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Title: The Century Handbook of Writing
Author: Greever, Garland, 1883-1967, Jones, Easley S. (Easley Stephen), 1884-1947
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Century Handbook of Writing" ***

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[Transcriber's Notes:

  1. Italic text is rendered with underscores _like this_, and bold with
equal signs =like this=.

  2. Misprints and punctuation errors were corrected. A list of
corrections can be found at the end of the text.]



            THE
     CENTURY HANDBOOK OF
          WRITING

             BY
      GARLAND GREEVER
           _AND_
      EASLEY S. JONES

          NEW YORK
       THE CENTURY CO.
            1927


     Copyright, 1918, by
       THE CENTURY CO.

      PRINTED IN U.S.A.



PREFACE


This handbook treats essential matters of grammar, diction, spelling,
mechanics; and develops with thoroughness the principles of sentence
structure. Larger units of composition it leaves to the texts in formal
rhetoric.

The book is built on a decimal plan, the material being simplified and
reduced to one hundred articles. Headings of these articles are
summarized on two opposite pages by a chart. Here the student can see at
a glance the resources of the volume, and the instructor can find
immediately the number he wishes to write in the margin of a theme. The
chart and the decimal scheme together make the rules accessible for
instant reference.

By a device equally efficient, the book throws upon the student the
responsibility of teaching himself. Each article begins with a concise
rule, which is illustrated by examples; then follows a short "parallel
exercise" which the instructor may assign by adding an _x_ to the number
he writes in the margin of a theme. While correcting this exercise, the
student will give attention to the rule, and will acquire theory and
practice at the same time. Moreover, every group of ten articles is
followed by mixed exercises; these may be used for review, or imposed in
the margin of a theme as a penalty for flagrant or repeated error. Thus
friendly counsel is backed by discipline, and the instructor has the
means of compelling the student to make rapid progress toward good
English.

Although a handbook of this nature is in some ways arbitrary, the
arbitrariness is always in the interest of simplicity. The book does
have simplicity, permits instant reference, and provides an adequate
drill which may be assigned at the stroke of a pen.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


     SENTENCE STRUCTURE

     COMPLETENESS OF THOUGHT

       1. Fragments wrongly used as sentences
       2. Incomplete constructions
       3. Necessary words omitted
       4. Comparisons not logically completed
       5. Cause and reason
       6. _Is when_ and _is where_ clauses
       7. Undeveloped thought
       8. Transitions
       9. EXERCISE
         A. Incomplete sentences
         B. Incomplete constructions
         C. Incomplete logic
         D. Undeveloped thought and transitions


     UNITY OF THOUGHT

       10. Unrelated ideas in one sentence
       11. Excessive detail
       12. Stringy sentences to be broken up
       13. Choppy sentences to be combined
       14. Excessive coördination
       15. Faulty subordination of the main thought
       16. Subordination thwarted by _and_
       17. The _and which_ construction
       18. The comma splice
       19. EXERCISE
         A. The comma splice
         B. One thought in a sentence
         C. Excessive coördination
         D. Upside-down subordination


     CLEARNESS OF THOUGHT

     REFERENCE
       20. Divided reference
       21. Weak reference
       22. Broad reference
       23. Dangling participle or gerund

     COHERENCE
       24. General incoherence
       25. Logical sequence
       26. Squinting modifier
       27. Misplaced word
       28. Split construction
       29. EXERCISE
         A. Reference of pronouns
         B. Dangling modifiers
         C. Coherence

     PARALLEL STRUCTURE
       30. Parallel structure for parallel thoughts
       31. Correlatives

     CONSISTENCY
       32. Shift in subject or voice
       33. Shift in number, person, or tense
       34. Mixed constructions
       35. Mixed imagery

     USE OF CONNECTIVES
       36. The exact connective
       37. Repetition of connective with gain in clearness
       38. Repetition of connective with loss in clearness
       39. EXERCISE
         A. Parallel structure
         B. Shift in subject or voice
         C. Shift in number, person, or tense
         D. The exact connective
         E. Repetition of connectives



     EMPHASIS

       40. Emphasis by position
       41. Emphasis by separation
       42. Emphasis by subordination
       43. The periodic sentence
       44. Order of climax
       45. The balanced sentence
       46. Weak effect of the passive voice
       47. Repetition effective: a Words; b Structure
       48. Repetition offensive: a Words; b Structure
       49. EXERCISE
         A. Lack of emphasis in general
         B. Loose structure
         C. Repetition



     GRAMMAR

       50. Case: a Nominative, especially after _than_ or _as_;
         b Nominative _who_ and _whoever_; c Predicate nominative;
         d Objective; e Objective with infinitive; f Possessive;
         g Possessive with gerund; h Possession by inanimate
         objects; i Agreement of pronouns
       51. Number: a _Each_, _every one_, etc.; b _Those kind_, etc.;
         c Collective nouns; d _Don't_
       52. Agreement--not to be thwarted by: a Intervening nouns;
         b _Together with_ phrases; c _Or_ or _nor_ after subject;
         d _And_ in the subject; e A predicate noun;
         f An introductory _there_
       53. _Shall_ and _will_
       54. Principal parts. List
       55. Tense, mode, auxiliaries: a Tense in dependent clauses
         or infinitives; b The past perfect; c Present tense for a
         general statement; d Mode; e Auxiliaries
       56. Adjective and adverb: a Adjective misused for adverb;
         b Ambiguous cases; c After verbs pertaining to the
         senses
       57. A word in a double capacity
       58. List of the terms of grammar
       59. EXERCISE
         A. Case of pronouns
         B. Agreement
         C. _Shall_ and _will_
         D. _Lie, lay; sit, set; rise, raise_
         E. Principal parts of verbs
         F. General



     DICTION

       60. Wordiness
       61. Triteness
       62. The exact word
       63. Concreteness
       64. Sound
       65. Subtle violations of good use: a Faulty idiom; b Colloquialism
       66. Gross violations of good use: a Barbarisms; b Improprieties;
         c Slang
       67. Words often confused in meaning. List
       68. Glossary of faulty diction
       69. EXERCISE
         A. Wordiness
         B. The exact word
         C. Words sometimes confused in meaning
         D. Colloquialisms, slang, faulty idioms



     SPELLING

       70. Recording errors
       71. Pronouncing accurately
       72. Logical kinship in words
       73. Superficial resemblances. List
       74. Words in _ei_ and _ie_
       75. Doubling a final consonant
       76. Dropping final _e_
       77. Plurals: a Plurals in _s_ or _es_; b Nouns ending in _y_;
         c Compound nouns; d Letters, figures, and signs;
         e Old plurals; f Foreign plurals
       78. Compounds: a Compound adjectives; b Compound nouns;
         c Numbers; d Words written solid; e General principle
       79. SPELLING LIST (500 words, 200 in bold-face type)



     MISCELLANEOUS

       80. Manuscript: a Titles; b Spacing; c Handwriting
       81. Capitals: a To begin a sentence or a quotation; b Proper
         names; c Proper adjectives; d In titles of books or
         themes; e Miscellaneous uses
       82. Italics: a Titles of books; b Foreign words; c Names of
         ships; d Words taken out of context; e For emphasis
       83. Abbreviations: a In ordinary writing; b In business
         writing
       84. Numbers: a Dates and street numbers; b Long figures;
         Sums of money, etc.
       85. Syllabication: a Position of hyphen; b Division between
         syllables; c Monosyllabic words not divided; d One consonant
         between syllables; e Two consonants between
         syllables; f Prefixes and suffixes; g Short words; h Misleading
         division
       86. Outlines: a Topic Outline; b Sentence Outline; c Paragraph
         Outline; d Indention; e Parallel form; f Faulty
         coördination; g Too detailed subordination
       87. Letters: a Heading; b Inside address and greeting;
         c Body, Language; d Close; e Outside address;
         f Miscellaneous directions; g Model business letter;
         h Formal notes
       88. Paragraphs: a Indention; b Length; c Dialogue
       89. EXERCISE
         Capitals, numbers, abbreviations, etc.



     PUNCTUATION

       90. The Period: a After sentences; b But not after fragments
         of sentences; c After abbreviations
       91. The Comma: a Between clauses joined by _but_, _for_, _and_;
         b But NOT to splice clauses not joined by a conjunction;
         c After a subordinate clause preceding a main clause;
         d To set off non-restrictive clauses and phrases; e To
         set off parenthetical elements; f Between adjectives;
         g Between words in a series; h Before a quotation;
         i To compel a pause for clearness; j Superfluous uses
       92. The Semicolon: a Between coördinate clauses not joined
         by a conjunction; b Between long coördinate clauses;
         c Before a formal conjunctive adverb; d But not before
         a quotation
       93. The Colon: a To introduce a formal series or quotation;
         b Before concrete illustrations of a previous general
         statement
       94. The Dash: a To enclose a parenthetical statement; b To
         mark a breaking-off in thought; c Before a summarizing
         statement; d But not to be used in place of a period;
         e Not to be confused with the hyphen
       95. Parenthesis Marks: a Uses; b With other marks; c Confirmatory
         symbols; d Not used to cancel words;
         e Brackets
       96. Quotation Marks: a With quotations; b With paragraphs;
         c In dialogue; d With slang, etc.; e With words
         set apart; f Quotation within a quotation; g Together
         with other marks; h Quotation interrupted by _he said_;
         i Omission from a quotation; j Unnecessary in the title
         of a theme, or as a label for humor or irony
       97. The Apostrophe: a In contractions; b To form the possessive;
         c To form the possessive of nouns ending in _s_;
         d Not used with personal possessive pronouns; e To
         form the plural of certain signs and letters
       98. The Question Mark: a After a direct question; b Not
         followed by a comma within a sentence; c In parentheses
         to express uncertainty; d Not used to label irony; e The
         Exclamation Point
       99. EXERCISE
       100. GENERAL EXERCISE



TO THE STUDENT


When a number is written in the margin of your theme, you are to turn to
the article which corresponds to the number. Read the rule (printed in
bold-face type), and study the examples. When an _r_ follows the number
on your theme, you are, in addition, to copy the rule. When an _x_
follows the number, you are, besides acquainting yourself with the rule,
to write the exercise of five sentences, to correct your own faulty
sentence, and to hand in the six on theme paper. If the number ends in 9
(9, 19, 29, etc.), you will find, not a rule, but a long exercise which
you are to write and hand in on theme paper. In the absence of special
instructions from your teacher, you are invariably to proceed as this
paragraph requires.

Try to grasp the principle which underlies the rule. In many places in
this book the reason for the existence of the rule is clearly stated.
Thus under 20, the reason for the rule on parallel structure is
explained in a prologue. In other instances, as in the rule on divided
reference (20), the reason becomes clear the moment you read the
examples. In certain other instances the rule may appear arbitrary and
without a basis in reason. But there is a basis in reason, as you will
observe in the following illustration.

Suppose you write, "He is twenty one years old." The instructor asks you
to put a hyphen in _twenty-one_, and refers you to 78. You cannot see
why a hyphen is necessary, since the meaning is clear without it. But
tomorrow you may write. "I will send you twenty five dollar bills." The
reader cannot tell whether you mean twenty five-dollar bills or
twenty-five dollar bills. In the first sentence the use of the hyphen in
_twenty-one_ did not make much difference. In the second sentence the
hyphen makes seventy-five dollars' worth of difference. Thus the
instructor, in asking you to write, "He is twenty-one years old," is
helping you to form a habit that will save you from serious error in
other sentences. Whenever you cannot understand the reason for a rule,
ask yourself whether the usage of many clear-thinking men for long years
past may not be protecting you from difficulties which you do not
foresee. Instructors and writers of text books (impressive as is the
evidence to the contrary) are human, and do not invent rules to puzzle
you. They do not, in fact, invent rules at all, but only make convenient
applications of principles which generations of writers have found to be
wisest and best.



THE CENTURY HANDBOOK OF WRITING SENTENCE STRUCTURE

COMPLETENESS OF THOUGHT


The first thing to make certain is that the thought of a sentence is
complete. A fragment which has no meaning when read alone, or a sentence
from which is omitted a necessary word, phrase, or idea, violates an
elementary principle of writing.


=Fragments Wrongly Used as Sentences=

=1. Do not write a subordinate part of a sentence as if it were a
complete sentence.=

     Wrong: He stopped short. Hearing some one approach.

     Right: He stopped short, hearing some one approach. [Or]
     Hearing some one approach, he stopped short.

     Wrong: The winters are cold. Although the summers are pleasant.

     Right: Although the summers are pleasant, the winters are cold.

     Wrong: The hunter tried to move the stone. Which he found very
     heavy.

     Right: The hunter tried to move the stone, which he found very
     heavy. [Or] The hunter tried to move the stone. He found it
     very heavy.

Note.--A sentence must in itself express a complete thought. Phrases or
subordinate clauses, if used alone, carry only an incomplete meaning.
They must therefore be attached to a sentence, or restated in
independent form. Elliptical expressions used in conversation may be
regarded as exceptions: Where? At what time? Ten o'clock. By no means.
Certainly. Go.

     Exercise:

     1. My next experience was in a grain elevator. Where I worked
     for two summers.

     2. The parts of a fountain pen are: first, the point. This is
     gold. Second, the body.

     3. The form is set rigidly. So that it will not be displaced
     when the concrete is thrown in.

     4. There are several reasons to account for the swarming of
     bees. One of these having already been mentioned.

     5. Since June the company has increased its trade three per
     cent. Since August, five per cent.


=Incomplete Constructions=

=2. Do not leave uncompleted a construction which you have begun.=

     Wrong: You remember that in his speech in which he said he
     would oppose the bill.

     Right: You remember that in his speech he said he would oppose
     the bill. [Or] You remember the speech in which he said he
     would oppose the bill.

     Wrong: He was a young man who, coming from the country, with
     ignorance of city ways, but with plenty of determination to
     succeed.

     Right: He was a young man who, coming from the country, was
     ignorant of city ways, but had plenty of determination to
     succeed.

     Wrong: From the window of the train I perceived one of those
     unsightly structures.

     Right: From the window of the train I perceived one of those
     unsightly structures which are always to be seen near a
     station.

     Exercise:

     1. As far as his having been deceived, there is a difference of
     opinion on that matter.

     2. The fact that he was always in trouble, his parents wondered
     whether he should remain in school or not.

     3. People who go back to the scenes of their childhood
     everything looks strangely small.

     4. It was the custom that whenever a political party came into
     office, for the incoming men to discharge all employees of the
     opposite party.

     5. Although the average man, if asked whether he could shoot a
     rabbit, would answer in the affirmative, even though he had
     never hunted rabbits, would find himself badly mistaken.


=Necessary Words Omitted=

=3. Do not omit a word or a phrase which is necessary to an immediate
understanding of a sentence.=

     Ambiguous: I consulted the secretary and president. [Did the
     speaker consult one man or two?]

     Right: I consulted the secretary and the president. [Or] I
     consulted the man who was president and secretary.

     Ambiguous: Water passes through the cement as well as the
     bricks.

     Right: Water passes through the cement as well as through the
     bricks.

     Wrong: I have had experience in every phase of the automobile.

     Right: I have had experience in every phase of automobile
     driving and repairing.

     Wrong: About him were men whom he could not tell whether they
     were friends or foes.

     Right: About him were men regarding whom he could not tell
     whether they were friends or foes. [Or, better] About him were
     men who might have been either friends or foes.

     Exercise:

     1. When still a small boy, my family moved to Centerville.

     2. Constantly in conversation with some one broadens our ideas
     and our vocabulary.

     3. It was a trick which opposing teams were sure to be
     baffled.

     4. They departed for the battle front with the knowledge they
     might never return.

     5. At the banquet were all classes of people; I met a banker
     and plumber.


=Comparisons=

=4. Comparisons must be completed logically.=

     Wrong: His speed was equal to a racehorse.

     Wrong: Of course my opinion is worth less than a lawyer.

     Wrong: The shells which are used in quail hunting are different
     than in rabbit hunting.

Compare a thing with another thing, an abstraction with another
abstraction. Do not carelessly compare a thing with a part or quality of
another thing. Always ask yourself: What is compared with what?

     Right: His speed was equal to that of a racehorse.

     Right: Of course my opinion is worth less than a lawyer's.

     Right: The shells used in quail hunting are different from
     those used in rabbit hunting.

     Self-contradictory: Chicago is larger than any city in
     Illinois.

     Right: Chicago is larger than any other city in Illinois.

     Impossible: Chicago is the largest of any other city in
     Illinois.

     Right: Chicago is the largest of all the cities in Illinois.
     [Or] Chicago is the largest city in Illinois.

Note.--After a comparative, the subject of the comparison should be
excluded from the class with which it is compared; after a superlative,
the subject of the comparison should be included within the class.

     Wrong: {taller of all the girls.
            {tallest of any girl.

     Right: {taller than any other girl [comparative].
            {tallest of all the girls [superlative].

     Exercise:

     1. The climate of America helps her athletes to become superior
     to other countries.

     2. This tobacco is the best of any other on the market.

     3. You men are paid three dollars more than any other factory
     in the city.

     4. I thought I was best fitted for an engineering course than
     any other.

     5. Care should be taken not to turn in more cattle than the
     grass in the pasture.


=Cause and Reason=

=5. A simple statement of fact may be completed by a _because_ clause.=

     Right: I am late because I was sick.

=But a statement containing _the reason is_ must be completed by a _that_
clause.=

     Wrong: The reason I am late is because I was sick. [The
     "reason" is not a "because"; the "reason" is the fact of
     sickness.]

     Right: The reason I am late is that I was sick.

=_Because_, the conjunction, may introduce an adverbial clause only.=

     Wrong: Because a man wears old clothes is no proof that he is
     poor. [A _because_ clause cannot be the subject of _is_.]

     Right: The fact that a man wears old clothes is no proof that
     he is poor. [Or] The wearing of old clothes is not proof that a
     man is poor.

Note.--_Because of_, _owing to_, _on account of_, introduce adverbial
phrases only. _Due to_ and _caused by_ introduce adjectival phrases
only.

     Wrong: He failed, due to weak eyes. [Due is an adjective;
     it cannot modify a verb.]

     Right: His failure was {due to   } weak eyes
                            {caused by}

                      {because of   }
     Right: He failed {owing to     } weak eyes.
                      {on account of}

     Exercise:

     1. The reason why I would not buy a Ford car is because it is
     too light.

     2. My second reason for coming here is because of social
     advantages.

     3. Because John is rich does not make him happier than I.

     4. Because I like farming is the reason I chose it.

     5. The only reason why vegetation does not grow here is because
     of the lack of water.


=_is when_ or _is where_ Clauses=

=6. Do not use a _when_ or _where_ clause as a predicate noun. Do not
define a word by saying it is a "when" or a "where". Define a noun by
another noun, a verb by another verb, etc.=

     Wrong: The great event is when the train arrives.

     Right: The great event is the arrival of the train.

     Wrong: Immigration is where foreigners come into a country.

     Right: Immigration is the entering of foreigners into a
     country.

     Wrong: A simile is when one object is compared with another.

     Right: A simile is a figure of speech in which one object is
     compared with another.

Note.--A definition of a term is a statement which (1) names the class
to which the term belongs, and (2) distinguishes it from other members
of the class. Example. A quadrilateral is a plane figure having four
sides and four angles. To test a definition ask whether it separates the
term defined from all other things. If the definition does not do this,
it is incomplete. Define _California_ (so as to exclude other states),
_window_ (so as to exclude _door_), _star_ (exclude _moon_), _night_,
_rain_, _circle_, _Bible_, _metal_, _mile_, _rectangle_.

     Exercise:

     1. The pistol shot is when the race begins.

     2. A snob is when a man treats others as inferior socially.

     3. The wireless telegraph is where messages are sent a long
     distance through the air.

     4. The definition of usury is where one charges interest higher
     than the legal rate.

     5. Biology is when one studies plant and animal life.


=Undeveloped Thought=

=7. Do not halfway express an idea. If the idea is important, develop it.
If it is not important, omit it.=

     Incomplete: We were now quite sure that we had lost our way,
     and Jack said he had a business engagement that night.

     Better: We were now quite sure that we had lost our way, a fact
     which was all the more annoying as Jack said he had a business
     engagement that night.

     Puzzling: Since McAndrew had inherited money, his suitcase was
     plastered with labels.

     Right: Since McAndrew had inherited money, he had traveled
     extensively. His suitcase was plastered with the labels of
     foreign hotels.

     Careless: In looking for gasoline troubles, we forgot to see
     whether the tank was supplied.

     Right: In looking for the cause of the trouble, we forgot to
     see whether the tank was supplied with gasoline.

Note.--In giving information about books, do not confuse the title with
the contents or some part of the contents. Be accurate in referring to
the time, scene, action, plot, or characters.

     Loose thinking: Shakespeare's _Hamlet_ occurs in Denmark [The
     scene is laid?]. Many passages are powerful, especially the
     grave-digging [Is grave-digging a passage?]. The character of
     Horatio is a noble fellow [conception], and the same is true of
     Ophelia [Ophelia a fellow?]. The drama takes place over several
     weeks. [The action covers a period of several weeks.]

     Exercise:

     1. The victrola brings to the home the world's musical ability.

     2. The user of Dietzgen instruments is not vexed by numerous
     troubles that accompany the inferior makes.

     3. To the picnicker rainy weather is bad weather, while the
     farmer raises a big crop.

     4. Some diseases can be checked by preventives, and in many
     cases can be of great use to an army.

     5. This idea of breaking all records held for eating is
     naturally harmful to the digestion, and these important organs
     may thank their stars that Christmas does not come very often.


=Transitions=

The state of mind of a writer is not the state of mind of his reader.
The writer knows his ideas, and has spent much time with them. The
reader meets these ideas for the first time, and must gather them in at
a glance. The relation between two ideas may be clear to the writer, and
not at all clear to the reader. Therefore,

=8. In passing from one thought to another, make the connection clear. If
necessary, insert a word, a phrase, or even a sentence, to carry the
reader safely across.=

     Space transition needed: We were surprised to see a house in
     the distance, but we went to the door and knocked. [This
     sentence does not give a reader the effect of distance.]

     Better: We were surprised to see a house in the distance. _But
     we hastened toward it with thoughts of a warm meal and a good
     lodging. We entered the yard_, and went up to the door, and
     knocked.

     Exterior-interior transition needed: We noticed that the house
     was built of cobblestones. There was a broad window from which
     we could look out upon the small stream that dashed down the
     rocky hillside.

     Better: We noticed that the house was built of cobblestones.
     _We went inside, and found that the living room was large and
     airy._ There was a broad window from which we could look out
     upon the small stream that dashed down the rocky hillside.

     Cause transition lacking: The Romans were great road-builders.
     They wished to maintain their empire.

     Better: The Romans were great road-builders, _because means of
     moving troops quickly were necessary_ to the maintenance of
     their empire.

     General-to-particular transition needed: Modern machinery often
     makes men its slaves. Last summer I worked for the Chandler
     Company. [This gap in thought occurs oftenest between the first
     two sentences of a paragraph or theme.]

     Better: Modern machinery often makes men its slaves. _This
     truth is well illustrated by my own experience._ Last summer I
     worked for the Chandler Company.

     Transition to be improved by changing order: A careless trainer
     may spoil a good colt. A good horse can never be made of a
     vicious colt. [Here the order of ideas is: "Trainer ... colt.
     Horse ... colt." Turn the last sentence end for end.]

     Better: A careless trainer may spoil a good colt. And a vicious
     colt can never be made a good horse. [Now the order of ideas is
     "Trainer ... colt. Colt ... horse."]

     Transition to be improved by removal of a disturbing element:
     Our class in physics last week visited a pumping station in
     which the Corliss type of steam engine is used. _The engines
     are manufactured by the Allis-Chalmers Company of Milwaukee,
     Wisconsin._ This type of engine is used because it has several
     advantages. [The italicized sentence should be omitted here,
     and used later in the theme.]

Note.--The divisions of thought within a paragraph may likewise be
indicated by connectives: _however_, _on the other hand_, _equally
important_, _another interesting problem is_, _for this reason_, _the
remedy for this_, _so much for_, _it remains to mention_, _of course I
admit_, _finally_. (For a longer list see 36.) Such phrases are also
useful in linking one paragraph to another.

When a student first learns the art, he is likely to use transition
phrases in excess, and produce something like the following: "When I
have to write a theme, I first think of my subject. As soon as I have my
subject, I take out my paper. On the paper I then make a rough outline."
This abuse of transition causes an overlapping of thought, like shingles
laid three inches to the weather. An abrupt transition is better than
wordiness.

     Exercise:

     1. The shore looked far off. Then we reached it.

     2. A light snow was falling last night. This is a good day for
     hunting rabbits.

     3. A dollar is often a large sum. I sold newspapers when I was
     a boy.

     4. Many English words still preserve their old meanings. There
     is the teller in the bank.

     5. We had to walk half a mile across the pastures in the fresh
     morning air. Exercise indoors does not arouse much zest or
     enthusiasm.


=9.= EXERCISE IN COMPLETENESS OF THOUGHT

=A. Fragments Misused as Sentences=

Rewrite the following statements in sentences each of which expresses a
complete thought.

     1. He gave me a flower. Which was wilted.

     2. The gasoline flows through the supply tube to the
     carburetor. Where it should vaporize and enter the cylinders.

     3. People of all ages were there. Old men, young women, and
     even children.

     4. He told us that you had a good standing among business men.
     That you always met your bills promptly.

     5. Excuse Everett Smith from school this morning. He having the
     measles.

     6. The internal combustion engine may be either one of two
     types. The two cycle or the four cycle.

     7. The young men and women acted like children. Who should have
     known better.

     8. There was a cross cow in the pasture. Which had long horns.

     9. Bacteria are microscopic organisms. Especially found where
     milk or some other substance decomposes.

     10. We pass on down the street. The buildings rising two or
     three stories high on either side.

     11. The Y. M. C. A. enables you to keep your religious
     interests alive. As well as to associate with clean young men.

     12. She wasted her time on foolish clothes. While her mother
     took in washing.

     13. He was dressed in a ridiculous fashion. Wearing, for
     instance, an orange necktie.

     14. The point is similar to that of the ordinary steel pen,
     except that it is made of gold. Gold being used on account of
     its greater smoothness and durability.

     15. Tire troubles have been made less formidable by the
     invention of a compact, efficient little vulcanizer. A factory
     for making which is now being built.

=B. Incomplete Constructions=

Improve the following statements. Supply missing words. Make sure that
each construction and each sentence is complete.

     1. When one year old, my mother died.

     2. Yours received, and in reply would say your order has been
     filled.

     3. While in there a man came in and bought a quarter's worth of
     soap.

     4. War is largely dependent upon the engineers to design new
     machinery.

     5. When you talk to a man look at him, not the floor or
     ceiling.

     6. In writing a book, an author's first one is usually not very
     good.

     7. Every summer while in high school, our family has gone to
     our cottage on Lake Michigan.

     8. When a boy, Mary was my best friend.

     9. There is, however, another reason a person should know how
     to swim.

     10. I think more of her than anyone else.

     11. Corrupt laws are often the means rich people obtain the
     earnings of others.

     12. A hundred dollars invested in a warning signal, future
     accidents would be prevented.

     13. Electric transmission is sometimes used on automobiles more
     of an experiment than anything else.

     14. Was delighted to hear from you. Glad to hear you entered
     the wholesale business. Wish you success.

     15. As a rule people eat too much. This point should be
     noticed, and not overwork the digestive organs.

=C. Incomplete Logic=

The following sentences are inadequate statements of cause, comparison,
etc. Complete the thought.

     1. His neck is as long as a giraffe.

     2. His name was David Meek, from New Hampshire.

     3. The Pacific Ocean is larger than any ocean.

     4. Because he never worked led to his failure.

     5. A monitor is where a heavily armored boat of light draft can
     go near the shore.

     6. Democracy is when people, through representatives, govern
     themselves.

     7. The story of _Huckleberry Finn_ is in reality Mark Twain
     himself.

     8. Because a man has money is no reason why he should be lazy.

     9. The character of Sydney Carton is the real hero of this
     novel.

     10. A forester leads an interesting life is the reason I want
     to be one.

     11. Tact is where a man anticipates the criticism of others,
     and acts with discretion.

     12. The comfort of a modern house is much greater than the
     old-time house.

     13. Free trade is when no revenue is collected on imports,
     beyond enough to run the government.

     14. The cost of room, board, and tuition is low at this school,
     compared to the more fashionable schools.

     15. The theme of this novel tells how a peasant, Jean Valjean,
     from a convict comes to be a respected citizen.

=D. Undeveloped Thought and Transitions=

Complete the thought of the following sentences, and secure a smooth
transition between parts.

     1. As you enter this room, to the left is an interesting
     painting of the Canterbury Pilgrims.

     2. Poe delights in fantastic plots. A pirate's treasure chest
     was discovered in _The Gold Bug_.

     3. I got up and ate a bite of breakfast. A few of my friends
     came over. We went to play golf.

     4. All the loose material on the trail is carried off by the
     rush of the water. The last time I was on it was in early
     summer, and I found it in this rough condition.

     5. I managed to find the softest board in the floor and went to
     sleep. Some of the boys found pleasure in arousing me with a
     shower of cold water.

     6. Under guise of friendly escort the Indians accompanied the
     inhabitants of the fort a few miles. Only three escaped the
     massacre.

     7. Many people say that in civil engineering it depends on the
     prosperity of the country; in hard times they do not build and
     in good times they do build.

     8. Canada has more forests than minerals. Canada has made only
     a start in the lumber industry. The minerals are found, for the
     most part, in the mountain district near Lake Superior.

     9. Thanksgiving day, as we are told, is a day on which our
     Puritan forefathers gathered round the roast turkey and gave
     thanks to God for his goodness. Last Thanksgiving I was at
     home.

     10. The old method was to dig the holes by hand, and drop two
     or three kernels in each hole. Corn has become a staple crop.
     Machinery is used. The preparing of a field for corn has become
     a science.



UNITY OF THOUGHT

Unity means oneness. A sentence should contain one thought. It may
contain two or more statements only when these are closely related parts
of a larger thought or impression. A writer should make certain, first,
that his thought has unity; and second, that this unity will be obvious
to the reader.


=Unrelated Ideas in One Sentence=

=10. Do not combine ideas which have no obvious relation to each other.
Place the ideas in separate sentences. Or, write the ideas as one
sentence, making their relation obvious.=

     Wrong: The Spartans did not care for literature, and lived in
     the southern part of Greece.

     Wrong: The coffee business is not difficult to learn, and the
     most important work in preparing coffee for the market is the
     roasting of the green berries.

The simplest method of correction is to divide the sentence.

     Right: The Spartans lived in the southern part of Greece. They
     did not care for literature.

     Right: The coffee business is not difficult to learn. The most
     important work in preparing the coffee for the market is the
     roasting of the green berries.

Another method of correction is to subordinate one idea to the other, or
to change the wording until the relation between the ideas is obvious.

     Right: The Spartans, who lived in the southern part of Greece,
     did not care for literature.

     Right: The coffee business is not difficult to learn, since the
     only important work in preparing the coffee for the market is
     the roasting of the green berries.

     Exercise:

     1. Franklin is often regarded as the typical American, and
     wrote an interesting autobiography.

     2. Coal miners wear little oil lamps in their caps, and they
     seldom receive very good wages.

     3. My neighbor, Mr. Houghton, was always a very good friend of
     mine, and died last night.

     4. I dropped the clock and injured the works, but the jeweler
     told me it would be cheaper for me to buy a new clock.

     5. The next thing the camper should do is to make a bed, and
     the branches of the spruce are the best.


=Excessive Detail=

=11. Do not encumber the main idea of a sentence with superfluous
details. Place some of the details in another sentence, or omit them.=

     Faulty: In the town in which I live there are several large
     churches, and about six o'clock one morning, in a violent
     storm, one of these churches was struck by lightning.

     Right: In my home town there are several large churches. One
     morning about six o'clock, in a violent storm, one of these
     churches was struck by lightning.

     Wrong: In 1836, in Baltimore, Poe married Virginia Clemm, his
     cousin, who was hardly more than a child, being then fourteen
     years old, while Poe himself was twenty-eight, and to her he
     wrote much of his best verse.

     Right: In 1836 Poe married Virginia Clemm. Poe was then
     twenty-eight, and Virginia was only fourteen. To this girl Poe
     wrote much of his best verse.

     Exercise:

     1. The house with the red tile roof is the finest in the city,
     and is owned by Mr. Saunders, who made his money speculating in
     land.

     2. Then the engine tilted and fell over on one side, and the
     boiler exploded and added to the frightful scene.

     3. The deer whose antlers you see over the fireplace as you
     enter the room was shot by my Uncle Will, who is now in South
     America on a hunting expedition.

     4. The seeds, which have previously been soaked in water over
     night, are now planted carefully, not too deep, in straight
     rows sixteen inches apart, the best time being in April, when
     the ground is soft and has been thoroughly spaded.

     5. One day last week my employer, Mr. Conway, a jolly, peculiar
     man, raised my salary, first telling me I was about to be
     discharged, and laughing at me when I looked so surprised.

=Stringy Sentences to be Broken up=

=12. Avoid stringy compound sentences. The crude, rambling style which
results from their use may be corrected by separating the material into
shorter sentences, or by subordinating lesser ideas to the main thought.=

     Faulty: The second speaker had sat quietly waiting, and he was
     a man of a different type, and he began calmly, yet from the
     very first words he showed great earnestness.

     Right: The second speaker, who had sat quietly waiting, was a
     man of a different type. He began calmly, yet from his very
     first words he showed great earnestness.

     Faulty: There are many stops on the organ which control the
     tones of the different pipes and one has to learn how and when
     to use these and this takes time and practice.

     Right: On the organ are many stops which control the tones of
     the different pipes. To learn how and when to use these takes
     time and practice.

     Faulty: He published prose fiction, and this was then the
     accepted literary form, and the drama was neglected.

     Better: He published prose fiction, which was then the accepted
     literary form, the drama being neglected. [This sentence makes
     three statements in a diminishing series. The important idea is
     expressed in a main clause; a less important explanation is
     fitted into a relative clause; and a still less important
     comment takes a parenthetical phrase at the end.]

Note.--One of the crying faults of the immature writer is that by
excessive coördination he obscures the fine shades of meaning. When two
clauses are joined, the meaning will very often be more exact if one is
subordinated to the other. For a list of subordinating connectives, see
36.

     Exercise:

     1. He went down town, and it began to rain, and so he decided
     to go to the city library.

     2. There is an old saying which I have often heard and I
     believe in it to a certain extent, and it runs as follows: The
     more you live at your wit's end, the more the wit's end grows.

     3. Our salesman, Mr. Powers, has spoken very favorably of your
     firm, and we feel that our relations will be most pleasant, and
     the report of the commercial agencies is sufficient evidence of
     your good financial standing.

     4. There was no escaping from this churn, so one of the frogs,
     after a brief struggle thought that he might just as well die
     one time as another, and so he gave up and sank to the bottom.

     5. Socrates did no writing himself, and the only information we
     have of him we get from the writings of his pupils and from
     later writers, and our most reliable knowledge comes from two
     of these writers, Plato and Xenophon.


=Choppy Sentences to be Combined=

=13. Do not use two or three short sentences to express ideas which will
make a more unified impression in one sentence. Place subordinate ideas
in subordinate grammatical constructions.=

     Excessive predication: Excavating is the first operation in
     street paving. The excavating is usually done by means of a
     steam shovel. The shovel scoops up the dirt and loads it
     directly into wagons.

     Right: Excavating, the first operation in street paving, is
     usually done by a steam shovel which loads the dirt directly
     into wagons.

     Monotonous: The doe is wading along the shore. She is nibbling
     the lily pads as she goes. Now she moves slowly around the
     point. She has a little spotted fawn with her. The fawn frolics
     along at the heels of his mother.

     Better: Wading along the shore, the doe nibbles the lily pads
     by the way, and moves slowly around the point. A spotted fawn
     frolics at her heels.

     Primer style: Rooms are marked on the floor. These rooms are
     about fourteen feet square.

     Better: The floor is marked off into rooms about fourteen feet
     square.

Note.--An occasional short sentence is permissible, even desirable.
Successive short sentences may be used to express rapid action, or
emphatic assertion, or deliberate simplicity. Otherwise, avoid them.

     Exercise.

     1. Decatur has wide streets. The streets are paved with brick,
     asphalt, and creosote blocks.

     2. Sixteen posts are set in a row. All of these are at equal
     intervals.

     3. The boat approaches the leeward side of the ship. This side
     is the side protected from the wind.

     4. The _Scientific American_ reports the progress of science.
     It explains new inventions. It makes practical applications of
     scientific principles.

     5. The beans are usually harvested about the middle of
     September. They are cut when the plants turn color at the roots
     and the beans turn white. They are cut by a bean-cutter which
     takes two rows at a time.


=Excessive Coördination=

In structure a sentence may be

     A. Simple: The rain fell.

     B. Compound: The rain continued and the stream rose.

     C. Complex: When the rain ceased, the flood came.

In B, the clauses are of almost equal importance, and the first is
coördinated with the second. In C, the clauses are not of equal
importance, and the first is subordinated to the second. _And_ is a
coördinating conjunction. _When_ is a subordinating conjunction. For a
list of connectives see 36.

=14. Do not use coördination when subordination will secure a more clear
and emphatic unit of thought. Especially do not coördinate a main idea
with an explanatory detail.= The speech of children connects all ideas,
important and unimportant, with _and_. Discriminating writers place
minor ideas in subordinate clauses, consign still less important ideas
to participial or prepositional phrases, and omit trivial details
altogether.

     Childish: I went down town and saw a crowd standing in the
     street, and wanted to know what was the matter, and so I went
     up and asked a man.

     Right: When I went down town, I saw a crowd standing in the
     street, and since I wanted to know what was the matter, I asked
     a man. [Two clauses are subordinated by the use of _when_ and
     _since_. This change abolishes two _ands_. The words _went up
     and_ are struck out. One _and_ remains, and deserves to remain,
     for it joins two ideas which are truly coördinate.]

     Main idea not emphasized: I talked with an old man and his name
     was Ned.

     Better: I talked with an old man named Ned. [A participial
     phrase replaces a clause. The name is now subordinated.]

     Main idea not emphasized: Developing is the next step in
     preparing the film, and it is very important.

     Better: Developing, the next step in preparing the film, is
     very important. [An appositional phrase replaces the first
     predicate.]

     Main idea not emphasized: They began their perilous journey,
     and they had four horses.

     Right [emphasizing _perilous journey_]: With four horses they
     began their perilous journey. [A prepositional phrase replaces
     a clause.]

     Right [emphasizing _having the horses_]: When they began their
     perilous journey, they had four horses. [A subordinate clause
     replaces a main clause.]

     Capable of greater unity: The frog is a stupid animal, and may
     be caught with a hook baited with red flannel. [Is the writer
     trying to tell us _how to catch frogs_, or merely that _frogs
     are stupid_? Coördination makes the two ideas appear equally
     important.]

     Right [emphasizing _frogs are stupid_]: The fact that the frog
     can be caught with a hook baited with red flannel proves his
     stupidity.

     Right [emphasizing _how to catch frogs_]: The frog, being
     stupid, will bite at a piece of red flannel.

     Exercise.

     1. Men were sent to Panama and could not live in such
     unsanitary conditions.

     2. When a letter came and it bore a familiar handwriting, I
     always opened it eagerly.

     3. West Hickory is the name of the place where the tannery is
     situated, and it is a laboring man's town.

     4. She wore a dress and it was silk, and cost her father a lot
     of money.

     5. Every race horse has a care taker or groom, and this man
     spends all his time and makes the horse comfortable.


=Faulty Subordination of the Main Thought=

=15. Do not put the principal statement of a sentence in a subordinate
clause or phrase.= This violation of unity is sometimes called
"upside-down subordination".

     Faulty: I was going down the street, when I heard an explosion.
     [If _hearing the explosion_ is the main thought, it should be
     placed in the main clause.]

     Right: When I was going down the street, I heard an explosion.

     Faulty: Longstreet received orders to attack the Federal right
     wing, which he did immediately.

     Right: As soon as Longstreet received orders, he attacked the
     Federal right wing.

     Faulty: I suspected that it would rain, although I did not take
     an umbrella.

     Right: Although I suspected that it would rain, I did not take
     an umbrella.

     Exercise:

     1. An old man used to work for us, who died yesterday.

     2. He became angry, saying he positively refused to go.

     3. He is a bright boy, although I should not want to trust him
     with my pocketbook.

     4. He had an ambition which was to become the best lawyer in
     the state by the time he was forty years old.

     5. The cable breaks and the elevator starts to drop, when the
     safety device always operates at once to prevent an accident.


=Subordination Thwarted by _and_=

=16. Do not attach to a main clause by means of _and_, a word, phrase, or
clause which you intend shall be subordinate. The presence of _and_
thwarts subordination.=

     Wrong: Major went to bed, and leaving the work unfinished.

     Right: Major went to bed, leaving the work unfinished.

     Wrong: He ran home and with coat tails flying.

     Right: He ran home with coat tails flying.

     Exercise:

     1. They denied my request, and giving no reason for the
     refusal.

     2. He gave me his answer and in few words.

     3. The girl stood on the edge of the cliff, and thus showing
     that she was not afraid.

     4. A telegraph line is leased by the Associated Press, and thus
     giving the newspapers quick service.

     5. When the summer passed, the fisherman returned home for the
     winter, and where he renewed his acquaintance with the
     villagers.


=The _and which_ construction=

=17. Use _and which_ (or _but which_), _and who_ (or _but who_) only
between relative clauses similar in form. Between a main clause and a
relative clause, _and_ or _but_ thwarts subordination.=

     Wrong: This is an important problem, and which we shall not
     find easy to solve.

     Right: This problem is an important problem, which we shall not
     find easy to solve.

     Right: This problem is one _which_ is important, _and which_ we
     cannot easily solve.

     Wrong: _Les Miserables_ is a novel of great interest and which
     everybody should read.

     Right: _Les Miserables_ is a novel of great interest, and one
     which everybody should read.

     Wrong: Their chief opponent was Winter, a shrewd politician,
     but who is now less popular than he was.

     Right: Their chief opponent was Winter, a shrewd politician,
     who is now less popular than he was.

