in the shoulder and a dirty skin.

_Unexpected Resentment._--Some country people in Germany once caught a
pike, but in conveying it home during the night, it escaped. As it was
a large fish, they returned with torches to secure their prize, and
after some time found it on the grass, having fast hold of a fox by the
nose. The animal caught in this novel trap made every effort to escape,
without success; and it was not until the pike was killed, that it was
possible to separate them. It seems that, after the pike was dropped by
the fisherman, renard came across it, and in paying his addresses to
it, was received in the manner we have described.


THE HYENA.

This animal, which is the size of a large dog, belongs to Africa. It is
very ferocious, feeds on flesh, and prefers that which is in a state of
decay. It seems, with the vulture, to be a scavenger to remove masses
of putrid flesh, which, in these hot regions, would otherwise breed
infection and disease.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Bruce, in his "Travels in Africa," gives us
the following account of the hyena:--

"One night, being very busily engaged in my tent, I heard something
pass behind me towards the bed, but, upon looking round, could perceive
nothing. Having finished what I was about, I went out, resolving
directly to return, which I did. I now perceived a pair of large blue
eyes glaring at me in the dark. I called to my servant to bring a
light, and there stood a hyena, near the head of my bed, with two or
three large bunches of candles in his mouth. As his mouth was full, I
was not afraid of him; so, with my pike, I struck him as near the heart
as I could judge. It was not till then that he showed any signs of
fierceness; but, feeling his wound, he let the candles drop, and
endeavored to climb up the handle of the spear, to arrive at me; so
that, in self-defence, I was obliged to draw a pistol from my girdle,
and shoot him; nearly at the same time, my servant cleft his skull with
a battle-axe.

"The hyena appears to be senseless and stupid during the day. I have
locked up with him a goat, a kid, and a lamb, all day, when he was
fasting, and found them in the evening alive and unhurt. Repeating the
experiment one night, he ate up a young ass, a goat, and a fox, all
before morning, so as to leave nothing but some small fragments of the
ass's bones."

Sparman furnishes us with the following story:--"One night, at a feast
near the Cape, a trumpeter, who had got himself well filled with
liquor, was carried out of doors in order to cool and sober him. The
scent of him soon attracted a spotted hyena, which threw him on his
back, and carried him away to Sable Mountain, thinking him a corpse,
and consequently a fair prize.

"In the mean time, our drunken musician awoke, sufficiently sensible to
know the danger of his situation, and to sound his alarm with his
trumpet, which he carried at his side. The beast, as it may be
imagined, was greatly frightened, in its turn, and immediately ran
away."


THE LION.

This animal stands at the head of the numerous family of cats, and has
often been ranked by naturalists as the lord of the brute creation, and
holding the same relation to quadrupeds as the eagle does to birds.

Like all the rest of his genus, the lion steals upon his prey, and,
when at a proper distance, rushes upon it with a bound, securing it in
his sharp claws. In general he is cowardly; but, in pursuit of his
prey, he is, to the last degree, fearless and ferocious. His strength
is so great that he can break a man's skull with the stroke of his paw,
and can drag the body of a cow over the ground at a gallop. His roar is
terrific, and when heard, the animals around seem agitated with the
wildest terror. The lion is common in the hot parts of Africa, and is
occasionally found in India.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Some Hottentots once perceived a lion
dragging a buffalo from the plain to a neighboring woody hill. They
soon forced him to quit his prey, in order to secure it for themselves.
They now found that the lion had had the sagacity to take out those
inner parts of the buffalo that it rejected as food, in order to make
it easier to carry away the fleshy and eatable parts of the carcass,
thus showing reflection on his part.

It is probable that the lion does not easily venture upon any one who
puts himself in a posture of defence. The following anecdote would seem
to show that this is the case. A young man was walking one day on his
lands in the southern parts of Africa, when he unexpectedly met a large
lion. Being an excellent shot, he thought himself sure of killing him,
and therefore fired. But unfortunately, the charge had been in the
piece for some time, and the ball fell before it reached the animal.
The young man, seized with panic, now took to his heels; but being soon
out of breath, and closely pursued by the lion, he jumped upon a little
heap of stones, and there made a stand, presenting the butt-end of his
gun to his adversary, fully resolved to defend his life as well as he
could.

This movement had such an effect upon the lion, that he likewise came
to a stand; and what was still more singular, laid himself down at some
paces' distance from the stones, seemingly quite unconcerned. The
sportsman, in the mean while, did not dare to stir a step from the
spot; besides, in his flight, he had lost his powder-horn. At length,
after waiting a good half hour, the lion rose up, and retreated slowly,
step by step, as if it had a mind to steal off; but as soon as it got
to a greater distance, it began to bound away with great rapidity.

It is related that Geoffrey de la Tour, one of the knights that went
upon the first crusade to the Holy Land, heard, one day, as he rode
through a forest, a cry of distress. Hoping to rescue some unfortunate
sufferer, the knight rode boldly into the thicket; but what was his
astonishment, when he beheld a large lion, with a serpent coiled round
his body! To relieve the distressed was the duty of every knight;
therefore, with a single stroke of the sword, and regardless of the
consequences to himself, he killed the serpent, and extricated the
tremendous animal from his perilous situation.

From that hour the grateful creature constantly accompanied his
deliverer, whom he followed like a dog, and never displayed his natural
ferocity but at his command. At length, the crusade being terminated,
Sir Geoffrey prepared to set sail for Europe. He wished to take the
lion with him; but the master of the ship was unwilling to admit him on
board, and the knight was, therefore, obliged to leave him on the
shore. The lion, when he saw himself separated from his beloved master,
first began to roar hideously; then, seeing the ship moving off, he
plunged into the waves, and endeavored to swim after it. But all his
efforts were in vain; and at length, his strength being exhausted, he
sank, and the ocean ingulfed the noble animal, whose unshaken fidelity
deserved a better fate.

Some years since there was, in a menagerie at Cassel, in Germany, a
large lion, whose keeper was a woman, to whom the animal seemed most
affectionately attached. In order to amuse the company, this woman was
in the habit of putting her hands, and even her head, into the lion's
mouth, without experiencing the least injury. Upon one occasion,
however, having introduced her head, as usual, between the animal's
jaws, he made a sudden snap, and killed her on the spot.

Undoubtedly, this catastrophe was unintentional on the part of the
lion; probably the hair of the woman's head irritated his throat, so as
to make him sneeze or cough. This supposition is confirmed by the
subsequent conduct of the animal; for as soon as he perceived that he
had killed his attendant, the good-tempered, grateful creature
exhibited the signs of the deepest melancholy, laid himself down by the
side of the dead body, which he would not suffer to be removed, refused
to take any food, and, in a few days, pined himself to death.

A remarkable instance of docility in a lion once took place in the
menagerie at Chester, in England. A strange keeper, having fed a
magnificent lion one evening, neglected to fasten the door of the den.
The watchman, when going his rounds about three the next morning,
discovered the king of beasts deliberately walking about the yard, and
surveying the objects with apparent curiosity. The watchman went to
call the proprietors, and when they arrived they found the lion
_couchant_ upon the top of one of the coaches in the yard. With very
little entreaty, the monarch of the forest deigned to descend from his
throne, and very graciously followed a young lady, the proprietor's
daughter, back to his den.

Some time ago, for the purpose of seeing the manner in which the lion
pounces upon his prey, a little dog was, most cruelly, thrown into the
den of one of these animals in the Tower Menagerie. The poor little
animal skulked, in terror, to the most remote corner of the lion's
apartment, who, regarding him with complacency, refrained from
approaching him. The little trembler, seeing the lion's mildness,
ventured to draw near him; and soon becoming familiar, they lived
together thenceforward in the most perfect harmony; and, although the
little dog had sometimes the temerity to dispute his share of food with
the king of the beasts, yet he magnanimously allowed him to satisfy his
appetite before he thought of making a meal himself.

A lioness in the Tower of London once formed such an attachment for a
little dog which was kept with her in the den, that she would not eat
till the dog was first satisfied. After the lioness had become a
mother, it was thought advisable to take the animal away, for fear that
her jealous fondness for her whelps might lead her to injure it. But
while the keeper was cleaning the den, the dog, by some means, got into
it, and approached the lioness with his wonted fondness. She was
playing with her cubs; and, seeing the dog approach, she sprang towards
him, and, seizing the poor little animal by the throat, seemed in the
act of tearing him to pieces; but as if she momentarily recollected her
former fondness for him, she carried him to the door of the den, and
suffered him to be taken out unhurt.

To the traveller in Africa, the lion is formidable not at night only;
he lies in his path, and is with difficulty disturbed, to allow a
passage for his wagons and cattle, even when the sun is shining with
its utmost brilliancy; or he is roused from some bushy place, on the
roadside, by the indefatigable dogs which always accompany a caravan.
Mr. Burchell has described, with great spirit, an encounter of this
nature:--

"The day was exceedingly pleasant, and not a cloud was to be seen. For
a mile or two we travelled along the banks of the river, which in this
part abounded in tall mat-rushes. The dogs seemed much to enjoy
prowling about, and examining every bushy place, and at last met with
some object among the rushes which caused them to set up a most
vehement and determined barking. We explored the spot with caution, as
we suspected, from the peculiar tone of their bark, that it was, what
it proved to be, lions. Having encouraged the dogs to drive them out, a
task which they performed with great willingness, we had a full view of
an enormous black-maned lion and lioness. The latter was seen only for
a minute, as she made her escape up the river, under concealment of the
rushes; but _the lion_ came steadily forward, and stood still to look
at us. At this moment we felt our situation not free from danger, as
the animal seemed preparing to spring upon us, and we were standing on
the bank at the distance of only a few yards from him, most of us being
on foot and unarmed, without any visible possibility of escaping.

"I had given up my horse to the hunters, and was on foot myself; but
there was no time for fear, and it was useless to attempt avoiding him.
I stood well upon my guard, holding my pistols in my hand, with my
finger upon the trigger; and those who had muskets kept themselves
prepared in the same manner. But at this instant the dogs boldly flew
in between us and the lion, and, surrounding him, kept him at bay by
their violent and resolute barking. The courage of these faithful
animals was most admirable; they advanced up to the side of the huge
beast, and stood making the greatest clamor in his face, without the
least appearance of fear. The lion, conscious of his strength, remained
unmoved at their noisy attempts, and kept his head turned towards us.
At one moment, the dogs, perceiving his eyes thus engaged, had advanced
close to his feet, and seemed as if they would actually seize hold of
him; but they paid dearly for their imprudence; for, without
discomposing the majestic and steady attitude in which he stood fixed,
he merely moved his paw, and at the next instant I beheld two lying
dead. In doing this, he made so little exertion, that it was scarcely
perceptible by what means they had been killed. Of the time which we
had gained by the interference of the dogs, not a moment was lost. We
fired upon him; one of the balls went through his side just between the
short ribs, and the blood immediately began to flow; but the animal
still remained standing in the same position. We had now no doubt that
he would spring upon us; every gun was instantly reloaded; but happily
we were mistaken, and were not sorry to see him move quietly away;
though I had hoped in a few minutes to have been enabled to take hold
of his paw without danger.

"This was considered, by our party, to be a lion of the largest size,
and seemed, as I measured him by comparison with the dogs, to be,
though less bulky, as heavy as an ox. He was certainly as long in body,
though lower in stature; and his copious mane gave him a truly
formidable appearance. He was of that variety which the Hottentots and
boors distinguish by the name of the _black lion_, on account of the
blacker color of the mane, and which is said to be always larger and
more dangerous than the other, which they call the _pale lion_. Of the
courage of a lion I have no very high opinion; but of his majestic air
and movements, as exhibited by this animal, while at liberty in his
native plains, I can bear testimony. Notwithstanding the pain of a
wound, of which he must soon afterwards have died, he moved slowly
away, with a stately and measured step."


THE TIGER.

This animal, of which there is but one species, is found in the
southern parts of Asia, and the adjacent islands. It is inferior only
to the lion in strength, size, and courage. The body is long, the legs
rather short, the eyes glassy, and the countenance haggard, savage, and
ferocious. It has strength to seize a man and carry him off at full
gallop, and its ferocity leads it to slay beyond its desire for food.
In contrast to these hideous qualities, its skin is marked with a
singular beauty, being of a fawn color, splendidly striped downward
with black bands. Its step resembles that of a cat. When taken young,
and kindly treated, it grows familiar, and exhibits gentleness and
affection towards its keeper.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Of the muscular powers of the tiger we
have the following illustration: A buffalo, belonging to a peasant in
the East Indies, having fallen into a quagmire, the man was himself
unable to extricate it, and went to call the assistance of his
neighbors. Meanwhile, a large tiger, coming to the spot, seized upon
the buffalo, and dragged him out. When the men came to the place, they
saw the tiger, with the buffalo thrown over his shoulder, in the act of
retiring with him towards the jungle. No sooner, however, did he
observe the men, than he let fall the dead animal, and precipitately
escaped. On coming up, they found the buffalo quite dead, and his whole
blood sucked out. Some idea may be gained of the immense power of the
tiger, when it is mentioned that the ordinary weight of a buffalo is
above a thousand pounds, and consequently considerably more than double
its own weight.

The effect of feeding the tiger upon raw flesh, is shown by the
following anecdote: A party of gentlemen, from Bombay, found, one day,
in a cavern, a tiger's whelp, which was hidden in an obscure corner.
Snatching it up hastily, they cautiously retreated. Being left entirely
at liberty, and well fed, the tiger became tame, like the dog, grew
rapidly, and appeared entirely domesticated. At length it attained a
great size, and began to inspire terror by its tremendous strength and
power, notwithstanding its gentleness. Up to this moment, it had been
studiously kept from raw meat. But, unfortunately, during its rambles,
a piece of flesh dripping with blood fell in its way. The instant it
had tasted it, something like madness seemed to seize the animal; a
destructive principle, hitherto dormant, was kindled: it darted
fiercely, and with glowing eyes, upon its prey--tore it with fury to
pieces, and, growling and roaring in the most frightful manner, rushed
off, and disappeared in the jungle.

Tigers are sometimes very cunning. One of them was kept at a French
factory, at Silsceri, which was secured by a strong chain. This animal
used to scatter a portion of the rice that was set before him as far
round the front of his den as possible. This enticed the poultry to
come and pick it up. The tiger pretended to be asleep, in order to
induce them to approach nearer, when he suddenly sprang upon them, and
seldom failed to make several of them his prey.

This animal is susceptible of strong attachments. An instance of this
is recorded of a tigress of great beauty in the Tower at London. She
was extremely docile in her passage home from Calcutta, was allowed to
run about the vessel, and became exceedingly familiar with the sailors.
On her arrival in London, however, her temper became irascible, and
even dangerous, and she exhibited for some days a savage and sulky
disposition.

Shortly after, a sailor, who had had charge of her on board the ship,
came to the Tower, and begged permission to enter her den. No sooner
did she recognize her old friend, than she fawned upon him, licked and
caressed him, exhibiting the most extravagant signs of pleasure; and,
when he left her, she whined and cried the whole day afterwards. In
time, however, she became reconciled to her new keeper and residence.

Some years ago, a tame tiger was led about Madras by some of the
natives, without any other restraint than a muzzle, and a small chain
round his neck. The men lived by exhibiting, to the curious, the
tiger's method of seizing his prey. The manner in which they showed
this, was by fastening a sheep to a stake driven into the earth. The
tiger was no sooner brought in sight of it than he crouched, and moved
along the ground on his belly, slowly and cautiously, till he came
within the limits of a bound, when he sprang upon the sheep with the
rapidity of an arrow, and struck it dead in an instant.

Although the tigress sometimes destroys her young ones, she generally
shows much anxiety for them. Two cubs were once discovered by some
villagers, in India, while their mother was in quest of prey, and
presented by them to a gentleman, who had them put in his stable. The
creatures made piteous howlings every night, which at last reached the
ears of the mother. She came to the spot, and answered their cries by
hideous howlings, which so alarmed their keeper that he let the cubs
loose, for fear the dam would break the door of the stable. Nothing was
seen of them the next morning; the tigress had carried them both off
into the jungle.

The tiger is often hunted in India, and frequently the sportsmen are
mounted upon elephants. Sometimes the animal is shot, and occasionally
he is trodden to death, or laid prostrate on the earth, by the tramp of
the elephant. Numerous anecdotes are told of these rencounters, all
tending to show the fierce and formidable character of the tiger. It is
much more active and ferocious than the lion, and is also more
dangerous to the inhabitants who live in the vicinity of its retreats.


THE PANTHER.

This animal, which is a native of Northern Africa, is smaller than the
tiger, but it possesses the same ferocious disposition. It preys upon
every animal it can master, and man himself sometimes falls a victim to
its rapacity. Its color is fawn, spotted with black.

_A tame Panther._--Notwithstanding the savage character and habits of
this animal, Mr. Bowditch, who resided at Coomassie, in Western Africa,
gives us an interesting account of one that he tamed. When he was about
a year old, he was taken to Cape Coast, being led through the country
by a chain. When he arrived, he was placed in a court, where he became
quite familiar with those around him, laying his paws upon their
shoulders, and rubbing his head upon them. By degrees all fear of him
subsided, and he was allowed to go at liberty within the gates of the
castle, having a small boy for a keeper. On one occasion, Sai, as the
panther was called, finding the lad sitting upright on the step fast
asleep, lifted his paw, and gave him a blow on the side of the head,
which knocked him down, and then stood wagging his tail, as if enjoying
the mischief he had done.

On another occasion, as an old woman was sweeping the hall with a short
broom, which brought her nearly down upon all fours, Sai, who was
hidden under the sofa, suddenly leaped upon her back, where he stood in
triumph. She screamed violently, and all her fellow-servants scampered
away in terror; nor was she released till the governor himself came to
her assistance.

After the departure of Mr. Bowditch from the castle, the ship in which
he had embarked lay at anchor some weeks in the River Gaboon: while
here, an orangoutang was brought on board, and the rage of the panther,
who had accompanied his master, was indescribable. His back rose in an
arch, his tail was elevated and perfectly stiff, his eyes flashed, and
if he had not been restrained, he would have torn the ape in pieces. At
the same time, the orang showed the greatest fear and terror.

After sailing to England, the change of climate seemed to affect Sai,
and medicine was given him in the shape of pills. These had the desired
effect. On reaching the London Docks, he was taken ashore, and
presented to the Duchess of York, who had him placed in Exeter 'Change.
Here he remained for some weeks, apparently in good health; but he was
taken suddenly ill, and died of an inflammation on the lungs.


THE LEOPARD.

This animal is more slender and graceful than the panther, yet it has
all the savage qualities of the feline race. Its skin is exceedingly
beautiful, being of a light fawn, marked with black spots. Nothing can
surpass the ease, grace, and agility, of its movements.

_Hunting the Leopard._--Two boors in Southern Africa, in the year 1822,
returning from hunting the hartebeest, fell in with a leopard in a
mountain ravine, and immediately gave chase to him. The animal at first
endeavored to escape, by clambering up a precipice; but, being hotly
pressed, and slightly wounded by a musket-ball, he turned upon his
pursuers, with that frantic ferocity which, on such emergencies, he
frequently displays: springing upon the man who had fired at him, he
tore him from his horse to the ground, biting him, at the same time,
very severely on the shoulder, and tearing his face and arms with his
claws. The other hunter, seeing the danger of his comrade, sprang from
his horse, and attempted to shoot the leopard through the head; but,
whether owing to trepidation, the fear of wounding his friend, or the
sudden motions of the animal, he unfortunately missed his aim. The
leopard, abandoning his prostrate enemy, darted with redoubled fury
upon this second antagonist; and so fierce and sudden was his onset,
that, before the boor could stab him with his hunting-knife, he struck
him in the eyes with his claws, and had torn the scalp over his
forehead. In this frightful condition, the hunter grappled with the
raging beast, and, struggling for life, they rolled together down a
steep declivity. All this passed so rapidly that the other man had
scarcely time to recover from the confusion into which his feline foe
had thrown him, to seize his gun, and rush forward to aid his
comrade--when he beheld them rolling together down the steep bank, in
mortal conflict. In a few moments he was at the bottom with them, but
too late to save the life of his friend, who had so gallantly defended
him. The leopard had torn open the jugular vein, and so dreadfully
mangled the throat of the unfortunate man, that his death was
inevitable; and his comrade had only the melancholy satisfaction of
completing the destruction of the savage beast, which was already much
exhausted by several deep wounds in the breast, from the desperate
knife of the expiring huntsman.

_Captive Leopards._--Mr. Brown gives us the following account: "There
are at present in the Tower a pair of these animals, from Asia,
confined in the same den. The female is very tame, and gentle in her
temper, and will allow herself to be patted and caressed by the
keepers, while she licks their hands, and purrs. She, however, has one
peculiarity--that she cannot bear many of the appendages which visitors
bring with them to the menagerie. She has a particular predilection for
the destruction of parasols, umbrellas, muffs, and hats, which she
frequently contrives to lay hold of before the unwary spectator can
prevent it, and tears them to pieces in an instant. She has been five
years in the Tower, during which time she has seized and destroyed
several hundreds of these articles, as well as other parts of ladies'
dress. While this creature is in a playful mood, she bounds about her
cell with the quickness of thought, touching the four sides of it
nearly at one and the same instant. So rapid are her motions, that she
can scarcely be followed by the eye; and she will even skim along the
ceiling of her apartment with the same amazing rapidity, evincing great
pliability of form and wonderful muscular powers. The male has been
about two years in the Tower, and is only beginning to suffer
familiarities; but he seems jealous of the slightest approach. He is
larger than the female, the color of his skin more highly toned, and
the spotting more intensely black."


THE JAGUAR.

This animal is confined to South America, where it is frequently called
a tiger. It greatly resembles the panther of Africa in size,
appearance, and habits. It inhabits thick forests, and sometimes
destroys cows and horses. It also feeds on fish, which it entices to
the surface by its spittle, and then knocks them out of the water with
its paw.

_The Jaguar's Cave._--From the numerous anecdotes in relation to this
animal, we select the following interesting account communicated to the
Edinburgh Literary Journal: "On leaving the Indian village, we
continued to wind round Chimborazo's wide base; but its snow-crowned
head no longer shone above us in clear brilliancy, for a dense fog was
gathering gradually around it. Our guides looked anxiously towards it,
and announced their apprehensions of a violent storm. We soon found
that their fears were well founded. The thunder began to roll, and
resounded through the mountainous passes with the most terrific
grandeur. Then came the vivid lightning; flash following flash--above,
around, beneath--every where a sea of fire. We sought a momentary
shelter in the cleft of the rocks, whilst one of our guides hastened
forward to seek a more secure asylum. In a short time he returned and
informed us that he had discovered a spacious cavern, which would
afford us sufficient protection from the elements. We proceeded thither
immediately, and with great difficulty, and some danger, at last got
into it.

"When the storm had somewhat abated, our guides ventured out, to
ascertain if it were possible to continue our journey. The cave in
which we had taken refuge was so extremely dark, that, if we moved a
few paces from the entrance, we could not see an inch before us; and we
were debating as to the propriety of leaving it, even before the
Indians came back, when we suddenly heard a singular groaning or
growling, in the farther end of the cavern, which instantly fixed all
our attention. Wharton and myself listened anxiously; but our
inconsiderate young friend Lincoln, together with my huntsman, crept
about on their hands and knees, and endeavored to discover, by groping,
whence the sound proceeded.

"They had not advanced far into the cavern, before we heard them utter
an exclamation of surprise; and they returned to us, each carrying in
his arms an animal singularly marked, about the size of a cat,
seemingly of great strength and power, and furnished with immense
fangs. The eyes were of a green color; strong claws were upon their
feet; and a blood-red tongue hung out of their mouths. Wharton had
scarcely glanced at them, when he exclaimed in consternation, 'We have
come into the den of a ----' He was interrupted by a fearful cry of
dismay from our guides, who came rushing precipitately towards us,
calling out, 'A tiger, a tiger!' and, at the same time, with
extraordinary rapidity, they climbed up a cedar-tree which stood at the
entrance of the cave, and hid themselves among the branches.

"After the first sensation of horror and surprise, which rendered me
motionless for a moment, had subsided, I grasped my fire-arms. Wharton
had already regained his composure and self-possession; and he called
to us to assist in blocking up the mouth of the cave with an immense
stone which fortunately lay near it. The sense of imminent danger
augmented our strength; for we now distinctly heard the growl of the
ferocious animal, and we were lost, beyond redemption, if he reached
the entrance before we could get it closed. Ere this was done, we could
distinctly see the tiger bounding towards the spot, and stooping in
order to creep into his den by the narrow opening. At this fearful
moment, our exertions were successful, and the great stone kept the
wild beast at bay.

"There was a small, open space, however, left between the top of the
entrance and the stone, through which we could see the head of the
animal, illuminated by his glowing eyes, which he rolled, glaring with
fury, upon us. His frightful roaring, too, penetrated to the depths of
the cavern, and was answered by the hoarse growling of the cubs. Our
ferocious enemy attempted first to remove the stone with his powerful
claws, and then to push it with his head from its place; and these
efforts proving abortive, served only to increase his wrath. He uttered
a tremendous, heart-piercing growl, and his flaming eyes darted light
into the darkness of our retreat.

"'Now is the time to fire at him,' said Wharton, with his usual
calmness. 'Aim at his eyes; the ball will go through his brain, and we
shall then have a chance to get rid of him.'

"Frank seized his double-barrelled gun, and Lincoln his pistols. The
former placed the muzzle within a few inches of the tiger, and Lincoln
did the same. At Wharton's command, they both drew their triggers at
the same moment; but no shot followed. The tiger, who seemed aware that
the flash indicated an attack upon him, sprang growling from the
entrance, but, finding himself unhurt, immediately turned back, and
stationed himself in his former place. The powder in both pieces was
wet.

"'All is now over,' said Wharton. 'We have only now to choose whether
we shall die of hunger, together with these animals who are shut up
along with us, or open the entrance to the bloodthirsty monster
without, and so make a quicker end of the matter.'

"So saying, he placed himself close beside the stone, which for the
moment defended us, and looked undauntedly upon the lightning eyes of
the tiger. Lincoln raved, and Frank took a piece of strong cord from
his pocket, and hastened to the farther end of the cave I knew not with
what design. We soon, however, heard a low, stifled groaning; the
tiger, which had heard it also, became more restless and disturbed than
ever. He went backwards and forwards, before the entrance of the cave,
in the most wild and impetuous manner; then stood still, and,
stretching out his neck towards the forest, broke forth into a
deafening howl.

"Our two Indian guides took advantage of this opportunity to discharge
several arrows from the tree; but the light weapons bounded back
harmless from his thick skin. At length, however, one of them struck
him near the eye, and the arrow remained sticking in the wound. He now
broke anew into the wildest fury, sprang at the tree, and tore it with
his claws, as if he would have dragged it to the ground. But having at
length succeeded in getting rid of the arrow, he became more calm, and
laid himself down, as before, in front of the cave.

"Frank now returned from the lower end of the den, and a glance showed
us what he had been doing. In each hand, and dangling from the end of a
string, were the two cubs. He had strangled them, and, before we were
aware what he intended, he threw them, through the opening, to the
tiger. No sooner did the animal perceive them, than he gazed earnestly
upon them, and began to examine them closely, turning them cautiously
from side to side. As soon as he became aware that they were dead, he
uttered so piercing a howl of sorrow, that we were obliged to put our
hands to our ears.

"The thunder had now ceased, and the storm had sunk to a gentle gale;
the songs of the birds were again heard in the neighboring forest, and
the sunbeams sparkled in the drops that hung from the leaves. We saw,
through the aperture, how all nature was reviving, after the wild war
of elements which had so recently taken place; but the contrast only
made our situation the more horrible. The tiger had laid himself down
beside his whelps. He was a beautiful animal, of great size and
strength; and his limbs, being stretched out at their full length,
displayed his immense power of muscle. A double row of great teeth
stood far enough apart to show his large red tongue, from which the
white foam fell in large drops.

"All at once, another roar was heard at a distance, and the tiger
immediately rose, and answered it with a mournful howl. At the same
instant, our Indians uttered a shriek, which announced that some new
danger threatened us. A few moments confirmed our worst fears; for
another tiger, not quite so large as the former, came rapidly towards
the spot where we were.

"The howls which the tigress gave, when she had examined the bodies of
her cubs, surpassed every thing of horrible that we had yet heard; and
the tiger mingled his mournful cries with hers. Suddenly her roaring
was lowered to a hoarse growling, and we saw her anxiously stretch out
her head, extend her wide and smoking nostrils, and look as if she were
determined to discover immediately the murderers of her young. Her eyes
quickly fell upon us, and she made a spring forward, with the intention
of penetrating our place of refuge. Perhaps she might have been
enabled, by her immense strength, to push away the stone, had we not,
with all our united power, held it against her.

"When she found that all her efforts were fruitless, she approached the
tiger, who lay stretched out beside his cubs, and he rose and joined in
her hollow roarings. They stood together for a few moments, as if in
consultation, and then suddenly went off at a rapid pace, and
disappeared from our sight. Their howlings died away in the distance,
and then entirely ceased.

"Our Indians descended from their tree, and called upon us to seize the
only possibility of yet saving ourselves, by instant flight, for that
the tigers had only gone round the height to seek another inlet into
the cave, with which they were, no doubt, acquainted. In the greatest
haste the stone was pushed aside, and we stepped forth from what we had
considered a living grave. We now heard once more the roaring of the
tigress, though at a distance, and, following the example of our
guides, we precipitately struck into a side path. From the number of
roots and branches of trees, with which the storm had strewed our way,
and the slipperiness of the road, our flight was slow and difficult.

"We had proceeded thus for about a quarter of an hour, when we found
that our way led along a rocky cliff, with innumerable fissures. We had
just entered upon it, when suddenly the Indians, who were before us,
uttered one of their piercing shrieks, and we immediately became aware
that the tigers were in pursuit of us. Urged by despair, we rushed
towards one of the breaks or gulfs in our way, over which was thrown a
bridge of reeds, that sprang up and down at every step, and could be
trod with safety by the light foot of the Indians alone. Deep in the
hollow below rushed an impetuous stream, and a thousand pointed and
jagged rocks threatened destruction on every side.

"Lincoln, my huntsman, and myself, passed over the chasm in safety; but
Wharton was still in the middle of the waving bridge, and endeavoring
to steady himself, when both the tigers were seen to issue from the
adjoining forest; and the moment they descried us, they bounded towards
us with dreadful roarings. Meanwhile, Wharton had nearly gained the
safe side of the gulf, and we were all clambering up the rocky cliff,
except Lincoln, who remained at the reedy bridge, to assist his friend
to step upon firm ground. Wharton, though the ferocious animals were
close upon him, never lost his courage or presence of mind. As soon as
he had gained the edge of the cliff, he knelt down, and, with his
sword, divided the fastenings by which the bridge was attached to the
rock.

"He expected that an effectual barrier would thus be put to the farther
progress of our pursuers; but he was mistaken; for he had scarcely
accomplished his task when the tigress, without a moment's pause,
rushed towards the chasm, and attempted to bound over it. It was a
fearful sight to see the mighty animal suspended for a moment in the
air, above the abyss; but the scene passed like a flash of lightning.
Her strength was not equal to the distance; she fell into the gulf,
and, before she reached the bottom, was torn into a thousand pieces by
the jagged points of the rocks.

"Her fate did not in the least dismay her companion. He followed her
with an immense spring, and reached the opposite side, but only with
his fore claws; and thus he clung to the edge of the precipice,
endeavoring to gain a footing. The Indians again uttered a wild shriek,
as if all hope had been lost.

"But Wharton, who was nearest the edge of the rock, advanced
courageously towards the tiger, and struck his sword into the animal's
breast. Enraged beyond all measure, the wild beast collected all his
strength, and, with a violent effort, fixing one of his hind legs upon
the cliff, he seized Wharton by the thigh. The heroic man still
preserved his fortitude. He grasped the trunk of a tree with his left
hand, to steady and support himself, while, with his right hand, he
wrenched and violently turned the sword, that was still in the breast
of the tiger. All this was the work of an instant. The Indians, Frank,
and myself, hastened to his assistance; but Lincoln, who was already at
his side, had seized Wharton's gun, which lay near upon the ground, and
struck so powerful a blow with the butt-end upon the head of the tiger,
that the animal, stunned and overpowered, let go his hold, and fell
back into the abyss."


THE AMERICAN PANTHER.

This animal, which belongs to North and South America, passes under the
various titles of _cougar_, _puma_, and _panther_. The latter is its
most common designation. It is about the size of the European panther,
but is of a uniform reddish-brown color. It was once common throughout
the United States, but it has retired from the more thickly-settled
portions to the remote forests of the country. It generally flies from
man, but occasions have frequently occurred in which persons have
fallen victims to its rage or rapacity.

_Fatal Sport._--Some years since, two hunters, accompanied by two dogs,
went out in quest of game near the Catskill Mountains. At the foot of a
large hill, they agreed to go round it in opposite directions, and,
when either discharged his rifle, the other was to hasten towards him
to aid in securing the game. Soon after parting, the report of a rifle
was heard by one of them, who, hastening towards the spot, after some
search, found nothing but the dog, dreadfully lacerated, and dead. He
now became much alarmed for the fate of his companion, and, while
anxiously looking around, was horror-struck by the harsh growl of a
cougar, which he perceived on a large limb of a tree, crouching upon
the body of his friend, and apparently meditating an attack on himself.
Instantly he levelled his rifle at the beast, and was so fortunate as
to wound it mortally, when it fell to the ground along with the body of
his slaughtered companion. His dog then rushed upon the wounded cougar,
which, with one blow of its paw, laid the poor animal dead by its side.
The surviving hunter now left the spot, and quickly returned, with
several other persons, when they found the lifeless cougar extended
near the dead bodies of the hunter and the faithful dogs.

_Terrible Revenge._--The following account is furnished by a
correspondent of the "Cabinet of Natural History:" "It was on as
beautiful an autumnal day as ever ushered in the Indian summer, that I
made an excursion after game among a group of mountains, or rather on a
link in the great chain of the Alleghany range, which runs in a
north-eastern direction in that part of Pennsylvania which bounds the
New York line.

