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Title: North American Yellow Bats, 'Dasypterus,' And a List of the Named Kinds Of the Genus Lasiurus Gray
Author: Hall, E. Raymond (Eugene Raymond), 1902-1986, Jones, J. Knox, 1929-1992
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 14, No. 5, pp. 73-98, 4 figs.
December 29, 1961



North American Yellow Bats, "Dasypterus,"
And a List of the Named Kinds
Of the Genus Lasiurus Gray

By

E. RAYMOND HALL AND J. KNOX JONES, JR.


UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
LAWRENCE
1961



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch, Theodore H. Eaton,
Jr.

Volume 14, No. 5, pp. 73-98, 4 figs.
Published December 29, 1961

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Lawrence, Kansas

PRINTED BY
JEAN M. NEIBARGER, STATE PRINTER
TOPEKA, KANSAS
1961



North American Yellow Bats, "Dasypterus,"
And a List of the Named Kinds
Of the Genus Lasiurus Gray

BY

E. RAYMOND HALL AND J. KNOX JONES, JR.



INTRODUCTION


Yellow bats occur only in the New World and by most recent authors have
been referred to the genus _Dasypterus_ Peters. The red bats and the
hoary bat, all belonging to the genus _Lasiurus_ Gray, also occur only
in the New World except that the hoary bat has an endemic subspecies in
the Hawaiian Islands.

The kind of yellow bat first to be given a distinctive name was the
smaller of the two species that occur in North America. It was named
_Nycticejus ega_ in 1856 (p. 73) by Gervais on the basis of material
from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, South America, but was early
recognized as occurring also in North America (in the sense that México
and Central America, including Panamá, are parts of North America).
More than 40 years elapsed before subspecific names were proposed for
the North American populations; Thomas named _Dasypterus ega xanthinus_
in 1897 (p. 544) from Baja California, and _Dasypterus ega panamensis_
in 1901 (p. 246) from Panamá.

The larger of the two North American species was named _Lasiurus
intermedius_ in 1862 (p. 246) by H. Allen on the basis of material from
extreme northeastern México. Another alleged species, _Dasypterus
floridanus_, was named in 1902 (p. 392) by Miller from Florida, but as
set forth below it is only a subspecies of _L. intermedius_, a species
that is seemingly limited to parts of the North American mainland and
Cuba.

A third species, _Atalapha egregia_, allegedly allied to the small
yellow bat, _L. ega_, was named in 1871 (p. 912) by Peters from Santa
Catarina, Brazil, but Handley (1960:473) thinks that _L. egregius_ is
allied instead to the red bats. The species _L. egregius_ has not been
studied in connection with the observations reported below.

Bats of the genus concerned were given the generic name _Nycteris_ by
Borkhausen in 1797 (p. 66), and the name _Lasiurus_ by Gray in 1831 (p.
38). For much of the latter part of the 19th century the generic name
_Atalapha_ proposed by Rafinesque in 1814 (p. 12) was used because it
antedated the name _Lasiurus_. In this period Harrison Allen (1894:137)
raised to generic rank the name _Dasypterus_ that had been proposed by
Peters in 1871 (p. 912) only as a subgenus for the yellow bats. Since
1894 the yellow bats ordinarily have borne the generic name
_Dasypterus_. The red bats and the hoary bat continued to be referred
to as of the genus _Atalapha_ until early in the 20th century when it
was decided that a European bat of another genus was technically the
basis for the name _Atalapha_. Thereupon _Lasiurus_ was again used in
the belief that it was the earliest available name for the bats
concerned. But in 1909 (p. 90) Miller showed that the name _Lasiurus_
was preoccupied by _Nycteris_ Borkhausen, 1797 (p. 66). From 1909 until
1914 in conformance with the Law of Priority _Nycteris_ was used for
the red bat and the hoary bat.

At this point it is desirable to digress and indicate why and how the
Law of Priority came into being. In the 19th century different
technical names were used for the same kind of animal depending on the
opinions of individual authors. For example, one author used name A
because it was most descriptive of the morphology of the animal,
another author used name B because it had been used more often than any
other, another author used name C because it was more euphonious, etc.
In order to achieve uniformity and stability a set of rules was drawn
up in 1901 at the International Zoological Congress in Berlin. Those
rules were based principally on the rule, or law, of priority. In
effect, the law stated that the technical name first given to a kind of
animal (with starting date as of January 1, 1758, _Systema Naturae_ of
Linnaeus) would be the correct and official name. After the mentioned
rules were adopted, some zoologists, mostly non-taxonomists, objected
to the rules and in response to these objections a compromise was
adopted in 1913 at the International Zoological Congress in Monaco and
the International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature was authorized
to set aside, at its discretion, the Law of Priority. In 1913 it was
thought by everyone that the names conserved (_nomina conservanda_) by
setting aside the rules would be few.

Returning now to the generic names applied to the bats concerned, it is
to be noted that from 1803 until 1909 _Nycteris_ had been used as the
generic name of an African bat on the erroneous assumption that the
name was first applied in a valid fashion to the African bat. With the
aim of conserving the name _Nycteris_ for the African bat, some
zoologists petitioned the International Committee on Zoological
Nomenclature to set aside the Law of Priority and petitioned also that
the name _Lasiurus_ be validated for use again as the generic name for
New World bats. This petition was granted in 1914 in the first lot of
names for which exception to the rules was made. As a result, since
1914 _Lasiurus_ has been used with increasing frequency, and _Nycteris_
with decreasing frequency, for New World bats.

The above explanation of the application of the generic names
_Nycteris_, _Atalapha_, and _Lasiurus_ is given for two reasons: First,
study of more abundant material than was available to Harrison Allen in
1894 when he raised _Dasypterus_ to generic rank reveals, as set forth
beyond, that the yellow bats are not generically different from the red
bats and hoary bat and so will bear the same generic name that is
applied to the red bat and hoary bat; second, a choice of generic names
has to be made. Actually, the International Commission on Zoological
Nomenclature since 1913 has voted to make many, instead of only a few,
exceptions to the rules. The number of names resulting from these
exceptions is becoming so large that some zoologists fear that the
chaotic condition of nomenclature in the previous century will return.
Those who hold such fears maintain that adherence to the rules of 1901,
or to the Law of Priority, or at least to some rules, clearly is
desirable. Certainly there is much logic in that view. According to the
rules, _Nycteris_ is the correct name of the bats concerned. According
to the Commission, it is well to use instead the name _Lasiurus_.
Perhaps the time has come to follow the rules and use _Nycteris_. But,
because of the possibility that the Commission will return to its
policy of 1913 and recommend only a few instead of many exceptions to
the rules, the generic name _Lasiurus_ is tentatively used in the
following accounts.