Note.--Rule 17 is sometimes briefly stated: "Do not use _and which_
unless you have already used _which_ in the sentence." This statement is
generally true, but an exception must be made for sentences like the
following: Right: "He told me what countries he had visited, and which
ones he liked most."

     Exercise:

     1. Just outside is a small porch looking out over the street,
     and which can be used for sleeping purposes.

     2. She is a woman of pleasing personality, and who can converse
     intelligently.

     3. It is a difficult task, but which can be accomplished in
     time.

     4. He is a good-looking man, but who is very snobbish.

     5. The rule made by the conference of college professors in
     1896, and which has been followed ever since, applies to the
     case we are considering.


=Unity Thwarted by Punctuation=

=The Comma Splice=

=18. Do not splice two independent statements by means of a comma. Write
two sentences. Or, if the two statements together form a unit of
thought, combine them (1) by a comma plus a conjunction, (2) by a
semicolon, or (3) by reducing one of the statements to a phrase or a
subordinate clause.=

     Wrong: The town has two railroads, it was founded when oil was
     discovered.

     Right: The town has two railroads. It was founded when oil was
     discovered.

     Wrong: The speed of the car seemed slower than it really was,
     this was due, no doubt, to the absence of all noise. [Here are
     three commas. The reader cannot quickly discover which one
     marks the great division of thought.]

     Right: The speed of the car seemed slower than it really was.
     This was due, no doubt, to the absence of all noise.

     Wrong: The winters were long and cold, nothing could live
     without shelter.

     Right: The winters were long and cold. Nothing could live
     without shelter.

     Right: The winters were long and cold, and nothing could live
     without shelter [For the use of the comma, see 91a].

     Right: The winters were long and cold; nothing could live
     without shelter [For the use of the semicolon see 92].

     Right: The winters were so long and cold that nothing could
     live without shelter.

Exception.--Short coördinate clauses which are parallel in structure and
leave a unified impression, may be joined by commas, even though the
conjunctions be omitted.

     Right: All was excitement. The ducks quacked, the pigs
     squealed, the dogs barked. [The general idea _excitement_ gives
     the three clauses a certain unity.]

     Exercise:

     1. The key is turned to the right, this unlocks the door.

     2. The author keeps one guessing, there is no hint how the
     story will end.

     3. The farmer is independent, he has no task-master.

     4. There has been a change of government, in fact there has
     been a revolution.

     5. Lamb had failed in poetry, in the drama, and in the novel,
     in the essay, at last, he succeeded.


=19.= EXERCISE IN UNITY OF THOUGHT

=A. The Comma Splice=

Rewrite the following material in sentences each of which is a unit of
thought. Most of the statements should be summarily cut apart. If you
decide that others taken together have unity of thought, combine them
(1) by a comma plus a conjunction, (2) by a semicolon, or (3) by
reducing one of the statements to a phrase or a subordinate clause.

     1. The canoe is long and narrow, it is made of birch bark.

     2. I decided to serve tea, of course cream and sugar would be
     needed.

     3. Some men hunt rabbits for market purposes only, they are the
     sportsman's enemies.

     4. This city furnished many boats for the siege of Calais, when
     these boats returned they brought the plague with them.

     5. The bottom of the box is then put in, it is nailed to the
     sides.

     6. It is not easy to become a good musician, one must practice
     continually.

     7. The Northern and Southern states could not be separate
     nations, there was no natural boundary between them.

     8. The telephone is a great invention, it is very useful to the
     farmer.

     9. Why would no one come to help me, my feet ached and I was
     thirsty.

     10. I know a girl who has a cynical disposition, she is always
     criticizing.

     11. I went into the office hopeless, a dime stood between me
     and starvation.

     12. The construction of the bridge has much to do with the tone
     of a violin, it should be lower on the side nearest the E
     string.

     13. A private expense account does not require much labor or
     time, just one hour a week will suffice to keep tract of all
     expenditures.

     14. We offer you sixty dollars a month to start, this is all we
     can afford to pay at present.

     15. He wanted personal success but would not shirk a duty or
     harm any one in any way to gain that success, at all times he
     forgot his own personal importance and was ready to do any task
     set before him.

=B. One Thought in a Sentence=

By dividing, subordinating, or logically combining the following
statements, secure unity of thought.

     1. She was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on September 30, 1902,
     where she has lived ever since and is now well known.

     2. Franklin was kindly, shrewd, and capable, and was the
     representative of the United States in France.

     3. She said that Mrs. Brown was ill and that she was just
     caring for the baby, she loved babies anyway, she said.

     4. One Sunday afternoon there was an excursion to Beaver and
     several of us decided to go and take our lunches and return on
     the eight o'clock car.

     5. He gave me the dimensions of the room. The dimensions were
     ten by twelve feet.

     6. Good grades may be obtained in two ways: by honest work, and
     by cheating; however any one who cheats is doing himself more
     harm than good.

     7. The wall studding is made of two-by-fours. These
     two-by-fours are placed sixteen inches apart.

     8. The returning Crusaders brought with them oriental learning,
     and found the peasantry impoverished.

     9. The articles in this magazine are of high quality. The
     articles are well written and attractively illustrated.

     10. A Japanese woman going abroad at night must carry a lighted
     lamp and must not speak to any one, women do not have much
     freedom in Japan.

     11. The sugar beets are irrigated by river water. They are
     irrigated by means of furrows. The furrows run between the rows
     of beets. The beets are irrigated once a week.

     12. The referee asked each captain if his men were ready, after
     which he blew the whistle, and the game was on, and within five
     minutes our team scored a touchdown.

     13. The ground should be harrowed as soon as possible after it
     is plowed. It is a good plan to harrow the ground on the same
     day that it is plowed, or on the day following.

     14. Choose the middle of the prepared ground, which is about
     eighty-five by fifty feet, as your starting point, measure
     twenty-four feet east and west and set the net posts; then,
     after marking off the different courts with tape, you are ready
     for a good game of tennis.

     15. There are two places on the island suitable for plays: one
     in the bungalow and the other down on the sandy point; the
     latter lends itself to the purpose readily, there are two trees
     which make a splendid support for wires on which to hang the
     curtain, and just east of these the ground slopes enough to
     make a natural amphitheater.

=C. Excessive Coördination=

The ideas in the following sentences are loosely strung together with
coördinating conjunctions. Place the important idea in the main clause.
Subordinate other ideas by reducing each to a dependent clause, or a
phrase, or a word.

     1. Chris has a new coat and it is double-breasted.

     2. I had a dog, and his name was Scratcher.

     3. He gave a laugh but it was forced.

     4. The woodcock is so foolish and deliberately walks into a
     trap.

     5. The engineers fastened rafts to the piles, and which were
     pulled up when the tide rose.

     6. Students often sit all doubled up, and raising their feet
     high on the table.

     7. Dunlap is carrying a palette, but without any paint on it.

     8. The government has been successful in its suit, and the
     tobacco trust was dissolved.

     9. The British troops had no protection against poisonous gas
     and the use of gas by the enemy was unexpected.

     10. I make it a rule to study one thing at least an hour and no
     long rest between.

     11. The concrete is spread in a layer, and this is about nine
     inches thick, and the width being ten feet.

     12. Rockwell is our postmaster, and is accommodating, but he
     has a disposition to be curious.

     13. At the Gatun Dam there are concrete locks, and the purpose
     of these is to lift vessels into the lake.

     14. They say to tourists that objects are historic but which
     are not historic at all.

     15. I was lying quietly in the hammock, and I happened to look
     up in the tree, and there was a green bird and eating a cherry.

     16. They disputed for a time, and afterward the officer became
     angry, and whipped out his sword.

     17. A mirage is an illusion and the traveler thinks he sees
     water when there really is none.

=D. Upside-down Subordination=

In the following sentences the important idea is buried in a subordinate
clause or phrase. Rescue this main idea, express it in the main clause,
and if possible subordinate the rest of the sentence to it.

     1. I spoke to her on the street, when she did not answer.

     2. She thanked me for my assistance, also asking me to come and
     visit her the following Sunday.

     3. The water froze in the buckets, although they did not burst.

     4. The crows cawed angrily and circling around in one place.

     5. He is threatened with tuberculosis, although he will not
     sleep in the open air.

     6. We had hacked the bark, the tree dying after a few months.

     7. One of the contestants was from Wendover College, who
     received the prize.

     8. You ask a person what a spiral staircase is, when he will go
     to showing you by motions of his hand.

     9. It was about three o'clock, and we decided to return home,
     which we did.

     10. The plumber came, stopping the leak as soon as he arrived.

     11. Benton sold stamps, in which business he grew rich.

     12. The sun's heat beats down upon the brick tenements, which
     is terrible.

     13. The chemist tested the purity of the water, but which he
     found unfit to drink.

     14. Montaigne wrote an essay on "Solitude," where he pointed
     out the disadvantages of travel.

     15. The house is set close to the edge of the bluff,
     overlooking a wide bend of the Alleghany River.

     16. Things had been going from bad to worse among the Indians,
     and some Sioux were entertaining a few Chippewas, and murdered
     them, when the government took a hand in the affair.

     17. The slight knowledge of metals and wide-awake observation
     of an inexperienced miner discovered gold in Arizona.



CLEARNESS OF THOUGHT

Clearness is fundamental. The writer should be content, not when his
meaning may be understood, but only when his meaning cannot be
misunderstood. He may attain this entire clearness by giving attention
to five matters:

     Reference (20-23)
     Coherence (24-28)
     Parallel Structure (30-31)
     Consistency (32-35)
     Use of Connectives (36-38)


REFERENCE

By the use of pronouns, participles, and other dependent words, language
becomes flexible and free. But each dependent part must refer without
confusion to a word which is reasonably near, and properly expressed.
Ordinarily a reader expects a pronoun or a participle to refer to the
nearest noun (or pronoun) or to an emphatic noun.


=Divided Reference=

=20. A pronoun should be placed near the word to which it refers, and
separated from words to which it might falsely seem to refer. If this
method does not secure clearness, discard the pronoun and change the
sentence structure.=

     Uncertain reference of _which_: He dropped the bundle in the
     mud which he was carrying to his mother. [The reader for a
     moment refers the pronoun to the wrong noun. Bring _which_
     nearer to its proper antecedent _bundle_.]

     Right: He dropped in the mud the bundle which he was carrying
     to his mother.

     Vague reference of _this_: My failure in mathematics was
     serious. My grades in English, history, and Latin were good
     enough. But this brought down my average. [_This?_ What _this_?
     Five nouns intrude between the pronoun _this_ and its proper
     antecedent _failure_.]

     Right: In English, history, and Latin I received fairly good
     grades. But in mathematics I received a failure. This brought
     down my average.

     Remote reference of _it_: If you want to make a good speech,
     take your hands out of your pockets, open your mouth wide, and
     throw yourself into it.

     Right: If you want to make a good speech, take your hands out
     of your pockets, open your mouth wide, and throw yourself into
     what you are saying. [Or, better] Take your hands out of your
     pockets, open your mouth wide, and throw yourself into the
     speech.

     Ambiguous reference of _he_: John spoke to the stranger, and he
     was very surly.

     Right: John spoke to the stranger, who was very surly. [Or]
     John spoke in a surly manner to the stranger.

Note.--The reference of relative and demonstrative pronouns is largely
dependent upon their position. The reference of a personal pronoun
(_he_, _she_, _they_, etc.) is not so much dependent upon its position,
the main consideration being that the antecedent shall be emphatic (See
the next article.)

     Exercise:

     1. He was driving an old mule attached to a cart that was blind
     in one eye.

     2. There is a grimy streak on the wall over the radiator which
     can be removed only with great difficulty.

     3. The feet of Chinese girls were bandaged so tightly when they
     were babies that they could not grow.

     4. He gave me a receipt for the money which he told me to keep.

     5. After the pictures have been taken and the film has been
     removed, they are sent to the developing room where it is
     developed and dried.


=Weak Reference=

=21. Do not allow a pronoun to refer to a word not likely to be central
in the reader's thought; a word, for example, in the possessive case, or
in a parenthetical expression, or in a compound, or not expressed at
all. Make the pronoun refer to an emphatic word.=

     Wrong: When a poor woman came to Jane Addams' famous Hull
     House, she always gave help. [_Poor woman_ and _Hull House_ are
     the emphatic words, to which any pronoun used later is
     instinctively referred by the reader.]

     Right: When a poor woman came to Jane Addams' famous Hull
     House, she always received help. [Or] When a poor woman came to
     Hull House, Jane Addams always gave help.

     Wrong: In biology, which is the study of plants and animals we
     find that they are made up of unitary structures called cells.
     [Since the words _plants and animals_ occur only in a
     parenthetical clause, the reader is surprised to find them used
     as an antecedent.]

     Right: In the study of biology we find that plants and animals
     are made up of unitary structures called cells.

     Wrong: This old scissors-grinder sharpens them for the whole
     neighborhood. [The center of interest in the reader's mind is a
     man, not scissors.]

     Right: This old scissors-grinder sharpens scissors for the
     whole neighborhood.

     Wrong: I always liked engineers, and I have chosen that as my
     profession.

     Right: I always liked engineering, and I have chosen it as my
     profession.

     Absurd: When the baby is through drinking milk, it should be
     disconnected and put in boiling water. [The central idea in the
     reader's mind is _baby_, not _milk-bottle_. The writer may have
     been thinking about the _bottle_, but he did not make the word
     emphatic; in fact, he did not express it at all.]

     Right: When the baby is through drinking milk, the bottle
     should be taken apart and put in boiling water.

Note.--Ordinarily, do not refer to the title in the first line of a
theme. The reader expects you to assert something, and face forward, not
to turn back to what you have said in the title.

     Faulty:        Color Photography

     I am interested in this new development of science. For
     a long time I ...

     Right:        Color Photography

     Taking pictures in color has long appealed to me as an interesting
     possibility ...

     Exercise:

     1. In Shakespeare's play _Othello_ he makes Iago a fiend.

     2. The noodle-cutter is a kitchen device which saves time in
     making this troublesome dish.

     3. The life of a forester is interesting, and I intend to
     follow that profession.

     4. He took down his great-grandfather's old sword, who had
     carried it at Bunker Hill.

     5. I was always making experiments in science, and I naturally
     acquired a liking for periodicals of that nature.


=Broad Reference=

=22. Do not use a pronoun to refer broadly to a general idea. Supply a
definite antecedent or abandon the pronoun.=

     Wrong: The tapper strikes the gong, which continues as long as
     the push button is pressed. [The writer intends that _which_
     shall refer to the entire preceding clause, but the reference
     is intercepted by the word _gong_.]

     Right [supplying a definite antecedent]: The tapper strikes the
     gong, a process which continues as long as the push button is
     pressed. [Or, abandoning the pronoun] The tapper strikes the
     gong as long as the push button is pressed.

     Wrong: Read the directions which are printed on the bottle and
     it may save you from making a mistake.

     Right [supplying a definite antecedent]: Read the directions
     which are printed on the bottle. This precaution may save you
     from making a mistake. [Or, abandoning the pronoun] Reading the
     directions on the bottle may prevent a mistake.

     Wrong: The managers told him they would increase his salary if
     he would represent them in South America. He refused that.

     Right: The managers told him they would increase his salary if
     he would represent them in South America. He refused the offer.

Exception.--It cannot be maintained that a pronoun must _always_ have
one definite word for its antecedent. Many of the best English authors
occasionally use a pronoun to refer to a clause. But the reference must
always be clear.

Note.--Impersonal constructions must be used with caution. "It is
raining" is correct, although _it_ has no antecedent. We desire that the
antecedent shall be vague, impersonal. But unnecessary use of the
indefinite _it_, _you_, or _they_ should be avoided.

     Faulty: It says in our history that Columbus was an Italian.

     Right: Our history says that Columbus was an Italian.

     Not complimentary to the reader: You aren't hanged nowadays for
     stealing.

     Right: No one is hanged nowadays for stealing.

     Faulty: They are noted for their tact in France.

     Right: The French are noted for their tact.

     Exercise:

     1. You use little slang in your paper which is commendable.

     2. They had no reinforcements which caused them to lose the
     battle.

     3. The carbon must be removed from pig iron to make pure steel,
     and that is done by terrific heat.

     4. Our stenographer spends most of her spare time at a cheap
     movie theater, which is in itself an index of her character.

     5. It says in the new rules that you aren't allowed in the
     building on Sunday.


=Dangling Participle or Gerund=

=23. A participle, being dependent, must refer to a noun or pronoun. The
noun or pronoun should be within the sentence which contains the
participle, and should be so conspicuous that the participle will be
associated with it instantly and without confusion.=

     Wrong: Coming in on the train, the high school building is
     seen. [Is the building coming in? If not, who is?]

     Right: Coming in on the train, one sees the high school
     building.

A sentence containing a dangling participle may be corrected (1) by
giving the word to which the participle refers a conspicuous position in
the sentence, or (2) by replacing the participial phrase by some other
construction.

     Wrong: Having taken our seats, the umpire announced the
     batteries.

     Right: Having taken our seats, we heard the umpire announce
     the batteries. [Or] When we had taken our seats, the umpire
     announced the batteries.

     Wrong: She was for a long time sick, caused by overwork. [The
     participle _caused_ should not modify _sick_. A participle is
     used as an adjective, and should therefore modify a noun.]

     Right--using an adjectival modifier:

     She had a long sickness, {caused by} overwork.
                              {due to   }

     Right--using an adverbial modifier:

                                  {because of   }
     She was for a long time sick {owing to     } overwork.
                                  {on account of}

=When a gerund phrase (_in passing_, _while speaking_ etc.) implies the
action of a special agent, indicate what the agent is. Otherwise the
phrase will be dangling.=

     Faulty: In talking to Mr. Brown the other day, he told me that
     you intend to buy a car.

     Better: In talking to Mr. Brown the other day, I learned that
     you intend to buy a car.

     Faulty: The address was concluded by reciting a passage from
     Wordsworth.

     Better: The speaker concluded his address by reciting a passage
     from Wordsworth. [Or] The address was concluded by the
     recitation of a passage from Wordsworth.

Note.--Two other kinds of dangling modifier, treated elsewhere in this
book, may be briefly mentioned here. A phrase beginning with the
adjective _due_ should refer to a noun; otherwise the phrase is left
dangling (See 5 Note). An elliptical sentence (one from which words are
omitted) is faulty when one of the elements is left dangling (See 3).

     Faulty: I was late _due_ to carelessness [Use _because of_].

     Ludicrous: My shoestring always breaks when hurrying to the
     office at eight o'clock [Say _when I am hurrying_].

     Exercise:

     1. Coming out of the house, a street car is seen.

     2. While engaged in conversation with my host and hostess, my
     maid placed upon the table a steaming leg of lamb.

     3. A small quantity of gold is thoroughly mixed with a few
     drops of turpentine, using the spatula to work it smooth.

     4. After being in the oven twenty minutes, open the door. When
     fully baked, you are ready to put the sauce on the pudding.

     5. Entering the store, a soda fountain is observed. Passing
     down the aisle, a candy counter comes into view. The rear of
     the store is bright and pleasant, caused by a skylight.


COHERENCE

The verb _cohere_ means to stick or hold firmly together. And the noun
_coherence_ as applied to writing means a close and natural sequence of
parts. Order is essential to clearness.


=General Incoherence=

=24. Every part of a sentence must have a clear and natural connection
with the adjoining part. Like or related parts should normally be placed
together.=

     Bring related ideas together: Little Helen stood beside the
     horse wearing white stockings and slippers.

     Right: Little Helen, in white stockings and slippers, stood
     beside the horse.

     Keep unlike ideas apart: The colors of purple and green are
     pleasing to the eye as found in the thistle.

     Right: The purple and green colors of the thistle are
     pleasing.

     Distribute unrelated modifiers, instead of bunching them: I
     found    a heap of snow    on my bed    in the morning
        which had drifted in through the window. [Subject
     verb--object--place--time--explanation.]

     Right: In the morning    I found    on my bed
         a heap of snow    which had drifted in through the window.
     [Time--subject verb--place--object--explanation.]

     Bring related modifiers together: When he has prepared his
     lessons, he will come, as soon as he can put on his old
     clothes. [Condition--main clause--condition.]

     Right: When he has prepared his lessons and put on his old
     clothes, he will come. [Condition and condition--main clause.]

     Exercise:

     1. He was gazing at the landscape which he had painted with a
     smiling face.

     2. She turned the steak with a fork which she was cooking for
     dinner every few minutes.

     3. Dickens puts the various experiences he had in the form of a
     novel when he was a boy.

     4. If the roads are made of dirt, the farmer has to wait, if
     the weather is rainy, till they dry.

     5. We received practically very little or none at all
     experience in writing themes.


=Logical Sequence=

=25. Place first in the sentence the idea which naturally comes first in
thought or in the order of time.=

     Faulty: We went to the station from the house after bidding all
     goodby.

     Right: We said goodby to all, and went from the house to the
     station.

=Do not begin one idea, abandon it for a second, and then return to the
first. Complete one idea at a time.=

     Faulty: She looked up as he approached and smoothed her hair.
     [The writer begins a main clause, changes to a subordinate
     clause, and then attempts to add more to the main clause.
     Unfortunately the last two verbs appear to be coördinate.]

     Right: She looked up and smoothed her hair as he approached.
     [Or] As he approached she looked up, and smoothed her hair.

=Ordinarily, let a second thought begin where the first leaves off.=

     Faulty: An orange grove requires plenty of water. The young
     trees will die if they do not have plenty of water. [The order
     of ideas is: "Grove ... water. Trees ... water." Reverse the
     order of the second sentence.]

     Right: An orange grove requires plenty of water. For without
     water the young trees will die. [Now the order of ideas is:
     "Grove ... water. Water ... trees."]

     Exercise:

     1. I boarded the train, after buying a ticket.

     2. I dropped my pen when the whistle blew and sighed.

     3. Unless the bank clerk has ability he will never be
     successful unless he works faithfully and hard.

     4. I remember the days when Rover was a pup. Now he is not half
     so interesting as he was then.

     5. A chessboard is divided into sixty-four squares, and there
     is plenty of room between the opposing armies for a terrific
     battle, since each army occupies only sixteen squares.


=Squinting Modifier=

=26. Avoid the squinting construction. That is, do not place between two
parts of a sentence a modifier that may attach itself to either. Place
the modifier where it cannot be misunderstood.=

     Confusing: I told him when the time came I would do it. [_When
     the time came_ is said to "squint" because the reader cannot
     tell whether it looks forward to the end of the sentence, or
     backward to the beginning.]

     Right: When the time came, I told him I would do it. [Or] I
     told him I would do it when the time came.

     Confusing: Some friends I knew would enjoy the play. [_I knew_
     squints.]

     Right: Some friends would enjoy the play, I knew.

     Confusing: The orator whom every one was calling for
     enthusiastically hurried to the platform. [_Enthusiastically_
     squints.]

     Clear: The orator whom every one was enthusiastically calling
     for hurried to the platform.

     Exercise:

     1. The man who laughs half the time does not understand the
     joke.

     2. Playing football in many ways improves the mind.

     3. When she reached home much to her disgust the door was
     locked.

     4. When the lightning struck for the first time in my life I
     was afraid.

     5. The landlord wrote that he would if the rent were not paid
     in thirty days eject the tenant.


=Misplaced Word=

=27. Such an adverb as _only_, _ever_, _almost_, should be placed near
the word it modifies, and separated from words which it might falsely
seem to modify. Such a conjunction as _nevertheless_, if required with a
clause, should usually be placed near the beginning.=

     Illogical: I only need a few dollars.

     Right: I need only a few dollars.

     Illogical: I don't ever intend to go there again.

     Right: I don't intend ever to go there again. [Or] I intend
     never to go there again.

     Illogical: She has the sweetest voice I nearly ever heard.

     Right: She has nearly [or _almost_] the sweetest voice I ever
     heard.

     Tardy use of conjunction: I intend to try. I do not expect to
     accomplish much, however.

     Right: I intend to try. I do not, however, expect to accomplish
     much.

     Exercise:

     1. Students are only admitted to one lecture.

     2. This is the smallest book I almost ever saw.

     3. He is so poor he hasn't any food, scarcely.

     4. She had one dress that she never expected to wear.

     5. The difficulties were tremendous. He said that he would do
     his best, nevertheless.


=Split Construction=

=28. Elements that have a close grammatical connection should not be
separated awkwardly or carelessly. These elements are: (a) subject and
verb, or verb and object; (b) the parts of a compound verb; and (c) the
parts of an infinitive.=

     Awkward: One in the struggle for efficiency should not become a
     machine.

     Better: In the struggle for efficiency one should not become a
     machine.

     Awkward: What use of an education could a girl who married a
     penniless rogue and afterwards knew
     nothing but hard labor, make?

     Better: What use of an education could a girl make who married
     a penniless rogue and afterward knew nothing but hard labor?

     Crude: He was unable to even so much as stir a foot.

     Better: He was unable even to stir a foot.

Note.--It is often desirable to separate the forms enumerated under (a)
and (b) above, either for emphasis (See 40) or to avoid a bunching of
modifiers at the end of a sentence (See 24). The whole point of rule 28
is not to depart from a natural order needlessly.

     Exercise:

     1. One thing the beginner must remember is to not get excited.

     2. Ralph, when he heard the news, came flying out of the house.

     3. The president called together, for the need was urgent, his
     cabinet.

     4. Bryce said that it is more patriotic to judiciously vote
     than to frantically wave the American flag.

     5. About the time Florence Nightingale had to give up her
     plans, a war between Turkey, England, and France on one side
     and Russia on the other, broke out.


=29.= EXERCISE IN CLEARNESS OF THOUGHT

=A. Reference of Pronouns=

In the following sentences make the reference of pronouns exact and
unmistakable.

     1. Brown wrote to Roberts that he had made a mistake.

     2. We heard a voice through the door which told us to enter.

     3. There is a walk leading from the street to the house which
     is made of thin slabs of stone.

     4. A milking stool was beside the cow on which he was
     accustomed to sit.

     5. Should a community, such as a small village, spend the money
     they do on roads?

     6. This magazine prints many special articles on politics and
     social reforms that are always instructive.

     7. I wish I could do something for the protection of birds in
     our country which is neglected.

     8. After a man has failed in one business, it is no sign he
     will fail in every other.

     9. Sometimes cane syrup is mixed with the maple syrup, which
     reduces the value of the product.

     10. It means hard and diligent work to study Latin, but it
     strengthens our brain or at least it gives it good exercise.

     11. In the class room the students become acquainted, which may
     develop into lifelong friendships.

     12. He was delighted with a ride on horseback, which animal he
     had been familiar with in his childhood on the farm.

     13. It says in our history that the battle of New Orleans was
     fought after the treaty of peace had been signed.

     14. Sparks flew about in the air, and it reminded me of a huge
     Fourth of July celebration.

     15. The doctor gave me medicine to stop the dull pain in my
     head. This made me feel much better.

=B. Dangling Modifiers=

Remembering that a participle is used as an adjective and must therefore
refer to a noun or pronoun, correct the following sentences. Gerund
phrases and a few elliptical sentences are included in the list.

     1. Having planned the basement, the next thing considered was
     the first floor.

     2. Glancing around the room, the ugly wall paper at once
     confronted me.

     3. After ringing the bell, and waiting a few moments, a maid
     came to the door.

     4. When selecting a site for an orchard, it should be well
     drained.

     5. Not being a skilled dancer, my feet moved awkwardly.

     6. Having no watch, the clock must be consulted.

     7. He was sick, caused by eating too much dessert.

     8. Radium is very difficult to get, making it the most valuable
     metal.

     9. One man goes home and beats his wife, resulting in internal
     injuries.

     10. Over the paper and kindling a few small chunks of coal are
     scattered, taking care not to choke the draft.

     11. In speaking of character, it does not mean to be a governor
     or a general.

     12. This town draws trade for a radius of twenty miles, thus
     accounting for the large volume of business.

     13. While talking to Ralph yesterday, he spoke about his recent
     success in the hardware business.

     14. The bus holds fifteen people, and when full, the bus man
     shuts the door.

     15. If bright and pleasant, the rabbit will be found sitting at
     the entrance of his burrow.

=C. Coherence=

Secure a clear, smooth, natural order for the following sentences.

     1. I have a lot for sale near the city limits.

     2. Many men can only speak their native tongue.

     3. I saw yesterday, crossing the street, a beautiful woman.

     4. They entered the room, and sitting on the floor they saw a
     baby.

     5. I put down my book when the clock struck and yawned.

     6. She dropped the money on the sidewalk which she was carrying
     home.

     7. The horse did not notice that the gate was open for several
     minutes.

     8. It was worth the trouble. I do not wish to have the
     experience again, however.

     9. My first trip away from home, of any distance, was made on a
     steamboat from St. Louis to New Orleans.

     10. He gazed at a young man who was waving his hands violently,
     called a cheer leader.

     11. Any soil will grow some variety of strawberry, except sand
     and clay.

     12. I turned triumphantly to Will, who was still gazing at the
     place where the muskrat sank with a beaming face.

     13. Only the interest, the principal being kept intact, is
     spent.

     14. A student should see that external conditions are favorable
     for study, such as light, temperature, and clothing.

     15. Draw a heavy line using a ruler to connect New York and San
     Francisco across the map.


PARALLEL STRUCTURE

When the structure of a sentence is simple and uniform, the important
words strike the eye at once. Compare the following:

     Parallel: Beggars must not be choosers.

     Confusing: Beggars must not be the one who choose.

A reader gives attention partly to the structure of a sentence, and
partly to the thought. The less we puzzle him with our structure, the
more we shall impress him with our thought.

     Parallel: Seeing is believing. [Attention goes to the thought.]

     Confusing: Seeing is to believe. [Attention is diverted to
     _structure_.]

The reader's expectation is that uniform structure shall accompany
uniform ideas, and that a departure from uniformity shall indicate a
change of thought.


=Parallel Structure for Parallel Thoughts=

=30. Give parallel structure to those parts of a sentence which are
parallel in thought. Do not needlessly interchange an infinitive with a
participle, a phrase with a clause, a single word with a phrase or
clause, a main clause with a dependent clause, one voice or mode of the
verb with another, etc.=

     Faulty: Riding is sometimes better exercise than to walk.

     Right: Riding is sometimes better exercise than walking. [Or]
     To ride is sometimes better exercise than to walk.

     Faulty: He had two desires, of which the first was for money;
     in the second place, he wanted fame.

     Right: He had two desires, of which the first was for money and
     the second for fame. [Or] He had two desires: in the first
     place, he wanted money; in the second, fame.

     Faulty: His rival handled cigars of better quality and having a
     higher selling price.

     Right: His rival handled cigars of better quality and higher
     price.

     Faulty: When you have mastered the operation of shifting gears,
     and after a little practice you will be a good driver.

     Right: When you have mastered the operation of shifting gears,
     and had a little practice, you will be a good driver. [Or]
     After you master the gears and have a little practice, you will
     be a good driver.

     Faulty. These are the duties of the president of a literary
     society:

     (a) To preside at regular meetings,
     (b) He calls special meetings,
     (c) Appointment of committees.

     Right: These are the duties of the president of a literary
     society:

     (a) To preside at regular meetings,
     (b) To call special meetings,
     (c) To appoint committees.

     Faulty: She was actively connected with the club, church, and
     with several organized charities. [Here parallelism is obscured
     by the omission from the second phrase of both the preposition
     and the article.]

     Right: She was actively connected with the club, with the
     church, and with several organized charities.

     Faulty: He was red-faced, awkward, and had a disposition to eat
     everything on the table. [The third element is like the others
     in thought, and should have similar form.]

     Right: He had a red face, an awkward manner, and a disposition
     to eat everything on the table. [Or] He was red-faced, awkward,
     and voracious.

Note.--Avoid misleading parallelism. For ideas _different_ in kind, do
_not_ use parallel structure.

     Wrong: He was hot, puffing, and evidently had run very hard.
     [The third element is unlike the others in thought; hence the
     _and_ is misleading.]

     Right: He was hot and puffing; evidently he had run very hard.

     Confusing: He was admired for his knowledge of science, and for
     his taste for art, and for this I too honor him. [The last
     _for_ gives a false parallelism to unlike thoughts.]

     Better: He was admired for his scientific knowledge and for his
     artistic taste. I honor him for both these qualities.

     Exercise:

     1. The duties of the secretary are to answer correspondence,
     and keeping the minutes of the meetings.

     2. This process is the most difficult; it costs the most; and
     is most important.

     3. I make it a rule to be orderly, spend no money foolishly,
     and keep still when I have nothing to say.

     4. The cotton is put up in bales about five feet in length and
     three feet wide and four thick, and one of them weighing about
     five hundred pounds.

     5. Considerations of economy that one should bear in mind when
     planning a house are: first, a rectangular ground-plan; second,
     a one-chimney plan; third, to have only one stairway; fourth,
     eliminate as many doors as possible; fifth, the bathroom should
     be above the kitchen so as to reduce the cost of plumbing; and
     lastly, the rooms should be few and large rather than small and
     many of them.


=Correlatives=

Conjunctions that are used in pairs are called correlatives; for
example, _not only_ ... _but also_ ..., _both_ ... _and_
..., _either_ ... _or_ ..., _neither_ ... _nor_ ..., _not_ ... _or_ ...,
_whether_ ... _or_ ....

=31. Correlatives should usually be followed by elements parallel in
form; if a predicate follows one, a predicate should follow the other;
if a prepositional phrase follows one, a prepositional phrase should
follow the other; and so on.=

     Faulty: He was not only courteous to rich customers but also to
     poor ones. [Here the phrases intended to be balanced against
     each other are _to rich customer's_ and _to poor ones_. As the
     sentence stands, it is the word _courteous_ that is balanced
     against _to poor ones_.]

     Right: He was courteous not only to rich customers but also to
     poor ones.

     Faulty: She could neither make up her mind to go nor could she
     decide to stay.

     Right: She could neither make up her mind to go nor decide to
     stay. [Or] She could not make up her mind either to go or to
     stay.

     Faulty: I talked both with Brown and Miller. [Here one
     conjunction is followed by a preposition and the other by a
     noun.]

     Right: I talked with both Brown and Miller. [Or] I talked both
     with Brown and with Miller.

     Exercise:

     1. He was courteous to both friends and his enemies.

     2. Such conduct is not only dangerous to society but becomes a
     national disgrace as well.

     3. She had neither affectation of manners nor was she
     sharp-tongued.

     4. After reading Thoreau's _Walden_ I appreciate not only the
     style but also I am inclined to believe in his ideas.

     5. The good that the delegates derive from the convention not
     only helps them, but they tell others what happened.


CONSISTENCY

=Shift in Subject or Voice=

=32. Do not needlessly shift the subject, voice, or mode in the middle of
a sentence. Keep one point of view, until there is a reason for
changing.=

     Faulty: In the stream which the road led over, fish were
     plentiful. [Here the first mental picture is of a stream. Then
     the thought is jerked away to the road above. Then it returns
     to the fish in the stream.]

     Right: In the stream which flowed under the roadway, fish were
     plentiful.

     Faulty: Mark Twain was born in the West, but the East was his
     home in later years. [The change of subject is uncalled for.]

     Right: Mark Twain was born in the West, but lived in the East
     in his later years. [Or] The West was the birthplace of Mark
     Twain, and the East was his home in his later years.

     Faulty: A careful driver can go fifteen miles on a gallon of
     gasoline, and at the same time very little lubricating oil is
     used. [The shift from active to passive voice is awkward and
     confusing.]

     Right: A careful driver can go fifteen miles on a gallon of
     gasoline, and at the same time use very little lubricating oil.

     Faulty: When a problem in chemistry is given, or when we wish
     to calculate certain formulas, we find that a knowledge of
     mathematics is indispensable.

     Right: When a problem in chemistry is given, or when certain
     formulas are to be calculated, a knowledge of mathematics is
     indispensable. [Or] When we face a problem in chemistry, or
     wish to calculate certain formulas, we find that a knowledge of
     mathematics is indispensable.

     Faulty: Next the ground should be harrowed. Then you sow the
     wheat. [The subject changes from _ground_ to _you_. One verb
     explains what _should_ be done, the other what somebody
     _does_.]

                            {is       }
     Right: Next the ground {         } harrowed. Then it
                            {should be}
     {is       }
     {         } sown to wheat. [Or] Next you should harrow
     {should be}
     the ground. Then you should sow the wheat.

     Exercise:

     1. One end of a camera carries the film, and the lens and
     shutter are in the other end.

     2. When an athlete is in training, good healthful food should
     be eaten.

     3. An engineer's time is not devoted to one branch of science,
     but should include many.

     4. By having only five men in charge of our city government,
     they would have more power, and we could then fix
     responsibility.

     5. There are two main classes of cake, sponge and butter. We
     are taught to make both in cooking school. I like the sponge
     cake. The butter cake is preferred by most persons.


=Shift in Number, Person, or Tense=

=33. Avoid an inconsistent change in number, person, or tense.=

     Faulty change in number: One should save their money.

     Right: People should save their money. [Or] A man should save
     his money.

     Faulty change in person: Place the seeds in water, and in a few
     days a person can see that they have started to grow.

     Right: Place the seeds in water, and in a few days you will see
     that they have started to grow.

     Faulty change in number: Take your umbrella with you. They will
     be needed today.

     Right: Take your umbrella with you. You will need it today.

     Faulty change in tense: Freedom means that a man may conduct
     his affairs as he pleases so long as he did not injure anybody
     else.

     Right: Freedom means that a man may conduct his affairs as he
     pleases so long as he does not injure anybody else.

     Faulty change in tense: When he heard the news, he hurries down
     town and buys a paper.

     Right: When he heard the news, he hurried down town and bought
     a paper.

Note.--A change of tense within a sentence is desirable and necessary in
certain instances, for which see 55.

Sometimes, for the sake of vividness, past events are described in the
present tense, as if they were taking place before our eyes. This usage
is called the _historical present_. A shift to the historical present
should not be made abruptly, or frequently, or for any subject except an
important crisis.

     Exercise:

     1. A person should be careful of their conduct.

     2. Sentences should be so formed that the reader feels it to be
     a unit.

     3. One should make the best of their surroundings and their
     possessions, provided they cannot better them.

     4. When he sees me coming, he looked the other way.

     5. Silas Marner lost many of his habits of solitude, and goes
     out among his neighbors.


=Mixed Constructions=

=34. Do not make a compromise between two constructions.=

     Faulty: I cannot help but go.

     Right: I cannot help going. [Or] I cannot but go. [Or] I can
     but go.

     Faulty: They are as following:

     Right: They are as follows: [Or] They are the following:

     Faulty: He tried, but of no avail.

     Right: He tried, but to no avail. [Or] He tried, but his effort
     was of no avail.

     Faulty: There is no honor to be on this committee.

     Right: It is no honor to be on this committee. [Or] There is no
     honor in being on this committee.

     Faulty: Sparks from the chimney caught the house on fire.

     Right: Sparks from the chimney set the house on fire. [Or] The
     house caught fire from the sparks from the chimney.

Note.--The double negative and kindred expressions (_not hardly_, _not
scarcely_, etc.) are an especially gross form of mixed construction.

     Wrong: He isn't no better now than he was then. [Logically, not
     no better means _better_. The two negatives cancel each other
     and leave an affirmative.]

     Right: He isn't any better now than he was then. [Or] He is no
     better now than he was then.

     Wrong: She couldn't see her friend nowhere.

     Right: She couldn't see her friend anywhere. [Or] She could see
     her friend nowhere.

     Wrong: We couldn't hardly see through the mist.

     Right: We could hardly see through the mist. [Or] We couldn't
     see well through the mist.

     Exercise:

     1. He doesn't come here no more.

     2. I cannot help but make this error.

     3. I remember scarcely nothing of the occurrence.

     4. I would not remain there only a few days.

     5. John would not do this under no circumstances.


=Mixed Imagery=

=35. Avoid phrases which may call up conflicting mental images. When
using metaphor, simile, etc., carry one figure of speech through,
instead of shifting to another, or dropping suddenly back into literal
speech.=

     Crude: The Republicans have gained a foothold in the heart of
     the cotton belt.

     Right: The Republicans have gained a foothold in the South.

     Crude: He traveled a rough road and climbed with his burden the
     ladder of success, where he is a glowing example and guide to
     other men. [The suggestion which a reader with a sense of humor
     may get is, that a man starts out as a traveler, suddenly
     becomes a hod-carrier, and is then transformed into a bonfire
     or a lighthouse.]

     Right: He traveled a rough road, but found success. Other men
     followed in his steps.

     Incongruous: Spring came scattering flowers, and there was rain
     a great per cent of the time. [This sentence mingles the
     language of poetry with the language of science. It should be
     fanciful, or else literal, throughout.]

     Right: Spring came scattering flowers and rain. [Or] Spring
     came with much rain and many flowers.

     Inconsistent use of irony: The phonograph was shrieking, "Waltz
     me around again, Willie." I am sure I love that beautiful song.
     The taste of the people who attend these cheap theaters is
     deplorable. [The three sentences should be ironical throughout,
     or not ironical at all.]

     Exercise:

     1. We should meet the future from the optimistic point of view.

     2. General Wolfe put every ounce of his life into the capture
     of Quebec.

     3. A key-note of sincerity should be the mainspring of a
     well-built speech.

     4. He went drifting down the sands of time on flowery beds of
     ease.

     5. The blank in my mind crystallized into action.


USE OF CONNECTIVES

=The Exact Connective=

=36. Use a connective which expresses the exact relation between two
clauses. Distinguish between time and cause, concession and condition,
etc. Do not overwork _and_, _so_, or _while_.=

     Misleading: _While_ he is sick, he is able to walk. [Use
     _though_.]

     Misleading: Miss Brown sang, _while_ her sister spoke a piece.
     [Use _but_.]

     Faulty. Work hard _when_ you want to succeed. [Use _if_.]

     Faulty: They will be sorry _without_ they do this. [Use
     _unless_.]

     Faulty: Little poetry is read, _only_ at times when it is
     compulsory. [Use _except_.]

     Faulty. The early morning and evening are the best times to
     find ducks, _and_ we did not see many flying. [Use _and for
     that reason_.]

     Faulty: Corbin says: "In America sportsmanship is almost a
     passion," _and_ in England "the player very seldom forgets that
     he is a man first and an athlete afterward." [Use _whereas_.]

Note.--_So_ is an elastic word that covers a multitude of vague
meanings. Language has need of such a word, and in many instances
(especially when the relation between clauses is obvious and does not
need to be pointed out) _so_ serves well enough. Use it, but not as a
substitute for more exact connectives. Beware of falling into the
"_so_-habit."

