Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

´╗┐Title: The Bible Story
Author: Hall, Newton Marshall, 1865-1926, Wood, Irving Francis, 1861-1934
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Bible Story" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's notes]
  Thanks to Jim and Carol Presher of Timeless Antiques in Valley
  Alabama for providing access to the original texts.

  This is the complete text of all six volumes of the set. "HOW TO USE
  THE BIBLE STORY" (the first volume), organizes the use and access of
  the other five volumes.

  Page numbers in this book are indicated by numbers enclosed in curly
  braces, e.g. {99}. They have been located where page breaks occurred
  in the original book.

  Each photograph is printed on the back of a separate page with the
  description on the front side. In the following example the
  description is on page 29 and the photograph on page 30.

     {29}{30}

     [Illustration]
       THE DIVINE MOTHER AND THE CHILD
       ...
     [End illustration]

  Quotation marks are often unbalanced. This transcription copies
  the original text.

  Colons (:) are frequently used instead of commas or semicolons.
[End transcriber's notes]


{1}

HOW TO USE THE BIBLE STORY


THE KING-RICHARDSON COMPANY
SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS

{2}

COPYRIGHT, 1917,

BY THE KING-RICHARDSON COMPANY,
SPRINGFIELD, MASS.

{3}

FOREWORD

The five volumes of THE BIBLE STORY have served to beautify and
classify the Bible and are simple and complete in themselves. They do
not require explanation or enrichment. It is the desire, however, by
the addition of this volume to suggest definite ways of using the
work.

This book contains a series of suggestions to fit the occasion, the
temperament, and the time of the user. It may be picked up often and a
part of it used as opportunity offers. We believe there may be those
who will wish to use all the suggestions. We are sure that all who own
THE BIBLE STORY will wish to use some of them.

This volume has the following aims:--

In General:

To give a better knowledge of the Bible and thus to make reading it a
delight instead of a task.

Specifically:

  To show how to use the work with children and how children may use
  it.

  To make the Bible as useful as possible in character building.

  To bring out the connection of the Bible with its land.

  To show the connection of the Bible with literature.

{4}

{5}

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

                                                                  PAGE

Key.                                                                10

Why Read the Bible?                                                 11

Why are Bible Readers so Few?                                       12


PART I

THE CHILD AND THE BIBLE

The Mother's Part: How Can I Use THE BIBLE STORY with My Child?     15

1. What Do I Have to Know in Order to Make the Best Use
   of THE BIBLE STORY with My Child?                                15

2. How Can I Encourage My Child to Memorize Bible Verses?           15

3. How Can I Help My Child to Understand God's Relation
   to the World?                                                    16

4. How Can I Know the Best Bible Stories to Tell to Children?       17

5. How Can I Get My Child to Read the Bible?                        19

6. How Can I Help My Child to Understand Life in Bible Times?       19

7. How Can I Get My Child to Use THE BIBLE STORY for Himself?       20

8. How Can I Interest My Child in the Great Works of Art
   in THE BIBLE STORY?                                              21

Questions to Ask Little Children, for general review of all the
foregoing lessons.                                                  26

{6}

PART II

CHARACTER AND LIVING

PAGE

Make the Bible Heroes your Friends.                                 31

Jesus' Character-Building Stories                                   32

Foundation Stones                                                   33

Try Lincoln's Way                                                   37

History and the Bible                                               38

  1. The World in Bible Times                                       38

  2. The Bible in History                                           39

Living with the Bible                                               42

Questions on the Text                                               45


PART III

THE LAND OF THE BIBLE

A Bird's-eye View of the Land                                       97

Understanding Geography by Pictures                                100

Locating Bible Characters in the Land                              105


PART IV

THE BIBLE IN LITERATURE

The Bible's Place in Literature                                    113

Questions bringing out the Bible's Literary Value                  116

  1. The Poetry of the Bible                                       116

  2. The Oratory in the Bible                                      118

  3. Other Literary Forms Found in the Bible                       119

  4. The Literary Value of the Books of Prophecy                   120

  5. The Bible--an Inspiration to Writers                          121

The Bible's Gift to Our Language                                   125

{7}

PART V

THE BIBLE AND THE TEACHER

                                                                  PAGE
How the Foregoing Suggestions for the Use of THE BIBLE
  STORY may be Employed by the Bible School Teacher                161

  1. In the Primary Department                                     161

  2. In the Junior, Intermediate, and Senior Departments           162


PART VI

PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY

{8}

{9}

INTRODUCTION

{10}

KEY

Throughout this volume initials are used to indicate titles of volumes
in which references are found, as follows:--

G.B.   Golden Book.

H.T.   Hero Tales.

T.J.   Tales of Old Judea.

L.J.   Life of Jesus.

S.A.   Songs of the Ages.

{11}

INTRODUCTION

Why Read the Bible?

If Bible readers everywhere could return their answers what diverse
and interesting points of view the replies would bring!

For instance, one perceives in the Bible record the worst and the best
that men have always thought and felt; for him it is full of the
universal motives of humanity. He has noticed, too, that in sketching
often but the single act of a character, the Book brings the essential
man or woman vividly out of the darkness and into the light for all
time. As a student of men, we can imagine such a one replying that the
Bible is "The Book of Human Nature."

Another knows that it has been the inspiration of countless writers,
and that its sayings and teachings are woven by the hundreds and
thousands through and through the texture of our English masterpieces.
A student of books might well say that the Bible is the chief
"Source-Book of Our Literature."

Still another would say, "The Bible is the beginning of many of our
customs. Our common law is largely founded on its laws and many of our
institutions are based upon those it sanctions." So a business man, a
man of affairs, might very naturally call it, "The Foundation-Book of
Christian Civilization."

For many the Bible is "The Book of Salvation," pointing the way into
the presence of God.

Still others draw from it counsel and strength for those who depend
upon them for guidance. "God could not be everywhere, so he made
mothers." And in their hands the Bible becomes "The Book of
Character."

The marvel of it is that each of these viewpoints is true. And many
others are equally true. For the Bible, like the diamond, reflects its
light from many facets. Which one you see depends upon where you
stand, upon your point of view. How clear and strong the light for you
depends upon how far you have come within the circle of its radiance.

{12}

Why are Bible Readers so Few?

Truly the harvest of Bible enlightenment is plentiful beyond measure;
why then are those who reap it for themselves so few? It is because we
lack time to understand. Our Bible Schools might solve the problem if
only they had time, but one hour a week with the Bible is scarcely an
introduction to it, never a fellowship with it. The Book of books is
no shallow friend to give up all its treasures upon a superficial
acquaintance. Rather it is a friend to be lived with in the home.

This book of suggestions is an invitation to you to come farther
within the charmed circle of the Bible's light. Its aim is to save
your time by helping you to use it to the greatest advantage. However
much or little of the Bible light has been coming to you, may this
book help to increase, to clarify, to beautify it. If it shall help
you to bring more time, the most precious of modern possessions, to
the understanding of the Bible, the most precious wisdom of the ages,
its purpose will have been abundantly fulfilled.

{13}

PART I

THE CHILD AND THE BIBLE

_Answering Mothers' Questions_

{14}

"So great is my veneration for the Bible, that the earlier my children
begin to read it the more confident will be my hopes that they will
prove useful citizens to their country and respectable members of
society."
                                               --_John Quincy Adams_.


{15}

THE CHILD AND THE BIBLE

THE MOTHER'S PART--HOW CAN I USE THE BIBLE STORY WITH MY CHILD?

This is the most important part of the work, because it helps you to
understand and use all the rest, and answers your questions in regard
to the religious life of your child. These suggestions are largely for
the use of "The Golden Book."


1. What Do I Have to Know in Order to Make the Best Use
   of THE BIBLE STORY with My Child?

You must know three things:--

That a child will not appreciate and use this work at first unless you
appreciate and use it too.

That in order to appreciate and use it, you do not need to read all
five volumes through at once. You may begin with any one of the
suggestions here given, that pleases and interests you most, and use
only what little time you may have. Little by little interest will
grow and the child will be finding keen enjoyment in acquiring Bible
knowledge for himself.

That even though you had time for immediate and thorough reading, the
work is of such proportion that its worth cannot be grasped at once.
It is by constant daily use in the home that the beauty and
effectiveness of THE BIBLE STORY are revealed and the Bible made an
"open book" to many a child as well as adult.


2. How Can I Encourage My Child to Memorize Bible Verses?

This is not difficult. Childhood is the time when verbal memory is
most acute. The best way to encourage the memorizing of verses is
{16} to make a game out of it instead of a task. Do this by using the
Bible alphabet in "The Golden Book" (page 25) and thus linking up the
Bible with something familiar. Teach a verse each week and ask for
daily repetition of it. After several are learned, a drill on the
verses is suggested as a spur to memory. Ask what verse in the Bible
begins with A? B? C? etc. For the older children there are memory
verses given, one for each week in the year, in the back of each of
the first four volumes. Let the child himself, so far as he can,
arrange these in alphabetical order.

Memorizing is much quickened by making as many natural connections as
possible, the known with the unknown. Many hymns are readily recalled
by associating them with Psalms of which they are explanations.
Children like to learn poetry. Give them the poems suggested below as
well as the accompanying Bible passages to learn. Go over them first
and let the children understand the parallelism.

  Psalm 23 ( 35 S.A.)            Hymns (309, 291 G.B.)

  Psalm 117 (139 S.A.)           Hymn (494 S.A.)

  Psalm 19 ( 30 S.A.)            Hymn (434 G.B.)

  The Birth of Jesus (37 L.J.)   Hymns (405, 409 G.B.)

These hymns are well worth memorizing, for they are among the best in
our language and knowing them will be an added inducement to
memorizing the Bible verses that tell the same story.


3. How Can I Help My Child to Understand God's Relation to the World?

Begin with familiar things.--This is very easily done when the child's
thoughts of God are related to his knowledge of the things of home.
You will find a splendid treatment of these relationships in the
primer pages in "The Golden Book" (27-68). Give these lessons to a
child who is learning to read. He will like them because the pages
look just like his school book and he will be helped in his reading at
the same time that he is learning truths which explain the Bible verse
given at the bottom of each page. There is no better way of helping a
young child to understand love for God, faith in God, the presence of
God, and other great truths that are usually given in the abstract.

(The questions at the end of this chapter will be helpful in getting
the child to express himself.)

{17}

4. How Can I Know the Best Bible Stories to Tell to Children?

Remember two things: that, as children develop, different types of
stories appeal to them, and that everyone of these types is found in
THE BIBLE STORY. It is a fact that, while the Bible is a universal
story book, many of its best lessons cannot be put in story form and
are therefore left out of any collection of Bible stories.
Consequently the child is missing much that he might profitably have.
THE BIBLE STORY meets a great need of the times by bringing to
children all the lessons of the Bible, some by means of simple
treatments of interesting things and some by means of longer stories
of its heroes and heroines.


_Simple Good-Night Talks for Little Tots_

The following paragraphs in "The Golden Book" contain the sweetest,
most constructive lessons to be found in the whole Bible and are
beautiful good-night talks for very young children. The questions at
the end of this chapter are listed according to pages in "The Golden
Book" and will help in getting the child to repeat the story.

  God Sees Me.                                         81 G.B.

  What Does God Want Me to Do?                         82 G.B.

  What God Gives.                                      85 G.B.

  Jesus and His Friends.                               86 G.B.

  Jesus Had no Home.                                   89 G.B.

  The People Loved Jesus.                              93 G.B.

  The Boyhood of Jesus                                 97 G.B.

  Jesus and Sick People.                               98 G.B.

  Talking with Our Father.                             101 G.B.

  God is Our Father.                                   105 G.B.

  What Jesus Said about Birds and Flowers.             106 G.B.

  What Jesus Said about Trees.                         109 G.B.

It will be helpful to the mother who is constantly appealed to by her
children for special kinds of stories to know where to find them in
THE BIBLE STORY.


_Stories about Other Children_

Children are fond of listening to stories about other children like
themselves. THE BIBLE STORY contains many such.

  Jesus and the Little Girl.                           110 G.B.

  The Baby Hid in a Basket.                            117 G.B.

  The Boy Who Came when He was Called.                 132 G.B.

  The Boy Who was Raised from the Dead.                193 G.B.

  The Little Captive Maid.                             205 G.B.

{18}

_Hero Stories_

The favorites of all children beyond the first year or two of school
are the stories of great heroes. A large part of "The Golden Book" is
given up to stories of Bible heroes, and the following volume is made
up of the lives of these same heroes in the words of the Bible text
and is consequently more difficult. The beauty of this arrangement is
that after reading the easy story in "The Golden Book" a child will
want to read more, and as soon as he is able will enjoy going further
with his great heroes in the volumes that contain the Bible text. He
will understand seemingly difficult passages in the succeeding volumes
of the set because of the substantial background formed by the simple
treatments in "The Golden Book." The list of simple hero stories is
here given together with the corresponding stories in the Bible text
in other volumes.

  The Shepherd Boy Who Killed a Giant.                 139 G.B.

  David and Goliath.                                   386 H.T.

  David and King Saul.                                 151 G.B.

  David an Outlaw.                                     406 H.T.

  David and Jonathan.                                  156 G.B.

  The Jealousy of Saul.                                396 H.T.

  David and His Three Brave Soldiers.                  163 G.B.

  A Knightly Deed.                                     438 H.T.

  David and His Son Absalom.                           167 G.B.

  The Rebellion of Absalom.                            443 H.T.

  The Story of a Good King.                            170 G.B.

  Solomon's Temple.                                    461 H.T.

  Joseph and His Brethren.                             177 G.B.

  Joseph.                                              91 H.T.

In the same way you may read the Bedtime Stories, beginning on page
245 of "The Golden Book," and then go naturally to the same stories in
the Bible text itself as told in the volume "The Life of Jesus."

  The Story of the First Christmas.                    245 G.B.

  Nativity.                                            37 L.J.

  The Story of Palm Sunday.                            251 G.B.

  The Entry into Jerusalem.                            233 L.J.

  How Jesus Gave His Life for the World.               257 G.B.

  The Crucifixion.                                     281 L.J.

  The Story of the First Easter Sunday.                265 G.B.

  The Resurrection.                                    297 L.J.

{19}

  Who was the Neighbor?                                279 G.B.

  The Good Samaritan.                                  88 L.J.

  The Good Shepherd.                                   282 G.B.

  The Good Shepherd and the Sheep.                     200 L.J.