Genus Lasiurus Gray

Hairy-tailed Bats

    1797. _Nycteris_ B[orkhause]n, Der Zoologe (Compendiose Bibliothek
    gemeinnützigsten Kenntnisse für alle Stände, pt. 21), Heft 4-7, p.
    66. Type, _Vespertilio borealis_ Müller [= _Lasiurus borealis_].
    _Nycteris_ Borkhausen is a homonym of _Nycteris_ G. Cuvier and É.
    Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1795, type _Vespertilio hispidus_ Schreber,
    1774 [= _Nycteris hispida_], from Senegal. Although _Nycteris_
    Cuvier and Geoffroy St.-Hilaire is a _nomen nudum_, Opinion 111 of
    the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature establishes
    the name as available for a genus of Old World bats. On this basis,
    _Nycteris_ Borkhausen is not available for the New World genus.
    _Nycteris_ É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1803, is a synonym of
    _Nycteris_ Cuvier and Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1795, as given status
    by the Commission.

    1831. _Lasiurus_ Gray, Zool. Misc., No. 1, p. 38. Type,
    _Vespertilio borealis_ Müller.

    1871. _Atalapha_ Peters, Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin,
    p. 907, and other authors [_nec Atalapha_ Rafinesque, 1814].

    _Type species._--_Vespertilio borealis_ Müller.

    _Diagnosis._--Interfemoral membrane large and most of its upper
    surface furred; mammae 4; third, fourth and fifth fingers
    progressively shortened; ear short and rounded; skull short and
    broad; nares and palatal emargination wide and shallow (width
    transversely exceeding length anteroposteriorly); sternum
    prominently keeled; i. 1/3, c. 1/1, p. 1/2 or 2/2, m. 3/3; when
    two upper premolars present, anterior one minute, peglike, and
    displaced lingually; M3 much reduced, area of its crown less than
    a third that of M1.

    Members of this genus are notable for having three and even four
    young (more than other bats). In North America at least _L.
    borealis_ and _L. cinereus_, are migratory.


Provisional Key to the Recent Species of _Lasiurus_

1.  Color reddish or grayish (not yellowish); normally two premolars on
each side of upper jaw.

    2.  Occurring on Antillean islands (color reddish).

        3.  Length of upper tooth-row less than 4.5 mm. (occurring on
        Hispaniola and Bahamas) _L. minor_.

        3'. Length of upper tooth-row more than 4.5 mm. (not occurring
        on Hispaniola and Bahamas).

            4.  Greatest length of skull less than 13.9 mm. (occurring
            on Cuba) _L. pfeifferi._

            4'. Greatest length of skull more than 13.9 mm. (occurring
            on Jamaica) _L. degelidus._

    2'. Occurring on mainland and coastal islands of North and South
    America; also on Galapagos and Hawaiian islands (color reddish or
    grayish).

        5.  Total length more than 120 mm.; color grayish _L.
        cinereus._

        5'. Total length less than 120 mm.; color reddish.

        6.  Upper parts brick red to rusty red, frequently washed with
        white; lacrimal ridge present.

            7.  Not occurring on Galapagos Islands _L. borealis._

            7'. Known only from Galapagos Islands (both ear of 7.6 mm.
            and thumb of 6.4 mm. allegedly shorter than in _L. borealis_
            of adjacent mainland; presence of lacrimal ridge not verified)
            _L. brachyotis._

        6'. Upper parts not brick red to rusty red; lacrimal ridge not
        developed.

            8.  Forearm more than 46.5 mm. (48 in only known specimen,
            a male); dorsum bright rufous (absence of lacrimal ridge
            not verified) _L. egregius._

            8'. Forearm less than 46.5 mm.; dorsum not bright rufous.

                9.  Upper parts mahogany brown washed with white;
                forearm less than 43 mm _L. seminolus._

                9'. Upper parts deep chestnut; forearm more than 43 mm.
                (44.8 in only known specimen, a female) _L. castaneus._

1'. Color yellowish; only one premolar on each side of upper jaw.

    10.  Total length more than 119 mm.; length of upper tooth-row 6.0
    mm. or more _L. intermedius._

    10'. Total length less than 119 mm.; length of upper tooth-row less
    than 6.0 mm _L. ega._


Lasiurus intermedius

Northern Yellow Bat

    _Diagnosis._--Upper parts yellowish-orange, or yellowish brown, or
    brownish-gray faintly washed with black to pale yellowish gray;
    size large (forearm, 45.2-62.8; condylocanine length, 16.9-21.5).

_Distribution and Geographic Variation_

_Lasiurus intermedius_ H. Allen, type from Matamoros, Tamaulipas, has
been reported from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas southward to Honduras
and in Cuba. _Lasiurus floridanus_ (Miller), type from Lake Kissimmee,
Florida, has been recorded from southeastern Texas, eastward along the
Gulf of Mexico to Florida, and thence northward along the Atlantic
Coast to extreme southeastern Virginia (see records of occurrence
beyond and Fig. 2). Specimens of _intermedius_ from the vicinity of the
type locality and from other localities in México differ from specimens
of _floridanus_ (from Florida and southern Georgia) as follows: Larger,
both externally (especially forearm) and cranially (see measurements);
teeth larger and heavier; skull heavier and having more prominent
sagittal and lambdoidal crests; braincase less rounded, more elongate;
auditory bullae relatively smaller; upper parts averaging brighter
(yellowish to yellowish-orange in general aspect, rather than
yellowish-brown to brownish-gray).

The differences mentioned above are of the magnitude of those that
ordinarily separate subspecies of a single species rather than two
species. Miller (1902:392-393), in the original description of
_floridanus_, noted that the differences between it and _intermedius_
were slight and remarked (p. 393): "Indeed, it is probable that it
intergrades with the Texas animal." Lowery (1936:17) also has suggested
that intergradation might occur between _intermedius_ and _floridanus_
"in southwestern Louisiana or eastern Texas"; later (1943:223-224) he
pointed out that specimens from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, averaged larger
in cranial dimensions than typical _floridanus_ and again mentioned
the possibility of intergradation between the two kinds. Sanborn
(1954:25-26) touched obliquely on the problem when he wrote: "In
Florida, _Dasypterus intermedius_ is referred to as a Florida yellow
bat (_Dasypterus floridanus_)." Handley (1960:478) wrote that certain
morphological similarities suggested "gene flow" between the two kinds.