     Abuse of _so_ as a vague coördinating connective: So I went to
     call on Mrs. Woods, and so she told me about Mrs. White's new
     gown; so then I missed the car, and so of course our supper is
     late. [Strike out every _so_.]

     Abuse of _so_ as a subordinating connective: You may go, _so_
     you keep still. [Use _provided_.] _So_ you do only that, I
     shall be satisfied. [Use _though_.]

     Permissible: I was excited, so I missed the target.

_So_ may sometimes be used to express result. But when a clause of
result is important and needs emphasis, it is perhaps better to strike
out _so_ and subordinate the preceding clause.

     Right: In my excitement I missed the target.

     Right: Because I was excited, I missed the target.

     Right: Being excited, I missed the target.


=List of Connectives=

=A. With Coördinate Clauses, expressing=

     =1. Addition:= and, besides, furthermore, again, in addition, in
     like manner, likewise, moreover, then too, and finally.

     =2. Contrast:= but, and yet, however, in spite of, in contrast to
     this, nevertheless, notwithstanding, nor, on the contrary, for
     all that, rather still, but unhappily, yet unfortunately,
     whereas.

     =3. Alternative:= or, nor, else, otherwise, neither, nor, or on
     the other hand.

     =4. Consequence:= therefore, hence, consequently, accordingly, in
     this way, it follows that, the consequence is, and under such
     circumstances, wherefore, thus, as a result, as a consequence.

     =5. Explanation:= for example, for instance, in particular, more
     specifically, for, because.

     =6. Repetition for emphasis:= in other words, that is to say, and
     assuredly, certainly, in fact, and in truth, indeed it is
     certain, undoubtedly, for example, in the same way, as I have
     said.

=B. With Subordinate Adverb Clauses, expressing=

     =1. Time:= when, then, before, while, after, until at last, as
     long as, now that, upon which, until, whenever, whereupon,
     meanwhile.

     =2. Place:= where, whence, whither, wherever.

     =3. Degree or Comparison:= as, more than, rather than, than, to
     the degree in which.

     =4. Manner:= as, as if, as though.

     =5. Cause:= because, for, as, inasmuch as, since, owing to the
     fact that, seeing that, in that.

     =6. Purpose:= that, so that, in order that, lest.

     =7. Result:= that is, so that, but that.

     =8. Condition:= if, provided that, in case that, on condition
     that, supposing that, unless.

     =9. Concession:= though, although, assuming that, admitting that,
     granting that, even if, no matter how, notwithstanding, of
     course.

=C. With Adjective Clauses.= Adjective or relative clauses are introduced
by who, which, that, or an equivalent compound.

     Exercise:

     Insert within the parentheses all the connectives that might
     conceivably be used, and underscore the one which you consider
     to be most exact:

     1. He is not a broad-minded man; (    ) he has many prejudices.

     2. A number of friends came in, bringing refreshments, (    )
     we spent a delightful evening.

     3. We ought to return now, for it is growing dark; (    ) I
     told Mary we would be home at six o'clock.

     4. I do not believe that climate is responsible for many of the
     differences between races, (    ) Taine says that it is.

     5. She took the letter from me and read it slowly, (    ) her
     eyes filled with tears.



=Repetition of Connective with a Gain in Clearness=

=37. Connectives that accompany a parallel series should be repeated when
clearness requires.=

     Preposition to be repeated: He was regarded as a hero by all
     who had known him at school, and especially his old school
     mates.

     Right: He was regarded as a hero _by_ all who had known him at
     school, and especially _by_ his old school mates.

     Sign of the infinitive to be repeated: He wishes to join with
     those who love freedom and justice, and end needless suffering.

     Right: He wishes _to_ join with those who love freedom and
     justice, and _to_ end needless suffering.

     Conjunction to be repeated: Since he was known to have
     succeeded in earlier enterprises, though confronted by
     difficulties that would have taxed the ability of older men,
     and his powers were now acknowledged to be mature, he was put
     in charge of the undertaking.

     Right: _Since_ he was known to have succeeded in earlier
     enterprises, though confronted by difficulties that would have
     taxed the ability of older men, and _since_ his powers were now
     acknowledged to be mature, he was put in charge of the
     undertaking.

     Conjunction to be repeated: He explained that the strikers
     asked only a fair hearing, since their contentions were
     misunderstood; were by no means in favor of the violent
     measures to which the public had grown accustomed; and had no
     desire to resort to bloodshed and the destruction of property.

     Right: He explained _that_ the strikers asked only a fair
     hearing, since their contentions were misunderstood; _that_
     they were by no means in favor of the violent measures to which
     the public had grown accustomed; and _that_ they had no desire
     to resort to bloodshed and the destruction of property.

     Exercise:

     1. The place is often visited by fishermen who catch some
     strange varieties of fish and especially summer tourists.

     2. The worth of a man depends upon his character, not his
     possessions. 3. He was delighted with that part of the city
     which overlooked the harbor and bay, and especially the citadel
     on the highest point.

     4. Although he was so youthful in appearance that the
     recruiting officer must have known he was under twenty-one, and
     had not yet become a fully naturalized citizen, his effort to
     enlist met with immediate success.

     5. In the course of his speech he said that he was a foreigner,
     he came to this country when he was fourteen years old, landing
     in New York with his only possessions tied in a handkerchief,
     went to work in an iron foundry, and after many years of toil
     he found himself at the head of a great industry.


=Repetition of Connective with a Loss in Clearness=

=38. Do not complicate thought by persistent repetition of elements
beginning with _that_, _which_, _of_, _for_, or _but_, and NOT parallel
in structure.=

     Complicated repetition of _that_: He gave a quarter to the boy
     that brought the paper that printed the news that the war was
     ended. [_That_, _which_, and _who_ are often used carelessly to
     form a chain of subordinate clauses. Three successive
     subordinations are all that a reader can possibly keep
     straight; ordinarily a writer should not exceed two. But in
     parallel structure (See 30 and 37) the number of _that_,
     _which_, or _who_ clauses does not matter; a writer may
     fill a page with them and not confuse the reader at all.]

     Right: He gave the boy a quarter for bringing him the paper
     with the news that the war was ended.

     Complicated repetition of _of_: The East Side Civics Club is an
     organization of helpers of the helpless of the lower classes of
     the city.

     Right: The East Side Civics Club is organized to help the
     helpless poor of the city.

     Complicated repetition of _for_: The general was dismayed, for
     he had not expected resistance, for he had thought the power of
     the enemy was shattered.

     Right: The general was dismayed; he had not expected
     resistance, for he had thought the power of the enemy was
     shattered.

     Complicated repetition of _but_: He was undoubtedly a brave
     man, but now he was somewhat alarmed, but he would not turn
     back.

     Right: He was undoubtedly a brave man; though now somewhat
     alarmed, he would not turn back. [Or] He was undoubtedly a
     brave man. He was now somewhat alarmed, but he would not turn
     back.

Note.--Guard against the _but_-habit. Frequent recurrence of _but_ makes
the reader's thought "tack" or change its course too often. There are
ways to avoid an excessive use of _but_ and _however_. When one wishes
to write about two things, A and B, which are opposed, he need not rush
back and forth from one idea to the other. Let him first say all he
wants to say about A. Then let him deliberately use the adversative
_but_, and proceed to the discussion of B. In the following paragraph on
"Whipping Children" the writer tries to be on both sides of the fence at
once.

     Confusing: It is easier to punish a child for a misdeed, than
     to explain and argue. _But_ the gentler method is better. _Yet_
     we all admit that the birch must be used sometimes. _However_,
     if it is used only for serious trangressions, the child will
     have a sense of proportion regarding what offenses are grave.
     _But_ for ordinary small misdemeanors I think we need a new
     motto: Spoil the rod and spare the child.

     Right: It is easier to punish a child for a misdeed than to
     explain and argue. And of course we all admit that the birch
     must be used sometimes. _But_ if it is used only for serious
     transgressions, the child will have a sense of proportion
     regarding what offenses are grave. For ordinary small
     misdemeanors I think we need a new motto: Spoil the rod and
     spare the child.

     Exercise:

     1. He did not agree at first, but hesitated for a time, but
     finally said that he would go along.

     2. Push down on the foot lever, which closes a switch which
     starts an electric motor which turns the flywheel so that the
     gasoline engine starts.

     3. Apple dumplings are good, but they must be properly baked,
     but fortunately this is not difficult to do.

     4. The work of the course consists partly of the study of the
     principles of grammar and of rhetoric, partly of the writing of
     themes, partly of oral composition, and partly of the reading
     and study of models of English prose.

     5. The landscape which lay before me was one which was
     different from any which I had ever seen before. There was one
     thing which impressed me, and that was the miles and miles of
     grass which stretched and undulated away from the hill on which
     I stood.


=39.= EXERCISE IN CLEARNESS OF THOUGHT

=A. Parallel Structure=

Give parallel structure to elements which are parallel in thought.

     1. Baskets are of practical value as well as being used for
     ornaments.

     2. The Book of Job ought to be interesting to a student, or for
     anybody.

     3. The important considerations are whether the soil is sandy,
     and if it is well drained, and that it shall be easily
     cultivated.

     4. A flower garden is a source of profit--profit not measured
     in money but in pleasure.

     5. He was successful in business, and also attained success in
     the political world.

     6. Whether his object was writing for pastime, or to please a
     friend, or money, we do not know.

     7. Always praise your enemy, because if you whip him your glory
     is increased, and if he whips you it lets you down easy.

     8. Either the ship will sink in the rough sea or go to pieces
     on the shore.

     9. An athlete must possess strength, nerve, and be able to
     think quickly.

     10. We were interested in buying some dry-goods, and at the
     same time see the sights of the great city.

     11. Some people talk foolishness, and others on serious
     subjects, and some keep still.

     12. Not only she noticed my condition, but commented on it.

     13. He abides by neither the laws of God nor man. He spoke both
     to Harry and Tom.

     14. It is good for the health of one's mind to get new ideas
     every day, and expressing them clearly in writing.

     15. Everyone who is capable of understanding the tax laws
     should know them and how they are abused.

     16. I began by making applications at federal, state, and city
     employment bureaus for a position as cost accountant, salesman,
     or clerical work.

     17. The damage to the trunk was caused by rough handling and
     not from faults in construction.

     18. Pope, Swift, Addison, and Defoe were four satirists, but
     differing greatly in their work.

     19. The occupants of these buildings are engaged in various
     kinds of business, namely: shoe-shining, shoe repair shops,
     cleaning and pressing clothes, confectionery stores, and
     restaurants.

     20. I sing of geese: of the Biblical goose, that blew his bugle
     from the roof of Noah's Ark; the classical goose that picked
     his livelihood along the shores of the Ægean; of the
     historical goose, that squawked to save old Rome; the mercenary
     goose, laying the golden egg; and, finally, of the roast goose.

=B. Shift in Subject or Voice=

Rewrite the following sentences, avoiding all unnecessary shift in
construction.

     1. After you decide on the plan of the house, your attention is
     turned to the materials of construction.

     2. Editors are careful to use words that are exact, yet simple,
     and the use of technical terms is not generally considered to
     be good.

     3. Bank accounts should be balanced once a month in order that
     you may know your exact standing.

     4. We should have our athletic contest between the weakest
     students, and in that way they will become physically strong.

     5. When one is making a long-distance run, several cautions
     should be borne in mind by him.

     6. In melody the poem is good, but the author's ideas are
     eccentric.

     7. Lincoln's sentences are plain, blunt, and to the point. He
     lacks the ornate eloquence of Jefferson.

     8. The operator places a large shovelful of concrete in the
     mold, and the mixture is made solid by tamping.

     9. He might become angry, but it was over in a few minutes.

     10. The pauper chanced to gain entrance to the royal palace,
     and while there the young prince is met by him.

     11. When the weather is hot, plowing is accomplished very
     slowly with horses, while on the tractor the heat has no
     effect.

     12. First, one should mix one-half cup of corn syrup and one
     cup of brown sugar; then one cup of cream and the flavoring are
     added.

     13. In the college situated in a small town there are
     dormitories for the student, but in the cities they usually
     room where they please.

     14. An education should enable us to tell the valuable from
     the cheap book, and by it we should be able to tell the true
     from the counterfeit man.

     15. Moisten the sand thoroughly and set the box in a warm
     place, and in about a week's time it can readily be seen by the
     way the grains have sprouted which ears of seed corn have
     greatest vitality.

=C. Shift in Number, Person, or Tense=

Rewrite the following sentences, removing all inconsistency in
grammatical form.

     1. Every one has a right to their own opinion.

     2. Bryant rushed to the window and shouts at the postman.

     3. The life of the honey bee has been studied, and their
     activities found to be remarkable.

     4. He says to me, "Are you ready?" And I answered, "No."

     5. When a person keeps a store, you should remember the names
     and faces of your customers.

     6. An automobile is expensive, and they are liable to become an
     elephant on your hands.

     7. If one studies the market, he would find that prices rise
     every year.

     8. If one went to Europe, he will find everything different.

     9. Since these tires were different in construction, the method
     of repairing will vary.

     10. Contentment is a state of mind in which one is satisfied
     with themselves and their surroundings.

     11. It is easy to catch 'possums if you can find the rascal.

     12. The writer of a theme should not waste time on a long
     introduction, and get to the facts of your subject as quickly
     as possible.

     13. Shakespeare's comedies are great fun. I prefer it to
     tragedy.

     14. Often a man will knock at the door, and finds no one at
     home.

     15. Too much attention will spoil a child. They should not be
     entertained every minute.

=D. The Exact Connective=

Each of the following sentences contains an idea which is, or may be,
subordinate to another idea. (1) Decide what kind of subordinate
relation should exist between the ideas. (2) Determine what connective
best expresses this relation. (Consult 36 for a list of connectives.)
(3) Write the sentence as it should be.

     1. Wealth is a good thing, while honest wealth is better.

     2. Spend an hour in the open air every day when you want to
     keep your health.

     3. The rattlesnake gives warning and it is only afterward that
     he strikes.

     4. South Americans are our national neighbors, and we as a
     nation should understand them.

     5. The city man knows nothing about a cow, only that it has
     horns.

     6. He got up early in order that he might be able to see the
     sunrise.

     7. The tenderfoot saw the funnel-shaped cloud when he made for
     a cyclone cellar.

     8. Men fear what they do not understand, and a coward is one
     who is ignorant.

     9. Hinting did not influence her; then he tried scolding.

     10. The valet spilled the wine, and the duke started up with an
     oath.

     11. While he writhed on the ground, he was not really hurt.

     12. He will not cash the check without you indorse it.

     13. We want this work done by the first of April, so please
     send an estimate soon.

     14. He had traveled everywhere, and he had a vivid recollection
     of only three scenes: Niagara Falls, the Jungfrau, and Lake
     Como.

     15. I never hear him talk but he makes me angry.

     16. Animals have some of the same feelings as human beings
     have.

     17. It was four o'clock and we decided to return and be home
     for supper.

=E. Repetition of Connectives=

In the following sentences determine whether repetition is desirable or
undesirable, and change the sentences accordingly.

     1. With the coming of meal time, the potatoes are removed from
     the fire with a fork with a long handle.

     2. His clothes were brushed and neat, but patched and
     repatched. But still he could be bright and cheery.

     3. To no other magazine do I look forward to the arrival of its
     new issue, more than I do to the _World's Work_.

     4. At the time the book was written, I believe Forster was
     considered to be almost the best biographer living at that
     time.

     5. The freshman has no spirit until the sophomores have
     provoked him until he resists until he finds that he has
     spirit.

     6. Some socialists are against the present system of
     initiative, referendum, and recall, but advocate a system much
     like it but applied in a different way.

     7. The gun with which the Germans bombarded Paris with had a
     range of seventy-five miles.

     8. Basketball is a game that I have played for years, and I am
     greatly interested in.

     9. This is the lever which throws the switch which directs the
     train that takes the track that goes to Boston.

     10. Short talks were made by the captain, the coach, and by the
     faculty.

     11. At this school one can study to be a doctor, dentist,
     farmer, a lawyer, or an engineer.

     12. I like to cross the harbor on the ferry, to dodge in and
     out among the ships, see the gulls dart among the waves, smell
     the sharp tang of salty air, and to feel the rocking motion of
     the boat.

     13. In the sultry autumn, and when the winter's storms came,
     and when in spring the winds whistled, and in the summer's
     heat, he always wore the same old coat.

     14. He knew that if he did not ignite the piece of wet bark
     this time, that he could not dry his clothing or broil the
     bacon.

     15. The next speaker said that the need was critical, the
     schools must be enlarged, and that the paving now begun must be
     completed, and a new board of health should be created, that
     the interest on past debts had to be paid, and the city
     treasury was at this moment out of funds.



EMPHASIS


=Emphasis by Position=

=40. Reserve the emphatic positions in a sentence for important words or
ideas. (The emphatic positions are the beginning and the end--especially
the end.)=

     Weak ending: Then like a flash a vivid memory of my uncle's
     death came to me.

     Weak: I demand the release of the prisoners, in the first
     place.

     Weak: This principle is one we cannot afford to accept, if my
     understanding of the question is correct.

Place the important idea at the end. Secure, if possible, an emphatic
beginning. "Tuck in" unimportant modifiers.

     Emphatic: Like a flash came to me a vivid memory of my uncle's
     death.

     Emphatic: I demand, in the first place, the release of the
     prisoners.

     Emphatic: This principle, if my understanding of the question
     is correct, is one we cannot afford to accept.

     Exercise:

     1. "War is inevitable," he said.

     2. The cat had been poisoned to all appearances.

     3. There are several methods of learning to swim, as everyone
     knows.

     4. A liar is as bad as a thief, in my estimation.

     5. He saw a fight below him in the street, happening to look
     out of the window.


=Emphasis by Separation=

=41. An idea which needs much emphasis may be detached, and allowed to
stand in a sentence by itself.=

     Faulty: The flames were by this time beyond control, and the
     walls collapsed, and several firemen were hurt. [The ideas here
     are too important to be run together in one sentence.]

     Right: By this time the flames were beyond control, and the
     walls collapsed. Several firemen were hurt.

A quotation gains emphasis when it is separated from what follows.


    Faulty: "The best laid schemes o' mice an' men
                Gang aft a-gley,"

     are some lines from Burns which McDonald was always quoting.

    Right: "The best laid schemes o' mice an' men
                Gang aft a-gley."

     McDonald was always quoting these lines from Burns.

Direct discourse is more emphatic when it is separated from explanatory
phrases, particularly from those which follow.

     Faulty: Mosher leaped to the stage and shouted defiantly, "I
     will never consent to that!" and he looked as if he meant what
     he said.

     Right: Mosher leaped to the stage and shouted his defiance: "I
     will never agree to that!" And he looked as if he meant what he
     said.

     Exercise:

     1. After the tents are pitched, the beds made, and the fires
     started, the first meal is cooked and served, and this meal is
     the beginning of camp-life joy.

     2. He tried to make his wife vote for his own, the Citizen's
     Party, but she firmly refused.

     3. At the word of command the dog rushed forward; the covey
     rose with a mighty whir, and the hunter fired both barrels, and
     the dog looked in vain for a dead bird, and then returned
     disconsolate.

     4. I sat and gazed at the motto, "Aim high, and believe
     yourself capable of great things," which my mother had placed
     there for me.

    5. "A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,
         A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread, and Thou
         Beside me singing in the Wilderness."

     were the four things Omar Khayyam wanted to make him happy.


=Emphasis by Subordination=

=42. Do not place the important idea of a sentence in a subordinate
clause or phrase. Make the important idea grammatically independent. If
possible, subordinate the rest of the sentence to it.=

     Faulty: He had a manner which made me angry.

     Faulty: The fire spread to the third story, when the house was
     doomed.

     Faulty: For years the Indians molested the white people,
     thereby causing the settlers to want revenge.

The important idea should not be placed in a _which_ clause, or a _when_
clause, or a participial phrase.

     Right: His manner made me angry.

     Right: When the fire spread to the third story, the house was
     doomed.

     Right: Years of molestation by the Indians made the white men
     want revenge.

     Exercise:

     1. I was riding on the train, when suddenly there was an
     accident.

     2. There are two windows in each bedroom, thus insuring good
     ventilation.

     3. Yonder is the house which is my home.

     4. He saw that argument was useless, so he let her talk.

     5. His clothes were very old, making him look like a tramp.


=The Periodic Sentence=

A sentence is periodic when the completion of the main thought is
delayed until the end. This delay creates a feeling of suspense. A
periodic sentence is doubly emphatic: it has emphasis by position
because the important idea comes at the end; it has emphasis by
subordination because all ideas except the last one are grammatically
dependent.


=43. To give emphasis to a loosely constructed sentence, turn it into
periodic form.=

     Loose: I saw two men fight a duel, many years ago, on a moonlit
     summer night, in a little village in northern France. [What is
     most important, the time? the place? or the actual duel? Place
     the important idea last.]

     Periodic: Many years ago, on a moonlit summer night, in a
     little village in northern France, I saw two men fight a duel.

     Loose: We left Yellowstone Gateway for the ride of our lives in
     a six-horse tally-ho. [Place the important idea last, _and make
     all other ideas grammatically subordinate_.]

     Periodic: Leaving Yellowstone Gateway in a six-horse tally-ho,
     we had the ride of our lives.

     Loose: The river was swollen with incessant rain, and it swept
     away the dam. [Which is the important idea? Why not make it
     appear more important by subordinating everything to it?]

     Periodic: The river, swollen with incessant rain, swept away
     the dam.

     Loose: War means to have our pursuit of knowledge and happiness
     rudely broken off, to feel the sting of death and bereavement,
     to saddle future generations with a burden of debt and national
     hatred.

     Periodic: To have our pursuit of knowledge and happiness rudely
     broken off, to feel the sting of death and bereavement, to
     saddle future generations with a burden of debt and national
     hatred--this is war.

     Exercise:

     1. I am happy when the spring comes, when the sun is warm, when
     the fields revive.

     2. He cares nothing for culture, for justice, for progress.

     3. As the boat gathered speed, the golden sun was setting far
     across the harbor.

     4. He amassed a great fortune, standing there behind his dingy
     counter, discounting bills, pinching coins, buying cheap and
     selling dear.

     5. The shattered aqueducts, pier beyond pier, melt into the
     darkness, from the plains to the mountains.


=Order of Climax=

=44. In a series of words, phrases, or clauses of noticeable difference
in strength, use the order of climax.=

     Wrong order: He was insolent and lazy.

     Weak ending: Literature has expanded into a sea, where before
     it was only a small stream.

     Weak ending: As we listened to his story we felt the sordid
     misery and the peril and fear of war.

     Emphatic: He was lazy and insolent.

     Emphatic: The stream of literature has swollen into a torrent,
     expanded into a sea.

     Emphatic: As we listened to his story we felt the fear, the
     peril, the sordid misery of war.

     Exercise:

     1. We boarded the train, after having bought our tickets and
     checked our baggage.

     2. War brings famine, death, disease after it.

     3. They have broken up our homes, enslaved our children, and
     stolen our property.

     4. In the old story, the drunken man, carried into the duke's
     palace, sees himself surrounded with luxury, and imagines
     himself a true prince, after waking up.

     5. The becalmed mariners were famished, hungry.


=The Balanced Sentence=

=45. Two ideas similar or opposite in thought gain in emphasis when set
off, one against the other, in similar constructions.=

     Weak and straggling: This paper, like many others, has many bad
     features, but in some ways it is very good. The news articles
     are far better than the editorials, which are feeble.

     Balanced structure: This paper is in some respects good; in
     other respects very poor. The news articles are impressive, the
     editorials are feeble.

     Weak and complicated: From the East a man who lives in the West
     can learn a great deal, and an Easterner ought to be able to
     understand the West.

     Balanced: A Westerner can learn much from the East, and an
     Easterner needs to understand the West.

     Weak: Both Mill and Macaulay influenced the younger writers.
     Mill taught some of them to reason, but many more of them
     learned from Macaulay only a superficial eloquence.

     Balanced: Both Mill and Macaulay influenced the younger
     writers. If Mill taught some of them to reason, Macaulay
     tempted many more of them to declaim.

Note.--Although excessive use of balance is artificial, occasional use
of it is powerful. It can give to writing either dignity (as in an
oration) or point (as in an epigram). Observe how many proverbs are in
balanced structure. "Seeing is believing.--Nothing venture, nothing
have.--For every grain of wit there is a grain of folly.--You cannot do
wrong without suffering wrong.--An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth."
Note the effective use of balance in Emerson's _Essays_, particularly in
_Compensation_; and in the Old Testament, particularly in _Psalms_ and
_Proverbs_.

     Exercise:

     1. Machinery is of course labor-saving, but countless men are
     thrown out of work.

     2. There is a difference between success in business and in
     acquiring culture.

     3. I attend concerts for the pleasure of it, and to get an
     understanding of music.

     4. The stag in the fable admired his horns and blamed his feet;
     but when the hunter came, his feet saved him, and afterward,
     caught in the thicket, he was destroyed by his horns.

     5. We do not see the stars at evening, sometimes because there
     are clouds intervening, but oftener because there are
     glimmerings of light; thus many truths escape us from the
     obscurity we stand in, and many more from the state of mind
     which induces us to sit down satisfied with our imaginations
     and of our knowledge unsuspicious. [This sentence is correctly
     balanced, except at the end.]


=The Weak Effect of the Passive Voice=

=46. Use the active voice unless there is a reason for doing otherwise.
The passive voice is, as the name implies, not emphatic.=

     Weak: Your gift is appreciated by me.

     Better: I appreciate your gift.

     Weak and vague: His step on the porch was heard.

     Better: His step sounded on the porch. [Or] I heard his step on
     the porch.

The passive voice is especially objectionable when by failing to
indicate the agent of the verb it unnecessarily mystifies the reader.

     Vague: The train was seen speeding toward us.

     Better: We saw the train speeding toward us.

     Exercise:

     1. Their minds were changed frequently as to what profession
     should be taken up by them.

     2. A gun should be examined and oiled well before a hunter
     starts.

     3. Finally the serenaders were recognized.

     4. In athletics a man is developed physically.

     5. If a man uses slang constantly, a good impression is not
     made.


=Effective Repetition=

=47a. The simplest and most natural way to emphasize a word or an idea is
to repeat it.= The Bible is the best standard of simplicity and dignity
in our language, and the Bible uses repetition constantly. A word or
idea that is repeated must, of course, be important enough to deserve
emphasis.

     Fairly emphatic: He works and toils and labors, but he seems
     never to get anywhere.

     Very emphatic: Work, work, work, all he does is work, and still
     he seems never to get anywhere.

     Fairly emphatic: How did the general meet this new menace? He
     withdrew before it!

     Very emphatic: How did the general meet this new menace? He
     withdrew! He retreated! He ran away!

     Homely but emphatic: "I went under," said the old salt; "bows,
     gunnels, and starn--all under."

     Deliberately too emphatic: Everywhere we hear of
     efficiency--efficiency experts, efficiency bureaus, efficiency
     methods, in the office, in the school, in the home--until one
     longs to fly to some savage island beyond the reach of inhuman
     modern science.

=b. Not only words, but an entire grammatical structure may be repeated
on a large scale for emphasis.=

     Weak: We hope that this shipment will reach you in good
     condition, and that you will favor us with other orders in the
     future, which will be given prompt and courteous attention.
     [This sentence is flimsy and spineless because the writer had a
     timid reluctance to repeat.]

     Strong: We hope that this shipment will reach you in good
     condition. We believe that the quality of our goods will induce
     you to send us a second order. We assure you that such an order
     will receive prompt and courteous attention. [Note the emphasis
     derived from the resolute march of the expressions _We hope_,
     _We believe_, _We assure_.]

     Emphatic: Through the patience, the courage, the high character
     of Alfred the country was saved--saved from the rapacities of
     fortune, saved from the malignancy of its enemies, saved from
     the sluggish despair of the people of England themselves.

     Emphatic and natural: This corner of the garden was my first
     playground. Here I made my first toddling effort to walk. Here
     on the soft grass I learned the delight of out-of-doors. Here I
     became acquainted with the bull-frog, and the bumble-bee, and
     the neighbor's dog.

     Emphatic and delightful: He maketh me to lie down in green
     pastures; he leadeth me beside the still waters. He restoreth
     my soul; he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his
     name's sake.

     Exercise:

     1. He kept digging away for gold through long years.

     2. Breaking against the shore, came innumerable waves.

     3. Sand, sagebrush, shimmering flat horizon. I could not endure
     the barren monotony of the desert.

     4. We want you to come and visit us, and bring along a good
     appetite and your customary high spirits. Plan to stay a long
     time.

     5. 'Twas bitter cold outside. The cat meowed until I had to let
     her in.


=Offensive Repetition=

Careless repetition attracts attention to words that do not need
emphasis. It is extremely annoying to the reader.

=48a. Unless a word or phrase is repeated deliberately to gain force or
clearness, its repetition is a blunder. Get rid of recurring expressions
in one of three ways: (1) by substituting equivalent expressions, (2) by
using pronouns more liberally, (3) by rearranging the sentence so as to
say once what has awkwardly been said twice.= Each of these schemes is
illustrated below.

=1.= Repetition cured by the use of equivalent expressions (synonyms).

     Bad: _Just_ as we were half way down the lake, _just_ off
     Milwaukee, we _began_ to feel a slight motion of the ship and
     the _wind began_ to freshen. The _wind began_ to blow more
     fiercely from the south and the waves _began_ to leap high. The
     boat _began_ to pitch and roll.

     Right: _Just_ as we were half way down the lake, _opposite_
     Milwaukee, we began to feel a slight motion of the ship, for
     the wind _had_ freshened. Before long _a gale_, _blowing_ from
     the south, _kicked up a heavy sea and caused_ the boat to pitch
     and roll. [Notice how combining the last two sentences helps to
     solve the problem of the last _began_, besides giving firmer
     texture to the construction.]

=2.= Repetition cured by the use of pronouns. (In using this method, one
should take care that the reference of the pronouns is clear.)

     Bad: The _Law Building_, the _Commerce Building_, and the
     _Science Building_ are close together. The _Commerce Building_
     is south of the _Law Building_, and the _Science Building_ is
     south of the _Commerce Building_. The _Law Building_ is old and
     dilapidated. The _Commerce Building_ is a red brick _building_,
     trimmed in terra-cotta. The _Science Building_ resembles the
     _Commerce Building_.

     Right: The Law, Commerce, and Science Buildings are close
     together in a row. _The first of these_ is old and dilapidated.
     South of it stands the Commerce Building, _which_, because of
     _its_ red brick and terra-cotta trimmings, somewhat resembles
     the Science Building.

=3.= Repetition cured by rearranging and condensing.

     Bad: The _autumn_ is my favorite of all the _seasons_. While
     _autumn_ in the _city_ is not such a pleasant _season_ as
     _autumn_ in the country, yet even in the _city_ my preference
     will always be for the _autumn_.

     Right: My favorite season is autumn. I like it best in the
     country, but even in the city it is the best time of the year.

=b. Avoid a monotonous repetition of sentence structure. To give variety
to successive sentences: (1) vary the length, (2) vary the beginnings,
(3) avoid a series of similar compound sentences, (4) interchange loose
with periodic structure, (5) use rhetorical question, exclamation,
direct discourse, (6) avoid an excessive use of participles or
adjectives.=

=1.= Vary the length of sentences.

     Bad: Walter came up the path carrying Betty in his arms. She
     was wet from head to toe. Damp curls clung to her pale face.
     Water dripped from her clothes. One hand hung loosely over
     Walter's arm. The other held a live duckling. She had saved
     the little duck from drowning. This was Betty's first day in
     the country.

     Right: Walter came up the path carrying Betty in his
     arms--little Betty who was spending her first day in the
     country. She was wet from head to toe; damp curls clung to her
     pale face, and water dripped from her clothes. In one hand she
     held a live duckling. Her face lighted with courage as she told
     how she jumped into the pond and saved the little duck from
     drowning.

=2.= Vary the beginnings of sentences. Do not allow too many sentences to
begin with the subject, or with a time clause, or with a participle, or
with _so_. When you have finished a composition, rapidly read over the
opening words of each sentence, to see if there is sufficient variety.

     Bad [too many sentences begin directly with the subject]: Our
     way is circuitous. A sharp turn brings us round a rocky point.
     The road drops suddenly into a little valley. The roof of a
     house appears in a grove of trees below. A cottage is there and
     a flower garden. An old-fashioned well is near the door.

     Right: Presently, on our circuitous way, we make a sharp turn
     round a rocky point. Before us the road drops suddenly into a
     little valley. In a grove of trees below appears the roof of a
     house, and as we draw nearer we see a cottage surrounded by
     flowers. Nothing could be more attractive to a weary traveler
     than the old-fashioned well near the door.

=3.= Avoid a series of similar compound sentences, especially those of two
parts of equal length, joined by _and_ or _but_.

     Bad: Ring was a sheep dog, and tended the flock with his
     master. One day there came a deep snow, and the flock did not
     return. They found the herder frozen stiff, and the dog
     shivering beside him.

     Right: Ring was a sheep dog, and tended the flock with his
     master. One day there came a deep snow. When the flock failed
     to return, the men became uneasy, and began to search. They
     found the herder frozen stiff, with the dog shivering beside
     him.

=4.= Change occasionally from loose to periodic or balanced structure (See
43 and 45).

     Monotonous: I stood at the foot of Tunbridge hill. I saw on the
     horizon a dense wood, which, in the evening sunlight, was
     veiled in purple haze [Loose]. On the left was the village, the
     houses appearing like specks in the distance [Loose]. Nearer on
     the right was the creek, winding through the willows [Loose].
     The creek approached nearer until it reached the dam, over
     which it rushed tumultuously [Loose]. Near by was a thicket of
     tall trees, through which I could see the white tents of my
     fellow campers, and their glowing camp fires [Loose].

     Right: Far south from Tunbridge hill, on the dim horizon, I
     saw, veiled in the evening haze, a dense wood [Periodic, long,
     conveying the idea of distance better than a loose sentence].
     On my left stood the village, the houses like specks; on my
     right wound the creek, nearer and nearer through the willows
     [Balanced]. The creek advanced by slow sinuous turns, until,
     reaching the dam, it plunged over tumultuously [Loose]. Through
     a thicket of tall trees, near at hand, I could see the white
     tents of my fellow campers, and their glowing camp fires
     [Periodic through the middle of the sentence; then loose].

=5.= Use question, exclamation, direct quotation.

     Somewhat flat: He asked me the road to Camden. I did not know.
     I told him to ask Thurber, who knew the country well.

     Better: He asked me the road to Camden. The road to Camden? How
     should I know? "Ask Thurber," I said impatiently; "he knows
     this country. I'm a stranger."

=6.= Avoid an excessive use of participles. Do not pile adjectives around
every noun. Above all, do not form a habit of using adjectives in pairs
or triplets.

     Bad: Sitting by the window, I saw a sharp, dazzling flash of
     lightning, and heard a loud rumbling crash of heavy thunder,
     warning me of the coming of the storm. Darting across the gray,
     leaden sky, the quick, jagged lightning flashed incessantly.
     The tall stately poplar trees thrashed around in the boisterous
     wind. Then across the window, like a great white curtain, swept
     the streaming, blinding rain.

     Right: I sat by the window. Suddenly a sharp flash of lightning
     and a roll of thunder gave warning of the approach of a storm.
     Soon lightning zig-zagged across the sky incessantly. The wind
     huddled the poplar trees. Then like a white curtain across the
     window streamed the rain.

     Exercise:

     1. The parts of the tables are not put together at the factory,
     but the different parts are shipped in different shipments.

     2. In order to convince the reader that the present management
     of farms is inefficient, I shall give some examples of
     efficiency in the farm management on some farms with which I am
     acquainted.

     3. When one wishes to learn how to swim one must first become
     accustomed to the water. The best way to become accustomed to
     the water is to go into it frequently. After one has become
     accustomed to the water he may begin to learn the strokes.

     4. _The Life of Sir Walter Scott_, written by J. G. Lockhart,
     is an interesting biography of this great writer. It consists
     of a short biography by Scott himself, and also consists of a
     continuation of this biography by his son-in-law, J. G.
     Lockhart.

     5. If a piece of steel is kept hot for several seconds, it will
     lose some of its hardness. If kept hot longer, it will lose
     more of its hardness. Along with losing its hardness it will
     lose its brittleness. If the piece of steel is heated
     continually it will lose nearly all its hardness and
     brittleness. In other words, it will lose its "temper."


=49.= EXERCISE IN EMPHASIS

=A. Lack of Emphasis in General=

Make the following sentences emphatic.

     1. The man is a thief who fails in business but continues to
     live in luxury.

     2. The plant was withered and dry, not having been watered for
     over a week.

     3. Much time is saved in Chicago by taking the elevated cars,
     if you have a great distance to travel.

     4. The clock struck eleven, when he immediately seized his hat
     and left.

     5. These liberal terms should be taken advantage of by us.

     6. The study of biology has proved very interesting, as far as
     I have gone.

     7. Who is this that comes to the foot of the guillotine,
     crouching, trembling?

     8. They must pay the penalty. Their death is necessary. They
     have caused harm enough.

     9. I intend to get up fifteen minutes earlier, thereby giving
     myself time to eat a good breakfast.

     10. The book was reread several times, for I never grew tired
     of it.

     11. "What is the aim of a university education?" the speaker
     asked.

     12. A bicycle is sometimes ridden when a tire contains no air,
     total ruin resulting from the weight of the rim upon the flat
     tire.

     13. He sprang forward the instant the pistol cracked, since the
     start of a sprint is very important, and one cannot overdo the
     practicing of it.

     14. Sometimes the fuses fail to burn, or burn too fast, causing
     an explosion before the workmen are prepared for it.

     15. How father made soap was always a mystery to me. Cracklings
     saved from butchering time, lye, and water went into the kettle
     on a warm spring day and came out in the form of soap a few
     hours later, to my great astonishment.

=B. Loose or Unemphatic Structure=

Make the following sentences more emphatic by throwing them into
periodic form.

     1. It was Tom, as I had expected.

     2. I will not tell, no matter how you beg.

     3. The supremacy of the old river steamboat is gone forever,
     unless conditions should be utterly changed.

     4. Across the desert he traveled alone, and over strange seas,
     and through quaint foreign villages.

     5. The hot water dissolves the glue in the muresco, making the
     mixture more easily applied.

     6. Visions of rich meadows and harvest-laden fields now pass
     before my eyes, as I sit by the fire.

     7. Some of the women were weeping bitterly, thinking they would
     never see their homes again.

     8. I splashed along on foot for three miles after night in a
     driving rain.

     9. Very high rent is demanded, thus keeping the peasants
     constantly in debt.

     10. Roderigo was in despair because he had been rejected by
     Desdemona, and was ready to end his life, by the time Iago
     entered.

     11. Through storm and cold the open boat was brought to the
     shore at last, after toil and suffering, with great difficulty.

     12. The car came to a violent stop against a rock pile, after
     it demolished two fences, upset a hen-house, and scared a pig
     out of his wits.

     13. The Panama Canal is the fulfilment of the dreams of old
     Spanish adventurers, the desires of later merchant princes,
     and the demand of modern nations for free traffic on the seas.

     14. The fiddle yelled, and the feet of the dancers beat the
     floor, and the spectators applauded, and the room fairly rang.

     15. The man with the best character, not the man with most
     money, will come out on top in the end.

=C. Faulty Repetition=

Repetition in the following sentences is objectionable, because it
attracts attention to words or constructions that do not need to be
emphasized. Improve the sentences, avoiding unnecessary repetition.

     1. He is a great friend of boys, and views things from the
     boys' point of view.

     2. In the case of the strike at Lawrence, Massachusetts, the
     real cause was low wages caused by immigration and child labor.

     3. First, a subject must be chosen, and in choosing a subject,
     choose one that you know something about.

     4. There are great opportunities in the field of science, and a
     scientist who makes a mark in the world of science makes a mark
     for himself everywhere.

     5. While the practical man is learning skill in the practical
     world, the college man is attaining a development of mentality
     that will surpass that of the practical man when the college
     man learns the skill of the practical man.

     6. The field is dragged and rolled. Dragging and rolling leaves
     the ground smooth and ready for planting.

     7. A great number and variety of articles appears in every
     issue. There is a complete review of each subject. It is
     treated in a short, but thorough manner.

     8. They gave me a hearty welcome. They stood back and looked at
     me. They wanted to see if three months in the city had made any
     changes in me. But they said it had not.

     9. Engineering is looked upon by many students as an easy and
     uninteresting study, but to my knowledge it is not
     uninteresting and easy. Engineering is probably one of the
     hardest courses in college. To me it is also the most
     interesting.

     10. A duck hunter should have a place to hunt where ducks are
     frequently found in duck season. Ducks often light in the
     backwater along a river, and in ponds. They are often found in
     small lakes. Corn fields are common feeding places for ducks.
     Ducks make regular trips to cornfields within reach of a body
     of water such as a river or lake. It is their nature to spend
     the night in the water, and in the morning and in the evening
     they go out to the fields to feed.



GRAMMAR


=Case=

=50a. The subject of a verb is in the nominative case, even when the verb
is remote, or understood (not expressed).=

     Wrong: They are as old as us.

     Right: They are as old as we [are].

     Wrong: He is taller than her.

     Right: He is taller than she [is].

Note.--_Than_ and _as_ are conjunctions, not prepositions. When they are
followed by a pronoun merely, this pronoun is not their object, but part
of a clause the rest of which may be understood. The case of this
pronoun is determined by its relation to the rest of the unexpressed
clause. Sometimes the understood clause calls for the objective: "I like
his brother better than [I like] him." _Than whom_, though
ungrammatical, is sanctioned by usage.

=b. Guard against the improper attraction of _who_ into the objective
case by intervening expressions like _he says_.=

     Wrong: The man whom they believed was the cause of the trouble
     left the country. [_They believed_ is parenthetical, and the
     subject of _was_ is _who_.]

     Right: The man who they believed was the cause of the trouble
     left the country.

     Wrong: Whom do you suppose made us a visit?

     Right: Who do you suppose made us a visit?

=Guard against the improper attraction of _who_ or _whoever_ into the
objective case by a preceding verb or preposition.=

     Wrong: Punish whomever is guilty. [The pronoun is the subject
     of _is_. The object of _punish_ is the entire clause _whoever
     is guilty_.]