5. How Can I Get My Child to Read the Bible?

In no better way than that suggested in the two foregoing paragraphs.
Begin at once with the simpler parts of "The Golden Book," proceed
gradually, awakening new interest, daily if possible, by means of the
Questions (page 26) and Things to Do (page 20). It will take a little
time and much thought, but it is the great privilege of the mother to
watch for the opportunity and lead the child by means of "The Golden
Book" into the treasure house of the Bible, which, despite its
wonderful interest and character-building values, has up to this time
presented almost a closed door to children. As soon as the child has
passed out of "The Golden Book" and found an interest in the other
volumes make use of the suggestions and questions in the next chapter
for the "Hero Age," and hold the interest once gained.

Very early in life little children begin to ask about Christmas, Palm
Sunday, and Easter. Why not seize this opportunity and give them
answers to their questions from the Bible?


6. How Can I Help My Child to Understand Life in Bible Times?

By "Seeing Palestine with THE BIBLE STORY."

Read these Stories:--

  How the People Traveled in the Lands of the Bible 208 G.B.

  Houses in the Lands of the Bible.                   214 G.B.

  Children in the Lands of the Bible.                 217 G.B.

  Jerusalem.                                          218 G.B.

  The Jordan.                                         224 G.B.

  The Dead Sea.                                       226 G.B.

  Bethlehem.                                          229 G.B.

  Palestine in the Days of the Lord Jesus.            17 L.J.

{20}

Answer these questions:--

(_Be sure to read the story on the back of each picture._)

  What do you know about plowing in Palestine?        50, 84 G.B.

  How do they thresh in the lands of the Bible?       128, 274 G.B.
                                                      440 H.T.

  What is the town of Nazareth like to-day?           88, 100 G.B.

  How do they draw water in old Philistia?            142 G.B.

  What do you know about an Eastern shepherd
  and his sheep?                                      146, 210,
                                                      284, 308 G.B.

  Who said, "I am the good shepherd"?                 288 G.B.

  Tell about winnowing in Bible lands.                158, 162 G.B.

  Look at the pictures on pages 294, 298,
  302, 312, 368, 374 G.B., then tell what
  Jesus said about animals.                           304 G.B.

  What were some of the streets like in
  ancient Palestine?                                  356 T.J. 278 L.J.
                                                      300 S.A.

  Name the lake on which Jesus so often sailed
  with his disciples.                                 108 G.B. 462 T.J.

  Why were the disciples so often to be
  found on the lake?                                  146 L.J.

  Tell two stories about Jesus and
  the Lake of Galilee.                                94, 307 L.J.

  How did the people fish in Palestine?               487 L.J.

  Why is it necessary in Palestine to separate
  the tares from the wheat before harvest?            22 L.J.

  What did the army of the Midianites look like
  when they came to fight the children of Israel?     318, 322 H.T.

  Read the story.                                     319 H.T.

  How and by whom is meal ground in Palestine?        176 S.A.

  The extent of Solomon's kingdom was from "Dan
  to Beersheba"; find northern and southern points    14 T.J.


7. How Can I Get My Child to Use THE BIBLE STORY for Himself?

By giving him some _Things to Do_. It is a splendid plan to take
advantage of the child's natural eagerness to look at the pictures in
THE BIBLE STORY, so as to make that desire of real educational value.
The following are delightful for a child to do:--

Study closely the pictures on pages 176, 196, 204, and 254 of "The
Golden Book," read the interesting notes on the back of each picture,
and the story on page 208 of "The Golden Book." Then tell the
difference between traveling in Bible lands and in our land.

{21}

Look at the pictures of Bethlehem on pages 138 and 248 of "The Golden
Book" and page 28 L.J. and read the story on the back of each. Then
tell how David's home and life were different from yours. Read the
story on page 229 G.B. and see what wonderful things happened in this
little town.

Read the story on page 214 G.B. and look at the pictures on pages
88,92,188, of "The Golden Book" and 192 T.J., then compare a house in
the Holy Land with your house.

Read the story on page 217 of "The Golden Book" and look at the
pictures opposite and on page 172 of "The Golden Book." Then tell or
write what you think are the pleasant things about living in Bible
lands. Look at the picture on page 236 and tell why it was good to
live there in the year 33 A.D.

In your sand pile build a tiny city of Jerusalem. You will know just
how to make it after you have read the story on page 218 of "The
Golden Book." Put it on a hill with valleys on three sides of it. Use
stones to build the wall. (See page 216 T.J.) Put a large white stone
where you think the temple stood. The picture on page 480 in "Hero
Tales" will show you how the city really looked. After you have built
the city and neighboring hills and valleys as well as you can, show
them to your mother and father and explain all the interesting
features. Tell about the path on the wall and its use; tell why the
city was built on a hill; tell about the gates in the wall. (See page
215 T.J.) Explain who built the temple and tell anything else you may
know about the greatest city of the Bible lands.

In the back of the volume, "The Songs of the Ages," you will find an
index of illustrations and can easily turn to all the pictures of
Jerusalem in these volumes and learn some interesting things.


8. How Can I Interest My Child in the Great Works of Art in
   THE BIBLE STORY?

The interest of children in works of art, if unguided, usually lasts
only for a moment. Let some one, however, begin to talk about the
picture and the child fixes eager eyes upon it and follows every word
with breathless attention. "Talking about a picture is simply letting
a picture talk," and many of these pictures are volumes in themselves
which one must read carefully to know all they are meant to tell. The
following paragraphs furnish questions and suggest lines of study
which will often open the door of the child's mind to artistic
appreciation.

{22}


_Talking about Pictures_

  What painter of Madonnas was called the
  "peasant painter of Spain"?                         30 G.B.

  There are four Madonnas by this artist in
  "The Golden Book"                                   30, 348,
                                                      436, 450 G.B.

    Which two most resemble each other?
    How do even these two differ?

    Which is thought to be the most beautiful of all?

    Which is your favorite? Why?

    Find the one painted without the child.

    Did you notice two little seraphs that are in
    almost the same position on pages 436 and 450 G.B.?

    In which of the pictures do you think the painter
    has shown the most loving mother?

  Describe some other children's pictures painted
  by this great man.                                  336, 480 G.B.

  Who is generally considered the greatest
  of all painters?                                    220 G.B.

  Name the most famous Madonna in the world           220 G.B.

(Notice how lines drawn from the head of the Madonna to the heads of
the two supporting figures and across their base make a triangle. This
balance gives strength to the picture and makes it more pleasing to
look at. One reason why art critics say this picture is "without one
false note" is its perfect balance. Remember that this regularity and
balance of composition mean repose in a picture while a combination of
slanting lines and lessening figures suggests motion. (See 38 T.J.) If
slanting lines suggest motion, perpendicular ones show rest, as seen
in the figure of Ruth (44 T.J.). These perpendicular lines are very
much used by the great artists; for instance, look at pages 262, 372,
382, 390 S.A.)

Raphael painted many pictures besides Madonnas. One of his most famous
pictures is on page 366 L.J. There are two other Madonnas by this same
artist in "The Golden Book" (pages 356, 444). Describe them and learn
their names.

What do you think is interesting about the Madonna picture by Carlo
Dolci on page 340 G.B.?

Where does the light come from in the Madonna picture on page 396?

{23}

Note another very much like Dolci's (page 400): Can you explain this
light?

In the picture on page 414 G.B. notice how glad every one is that the
Christ Child has come: Why do you think the artist made them look so
happy?

Which of the Madonnas on pages 364, 392, 418, 432, 470 G.B. do you
like best, and why?

Find on page 42 G.B. one of the most popular modern Madonnas. This is
something like the Madonna on page 450 but it is not considered so
good. What do you think is the difference between the two?

What does the Bible call the three men represented as looking at the
baby in the Madonna picture on page 408 G.B.?

What is unusual about the picture by Bouguereau on page 332 G.B.?

Describe the picture by the same artist on page 426.

In what way is the picture on page 332 like the one by Murillo on page
450?

How is the picture on page 404 like the Adoration of the Angels on
page 426?

There are many pictures of the face of Jesus in "The Golden Book" that
are worth studying and comparing. Turn, one after another, to the
pictures on pages 74, 104, 288, 308; look at each of the faces, and
say which you like best, and why.

Name a very great French artist who was
a painter of landscapes.                              38 G.B.

What sort of subject did Sir Joshua Reynolds
choose for many of his paintings?
In what country did he live?                          46,374,382 G.B.

(A group of men in England called the Pre-Raphaelites were fond of
painting pictures that tell a story. One of the most famous of these,
an allegorical picture, is given on page 466 G.B. It is interesting to
trace out its meaning. See how many prominent features of this picture
you can pick out. Notice the three lights: the moonlight, symbol of
earth's dimness; the lantern light, symbol of the searching light of
conscience; the light around the Master's head, symbol of the light of
love. One of the Master's hands is bound by the light of conscience,
but the other is free to knock at the door of the heart of man. The
brambles and vines of neglect and sin have grown over the door and it
has no latch. It can be opened only from within.)

{24}

What woman is ranked among the most famous animal
painters of the world?                                 378 G.B.

Of what form of art was Thorwaldsen a master?
Notice how this form can tell a story                  48 H.T.

Who painted the famous frieze of the Prophets
in the Boston Public Library?                          89 H.T.

What prophets are represented in each of the
four sections?                                         262, 372,
                                                       382, 390 S.A.

Tell the history of the great statue of David by
Michael Angelo.                                        384 H. T.

Who was Michael Angelo?

Murillo, great painter of Madonnas, also painted other pictures. Can
you tell the story of the two pictures on 64, 246 H.T.?

An interesting picture is given on page 38 H.T. Can you tell where
this family is going and why?

You can tell a story of Jesus from the pictures in the volume, "The
Life of Jesus." Follow those in the order suggested and see how much
you can tell about Jesus' life from pages 16, 40, 48, 52, 56, 76, 114,
232, 236, 274, 312.

The pictures of Jesus that we see most often were painted by Hofmann.
This artist has painted a great many pictures of Jesus and several are
given in the volume, "The Life of Jesus," on pages 84, 164, 210, 266.
Would you know from looking at them that these pictures were all
painted by the same man? Why?

Leonardo da Vinci was one of the greatest of Italian
painters. What is his most famous picture?            252 L.J.

Can you explain who the men are, represented in this picture (252
L.J.), and what they are all talking about? Do you know why Jesus'
face is so sad? Look on page 256 L.J. for a larger picture of the face
of Jesus. This is a study made by Da Vinci for his great painting,
"The Last Supper," and is called "The Unfinished Christ." It is said
of this picture: "Never had such a vision of the face come to mortal
before. Never has it been approached in beauty or power by any painter
since."

The following is an interesting observation test as well as a help
in fixing the beautiful stories in mind. Turn to the picture on page
254 G.B. Ask the child to examine it closely for a few minutes and
then tell you in detail what he sees in the picture. Some children
will see many things, others will need suggestions to help them in
bringing out {25} the interesting points of characters and setting.
After the picture is well in mind turn to page 251 G.B. and read the
story of Palm Sunday, letting the child fit his observations to the
story.

Other pictures and stories that may be used in the same way are:--

  Pictures.                                           16 L.J., 388 G.B.
  Story.                                              245 G.B.

  Picture.                                            458 G.B.
  Story.                                              49 L.J.

  Picture.                                            112 G.B.
  Story.                                              110 G.B.

  Picture.                                            236 G.B.
  Story.                                              188 L.J.

  Pictures.                                           290,300 L.J.
  Story.                                              265 G.B.

  Picture.                                            188 G.B.
  Story.                                              214 G.B.

  Picture.                                            366 L.J.
  Story.                                              469 L.J.

  Picture.                                        Frontispiece H.T.
  Story.                                              177 G.B.

{26}


QUESTIONS TO ASK LITTLE CHILDREN

If possible, set a regular time for reading "The Golden Book" with the
child, taking it page by page. Use these questions to recall the
previous lesson before going on to a new story.


_Making the Child Think_

Who gives you "every good gift"?                      32 G.B.

Tell something about the beautiful grass
and flowers                                           35, 36 G.B.

To whom do you say your prayers?                      40 G.B.

What shines in the sky when you sleep?
(See picture in front of G.B.)                        43 G.B.

What do you know about one great star?                245 G.B.

What shines down on the flowers and the birds
and the little children when they waken?              44 G.B.

How do you thank the Father in heaven
for his goodness?                                     47 G.B.

Who is glad when the rain falls?                      48 G.B.

How does God help the seeds to grow into flowers?     51 G.B.

What beautiful things does God bring to us
in the summer?                                        52 G.B.

Tell some good and beautiful things which you
thank God for in the autumn.                          55 G.B.

Why do you like the cool winter days? How
does God keep the flowers warm? The animals?          59 G.B.

What can you do beside the big ocean?                 63 G.B.

Why do the beautiful hills and mountains
make you think of God?                                68 G.B.

Tell some things you can do to make the
Father in heaven glad.                                81 G.B.

How many things can you do that God wants done?       82 G.B.

Why do you thank God every day?                       85 G.B.

{27}

Why did Jesus' friends love him?                      86 G.B.

Did Jesus have any home?                              89 G.B.

To whose home did Jesus love to go? (Look at
picture, page 260 G.B., also page 218 L.J.)           90 G.B.

What did Jesus do when the people came to see him?
(Look at pictures on pages 114 and 132 L.J.)          93 G.B.

Tell a little story about the Sea of Galilee.
(Look at picture, page 108.)                          94 G.B.

When Jesus was a boy, how many things did he do
that you do? (Read page 73 G.B. and look at
picture on page 56 L. J.)                             97 G.B.

Do you know why Jesus was called the Great
Physician? (Look at pictures pages 104 and 200.)      98 G.B.

Why do you like to talk to your Father in heaven?
(Look at the picture on page 192 T.J. and see how
people in the East sometimes prayed.)                 101 G.B.

Tell how a good father is like the Father in heaven.  105 G.B.

What did Jesus say about birds and flowers?           106 G.B.

Did you know that there are good trees and bad
trees? Tell what Jesus said about them. (Look at
pictures pages 460 and 102 H.T.)                      109 G.B.

How was Jesus very kind to Jairus, whose little
girl was sick?                                        110 G.B.

What baby was hid in a basket and afterward grew
up to be a great man? (Look at page 140 H.T.,
for one of the wonders of the country where this
baby was born. Look on page 90 H. T. and see how
a great artist represents him as a man.)              117 G.B.

Tell how the churches in the Bible lands were
different from our churches. Where did they get
the songs they sang?                                  121 G.B.