"I had kept the summit of the mountains for several miles, without
success, for a breeze had arisen shortly after sunrise, which rattled
through the trees, and made it unfavorable for hunting on dry ground;
and indeed the only wild animal I saw was a bear, that was feeding on
another ridge across a deep valley, and entirely out of reach of my
rifle-shot. I therefore descended the mountain in an oblique direction,
towards the salt springs, which I soon reached, and, after finding
others had preceded me here, I left the spot for another mountain, on
which I intended to pass the remainder of the day, gradually working my
way home. This mountain was covered with chestnut-trees; and here it
was that I caught a glimpse of the bear from the other ridge, and found
he had disappeared but a short time previous to my arrival on this
mountain. I followed his track for three miles, for chestnuts lay in
abundance on the ground, and bears, like hogs, root up the leaves in
search of food beneath; and it no doubt had lingered about here eating
its meal until my near approach gave warning of its danger. This I
could discover, as, the leaves having been wet by the melted frost on
the top, a path could be traced where the bear, in running, had turned
the dried part of the leaves uppermost. I quickened my pace along the
mountainside and around the turn of the mountain, with the hopes of
surprising the bear; and, after a rapid chase for the distance above
mentioned, all proved fruitless, and I relinquished further pursuit.
Warm with this exercise, and somewhat fatigued, I descended the
mountain-side, and took my seat beside a stream of water which gently
washed the base of the mountain, and emptied itself into the head of
the waters of the Susquehannah.

"I had remained, sitting on a fallen tree, whose branches extended
considerably into the water, for, perhaps, an hour and a half, when, of
a sudden, I heard a rustling among the leaves on the mountain
immediately above my head, which, at first, was so distant that I
thought it merely an eddy in the wind, whirling the leaves from the
ground; but it increased so rapidly, and approached so near the spot
where I sat, that instinctively I seized my rifle, ready in a moment to
meet any emergency which might offer.

"That part of the mountain where I was seated was covered with laurel
and other bushes, and, owing to the density of this shrubbery, I could
not discover an object more than ten yards from me; this, as will
afterwards appear, afforded me protection; at any rate, it conduced to
my success. The noise among the leaves now became tremendous, and the
object approached so near, that I distinctly heard an unnatural
grunting noise, as if from some animal in great distress. At length, a
sudden plunge into the water, not more than twenty yards from me,
uncovered to my view a full-grown black bear, intent upon nothing but
its endeavors to press through the water and reach the opposite shore.
The water, on an average, was not more than two feet deep, which was
not sufficient for the animal to swim, and too deep to run through;
consequently, the eagerness with which the bear pressed through the
water created such a splashing noise as fairly echoed through the
hills. With scarcely a thought, I brought my rifle to my shoulder with
the intention of shooting; but, before I could sight it correctly, the
bear rushed behind a rock which shielded it from my view. This gave me
a momentary season for reflection; and, although I could have killed
the bear so soon as it had passed the rock, I determined to await the
result of such extraordinary conduct in this animal; for I was
wonder-struck at actions which were not only strange, but even
ludicrous,--there not appearing then any cause for them. The mystery,
however, was soon unravelled.

"The stream of water was not more than ten rods in width; and before
the bear was two thirds across it, I heard another rustling, on the
mountain-side, among the leaves, as if by jumps, and a second plunge
into the water convinced me that the bear had good cause for its
precipitation; for here, pressing hard at its heels, was a formidable
antagonist in an enormous panther, which pursued the bear with such
determined inveteracy and appalling growls, as made me shudder as with
a chill.

"The panther plunged into the water not more than eighteen or twenty
yards from me; and, had it been but one third of that distance, I feel
convinced I should have been unheeded by this animal, so intent was it
on the destruction of the bear. It must indeed be an extraordinary case
which will make a panther plunge into water, as it is a great
characteristic of the feline species always to avoid water, unless
driven to it either by necessity or desperation; but here nature was
set aside, and some powerful motive predominated in the passions of
this animal, which put all laws of instinct at defiance, and, unlike
the clumsy bustling of the bear through the water, the panther went
with bounds of ten feet at a time, and, ere the former reached the
opposite shore, the latter was midway of the stream. This was a moment
of thrilling interest; and that feeling so common to the human breast,
when the strong is combating with the weak, now took possession of
mine, and, espousing the cause of the weaker party, abstractedly from
every consideration which was in the wrong, I could not help wishing
safety to the bear and death to the panther. Under the impulse of these
feelings, I once more brought my rifle to my shoulder, with the
intention of shooting the panther through the heart; but, in spite of
myself, I shrank from the effort. Perhaps it was well I reserved my
fire; for, had I only wounded the animal, I might have been a victim to
its ferocity.

"So soon as the bear found there was no possibility of escape from an
issue with so dreadful an enemy, on reaching the opposite bank of the
stream, it shook the water from its hair like a dog, ran about fifteen
feet on the bank, and lay directly on its back in a defensive posture.
This it had scarcely done, when the panther reached the water's edge,
and then, with a yell of vengeance, it made one bound, and sprang, with
outstretched claws, and spitting like a cat, immediately on the bear,
which lay in terror on the ground, ready to receive its antagonist; but
the contest was soon at an end. Not more easily does the eagle rend in
sunder its terror-stricken prey, than did the enraged panther tear in
scattered fragments the helpless bear. It appeared but the work of a
moment, and that moment was one of unrelenting vengeance; for no sooner
did the panther alight on its victim, than, with the most ferocious
yells, it planted its hinder claws deep in the entrails of the bear,
and, by a few rips, tore its antagonist in pieces. Although the bear
was full grown, it must have been young, and deficient in energy; for
it was so overcome with dread as not to be able to make the least
resistance.

"Satisfied with glutting its vengeance, the panther turned from the
bear, and came directly to the water's edge to drink, and allay the
parching thirst created by so great excitement; after which, it looked
down and then up the stream, as though it sought a place to cross, that
it might avoid the water; then, as if satisfied with revenge, and
enjoying its victory, stood twisting and curling its tail like a cat,
and then commenced licking itself dry.

"The animal was now within thirty-five yards of me; and seeing no
prospect of its recrossing the stream, I took rest for my rifle on a
projecting limb of the tree on which I still sat, and fired directly at
the panther's heart. The moment I discharged my rifle, the monster made
a spring about six feet perpendicular, with a tremendous growl, which
reverberated among the rocks; fell in the same spot whence it sprang,
with its legs extended; and lay in this situation, half crouched,
rocking from side to side, as if in the dizziness of approaching death.
I saw plainly that my fire was fatal; but I had too much experience to
approach this enemy until I could no longer discover signs of life. I
therefore reloaded my rifle, and with a second shot I pierced
immediately behind the ear. Its head then dropped between its paws, and
all was quiet.

"On examining the panther, no marks of violence appeared, except where
my rifle balls had passed completely through, within a foot of each
other: but on turning the animal on its back, I discovered it to be a
female, and a mother, who, by the enlargement of her teats, had
evidently been suckling her young. From this circumstance, I supposed
the bear had made inroads on her lair, and probably had destroyed her
kittens. I was the more convinced of this from the fact, that I never
knew, from my own experience, nor could I learn from the oldest hunters
of my acquaintance, an instance wherein a bear and a panther engaged in
combat; and again, no circumstance but the above would be sufficient to
awaken that vindictive perseverance, in the passions of a panther,
which would lead to the annihilation of so formidable an animal as a
bear."


THE CAT.

This animal, which is chiefly known in a domestic state, was originally
wild, and is still found in that condition in the forests of Europe and
Asia. It was not a native of the American continent, but was brought
hither by the European settlers. The quadruped found in our woods, and
sometimes called by the name of _wild-cat_, is a lynx. In a domestic
state, the savage habits of the cat are exchanged for a soft, gentle,
and confiding character, which renders her a favorite around every
fireside. Nor is puss to be admired only for these winning qualities,
and her utility as a mouser. She possesses considerable genius, and the
memoirs of her race are scarcely less remarkable than those of her
natural rival, the dog.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--The following story is furnished by a
correspondent of the Penny Magazine: "I was once on a visit to a friend
in the country, who had a favorite cat and dog, who lived together on
the best possible terms, eating from the same plate and sleeping on the
same rug. Puss had a young family, and Pincher was in the habit of
making a daily visit to the kittens, whose nursery was at the top of
the house. One morning, there was a tremendous storm of thunder and
lightning. Pincher was in the drawing-room, and puss was attending to
her family in the garret. Pincher seemed annoyed by the vivid flashes
of lightning; and, just as he had crept nearer to my feet, some one
entered the room followed by puss, who walked in with a disturbed air,
and mewing with all her might. She came to Pincher, rubbed her face
against his cheek, touched him gently with her paw, walked to the door,
stopped, looked back, and mewed,--all of which said, as plainly as
words could have done, 'Come with me, Pincher;' but the dog was too
much alarmed himself to give any consolation to her, and took no notice
of the invitation.

"The cat then returned, and renewed her application, with increased
energy; but the dog was immovable, though it was evident that he
understood her meaning, for he turned away his head with a
half-conscious look, and crept closer to me; and puss soon left the
room. Not long after this, the mewing became so piteous, that I could
no longer resist going to see what was the matter. I met the cat at the
top of the stairs, close by the door of my chamber. She ran to me,
rubbed herself against me, and then went into the room, and crept under
the wardrobe. I then heard two voices, and discovered that she had
brought down one of her kittens, and lodged it there for safety; but
her fears and cares being so divided between the kitten above and this
little one below, I suppose she wanted Pincher to watch by this one,
while she went for the other; for, having confided it to my protection,
she hastened up stairs. Not, however, wishing to have charge of the
young family, I followed her up, taking the kitten with me, placed it
beside her, and moved the little bed farther from the window, through
which the lightning flashed so vividly as to alarm poor puss for the
safety of her progeny. I then remained in the garret till the storm had
passed away.

"On the following morning, much to my surprise, I found puss waiting
for me at the door of my apartment. She accompanied me down to
breakfast, sat by me, and caressed me in every possible way. She had
always been in the habit of going down to breakfast with the lady of
the house; but on this morning she had resisted all her coaxing to
leave my door, and would not move a step till I had made my appearance.
She had never done this before, and never did it again. She had shown
her gratitude to me for the care of her little ones, and her duty was
done."

The editor of the "Edinburgh Evening Courant" gives us the following
extraordinary story: "A country gentleman of our acquaintance, who is
neither a friend to thieves nor poachers, has at this moment, in his
household, a favorite cat, whose honesty, he is sorry to say, there is
but too much reason to call in question. The animal, however, is far
from being selfish in her principles; for her acceptable gleanings she
regularly shares among the children of the family in which her lot is
cast. It is the habit of this grimalkin to leave the kitchen or parlor,
as often as hunger and an opportunity may occur, and wend her way to a
certain pastrycook's shop, where, the better to conceal her purpose,
she endeavors slyly to ingratiate herself into favor with the mistress
of the house. As soon as the shopkeeper's attention becomes engrossed
in business, or otherwise, puss contrives to pilfer a small pie or tart
from the shelves on which they are placed, speedily afterwards making
the best of her way home with her booty.

"She then carefully delivers her prize to some of the little ones in
the nursery. A division of the stolen property quickly takes place; and
here it is singularly amusing to observe the _sleekit_ animal, not the
least conspicuous among the numerous group, thankfully munching her
share of the illegal traffic. We may add, that the pastrycook is by no
means disposed to institute a legal process against poor Mrs. Puss, as
the children of the gentleman to whom we allude are honest enough to
acknowledge their fourfooted playmate's failings to papa, who willingly
compensates any damage the shopkeeper may sustain from the petty
depredations of the would-be philanthropic cat."

In the month of July, 1801, a woman was murdered in Paris. A
magistrate, accompanied by a physician, went to the place where the
murder had been committed, to examine the body. It was lying upon the
floor, and a greyhound, who was standing by the corpse, licked it from
time to time, and howled mournfully. When the gentlemen entered the
apartment, he ran to them without barking, and then returned, with a
melancholy mien, to the body of his murdered mistress. Upon a chest in
a corner of the room a cat sat motionless, with eyes, expressive of
furious indignation, steadfastly fixed upon the body. Many persons now
entered the apartment; but neither the appearance of such a crowd of
strangers, nor the confusion that prevailed in the place, could make
her change her position.

In the mean time, some persons were apprehended on suspicion of being
the murderers, and it was resolved to lead them into the apartment.
Before the cat got sight of them, when she only heard their footsteps
approaching, her eyes flashed with increased fury, her hair stood
erect, and so soon as she saw them enter the apartment, she sprang
towards them with expressions of the most violent rage, but did not
venture to attack them, being probably afraid of the numbers that
followed. Having turned several times towards them with a peculiar
ferocity of aspect, she crept into a corner, with a mien indicative of
the deepest melancholy. This behavior of the cat astonished every one
present. The effect which it produced upon the murderers was such as
almost amounted to an acknowledgment of their guilt. Nor did this
remain long doubtful, for a train of accessory circumstances was soon
discovered, which proved it to a complete conviction.

A cat, which had a numerous litter of kittens, one summer day in
spring, encouraged her little ones to frolic in the vernal beams of the
noon, about the stable door, where she dwelt. While she was joining
them in a thousand tricks and gambols, a large hawk, who was sailing
above the barn-yard, in a moment darted upon one of the kittens, and
would have as quickly borne it off, but for the courageous mother, who,
seeing the danger of her offspring, sprang on the common enemy, who, to
defend itself, let fall the prize. The battle presently became severe
to both parties. The hawk, by the power of his wings, the sharpness of
his talons, and the strength of his beak, had for a while the
advantage, cruelly lacerating the poor cat, and actually deprived her
of one eye in the conflict; but puss, no way daunted at the accident,
strove, with all her cunning and agility, for her kittens, till she had
broken the wing of her adversary. In this state, she got him more
within the power of her claws, and, availing herself of this advantage,
by an instantaneous exertion she laid the hawk motionless beneath her
feet; and, as if exulting in the victory, tore the head off the
vanquished tyrant. This accomplished, disregarding the loss of her eye,
she ran to the bleeding kitten, licked the wounds made by the hawk's
talons in its tender sides, and purred whilst she caressed her
liberated offspring.

In the summer of 1792, a gentleman who lived in the neighborhood of
Portsmouth, England, had a cat, which kittened four or five days after
a hen had brought out a brood of chickens. As he did not wish to keep
more than one cat at a time, the kittens were all drowned, and the same
day the cat and one chicken were missing. Diligent search was
immediately made in every place that could be thought of, both in and
out of the house, to no purpose; it was then concluded that some
mischance had befallen both. Four days afterwards, however, the
servant, having occasion to go into an unfrequented part of the cellar,
discovered, to his great astonishment, the cat lying in one corner,
with the chicken hugged close to her body, and one paw laid over it, as
if to preserve it from injury. The cat and adopted chicken were brought
into a closet in the kitchen, where they continued some days, the cat
treating the chicken in every respect as a kitten. Whenever the chicken
left the cat to eat, she appeared very uneasy; but, on its return, she
received it with the affection of a mother, pressed it to her body,
purred, and seemed perfectly happy. If the chicken was carried to the
hen, it immediately returned to the cat. The chicken was by some
accident killed, and the cat would not eat for several days afterwards,
being inconsolable for its loss.

"I had," says M. Wenzel, "a cat and dog which became so attached to
each other, that they would never willingly be asunder. Whenever the
dog got any choice morsel of food, he was sure to divide it with his
whiskered friend. They always ate sociably out of one plate, slept in
the same bed, and daily walked out together. Wishing to put this
apparently sincere friendship to the proof, I, one day, took the cat by
herself into my room, while I had the dog guarded in another apartment.
I entertained the cat in a most sumptuous manner, being desirous to see
what sort of a meal she would make without her friend, who had hitherto
been her constant table companion. The cat enjoyed the treat with great
glee, and seemed to have entirely forgotten the dog. I had had a
partridge for dinner, half of which I intended to keep for supper. My
wife covered it with a plate, and put it into a cupboard, the door of
which she did not lock. The cat left the room, and I walked out upon
business. My wife, meanwhile, sat at work in an adjoining apartment.

"When I returned home, she related to me the following circumstances:
The cat, having hastily left the dining-room, went to the dog, and
mewed uncommonly loud, and in different tones of voice, which the dog,
from time to time, answered with a short bark. They then went both to
the door of the room where the cat had dined, and waited till it was
opened. One of my children opened the door, and immediately the two
friends entered the apartment. The mewing of the cat excited my wife's
attention. She rose from her seat, and stepped softly up to the door,
which stood ajar, to observe what was going on. The cat led the dog to
the cupboard which contained the partridge, pushed off the plate which
covered it, and, taking out my intended supper, laid it before her
canine friend, who devoured it greedily. Probably the cat, by her
mewing, had given the dog to understand what an excellent meal she had
made, and how sorry she was that he had not participated in it; but, at
the same time, had given him to understand that something was left for
him in the cupboard, and persuaded him to follow her thither. Since
that time I have paid particular attention to these animals, and am
perfectly convinced that they communicate to each other whatever seems
interesting to either."

A cat belonging to an elderly lady in Bath, England, was so attached to
her mistress, that she would pass the night in her bedchamber, which
was four stories high. Outside of the window was the parapet wall, on
which the lady often strewed crumbs for the sparrows that came to
partake of them. The lady always sleeping with her window open, the cat
would pounce upon the birds, and kill them. One morning, giving a
"longing, lingering look" at the top of the wall, and seeing it free
from crumbs, she was at a loss for an expedient to decoy the feathered
tribe, when, reconnoitring, she discovered a small bunch of wheat
suspended in the room, which she sprang at, and succeeded in getting
down. She then carried it to the favorite resort of the sparrows, and
actually threshed the corn out, by beating it on the wall, then hiding
herself. After a while, the birds came, and she resumed her favorite
sport of killing the dupes of her sagacity.

A cat belonging to a gentleman of Sheffield, England, carried her
notions of beauty so far, that she would not condescend to nourish and
protect her own offspring, if they happened to be tinted with colors
different from what adorned her own figure, which was what is usually
denominated tortoise-shell. She happened, on one occasion only, to
produce one kitten, of a jet black. The cruel mother drew the
unfortunate little creature out of the bed in which it lay, and,
refusing to give it suck, it perished on the cold ground. Some time
after, she gave birth to three more, one of which had the misfortune
not to be clad in the same colors as the mother. It was therefore
ousted by the unnatural parent; and, although again and again replaced
in its bed, it was as frequently turned out again. The owner of the
cat, finding it useless to persist in what puss had determined should
not be, in humanity consigned the kitten to a watery grave,--the victim
of a parent's pride and cruelty.

"I once saw," says De la Croix, "a lecturer upon experimental
philosophy place a cat under the glass receiver of an air-pump, for the
purpose of demonstrating that very certain fact, that life cannot be
supported without air and respiration. The lecturer had already made
several strokes with the piston, in order to exhaust the receiver of
its air, when the animal, who began to feel herself very uncomfortable
in the rarefied atmosphere, was fortunate enough to discover the source
from which her uneasiness proceeded. She placed her paw upon the hole
through which the air escaped, and thus prevented any more from passing
out of the receiver. All the exertions of the philosopher were now
unavailing: in vain he drew the piston; the cat's paw effectually
prevented its operation. Hoping to effect his purpose, he let air again
into the receiver, which as soon as the cat perceived, she withdrew her
paw from the aperture; but whenever he attempted to exhaust the
receiver, she applied her paw as before. All the spectators clapped
their hands in admiration of the wonderful sagacity of the animal, and
the lecturer found himself under the necessity of liberating her, and
substituting in her place another, that possessed less penetration, and
enabled him to exhibit the cruel experiment."

A lady at Potsdam, in Prussia, tells an anecdote of one of her
children, who, when about six years old, got a splinter of wood into
her foot, early one morning, and, sitting down on the floor of the
chamber, cried most vehemently. Her elder sister, asleep in the same
apartment, was in the act of getting up to inquire the cause of her
sister's tears, when she observed the cat, who was a favorite playmate
of the children, and of a gentle and peaceable disposition, leave her
seat under the stove, go up to the crying girl, and, with one of her
paws, give her so smart a blow upon the cheek as to draw blood; and
with the utmost gravity resume her seat under the stove, and relapse
into slumber. As she was otherwise so harmless, the conclusion was,
that she intended this as a chastisement for being disturbed, in hopes
that she might enjoy her morning nap without interruption.

A lady residing in Glasgow had a handsome cat sent her from Edinburgh.
It was conveyed to her in a close basket, and in a carriage. She was
carefully watched for two months; but having produced a pair of young
ones, at that time she was left to her own discretion, which she very
soon employed in disappearing with both her kittens. The lady at
Glasgow wrote to her friend in Edinburgh, deploring her loss, and the
cat was supposed to have strayed away.

About a fortnight, however, after her disappearance from Glasgow, her
well-known mew was heard at the street door of her old mistress in
Edinburgh, and there she was with both her kittens! they in the best
condition--but she very thin. It is clear that she could only carry one
kitten at a time. The distance from Edinburgh to Glasgow being forty
miles, she must have travelled one hundred and twenty miles at least!
Her prudence must likewise have suggested the necessity of journeying
in the night, with many other precautions for the safety of her young.



ORDER IV.

AMPHIBIA,

AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS.


This order embraces several species of the seal kind, which are found
in all seas, but chiefly in those of the polar regions. Their structure
is admirably adapted to their mode of life; the nostrils and ears both
closing when the animal dives. Its hind feet alone are used for
swimming. Its movements on land are slow and painful, dragging itself
along like a reptile.


THE SEAL.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Mr. Brown furnishes us with the following
account: About twenty-five years ago, a seal was so completely
domesticated that it remained with a gentleman, whose residence was but
a short distance from the sea, without attempting to escape. It knew
all the inmates of the family, and would come to its master when he
called it by name. It was usually kept in the stable, but was sometimes
permitted to enter the kitchen, where it seemed to take great delight
in reposing before the fire. It was taken to the sea every day, and
allowed to fish for itself, in which it was very dexterous; but when
unsuccessful, fish was bought for it. When tired of swimming, it came
up to the boat, holding up its head to be taken in.

A farmer in Fifeshire, Scotland, while looking for crabs and lobsters,
among the rocks, caught a young seal about two feet and a half long,
and carried it home. He fed it with pottage and milk, which it ate with
avidity. He kept it for three days, feeding it on this meal, when, his
wife being tired of it, he took it away, and restored it to its native
element. He was accompanied by some of his neighbors. On reaching the
shore, it was thrown into the sea; but, instead of making its escape,
as one would have expected, it returned to the men. The tallest of them
waded to a considerable distance into the sea, and, after throwing it
as far as he was able, speedily got behind a rock, and concealed
himself; but the affectionate animal soon discovered his hiding-place,
and crept close up to his feet. The farmer, moved by its attachment,
took it home again, and kept it for some time.

Seals are said to be delighted with music. Mr. Laing, in his account of
a voyage to Spitzbergen, mentions that the son of the master of the
vessel in which he sailed, who was fond of playing on the violin, never
failed to have a numerous auditory, when in the seas frequented by
seals; and they have been seen to follow a ship for miles when any
person was playing on the deck.

It is a common practice in Cornwall, England, for persons, when in
pursuit of seals, as soon as the animal has elevated its head above
water, to halloo to it till they can approach within gunshot, as it
will listen to the sound for several minutes.

The bottlenose seal is in general very inactive, but when irritated, is
exceedingly revengeful. A sailor, who had killed a young one, was in
the act of skinning it, when its mother approached him unperceived,
and, seizing him in her mouth, bit him so dreadfully that he died of
the wound in three days.


THE WALRUS.

This animal is a native of the polar regions, and in many of its habits
resembles the seal. It lives in troops, which visit the shore, or
extensive fields of ice, as a sort of home. Its food consists of a kind
of seaweed, which it tears up by means of its tusks. It is very much
hunted for its skin and its oil.

_Anecdote._--In the year 1766, a vessel which had gone to the north
seas, to trade with the Esquimaux, had a boat out with a party of the
crew. A number of walruses attacked them, and, notwithstanding every
effort to keep them at bay, a small one contrived to get over the stern
of the boat, looked at the men for some time, and then plunged into the
water to rejoin his companions. Immediately after, another one, of
enormous bulk, made the same attempt to get over the bow, which, had he
succeeded, would have upset the boat; but, after trying every method in
vain to keep him off, the boatswain discharged the contents of a gun
loaded with goose-shot into the animal's mouth, which killed him; he
immediately disappeared, and was followed by the whole herd. Seeing
what had happened to their companion, the enraged animals soon followed
the boat; but it luckily reached the ship, and all hands had got on
board before they came up; otherwise, some serious mischief would,
doubtless, have befallen the boat's crew.



ORDER V.

MARSUPIALA,

POUCHED ANIMALS.


This order includes animals with a pouch under the belly, where the
young are in some cases produced and nursed.


THE OPOSSUM.

This curious animal belongs exclusively to America, and is familiarly
known in the milder parts of the United States. It is about the size of
a cat, but its legs are short, and its body broad and flat. The females
are remarkable for having an abdominal pouch, to which the young ones
retreat in time of danger. The hunting of this animal is the favorite
sport in some of the Middle States. Parties go out in the moonlight
evenings of autumn, attended by dogs. These trace the opossum to some
tree, between the branches of which he hides himself from the view of
the hunter. The latter shakes him down, and the quadruped, rolling
himself into a ball, pretends to be dead. If not immediately seized, he
uncoils himself, and attempts to steal away. The various artifices it
adopts for escape have given rise to the proverb of "playing 'possum."


THE KANGAROO.

The following description of this animal, which is peculiar to New
Holland, is taken from Dawson's "Present State of Australia:"--

"The country on our right consisted of high and poor, stony hills,
thickly timbered; that on the left, on the opposite side of the river,
was a rich and thinly-timbered country. A low and fertile flat meadow
there skirted the river; and, at the extremity of the flat, hills
gradually arose with a gentle slope, covered with verdure, upon which
an immense herd of kangaroos were feeding. I crossed over with Maty
Bill and a brace of dogs, leaving the party to proceed on their route.
The moment we had crossed, the kangaroos moved off. It is extremely
curious to see the manner in which a large herd of these animals jump
before you. It has often been asserted that they make use of their
tails to spring from you when they are pursued. This is not correct.
Their tails never touch the ground when they move, except when they are
on their feed, or at play; and the faster they run or jump, the higher
they carry them.

"The male kangaroos were called, by the natives, old men, 'wool man;'
and the females, young ladies, 'young liddy.' The males are not so
swift as the females; and the natives, in wet seasons, occasionally run
the former down when very large, their weight causing them to sink in
the wet ground, and thus to become tired. They frequently, however,
make up for this disadvantage by fierceness and cunning, when attacked
either by men or dogs; and it is exceedingly difficult for a brace of
the best dogs to kill a 'corbon wool man.' When they can, they will hug
a dog or a man as a bear would do; and as they are armed with long,
sharp claws, they not unfrequently let a dog's entrails out, or
otherwise lacerate him in the most dreadful manner, sitting all the
while on their haunches, hugging and scratching with determined fury.

"The kind of dog used for coursing the kangaroo is, generally, a cross
between the greyhound and the mastiff, or sheep-dog; but, in a climate
like New South Wales, they have, to use the common phrase, too much
lumber about them. The true-bred greyhound is the most useful dog. He
has more wind; he ascends the hills with more ease, and runs double the
number of courses in a day. He has more bottom in running; and, if he
has less ferocity when he comes up with an 'old man,' so much the
better, as he exposes himself the less, and lives to afford sport
another day. The strongest and most courageous dog can seldom conquer a
'wool man' alone, and not one in fifty will face him fairly; the dog
who has the temerity is certain to be disabled, if not killed.

"The herd of kangaroos we had thus come upon was too numerous to allow
of the dogs' being let loose; but, as the day's walk was drawing to a
close, I had given Maty Bill liberty to catch another kangaroo, if we
should fall in with a single one. After moving up to the foot of the
hill, about a quarter of a mile from the river, my sable companion eyed
a 'corbon wool man,' as he called it, quietly feeding at a distance, on
the slope of the hill. His eyes sparkled; he was all agitation; and he
called out, 'Massa, massa! You tee! you tee! wool man! wool man! corbon
wool man!' and off he ran with his dogs, till he was within a fair
distance, when he slipped their collars. I was at this time on foot,
and the whole of them, therefore, were soon out of my sight. They had
turned round the bottom of the hill, in the direction of the river;
and, as I was following them down, I heard the dogs at bay, and the
shrill call of 'coo-oo-oo,' from my companion, to direct me to the
spot; and, on turning the corner of the hill, I met him, running, and
calling as fast and as loud as he could. As soon as he saw me, he
stopped, and called out, 'Massa, massa! Make haste! Dingo (dogs) have
got him in ribber. Many corbon wool man, all the same like it bullock.'

"All this was said in a breath; and as I could not pretend to run with
him, I desired him to go as fast as he could, and help the dogs, till I
should arrive. When I got up to the spot, he was in the middle of the
river, with about two feet depth of water, while the kangaroo, sitting
upright on its haunches, was keeping both him and the dogs at a
respectful distance, and had laid bare the windpipe of one of the dogs.
Billy's waddy was too short to reach him without coming to close
quarters, and he knew better than to do that; at length he got behind
him, and, with a blow on the head, he despatched him. No huntsman could
have shown more ardor in the pursuit, or more pleasure at the death of
a fox, than did poor Maty Bill upon this occasion. The kangaroo was so
heavy, weighing about a hundred and fifty pounds, that he could not
lift him out of the water, and we were obliged to leave him till our
party arrived on the opposite side."



ORDER VI.

RODENTIA,

GNAWING ANIMALS.


This order embraces a considerable number of small animals, most of
which possess a gentle and harmless character. They live upon vegetable
matter, and a large proportion use their fore-paws in the manner of
hands.


THE SQUIRREL.

Of this lively, pleasing genus, there is a considerable variety,
especially in the temperate zone. They are very agile, and use their
paws with much grace and dexterity, in handling their food.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--A squirrel, seated in a nut-tree, was once
observed to weigh a nut in each paw, to discover by weight which was
good; the light ones he invariably dropped, thus making a heap of them
at the foot of the tree. On examining this heap, it was found to
consist entirely of bad nuts.

A gentleman near Edinburgh took a common squirrel from a nest, which he
reared, and rendered extremely docile. It was kept in a box, nailed
against the wall, which was wired in front, and had a small aperture at
the end, to allow the animal to enter. To the end of the box was
suspended a rope, which touched the ground, by which the animal
descended from and ascended to its domicile at pleasure. It became
extremely playful, and was familiar with every one of the family, but
devotedly attached to its master, who generally carried it about with
him in his coat-pocket.

The little creature used to watch all its master's movements. Whenever
it saw him preparing to go out, it ran up his legs, and entered his
pocket, from whence it would peep out at passengers, as he walked along
the streets--never venturing, however, to go out. But no sooner did he
reach the outskirts of the city, than the squirrel leaped to the
ground, ran along the road, ascended the tops of trees and hedges with
the quickness of lightning, and nibbled at the leaves and bark; and, if
he walked on, it would descend, scamper after him, and again enter his
pocket. In this manner, it would amuse itself during a walk of miles,
which its master frequently indulged in.

It was taught to catch food, roots, and acorns, with its fore-paws,
which it accomplished with great neatness. It was also instructed to
leap over a stick, held out to it, and perform various other little
tricks.

A lady in England had a squirrel which she taught to crack nuts for
her, and hand her the kernels with his paws. She also instructed him to
count money; and he was so attentive that, whenever he found a coin on
the ground, he took it up and carried it to her. So attached was this
little creature to its mistress, that, whenever she was confined to her
bed, from indisposition, he lay still in his cage, without moving,
although, at other times, he was full of life and vivacity.

Some years ago, as a Swede was constructing a mill dike, late in the
autumn, he accidentally came upon an abode of the ground or striped
squirrel. He traced it to some distance, and found a gallery on one
side, like a branch, diverging from the main stem, nearly two feet
long; at its farther end was a quantity of fine white oak acorns; he
soon after discovered another gallery, which contained a store of corn;
a third was filled with walnuts; while a fourth contained three quarts
of fine chestnuts;--all of which the provident little animal had stored
up for the winter.

A correspondent of the "Penny Magazine" gives us the following account:
"Although apparently not adapted to swimming, yet both gray and black
squirrels venture across lakes that are one or two miles wide. In these
adventurous exploits, they generally take advantage of a favorable
breeze, elevating their tails, which act like sails, thus rendering
their passage quicker and less laborious. I have frequently noticed
black squirrels crossing Niagara River, and I always remarked that they
swam across when the morning first began to dawn. On reaching the
opposite shore, they appeared greatly fatigued, and, if unmolested,
generally took a long rest preparatory to their setting off for the
woods."

The black and gray squirrels of the western country frequently
emigrate, in immense numbers, from one district to another. They may be
often seen swimming across the Ohio; and it is not uncommon for persons
to stand upon the banks, and kill them as they come to the shore, being
then in an exhausted state.


THE MOUSE.

Of this genus there are many species, including not only the domestic
mouse, but several other kinds, as well as the various kinds of rats.
The common mouse was not originally a native of this country, but was
introduced from Europe. The same may be said of the common rat. These
animals are spread over nearly the whole world, seeming always to be
the attendants upon man.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--"On a rainy evening," says Dr. Archer, "as
I was alone in my chamber in the town of Norfolk, I took up my flute
and commenced playing. In a few moments, my attention was directed to
a mouse that I saw creeping from a hole, and advancing to a chair in
which I was sitting. I ceased playing, and it ran precipitately back to
its hole. I began again to play, and was much surprised to see it
reappear, and take its old position. It couched upon the floor, shut
its eyes, and appeared in ecstasy, being differently affected by the
music I played, as it varied from slow and plaintive to lively and
animated."

A gentleman who was on board a British man of war, in the year 1817,
states that, as he and some officers were seated by the fire, one of
them began to play a plaintive air on the violin. He had scarcely
performed ten minutes, when a mouse, apparently frantic, made its
appearance in the centre of the floor. The strange gestures of the
little animal strongly excited the attention of the officers, who, with
one consent, resolved to suffer it to continue its singular actions
unmolested. Its exertions now appeared to be greater every moment; it
shook its head, leaped about the table, and exhibited signs of the most
ecstatic delight. After performing actions that an animal so diminutive
would at first sight seem incapable of, the little creature suddenly
ceased to move, fell down, and expired, without evincing any symptoms
of pain.

An officer confined to the Bastille, at Paris, begged to be allowed to
play on his lute, to soften his confinement by its harmonies. Shortly
afterwards, when playing on the instrument, he was much astonished to
see a number of mice come frisking out of their holes, and many spiders
descending from their webs, and congregating round him while he
continued the music. Whenever he ceased, they dispersed; whenever he
played again, they reappeared. He soon had a numerous audience,
amounting to about a hundred mice and spiders.

Mr. Olafsen gives an account of the remarkable instinct of the Iceland
mouse. In a country where berries are but thinly dispersed, these
little animals are obliged to cross rivers to make their distant
forages. In their return with the booty to their magazines, they are
obliged to repass the stream. "The party, which consists of from six to
ten, select a flat piece of dried cow-dung, on which they place the
berries on a heap in the middle; then, by their united force, they
bring it to the water's edge, and, after launching it, embark and place
themselves round the heap, with their heads joined over it and their
backs to the water, their tails pendent in the stream, serving the
purpose of rudders." Remarkable as this story is, the truth of it is
confirmed by many people who have watched the arrangements of the tiny
navigators.