     Right: Punish whoever is guilty.

     Wrong: The mystery as to whom had rendered him this service
     remained. [The pronoun is the subject of _had rendered_. The
     object of the preposition is the entire clause _who had
     rendered him this service_.]

     Right: The mystery as to who had rendered him this service
     remained.

=c. The predicate complement of the verb _to be_ (in any of its forms,
_is_, _was_, _were_, _be_, etc.) is in the nominative case.= _To be_
never takes an object, because it does not express action.

     Wrong: Was it her? Was it them? It is me.

     Right: Was it she? Was it they? Is it I.

     Wrong: The happiest people there were him and his mother.

     Right: The happiest people there were he and his mother.

=d. The object of a preposition or a verb is in the objective case.=

     Wrong: Some of we fellows went fishing.

     Right: Some of us fellows went fishing.

     Wrong: That seems incredible to you and I.

     Right: That seems incredible to you and me.

     Wrong: Who did they detect?

     Right: Whom did they detect?

=e. The "assumed" subject of an infinitive is in the objective case.=

     Right: I wanted him to go. [_Him to go_ is the group object of
     the verb _wanted_. _To go_, being an infinitive, cannot assert
     an action, and consequently cannot take a subject. But _to go_
     implies that something is at least capable of action. _Him_ is
     the latent or assumed subject of the action implied in _to
     go_.]

     Right: _Whom_ do you wish _to be_ your leader? [_Whom_ is the
     assumed subject of the infinitive _to be_.]

=f. A noun or pronoun used to express possession is in the possessive
case.= Do not omit the apostrophe (See 97) from nouns, or from the
pronouns _one's_ and _other's_. Most of the other possessive
pronouns do not require an apostrophe.

     Right: The man's hair is gray.

     Right: The machine does its work well. [_It's_ would mean _it
     is_.]

     Right: One should do one's duty.

=g. A noun or pronoun linked with a gerund should be in the possessive
case whenever the use of the objective case might cause confusion.=

     Faulty: Is there any criticism of Arthur going?

     Right: Is there any criticism of Arthur's going?

     Right: I had not heard of his being sick.

     Right, but slightly less desirable: I had not heard of him
     being sick.

Note.--In other instances than those in which clearness is involved many
good writers use the objective case with the gerund. But even in these
instances most writers prefer the possessive case.

=h. It is usually awkward and slightly illogical to attribute possession
to inanimate objects.=

     Awkward: The farm's management.

     Better: The management of the farm.

     Awkward: The stomach's lining.

     Better: The lining of the stomach.

Note.--Usage justifies many exceptions, particularly (1) expressions
that involve time or measure, _a day's work_, _a hair's breadth_, _a
year's salary_, _a week's vacation_, _a cable's length_; and (2)
expressions that involve personification, explicit or implied, _Reason's
voice_, _the law's delay_, _for mercy's sake_, _the heart's desire_,
_the tempest's breath_.

=i. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, gender, and number,
but not in case.=

     Right: _I, who am_ older, know better.

     Right: Tell _me, who am_ older, your trouble.

     Right: Many a man has saved _himself_ by counsel.

     Exercise:

     1. I am as old as (he, him). They may be pluckier than (we,
     us). Nobody is less conceited than (she, her).

     2. He gave help to (whoever, whomever) wanted it. The girls
     (who, whom) they say have the worst taste are on a committee to
     select the class pin.

     3. Four of (we, us) boys were left without a cent. That is a
     good investment for her cousin and (she, her).

     4. It was (he, him). It is (they, them). The sole occupants of
     the car were his chum and (he, him).

     5. I had not heard of (his, him) being sick. She does not
     approve of (our, us) being late to dinner. (They, them) who
     labor now the Master will reward.


=Number=

=51a. _Each_, _every_, _every one_, _everybody_, _anybody_, _either_,
_neither_, _no one_, _nobody_, and similar words are singular.=

     Wrong: Everybody did their best.

     Right: Everybody did his best.

     Wrong: Each of my three friends were there.

     Right: Each of my three friends was there.

     Wrong: Either of the candidates are capable of making a good
     officer.

     Right: Either of the candidates is capable of making a good
     officer.

=b. Do not let _this_ or _that_ when modifying _kind_ or _sort_ be
attracted into the plural by a following noun.=

     Wrong: He knew nothing of those kind of activities.

     Right: He knew nothing of that kind of activities.

     Wrong: I never did like these sort of post cards.

     Right: I never did like this sort of post cards.

=c. Collective nouns may be regarded as singular or plural, according to
the meaning intended.=

     Right: The crowd is waiting.

     Right: The crowd are not agreed.

     Right: Webster maintained that the United States is an
     inseparable union; Hayne that the United States are a separable
     union.

     English usage: The government were considering a new bill
     regarding labor.

     American usage: The government was glad to place our troops at
     the disposal of General Foch.

=d. Do not use _don't_ in the third person singular. Use _doesn't_.
_Don't_ is contraction of _do not_.=

     Wrong: He don't get up early on Sunday morning.

     Right: He doesn't get up early on Sunday morning.

     Exercise:

     1. She said not to buy those sort of carpet tacks. These kind
     of apples won't keep. I don't care for these boasting kind of
     travelers.

     2. Neither of us were in condition to run the race. Every one
     assured Mrs. Merton they had spent a pleasant evening.

     3. He don't suffer much now. I don't care if she don't come
     today.

     4. Each of us in that dismal waiting room were angry with the
     agent for telling us the train was not late.

     5. No one of the girls will tell their age. It don't matter.


=Agreement=

=52a. A verb agrees in number with the subject, not with a noun which
intervenes between it and the subject.=

     Wrong: The size of the plantations vary.

     Right: The size of the plantations varies.

     Wrong: The increasing use of luxuries are a menace to the
     country.

     Right: The increasing use of luxuries is a menace to the
     country.

     Wrong: The prices of grain fluctuates in response to the
     demand.

     Right: The prices of grain fluctuate in response to the demand.
     [Or] The price of grain fluctuates in response to the demand.

=b. The number of the verb is not affected by the addition to the subject
of words introduced by _with_, _together with_, _no less than_, _as well
as_, and the like.=

     Wrong: The mayor of the city, as well as several aldermen, have
     investigated the charges.

     Right: The mayor of the city, as well as several aldermen, has
     investigated the charges.

=c. Singular subjects joined by _or_ or _nor_ take a singular verb.=

     Wrong: Either the second or the third of the plans they have
     devised are acceptable.

     Right: Either the second or the third of the plans they have
     devised is acceptable.

=d. A subject consisting of two or more nouns joined by _and_ takes a
plural verb.=

     Right: The hunting and fishing are good.

=e. A verb should agree in number with the subject, not with a predicate
noun.=

     Wrong: The weak point in the team were the fielders.

     Right: The weak point in the team was the fielders.

     Wrong: Laziness and dissipation is the cause of his failure.

     Right: Laziness and dissipation are the cause of his failure.

=f. In _There is_ and _There are_ sentences the verb should agree in
number with the noun that follows it.=

     Wrong: There is very good grounds for such a decision.

     Right: There are very good grounds for such a decision.

     Wrong: There was present a man, two women, and a child.

     Right: There were present a man, two women, and a child.

     Exercise:

     1. The sound of falling acorns (is, are) one of the delights of
     an autumn evening. Eye strain through ill-fit glasses (is, are)
     injurious to the general health, but reading without glasses
     (is, are) often more harmful still.

     2. Neither the baritone nor the tenor (has, have) as good a
     voice as the soprano. The guitar or the mandolin (is, are)
     always out of tune.

     3. The Amazon with its tributaries (affords, afford) access to
     sea. The conductor of the freight train, along with the
     engineer and fireman of the passenger, (was, were) injured.

     4. Ghost stories late at night (is, are) a crime against
     children. My reason for knowing that it is six o'clock (is,
     are) the factory whistles.

     5. There (was, were) in the same coach a dozen singing
     freshmen. Years of experience in buying clothes (gives, give)
     me confidence in my judgment.


=_Shall_ and _Will_, _Should_ and _Would_=

Although there is a tendency to disregard subtle distinctions between
_shall_ and _will_ in ordinary speech, it is desirable to preserve the
more important distinctions in written discourse.

=53. To express simple futurity or mere expectation, use _shall_ with the
first person (both singular and plural) and _will_ with the second and
third.=

     I shall go.     We shall walk.
     You will play.  You will hear.
     He will sing.   They will reply.

=To express resolution or emphatic assurance, reverse the usage; that is,
use _will_ with the first person (both singular and plural), and _shall_
with the second and third.=

     I will; I tell you, I will.  We will not be excluded.
     You shall do what I bid.     You shall not delay us.
     He shall obey me.            They shall pay the tribute.

In asking questions, use the form expected in the answer.

     "Shall I go?" I asked myself musingly. "Shall we take a walk?"
     "You promise. But will you pay?" "Will it rain tomorrow?"

_Should_ and _would_ follow the rules given for _shall_ and _will_.

     Mere statement of a fact:
       I [or We] should like to go.
       You [or He or They] would of course accept the offer.

     Resolution or emphatic assurance:
       I [or We] would never go under terms so degrading.
       You [or He or They] should decline; honor demands it.

_Should_ has also a special use in the subjunctive (in all persons) to
express a condition; and _would_ has a special use (in all persons) to
express a wish, or customary action.

     If it should rain, I shall not go.

     If I should remain, it would probably clear off.

     Would that I could swim!

     He [I, We, You, They] would often sit there by the hour.

     Exercise:

     1. I (shall, will) probably do as he says. I'm determined; I
     (shall, will) go! We (shall, will) see what tomorrow (shall,
     will) bring forth.

     2. The train (shall, will) whistle at this crossing, I suppose.
     When the log is nearly severed, it (shall, will) begin to pinch
     the saw. The weather (shall, will) be warmer tomorrow.

     3. Johnny, you (shall, will) not go near those strawberries! He
     (shall, will) not leave us in this predicament. I repeat it, he
     (shall, will) not! We (shall, will) never sell this good old
     horse.

     4. (Shall, will) this calico fade? (Shall, will) you give the
     organ grinder some money? (Shall, will) I raise the window?
     (Should, would) I ask his permission?

     5. If you (should, would) visit his laboratory, you (should,
     would) learn how a starfish preserved in alcohol smells. You
     (shall, will) all die some day, my friends. (Shall, will) I
     ever forget this? Time (shall, will) tell.


=Principal Parts=

=54. Use the correct form of the past tense and past participle.= Avoid
_come_, _done_, _bursted_, _knowed_, _says_ for the past tense; and
[_had_] _eat_, [_had_] _froze_, [_have_] _ran_, [_has_] _went_, [_has_]
_wrote_, [_are_] _suppose_ for the past participle. Memorize the
principal parts of difficult verbs. The principal parts are the present
tense, the past tense, and the past participle. A good way to recall
these is to repeat the formula: Today I _sing_; yesterday I _sang_;
often in the past I have _sung_. The principal parts of _sing_ are
_sing_, _sang_, _sung_. A list of difficult verbs is given below.

     bear    bore     borne
                      born
     begin   began    begun
     bend    bent     bent
     bid     bid      bid
             bade     bidden
     bite    bit      bit
                      bitten
     bleed   bled     bled
     blow    blew     blown
     break   broke    broken
     burn    burnt    burnt
             burned   burned
     burst   burst    burst
     catch   caught   caught
     choose  chose    chosen
     come    came     come
     deal    dealt    dealt
     dive    dived    dived
     do      did      done
     drag    dragged  dragged
     draw    drew     drawn
     dream   dreamt   dreamt
             dreamed  dreamed
     drink   drank    drunk
     drive   drove    driven
     drown   drowned  drowned
     dwell   dwelt    dwelt
             dwelled  dwelled
     eat     ate      eaten
     fall    fell     fallen
     fight   fought   fought
     flee    fled     fled
     fly     flew     flown
     flow    flowed   flowed
     freeze  froze    frozen
     get     got      got
     go      went     gone
     grow    grew     grown
     hang    hung     hung
     hang    hanged   hanged
     hold    held     held
     kneel   knelt    knelt
     know    knew     known
     lay     laid     laid
     lead    led      led
     lend    lent     lent
     lie     lay      lain
     lie     lied     lied
     loose   loosed   loosed
     lose    lost     lost
     mean    meant    meant
     pay     paid     paid
     prove   proved   proved
     read    read     read
     rid     rid      rid
     ride    rode     ridden
     ring    rang     rung
     rise    rose     risen
     run     ran      run
     say     said     said
     see     saw      seen
     set     set      set
     shake   shook    shaken
     shine   shone    shone
     show    showed   shown
     shrink  shrank   shrunk
     sing    sang     sung
     sit     sat      sat
     slink   slunk    slunk
     speak   spoke    spoken
     spend   spent    spent
     spit    spit     spit
             spat     spat
     steal   stole    stolen
     swear   swore    sworn
     sweep   swept    swept
     swim    swam     swum
     take    took     taken
     tear    tore     torn
     throw   threw    thrown
     thrust  thrust   thrust
     tread   trod     trod
                      trodden
     wake    woke     waked
             waked
     wear    wore     worn
     weave   wove     woven
     weep    wept     wept
     write   wrote    written

     Exercise:

     1. Adams ---- (past tense of _draw_) another glass of cider and
     ---- (past tense of _drink_) it. When those squashes once ----
     (past tense of _begin_), they ---- (past tense of _grow_) like
     mad.

     2. The thermometer had ---- (past participle of _fall_) twenty
     degrees, and three water pipes had ---- (past participle of
     _freeze_). Afterward one ---- (past tense of _burst_).

     3. Annie had ---- (past participle of _speak_) a piece, and
     Nancy had ---- (past participle of _write_) a poem, and Isabel
     had nearly ---- (past participle of _burst_) with envy.

     4. He ---- (past tense of _do_) a brave deed; he ---- (past
     tense of _swim_) straight for the whirlpool. I had ---- (past
     participle of _know_) him before, and had ---- (past participle
     of _shake_) hands with him.

     5. He ---- (past tense of _come_) home late, and has ---- (past
     participle of _eat_) his dinner. Now he has ---- (past
     participle of _go_) down town. He has ---- (past participle of
     _ride_) before. I ---- (past tense of _see_) him. He ---- (past
     tense of _run_) swiftly.


=Tense, Mode, Auxiliaries=

=55a. In dependent clauses and infinitives, the tense is to be considered
in relation to the time expressed in the principal verb.=

     Wrong: I intended to have gone. [The principal verb _intended_
     indicates a past time. In that past time I intended to do
     something. What? Did I intend _to go_, or _to have gone_?]

     Right: I intended to go.

     Wrong: We hoped that you would have come to the party. [The
     principal verb _hoped_ indicates a past time. In that past time
     our hope was that you _would_ come, not that you _would have
     come_.]

     Right: We hoped that you would come.

=b. When narration in the past tense is interrupted for reference to a
preceding occurrence, the past perfect tense is used.=

     Wrong: In the parlor my cousin kept a collection of animals
     which he shot.

     Right: In the parlor my cousin kept a collection of animals
     which he had shot.

=c. General statements equally true in the past and in the present are
usually expressed in the present tense.=

     Faulty: He said that Venus was a planet.

     Right: He said that Venus is a planet.

=d. The subjunctive mode of the verb _to be_ is used to express a
condition contrary to fact, or a wish.=

     Faulty: If he was here, I should be happy.

     Right: If he were here, I should be happy.

     Faulty: I wish that I was a man.

     Right: I wish that I were a man.

=e. Use the correct auxiliary. Make sure that the tense, mode, or aspect
of successive verbs is not altered without reason.=

     Wrong: By giving strict obedience to commands, a soldier
     _learns_ discipline, and consequently _would have_ steady
     nerves in time of war. [_Learns_ should be followed by _will
     have_.]

     Wrong: An automobile _should be_ kept in good working order so
     that its life _is_ lengthened. [_Should be_ is properly
     followed by _may be_.]

     Exercise:

     1. Every one hoped that you would have spoken.

     2. I saw it in the window. It was the very book I wanted so
     long.

     3. If I was sick, I should go home.

     4. They expected to have won the game.

     5. The Masons never invite men to join their lodge, but if a
     person expresses a desire to join, his friends would probably
     be able to secure membership for him.


=Adjective and Adverb=

=56a. Do not use an adjective to modify a verb.=

     Crude: He spoke slow and careful.

     Right: He spoke slowly and carefully.

     Crude: He sure did good in his classes.

     Right: He surely did well in his classes.

=b. In such sentences as _He stood firm_ and _The cry rang clear_ the
modifier should be an adjective if it refers to the subject, an adverb
if it refers to the verb.=

     Right: The sun shines bright on my old Kentucky home. [Here the
     thought is that the sun which shines is bright.]

     Right: He worked diligently. [Here the modifier refers to the
     manner of working rather than to the person who works. It
     should therefore be an adverb.]

     Right: It stood immovable. The shot rang loud. He becomes
     angry. The weeds grow thick. They remain obstinate. He seems
     intelligent.

=c. After a verb pertaining to the senses, _look_, _sound_, _taste_,
_smell_, _feel_, an adjective is used to denote a quality pertaining to
the subject.= (An adverb is used only when the reference is clearly to
the verb.)

     She looks _beautiful_. [Not _beautifully_.]

     The dinner bell sounds _good_. [Not _well_.]

     My food tastes _bad_. [Not _badly_.]

     That flower smells _bad_. [Not _badly_.]

     I feel good [_in good spirits_.]

     I feel well [_in good health_. An adjectival use of _well_.]

     I feel bad [_in bad health or spirits_. "I feel badly" would
     mean "My sense of touch is impaired."]

     Exercise:

     1. They fought ---- (heroic, heroically). Dave stumbled
     ----(awkward, awkwardly).

     2. Margaret ---- (sure, surely) worked ---- (faithful,
     faithfully) in economics.

     3. At this reply the teacher grew ---- (wrathful, wrathfully).
     I hear you ---- (plain, plainly).

     4. I feel ---- (giddy, giddily). Your rose looks ---- (sweet,
     sweetly). No perfume smells so ---- (dainty, daintily).

     5. That salad tastes ---- (good, well). I feel ---- (bad,
     badly) today. Your voice sounds ---- (good, well) and
     ----(familiar, familiarly).


=A Word in a Double Capacity=

=57. Do not use a verb, conjunction, preposition, or noun in a double
capacity when one of the uses is ungrammatical.=

     Wrong [verb]: An opera house was built in one part of town, and
     two churches in another.

     Right: An opera house was built in one part of town, and two
     churches were built in another.

     Wrong [verb]: He always has and will do it.

     Right: He always has done it, and always will do it.

     Wrong [conjunction]: He was as old, if not older, than any
     other man in the community.

     Right: He was as old as any other man in the community, if not
     older.

     Wrong [preposition]: He was fond and diligent in work.

     Right: He was fond of work and diligent in it.

     Wrong [noun]: He is one of the most skilful, if not the most
     skilful, tennis players in the state.

     Right: He is one of the most skilful tennis players in the
     state, if not the most skilful.

     Exercise:

     1. He is as old, if not older, than she is.

     2. Two boats were in the water, and one on the shore.

     3. From childhood he has, and to old age he will, have many
     hobbies.

     4. A visit to a ten cent store is better, or at least as good,
     as a visit to a circus. You see as many or more queer things
     than in any show.

     5. One of the greatest, if not the greatest, secrets in keeping
     our health, is to keep our teeth in good condition. A famous
     physician said that one of the next, if not the very next,
     marked advance in medical science will be through discoveries
     in the realm of dentistry.



Parts of Speech, Other Grammatical Terms, Conjugation

The Parts of Speech and Their Uses

     =Noun.= A noun is a name. It may be =proper= (_Philip Watkins_), or
     =common=. Common nouns may be =concrete= (_man_, _windmill_), or
     =abstract= (_gratitude_, _nearness_). =A= noun applied to a group
     is said to be =collective= (_family_, _race_). The uses of a noun
     =are=: to serve as the subject of a verb, to serve as the object
     of a verb or a preposition, to be in apposition with another
     noun (Jenkins, our _coach_), to indicate possession (_Joseph's_
     coat of many colors); and less frequently, to serve as an
     adjective (the _brick_ sidewalk) or adverb (John went _home_),
     and to indicate direct address (_Jehovah_, help us!).

     =Pronoun.= A pronoun is a word which takes the place of a noun.
     It may be =personal= (_I_, _thou_, _you_, _he_, _she_, _it_,
     _we_, _they_), =relative= (_who_, _which_, _what_, _that_, _as_,
     and compounds _whoever_, _whichsoever_, etc.), =interrogative=
     (_who_, _which_, _what_), =demonstrative= (_this_, _that_,
     _these_, _those_), or =indefinite= (_some_, _any_, _one_, _each_,
     _either_, _neither_, _none_, _few_, _all_, _both_, etc.).
     Strictly speaking, the last two groups, demonstratives and
     indefinites, are adjectives used as pronouns. Certain pronouns
     are also used as adjectives, notably the =possessives= (_my_,
     _his_, _their_, etc.) and the relative or interrogative _which_
     and _what_. The addition of _-self_ to a personal pronoun forms
     a =reflexive pronoun= or =intensive= (I blamed _myself_. You
     _yourself_ are at fault). A noun for which the pronoun stands
     is called the =antecedent=. The uses of pronouns are in general
     the same as those of nouns. In addition, relatives serve as
     connectives (the man _who_ spoke), interrogatives ask questions
     (_what_ man?), and demonstratives point out (_that_ man).

     =Verb.= A verb is a word or word-group which makes an assertion
     about the subject. It may express either action or mere
     existence. It may be =transitive= (_trans_ meaning "across";
     hence action carried across, requiring a receiver of the act;
     Brutus _stabbed_ Cæsar; Cæsar is _stabbed_) or =intransitive=
     (not requiring a receiver of the act: Montgomery _fell_). Its
     meaning is dependent upon its voice, mode, and tense. Voice
     shows the relationship between the subject and the assertion
     made by the verb. The =active voice= shows the subject as actor
     (They _elected_ Washington); the =passive voice=, as acted upon
     (Washington _was elected_). (A transitive verb may be active or
     passive, but an intransitive verb has no voice.) Mode indicates
     the manner of predicating an action, whether as assertion,
     condition, command, etc. There are three modes in English. The
     =indicative mode= affirms or denies (He _went_. She _did not
     dance_.) The =subjunctive= expresses condition or wish (If he
     _were_ older, he would be wiser. Would that I _were_ there!).
     The =imperative= expresses command or exhortation (_Remain_
     there. _Go!_ _Let_ us pray). =Modal auxiliaries= with these three
     modes form =modal aspects= of the verb. There are as many
     different aspects as there are auxiliaries. Aspects are
     sometimes spoken of as separate modes or called collectively
     the "potential mode." Tense expresses the time of the action or
     existence. The tenses are the =present=, the =past=, the =future=
     (employing the auxiliaries _shall_ and _will_), the =perfect=
     (employing _have_), the =past perfect= (employing _had_), and the
     =future perfect= (employing _shall have_ and _will have_).
     =Verbals= are certain forms of the verb used as other parts of
     speech (noun, adjective, adverb). For the verbal forms,
     infinitive, gerund, and participle, see the separate headings.

     =Adjective.= An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or
     pronoun. An adjective may be =attributive= (_bright_ sun,
     _cool-headed_ adventurers) or =predicate= (The field is _broad_.
     The meat tastes _bad_. I want this _ready_ by Christmas).
     Adjectives assume three forms known as degrees of comparison.
     The =positive degree= indicates the simple quality of the object
     without reference to any other. The =comparative degree=
     indicates that two objects are compared (Stanley is the _older_
     brother). The =superlative degree= indicates that three or more
     objects are compared (Stanley is the _oldest_ child in the
     family) or that the speaker feels great interest or emotion (A
     _most excellent_ record). Ordinarily _er_ or _r_ is added to
     the positive to form the comparative, and _est_ or _st_ to the
     positive to form the superlative (brave, braver, bravest). But
     some adjectives (sometimes those of two, and always those of
     more than two, syllables) prefix _more_ (or _less_) to the
     positive to form the comparative, and _most_ (or _least_) to
     the positive to form the superlative (beautiful, more
     beautiful, most beautiful). Some adjectives express qualities
     that do not permit comparison (_dead_, _four-sided_, _unique_).

     =Adverb.= An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an
     adjective, another adverb (She played _well_; _unusually_
     handsome; _very_ sternly); or, more rarely, a verbal noun
     (Walking _fast_ is good for the health), a preposition (The
     ship drifted _almost_ upon the breakers), or a conjunction (It
     came _just_ when we wished). Certain adverbs (_fatally_,
     _entirely_) do not logically admit of comparison. Those that do
     are compared like adjectives of more than two syllables
     (_slowly_, _more_ or _less slowly_, _most_ or _least slowly_).

     =Preposition.= A preposition is a connective _placed before_ a
     substantive (called its object) in order to subordinate the
     substantive to some other word in a sentence (The boast _of_
     heraldry, the pomp _of_ power. He ran _toward_ the enemy
     _without_ fear).

     =Conjunction.= A conjunction is a word used to _join together_
     words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. A =coördinate conjunction=
     connects elements of equal rank (See 36). =Correlative
     conjunctions= are conjunctions used in pairs (See 31). A
     =subordinate conjunction= is one that connects elements unequal
     in rank (See 36). When a conjunction, in addition to its
     function as a connective, indicates a relation of time, place,
     or cause, it is often called a =conjunctive adverb= or =relative
     adverb=.

     =Interjection.= An interjection is a word _thrown into_ speech to
     express emotion. It has no grammatical connection with other
     words. (_Oh_, is that it? _Well_, I'll do it. _Hark!_)

=Other Grammatical Terms=

     =Absolute expression.= An expression (usually composed of a
     substantive and a participle, perhaps with modifiers) which,
     though not formally and grammatically joined, is in thought
     related to the remainder of the sentence. (_The relief party
     having arrived_, we went home. _This disposed of_, the council
     proceeded to other matters. _Defeated_, he was not dismayed.)

     =Antecedent.= A substantive to which a pronoun or participle
     refers. Literally, _antecedent_ means _that which goes
     before_; but sometimes the antecedent follows the dependent
     word. (The _man_ who hesitates is lost. Entering the store,
     _we_ saw a barrel of apples.) _Man_ is the antecedent of the
     pronoun _who_, and _we_ is the antecedent of the participle
     _entering_.

     =Auxiliary.= _Be_, _have_, _do_, _shall_, _will_, _ought_, _may_,
     _can_, _must_, _might_, _could_, _would_, _should_, etc., when
     used with participles and infinitives of other verbs, are
     called auxiliary verbs.

     =Case.= The relation of a substantive to other words in the
     sentence as shown by inflectional form or position. The subject
     of a verb, or the predicate of the verb _to be_, is in the
     nominative case. The object of a verb or preposition, or the
     "assumed subject" of an infinitive, is in the objective case. A
     noun or pronoun which denotes possession is in the possessive
     case.

     =Clause.= A portion of a sentence which contains a subject and a
     verb, perhaps with modifiers. The following sentence contains
     one dependent (subordinate) and one independent (principal)
     clause: _When the storm ceased, the grove was a ruin_.

     =Conjugation.= The inflectional changes in the verb to indicate
     person, number, tense, voice, mode, and modal aspect.

     =Declension.= The changes in a noun, pronoun, or adjective to
     indicate person, number, or case.

     =Ellipsis, elliptical expression.= An expression partially
     incomplete, so that words have to be understood to complete the
     meaning. An idea or relation corresponding to the omitted words
     is present, at least vaguely, in the mind of the speaker.
     Elliptical sentences are usually justifiable except when the
     reader cannot instantly supply the understood words. Examples
     of proper ellipses: You are as tall as I [am tall]. Is your
     sister coming? I think [my sister is] not [coming]. I will go
     if you will [go]. [I give you] Thanks for your advice.

     =Gerund.= A verbal in _-ing_ used as a noun. (I do not object to
     your _telling_. His _having deserted_ us makes little
     difference.) The gerund may be regarded as a special form of
     the infinitive.

     =Infinitive.= A verbal ordinarily introduced by _to_ and used as
     a noun (_To err_ is human). In such sentences as "The road to
     follow is the river road," _follow_ may be regarded as the noun
     of a phrase (compare _the road to Mandalay_), or the entire
     phrase may be regarded as an adjective. Similarly, in "He
     hastened to comply," _comply_ may be regarded as a noun or _to
     comply_ as an adverb. After certain verbs (_bid_, _dare_,
     _help_, _make_, _need_, etc.) the _to_ is omitted from the
     infinitive group. (He bids me _go_. I need not _hesitate_.)

     =Inflection.= Change in the form of a word to show a modification
     or shade of meaning. At a very early period in our language
     there was a separate form for practically every modification.
     Although separate forms are now less numerous, _inflection_ is
     still a convenient term in grammar. Its scope is general: it
     includes the declension of nouns, the comparison of adjectives
     and adverbs, and the conjugation of verbs.

     =Modify.= To be grammatically dependent upon and to limit or
     alter the quality of. In the expression "The very old man,"
     _the_ and _old_ modify _man_, and _very_ modifies _old_.

     =Participle.= A verbal used as an adjective, or as an adjective
     with adverbial qualities. In the sentence "Mary, being oldest,
     is also the best liked," _being oldest_ refers exclusively, or
     almost exclusively, to the subject and is therefore adjectival.
     In such sentences as "He fell back, exhausted" and "Running
     down the street, I collided with a baby carriage," the
     participle refers in part to the verb and is therefore
     adverbial as well as adjectival.

     =Phrase.= A group of words forming a subordinate part of a
     sentence and not containing a subject and its verb. Examples:
     _With a whistle and a roar_ the train arrived [prepositional
     phrase]. _Bowing his head_, the prisoner listened to the
     verdict of the jury [participial phrase]. In a loose,
     untechnical sense _phrase_ may refer to any short group of
     words, even if the group includes a subject and its verb.

     =Predicate.= The word or word-group in a sentence which makes an
     assertion about the subject. It consists of a finite verb with
     or without objects or modifiers.

     =Predicate adjective.= An adjective in the predicate, usually
     linked with the subject by some form of the verb _to be_ (_is_,
     _was_, _were_, etc.). (John is _lazy_. The soldiers were very
     _eager_.)

     =Predicate noun.= A noun linked with the subject by some form of
     the verb _to be_. (John is _halfback._ They were our
     _neighbors._)

     =Sentence.= A sentence is a group of words containing (1) a
     subject (with or without modifiers) and a predicate (with or
     without modifiers) and not grammatically dependent on any words
     outside of itself; or (2) two or more such expressions related
     in thought. Sentences of type 1 are simple or complex;
     sentences of type 2 are compound. A =simple sentence= contains
     one independent clause (The dog barks angrily). A =complex
     sentence= contains one independent clause and one or more
     subordinate clauses (The dog barks when the thief appears). A
     =compound sentence= contains two or more independent clauses (The
     dog barks, and the thief runs).

     =Substantive.= A noun or a word standing in place of a noun. (The
     _king_ summoned _parliament_. The _bravest_ are the
     _tenderest_. _She_ was inconsolable.) A =substantive phrase= is a
     phrase used as a noun. (_From Dan to Beersheba_ is a term for
     the whole of Israel.) A =substantive clause= is a clause used as
     a noun. (_That he owed the money_ is certain.)

     =Syntax.= Construction; the grammatical relation between the
     words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence.

     =Verbal.= Any form of the verb used as another part of speech.
     Infinitives, gerunds, and participles are verbals. They are
     used to express action without asserting it, and cannot,
     therefore, have subjects or be used as predicate verbs.

=Abridged Conjugation of the verb _to take_=

     =Tense=            =Active Voice=              =Passive Voice=

  =Indicative Mode=

     =Present=          I take                      I am taken
     =Past=             I took                      I was taken
     =Future=           I shall (will) take         I shall (will) be taken
     =Perfect=          I have taken                I have been taken
     =Past Perfect=     I had taken                 I had been taken
     =Future Perfect=   I shall (will) have taken   I shall (will) have been taken

  =Subjunctive Mode=

    =Present=          If I take                   If I be taken
    =Past=             If I took                   If I were taken
    =Perfect=          If I have taken             If I have been taken
    =Past Perfect=     If I had taken              If I had been taken

  =Imperative Mode=

     =Present=          Take

=Modal Aspects=

(Modal aspects, formed by combining auxiliaries with the main verb, give
special meanings--emphatic, progressive, etc.--to the primary modes.
Since there are almost as many aspects as there are auxiliaries, only a
few can be enumerated here.)

     =Tense=                         =Active Voice=   =Passive Voice=

                  { =Emphatic:=      I do take
                  { =Progressive:=   I am taking      I am being taken
     =Present=    { =Contingent:=    I may take       I may be taken
     =Indicative= { =Potential:=     I can take       I can be taken
                  { =Obligative:=    I must take      I must be taken
                  { =Etc.=

                  { =Emphatic:=      I did take
                  { =Progressive:=   I was taking     I was being taken
     =Past=       { =Contingent:=    I might take     I might be taken
     =Indicative= { =Potential:=     I could take     I could be taken
                  { =Obligative:=    I must take      I must be taken
                  { =Etc.=

                   { =Emphatic:=     If I do take
                   { =Progressive:=  If I be taking
     =Present=     { =Contingent:=   If I might take
     =Subjunctive= { =Potential:=    If I could take
                   { =Obligative:=   If I must take
                   { =Etc.=

     =Present=     { =Emphatic:=     Do take
     =Imperative=  { =Progressive:=  Be taking


                       =Verbals=

                      =Infinitive=

     =Active Voice=                =Passive Voice=
     =Present:= To take            To be taken
     =Perfect:= To have taken      To have been taken

                        =Gerund=

     =Present:= Taking             Being taken
     =Perfect:= Having taken       Having been taken

                      =Participle=

     =Present:= Taking             Being taken
     =Past:=                       Taken
     =Perfect:= Having taken       Having been taken

     Exercise:

     Copy a page of good prose from any book, leaving wide spaces
     between the lines. Indicate the part of speech of every word.
     This may be done by abbreviations placed beneath the words. For
     example:

     "Von Arden,     having fallen     into      a       very     unquiet
     _noun_           _part._        _prep._   _art._   _adv._     _adj._

     slumber,   dreamed   that          he       was     an      aged      man
      _noun_    _verb_   _conj._   _pers pro._  _verb_  _art._   _adj._   _noun_

        who       stood     beside     a      window."
    _rel. pro._   _verb_   _prep._   _art._   _noun_



=59.= EXERCISE IN GRAMMAR

=A. Case of Pronouns=

Determine the correct form of the pronoun.

     1. It is (I, me).

     2. No one knows better than (she, her).

     3. Then came the whistle for Gerald and (I, me).

     4. It was (they, them).

     5. Alice can drive a car as well as (he, him).

     6. It was (she, her) (who, whom) you saw on the car.

     7. John, you may go with Dan and (I, me).

     8. If I were (she, her), I could not think of accepting the
     questionable honor.

     9. One evening four of (we, us) girls decided to go to the
     theater.

     10. Others are older than (we, us).

     11. (Who, Whom) do you imagine will be our next president?

     12. He does not approve of (our, us) walking on the grass.

     13. Counsel will be given to (they, them) who ask for it.

     14. That seems strange to you and (I, me).

     15. Her mother has more regular features than (she, her).

     16. Women (who, whom) some people would call "quiet" are often
     the wisest.

     17. Between you and (I, me), I'm hungry.

     18. The thought of (it, its) coming by parcel post never
     entered my mind.

     19. He never discovered (who, whom) his enemy was.

     20. In case of a fumble, the ball is given to (whoever,
     whomever) recovers it.

=B. Agreement=

Determine the correct form of the verb.

     1. He (don't, doesn't) care for music.

     2. The swimming, boating, and fishing (is, are) good.

     3. Each one of the two hands of the clock (is, are) made of
     gold.

     4. The ore is sorted and the cars having good ore (is, are)
     hauled to the smelter.

     5. A deck of ordinary playing cards consisting of fifty-two
     cards (is, are) used.

     6. It is safe to say that only one out of every ten of the
     great number of students (realizes, realize) the value of
     economy.

     7. In spite of all obstacles, the construction of the three
     hundred trestles and the twenty scaffolds (was, were)
     completed.

     8. Some nights may seem still, yet there (is, are) always
     noises.

     9. The exact meaning of such words as _inspiration_,
     _prophecy_, and _orthodox_ (puzzles, puzzle) laymen.

     10. Hard roads (is, are) an important matter to all country
     people.

     11. There (has, have) been many lives lost in Arctic
     exploration.

     12. Personal gifts inspired by good will and directed by
     careful thought (is, are) the very best kind of charity.

     13. In Lincoln's replies to Douglas there (is, are) no flights
     or oratory.

     14. The conciseness of these lines (is, are) to be admired.

     15. A constant stream of wagons and horses (was, were) passing
     as the circus was unloaded.

     16. Nevertheless there (exists, exist) a certain class of
     students who are socially submerged.

     17. She (doesn't, don't) care for olives.

     18. "Current Events" (is, are) a very useful department of this
     magazine.

     19. No people (lives, live) in that house.

     20. The corporal, together with two other members of the
     patrol, (was, were) captured by the enemy.

=C. _Shall_ and _Will_, _Should_ and _Would_=

Determine the correct form of the verb.

     1. Perhaps I (shall, will) be able to go.

     2. I tell you, I (shall will) not allow that dog in the car.

     3. It is odd what a person (shall, will) do in a time of
     excitement.

     4. They have never seen anything like it, and probably they
     never (shall, will).

     5. "Johnny, you (shall, will) not go!" Johnny knew that further
     begging was useless.

     6. As we (shall, will) find by investigation, our coast
     fortifications are few.

     7. I (shouldn't, wouldn't) do that for anything.

     8. I (should, would) think you (should, would) enjoy your
     bicycle.

     9. (Shall, will) you go driving with us?

     10. Do you think it (shall, will) rain?

     11. Where (shall, will) I hang my hat?

     12. (Should, would) you go if I (should, would) ask you?

     13. Rover (should, would) stay in the house all the time, if we
     (should, would) let him.

     14. I promised that I (should, would) be at the station early,
     lest we (should, would) miss the train.

     15. You (shall, will) have much trouble with that cold, I'm
     afraid.

=D. _Lie_, _lay_; _sit_, _set_; _rise_, _raise_=

     Fix in mind the following principal parts:

     I lie       I lay       I have lain
     I lay       I laid      I have laid
     I sit       I sat       I have sat
     I set       I set       I have set
     I rise      I rose      I have risen
     I raise     I raised    I have raised

     _Lie_, _sit_, _rise_ are used intransitively; _lay_, _set_,
     _raise_ are used transitively. _Lay_, _set_, _raise_ are
     causatives; that is, _to lay_ means _to cause to lie_, etc.

Insert a correct form of the verb _lie_ or _lay_:

     1. I ---- here and watch the clouds. My dog is ----ing at my
     feet.

     2. In the evening I ---- aside all cares. I ---- down on the
     couch and read. Yesterday I ---- there an hour.

     3. The children have ---- in bed until seven o'clock. John has
     ---- his coat on a chair. He ---- there asleep now.

     4. ---- the shovel down. The garden is now ---- out in rows.
     ---- down and take a little rest.

     5. Smoke ---- along the horizon. Snow was ----ing here
     yesterday. He is ----ing plans for the future.

Insert a correct form of the verb _sit_ or _set_:

     6. Jerome ---- the box on the floor. Then he ---- on the box.

     7. Four people are ----ing at the table. Who ---- the lamp
     there?

     8. I had ---- there an hour. They had ---- the pitcher outside
     the door.

     9. I often ---- up late. Last night I ---- up late. I must
     ----the alarm clock.

     10. ---- the package down. ---- down and rest. While we are
     ----ing there the gardener is ----ing out the plants.

Insert a correct form of the verb _rise_ or _raise_:

     11. ---- up and speak! ---- the window.

     12. He quickly ---- his head. The cork had gone under, but now
     it ---- again to the surface.

     13. During the night the bread ---- to the top of the pan.

     14. The invalid slowly ---- himself in his bed.

     15. The river has already ---- and overflowed its banks.

=E. Principal Parts of Verbs=

In the following sentences supply the correct form of the verb.

     1. He ---- (past tense of _come_) to this country in 1887.

     2. He has ---- (past participle of _eat_) breakfast and ----
     (past participle of _go_) to the office.

     3. Have you ---- (past participle of _ride_) far? I have
     ----(past participle of _drive_) ten miles.

     4. I am sure it was Henry who ---- (past tense of _do_) it, for
     I ---- (past tense of _see_) him running away as fast as he
     could go.

     5. The wind has ---- (past participle of _tear_) down the
     chimney and ---- (past participle of _blow_) down the tree.

     6. After he ---- (past tense of _lie_) down, he remembered he
     had left his books ---- (present participle of _lie_) in the
     orchard.

     7. He ---- (past tense of _throw_) the ball so hard that the
     window was ---- (past participle of _break_) into a hundred
     pieces.

     8. The man ---- (past tense of _give_) warning before we had
     ---- (past participle of _go_) too far.

     9. After we had ---- (past participle of _ride_) about ten
     miles we ---- (past tense of _come_) upon a stretch of hard
     road.

     10. Where ---- (past tense of _be_) you? You ----n't (past
     tense of _be_) at home when I ---- (past tense of _ring_) the
     bell.

     11. The harness was ---- (past participle of _break_ or
     _burst_) beyond repair. Who ---- (past tense of _break_) it?

     12. I ---- (past tense of _take_) four shots at the rabbit, but
     every shot ---- (past tense of _go_) wild.

     13. He has ---- (past participle of _swim_) across the harbor,
     and has ---- (past participle of _break_) the record.

     14. I had ---- (past participle of _drink_) buttermilk for
     several weeks. I ---- (past tense of _begin_) to gain weight.

     15. When we had ---- (past participle of _sit_) there an hour
     and ---- (past participle of _eat_) all we wanted, Jim ----
     (past tense of _draw_) out his purse and ---- (past tense of
     _give_) the waiter a dollar.


=F. General=

Improve the grammar of the following sentences.