Can you tell one of the stories that Jesus told?      126 G.B.

How many of the important things that Jesus
taught the people can you remember?                   130 G.B.

What was the name of the little boy who came when
he was called? How was his mother unselfish? What
do you think made him a great man? (Look at
picture, page 45.)                                    132 G.B.

{28}

Tell about the shepherd life that made David a
strong, brave boy. How did he use his strength
and bravery when his country needed him? (Look
at pictures, pages 384 and 388 H.T.)                  139 G.B.

What did David do for the great King Saul and
how did Saul treat David in return? (Look on
page 404 H.T. and see
the place where David hid from Saul.)                 151 G.B.

How did Jonathan show his friendship for David?       156 G.B.

Tell what three brave soldiers did to show
their friendship for David.                           163 G.B.

Tell the name of a wicked son of David and
what happened to him.                                 167 G.B.

Who was called the "wisest king," and what was
the greatest thing he ever did?
(Look at picture on page 454 H. T.)                   170 G.B.

Tell the name and the story of the little boy
who was put in a pit by his brothers. (Look at
picture on page 94 H.T. to see how the little
boy traveled to Egypt.)                               177 G.B.

How did this little slave boy become a great
ruler in Egypt?                                       181 G.B.

Tell how, as a great ruler, he did a kind thing
to the brothers who had been unkind to him.
(See picture in front of H.T.)                        185 G.B.

Tell about the woman who did a good deed to the
prophet Elijah and how she was richly rewarded.       193 G.B.

When Jesus refused to be king in Palestine and
told the people that he was king over a greater
kingdom than they had, what did he mean? By what
stories did Jesus explain what he meant?              201 G.B.

Tell what the little captive girl did to bring
health to the great general Naaman.
(Look at picture, page 150 T.J.)                      205 G.B.

Tell all you know about the Jordan river.
(Look at pictures, pages 284 and 340 H.T.)            224 G.B.

What is the strangest lake in the world? Why
would you dislike to live near it? (Look at
picture on page 228 G.B., also on page 34 H.T.)       226 G.B.


{29}

PART II

CHARACTER AND LIVING

_For Growth in Knowledge and Character_

{30}

"Written in the East, these characters live forever in the West;
written in one province, they pervade the world; penned in rude times,
they are prized more and more as civilization advances; product of
antiquity, they come home to the bosoms of the folk of modern days."

                                         --_Robert Louis Stevenson_.

{31}

CHARACTER AND LIVING

MAKE THE BIBLE HEROES YOUR FRIENDS

We ever demand a person for an ideal instead of a principle. By living
a year with a masterful character one would gain more than from a
dozen years of moral precept. President King of Oberlin College says,
"Character is not taught, but caught."

Since character is contagious, mere teaching of the bare and unadorned
moral principle is almost always vain. But a hero personifies virtue,
commands admiration, becomes an ideal.

This explains the power of stories in creating character. The heroes
of the Bible fire us with enthusiasm we could never feel for
impersonal virtue. To make them our friends is to be influenced by the
noblest associates.

When Jesus wished to build up character in His disciples He told them
a story, or parable, to supply their lack.

The method meets the need of mankind to-day as well as in Jesus' time.
The Bible has a wonderful story for forming every single trait of
character. Its heroes illuminate virtue by their heroic deeds. We see
the man, admire his deeds, then his motives, and then his character.
Unconsciously, but none the less surely, we catch his spirit and share
the quality of his soul.


{32}

JESUS' CHARACTER-BUILDING STORIES

Do you know which parable teaches:--

  True neighborliness?                                88 L.J.

  Spreading of truth?                                 106 L.J.

  Consistent and false profession?                    117 L.J.

  Hearers divided into classes?                       133 L.J.

  The spread of Christianity?                         134 L.J.

  The law of growth in religion?                      134 L.J.

  Gratitude for pardon?                               170 L.J.

  The duty of forgiveness?                            186 L.J.

  Joy over penitence?                                 202 L.J.

  Fatherly love?                                      203 L.J.

  Faithfulness to trust?                               204 L.J.

  That the Divine call is universal?                   207 L.J.

  Concerning worldly-mindedness?                       212 L.J.

  The rejection of Jesus by the Jews?                  238 L.J.

  The use of advantages?                               244 L.J.

  That love is the test of life?                       246 L.J.

When Jesus told the parable of the Sower, he first told the story and
then because some of the people did not understand, he went back
over it, giving full explanation. Read the story of the Sower (133
L.J.), noting Jesus' method of explanation, and then read the parables
suggested below and follow the reading with your own explanation of
them.

  The Story of the Faithful Servant.                  244 L.J.

  The Story of the Foolish Rich Man.                  212 L.J.

  The Story of the Lost Money.                        202 L.J.

  The House Built on the Rock.                        117 L.J.

  The House Built on the Sand.                        118 L.J.

  The Story of the Mustard Seed.                      134 L.J.


{33}

FOUNDATION STONES

To what chapter would you turn in your Bible to find how you can best
serve other people? Can you turn instantly to the Bible's finest
teachings of charity, of purity, or of faith?

The Bible is the mine for the Builder of Character, the storehouse of
Foundation Stones. And yet--can you always go to it and bring back
just the stone you are needing for the Building?

Few can. But many desire to do so. Above all, parents wish to make the
Bible a power in forming the characters of their children.

Building character consists of seizing opportunities. You cannot often
wait to search out these Bible teachings. They should be at hand for
the opportune time when they can be used to correct, or guide, or
inspire.

Suppose a child is disobedient; suppose he is given to falsehood, or
is selfish. "What part of the Bible," you ask, "will be of most help
in overcoming his fault?" And, "How can I be sure of finding the part
desired at just the time it should be used?"

To answer these and many other such practical questions, the teachings
of the Bible are here classified so that you may instantly choose the
one you need and apply it at the time the need arises.

Charity

  L.J.,  88, The Good Samaritan.
  L.J., 110, It is a Sin to Think Evil of Others.
  L.J., 169, Conflict about the Treatment of Sinful People.
  L.J., 207, The Story of the Men Who Made Excuses.
  L.J., 243, The Poor Widow.
  L.J., 246, The Judgment of the King.

Courage

  H.T., 386, David and Goliath.
  H.T., 430, How a Brave Prophet Rebuked a King.
  T.J., 183, Daniel.
  L.J., 339, The First Martyr.
  L.J., 396, The Macedonian Cry.
  L.J., 469, The Shipwreck.
  S.A., 447, The Christian Warrior.

{34}

Courtesy and Kindness

  H.T.,  22, Abram and Lot.
  H.T., 438, A Knightly Deed.
  L.J., 169, Conflict about the Treatment of Sinful People.
  L.J., 221, Zacchaeus, the Publican.
  S.A., 428, An Unruly Tongue.
  S.A., 429, The Peaceable Spirit.

Faith

  H.T.,  41, The Testing of Abraham.
  L.J.,  92, Jesus and the King's Officer.
  L.J., 115, Trust God, and He will Take Care of You.
  L.J., 121, The Roman Soldier's Faith.
  L.J., 180, The Transfiguration.
  L.J., 297, The Resurrection.
  L.J., 301, On the Way to Emmaus.
  L.J., 305, Doubting Thomas.
  L.J., 310, The Ascension.
  S.A.,  20, A Morning Prayer.
  S.A.,  21, An Evening Prayer.
  S.A.,  68, God is Our Refuge.
  S.A., 106, The Lord is Our Refuge.
  S.A., 179, Job.

Faithfulness

  H.T.,  69, Jacob and Rachael.
  T.J.,  35, Ruth.
  L.J., 133, The Story of the Sower.
  L.J., 270, How Peter Denied His Lord.
  S.A., 179, Job.

Forgiveness

  H.T.,  76, Jacob Fears the Wrath of Esau.
  H.T.,  91, Joseph.
  H.T., 406, David an Outlaw.
  H.T., 411, Saul's Pursuit of David.
  L.J., 185, Teaching the Disciples.
  L.J., 202, Stories of the Divine Forgiveness.

Honesty and Truthfulness

  H.T., 201, The Giving of the Commandments.
  L.J., 106, The New Way of Right Living.
  L.J., 110, It is a Sin to Think Evil of Others.
  L.J., 116, God Wants Deeds, not Words.
  L.J., 335, Ananias and Sapphira.
  S.A.,  39, I have Walked in Thy Truth.

Hope

  L.J.,  79, At the Passover.
  S.A.,  61, A Song in Time of Trouble.
  S.A.,  63, In the Day of Adversity.
  S.A.,  79, The Rock that is Higher than I.
  S.A.,  91, Give Ear, O Shepherd of Israel.
  S.A., 158, De Profundis.
  S.A., 278, The Coming Messiah.
  S.A., 284, Comfort Ye My People.
  S.A., 288, The Triumph of the Man of Sorrows.
  S.A., 293, Arise, Shine.
  S.A., 449, The Hope of Immortality.

{35}

Humility

  T.J., 143, How a Great Soldier was Healed of Leprosy.
  L.J., 105, The Beatitudes.
  L.J., 110, It is a Sin to Think Evil of Others.
  L.J., 111, The Right Way to Do Good Deeds and the Right Way to Pray.
  L.J., 185, Teaching the Disciples.
  L.J., 188, Jesus and Little Children.
  L.J., 207, The Story of the Men Who Made Excuses.

Love

  H.T.,  396, The Jealousy of Saul.
  T.J.,  35, Ruth.
  L.J.,  74, The First Disciples.
  L.J., 110, The Right Way to Love Your Enemies.
  L.J., 149, Jesus and John the Baptist.
  L.J., 200, The Good Shepherd and the Sheep.
  L.J., 215, The Raising of Lazarus from the Dead.
  L.J., 240, The Greatest of All Commandments.
  L.J., 248, The Last Supper.
  S.A., 159, Brotherhood.
  S.A., 425, The Greatest Thing in the World.
  S.A., 435, The Gospel of Love and Sonship.

Obedience

  H.T., 338, Samuel.
  H.T., 370, Saul.
  T.J., 19, A Story of Disobedience.

Patience

  L.J., 109, It is a Sin to Get Angry.
  S.A.,  55, Wait Patiently.
  S.A., 179, Job.

Patriotism

  H.T., 137, Moses.
  H.T., 319, Gideon.
  T.J.,  60, Esther.
  T.J., 212, Nehemiah.

Purity

  H.T., 202, The Commandments.
  L.J., 105, The Beatitudes.
  S.A., 143, The Songs of the Pure in Heart.
  S.A., 256, Praise of the Wise and Virtuous Woman.
  S.A., 426, Temptation.

Reverence

  H.T., 470, The Dedication of the Temple.
  T.J.,  15, The Story of Creation.
  L.J.,  41, The Wise Men.
  L.J., 111, The Right Way to Pray.
  L.J., 237, In the Temple.
  S.A.,  30, Song of the Earth and Sky.
  S.A.,  42, The Glory of the Lord.
  S.A., 113, The Lord Reigneth.
  S.A., 120, God the Creator.
  S.A., 245, Remember also Thy Creator.

{36}

Service

  H.T.,  91, Joseph.
  T.J., 113, Elijah and Elisha.
  L.J.,  78, The First Miracle.
  L.J., 92, Jesus and the King's Officer.
  L.J., 121, The Roman Soldier's Faith.
  L.J., 125, Days of Service.
  L.J., 130, The Miracle at Nain.
  L.J., 136, The Tempest.
  L.J., 141, The Little Girl Who Died.
  L.J., 143, Learning to Serve.
  L.J., 144, The Feeding of the Multitude.
  L.J., 167, The Enemies of Jesus.
  L.J., 197, At the Feast of the Dedication.
  L.J., 229, The Supper at Bethany.
  L.J., 244, The Story of the Faithful Servant.
  L.J., 376, The First Missionary Journeys.
  L.J., 396, The Macedonian Cry.

Sympathy

  L.J., 141, The Little Girl Who Died.
  L.J., 144, The Feeding of the Multitude.
  L.J., 215, The Raising of Lazarus from the Dead.

Thankfulness and Cheerfulness

  S.A.,  22, A Little Lower than God.
  S.A.,  26, A Song of Deliverance.
  S.A.,  35, The Good Shepherd.
  S.A.,  40, The Lord is My Salvation.
  S.A.,  45, Weeping may Endure for a Night, but Joy Cometh in the Morning.
  S.A.,  85, Let the Peoples Praise Thee.
  S.A., 116, Thanksgiving and Praise.
  S.A., 118, Our Father.
  S.A., 170, Songs of Praise.
  S.A., 277, God is My Salvation.
  S.A., 286, Awake, O Zion.
  S.A., 290, Beautiful Zion.
  S.A., 291, Ho, Every One that Thirsteth.

Unselfishness

  H.T., 91, Joseph.
  T.J., 143, How a Great Soldier was Healed of Leprosy.
  L.J., 70, The Temptation in the Wilderness.
  L.J., 115, The Golden Rule and the Right Way to be Rich.
  L.J., 211, The Rich Young Man;
  L.J., 258, Jesus is the True Vine.
  L.J., 261, Jesus Prays for His Disciples.
  L.J., 346, Simon the Sorcerer.

{37}

TRY LINCOLN'S WAY

Do you know Abraham Lincoln's plan of learning English? It was a very
simple and direct way of making the Bible English his own. The Bible,
we are told, was one of the four or five books which Lincoln read and
loved as a boy. He knew it well and to his study of it he owed the
simple, strong, and beautiful English which gave his speeches--his
address at Gettysburg, the Second Inaugural address, and many
others--their high place among the most perfect and enduring of all
writings.

This was his plan: He would read a story, or a part of one, very
slowly and thoughtfully, oftentimes aloud. When every detail of it was
clear in his mind, he would close the book, take pencil and paper and
write the story for himself, using as many of the Bible words as he
could remember, and trying always to tell the story as _well_ and as
_completely_, and yet in as _few words_ as the Bible.

He tells us his stories were never quite so clear, so brief, and yet
so perfect, as those of his model. But he did learn to command its
simplicity, its strength, its brevity, and its imagery.

Try Lincoln's way, using the following selections:--

A Cowardly Deed.                                91, 92, 95, 96 H. T.

An Old Fable.                                   333, 334 H.T.

The Story of the Shepherd Boy Who Became King.  382,385,386 H.T.

The Passing of David.                           451 H.T.

The Wise Men.                                   41, 42 L.J.

The First Miracle.                              78 L.J.

The Good Samaritan.                             88, 91 L.J.

The Man Let Down through the Roof.              127, 128 L.J.