THE DORMOUSE.

Mr. Mangili, an Italian naturalist, made some curious experiments upon
the _dormouse_. He kept one in the cupboard in his study. When the
thermometer was 8° above the freezing point, the little animal curled
himself up among a heap of papers, and went to sleep. It was
ascertained that the animal breathed, and suspended his respiration, at
regular intervals, sometimes every four minutes. Within ten days from
his beginning to sleep, the dormouse awoke, and ate a little. He then
went to sleep again, and continued through the winter to sleep some
days and then to awaken; but as the weather became colder, the
intervals of perfect repose, when no breathing could be perceived, were
much longer--sometimes more than twenty minutes.


THE RAT.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--There was, in the year 1827, in a
farm-house in England, a remarkable instance, not only of docility, but
of usefulness, in a rat. It first devoured the mice which were caught
in traps, and was afterwards seen to catch others as they ventured from
their holes; till, at length, the whole house was cleared of these
animals. From the services it rendered, the family kindly protected the
rat, and it used to gambol about the house, and play with the children,
without the least fear. It sometimes disappeared for a week or ten days
at a time, but regularly returned to its abode.

During a dreadful storm in England, in 1829, a singular instance
occurred of sagacity in a rat. The River Tyne was much swollen by the
water, and numbers of people had assembled to gaze on the masses of hay
it swept along in its irresistible course. A swan was at last observed,
sometimes struggling for the land, at other times sailing majestically
along with the torrent. When it drew near, a black spot was seen on its
snowy plumage, and the spectators were greatly pleased to find that
this was a live rat. It is probable that it had been borne from its
domicile in some hayrick, and, observing the swan, had made for it as
an ark of safety, in the hope of prolonging its life. When the swan at
length reached the land, the rat leaped from his back, and scampered
away, amid the shouts of the spectators.

A surgeon's mate on board a ship, in 1757, relates that, while lying
one evening awake in his berth, he saw a rat come into the room, and,
after surveying the place attentively, retreat with the utmost caution
and silence. It soon returned, leading by the ear another rat, which it
left at a small distance from the hole by which they entered. A third
rat then joined them. The two then searched about, and picked up all
the small scraps of biscuit; these they carried to the second rat,
which seemed blind, and remained on the spot where they had left it,
nibbling such fare as was brought to it by its kind providers, whom the
mate supposed were its offspring.

A steward of a ship infested with rats used to play some lively airs on
a flute after he had baited his traps and placed them near the
rat-holes. The music attracted the rats, who entered the traps
unconscious of that danger which, without that allurement, they would
have instinctively avoided. In this manner the steward caught fifteen
or twenty rats in three hours.


THE BEAVER.

There is but one species of this animal, which is found in the
temperate regions of both continents. It spends a great part of its
time in the water, where it constructs dams and builds huts of the
branches of trees. It gnaws these asunder with wonderful dexterity,
frequently cutting off a branch, the size of a walking-stick, with one
effort. They live in families composed of from two to ten.

_A tame Beaver._--Major Roderfort, of New York, had a tame beaver,
which he kept in his house upwards of half a year, and allowed to run
about like a dog. The cat belonging to the house had kittens, and she
took possession of the beaver's bed, which he did not attempt to
prevent. When the cat went out, the beaver would take one of the
kittens between his paws, and hold it close to his breast to warm it,
and treated it with much affection. Whenever the cat returned, he
restored her the kitten.

_Affection of the Beaver._--Two young beavers were taken alive some
years ago, and carried to a factory near Hudson's Bay, where they grew
very fast. One of them being accidentally killed, the survivor began to
moan, abstained from food, and finally died in grief for the loss of
its companion.

_A tame Beaver in the Zoological Gardens of London._--"This animal
arrived in England, in the winter of 1825, very young, being small and
woolly, and without the covering of long hair which marks the adult
beaver. It was the sole survivor of five or six, which were shipped at
the same time, and was in a very pitiable condition. Good treatment
soon made it familiar. When called by its name, 'Binny,' it generally
answered with a little cry, and came to its owner. The hearth-rug was
its favorite haunt, upon which it would lie stretched out, sometimes on
its back, and sometimes flat on its belly, but always near its master.
The building instinct showed itself immediately after it was let out of
its cage, and materials were placed in its way,--and this before it had
been a week in its new quarters. Its strength, even before it was half
grown, was great. It would drag along a large sweeping-brush, or a
warming-pan, grasping the handle with its teeth, so that the load came
over its shoulder; it then advanced in an oblique direction, till it
arrived at the point where it wished to place it. The long and large
materials were always taken first; two of the longest were generally
laid crosswise, with one of the ends of each touching the wall, and the
other ends projecting out into the room. The area formed by the crossed
brushes and the wall, he would fill up with hand-brushes, rush-baskets,
books, boots, sticks, cloths, dried turf, or any thing portable. As the
work grew high, he supported himself on his tail, which propped him up
admirably; and he would often, after laying on one of his building
materials, sit up over against it, apparently to consider his work, or,
as the country people say, 'judge it.' This pause was sometimes
followed by changing the position of the material 'judged,' and
sometimes it was left in its place.

"After he had piled up his materials in one part of the room,--for he
generally chose the same place,--he proceeded to wall up the space
between the feet of a chest of drawers, which stood at a little
distance from it, high enough on its legs to make the bottom a roof for
him, using for this purpose dried turf and sticks, which he laid very
even, and filling up the interstices with bits of coal, hay, cloth, or
any thing he could pick up. This last place he seemed to appropriate
for his dwelling; the former work seemed to be intended for a dam. When
he had walled up the space between the feet of the chest of drawers, he
proceeded to carry in sticks, clothes, hay, cotton, and to make a nest;
and, when he had done, he would sit up under the drawers, and comb
himself with the nails of his hind-feet. In this operation, that which
appeared at first to be a malformation was shown to be a beautiful
adaptation to the necessities of the animal. The huge webbed hind-feet
often turn in, so as to give the appearance of deformities; but, if the
toes were straight, instead of being incurved, the animal could not use
them for the purpose of keeping its fur in order, and cleansing it from
dirt and moisture. Binny generally carried small and light articles
between his right fore-leg and his chin, walking on the other three
legs; and large masses, which he could not grasp readily with his
teeth, he pushed forwards, leaning against them with his right fore-paw
and his chin. He never carried any thing on his tail, which he liked to
dip in water, but he was not fond of plunging in his whole body. If his
tail was kept moist, he never cared to drink; but if it was kept dry,
it became hot, and the animal appeared distressed, and would drink a
great deal. It is not impossible that the tail may have the power of
absorbing water, like the skin of frogs; though it must be owned that
the scaly integument which invests that member has not much of the
character which generally belongs to absorbing surfaces. Bread, and
bread and milk, and sugar, formed the principal part of Binny's food;
but he was very fond of succulent fruits and roots. He was a most
entertaining creature; and some highly comic scenes occurred between
the worthy, but slow, beaver, and a light and airy macauco, that was
kept in the same apartment."


THE PORCUPINE.

Of this animal there are several species. The common porcupine of
Europe is about two feet long, and covered with long spines or quills.
In defending itself, it lies on one side, and rolls over upon its
enemy. The quills of the American porcupine are used by the Indians in
ornamenting their dress.

_Curious Playmates._--We are told that Sir Ashton Lever had a tame
porcupine, a domesticated hunting leopard, and a Newfoundland dog,
which he used frequently to turn out together, to play in a green
behind his house. No sooner were the dog and leopard let loose, than
they began to chase the porcupine, who uniformly, at the outset, tried
to escape by flight, but when he found there was no chance of doing so,
he would thrust his head into some corner, and make a snorting noise,
and erect his spines. His pursuers, if too ardent, pricked their noses,
which made them angry; and in the quarrel which usually ensued, the
porcupine effected his escape.

Le Vaillant says that a wound from a porcupine's quill is difficult to
cure, from some poisonous quality it possesses; he mentions that a
Hottentot, who was pricked in the leg by one of these, was ill for
upwards of six months afterwards; and that a gentleman at the Cape kept
his bed for about four months, and nearly lost his limb, in consequence
of a wound inflicted by one of these animals.


THE HARE.

Of this slender, graceful creature, there are several species. The
animal which passes by the name of rabbit, in America, and is common in
our woods, is a hare. The pursuit of this animal is a favorite sport in
England, and some other countries of Europe.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--In the "Annals of Sporting," for 1822, we
find the following interesting account of a hare: "Two years ago, a doe
hare produced two young ones in a field adjoining my cottage; and the
three were occasionally seen, during the summer, near the same spot;
but the leverets were, I have reason to believe, killed at the latter
end of September of the same year. The old doe hare was also coursed,
and, making directly for my cottage, entered the garden, and there
blinked the dogs. I repeatedly afterwards saw her sitting, sometimes in
the garden, which is one hundred and ten yards by forty-three, but more
frequently in the garden-hedge. She was repeatedly seen by greyhounds
when she sat at some distance, but uniformly made for the garden, and
never failed to find security. About the end of the following January,
puss was no longer to be seen around the garden, as she had probably
retired to some distance with a male companion. One day, in February, I
heard the hounds, and shortly afterwards observed a hare making towards
the garden, which it entered at a place well known, and left not the
least doubt on my mind, that it was my old acquaintance, which, in my
family, was distinguished by the name of Kitty. The harriers shortly
afterwards came in sight, followed Kitty, and drove her from the
garden.

"I became alarmed for the safety of my poor hare, and heartily wished
the dogs might come to an irrecoverable fault. The hare burst away with
the fleetness of the wind, and was followed, breast high, by her fierce
and eager pursuers. In about twenty minutes I observed Kitty return
towards the garden, apparently much exhausted, and very dirty. She took
shelter beneath a small heap of sticks, which lay at no great distance
from the kitchen door. No time was to be lost, as, by the cry of the
hounds, I was persuaded they were nearly in sight. I took a
fishing-net, and, with the assistance of the servant, covered poor
Kitty, caught her, and conveyed the little, panting, trembling creature
into the house. The harriers were soon at the spot, but no hare was to
be found. I am not aware that I ever felt greater pleasure than in thus
saving poor Kitty from her merciless pursuers. Towards evening I gave
her her liberty; I turned her out in the garden, and saw her not again
for some time.

"In the course of the following summer, however, I saw a hare several
times which I took to be my old friend; and, in the latter end of
October, Kitty was again observed in the garden. Henceforward, she was
occasionally seen as on the preceding winter. One morning, in January,
when I was absent, a gun was fired near my cottage. Kitty was heard to
scream, but, nevertheless, entered the garden vigorously. The matter
was related to me on my return home; and I was willing to hope that
Kitty would survive. However, I had some doubt on the subject; and, the
next morning, as soon as light permitted, I explored the garden, and
found that my poor, unfortunate favorite had expired. She was stretched
beneath a large gooseberry tree; and I could not help regretting very
much her death."

Borlase informs us that he had a hare so completely tamed as to feed
from the hand. It always lay under a chair in the ordinary
sitting-room, and was as much domesticated as a cat. It was permitted
to take exercise and food in the garden, but always returned to the
house to repose. Its usual companions were a greyhound and a spaniel,
with whom it spent its evenings. The whole three seemed much attached,
and frequently sported together, and at night they were to be seen
stretched together on the hearth. What is remarkable, both the
greyhound and spaniel were often employed in sporting, and used
secretly to go in pursuit of hares by themselves; yet they never
offered the least violence to their timid friend at home.

Dr. Townson, the traveller, when at Gottingen, brought a young hare
into such a state of domestication, that it would run and jump about
his sofa and bed. It leaped on his knee, patted him with its fore feet;
and frequently, while he was reading, it would knock the book out of
his hands, as if to claim, like a fondled child, the preference of his
attention.

One Sunday evening, five choristers were walking on the banks of the
River Mersey, in England. Being somewhat tired, they sat down, and
began to sing an anthem. The field where they sat had a wood at its
termination. While they were singing, a hare issued from this wood,
came with rapidity towards the place where they were sitting, and made
a dead stand in the open field. She seemed to enjoy the harmony of the
music, and turned her head frequently, as if listening. When they
stopped, she turned slowly towards the wood. When she had nearly
reached the end of the field, they again commenced an anthem, at which
the hare turned round, and ran swiftly back, to within the same
distance as before, where she listened with apparent rapture till they
had finished. She then bent her way towards the forest with a slow
pace, and disappeared.

A hare, being hard run by a pack of harriers in the west of England,
and being nearly exhausted, happened to come upon another hare in her
form. She instantly drew out the latter, and slipped in herself; the
pack followed the newly-started hare, and the huntsmen, coming up,
found the animal they had been chasing, lying down in the form, panting
very hard, and covered with mud.

A gentleman, actuated by curiosity, put one male and two female hares
in a large garden, walled entirely round, where they had plenty to eat.
Judge his surprise, when he opened the gate of the garden in a year
from the time that he had shut in the animals, to find that his family
had increased to the number of forty-seven!

A hare was once seen to start from its form at the sound of the hunting
horn, run towards a pool of water at a considerable distance, plunge
in, and run to some rushes in the middle, where it lay down, and
concealed itself. By this ingenious trick, the animal balked its
pursuers, and effected its escape.



ORDER VII.

EDENTATA,

ANIMALS WITHOUT FRONT TEETH.


The animals in this order are not numerous, but they are marked with
very peculiar characteristics. The chief species are the sloths,
armadilloes, ant-eaters, and pangolins, of South America, and the
platypus of Australia. Most of these are too little known to have
furnished us with characteristic anecdotes.


THE SLOTH.

This singular animal is destined by nature to live upon the trees. He
is rare and solitary; and, as he is good for food, he is much sought
after by the Indians and negroes. He is ill at ease on the ground,
having no soles to his feet, which are so formed as to enable him to
cling to the branches of trees, from which he suspends himself.

Mr. Waterton kept one of these animals in his room for several months.
"I often took him out of the house," says he, "and placed him on the
ground, in order to get a good opportunity of observing his motions. If
the ground was rough, he would pull himself forward, by means of his
fore legs, at a pretty good pace; but he invariably shaped his course
towards the nearest tree. But if I put him upon a smooth and
well-trodden part of the road, he appeared to be in trouble and
distress: his favorite abode was on the back of a chair; and after
getting all his legs in a line upon the topmost part of it, he would
hang there for hours together, and often, with a low and inward cry,
would seem to invite me to take notice of him."

The same author thus describes an adventure with a sloth: "One day, as
we were crossing the Essequibo, I saw a large two-toed sloth on the
ground upon the bank. How he got there was a mystery. The Indian who
was with me said that he never surprised a sloth in such a situation
before. He could hardly have come there to drink; for, both above and
below, the branches of the trees touched the water, and afforded him a
safe and easy access to it. Be this as it may, he could not make his
way through the sand time enough to escape before we landed. As soon as
we got up to him, he threw himself upon his back, and defended himself
in gallant style with his fore legs. 'Come, poor fellow,' said I to
him, 'if thou hast had a hobble to-day, thou shalt not suffer for it;
I'll take no advantage of thee in misfortune. The forest is large
enough for thee and me to rove in; go thy ways up above, and enjoy
thyself in these endless wilds. It is more than probable thou wilt
never again have an interview with man. So, fare thee well!'

"Saying this, I took up a long stick which was lying there, held it for
him to hook on, and then conveyed him to a high and stately tree. He
ascended with wonderful rapidity, and in about a minute he was at the
top. He now went off in a side direction, and caught hold of the branch
of a neighboring tree. He then proceeded towards the heart of the
forest. I stood looking on, lost in amazement at his singular mode of
progression, and followed him with my eyes till I lost sight of him."


THE PLATYPUS.

Among the strange and interesting productions of Australia, no one is
more wonderful than the ornithorynchus, platypus, or water-mole. It is
aquatic in its habits, frequenting quiet streams, where it excavates
burrows to a great depth. It is about eighteen inches long, and is
covered with fur. It is web-footed, at the same time that its feet are
well fitted for burrowing in the earth. Its head terminates in a broad
bill, like that of a duck.

Mr. G. Bennett procured several specimens of this curious creature, but
did not succeed in taking them to England. One of them was caught at
the mouth of its burrow, and taken by Mr. B. to Lansdowne Park. "Here,"
says he, "I availed myself of the vicinity of some ponds, to give my
platypus a little recreation. On opening the box where I kept it, it
was lying in a corner, contracted into a very small compass, and fast
asleep. I tied a very long cord to its hind leg, and roused it; in
return for which, I received numerous growls. When placed on the bank,
it soon found its way into the water, and travelled up the stream,
apparently delighting in those places which most abounded in aquatic
weeds. Although it would dive in deep water, yet it always preferred
keeping close to the bank, occasionally thrusting its beak into the
mud, and at the roots of the various weeds on the margin of the pond,
as if in search of insects.

"After it had wandered some time, it crawled up the bank, and enjoyed
the luxury of scratching itself, and rolling about. In the process of
cleaning itself, the hind claws were alone brought into use for the
operation--first the claws of one hind leg, then the claws of the
other. The animal remained for more than an hour cleaning itself, after
which, it had a more sleek and glossy appearance than before. It never
became familiar, and always manifested the greatest reluctance to be
placed in the box. One night it escaped, and I was never able to find
it again."



ORDER VIII.

PACHYDERMATA,

THICK-SKINNED ANIMALS.


THE ELEPHANT.

This is the largest quadruped at present extant on the earth. It is
nine feet high, and in some cases has risen to the height of fifteen
feet. Its weight varies from four to nine thousand pounds. Nor is it
more distinguished for its size than its sagacity. When tamed, it
becomes the most gentle, obedient, and affectionate of domestic
animals, capable of being trained to any service which may be required
of it.

There are two species of elephant--the Asiatic and the African. The
former is the largest and best known. In the mighty forests which they
inhabit, they hold undisputed sway; their immense size, strength, and
swiftness, enabling them to dislodge all intruders from their abodes.
Even the lion and tiger fear their united attacks, and avoid being in
their vicinity. They are excellent swimmers, and are capable of
crossing the largest rivers. This power seems essential, for the
quantity of food they consume renders it necessary for them to remove
often from one region to another.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Bishop Heber, in his approach to Dacca,
saw a number of elephants bathing, which he thus describes: "At a
distance of about half a mile from those desolate palaces a sound
struck my ear, as if from the water itself on which we were riding--the
most solemn and singular I can conceive. It was long, loud, deep, and
tremulous--something like the blowing of a whale, or, perhaps, more
like those roaring buoys which are placed at the mouths of some English
harbors, in which the winds make a noise to warn ships off them. 'O,'
said Abdallah, 'there are elephants bathing; Dacca much place for
elephant.' I looked immediately, and saw about twenty of these fine
animals, with their heads and trunks just appearing above the water.
Their bellowing it was which I had heard, and which the water conveyed
to us with a finer effect than if we had been on shore."

The manner of hunting and taming the wild elephant, in Asia, is
curious. In the middle of a forest, where these animals are known to
abound, a large piece of ground is marked out, and surrounded with
strong stakes driven into the earth, interwoven with branches of trees.
One end of this enclosure is narrow, and it gradually widens till it
takes in a great extent of country. Several thousand men are employed
to surround the herd of elephants, and to prevent their escape. They
kindle large fires at certain distances; and, by hallooing, beating
drums, and playing discordant instruments, so bewilder the poor
animals, that they allow themselves to be insensibly driven, by some
thousands more Indians, into the narrow part of the enclosure, into
which they are decoyed by tame female elephants, trained to this
service. At the extreme end of the large area is a small enclosure,
very strongly fenced in, and guarded on all sides, into which the
elephants pass by a long, narrow defile. As soon as one enters this
strait, a strong bar is thrown across the passage from behind.

He now finds himself separated from his neighbors, and goaded on all
sides by huntsmen, who are placed along this passage, till he reaches
the smaller area, where two tame female elephants are stationed, who
immediately commence disciplining him with their trunks, till he is
reduced to obedience, and suffers himself to be conducted to a tree, to
which he is bound by the leg, with stout thongs of untanned elk or
buckskin. The tame elephants are again conducted to the enclosure,
where the same operation is performed on the others, till all are
subdued. They are kept bound to trees for several days, and a certain
number of attendants left with each animal to supply him with food, by
little and little, till he is brought by degrees to be sensible of
kindness and caresses, and thus allows himself to be conducted to the
stable.

So docile and susceptible of domestication is the elephant, that, in a
general way, fourteen days are sufficient to reduce the animals to
perfect obedience. During this time, they are fed daily with cocoa-nut
leaves, of which they are excessively fond, and are conducted to the
water by the tame females. In a short time, they become accustomed to
the voice of their keeper, and at last quietly resign their freedom,
and great energies, to the dominion of man.

The mode employed by the Africans, to take elephants alive, is by pits.
Pliny, whose accounts were in general correct, mentions that, when one
of the herd happened to fall into this snare, his companions would
throw branches of trees and masses of earth into the pit, with the
intention of raising the bottom, so that the animal might effect his
escape. Although this appears to be a species of reasoning hardly to be
expected from an animal, yet it has in a great measure been confirmed
by Mr. Pringle, who says,--"In the year 1821, during one of my
excursions in the interior of the Cape Colony, I happened to spend a
few days at the Moravian missionary settlement of Enon, or White River.
This place is situated in a wild but beautiful valley, near the foot of
the Zuurberg Mountains, in the district of Uiterhage, and is surrounded
on every side by extensive forests of evergreens, in which numerous
herds of elephants still find food and shelter.

"From having been frequently hunted by the Boors and Hottentots, these
animals are become so shy as scarcely ever to be seen during the day,
except amongst the most remote and inaccessible ravines and jungles;
but in the night time they frequently issue forth in large troops, and
range, in search of food, through the inhabited farms in the White
River valley; and on such occasions they sometimes revenge the wrongs
of their race upon the settlers who have taken possession of their
ancient haunts, by pulling up fruit-trees, treading down gardens and
cornfields, breaking their ploughs, wagons, and so forth. I do not
mean, however, to affirm, that the elephants really do all this
mischief from feelings of revenge, or with the direct intention of
annoying their human persecutors. They pull up the trees, probably,
because they want to browse on their soft roots; and they demolish the
agricultural implements merely because they happen to be in their way.

"But what I am now about to state assuredly indicates no ordinary
intelligence. A few days before my arrival at Enon, a troop of
elephants came down, one dark and rainy night, close to the outskirts
of the village. The missionaries heard them bellowing, and making an
extraordinary noise, for a long time, at the upper end of the orchard;
but, knowing well how dangerous it is to encounter these powerful
animals in the night, they kept close within their houses till
daylight. Next morning, on their examining the spot where they had
heard the elephants, they discovered the cause of all this nocturnal
uproar. There was at this spot a ditch or trench, about four or five
feet in width, and nearly fourteen feet in depth, which the industrious
missionaries had recently cut through the banks of the river, on
purpose to lead out water to irrigate some part of their garden, and to
drive a corn-mill. Into this trench, which was still unfinished, and
without water, one of the elephants had evidently fallen, for the marks
of his feet were distinctly visible at the bottom, as well as the
impress of his huge body on the sides.

"How he had got into it, was not easy to conjecture; but how, being
once in, he ever contrived to get out again, was the marvel. By his own
unaided efforts it was obviously impossible for such an animal to have
extricated himself. Could his comrades, then, have assisted him? There
can be no question that they had, though by what means, unless by
hauling him out with their trunks, it would not be easy to conjecture;
and, in corroboration of this supposition, on examining the spot
myself, I found the edges of this trench deeply indented with numerous
vestiges, as if the other elephants had stationed themselves on either
side,--some of them kneeling, and others on their feet,--and had thus,
by united efforts, and probably after many failures, hoisted their
unlucky brother out of the pit."

We are told that the Emperor Domitian had a troop of elephants
disciplined to dance to the sound of music; and that one of them, which
had been beaten for not having his lesson perfect, was observed, on the
following night, to be practising by himself in a meadow.

The elephant recently exhibited in New York was fed by a young girl
with cakes and apples. While in the act of pulling an apple from her
bag, she drew out her ivory card-case, which fell, unobserved, in the
sawdust of the ring. At the close of the performances, the crowd opened
to let the elephant pass out; but, instead of proceeding as usual, he
turned aside, and thrust his trunk in the midst of a group of ladies
and gentlemen, who, as might be supposed, were very much alarmed. The
keeper at this moment discovered that the animal had something in his
trunk: upon examination, it was found to be the young lady's card-case,
which the elephant had picked up, and was now seeking out the fair
owner.

A female elephant, belonging to a gentleman at Calcutta, being ordered
from the upper country to Chittagong, broke loose from her keeper, and
was lost in the woods. The excuses which the man made were not
admitted. It was supposed that he had sold the elephant. His wife and
family were, therefore, sold as slaves, and he was himself condemned to
work upon the roads. About twelve years after, this man was ordered
into the country to assist in catching wild elephants. In a group that
he saw before him, the keeper thought that he recognized his long-lost
elephant. He was determined to go up to it; nor could the strongest
representations of the danger dissuade him from his purpose.

When he approached the creature, she knew him and, giving him three
salutes by waving her trunk in the air, knelt down and received him on
her back. She afterwards assisted in securing the other elephants, and
likewise brought with her three young ones, which she had produced
during her absence. The keeper recovered his character; and, as a
recompense for his sufferings and intrepidity, an annuity was settled
on him for life. This elephant was afterwards in the possession of
Warren Hastings.

Of the attachment of elephants to their keepers, or to those who have
done them a kindness, many instances are on record. Ælian relates that
a man of rank in India, having very carefully trained up a female
elephant, used daily to ride upon her. She was exceedingly sagacious,
and much attached to her master. The prince, having heard of the
extraordinary gentleness and capacity of this animal, demanded her of
her owner. But so attached was this person to his elephant, that he
resolved to keep her at all hazards, and fled with her to the
mountains. The prince, having heard of his retreat, ordered a party of
soldiers to pursue, and bring back the fugitive with his elephant. They
overtook him at the top of a steep hill, where he defended himself by
throwing stones down upon his pursuers, in which he was assisted by his
faithful elephant, who threw stones with great dexterity. At length,
however, the soldiers gained the summit of the hill, and were about to
seize the fugitive, when the elephant rushed amongst them with the
utmost fury, trampled some to death, dashed others to the ground with
her trunk, and put the rest to flight. She then placed her master, who
was wounded in the contest upon her back, and conveyed him to a place
of security.

When Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, attacked the territory of Argos, one of
his soldiers, who was mounted upon an elephant, received a dangerous
wound, and fell to the ground. When the elephant discovered that he had
lost his master in the tumult, he furiously rushed among the crowd,
dispersing them in every direction, till he had found him. He then
raised him from the ground with his trunk, and, placing him across his
tusks, carried him back to the town.

Some years ago, an elephant at Dekan, from a motive of revenge, killed
its conductor. The wife of the unfortunate man was witness to the
dreadful scene; and, in the frenzy of her mental agony, took her two
children, and threw them at the feet of the elephant, saying, "As you
have slain my husband, take my life, also, as well as that of my
children!" The elephant became calm, seemed to relent, and, as if stung
with remorse, took up the eldest boy with its trunk, placed him on its
neck, adopted him for its _cornac_, and never afterwards allowed
another to occupy that seat.

A soldier, in India, was in the habit of giving to an elephant,
whenever he received his pay, a certain quantity of arrack. Once, being
intoxicated, this soldier committed some excesses, and was ordered to
be sent to the guard-house; but he fled from the soldiers who were sent
to apprehend him, and took refuge under the body of his favorite
elephant, where he laid himself down quietly, and fell asleep. In vain
the guard attempted to seize upon him, and draw him from his place of
refuge; for the grateful elephant defended him with his trunk, and they
were obliged to abandon their attempt to secure him. When the soldier
awoke next morning from his drunken slumber, he was very much alarmed
at finding himself under the belly of such an enormous animal; but the
elephant caressed him with his trunk, so as to quiet his apprehensions,
and he got up and departed in safety.

The author of the "Twelve Years' Military Adventures" says,--"I have
seen the wife of a _mohout_ give a baby in charge to an elephant, while
she was on some business, and have been highly amused in observing the
sagacity and care of the unwieldy nurse. The child, which, like most
children, did not like to lie still in one position, would, as soon as
left to itself, begin crawling about, in which exercise it would
probably get among the legs of the animal, or entangle itself in the
branches of the trees on which he was feeding, when the elephant would,
in the most tender manner, disengage his charge, either by lifting it
out of the way with his trunk, or by removing the impediments to his
free progress. If the child had crawled to such a distance as to verge
upon the limits of his range,--for the animal was chained by the leg to
a peg driven into the ground,--he would stretch out his trunk, and lift
it back, as gently as possible, to the spot whence it had started."

The elephant is not less disposed to resent an injury than to reward a
benefit. It has been frequently observed, by those who have had the
charge of these animals, that they seem sensible of being ridiculed,
and seldom miss an opportunity of revenging themselves for the insults
they receive in this way. An artist in Paris wished to draw the
elephant in the menagerie at the _Jardin des Plantes_ in an
extraordinary attitude, which was with his trunk elevated in the air,
and his mouth open. An attendant on the artist, to make the elephant
preserve the attitude, threw fruits into his mouth, and often pretended
to throw them, without doing so. The animal became irritated, and,
seeming to think that the painter was the cause of his annoyance,
turned to him, and dashed a quantity of water from his trunk over the
paper on which the painter was sketching the portrait.

An amusing anecdote is related, by Captain Williamson, of an elephant,
which went by the name of the _paugal_, or fool, who, by his sagacity,
showed he could act with wisdom. This animal, when on a march, refused
to carry on his back a larger load than was agreeable to him, and
pulled down as much of the burden as reduced it to the weight which he
conceived proper for him to bear. One day, the quarter-master of
brigade became enraged at this obstinacy in the animal, and threw a
tent-pin at his head. A few days afterwards, as the creature was on his
way from camp to water, he overtook the quarter-master, and, seizing
him in his trunk, lifted him into a large tamarind-tree, which overhung
the road, and left him to cling to the branches, and to get down the
best way he could.

We shall conclude our anecdotes of the elephant with one which shows it
in a most amiable light. The Rajah Dowlah chose once to take the
diversion of hunting in the neighborhood of Lucknow, where there was a
great abundance of game. The grand vizier rode his favorite elephant,
and was accompanied by a train of Indian nobility. They had to pass
through a ravine leading to a meadow, in which several sick persons
were lying on the ground, in order to receive what benefit they could
from exposure to the air and the rays of the sun. As the vizier
approached with his numerous hunting party, the attendants of these
sick persons betook themselves to flight, leaving the helpless patients
to their fate. The nabob seriously intended to pass with his elephants
over the bodies of these poor wretches. He therefore ordered the driver
to goad on his beast. The elephant, as long as he had a free path, went
on at full trot; but, as soon as he came to the first of the sick
people, he stopped. The driver goaded him, and the vizier cursed; but
in vain. "Stick the beast in the ear!" cried the nabob. It was done;
but the animal remained steadfast before the helpless human creatures.
At length, when the elephant saw that no one came to remove the
patients, he took up one of them with his trunk, and laid him
cautiously and gently to a side. He proceeded in the same way with a
second and a third; and, in short, with as many as it was necessary to
remove, in order to form a free passage, through which the nabob's
retinue could pass without injuring any of them. How little did this
noble animal deserve to be rode by such an unfeeling brute in human
form!


THE HIPPOPOTAMUS.

This is among the largest of quadrupeds, being sometimes twelve feet
long, and six feet high. Its body is very massive, its legs short, and
its head large. The skin is extremely thick. It lives on the muddy
banks of rivers in Africa, diving on the approach of danger. It eats
grass, and generally feeds at night. It swims well, and walks on the
bottom with ease. The negroes of Africa hunt this animal for his flesh,
and when one of them is captured, it is the signal for a general feast.

_Effect of Music._--The enterprising and lamented traveller Clapperton
informs us that, when he was departing on a warlike expedition from
Lake Muggaby, he had convincing proofs that the hippopotami are
sensibly affected by musical sounds. "As the expedition passed along
the banks of the lake at sunrise," says he, "these uncouth and
stupendous animals followed the drums the whole length of the water,
sometimes approaching so close to the shore, that the spray they
spouted from their mouths reached the persons who were passing along
the banks. I counted fifteen, at one time, sporting on the surface of
the water."

_Hunting the Hippopotamus._--Dr. Edward Russell gives us the following
account of a hunt of the hippopotamus in Dongola: "One of the animals
that we killed was of an enormous size. We fought with him for four
good hours by night, and were very near losing our large boat, and
probably our lives too, owing to the fury of the animal. As soon as he
spied the huntsmen in the small canoe, he dashed at them with all his
might, dragged the canoe with him under water, and smashed it to
pieces. The two huntsmen escaped with difficulty. Of twenty-five
musket-balls aimed at the head, only one pierced the skin, and the
bones of the nose; at each snorting, the animal spouted out large
streams of blood on the boat. The rest of the balls stuck in the thick
hide.

"At last, we availed ourselves of a swivel; but it was not till we had
discharged five balls from it, at the distance of a few feet, that the
colossus gave up the ghost. The darkness of the night increased the
danger of the contest; for this gigantic animal tossed our boat about
in the stream at his pleasure; and it was at a fortunate moment indeed
for us that he gave up the struggle, as he had carried us into a
complete labyrinth of rocks, which, in the midst of the confusion, none
of our crew had observed."


THE RHINOCEROS.

In common with the lion and elephant, the rhinoceros frequents the vast
deserts of Asia and Africa. Its appearance is chiefly remarkable, from
possessing one solid conical horn on the nose, sometimes three feet in
length, and from having the skin disposed about the neck in large
plaits or folds. The body of this animal is little inferior in size to
the elephant, but he is much shorter in the legs; his length, from the
muzzle to the tail, is nearly twelve feet, and the girth about the same
measurement: from the shortness of his legs, the belly nearly touches
the ground.

The rhinoceros can run with great swiftness; and, from his strength,
and hard, impenetrable hide, he is capable of rushing through the
thickets with resistless fury, almost every obstacle being quickly
overturned in his track. There is a two-horned species in Africa, but
little is known of it.

In India, the hunting of the rhinoceros is famous sport. The people go
out mounted on elephants, and usually find five or six of these animals
in a drove. Their hides are so thick that it is difficult to kill them.
One will often receive twenty bullets before he falls. The rhinoceros
attacks an elephant fearlessly, and endeavors to get his horn under
him, so as to rip him open. But the elephant, finding what he would be
at, turns his rear to the assailant, who gives him a hunch behind, and
tumbles his huge enemy upon his knees. Then the men upon the elephants
fire their guns, and pepper the thick hide of the rhinoceros with their
bullets.