Specimens examined from Louisiana resemble _floridanus_ from Georgia
and Florida to the eastward in external dimensions. Some of those
specimens resemble _floridanus_ in size of skull, but two skulls from
Louisiana are inseparable from those of topotypes of _intermedius_. The
upper parts of specimens from Louisiana are generally like those of
animals to the east but average somewhat paler (less brownish). The
specimens seen from Louisiana seem to be intergrades between
_intermedius_ and _floridanus_ but clearly are assignable to the
latter.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. Condylocanine length plotted against length of
forearm for specimens of the species _Lasiurus intermedius_.]

The picture is less clear as regards bats from southeastern Texas (one
specimen each from Colorado and Travis counties, and four specimens
from Harris County). Five of the specimens have skulls (the Travis
County specimen is a skin only) and of these, four are clearly
assignable, on the basis of size and shape of the skull, to
_intermedius_. The fifth skull (specimen from Colorado County) is
intermediate in size between _floridanus_ and _intermedius_ and on
that basis alone could be assigned with equal propriety to either. All
these specimens from Texas more closely resemble _floridanus_ than
_intermedius_ in external size (forearms: 49.2, 49.6, 50.7, 49.9
(approximate), 49.6, 49.1). The pale yellowish-gray upper parts of the
four adults, seemingly resulting from a dilution of the brownish color
found in _floridanus_, differ from the color of typical specimens of
both _intermedius_ and _floridanus_, but the average is nearer that of
_floridanus_ than that of _intermedius_. Color of pre-adult pelage in
the one July-taken young of the year resembles the color of adults. An
August-taken young of the year is in process of acquiring the adult
pelage but the hairs have not reached their full growth; it is pale
yellowish but not so grayish as the other specimens. All characters
considered, the specimens from eastern Texas resemble _floridanus_
more than they do _intermedius_, and so are provisionally assigned to
_floridanus_ (as was done by Taylor and Davis, 1947:19; Eads, _et
al._, 1956:440; and, Davis, 1960:59). Additional material from
southeastern Texas is needed. It will be remembered that the type
locality of _intermedius_ is in the Rio Grande Valley; all specimens
seen, in the study here reported on, from the Texas side of the valley
are unquestionably referable to that subspecies.

Intergradation, then, occurs between _L. intermedius_ and _L.
floridanus_ in some degree in southern Louisiana and in more marked
degree in southeastern Texas. Specimens from the area of intergradation
vary more individually in many features than do specimens from other
areas. In general the intergrades tend to resemble _floridanus_ in
small size externally and _intermedius_ in large size of skull. The
specimens from southeastern Texas differ from typical specimens of both
subspecies in color, being pale yellowish-gray (instead of yellowish to
yellowish-orange as in _intermedius_ or yellowish brown to
brownish-gray as in _floridanus_), and this difference is shared to
some extent with animals from Louisiana, the latter being somewhat
intermediate between bats from Texas and those from Florida and
Georgia, although nearer those from Florida and Georgia.

An hypothesis to account for the variation noted is that in Wisconsin
Time, and perhaps in earlier Pleistocene times, this yellow bat was (as
it is now) a warmth-adapted animal as Blair (1959:461) would term it.
Some cool period forced the mainland populations of the two species
into two refugia--peninsular Florida and eastern México--and the
present area of intergradation is, therefore, of a secondary rather
than a primary type. Possibly also the relatively treeless area of part
of southern Texas has made for a sparse population there of _Lasiurus
intermedius_ and gene flow now may be, and long may have been, slight
between the eastern and southern segments of the species.

It could be contended that the peculiar coloration of specimens from
southeastern Texas, coupled with the tendency to have a large skull (as
has _intermedius_) and small external dimensions (as has _floridanus_),
justifies subspecific recognition for the animals that here are termed
intergrades. But, judging by the specimens now available, such
subspecific recognition would tend to obscure rather than clarify the
geographic variation noted.


_Life History_

Probably bats of the species _Lasiurus intermedius_ seek retreats
primarily in trees (see Moore, 1949_a_:59-60) but Baker and Dickerman
(1956:443) reported "approximately 45 yellow bats" concealed on July
22, 1955, "among dried corn stalks hanging from the sides of a large
open tobacco shed" in the state of Veracruz. Young are born in late
spring, three being the only number known except that Davis (1960:59)
was told that in the vicinity of Mission, Texas, two was the usual
number "born in May and June." Sherman (1945:194) reported a female
with young (number not given) taken on June 7, 1918, at Seven Oaks,
Florida, and another with three young taken on June 20, 1941, at Ocala,
Florida. Lowery (1936:17) recorded a female, having three young,
obtained on June 17, 1932, at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. A specimen taken
on May 19, 1940, at Baton Rouge contained three embryos. Baker and
Dickerman (_loc. cit._) reported four adult females from Veracruz as
lactating on July 22, 1955, but they were accompanied by flying young
of the year and probably were near the end of the lactation period.
Among specimens examined, juveniles are available by date as follows: 5
mi. N Baton Rouge, Louisiana (June 26, 1953); Palm Beach, Florida (July
6, 1950); and Izamal, Yucatán ("taken with mother" on July 28, 1910).
Breeding probably takes place in autumn and winter; Sherman (_op.
cit._:196) reported males from Florida as sexually "mature" from the
beginning of September to mid-February. Late winter segregation of
sexes has been reported.


_Subspecies_

In the following accounts, localities of occurrence in each state are
listed from north to south; if two lie in the same latitude, the
westernmost is listed first. Localities that are italicized are not
shown on the distribution map (Fig. 2), either because undue crowding
of symbols would result or, in several cases, because we could not
precisely place the localities. Length of forearm is the average of
both forearms in individuals in which both forearms could be measured.


Lasiurus intermedius intermedius (H. Allen)

    1862. _Lasiurus intermedius_ H. Allen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
    Philadelphia, 14:246, "April" (between May 27 and August 1), type
    from Matamoros, Tamaulipas.

    _Geographic distribution._--Southern México (Yucatán, Chiapas and
    Oaxaca), northward along Gulf Coast to Rio Grande Valley of
    southern Texas (see Fig. 2).

    _Diagnosis._--Size medium (see measurements); sagittal crest
    present (height above braincase averaging 0.4 mm. in 12 from
    Brownsville, Texas); interorbital region relatively broad; M3
    relatively broad (see comparisons in account of the Cuban
    subspecies beyond); mesostyle of M1 and M2 and 2nd commissure and
    cingulum of M3 large; pelage yellowish to yellowish-orange.

    _Comparisons._--See p. 79 and under accounts of _Lasiurus
    intermedius floridanus_ and the Cuban subspecies.