The Miracle at Nain.                            130 L.J.

The Story of the Sower.                         133 L.J.

Learning to Serve.                              143 L.J.

The Story of the Lost Sheep.                    202 L.J.

The Story of the Prodigal Son.                  203, 204 L.J.


{38}

HISTORY AND THE BIBLE

1. The World in Bible Times

The following great empires of the world held
first place during different periods of the
history of the Jews. Can you recall Israel's
relationship to each of these great powers?           488 T.J.

  Babylon

    During the time of what Hebrew captive was
    Babylon in the ascendency?                        183 T.J.

  Assyria

    During what king's reign did the hordes of
    Assyria, under its greatest king, Sennacherib,
    descend upon Jerusalem?                           299 T.J.

  Persia

    What great Hebrew statesman was associated
    with the splendor of the Persian court?           212 T.J.

  Greece

    In the time of what brave men was the attempt
    made to force Grecian customs and worship
    upon Palestine?                                   418, 496 T.J.

  Rome

    During what time did Rome rule over all the
    lands of Western Asia, including Palestine?       19 L.J.


  How did the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, in
  538 B.C., affect the Jews?                          397 S.A.

  What was the effect of the captivity in Babylon
  upon the Jewish people?                             397 S.A.

  By what name was the great king Xerxes known
  in the Bible? What historical estimate of his
  character is supported by THE BIBLE STORY, and how? 60,488 T.J.

{39}

From your knowledge of general history, link up the stories of Daniel,
Esther, and Nehemiah in point of time, remembering that:--

  (1) Daniel lived for a short time in the court
      of Cyrus the Great, the founder of the
      Persian Empire                                  206 T.J.

  (2) Ahasuerus, who was king of Persia in
      Esther's time, was the well-known Xerxes.       60 T.J.

  (3) The incidents of Nehemiah's life began
      "in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes,"
      king of Persia                                  214 T.J.

What was the national standing of Egypt during
Old Testament times?                                  492 H.T.,
                                                      488 T.J.

What custom in the ancient world explains the question:

  "Is not this the cup from which my lord
  drinketh, and whereby he indeed divineth?"          118,492 H.T.

It is said that no Bible story more faithfully
describes the customs of the Ancient Orient than
the story of Esther. What do you learn of Eastern
court life and the manners and customs of the
people from a reading of this story?                  60-79 T.J.

What Egyptian superstition led to the custom of
embalming?                                            493 H.T.

By whom was the embalming done and how long is
it said to have taken in the case of Jacob?           130 H.T.

From what name is the term "Palestine" derived?       493 H.T.

How did Phoenicia come to have a special influence
upon the Jews in the time of Jezebel?                 113,490 T.J.

A short time before the birth of Jesus, Jerusalem
was captured by Pompey and the Jews made tributaries
to Rome. Herod the Great was appointed king of
Judea. What was the spirit of the Jews under the
rule of Herod?                                        485, 486 L.J.

What Caesar was in power in Rome when Jesus was born? 443 L.J.

Describe the Roman Provincial Government and Army in
the time of Paul.                                     494 L.J.


2. The Bible in History

Why do you consider "A Morning Prayer" (20 S.A.)
appropriate for the use made of it by the English?    497 S.A.

What romantic use was made of "A Morning Prayer"
(20 S.A.) by the Huguenots?                           497 S.A.

{40}

What men considered "An Evening Prayer" (21 S.A.)
a consolation for their last moments, and what can
you find in the psalm to justify their preference?    497 S.A.

What interesting uses have been made of
Psalm 8 (22 S.A.)?                                    497 S.A.

To what use were lines 18 and 19 of Psalm 17
(25 S.A.) put?                                        497 S.A.

What great university has chosen the first two
lines of Psalm 27 (40 S.A.) as a motto?               498 S.A.

Pick out the line in Psalm 31 (47 S.A.) which
was used by Jesus on the cross and has since
been used by many Christian martyrs                   498, 499 S.A.

Name some martyrs who have died with these
words on their lips                                   498, 499 S.A.

What was the secret of Livingstone's great work
in Africa, judging from his constant use of lines
nine and ten of Psalm 37 (55 S.A.)?                   499 S.A.

What great English ceremony is said to be founded
on Psalm 45 (66 S.A.)?                                499 S.A.

What terms make this Psalm appropriate for such use?  66, 499 S.A.

By what great men and for what purposes has Psalm 46
(68 S.A.) been used?                                  499, 500 S.A.

On what occasions in English history has Psalm 51
(75 S.A.) been used?                                  500 S.A.

How was Psalm 68 (86 S.A.) used by the friends of
Savonarola at the crisis of his career?               500 S.A.

To what general use has Psalm 68 (86 S.A.) been put?  501 S.A.

What famous early English poem is full of allusions
to the Psalms?                                        502 S.A.

What lines in Psalm 90 (104 S.A.) make its place
in the burial service of the church of England
especially appropriate?                               502 S.A.

Pick out the lines in Psalm 91 (106 S.A.) that
were, according to legend, repeated by Pope
Alexander as he set his foot on the neck of the
kneeling Emperor Barbarossa over whom he had
just triumphed.                                       502 S.A.

Find the line in Psalm 98 (108 S.A.) which was
used as a proof of the fixity of the earth by
the opposers of the Copernican theory.                502 S.A.

In what way was Psalm 117 (139 S.A.), the
shortest Psalm, used at the battle of Worcester?      504 S.A.

{41}

What did Luther say of Psalm 118 (140 S.A.)?          504 S.A.

Name some of the uses that have been made of
Psalm 118 (140 S.A.) in celebrating success
and triumph.                                          504, 505 S.A.

To what use did the missionary, James Harrington,
put Psalm 121 (155 S.A.) and what did he name it?     505 S.A.

Find the lines in Psalm 144 (166, 167 S.A.) that
have often been used in England and France as a
motto on the face of sundials.                        506 S.A.

The moral awakening of the world in our day is,
it is said, due in no small degree to the
rediscovery of the prophets of Israel. Isaiah is
the specialist on the great social problem of the
city, its sins, its volatile and vibrant life, its
opulence, and its pride. The principles which Isaiah
applied to the evils of his day are the principles
of our age and of all times. From a study of the
messages of Isaiah what can you say of his stand on
this question?                                        264-296 S.A.

{42}

LIVING WITH THE BIBLE

The Bible is a mirror "in which each man sees the motions of his own
soul. Many of the Psalms express in exquisite words the kinship which
every thoughtful human heart craves to find with a supreme,
unchanging, loving God, who will be to him a protector, guardian, and
friend." Many of the Bible passages give utterance to the ordinary
experiences and the familiar thoughts of men.

Readers will get more help from the Bible if they know where to look
for just what they need. Following is an index to many of the great
passages in THE BIBLE STORY, arranged under names suggestive of their
purpose.

A Morning Song of Good Hope.                          20 S.A.

Evening after Business.                               21 S.A.

Verses about Home Safety.                             24 S.A.

On Going Forth to Something Hard.                     32 S.A.

At a Time of Despondency.                             40, 61 S.A.

On Enduring Gossip.                                   47, 77 S.A.

A Song of Good Experience.                            52 S.A.

A Song of Happy Service.                              54 S.A.

Fret Not.                                             55 S.A.

A Cheerful Heart on a Dark Day.                       57 S.A.

On the Wedding of a Kingly Son.                       66 S.A.

God our Rock and our Brook.                           68 S.A.

The Time when I Conquered.                            69 S.A.

After Church.                                         70 S.A.

When I am Sorry.                                      75 S.A.

God is my Home.                                       79 S.A.

On a Bright Spring Day.                               80 S.A.

When Trouble is Over.                                 82 S.A.

In Sudden Trouble.                                    87 S.A.

In a Storm at Sea.                                    90, 108 S.A.

Going to Church.                                      95 S.A.

Making Good Resolutions.                              98 S.A.

In a Happy Old Age.                                   104 S.A.

The Young Eagle under his Father's Wings.             106 S.A.

{43}

In His Beautiful World.                               111, 112, 120 S.A.

The Doxology.                                         116 S.A.

Our Unchangeable God.                                 117 S.A.

Our Father.                                           118 S.A.

For Travelers, Toilers, the Sick Sailors, Strangers.  130 S.A.

After Illness.                                        37 S.A.

After a Great Victory.                                140 S.A.

A Pilgrim Song.                                       156 S.A.

The Sower's Faith.                                    157 S.A.

Waiting in Darkness.                                  158 S.A.

The Loving Brothers.                                  159 S.A.

The Song of Cain.                                     164 S.A.

The Te Deum.                                          168 S.A.

The Nature Lover.                                     187, 222,
                                                      236, 238 S.A.

The Helpful Woman.                                    256 S.A.

A Trumpet Song of Good Cheer.                         284 S.A.

The Best of Good News.                                286 S.A.

The Man of Sorrows.                                   288 S.A.

Happy Days are Coming.                                290, 291, 293 S.A.

Each of us May be Helpful.                            415 S.A.

Forgiveness.                                          422 S.A.

Love Abides.                                          425, 436 S.A.

The Glory of Strength.                                438, 443, 447 S.A.

The Hope of Immortality.                              449, 490 S.A.

Heaven on Earth.                                      476 S.A.

Jesus Rewards Us.                                     487 S.A.

Not only from Israel's experience come many words of comfort and cheer
but also from the lives of early saints, from the Catholic Newman, the
reformer Luther, the non-conformist Watts, the American bishop Brooks,
and others. They are helpful because they are rich with life.
Scattered through these pages they will be to many, from their
associations, "like withered flowers that make the pages sweet."

Thankfulness.                                         75 G.B.

Alone with God.                                       78 G.B.

God is Our Light.                                     233, 238 G.B.

Jesus and Our Children.                               235, 237 G.B.

The Value of a Single Day.                            239 G.B.

What even Children can Do.                            240 G.B.

God our Burden Bearer.                                241 G.B.

God our Shepherd.                                     291, 310, 314 G.B.

{44}

Do not be Anxious.                                    304 G.B.

Contentment.                                          383 G.B.

God is never Discouraged.                             402 G.B.

The Best Christmas Giving.                            412 G.B.

God Knows it All.                                     429 G.B.

God was in all my Past.                               442 G.B.

More Stately Mansions.                                477 G.B.

Jesus Calls Us.                                       101 L.J.

Buried with the Kiss of God.                          274 H. T.

{45}

QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT

Do not use these questions simply to "Mark Time." Let their message to
you be--"Forward March." Interrogation, not statement, stirs the mind.
The questions are framed to draw out the reader's knowledge and
provoke discussion that will bring to light interesting points without
consuming too much time.

Try the questions in this way: Select one of the following stories and
read it. After the reading, ask the questions that bear on the story.
By means of the subtitles and page numbers the desired questions may
be readily found in the pages that follow. The whole family may join
in this test and it will be doubly interesting if conducted as a game,
such as the old-fashioned "spell-down."

Other stories than those here suggested may be chosen and used in the
same way. Select from the titles any part of the Bible that you may
wish for any particular reason,--its bearing on the Bible School
lesson perhaps, its seasonal interest, or personal message,--you can
find the text by means of the page reference. So using these questions
you can make definite strides in knowledge of the Bible.

Joseph in Egypt.                                      96-108 H.T.

Gideon.                                               319-331 H.T.

David and Goliath.                                    386-394 H. T.

The Story of the Flood.                               24-31 T.J.

Esther.                                               60-79 T.J.

Samson.                                               172-182 T.J.

Daniel.                                               183-190 T.J.

Boyhood of Jesus.                                     49-53 L.J.

The Feeding of the Multitude.                         144-148 L.J.

The Rich Young Man.                                   211, 212 L.J.

The Raising of Lazarus from the Dead.                 215-220 L.J.

{46}

HERO TALES

Abraham

What leaders in Hebrew history held a place similar
to that of Sheik Ilderim in the story "Ben Hur"?      19 H.T.

Who tented with his flocks on the upland pastures of
Palestine, and became the father of a great nation?   21, 487 H.T.

Into what land, later known as Palestine,
did Abram come?                                       21 H.T.

After making the journey to the new land with
Abram, why did Lot not stay with him?                 22 H.T.

In what way was Abram unselfish toward Lot?           22 H.T.

How did Lot show that he was not so kind and
generous as Abram?                                    22-25 H.T.

In what words did God promise Abram that he was
to be the father of a great nation?                   25 H.T.

What part did Abram take in the battle of the
five kings against the four and why?                  25-27 H.T.

What pay did Abram take for his service in
this campaign?                                        26 H.T.

How did God tell Abram that his own children
were to be heirs to the land of Canaan?               27 H. T.

Who was Ishmael?                                      28 H.T.

How was Abram's name changed to mean
"father of a multitude"?                              29 H.T.

How did God answer Abraham's plea for Sodom?          31, 32 H.T.

What became of the "cities of the Plain"?             32-36 H. T.

Who was Isaac?                                        36 H.T.

Why was Hagar driven out?                             36-39 H.T.

How was the life of Ishmael saved in the desert?      39 H.T.

What became of Ishmael?                               39 H.T.

In what way was Abraham tested?                       41, 42 H.T.

What two ideas of sacrifice did the Hebrews hold and
which idea was symbolized in the offering of Isaac?   41, 491 H.T.

What cave did Abraham buy for a family tomb?          45, 46, 491 H.T.


{47}

Isaac

What kind of man was Isaac?                           49 H.T.

By whom and in what way was a wife sought for Isaac?  49-50 H.T.

How was the servant received by Rebekah and Laban?    50-56 H. T.

What did she say as to going to Isaac?                56 H.T.

In receiving Rebekah, how did Isaac prove his
native courtesy?                                      59 H.T.


Jacob

What son of Isaac struggled much between right
and wrong, and suffered many things?                  60 H.T.

Tell the difference in character between
Esau and Jacob.                                       60 H. T.

What is a birthright?                                 60, 491 H. T.

How did Esau sell his birthright?                     60 H.T.

What is pottage?                                      60, 491 H.T.

What trick did Jacob play upon his father
and brother?                                          61-65 H.T.

What threat of Esau's forced Jacob to leave home?     67 H.T.

Describe Jacob's dream.                               67-69 H.T.

What was the meaning of setting up stones for
a pillar and pouring oil upon them?                   69, 492 H. T.

What vow did Jacob make at Bethel?                    69 H.T.

Where did Jacob go to work?                           69, 70 H.T.

For whom did he work?                                 70 H.T.

Why did Jacob say he left Laban's home?               72 H.T.