_Anecdotes._--In the year 1790, a rhinoceros arrived in England, about
five years old, and was purchased by Mr. Pidcock, of Exeter 'Change,
for seven hundred pounds. He was very mild, and allowed himself to be
patted on the back by strangers. He was quite obedient to the orders of
his keepers, and would move through the apartment to exhibit himself.
His daily allowance of food was twenty-eight pounds' weight of clover,
besides an equal provision of ship bread, and a great quantity of
greens; he drank five pails of water every twenty-four hours. He liked
sweet wines, and was sometimes indulged with a few bottles. His voice
resembled that of a calf, which he usually exerted at the sight of
fruit, or any favorite food. This animal suffered much from a
dislocation of the joint of one of his fore-legs, which induced
inflammation, and he died nine months afterwards.

The following particulars of a rhinoceros, exhibited at Exeter 'Change,
were obtained, by the late Sir Everard Home, from the person who kept
him for three years. "It was so savage," says he, "that, about a month
after it came, it endeavored to kill the keeper, and nearly succeeded.
It ran at him with the greatest impetuosity; but, fortunately, the horn
passed between his thighs, and threw the keeper on its head; the horn
came against a wooden partition, into which the animal forced it to
such a depth as to be unable for a minute to withdraw it; and, during
this interval, the man escaped. Its skin, though apparently so hard, is
only covered with small scales, of the thickness of paper, with the
appearance of tortoise-shell; at the edges of these, the skin itself is
exceedingly sensible, either to the bite of a fly or the lash of a
whip. By discipline, the keeper got the management of it, and the
animal was brought to know him; but frequently, more especially in the
middle of the night, fits of frenzy came on; and, while these lasted,
nothing could control its rage,--the rhinoceros running with great
swiftness round the den, playing all kinds of antics, making hideous
noises, knocking every thing to pieces, disturbing the whole
neighborhood, and then, all at once, becoming quiet. While the fit was
on, even the keeper durst not make his approach. The animal fell upon
its knee when it wished to strike any object with its horn. It was
quick in all its motions, ate voraciously all kinds of vegetables,
appearing to have no selection. It was chiefly fed on branches of
willow. Three years' confinement made no alteration in its habits."


THE WILD BOAR.

This is the original from which all the different kinds of the tame hog
have sprung. He is not subject to the varieties of the domestic races,
but is uniformly of a brindled or dark gray, inclining to black. His
snout is longer than that of the tame hog, his ears short, and pricked.
He has formidable tusks in each jaw, sometimes nearly a foot
long,--those in the upper jaw bending upwards in a circular form,
exceedingly sharp, being those with which the animal defends himself,
and frequently inflicts mortal wounds.

The wild boar is to be met with in various parts of Europe, Asia, and
Africa. The hunting of this animal has always afforded a rather
barbarous sport to the natives of the countries in which it is to be
found. The season for this sport is in the beginning of winter. The
huntsmen ride with the dogs, and encourage them at the same time that,
by the spear, they endeavor to dishearten the boar. The weapon is
generally directed towards the front of the animal's head, but
cautiously; for, were the boar to seize the spear, which it attempts to
do, it would wrest it from the hand of the hunter; and the latter,
unless supported, would fall a victim to its strength and ferocity.
There are generally more hunters than one; the boar is called off by
each man as he provokes it, and the animal thus generally perishes by a
series of attacks.

_Anecdotes._--A boar from Ethiopia was, in 1765, sent by the governor
of the Cape of Good Hope to the Prince of Orange. From confinement and
attention he became tolerably mild and gentle, except when offended, in
which case even those persons to whose care he was intrusted were
afraid of him. In general, however, when the door of his cage was
opened, he came out in perfect good-humor, frisked about in search of
food, and greedily devoured whatever was given him. He was one day left
alone in the court-yard for a few minutes; and, on the return of the
keeper, was found busily digging into the earth, where, notwithstanding
the cemented bricks of the pavement, he had made a very large hole, for
the purpose, as was afterwards conceived, of reaching a common sewer
that passed at a considerable depth below. When, after long
confinement, he was set at liberty, for a little while he was very gay,
and leaped about in an entertaining manner.

During Sparman's residence in Africa, he witnessed a curious method by
which the wild hogs protected their young, when pursued. The heads of
the females, which, at the commencement of the chase, had seemed of a
tolerable size, appeared, on a sudden, to have grown larger and more
shapeless than they were. This he found to have been occasioned by the
fact, that each of the old ones, during its flight, had taken up and
carried forward a young pig in its mouth; and this explained to him
another subject of surprise, which was, that all the pigs he had just
before been chasing with the old ones, had suddenly vanished.


THE DOMESTIC HOG.

The effect of domestication on the larger animals seems to be a
diminution of their powers of resistance or defence, no longer
necessary to their safety; and, on account of the want of free
exercise, an increase of size, attended by a relaxation of the fibres
and frame of the body. In this way, domestication has told with
considerable disadvantage on the hog. By the diminution of the size of
its tusks, and of its inclination or power to use them, it ceases to be
very formidable; and by luxurious habits, by overfeeding, and
indolence, the animal that fearlessly ranges the forest becomes one
whose sole delight it seems to be to rise to eat, and to lie down to
digest, and one whose external appearance, beyond that of any other
quadruped, testifies the gluttony of its disposition and of its
practices. The hog uses considerable selection in its vegetable diet,
but it compensates itself for the loss which its appetite might thus
sustain, by occasional recourse to animal food.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--The following statement, made a few years
ago by a gentleman in Stanbridge, England, develops the carnivorous
propensities which the hog sometimes discovers, even in a condition of
perfect domestication,--the variety too of animals which it is inclined
to devour. "I had a pig," says this writer, "of the Chinese species, a
most voracious fellow; but through necessity I have lately been obliged
to have him killed, finding that he endangered the safety of my
rabbits, hens, and ducks. Previous to possessing him, I had a small
warren of about forty yards square, walled in, and well stocked with
various-colored rabbits, which I had been at infinite pains to collect.
But, unfortunately, one day a rabbit having intruded into his sty, the
pig immediately caught and devoured it. This having given him an
opportunity of knowing the agreeable flavor of rabbit, he next day,
when let out, directed his course to the warren, and soon was
successful in securing another; he then returned to his sty, and
consumed it with the greatest avidity.

"After this circumstance occurred, he was confined three weeks; but
being again set at liberty, he immediately returned to his favorite
pursuit, and, after trying various manoeuvres for the space of a
quarter of an hour he seized another rabbit, and was returning, when I
ordered my servant to take it away. Unluckily for the servant, the pig,
after trying many devices to get by him, crouched for a moment, and
then, running furiously at him, seized on his leg, lacerating it so
severely, that he was confined to the house for six weeks. So greedy
was the pig, that, while the man was limping towards the house, he
actually went back to his prey, and carried it off victoriously.

"Being at a party the next day, and relating the above, a gentleman in
company appeared to doubt the veracity of the account. I asked him,
with the rest of the party, to dine with me the following day, that
they might witness the exploits of the creature. They all attended at
an early hour. No sooner had we released him, than off he went with the
most voracious eagerness, and entered the warren through a hole in the
wall; but he was not quite so successful to-day, for, after making many
fruitless attempts, most of the rabbits were driven to their burrows.
He now seemed as we supposed, despairing of success, as he lay down
amongst some furze; but, on our returning to the house, we were
surprised by the cry of his victim, and, immediately turning round, saw
him coming through the hole in the wall with a fine black rabbit. The
gentleman who doubted the facts over-night nearly met the fate of my
servant; but by actively springing over him, at the moment the furious
animal was seizing his legs, he escaped unhurt. After showing his
dexterity to many more gentlemen, I devised means to keep him out of
the warren. The carnivorous animal then took to my ducks and hens.
Still, however, I put up with his depredations while he confined
himself to my own yard; but having visited a neighbor's, and killed two
ducks and a favorite Guinea-hen, and much frightened the lady who went
to drive him away, I was obliged to kill him the next morning."

A gamekeeper of Sir Henry Mildmay, of England, broke a black sow to
find game, back, and stand to her point, nearly as steadily as a
well-bred dog. The sow was a thin, long-legged animal, of the New
Forest breed. When young, she manifested a great partiality for some
pointer puppies; and it occurred to the gamekeeper, that, as he had
often succeeded with obstinate dogs, he might attempt to break a pig.
He enticed her to follow him by bits of barley-meal pudding, which he
carried in one of his pockets, while the other was filled with stones,
which he threw at his pupil when she misbehaved, as she would not allow
herself to be caught and corrected, like a dog. Under this system she
proved tolerably tractable. When she came on the cold scent of game,
she slackened her trot, and gradually dropped her ears and tail till
she was certain, and then fell down on her knees. As soon as the game
rose, she returned, grunting, for her reward of pudding.

When the gamekeeper died, his widow sent the pig to Sir Henry Mildmay,
who kept it for three years, and often amused his friends by hiding a
fowl among the fern in some part of the park, and bringing out the pig,
which never failed to point at it in the manner described. Some time
after, a great number of lambs were lost nearly as soon as they were
dropped; and a person, being sent to watch the flock, detected the sow
in the act of devouring a lamb. This carnivorous propensity was
ascribed to her having been accustomed to feed with the dogs on flesh;
but it obliterated the memory of her singular sagacity, and she was
killed for the benefit of the widow of the gamekeeper who had trained
her.


THE TAPIR.

This quadruped resembles the hog in shape, but is much larger. It is of
a brown color, and has a long, flexible nose, somewhat like the
elephant's trunk. It sleeps during the day, and goes forth at night in
search of pasture, melons, and vegetables. One species is found in
South America, and one in Malacca and Sumatra. It is docile, is easily
tamed, and capable of strong attachments.

A young specimen of this animal was sent from Sumatra to Bengal, which
became very tractable. It was allowed to roam in the park, and
frequently entered the ponds, and walked along on the bottom, making no
attempt to swim.

A full-grown tapir was recently at the Zoological Gardens, in London,
which seemed to thrive very well. From its curious formation, and its
gentle, inoffensive manners, it became an object of great attraction.


THE HORSE.

This animal is now only known in a domestic state, or, if wild, but as
the offspring of domestic varieties. Most countries possess races of
this animal peculiar to themselves. The finest breed is that of Arabia.
The horse may be considered the most valuable of all the brute creation
to man. He combines strength, speed, and docility, beyond any other
animal. The wild herds in the western regions, Mexico, and South
America, are sprung from horses brought into the country by the
Spaniards.

The Arabian horse is a hardy animal, "left exposed," says
Chateaubriand, "to the most intense heat of the sun, tied by the four
legs to stakes set in the ground, and refreshed generally only once in
the twenty-four hours. Yet," continues the same writer, "release his
legs from the shackles, spring upon his back, and he will paw in the
valley; he will rejoice in his strength; he will swallow the ground in
the fierceness of his rage, and you recognize the original picture of
Job."

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--The Arab has a strong affection for his
horse; nor is it wonderful, when we consider that he is his support and
comfort--his companion through many a dreary day and night, enduring
hunger and thirst in his service. From their constant community, a kind
of sociality of feeling exists between them. The terms in which he
addresses his horse are thus given by Clarke: "Ibrahim went frequently
to Rama to inquire news of the mare, whom he dearly loved; he would
embrace her, wipe her eyes with his handkerchief, would rub her with
his shirt sleeves, would give her a thousand benedictions during whole
hours that he would remain talking to her. 'My eyes! my soul! my
heart!' he would say; 'must I be so unfortunate as to have thee sold to
many masters, and not keep thee myself? I am poor, my antelope! I
brought thee up in my dwelling as a child; I did never beat nor chide
thee.'" But the poverty of the Arabs, and the desire of foreigners to
possess their horses, frequently compel them to do what they so much
deprecate--to sell their horse. A horse he may be tempted by a large
sum to part with, but to sell a mare is a heart-rending trial to an
Arab. "When the envoy," says Sir John Malcolm, "was encamped near
Bagdad, an Arab rode a bright bay mare, of extraordinary shape and
beauty, before his tent, until he attracted his attention. On being
asked if he would sell her, 'What will you give me?' was the reply.
'That depends upon her age; I suppose she is past five.' 'Guess again,'
said he. 'Four?' 'Look at her mouth,' said the Arab, with a smile. On
examination, she was found to be rising three. This, from her size and
symmetry, greatly enhanced her value. The envoy said, 'I will give you
fifty _tomans_,' (a coin nearly of the value of a pound sterling.)
'A little more, if you please,' said the fellow, a little entertained.
'Eighty--a hundred.' He shook his head and smiled. The officer at last
came to two hundred tomans. 'Well,' said the Arab, 'you need not tempt
me further. You are a rich _elchee_, (nobleman;) you have fine horses,
camels, and mules, and I am told you have loads of silver and gold.
Now,' added he, 'you want my mare; but you shall not have her for all
you have got.'"

Nor does the Arabian horse fail to repay the attachment of his master.
It not only flies with him over the desert, but, when he lies down to
sleep, the faithful animal will browse on such herbage as is near the
spot; will watch its master with solicitude; and, if a man or animal
approaches, will neigh loudly till he is awakened. "When I was at
Jerusalem," says Chateaubriand, "the feats of one of these steeds made
a great noise. The Bedouin to whom the animal, a mare, belonged, being
pursued by the governor's guards, rushed with him from the top of the
hills that overlooked Jericho. The mare scoured at full gallop down an
almost perpendicular declivity without stumbling, and left the soldiers
lost in admiration and astonishment. The poor creature, however,
dropped down dead on entering Jericho; and the Bedouin, who would not
quit her, was taken, weeping over the body of his faithful companion.
Ali Aga religiously showed me, in the mountains near Jericho, the
footsteps of the beast that died in the attempt to save her master!"

The powers of the horse, as evinced in certain cases, appear almost
incredible. At four o'clock in the morning, a gentleman was robbed at
Gadshill, on the west side of Chatham, England, by a highwayman named
Nicks, who rode a bay mare. Nicks set off instantly for Gravesend,
where he was detained nearly an hour by the difficulty of getting a
boat--an interval which he employed to advantage in baiting his horse.
From thence he got to Essex and Chelmsford, where he again stopped
about half an hour, to refresh his horse. He then went to Braintree,
Bocking, Westerfield, and over the downs to Cambridge, and, still
pursuing the cross roads, he went to Huntingdon, where he again rested
about half an hour. Proceeding now on the north road, and at full
gallop most of the way, he arrived at York the same afternoon, put off
his boots and riding clothes, and went dressed to the bowling-green,
where, among other promenaders, happened to be the lord mayor of the
city. He there studied to do something particular, that his lordship
might remember him, and, asking what o'clock it was, the mayor informed
him that it was a quarter past eight. Upon prosecution for the robbery,
the whole safety of the prisoner rested upon this point. The gentleman
swore positively to the time and place; but, on the other hand, the
proof was equally clear of his being at York at the time specified. The
jury acquitted him on the supposed impossibility of his having got so
great a distance from Kent by the time he was seen in the
bowling-green. Yet it appeared afterwards that he was the robber, and
had performed this feat of horsemanship to escape conviction.

Very extraordinary performances of the horse, in swimming, are on
record. A violent gale of wind, at the Cape of Good Hope, setting in
from north and northwest, a vessel in the road dragged her anchors, was
forced on the rocks, and bilged; and, while the greater part of the
crew fell an immediate sacrifice to the waves, the remainder were seen,
from the shore, struggling for their lives by clinging to the different
pieces of the wreck. The sea ran dreadfully high, and broke over the
sailors with such amazing fury that no boat whatever could venture off
to their assistance. Meanwhile a planter, considerably advanced in
life, had come from his farm to be a spectator of the shipwreck. His
heart melted at the sight of the unhappy seamen; and, knowing the bold
and enterprising spirit of his horse, and his particular excellence as
a swimmer, he instantly determined to make a desperate effort for their
deliverance. He alighted, and blew a little brandy into his horse's
nostrils, and again seating himself in the saddle, he instantly pushed
into the midst of the breakers. At first both disappeared; but it was
not long before they floated on the surface, and swam up to the wreck;
when, taking with him two men, each of whom held by one of his boots,
he brought them safe to shore. This perilous expedition he repeated no
less than seven times, and saved fourteen lives; but, on his return the
eighth time, his horse being much fatigued, and meeting a most
formidable wave, he lost his balance, and was overwhelmed in a moment.
The horse swam safely to land, but his gallant rider was no more!

The effects of habit and discipline upon the horse are exemplified by
the following anecdotes:--An old cavalry horse has been known to stop,
in the midst of a rapid gallop, on hearing the word _Halt_, uttered by
an officer in the ranks. The Tyrolese, in one of their insurrections in
1809, took fifteen Bavarian horses, on which they mounted as many of
their own soldiers. A rencounter occurring with a squadron of the
regiment of Bubenhoven, these horses, on hearing the trumpet and
recognizing the uniform of their corps, set off at full gallop, and
carried their riders, in spite of all their resistance, into the midst
of the Bavarian ranks, where they were made prisoners.

Previously to the erection of the cavalry barracks in Glasgow, the
detachment of horse for the west of Scotland was sometimes divided
between Hamilton and Kilmarnock. Those assigned to the latter place,
having been sent to the fine grass fields in the vicinity of Loudon
Castle, presented on one occasion a most striking appearance. The day
was heavy and sultry; the thunder, which had at first been heard only
at a distance, began to increase in loudness and frequency, and drew
the marked attention of the horses. As it still became more loud, and
the numerous peals, echoed along the extensive slopes of Galston Moor,
crept along the water of the Irvine, or were reverberated through the
woods, the horses became animated with the same enthusiasm which seizes
them on hearing the rolling sounds emitted from numerous cannon. They
rushed together, and, rapidly arranging themselves in their accustomed
ranks, presented the front of a field of battle.

In the following case, related by Professor Kruger, of Halle, the horse
has rivalled the most remarkable examples of the sagacity and fidelity
of the dog. "A friend of mine," says he, "who was, one dark night,
riding home through a wood, had the misfortune to strike his head
against the branch of a tree, and fell from his horse stunned by the
blow. The horse immediately returned to the house they had left, which
stood about a mile distant. He found the door closed--the family had
retired to bed. He pawed at the door, till one of them, hearing the
noise, arose and opened it, and, to his surprise, saw the horse of his
friend. No sooner was the door opened than the horse turned round; and
the man, suspecting there was something wrong, followed the animal,
which led him directly to the spot where his master lay on the ground
in a fainting fit."

A horse in England, among other bad propensities, constantly resented
the attempts of the groom to trim his fetlocks. This circumstance had
been mentioned in a conversation, during which a young child, a very
few years old, was present, when its owner defied any man to perform
the operation singly. The father, next day, in passing through the
stable-yard, beheld, with the utmost distress, the infant employed,
with a pair of scissors, in clipping the fetlocks of the hind legs of
this vicious hunter--an operation which had been always hitherto
performed with great danger, even by a number of men. But the horse, in
the present case, was looking with the greatest complacency on the
little groom, who soon after, to the very great relief of his father,
walked off unhurt.

A gentleman in Bristol had a greyhound which slept in the same stable,
and contracted a very great intimacy, with a fine hunter. When the dog
was taken out, the horse neighed wistfully after him; he welcomed him
home with a neigh; the greyhound ran up to the horse and licked him;
the horse, in return, scratched the greyhound's back with his teeth. On
one occasion, when the groom had the pair out for exercise, a large dog
attacked the greyhound, bore him to the ground, and seemed likely to
worry him, when the horse threw back his ears, rushed forward, seized
the strange dog by the back, and flung him to a distance.

That the horse is much affected by musical sounds, must be evident to
every one who has paid attention to its motions, and the expression of
its countenance, while listening to the performances of a military
band. It is even said that, in ancient times, the Libyan shepherds were
enabled to allure to them wild horses by the charms of music. That this
is at least not entirely improbable, is evident from an experiment made
by a gentleman, in the year 1829, on some of the Duke of Buccleuch's
hunters. The horses being shy of his approach, and, indeed, retreating
from it, he sounded a small musical instrument, called the mouth Eolian
harp. On hearing it, they immediately erected their heads, and turned
round. On his again sounding it, they approached nearer him. He began
to retreat, and they to follow. Having gone over a paling, one of the
horses came up to him, putting its mouth close to his breast, and
seemingly delighted with the sounds which he continued to produce. As
the other horses were coming up, apparently to follow the example of
their more confident comrade, the gentleman retired.

A farmer in England, on his way home one evening, having drank rather
hard at an alehouse, could not keep an erect position on his horse, and
rolled off the animal into the road. His horse stood still; but, after
remaining patiently for some time, and not perceiving any disposition
in his rider to get up and proceed farther, he took him by the collar
and shook him. This had little or no effect, for the farmer only gave a
grumble of dissatisfaction at having his repose disturbed. The horse
was not to be put off with any such evasion, and so he applied his
mouth to one of his coat-laps, and after several attempts, by dragging
at it, to raise him upon his feet, the coat-lap gave way. Three
individuals who witnessed this extraordinary proceeding then went up,
and assisted in putting him on his horse, putting the one coat-lap into
the pocket of the other, when the horse trotted off and safely reached
home. He was said to be very fond of his master, and to gambol with him
like a dog.

As a gentleman was proceeding from a survey at Fort Augustus to his own
house,--a distance of about sixteen miles,--the road became completely
blocked up by snow, and nearly indiscernible. In this dilemma, he
thought it best to trust to his horse, and, loosing the reins, allowed
him to choose his own course. The animal made way, cautiously and
slowly, till, coming to a gully or ravine, both horse and rider
suddenly disappeared in a snow wreath several fathoms deep. The
gentleman, on recovering, found himself nearly three yards from the
dangerous spot, with his faithful horse standing over him and licking
the snow from his face. He supposed that the bridle must have been
attached to his person, by means of which he had been drawn out of the
pit.

A cart-horse belonging to a Mr. Leggat, of Glasgow had been several
times afflicted with the bots, and as often cured by a farrier by the
name of Dawine. He had not, however, been troubled with that disease
for a considerable time; but on a recurrence of the disorder, he
happened, one morning, to be employed nearly a mile from the farrier's
house. He was arranged in a row with other horses engaged in the same
work, and, while the carters were absent, he went, unattended by any
driver, through several streets, and up a narrow lane, when he stopped
at the farrier's door. As neither Mr. Leggat nor any one else appeared
with the horse, it was surmised that he had been seized with his old
complaint. Being unyoked from the cart, he lay down, and showed, by
every means of which he was capable, that he was in distress. He was
treated as usual, and sent home to Mr. Leggat, who had by that time
sent persons in all directions in search of him.

A curious instance of instinct occurred at Bristol, England, some years
ago, which proves the great local memory possessed by horses. A person,
apparently a townsman, recognized a horse, bestrode by a countryman, to
be one which he had lost about nine months before. He seized his
property, and put in his claim: "This is my horse. I will prove it in
two minutes, or quit my claim." He then set the horse free, and
declared his proof to be that the horse would be found at his stables,
at some distance--a fact that was attested, in a few minutes, by the
two claimants, and several bystanders, repairing to the stables, where
they found the horse "quite at home."

The celebrated Polish General Kosciusko once wished to send some
bottles of good wine to a clergyman at Solothurn; and, as he hesitated
to send them by his servant, lest he should smuggle a part, he gave the
commission to a young man of the name of Zeltner, and desired him to
take the horse he usually rode. Young Zeltner, on returning, said that
he would never ride his horse again without he gave him his purse at
the same time. Kosciusko asking him what he meant, he answered, "As
soon as a poor man on the road takes off his hat, and asks for charity,
the horse immediately stands still, and will not stir till something is
given to the petitioner; and as I had no money about me, I was obliged
to make a motion as if I had given something, in order to satisfy the
horse." A higher eulogy could hardly be pronounced upon the owner of
the horse.

The wild horses of the western country are thus described by Mr.
Catlin: "There is no other animal on the prairies so wild and sagacious
as the horse, and none so difficult to come up with. So remarkably keen
is their eye, that they will generally run 'at sight' a mile distant;
and, when once in motion, they seldom stop short of three or four
miles. I made many attempts to approach them by stealth, when they were
grazing, and playing their gambols, without succeeding more than once.
In this instance I left my horse, and skulked through a ravine for a
couple of miles, until I was within gunshot of a fine herd of them.
These were of all colors--some milk-white, some jet-black; others were
sorrel, and bay, and cream color; and many were of an iron-gray. Their
manes were profuse, and hanging in the wildest confusion over their
faces and necks, while their long tails swept the ground."

The Camanches and other tribes of Indians capture great numbers of wild
horses. The process is described by Catlin as follows: "The Indian,
when he starts for a wild horse, mounts one of the fleetest he can get,
and, coiling his lasso under his arm, which consists of a thong of
cowhide ten or fifteen yards long, with a noose at the end of it, he
starts under 'full whip' till he can enter the drove, when he soon gets
the noose over the neck of one of them. He then dismounts, leaving his
own horse, and runs as fast as he can, letting the lasso pass out
gradually and carefully through his hands, until the horse falls for
want of breath, and lies helpless on the ground. The Indian then
advances slowly towards his head, keeping the lasso tight upon his
neck, until he fastens a pair of hobbles on his two fore feet, and also
loosens the lasso, and moves it round the under jaws; by which he gets
great power over the affrighted animal, which is constantly rearing and
plunging. He then advances, hand over hand, towards the horse's nose,
and places one hand over his eyes; he then breathes in his nostrils,
when he soon becomes conquered and docile, and allows himself to be led
or ridden to the camp."

It appears that horses are subject to a kind of panic, which in the
western prairies is called _stampede_. The instances of this frenzy,
as described by travellers, sometimes present the most terrific
spectacles. Mr. Kendall, in his "Narrative," gives us the following
lively sketch:--

"As there was no wood about our camping-ground, some half a dozen men
pushed on in search of it. One of them had a wild, half-broken Mexican
horse, naturally vicious, and with difficulty mastered. His rider found
a small, dry tree, cut it down with a hatchet, and very imprudently
made it fast to his horse's tail by means of a rope. The animal took it
unkindly from the first, and dragged his strange load with evident
symptoms of fright; but when within a few hundred yards of the camp, he
commenced pitching, and finally set off into a gallop, with the cause
of all his uneasiness and fear still fast to his tail. His course was
directly for the camp; and, as he sped along the prairie, it was
evident that our horses were stricken with a panic at his approach. At
first they would prick up their ears, snort, and trot majestically
about in circles; then they would dash off at the top of their speed,
and no human power could arrest their mad career.

"'A stampede!' shouted some of the old campaigners,--a stampede! Look
out for your horses, or you'll never see them again,' was heard on
every side. Fortunately for us, the more intractable horses had been
not only staked, but hobbled, before the panic became general, and were
secured with little difficulty; else we might have lost half of them.
Frequent instances have occurred where a worthless horse has occasioned
the loss of hundreds of valuable animals.

"Nothing can exceed the grandeur of the scene when a large _cavallada_,
or drove of horses, takes a 'scare.' Old, weather-beaten, time-worn,
and broken-down steeds--horses that have nearly given out from hard
work and old age--will at once be transformed into wild and prancing
colts. With heads erect, tails and manes streaming in the air, eyes lit
up, and darting beams of fright,--old and jaded hacks will be seen
prancing and careering about with all the buoyancy which characterizes
the action of young colts. Then some one of the drove, more frightened
than the rest, will dash off in a straight line, the rest scampering
after him, and apparently gaining fresh fear at every jump. The throng
will then sweep along the plain with a noise which may be likened to
something between a tornado and an earthquake; and as well might feeble
man attempt to arrest the earthquake as the stampede."


THE PONY.

This is a variety of the horse--its small stature being the result of
the climate in which it is bred. The most remarkable kinds are produced
in Wales, the Highlands of Scotland, and the Shetland Isles.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--One afternoon in September, a gentleman in
England, mounted on a favorite old shooting pony, had beaten for game
all day without meeting with any success, when, on a sudden, to his
great astonishment, his pony stopped short, and he could not persuade
him to move, either by whip or spur. He desired his keeper to go
forward. He did. A covey of fifteen partridges rose. They were, of
course, killed by the astonished sportsman. The pony had been
accustomed to carry his master for many years on shooting expeditions,
and had, no doubt, acquired a knowledge of the scent of birds.

A little girl, the daughter of a gentleman in Warwickshire, England,
playing one day on the banks of a canal which ran through the grounds,
had the misfortune to fall in, and in all probability would have been
drowned, had not a little pony, which was grazing near, and which had
been kept by the family many years, plunged into the stream, and,
taking the child up by her clothes, brought her safely to shore without
the slightest injury.

A gentleman was some time since presented with a Shetland pony, which
was only seven hands in height, and very docile and beautiful. He was
anxious to convey his present home as soon as possible, but, being at a
considerable distance, he was at a loss how to do so easily. The friend
who presented it to him said, "Can you not convey him home in your
chaise?" He accordingly made the experiment. The pony was lifted into
the bottom of the gig, and covered up with the boot--some bits of bread
being given him, to keep him quiet. He lay quite peaceably till his
master had reached his place of destination; thus exhibiting the novel
spectacle of a horse riding in a gig.

A pony mare belonging to Mr. Evans, of Montgomeryshire, England, had a
colt, and they both grazed in a field adjoining the River Severn. One
day, the pony made her appearance in front of the house, making a
clattering with her feet, and other noises, to attract attention.
Observing this, a person went out, and the pony immediately galloped
off. Mr. Evans desired he should be followed. On reaching the field,
the pony was found looking into the river, where the colt was drowned.


THE ASS.

When the ass is brought into comparison with the horse, in respect to
external form, every thing appears to be in favor of the latter animal.
The ass is inferior to the horse in size, less sprightly in its
motions, its head is heavy, and it stoops in its gait. The horse
generally moves with its head erect, looks freely abroad on the skies
and earth, with an eye expressive of lively emotions. The ass is seen
trudging slowly along, as if sensible of the hopelessness of a
cessation from toil; and, full of melancholy thoughts, its leaden eye
is fixed on the ground. Yet its shape and its habits, in its state of
servitude, present something that is pleasing, though, on the whole,
they are somewhat untoward and ungainly.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--The ass is far from being incapable of
understanding the nature of the employments in which he is engaged, or
disobedient to the commands of his master. An ass was employed, at
Carisbrook, in the Isle of Wight, in drawing water by a large wheel
from a deep well, supposed to have been sunk by the Romans. When his
keeper wanted water, he would call the ass by his name, saying, "I want
water; get into the wheel;" which wish the ass immediately complied
with; and there can be no doubt but that he knew the precise number of
times necessary for the wheel to revolve upon its axis in order to
complete his labor; for every time he brought the bucket to the surface
of the well, he stopped and turned round his head to observe the moment
when his master laid hold of the bucket to draw it towards him, because
he had then a nice motion to make either slightly forward or backward,
as the situation of the bucket might require.

In 1816, an ass belonging to Captain Dundas was shipped on board the
Ister, bound from Gibraltar to Malta. The vessel struck on a sand-bank
off the Point de Gat, and the ass was thrown overboard into a sea which
was so stormy that a boat that soon after left the ship was lost. In
the course of a few days, when the gates of Gibraltar were opened in
the morning, the guard was surprised by the same ass, which had so
recently been removed, presenting itself for admittance. On entering,
it proceeded immediately to the stable which it had formerly occupied.
The ass had not only swam to the shore, but found its own way from
Point de Gat to Gibraltar, a distance of more than two hundred miles,
through a mountainous and intricate country intersected by streams,
which it had never passed before, but which it had now crossed so
expeditiously that it must have gone by a route leading the most
directly to Gibraltar.

A few years ago, at Swalwell, England, a man set his bull-dog to attack
an ass, that for a while gallantly defended itself with its heels,
which it was agile enough to keep presented to the dog. Suddenly
turning round on its adversary, it caught it with its teeth, in such a
manner that the dog was unable to retaliate. It then dragged the
assailant to the River Derwent, into which it plunged it overhead, and
lying down upon it, kept it in the water till it was drowned.

Though the ass is frequently the subject of ill treatment, yet it seems
to be an animal not without affection for its master, which in many
cases we may suppose to be returned by kindness and care on his part. A
pleasing instance to this effect we have in the following anecdote: "An
old man, who some time ago sold vegetables in London, had an ass which
carried his baskets from door to door. He frequently gave the poor
industrious creature a handful of hay, or some pieces of bread or
greens, by way of refreshment and reward. The old man had no need of
any goad for the animal, and seldom, indeed, had he to lift up his hand
to drive it on. His kind treatment was one day remarked to him, and he
was asked whether the beast was not apt to be stubborn. 'Ah!' he said,
'it is of no use to be cruel; and as for stubbornness, I cannot
complain, for he is ready to do any thing or go any where. I bred him
myself. He is sometimes skittish and playful, and once ran away from
me: you will hardly believe it, but there were more than fifty people
after him, attempting in vain to stop him; yet he turned back of
himself, and never stopped till he ran his head kindly into my bosom.'"

The following is a pleasing anecdote of the sagacity of the ass, and
the attachment displayed by the animal to his master. Thomas Brown
travelled in England as a pedler, having an ass the partner of his
trade. From suffering under paralysis, he was in the habit of assisting
himself on the road by keeping hold of the crupper of the saddle, or
more frequently the _tail_ of the ass. During a severe winter some
years ago, whilst on one of his journeys, the old man and his ass were
suddenly plunged into a wreath of snow. There they lay far from help,
and ready to perish.

At last, after a severe struggle, the poor ass got out; but, finding
his unfortunate master absent, he eyed the snow-bank some time with a
wistful look, and at last forced his way through it to where his master
lay, when, placing his body in such a position as to allow him to lay a
firm hold on his tail, the honest pedler was enabled to grasp it, and
was actually dragged out by the faithful beast to a place of safety!


THE ZEBRA.

The zebra possesses some of the characteristics of the horse;--smaller
in size, it strongly resembles it in the shape of its body, its head,
its limbs, and its hoofs. It moves in the same paces, with a similar
activity and swiftness. But it discovers none of that docility which
has rendered the services of the horse so invaluable to man. On the
contrary, it is proverbially untamable; it is ever the most wild even
among those ferocious animals which are ranged in the menagerie, and it
preserves in its countenance the resolute determination never to
submit.

In the year 1803, General Dundas brought a female zebra from the Cape
of Good Hope, which was deposited in the Tower, and there showed less
than the usual impatience of subordination. The person who had
accompanied her home, and attended her there, would sometimes spring on
her back, and proceed thus for about two hundred yards, when she would
become restive, and oblige him to dismount. She was very irritable, and
would kick at her keeper. One day she seized him with her teeth, threw
him down, and showed an intention to destroy him, which he disappointed
by rapidly extricating himself. She generally kicked in all directions
with her feet, and had a propensity to seize with her teeth whatever
offended her. Strangers she would not allow to approach her, unless the
keeper held her fast by the head, and even then she was very prone to
kick.