    _External measurements._--Three adult males from the Sierra de
    Tamaulipas in Tamaulipas: Total length, 146, 136, 142; length of
    tail-vertebrae, 69, 67, 70; length of hind foot, 11, 11, 11; length
    of ear from notch, 17, 16, 17; length of forearm (dry), 53.2, 51.8,
    51.9. Corresponding measurements for two adult females from 1 mi.
    SW Catemaco, Veracruz: 149, 155; 64, 69; 11, 12; 17, 17; 51.8,
    55.2. Weight in grams of the Tamaulipan specimens, respectively:
    24, 21, 24. For cranial measurements see Table 1.

    _Records of occurrence._--Specimens examined, 45, as follows:
    TEXAS: 5-5/8 mi. N Mission, 2 (Texas A & M); _Santa Ana National
    Wildlife Refuge_, 1 (USNM); Brownsville, 13 (4 AMNH; 1 Texas A & M;
    8 USNM). TAMAULIPAS: _Matamoros_, 2 (USNM); Sierra de Tamaulipas,
    1200 ft., 10 mi. W, 2 mi. S Piedra, 1 (KU); _Sierra de Tamaulipas,
    1400 ft, 16 mi. W, 3 mi. S Piedra_, 2 (KU). VERACRUZ: 16 mi. SW
    Catemaco, 15 (KU). OAXACA: Oaxaca, 1 (British Mus.). CHIAPAS: San
    Bartolomé, 1 (USNM). YUCATAN: Tekom, 1 (Chicago Mus.); Izamal, 5
    (USNM). HONDURAS: Río Yeguare, between Tegucigalpa and Danli, 1
    (MCZ).

    Additional records: TEXAS: _Padre Island_ (Miller, 1897:118);
    _Cameron County_ (_ibid._). OAXACA: Tehuantepec (Handley,
    1960:478). YUCATAN: _Yaxcach_ (not found, Gaumer, 1917:274).


Lasiurus intermedius floridanus (Miller)

    1902. _Dasypterus floridanus_ Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
    Philadelphia, 54:392, September 12, type from Lake Kissimmee,
    Oceola Co., Florida.

    _Geographic distribution._--Extreme southeastern Virginia, south
    along Atlantic Coast to and including peninsular Florida (except
    possibly extreme southern tip), thence westward to southern
    Louisiana and the southern part of eastern Texas (see Fig. 2).

    _Diagnosis._--Size small (see measurements); sagittal crest present
    but low; interorbital region relatively broad; teeth essentially as
    in _L. i. intermedius_ except averaging smaller; pelage
    yellowish-brown to grayish-brown. For comparison with the Cuban
    subspecies, see account of that subspecies.

    _Comparisons._--From _Lasiurus intermedius intermedius_, _L. i.
    floridanus_ differs as follows: averaging smaller (see
    measurements), especially in forearm and skull; teeth smaller;
    skull having less prominent sagittal and lambdoidal crests;
    braincase more nearly round; tympanic shields over petrosals
    approximately same size and therefore relatively larger; pelage of
    upper parts duller, yellowish-brown to brownish-gray instead of
    yellowish to yellowish-orange.

    _External measurements._--Average (and extremes) of 14
    February-taken males from along the Aucilla River, Jefferson Co.,
    Florida: Total length, 126.8 (121-131.5); length of tail-vertebrae,
    54.2 (51-60); length of hind foot, 9.8 (8-11); length of ear from
    notch (13 specimens), 16.3 (15-17); forearm (dry, 13 specimens),
    48.1 (46.7-50.0). Corresponding measurements of the holotype, an
    adult female (after Miller, 1902:392): 129, 52, 9, 17, 49. Average
    (and extremes) weight in grams of the series of males: 17.7
    (15.5-19.5). For cranial measurements see Table 1.

    _Records of occurrence._--Specimens examined, 65, as follows:
    TEXAS: Austin, 1 (Texas U.); _4 mi. N Huffman_, 1 (Texas A & M);
    Houston, 3 (1 KU; 2 MVZ); Eagle Lake, 1 (Texas A & M). LOUISIANA: 5
    mi. N Baton Rouge, 1 (LSU); _1 mi. W LSU Campus, Baton Rouge_, 1
    (LSU); _Baton Rouge_, 7 (1 AMNH; 5 LSU; 1 USNM); _1/2 mi. E Baton
    Rouge_, 1 (LSU); North Island, Grand Lake, 1 (LSU); Lafayette, 2
    (USNM); Houma, 2 (USNM). GEORGIA: Beachton, 11 (6 Chicago Mus.; 5
    USNM). FLORIDA: _2 mi. S Tallahassee_, 1 (AMNH); 5 mi. W
    Jacksonville, 1 (AMNH); Aucilla River, 15 mi. S Waukenna, 7 (Univ.
    Fla.); _Aucilla River, at U.S. Hgy. 98_, 8 (Univ. Fla.); _W of
    Gainesville_, 1 (Univ. Fla.); Gainesville, 3 (2 Univ. Fla.; 1 Univ.
    Mich.); _near Gainesville_, 1 (Univ. Fla.); _Alachua County_, 1
    (Univ. Mich.); 2 mi. SW Deland, 2 (Univ. Fla.); head of
    Chassahowitzka River, 1 (USNM); Lakeland, 2 (Univ. Fla.); Seven
    Oaks [near present town of Safety Harbor], 2 (1 AMNH; 1 USNM); Lake
    Kissimmee, 1 (USNM); Palm Beach, 1 (Univ. Fla.); _Mullet Lake_ (not
    found), 1 (USNM).

    Additional records: VIRGINIA: Willoughby Beach (Rageot, 1955:456).
    SOUTH CAROLINA: 5 mi. NW Charleston (Coleman, 1940:90). LOUISIANA:
    New Orleans (Lowery, 1943:223). MISSISSIPPI: Hancock County
    (Hamilton, 1943:107). Georgia: W edge Camilla (Constantine,
    1958:65). FLORIDA (Sherman, 1945:195, unless otherwise noted): _St.
    Marys River_ [near Boulogue]; _vicinity Palm Valley_ (Ivey,
    1959:506); _6 mi. N Lake Geneva_ (Sherman, 1937:108); Old Town;
    Welaka (Moore, 1949a:59); Bunnell; Ocala; _Davenport_;
    _Hillsborough River State Park_; 1 mi. NE Punta Gorda (Frye,
    1948:182); Miami (Moore, 1949_b_:50).


Lasiurus intermedius insularis, new subspecies

    _Holotype._--Adult female, preserved in alcohol but having skull
    removed, formerly in the Poey Museum, University of Havana, now No.
    81666, Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, from
    Cienfuegos, Las Villas Province, Cuba; obtained on January 23,
    1948, by D. Gonzáles Muñoz.

    _Geographic distribution._--Known only from the island of Cuba (see
    Fig. 2).