What covenant was made between Jacob and Laban?       75 H.T.

How can you explain the two names given to the
heap of stones, "Jegar-sahadutha" and "Galeed"?       75, 492 H. T.

What does the word "Mizpah" mean?                     75 H.T.

In what ways did Jacob plan to appease Esau?          76-80 H.T.

In wrestling with the angel what did Jacob
ask of him?                                           80 H.T.

Describe the generous way in which Esau
treated Jacob.                                        83, 84 H.T.

How did Jacob keep his former vow made at Bethel?     69, 87 H.T.

What is the origin of the name "Israel"?              80, 87, 88 H.T.


Joseph

What shepherd boy was sold into bondage and
became ruler in a great nation?                       91 H.T.

{48}

Why did Joseph's brothers hate him?                   91 H.T.

What gift did Jacob give Joseph?                      91 H.T.

What did Joseph's dreams mean?                        91, 92 H.T.

What conspiracy did Joseph's brothers
form against him?                                     95 H.T.

What did Reuben suggest, and why?                     95 H.T.

State Judah's proposition and his two reasons.        95 H.T.

Where was Joseph taken as a slave?                    96 H.T.

How did the brothers deceive Jacob as to Joseph?      96 H.T.

When Jacob saw the coat stained with blood,
what did he say and what three things did he do?      96 H.T.

Who bought Joseph as a slave?                         96 H.T.

What is said of Joseph's business success?            99 H.T.

Why was Joseph put in prison?                         99 H.T.

How did Joseph prosper in the prison?                 99 H.T.

What was the baker's dream and
Joseph's interpretation?                              103 H.T.

What four requests did Joseph make of the butler?     103 H.T.

Describe Pharaoh's dream of the fat and lean kine?    104 H.T.

Describe Pharaoh's second dream                       104 H.T.

Who suggested Joseph as an interpreter?               104, 105 H. T.

What was Joseph's interpretation of the dreams?       106 H.T.

Tell how Joseph was made prime minister               107 H.T.

How did Joseph provide for the coming famine?         108 H.T.

What did Joseph name his two sons?                    108 H.T.

Why did the sons of Jacob come to Egypt?              111 H.T.

Which one of the brothers was left at home and why?   111 H. T.

Did Joseph know his brothers?                         111 H.T.

Did the brothers know him?                            111 H.T.

What do you think was Joseph's object in his
treatment of his brothers?                            112 H.T.

How did the brothers' consciences trouble them?       112 H.T.

What demand did Joseph make of his brothers?          112 H.T.

Tell the story of the brothers' return to Jacob
and what did Jacob say to them upon their arrival?    113, 114 H.T.

On their return to Egypt how did Joseph receive his
brothers?                                             114-117 H.T.

How did Joseph test the brothers?                     117-120 H.T.

{49}

What treatment did he finally give them?              120-123 H.T.

What command did God give to Jacob?                   123 H.T.

How did Joseph receive his father?                    124 H.T.

What did Pharaoh do for Joseph's father?              124, 125 H.T.

What did Joseph's brothers fear when
their father died?                                    131 H.T.

How did Joseph return good for evil?                  132 H.T.


Moses

What is the meaning of the word "Captain" used in
its general sense?                                    133 H.T.

Who led a race of slaves out of bondage and became
the emancipator of a great nation?                    137 H.T.

What name, formerly applied to the family of Jacob,
now signifies the race?                               138 H.T.

Why was there a change in the treatment of the
Egyptians toward the Israelites?                      137 H.T.

Under this treatment, what did the Israelites become? 137 H.T.

Tell the story of the escape of one of the Hebrew
children.                                             138 H. T.

Who was the nurse found for Moses?                    138 H.T.

Why did Moses smite the Egyptian?                     141 H.T.

Why did Moses flee and to what land did he go?        141 H.T.

What were the three leading occurrences that
marked Moses' sojourn in Midian?                      141, 142 H. T.

What was the message from the burning bush?           142, 143 H.T.

How did Moses show weakness in his answer?            143 H. T.

What did God tell Moses to say to the
children of Israel?                                   144 H.T.

Who was Moses' brother and companion in the task of
saving his people?                                    146, 149 H.T.

What demand did Moses and Aaron make of Pharaoh and
what was his answer?                                  149 H.T.

What way did Pharaoh take of still further
oppressing the Israelites?                            150, 151 H.T.

What was the first plague of Egypt?                   155, 156 H.T.

What was the second plague of Egypt?                  156, 158 H.T.

What was the third plague of Egypt?                   158 H.T.

What was the fourth plague of Egypt?                  158,159 H.T.

What was the fifth plague of Egypt?                   160 H.T.

{50}

What was the sixth plague of Egypt?                   160, 161 H.T.

What was the seventh plague of Egypt?                 166, 168 H.T.

What was the eighth plague of Egypt?                  168-171 H.T.

What was the ninth plague of Egypt?                   171-173 H.T.

What was the feast of the passover; when was
it celebrated and what was its meaning?               173-177 H.T.

What was the tenth and last plague of Egypt?          177 H.T.

What did the Egyptians tell the Hebrews to do?        178 H.T.

What two routes out of Egypt were possible
to the Hebrews? Which route was chosen and why?       179 H.T.

How did Pharaoh change his mind?                      180 H.T.

Describe the escape of the Israelites?                183-187 H.T.

Why did the children of Israel murmur at Marah?       191 H.T.

Where did they find an oasis?                         191 H.T.

How were the people fed in the wilderness?            192-197 H.T.

Describe the part played by Moses and the part
played by Joshua in the battle with the Amalekites    197 H.T.

What mountain did Moses climb to talk with God?       201 H.T.

Give the chief idea of the first commandment          202 H.T.

Give the chief idea of the second commandment.        202 H. T.

Give the chief idea of the third commandment.         202 H. T.

Give the chief idea of the fourth commandment.        202 H.T.

Give the chief idea of the fifth commandment.         203 H.T.

Give the chief idea of the sixth commandment.         203 H.T.

Give the chief idea of the seventh commandment.       203 H. T.

Give the chief idea of the eighth commandment.        203 H.T.

Give the chief idea of the ninth commandment.         203 H.T.

Give the chief idea of the tenth commandment.         203 H.T.

What did the people do while Moses was on
the mountain?                                         204 H.T.

What did Moses do when he came down?                  207 H.T.

How did he punish them?                               211 H.T.

How were the broken tables replaced?                  212 H.T.

What was Moses commanded to build in the
wilderness as a dwelling place of God?                214-216 H.T.

What things did the people give of their own
free will for the furnishing of the tabernacle?       214-216 H.T.

{51}

What were the qualifications for the workmen?         219 H.T.

Name some of the furnishings of the tabernacle.       220-225, 231,
                                                      232 H.T.

What went before and behind the marching host?        241, 242 H.T.

What did the spies report as to the land and
the people of Canaan?                                 243-244 H.T.

After hearing the report what did the people
think about going on into Canaan?                     244, 245 H.T.

What was the courageous counsel of Caleb and Joshua?  247 H.T.

What did the people decide to do about going forward? 247, 248 H.T.

In what way did Moses disobey the Lord in
smiting the rock?                                     248, 249 H.T.

What was his punishment?                              249 H.T.

What is told of the brazen serpent?                   250, 253 H.T.

How did the princes of Moab try to bribe Balaam?      256 H.T.

How was he at first prevented from going with
the princes of Moab?                                  256, 259 H. T.

What people did Balaam bless?                         265 H.T.

What was Moses' last advice to the people?            268, 271, 272 H.T.

On what mountain did Moses die?                       268 H.T.


Joshua

Who was the great warrior who won the land of
Canaan for Israel?                                    277 H.T.

How did Joshua show his leadership in his
first command to the people?                          278 H.T.

How did Rahab render service to the spies
sent by Joshua?                                       278-285 H.T.

Describe the passage of the Jordan.                   285-287 H.T.

Tell the story of the siege and capture of Jericho.   287-292 H.T.

What was "devoted" spoil?                             294,295 H.T.

What sin against the "devoted spoil" is given as
the reason for the defeat at Ai?                      294-296 H.T.

Describe the final capture of the city.               297-300 H. T.

What was the trick played upon Joshua by
the people of Gibeon?                                 300, 301 H.T.

What was the fate of this people?                     302 H.T.

Why did the five kings make war against Gibeon?       305 H.T.

{52}

Tell how Joshua came to the help of the Gibeonites
and the result of the battle                          306-308 H. T.

What was the main point in Joshua's last address
to the people?                                        308-312 H.T.


Ehud

What broader meaning did the term "Judge" have
in Bible times than at present?                       313 H.T.

What position did Ehud hold in Israel?                315 H.T.

What was the "summer room"?                           315, 493 H.T.


Gideon

Name the brave judge who freed his people
from oppression.                                      319 H. T.

Describe the oppression of the Midianites.            319 H.T.

Where was Gideon when the angel found him,
what was he doing and why, in such a place?           320, 493 H.T.

Why was Gideon faint-hearted at first and how
was he convinced of his place in Israel?              320, 323 H. T.

With what act did Gideon begin his campaign?          323, 324 H.T.

What is meant by the "altar of Baal"?                 494 H.T.

By what sign was Gideon reassured?                    324,325 H.T.

In what ways was the number of Gideon's army reduced? 325,326 H.T.

How many men remained?                                326 H.T.

What dream did Gideon hear related in the
enemies' camp?                                        329 H.T.

What was his plan of attack?                          329 H.T.

How did Gideon's strategy work out?                   329-331 H.T.

Explain how the breaking of the pitchers would
cause a panic among the hosts of the enemy.           494 H.T.


Abimelech

With what evil act did Abimelech seize
the leadership?                                       332, 333 H.T.

What was the fate of Abimelech?                       334, 387 H.T.


Samuel

Why can Samuel be called one of the finest
characters of the Old Testament?                      338 H.T.

{53}

What great sacrifice did Samuel's mother make
regarding him?                                        338 H.T.

Describe Samuel's call to be a prophet of the Lord    338-342 H. T.

What nation defeated Israel in a great battle?        342-346 H.T.

What did the Israelites lose in this battle?          346 H.T.

What was the cause of Eli's death?                    346 H.T.

How did Samuel rule in Israel?                        349 H. T.


Saul

Name the farmer who became king                       349 H.T.

Give at least two reasons which the people gave
for demanding a king.                                 349-351 H.T.

Did Samuel approve the plan of having a king?         350 H.T.

What reasons did Samuel give against the plan?        350, 351 H.T.

What were Saul's physical qualifications
for being king?                                       352 H.T.

Tell the story of how Saul came to meet Samuel.       352, 353 H. T.

What honor was Saul shown in the prophet's house?     354 H.T.

Describe how he was publicly proclaimed king.         357, 358 H.T.

Was this choice unanimous?                            358 H.T.

What people came up to attack Israel?                 359 H.T.

How did Saul summon the people?                       359 H.T.

What was the result of the battle?                    360 H.T.

How did Saul disobey the commandment of God?          361, 362 H.T.

What was his punishment?                              362 H.T.

What gallant deed was done by Jonathan and
his armor bearer?                                     365, 366 H.T.

What command did Saul give the people in
regard to food?                                       367 H.T.

Who disobeyed?                                        367 H.T.

How was he saved?                                     369 H.T.

How did Saul disobey God's commands in the
campaign against the Amalekites?                      370, 373 H.T.

What excuse did he make?                              374 H.T.

What did Samuel tell Saul as to obedience?            374 H.T.

What ancient foe of Israel troubled the
nation toward the close of Saul's reign?              376 H.T.

What happened at Endor?                               376,379,380 H.T.

{54}

Explain how the term "familiar spirit" came to
signify a medium.                                     376, 497 H.T.

Tell the story of the battle of Gilboa.               380, 381 H. T.

What gallant act was done by the men
of Jabesh-Gilead?                                     381 H.T.


David

Who was the shepherd boy that became king of Israel?  382 H.T.

Tell the story of the finding and anointing of
David by Samuel.                                      383, 385 H.T.

What people did Goliath represent?                    386 H.T.

How tall was he in feet?                              386, 499 H.T.

Describe his armor and fighting equipment.            386 H.T.

How did Goliath challenge the Israelites?             386 H.T.

What effect did Goliath have upon the army of Israel? 389 H.T.

How did David chance to come to the Israelites' camp? 389 H.T.

What reward was promised to the man who should kill
Goliath?                                              390 H.T.

On meeting Saul what did David propose that he do?    391 H.T.

What was Saul's reply and David's response?           391 H.T.

After agreeing that David might fight Goliath,
what help did Saul offer?                             391 H. T.

What weapons did David finally choose?                391 H.T.

Tell what happened when David and Goliath met.        392, 393 H.T.

Who became David's best friend?                       393, 394 H.T.

Why did Saul dislike David?                           396 H.T.

How did he try to harm him?                           396 H.T.

Tell a story to show how Jonathan showed his
deep friendship for David.                            402-406 H.T.

What opportunity did David have to revenge
himself on Saul and what did he do?                   406-411 H.T.

How did David a second time spare Saul's life?        411-417 H.T.

What sheep master refused to give tribute to David?   417 H.T.

What did his wife do?                                 419 H.T.

What became of the sheep master?                      424 H.T.

How did David hear of Saul's death?                   424, 425 H.T.

Read the Song of the Bow and tell its purpose.        426, 429 H.T.

What evil deed did David do?                          430 H.T.

In what way did Nathan bring his sin home to David?   431-435 H.T.

{55}

How did David receive the prophet's rebuke?           435 H.T.

In what spirit did David receive the report
of the child's death?                                 435, 436 H.T.

What knightly deed was done by three
captains of David?                                    438 H.T.

What did David do with the gift?                      438 H.T.

For what purpose did David buy a threshing floor?     438-442 H. T.

What reason did David give for not receiving
the threshing floor as a gift?                        442 H. T.

What event of David's reign brought him more
grief than anything else?                             443 H.T.

What instructions did David give in regard
to Absalom?                                           443 H.T.

What happened to Absalom in the forest?               444-447 H.T.

Tell how the tidings were brought to David.           447-451 H.T.

How did David receive the news?                       451 H. T.

What was David's charge to Solomon before he died?    451 H.T.


Solomon

Who was the wisest and greatest king Israel ever had? 452 H.T.

What does Solomon ask of God in his dream?            452-455 H.T.

What did God grant to Solomon in answer to
his request?                                          455 H.T.

Tell about the prosperity of Solomon.                 455-457 H.T.