The most docile zebra on record was burnt at the Lyceum, near Exeter
'Change. This animal allowed its keeper to use great familiarities with
it,--to put children on its back, without discovering any resentment.
On one occasion, a person rode it from the Lyceum to Pimlico. It had
been bred in Portugal, and was the offspring of parents half reclaimed.

The zebra of the plain differs from the other species in having the
ground color of the body white, the mane alternately striped with black
and white, and the tail of a yellowish white. A specimen of this animal
was a few years since in the Tower of London, where it was brought to a
degree of tameness seldom reached by the other variety. It ran
peaceably about the Tower, with a man by its side, whom it did not
attempt to leave except for the purpose of breaking off to the canteen,
where it was sometimes regaled with a glass of ale, a liquor for which
it discovered a considerable fondness.



ORDER IX.

RUMINANTIA,

RUMINATING ANIMALS--THOSE THAT CHEW THE CUD.


THE CAMEL.

Of this quadruped there are two species, the dromedary, and the
Bactrian camel, which has two hunches on the back. It has been used
from the earliest ages, and is one of the most useful of all the
animals over which the inhabitants of Asia and Africa have acquired
dominion. These continents are intersected by vast tracts of burning
sand, the seats of desolation and drought; but by means of the camel,
the most dreary wastes are traversed. The camel's great strength, and
astonishing powers of abstinence both from food and drink, render it
truly invaluable in these inhospitable countries. Denon tells us that,
in crossing the Arabian Desert, a single feed of beans is all their
food for a day. Their usual meal is a few dates, or some small balls of
barleymeal, or, occasionally, the dry and thorny plants they meet with,
at remote intervals, during their progress across the desert. With
these scanty meals, the contented creature will lie down to rest amid
the scorching sands, without exhibiting either exhaustion or a desire
for better fare. Well may the Arab call the camel "the ship of the
desert!"

Mr. McFarlane says, "I have been told that the Arabs will kiss their
camels, in gratitude and affection, after a journey across the deserts.
I never saw the Turks, either of Asia Minor or Roumelia, carry their
kindness so far as this; but I have frequently seen them pat their
camels when the day's work was done, and talk to them on their journey,
as if to cheer them. The camels appeared to me quite as sensible to
favor and gentle treatment as is a well-bred horse. I have seen them
curve and twist their long, lithe necks as their driver approached, and
often put down their tranquil heads toward his shoulder. Near Smyrna,
and at Magnesia and Sardes, I have occasionally seen a camel follow his
master like a pet dog, and go down on his knees before him, as if
inviting him to mount. I never saw a Turk ill-use the useful, gentle,
amiable quadruped; but I have frequently seen him give it a portion of
his own dinner, when, in unfavorable places, it had nothing but chopped
straw to eat. I have sometimes seen the _devidjis_, on a hot day, or in
passing a dry district, spirt a little water in the camels' nostrils;
they pretend it refreshes them."

The same writer says that, upon his first camel adventure, he was so
taken by surprise by the creature's singular rising behind, that he was
thrown over his head, to the infinite amusement of the Turks, who were
laughing at his inexperience. "I was made acquainted with this
peculiarity of the animal's movement, in a striking manner, the first
time I mounted a camel out of curiosity. I ought to have known
better--and, indeed, did know better; but when he was about to rise,
from old habits associated with the horse, I expected he would throw
out his fore legs, and I threw myself forward accordingly--when up
sprang his hind legs, and clean I went over his ears, to the great
delight of the devidjis."

The following interesting story of the sufferings of a caravan, from
thirst, is related by Burckhardt: "In the month of August, a small
caravan prepared to set out from Berber to Daraou. They consisted of
five merchants and about thirty slaves, with a proportionate number of
camels. Afraid of the robber Naym, who at that time was in the habit of
waylaying travellers about the wells of Nedjeym, and who had constant
intelligence of the departure of every caravan from Berber, they
determined to take a more easterly road, by the well of Owareyk. They
had hired an Ababde guide, who conducted them in safety to that place,
but who lost his way from thence northward, the route being little
frequented. After five days' march in the mountains, their stock of
water was exhausted, nor did they know where they were. They resolved,
therefore, to direct their course towards the setting sun, hoping thus
to reach the Nile. After experiencing two days' thirst, fifteen slaves
and one of the merchants died: another of them, an Ababde, who had ten
camels with him, thinking that the animals might know better than their
masters where water was to be found, desired his comrades to tie him
fast upon the saddle of his strongest camel, that he might not fall
down from weakness; and thus he parted from them, permitting his camels
to take their own way; but neither the man nor his camels were ever
heard of afterwards. On the eighth day after leaving Owareyk, the
survivors came in sight of the mountains of Shigre, which they
immediately recognized; but their strength was quite exhausted, and
neither men nor beasts were able to move any farther. Lying down under
a rock, they sent two of their servants, with the two strongest
remaining camels, in search of water. Before these two men could reach
the mountain, one of them dropped off his camel, deprived of speech,
and able only to move his hands to his comrade, as a sign that he
desired to be left to his fate. The survivor then continued his route;
but such was the effect of thirst upon him, that his eyes grew dim, and
he lost the road, though he had often travelled over it before, and had
been perfectly acquainted with it. Having wandered about for a long
time, he alighted under the shade of a tree, and tied the camel to one
of its branches; the beast, however, smelt the water, (as the Arabs
express it,) and, wearied as it was, broke its halter, and set off
galloping in the direction of the spring, which, as afterwards
appeared, was at half an hour's distance. The man, well understanding
the camel's action, endeavored to follow its footsteps, but could only
move a few yards; he fell exhausted on the ground, and was about to
breathe his last, when Providence led that way, from a neighboring
encampment, a Bisharye Bedouin, who, by throwing water upon the man's
face, restored him to his senses. They then went hastily together to
the water, filled their skins, and, returning to the caravan, had the
good fortune to find the sufferers still alive. The Bisharye received a
slave for his trouble."


DEER.

Of this genus there are many species, as the elk, moose, stag,
fallow-deer, reindeer, &c. They are characterized by timidity, a love
of retirement in the solitudes of the forest, a general capacity for
domestication, and great swiftness of foot.

The MOOSE.--In the immense forests of North America, this animal is
hunted by the Indians with such relentless perseverance, that all its
instincts are called forth for the preservation of its existence.
Tanner tells us that, "in the most violent storm, when the wind, the
thunder, and the falling timber, are making the loudest and most
incessant roar, if a man, either with his foot or hand, breaks the
smallest dry limb in the forest, the moose will hear it; and though he
does not always run, he ceases eating, and gives all his attention to
the sounds he may hear, and he does not relax this till after three or
four hours of the keenest vigilance."

The AMERICAN ELK.--This stately creature is easily domesticated, and
will then come at the call of his master, follow him to a distance from
home, and return with him quietly. Although of a gentle disposition,
instances have occurred of its turning upon its pursuers. A wounded one
was once known to turn and face a hunter in the woods of Canada; the
man was found next day pounded to a jelly, his bones being broken to
pieces; the deer, having exhausted its fury, was found dead by his
side.

The RED DEER.--The stag is said to love music, and to show great
delight at hearing any one sing. If a person happens to whistle, or
call some one at a distance, the creature stops short, and gazes upon
the stranger with a kind of silent admiration; and if he perceives
neither fire-arms nor dogs, he slowly approaches him with apparent
unconcern. He seems highly delighted with the sound of the shepherd's
pipe. Playford says, "Travelling some years since, I met, on the road
near Royston, a herd of about twenty bucks, following a bagpipe and
violin. While the music continued, they proceeded; when it ceased, they
all stood still."

Brown tells us the following story: "As Captain Smith, of the Bengal
Native Infantry, was out in the country with a shooting party, very
early in the morning, they observed a tiger steal out of a jungle in
pursuit of a herd of deer. Having selected one as his object, it was
quickly deserted by the herd. The tiger advanced with such amazing
swiftness that the stag in vain attempted to escape, and, at the moment
the gentleman expected to see the fatal spring, the deer gallantly
faced his enemy, and for some minutes kept him at bay; and it was not
till after three attacks that the tiger succeeded in securing his prey.
He was supposed to have been considerably injured by the horns of the
stag, as, on the advance of Captain Smith, he abandoned the carcass,
having only sucked the blood from the throat."

The following circumstances are mentioned by Delacroix: "When I was at
Compiegne," says he, "my friends took me to a German who exhibited a
wonderful stag. As soon as we had taken our seats in a large room, the
stag was introduced. He was of an elegant form and majestic stature,
his aspect at once animated and gentle. The first trick he performed
was, to make a profound obeisance to the company, as he entered, by
bowing his head; after which he paid his respects to each individual of
us in the same manner. He next carried about a small stick in his
mouth, to each end of which a small wax taper was attached. He was then
blindfolded, and, at the beat of a drum, fell upon his knees, and laid
his head upon the ground. As soon as the word _pardon_ was pronounced,
he instantly sprang upon his feet. Dice were thrown upon the head of a
drum, and he told the numbers that were cast up, by bowing his head so
many times. He discharged a pistol, by drawing with his teeth a string
that was tied to the trigger. He fired a small cannon by means of a
match that was fastened to his right foot, without showing any signs
of fear. He leaped several times, with the greatest agility, through
a hoop, which his master held at a man's height from the ground.
At length the exhibition was closed with his eating a handful of oats
from the head of a drum, which a person was beating the whole time
with the utmost violence. Almost every trick was performed with as
much steadiness as it could have been accomplished by the best-trained
dog."

At Wonersh, near Guildford, the seat of Lord Grantley, a fawn was
drinking in the lake, when one of the swans suddenly flew upon it, and
pulled the poor animal into the water, where it held it under till it
was drowned. This act of atrocity was noticed by the other deer in the
park, and they took care to revenge it the first opportunity. A few
days after, this swan, happening to be on land, was surrounded and
attacked by the whole herd, and presently killed. Before this time,
they were never known to molest the swans.

The VIRGINIA DEER.--A young gentleman, in Bath, Virginia, killed two
large bucks, the horns of which were so interlocked that they could not
disengage themselves. There is no doubt that they had had a combat;
and, from observations made by the sportsman, he supposed them to have
been in that condition several days. The horns were so securely
fastened that, he could not separate them without breaking off one of
the prongs. The bucks were killed at two shots, and the one which
escaped the first ball carried the other a hundred yards before he met
his death.

A farmer in the state of Kentucky domesticated a female deer, but lost
her during the whole spring and summer. After an absence of several
months, she returned with a fawn at her side, and, on her arrival,
seemed to take great pleasure in showing her young one.

The Virginia deer is said by the hunters to evince a strong degree of
animosity towards serpents, and especially to the rattlesnake. In order
to destroy one of these creatures, the deer makes a bound into the air,
and alights upon the serpent with all four feet brought together in a
square, and these violent blows are repeated till the hated reptile is
destroyed.

The REINDEER.--This animal, as is well known, is the great resource of
the Laplanders, to whom it furnishes most of the necessaries of life.
Two or three varieties are found in the polar regions of the American
continent. "They visit the Arctic shores," says Captain Lyon, "at the
latter end of May or the early part of June, and remain until late in
September. On his first arrival, the animal is thin, and his flesh is
tasteless; but the short summer is sufficient to fatten him. When
feeding on the level ground, an Esquimaux makes no attempt to approach
him; but should a few rocks be near, the wary hunter feels secure of
his prey. Behind one of these he cautiously creeps, and, having laid
himself very close, with his bow and arrow before him, imitates the
bellow of the deer when calling to its mate. Sometimes, for more
complete deception, the hunter wears his deer-skin coat and hood so
drawn over his head, as to resemble, in a great measure, the
unsuspecting animals he is enticing. Though the bellow proves a
considerable attraction, yet if a man has great patience, he may do
without it, and may be equally certain that his prey will ultimately
come to examine him; the reindeer being an inquisitive animal, and at
the same time so silly, that, if he sees any suspicious object which is
not actually chasing him, he will gradually, and after many caperings,
and forming repeated circles, approach nearer and nearer to it.

"The Esquimaux rarely shoot until the creature is within twelve paces,
and I have frequently been told of their being killed at a much shorter
distance. It is to be observed that the hunters never appear openly,
but employ stratagem for their purpose--thus by patience and ingenuity
rendering their rudely-formed bows, and still worse arrows, as
effective as the rifles of Europeans. When two men hunt in company,
they sometimes purposely show themselves to the deer, and when his
attention is fully engaged, walk slowly away from him, one before the
other. The deer follows, and when the hunters arrive near a stone, the
foremost drops behind it, and prepares his bow, while his companion
continues walking steadily forward. This latter the deer still follows
unsuspectingly, and thus passes near the concealed man, who takes a
deliberate aim, and kills him."


THE GIRAFFE.

This animal, the tallest of quadrupeds, is found in the interior of
Africa. Its height is about seventeen feet. It is of a fawn color,
marked with dark spots. Its neck is slender, its head gracefully
formed, and its eyes soft, yet animated. It associates in small troops,
and feeds upon the twigs and leaves of trees.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Some years ago, a giraffe was sent from
Egypt to Constantinople. Its keeper used to exercise it in an open
square, where the Turks used to flock daily, in great crowds, to see
the extraordinary animal. Seeing how inoffensive it was, and how
domesticated it became, the keeper used to take it with him through the
city, and, whenever he appeared, a number of friendly hands were held
out of the latticed windows to offer it something to eat. The women
were particularly attentive to it. When it came to a house where it had
been well treated, if no one was at the window, it would tap gently
against the wooden lattice, as if to announce its visit. It was
extremely docile and affectionate; and, if left to itself it always
frequented the streets where it had the most and best friends.

The giraffe has become familiar to us, in the menageries, of late
years; but half a century ago, its very existence was doubted. Le
Vaillant was the first to dissipate the mystery which enveloped it. His
account of his success in killing one, is given in the following
glowing terms: "The 18th of November was the happiest day of my life.
By sunrise I was in pursuit of game, in the hope to obtain some
provision for my men. After several hours' fatigue, we descried, at the
turn of a hill, seven giraffes, which my pack instantly pursued. Six of
them went off together; but the seventh, cut off by my dogs, took
another way. Bernfry was walking by the side of his horse; but in the
twinkling of an eye, he was in the saddle, and pursued the six. For
myself, I followed the single one at full speed; but, in spite of the
efforts of my horse, she got so much ahead of me, that, in turning a
little hill, I lost sight of her altogether; and I gave up the pursuit.
My dogs, however, were not so easily exhausted. They were soon so close
upon her, that she was obliged to stop, to defend herself. From the
place where I was, I heard them give tongue with all their might; and,
as their voices appeared all to come from the same spot, I conjectured
that they had got the animal in a corner; and I again pushed forward. I
had scarcely got round the hill, when I perceived her surrounded by the
dogs, and endeavoring to drive them away by heavy kicks. In a moment I
was on my feet, and a shot from my carbine brought her to the earth.
Enchanted with my victory, I returned to call my people about me, that
they might assist in skinning and cutting up the animal. Whilst I was
looking for them, I saw one of my men, who kept making signals which I
could not comprehend. At length, I went the way he pointed; and, to my
surprise, saw a giraffe standing under a large ebony-tree, assailed by
my dogs. It was the animal I had shot, who had staggered to this place;
and it fell dead at the moment I was about to take a second shot. Who
could have believed that a conquest like this would have excited me to
a transport almost approaching to madness! Pains, fatigues, cruel
privation, uncertainty as to the future, disgust sometimes as to the
past,--all these recollections and feelings fled at the sight of this
new prey. I could not satisfy my desire to contemplate it. I measured
its enormous height. I looked from the animal to the instrument which
had destroyed it. I called and recalled my people about me. Although we
had combated together the largest and most dangerous animals, it was I
alone who had killed the giraffe. I was now able to add to the riches
of natural history. I was now able to destroy the romance which
attached to this animal, and to establish a truth. My people
congratulated me on my triumph. Bernfry alone was absent; but he came
at last, walking at a slow pace, and holding his horse by the bridle.
He had fallen from his seat, and injured his shoulder. I heard not what
he said to me. I saw not that he wanted assistance; I spoke to him only
of my victory. He showed me his shoulder; I showed him my giraffe. I
was intoxicated, and I should not have thought even of my own wounds."


THE GOAT.

Of this animal there are many species, some wild and some domestic.
They seem to be a link between the sheep and antelope, and to partake
of the qualities of both. In some European countries, goat's milk is
used, by the poor, as a substitute for that of the cow.

_Anecdotes._--A person in Scotland having missed one of his goats
when his flock came home at night, being afraid the wanderer would get
among the young trees in his nursery, two boys, wrapped in their
plaids, were ordered to watch all night. The morning had but faintly
dawned, when they sprang up the brow of a hill in search of her. They
could but just discern her on a pointed rock far off, and, hastening to
the spot, perceived her standing with a newly-dropped kid, which she
was defending from a fox. The enemy turned round and round to lay hold
of his prey, but the goat presented her horns in every direction. The
youngest boy was despatched to get assistance to attack the fox, and
the eldest, hallooing and throwing up stones, sought to intimidate him
as he climbed to rescue his charge. The fox seemed well aware that the
child could not execute his threats; he looked at him one instant, and
then renewed the assault, till, quite impatient, he made a resolute
effort to seize the kid. Suddenly the whole three disappeared, and were
soon found at the bottom of the precipice. The goat's horns were fast
into the back of the fox; the kid lay stretched beside her. It is
supposed the fox had fixed his teeth in the kid, for its neck was
lacerated; but when the faithful mother inflicted a death-wound upon
her mortal enemy, he probably staggered, and brought his victims with
him over the rock.

Dr. Clarke, in his "Travels in Palestine," relates the following: "Upon
our road we met an Arab with a goat, which he led about the country for
exhibition, in order to gain a livelihood. He had taught this animal,
while he accompanied its movements with a song, to mount upon little
cylindrical blocks of wood, placed successively one above the other,
and in shape resembling the dice-boxes belonging to a backgammon-table.
In this manner, the goat stood first on the top of one cylinder, and
then upon the top of two, and afterwards of three, four, five, and six,
until it remained balanced upon the top of them all, elevated several
feet from the ground, and with its feet collected upon a single point,
without throwing down the disjointed fabric upon which it stood. The
diameter of the upper cylinder, on which its feet ultimately remained
until the Arab had ended his ditty, was only two inches, and the length
of each was six inches."

We are told by a late traveller that the Spaniards do not milk, and
then distribute to their customers, in the same manner as with us, but
drive their flock of goats to the residence of each customer, and then
milk and furnish according to contract. "I was looking out of the
window of the dining-room of my hotel one morning; there were at least
forty goats, young and old, and the old man who managed the affair
seemed hard pushed to get our regular supply. He had to go over the
whole flock once, and some twice, before he could completely fulfil his
contract. After carrying in his milk, he came to the door and uttered a
few Spanish words, and in an instant the whole moved off, the herdsman
bringing up the rear. They moved at the word of command much quicker,
and marched off in better order, than do our militia."


THE SHEEP.

Of this useful creature there are many varieties, all of which are
supposed to have sprung from the argali, which is found in Asia,
Europe, and America.

_Anecdotes._--The house of the celebrated Dr. Cotton, of Massachusetts,
stood on an eminence, with a garden sloping down in front, filled with
fruit-trees. At the foot of the garden was a fence, and in a straight
line with the fence was an old well-curb. Mr. Cotton kept a great many
sheep, and one day these uneasy creatures took it into their heads to
get a taste of their master's fruit. But the minister had another mind
about the matter, and sallied out to chastise the marauders. These were
very much alarmed; and, according to their usual habit, all followed
their leader to escape. The well-curb being the lowest part of the
barrier which presented itself to the retreating animal, over he
leaped, and down he went to the very bottom of the well, and after him
came several of his followers, till it was in danger of being choked up
by the silly sheep. Dr. Cotton leaped over the barrier himself, and
prevented the rest from destruction. As for those in the well, they
humbly stretched out their forefeet to their master, and bleated
piteously, as if petitioning him to release them. "Don't be in haste,"
quietly replied the good pastor: "wait patiently till I go to the house
for a rope--then I will try to save you." He was as good as his word;
he fastened the rope around their bodies, and drew them one by one out
of the water.

"There are few things," says Hogg, "more amusing than a sheep-shearing.
We send out all the lambs to the hill, and then, as fast as the ewes
are shorn, we send them to find their young ones. The moment that a
lamb hears its dam's voice, it rushes from the crowd to meet her; but
instead of finding the rough, well-clad, comfortable mamma, which it
left a few hours ago, it meets a poor, naked, shivering, most
deplorable-looking creature. It wheels about, and, uttering a loud,
tremulous bleat of despair, flies from the frightful vision. The
mother's voice arrests its flight--it returns--flies and returns
again--generally for a dozen times, before the reconciliation is fairly
made up."

The following pleasing anecdote of the power of music is given by the
celebrated Haydn: "In my early youth," says he, "I went with some other
young people equally devoid of care, one morning during the extreme
heat of summer, to seek for coolness and fresh air on one of the lofty
mountains which surround the Lago Maggiore, in Lombardy. Having reached
the middle of the ascent by daybreak, we stopped to contemplate the
Borromean Isles, which were displayed under our feet, in the middle of
the lake, when we were surrounded by a large flock of sheep, which were
leaving their fold to go to the pasture.

"One of our party, who was no bad performer on the flute, and who
always carried the instrument with him, took it out of his pocket. 'I
am going,' said he, 'to turn Corydon; let us see whether Virgil's sheep
will recognize their pastor.' He began to play. The sheep and goats,
which were following one another towards the mountain, with their heads
hanging down, raised them at the first sound of the flute, and all,
with a general and hasty movement, turned to the side from whence the
agreeable noise proceeded. They gradually flocked round the musician,
and listened with motionless attention. He ceased playing, and the
sheep did not stir.

"The shepherd with his staff now obliged them to move on; but no sooner
did the fluter begin again to play, than his innocent auditors again
returned to him. The shepherd, out of patience, pelted them with clods
of earth, but not one of them would move. The fluter played with
additional skill; the shepherd fell into a passion, whistled, scolded,
and pelted the poor creatures with stones. Such as were hit by them
began to march, but the others still refused to stir. At last, the
shepherd was forced to entreat our Orpheus to stop his magic sounds;
the sheep then moved off, but continued to stop at a distance as often
as our friend resumed the agreeable instrument.

"The tune he played was nothing more than a favorite air, at that time
performing at the Opera in Milan. As music was our continual
employment, we were delighted with our adventure; we reasoned upon it
the whole day, and concluded that physical pleasure is the basis of all
interest in music."

A gentleman, while passing through a lonely district of the Highlands,
observed a sheep hurrying towards the road before him, and bleating
most piteously. On approaching nearer, it redoubled its cries, looked
in his face, and seemed to implore his assistance. He alighted, left
his gig, and followed the sheep to a field in the direction whence it
came. There, in a solitary cairn, at a considerable distance from the
road, the sheep halted, and the traveller found a lamb completely
wedged in betwixt two large stones of the cairn, and struggling feebly
with its legs uppermost. He instantly extricated the sufferer, and
placed it on the greensward, while the mother poured forth her thanks
and joy in a long-continued and significant strain.


THE OX.

There are many varieties of the domestic ox or cow, all of which are
supposed to have sprung from a species still found wild in Europe and
Asia. The herds of wild cattle in North and South America are the
progeny of animals brought hither by the Spanish settlers.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--The following account is from the journal
of a Sante Fe trader: "Our encampment was in a beautiful plain. Our
cattle were shut up in the pen with the wagons; and our men were, with
the exception of the guard, all wrapped in a peaceful slumber,--when
all of a sudden, about midnight, a tremendous uproar was heard, which
caused every man to start in terror from his couch, with arms in hand.
Some animal, it appeared, had taken fright at a dog, and, by a sudden
start, set all around him in violent motion. The panic spread
simultaneously through the pen; and a scene of rattle, clash, and
'lumbering' succeeded, which far surpassed every thing we had yet
witnessed. A general _stampede_ was the result. Notwithstanding the
wagons were tightly bound together, wheel to wheel, with ropes or
chains, the oxen soon burst their way out; and, though mostly yoked in
pairs, they went scampering over the plains. All attempts to stop them
were in vain; but early the next morning we set out in search of them,
and recovered all the oxen, except half a dozen." Similar cases of
panic are frequently described by travellers upon the western prairies.

The cattle of South America, especially in the neighborhood of Buenos
Ayres, are said to give indications of approaching rain, before the
signs of it are visible in the atmosphere. A traveller relates that, in
passing from this place, the weather had been long dry, almost every
spring had failed, and the negroes were sent in all directions to
discover fountains. Soon after, the cattle began to stretch their necks
to the west, and to snuff in a singular manner through their noses,
which they held very high in the air. Not a cloud was then seen, nor
the slightest breath of wind felt. But the cattle proceeded, as if
seized with a sudden madness, to scamper about, then to gather
together, squeezing closer and closer, and snuffing as before. While he
was wondering what was to be the result of such extravagant motions, a
black cloud rose above the mountains, thunder and lightning followed,
the rain fell in torrents, and the cattle were soon enabled to quench
their thirst on the spot where they stood.

There are many anecdotes which show that the ox, or cow, has a musical
ear. The carts in Corunna, in Spain, make so loud and disagreeable a
creaking with their wheels, for the want of oil, that the governor once
issued an order to have them greased; but the carters petitioned that
this might not be done, as the oxen liked the sound, and would not draw
so well without their accustomed music.

Professor Bell assures us that he has often, when a boy, tried the
effect of the flute on cows, and has always observed that it produced
great apparent enjoyment. Instances have been known of the fiercest
bulls being calmed into gentleness by music.

It is probable that the old rhyme had its origin in reality:--

    "There was a piper had a cow,
      And nothing had to give her:
    He took his pipe and played a tune--
      'Consider, cow, consider.'"

A correspondent of the Penny Magazine says that, while on a visit to
the country-house of a lady, it one day happened that they were passing
the cow-house just at the time when the dairymaid was driving home the
cows, to be milked. They all passed in quietly enough, with the
exception of one, which stood lowing at the door, and resisted every
effort of the dairymaid to induce her to enter. When the maid was
interrogated as to the cause of this obstinacy, she attributed it to
pride; and when surprise was expressed at this, she explained that,
whenever any of the other cows happened to get before her, this
particular cow would seem quite affronted, and would not enter at all,
unless the others were turned out again. This statement having excited
curiosity, the maid was desired to redouble her exertions to induce the
cow to enter; on which she chased the animal through every corner of
the yard, but without success, until she at last desisted, from want of
breath, declaring that there was no other remedy than to turn out the
other cows. She was then permitted to make the experiment; and no
sooner were the others driven out, than in walked the gratified cow,
with a stately air--her more humble-minded companions following in her
rear.


THE BISON.

This animal is peculiar to North America, and wanders in vast herds
over the western plains. They are much attracted by the soft, tender
grass, which springs up after a fire has spread over the prairie. In
winter, they scrape away the snow with their feet, to reach the grass.
The bulls and cows live in separate herds for the greater part of the
year; but at all seasons, one or two bulls generally accompany a large
herd of cows. The bison is in general a shy animal, and takes to flight
instantly on winding an enemy, which the acuteness of its sense of
smell enables it to do from a great distance. They are less wary when
they are assembled together in numbers, and will then often blindly
follow their leaders, regardless of, or trampling down, the hunters
posted in their way. It is dangerous for the sportsman to show himself
after having wounded one, for it will pursue him, and, although its
gait may be heavy and awkward, it will have no difficulty in overtaking
the fleetest runner.

_Anecdotes._--Many instances might be mentioned of the pertinacity
with which this animal pursues his revenge. We are told of a hunter
having been detained for many hours in a tree by an old bull, which had
taken its post below, to watch him. When it contends with a dog, it
strikes violently with its fore feet, and in that way proves more than
a match for an English bull-dog. The favorite Indian method of killing
the bison, is by riding up to the fattest of the herd on horseback, and
shooting it with an arrow. When a large party of hunters are engaged in
this way, the spectacle is very imposing, and the young men have many
opportunities of displaying their skill and agility. The horses appear
to enjoy the sport as much as their riders, and are very active in
eluding the shock of the animal, should it turn on its pursuer. The
most common method, however, of shooting the bison, is by crawling
towards them from to leeward; and in favorable places, great numbers
are taken in pounds. When the bison runs, it leans very much first to
one side, for a short space of time, and then to the other, and so on
alternately.

When the Indians determine to destroy bisons, as they frequently do, by
driving them over a precipice, one of their swiftest-footed and most
active young men is selected, who is disguised in a bison skin, having
the head, ears, and horns adjusted on his own head, so as to make the
deception very complete; and, thus accoutred, he stations himself
between the bison herd and some of the precipices that often extend for
several miles along the rivers. The Indians surround the herd as nearly
as possible, when, at a given signal, they show themselves, and rush
forward with loud yells. The animals being alarmed, and seeing no way
open but in the direction of the disguised Indian, run towards him, and
he, taking to flight, dashes on to the precipice, where he suddenly
secures himself in some previously ascertained crevice. The foremost of
the herd arrives at the brink--there is no possibility of retreat, no
chance of escape; the foremost may for an instant shrink with terror,
but the crowd behind, who are terrified by the approaching hunters,
rush forward with increasing impetuosity, and the aggregated force
hurls them successively into the gulf, where certain death awaits them.



ORDER X.

CETACEA,

THE WHALE KIND.


This order contains a class of animals which live in the water, propel
themselves by fins, and have the general form of fishes; yet they are
viviparous, and suckle their young; in these respects forming a
striking contrast to all the other finny inhabitants of the wave. The
principal species are the dolphin, grampus, porpoise, and whale. The
latter is remarkable as being by far the largest creature known to the
animal kingdom.


THE DOLPHIN.

This animal usually swims in troops, and its motions in the water are
performed with such wonderful rapidity, that the French sailors call it
_la flèche de la mer_, or the sea-arrow. St. Pierre, in his "Voyage to
the Isle of France," assures us that he saw a dolphin swim with
apparent ease round the vessel in which he was sailing, though it was
going at the rate of about six miles an hour. A shoal of dolphins
followed the ships of Sir Richard Hawkins upwards of a thousand
leagues. They were known to be the same, from the wounds they
occasionally received from the sailors. They are greedy of almost any
kind of scraps that are thrown overboard, and consequently are often
caught by means of large iron hooks, baited with pieces of fish and
garbage.

The bounding and gambolling of dolphins has attracted the attention of
writers and poets in all ages, and is described as being extremely
beautiful.

The ancients believed that dolphins attended all cases of shipwreck,
and transported the mariners in safety to the shore. Piroetes, having
made captive Arion, the poet, at length determined on throwing him
overboard; and it is said that he escaped in safety to the shore on the
back of a dolphin.

The poet says,--

    "Kind, generous dolphins love the rocky shore,
    Where broken waves with fruitless anger roar.
    But though to sounding shores they curious come,
    Yet dolphins count the boundless sea their home.
    Nay, should these favorites forsake the main,
    Neptune would grieve his melancholy reign.
    The calmest, stillest seas, when left by them,
    Would awful frown, and all unjoyous seem.
    But when the darling frisks his wanton play,
    The waters smile, and every wave looks gay."


THE GRAMPUS.

This inhabitant of the deep is from twenty to twenty-five feet in
length, and seems to cherish a mortal spite against the whale. It
possesses the strong affection for its young common to this order. One
of the poems of Waller is founded upon the following incident: A
grampus in England, with her cub, once got into an arm of the sea,
where, by the desertion of the tide, they were enclosed on every side.
The men on shore saw their situation, and ran down upon them with such
weapons as they could at the moment collect. The poor animals were soon
wounded in several places, so that all the immediately surrounding
water was stained with their blood. They made many efforts to escape;
and the old one, by superior strength, forced itself over the shallow,
into a deep of the ocean. But though in safety herself, she would not
leave her young one in the hands of assassins. She therefore again
rushed in, and seemed resolved, since she could not prevent, at least
to share, the fate of her offspring: the tide coming in, however,
conveyed them both off in triumph.


THE PORPOISE.

This creature is familiar to every one who has been at sea, or who has
frequented the bays and harbors along our coast. It may often be seen
in troops gambolling in the water, and seeming like a drove of black
hogs, with their backs above the waves. It is imagined by the sailors
that they are the most sportive just before a storm. The following
method is adopted for taking them on the banks of the St. Lawrence:
When the fishing season arrives, the people collect together a great
number of sallow twigs, or slender branches of other trees, and stick
them pretty firmly into the sand-banks of the river, which at low water
are left dry; this is done on the side towards the river, forming a
long line of twigs at moderate distances, which at the upper end is
connected with the shore, an opening being left at the lower end, that
they may enter. As the tide rises, it covers the twigs, so as to keep
them out of sight: the porpoise, in quest of his prey, gets within the
line; when those who placed the snare rush out in numbers, properly
armed, and, while in this defenceless state, they overpower him with
ease.


THE WHALE.

Of this monster of the deep there are several species--as the Great
Whale, which is seventy or eighty feet in length; the Spermaceti Whale,
which is somewhat smaller, &c. They frequent various seas, and are most
common in cold latitudes.

To the Greenlanders, as well as the natives of more southern climates,
the whale is an animal of essential importance; and these people spend
much time in fishing for it. When they set out on their whale-catching
expeditions, they dress themselves in their best apparel, fancying
that, if they are not cleanly and neatly clad, the whale, who detests a
slovenly and dirty garb, would immediately avoid them. In this manner
about fifty persons, men and women, set out together in one of their
large boats. The women carry along with them their needles, and other
implements, to mend their husbands' clothes, in case they should be
torn, and to repair the boat, if it happen to receive any damage. When
the men discover a whale, they strike it with their harpoons, to which
are fastened lines or straps two or three fathoms long, made of
seal-skin, having at the end a bag of a whole seal-skin, blown up. The
huge animal, by means of the inflated bag, is in some degree compelled
to keep near the surface of the water. When he is fatigued, and rises,
the men attack him with their spears till he is killed.

The affection and fidelity of the male and female are very great.
Anderson informs us that some fishermen having harpooned one of two
whales that were in company together, the wounded animal made a long
and terrible resistance; it upset a boat containing three men with a
single blow of its tail, by which all went to the bottom. The other
still attended its companion, and lent it every assistance, till at
last the one that was struck sank under its wounds; while its faithful
associate, disdaining to survive the loss, with great bellowing,
stretched itself upon the dead animal, and shared its fate.