    _Diagnosis._--Large throughout (see measurements); sagittal crest
    enormously developed, especially posteriorly (height above
    braincase averaging 1.7 mm. in 4 specimens); interorbital region
    narrow; M3 narrow; mesostyle of M1 and M2 and 2nd commissure and
    cingulum of M3 small; pelage yellowish to reddish-brown.

    _Comparisons._--From _Lasiurus intermedius intermedius_ of the
    adjacent mainland of México, _L. i. insularis_ differs as follows:
    Larger, both externally and cranially; sagittal crest relatively
    higher, especially posteriorly; interorbital region relatively
    narrower; palate longer posterior to tooth-rows; teeth distinctly
    larger throughout except M3, which is relatively (frequently
    actually) narrower, averaging 66.1 (62.5-71.0) per cent width of M2
    in _insularis_ rather than 74.1 (66.6-79.3) per cent in 10
    _intermedius_ from Brownsville, Texas; mesostyle of M1 and M2
    relatively smaller as are second commissure and cingulum of M3;
    coloration of No. 254714 USNM resembling that of _L. i.
    intermedius_, but coloration of three specimens, preserved in
    alcohol, averaging somewhat darker (more reddish-brown) than in
    _intermedius_.

[Illustration: FIG. 2. Geographic distribution of the three
subspecies of _Lasiurus intermedius_.

    1. _L. i. floridanus_
    2. _L. i. intermedius_
    3. _L. i. insularis_

Black dots represent localities of capture of specimens examined.
Hollow circles represent localities of capture of other specimens
recorded in the literature but not examined by us (Hall and Jones).]

    From _Lasiurus intermedius floridanus_ of the adjacent Floridan
    mainland, _L. i. insularis_ differs in many of the same ways that
    it differs from _L. i. intermedius_, except that the differences
    are even more trenchant because _floridanus_ is smaller than
    _intermedius_. Indeed, the difference in size between _floridanus_
    and _insularis_ is approximately the same as between _Lasiurus
    borealis_ and _Lasiurus cinereus_.

    _Measurements._--External measurements (all taken from specimens
    preserved in alcohol) of the holotype, followed by those of two
    other females, one from Laguna La Deseada, San Cristóbal, Pinar del
    Río Province, and the other from Bayate, Guantánamo, Oriente
    Province, are, respectively: Total length, 164, 161, 150; length of
    tail-vertebrae, 68, 76, 77; length of hind foot, 12, 12, 13; length
    of ear from notch, 20, 17, 19; length of forearm, 61.2, 62.6, 61.8.
    The length of forearm of a study skin from San Germán (that
    otherwise lacks external measurements) having wings spread is
    approximately 55.4. For cranial measurements see Table 1.

_Remarks._--Four of the five specimens on which the name _L. i.
insularis_ is based differ to such a degree from mainland populations
of the species _L. intermedius_ that specific rather than subspecific
recognition for the Cuban bat might seem warranted. It is because of
the fifth specimen (USNM 254714) that we accord subspecific rank to
_insularis_. It is smaller than the other Cuban specimens and except
for longer condylocanine length, longer mandibular tooth-rows, narrower
interorbital region, and heavier dentition is indistinguishable in
measurements from the largest specimens of _L. i. intermedius_ from the
mainland. In addition, it appears not to have the enormously developed
sagittal crest of the other specimens of _insularis_ although
posteriorly the dorsal part of the skull (where the crest is most
prominent) is missing. USNM 254714 agrees with the other Cuban
specimens in having the mesostyle of M1 and M2 somewhat reduced and in
having a small M3 on which the cingulum and second commissure are
poorly developed, and this specimen is regarded as representative of
the lower size limits of the Cuban population.

The skull from San Bias was found in an owl pellet (see de Beaufort,
1934:316).

    _Records of occurrence._--Specimens examined, 5, all from Cuba, as
    follows: Pinar del Río Prov.: Laguna La Deseada, San Cristóbal, 1
    (Poey Museum). Las Villas Prov.: Cienfuegos, 1 (KU, the holotype).
    Camaguey Prov.: San Bias, 1 (Amsterdam Zoological Museum). Oriente
    Prov.: San Germán, 1 (USNM); Bayate, Guantánamo, 1 (Ramsdem Museum,
    Univ. Oriente).


TABLE 1.--CRANIAL MEASUREMENTS (IN MILLIMETERS) OF THREE SUBSPECIES
OF LASIURUS INTERMEDIUS

Table Legend:

Col. A: Catalogue number or number of specimens averaged
Col. B: Museum
Col. C: Sex
Col. D: Locality
Col. E: Condylocanine length
Col. F: Zygomatic breadth
Col. G: Interorbital breadth
Col. H: Alveolar length C-M3
Col. I: Breadth of rostrum (between anterior openings of intraorbital canals)
Col. J: Mastoid breadth
Col. K: Length of mandibular tooth-row (i-m3)

============================================================================
   A   |   B   | C |        D            | E  | F  | G  | H  | I  | J  | K  |
-------+-------+---+---------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
                     _Lasiurus intermedius floridanus_
-------+-------+---+---------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
Ave. 10|  UF   |[M]|[1]Aucilla River,    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |[M]|     Florida         |17.6|12.8| 5.0| 6.2| 7.2|10.0| 8.0|
               |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    | [2]|    |
 Min.  |  --   |-- |        --           |17.0|12.6| 4.7| 6.0| 6.9| 9.6| 7.8|
 Max.  |  --   |-- |        --           |18.2|13.0| 5.3| 6.4| 7.5|10.2| 8.2|
       |       |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  1788 |  LSU  |[F]|Baton Rouge, La.     |18.7| -- | 5.1| 6.7| 7.7| -- | 8.8|
  1820 |  LSU  |[F]|Baton Rouge, La.     |18.5| -- | -- | 6.7| 7.2|10.1| 8.7|
  1840 |  LSU  |[M]|Baton Rouge, La.     |18.0|12.7| 5.0| 6.4| 7.1| 9.9| 8.0|
  6790 |  LSU  |[M]|Baton Rouge, La.     |18.0|12.8| 4.9| 6.5| 7.2| 9.9| 8.2|
  3681 |  LSU  |[M]|7 mi. SE Baton       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |   |  Rouge, La.         |17.7|12.6| 5.0| 6.4| 7.0| 9.8| 8.2|
  6791 |  LSU  |[F]|Grand Lake, La.[3]   |17.9|12.6| 4.9| 6.3| 7.2| 9.9| 8.3|
       |       |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
 84218 |  MVZ  |[F]|Houston, Texas.      |19.1|13.8| 5.1| 6.6| 7.5|10.3| 8.7|
   769 | TAMC  |[F]|4 mi. N Huffman,     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |   |  Texas              |18.8|13.4| 5.0| 6.7| 7.7| -- | 8.7|
  3805 | TAMC  |[M]|Eagle Lake, Texas.   |18.1|12.9| 4.8| 6.6| 7.2| 9.8| 8.5|
-------+-------+---+---------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