Why was it better for Solomon than for David
to build a temple to the Lord?                        457 H.T.

In what way did Hiram, king of Tyre, help in
the building of the temple?                           457-461 H.T.

What part did David have in choosing the site
for the temple?                                       461, 441, 442 H.T.

Tell some of the things that made Solomon's temple a
magnificent structure.                                461-466 H. T.

Describe Solomon's palace.                            469 H.T.

What was the first ceremony in the dedication of
the temple?                                           470, 471 H.T.

Name six supplications in Solomon's prayer at
the dedication of the temple.                         471-477 H.T.

For what reason did the Queen of Sheba visit Solomon? 478 H.T.

What did she think of the kingdom?                    481 H.T.

How did Solomon use the commodities brought
into his country by trade to improve the
buildings of the kingdom?                             482, 483 H. T.


{56}

TALES OF OLD JUDEA

Who created the heavens and the earth?                15 T.J.

What was the work of Creation on the first day?       15 T.J.

What was the work of Creation on the second day?      15, 16 T.J.

What was the work of Creation on the third day?       16 T.J.

What was the work of Creation on the fourth day?      16 T.J.

What was the work of Creation on the fifth day?       16, 17 T.J.

What was the work of Creation on the sixth day?       17 T.J.

What did God do on the seventh day?                   18 T.J.

What was the temptation of Eve?                       19 T.J.

What was the punishment?                              20, 21 T.J.

Who were the first children?                          22 T.J.

What was the business of each son when he grew up?    22 T.J.

What terrible crime did Cain commit?                  22 T.J.

What was his punishment?                              22, 23 T.J.

What was the name of the first ship?                  24 T.J.

Why was it built?                                     24 T.J.

What did it carry?                                    25-29 T.J.

How long did it rain?                                 26 T.J.

Where did the ark land?                               30 T.J.

What messengers did Noah send from the ark?           30 T.J.

What covenant did God make with Noah?                 31 T.J.

What was the sign?                                    31 T.J.

What foolish plan was made in the land of Shinar?     32 T.J.

What was the result?                                  32 T.J.


Ruth

Of what nationality was Ruth?                         35 T.J.

Of what nationality were Naomi and Elimelech?         35 T.J.

How did the Hebrew family come to meet
Ruth and Orpah?                                       35, 36 T.J.

{57}

What losses came to Naomi in the land of Moab and
why did she decide to return?                         36 T.J.

Give the story of the actions of each
daughter-in-law as Naomi begins her return journey    36-39 T.J.

What six pledges did Ruth make to show she was
determined to be one with Naomi?                      39 T.J.

By what name did Naomi, upon her return, wish
her friends to call her and why?                      39 T.J.

Into whose field did Ruth go and for what purpose?    39, 40 T.J.

What sacred duty was held by a kinsman in the East?   487 T.J.

For what reasons did Boaz treat Ruth kindly?          40, 41 T.J.

Name some things Boaz did to make it a pleasant
and profitable day for Ruth.                          41 T.J.

Whom did Ruth marry?                                  47 T.J.

Give the line of descent from Ruth to David.          48 T.J.


Deborah

Describe the oppression of the children of Israel
in the time of Deborah.                               51, 52 T.J.

What was Deborah's command to Barak?                  52 T.J.

On what condition would Barak obey?                   52 T.J.

Describe the battle with the enemy.                   52, 53 T.J.

What happened to Sisera, the enemy's captain?         53 T.J.


Esther

What was the decree of king Ahasuerus
regarding Vashti?                                     60-62 T.J.

How did Esther happen to come to the throne?          63-64 T.J.

What nationality was Esther?                          63 T.J.

What position did Haman hold and why was
he angered at Mordecai?                               65 T.J.

Describe Haman's plot against the Jews                65-67 T.J.

How did Esther risk her life to plead for her people? 68, 69 T.J.

How was Mordecai exalted and for what reason?         71, 72 T.J.

What was Haman's fate?                                73 T.J.

What did the feast of Purim commemorate and how long
was it celebrated?                                    78, 488 T.J.


{58}

Judith

Who was Judith?                                       80 T.J.

Who was Holofernes?                                   80 T.J.

What king attacked Israel because it had not
aided him in war?                                     80-82 T.J.

What city in the hill country was besieged?           82-86 T.J.

How did Judith save the city and the nation?          86-105 T.J.


Elijah

Describe the hospitality of the widow of
Zarephath and how it was repaid by Elijah.            114-115 T.J.

Why did Elijah say he "troubled" Ahab?                116-119 T.J.

How did Elijah show that God could do greater
things than the heathen god, Baal?                    120-122 T.J.

Why did Elijah flee and what happened on his journey? 123-127 T.J.

How did Ahab and Jezebel plot to get
Naboth's vineyard?                                    127-130 T.J.


Elisha

Upon whom did the spirit of Elijah rest?              130-134 T.J.

Tell the story of Elisha and the woman of Shunem.     138-143 T.J.

How did a little captive maid do a service to
the great general Naaman?                             143 T.J.

What did Elisha tell Naaman to do?                    144 T.J.

Tell how Naaman received Elisha's command.            144-147 T.J.

What was the result of Naaman's compliance?           144-147 T.J.

How did Elisha save an enemy from destruction?        148-152 T.J.

To what straits was the city of Samaria reduced
when besieged by Benhadad?                            152 T.J.

How did deliverance come to the city?                 152-157 T.J.

What was the fate of the wicked house of Ahab?        157-162 T.J.

What part had Jehu in this destruction?               157-162 T.J.


Jonah

What were the three commands given to Jonah?          165 T.J.

How did Jonah disobey?                                165 T.J.

When the storm came what two things did
the sailors do?                                       165 T.J.

What happened to Jonah on this voyage?                166-169 T.J.

{59}

When Jonah got to Nineveh, what did he do?            170 T.J.

Give the words of Jonah's message to the people.      170 T.J.

What was the threefold effect of Jonah's preaching?   170 T.J.


Samson

What man had strength of body above all other
men of his time?                                      172 T.J.

In what way was Samson weak?                          172 T.J.

Describe Samson's first feat of strength.             172, 173 T.J.

Explain Samson's riddle and how the Philistines
were able to guess it.                                173,174 T.J.

In what way did Samson burn the enemy's cornfield?    175 T.J.

How did Samson escape from Gaza?                      176 T.J.

What offer did the lords of the Philistines
make to Delilah?                                      177 T.J.

What three falsehoods did Samson tell Delilah
as to how he could be bound?                          177, 178 T.J.

How was Samson finally captured?                      178-181 T.J.

In what way was Samson revenged upon his enemies?     181, 182 T.J.


Daniel

Name three qualifications of the youths who were
chosen to stand before king Nebuchadnezzar.           183 T.J.

What captive Hebrew boy refused to defile
himself by eating the king's food?                    184 T.J.

What was the outcome of the food test proposed by
Daniel?                                               184, 185 T.J.

By what service was Daniel exalted in
Nebuchadnezzar's court?                               185-190 T.J.

Through what trial did the three Hebrew boys pass?    190-196 T.J.

What four miraculous facts were noticed when
the three men were taken from the furnace?            195,196 T.J.

Why did Nebuchadnezzar believe that Daniel could
interpret his dream?                                  196-198 T.J.

What was Nebuchadnezzar's fate?                       199, 200 T.J.

Name two impious actions at Belshazzar's feast.       201 T.J.

{60}

What was promised to the interpreter of the
handwriting on the wall?                              201 T.J.

Tell how Daniel was called to interpret the words.    201-205 T.J.

What was Daniel's interpretation?                     206 T.J.

Why was Daniel cast into the lions' den?              206-208 T.J.

What facts indicate the kind of night spent by
the king while Daniel was in the lions' den.          208 T.J.

What effect did Daniel's deliverance have
on the king?                                          208, 209 T.J.


Nehemiah

What great man of the Hebrew people preferred
hardship in his native land to pleasure and
plenty in the Persian king's palace?                  212 T.J.

What was Nehemiah's position in the foreign court?    212, 213 T.J.

What facts were the cause of Nehemiah's resolve
to return to Jerusalem?                               212 T.J.

How did Nehemiah show his practical patriotism?       212-218 T.J.

What difficulties and perils from without did
Nehemiah encounter?                                   218, 219 T.J.

What precautions were taken against the enemy?        219-221 T.J.

What opposition did Nehemiah have to meet within?     221-225 T.J.

How did Nehemiah meet the proposals of the enemies?   225-227 T.J.

Describe the celebration of the people when the
walls were dedicated                                  227-232 T.J.

What oaths did the people enter into at this time?    231 T.J.

State Nehemiah's idea of national greatness.          232 T.J.

How did the people in the restored city of
Jerusalem profane the Sabbath?                        233 T.J.

What four means did Nehemiah use to rid the
city of Sabbath breaking?                             233, 234 T.J.

What were the characteristics of Nehemiah
that made him an all-round man?                       212-234 T.J.


Divided Kingdom

Name the first three kings of the Hebrew people
in the order of their succession.                     236 T.J.

{61}

How did the splendor of Solomon's kingdom put a
burden on the people?                                 237 T.J.


Rehoboam

Give the reasons for the rebellion of the people
against Rehoboam, Solomon's son and successor.        237-239 T.J.

What two tribes remained loyal to Rehoboam?           239, 240 T.J.

Give the names of the two kingdoms after
the division.                                         236 T.J.

Who was the leader and first king of the
revolting Northern Kingdom?                           237 T.J.

What happened to the kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam? 240, 241 T.J.


Abijah

What great victory was won by Abijah?                 242-246 T.J.


Asa

What was the general condition of Judah under Asa?    247 T.J.

Tell the story of Asa's victory over the Ethiopians.  248 T.J.

What foreign alliance did Asa make?                   250-254 T.J.


Jehoshaphat

What events, favorable to Jehoshaphat, came to
pass in his reign?                                    255-265 T.J.

What mistake did Jehoshaphat make?                    256, 257 T.J.


Jehoram

With what evil deed did Jehoram begin his reign?      266 T.J.

What covenant formerly given saved the kingdom
from destruction?                                     266, 267 T.J.

Why was Jehoram smitten?                              267, 268 T.J.


Athaliah

Tell the story of Athaliah's destruction of the
royal children and how Joash was saved                271, 272 T.J.

How did the priest Jehoiada plan to effect a reform?  272 T.J.

{62}

How was the plot carried out?                         272-275 T.J.

What was the fate of the wicked queen?                275 T.J.

What covenant was made at this time and how was it
followed up?                                          276 T.J.


Joash

How long did Joash do what was right?                 277 T.J.

What ingenious method did Joash adopt for
raising money to repair the house of the Lord?        277-279 T.J.

For what guilt did wrath come upon the kingdom?       279 T.J.

What disasters overtook the people?                   279, 280 T.J.


Amaziah

With what victory did Amaziah begin his reign?        281-285 T.J.

What foolish challenge did Amaziah send to the
king of Israel?                                       285 T.J.

With what story did the king of Israel reply?         285 T.J.

What was the result of the king's boasting?           285, 286 T.J.


Uzziah

What important work did Uzziah undertake
for the nation?                                       287-291 T.J.

What act of irreverence did he do?                    291 T.J.

What was Uzziah's fate?                               291 T.J.


Jotham

What good work did Jotham do?                         292 T.J.

Why did he become mighty?                             292 T.J.


Ahaz

Describe the character of Ahaz.                       293 T.J.

What was the great guilt of Ahaz?                     293 T.J.

To whom and in what way did Ahaz become a vassal?     295, 296 T.J.


Hezekiah

What made Hezekiah one of the greatest of
Judah's kings?                                        299 T.J.

What reforms did Hezekiah carry out?                  299-302 T.J.

{63}

What was done during this reign in regard to the
Passover feast?                                       302-307 T.J.

How did the people show their faithfulness?           307-311 T.J.

Describe the defense of Jerusalem against the
hordes of Sennacherib.                                311-313 T.J.

What piece of engineering skill did
Hezekiah undertake?                                   314 T.J.


Manasseh

What were the evil deeds of Manasseh?                 317-319 T.J.

Under what circumstances did Manasseh repent?         319 T.J.

Describe his later deeds.                             319 T.J.


Amon

Tell the story of Amon's reign.                       322 T.J.


Josiah

What work did Josiah order done as soon as he
was old enough to assert himself?                     323, 324 T.J.

What discovery led to sweeping reforms
in the kingdom?                                       324-326 T.J.

Describe the reforms.                                 326-328 T.J.

What tragedy happened in the valley of Megiddo?       328, 329 T.J.


Jehoahaz

Tell the story of Jehoahaz's short reign.             332 T.J.


Jehoiakim

How did Jehoiakim come to the throne of Judah?        335 T.J.

What was the character of Jehoiakim, judging
from the words of Jeremiah?                           335-344 T.J.

What disaster came to the kingdom in the time of
Jehoiakim?                                            344-345 T.J.


Jehoiachin

Into what country were the people of Judah carried
captive?                                              346, 347 T.J.

Describe the host which Nebuchadnezzar carried
off to Babylon.                                       346,347 T.J.

What besides captives did the enemy take
from Jerusalem?                                       346 T.J.


{64}

Zedekiah

What was Zedekiah's position in Judah?                348 T.J.

Why did Nebuchadnezzar again besiege Jerusalem?       348 T.J.

What was Zedekiah's fate?                             351 T.J.

Describe the destruction of Jerusalem.                351 T.J.


Jeroboam

In what way did Jeroboam seek to keep the loyalty
of the people?                                        353, 354 T.J.

Tell the story of the prophet from Judah.             354-362 T.J.

What was the prophecy of Ahijah, the prophet,
concerning Jeroboam's house?                          362-364 T.J.


Nadab

Describe Nadab's brief reign.                         367 T.J.


Baasha

How did the house of Jeroboam come to an end?         368 T.J.

How did Baasha become king in Israel?                 368 T.J.

Why was the house of Baasha condemned?                368, 369 T.J.


Elah

How did Elah differ from Baasha, his father?          370 T.J.

In what way did Elah meet his death?                  370 T.J.


Zimri

How long did Zimri reign?                             373 T.J.

Who was Omri and how was he made king?                373 T.J.

How did Zimri die?                                    373 T.J.


Omri

What new capital of the northern kingdom did Omri
establish?                                            374 T.J.

What was the character of Omri's reign?               374 T.J.


Ahab

For what purpose did Ahab join the king of Judah?     377-381 T.J.

How did Ahab meet his death?                          380, 381 T.J.