The whale is remarkable also for its attachment to its young, and may
be frequently seen urging and assisting them to escape from danger,
with the most unceasing care and fondness. They are not less remarkable
for strong feeling of sociality and attachment to one another. This is
carried to so great an extent, that, where one female of a herd is
attacked or wounded, her faithful companions will remain around her to
the last moment, until they are wounded themselves. This act of
remaining by a wounded companion is called "heaving to," and whole
"schools," or herds, have been destroyed by dexterous management, when
several ships have been in company, wholly from their possessing this
remarkable disposition.

In the year 1814, an English harpooner struck a cub, in hopes of
attracting the attention of the mother. When the young one was wounded,
the whale rose to the surface, seized the cub, and dragged a hundred
fathoms of line from the boat with great velocity. She again rose to
the surface, and dashed furiously about, seemingly deeply concerned for
the fate of her young one. Although closely pursued, she did not again
descend; and, regardless of the surrounding danger, continued in this
state, till she received three harpoons, and was at length killed.

There are few incidents in which the enterprise and power of man are
more strikingly displayed than in the chase and capture of the whale.
It would be easy to fill a volume with thrilling tales of adventure in
this hazardous vocation. One of the most curious occurrences upon
record, in relation to the whale fishery, happened to a Nantucket ship
some years since in the Pacific Ocean. An attack having been made upon
a young whale, the dam went to a distance, and, turning toward the
ship, came against the bow with a terrific force, which beat it in, and
the vessel sank, only allowing time for the hands to get into the boat.
In this they roamed upon the ocean for several weeks, and, when
emaciated to the last degree by fatigue and privation, they were
finally picked up and saved.



CLASS II. AVES.... BIRDS.


It is evident that this class of animals are generally destined to live
a portion of their time in the air, and to perch upon trees. The
scientific naturalist is struck with admiring wonder when he comes to
examine the adaptation of these creatures to their modes of life. The
ingenuity of contrivance, in giving strength, yet lightness, to the
frame of the bird, is perhaps unequalled in the whole compass of
animated nature. Nor are the feathered races less interesting to common
observers. They are associated in the mind with all that is romantic
and beautiful in scenery. Their mysterious emigrations, at stated
seasons, from land to land; their foresight of calm and storm; their
melody and beauty; and that wonderful construction by which some of
them are fitted for land and air, and others for swimming,--these
contribute to render them an unfailing source of interest to mankind at
large.

The birds are divided into six orders, under each of which we shall
notice a few of the more prominent species.



ORDER I.

ACCIPITRES,

BIRDS OF PREY.


VULTURES.

The CONDOR.--This is not only the largest of vultures, but the largest
known bird of flight. It is common in the regions of the Andes, in
South America, and is occasionally found as far north as the Rocky
Mountains of the United States. Nuttall gives us the following
characteristic sketch of this fierce and formidable bird:--

"A pair of condors will attack a cougar, a deer, or a llama: pursuing
it for a long time, they will occasionally wound it with their bills
and claws, until the unfortunate animal, stifled, and overcome with
fatigue, extends its tongue and groans; on which occasion the condor
seizes this member, being a very tender and favorite morsel, and tears
out the eyes of its prey, which at length falls to the earth and
expires. The greedy bird then gorges himself, and rests, in stupidity
and almost gluttonous inebriation, upon the highest neighboring rocks.
He can then be easily taken, as he is so gorged that he cannot fly."

_Vultures in Africa._--Mr. Pringle describes these birds as follows:
"They divide with the hyænas the office of carrion scavengers; and the
promptitude with which they discover and devour every dead carcass is
truly surprising. They also instinctively follow any band of hunters,
or party of men travelling, especially in solitary places, wheeling in
circles high in the air, ready to pounce down upon any game that may be
shot and not instantly secured, or the carcass of any ox, or other
animal, that may perish on the road. In a field of battle, no one ever
buries the dead; the vultures and beasts of prey relieve the living of
that trouble."

TURKEY BUZZARD and CARRION CROW.--These are two small species of
vulture, common in our Southern States, and may be often seen in the
cities, prowling for such offals as may fall in their way. Wilson
furnishes us with the following sketch: "Went out to Hampstead this
forenoon. A horse had dropped down in the street, in convulsions; and
dying, it was dragged out to Hampstead, and skinned. The ground, for a
hundred yards beyond it, was black with carrion crows; many sat on the
tops of sheds, fences, and houses within sight; sixty or eighty in the
opposite side of a small run. I counted, at one time, two hundred and
thirty-seven; but I believe there were more, besides several in the air
over my head, and at a distance. I ventured cautiously within thirty
yards of the carcass, which three or four dogs, and twenty or thirty
vultures, were busily tearing and devouring. Seeing them take no
notice, I ventured nearer, till I was within ten yards, and sat down on
the bank. On observing that they did not heed me, I stole so close that
my feet were within one yard of the horse's legs, and I again sat down.
They all slid aloof a few feet; but seeing me quiet, they soon returned
as before. As they were often disturbed by the dogs, I ordered the
latter home: my voice gave no alarm to the vultures. As soon as the
dogs departed, the vultures crowded in such numbers, that I counted, at
one time, thirty-seven on and around the carcass, with several within;
so that scarcely an inch of it was visible."


HAWKS.

The PEREGRINE FALCON.--Of this species, so celebrated, in former times,
for being used in the noble sport of falconry, Mr. Selby gives us an
interesting anecdote. "In exercising my dogs upon the moors, previous
to the shooting season," says he, "I observed a large bird, of the hawk
genus, hovering at a distance, which, upon approaching it, I knew to be
a peregrine falcon. Its attention was now drawn towards the dogs, and
it accompanied them whilst they beat the surrounding ground. Upon their
having found and sprung a brood of grouse, the falcon immediately gave
chase, and struck a young bird before they had proceeded far upon the
wing. My shouts and rapid advance prevented it from securing its prey.
The issue of this attempt, however, did not deter the falcon from
watching our subsequent movements, and, another opportunity soon
offering, it again gave chase, and struck down two birds, by two
rapidly repeated blows, one of which it secured, and bore off in
triumph."

_Fatal Conflict._--Le Vaillant gives an account of an engagement
between a falcon and a snake. "When this bird attacks a serpent, it
always carries the point of one of its wings forward, in order to parry
the venomous bites. Sometimes it seizes its prey and throws it high in
the air, thus wearying it out. In the present instance, the battle was
obstinate, and conducted with equal address on both sides. The serpent
at length endeavored to regain his hole; while the bird, guessing his
design, threw herself before him. On whatever side the reptile
endeavored to escape, the enemy still appeared before him. Rendered
desperate, he resolved on a last effort. He erected himself boldly, to
intimidate the bird, and, hissing dreadfully, displayed his menacing
throat, inflamed eyes, and head swollen with rage and venom. The
falcon, for one moment, seemed intimidated, but soon returned to the
charge, and, covering her body with one of her wings as a buckler, she
struck her enemy with the bony protuberance of the other. The serpent
at last staggered and fell. The conqueror then fell upon him to
despatch him, and with one stroke of her beak laid open his skull."

The KESTREL.--Selby gives us the following curious account of this
small European species of falcon. "I had," says he, "the pleasure, this
summer, of seeing the kestrel engaged in an occupation entirely new to
me--hawking after cockchaffers late in the evening. I watched him
through a glass, and saw him dart through a swarm of the insects, seize
one in each claw, and eat them whilst flying. He returned to the charge
again and again."

An extraordinary spectacle was exhibited, in 1828, in the garden of Mr.
May, of Uxbridge, in the instance of a tame male hawk sitting on three
hen's eggs. The same bird hatched three chickens the year before; but
being irritated by some person, it destroyed them. It also hatched one
chicken, in the year above mentioned, which was placed with another
brood.

The SPARROW HAWK.--A remarkable instance of the boldness of this bird
was witnessed at Market Deeping, England, one Sunday. Just as the
congregation were returning from divine service in the afternoon, a
hawk of this species made a stoop at a swallow which had alighted in
the centre of the church; and, notwithstanding the surrounding
spectators, and the incessant twitterings of numbers of the victim's
friends, the feathered tyrant succeeded in bearing his prey
triumphantly into the air.

The BUZZARD.--Of this common species of hawk, Buffon tells us the
following story: "A buzzard that had been domesticated in France
exhibited much attachment to his master, attending him at the
dinner-table, and caressing him with his head and bill. He managed to
conquer all the cats and dogs in the house, seizing their food from
them even when there were several together; if attacked, he would take
wing, with a tone of exultation. He had a singular antipathy to red
caps, which he dexterously snatched off the heads of the working men
without being perceived. He likewise purloined wigs in the same manner;
and, after carrying this strange booty off to the tallest tree, he left
them there without injury. Although he sometimes attacked the
neighboring poultry, he lived on amicable terms with those of his
master, bathing even among the chickens and ducklings without doing
them any injury."


THE EAGLE.

Of this bird, which seems to stand at the head of the feathered race,
as does the lion at the head of quadrupeds, there are many
species--among which, the sea eagle, the bald eagle, the Washington,
and the golden eagle, hold prominent places.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--Several instances have been recorded of
children being seized and carried off, by eagles, to their young. In
the year 1737, in the parish of Norderhouss, in Norway, a boy, somewhat
more than two years old, was running from the house to his parents, who
were at work in the fields at no great distance, when an eagle pounced
upon and flew off with him in their sight. It was with inexpressible
grief and anguish that they beheld their child dragged away, but their
screams and efforts were in vain.

We are told that, in the year 1827, as two boys, the one seven and the
other five years old, were amusing themselves in a field, in the state
of New York, in trying to reap during the time that their parents were
at dinner, a large eagle came sailing over them, and with a swoop
attempted to seize the eldest, but luckily missed him. The bird, not at
all dismayed, sat on the ground at a short distance, and in a few
moments repeated the attempt. The bold little fellow defended himself
with the sickle in his hand, and, when the bird rushed upon him, he
struck it. The sickle entered under the left wing, went through the
ribs, and, penetrating the liver, instantly proved fatal.

A gentleman, visiting a friend's house in Scotland, went to see a nest
which had been occupied by eagles for several summers. There was a
stone near it, upon which, when there were young ones, there were
always to be found grouse, partridges, ducks, and other game, beside
kids, fawns, and lambs. As these birds kept such an excellent
storehouse, the owner said that he was in the habit, when he had
unexpected company, of sending his servants to see what his neighbors,
the eagles, had to spare, and they scarcely ever returned without some
dainty dishes for the table; game of all kinds being better for having
been kept. When the servants took away any quantity of provisions from
the stone larder, the eagles lost no time in bringing in new supplies.

As some gentlemen were once hunting in Ireland, a large eagle hastily
descended and seized their terrier. This being observed by some of the
party, they encouraged the dog, who, turning on the eagle as it
continued to soar within a few feet of the ground, brought it down by
seizing its wing, and held it fast till the gentlemen secured it.

Sir H. Davy gives us the following: "I once saw a very interesting
sight, above one of the crags of Ben-Nevis, as I was going in the
pursuit of game. Two parent eagles were teaching their offspring--two
young birds--the manoeuvres of flight. They began by rising to the
top of a mountain in the eye of the sun; it was about midday, and
bright for this climate. They at first made small circles, and the
young birds imitated them; they then paused on their wings, waiting
till they had made their first flight. They then took a second and
larger gyration, always rising towards the sun, and enlarging their
circle of flight, so as to make a gradually ascending spiral. The young
ones slowly followed, apparently flying better as they mounted; and
they continued this sublime kind of exercise, always rising, till they
were mere points in the air, and the young ones were lost, and
afterwards their parents, to our aching sight."

Not long since, a man in Connecticut shot an eagle of the largest kind.
The bird fell to the ground, and being only wounded, the man carried
him home alive. He took good care of him, and he soon got quite well.
He became quite attached to the place where he was taken care of, and
though he was permitted to go at large, and often flew away to a
considerable distance, he would always come back again.

He used to take his station in the door-yard in the front of the house,
and, if any well-dressed person came through the yard to the house, the
eagle would sit still and make no objections; but if a ragged person
came into the yard, he would fly at him, seize his clothes with one
claw, hold on to the grass with the other, and thus make him prisoner.

Often was the proprietor of the house called upon to release persons
that had been thus seized by the eagle. It is a curious fact that he
never attacked ragged people going to the house the back way. It was
only when they attempted to enter through the front door that he
assailed them. He had some other curious habits; he did not go out
every day to get breakfast, dinner, and supper; his custom was about
once a week to make a hearty meal, and that was sufficient for six
days. His most common food was the king-bird, of which he would catch
sometimes ten in the course of a few hours, and these would suffice for
his weekly repast.


THE OWL.

Of this numerous family, there are a great variety of species; but
nearly all steal forth at night, preying upon such birds and quadrupeds
as they can master. They are spread over the northern portions of both
continents, and appear in all minds to be associated with ideas of
melancholy and gloom. The owl was anciently an emblem of wisdom; but we
have no evidence that it possesses sagacity in any degree superior to
that of any other member of the feathered family.

Mr. Nuttall gives us the following description of a red owl: "I took
him out of a hollow apple-tree, and kept him several months. A dark
closet was his favorite retreat during the day; in the evening he
became very lively, gliding across the room with a side-long, restless
flight, blowing with a hissing noise, stretching out his neck in a
threatening manner, and snapping with his bill. He was a very expert
mouse-catcher, swallowed his prey whole, and afterwards ejected the
bones, skin, and hair, in round balls. He also devoured large flies. He
never showed any inclination to drink."

The little owl has a cry, when flying, like _poopoo_. Another note,
which it utters sitting, appears so much like the human voice calling
out, _Aimé aimé edmé_, that it deceived one of Buffon's servants, who
lodged in one of the old turrets of a castle; and waking him up at
three o'clock in the morning with this singular cry, the man opened the
window, and called out, "Who's there below? My name is not Edmé, but
Peter!"

A carpenter, passing through a field near Gloucester, England, was
attacked by a barn owl that had a nest of young ones in a tree near the
path. The bird flew at his head; and the man, striking at it with a
tool he had in his hand, missed his blow, upon which the owl repeated
the attack, and, with her talons fastened on his face, tore out one of
his eyes, and scratched him in the most shocking manner.

A gentleman in Yorkshire, having observed the scales of fishes in the
nest of a couple of barn owls that lived in the neighborhood of a lake,
was induced, one moonlight night, to watch their motions, when he was
surprised to see one of the old birds plunge into the water and seize a
perch, which it bore to its young ones.

A party of Scottish Highlanders, in the service of the Hudson's Bay
Company, happened, in a winter journey, to encamp, after nightfall, in
a dense clump of trees, whose dark tops and lofty stems, the growth of
centuries, gave a solemnity to the scene that strongly tended to excite
the superstitious feelings of the Highlanders. The effect was
heightened by the discovery of a tomb, which, with a natural taste
often exhibited by the Indians, had been placed in this secluded spot.
Our travellers, having finished their supper, were trimming their fire
preparatory to retiring to rest, when the slow and dismal notes of the
horned owl fell on the ear with a startling nearness. None of them
being acquainted with the sound, they at once concluded that so
unearthly a voice must be the moaning of the spirit of the departed,
whose repose they supposed they had disturbed by inadvertently making a
fire of some of the wood of which his tomb had been constructed. They
passed a tedious night of fear, and with the first dawn of day, hastily
quitted the ill-omened spot.

Genghis Khan, who was founder of the empire of the Mogul Tartars, being
defeated, and having taken shelter from his enemies, owed his
preservation to a snowy owl, which was perched over the bush in which
he was hid, in a small coppice. His pursuers, on seeing this bird,
never thought it possible he could be near it. Genghis in consequence
escaped, and ever afterwards this bird was held sacred by his
countrymen, and every one wore a plume of its feathers on his head.



ORDER II.

PASSERINÆ.


This order derives its name from _passer_, a sparrow; but the title is
not very appropriate, for it includes not sparrows only, but a variety
of birds greatly differing from them. They have not the violence of
birds of prey, nor are they restricted to a particular kind of food.
They feed mainly on insects, fruit, and grain.


THE SHRIKE, OR BUTCHER-BIRD.

One of these birds had once the boldness to attack two canaries
belonging to a gentleman in Cambridge, Mass., which were suspended, one
fine winter's day, at the window. The poor songsters, in their fear,
fluttered to the side of the cage, and one of them thrust its head
through the bars of its prison; at this moment the wily butcher tore
off its head, and left the body dead in the cage. The cause of the
accident seemed wholly mysterious, till, on the following day, the bold
hunter was found to have entered the room with a view to despatch the
remaining bird; and but for a timely interference, it would instantly
have shared the fate of its companion.

This bird has been observed to adopt an odd stratagem. It sticks
grasshoppers upon the sharp, thorny branches of trees, for the purpose
of decoying the smaller birds, that feed on insects, into a situation
whence it could dart on them.


THE KING-BIRD.

Mr. Nuttall, who domesticated one of these birds, gives us the
following account: "His taciturnity, and disinclination to
familiarities, were striking traits. His restless, quick, and
side-glancing eye enabled him to follow the motions of his insect prey,
and to know the precise moment of attack. The snapping of his bill, as
he darted after them, was like the shutting of a watch-case. He readily
caught morsels of food in his bill. Berries he swallowed whole. Large
grasshoppers and beetles he pounded and broke on the floor. Some very
cold nights, he had the sagacity to retire under the shelter of a
depending bed-quilt. He was pleased with the light of lamps, and would
eat freely at any hour of the night."


THE CEDAR-BIRD.

This beautiful member of the feathered family flies in flocks, and
makes himself familiar with the cherry trees when their fruit is ripe.
Though his habits are timid and somewhat shy, he appears to possess an
affectionate disposition. Mr. Nuttall tells us that one among a row of
these birds, seated one day upon a branch, was observed to catch an
insect, and offer it to his associate, who very disinterestedly passed
it to the next, and, each delicately declining the offer, the morsel
proceeded backwards and forwards many times before it was appropriated.


THE SCARLET TANAGER.

Wilson gives us the following interesting anecdote of one of these
birds: "Passing through an orchard one morning, I caught a young
tanager that had apparently just left the nest. I carried it with me to
the Botanic Garden, put it in a cage, and hung it on a large pine-tree
near the nest of two orioles, hoping that their tenderness might induce
them to feed the young bird. But the poor orphan was neglected, till at
last a tanager, probably its own parent, was seen fluttering round the
cage, and endeavoring to get in. Finding this impracticable, it flew
off, and soon returned with food in its bill, feeding the young one
till sunset: it then took up its lodgings on the higher branches of the
same tree. In the morning, as soon as day broke, he was again seen most
actively engaged; and so he continued for three or four days. He then
appeared extremely solicitous for the liberation of his charge, using
every expression of anxiety, and every call and invitation that nature
had put in his power, for him to come out. Unable to resist this
powerful pleader, I opened the cage, took out the prisoner, and
restored it to its parent, who, with notes of great exultation,
accompanied its flight to the woods."


THE MOCKING-BIRD.

The mocking-bird selects the place for his nest according to the region
in which he resides. A solitary thorn bush, an almost impenetrable
thicket, an orange or cedar-tree, or a holly bush, are favorite spots;
and sometimes he will select a low apple or pear-tree. The nest is
composed of dry twigs, straw, wool, and tow, and lined with fine
fibrous roots. During the time when the female is sitting, neither cat,
dog, animal, or man, can approach the nest without being attacked.

But the chief vengeance of the bird is directed against his mortal
enemy, the black snake. Whenever this reptile is discovered, the male
darts upon it with the rapidity of an arrow, dexterously eluding its
bite, and striking it violently and incessantly upon the head. The
snake soon seeks to escape; but the intrepid bird redoubles his
exertions; and as the serpent's strength begins to flag, he seizes it,
and lifts it up from the ground, beating it with his wings; and when
the business is completed, he returns to his nest, mounts the summit of
the bush, and pours out a torrent of song, in token of victory.

His strong, musical voice is capable of every modulation. His matin
notes are bold and full, consisting of short expressions of two, three,
or five and six syllables, generally interspersed with imitations, all
of them uttered with great emphasis and rapidity. His expanded wings,
and tail glistening with white, and the buoyant gayety of his action,
arrest the eye as his song does the ear.

The mocking-bird loses little of the power and energy of his music by
confinement. When he commences his career of song, it is impossible to
stand by uninterested. He whistles for the dog; Cæsar starts up, wags
his tail, and runs to meet his master. He squeaks out like a hurt
chicken, and the hen hurries about with hanging wings and bristling
feathers, clucking to protect her injured brood. The barking of the
dog, the mewing of the cat, the creaking of the passing wheelbarrow,
follow with great truth and rapidity. He repeats the tune taught him by
his master, though of considerable length, fully and faithfully. He
runs over the quiverings of the canary, and the clear whistlings of the
red-bird, with such superior execution and effect, that the mortified
songsters feel their own inferiority, while he seems to triumph in
their defeat by redoubling his exertions.


THE BALTIMORE ORIOLE.

A correspondent of Wilson furnishes the following account of an oriole:
"This bird I took from the nest when very young. I taught it to feed
from my mouth; and it would often alight on my finger, and strike the
end with its bill, until I raised it to my mouth, when it would insert
its bill, to see what I had for it to eat. In winter, spring, and
autumn, it slept in a cage lined with cotton batting. After I had put
it in, if I did not close up the apertures with cotton, it would do so
itself, by pulling the cotton from the sides of the cage till it had
shut up all the apertures; I fed it with sponge cake; and when this
became dry and hard, it would take a piece and drop it into the saucer,
and move it about till it was soft enough to be eaten.

"In very cold weather, the oriole would fly to me, and get under my
cape, and nestle down upon my neck. It often perched upon my finger,
and drew my needle and thread from me when I was sewing. At such times,
if any child approached me and pulled my dress, it would chase after
the offender, with its wings and tail spread, and high resentment in
its eye. In sickness, when I have been confined to the bed, the little
pet would visit my pillow many times during the day, often creeping
under the bed-clothes. At such times, it was always low-spirited. When
it wanted to bathe, it would approach me with a very expressive look,
and shake its wings. On my return home from a call or visit, it would
invariably show its pleasure by a peculiar sound."


THE WREN.

Wilson furnishes us with the following anecdotes of this little
favorite:--

"In the month of June, a mower once hung up his coat under a shed in
the barn: two or three days elapsed before he had occasion to put it on
again. When he did so, on thrusting his arm into the sleeve, he found
it completely filled with rubbish, as he expressed it, and, on
extracting the whole mass, found it to be the nest of a wren,
completely finished, and lined with a large quantity of feathers. In
his retreat he was followed by the forlorn little proprietors, who
scolded him with great vehemence for thus ruining the whole economy of
their household affairs."

"A box fitted up in the window of a room where I slept, was taken
possession of by a pair of wrens. Already the nest was built, and two
eggs laid; when one day, the window being open as well as the room
door, the female wren, venturing too far into the room, was sprung upon
by grimalkin, and instantly destroyed. Curious to know how the survivor
would demean himself, I watched him carefully for several days. At
first he sang with great vivacity for an hour or so; but, becoming
uneasy, went off for half an hour. On his return, he chanted again as
before, went to the top of the house, stable, and weeping willow, that
his mate might hear him; but seeing no appearance of her, he returned
once more, visited the nest, ventured cautiously into the window, gazed
about with suspicious looks, his voice sinking into a low, melancholy
note, as he stretched his neck in every direction.

"Returning to the box, he seemed for some minutes at a loss what to do,
and soon went off, as I thought altogether, for I saw no more of him
that day. Towards the afternoon of the second day, he again made his
appearance, accompanied with a new female, who seemed exceedingly
timorous and shy, and after great hesitation entered the box. At this
moment, the little widower and bridegroom seemed as if he would warble
out his very life with ecstasy of joy. After remaining about half a
minute inside, they began to carry out the eggs, feathers, and some of
the sticks, supplying the place of the two latter with materials of the
same sort, and ultimately succeeded in raising a brood of seven young
ones, all of whom escaped in safety."


THE PURPLE MARTIN.

This well-known bird is a general inhabitant of the United States, and
a particular favorite wherever he takes up his abode. "I never met with
more than one man," says Wilson, "who disliked the martins, and would
not permit them to settle about his house. This was a penurious,
close-fisted German, who hated them because, as he said, 'they ate his
_peas_.' I told him he must certainly be mistaken, as I never knew an
instance of martins eating _peas_; but he replied, with great coolness,
that he had often seen them 'blaying round the hive, and going
_schnip_, _schnap_,' by which I understood that it was his _bees_ that
had been the sufferers; and the charge could not be denied."


THE SWALLOW.

In England, in one corner of the piazza of a house, a swallow had
erected her nest, while a wren occupied a box which was purposely hung
in the centre. They were both much domesticated. The wren became
unsettled in its habits, and formed a design of dislodging the swallow;
and having made an attack, actually succeeded in driving her away.
Impudence gets the better of modesty; and this exploit was no sooner
performed, than the wren removed every part of the materials to her own
box, with the most admirable dexterity. The signs of triumph appeared
very visible; it fluttered with its wings with uncommon velocity, and a
universal joy was perceivable in all its movements. The peaceable
swallow, like the passive Quaker, meekly sat at a small distance, and
never offered the least opposition. But no sooner was the plunder
carried away, than the injured bird went to work with unabated ardor,
and in a few days the depredations were repaired.

A swallow's nest, built in the west corner of a window in England
facing the north, was so much softened by the rain beating against it,
that it was rendered unfit to support the superincumbent load of five
pretty, full-grown swallows. During a storm, the nest fell into the
lower corner of the window, leaving the young brood exposed to all the
fury of the blast. To save the little creatures from an untimely death,
the owner of the house benevolently caused a covering to be thrown over
them, till the severity of the storm was past. No sooner had it
subsided, than the sages of the colony assembled, fluttering round the
window, and hovering over the temporary covering of the fallen nest. As
soon as this careful anxiety was observed, the covering was removed,
and the utmost joy evinced by the group, on finding the young ones
alive and unhurt. After feeding them, the members of this assembled
community arranged themselves into working order. Each division, taking
its appropriate station, commenced instantly to work; and before
nightfall, they had jointly completed an arched canopy over the young
brood in the corner where they lay, and securely covered them against a
succeeding blast. Calculating the time occupied by them in performing
this piece of architecture, it appeared evident that the young must
have perished from cold and hunger before any single pair could have
executed half the job.


THE SKYLARK.

A gentleman was travelling on horseback, a short time since, in
Norfolk, England, when a lark dropped on the pommel of his saddle, and,
spreading its wings in a submissive manner, cowered to him. He stopped
his horse, and sat for some time in astonishment, looking at the bird,
which he supposed to be wounded; but on endeavoring to take it, the
lark crept round him, and placed itself behind: turning himself on the
saddle, to observe it, the poor animal dropped between the legs of the
horse, and remained immovable. It then struck him that the poor thing
was pursued, and, as the last resource, hazarded its safety with him.
The gentleman looked up, and discovered a hawk hovering directly over
them; the poor bird again mounted the saddle, under the eye of its
protector; and the disappointed hawk shifting his station, the little
fugitive, watching his opportunity, darted over the hedge, and was hid
in an instant.


THE TITMOUSE.

During the time of incubation, the natural timidity of birds is greatly
lessened. The following instance, given by W. H. Hill, of Gloucester,
England, illustrates this: "Some time since, a pair of blue titmice
built their nest in the upper part of an old pump, fixing on the pin,
on which the handle worked. It happened that, during the time of
building the nest and laying the eggs, the pump had not been used: when
again set going, the female was sitting, and it was naturally expected
that the motion of the pump-handle would drive her away. The young
brood were hatched safely, however, without any other misfortune than
the loss of part of the tail of the sitting bird, which was rubbed off
by the friction of the pump-handle; nor did they appear disturbed by
the visitors who were frequently looking at them."


THE CANARY-BIRD.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--At a public exhibition of birds, some years
ago, in London, a canary had been taught to act the part of a deserter,
and flew away pursued by two others, who appeared to apprehend him. A
lighted candle being presented to one of them, he fired a small cannon,
and the little deserter fell on one side, as if killed by the shot.
Another bird then appeared with a small wheelbarrow, for the purpose of
carrying off the dead; but as soon as the barrow came near, the little
deserter started to his feet.

"On observing," says Dr. Darwin, "a canary-bird at the house of a
gentleman in Derbyshire, I was told it always fainted away when its
cage was cleaned; and I desired to see the experiment. The cage being
taken from the ceiling, and the bottom drawn out, the bird began to
tremble, and turned quite white about the root of the bill; he then
opened his mouth as if for breath, and respired quick; stood up
straighter on his perch, hung his wing, spread his tail, closed his
eyes, and appeared quite stiff for half an hour, till at length, with
trembling and deep respirations, he came gradually to himself."

A few years since, a lady at Washington had a pair of canaries in a
cage, one of which, the female, at last died. The survivor manifested
the utmost grief; but upon a looking-glass being placed by his side, so
that he could see his image, he took it for his departed friend, and
seemed at once restored to happiness. The details of the story are
given in the following lines:--

    Poor Phil was once a blithe canary--
      But then his mate was at his side;
    His spirits never seemed to vary,
      Till she, one autumn evening, died;--
    And now upon his perch he clung,
      With ruffled plumes and spirits low,
    His carol hushed; or, if he sung,
      'Twas some sad warble of his wo.

    His little mistress came with seed:--
    Alas! he would not, could not, feed.
    She filled his cup with crystal dew;
    She called--she whistled:--'twould not do;
    The little mourner bowed his head,
    And gently peeped--"My mate is dead!"

    Alas, poor Phil! how changed art thou!
    The gayest then, the saddest now.
    The dribbled seed, the limpid wave,
    Would purchase, then, thy sweetest stave;
    Or, if thou hadst some softer spell,
    Thine ear had stolen from the shell
    That sings amid the silver sand
    That circles round thy native land,
    'Twas only when, with wily art,
    Thou sought'st to charm thy partner's heart.
    And she is gone--thy joys are dead--
    Thy music with thy mate is fled!

    Poor bird! upon the roost he sate,
    With drooping wing, disconsolate;
    And as his little mistress gazed,
    Her brimming eyes with tears were glazed.
    In vain she tried each wonted art
    To heal the mourner's broken heart.
    At last she went, with childish thought,
    And to the cage a mirror brought.
    She placed it by the songster's side--
    And, lo! the image seemed his bride!
    Forth from his perch he wondering flew,
    Approached, and gazed, and gazed anew;
    And then his wings he trembling shook,
    And then a circling flight he took;
    And then his notes began to rise,
    A song of triumph, to the skies!
    And since--for many a day and year,
    That blissful bird--the mirror near--
    With what he deems his little wife,
    His partner still--has spent his life:
    Content, if but the image stay,
    Sit by his side, and list his lay!

    Thus fancy oft will bring relief,
    And with a shadow comfort grief.


THE BULFINCH.

A farmer in Scotland had a bulfinch which he taught to whistle some
plaintive old Scottish airs. He reluctantly parted with the bird for a
sum of money, which his narrow circumstances at the time compelled him
to accept of; but inwardly resolved, if fortune should favor him, to
buy it back, cost what it would. At the end of a year or so, a relation
died, leaving him a considerable legacy. Away he went, the very day
after he got intelligence of this pleasant event, and asked the person
who had purchased the bulfinch, if he would sell it again, telling him
to name his own price. The man would not hear of parting with the bird.
The farmer begged just to have a sight of it, and he would be
satisfied. This was readily agreed to; so, as soon as he entered the
room where the bulfinch was kept, he began to whistle one of the fine
old tunes which he had formerly taught it. The bulfinch remained in a
listening attitude for a minute or two, then it grew restless, as if
struggling with some dim recollection,--then it moved joyously to the
side of the cage, and all at once it seemed to identify its old master,
who had no sooner ceased, than it took up the tune, and warbled it with
the tremulous pathos which marked the manner of its teacher. The effect
was irresistible; the poor farmer burst into tears, and the matter
ended by his receiving the bulfinch in a present: but report says, to
his credit, that he insisted on making a present of money, in return.


THE SPARROW.

A few years since, a pair of sparrows, which had built in the thatch
roof of a house at Poole, were observed to continue their visits to the
nest long after the time when the young birds take flight. This unusual
circumstance continued throughout the year; and in the winter, a
gentleman who had all along observed them, determined on investigating
the cause. He therefore mounted a ladder, and found one of the young
ones detained a prisoner, by means of a piece of string, or worsted,
which formed part of the nest, having become accidentally twisted round
its leg. Being thus incapacitated from procuring its own sustenance, it
had been fed by the continued exertions of its parents.

An old man belonging to the neighborhood of Glasgow, who was a soldier
in his youth, mentions, that he became first reconciled to a foreign
country, by observing a sparrow hopping about just as he had seen them
do at home. "Are you here too, freen?" said he to the sparrow. He does
not add that it returned a verbal answer to his exclamatory question;
but he could not help fancying that it looked assent, as if it
understood he was an exile, and wished him to take a lesson of
resignation to circumstances.


THE CROW.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--In the year 1816, a Scotch newspaper states
that a common crow, perceiving a brood of young chickens, fourteen in
number, under the care of a parent hen, picked up one of them; but a
young lady, seeing what had happened, suddenly pulled up the window,
and calling out loudly, the plunderer dropped his prey. In the course
of the day, however, the audacious and calculating robber, accompanied
by thirteen others, came to the place where the chickens were, and each
seizing one, got clearly off with the whole brood at once.

An instance of sagacity in the crow is told by Dr. Darwin. He had a
friend, on the northern coast of Ireland, who noticed above a hundred
crows at once, feeding on mussels. The plan they took to break them
was, each to lift one in its bill, and ascend about thirty or forty
yards in the air, and from thence let the mussels drop upon stones;
thus they secured the flesh of the animal inhabitants.

During the war between Augustus Cæsar and Mark Antony, when the world
looked with anxiety which way Fortune would turn herself, an indigent
man in Rome, in order to be prepared to take advantage of whichever way
she might incline, determined on making a bold hit for his own
advancement; he had recourse, therefore, to the following ingenious
expedient: He applied himself to the training of two crows with such
diligence, that he taught them at length to pronounce distinctly, the
one a salutation to Cæsar, and the other to Antony. When Augustus
returned conqueror, the man went out to meet him, with one of the crows
perched on his hand, which every little while exclaimed, _Salve, Cæsar,
Victor, Imperator!_ Augustus, greatly struck, and delighted with so
novel a circumstance, purchased the bird of the man for a sum which
immediately raised him to opulence.

There is a kind of crow, which is seen in England in flocks, called
the _hooded_ crow. It is said that one or two hundred of them will
sometimes meet together as if upon some fixed plan; and at these times,
a few of them sit with drooping heads, and others look very grave, as
if they were judges, while others still are very bustling and noisy. In
about an hour, the meeting breaks up, when one or two are generally
found dead; and it has been supposed that this meeting is a sort of
trial of some crows who have behaved ill, and who are punished in this
severe way for their bad behavior.