     1. Those kind of lamps are ugly.

     2. It don't interest me any more.

     3. Nobody may enter the hall tonight without their admittance
     cards.

     4. One does not need to strain their ears while at the movies.

     5. Nearly all people eat too much, too fast, and too irregular.

     6. Don't take this letter too serious.

     7. He done the best he could with these kind of tools.

     8. Every person with a cold was blowing their nose.

     9. It would help considerable if you would speak to the manager
     about existing conditions.

     10. If I were the mayor, I could not do as good as he does.

     11. Talk polite to your customers.

     12. It is important that a salesman has a good memory.

     13. Each tube must be capable of withstanding a pressure of
     five hundred pounds per square inch before they are lowered
     into place.

     14. She is as tall, if not taller, than he is.

     15. He always has and always will say that.

     16. He is one of the worst, if not the very worst, player on
     the team.

     17. Final examinations require time and study that would not
     otherwise be done.

     18. I feel badly. He talks rude. It smells fragrantly.



DICTION


=Wordiness=

=60. Avoid wordiness. Strike out words not essential to the thought.=

     Roundabout impersonal construction: There are many interesting
     things which may be seen in New York. [12 words.]

     Better: Many interesting things may be seen in New York. [9
     words.]

     Clause to be reduced to a phrase: The skeleton which stood in
     the office of Dr. Willard was terrifying to little Cecil. [15
     words.]

     Right: The skeleton in Dr. Willard's office was terrifying to
     little Cecil. [11 words.]

     Clause and phrase each to be reduced to a word: Men who cared
     only for their individual interests were now in a state of
     discouragement. [15 words.]

     Right: Selfish men were now discouraged. [5 words.]

     Separate predication in excess: That day I was shocking wheat
     behind the binder. Shocking wheat behind the binder was my
     usual job in harvest. That day while I was working at this job,
     I found a nest full of partridge eggs. [37 words.]

     Right: That day, while shocking wheat behind the binder, my
     usual job in harvest, I found a nest full of partridge eggs.
     [21 words.]

     Ponderous scientific terms for simple ideas: Since, according
     to the physicists, the per cent of efficiency of a machine is
     equal to the amount of energy put in, divided by the amount of
     useful work performed, it naturally follows that in all human
     activities, unnecessary friction, since it lowers the amount of
     nervous energy, is going to lower the per cent of efficiency.
     While we may never reach an astonishing degree of efficiency by
     economizing nervous energy, nevertheless, if we consistently
     and perseveringly try to spare ourselves all unnecessary labor
     and exertion, we shall have an abundant supply of energy to
     direct into channels of usefulness. [100 words.]

     Right: If we economize our strength, we can make our actions
     more efficient and useful. [14 words.]

     Inflated writing: She was supreme in beauty among the daughters
     of Eve whom his ravished eyes had hitherto beheld. [17 words.]

     Right: She was the most beautiful woman he had ever seen. [10
     words.]

Note.--A special form of wordiness is tautology--the useless repetition
of an idea in different words.

     Gross tautology: He had an entire monopoly of the whole fruit
     trade. [This is like saying "black blackbird."]

     Right: He had a monopoly of the fruit trade.

     Tautological expressions:

     this here
     where at
     return back
     ascend up
     repeat again
     biography of his life
     good benefits
     fellow playmates
     Hallowe'en evening
     important essentials
     indorse on the back
     connect up
     meet up with
     combined together
     perfectly all right
     utter absence of
     quite round
     absolutely annihilated
     still continue to
     absolutely new creation
     necessary requisite
     total effect of all this

     Exercise:

     1. The people who act the parts in a play want the people who
     witness the performance to applaud them.

     2. There is an oily grass which is found on the prairie, and
     which is called mesquite grass, and it covers the prairie.

     3. You wish to call the operator. You take the receiver from
     the hook. By taking the receiver from the hook you call the
     operator.

     4. At last the employer of the men, and those who were employed
     by him, having compromised their difficulties, effected a
     settlement, and reached an amicable understanding agreeable to
     both parties.

     5. The two merchants joined up their forces together in order
     to secure a monopoly of the entire trade of the village. There
     was one absolutely essential preliminary which they thought
     must necessarily precede everything else. It was that they
     should take all the old shop-worn articles and dispose of them
     by selling them as bargains at a reduced rate.


=Triteness=

=61. Avoid trite or hackneyed expressions.= Such expressions may be tags
from everyday speech (_the worse for wear_, _had the time of my life_);
or stale phrases from newspapers (_taken into custody_, _the officiating
clergyman_); or humorous substitutions (_ferocious canine_, _paternal
ancestor_); or forced synonyms (_gridiron heroes_, _the Hoosier
metropolis_); or conventional fine writing (_reigns supreme_, _wind
kissed the tree-tops_); or oft-repeated euphemisms (_limb_ for _leg_,
_pass away_ for _die_); or overworked quotations from literature
(_monarch of all I survey_, _footprints on the sands of time_).

     List of trite expressions:

     along these lines
     meets the eye
     feathered songsters
     a long-felt want
     the last sad rites
     launched into eternity
     last but not least
     doomed to disappointment
     at one fell swoop
     sadder but wiser
     did justice to a dinner
     a goodly number
     budding genius
     beggars description
     a dull thud
     silence broken only by
     wended their way
     abreast of the times
     trees stood like sentinels
     method in his madness
     sun-kissed meadows
     tired but happy
     hoping you are the same
     nipped in the bud
     the happy pair
     seething mass of humanity
     specimen of humanity
     with bated breath
     green with envy
     the proud possessor
     too full for utterance
     a pugilistic encounter
     conspicuous by its absence
     with whom they come in contact
     exception proves the rule
     favor with a selection
     as luck would have it
     more easily imagined than described
     where ignorance is bliss

     Exercise:

     1. Halleck returned from his trip considerably the worse for
     wear.

     2. The baby whom she had promised to keep quiet proved to be a
     foeman worthy of her steel.

     3. I first saw the light of day in New Orleans. It was in the
     Crescent City also that my dear mother passed away.

     4. Americans come off second best in a vocalizing encounter
     with umlauted _u_, while Germans and Frenchmen wage sanguinary
     battles with our _th_.

     5. The daily scramble for dear life to get aboard a trolley was
     like taking arms against a sea of troubles. Even standing room
     was conspicuous by its absence. Sheridan began to think along
     the line of getting to the office in some other way.


=The Exact Word=

=62. Find the exact word. Do not be content with a loose meaning. Seek
the verb, the noun, the adjective, the adverb, or the phrase which
expresses your thought with precision.= Such words as _said_,
_proposition_, and _nice_ are often used too loosely. Observe the
possible gain in definiteness by substitution.

     For _said_ (verb): _declared_, _related_, _insisted_,
     _exclaimed_, _added_, _repeated_, _replied_, _admitted_,
     _commented_, _corrected_, _protested_, _explained_,
     _besought_, _interrupted_, _inquired_, _stammered_, _sighed_,
     _murmured_, or _thundered_.

     For _proposition_ (noun): _transaction_, _undertaking_,
     _venture_, _recourse_, _suggestion_, _overture_, _proposal_,
     _proffer_, _convenience_, _difficulty_, _thesis_, or
     _doctrine_.

     For _nice_ (adjective): _discriminating_, _precise_,
     _fastidious_, _dainty_, _neat_, _pretty_, _pleasant_,
     _fragrant_, _delicious_, _well-behaved_, _good_, or _moral_.

     Inexact verb: He had not sufficiently _regarded_ the
     difficulties of the task [Use _considered_].

     Inexact noun: Promptness is an _item_ which a manager should
     possess [Use _quality_].

     Inexact adjective: He looked _awfully funny_ when I told him he
     had made a mistake [Use _surprised_].

     Inexact phrasing throughout: Health is first in every line of
     activity. A man who has it does not hold it with enough
     respect, and make efforts enough to keep it.

     Right: Health is indispensable to success in any work. Even
     those who have it do not realize its value.

     Exercise:

     1. He was proud of the honorable record he had gained.

     2. He resolved that some day he would be a banker, and I shall
     tell you how he tried to do so.

     3. Isn't the sunset grand? Isn't it nice to be out of doors?

     4. The mystery as to which ones of the piano keys to play was
     hard for him to acquire.

     5. If the package comes by freight, you must negotiate the
     proposition of getting it home; but if it comes by express, the
     delivery is done free.


=Concreteness=

=63. Concrete words are often more effective than vague, general, or
abstract words.=

     Not specific: She held herself aloof from her brothers' games
     and amusements.

     Concrete: She never played soldier or sailed paper boats with
     her brothers.

     No appeal to the senses: I liked to watch the servant girl as
     she moved about the kitchen, preparing our morning repast.

     Concrete: I liked to watch Norah as she fried our crisp
     breakfast bacon and browned our buckwheat cakes.

     Flat, not readily visualized: The first inhabitants overcame
     the barriers to settlement about a century ago.

     Concrete: Rough backwoodsmen broke through the underbrush and
     swamp-land a century ago.

     Exercise:

     1. The scientist discovered a bird in a tree.

     2. Our hostess set before us many good things to eat.

     3. The sailor was carving queer figures on a piece of soft
     wood.

     4. The night watchman heard something that made him suspicious.

     5. I stood at the door of the shop to watch the astonishing
     things the blacksmith was doing.


=Sound=

=64. Avoid the frequent repetition of a sound, especially if it be harsh
or unpleasant.=

     Bad: He is an exceedingly orderly secretary.

     Better: As a secretary he is very systematic. [Or] The
     secretary is very systematic.

     Bad: Immediately the squirrel hid himself behind the hickory
     tree.

     Better: Immediately the squirrel dodged behind the hickory
     tree.

     Unfortunate rime: Bert did not dare to go home with wet hair.

     Better: Bert did not dare to go home with his hair wet. [Or]
     Bert was afraid to go home with wet hair.

     Exercise:

     1. That Christmas happened to be unusually happy.

     2. I fear we must sit near the rear of the room.

     3. The Jackies went clambering and scurrying up the rigging.

     4. The ship slips anchor while the idlers sip tea on the deck.

     5. The third treasure-seeker heard a thud. His pick had struck
     an obstruction.


=Subtle Violations of Good Use: Faulty Idioms, Colloquialisms=

=65. Avoid subtle violations of good use, particularly (a) faulty idioms
and (b) colloquialisms.=

=a. Make your expression conform to English idiom.= A faulty idiom is an
expression which, though correct in grammar and general meaning,
combines words in a manner contrary to usage. Idioms are established by
custom, and cannot be explained by logical rules. "I enjoy to read" is
wrong, not because the words offend logic or grammar, but merely because
people do not instinctively make that combination of words. "I like to
read" and "I enjoy reading" are good idioms.

     =Faulty Idioms=         =Correct Idioms=

     in the city Toledo        in the city of Toledo
     in the year of 1920       in the year 1920
     I hope you a good time    I wish you a good time
     the Rev. Hopkins          the Reverend Mr. Hopkins
     possessed with ability    possessed of ability
     stay to home              stay at home
     different than            different from
     independent from          independent of
     in search for             in search of

Observe that many idioms are concerned with prepositions. Make sure that
a verb or adjective is accompanied by the right preposition. Study the
following list of correct idioms:

     accused of (a theft)
     accused by (a person)
     accord with (a person)
     agree with (a person)
     agree to (a proposal)
     agreeable to
     angry at (things or persons)
     angry with (a person)
     careful about (an affair)
     careful of (one's money)
     comply with
     convenient to (a person)
     convenient for (a purpose)
     correspond to (things)
     correspond with (persons)
     dissent from
     enamored of
     entrust to
     free from
     listen to
     part from (a person)
     part with (a thing)
     pleased with
     resolve on
     sympathize with
     take exception to

=b. Do not carry the standards of conversation into formal writing.=
Colloquial usage is more free than literary usage. The colloquial
sentence _That's the man I talked with_ becomes in writing _That is the
man with whom I talked._ The colloquial sentence _It was a cold day but
there wasn't any wind blowing_ is a loose string of words. Written
discourse requires greater tension and more care in subordinating minor
ideas: _The day, though cold, was still._ Contractions are proper in
conversation, and in personal or informal writing. In formal writing
they are not appropriate. And do not let such expressions as _He
doesn't_, _We aren't_, _It's proved_, used in talk by careful speakers,
mislead you into expressions like _He don't_, _We ain't_, _It's proven_,
which violate even colloquial good use.

     Exercise:

     1. He confessed of his inability to comply to the demand.

     2. Is he from Irish descent? Is humor characteristic with the
     Irish?

     3. She was not to home, but I was reluctant against leaving.

     4. He dissented to the opinion of the committee's majority, for
     his ideas were utterly different than theirs.

     5. He got a few jobs as a carpenter that summer, but they
     didn't pay him much, and so he went to loafing around, and he's
     been at it ever since.


=Gross Violations of Good Use: Barbarisms, Improprieties, Slang=

=66. Avoid gross violations of good use, particularly (a) barbarisms, (b)
improprieties, and (c) slang.=

=a. Barbarisms are distortions of words in good use, or coinages for
which there is no need.= Examples: _to concertize_, _to burgle_ or
_burglarize_, _to jell_, _alright_, _a-plenty_, _most_ (for _almost_),
_performess_, _fake_, _pep_, _tasty_, _illy_, _complected_,
_undoubtably_, _nowheres_, _soph_, _lab_, _gents_.

=b. Improprieties are words wrenched from one part of speech to another,
or made to perform an unnatural service.= Examples: _to suspicion_, _to
gesture_, _to suicide_, _a steal_, _a try_, _a go_, _an invite_, _the
eats_, _humans_, _some_ or _real_ or _swell_ (as adverbs), _like_ (as a
conjunction).

=c. Slang is speech consisting either of uncouth expressions of
illiterate origin, or of legitimate expressions used in grotesque or
irregular senses.= Though sometimes (witness eighteenth century _mob_,
and nineteenth century _buncombe_) it satisfies a real need and becomes
established in the language, in most instances it is short-lived
(witness the thieves' talk in _Oliver Twist_, or passages from any comic
opera song popular five years ago). Vicious types of slang are:

     Expressions of vulgar origin (from criminal classes, the prize
     ring, the vaudeville circuit, etc.): _get pinched_, _down and
     out_, _took the count_, _bum hunch_, _nix on the comedy
     stuff_, _get across_.

     Language strained or distorted for novel effect: _performed the
     feed act at a bang-up gastronomic emporium_, _bingled a tall
     drive that made the horsehide ramble out into center garden_.

     Blanket expressions used as substitutes for thinking:
     _corking_, _stunning_, _ain't it fierce?_, _can you beat it?_,
     _going some_, _just so I get by with it_.

The use of the last-named type is most to be regretted. It leads to a
mental habit of phonographic repetition, with no resort to independent
thinking. If a man really desires to use slang, let him invent new
expressions every day, and make them fit the specific occasion.

     Exercise:

     1. I disremember what sort of an outfit he wore.

     2. Helen's as light-complected a girl as you'll run across, I
     calculate.

     3. His ad brought a first-rate gent to hold down the job.

     4. Thompson hasn't stability, or it seems like it. He ain't got
     no gumption. He's too easy enthused.

     5. The grub was to of cost us two bits, but we didn't have the
     dough. We gets outside the food, and when the cashier ain't
     lookin', we runs out the door and beats it.


=Words Often Confused in Meaning=

=67. Do not confuse or interchange the meanings of the following words:=

     =_Accept_ and _except_.= _Accept_ means _to receive_; _except_ as
     a verb means _to exclude_ and as a preposition means _with the
     exception of_.

     =_Affect_ and _effect_.= _Affect_ is not used as a noun; _effect_
     as a noun means _result_. As verbs, _affect_ means _to
     influence in part_; _effect_ means _to accomplish totally_.
     "His story affected me deeply." "The Russians effected a
     revolution." _Affect_ also has a special meaning _to feign_.
     "She had an affected manner."

     =_Allusion_ and _illusion_.= _Allusion_ means _a reference_;
     _illusion_ means a _deceptive appearance_. "A Biblical
     allusion." "An optical illusion."

     =_Already_ and _all ready_.= _Already_ means _by this time_ or
     _beforehand_; _all ready_ means _wholly ready_. "I have already
     invited him." "Dinner is all ready." "We are all ready for
     dinner."

     =_Altogether_ and _all together_.= _Altogether_ means _wholly_,
     _entirely_; _all together_ means _collectively, in a group_.
     "He is altogether honest." "The King sent the people all
     together into exile."

     =_Can_ and _may_.= _Can_ means _to be able_; _may_ means _to have
     permission_. _Can_ for _may_ has a certain colloquial standing,
     but is condemned by literary usage.

     =_Emigrate_ and _immigrate_.= _Emigrate_ means _to go out from a
     country_; _immigrate_ means _to enter into a country_. The same
     man may be an _emigrant_ when he leaves Europe, and an
     _immigrant_ when he enters America.

     =_Healthy_ and _healthful_.= _Healthy_ means _having health_;
     _healthful_ means _giving health_. "Milk is healthful." "The
     climate of Colorado is healthful." "The boy is healthy."

     =_Hanged_ and _hung_.= _Hanged_ is the correct past tense of
     _hang_ in the sense _put to death, hanged on the gallows_;
     _hung_ is the correct past tense for the general meaning
     _suspended_.

     =_Hygienic_ and _sanitary_.= Both words mean _pertaining to
     health_. _Hygienic_ is used when the condition is a matter of
     personal habits or rules; _sanitary_ is used when the condition
     is a matter of surroundings (water supply, food supply, sewage
     disposal, etc.) or the relations of numbers of people.

     =_Instants_ and _instance_.= _Instants_ means _small portions of
     time_; _instance_ means _an example_.

     =_Later_ and _latter_.= _Later_ means _more late_; _latter_ means
     _the second in a series of two_. "The latter" is used in
     conjunction with the phrase "the former."

     =_Lead_ and _led_.= _Led_ is the past tense of the verb _to
     lead_. _Lead_ is the present tense.

     =_Learn_ and _teach_.= _Learn_ means _to get knowledge of_;
     _teach_ means _to give knowledge of_ or _to_. "The instructor
     _teaches_ (not _learns_) me physics." "He learns his lessons
     easily."

     =_Leave_ and _let_.= _Leave_ means _to abandon_; _let_ means _to
     permit_.

     =_Less_ and _fewer_.= _Less_ refers to quantity; _fewer_ refers
     to number. "He has _fewer_ (not _less_) horses than he needs."

     =_Liable_, _likely_, and _apt_.= _Likely_ merely predicts;
     _liable_ conveys the additional idea of harm or responsibility.
     _Apt_ applies usually to persons, in the sense of _having
     natural capability_, and sometimes to things, in the sense of
     _fitting_, _appropriate_. "It is likely to be a pleasant day."
     "I fear it is liable to rain." "He is liable for damages." "He
     is an apt lad at his books." "That is an apt phrase."

     =_Lie_ and _lay_.= _Lay_, a transitive verb, means _to cause to
     lie_. "I lay the book on the table and it lies there." "Now I
     lay me down to sleep." A source of confusion between the two
     words is that the past tense of _lie_ is _lay_:

     I lie down to sleep.         I lay the book on the table.
     I lay there yesterday.       I laid it there yesterday.
     I have lain here for hours.  I have laid it there many times.

     =_Like_ and _as_ or _as if_.= _Like_ is in good use as a
     preposition, and may be followed by a noun; _as_ is in good use
     as a conjunction, and may be followed by a clause. "He is tall
     like his father." "He is tall, as his father is." "It looks _as
     if_ (not _like_) it were going to rain."

     =_Lose_ and _loose_.= _Lose_ means _to cease having_; _loose_ as
     a verb means _to set free_, and as an adjective, _free, not
     bound_.

     =_Majority_ and _plurality_.= In a loose sense, _majority_ means
     the _greater part_. More strictly, it means the number by which
     votes cast for one candidate exceed those of the opposition. A
     _plurality_ is the excess of votes received by one candidate
     over his nearest competitor. In an election A receives 500
     votes; B, 400 votes; and C, 300 votes. A has a plurality of
     100, but no majority.

     =_Practical_ and _practicable_.= _Practical_ means _not
     theoretical_; _practicable_ means _capable of being put into
     practice_. "A practical man." "The arrangement is
     practicable."

     =_Principal_ and _principle_.= _Principal_ as an adjective means
     _chief_ or _leading_; _principle_ as a noun means a _general
     truth_. _Principal_ as a noun means a _sum of money_, or the
     _chief official of a school_.

     =_Proof_ and _evidence_.= In a law court, _proof_ is _evidence
     sufficient to establish a fact_; _evidence_ is _whatever is
     brought forward in an attempt to establish a fact_. "The
     evidence against the prisoner was extensive, but hardly proof
     of his guilt." In ordinary speech, _proof_ is sometimes loosely
     used as a synonym for _evidence_.

     =_Pseudo-_ and _quasi-_.= As a prefix, _pseudo-_ means _false_;
     _quasi-_ means literally _as if_, hence _seeming_, _so-called_.
     "Phrenology is a pseudo-science." "A quasi-evolutionary
     doctrine."

     =_Quiet_ and _quite_.= _Quiet_ is an adjective meaning _calm_,
     _not noisy_; _quite_ is an adverb meaning _entirely_.

     =_Respectfully_ and _respectively_.= _Respectfully_ means _in a
     courteous manner_; _respectively_ means _in a way proper to
     each_. "Yours _respectfully_" (not _respectively_). "He handed
     the commissions to Gray and Hodgins respectively."

     =_Rise_ and _raise_.= _Rise_ is an intransitive verb; _raise_ is
     a transitive verb. "I rise to go home." "I raise vegetables."
     "I raise the stone from the ground."

     =_Sit_ and _set_.= _Set_, a transitive verb, means _to cause to
     sit_. "He sets it in the corner and it sits there." The past
     tense of _sit_ is _sat_.

     I sit down.                  I always set it in its place.
     He sat in this very chair.   I set it in its place yesterday.
     He has sat there an hour.    I have always set it just here.

     =_Stationary_ and _stationery_.= _Stationary_ is an adjective
     meaning _fixed_; _stationery_ is a noun meaning _writing
     material_.

     =_Statue_, _stature_, and _statute_.= _Statue_ means a _carved_
     or _moulded figure_; _stature_ means _height_; _statute_ means
     a _law_.

     Exercise:

     1. Insert _affect_ or _effect_: Noise does not ---- my
     studying. It has little ---- on me. By the exercise of will
     power I was able to ---- a change.

     2. Insert _healthy_ or _healthful_: New Mexico has a ----
     climate, Graham bread is ----. You will be ---- if you take
     exercise.

     3. Insert _later_ or _latter_: I will see you ----. Here are
     two plans: the former is complex; the ---- is simple. Sooner or
     ---- you will learn the rule.

     4. Insert _less_ or _fewer_: They have ---- money than we; we
     have ---- pleasures than they. It seems to me there are ----
     accidents.

     5. Insert _principal_ or _principle_: The ---- part of a clock
     is the pendulum, which swings regularly, according to a ---- of
     science. My ---- reason for trusting him is that he is a man of
     ----. He is the ---- of the high school. The widow spends the
     interest on the money, but keeps the ---- intact.


=Glossary of Faulty Diction=

=68. Avoid faulty diction.=

     =_Ad_= (for _advertisement_). Avoid in formal writing and
     speaking.

     =_Ain't_.= Never correct. Say _I'm not_, _you_ [_we_, _they_]
     _aren't_, _he_ [_she_, _it_] _isn't_.

     =_All the farther_, _all the faster_.= Crude. Use _as far as_,
     _as fast as_, in such sentences as "This is all the farther I
     can go."

     =_As_.= (a) Incorrect in the sense of _that_ or _whether_. "I
     don't know _whether_ (not _as_) I can tell you." "Not _that_
     (not _as_) I know." (b) _As ... as_ are correlatives. _Than_
     must not replace the second _as_. Right: "As good as or better
     than his neighbors." "As good as his neighbors, or better [than
     they]." See 57.

     =_Auto_.= An abbreviation not desirable in formal writing.

     =_Awful_.= Means _filling with awe_ or _filled with awe_. Do not
     use in the sense of _uncivil_, _serious_, or _ludicrous_, or
     (in the adverbial form) in the sense of _very_, _extremely_.

     =_Balance_.= Incorrect when used in the sense of _remainder_.

     =_Because_.= Not to be used for _the fact that_. "_The fact that_
     (not _because_) he is absent is no reason why we should not
     proceed." See 5.

     =_Between_.= Used of two persons or things. Not to be confused
     with _among_, which is used of more than two.

     =_Blame on_.= A crudity for _put the blame on_ or _blame_.
     Faulty: "Don't blame it on me." Better: "Don't blame me."

     =_Borned_.= A monstrosity for _born_. "I was _born_ (not
     _borned_) in 1899."

     =_Bursted_.= The past tense of _burst_ is the same as the
     present.

     =_Bust_ or _busted_.= Vulgar for _burst_. Right: "The balloon
     burst." "The bank failed."

     =_But what_.= _That_ is often preferable. "I do not doubt _that_
     (not _but what_) he is honest."

     =_Canine_.= An adjective. Not in good use as a noun.

     =_Cannot help but_.= A confusion of _can but_ and _cannot help_.
     "I can but believe you"; or "I cannot help believing you"; not
     "I cannot help but believe you." See 34.

     =_Caused by_.= To be used only when it refers definitely to a
     noun. Wrong: "He was disappointed, caused by the lateness of
     the train." The noun _disappointment_ should be used instead of
     the verb _disappointed_. Then caused will have a definite
     reference. Right: "His disappointment was caused by the
     lateness of the train." See 23.

     =_Claim_.= Means _to demand as a right_. Incorrect for _maintain_
     or _assert_.

     =_Considerable_.= An adjective, not an adverb. "He talked
     _considerably_ (not _considerable_) about it."

     =_Could of_.= An illiterate form arising from slovenly
     pronunciation. Use _could have_. Avoid also _may of_, _must
     of_, _would of_, etc.

     =_Data_.= Plural. The singular (seldom used) is _datum_. Compare
     _stratum_, _strata_; _erratum_, _errata_.

     =_Demean_.= Means _to conduct oneself_, not _to lower_ or _to
     degrade_.

     =_Different than_.= _Different from_ is to be preferred. _Than_
     is a conjunction. The idea of separation implied in _different_
     calls for a preposition, rather than a word of comparison.

     =_Disremember_.= Not in good use.

     =_Done_.= A gross error when used as the past tense of _do_, or
     as an adverb meaning _already_. "_I did it_ (not _I done it_)."
     "I've _already_ (not _done_) got my lessons."

     =_Don't_.= A contraction for _do not_; never to be used for _does
     not_. The contraction of _does not_ is _doesn't_. See 51d.

     =_Drownded_.= Vulgar for _drowned_.

     =_Due to_.= To be used only when it refers definitely to a noun.
     Faulty: "He refused the offer, due to his father's opposition."
     Right: "His refusal of the offer was due to his father's
     opposition." The noun _refusal_ should be used instead of the
     verb _refused_. Then _due_ will have a definite reference. See
     5.

     =_Enthuse_.= Not in good use.

     =_Etc._= An abbreviation for the Latin _et cetera_, meaning _and
     other_ [things]. _Et_ means _and_. _And etc._ is therefore
     grossly incorrect. Do not write _ect._

     =_Expect_.= Means _to look forward to_. Hardly correct in the
     sense of _suppose_.

     =_Fine_.= Use cautiously as an adjective, and not at all as an
     adverb. Seek the exact word. See 62.

     =_Former_.= Means the first or first named of two. Not to be used
     when more than two have been named. The corresponding word is
     _latter_.

     =_For to_.= Incorrect for _to_. "I want _you_ (not _for you_) to
     listen carefully." "He made up his mind _to_ (not _for to_)
     accept."

     =_Gent_.= A vulgar abbreviation of _gentleman_.

     =_Good_.= An adjective, not an adverb. Wrong: "He did good in
     mathematics." Right: "He did well in mathematics." "He did good
     work in mathematics."

     =_Gotten_.= An old form now usually replaced by _got_ except in
     such expressions as _ill-gotten gains_.

     =_Guess_.= Expresses conjecture. Not to be used in formal
     composition for _think_, _suppose_, or _expect_.

     =_Had of_.= Illiterate. "I wish I _had known_ (not _had of
     known_) about it."

     =_Had ought_.= A vulgarism. "He _ought_ (not _had ought_) to have
     resigned." "We _oughtn't_ (not _hadn't ought_) to make this
     error."

     =_Hardly_.= Not to be used with a negative. See 34.

     =_Home_.= Do not use when you mean simply _house_.

     =_Human_ or _humans_.= Not in good use as a noun. Say _human
     being_. Right: "The house was not fit for _human beings_ (not
     _humans_) to live in."

     =_If_.= Do not use for _whether_. "I can't say _whether_ (not
     _if_) the laundry will be finished today."

     =_In_.= Often misused for _into_. "He jumped _into_ (not _in_)
     the pond."

     =_It's_.= Means _it is_; not to be written for the possessive
     _its_.

     =_Kind of_.= (a) Should not modify adjectives or verbs. "He was
     _somewhat_ (not _kind of_) lean." "_She partly suspected_ (not
     _She kind of suspected_) what was going on." (b) When using
     with a noun, do not follow by _a_. "That kind of man"; not
     "That kind of a man."

     =_Like_.= To be followed by a substantive; never by a substantive
     and a verb. "He ran like a deer." "Do _as_ (not _like_) I do."
     "She felt _as if_ (not _like_) she was going to faint." _Like_
     is a preposition; _as_ is a conjunction.

     =_Literally_.= Do not use where you plainly do not mean it, as in
     the sentence, "I was literally tickled to death."

     =_Loan_.= _Lend_ is in better use as a verb.

     =_Locate_.= Do not use for _settle_ or _establish oneself_.

     =_Lose out_.= Not used in formal writing. Say _lose_.

     =_Lots of_.= A mercantile term which has a dubious colloquial
     standing. Not in good literary use for _many_ or _much_.

     =_Might of_.= A vulgarism for _might have_.

     =_Most_.= Do not use for _almost_. "_Almost_ (not _most_) all."

     =_Myself_.= Intensive or reflexive; do not use when the simple
     personal pronoun would suffice. "I saw them myself." "Some
     friends and _I_ (not _myself_) went walking."

     =_Neither_.= Used with _nor_, and not with _or_. "Neither the man
     whom his associates had suspected _nor_ (not _or_) the one whom
     the police had arrested was the criminal." "She could neither
     paint a good picture _nor_ (not _or_) play the violin well."

     =_Nice_.= Means _delicate_ or _precise_. _Nice_ is used in a
     loose colloquial way to indicate general approval, but should
     not be so used in formal writing. Right: "He displayed nice
     judgment." "We had a _pleasant_ (not _nice_) time." See 62.

     =_Nowhere near_.= Vulgar for _not nearly_.

     =_Nowheres_.= Vulgar.

     =_O_ and _Oh_.= _O_ is used with a noun in direct address; it is
     not separated from the noun by any marks of punctuation. _Oh_
     is used as an interjection; it is followed by a comma or an
     exclamation point. "Hear, O king, what thy servants would say."
     "Oh, dear!"

     =_Of_.= Do not use for _have_ in such combinations as _should
     have_, _may have_, _ought to have_.

     =_Off of_.= _On_, _upon_, or some equivalent expression is
     usually preferable.

     =_Ought to of_.= A vulgarism for _ought to have_.

     =_Over with_.= Crude for _over_.

     =_Pants_.= _Trousers_ is the approved term in literary usage.
     _Pants_ (from _pantaloons_) has found some degree of colloquial
     and commercial acceptance.

     =_Party_.= Not to be used for _person_, except in legal phrases.

     =_Phone_.= A contraction not employed in formal writing. Say
     _telephone_.

     =_Plenty_.= A noun; not in good use as an adjective or an adverb.
     "He had _plenty of_ (not _plenty_) resources." "He had
     _resources in plenty_ (not _resources plenty_)."

     =_Proposition_.= Means a _thing proposed_. Do not use loosely, as
     in the sentence: "A berth on a Pullman is a good proposition
     during a railway journey at night." See 62.

     =_Proven_.= Prefer _proved_.

     =_Providing_.= Prefer _provided_ in such expressions as "I will
     vote for him _provided_ (not _providing_) he is a candidate."

     =_Quite a_.= Colloquial in such expressions as _quite a while_,
     _quite a few_, _quite a number_.

     =_Raise_.= _Rear_ or _bring up_ is preferable in speaking of
     children. "She _reared_ (not _raised_) seven children."

     =_Rarely ever_.= Crude for _rarely_, _hardly ever_.

     =_Real_.= Crude for _very_ or _really_. "She was _very_ (not
     _real_) intelligent." "He was _really_ (not _real_) brave."

     =_Remember of_.= Not to be used for _remember_.

     =_Right smart_ and _Right smart of_.= Extremely vulgar.

     =_Same_.= No longer used as a pronoun except in legal documents.
     "He saw her drop the purse and restored _it_ (not _the same_)
     to her."

     =_Scarcely_.= Not to be used with a negative. See 34.

     =_Seldom ever_.= Crude for _seldom_, _hardly ever_.

     =_Shall_.= Do not confuse with _will_. See 53.

     =_Sight_.= _A sight_ or _a sight of_ is very crude for _many_,
     _much_, _a great deal of_. "_A great many_ (not _a sight_) of
     them."

     =_So_.= Not incorrect, but loose, vague, and often unnecessary.
     (a) As an intensive, the frequent use of _so_ has been
     christened "the feminine demonstrative." Hackneyed: "I was so
     surprised." Better: "I was much surprised." Or, "I was
     surprised." (b) As a connective, the frequent use of _so_ is a
     mark of amateurishness. See 36 Note.

     =_Some_.= Not to be used as an adverb. "She was _somewhat_ (not
     _some_) better the next day." Wrong: "He studied some that
     night." Right: "He did some studying that night."

     =_Somewheres_.= Very crude. Use _somewhere_.

     =_Species_.= Has the same form in singular and plural. "He
     discovered a new _species_ (not _specie_) of sunflower."

     =_Such_.= (a) To be completed by _that_, rather than by _so
     that_, when a result clause follows. "There was such a crowd
     _that_ (not _so that_) he did not find his friends." (b) To be
     completed by _as_, rather than by _that_, _who_, or _which_,
     when a relative clause follows. "I will accept such
     arrangements _as_ (not _that_) may be made." "He called upon
     such soldiers _as_ (not _who_) would volunteer for this service
     to step forward."

     =_Superior than_.= Not in good use for _superior to_.

     =_Sure_.= Avoid the crude adverbial use. "It _surely_ (not
     _sure_) was pleasant." In answer to the question, "Will you
     go?" either _sure_ or _surely_ is correct, though _surely_ is
     preferred. "[To be] sure." "[You may be] sure." "[I will]
     surely [go]."

     =_Suspicion_.= A noun. Never to be used as a verb.

     =_Take and_.= Often unnecessary, sometimes crude. Redundant: "He
     took the ax and sharpened it." Better: "He sharpened the ax."
     Crude: "He took and nailed up the box." Better: "He nailed up
     the box."

     =_Tend_.= In the sense _to look after_, takes a direct object
     without an interposed _to_. _Attend_, however, is followed by
     _to_. "The milliner's assistant _tends_ (not _tends to_) the
     shop." "I shall _attend to your wants in a moment_."

     =_That there_.= Do not use for _that_. "I want _that_ (not _that
     there_) box of berries."

     =_Them_.= Not to be used as an adjective. "_Those_ (not _them_)
     boys."

     =_There were_ or _There was_.= Avoid the unnecessary use. Crude:
     "There were seventeen senators voted for the bill." Better:
     "Seventeen senators voted for the bill."

     =_These sort_, _These kind_.= Ungrammatical. See 51b.

     =_This here_.= Do not use for _this_.

     =_Those_.= Do not carelessly omit a relative clause after
     _those_. Faulty: "He is one of those talebearers." Better: "He
     is a talebearer." [Or] "He is one of those talebearers whom
     everybody dislikes."

     =_Those kind_, _those sort_.= Ungrammatical. See 51b.

     =_Till_.= Do not carelessly misuse for _when_: "I had scarcely
     strapped on my skates _when_ (not _till_) Henry fell through an
     air hole."

     =_Transpire_.= Means _to give forth_ or _to become known_, not
     _to occur_. "The secret _transpired_." "The sale of the
     property _occurred_ (not _transpired_) last Thursday."

     =_Try_.= A verb, not a noun.

     =_Unique_.= Means _alone of its kind_, not _odd_ or _unusual_.

     =_United States_.= Ordinarily preceded by _the_. "The United
     States raised a large army." (Not "United States raised a large
     army.")

     =_Up_.= Do not needlessly insert after such verbs as _end_,
     _rest_, _settle_.

     =_Used to could_.= Very crude. Say _used to be able_ or _once
     could_.

     =_Very_.= Accompanied by _much_ when used with the past
     participle. "He was _very much_ (not _very_) pleased with his
     reception."

     =_Want to_.= Not to be used in the sense of _should_, _had
     better_. "You _should_ (not _You want to_) keep in good
     physical condition."

     =_Way_.= Not to be used for _away_. "Away (not _way_) down the
     street."

     =_Ways_.= Not to be used for _way_ in referring to distance. "A
     little _way_ (not _ways_)."

     =_When_.= (a) Not to be used for _that_ in such a sentence as "It
     was in the afternoon that the races began." (b) A _when_ clause
     is not to be used as a predicate noun. See 6.

     =_Where_.= (a) Not to be used for _that_ in such a sentence as "I
     see in the paper that our team lost the game." (b) A _where_
     clause is not to be used as a predicate noun. See 6.

     =_Where at_.= Vulgar. "Where is he? (not _Where is he at_?)"

     =_Which_.= Do not use for _who_ or _that_ in referring to
     persons. "The friends _who_ (not _which_) had loved him in his
     boyhood were still faithful to him."

     =_Who_.= Do not use unnecessarily for _which_ or _that_ in
     referring to animals. Do not use the possessive form _whose_
     for _of which_ unless the sentence is so turned as practically
     to require the substitution.

     =_Will_.= Do not confuse with _shall_. See 53.

     =_Win out_.= Not used in formal writing or speaking.

     =_Woods_.= Not ordinarily to be used as singular. "_A wood_ (not
     _A woods_)."

     =_Would have_.= Do not use for _had_ in if clauses. "If you _had_
     (not _would have_) spoken boldly, he would have granted your
     request."

     =_Would of_.= A vulgarism for _would have_.

     =_You was_.= Use _You were_ in both singular and plural.

     =_Yourself_.= Intensive or reflexive; do not use when the
     personal pronoun would suffice. "_You_ (not _Yourself_) and
     your family must come."

     Exercise:

     1. Be sure the gun works alright. I was already when you came.

     2. He talked considerable, but I couldn't scarcely remember
     what all he said.

     3. I never suspicioned that John could of been guilty of
     forging his father's note. It don't seem hardly possible.

     4. The island was not inhabited by humans. It was different
     than any place I ever remember of. One sailor and myself
     climbed a sand hill, but we couldn't see any signs of life
     anywheres.

     5. Hawkeye walked a ways into a woods. He was a right smart at
     ease, for he had Kildeer with him.


=69.= EXERCISE IN DICTION

=A. Wordiness=

Strike out all that is superfluous, and make the following sentences
simple and exact.

     1. Some students lack the ability of being able to spell.

     2. He seems to enjoy the universal esteem of all men.

     3. The mind rebels against the enforced discipline imposed upon
     it by others.

     4. This is the house that was constructed and erected by a
     young fellow who went by the common name of Jack.

     5. There are invariably people in the world who always want to
     get something for nothing. I saw some today crowding round a
     soap man who was giving away free samples gratis.

     6. Strawberries which grow in the woods or anywhere like that
     have a flavor that is better than that of those which grow in
     gardens.

     7. The people showed Jackson the greatest honor it is within
     their power to bestow by electing him president.

     8. It was an old man of about sixty years, and he carried a
     cane to support himself with when he took a walk. He pulled out
     his watch to see what time it was every few minutes.

     9. My favorite magazine is the one called _Popular Mechanics_.
     I like it because it appeals to me.

     10. There is a bird, and that bird is the cuckoo, that seems to
     think it unnecessary to build its own nest, and so it occupies
     any nest that it happens to find.

     11. It is a good plan to follow if one would like to be able to
     develop his memory to make it a rule to learn at least a few
     lines of poetry every night before going to bed.

     12. In the annals of history there is no historical character
     more unselfish than the character of Robert E. Lee.

     13. There are quite a few hotels in Estes Park, which is in
     Colorado, but the one that is the most picturesque and striking
     so that you remember it a long time on account of its unusual
     surroundings is Long's Peak Inn.

     14. It is often, but not always, a good sign that when one
     person is quick to suspect another person of disloyalty or
     dishonesty that he himself is disloyal or dishonest.

     15. The canine quadruped was under suspicion of having
     obliterated by a process of mastication that article of
     sustenance which the butcher deposits at our posterior portal.

=B. The Exact Word=

Substitute, for inaccurate words and phrases, expressions which carry an
exact and reasonable meaning.

     1. Ostrich eggs made into omelets are a funny experience.

     2. A small back porch can be built which will enter directly
     into the kitchen.

     3. Ruskin uses a great deal of unfamiliar words.

     4. Reading will broaden the point of view of a student.

     5. To visit the plant in operation is indeed a spectacular
     sight.

     6. My plants grew and looked nicer than any I ever saw.

     7. I place little truth in that article, since it appeared in a
     strong partisan paper.

     8. The manufacturing of automobiles has gained to quite an
     extent.

     9. Emerson has some real clever thoughts in his essays.

     10. I do not mean to degrade our local street car system, for
     indeed, it is good along some lines.

     11. I want to attain a greater per cent of efficiency in my
     study.

     12. Imagination is an important part in the successful writing
     of themes.

     13. His employer praised him for the preparation he had done.

     14. I used water-wings as a sort of a "safety first" until I
     learned how to swim.

     15. In order to prevent infection from disease, two big things
     are necessary.

     16. The pastor delivered the announcements and after the
     collection had been obtained, he presented the sermon of the
     morning.

     17. Another factor in my career that winter was that I became a
     part of the orchestra.

     18. It was a mighty nice party that Mrs. Jones gave and
     everybody seemed to have an awfully nice time.

     19. The more general word socialism might be divided into three
     distinct classes, namely: the political party, the theoretical
     socialist, and last what might be called a general tendency.

     20. Starting with the pioneer days and up to the present time
     every energy was set forth to lay low the forests and to get
     homes from the wilderness.