{65}

Ahaziah

What were the evil deeds of Ahaziah?                  382 T.J.

What dealings did Ahaziah have with the
prophet Elijah?                                       382-386 T.J.


Joram

How did Joram begin his reign?                        387 T.J.

Describe the expedition against Moab and its result.  388-392 T.J.


Jehu

What did Jehu do to the royal family when he came
to the throne?                                        395-397 T.J.

Describe the destruction of the priests of Baal.      397, 398 T.J.


Jehoahaz

By what means was the kingdom of Israel almost
blotted out during this reign?                        399 T.J.

What were the sins of the people at this time?        399 T.J.


Joash

How did Joash retrieve the kingdom's losses?          400 T.J.


Jeroboam II

What rank does Jeroboam II take among Israel's kings? 401 T.J.

How did the country prosper under him?                401 T.J.

What prophet was associated with Jeroboam II?         401 T.J.


Zechariah

After the reign of Jeroboam II, what largely
determined the succession to the throne?              402 T.J.

What word was fulfilled by Zechariah's short reign?   402, 398 T.J.


Shallum

What terminated Shallum's reign?                      403 T.J.


Menahem

To what nation was Israel tributary in
Menahem's reign?                                      404 T.J.


Pekahiah

How did Pekahiah come to the throne?                  407 T.J.

How did Pekahiah fall?                                407 T.J.


{66}

Pekah

What nation invaded and overran Israel in
Pekah's reign?                                        408 T.J.

How was Pekah's reign terminated?                     408 T.J.


Hoshea

How did the capital city, Samaria, fall?              411 T.J.

What were the great sins of this people?              411-413 T.J.

Into what land were the people of Israel
carried captive?                                      413 T.J.


Tales of the Maccabees

Who were the Maccabees, and why were they so called?  418 T.J.

What great general conquered Palestine?               418-420 T.J.

How did Antiochus try to force Greek religion
and customs upon the people?                          420-422 T.J.

Tell the story of the first revolt of the Maccabees   422, 423 T.J.

Tell the story of the disaster which befell
the Jewish army because it would not fight
on the Sabbath.                                       425 T.J.

What counsel did Mattathias give his sons before his
death?                                                426, 427 T.J.

What son of Mattathias took command after his death?  428 T.J.

How did Judas win his sword?                          431 T.J.

On what famous battlefield did Judas
overcome his foes?                                    431, 432 T.J.

What stratagem did Judas use in his campaign
against the Syrians?                                  432 T.J.

How did Judas defeat the Syrians under Lysias?        437 T.J.

How did Judas purify the temple?                      438 T.J.

Describe the great army which the king brought
against the Jews.                                     439 T.J.

How did Eleazar die for his country?                  443 T.J.

How did Judas defeat Nicanor?                         443, 444 T.J.

With what great empire did Judas make a treaty?       445-448 T.J.

Who took Judas' place as leader?                      451 T.J.

How did Jonathan and his men escape from a
superior army?                                        451, 452 T.J.

What large city was taken by Jonathan?                452, 453 T.J.

How did Jonathan and his captains stand
against a host?                                       459 T.J.

{67}

How was Jonathan caught at last by his foes?          460, 463 T.J.

Who took Jonathan's place as leader?                  463 T.J.

How were the foes of Israel delayed by a snowstorm?   464-467 T.J.

How did Jonathan die?                                 467 T.J.

What memorial did Simon build for his valiant
father and brothers?                                  467, 468 T.J.

With what king did Simon make a treaty?               468, 471 T.J.

What great city did Simon capture and what
citadel did he take?                                  471, 472 T.J.

Tell the story of Israel's prosperity in the
days of Simon.                                        475, 476 T.J.

What great captain was defeated by the sons of Simon? 479,480 T.J.

How were Simon and his sons betrayed and murdered?    481, 482 T.J.

Name two things which the Maccabees' valor secured
to the spiritual life of the nation.                  482 T.J.

Who was the last of the line of the Maccabees?        482 T.J.

Give the history of the collection of books
called the Apocrypha.                                 489 T.J.


{68}

THE LIFE OF JESUS

The Nativity

Where was Jesus born?                                 37 L.J.

Tell three things about the shepherds.                37 L.J.

What two signs did the angel give regarding Jesus?    37 L.J.

What was the angels' song?                            38 L.J.

After the angels departed, what did the shepherds do? 38 L.J.

How did Mary treat the words of the shepherds?        38 L.J.


The Wise Men

What question did the wise men ask on
reaching Jerusalem?                                   41 L.J.

What was the effect of the question
on Herod, the king?                                   41 L.J.

When they saw Jesus, what three things did
the wise men do?                                      42 L.J.

What popular stories has fancy woven about
the wise men?                                         485 L.J.


Flight into Egypt

What was the reason for the flight into Egypt?        45 L.J.

When and why was Jesus brought back to Palestine?     46 L.J.

To what city was he taken to live?                    46 L.J.


Boyhood of Jesus

To what great feast at Jerusalem was Jesus taken
when he was twelve years of age?                      49, 491 L.J.

What happened on the trip home?                       49 L.J.

What was Jesus' answer to his mother when she
found him in the temple?                              49 L.J.

What was the home life of little children
of Nazareth?                                          50 L.J.

Describe the school life of Nazareth.                 50 L.J.

What glimpses of the outer world were possible
to the residents of Nazareth?                         50 L.J.

Describe a journey to the great feast at Jerusalem.   53 L.J.


{69}

Baptism of Jesus

What was the great message of John the Baptist?       65, 485 L.J.

How does John the Baptist speak of the
superiority of Jesus?                                 66 L.J.

What did John the Baptist say to the multitudes,
the publicans, the soldiers?                          66 L.J.

Tell the story of the baptism.                        66-69 L.J.


Temptation

Where did Jesus go after his baptism?                 70 L.J.

What was the first temptation? Give Jesus' answer.    70 L.J.

What fact made this temptation exceedingly keen?      70 L.J.

What was the second temptation?
What did Jesus answer?                                70 L.J.

What was the third temptation?                        70, 73 L.J.

Give Jesus' answer.                                   73 L.J.


First Disciples

What reason did John the Baptist give for his coming? 74 L.J.

In what words did John the Baptist introduce Jesus?   74 L.J.

Who were the first disciples that followed Jesus?     74 L.J.

Whom did Andrew introduce to Jesus?                   74, 77 L.J.

How did Philip become a disciple?                     77 L.J.

Whom did Philip bring to Jesus?                       77 L.J.

Find six names by which Jesus is addressed.           74-77 L.J.

How many disciples were found in two days?            74-77 L.J.

Name the great men in history who have had
disciples and give the meaning of the word.
What was the difference between Jesus'
disciples and other like groups?                      487 L.J.


First Miracle

What were the occasion and place of Jesus'
first miracle?                                        78 L.J.

Describe the miracle.                                 78 L.J.

Name an important result of this miracle.             78 L.J.


At the Passover

What two classes of business men did Jesus find
in the temple?                                        79 L.J.

Why was this called "Herod's temple"?                 491 L.J.

{70}

From Nicodemus' first sentence,
what would you judge was his attitude
toward Jesus and his estimate of him?                 79 L.J.

What was Jesus' statement to Nicodemus and
how did he explain it?                                79, 80 L.J.

What does the gospel writer say of the nature
and object of Divine Love?                            80, 81 L.J.


Jacob's Well

What brought Jesus to Jacob's well?                   82 L.J.

Why was the Samaritan woman astonished at being
addressed by Jesus?                                   82 L.J.

What did Jesus say about living water?                82-85 L.J.

What did Jesus say about worshiping God?              85 L.J.

What were Jesus' words about himself?                 86 L.J.

Describe the woman's work in the city.                86, 87 L.J.


The Good Samaritan

In the story of the Good Samaritan, what is
brought out about the law of right living?            88 L.J.

How does Jesus reply to the question, "Who is my
neighbor?"                                            88 L.J.

What three travelers met the unfortunate
man by the wayside?                                   88 L.J.

Describe the actions of each traveler upon
seeing the unfortunate man.                           88-91 L.J.

Which man proved himself a neighbor?                  91 L.J.


Jesus and the King's Officer

What event of Jesus' ministry had occurred
previous to this time in Cana?                        92 L.J.

Where was Capernaum, in relation to Cana?             24 L.J.

What words of Jesus, in regard to his departure
into Galilee, bear out the proverb, "Familiarity
breeds contempt"?                                     92 L.J.

For what purpose did the king's officer
come to Jesus?                                        92 L.J.

By what words did Jesus test the king's officer?      92 L.J.

How was the officer's persistency and faith rewarded? 92, 93 L.J.


{71}

Choosing the Disciples

From what occupations did Jesus choose the Apostles?  94 L.J.

For what purposes did Jesus say he
appointed the Twelve?                                 95 L.J.

Name the twelve apostles and note some
interesting facts of their lives                      96, 97 L.J.


Sermon on the Mount

What are the eight characteristics of men
that Jesus pronounces blessed?                        105, 106 L.J.

To whom does Jesus promise the exaltation
of the kingdom of heaven?                             105 L.J.

To which class, the gay or the mourners,
does Jesus promise blessing?                          105 L.J.

To whom does Jesus promise great inheritance?         105 L.J.

Whom does Jesus promise to fill, the satisfied
Pharisee, or those that are hungering after a
righteousness they have not attained?                 105 L.J.

To whom does Jesus promise mercy, the
oppressor or the merciful?                            105 L.J.

What does Jesus promise those who are pure?           105 L.J.

What is the reward for the peacemaker as opposed to
the warrior?                                          105 L.J.

How does Jesus explain that the persecutor
is far beneath his victim?                            105, 106 L.J.

In what words does Jesus condemn a personal
righteousness that does not exert its
force upon others?                                    106 L.J.

What command does Jesus give concerning our light?    106 L.J.

What does Jesus say about the law?                    106 L.J.

What four sins does Jesus condemn?                    109, 110 L.J.

What does he command in regard to these things?       109, 110 L.J.

Why does Jesus say we should love our enemies?        110, 111 L.J.

Give Jesus' striking words about the right
way to do good deeds.                                 111 L.J.

Explain the Jewish custom in regard to the
poor that made almsgiving a virtue.                   487 L.J.

How does Jesus explain the right way to pray?         111-115 L.J.

{72}

Repeat the Golden Rule.                               115 L.J.

What does Jesus say about earthly treasure?           115 L.J.

For what reasons does Jesus say we may trust God
to care for us?                                       115, 116 L.J.

How does Jesus explain the need for deeds, not words? 116, 117 L.J.

With what dramatic story does the Sermon on the Mount
close?                                                117, 118 L.J.

How did the multitude receive the teaching of
Jesus on the Mount?                                   118 L.J.


The Roman Soldier's Faith

Why did the Roman captain come to Jesus?              121 L.J.

What did the captain say of Jesus' power?             121 L.J.

What were Jesus' words in reply to
the captain's faith?                                  122 L.J.


Days of Service

Tell the story of a Sabbath day at Capernaum.         125, 126 L.J.

What did the healing of the leper lead to?            126, 127 L.J.

How did the man sick of the palsy come to
Jesus to be healed?                                   127 L.J.

What was the controversy between Jesus and certain
scribes in regard to the man sick with the palsy?     127, 128 L.J.

Tell the story of Jesus and the two blind men.        128 L.J.

From what regions did people come to Jesus
to be healed?                                         128, 129 L.J.


Miracle at Nain

How did Jesus help the widow at Nain?                 130 L.J.

What report about Jesus was the result of
the miracle at Nain?                                  130 L.J.


The Great Teacher

Tell Jesus' story of the Sower and
explain the meaning                                   133, 134 L.J.

To what things does Jesus liken the kingdom of God?   134, 135 L.J.


The Tempest

What happened on the sea of Galilee one night
when Jesus was crossing?                              136 L.J.

What did the disciples say?                           136 L.J.

{73}

What reply did Jesus make?                            136 L.J.

What did Jesus say to still the storm?                136 L.J.

What happened when Jesus came to the
other side of the sea?                                136-140 L.J.


Jairus' Daughter

Describe Jairus' work as ruler of the synagogue       141, 487 L.J.

Why did Jairus come to Jesus?                         141 L.J.

What did Jesus do in response to Jairus' request?     141, 142 L.J.


Learning to Serve

What was Jesus' method of sending out the
disciples and what were his instructions to them?     143 L.J.


Feeding the Multitude

Why did Jesus call the disciples apart to rest?       144 L.J.

What two things did Jesus do for the multitude?       144, 147 L.J.

How did a little boy help?                            147 L.J.

What other miraculous supplies of food
are mentioned in the Bible?                           192 H.T.,
                                                      114, 123 T.J.,
                                                      175 L.J.

Why do you think Jesus was willing to satisfy the
hunger of the multitude by miracle when he would
not satisfy his own hunger by a miracle?              70, 144 L.J.


John the Baptist

What condition in the life of John the Baptist
made him doubt Jesus?                                 149 L.J.

What unselfish words did John the Baptist say
in regard to himself and Jesus?                       150 L.J.

How did John the Baptist test Jesus?                  150 L.J.

What was Jesus' reply?                                153 L.J.

What great tribute did Jesus pay John the Baptist?    153 L.J.

What was the occasion of John the Baptist's murder?   154 L.J.


Bread of Life

What did Jesus say about "food that perisheth and
food that abideth"?                                   161 L.J.


{74}

What remark of the people showed the high regard in
which the Jews held Moses?                            162 L.J.

How many times in this speech did Jesus refer
to himself as the Bread of Life?                      161-166 L.J.

What did Jesus say about the Father's will for him?   162 L.J.

Give the substance of Jesus' reply to the murmurers.  165, 166 L.J.


Conflicts

What led to the discussion about the Sabbath?         167, 168 L.J.

What was Jesus' reply concerning the Sabbath?         168 L.J.

What did the Pharisees plot, following this conflict? 169 L.J.

Describe the event at the Pharisee's house
which displeased Jesus' host?                         169 L.J.

With what story did Jesus explain his treatment
of sinful people?                                     170 L.J.

Describe the conflict about Jesus' wonderful deeds    170, 171 L.J.


Miracles

Why did the Greek woman come to Jesus?                172 L.J.

Give Jesus' words to the woman and her reply.         172 L.J.

What miracle did Jesus perform on his return
from Tyre and Sidon?                                  175, 176 L.J.

Tell about the miracle at Bethsaida.                  177 L.J.


At Caesarea Philippi

Who did various people say Jesus was?                 178 L.J.