                    _Lasiurus intermedius intermedius_
-------+-------+---+---------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  1437 | USNM  | ? |Matamoros, Tamaulipas|18.9|13.6| 5.1| 6.6| 7.5|10.7| 8.9|
  1439 | USNM  | ? |Matamoros, Tamaulipas|19.0|14.0| 5.3| 6.6| 7.8|10.7| 8.8|
       |       |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
Ave. 12|USNM   | ? ||Brownsville, Texas  |18.7|13.8| 5.2| 6.6| 7.7|10.4| 8.7|
       |   [4] |[5]|                     | [6]| [6]|    |    |    | [6]|    |
Min.   |  --   | --|         --          |18.1|13.0| 4.9| 6.4| 7.4|10.0| 8.4|
Max.   |  --   | --|         --          |19.2|14.7| 5.5| 7.0| 8.2|11.1| 9.0|
       |       |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
 55317 |  KU   |[M]|Sierra de Tamaulipas |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |   |                 [7] |18.2|13.2| 5.5| 6.2| 7.6|10.3| 8.0|
 55322 |  KU   |[M]|Sierra de Tamaulipas |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |   |                 [8] |18.4|13.7| 5.2| 6.5| 7.4|10.6| 8.4|
 55324 |  KU   |[M]|Sierra de Tamaulipas |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |   |                 [8] |18.3|13.2| 5.1| 6.5| 7.6|10.3| 8.1|
 67549 |  KU   |[F]|Catemaco, Veracruz   |19.0|13.5| 5.0| 6.5| 7.5|10.2| 8.8|
 67550 |  KU   |[F]|Catemaco, Veracruz   |19.0|13.5| 4.7| 6.4| 7.6|10.3| 8.7|
-------+-------+---+---------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

                _Lasiurus intermedius insularis_ (all from Cuba)
-------+-------+---+---------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  2395 | AZM   | ? |Cave near San Bias   |21.4|15.1| 4.8| 7.3| 8.4|11.9|9.5+|
254714 | USNM  |[M]|San Germán, Oriente  |19.5|14.1| 4.8| 6.9| 7.8|11.0| 9.3|
 81666 | KU    |[F]|Cienfuegos,          |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |   |  Las Villas         |20.5|15.2| 4.6| 7.2| 8.2|11.9| 9.6|
       |       |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |Poey   |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       | Mus.  |[F]|San Cristóbal,       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |       |   |  Pinar del Río      |21.5|15.6| 4.7| 7.5| 8.9| 1.8| 9.7|
       |       |   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |Ramsdem|   |                     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |Oriente|   |Bayate, Guantánamo,  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |  Univ.|[F]|  Oriente            |20.9|14.8| 4.6| 7.3| 8.4|11.2| 9.7|
-------+-------+---+---------------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

      [1] "Rt. 98" and "15 mi. S Waukenna" both in Jefferson Co.

      [2] Only nine specimens.

      [3] "N Island, Grand Lake, Iberville Parish."

      [4] Some in Amer. Mus. Nat. History.

      [5] Females, 8; males, 3; unsexed, 1.

      [6] Only 11 specimens.

      [7] 10 mi. W, 2 mi. S Piedra, Tamaulipas.

      [8] 16 mi. W, 3 mi. S Piedra, Tamaulipas.


Lasiurus ega

Southern Yellow Bat

    _Diagnosis._--Upper parts yellowish-brown (much as in _Lasiurus
    intermedius floridanus_ from Louisiana) having overlay of grayish
    or blackish anterior to shoulders; hair on basal half of
    interfemoral membrane more yellowish than elsewhere; size medium
    (forearm 42.7-52.2; condylocanine length 14.6-16.3).

This species occurs from the southwestern United States (Palm Springs,
California, and Tucson, Arizona) southward into Uruguay and
northeastern Argentina. Of the six currently (see Handley, 1960)
recognized subspecies of _L. ega_, four occur only in South America,
and two occur only in North America.

Cabrera (1958:115) regarded _Dasypterus ega fuscatus_ Thomas
(1901:246), based on three specimens from Río Cauquete, Río Cauca,
Colombia, as a synonym of _Dasypterus ega panamensis_ Thomas (_loc.
cit._) that was based on a specimen from Bogava, 250 meters elevation,
Chiriquí, Panamá. The latter name has line priority over _fuscatus_.
Cabrera (1958:116) remarked that: "Las diferencias que Thomas señaló
entre el _Dasypterus_ de Panamá y el de Colombia (_fuscatus_) nos
parecen estar dentro de los límites de la variación individual, siendo
además muy raro que una especie de quiróptero este representada en
Colombia y en Panamá por razas diferentes."

On July 16, 1958, at the British Museum of Natural History, one of us
(Hall) examined the holotypes of _panamensis_ and _fuscatus_, as well
as other materials used by Thomas, and readily perceived the
differences that he pointed out. Thomas' description, although terse,
is accurate. _L. e. fuscatus_ is much more blackish than _panamensis_.
We are inclined to retain the two names as applicable to two
subspecies. Whether or not _fuscatus_ is synonymized under
_panamensis_, the holotype of _panamensis_ is an intergrade between the
almost black Colombian animal (_fuscatus_) and the paler individuals in
Central America and territory north thereof. Even so, the holotype of
_panamensis_ more closely resembles the blackish Colombian population
than the paler populations to the north and the name _panamensis_,
therefore, is correctly applicable to the bat from Panamá, but not to
bats of the species _Lasiurus ega_ from farther north as most authors
(see, for example, Hall and Kelson, 1959:194, map 143; and Handley,
1960:474) suggested was the case. For the populations north of Panamá
the name _Lasiurus ega xanthinus_ (Thomas) (1897:544) needs to be used.


Lasiurus ega xanthinus (Thomas)

    1897. _Dasypterus ega xanthinus_ Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,
    ser. 6, 20:544, December, type from Sierra Laguna, Baja California.

    1953. _Lasiurus ega xanthinus_, Dalquest, Louisiana State
    Univ. Studies, Biol. Ser., 1:61, December 28.

    _Geographic distribution._--Southern California, southern
    Arizona, and northern Coahuila southward through México to southern
    Costa Rica.

    _Diagnosis._--Yellowish-brown with an overlay of grayish
    anterior to the shoulders; forearm, 42.7-47.2.

    _Remarks._--Specimens from Baja California and the adjacent
    western part of the mainland of México average paler than specimens
    from Veracruz and some places in Central America but the
    differences are slight.