=C. Words Sometimes Confused in Meaning=

Use the word which accurately expresses the thought.

     1. The climate of California is very (healthful, healthy).

     2. (Leave, let) me have the book.

     3. He is afraid that he will (loose, lose) his position.

     4. The (principal, principle) speaker of the day was Colonel
     Walker.

     5. I cannot run (as, like) he can.

     6. An hour ago he (laid, lay) down to sleep.

     7. I fear we are (liable, likely) to be punished.

     8. The scolding did not much (affect, effect) him.

     9. The light roller presses down the bricks so that the steam
     roller will break (fewer, less) of them.

     10. Whittier makes many (allusions, illusions) to the Bible.

     11. Bread will (raise, rise) much more quickly in a warm place
     than in a place where there is a draft.

     12. It hardly seems (credible, creditable) that a small child
     could walk ten miles.

     13. I can't write a letter on this (stationary, stationery).

     14. He (sets, sits) at the head of the table.

     15. He spoke to the stranger (respectfully, respectively).

     16. Did the president (affect, effect) a settlement of the
     strike?

     17. I cannot (accept, except) help from anyone.

     18. Are the guests (already, all ready) for dinner?

     19. Is the train moving or (stationary, stationery)?

     20. It is (apt, likely, liable) to be pleasant tomorrow.

=D. Colloquialism, Slang, Faulty Idiom, etc.=

The diction of the following sentences is incorrect or inappropriate for
written discourse. Improve the sentences.

     1. I was kind of tired this morning, but now I feel alright.

     2. I should of known better.

     3. A young lady and myself went walking.

     4. He is out of town for a couple days.

     5. I feel some better now.

     6. He will benefit greatly from the results.

     7. The Puritans were a very odd acting people.

     8. I like camping because of many reasons.

     9. Cook your meal, and after you are finished eating, wash the
     dishes.

     10. He is a regular genius of a bookkeeper.

     11. It is hard to see how humans can live in such tenements.

     12. The soldiers destroyed property without the least regard of
     who owned it.

     13. She was crazy for an invite to the hop.

     14. It was up to me to get out before there was something
     doing.

     15. The Gettysburg Address is very simple of understanding
     though very strong of meaning.

     16. When we become located in a desirable locality, we intend
     to pay off some of our social indebtedness.

     17. Have some local glass dealer to mend the broken door, and
     send us the bill for the same.

     18. The first part of Franklin's _Autobiography_ is different
     than the latter part, which he wrote after the Revolutionary
     War.

     19. In 1771 a fellow by the name of Arkwright established a
     mill in which spinning machines were run by water power.

     20. Each day has brought closer to home the truth that the
     condition of mankind in one part of the world is certain to
     effect the equilibrium of mankind in most all other parts of
     the world.



SPELLING


No one is able to spell all unusual words on demand. But every one must
spell correctly even unusual words in formal writing. The writer has
time or must take time to consult a dictionary. The best dictionaries
are _Webster's New International Dictionary_, the _Standard Dictionary_
(less conservative than Webster's), the _Century Dictionary and
Cyclopedia_ (Volume 2 of the _Century_ is the best place to look for
proper names), and _Murray's New English Dictionary_ (very thorough,
each word being illustrated with numerous quotations to show historical
development). An abridged edition of one of these (the price is one to
three dollars) should be accessible to each student who cannot buy the
larger volumes. The best are: _Webster's Secondary School Dictionary_,
_Funk and Wagnalls Desk Standard Dictionary_, the _Oxford Concise
Dictionary_, and _Webster's Collegiate Dictionary_.

But the student will be spared constant recourse to the dictionary, and
will save himself much time and many humiliations, if he will employ the
rules and principles which follow.


=Recording Errors=

=70. Keep a list of all the words you misspell, copying them several
times in correct form.= Concentrate your effort upon a few words at a
time--upon those words which you yourself actually misspell. The list
will be shorter than you think. It may comprise not more than twenty or
thirty words. Unless you are extraordinarily deficient, it will
certainly not comprise more than a hundred or a hundred and fifty. Find
where your weakness lies; then master it. You can accomplish the
difficult part of the task in a single afternoon. An occasional review,
and constant care when you write, will make your mastery permanent.

After this, and only after this, begin slowly to learn the spelling of
words which you do not yourself use often, but which are a desirable
equipment for all educated men. See the list under 79. _Concentrate your
efforts upon a few words at a time._ It is better to know a few exactly
than a large number hazily. Form the mental habit of being always right
with a small group of words, and extend this group gradually.

     Exercise:

     Prepare for your instructor a corrected list of words which you
     have misspelled in your papers to the present time.


=Pronouncing Accurately=

=71. Avoid slovenly pronunciation.= Careful articulation makes for
correctness in spelling.

Watch the vowels of unaccented syllables; give them distinct (not
exaggerated) utterance, at least until you are familiar with the
spelling. Examples: _sep=a=rate_, _opp=o=rtunity_, _ever=y=body_,
_soph=o=more_, _d=i=vine_.

Sound accurately all the consonants between syllables, and do not sound
a single consonant twice. Examples: _can=d=idate_, _gover=n=ment_,
_su=r=prise_ (not _supp=r=ise_), _o=m=i=ss=ion_ (compare _o=cc=a=s=ion_),
_de=f=er_ (compare _di=ff=er_).

Sound the _g_ in final _-ing_. Examples: _eating_, _running_.

Pronounce the _-al_ of adverbs derived from adjectives in _-ic_ or
_-al_. Examples: _tragically_, _occasionally_, _generally_,
_ungrammatically_.

Do not transpose letters; place each letter where it belongs. Examples:
_p=er=spiration_ (not _p=re=spiration_), _tra=g=edy_ (not _tra=d=e=g=y_).

Note.--The principle of phonetic spelling as stated above applies to
many words, but by no means to all. The Simplified Spelling Board would
extend this principle by changing the spelling of words to correspond
with their actual sounds. It recommends such forms as _tho_, _thru_,
_enuf_, _quartet_, _catalog_, _program_. If the student employs these
forms, he must use them consistently. Many writers oppose simplified
spelling; many advocate it; many compromise. Others desire to supplant
our present alphabet with one more nearly phonetic, and prefer, until
this fundamental reform takes place, to preserve our present spelling as
it is.

     Exercise:

     Copy the following words slowly, pronouncing the syllables as
     you write: _accidentally_, _accommodate_, _accurately_,
     _artistically_, _athletics_ (not _atheletics_), _boundary_,
     _candidate_, _cavalry_, _commission_, _curiosity_, _defer_,
     _definite_, _description_, _despair_, _different_, _dining
     room_, _dinned_, _disappoint_, _divide_, _divine_,
     _emphatically_, _eighth_, _everybody_, _February_, _finally_,
     _goddess_, _government_, _hundred_, _hurrying_, _instinct_,
     _laboratory_, _library_, _lightning_, _might have_ (not _might
     of_), _naturally_, _necessary_, _occasionally_, _omission_,
     _opinion_, _opportunity_, _optimist_, _partner_, _perform_,
     _perhaps_, _perspiration_, _prescription_, _primitive_,
     _privilege_, _probably_, _quantity_, _really_, _recognise_,
     _recommend_, _reverence_, _separate_, _should have_ (not
     _should of_), _sophomore_, _strictly_, _superintendent_,
     _surprise_, _temperance_, _tragedy_, _usually_, _whether_.


=Logical Kinship in Words=

=72. Get help in spelling a difficult word by thinking of related words.=
To think of _ridiculous_ will prevent your writing _a_ for the second
_i_ of _ridicule_; to think of _ridicule_ will prevent your writing
_rediculous_. To think of _prepare_ will prevent your writing
_preperation_; to think of _preparation_ will forestall _preparitory_.
To think of _busy_ will save you from the monstrosity _buisness._ To
think of the prefixes _re-_ (meaning _again_) and _dis-_ (meaning
_not_), and the verbs _commend_ and _appoint_, will prevent your writing
_recommend_ or _disappoint_ with a double _c_ or _s_.

Note.--The relationship between words is not always a safe guide to
spelling. Observe _four_, _forty_; _nine_, _ninth_; _maintain_,
_maintenance_; _please_, _pleasant_; _speak_, _speech_; _prevail_,
_prevalent_. Do not confuse the following prefixes, which have no
logical connection:

     _ante-_ (before)             _anti-_ (against, opposite)
     _de-_ (from, about)          _dis-_ (apart, away, not)
     _per-_ (through, entirely)   _pre-_ (before)

     Exercise:

     1. Write the nouns corresponding to the following verbs:
     _prepare_, _allude_, _govern_, _represent_, _degrade_.

     2. Write the adjectives corresponding to the following nouns
     and the nouns corresponding to the following adjectives:
     _desperation_, _academy_, _origin_, _ridiculous_, _miraculous_,
     _grammatical_, _arithmetical_, _busy_.

     3. Write the adverbs corresponding to the following adjectives:
     _real_, _sure_, _actual_, _hurried_, _accidental_,
     _incidental_, _grammatical_.

     4. Copy the following pairs of related words or related forms
     of words: _labor, laboratory_; _debate, debater_; _base,
     based_; _deal, dealt_; _chose, chosen_; _mean, meant_.

     5. Write each of the following words with a hyphen between the
     prefix and the body of the word: _describe_, _description_,
     _disappoint_, _disappear_, _disease_, _dissatisfy_, _dissever_,
     _permit_, _perspire_, _prescription_, _preconceive_,
     _recommend_, _recollect_, _reconsider_, _antedate_,
     _antecedent_, _anticlimax_, _antitoxin_.


=Superficial Resemblances between Words=

=73. Guard against misspelling a word because it bears a superficial
resemblance, in sound or appearance, to some other word.= Most of the
words in the following list have no logical connection; the resemblance
is one of form only (_angel_, _angle_). But a few words are included
which are different in spelling in spite of a logical relation
(_breath_, _breathe_).

     accept (to receive)
     except (to exclude, with exclusion of)

     advice (noun)
     advise (verb)

     affect (to influence in part)
     effect (to bring to pass totally)

     allusion (a reference)
     illusion (a deceiving appearance)

     all right
     almost
     already

     altogether
     always

     alley (a back street)
     ally (a confederate)

     altar (a structure used in worship)
     alter (to make otherwise)

     angel (a celestial being)
     angle (the meeting place of two lines)

     baring (making bare)
     barring (obstructing)
     bearing (carrying)
     born (brought into being)
     borne (carried)

     breath (noun)
     breathe (verb)

     capital (a city)
     capitol (a building)

     canvas (a cloth)
     canvass (to solicit)

     clothes (garments)
     cloths (pieces of cloth)

     coarse (not fine)
     course (route, method of behavior)

     conscious (aware)
     conscience (an inner moral sense)

     dairy
     diary

     device (noun)
     devise (verb)

     desert (a barren country)
     dessert (food)

     dining room
     dinning

     disappear
     disappoint

     disavowal
     dissatisfaction
     dissimilar
     dissipate
     dissuade

     decent (adjective)
     descent (downward slope or motion)
     dissent (a disagreement)

     dual (adjective)
     duel (noun)

     formally (in a formal way)
     formerly (in time past)

     forth
     forty
     four
     fourth

     freshman
     freshmen (not used as adjective)

     gambling (wagering money on games of chance)
     gamboling (frisking or leaping with joy)

     guard
     regard

     hear
     here

     hinder
     hindrance

     holly (a tree)
     holy (hallowed, sacred)
     wholly (altogether)

     hoping (from _hope_)
     hopping

     instance (an example)
     instants (periods of time)

     isle (an island)
     aisle (a narrow passage)

     its (possessive pronoun)
     it's (contraction of _it is_)

     Johnson, Samuel
     Jonson, Ben

     later (comparative of _late_)
     latter (the second)

     lead (present tense)
     led (past tense)

     lessen (verb)
     lesson (noun)

     liable (expresses responsibility or disagreeable probability)
     likely (expresses probability)

     loose (free, not bound)
     lose (to suffer the loss of)

     maintain
     maintenance

     nineteenth
     ninetieth
     ninety
     ninth

     past (adjective, adverb, preposition)
     passed (verb, past tense)

     peace (a state of calm)
     piece (a fragment)

     perceive
     perform
     persevere
     persuade
     purchase
     pursue

     personal (private, individual)
     personnel (the body of persons engaged in some activity)

     Philippines
     Filipino

     plain (clear; adjective)
     plain (flat region; noun)
     plane (flat; adjective)
     plane (geometrical term; noun)

     planed (past tense of _plane_)
     planned (past tense of _plan_)

     pleasant
     please

     precede
     proceed }
     succeed } these three are the
     exceed  } "double _e_ group"
     concede
     intercede
     recede
     supersede

     pre cé dence (act or right of preceding)
     préc e dents (things said or done before, now used as authority
     or model)

     presence (state of being present)
     presents (gifts)

     prevail
     prevalent

     principal (chief, leading, the leading official of a school, a
     sum of money)
     principle (a general truth)

     quiet (still)
     quite (completely)

     rain
     reign (rule of a monarch)
     rein (part of a harness)

     respectfully ("Yours respectfully")
     respectively (in a way proper to each--should never be used
     to close a letter)

     right
     rite (ceremony)
     write

     shone (past tense of _shine_)
     shown (past tense of _show_)

     seize
     siege

     sight (view, spectacle)
     site (situation, a plot of ground reserved for some use)
     cite (to bring forward as evidence)

     speak
     speech

     Spencer, Herbert (scientist)
     Spenser, Edmund (poet)

     stationary (not moving)
     stationery (writing materials)

     statue (a sculptured likeness)
     stature (height, figure)
     statute (a law)

     steal (to take by theft)
     steel (a variety of iron)

     than
     then

     their (belonging to them)
     there (in that place)
     they're (they are)

     therefor (to that end, for that thing)
     therefore (for that reason)

     till
     until

     to
     too
     two

     track (an imprint, or a road)
     tract (an area of land)
     tract (a treatise on religion)

     village
     villain

     wandering
     wondering

     weak (not strong)
     week (seven days)

     weather
     whether

     whole (entire)
     hole (an opening)

     who's (who is)
     whose (the possessive of _who_)

     your (indicates possession)
     you're (contraction of _you are_)

     Exercise:

     1. Insert _to_, _too_, or _two_: He is ---- tired ---- walk the
     ----miles ---- the town. Then ----, it is ---- late ---- catch
     a car. It is ---- minutes of ----. It is ---- bad.

     2. Insert _lose_ or _loose_: You will ---- your money if you
     carry it ---- in your pocket. We are ----ing time. The sailor
     ----ens the rope. Did you ---- your ticket?

     3. Insert _speak or speech_: I was ----ing with our congressman
     about his recent ----. I ---- from experience.

     4. Insert _plan_ or _plane_: The architect's ---- was accepted.
     The carpenter's ---- cuts a long shaving. The carpenter does
     not ---- the house.

     5. Insert _quite_ or _quiet_: The baby is ----ly sleeping. She
     is ---- well now, but last night she was ---- sick. Be ----.
     Walk ----ly when you go.


=Words in _ei_ or _ie_=

    =74. Write _i_ before _e_
               When sounded as _ee_
               Except after _c_.=

Examples: _believe_, _grief_, _chief_; but _receive_, _deceive_,
_ceiling_.

Exceptions: _Neither financier seized either species of weird leisure._
(Also a few uncommon words, like _seignior_, _inveigle_, _plebeian_.)

Rules based on a key-word, lice, Alice, Celia (_i_ follows _l_ and _e_
follows _c_) apply after two consonants only, and do not help one to
spell a word like _grief_. Rule 74 applies after all consonants.

Note.--The words in which the sound is _ee_ are the words really
difficult to spell. When the sound is any other than _ee_ (especially
when it is _a_), _i_ usually follows _e_.

Examples: _veil_, _weigh_, _freight_, _neighbor_, _height_, _sleight_,
_heir_, _heifer_, _counterfeit_, _foreign_, etc.

Exceptions: _ancient_, _friend_, _sieve_, _mischief_, _fiery_, _tries_,
etc.

     Exercise:

     Write the following words, supplying _ei_ or _ie_: _conc--t_,
     _retr--ve_, _dec--tful_, _n--ce_, _y--ld_, _p--ce_, _s--ge_,
     _s--ze_, _rec--pt_, _n--ther_, _w--rd_, _rel--ve_, _l--sure_,
     _f--ld_, _v--n_, _r--gn_, _sover--gn_, _sl--gh_, _br--f_,
     _dec--ve_, _r--n_, _f--nt_, _perc--ve_, _w--ld_, _gr--vous_,
     _--ther_.


=Doubling a Final Consonant=

=75. Monosyllables and words accented on the final syllable, if they end
in one consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the consonant before
a suffix beginning with a vowel.=

Examples: (a) Words derived from monosyllables: _plan-ned_, _clan-nish_,
_get-ting_, _hot-test_, _bag-gage_, (b) Words derived from words
accented on the final syllable: _begin-ning_, _repel-lent_,
_unregret-ted_.

Note 1.--There are four distinct steps in the application of this rule.
(1) The primary word must be found. To decide whether _begging_ contains
two _g's_, we must first think of _beg_. (2) The primary word must be a
monosyllable or a word accented on the final syllable. _Hit_ and _allot_
meet this test; _open_ does not. _Deferred_ and _differed_, _preferred_
and _proffered_, _committed_ (or _committee_) and _prohibited_ double or
refrain from doubling the final consonant of the primary word according
to the position of the accent. The seeming discrepancy between
_preferred_ and _preferable_, between _conferred_ and _conference_, is
due to a shifting of the accent to the first syllable in the case of
_preferable_ and _conference_. (3) The primary word must end in one
consonant. _Trace_, _oppose_, _interfere_, _help_, _reach_, and
_perform_ fail to meet this test, and therefore in derivatives do not
double the last consonant. _Assurance_ has one _r_, as it should have;
_occurrence_ has two _r's_, as it should have. (4) The final consonant
of the primary word must be preceded by a single vowel. This principle
excludes the extra consonant from _needy_, _daubed_, and _proceeding_,
and gives it to _running_.

Note 2.--After _q_, _u_ has the force of _w_. Hence _quitting_,
_quizzes_, _squatter_, _acquitted_, _equipped_, and similar words are
not really exceptions to the rule.

     Exercise:

     1. Write the present participle (in _-ing_) of _din_ (not
     _dine_), _begin_, _sin_ (compare _shine_), _stop_, _prefer_,
     _rob_, _drop_, _occur_, _omit_, _swim_, _get_, _commit_.

     2. Write the past tense (in _-ed_) of _plan_ (not _plane_),
     _star_ (compare _stare_), _stop_ (compare _slope_), _lop_ (not
     _lope_), _hop_ (not _hope_), _fit_, _benefit_, _occur_ (compare
     _cure_), _offer_, _confer_, _bat_ (compare _abate_).


=Final _e_ before a Suffix Beginning with a Vowel=

=76. Words that end in silent _e_ usually drop the _e_ in derivatives or
before a suffix beginning with a vowel.=

Examples: _bride_, _bridal_; _guide_, _guidance_; _please_, _pleasure_;
_fleece_, _fleecy_; _force_, _forcible_; _argue_, _arguing_; _arrive_,
_arrival_; _conceive_, _conceivable_; _college_, _collegiate_; _write_,
_writing_; _use_, _using_; _change_, _changing_; _judge_, _judging_;
_believe_, _believing_.

Note 1.--Of the exceptions some retain the _e_ to prevent confusion with
other words. Exceptions: _dyeing_, _singeing_, _mileage_, _acreage_,
_hoeing_, _shoeing_, _agreeing_, _eyeing_. The exceptions cause
comparatively little trouble. One rarely sees _hoing_ or _shoing_; he
often sees _hopeing_ and _inviteing_.

Note 2.--After _c_ or _g_ and before a suffix beginning with _a_ or _o_
the _e_ is retained. The purpose of this retention is to preserve the
soft sound of the _c_ or _g_. (Observe that _c_ and _g_ have the hard
sound in _cable_, _gable_, _cold_, _go_.)

Examples: _peaceable_, _changeable_, _noticeable_, _serviceable_,
_outrageous_, _courageous_, _advantageous_.

     Exercise:

     1. Write the present participle of the following words: _use_,
     _love_, _change_, _judge_, _shake_, _hope_, _shine_, _have_,
     _seize_, _slope_, _strike_, _dine_, _come_, _place_, _argue_,
     _achieve_, _emerge_, _arrange_, _abide_, _oblige_, _subdue_.

     2. Write the present participle of the following words:
     _singe_, _tinge_, _dye_, _agree_, _eye_.

     3. Write the _-ous_ or _-able_ form of the following words:
     _trace_, _love_, _blame_, _move_, _conceive_, _courage_,
     _service_, _advantage_, _umbrage_.

     4. Write the adjectives which correspond to the following
     nouns: _force_, _sphere_, _vice_, _sense_, _fleece_, _college_,
     _hygiene_.

     5. Write the nouns which correspond to the following verbs:
     _please_, _guide_, _grieve_, _arrive_, _oblige_, _prepare_,
     _inspire_.


=Plurals=

=77a. Most nouns add _s_ or _es_ to form the plural.= Examples: _word_,
_words_; _fire_, _fires_, _negro_, _negroes_; _Eskimo_, _Eskimos_;
_leaf_, _leaves_ (_f_ changes to _v_ for the sake of euphony); knife,
knives.

=b. Nouns ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant (or by _u_ as _w_) change
the _y_ to _i_ and add _es_ to form the plural.=

Examples: _sky_, _skies_; _lady_, _ladies_; _colloquy_, _colloquies_;
_soliloquy_, _soliloquies_.

=Other nouns ending in _y_ form the plural in the usual way.= Examples:
_day_, _days_; _boy_, _boys_; _monkey_, _monkeys_; _valley_, _valleys_.

=c. Compound nouns usually form the plural by adding _s_ or _es_ to the
principal word.= Examples: _sons-in-law_, _passers-by_; but _stand-bys_,
_hat-boxes_, _writing-desks_.

=d. Letters, signs, and sometimes figures, add _'s_ to form the plural.=
Examples: Cross your t's and dot your i's; ?'s; $'s; 3's or 3s.

=e. A few nouns adhere to old declensions.= Examples: _ox_, _oxen_;
_child_, _children_; _goose_, _geese_; _foot_, _feet_; _mouse_, _mice_;
_man_, _men_; _woman_, _women_; _sheep_, _sheep_; _deer_, _deer_;
_swine_, _swine_.

=f. Words adopted from foreign languages sometimes retain the foreign
plural.= Examples: _alumnus_, _alumni_; _alumna_, _alumnæ_; _fungus_,
_fungi_; _focus_, _foci_; _radius_, _radii_; _datum_, _data_; _medium_,
_media_; _phenomenon_, _phenomena_; _stratum_, _strata_; _analysis_,
_analyses_; _antithesis_, _antitheses_; _basis_, _bases_; _crisis_,
_crises_; _oasis_, _oases_; _hypothesis_, _hypotheses_; _parenthesis_,
_parentheses_; _thesis_, _theses_; _beau_, _beaux_; _tableau_,
_tableaux_; _Mr._, _Messrs._ (_Messieurs_); _Mrs._, _Mmes._
(_Mesdames_).

     Exercise:

     Write the singular and plural of the following words: _day_,
     _sky_, _lady_, _wife_, _leaf_, _loaf_, _negro_, _potato_,
     _tomato_, _pass_, _glass_, _boat_, _beet_, _flash_, _crash_,
     _bead_, _box_, _passenger_, _messenger_, _son-in-law_, _Smith_,
     _Jones_, _jack-o'-lantern_, _hanger-on_, _stratum_, _datum_,
     _phenomenon_, _crisis_, _basis_, _thesis_, _analysis_.


=Compounds=

=78a. Use a hyphen between two or more words which serve as a single
adjective before a noun:= _iron-bound bucket_, _well-kept lawn_,
_twelve-inch main_, _normal-school teacher_, _up-to-date methods_,
_twentieth-century ideas_, _devil-may-care expression_, _a
twenty-dollar-a-week clerk_.

=But when the words follow the noun, the hyphen is omitted.= _The lawn is
well kept. Methods up to date in every way_.

=Also adverbs ending in _-ly_ are not ordinarily made into compound
modifiers:= _nicely kept lawn_, _securely guarded treasure_.

=b. Use a hyphen between members of a compound noun when the second
member is a preposition, or when the writing of two nouns solid or
separately might confuse the meaning:= _runner-up_, _kick-off_;
_letting-down of effort_, _son-in-law_, _jack-o'-lantern_, _Pedro was a
bull-fighter_, _a woman-hater_, _Did you ever see a shoe-polish like
this?_

=c. Use a hyphen in compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine, and
in fractions according to the following examples:=

_Twenty-three_, _eighty-nine_; but _one hundred and one_.
_Twenty-third_, _one-hundred-and-first man_. _Three-fourths_, _four and
two-thirds_, _thirty-hundredths_, _thirty-one hundredths_.

But omit the hyphen in simple fractions when loosely used: _Three
quarters of my life are spent._ _One third of his fortune._

=d. A hyphen is not used in the following common words:= _airship_,
_altogether_, _anybody_, _baseball_, _basketball_, _everybody_,
_football_, _goodby_, _herself_, _handbook_, _himself_, _inasmuch_,
_itself_, _midnight_, _myself_, _nevertheless_, _nobody_, _nothing_ (but
_no one_), _nowadays_, _railroad_, _themselves_, _together_,
_typewritten_, _wherever_, _without_, _workshop_, _yourself_,
_newspaper_, _sunset_.

=e. For words that do not come within the scope of rules, consult an
up-to-date dictionary.= Compounds tend, with the passing of time, to grow
together. Once men wrote _steam boat_, later _steam-boat_, and finally
_steamboat_. New-coined words are usually hyphenated; old words are
often written solid. The degree of intimacy between the parts of a
compound word affects usage; thus we write _sun-motor_, but _sunbeam_;
_birth-rate_, but _birthday_; _cooling-room_, but _bedroom_;
_non-conductor_, but _nonsense_. The ease with which a vowel blends with
the consonant of a syllable adjoining it affects usage; thus
_self-evident_, but _selfsame_; _non-existent_, but _nondescript_;
_un-American_, but _unwise_. Many compounds, however, are still
uncontrolled by usage; whether they should be written as two words or
one, whether with or without the hyphen, the dictionaries themselves do
not agree.

     Exercise:

     Copy the following expressions, inserting hyphens where they
     are necessary: _twenty two years old_, _twenty two dollar
     bills_ _make forty dollars_, _twenty seven eighths inch
     boards_, _a normal school graduate_, _two handled boxes_, _a
     cloth covered basket_, _blood red sun_, _water tight
     compartment_, _sixty horse power motor_, _seven dollar bathing
     suits_, _a happy go lucky fellow_, _germ destroying powder_,
     _he had a son in law_, _passers by on the street_, _the kick
     off is at three o'clock_, _dark complexioned woman_, _silver
     tongued orator_, _a dish like valley_, _a rope like tail_, _a
     fish shaped cloud_, _a touch me not expression_, _will o' the
     wisp_, _well to do merchant_, _rough and tumble existence_.


=79.= SPELLING LIST

The English language comprises about 450,000 words. Of these a student
uses about 4000 (although he may understand more than twice that number
when he encounters them in sentences). Of these, in turn, not more than
four or five hundred are frequently misspelled. The following list
includes nearly all of the words which give serious trouble. Certain
American colleges using this list require of freshmen an accuracy of
ninety per cent.

     absurd
     academy
     =accept=
     =accidentally=
     =accommodate=
     accumulate
     accustom
     acquainted
     acquitted
     =across=
     addressed
     =adviser=
     aeroplane
     =affects=
     aggravate
     alley
     allotted
     =all right=
     ally
     already
     altar
     alter
     =altogether=
     alumnus
     =always=
     =amateur=
     =among=
     analogous
     analysis
     =angel=
     angle
     annual
     anxiety
     apparatus
     =appearance=
     appropriate
     arctic
     =argument=
     =arising=
     =arithmetic=
     arrange
     arrival
     ascend
     asks
     =athletic=
     audience
     auxiliary
     awkward

     balance
     barbarous
     baring
     barring
     baseball
     =based=
     bearing
     =becoming=
     before
     beggar
     =begging=
     =beginning=
     =believing=
     =benefited=
     =biscuit=
     boundaries
     brilliant
     =Britain=
     =Britannica=
     buoyant
     bureau
     =business=
     =busy=

     =calendar=
     =candidate=
     =can't=
     cemetery
     =certain=
     =changeable=
     =changing=
     characteristic
     chauffeur
     =choose=
     chose
     chosen
     =clothes=
     =coarse=
     column
     =coming=
     commission
     =committee=
     comparative
     =compel=
     compelled
     competent
     concede
     conceivable
     =conferred=
     conquer
     conqueror
     conscience
     conscientious
     considered
     continuous
     control
     =controlled=
     coöperate
     country
     =course=
     =courteous=
     courtesy
     cruelty
     cylinder

     =dealt=
     debater
     deceitful
     decide
     decision
     deferred
     =definite=
     descend
     =describe=
     =description=
     derived
     =despair=
     =desperate=
     destroy
     device
     devise
     dictionary
     difference
     digging
     dilemma
     =dining room=
     dinning
     =disappear=
     =disappoint=
     disavowal
     discipline
     disease
     =dissatisfied=
     dissipate
     distinction
     distribute
     =divide=
     =divine=
     =doctor=
     =don't=
     dormitories
     drudgery
     dying

     ecstasy
     =effects=
     =eighth=
     eliminate
     =embarrass=
     eminent
     encouraging
     =enemy=
     =equipped=
     especially
     =etc.=
     everybody
     exaggerate
     exceed
     excellent
     except
     exceptional
     exhaust
     exhilarate
     =existence=
     expense
     experience
     explanation

     familiar
     fascinate
     =February=
     fiery
     fifth
     =finally=
     financier
     forfeit
     formally
     =formerly=
     forth
     =forty=
     =fourth=
     frantically
     fraternity
     =freshman= (adj.)
     =friend=
     fulfil
     furniture

     gallant
     gambling
     =generally=
     goddess
     =government=
     governor
     =grammar=
     grandeur
     =grievous=
     guard
     guess
     guidance

     harass
     haul
     =having=
     height
     hesitancy
     =holy=
     =hoping=
     huge
     =humorous=
     =hurriedly=
     hundredths
     hygienic

     =imaginary=
     imitative
     immediately
     immigration
     impromptu
     imminent
     incidentally
     incidents
     incredulous
     =independence=
     indispensable
     induce
     influence
     =infinite=
     =instance=
     instant
     =intellectual=
     intelligence
     =intentionally=
     intercede
     irresistible
     =its=
     it's
     itself
     invitation

     =judgment=

     =knowledge=

     laboratory
     =ladies=
     =laid=
     =later=
     =latter=
     =lead=
     =led=
     liable
     library
     =lightning=
     likely
     literature
     loneliness
     =loose=
     =lose=
     =losing=
     lying

     maintain
     =maintenance=
     manual
     manufacturer
     =many=
     marriage
     Massachusetts
     material
     =mathematics=
     mattress
     =meant=
     messenger
     =miniature=
     minutes
     =mischievous=
     Mississippi
     misspelled
     momentous
     month
     murmur
     muscle
     mysterious

     =necessary=
     =negroes=
     =neither=
     nickel
     nineteenth
     ninetieth
     =ninety=
     ninth
     =noticeable=
     =nowadays=

     oblige
     obstacle
     =occasion=
     occasionally
     occur
     =occurred=
     =occurrence=
     occurring
     =o'clock=
     officers
     =omitted=
     =omission=
     =opinion=
     opportunity
     =optimistic=
     =original=
     outrageous
     overrun

     paid
     pantomime
     =parallel=
     =parliament=
     particularly
     =partner=
     =pastime=
     peaceable
     =perceive=
     perception
     peremptory
     =perform=
     =perhaps=
     =permissible=
     perseverance
     pérsonal
     personnél
     =perspiration=
     persuade
     pertain
     pervade
     physical
     picnic
     picnicking
     =planned=
     =pleasant=
     politics
     politician
     =possession=
     possible
     practically
     =prairie=
     =precede=
     precédent
     précedents
     =preference=
     =preferred=
     prejudice
     =preparation=
     =primitive=
     =principal=
     =principle=
     prisoner
     =privilege=
     =probably=
     =proceed=
     prodigy
     profession
     =professor=
     proffered
     prohibition
     promissory
     =prove=
     purchase
     pursue
     putting

     quantity
     =quiet=
     =quite=
     quizzes

     rapid
     =ready=
     =really=
     recede
     =receive=
     recognize
     =recommend=
     =reference=
     =referred=
     =regard=
     region
     =religion=
     =religious=
     repetition
     replies
     representative
     =restaurant=
     rheumatism
     ridiculous

     sacrilegious
     safety
     =sandwich=
     schedule
     science
     scream
     screech
     =seems=
     =seize=
     sense
     =sentence=
     =separate=
     sergeant
     several
     shiftless
     =shining=
     shone
     shown
     =shriek=
     =siege=
     similar
     =since=
     smooth
     soliloquy
     =sophomore=
     speak
     specimen
     =speech=
     statement
     =stationary=
     =stationery=
     statue
     stature
     statute
     steal
     steel
     stops
     =stopped=
     =stopping=
     =stories=
     stretch
     =strictly=
     succeeds
     successful
     summarize
     =superintendent=
     supersede
     =sure=
     =surprise=
     syllable
     symmetrical

     =temperament=
     =tendency=
     than
     =their=
     there
     therefore
     =they're=
     thorough
     thousandths
     till
     to
     =too=
     =together=
     =tragedy=
     track
     =tract=
     transferred
     tranquillity
     translate
     treacherous
     treasurer
     =tries=
     =trouble=
     =truly=
     =Tuesday=
     two
     typical
     tyranny

     universally
     =until=
     =using=
     =usually=

     vacancy
     vengeance
     vigilance
     village
     =villain=

     weak
     =wear=
     weather
     =Wednesday=
     week
     =weird=
     welfare
     where
     wherever
     =whether=
     which
     whole
     =wholly=
     =who's=
     whose
     wintry
     wiry
     within
     without
     =women=
     world
     =writing=
     written

     your
     =you're=

Note 1.--The following words have more than one correct form, the one
given here being preferred.

     abridgement
     acknowledgment
     analyze
     ax
     boulder
     caliber
     catalog
     center
     check
     criticize
     develop
     development
     dulness
     endorse
     envelop
     esthetic
     gaiety
     gild
     gipsy
     glamor
     goodby
     gray
     inquire
     medieval
     meter
     mold
     mustache
     odor
     program
     prolog
     skilful
     theater

Note 2.--In a few groups of words American spelling and English spelling
differ. American spelling gives preference to _favor_, _honor_, _labor_,
_rumor_; English spelling gives preference to _favour_, _honour_,
_labour_, _rumour_. American spelling gives preference to _civilize_,
_apprize_; _defense_, _pretense_; _traveler_, _woolen_; etc. English
spelling gives preference to _civilise_, _apprise_; _defence_,
_pretence_; _traveller_, _woollen_; etc.



MISCELLANEOUS


=Manuscript=

=80a. Titles.= Center a title on the page. Capitalize important words. It
is unnecessary to place a period after a title, but a question mark or
exclamation point should be used when one is appropriate. Do not
underscore the title, or unnecessarily place it in quotation marks.
Leave a blank line under the title, before beginning the body of the
writing.

=b. Spacing.= Careful spacing is as necessary as punctuation. Place
writing on a page as you would frame a picture, crowding it toward
neither the top nor the bottom. Leave liberal margins. Write verse as
verse; do not give it equal indention or length of line with prose.
Connect all the letters of a word. Leave a space after a word, and a
double space after a sentence. Leave room between successive lines, and
do not let the loops of letters run into the lines above or below.

=c. Handwriting.= Write a clear, legible hand. Form _a_, _o_, _u_, _n_,
_e_, _i_, properly. Write out _and_ horizontally. Avoid unnecessary
flourishes in capitals, and curlicues at the end of words. Dot your
_i's_ and cross your _t's_; not with circles or long eccentric strokes,
but simply and accurately. Let your originality express itself not in
ornate penmanship, or unusual stationery, or literary affectations, but
in the force and keenness of your ideas.


=Capitals=

=81a. Begin with a capital a sentence, a line of poetry, or a quoted
sentence. But if only a fragment of a sentence is quoted, the capital
should be omitted.=

     Right: He said, "The time has come."

     Right: The question is, Shall the bill pass?

     Right: They said they would "not take no for an answer."

     Right:

      "The good die first,
    And they whose hearts are dry as summer dust
    Burn to the socket."--Wordsworth.



=b. Begin proper names, and all important words used as or in proper
names, with capitals.= Words not so used should not begin with capitals.

     Right: Mr. George K. Rogers, the Principal of the Urbana High
     School, a college president, the President of the Senior Class,
     a senior, the Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia,
     three battalions of infantry, the Fourth of July, on the tenth
     of June, the House of Representatives, an assembly of
     delegates, a Presbyterian church, the separation of church and
     state, the Baptist Church, the Society for the Prevention of
     Cruelty to Animals, a creek known as Black Oak Creek, the
     Republican Party, a party that advocates high tariff, Rocky
     Mountains, The Bible, God, The Christian Era, Wednesday, in the
     summer, living in the South, turning south after taking a few
     steps to the east, one morning, O dark-haired Evening! italic
     type, watt, pasteurize, herculean effort.

=c. Begin an adjective which designates a language or a race with a
capital.=

     Right: A Norwegian peasant, Indian arrowheads, English
     literature, the study of French.

=d. In the titles of books or themes capitalize the first word and all
other important words.= Prepositions, conjunctions, and articles are
usually not important.

     Right: _The English Novel in the Time of Scott_, _War and
     Peace_, _Travels with a Donkey_, _When I Slept under the
     Stars_.

=e. Miscellaneous uses. Capitalize the pronoun _I_, the interjection _O_,
titles that accompany a name, and abbreviations of proper names.=

     Right: Battery F, 150 F. A.; Mobile, Ala.; Dr. Stebbins.

     Exercise:

     1. the teacher said, "let me read you a famous soliloquy." he
     began: "to be, or not to be: that is the question."

     2. the chinese laundry man does not write out his lists in
     english.

     3. the _la fayette tribune_ says that a Principal of a School
     has been elected to congress.

     4. mr. woodson, the lecturer, said that "the title of a book
     may be a poem." he mentioned _christmas eve on lonesome_ by
     john fox, jr.

     5. i like architecture. as i approached the british museum, i
     noticed the ionic colonnade that runs along the front. the
     first room i visited was the one filled with marbles which lord
     elgin brought from the parthenon at athens.


=Italics=

In manuscript, a horizontal line drawn under a letter or word is a sign
for the printer to use italic type.

=82a. Quoted titles of books, periodicals, and manuscripts are usually
italicized.=

     Right: I admire Shakespeare's _Hamlet_. [The italics make the
     reader know that the writer means, _Hamlet_ the play, not
     Hamlet the man.]

     Right: John Galsworthy's novel, _The Patrician_, appeared in
     serial form in the _Atlantic Monthly_.

Note 1.--When the title of a book begins with an article (_a_, _an_, or
_the_), the article is italicized. But _the_ before the title of a
periodical is usually not italicized.

Note 2.--It is correct, but not the best practice, to indicate the
titles of books by quotation marks. The best method is to use italics
for the title of a book, and quotation marks for chapters or
subdivisions of the same book. Example: See _Encyclopedia Britannica_,
Vol. II, p. 427, "Modern Architecture".

=b. Words from a foreign language, unless they have been anglicized by
frequent use, are italicized.=

     Right: A great noise announced the coming of the _enfant
     terrible_.

     Right: A play always begins _in medias res_.

=c. The names of ships are usually italicized.=

     Right: The _Saxonia_ will sail at four o'clock.

=d. Words taken out of their context and made the subject of discussion
are italicized or placed in quotation marks.=

     Right: _So_ is a word faded and colorless from constant use.

     Right: The _t_ in the word _often_ is not pronounced.

=e. A word or passage requiring great emphasis is italicized.= This device
should not be used to excess. The proper way to secure emphasis is to
have good ideas, and to use emphatic sentence structure in expressing
them.

     Exercise:

     1. In Vanity Fair Thackeray heads one chapter How to Live Well
     on Nothing a Year.

     2. Auf wiedersehen was his parting word. He had informed me,
     sub rosa of course, that he was going to Bremen.

     3. The battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac
     revolutionized naval warfare. How far back it seems to the days
     when Decatur set fire to the old Philadelphia!

     4. Her They say's are as plenteous as rabbits in Australia.

     5. A writer in the Century Magazine says the public may know
     better than an author what the title of his book should be.
     Dickens, for example, called one of his works The Posthumous
     Papers of the Pickwick Club.


=Abbreviations=

=83a. In ordinary writing avoid abbreviations. The following, however,
are always correct: Mr., Messrs., Dr., or St. (Saint), before proper
names; B. C. or A. D., when necessary to avoid confusion, after a date;
and No. or $ when followed by numerals.=

In ordinary writing spell out

     All titles, except those listed above.

     Names of months, states, countries.

     Christian names, unless initials are used instead.

     Names of weights and measures, except in statistics.

     Street, Avenue, Road, Railroad, Park, Fort, Mountain, Company,
     Brothers, Manufacturing, etc.

In ordinary writing, instead of _&_ write _and_; for _viz._ write
_namely_; for _i. e._, write _that is_; for _e. g._ write _for example_;
for _a. m._ and _p. m._ write _in the morning_, _this afternoon_,
_tomorrow evening_, _Saturday night_. Do not use _etc._ (_et cetera_)
when it can be avoided.

=b. In business correspondence, technical writing, tabulations,
footnotes, and bibliographies, or wherever brevity is essential, other
abbreviations may be used.= Even here, short words should not be
abbreviated: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Samoa, Utah,
March, April, May, June, July.

     Exercise:

     1. Mr. Gregg & Dr. Appleton were rivals.

     2. Harris lacked but one of having a grade of one hundred; _i.
     e._, he had the two O's already.

     3. His inheritance tax was three thousand $. In Apr. he moved
     from Portland, Me., to Sandusky, O.

     4. Prof. Kellogg came down Beech St. at a quarter before eight
     every a. m.

     5. A No. of old friends visited them on special occasions; _e.
     g._, on their wedding anniversaries.


=Numbers=

=84a. It is customary to use figures for dates, for the street numbers in
addresses, for reference to the pages of a book, and for statistics.=

Right: June 16, 1920. 804 Chalmers Street. See Chapter 4, especially
page 79.