THE RAVEN.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--This bird is very hardy, crafty, and wary.
He is easily domesticated, and is very mischievous, readily catching up
any thing glittering, and hiding it. There is a well-authenticated fact
of a gentleman's butler having missed a great many silver spoons, and
other articles, without being able to detect the thief for some time;
at last he observed a tame raven with one in his mouth, and watched him
to his hiding-place, where he found more than a dozen.

A young raven, fifteen months old, was taken from the nest when very
young, and brought up by a keeper with his dogs. It was so completely
domesticated that it would go out with the keeper, and when it took its
flight farther than usual, at the sound of the whistle it would return
and perch upon a tree or a wall, and watch all his movements. It was no
uncommon thing for it to go to the moors with him, and to return--a
distance of ten or twelve miles. It would even enter a village with the
keeper, partake of the same refreshment, and never leave him until he
returned home.

A gentleman who resided near the New Forest, Hampshire, England, had a
tame raven, which used frequently to hop about the verge of the forest,
and chatter to every one it met. One day, a person travelling through
the forest to Winchester, was much surprised at hearing the following
exclamation: "Fair play, gentlemen! fair play! for God's sake,
gentlemen, fair play!" The traveller, looking round to discover from
whence the voice came, to his great astonishment, beheld no human being
near. But hearing the cry of "fair play" again repeated, he thought it
must proceed from some fellow-creature in distress. He immediately
rushed into that part of the forest from whence the cries came, where,
to his unspeakable astonishment, the first objects he beheld were two
ravens combating a third with great fury, while the sufferer, which
proved to be the tame one aforesaid, kept loudly vociferating, "fair
play;" which so diverted the traveller, that he instantly rescued the
oppressed bird, by driving away his adversaries; and returned highly
pleased with his morning adventure.


THE MAGPIE.

This bird, which is found in Europe, and also in the plains east of the
Rocky Mountains, is remarkable alike for its loquacity and its
disposition to theft--a trait of character which belongs to several
birds of the same genus. Lady Morgan furnishes us with the following
anecdote:--

"A noble lady of Florence resided in a house which still stands
opposite the lofty Doric column which was raised to commemorate the
defeat of Pietro Strozzi, and the taking of Sienna, by the tyrannic
conqueror of both, Cosmo the First. She lost a valuable pearl necklace,
and one of her waiting-women, a very young girl, was accused of the
theft. Having solemnly denied the fact, she was put to the torture,
which was then practised at Florence. Unable to support its terrible
infliction, she acknowledged that 'she was guilty,' and, without
further trial, was hung. Shortly after, Florence was visited by a
tremendous storm; a thunderbolt fell on the figure of Justice, and
split the scales, one of which fell to the earth, and with it fell the
ruins of a magpie's nest, containing the pearl necklace. Those scales
are still the haunts of birds, and I never saw them hovering round
them, without thinking of those 'good old times,' when innocent women
could be first tortured, and then hung, on suspicion."

We are informed by Plutarch of a magpie, belonging to a barber at Rome,
which could imitate every word it heard uttered. It happened one day
that some trumpets were sounded before the shop door, and for some days
afterwards the magpie was quite mute, and appeared pensive and
melancholy. This change in its manners greatly surprised all who knew
it, and it was supposed that the sound of the trumpets had so
completely stunned the poor bird, that it was deprived of both voice
and hearing. It soon appeared, however, that this was not the case; for
Plutarch says, the bird had been all the while occupied in profound
meditation, studying how to imitate the sound of the trumpets, which
had made a deep impression on him; and at last, to the astonishment of
all its friends, it broke its long silence by a very perfect imitation
of the flourish of the trumpets it had heard; observing with great
accuracy all the repetitions, stops, and changes. But this turned out
an unfavorable lesson, for the magpie forgot every thing else, and
never afterwards attempted another imitation but that of the trumpets.


THE HUMMING-BIRD.

The following is from the pen of Wilson: "A nest of young humming-birds
was once brought to me that were nearly fit to fly; one of them flew
out of the nest and was killed. The other was fed with sugar and water,
into which it thrust its bill, sucking it with great avidity. I kept it
upwards of three months, feeding it on sugar and water; gave it fresh
flowers every morning, sprinkled with the liquid, and surrounded the
space in which I kept it with gauze, that it might not injure itself.
It appeared gay, active, and full of spirit, humming from flower to
flower, as if in its native wilds, and always expressed, by its motions
and chirping, great pleasure at seeing fresh flowers introduced into
its cage. Numbers of people visited it from motives of curiosity, and I
took every precaution to preserve it, if possible, through the winter.
Unfortunately, however, it got at large in the room, and, flying about,
so injured itself, that it soon after died."


THE BLUE JAY.

"This elegant bird," says Wilson, "is distinguished as a kind of beau
among the feathered tenants of our woods, by the brilliancy of his
dress. He possesses the mischievous disposition of the jay family, and
he seems particularly fond of exercising his malignant ingenuity
against the owl. No sooner has he discovered the retreat of one of
these, than he summons the whole feathered fraternity to his
assistance, who surround the glimmering _solitaire_, and attack him
from all sides, raising such a shout as might be heard, on a still day,
more than half a mile off. When, in my hunting excursions, I have
passed near this scene of tumult, I have imagined to myself that I
heard the insulting party, venting their respective charges with all
the virulence of a Billingsgate mob; the owl, meanwhile, returning
every compliment with a broad, goggling stare. The war becomes louder
and louder, and the owl, at length, forced to betake himself to flight,
is followed by his whole train of persecutors, until driven beyond the
boundaries of their jurisdiction."

_Anecdotes._--A gentleman in South Carolina gives an account of a blue
jay, which was brought up in his family, that had all the tricks and
loquacity of a parrot; pilfered every thing he could carry off, and hid
them in holes and crevices; answered to his name with great sociability
when called on; could articulate a number of words pretty distinctly;
and when he heard an uncommon noise, or loud talking, seemed impatient
to contribute his share to the general festivity, by a display of all
the oratorical powers he was possessed of.

"Having caught a jay in the winter season," says Mr. Bartram, "I turned
him loose in the greenhouse, and fed him with corn, the heart of which
he was very fond of. The grain being ripe and hard, the bird at first
found a difficulty in breaking it, as it would start from his bill when
he struck it. After looking about, as if considering a moment, he
picked up his grain, carried and placed it close up in a corner on the
shelf, between the wall and a plant-box, where being confined on three
sides, he soon effected his purpose, and continued afterwards to make
use of the same practical expedient."



ORDER III.

SCANSORIÆ,

CLIMBING BIRDS.


THE CUCKOO.

Dr. Jenner gives us the following anecdote: "I found one day the nest
of a hedge-sparrow, which contained a cuckoo's and three
hedge-sparrow's eggs. The next day, I found the bird had hatched, but
the nest now contained only one sparrow, and the cuckoo. What was my
astonishment to observe the young cuckoo, though so newly hatched, in
the act of turning out the young hedge-sparrow! The mode of
accomplishing this was very curious. The little animal, with the
assistance of its rump and wings, contrived to get the bird on its
back, and, making a lodgment for the burden, by elevating its elbows,
clambered with it to the side of the nest till it reached the top,
where resting for a moment, it threw off its load with a jerk, and
quite disengaged it from the nest. It remained in this situation a
short time, feeling about with the extremities of its wings, as if to
be convinced that the business was properly done, and then dropped into
the nest again."


THE WOODPECKER.

The RED-HEADED WOODPECKER.--Of the woodpecker there are several
species; but this is one of the best known. It is, properly speaking, a
bird of passage; though even in the Eastern States individuals are
found during moderate winters, as well as in the states of New York and
Pennsylvania. Notwithstanding the care which this bird takes to place
its young beyond the reach of enemies, within the hollows of trees, yet
there is one deadly foe, against whose depredations neither the height
of the tree nor the depth of the cavity, is the least security. This is
the black snake, who frequently glides up the trunk of the tree, and,
like a skulking savage, enters the woodpecker's peaceful apartment,
devours the eggs, or helpless young, in spite of the cries and
flutterings of the parents, and, if the place is large enough, coils
himself up in the spot they occupied, where he will sometimes remain
several days.

The IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER.--Wilson says, "I found one of these birds
while travelling in North Carolina. It was slightly wounded in the
wing, and, on being caught, uttered a loudly-reiterated and most
piteous note, exactly like the violent crying of a child, which
terrified my horse very much. It was distressing to hear it. I carried
it with me under cover to Wilmington. In passing through the streets,
its affecting cries surprised every one within hearing, especially the
females, who hurried to the doors and windows with looks of anxiety and
alarm. I rode on, and on arriving at the piazza of the hotel where I
intended to put up, the landlord came forward, and a number of persons
who happened to be there, all equally alarmed at what they heard; this
was greatly increased by my asking whether he could furnish me with
accommodations for myself and baby. The man looked foolish, and the
others stared with astonishment. After diverting myself a few minutes
at their expense, I drew out my woodpecker, and a general laugh took
place. I took him up stairs, and locked him up in my room, and tied him
with a string to the table. I then went out to procure him some food.
On my return, I had the mortification to find that he had entirely
ruined the mahogany table, on which he had wreaked his whole vengeance.
I kept him three days, but, refusing all sustenance, he died, to my
great regret."


THE PARROT.

This is a large genus of birds, consisting of two hundred species,
distinguished by the peculiar structure of the bill, which assists them
in climbing. They are gregarious, have generally very brilliant
plumage, and inhabit warm regions.

_Anecdotes._--The gray parrot often lives to a great age. We are told
by Le Vaillant of one which lived in the family of Mr. Huyser, in
Amsterdam, for thirty-two years; had previously lived forty-one with
that gentleman's uncle; and there can be little doubt that it was two
or three years old at the time of its arrival in Europe. In the day of
its vigor, it used to speak with great distinctness, repeat many
sentences, fetch its master's slippers, call the servants, &c. At the
age of sixty, its memory began to fail. It moulted regularly twice a
year, till the age of sixty-five, when the red feathers of the tail
gave place to yellow ones, after which, no other change of plumage
took place. When Le Vaillant saw it, it was in a state of complete
decrepitude, and, having lost its sight and memory, had lapsed into a
sort of lethargic condition, and was fed at intervals with biscuit
dipped in Madeira.

Leo, son of the Emperor Basilius Macedo, was accused, by a monk, of
having a design upon the life of his father, and was thereupon cast
into prison, from which he was freed through the instrumentality of a
parrot. The emperor, upon a certain occasion, entertained some of the
greatest nobles of his court. They were all seated, when a parrot,
which was hung up in the hall, in a mournful tone cried out, "Alas!
alas! poor Prince Leo!" It is very probable that he had frequently
heard courtiers passing, bewailing the prince's hard fortune in those
terms. He frequently repeated these words, which at last so affected
the courtiers that they could not eat. The emperor observed it, and
entreated them to make a hearty repast; when one of them, with tears in
his eyes, said, "How should we eat, sire, when we are thus reproached
by this bird of our want of duty to your family? The brute animal is
mindful of its lord; and we, that have reason, have neglected to
supplicate your majesty in behalf of the prince, whom we all believe to
be innocent, and to suffer under calumny." The emperor, moved by these
words, commanded them to fetch Leo out of prison, admitted him to his
presence, and restored him, first to his favor, and then to his former
dignities.

Buffon says, "I have seen a parrot very ridiculously employed,
belonging to a distiller who had suffered pretty severely in his
circumstances from an informer that lived opposite him. This bird was
taught to pronounce the ninth commandment,--'Thou shalt not bear false
witness against thy neighbor,' with a very clear, loud, articulate
voice. The bird was generally placed in a cage over against the
informer's house, and delighted the whole neighborhood with its
persevering exhortations."

Some years since, a parrot in Boston, that had been taught to whistle
in the manner of calling a dog, was sitting in his cage at the door of
a shop. As he was exercising himself in this kind of whistle, a large
dog happened to be passing the spot; the animal, imagining that he
heard the call of his master, turned suddenly about, and ran towards
the cage of the parrot. At this critical moment, the bird exclaimed
vehemently, "Get out, you brute!" The astonished dog hastily retreated,
leaving the parrot to enjoy the joke.



ORDER IV.

GALLINACEA,

RESEMBLING THE DOMESTIC HEN.


THE COCK.

The domestic cock is the origin of all the varieties of the domestic
fowl, and is supposed to have come originally from Asia. It was brought
to America by the first settlers.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--A short time since, a farmer in Ohio heard
loud talking and angry words among his fowls, and, being a man of
pacific disposition, bent his course towards the scene of cackling and
confusion. Arrived in the vicinity, he observed his favorite cock
engaged in mortal combat with a striped snake, dealing his blows with
bill and spurs in quick succession, and with true pugilistic skill. But
the wily serpent, well aware that, in order to beat his powerful
antagonist, he must use cunning, seized him by the thigh in the rear.
Thus situated, the cock rose on his wings, and lighted on an
apple-tree, the snake keeping fast hold, and dangling down like a
taglock. It then coiled its tail round a branch of the tree. The cock
tried again to escape, but, not being able to disengage himself, hung
with his head down. In this melancholy situation he was found by the
farmer, who instantly killed the snake, and set chanticleer at liberty.

The following is a remarkable instance of the degree to which the
natural apprehension for her brood may be overcome, in the hen, by the
habit of nursing ducks. A hen, who had reared three broods of ducks in
three successive years, became habituated to their taking the water,
and would fly to a large stone in the middle of the pond, and patiently
and quietly watch her brood as they swam about it. The fourth year she
hatched her own eggs, and finding that her chickens did not take to the
water as the ducklings had done, she flew to the stone in the pond, and
called them to her with the utmost eagerness. This recollection of the
habits of her former charge, though it had taken place a year before,
is strongly illustrative of memory in a hen.

"I have just witnessed," says Count de Buffon, "a curious scene. A
sparrow-hawk alighted in a populous court-yard; a young cock, of this
year's hatching, instantly darted at him, and threw him on his back. In
this situation, the hawk, defending himself with his talons and his
bill, intimidated the hens and turkeys, which screamed tumultuously
around him. After having a little recovered himself, he rose and was
taking wing; when the cock rushed upon him a second time, upset him,
and held him down so long, that he was easily caught by a person who
witnessed the conflict."


THE PHEASANT.

This splendid bird was brought originally from Asia, but it is now
common in Europe, especially in the parks and preserves of England,
where it lives in a wild state.

_Anecdotes._--"It is not uncommon," says Warwick, "to see an old
pheasant feign itself wounded, and run along the ground, fluttering and
crying, before either dog or man, to draw them away from its helpless,
unfledged young ones. As I was hunting with a young pointer, the dog
ran on a brood of very small pheasants; the old bird cried, fluttered,
and ran tumbling along just before the dog's nose, till she had drawn
him to a considerable distance, when she took wing, and flew still
farther off. On this the dog returned to me, near the place where the
young ones were still concealed in the grass. This the old bird no
sooner perceived, than she flew back again to us, settled just before
the dog's nose, and, by rolling and tumbling about, drew off his
attention from her young, thus preserving them a second time."

A turkey cock, a common cock, and a pheasant, were kept in the same
farm-yard. After some time, the turkey was sent away to another farm.
After his departure, the cock and pheasant had a quarrel; the cock
beat, and the pheasant disappeared. In a few days he returned,
accompanied by the turkey; the two allies together fell upon the
unfortunate cock, and killed him.


THE RUFFED GROUSE.

This bird is called _pheasant_ at the south, and _partridge_ in the
Eastern States.

The following incident in relation to it is extracted from the "Cabinet
of Natural History:" "I once started a hen pheasant with a single young
one, seemingly only a few days old; there might have been more, but I
perceived only this one. The mother fluttered before me for a moment;
but, suddenly darting towards the young one, she seized it in her bill,
and flew off along the surface through the woods, with great steadiness
and rapidity, till she was beyond my sight. I made a very active and
close search for others, but did not find any."


THE PIGEON.

This genus includes a great variety of doves and pigeons, all of which
are remarkable for their tenderness and constancy.

The PASSENGER PIGEON.--Audubon gives us the following description of a
forest in Ohio, which was the resort of the passenger pigeon: "Every
thing proved to me that the number of birds resorting to this place
must be immense beyond conception. As the period of their arrival
approached, a great number of persons collected, and prepared to
receive them. Some were furnished with iron pots, containing brimstone;
others with torches of pine-knots; many with poles, and the rest with
guns. Two farmers had driven upwards of two hundred hogs more than a
hundred miles, to be fattened upon the devoted pigeons! The sun was
lost to our view, yet not a pigeon had arrived. Every thing was ready,
and all eyes were gazing on the clear sky, when suddenly there burst
forth a general cry of 'Here they come!' The noise that they made,
though far distant, reminded me of a hard gale at sea through the
rigging of a close-reefed vessel. As the birds arrived, and passed over
me, I felt a current of air that surprised me. Thousands were soon
knocked down by the pole-men. The birds continued to pour in. The fires
were lighted, and a magnificent as well as terrifying sight presented
itself. Pigeons, arriving in thousands, alighted every where, one over
another, until solid masses as large as hogsheads were formed on the
branches all around. It was a scene of uproar and confusion. I found it
quite useless to speak, or even to shout, to those persons nearest to
me. This uproar continued all night. Towards day the pigeons began to
move off, and at sunrise, all that could fly had disappeared: the dead
and the dying were then picked up and piled in heaps, while the hogs
were let loose to feed on the remainder."

MUSICAL PIGEON.--Bertoni, a famous instructor in music, while residing
in Venice, took a pigeon for his companion, and, being very fond of
birds, made a great pet of it. The pigeon, by being constantly in his
master's company, obtained so perfect an ear for music, that no one who
saw his behavior could doubt for a moment the pleasure it took in
hearing his master play and sing.

CARRIER PIGEON.--Some years ago, two persons arrived in London, from
Antwerp, with 110 pigeons, to be thrown off there for the purpose of
ascertaining whether they would find their way back, and if so, in what
time they would perform the journey. The pigeons were contained in
eight enclosures, constructed of wire and canvass, and capable of
admitting a sufficiency of air to the birds, and at the top of each was
a trap door of tin. The baskets were all placed side by side, and at a
given signal, on Monday morning at eight o'clock, the doors were all
lifted up, and out rushed all the pigeons at the same instant. They
rose in a flock, and bent their way immediately in the direction of
home. The men set off on foot shortly after, with certificates of the
hour of departure. Most of the pigeons reached Antwerp the same day,
the swiftest bird having arrived there in five hours and a half: the
distance he flew was 186 miles!



ORDER V.

STILTED OR LONG-LEGGED BIRDS.


This order includes a number of remarkable birds, some of great size.
Most of them live on fish; while others eat grain and insects.


THE ADJUTANT, OR MARABOO CRANE.

Of this enormous bird we have the following account: A young one, about
five feet high, was taken and tamed at Sierra Leone. It was fed in the
large dining-hall, and at dinner-time always took its place behind its
master's chair--frequently before the guests entered. The servants were
obliged to watch their provisions narrowly, and defend them from the
crane by means of switches; but notwithstanding all their precaution,
it would frequently snatch something or other, and once purloined a
whole boiled fowl, which it swallowed in an instant. When threatened
with punishment, it would open its enormous bill, and roar like a bear
or tiger. It swallowed every thing whole, and on one occasion took, at
one mouthful, a leg of mutton weighing five or six pounds.


THE STORK.

A traveller in Russia tells us the following curious story: He was one
evening riding near a village, when he saw a number of people in a
field assembled round some object. He went to the spot, and saw two
storks lying dead upon the ground. One of the bystanders said that the
storks had a nest in the field, and that, not long before, the hen
bird, who was sitting, left the nest in search of food. During her
absence, a species of hawk very common in the country, seeing the eggs
unprotected, pounced upon them and sucked them. A short time after
this, the male bird, who had been away for food, returned, and finding
the eggs destroyed, he threw himself down upon the shells, and gave way
to every demonstration of grief.

In the mean time, the female returned, and as soon as he observed her,
as if to reproach her for leaving the nest, he ran up and attacked her
with his beak, and, seizing her between his claws, soared up with her
to a great height. He then compressed his own wings, and both falling
to the ground together, were instantly killed!

The Penny Magazine gives us the following story: "On the day of the
memorable battle of Friedland, a farm in the neighborhood of the city
was set on fire by the falling of a bomb. The conflagration spread to
an old tree in which a couple of storks had built their nest. The
mother would not leave this until it was completely devoured by flames.
She then flew up perpendicularly, and dashed down into the midst of the
fire, as if endeavoring to rescue her precious charge from destruction.
At last, enveloped in fire and smoke, she fell into the midst of the
blazing embers, and perished."


THE HERON.

In Westmoreland, England, there were, some years ago, two groves
adjoining a park, one of which, for many years, had been the resort of
a number of herons; the other was occupied by rooks. At length, the
trees tenanted by the herons, consisting of some fine old oaks, were
cut down in the spring of 1775, and the young ones had perished by the
fall of the timber. The parent birds immediately set about preparing
new habitations to breed again; but not finding any other in the
neighborhood high enough for them, they determined to effect a
settlement in the rookery. The rooks made an obstinate resistance; but
after a very violent contest, in which the herons finally triumphed,
they built their nests and reared their young. The next season, the
same contest took place; but victory declared, as before, for the
herons. After this, peace was agreed upon, and they lived together in
harmony in different parts of the same grove.


THE FLAMINGO.

During the French revolutionary war, when the English were expected to
make a descent upon St. Domingo, a negro, having perceived, at the
distance of some miles, in the direction of the sea, a long file of
flamingoes, ranked up and priming their wings, forthwith magnified them
into an army of English soldiers; their long necks were mistaken for
shouldered muskets, and their scarlet plumage suggested the idea of a
military costume. The poor fellow accordingly started off to Gonalves,
running through the streets, and vociferating that the English were
come! Upon this alarm, the commandant of the garrison instantly sounded
the tocsin, doubled the guards, and sent out a body of men to
reconnoitre the invaders; but he soon found, by means of his glass,
that it was only a troop of red flamingoes, and the corps of
observation marched back to the garrison, rejoicing at their bloodless
expedition.



ORDER VI.

PALMIPEDES,

WEB-FOOTED BIRDS.


THE GULL.

Mr. Scott, of Benholm, near Montrose, many years ago caught a sea-gull,
whose wings he cut, and put it into a walled garden, for the purpose of
destroying slugs, of which these birds are very fond. It throve
remarkably well in this situation, and remained about the place for
several years. The servants were much attached to this animal, and it
became so familiar that it came, at their call, to the kitchen door to
be fed, and answered to the name of Willie. At length it became so
domesticated, that no pains were taken to keep its wings cut; and
having at last acquired their full plume, it flew away, and joined the
other gulls on the beach, occasionally paying a visit to its old
quarters. At the time the gulls annually leave that part of the coast,
Willie also took his departure along with them, to the no small regret
of the family, who were much attached to him. Next season, however,
Willie again made his appearance, and visited the delighted family of
Mr. Scott with his wonted familiarity. They took care to feed him well,
to induce him, if possible, to become a permanent resident. But all
would not do, for he annually left Benholm. This practice he regularly
continued, for the extraordinary length of _forty years_, without
intermission, and seemed to have much pleasure in this friendly
intercourse. While he remained on that part of the coast, he usually
paid daily visits to his friends at Benholm, answered to his name, and
even fed out of their hands.

One year the gulls appeared on the coast, at their ordinary time; but
Willie did not, as was usual, pay his respects immediately on reaching
that neighborhood--from which they concluded that their favorite
visitant was numbered with the dead, which caused them much sorrow.
About ten days after, during breakfast, a servant entered the room
exclaiming that Willie had returned. The overjoyed family, one and all
of them, ran out to welcome Willie; an abundant supply of food was set
before him, and he partook of it with his former frankness, and was as
tame as a domestic fowl. In about two years afterwards, this bird
disappeared forever. The above facts are confirmatory of the great age
which the gull has been said to attain.


THE CORMORANT.

It is well known that this bird is taught by the Chinese to fish for
them. A gentleman of Scotland some years ago obtained two young ones,
which he succeeded in domesticating. They soon learned to fish on their
own account, and when satisfied, would amuse themselves by quitting and
retaking their prey. They sometimes remained for a whole day on board
of ships when they were kindly treated, and when these sailed, they
would accompany their friends to sea for a few miles. They were very
familiar, but would not submit to be teased. When shot at, they always
flew to the first person they saw belonging to their master's family,
for protection. Their owner had their heads painted white, in order to
distinguish them from the wild ones with whom they frequently
associated.


THE SWAN.

At Abbotsbury, in Dorsetshire, there was formerly a noble swannery, the
property of the Earl of Ilchester, where six or seven hundred were
kept; but from the mansion being almost deserted by the family, this
collection has of late years been much diminished.

A female swan, while in the act of sitting, observed a fox swimming
towards her from the opposite shore. She instantly darted into the
water, and having kept him at bay for a considerable time with her
wings, at last succeeded in drowning him; after which, in the sight of
several persons, she returned in triumph. This circumstance took place
at Pensy, in Buckinghamshire.


THE GOOSE.

_Miscellaneous Anecdotes._--"An old goose," says an English writer,
"that had been for a fortnight sitting in a farmer's kitchen, was
perceived on a sudden to be taken violently ill. She soon after left
her nest, and repaired to an outhouse, where there was a young goose,
which she brought into the kitchen. The young one immediately scrabbled
into the old one's nest, sat, hatched, and afterwards brought up, the
young goslings as her own. The old goose, as soon as the young one had
taken her place, sat down by the side of the nest, and shortly
afterwards died. As the young goose had never been in the habit of
entering the kitchen before, it is supposed that she had in some way
received information of the wants of the sick goose, which she
accordingly administered to in the best way she could."

An English gentleman had some years ago a Canadian goose, which
attached itself to a house dog. Whenever he barked, she cackled, ran at
the person the dog barked at, and bit his heels. She would not go to
roost at night with the other geese, but remained near the kennel,
which, however, she never entered, except in rainy weather. When the
dog went to the village, the goose always accompanied him, contriving
to keep pace with him by the assistance of her wings; and in this way
she followed him all over the parish. This extraordinary affection is
supposed to have originated in the dog having rescued her from a foe in
the very moment of distress.

Captain L., of New Jersey, while lying at anchor with his schooner off
Poole's Island, in the Chesapeake Bay, observed a wild goose, which had
been wounded, attempt to fly from the top of a hill to the water; but
being unable to reach its place of destination, it alighted about
midway down the hill, where some cattle were grazing; one of which,
seeing the stranger, walked up, as is commonly the case, to smell it.
The goose, not fancying this kind of introduction, seized the ox by the
nose with so much firmness as to set the creature bellowing; and he
actually ran off a considerable distance before he could disengage the
goose from its hold.



CLASS III. REPTILIA ... REPTILES.


This is a class of animals between birds and fishes, generally crawling
or swimming, of a cold temperature, sluggish habits, slow digestion,
and obtuse senses. They include serpents, lizards, tortoises, frogs,
toads, salamanders, the proteus and siren. The reptilia are divided
into four orders, the division being founded upon the difference in the
quantity of their respiration, and the diversity of their organs of
motion.



ORDER I.

CHELONIA,

TORTOISE.


These animals are of various sizes, some living on the land, and some
on the sea. They are remarkable for longevity. Mr. Murray says, "The
size to which this creature occasionally attains is quite monstrous. I
remember, some years ago, to have seen one, then semi-torpid, exhibited
near Exeter 'Change, London, which weighed several hundred weight. Its
shell was proportionably thick, and its other dimensions bore a
corresponding ratio. It was stated to be about _eight hundred_ years
old."



ORDER II.

SAURIA,

LIZARDS.


The more formidable species of this tribe are inhabitants of the warmer
countries of the globe. The larger kinds prey upon animals, the smaller
upon insects.


THE CROCODILE.

This animal is found on the banks of the Nile, Niger, and Ganges.

In crossing the Ba-Woolima, Mungo Park's attendant, Isaaco, met with a
strange and nearly fatal adventure. In attempting to drive six asses
across the river, just as he had reached the middle, a crocodile rose
close to him, and instantly seizing him by the left thigh, pulled him
under water. With wonderful presence of mind, he felt the head of the
animal, and thrust his finger into its eye. This forced it to quit its
hold: it soon, however, returned to the charge, and, seizing him by the
other thigh, again pulled him under water. Isaaco had recourse to the
same expedient, and thrust his fingers a second time into its eyes with
such force, that it again quitted him, rose to the surface, floundered
about as if stupid, and then swam down the stream. Isaaco, in the mean
time, reached the bank of the river, bleeding very much--the wound in
his left thigh being four inches long, that on the right somewhat less,
but very deep, besides several single teeth-marks on his back. In six
days, however, he recovered so as to be able to travel.

At Chantilly, in France, there was, in the year 1828, a crocodile so
perfectly tame and well-disposed, that he was caressed with impunity by
the keeper, who endeavored, although not always with success, to induce
visitors to follow his example. He never attempted to bite any one, but
seemed pleased by being fondled.


THE ALLIGATOR.

This creature is similar in habits and appearance to the crocodile. It
is found only in America, and is most abundant in the tropical regions.
The anecdotes which display its ferocity are numerous; but we choose
one which exhibits it in a different character. Mr. Jesse had one which
he made so perfectly tame, that it followed him about the house like a
dog, scrambling up the stairs after him, and showing much affection and
docility. Its great favorite, however, was a cat; and the friendship
was mutual. When the cat was reposing herself before the fire, the
alligator would lay himself down, place his head upon the cat, and in
this attitude go to sleep. If the cat was absent, the alligator was
restless; but he always appeared happy when puss was near him. The only
instance in which he showed any ferocity was in attacking a fox, which
was tied up in the yard. Probably, however, the fox had resented some
playful advances which the other had made, and thus called forth the
anger of the alligator. In attacking the fox, he did not make use of
his mouth, but beat him with so much severity with his tail, that, had
not the chain which confined the fox broken, he would probably have
killed him. The alligator was fed on raw flesh, and sometimes with
milk, for which he showed great fondness. In cold weather, he was shut
up in a box, with wool in it; but having been forgotten one frosty
night, he was found dead in the morning.


THE SALAMANDER.

Recently, as David Virtue, a mason in Scotland, was dressing a heavy
barley millstone from a large block, after cutting away a part, he
found a lizard of this species imbedded in the stone. It was about an
inch and a quarter long, of a brownish-yellow color, and had a round
head, with bright, sparkling, projecting eyes. When first found, it was
apparently dead; but after being about five minutes exposed to the air,
it showed signs of life. It soon became lively, and ran about with much
celerity; and about half an hour after the discovery, was brushed off
the stone, and killed. When found, it was coiled up in a round cavity
of its own form, being an exact impression of the animal. There were
about fourteen feet of earth above the rock, and the block in which the
lizard was found was seven or eight feet in the rock; so that the whole
depth of the animal from the surface was twenty-one or twenty-two feet.
The stone had no fissure, was quite hard, and one of the best which is
got from the quarry of Cullaloe; the stone is reckoned one of the
hardest in Scotland.



ORDER III.

OPHIDIA,

SERPENTS.


This order of animals is greatly diversified in their size, color, and
qualities. Some are but five inches in length, and others reach the
enormous extent of thirty feet. Some are inoffensive, and others are in
the highest degree venomous. They are in general regarded with horror
by mankind, and a universal instinct seems to call upon us to destroy
them.

_Anecdotes._--Mr. Strohecker, of Pennsylvania, had a daughter three
years of age, who, for a number of successive days, was remarked to
leave home with a piece of bread in her hand, and go to a considerable
distance. The mother's attention was attracted by the circumstance, who
desired the father to follow the infant, and observe what she did with
the bread. On coming up to her, he found she was busy feeding several
snakes called bastard-rattlesnakes. He immediately took the infant
away, and proceeded to his house for his gun, and on returning killed
two of them at a shot, and another a few days afterwards. The child
called these reptiles, in the same manner as chickens are called; and
when her father told her she would certainly be bitten by them if she
attempted it again, she innocently replied, "No, father, they won't
bite me; they only eat the bread I give them."

It has been a common opinion that serpents possess a peculiar power of
fascination. This is probably a vulgar error; yet the following story
is told of the daughter of a Dutch farmer near Niagara. It was on a
warm summer day that she was sent to spread out wet clothes upon some
shrubbery near the house. Her mother conceived that she remained longer
than was necessary, and seeing her standing unoccupied at some
distance, she called to her several times, but no answer was returned.
On approaching, she found her daughter pale, motionless, and fixed in
an erect posture. The perspiration rolled down her brow, and her hands
were clinched convulsively. A large rattlesnake lay on a log opposite
the girl, waving his head from side to side, and kept his eyes
steadfastly fastened upon her. The mother instantly struck the snake
with a stick; and the moment he made off, the girl recovered herself,
and burst into tears, but was for some time so weak and agitated that
she could not walk home.



ORDER IV.

BATRACHEA,

THE FROG KIND.


THE FROG.

_A Thief._--A correspondent of the Penny Magazine, who lived close
to the outlet of a small lake, used to bestow a great deal of care and
attention upon the rearing of young ducklings; but, after all, he had
the mortification to find his efforts fruitless. The old ones would
hatch fine healthy broods; but as soon as they were strong enough to
waddle to a sedgy stream that issued from the adjoining lake, one or
two daily disappeared, to the gentleman's great annoyance. Having
suffered these continual depredations for two or three seasons, he one
day noticed a nice duckling gradually disappear under the water; but
judge of his surprise when he beheld a large bull-frog crawl out upon
the prostrate trunk of a tree, with the duckling's feet still
protruding from his capacious mouth! The mystery was thus solved; the
bull-frogs had swallowed all the young ducks!

_Curious._--Some years ago, the city of Metz was afflicted by one
among the seven plagues of Egypt, namely, frogs; certain streets were
filled with these animals, and no one was able to conjecture from
whence they came, until it was explained by a dealer in frogs applying
to the tribunals for the recovery of his property. He had shut up about
six thousand frogs, designed for food, in a particular place belonging
to the fish-market, where they were discovered by some children, who
took part away to sell, and on leaving the troughs in the fish-market,
forgot to close them. Profiting by the opening thus left, the frogs
began to spread themselves in various parts, and even got into some of
the neighboring houses, whose inhabitants found much difficulty in
ejecting the unwelcome intruders.

_An Escape._--A butcher in Glasgow found an ordinary-sized living frog
in the stomach of a cow, which he had just killed. When laid down, it
was full of spirit, and leaped about the slaughter-house, to the
astonishment of a considerable crowd. The cow was killed between three
and four o'clock in the afternoon; it was supposed she had swallowed
the frog when drinking.