    _Records of occurrence._--Specimens examined, 21, as follows:
    BAJA CALIFORNIA.--Comondú, 1 (USNM); Sierra Laguna, 4 (1
    USNM, 3 British Mus.). COAHUILA.--4 mi. W Hacienda La
    Mariposa, 2300 ft., 2 (KU). ZACATECAS.--Concepción del
    Oro, 7680 ft., 4 (KU). TAMAULIPAS.--Sierra de Tamaulipas,
    1200 ft., 10 mi. W, 2 mi. S Piedra, 5 (KU); 16 mi. W, 3 mi. S
    Piedra, 1 (KU). SINALOA.--1 mi. S Pericos, 1 (KU).
    VERACRUZ.--Achotal, 1 (Chicago Mus.).
    YUCATAN.--Yaxcach, 1 (USNM). COSTA RICA.--Lajas,
    Villa Quesada, 1 (AMNH); San José, 1 (AMNH).

    _Additional records:_ CALIFORNIA: Palm Springs
    (Constantine, 1946:107). ARIZONA: Tucson (Cockrum,
    1961:97). BAJA CALIFORNIA (Handley, 1960:474): Santa Ana;
    Miraflores. SINALOA: Escuinapa (Handley, 1960:475).
    DURANGO: Aguajequiroz, 12 mi. SSW Mapimí, 5000 ft. (Greer,
    1960:511). SAN LUIS POTOSI (Dalquest, 1953:62): 1-1/2 mi.
    E Río Verde; 19 km. SW Ebano; 4 mi. SSW Ajinche. QUINTANA
    ROO: 7 mi. N, 37 mi. E Puerto de Morelos (Ingles, 1959:384).
    HONDURAS: Tegucigalpa (Handley, 1960:474).


Lasiurus ega panamensis (Thomas)

    1901. _Dasypterus ega panamensis_ Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,
    ser. 7, 8:246, September, type from Bogava [= Bugaba], Chiriquí,
    250 meters, Panamá.

    1960. _Lasiurus ega panamensis_, Handley, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.,
    112:474, October 6.

    _Geographic distribution._--Panamá; also recorded by Handley
    (1960:474) from Venezuela.

    _Diagnosis._--"General colour dark brownish clay-color, something
    between Ridgway's 'raw-umber' and 'clay-color'. Fur black basally,
    then dull brownish buffy, the extreme tips black. Center of face
    similar to back, cheeks from eyes to lips contrasting black. Rump
    and hairy part of interfemoral verging toward brownish fulvous.
    Under surface similar to upper." (Thomas, 1901:246.) Forearm of
    holotype, 46.5.

    _Remarks._--Notes taken down by one of us (Hall) on July 16, 1958,
    at the British Museum, Natural History, contain the following:
    "Color accurately described by Thomas. The blackish stands out. The
    difference between the types of _D. e. panamensis_ and _D. e.
    xanthinus_ is tremendous."

    _Record of occurrence._--Specimen examined, one, the type (British
    Mus.).



RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPECIES OF LASIURUS


As suggested by Dalquest in 1953 (p. 62) and by Handley in 1959 (p.
119) and 1960 (p. 473), the yellow bats, _Lasiurus ega_ (Gervais) and
_Lasiurus intermedius_ H. Allen, so closely resemble the hoary bat,
_Lasiurus cinereus_ (Palisot de Beauvois), and the red bats, _Lasiurus
borealis_ (Müller) and the seven related species listed below, that
all are properly included in a single genus. Many of the common
characteristics are enumerated above in the diagnosis of the genus
(see also Handley, 1960:473).

[Illustration: FIG. 3. Diagram of bones of right arm and third finger
(middle digit) including cartilage on distal end of terminal (3rd)
phalanx. Percentages are in terms of the over-all length of the arm and
third finger.]

A listing of the differences between the species is less impressive
than a listing of the resemblances. The yellow bats differ less from
the red bats than does the hoary bat, _L. cinereus_, which differs from
all of the others as follows: talonid on m3 larger; p4 single-rooted
instead of double-rooted; hypocone on M1 and M2 smaller; coronoid
process lower; ossified part of tympanic ring, which shields the
petrosal, larger; humerus relatively shorter; forearm relatively
longer; first phalanx of middle finger relatively shorter; presternum
including keel longer than wide instead of _vice versa_. The
differences in the sternum and proportions of the forelimb reflect the
more rapid flight of the hoary bat. The yellow bats differ from the red
bats and hoary bat in long rostrum, pronounced sagittal crest, high
coronoid process, absence of the first upper premolar, long first
phalanx of the third digit and short terminal (3rd) phalanx of the same
digit. Features in which the red bats are extreme in the genus are
short rostrum, short forearm, and relatively longer second phalanx of
the third finger. The red bats differ only slightly one from another.

Next to nothing is known of extinct Tertiary ancestors of species of
the genus _Lasiurus_. Also relatively little is known about _Lasiurus_
in the Pleistocene. Consequently, evolution of the living species has
to be inferred almost entirely from what is known about their
structure, habits, and geographic distribution. Figure 4 presents some
ideas concerning relationships.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. Postulated relationships of species of the genus
_Lasiurus_.]



LIST OF NAMED KINDS OF THE GENUS LASIURUS


The words "type from" indicate that a specimen or specimens served as
basis for the name. The words "type locality" signify lack of knowledge
as to whether a specimen was preserved.


Red Bats

_Lasiurus borealis borealis_ (Müller), 1776, type from New York.

    [_Vespertilio_] _noveboracensis_ Erxleben, 1777, based, in part,
    on "Der Neujorker" of Müller (_ante_).

    _Vespertilio lasiurus_ Schreber, 1781, type locality, North
    America.

    _Vespertilio rubellus_ Palisot de Beauvois, 1796, type locality
    unknown.

    _Vespertilio rubra_ Ord, 1815, based on the red bat of Wilson,
    Amer. Ornith., 6:60.

    _Vespertilio tesselatus_ Rafinesque, 1818, type locality unknown.

    _Vespertilio monachus_ Rafinesque, 1818, type locality unknown.

    _Vespertilio rufus_ Warden, 1820, based on the red bat of Wilson,
    _ibid._

    _Lasiurus funebris_ Fitzinger, 1870, type locality, Tennessee.

    _Myotis quebecensis_ Yourans, 1930, type from Anse-à-Wolfe,
    Quebec.

_Lasiurus borealis frantzii_ (Peters), 1871, type from Costa Rica.

_Lasiurus borealis teliotis_ (H. Allen), 1891, type probably from
California.

    _Lasiurus borealis ornatus_ Hall, 1951, type from Penuela,
    Veracruz.