Note.--It is desirable not to write _st_, _nd_, or _th_ after the day of
the month if the year is designated also. Right: March 3, 1919 (not
March 3rd, 1919).

=b. Figures are used for numbers which cannot be expressed in a few
words. The dollar sign and figures are used with complicated sums of
money.=

Right: The farm comprised 3260 acres. The population of Kansas City,
Missouri, was 248,381 in 1910. He earned $437 while attending school.
The cost of the improvement was $1,940.25.

=c. In other instances than those specified in _a_ and _b_ numbers as a
rule should be written out.= (This rule applies to numbers and to sums of
money which can be expressed in a few words, to sums of money less than
one dollar, and to ages and time of day.)

Right: The box weighs two hundred pounds. Xerxes had an army of three
million men. I enclose seventy-five cents. He owed twelve hundred
dollars. Grandfather Toland is eighty-seven years old. The train is due
at a quarter past three.

     Exercise:

     1. For 70 pounds of excess baggage I had to pay $1.00.

     2. At 2 o'clock Rice gave him the 2nd capsule.

     3. The letter was sent from twenty-one Warner St. November the
     eleventh, nineteen hundred and eighteen.

     4. Knox earned $5 a day he said; but they paid him only $0.75.

     5. At 40 he owned a 2,000 acre farm and had an income of
     $10,000 a year.


=Syllabication=

=85a. When a word is broken at the end of a line, use a hyphen there. Do
not place a hyphen at the beginning of the second line.=

=b. Words are divided only between syllables:= _depart-ment_,
_dis-charge_, _ab-surd_, _univer-sity_, _pro-fessor_ (not _depa-rtment_,
_disc-harge_, _abs-urd_, _unive-rsity_, _prof-essor_).

=c. Monosyllabic words are never divided:= _which_, _through_, _dipped_,
_speak_ (not _wh-ich_, _thr-ough_, _dip-ped_, _spe-ak_).

=d. A consonant at the junction of two syllables usually goes with the
second:= _recipro-cate_, _ordi-nance_, _inti-mate_ (not _reciproc-ate_,
_ordin-ance_, _intim-ate_). Sometimes two consonants are equivalent to a
single letter: _falli-ble_, _photo-graph_ (not _fallib-le_,
_photog-raph_).

=e. Two or more consonants at the junction of syllables are themselves
divided:= _en-ter-prise_, _com-mis-sary_, _in-car-nate_ (not
_ent-erpr-ise_, _comm-iss-ary_, _inc-arn-ate_).

=f. A prefix or a suffix is usually set off from the rest of the word
regardless of the rule for consonants between syllables:= _ex-empt_,
_dis-appoint_, _sing-ing_, _pro-gress-ive_. But when a final consonant
is doubled before a suffix the additional consonant goes with the
suffix: _trip-ping_, _permit-ted_, _omis-sion_.

=g. The best usage avoids separating one or two letters (unless in
prefixes like _un_ or suffixes like _ly_) from the rest of the word:=
_achieve-ment_, _enor-mous_, _remem-bered_, _dyspep-sia_ (not
_a-chievement_, _e-normous_, remember-ed, dyspepsi-a).

=h. The first part of a divided word should not be ludicrous or
misleading:= _dogma-tize_, _croco-dile_, _de-cadence_, _metri-cal_,
_goril-la_ (not _dog-matize_, _croc-odile_, _deca-dence_, _met-rical_,
_go-rilla_).

     Exercise:

     Place a hyphen between each pair of syllables in each word of
     more than one syllable: _thoughtful_, _burrowing_, _thorough_,
     _chimney_, _brought_, _helped_, _harshnesses_, _which_,
     _murmur_, _superstition_, _ground_, _symmetry_, _ripped_,
     _compartment_, _disallow_, _obey_, _opinion_, _opportune_,
     _aggressive_, _intellectually_, _complicated_, _encyclopedia_,
     _wrought_, _electricity_, _abstraction_, _syllabication_,
     _punctuation_, _frustrate_, _except_, _substituting_,
     _distressful_.


=Outlines=

Three kinds of outlines are illustrated in this article: (a) the Topic
Outline, (b) the Sentence Outline, and (c) the Paragraph Outline.

=86a. A topic outline consists of headings (nouns or phrases containing
nouns) which indicate the important ideas in a composition, and their
relation to each other. Conform to the following model:=

     =The Lumber Problem=

     Theme: The decline of our lumber supply requires that we shall
     take steps toward reforesting, conservation, and the use of
     substitutes for wood.

     I The Depletion of our forests
           A Former abundance
           B Present scarcity (especially walnut, white pine, oak)

     II The Causes of the depletion
           A Great demand
               1 For building
               2 For industrial expansion (ties, posts, etc.)
               3 For fuel, and other minor uses
           B Wasteful methods of forestry

     III The Remedy
           A Reforestation
               1 Planting by individuals
               2 Planting by the states
               3 Extension of the present National Forest Reserves

           B The prevention of waste
               1 In fires, by insects, etc.
               2 In cutting and sawing
               3 In by-products (sawing, odd lengths, etc.)

           C The use of substitutes for wood (concrete, steel, brick,
             stone, etc.)


=b. A sentence outline is expressed in complete sentences. Conform to the
following model:=

     =The Lumber Problem=

     I The depletion of our forests is evident when one compares
         A the former abundance, with
         B the present scarcity (of walnut, white pine, and oak,
           especially).

     II The causes of the depletion are:
         A the great demand
             1 for building,
             2 for industrial expansion (ties, posts, etc.),
             3 for fuel and other minor uses; and
         B wasteful methods of forestry.

     III The remedies for the depletion are:
         A reforestation
             1 by individuals,
             2 by the states,
             3 by extension of the present National Forest
                 Reserves;
         B the prevention of waste
             1 in fires, by insects, etc.,
             2 in cutting and sawing,
             3 in by-products (sawdust, odd lengths, etc.);
                 and
         C the use of substitutes, for wood (concrete, steel,
                 brick, stone, etc.)


=c. A paragraph outline is a series of sentences summarizing the thought
of successive paragraphs in a composition. Conform to the following
model:=

     =The Disagreeable Optimist=

     1. The present age may be called an era of efficiency,
     prosperity, and optimism, since efficiency has produced
     prosperity, and this in turn has produced "optimism"--a word
     recurrent in common literature and conversation.

     2. The optimist is often not natural or sincere, because his
     thoughts are centered on keeping up an appearance of being
     happy.

     3. He is intrusive, for he thrusts comfort upon those who wish
     to mourn, and repeats irritating epigrams and poems about
     cheer.

     4. He is undiscriminating, in that he prescribes the same
     remedy, "good cheer," for everybody and for every condition.

     5. He is sometimes harmful, because he tells us that the world
     is going well, when conditions need changing, and need changing
     badly.

=d. Mechanical details.= Indent headings that are coördinate (that is, of
equal value) an equal distance from the margin. One inch to the right is
a good distance for successive subordinate headings. Use Roman numerals,
capital letters, Arabic numerals, and small letters to indicate the
comparative rank of ideas. When a heading runs over one line, use
hanging indention; that is, do not allow the second line to run back to
the left-hand margin, but indent it. Make the numerals and letters (_1_,
_A_, etc.) stand out prominently. The title of a theme should not be
given a numeral or letter.

     Faulty indention:


     Sources of energy which may be utilized when the coal
     supply is exhausted are

         I Rivers and streams, especially in mountain
     districts
         II The tides
         III The heat of the sun


     Correct hanging indention:

     Sources of energy which may be utilized when the coal supply
     is exhausted are

         I Rivers and streams, especially in mountain
             districts
         II The tides
         III The heat of the sun


=e. Ideas parallel in thought should be expressed in parallel form.= Nouns
and phrases including nouns are ordinarily used.

     Faulty parallelism:
       Advantages of a garden:
         1 Profitable
         2 It affords good exercise
         3 Gives pleasure

     Right:
       Advantages of a garden:
         1 Profit
         2 Exercise
         3 Pleasure

=f. Avoid faulty coördination (giving two ideas equal rank, when one
should be subordinated to the other) and _vice versa_, avoid faulty
subordination.=

     Faulty coördination:

     How Seeds Scatter

       I By Wind
      II Some Seeds provided with parachutes
     III Others light, and easily blown about
      IV By Water
       V By Animals

     Right:

     =How Seeds Scatter=

     I By Wind
        A Some seeds provided with parachutes
        B Others light, and easily blown about

     II By Water

     III By Animals


=g. Avoid detailed subordination. Especially avoid a single subheading
when it can be joined to the preceding line, or omitted.=

     Too detailed:

     A The McClellan Orchard
         1 Situation
             a On a northern slope
         2 Nature of soil
             a Sandy
         3 Kind of fruit
             a Apple
             b Cherry

     Right:

     A The McClellan Orchard
         1. Situation: a northern slope
         2. Nature of soil: sandy
         3. Kind of fruit: apple and cherry

     Exercise:

     1. Give a title to an outline which shall include the following
     topics. Group the topics under two main headings, and give the
     headings names.

     Uses of the grape
     The Vine
     The Fruit Itself
     How Marketed
     How Cultivated

     2. Place in order the sentences of the following outline on
     "Why Keep a Diary?" Subordinate some of the headings to others.

     A diary affords great satisfaction in future years.

     We sometimes record in a diary information which proves useful.

     A few lines a day will suffice.

     A diary is not hard to keep.

     We may find time for writing in our diary if we do not waste
     time at the table or on newspapers.

     We may write in our diary just before we go to bed.

     A diary will bring back the past.

     We all have some moments to kill.

     A diary gives us pleasure even in the present.

     3. Place in order the headings of the following outline on
     "Ulysses S. Grant." Subordinate some of the headings to others.

     Obscurity in 1861
     Prominence in 1865
     Patience
     President
     General
     Perseverance and Resolution
     Character
     The Turning Point in His Career


=Letters=

The parts of a letter are the heading, the inside address, the greeting,
the body, the close, and the signature. For these parts good use
prescribes definite forms, which we may sometimes ignore in personal
letters, but must rigidly observe in formal or business letters.

=87a. The heading of a letter should give the full address of the writer
and the date of writing. Do not abbreviate short words, or omit Street
or Avenue.=

     Objectionable: #15 Hickory, Omaha.

     Right: 15 Hickory Street, Omaha, Nebraska.

     Objectionable: 4/12/19; 10-28-'16; May 2nd, 1910.

     Right: April 12, 1919; October 28, 1916; May 2, 1910.

     The following headings are correct:

     106 East Race Street,
       Red Oak, Iowa,
         August 4, 1916.

     423 Michigan Avenue
     Chicago, Illinois
     May 20, 1918

     Prescott, Arizona, June 1, 1920.


Note.--In personal letters the heading may be transferred to the end,
below the signature, at the left-hand side. But it must not be so
divided that the street address will appear in one place and the town
and state in another.

The "closed" form of punctuation (the use of punctuation at the ends of
the lines) is best until the student learns what is correct. Afterward,
the adoption of the "open" form becomes purely a matter of individual
taste and not a matter of carelessness or ignorance.

=b. An inside address and a greeting are required in business letters.=
Personal letters contain the greeting, but may omit the inside address,
or may supply it at the end of the letter.


     The Jeffrey Chemical Works,
       510 Marion Street,
         Norfolk, Virginia.

     Gentlemen:


     Mr. Joseph N. Kellogg
     1411 Lake Street
     Cleveland, Ohio

     Dear Mr. Kellogg:


     Secretary of Rice Institute, Houston, Texas.

     My dear Sir:

     Greetings used in business letters are:

     My dear Sir:
     My dear Madam:
     My dear Mr. Fisher:
     Dear Sir:
     Sir:
     Sirs:
     Gentlemen:
     Ladies:

     Greetings used in personal letters are:

     My dear Miss Brown:
     Dear Professor Ward:
     Dear Jones,
     Dear Mrs. Vincent,
     Dear Robert,
     Dear Olive,

"My dear Miss Brown" is more ceremonious than "Dear Miss Brown". As a
rule, the more familiar the letter, the shorter the greeting.

A colon follows the greeting if the letter is formal or long; a comma,
if the letter is familiar or in the nature of a note.

Both inside address and greeting begin at the left-hand margin. The body
of the letter begins on the line below the greeting, and is indented as
much as an ordinary paragraph (about an inch).

=c. The body of a letter should be written in correct style.=

=1.= Do not omit pronouns, or write a "telegraphic style".

     Wrong: Just received yours of the 21st, and in reply would say
     your order has been filled and shipped.

     Right: I have your letter of March twenty-first. Your order was
     promptly filled and shipped.

=2.= The idea that it is immodest to use _I_ is a superstition. Undue
repetition of _I_ is of course awkward; but entire avoidance of it is
silly.

=3.= Use simple language. Say "your letter"; not "your kind favor", or
"yours duly received", or "yours of the 21st is at hand".

=4.= Avoid "begging" expressions which you obviously do not mean,
especially the hackneyed "beg to advise".

     Wrong: Received yours of the 3rd instant, and beg to advise we
     are out of stock.

     Right: We received your order of March 3. We find that we have
     no more dining-room chairs B 2-4-6 in stock.

     Wrong: I beg to enclose a booklet.

     Right: I enclose a booklet.

     Wrong: Permit us to say that prices have been advanced.

     Right: The prices on our goods have been advanced.

=5.= Avoid the formula "please find enclosed". The reader will find what
is enclosed; if you use "please", let it refer to what the reader shall
do with what is enclosed.

     Wrong: Enclosed please find 10 cents, for which send me
     Bulletin 58.

     Right: I enclose ten cents, for which please send me Bulletin
     58.

=6.= Avoid unnecessary commercial slang: _On the job_, _A-1 service_,
_O.K._, _your ad_, _popular-priced line_, _this party_, _as per
schedule_.

=7.= Get to the important idea quickly. In applying for a position, do not
beat around the bush, or say you "wish to apply" or "would apply".
Begin, "I make application for ...", "kindly consider my application for
...", or "I apply ..."

=8.= Group your ideas logically. Do not scatter information. A letter
applying for a position might consist of three paragraphs: Personal
qualifications (age, health, education, etc.); Experience (nature of
positions, dates, etc.); References (names, business or profession,
exact street address). Finish one group of ideas before passing to the
next.

=9.= Do not monotonously close all letters with a sentence beginning with
a participle: _Hoping to hear from you ..._, _Asking your coöperation
..._, _Awaiting your further favors ..._, _Trusting this will be
satisfactory ..._, _Wishing you ..._, _Thanking you ..._. The
independent form of the verb is more emphatic (see 42); _I hope to hear
from you ..._, _We await further orders ..._, _We ask coöperation ..._.

=d. The close= should be consistent in tone with the greeting. It is
written on a separate line, beginning near the middle of the page, and
is followed by a comma. Only the first word is capitalized. Preceding
expressions like "I am", "I remain", "As ever", (if they are used at
all) belong in the body of the letter.

     Right: I thank you for your courtesy, and remain

     Yours sincerely,
     Robert Blair

     Right: I shall be grateful for any further information you can
     give me.

     Yours truly,
     Florence Mitchell

     In business letters the following forms are used:

     Yours truly,
     Very truly yours,
     Yours respectfully,

     In personal letters the following are used:

     Yours truly,
     Yours sincerely,
     Sincerely yours,
     Cordially yours,

=e. The outside address should follow one of the forms given below:=

  +---------------------------------------------------+
  |   R. E. Stearns                                   |
  |   512 Chapel Hill St.                             |
  |   Durham, N. C.                                   |
  |                                                   |
  |                                                   |
  |                          Mr. Donald Kemp          |
  |                            3314 Salem Street      |
  |                              Baltimore            |
  |                                  Maryland         |
  +---------------------------------------------------+

  +---------------------------------------------------+
  |   Bentley Davis                                   |
  |   906 Park Street                                 |
  |   Ogden, Utah                                     |
  |                                                   |
  |                                                   |
  |                     Rogers, Mead, and Company     |
  |                     2401 Eighth Avenue            |
  |                     Los Angeles                   |
  |                     California                    |
  +---------------------------------------------------+

Note.--An abbreviation in an address is followed by a period.
Punctuation is also correct, but not necessary, after every line (a
period after the last line, and a comma after the others).

A married woman is ordinarily addressed thus: Mrs. George H. Turner. But
a title belonging to the husband should not be transferred to the wife.
Wrong: Mrs. Dr. Jenkins, Mrs. Professor Ward. Right: Mrs. Jenkins, Mrs.
Ward. Reverend Mr. Beecher is a correct address for a minister; not
"Rev. Beecher". If a title of respect is placed before a name
(Professor, Dr., Honorable), it is undesirable to place another title
after the name (Secretary, M.D., Ph.D., Principal, Esq.).

=f. Miscellaneous directions.= Writing should be centered on the page, not
crowded against the top, or against one side. Letter paper so folded
that each sheet is a little book of four pages is best for personal
correspondence. Both sides of such paper may be written on. The pages
may be written on in any order which will be convenient to the reader.
An order like that of the pages in a printed book (1, 2, 3, 4) is best.

Business letters are usually written on one side only of flat sheets
8-1/2 by 11 inches in size. The sheet is folded once horizontally in the
middle, and twice in the other direction, for insertion in the envelope.

=g. A business letter should have, in general, the following form:=

                                  1516 South Garrison Avenue.
                                    Carthage, Missouri,
                                      May 14, 1918.

     J. E. Pratt, General Superintendent,
       The Southwest Missouri Railroad Company,
         1012 North Madison Street,
          Webb City, Missouri.

     Dear Sir:

     I apply for a position as mechanic's assistant in the
     electrical department of your shops. I am nineteen years old,
     and in good physical condition. On June 6 I shall graduate from
     Carthage High School, and after that date I can begin work
     immediately.

     I have had no practical experience in electrical work. But I
     have for two years made a special study of physics, in and out
     of school. I worked last summer in the local garage of Mr. R.
     S. Bryant. In addition, I have become familiar with tools in my
     workshop at home, so that I both know and like machinery.

     For statements as to my character and ability, I refer you to
     R. S. Bryant, Manager Bryant's Garage; Mr. Frank Darrow
     (lawyer), 602 Ninth Street; W. C. Barnes, Superintendent of
     Schools; and C. W. Oldham, Principal of the High School--all of
     this city.

     Respectfully yours,
                   Howard Rolfe

=h. Formal notes and replies are written in the third person (avoiding
_I_, _my_, _me_, _you_, _your_) and permit no abbreviations except
_Mr._, _Mrs._, _Dr._ =

     Mrs. Clarence King requests the company of
     Mr. Charles Eliot at dinner on Friday,
     April the twenty-fourth, at six o'clock.

     102 Pearl Street,
         April the seventeenth.

In accepting an invitation, the writer should repeat the day and hour
mentioned, in order to avoid a misunderstanding; in declining an
invitation, only the day need be mentioned. The verb used in the reply
should be in the present tense; not "will be pleased to accept", or
"regrets that he will be unable to accept"; but "is pleased to accept",
or "regrets that circumstances prevent his accepting".

     Mr. Charles Eliot gladly accepts the invitation of Mrs. King to
     dinner on Friday, April the twenty-fourth, at six o'clock.

     514 Poplar Avenue,
             April the eighteenth.


=Paragraphs=

=88a. The first lines of paragraphs are uniformly indented, in
manuscript, about an inch; in print, somewhat less. After a sentence,
the remainder of a line should not be left blank, except at the end of a
paragraph.=

=b. The length of a paragraph is ordinarily from fifty to three hundred
words, depending on the importance or complexity of the thought.= In
exposition, the paragraphs should be long enough to develop every idea
thoroughly. Scrappy expository paragraphs arouse the suspicion that the
writer is incoherent, or that he has not given sufficient thought to the
subject. Short paragraphs are permissible, and even desirable, in the
following cases:

1. In a formal introduction to the main body of a discourse, or in the
formal conclusion. (In some instances the paragraph may consist of a
single sentence.)

2. In the body of a composition, when a brief logical transition between
two longer paragraphs is necessary.

3. In short compositions on complex subjects, where space forbids the
development of each thought on a proper scale. (But, as a rule, the
student should limit his subject to a few simple ideas, each of which
can be developed fully.)

4. In newspapers, where brevity and emphasis are required. (But the
student should not take the journalistic style as a model.)

5. In description or narration meant to be vivid, vigorous, or rapid.

6. In dialogue.

=c. In representing dialogue, each speech, no matter how short, is placed
in a separate paragraph.=

     Right:

       "Listen!" he said. "There was a noise
       outside. Didn't you hear it?"

       "No," I whispered. It was dark in the room, except for a faint
       light at the window, and I felt my way cautiously to his side.
       "What is it? Burglars?"

       "I believe it is."

       "I can't hear anything."

       "Listen! There it is again."

       "Pshaw!" I had to laugh aloud. "Thompson's cow has got into the
       garden again."

Note that a slight amount of descriptive matter may be included in a
paragraph with the direct discourse, the only requirement being that a
change of speaker shall be indicated by a new paragraph.

When special emphasis is desired, a quotation may be detached from a
preceding introductory statement.

     Right: The speaker turned gravely about, and facing the front
     row, he said slowly and solemnly:

     "Small boys should be seen and not heard."

In exceptional cases a long, rapid-fire dialogue may, for purposes of
compression, be placed in one paragraph. Dashes should then be used
before successive quotations to indicate a change of speaker.

Omissions from a dialogue (as when only one side of a telephone
conversation is reported), long pauses, and the unfinished part of
interrupted statements, may be represented by a short row of dots.

     Exercise:

     Arrange in paragraphs, and insert quotation marks:

     1. Help! I cried, rolling over in the narrow crevasse, and
     wondering dazedly how far I had fallen through the snow. A
     muffled voice came from above: We'll have a rope down to you in
     a minute. Tie that bottle of brandy on the end of it, I
     suggested, and it'll come faster. [The student will here insert
     a sentence of his own to complete the dialogue.]

     2. Good morning, James, said the deacon, suspiciously. How are
     you? and where are you going? I'm all right, answered the boy,
     and I'm goin' down to the creek. As he spoke, he tried to hide
     something bulky underneath his coat. You oughtn't to go fishing
     on Sunday. [Add another sentence to finish the dialogue.]


=89.= MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE

The following sentences illustrate errors in the use of capitals,
italics, numbers, abbreviations, etc. Make necessary changes.

     1. I met him at kansas city at a dinner of the commercial club.

     2. The senate and the house of representatives are the two
     branches of congress.

     3. In today's chicago herald the union pacific railroad
     advertises reduced rates to yellowstone park and the northwest.

     4. There are 30 men in each section in chemistry, but only 25
     in each section in french.

     5. Early in pres. wilson's administration troops crossed the
     rio grande river. Pres. Carranza protested.

     6. In nineteen ten the population of new york city (including
     suburbs) was 4,766,883.

     7. Send the moving van to thirty walnut street at eight
     o'clock.

     8. I like Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice better than George
     Eliot's Adam Bede.

     9. May I call for you about 7:30 p. m., Miss Reynolds?

     10. The note draws 6 per cent interest, and is payable Jan.
     1st, 1921.

     11. He will remain in town until Apr. 20th, and will then go
     away for the Summer. He is going abroad to study the spanish
     and italian languages.

     12. Grays elegy in a country churchyard is perhaps the best
     known poem in english literature.

     13. Enclosed please find $4, for which send me the New Republic
     for one year.

     14. In reply to yours of 3-7-18 wish to advise that we are out
     of stock.

     15. I enclose $0.10 for a copy of bulletin #314 of the dept. of
     Agriculture. Thanking you, I remain ... yours Respectively....



PUNCTUATION


Punctuation is not used for its own sake. It is used in writing as
gestures, pauses, and changes of voice are used in speaking--to add
force or to reveal the precise relationship of thoughts. The tendency at
present is against the lavish use of punctuation. This does not mean,
however, that one may do as he pleases. In minor details of punctuation
there is room for individual preference, but in essential principles all
trustworthy writers agree.


=The Period=

=90a. Place a period after a complete declarative or imperative sentence.=

=b. Do not separate part of a sentence from the rest of the sentence by
means of a period. (See 1.)=

     Wrong: He denied the accusation. As every one expected him to
     do.

     Right: He denied the accusation, as every one expected him to
     do.

     Wrong: Anderson wrote good editorials. The best that appeared
     in any paper in the city.

     Right: Anderson wrote good editorials, the best that appeared
     in any paper in the city. [Or] Anderson wrote good
     editorials--the best that appeared in any paper in the city.

Exception.--Condensed or elliptical phrases established by long and
frequent use may be written as separate sentences. They should be
followed by appropriate punctuation--usually by a period.

     Examples: Yes. Of course. Really? By all means!

Note.--The student should distinguish clearly between a subordinate
clause and a main clause. A subordinate clause is introduced by a
subordinate conjunction (_when_, _while_, _if_, _as_, _since_,
_although_, _that_, _lest_, _because_, _in order that_, etc.), or by a
relative pronoun (_who_, _which_, _that_, etc.). Since a subordinate
clause does not express a complete thought, it cannot stand alone, but
must be joined to a main clause to form a sentence.

=c. Place a period after an abbreviation.=

     Bros.   Mr.   e. g.   Ph.D.   LL.D.   etc.

If an abbreviation falls at the end of a sentence, one period may serve
two functions.

     Exercise:

     1. The hen clucks to her chickens. When she scratches up a
     worm.

     2. Before my brother could forewarn me. I had touched my tongue
     against the cold iron. On which it stuck.

     3. The commission had the services of two men of international
     reputation. Charles Newman, Esq. and Gifford Bailey,
     Ph D.

     4. Since Hugh had fished only in creeks. He was surprised that
     the lines were let down a hundred feet or more. The right
     distance for codfish.

     5. Between 1775 and 1825 Virginia furnished the nation its
     leaders. Such as the author of the Declaration of Independence.
     The orator of the Revolution. The leader of the Revolutionary
     army. The chief maker of the Constitution. Four of our first
     five Presidents. And our greatest Chief Justice of the Supreme
     Court.


=The Comma=

There are five principal uses of the comma:

     to separate clauses (a-d)
     to set off a parenthetical element (e)
     to mark a series (f-g)
     to introduce a quotation (h)
     to compel a pause for the sake of clearness (i)

=91a. A comma is used between clauses joined by _but_, _for_, _and_, or
any other coördinating conjunction.=

     Right: The hour arrived, but Forbes did not appear. [The comma
     emphasizes the contrast.]

     Right: She was glad she had looked, for a man was approaching
     the house. [The comma prevents the combination _looked for a
     man_.]

     Right: He gave the money to Burke, and Reynolds received
     nothing. [The comma prevents confusion.]

Exception.--If the clauses are short and closely linked in thought, the
comma may be omitted (She came and she was gone in a moment. McCoy
talked and the rest of us listened.) If the clauses are long and
complicated, a semicolon may be used (See 92b).

Note.--No comma should follow the conjunction. Wrong: He was
enthusiastic but, inexperienced. Wrong: They went before the committee
but, not one of them would answer a question.

=b. Do _not_ use a comma between independent clauses which are _not_
joined by a conjunction. Use a period or a semicolon.= (This error, the
"comma splice," betrays ignorance of what constitutes a unified
sentence. See 18.)

     Wrong: The circus had just come to town, every one wanted to
     see it.

     Right: The circus had just come to town. Every one wanted to
     see it.

     Wrong: The story deals with the life of a youth, Don Juan, his
     mother desired to make an angel of him.

     Right: The story deals with the life of a youth, Don Juan. His
     mother desired to make an angel of him.

     Wrong: My courses required very hard study, did yours?

     Right: My courses required very hard study. Did yours? [Or] My
     courses required very hard study; did yours?

     Wrong: He will assist you without the slightest hesitation,
     indeed he will do so with alacrity.

     Right: He will assist you without the slightest hesitation.
     Indeed he will do so with alacrity. [Or] He will assist you
     without the slightest hesitation; indeed he will do so with
     alacrity.

Exception.--Short coördinate clauses which are not joined by
conjunctions, but which are parallel in structure and leave a unified
impression, may be joined by commas.

     Right: He sowed, he reaped, he repented.

=c. An adverbial clause which precedes a main clause is usually set off
by a comma.=

When long:

     Right: While I have much confidence in his sincerity, I cannot
     approve his decision. [The comma marks the meeting point of
     clauses too long to be easily read together. Brief clauses do
     not require the comma. Right: Where thou goest I will go.]

When ending in words that link themselves with words in the main
clause:

     Right: If Jacob finds time to plow, the garden can be planted
     tomorrow. [The comma prevents _plow the garden_ from being read
     as verb and object.]

When not closely connected with the main clause in meaning:

     Right: Although they were few, they were resolute. [Here the
     comma reveals the distinctness of the two stages of thought. In
     the sentence _If it freezes the skating will be good_ the
     distinctness of the two thoughts is less emphatic, and the
     comma may be omitted.]

Note.--The comma is usually omitted when the adverbial clause follows
the main clause.

     Right: The score stood twelve to twelve when the first half
     ended. [The adverbial clause is linked closely with the element
     it modifies, the predicate; punctuation is unnecessary. If the
     _when_ clause were placed before the element it does not
     modify, the subject, a comma should be inserted.]

=d. Restrictive clauses should not be set off by commas; non-restrictive
clauses should be set off by commas.= (A restrictive clause is one
inseparably connected with the noun or pronoun it modifies; to omit it
would change the thought of the main clause. A non-restrictive clause is
less vitally connected with the noun or pronoun; to omit it would not
affect the thought of the main clause.)

     Right: Men who are industrious will succeed. [The relative
     clause restricts the meaning; it is inseparably connected with
     the noun it modifies, and to omit it would change the thought
     of the main clause.]

     Right: Thomas Carlyle, who wrote forty volumes, was of peasant
     origin. [The relative clause is non-restrictive; it is not
     inseparably connected with the noun it modifies, and to omit
     it would not change the thought of the main clause. Thus:
     Thomas Carlyle was of peasant origin.]

     Right: Where is the house that Jack built? [Restrictive.]

     Right: I went to Jack's house, which is across the street.
     [Non-restrictive.]

     Wrong: Students, who are lazy, do not deserve to pass. [The
     sentence as it stands says that all students are lazy, and that
     none of them deserve to pass. Without the commas, the sentence
     would mean that such students as are lazy do not deserve to
     pass.]

     Right: Students who are lazy do not deserve to pass.

=The rule stated above for clauses applies also to phrases.=

     Right. She, hearing the voice, turned quickly. [_Hearing the
     voice_ is non-restrictive. It does not identify _she_, and the
     thought of the main clause is complete without it.]

     Right: Books pertaining to aeronautics are in demand.
     [_Pertaining to aeronautics_ is restrictive. It explains what
     books are referred to, and without it the meaning of the main
     thought is changed.]

     Right: Our country, made up as it is of democratic people,
     lacks the centralized power of a monarchy. [Non-restrictive.]

     Right: A country made up of democratic people must be lacking
     in centralized power. [Restrictive. _Made up of democratic
     people_ explains _country_ and is essential to the thought of
     the sentence.]

=e. Slightly parenthetical elements are set off by commas:=

Direct address or explanation:

     Write soon, Henry, and tell all the news.

     They intend, as you know, to build a great dam across the
     river.

     His father, they say, was frugal and industrious.

     I, on my part, however, am unalterably opposed to the
     expenditure.

     He was, according to such reports as have reached me,
     altogether in the right.

Mild interjections:

     Well, we shall see.

     Come now, let's talk it over.

     But alas, the cupboard was bare.

     The custom is, oh, very old.

Absolute phrases:

     This being admitted, I shall proceed to my other evidence.

Geographical names which explain other names and dates which explain
other dates:

     The convention met at Madison, Wisconsin, on March 24, 1916.

Words in apposition:

     We arrived at Austin, the capital of Texas.

     It was Archie, my best friend in boyhood.

     Exception.--The comma is omitted (1) When the appositive is
     part of a proper name. Right: William the Silent, Alexander the
     Great. (2) When there is unusually close connection between the
     appositive and the noun it modifies. Right: My one confidant
     was my brother Robert. (3) When the appositive is a word or
     phrase to which attention is called by italics or some other
     device which sets it apart. Right: The word _sequent_ is
     derived from Latin. Right: The expression "That's fine" is one
     which I use indiscriminately.

Note.--When the parenthetical element occurs in the middle of a
sentence, "set off by commas" means _punctuate before and after_.

     Wrong: I was, madam at home yesterday.

     Right: I was, madam, at home yesterday.

     Wrong: I am to say the least, provoked.

     Right: I am, to say the least, provoked.

=f. Consecutive adjectives that modify the same noun are separated from
each other by commas. If, however, the last adjective is closely linked
in meaning with the noun, no comma is used before it.=

     Right: A short, slight, pitiable figure.

     Right: A shrewd professional man. [_Shrewd_ modifies, not _man_
     alone, but _professional man_.]

     Right: A bedraggled old rooster. [_Old rooster_ has almost the
     force of a compound word. _Bedraggled_ modifies the general
     idea _old rooster_.]

Note.--The commas in a series of adjectives are used to separate the
adjectives from each other. No comma should intervene between the final
adjective and the noun. Wrong: He was only a frail, unarmed, frightened,
youngster. Right: He was only a frail, unarmed, frightened youngster.

=g. Words or phrases in series are separated by commas.=

When the series takes the form _a, b, and c_, a comma precedes the
_and_.

     Confusing: The railroads in question are the New York Central,
     Pennsylvania and Chesapeake and Ohio. [The reader might surmise
     that the words _Pennsylvania and Chesapeake and Ohio_ represent
     a single line or even three different lines.]

     Right: The railroads in question are the New York Central,
     Pennsylvania, and Chesapeake and Ohio.

     Confusing: For breakfast we had oatmeal, bacon, eggs and honey.
     [Omission of the comma after _eggs_ suggests a mixture.]

     Right: For breakfast we had oatmeal, bacon, eggs, and honey.

=h. A comma should follow an expression like _he said_ which introduces a
short quotation.= (For longer or more formal quotations use a colon.)

     Right: He shouted, "Come on! I dare you!"

     Right: Our captain replied, "We're ready."

But for indirect quotations, a caution is necessary. Do not place a
comma between a verb and a _that_ or _how_ clause which the verb
introduces.

     Wrong: He explained, how the accident occurred.

     Right: He explained how the accident occurred.

     Wrong: The chauffeur told us, that the gasoline tank was empty.

     Right: The chauffeur told us that the gasoline tank was empty.

=i. A comma is used to separate parts of a sentence which might
erroneously be read together.=

     Confusing: Long before she had received a letter.

     Better: Long before, she had received a letter.

     Confusing: We turned the corner and the horse stopped throwing
     us off.

     Better: We turned the corner and the horse stopped, throwing us
     off.

     Confusing: Through the alumni gathered there went a thrill of
     dismay.

     Better: Through the alumni gathered there, went a thrill of
     dismay.

     Wrong: For a dime you can buy two pieces of pie or cake and ice
     cream.

     Right: For a dime you can buy two pieces of pie, or cake and
     ice cream.

     Right: The man whom everybody had for years regarded as a crank
     and a weakling, is now praised for his sagacity and his
     strength.

     Right: In a situation so critical as to require the utmost
     coolness of mind, he lost his wits completely. [Here the
     confusion might not be serious if the comma were omitted, but
     separation of the long introduction from the main clause is
     desirable.]

=j. Do not use superfluous commas:=

=1.= To mark a trivial pause:

     Needless use of comma: In the road, stood a wagon.

     Needless use of commas: The taking of notes, is a guarantee,
     against inattention, in class.

Slight pauses in a sentence are taken care of by the good sense of the
reader. Do not sprinkle commas when the sentence is moving along freely
with no complication in the thought.

     Right: In the road stood a wagon.

     Right: The taking of notes is a guarantee against inattention
     in class.

=2.= To separate an adjective from its noun:

     Wrong: A tall, solemn, antique, clock stood in the hallway.
     [The first two commas separate the adjectives from each other.
     There is no reason why _antique_ should be separated from the
     noun.]

     Right: A tall, solemn, antique clock stood in the hallway.

=3.= Before the first word or phrase in a series unless the comma would be
employed if the word or phrase stood alone:

     Wrong: He made a study of, gymnastics, medicine, and surgery.

     Right: He made a study of gymnastics, medicine, and surgery.

     Wrong: He had learned, to be prompt, to think clearly, and to
     write correctly.

     Right: He had learned to be prompt, to think clearly, and to
     write correctly.

     Exercise:

     1. Before the workmen finished eating the tunnel caved in.
     Three Italian laborers were crushed, the others with the
     foreman escaped.

     2. Sneed the new chairman proposed that the convention should
     meet at Cheyenne Wyoming. The suggestion however was according
     to reports not adopted.

     3. He had a pen and an ink bottle was in the cupboard. By
     washing poor widows can earn but scant living.

     4. Saunders asked, how I liked the Overland car as compared
     with the Chalmers, the Hudson and the Buick. I started to reply
     but at that moment we were interrupted.

     5. People, who steal watermelons, say the stolen melons are
     sweetest. Farragut who was born in Tennessee was the North's
     ablest naval commander. The developer is a chemical, which
     reduces the silver salt.


=The Semicolon=

The semicolon represents a division in thought somewhat greater than
that represented by a comma, and somewhat smaller than that represented
by a period. It may represent grammatical separation and logical
connection at the same time; that is, it may indicate that two
statements are separate units in grammar, and are yet to be taken
together to form a larger unit of logic or thought.

=92a. The semicolon is used between coördinate clauses which are not
joined by a conjunction.= (For a possible exception see 91b.).

     Wrong: He was alarmed in fact he was terrified.

     Right: He was alarmed; in fact he was terrified.

     Right: He drew up at the curb; he leaped from the car.

Note.--Very often the writer may choose freely between the semicolon and
the period; in such instances the use of the semicolon implies greater
logical unity between the clauses than the use of the period would show.
Unless this logical unity is distinct, the period is to be preferred.

=b. The semicolon is sometimes used between coördinate clauses which are
joined by a conjunction if the clauses are long, or if the clauses have
commas within themselves, or if obscurity would result were the
semicolon not used.= (Otherwise, see 91a.)

     Right: Very slowly the glow in the heavens deepened and
     extended itself along the eastern horizon; but at last the
     bright-red rim of the sun showed above the crest of the hill.

     Right: He arrived, so they tell me, after nightfall; and
     immediately going to a hotel, called for a room.

     Confusing: She enjoyed the dinners, and the dancing, and the
     music, and the whole gay round of fashionable life was a
     delight to her.

     Better. She enjoyed the dinners, and the dancing, and the
     music; and the whole gay round of fashionable life was a
     delight to her.

=c. The semicolon is used between coördinate clauses which are joined by
a formal conjunctive adverb (_hence_, _thus_, _then_, _therefore_,
_accordingly_, _consequently_, _besides_, _still_, _nevertheless_, or
the like).=

     Wrong: We have failed in this therefore let us try something
     else.

     Right: We have failed in this; therefore let us try something
     else.

     Wrong: He was tattered and muddy, besides he ate like a
     cormorant.

     Right: He was tattered and muddy; besides he ate like a
     cormorant.

Note 1.--If a simple conjunction like _and_ is used in the sentences
above, a comma will suffice. But a comma is not sufficient before a
conjunctive adverb like _therefore_. Conjunctive adverbs may be clearly
distinguished from simple conjunctions (See 91a). They cannot always be
easily distinguished from subordinating conjunctions (see 90b, Note),
but the distinction, when it can be made with certainty, is an aid to
clear thinking.

Note 2.--Good usage sometimes permits a comma to be used before a
conjunctive adverb in short sentences where the break in the thought is
not formal or emphatic. For instance, when the conjunctive adverb _so_
is used as a formal or emphatic connective, a semicolon is desirable (I
won't go; so that's settled). But in the sentence, "I was excited, so I
missed the target", a comma is sufficient. For the use of _so_ is here
informal, and probably expresses degree as well as result. (Compare "I
was so excited that I missed the target").

=d. The semicolon is not used before quotations, or after the "Dear Sir"
in letters. Use a comma or a colon.= (See 91h, 93a, and 87b.)

     Wrong: Mother said; "Let me get my needle."

     Right: Mother said, "Let me get my needle."

     Exercise:

     1. The eggs tasted musty, they were cold storage eggs.

     2. You should have seen that old, formally kept house, you
     should have sat in that stuffy and immaculate parlor.

     3. I objected to the plan however since he insisted upon it I
     yielded.

     4. I suppose I must go if I don't he will be anxious.

     5. Although the note is due on March 19, you have three days of
     grace, consequently you may pay it on March 22.


=The Colon=

=93a. The colon is used to introduce formally a word, a list, a statement
or question, a series of statements or questions, or a long quotation.=

     Right: Only one man stood between Burr and the presidency:
     Jefferson.

     Right: My favorite novels are the following: _Ivanhoe_, _Henry
     Esmond_, and _The Mill on the Floss_.

     Right: The difficulty is this: Where is the money to come from?

     Right: The measure must be considered from several standpoints:
     Is it timely? Is it expedient? Is it just? Is it superior to
     the other measures proposed?

     Right: I shall do three things next year: study hard, take care
     of my health, and enter into various student activities.

     Right: Webster concluded with the following peroration: "When
     my eyes shall be turned for the last time to behold the sun in
     heaven," etc., etc.

=b. The colon may be used before concrete illustrations of a general
statement.=

     Right: The colors were various: blue, purple, emerald, and
     orange.

     Right: The day was propitious: the sun shone, the birds sang,
     the flowers sent forth their fragrance.

     Exercise:

     1. The city must have these improvements paved streets more
     schools better sanitation and a park.

     2. A guild comprised men of a single class tailors,
     fishmongers, or goldsmiths.

     3. Everything was favorable, it was a wheat-raising district,
     there were no rival mills, the means of transportation were
     excellent.

     4. The personal adornments of the eighteenth century "blood"
     were elaborate, wigs, cocked hat, colored breeches, red-heeled
     shoes, cane, and muff.

     5. The chief of the engineers reported "The route, taken as a
     whole, is practicable enough, but near Clifton, where the yards
     must be placed, it leads through a rocky defile."