THE TOAD.

Not the least wonderful part of the history of the toad is the
circumstance of its being frequently found in the bed of solid rocks,
and the internal cavities of trees.

_Anecdotes._--We find it mentioned in the "Edinburgh Philosophical
Journal," that "a specimen of a toad, which was taken alive from the
centre of a solid mass of stone, has been sent to the College Museum of
Edinburgh by Lord Duncan." It is mentioned, in the "Transactions of the
Academy of Sciences," at Paris, that a live toad was found in the
centre of an elm-tree, and another in an oak. Both trees were quite
sound, and in a healthy condition. To these facts we may add another:
It is related by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, who is a close observer of
nature, that, on his estate in East Lothian, a large toad was found in
the heart of a smooth, straight beech-tree, at the height of thirty
feet from the ground, where it was confined in a circular hole.

A gentleman who resided at Keswick, England, one evening in the latter
end of July, observed a rustling among the strawberries in his garden,
and on examining what it was, found that a toad had just seized a
field-mouse, which had got on the toad's back, scratching and biting to
get released, but in vain. The toad kept his hold, and, as the strength
of the mouse failed, he gradually drew the unfortunate little animal
into his mouth, and gorged him.



CLASS IV. PISCES ... FISHES.


Fishes are extremely numerous in species, and many of them are little
known. They are found in every ocean, sea, lake, or river,--under the
dreary skies of the poles, and the burning latitude of the tropics.
Being the tenants of an element which excludes them from the familiar
observation of man, we have fewer anecdotes of them than of those
classes which we have already noticed. We shall therefore only attempt
to present a few of the most striking that have come to our notice.


THE MACKEREL.

The mackerel is one of the most voracious of all fishes; and when they
get among a shoal of herrings, they make such havoc as frequently to
drive it off the coast. Pontoppidan informs us that a sailor, belonging
to a ship lying in a harbor of Norway, went into the water to wash
himself, when he was suddenly missed by his companions. In the course
of a few minutes, however, he was seen on the surface with vast numbers
of mackerels fastened to him. The people went to his assistance in a
boat, and tore the fishes from him; but it was too late; for he very
shortly afterwards expired from the effects of the wounds he had
received, and from the loss of blood.


THE SWORD-FISH.

The extraordinary power of this fish is shown by the following
statement, from the Penny Magazine: "In repairing his Britannic
majesty's ship Leopard, in 1725, on her return from the coast of
Guinea, a sword of this fish was found to have gone through the
sheathing one inch, next through a three-inch plank, and, beyond that,
four inches and a half in the firm timber. It was the opinion of
mechanics that it would require nine strokes of a hammer weighing
twenty-five pounds to drive an iron bolt, of similar size and form, to
the same depth in the hull; yet this was accomplished by a single
thrust."


THE PIKE.

_Anecdotes._--The rapacity of this fish is notorious. Jesse says,
"Out of eight hundred gudgeons, which were brought to me by a Thames
fisherman, and which I saw counted into the reservoir,--some few of
which, however, died,--there were scarcely any to be seen at the end
of three weeks. Indeed, the appetite of one of my pike was almost
insatiable. One morning, I threw to him, one after the other, five
roach, each about four inches in length. He swallowed four of them,
and kept the fifth in his mouth for about a quarter of an hour, when
it also disappeared."

The pike is an animal of extraordinary boldness. A few years ago, the
head keeper of Richmond Park was washing his hands at the side of a
boat, in the great pond, when a pike made a dart at one of his hands,
which the keeper suddenly withdrew, otherwise he would have received a
severe snap.

Mr. Jesse says, "Fish appear to be capable of entertaining affection
for each other. I once caught a female pike during the spawning season,
and nothing could drive the male away from the spot at which the female
disappeared, whom he had followed to the very edge of the water. A
person who had kept two small fish together in a glass, gave one of
them away; the other refused to eat, and showed evident symptoms of
unhappiness, till his companion was restored to him."

In the year 1497, a pike was caught, in standing water, at Heilbronn,
on the Neckar, which had a copper ring round its head; the ring bore
the following inscription in Greek: "I am the first fish that was
launched into this pond, and was thrown in by Frederick the Second,
emperor of the Romans, on the 5th of October, 1230." It appeared,
therefore, that the pike was two hundred and fifty-seven years old when
thus caught; it weighed three hundred and fifty pounds; and an exact
representation of it exists to this day upon one of the gates of
Heilbronn.


THE GOLDEN CARP.

This beautiful fish was first introduced into England about the year
1691. It is a native of China, where they are very common in ponds.
They are, however, very delicate, and unable to stand the powerful rays
of the sun; on which account, in each of the ponds where they are kept,
earthenware basins, with holes in them, are placed upside down, so that
the fishes may retire under them for shade. In China these fish are
taught to rise to the surface of the water, to be fed, at the sound of
a bell. In very cold weather, they are frequently taken into the house,
to prevent them from being frozen.

There are several varieties of this beautiful fish,--some of them
appearing all speckled over with golden dust; others are pure silvery
white; some are spotted with red and white; and a fourth variety is
black and white, spotted.

Many of these, of a large size, may be seen in the ponds at the royal
gardens of the Tuileries, at Paris. They are perfectly tame, and follow
individuals round the ponds in hopes of being fed.


THE SALMON.

Some years ago, a herdsman, on a very sultry day in July, while looking
for a missing sheep, observed an eagle posted on a bank that overhung a
pool. Presently the bird stooped and seized a salmon, and a violent
struggle ensued: when the herdsman reached the spot, he found the eagle
pulled under water by the strength of the fish; and the calmness of the
day, joined to his drenched plumage, rendered him unable to extricate
himself. With a stone, the peasant broke the eagle's pinion, and
separated the spoiler from his victim, which was dying in his grasp.


THE HERRING.

About fifty years ago, the shoals of herrings came into Loch Urn,
Scotland, in such amazing quantities, that, from the narrows to the
head, about two miles, it was quite full. So many of them were forced
ashore by the pressure, that the beach, for four miles round the head,
was covered with them from six to eighteen inches deep; and the ground
under water, as far as could be seen, was in the same condition.
Indeed, so dense and forcible was the shoal, as to carry before it
every other kind of fish; even ground-fish, skate, flounders, and
plaice, were driven on shore with the force of the herrings, and
perished there.

It is a curious fact, that herrings die the moment they are taken out
of the water; whence originated the adage, which is much used, _as
dead as a herring_.


THE SHARK.

This formidable animal is the dread of mankind in the seas where it is
found. There is no safety in bathing where this monster abounds.

The late Sir Brooke Watson was at one time swimming at a little
distance from a ship, when he observed a shark approaching towards him.
Struck with terror at its appearance, he immediately cried out for
assistance. A rope was instantly thrown out for him; and even while the
men were in the act of pulling him up the ship's side, the shark darted
after him, and at a single snap derived him of one leg.

In the West Indies, the negroes have frequently the hardihood to engage
the shark in single combat, by diving beneath him, and, in ascending,
stab him before he sees where they are. In these combats they
frequently conquer this formidable creature; and thus, through courage
and tactics, overcome his great strength and ferocity.



INVERTEBRATA.

We come now to the second grand division of the animal kingdom--the
Invertebrata Animals--those which, instead of an internal skeleton,
have, for the most part, an external shell, or framework, by means of
which the fleshy parts are sustained.



CLASS I. MOLLUSCA ... SOFT ANIMALS.


THE SQUID.

There is a singular genus of animals, called _Sepia_, of which the
cuttle-fish is a familiar example. Some of them are of great size,
having arms nearly thirty feet in length. We are told of a Sardinian
captain, who, while bathing, felt one of his feet in the grasp of a
squid; he instantly tried to disengage himself with his other foot, but
this limb was immediately seized by another of the monster's arms. He
then with his hands endeavored to free himself, but these also, in
succession, were firmly grasped by the creature, and the poor man was
shortly after found drowned, with all his limbs strongly bound together
by the arms and legs of the fish; and it is extraordinary that, where
this happened, the water was scarcely four feet deep.

Mr. Beale gives us the following narrative: "While upon the Bonni
Islands, searching for shells, I one day saw, towards the surf, a most
extraordinary-looking animal, crawling upon the beach. It was creeping
on eight soft and flexible legs, and, on seeing me, made every effort
to escape. To prevent this, I pressed one of its legs with my foot; but
it quickly liberated the member. I then laid hold of it with my hand,
and gave it a powerful jerk, which it resisted by clinging with its
suckers to the rock; but the moment after, the apparently enraged
animal let go its hold, and sprang upon my arm, which I had previously
bared to the shoulder, and clinging to it with great force, endeavored
to get its beak between its arms in a position to bite.

"A sensation of horror pervaded my whole frame. Its cold, slimy grasp
was extremely sickening, and I immediately called to the captain, who
accompanied me, and who was at a little distance, to come and release
me from my disgusting assailant. He came and set me free, by cutting my
tormentor apart with his boat-knife. It must have measured four feet
across its extended arms, while its body was not larger than a clinched
hand. This was of that species called by whalers 'rock squid.'"


THE NAUTILUS.

In some places, where the sea is not agitated by winds, great numbers
of these singular creatures may occasionally be seen sailing and
sporting about. Le Vaillant observed several of them on the sea near
the Cape of Good Hope; and, as he was desirous of obtaining perfect
specimens of the shells, he sent some of his people into the water to
catch them; but when the men had got their hands within a certain
distance, they always instantly sank, and, with all the art that could
be employed, they were not able to lay hold of a single one. The
instinct of the animal showed itself superior to all their subtlety;
and when their disappointed master called them away from their
attempts, they expressed themselves not a little chagrined at being
outwitted by a shell-fish.


THE SNAIL.

M. de Martens states that the annual export of snails from Ulm, by the
Danube, for the purpose of being used as food in the season of Lent by
the convents of Austria, amounted formerly to ten millions of these
animals. They were fattened in the gardens in the neighborhood.

Mr. Rowe gives us the following account: "I was at Mr. Haddock's," says
he, "in Kent, and was making a little shell-work tower, to stand on a
cabinet in a long gallery. Sea-shells running short before I had
finished, I recollected having seen some pretty large snails on the
chalk hills, and we all went out one evening to pick up some. On our
return, I procured a large China basin, and putting a handful or two of
them into it, filled it up with boiling water. I poured off the first
water, and filled the bowl again. I then carried it into a summer-house
in the garden. Next morning, how great was my surprise, on entering the
summer-house, to find the poor snails crawling about, some on the edge
of the basin, some tumbling over, some on the table, and one or two
actually eating paste that was to stick them on! I picked up every
snail carefully, and carried them into a field, where I make no doubt
that they perfectly recovered from their scalding."


THE OYSTER.

A gentleman who lived at Salisbury, England, used to keep a pet oyster,
of the largest and finest breed. He fed it on oatmeal, for which it
regularly opened its shell. It also proved itself an excellent mouser,
having killed five mice, by crushing the heads of such as, tempted by
the meal, had the audacity to intrude their noses within its bivalvular
clutches.

A great number of large creeks and rivers wander through the marshes on
the seaboard of Georgia. Whenever the tide bends forcibly against the
land, the effects are counteracted by the walls of living oysters which
grow upon each other from the beds of the rivers to the very verge of
the banks. They are in such abundance, that a vessel of a hundred tons
might load herself in three times her length. Bunches of them
sufficient to fill a bushel are found matted as it were together, and
the neighboring inhabitants and laborers light fires upon the marsh
grass, roll a bunch of oysters upon it, and then eat them.


THE SCALLOP.

The GREAT SCALLOP has the power of progressive motion upon the land,
and likewise of swimming on the surface of the water. When it happens
to be deserted by the tide, it opens its shell to the full extent, then
shuts it with a sudden jerk, often rising five or six inches from the
ground. In this manner, it tumbles forward until it regains the water.

When the sea is calm, troops of little fleets of scallops, it is said,
are sometimes to be observed swimming on the waves. They elevate one
valve above the top of the water, which is used as a kind of sail,
while they float on the other, which remains on the surface.



CLASS II. ARTICULATA  ... JOINTED ANIMALS.


These animals have not an internal skeleton, like the vertebrata; nor
are they wholly destitute of a skeleton, as are the mollusca. The hard
parts are external, and the muscles are internal. The class includes
red-blooded worms, the _crustacea_, spiders, and insects.


THE LEECH.

If you ever pass through La Brienne, in France, you will see a man
pale, and straight-haired, with a woollen cap on his head, and his legs
and arms naked. He walks along the borders of a marsh, among the spots
left dry by the surrounding waters, but particularly wherever the
vegetation seems to present the subjacent soil undisturbed. This man is
a leech-fisher. To see him at a distance,--his hollow aspect, livid
lips, and singular gestures,--you would take him for a patient who had
left his sick bed in a fit of delirium. If you observe him every now
and then raising his legs, and examining them one after another, you
might suppose him a fool; but he is an intelligent leech-fisher. The
leeches attach themselves to his legs and feet, and as he moves along
their haunts, he feels them bite, and gathers them as they cluster
round the roots of the bulrushes and sea-weeds.


THE CRAB.

The following incident is from a late English journal: "In the year
1812, a sailor, in company with several persons, at Sunderland,
perceived a crab which had wandered to the distance of about three
yards from the water-side. An old rat, on the look-out for food, sprang
from his lurking-place, and seized the crab, who, in return, raised his
forcep-claws, and laid fast hold of the assailant's nose, who hastily
retired, squeaking a doleful chant, and much surprised, no doubt, at
the reception he had met with.

"The crab retreated as fast as he could towards his own element; but
after a short space, the rat renewed the contest, and experienced a
second rude embrace from his antagonist. The rat again retreated, but
returned again to the attack. After the contest had lasted half an
hour, the crab, though much exhausted, had nearly reached the sea, when
the rat made a sudden spring, and capsized his antagonist; then, taking
advantage of this manoeuvre, like a successful general, seized the
crab by his hind leg. The crab, however, again made his escape in a
most mutilated condition; the rat, however, closely pursuing him, soon
dragged him back to his den, where he doubtless regaled his wife and
family with his hard-earned prey.

"In the year 1833, as a lady in England was in the act of dressing a
crab, she found in its stomach a half guinea, of the reign of George
III., worn very thin; but some of the letters were so entire as to
enable the reign to be traced."


THE SPIDER.

The celebrated Lewenhoek found by microscopic observation that the
threads of the minutest spiders, some of which are not larger than a
grain of sand, are so fine that it would take four millions of them to
make a thread as thick as a hair of his beard. In the early part of the
last century, M. Bon, of Languedoc, fabricated a pair of stockings and
a pair of gloves from the threads of spiders. They were nearly as
strong as silk, and of a beautiful gray color.

The animal ferocity of spiders makes it impossible to keep them
together. M. Bon distributed 4 or 5000 spiders into different cells,
putting in each cell about 200, and fed them with flies; but the large
ones soon devoured the small ones, and in a short time there were only
one or two large ones left in each cell.

To test the ingenuity of the spider, a gentleman frequently placed one
on a small upright stick, and surrounded the base with water. After
having reconnoitred, and discovered that the ordinary means of escape
were cut off, it ascended the stick, and, standing nearly on its head,
ejected its long web, which the wind soon carried to some contiguous
object: along this the sagacious insect effected its escape--not,
however, until it had ascertained, by several exertions of its own
strength, that its web was securely attached at the end.


THE SCORPION.

This is one of the largest of the insect tribe, and is not less
terrible for its size than its malignity. Its sting, in some countries,
is fatal. Volchammer put one of these creatures, and a large spider,
into a glass vessel. The latter used all its efforts to entangle the
scorpion in its web, which it immediately began to spin; but the
scorpion stung its adversary to death; it then cut off all its legs,
and sucked out the internal parts at its leisure.

The same naturalist shut up a female scorpion with her young in a glass
case. She devoured all but one, which took refuge on the back of its
parent, and soon revenged the death of its brethren by killing the old
one in its turn.


THE DEATH-WATCH.

This insect makes a ticking noise by beating its head with great force
against whatever it happens to stand on. Two of them were kept in a box
by a gentleman for three weeks; and he found that, by imitating their
note by beating with the point of a pin or nail upon the table, the
insect would answer him as many times as he made the sound.


THE GLOWWORM.

The female of this insect is very luminous, and has no wings. The light
always becomes brighter when the worm is in motion, and it can withdraw
it when it pleases. When the light is most brilliant, it emits a
sensible heat. When a glowworm is put into a phial, and this is
immersed in water, a beautiful irradiation takes place. If the insect
be crushed, and the hands and face rubbed with it, they have a luminous
appearance, like that produced by phosphorus.


THE FIRE-FLY.

"I was in the habit," says a writer on the Island of Jamaica, "of
enclosing, every night, a dozen or more fire-flies under an inverted
glass tumbler on my bedroom table, the light of whose bodies enabled me
to read without difficulty. They are about the size of a bee, and
perfectly harmless. Their coming forth in more than usual numbers is
the certain harbinger of rain; and I have frequently, while travelling,
met them in such numbers that, be the night ever so dark, the path was
as visible as at noonday."


THE BEETLE.

The following account of the BURYING BEETLE is given by M. Gleditsch, a
foreign naturalist. He often remarked that dead moles, when laid upon
the ground, especially if upon loose earth, were almost sure to
disappear in the course of two or three days, often of twelve hours. To
ascertain the cause, he placed a mole upon one of the beds in his
garden. It had vanished by the third morning; and, on digging where it
had been laid, he found it buried to the depth of three inches, and
under it four beetles, which seemed to have been the agents in this
singular inhumation. To determine the point more clearly, he put four
of these insects into a glass vessel, half filled with earth, and
properly secured, and upon the surface of the earth, two frogs. In less
than twelve hours, one of the frogs was interred by two of the beetles;
the other two ran about the whole day, as if busied in measuring the
dimensions of the remaining corpse, which on the third day was also
found buried. He then introduced a dead linnet. A pair of the beetles
were soon engaged upon the bird. They began their operations by pushing
out the earth from under the body, so as to form a cavity for its
reception; and it was curious to see the efforts which the beetles
made, by dragging at the feathers of the bird from below, to pull it
into its grave. The male, having driven the female away, continued the
work alone for five hours. He lifted up the bird, changed its place,
turned it, and arranged it in the grave, and from time to time came out
of the hole, mounted upon it, and trod it under foot, and then retired
below, and pulled it down. At length, apparently wearied with this
uninterrupted labor, it came forth, and leaned its head upon the earth
beside the bird, without the smallest motion, as if to rest itself, for
a full hour, when it again crept under the earth. The next day, in the
morning, the bird was an inch and a half under ground, and the trench
remained open the whole day, the corpse seeming as if laid out upon a
bier, surrounded with a rampart of mould. In the evening, it had sunk
half an inch lower; and in another day, the work was completed, and the
bird covered. M. Gleditsch continued to add other small dead animals,
which were all sooner or later buried; and the result of his experiment
was, that in fifty days four beetles had interred, in the very small
space of earth allotted to them, twelve carcasses: viz., four frogs,
three small birds, two fishes, one mole, and two grasshoppers, besides
the entrails of a fish, and two morsels of the lungs of an ox.

The QUEEN BEETLE is about one inch and a quarter in length; she carries
by her side two brilliant lamps, which she lights up at pleasure with
the solar phosphorus furnished her by nature. These lamps do not flash
and glimmer like those of the fire-fly, but give as steady a light as
that of gas, exhibiting two glowing spheres as large as a minute pearl,
which affords light enough, in the darkest night, to enable one to read
by them. The queen beetle is found only in tropical climates.


THE EARWIG.

Baron de Geer, a famous Swedish naturalist, gives us the following:
"About the end of March I found an earwig brooding over her eggs in a
small cell, scooped out in a garden border. In order to watch her
proceedings, I removed the eggs into my study, placing them upon fresh
earth under a bell-glass. The careful mother soon scooped out a fresh
cell, and collected the scattered eggs with great care to the little
nest, placing herself over them, to prevent the too rapid evaporation
of the moisture. When the earth began to dry up, she dug the cell
gradually deeper, till at length she got almost out of view. At last,
the cell became too dry, and she removed the eggs to the edge of the
glass, where some of the moisture had condensed. Upon observing this, I
dropped some water into the abandoned cell, and the mother soon after
removed the eggs there. Her subsequent proceedings were no less
interesting; but I regret to add that, during my absence, the
bell-glass was removed, and the earwig escaped with her eggs."


THE CRICKET.

Mr. Southey describes the perilous situation of a ship sailing to
Brazil, which was saved from shipwreck by the singing of a ground
cricket. "Three days they stood towards land. A soldier, who had set
out in ill health, had brought a ground cricket with him from Cadiz,
thinking to be amused by the insect's voice; but it had been silent the
whole distance, to his no small disappointment. Now, on the fourth
morning, the _grillo_ had begun to ring its shrill rattle, scenting the
land. Such was the miserable watch that had been kept, that, upon
looking out at this warning, they perceived high rocks within bowshot,
against which, had it not been for the insect, they must inevitably
have been lost. They had just time to drop anchor. From hence they
coasted along, the grillo singing every night as if it had been on
shore, till they reached the Islands of St. Catalina."

In China, the people take as much pleasure in cricket fights as the
Spaniards do in bull fights. Two crickets are pitted against each
other, and crowds of people gather round, to witness the combat. The
insects rush at each other with great fury; and the spectators, high
and low, rich and poor, seem to experience the most lively sensations
of delight.


THE LOCUST.

In July, 1827, the Russian General Cobley had a grand battle with the
locusts, on his estate of Coblewka, along the borders of the Sea of
Oschakoff. The locusts were marching in twenty-four columns, and were
destroying all the crops. General Cobley collected the peasants on his
estate, and from all the neighboring country, amounting to five hundred
persons. They were armed with pitchforks, spades, drums, and bells;
and, thus equipped, they commenced their march against the invaders.
They soon compelled them to retreat, and pursued them incessantly
towards the sea, where they were forced to jump into the water, and
were drowned. Three days afterwards, the sea-shore was covered with the
dead locusts, cast up by the waves; the air was infected by a fetid
exhalation, and great numbers of poisoned fish were cast up by the
waves on the strand. It is probable that the fish had fed on the
locusts.


THE ANT.

_Anecdotes._--In tracing the designs of the cells and galleries, each
ant appears to follow its own fancy. A want of accordance must
therefore frequently take place at the point where their works join;
but they never appear to be embarrassed by any difficulties of this
kind. An instance is related, in which two opposite walls were made, of
such different elevations, that the ceiling of the one, if continued,
would not have reached above half way of the height of the other. An
experienced ant, arriving at the spot, seemed struck with the defect,
immediately destroyed the lower ceiling, built up the wall to the
proper height, and formed a new ceiling with the materials of the former.

In the "Transactions of the French Academy," an account is given of an
ant, that was taken from a hill, and thrown upon a heap of corn. It
seemed attentively to survey this treasure, and then hastened back to
its former abode, where it communicated intelligence of the land of
plenty; for an immense host of its brethren quickly made their
appearance, and commenced carrying off the grain.

M. Homberg informs us that, in Surinam, there is a species of ant
called by the natives the _visiting ant_. These animals march in large
troops, with the same order and precision as do a regularly-constituted
army. They are welcome visitors to the natives, on account of their
power of exterminating rats, mice, and other noxious animals, with
which that country abounds. No sooner do they appear, than all the
coffers, chests of drawers, and locked-up places in the house, are
thrown open for them, when they immediately commence their work of
destruction of animal life, as if commissioned by nature for that
purpose. The only regret of the natives is, that they pay their visits
but once in three or four years.

Two ants meeting on a path across a gravel-walk, one going to and the
other from the nest, stop, touch each other's antennæ, and appear to
hold a conversation. One would almost fancy that one was communicating
to the other the best place for foraging.


THE CATERPILLAR.

A curious species of manufacture was contrived by an officer of
engineers residing at Munich. It consisted of lace veils, with open
patterns on them, made entirely by caterpillars. Having made a paste of
the leaves of the plant on which the insect feeds, he spread it thinly
over a stone, or other flat substance, of the required size. He then,
with a camel's hair pencil dipped in olive oil, drew a pattern he
wished the insects to leave open. This stone was then placed in an
inclined position, and a number of caterpillars were placed at the
bottom. A peculiar species was chosen, which spins a strong web, and
the animals commenced at the bottom, eating and spinning their way up
to the top, carefully avoiding every part touched by the oil, but
devouring every other part of the paste. The extreme lightness of these
veils, combined with their strength, is surprising.


THE BUTTERFLY.

In June, 1826, a column of butterflies, from ten to fifteen feet broad,
was seen to pass over Neufchatel, in Switzerland; the passage lasted
upwards of two hours, without any interruption, from the moment when
the insects were observed.


THE MOTH.

A moth was once caught, at Arracan, which measured ten inches from the
tip of one wing to the tip of the other, both being variegated with the
brightest colors.


THE SILKWORM.

The great care bestowed upon this creature in China is shown in
the following extract from an old work: "The place where their
habitation is built must be retired, free from noisome smells,
cattle, and all noises; as a noisome smell, or the least fright,
makes great impressions upon so tender a breed; even the barking of
dogs, and the crowing of cocks are capable of putting them in disorder
when they are newly hatched. For the purpose of paying them every
attention, an affectionate mother is provided for their wants; she is
called _Isan-more_, mother of the worms. She takes possession of the
chamber, but not till she has washed herself, and put on clean clothes
which have not the least ill smell; she must not have eaten any thing
before, or have handled any wild succory, the smell of which is very
prejudicial; she must be clothed in a plain habit without any lining,
that she may be more sensible of the warmth of the place, and
accordingly increase or lessen the fire; but she must carefully avoid
making a smoke, or raising a dust, which would be very offensive to
these tender creatures, which must be carefully tended before the first
time of casting their slough."

During the first twenty-four hours of the silkworm's existence, the
patient Chinese feeds the objects of her care forty-eight times a day;
during the second or third day, thirty times; and so on, reducing the
number of meals as the worm grows older.


FLIES.

Sir Arthur Young thus speaks of flies in his "Travels through the South
of Europe:" "Flies form the most disagreeable circumstance in the
southern climates. They are the first torments in Spain, Italy, and the
olive districts of France. It is not that they bite, sting, or hurt;
but they buzz, tease, and worry: your mouth, eyes, ears, and nose, are
full of them; they swarm on every eatable. Fruit, sugar, milk, every
thing, is attacked by them in such myriads, that if they were not
driven away, by a person who has nothing else to do, to eat a meal is
impossible. If I farmed in these countries, I think I should manure
four or five acres of land a year with dead flies."



CLASS RADIATA ... RADIATED ANIMALS.


This class embraces those beings which are the lowest in the animal
kingdom--those which have the fewest and most imperfect senses. Indeed,
some of them so far resemble plants as to make the point of separation
between the animal and vegetable kingdoms almost a matter of
uncertainty. They are called _radiata_, because in most of them an
arrangement may be traced, in their formation, like that of rays
branching out from a centre. Among the creatures of this class are the
star-fish, polypus, sea-anemone, and infusoria.


POLYPI.

Captain Basil Hall makes some interesting remarks on the examination of
a coral-reef, which is the product of the marine polypi. He observes
that, during the different stages of the tide, the changes it undergoes
are truly surprising. When the tide has left it for some time, it
becomes dry, and appears to be a compact rock, exceedingly hard and
rugged; but as the tide rises, and the waves begin to wash over it, the
coral worms protrude themselves from holes which before were invisible.
These animals are of a great variety of shapes and size, and in such
prodigious numbers, that, in a short time, the whole surface of the
rock appears to be alive and in motion. The most common worm is in the
shape of a star, with arms from four to six inches long, which move in
every direction to catch food. Others are so sluggish that they may be
taken for pieces of rock, and are of a dark color; others are of a blue
or yellow color; while some resemble a lobster in shape.

The GREEN POLYPE, or hydra, is found in clear waters, and may generally
be seen in great plenty in small ditches and trenches of fields,
especially in the months of April and May. It affixes itself to the
under parts of leaves, and to the stalks of such vegetables as happen
to grow immersed in the same water. The animal consists of a long,
tubular body, the head of which is furnished with eight, and sometimes
ten long arms, or tentacula, that surround the mouth.

It is of an extremely predacious nature, and feeds on the various
species of small worms, and other water animals, that happen to
approach. When any animal of this kind passes near the polype, it
suddenly catches it with its arms, and, dragging it to its mouth,
swallows it by degrees, much in the same manner as a snake swallows a
frog. Two of them may sometimes be seen in the act of seizing the same
worm at different ends, and dragging it in opposite directions with
great force.

When the mouths of both are thus joined together upon one common prey,
the largest polype gapes and swallows his antagonist; but, what is more
wonderful, the animal thus swallowed seems to be rather a gainer by the
misfortune. After it has lain in the conqueror's body for about an
hour, it issues unhurt, and often in possession of the prey that had
been the original cause of contention. The remains of the animals on
which the polype feeds are evacuated at the mouth the only opening in
the body. It is capable of swallowing a worm of thrice its own size:
this circumstance, though it may appear incredible, is easily
understood, when we consider that the body of the polype is extremely
extensile, and is dilated, on such occasions, to a surprising degree.

This species are multiplied, for the most part, by a process resembling
vegetation--one or two, or even more young ones emerging gradually from
the sides of the parent animal; and these young are frequently again
prolific before they drop off; so that it is no uncommon thing to see
two or three generations at once on the same polype.


THE END.



ADVERTISEMENT--CABINET LIBRARY.

PARLEY'S CABINET LIBRARY,
For Schools and Families.


This work consists of Twenty Volumes, and contains --> _five hundred
different subjects, and is illustrated by five hundred Engravings_.

--> It is an entirely original series, recently written and completed
by S. G. GOODRICH, the author of Peter Parley's Tales.

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The following is a list of the Volumes, each containing about 320
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BIOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENT.

Vol. 1.--LIVES OF FAMOUS MEN OF MODERN TIMES.

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    yet it is also suited to the perusal of all classes, especially to
    men of business, who find little leisure for reading, and who yet
    are unwilling to be left behind in the great march of knowledge and
    improvement. _As there is now a strong desire, especially among the
    enlightened friends of education in this state, to have the common
    schools supplied with suitable books for libraries, we heartily
    commend this series to the notice of all who are desirous of
    obtaining books for this object. They are unquestionably among the
    best that have been prepared for school libraries, being every way
    attractive and instructive._

    No one can fail to be pleased with the simplicity and elegance of
    the style, and with the vein of cheerfulness, humanity, and
    morality, which runs through the pages of the volumes. The moral
    influence of the work, especially upon the young, cannot fail to be
    in the highest degree effective and salutary.

    _From the Troy Whig_,

    They are written in an easy and graceful style, and are compiled
    from the most authentic sources. They will be found highly
    attractive to young people of both sexes, and worthy to be read by
    persons of mature age.

    _From the Albany Advertiser_,

    It would be difficult to find any where, in such convenient
    compass, so much healthy and palatable food for the youthful mind
    as is furnished by Parley's Cabinet Library.

    _From the Albany Argus_,

    We know of no series of volumes on kindred subjects so good as
    these for parents to put into the hands of their children. It is
    due not only to the author, who has rendered great service to the
    cause of American literature, but to the work itself, and to the
    best interests of the youth of our nation, that these volumes
    should be scattered all over the land.

    _From the New England Puritan_,

    We cordially recommend the work to the perusal of all.

    _From the Boston Post_,

    _The very best work of its class_ is Parley's Cabinet Library. It
    combines a vast deal of useful information, conveyed in an
    exceedingly interesting style. The beauty of the typographical
    execution, the cheapness of the volumes, and the great intrinsic
    merit of their contents, must render the work one of general
    popularity.

    _From the Boston Courier_,

    As we have quoted so largely from Mr. Goodrich's work, we ought to
    say--what it richly merits--that it is a pleasing and useful
    series, and that it is calculated not only to instruct and amuse,
    but to cultivate virtuous and patriotic sentiments. With those who
    read for mere amusement, it is worthy of attention, for the author
    has ingeniously contrived to give truth all the charms of fiction.

    _From the Albany Advertiser_,

    It ought to be, and no doubt will be, extensively introduced into
    schools.

    _From the Bay State Democrat_,

    The volumes are illustrated with spirited wood engravings, and
    printed in Dickinson's neatest style. Altogether, they present
    decidedly the most attractive appearance as to matter and form, of
    any works we have seen for a long time.

    _From the Quincy Aurora_,

    Parley's Cabinet Library is a publication of rare excellence. No
    writer of the present day invests the themes of which he treats
    with livelier interest than the well-known Peter Parley. His pen
    imparts to history and biography the charm of romance; while, at
    the same time, it unfolds rich and enduring treasures of practical
    and useful knowledge.

    The animal, the mineral, and vegetable kingdoms of nature present,
    beneath his pencil, the attractions of a grand museum. The
    publication of his Cabinet Library will accomplish much, in our
    opinion, to eradicate the eagerness for fiction which engrosses so
    extensively the public mind. The perusal of these volumes will
    convince the reader that reality has charms as potent, and far more
    satisfying than those of the ideal world. We know of no work,
    comprehended within equal limits, capable of affording richer
    intellectual banqueting.

    _From the Boston Traveller_,

    We deem it but a discharge of our duty to our readers, to urge this
    valuable series upon their attention. The whole series will cost
    but a trifle, yet they may and doubtless will be the deciding means
    of insuring success in life to many a youth who shall enjoy the
    means of reading them.

    _From the Boston Recorder_,

    They are written in a pleasing style, and are enlivened by numerous
    characteristic anecdotes. The series will form a very valuable
    library.

    _From the Boston Post_,

    It is an admirable publication for the family and school library.
    Its topics are interesting and important, and presented in a simple
    but effective style.

    _From the Boston Atlas_,

    Parley's Cabinet Library is worthy of all encouragement. It is
    cheap not only in promise, but in fact. It is also calculated to
    exercise a wholesome influence. Like every thing from the same
    author, it strongly inculcates virtue and religion, and at the same
    time it arrays truth in a guise so comely and attractive, that it
    is likely to win many votaries of fiction to companionship with it.
    There is great need of such works at this time.

    BOARD OF EDUCATION,           }
    _City of Rochester, Sept. 2._ }

    Whereas, the Board of Education have examined a series of books
    called "Parley's Cabinet Library," now in course of publication by
    Samuel G. Goodrich, Esq., (the celebrated Peter Parley,) embracing,
    in the course of twenty volumes, the various subjects of history,
    biography, geography, the manners and customs of different nations,
    the condition of the arts, sciences, &c.; and whereas, this Board
    are satisfied that the same are highly useful to the young:
    therefore,

    Resolved, that we recommend that the same be procured by trustees
    for the several school libraries, at the earliest practicable
    period. A true copy of the minutes,

    I. F. MACK, Sup't.





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