_Lasiurus borealis varius_ (Poeppig), 1835, type from Antuco,
Provincia de Bió-Bió, Chile.

    _Nycticeus poepingii_ Lesson, 1836, type from Chile.

    _Lasiurus borealis salinae_ Thomas, 1902, type from Cruz del Eje,
    Cordoba, Argentina.

_Lasiurus borealis blossevillii_ Lesson and Garnot, 1826, type from
Montevideo, Uruguay.

    _Vespertilio bonariensis_ Lesson, 1827, type from Buenos Aires,
    Argentina.

    _Lasiurus enslenii_ Lima, 1926, type from São Lourenço, Rio Grande
    do Sul, Brazil.

_Lasiurus pfeifferi_ (Gundlach), 1861, type from Cuba.

_Lasiurus degelidus_ Miller, 1931, type from Sutton's, District of
Vere, Jamaica.

_Lasiurus minor_ Miller, 1931, type from "Voute l'Eglise," 1350 ft., a
cave near the Jacmel road a few kilometers N Trouin, Haiti.

_Lasiurus seminolus_ (Rhoads), 1895, type from Tarpon Springs,
Pinellas Co., Florida.

_Lasiurus castaneus_ Handley, 1960, type from Tacarcuna Village, 3200
ft., Río Pucro, Darién, Panamá.

_Lasiurus egregius_ (Peters), 1871, type from Santa Catarina, Brazil.

_Lasiurus brachyotis_ (J. A. Allen), 1892, type from San Cristóbal
Island, Galapagos Islands.


Yellow Bats

_Lasiurus golliheri_ (Hibbard and Taylor), Contributions Mus. Paleo.,
Univ. Michigan, 16:162, fig. 10F, July 1, 1960 [an extinct species],
type from [a stratum of Late Pleistocene Age] "Below the caliche bed
in the Kingsdown formation; Cragin Quarry local fauna, locality 1
(Sangamon age); Big Springs Ranch, SW 1/4 sec. 17, T. 32 S., R. 28 W.
(Kansas University Locality 6), Meade County, Kansas."

_Lasiurus ega xanthinus_ (Thomas), 1897, type from Sierra Laguna, Baja
California.

_Lasiurus ega panamensis_ (Thomas), 1901, type from Bugaba, Chiriquí,
Panamá.

_Lasiurus ega fuscatus_ (Thomas), 1901, type from Río Cauquete,
Colombia.

_Dasypterus ega punensis_ J. A. Allen, 1914, type from Isla de Puná,
Ecuador.

_Lasiurus ega ega_ (Gervais), 1856, type from Ega, Estado de Amazonas,
Brazil.

    _Lasiurus caudatus_ Tomes, 1857, type from Pernambuco, Brazil.

_Lasiurus ega argentinus_ (Thomas), 1901, type from Goya, Province of
Corrientes, Argentina.

_Lasiurus intermedius intermedius_ H. Allen, 1862, type from
Matamoros, Tamaulipas, México.

_Lasiurus intermedius floridanus_ (Miller), 1902, type from Lake
Kissimmee, Osceola Co., Florida.

_Lasiurus intermedius insularis_ Hall and Jones, 1961, type from
Cienfuegos, Las Villas Province, Cuba.


Hoary Bats

_Lasiurus fossilis_ Hibbard, Contributions Mus. Paleo., Univ. Michigan,
8(No.6): 134, fig. 5, June 20, 1950 [an extinct species], type from [an
early Pleistocene or a late Pliocene deposit] "Rexroad formation,
Rexroad fauna. Locality UM-K1-47, Fox Canyon, XI Ranch, Meade County,
Kansas."

_Lasiurus cinereus cinereus_ (Palisot de Beauvois), 1796, type from
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Known from Late Pleistocene time as well as
from Recent time (see Hibbard and Taylor, Contributions Mus. Paleo.,
Univ. Michigan, 16:159, fig. 10A, July 1, 1960, for occurrence in
Cragin Quarry local fauna, Sangamon Age, Meade County, Kansas).

    _Vespertilio pruinosus_ Say, 1823, type from Engineer Cantonment,
    Washington Co., Nebraska.

    _A[talapha]. mexicana_ Saussure, 1861, type from an unknown
    locality, probably from Veracruz, Puebla, or Oaxaca.

_Lasiurus cinereus villosissimus_ É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1806, type
locality, Asunción, Paraguay.

    _Lasiurus grayi_ Tomes, 1857, type from Chile.

    _Atalapha pallescens_ Peters, 1871, type from Paramo de la Culata,
    Andes de Mérida, Venezuela.

    _Atalapha cinerea brasiliensis_ Pira, 1905, type from Ignape, São
    Paulo, Brazil.

_Lasiurus cinereus semotus_ (H. Allen), 1890, type from Hawaii.



EXPLANATION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Hall and Jones are jointly responsible for the accounts of the two
species of yellow bats, but Hall alone assumes responsibility for the
other parts of the paper. Thanks are extended to the National Science
Foundation for financial support (Grant No. 56 G 103) of the study here
reported on. We are grateful also to the following persons for the loan
of specimens in their care: S. B. Benson, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology,
University of California (MVZ); W. F. Blair, Department of Zoology,
University of Texas (Univ. Texas); W. B. Davis, Dept. Wildlife
Management, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas (TAMC or Texas
A & M); D. H. Johnson, C. O. Handley, Jr., and W. H. Setzer, U.S.
National Museum (USNM); Barbara Lawrence, Museum of Comparative Zoology
at Harvard College (MCZ); J. N. Layne, Department of Biology,
University of Florida (UF); G. H. Lowery, Jr., Museum of Natural
History, Louisiana State University (LSU); P. J. H. van Bree,
Department of Mammals, Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam (AZM); and R. G.
Van Gelder, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Thanks are
extended also to E. T. Hooper and W. H. Burt, Mus. Zoology, University
of Michigan (Univ. Mich.), to Philip Hershkovitz, Chicago Natural
History Museum (Chicago Mus.), and to Peter Crowcroft, British Museum,
Natural History, for permission to examine specimens there. Mr.
Gilberto Silva Taboada arranged the loan of specimens from the Poey
Museum, University of Havana and from the Ramsdem Museum, University of
Oriente, both in Cuba. Mr. Silva Taboada and Dr. Carlos G. Aguayo of
the Poey Museum graciously arranged an exchange of specimens whereby
the holotype of _L. i. insularis_ became the property of the Museum of
Natural History, University of Kansas. Specimens in the last mentioned
institution are identified with the symbol KU.



LITERATURE CITED


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BAKER, R. H., and DICKERMAN, R. W.

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BLAIR, W. F.

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THOMAS, O.

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_Transmitted June 30, 1961._





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