=The Dash=

=94a. The dash may be used instead of the marks of parenthesis,
especially where informality is desired.=

     Right: She fell asleep--would you believe it?--in the middle of
     the lecture.

     Right: That fellow actually--of course this is between you and
     me--stole money from his father.

=b. Insert a dash when a sentence is broken off abruptly.=

     Right: The next morning--let's see, what happened the next
     morning?

=c. The dash may be used near the end of a sentence, before a summarizing
statement or an afterthought.=

     Right: When you have carried in the wood and the water, and
     milked the cows, and fed all the stock and the poultry, and
     mended the harness--when you have done these things, you may
     consider the rest of the evening your own.

     Right: Barnes played a mischievous trick one day--in fact,
     Barnes was always into mischief.

=d. The use of the dash to end sentences is childish.=

     Childish: At dawn I went on deck--far off to the left was a
     cloud, I thought, on the edge of the water--it grew more
     distinct as we angled toward it--it was land--before noon we
     had sailed into harbor.

     Right: At dawn I went on deck. Far off to the left was a cloud,
     I thought, on the edge of the water. It grew more distinct as
     we angled toward it. It was land. Before noon we had sailed
     into harbor.

=e. A dash should be made about three times as long as a hyphen;
otherwise it may be mistaken as the sign of a compound word.=

     Exercise:

     1. The boy left the package on the where did that boy leave the
     package?

     2. She was haughty independent as a queen in fact and she told
     him no.

     3. The clatter of the other typewriters, the relentless
     movement of the hands of the clock, the calls from the press
     room for more copy, these made Sears write like mad.

     4. He made her acquaintance what do you think of this by
     scribbling his name and address on some eggs he sold to a
     grocer.

     5. He obtained a position in a big department store--his good
     taste was quickly recognized--within a month he was dressing
     the windows.


=Parenthesis Marks and Brackets=

=95a.= Parenthesis marks may be used to enclose matter foreign to the main
thought of the sentence. (But see also 94a and 91e.)

     Right: His testimony is conclusive (unless, to be sure, we find
     that he has perjured himself).

=b. A comma or a semicolon used at the end of a parenthesis should as a
rule follow the mark of parenthesis rather than precede it.=

     Right: If there is snow on the ground (and I am sure there will
     be), we shall have plenty of sleighing.

=c. When confirmatory symbols or figures are enclosed within parenthesis
marks, they should follow rather than precede the words they confirm.=

     Wrong: They earn (3) dollars a day.

     Right: They earn three (3) dollars a day. [Or] They earn three
     dollars ($3) a day.

=d. Do not use parenthesis marks to cancel a word or passage.= Draw a
horizontal line through whatever is to be omitted.

=e. Brackets are used to insert explanatory matter in a quotation which
one gives from another writer.= Explanatory matter inserted by the
original writer is enclosed within parenthesis marks.

     Right: "Bunyan's masterpiece (_The Pilgrim's Progress_),"
     declared the lecturer, "is out of harmony with the spirit of the
     age that produced it [the age of the Restoration]." (Here the
     explanatory words _the age of the Restoration_ are inserted
     by the person who is quoting the lecturer.)

     Exercise:

     1. The supremacy of the horse-drawn vehicle is unless a miracle
     happens now gone forever.

     2. My count shows (41) forty-one bales of cotton in the mill
     yard.

     3. [Insert _the Marne_ as your explanation]: "It was this
     battle," said the lecturer, "that made the name of Joffre
     immortal."

     4. [Insert _Florida_ as the explanation of the person you are
     quoting]: "In that state oranges are plentiful."

     5. It was the opinion of Bailey and events proved him right
     that the government must assume control of the railroads.


=Quotation Marks=

=96a. Quotation marks should be used to enclose a direct, but not an
indirect, quotation.=

     Right: "I am thirsty," he said.

     Wrong: He said "that he was thirsty."

     Right: He said that he was thirsty.

=b. A quotation of several paragraphs should have quotation marks at the
beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the last paragraph.=

=c. In narrative each separate speech, however short, should be enclosed
within quotation marks=; but a single speech of several sentences should
have only one set of quotation marks.

     Wrong: "Will you come? she pleaded.

     Certainly."

     Right: "Will you come," she pleaded.

     "Certainly."

     Wrong: He replied, "It was not for my own sake that I did
     this." "There were others whom I had to consider." "I can
     mention no names."

     Right: He replied, "It was not for my own sake that I did this.
     There were others whom I had to consider. I can mention no
     names."

=d. Quotation marks may be used with technical terms, with slang
introduced into formal writing, or with nicknames=; but not with merely
elevated diction, with good English that resembles slang, with nicknames
that have practically become proper names, or with fictitious names from
literature.

     Permissible: The rime is called a "feminine rime". He is really
     "a corker". Their name for my friend was "Sissy".

     Better without the quotation marks: He was awed by "the
     grandeur of the mountains". "A humbug". "Fetch". "Stonewall"
     Jackson. He was a true "Rip Van Winkle".

=e. Either quotation marks or italics may be used with words to which
special attention is called.= (See the examples under 91e, Exception, 3.)
Quotation marks are used with the titles of articles, of chapters in
books, of individual short poems, and the like. Italics are used with
the titles of books or of periodicals, with the names of ships, and with
foreign words which are still felt to be emphatically foreign.

=f. A quotation within a quotation should be enclosed in single quotation
marks; a quotation within that, in double marks.=

     Right: "It required courage," the speaker said, "for a man to
     affirm in those days: 'I endorse every word of Patrick Henry's
     sentiment, "Give me liberty, or give me death!"'"

=g. When a word is followed by both a quotation mark and a question mark
or an exclamation point, the question mark or the exclamation point
should come first if it applies to the quotation; last, if it applies to
the main sentence.=

     Wrong: He shouted but one command, "Give them the bayonet"!

     Right: He shouted but one command, "Give them the bayonet!"

     Wrong: Did Savonarola say, "I recant?"

     Right: Did Savonarola say, "I recant"?

Note.--Regarding the position of a comma, semicolon, or period at the
end of a quotation, usage differs. Printers ordinarily place commas and
periods inside the quotation marks, and semicolons outside, from
considerations of spacing. But logic, not spacing, should determine the
order, and all three marks should be treated alike. They should be
placed within the quotation marks if they were a part of the original
quotation; otherwise outside. In quoting manuscript, the quotation marks
should enclose exactly what is in the original. In quoting oral
discourse, a certain liberty is necessarily allowed.

     Correct: He said calmly, "It is I."

     Also correct, but not commonly used: He said calmly, "It is I".

     Correct, and in common use, but slightly illogical: He began,
     "Our Father which art in heaven." [The period should follow the
     quotation mark, since there is no period in the original
     quotation.]

     Correct, and in common use, but slightly illogical: Can you
     tell me the difference between "apt," "likely," and "liable";
     between "noted" and "notorious"?

     Also correct: Can you tell me the difference between "apt",
     "likely", and "liable"; between "noted" and "notorious"?

=h. When a quotation is interrupted by such an expression as _he said,_=

=1. An extra set of quotation marks is employed, and the interpolated
words are normally set off by commas.=

     Wrong: "I rise said he to second the motion."

     Right: "I rise," said he, "to second the motion."

=2. A question mark or exclamation point should precede the interpolated
expression if it would be used were the expression omitted.=

     Right: "'May I go?'" complained father, "is all that boy can
     ask."

     Right: "Merciful heavens!" he cried, "we are lost."

=3. The expression should be followed by a semicolon if the semicolon
would follow the preceding words in case the expression were omitted.=

     Right: "I admit it", he said; "it is true."

=4. Neither the expression nor the words following it should begin with a
capital.=

     Wrong: "We must be quiet", Said the old man, "If we expect to
     catch sight of a squirrel."

     Right: "We must be quiet", said the old man, "if we expect to
     catch sight of a squirrel."

=i. An omission from a quotation is indicated by dots.=

     Right: "When a word is followed by both a quotation mark and
     ... an exclamation point, ... the exclamation point should come
     ... last, if it applies to the main sentence." [Abridged
     citation of g above.]

=j. Do not use superfluous quotation marks:=

1. Around the title at the head of a theme (unless it is a quoted
title);

2. As a label for humor or irony.

     Superfluous: The "abstemious" Mr. Crew ate an enormous dinner.

     Better: The abstemious Mr. Crew ate an enormous dinner.

     Exercise:

     1. Carew says, "that the profit comes from selling
     knickknacks."

     2. What's the matter with that horse? asked Williams. He's as
     frisky as if he had been shut up a week.

     3. "Who's your favorite character in the play?, persisted
     Laura. Is it "Brutus"? No, answered Howard; I admire his wife
     "Portia".

     4. "It's amazing, said Mrs. Phelps, how children love
     playthings. Helen Locke said yesterday, Hughie always tells me
     when I am putting him to bed, I want my Teddy bear".

     5. "You see, said Daugherty, the two offices across the
     corridor from each ether." "One is the county clerk's." "The
     other is the county collector's."


=The Apostrophe=

=97a. In contracted words place the apostrophe where letters are omitted,
and do not place it elsewhere.=

     Wrong: does'nt, theyr'e, oclock.

     Right: doesn't, they're, o'clock.

=b. To form the possessive of a noun, singular or plural, that does not
end in _s_, add '_s_.=

     Right: A hunter's gun, children's games, the cannon's mouth.

=c. To form the possessive of a noun, singular or plural, that ends in
_s_, place an apostrophe after (not before) the _s_ if there is no new
syllable in pronunciation. If there is a new syllable in pronunciation,
add _'s_.=

     Wrong: Moses's mandates, Keat's poems, Dicken's novels, those
     hunter's guns.

     Right: Moses' mandates, Keats's poems (or Keats' poems),
     Dickens' (or Dickens's) novels, those hunters' guns.

=d. Do not use an apostrophe with the possessive adjectives _its_, _his_,
_hers_, _ours_, _yours_, and _theirs_. But _one's_, _other's_,
_either's_ take the apostrophe.=

=e. Add _'s_ to form the plural of letters of the alphabet, of words
spoken of as words, and sometimes numbers.= But do not form the regular
plural of a word by adding _'s_ (See 77).

     Right: His _B's_, _8's_ (or _8s_), and _it's_ look much alike.

     Wrong: The Jones's, the Smith's, and the Brown's.

     Right: The Joneses, the Smiths, and the Browns.

     Exercise:

     1. We don't know theyr'e dishonest.

     2. The soldier's heads showed above the trenches.

     3. Five 8es, three 7es, and two 12es make 85.

     4. Pierce told the Keslers that Jones hogs were fatter than
     their's.

     5. Its three oclock by his watch; five minutes past three by
     her's.


=The Question Mark and the Exclamation Point=

=98a. Place a question mark after a direct question, but not after an
indirect question.=

     Wrong: What of it. What does it matter.

     Right: What of it? What does it matter?

     Wrong: He asked whether I belonged to the glee club?

     Right: He asked whether I belonged to the glee club.

Note.--When the main sentence which introduces an indirect question is
itself interrogatory, a question mark follows.

     Right: Did she inquire whether you had met her aunt?

=b. A question mark is often used within a sentence, but should not be
followed by a comma, semicolon, or period.=

     Wrong: "What shall I do?," he asked.

     Right: "What shall I do?" he asked.

     Wrong: But where are the stocks?, the bonds?, the evidences of
     prosperity?

     Right: But where are the stocks? the bonds? the evidences of
     prosperity?

=c. A question mark within parentheses may be used to express uncertainty
as to the correctness of an assertion.=

     Right: Shakespeare was born April 23 (?), 1564.

     Right: In 1340 (?) was born Geoffrey Chaucer.

=d. The use of a question mark as a label for humor or irony is childish.=

     Superfluous: Immediately the social lion (?) rose to his feet.

     Better: Immediately the social lion rose to his feet.

=e. The exclamation point is used after words, expressions, or sentences
to show strong emotion.=

     Right: Hark! I hear horses. Give us a light there, ho!

Note.--The lavish use of the exclamation point is not in good taste.
Unless the emotion to be conveyed is strong, a comma will suffice. See
91e.

     Exercise:

     1. What is my temperature, doctor.

     2. "Shall we go by the old mill?", asked Newcomb?

     3. Did Wu Ting Fang say, "The Chinese Republic will survive."

     4. He inquired whether Lorado Taft is the greatest living
     American sculptor.

     5. Farewell. Othello's occupation's gone.


=99.= EXERCISE IN PUNCTUATION

=A.=

Punctuate the following sentences:

     1. Why its ten oclock

     2. It was a rainy foggy morning

     3. Arthurs cousin said Lets go

     4. I begged her to stay but she refused

     5. His parents you know were wealthy

     6. Near by the children were playing house

     7. Ever since John has driven carefully

     8. I smell something burning Etta

     9. Well Harry are you ready for a tramp

     10. I well remember a trip which I once took

     11. When the day has ended the twilight comes

     12. She was a poor lonely defenseless old woman

     13. Trout bass and pickerel are often caught there

     14. Lees army was defeated at Gettysburg Pennsylvania on July 3
     1863

     15. Students who are poor appreciate the value of an education

     16. Clem Rogers who is poor as Jobs turkey has bought a
     phonograph

     17. He had no resentment against the man who had injured him

     18. He spoke to his father who sat on the veranda

     19. The rifle which he used on this trip was the best he had

     20. His long beard sticking out at an angle from his chin and
     his tall silk hat looked ridiculous

=B.=

Punctuate the following sentences:

     1. I found the work difficult did you find it so

     2. If they had agreed to buy things would have been different
     but they didn't

     3. I could satisfy myself if need be with dreams and imaginary
     delights she must have realities

     4. Well Im not disappointed its just what I expected

     5. Hard roads are not only an advantage they are almost
     indispensable

     6. The man who hesitates is lost the woman who hesitates is won

     7. The nihilists accept no principle or creed they reject
     government and religion and all institutions which cramp the
     individuals desires

     8. No longer are women considered weaklings although not so
     strong as man physically they are now assumed to have will and
     courage of their own

     9. The Pilgrims wished to thank God so they prepared a feast

     10. Our country roads are full of chuck holes consequently one
     must drive with caution

     11. The first player advances ten paces the second eight the
     third six and so on

     12. I told her it was her own fault she was too reticent and
     held herself aloof

     13. He had complained of weariness therefore we left him in
     camp

     14. The Panama Canal consists of four sections the Atlantic
     Level the Lake the Cut and the Pacific Level

     15. There are three reasons why I do not like Ford cars first
     they rattle second they bump and third they never wear out

     16. Protoplasm has been found to contain four elements carbon
     hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen but by no artificial combination
     can these be made into the living substance

     17. Phlox mignonette sweet peas cannas all these yield flowers
     until late in the fall.

     18. He asked for hot water the mollycoddle as if this were a
     hotel

     19. Is this seat occupied sir asked Brown who stood in the
     aisle

     20. There are two types of democracy 1 a pure democracy and 2 a
     representative democracy


=C.=

Punctuate the following sentences:

     1. And Harvey waiting all this time mind you sprang for the
     door

     2. I want to go to Memphis Tennessee to the old house if it is
     still standing where I was born

     3. My bill amounted to exactly counting the car fare nine
     dollars and ninety five cents

     4. I do not believe it he cried then turning to the others in
     the group he asked nervously do you

     5. Which is better to borrow money for ones school expenses or
     to work ones way

     6. He swore swore like a pirate and lashed the horses

     7. Dickens novel Martin Chuzzlewit is satirical

     8. But what of the Dakotas of Minnesota of Wisconsin are they
     to give us no political support

     9. The grain is then run into a bin called the weighing bin
     from this it is let down on to the scales

     10. Lincoln showed very plainly what the phrase All men are
     created equal means and what its application was to the
     anti-slavery movement.

     11. His name was lets see what was the fellows name.

     12. He looks sharply for little points passed over by the
     average person are important to him

     13. How uncomfortable I feel in a room whose windows are not
     covered by curtains I cannot describe

     14. Some time ago he moved away I was sorry because he was a
     fine young man

     15. I went to the lawyers office to hear the reading of my
     uncles will

     16. Well well I havent seen you for years But youre the same
     stub nosed freckle faced good natured Tom

     17. I did not stop long to consider the football togs were
     nearest at hand so in they went cleated shoes trousers sweater
     pads headgear and the rest

     18. Today I shall outline explain and argue the subject which
     has already been announced to you namely The Distribution of
     Taxes in Illinois

     19. His piping voice his long crooked nose his white hair
     falling over the shoulders of his faded blue coat his shuffling
     shambling gait as he hobbled up to Carletons Grocery with his
     basket all this I shall remember as long as I live

     20. We hold these truths to be self evident that all men are
     created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with
     certain inalienable rights that among these rights are life
     liberty and the pursuit of happiness


100. GENERAL EXERCISE

Improve the following sentences, making as many changes as are necessary
to express the thought clearly and accurately.

=A.=

     1. It don't sound right.

     2. Us fellows hadn't ought to complain.

     3. The decision effects my brother and I alike.

     4. Following his breakfast he went up to the office.

     5. One finds that beginning on a pipe organ is much more
     complicated than the piano.

     6. She married before she was eighteen, she had never taken
     much interest in school work

     7. New Year's Eve, a young lady who I was calling upon, and
     myself decided to fool the old folks.

     8. Williams drove across town at full speed, this was against
     the ordinances.

     9. Mr. Black, who had been laying on the sofa, rose and set
     down by myself.

     10. The agricultural course is a study which every person
     should have a great deal of knowledge along that line.

     11. Swinging around the curve, the open switch was seen in
     time, and directly the train stopped we rushed off of the cars.

     12. I can say a little in regard to my expectations in
     connection with the next four years of my life, however.
     Expectations of work, pleasure, and perhaps a little sorrow.

     13. An interesting experience of mine was a collection of
     insects made when I studied biology.

     14. A man can talk to an animal, and he learns to obey him by
     repeating certain commands.

     15. The life of a princess as well as a hermit are made happy
     by a little child, as illustrated in the stories of Pharaoh's
     daughter and Silas Marner.


=B.=

     1. Every one in the office were busy invoicing.

     2. Their unconscious pranks and laughter is very amusing.

     3. The tiger is a beautiful animal, it is also very ferocious.

     4. Either he or she are good companions for you.

     5. Again, take a student who has been forced to make his own
     way, the question may be harder to decide.

     6. As for the proposition which is before you, if it was me, I
     would not even consider it.

     7. The fly is the insect that causes more fatal deaths in a
     year than any other insect.

     8. The success of a sponge cake depends upon two things. The
     beating of the eggs and the mixing of the flour in lightly.

     9. James, a youth of such energy, and who is attractive in many
     ways, failed in his exams.

     10. Fish are only found in the deep holes, and they are hard to
     get at.

     11. Besides cigarettes, there are other forms of using tobacco,
     such as cigars, and in pipes, and chewing tobacco, making the
     total consumption very great.

     12. I am endeavoring to secure for this position a man not only
     with ability as a manager, but one who is capable of
     understanding and sympathizing with rural community conditions.

     13. Any one having any question to ask or who has trouble with
     their camera, may write to this department.

     14. When I hear oatmeal it nauseates me. I can see a mental
     picture of the breakfast table where I sat nearly all last
     summer.

     15. In ones second year in high school the books to be read are
     Burns poems, Miltons paradise Lost; Bunyans Pilgrims Progress,
     and several of Shakespeares plays.

=C.=

     1. He promised to on no consideration delay.

     2. I heard a voice at the door which was familiar.

     3. The most important part of a book is often to read the
     preface.

     4. Observing carefully, a number of errors are seen to exist.

     5. Unless one is very wealthy they cannot afford to own a car.

     6. These kind of fellows usually make good athletes.

     7. It was the custom of we campers to ride into town and back
     on freight cars, when in need of supplies.

     8. As I was sitting near a radiator so I moved as I decided it
     was too warm there.

     9. To thine own self be true is the advice Polonius gave to his
     son.

     10. In order that Otto should not regain his political power
     back again, Sarphina put him in jail.

     11. For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction is
     the idea which Emerson's essay on compensation begins.

     12. To consult a Bible encyclopedia and read it concerning
     Easter, one learns quite a little about that religious holiday.

     13. Never try to shoot a rabbit or any animal when they are not
     moving, for among hunters it is very poor sportsmanship to kill
     any animal before they have had a chance to get away.

     14. We find that many of Whittier's poems were concerned with
     slavery, which he considered a very great moral wrong, and
     determined to do all in his power to eradicate this evil.

     15. Rhetoric is required in order that a person may learn how
     to express their thoughts so as to be readily understood, and
     the ability to do this greatly increases the value of your
     knowledge.


=D.=

     1. Socialism is different than anarchy.

     2. He ate the lunch instead of his sister.

     3. The Volga is the longest of any river in Europe.

     4. I come over to see if you will leave Tilly go on a picnic
     with us tomorrow.

     5. The value of the birds are studied and the good results
     taught to the older children.

     6. Despotism is where a ruler is not responsible to those under
     his authority.

     7. When a boy or girl enters a high school they think they are
     very important.

     8. I was anxious to begin eating, so no time was wasted by me.

     9. They run out of ammunition, which caused them to loose the
     battle.

     10. The mind is not only developed, but also the body.

     11. He built a reservoir varying from 75 to 150 ft. in diameter
     and from 8 to 15 ft. high.

     12. The most principal reason for going to college is so as to
     prepare myself for teaching.

     13. While the room was not very large, yet it had a good-sized
     closet in which to put a trunk would be easy and lighted by a
     small window.

     14. A college education is supposed to be general and thorough
     by training a man not only into something definite, but give
     him a wider scope from which to choose from.

     15. Motion pictures give actual battle scenes showing just how
     the different countries carry on warfare, in taking care of the
     wounded, making ammunition, and how they discharge the
     artillery, and advance or retreat.


=E.=

     1. He acted like the rest did.

     2. He don't see anything attractive about her.

     3. Neither Admiral Beatty nor Admiral Sims are afraid to take
     chances.

     4. The Girl's Campfire Organization was organized when the Boy
     Scouts organization was proved such a success.

     5. Coal is found likely 15 ft. from the waters edge, extending
     horizontally under the cliff.

     6. It is no sure sign that just because a student has took a
     course in literature, that he really enjoys the best reading.

     7. One of the most noticeable characteristics about Lowell's
     letters were that they are brief, to the point, and emphatic.

     8. On the license there will be found the laws regarding
     hunting and on the back of it tells when the different seasons
     are open.

     9. The St. Louis Republic is a partisan democratic newspaper
     and thus it can be guessed as to what their editorials are like
     concerning political questions.

     10. If the public in general is well posted on the subject and
     finds that the charity workers are in earnest, they are much
     more apt to donate.

     11. Some were laughing, some acted serious, others like myself
     were merely looking on.

     12. Entering the campus, the Library is seen, which is a
     building nicer than all the others.

     13. The Ideal Starter starts the engine perfectly without
     leaving the driver's seat.

     14. The fly feeds on decayed vegetable matter, and also the
     decayed animal.

     15. It is true that some people keep a fire extinguisher. It is
     of minor importance when considering organized fire protection.
     It is organized fire protection with which we are chiefly
     concerned, so let us dismiss the former and proceed to the
     latter subject.


=F.=

     1. In olden days the curfew rung everywheres at 9 o'clock.

     2. If a person was to become a charity worker, it would
     necessitate him giving time and effort.

     3. I think most any person can appreciate a good joke when it
     is not on them.

     4. Your clothing for the hunt should be warm and of goods that
     will not tear easy.

     5. Life can be classified in four general stages. Infancy,
     Youth, Maturity, and Old Age.

     6. At the sound of the summons I had to arise from my downy cot
     and hurry to the morning repast.

     7. He was surprised at the way people lived in the city.
     Especially the dirt and misery of the slums.

     8. The house is battered and dingy, being built twenty years
     ago by Mr. Robinson, and needs paint badly.

     9. We hadn't scarcely more than begun the work when one of the
     engines got broke and we had to stop until it could be fixed.

     10. Neither self-denial nor self-sacrifice are to be admired,
     or even pardoned, at the cost of happiness, Stevenson says.

     11. The thing that took my eye most of all were the walls.
     Pennants, pictures, and souvenirs were hanging everywhere.

     12. Grandmother had put the spectacles in the Bible which she
     had lost.

     13. In the summer time the weather is warm but some people are
     complaining of the hot weather and who wish the weather would
     turn cooler but is it not this kind of weather that makes the
     plants grow, which in turn furnish us food?

     14. Until athletics are demanded from the weaker students, the
     training will go to the one who does not need it, and the ones
     who do need it are sitting up on the bleachers exercising their
     lungs.

     15. The people of olden times used pumps, but did not know why
     they worked, they thought it worked because "nature abhors a
     vacuum."


=G.=

     1. Each one of these three books are interesting.

     2. You may put this hat in any desired shape you like.

     3. We motored over to Bloomington which was much more pleasant
     than the train.

     4. Every one of his statements are so clear that they cannot be
     misconstrued what they mean.

     5. Analysis is when things are resolved into elements or parts.

     6. She dropped the doll on the pavement, of which she was very
     fond.

     7. He was offered money to keep still, but would not, thus
     showing his good character.

     8. The first training center for training police dogs was in
     Hildesheim, Prussia, and was in the year 1896.

     9. The draining of land not only increases the yield, and it
     greatly lengthens the season that the land may be worked.

     10. He next stated the number of the founders of the
     Constitution, which were 39 in no.

     11. The life of Doctor Kingsley is a good example of a man who
     has succeeded.

     12. The fortunes of our country are now standing at the
     cannon's mouth, and one vote may stem the tide of disaster.

     13. There was little scenery on an Elizabethan stage. While the
     parts intended for women were performed by men.

     14. The cave which Tom Sawyer was lost in really existed. It
     was the cave just outside Hannibal, Missouri, it was near the
     Mississippi. Here was the place where Mark Twain was a boy.

     15. Yes, and the buildings werent what they are now, do you
     remember how we used to go to the old log meeting house, that
     was up on stilts, and the pigs crawled under the floor and
     raised such a disturbance that the preacher had to stop and
     have the pigs chased out before he could continue the sermon?



INDEX

_The numbers refer to articles._


     Abbreviations, 83, 90c

     Absolute expressions
       Defined, 58
       Punctuation of, 91e

     _Accept_ and _except_, 67

     _Ad_, 68

     Addresses, 87b, 87e

     Adjectives
       Classes of, 58
       Comparison of, 58
       Distinguished from adverbs, 56
       In a series, 91f, 91j2

     Adverbs,
       Classes of, 58
       Comparison of, 58
       Distinguished from adjectives, 56

     _Affect_ and _effect_, 67

     _Aggravate_, 68

     Agreement
       Of verbs, 52
       Of pronouns, 51, 50i

     _Ain't_, 68

     _All right_, 68

     _Almost_, Position of, 27

     _Allusion and illusion_, 67

     _Already_ and _all ready_, 67

     _And_ before a subordinate phrase or clause, 16, 17

     _And_ used to excess, 14

     _And which_ construction, 17

     Antecedent
       Defined, 58
       Faulty reference to, 20-23

     _Anybody_, Number of, 51a

     Apostrophe
       In contractions, 97
       With possessive, 97, 50f

     Application for a position, 87g

     Articles, Omission of, 3

     _As_, Incorrect use of, 50a, 68

     Aspect of the verb, 58

     Auxiliary
       Defined, 58
       Use of, 55e

     _Awful_, Abuse of, 68


     Balanced sentence, 45

     Balanced structure, 30, 45

     Barbarisms, 66

     _Because_ clauses, 5

     _Because of_ phrases, 5 Note

     _Be_, Nominative with, 50c

     _Both ... and_, 31

     Brackets, 95e

     Brevity for emphasis, 41, 60

     Business letters, 87c

     _Bust_ or _busted_, 68

     _But_ used to excess, 38 Note


     _Can_ and _may_, 67

     _Cannot help but_, 34

     Capitals, 81

     Case
       Defined, 58
       Use of, 50

     Cause, Inaccurate statement of, 5

     _Caused by_, 5 Note, 23, 68

     Change in number or person, 33

     Change in subject or voice, 32

     Change in tense, 33, 55

     Choppy sentences, 13

     _Claim_, 68

     Clauses
       Cause, 5
       Coördinated loosely, 14, 12
       Defined, 58
       House-that-Jack-built, 38
       Misplaced, 24
       Misused as sentences, 1, 90b
       Restrictive and non-r., 91d
       Subordinate. Not to be used as complete sentences, 1
       Subordination faulty, 15
       To be reduced to phrases, 60
       _When_ or _where_ clauses, 6

     Clearness, 20-39

     Climax, 44

     Coherence, 24-29

     Colon, 93

     Collective nouns, Number of, 51c

     Colloquialisms, 65

     Comma, 91, 92c Notes 1 and 2, 95b
       After quotation, 96 Note
       "Comma splice" or "comma fault," 18
       Not used after question mark, 98b

     Comparison of adjectives and adverbs, 58

     Comparisons, Inaccurate, 4

     Compound sentence structure in excess, 12, 14

     Compound words, 78

     Concreteness, 63

     Conjugation, 58

     Conjunctions
       Defined, 58
       List of, 36
       Omitted, 37
       Repeated carelessly, 38

     Conjunctive adverbs
       Defined, 58
       Punctuation with, 92c

     Connectives, 8, 36, 37, 38

     Consonants
       Between syllables, 71, 85
       Final (in spelling), 75

     Construction
       Incomplete, 2
       Mixed, 34
       Split, 28

     Contractions
       Apostrophe with, 97
       When proper, 65b

     Coördination, Excessive, 12, 14

     Correlatives, 31

     _Could of_, 68


     Dangling gerund, 23

     Dangling participle, 23

     Dash, 94

     Dates, Writing of, 84, 91e

     Declension, 58

     Definition, 6 Note

     Dialogue
       Paragraphing, 88c
       Punctuation before, 91h, 93a
       Punctuation in, 96

     Diction, Faulty (list), 68

     _Different than_, 68

     Divided reference, 20

     _Don't_, 51d

     Double capacity, Words in, 57

     Double negative, 34 Note

     _Drownded_, 68

     _Due to_, Proper use of, 5 Note, 23 Note, 68


     _Each_, Number of, 51a

     _ei_ or _ie_, 74

     _Either_, Number of, 51a

     _Either ... or_, 31

     Ellipsis
       Defined, 58
       Misuse of, 3, 23 Note

     _Emigrate_ and _immigrate_, 67

     Emphasis
       By brevity, 41
       By position, 40
       By repetition, 47
       By separation, 41
       By subordination, 42, 14
       By variety, 48

     _Enthuse_, 68

     _Etc._, Use of, 68

     Euphemism, 61

     _Ever_, Position of, 27

     _Every_, _every one_, _everybody_, Number of, 51a

     Exclamation point, 98e

     Exact connective, 36

     Exact word, 62


     Figures, Use of, 84

     Figures of speech, Mixed, 35

     Final consonant (in spelling), 75

     Final _e_ before a suffix, 76

     _Fine_, Abuse of, 68

     Fine writing, 61

     Flowery language, 61

     Formal invitations, 87h

     _Former_, 68


     _Gent_, 68

     Geographical names, 91e

     Gerund
       Dangling, 23
       Defined, 58
       With possessive, 50g

     Good use, 65, 66

     _Gotten_, 68

     Grammar, 50-59

     Grammatical terms, 58

     _Guess_, 68


     Hackneyed expressions, 61

     _Had ought_, 68

     Handwriting, 80c

     _Hanged_ and _hung_, 67

     _Healthy_ and _healthful_, 67

     Historical present, 33 Note

     _However_, Position of, 27

     _Human_, _humans_, 68

     _Hygienic_ and _sanitary_, 67

     Hyphen
       Between syllables, 85
       In compound words, 78


     Idioms, 65

     Illogical thought, 4, 5, 6, 7

     Imagery mixed, 35

     Impersonal construction, Needless use of, 60

     Improprieties, 66

     Incomplete construction, 2

     Indefinite _it_, _you_, _they_, 22 Note

     Indention of paragraphs, 88

     Inflection, 58

     Infinitive
       Case with, 50e
       Defined, 58
       Sign of, to be repeated, 37
       Split, 28
       Tense of, 55

     _Instants_ and _instance_, 67

     Interjections
       Defined, 58
       Punctuation of, 91c, 98e

     Invitations, Formal, 87h

     _Is when_ clauses, 6

     _Is where_ clauses, 6

     Italics, 82, 96e

     Its (possessive adjective), without apostrophe, 50f, 97d


     _Kind of_, 68


     _Later_ and _latter_, 67

     _Lead_ and _led_, 67

     _Learn_ and _teach_, 67

     _Leave_ and _let_, 67

     Length of paragraph, 88b

     Length of sentences, 12, 13, 48b

     _Less_ and _fewer_, 67

     Letters, 87

     _Liable_ and _likely_, 67

     _Lie_ and _lay_, 59D, 67

     _Like_ (for _as_), 67, 68

     List
       Of connectives, 36
       Of principal parts, 54
       Of grammatical terms, 58
       Of words confused in meaning, 67
       Of words incorrectly used, 68
       Of words logically akin, 72
       Of words confused in spelling, 73
       For spelling, 79

     _Loan_, 68

     _Locate_, 68

     Logic, 4, 5, 6, 7

     Logical Agreement, 4, 5, 6

     Logical Sequence, 25

     _Lose_ and loose, 67

     _Lots of_, 68


     _Majority_ and _plurality_, 67

     Manuscript, 80

     _Might of_, 68

     Misplaced word, 27

     Mixed constructions, 34

     Mixed imagery, 35

     Modal aspects, 58

     Mode
       Definition of, 58
       Use of subjunctive, 55d

     Modifiers
       Grouping of, 24, 25
       Needless separation of, 24, 27
       Squinting, 26
       Wrongly used as sentences, 1, 90b

     Money, 84c

     _Most_ (for _almost_), 66, 68

     _Myself_, Needlessly used for _I_ or _me_, 68


     Negative, Double, 34 Note

     _Neither_, Number of, 51a

     _Neither ... nor_, 31

     _Nice_, Inaccurate use of, 62, 68

     Nicknames, Quotations with, 96d

     _Not only ... but also_, 31

     Nouns, Classes of, 58

     Number
       Shift in, 33
       _These kind_, etc., 51b
       _Each_, _Every_, etc., 51a
       Collective nouns, 51c
       Of verbs, 52

     Numbers, Use of, 84
       Formation of plural, 77d, 97e


     _O_ and _Oh_, 68

     Objective case, 50d, 50e

     _Off of_, 68

     Omission
       Of words, 3
       From quotations, 96i

     _Only_, Position of, 27

     Outlines, 86

     Overlapping thought, 8 Note

     _Owing to_, Proper use of, 5 Note


     Paragraphs, 88

     Parallel structure, 30, 31, 45

     Parenthesis and parenthetical elements, 91e, 94a, 95

     Participle
       Dangling, 23
       Definition of, 58

     Parts of speech, 58

     _Party_, Abuse of, 68

     Passive voice, not emphatic, 46

     Past tense, Wrong forms of, 54

     Past perfect tense, 55

     Period, 90, 91b, 92a Note
       After quotation, 96g Note
       Not used after question mark, 98b
       "Period blunder," 1, 90b

     Periodic sentence, 43

     Person, Change in, 33

     Phonetic spelling, 71 Note

     Phrases
       Defined, 58
       Not to be used as sentences, 1 Note
       Absolute, 91e

     Plurals, Spelling of, 77

     Poetry to be separated from prose, 41, 80b

     Point of view, Shift in, 32

     Ponderous language, 60

     Possessive
       With gerund, 50g
       Apostrophe with, 50f, 97
       Inanimate objects in, 50h

     _Practical and practicable_, 67

     Predicate adjective, 58

     Predicate noun, 58

     Prefixes, 72

     Prepositions
       Defined, 58
       Omitted, 3, 37
       Repeated carelessly, 38

     Principal parts, 54

     _Principal_ and _principle_, 67

     Pronouns
       Agreement with antecedent, 50i
       Case of, 50
       Kinds of, 58
       Reference of, 20, 21, 22
       Wrong use of _myself_, _yourself_, for _I_, _me_, _you_, 68

     Pronunciation as a guide to spelling, 71

     _Proof_ and _evidence_, 67

     _Proposition_, Synonyms for, 62

     _Proven_, 68

     _Pseudo-_ and _quasi-_, 67


     _Quiet_ and _quite_, 67

     Question mark, 98

     Quotation marks _vs._ italics, 82a
       Note 2, 96e

     Quotations
       Punctuation before, 91h, 92d, 93a
       Punctuation of, 96


     Reason, Statement of, to be completed by a _that_ clause, 5

     Redundance, 60

     Reference
       Ambiguous, 20
       Broad, 22
       Divided, 20
       Impersonal, 22 Note
       Remote, 20
       To a clause, 22
       To a title, 21 Note
       To an unemphatic word, 21
       Weak, 21

     Reflexive wrongly used for the simple pronoun, 68

     Repetition
       Of connectives, good, 37;
         bad, 38
       Of structure, good 47b;
         bad 48b
       Of words, good, 47a;
         bad, 48a

     _Respectfully_ and _respectively_, 67

     Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses, 91d

     _Right smart_, 68

     _Rise_ and _raise_, 59D, 67


     _Said_, Synonyms for, 62

     _Same_, Abuse of, 68

     Scrappy sentences, 13

     Semicolon, 91b, 92, 95b
       After quotation, 96g Note
       Not used after question mark, 98b

     Sequence of tense, 55

     Sequence of thought, 25

     Series, Punctuation of, 91f, 91g, 91j 3

     _Shall_ and _will_, 53

     Shift in number, person, or tense, 33

     Shift in subject or voice, 32

     _Should_ and _would_, 53

     _Sit_ and _set_, 59D, 67

     Slang, 66
       Quotations with, 96d

     _So_, 36 Note, 68

     _Some_, Abuse of, 68

     _Somewheres_, 68

     Sound, 64

     Spacing, 80b

     Specific words, 63

     Spelling, 70-79

     Split construction, 28

     Split infinitive, 28

     Squinting, 26

     _Stationary_ and _stationery_, 67

     _Statue_, _stature_, and _statute_, 67

     Stringy sentences, 12, 14

     Subject in nominative case, 50a

     Subjunctive mode
       Defined, 58
       Use of, 55d

     Subordinating conjunctions
       Defined, 58
       Enumerated, 36

     Subordination
       Necessary, 12, 13, 14
       Faulty, 15, 16, 17, 42
       _And which_, 17

     Substantive defined, 58

     _Such_, 68

     Suffixes, 75, 76

     Superlative degree in comparisons, 4, 58

     _Sure_ and _surely_, 68

     _Suspicion_, 68

     Syllabication, 85

     Syntax defined, 58


     Tautology, 60 Note

     Technical terms, Quotations with, 96d

     Tense
       In dependent clauses, 55a
       In general statements, 55c
       Past Perfect, 55b
       Sequence of, 55
       Shift in, 33

     _Than_ or _as_, Case of pronouns after, 50a

     _That there_, 68

     _Them_ (misused as adjective), 68

     _These kind_, 51b

     _Those_, Omission of relative clause after, 2, 68

     Thought undeveloped, 7

     Title
       Capitals in, 81
       Reference to, 21 Note
       Spacing, etc., 80a, 96j
       Quoted (books, periodicals, etc.), 82a, 96e

     Transitions, 8, 36

     _Transpire_, 68

     Triteness, 61


     Undeveloped thought, 7

     Unity, 10-19

     Upside-down subordination, 15

     Usage, Good, 65, 66


     Verbals, 58

     Verb, Forms of the, 58


     _Ways_, 68

     Weak reference, 21

     _Where at_, 68

     _While_, Abuse of, 36

     _Win out_, 68

     _Who_, _whoever_, 50b

     _Woods_, 68

     _Would of_, 68

     Wordiness, 60

     Words
       Confused in meaning, 67
       Confused in spelling, 73
       Double capacity of, 57
       Misused, 68
       Omission of, 3


     _Yourself_ wrongly used for _you_, 68



Transcriber's Notes:


    Article 7, Missing period added (Many passages are powerful,
    especially the grave-digging [Is grave-digging a passage?].)

    Article 13, Changed period to colon (Exercise:)

    Article 14, Changed period to colon (Exercise:)

    Article 24, Added missing article "a" (In the morning I found on
    my bed a heap of snow...)

    Article 25, Changed "them" to "then" (Do not begin one idea,
    abandon it for a second, and then return to the first.)

    Article 31, Added missing comma (not only ... but also ...,
    both ... and ...)

    Article 38, Changed "men to "man" (He was undoubtedly a brave
    man...)

    Article 38, Changed "trangressions" to "transgressions"
    (However, if it is used only for serious transgressions...)

    Article 39, Added missing parenthesis ((Consult 36 for a list
    of connectives.))

    Article 54, Changed period to colon (Exercise:)

    Article 58, Changed "I was being taken" to "I must be taken"
    in the conjugation table for the verb "to take" as Present
    Indicative Obligative in Passive voice

    Article 65, Changed "idoms" to "idioms" (Study the following
    list of correct idioms)

    Article 65, Added missing commas (ain't it fierce?, can you
    beat it?, going some)

    Article 68, Added missing quotation mark ("We oughtn't (not
    hadn't ought) to make this error.")

    Article 68, Changed "Verb" to "Very" (Very. Accompanied by
    much when used with the past participle.)

    Article 71, Removed italic style for the word "compare"
    (compare occasion)

    Article 86, Corrected numbering in a list changing "2." to
    "3." (3. Place in order the headings of the following outline)

    Article 88, Added missing parenthesis ((In some instances the
    paragraph may consist of a single sentence.))

    Article 88, Changed comma to period (We'll have a rope down to
    you in a minute.)

    Article 91, Added missing parenthesis ((She came and she was
    gone in a moment. McCoy talked and the rest of us listened.))

    Article 91, Changed period to colon (Right: For breakfast we
    had oatmeal, bacon, eggs, and honey.)

    Article 92, Changed period to colon (Better: She enjoyed the
    dinners, and the dancing, and the music)

    Article 94, Changed "d." to "b.", and "b." to "d." (b. Insert
    a dash when a sentence is broken off abruptly.; d. The use of
    the dash to end sentences is childish.)

    Article 95, Changed "dedeclared" to "declared" ("Bunyan's
    masterpiece (The Pilgrim's Progress)," declared the lecturer)

    INDEX, Changed period to comma (Impersonal construction,
    Needless use of)





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