Give Peter's statement as to who Jesus was.           178 L.J.

State four prophecies Jesus made regarding himself.   178 L.J.

How did Peter show his weakness?                      178 L.J.

What were the words of Jesus' rebuke to Peter?        178 L.J.

Name three conditions of discipleship given by Jesus. 178 L.J.

What further did Jesus tell the disciples
about his coming fate?                                179 L.J.


Transfiguration

What disciples did Jesus take with him to the
summit of a high mountain?                            180 L.J.

{75}

What happened while they were there?                  180 L.J.

Describe what happened when they reached
the foot of the mountain                              181, 182 L.J.

What did Jesus tell the disciples was the
cause of their failure?                               182 L.J.


Teaching the Disciples

What incident drew from Jesus
a lesson about humility?                              185, 186 L.J.

Give Jesus' striking statement about forgiveness.     186 L.J.

Of what part of Jesus' prayer to the disciples
does the story of the Ungrateful Servant remind you?  112, 186 L.J.

What lesson did Jesus teach when he spoke of
little children?                                      188, 189 L.J.


Teaching of Light and Freedom

Why did Jesus stay in Galilee?                        190 L.J.

What did he tell his disciples to do? 190 L.J.

How did Jesus go to the feast?                        190, 191 L.J.

When Jesus taught in the temple, what surprised
the people?                                           191 L.J.

Describe the debate held by the authorities
on the character of Jesus.                            192, 193 L.J.

How did Nicodemus defend him?                         193 L.J.

From study of the context what do you think is
the meaning of Jesus' two statements:
"I am the light of the world" (193 L.J.) and
"Ye are the light of the world" (106 L.J.)?

What did Jesus say about the truth?                   193 L.J.

When Jesus said, "The truth shall make you free,"
what kind of bondage did he refer to?                 194 L.J.

What great trait in Abraham was lacking in those
who claimed to be his descendants?                    194, 195 L.J.

How did this conflict between Jesus and the Jews end? 196 L.J.


Healing the Blind Man

From which commandment did the Jews get their belief
that a man suffers from the sins of his parents?      197 L.J., 202 H.T.

What connection did Job's friends think exists
between suffering and sin?                            195 S.A.

{76}

How did Jesus heal the blind man?                     197 L.J.

In what way were the Pharisees divided in their
discussion following this healing?                    198 L.J.

Upon what point did the man who was healed
refuse to express an opinion?                         199 L.J.

How did this grateful man show that the
Pharisees' opinions were illogical?                   199 L.J.


The Good Shepherd

Give the picture of a good shepherd that Jesus draws. 200 L.J.

In what words does Jesus promise safety,
liberty, and sustenance to his followers?             201 L.J.


Stories of Forgiveness

Tell the story of the Lost Sheep.                     202 L.J.

Tell the story of the Lost Money.                     202, 203 L.J.

Tell the story of the Lost Son.                       203, 204 L.J.

What did Jesus teach by these three stories?          202 L.J.

What lesson did Jesus mean to teach by the
story of the Dishonest Steward?                       204, 205 L.J.

What is the lesson in the story of the
Rich Man and the Poor Man?                            206, 207 L.J.

What is the teaching in the story of the
Men who Made Excuses?                                 207, 208 L.J.


The Rich Young Man

What question did a rich young man ask Jesus?         211 L.J.

What claims of righteousness did the young man make?  211 L.J.

Give Jesus' words in reply.                           211 L.J.

What was Jesus' statement regarding rich men?         211, 212 L.J.

What did the story of the Foolish Rich Man teach?     212 L.J.


Raising of Lazarus

For what purpose did Mary and Martha send for Jesus?  215 L.J.

When Jesus, after a delay, reached Bethany,
with what news was he met?                            216 L.J.

With what words did both sisters greet Jesus?         216-219 L.J.

{77}

What effect did the raising of Lazarus
have on the Jews?                                     220 L.J.

What two others had Jesus raised from the dead?       130, 141 L.J.

To what miracle did the Jews probably refer
when they asked their question?                       219, 197 L.J.

For what does Jesus thank God in his prayer?          220 L.J.


At Jericho

Tell the story of blind Bartimaeus.                    221 L.J.

How did Zacchaeus come to Jesus' notice?              222 L.J.

What did Zacchaeus do to show his repentance?         222 L.J.


Supper at Bethany

When the last Passover in Jesus' life came,
what inquiry did the people make one of another?      229 L.J.

Describe the scene at the supper at Bethany.          229 L.J.

What was Judas' argument?                             229 L.J.

What prediction did Jesus make in regard
to the fame of Mary's deed?                           230 L.J.


Entry into Jerusalem

How did Jesus ride into Jerusalem?                    233 L.J.

What did the multitude say?                           234 L.J.

How did Jesus reply to the Pharisees' objections?     234 L.J.

How did the sight of Jerusalem affect Jesus, and why? 234 L.J.

At what other time did Jesus weep?                    219, 234 L.J.

A few days later what did the Jerusalem
multitude shout in regard to Jesus?                   276 L.J.


Crucifixion Week

What did Jesus do on Monday of Crucifixion week?      237 L.J.

When did Jesus perform a similar work in the temple?  237, 79 L.J.

Besides cleansing the temple what other lines of
activity did Jesus engage in?                         237 L.J.

On Tuesday of Crucifixion week what questions
were put to Jesus by his enemies?                     238 L.J.

In what way did Jesus answer the questions?           238, 239 L.J.

Tell Jesus' story of the Wicked Husbandman.           238, 239 L.J.

{78}

What question was raised about tribute money?         240 L.J.

What was Jesus' decision in regard to the
paying of tribute money?                              240 L.J.

What did Jesus say was the greatest commandment?      240 L.J.

How large was the widow's mite according
to Jesus' estimate? Why?                              243 L.J.

For what purpose did certain Greeks come
to the disciples?                                     243 L.J.

Give the substance of Jesus' words at this time.      243, 244 L.J.

Tell the story of the Faithful Servant.               244-246 L.J.

Tell the story of the Judgment of the King.           246, 247 L.J.

How probably did Jesus spend Wednesday and Thursday
of Crucifixion week?                                  248 L.J.


The Last Supper

Why did the enemies of Jesus not want to arrest
him during the Passover feast?                        248 L.J.

Describe the preparation for the Last Supper.         248, 249 L.J.

Tell Jesus' words and actions during the supper.      249 L.J.

What act of lowly service did Jesus
do for his disciples?                                 249, 250 L.J.

What did Jesus say that troubled the disciples?       253 L.J.

What did Jesus do and say to Judas?                   253 L.J.

Name four comforting promises that Jesus
made in this talk with the disciples.                 254-258 L.J.

What was Jesus' legacy to his disciples?              258 L.J.

In what words did Jesus, speaking of the vine,
express the dependence of the disciples upon himself? 258 L.J.

To what extent did Jesus say true love
will show itself?                                     261 L.J.

When Jesus prayed for his disciples,
what two things did he say he had done?               261, 262 L.J.

For what persons did Jesus make requests?             262 L.J.

What particular petitions did Jesus make
for these persons?                                    262, 263 L.J.


Betrayal

Where did Jesus go alter the Last Supper and
for what purpose?                                     264 L.J.

What did Jesus say in his prayer in the
garden about God's will?                              264 L.J.

How did Judas betray Jesus?                           267 L.J.


{79}

Trial

What occurred in the trial before Annas?              268 L.J.

What false witness was borne against Jesus
in the trial before Caiaphas?                         269 L.J.

What utterance of Jesus at this trial
was said to be blasphemy?                             269 L.J.

Describe Peter's denial.                              270 L.J.

What were the questions and
answers at the Jewish court?                          270, 271 L.J.


Judgment

Give the conversation of Jesus and Pilate.            272, 275 L.J.

What was Pilate's decision?                           275 L.J.

Describe the trial before Herod.                      275, 276 L.J.

What offer did Pilate make to the people?             276 L.J.

What was the cry of the people in regard to Jesus?    276 L.J.

In spite of finding no fault in Jesus,
Pilate delivered him to be crucified.
What reasons can you give for his action?             279, 280 L.J.


Crucifixion

Who went with Jesus to the place of crucifixion?      281 L.J.

Where was Jesus crucified?                            281 L.J.

Who were crucified with Jesus?                        281 L.J.

What was written above Jesus on the cross?            282 L.J.

How did his enemies taunt Jesus while on the cross?   282 L.J.

Give the conversation between Jesus and the thieves.  282,285 L.J.

What was Jesus' conversation with the disciple?       285 L.J.

What did the Roman centurion say when Jesus died?     285 L.J.


Burial

Describe the burial of Jesus.                         286 L.J.

How and for what reason was the tomb guarded?         287 L.J.


Resurrection

Who came first on the Sabbath morning
to the tomb of Jesus?                                 297 L.J.

What did she find?                                    297 L.J.


{80}

Who came next to the tomb?                            297 L.J.

What further did the disciples discover?              297 L.J.

Tell the story of Mary at the tomb of Jesus.          298 L.J.

How did Jesus reveal himself to the
disciples on the way to Emmaus?                       301, 302 L.J.

Why were the disciples meeting
in secret at Jerusalem?                               305 L.J.

Tell about Jesus appearing among them.                305 L.J.

What did Thomas say in regard to Jesus appearing?     306 L.J.

How was Thomas finally brought to believe?            306 L.J.

How were the disciples engaged when Jesus
appeared to  them again?                              307 L.J.

What help did Jesus give the disciples?               307 L.J.

What commands did Jesus give Peter at this time?      308, 309 L.J.

What great command did Jesus give his disciples
at the Mount in Galilee?                              310 L.J.

For what purpose did Jesus tell the disciples
to tarry in Jerusalem?                                313 L.J.


Victories of the New Faith

What happened on the day of Pentecost?                325 L.J.

What did the people say of the disciples?             326 L.J.

What was the theme of Peter's sermon?                 326-328 L.J.

Give the result of the preaching.                     328, 329 L.J.

What miracle was performed by Peter
and John at the temple?                               330 L.J.

Give Peter's message to the astonished people.        331, 332 L.J.

What action did the authorities take?                 332 L.J.

What was the result?                                  332-334 L.J.

What custom in regard to property
prevailed at this time?                               335 L.J.

What was the sin of Ananias and Sapphira?             335, 336 L.J.

For what reason was the first martyr,
Stephen, put to death?                                339 L.J.

What was the nature of Stephen's defense?             340-344 L.J.

What was the result of the martyrdom?                 344, 345 L.J.

What new city was entered by the apostles,
and what happened there?                              346, 347 L.J.

Describe the meeting between
Philip and the Ethiopian.                             348 L.J.

{81}

What was the result of the meeting?                   349 L.J.

Give the name and character of the woman
whom Peter restored to life at Lydda.                 350 L.J.

What vision had a Roman captain at Caesarea?          353 L.J.

Describe Peter's vision at Joppa.                     353, 354 L.J.

What was the result of Peter's visit to the captain?  355, 356 L.J.

For what act did the Jews at Jerusalem rebuke Peter?  357 L.J.

How did Peter justify his act?                        357, 358 L.J.

Describe Peter's experience in prison.                359, 360 L.J.

Where did Peter go after his escape,
and how was he received?                              360, 361 L.J.


Paul, the Apostle

Tell in brief the life of Paul, the Apostle.          367-370 L.J.

For what purpose did Paul make
the journey to Damascus?                              371 L.J.

Describe what happened on the way.                    371 L.J.

What part did Ananias have in Paul's conversion?      371, 372 L.J.

How did Paul show his changed purpose?                372 L.J.

Describe the plot against Paul and his escape.        375 L.J.

Where were the disciples first called Christians?     375 L.J.


First Missionary Journey

What was the general location of Paul's
first missionary journey?                             376, 381 L.J.

Who were Paul's companions on the first journey?      376 L.J.

To what island did Paul and his companions go first?  379 L.J.

What official did they interest in their message?     379, 380 L.J.

Who opposed them?                                     379 L.J.

Where did they go after leaving Cyprus?               380 L.J.

Give the gist of Paul's sermon at Antioch.            380-384 L.J.

What was the result among the Jews?                   384, 385 L.J.

What was the result among the Gentiles?               385 L.J.

For what reason did Paul and Barnabas leave Antioch?  385 L.J.

Where did they go?                                    385 L.J.

What happened at Iconium?                             385, 386 L.J.

Why did the people at Lystra call
Paul and Barnabas gods?                               386 L.J.

{82}

How was Paul mistreated at Lystra?                    387 L.J.

What was the main work of Paul and
Barnabas on the remainder of the journey?             387 L.J.

What disturbance and discussion
arose within the church?                              388 L.J.

How was it settled?                                   388, 389 L.J.

What was the message sent to the Gentile
Christians from the disciples at Jerusalem?           390, 391 L.J.


Second Missionary Journey

Where was the main campaign of Paul's
second missionary journey located?                    392 L.J.

For what reason did Paul and Barnabas
part, and who was the companion of each?              395 L.J.

Why did Paul go to Macedonia?                         396 L.J.

Describe what happened first at Philippi.             396, 399 L.J.

For what cause were Paul and Silas cast into prison?  399 L.J.

What happened in the prison in the night?             399, 400 L.J.

How did the disciples leave the prison?               400 L.J.

Where did the disciples go after leaving Philippi?    403 L.J.

What happened in Thessalonica?                        403 L.J.

Describe the visit to Beroea and the reason
for sudden departure from there.                      403, 404 L.J.

To what famous city, the intellectual center
of the Gentile world, did Paul now go?                404 L.J.

What difficulties did Paul encounter at Athens?       404 L.J.

Give the substance of Paul's speech at Athens.        407, 408 L.J.

What was the result?                                  408 L.J.

To what leading commercial city did Paul now go?      408 L.J.

With whom did he live at Corinth?                     408 L.J.

How long a campaign did Paul wage here
in the hope of evangelizing the city?                 411 L.J.

What did the Jews in Corinth do to Paul?              411 L.J.

How was Paul released?                                411, 412 L.J.

Where did Paul end this journey?                      412 L.J.


{83}

Third Missionary Journey

Give an outline of the third missionary journey,
mentioning the main places visited.                   417 L.J.

In what city did Paul have great success in
evangelization?                                       418 L.J.

What great metropolis of the world
did Paul purpose to visit?                            418 L.J.

What was the reason for the riot at Ephesus?          418, 421 L.J.

What was the cry of the people?                       421 L.J.

How was the riot ended?                               422 L.J.

Where did Paul go after leaving Ephesus?              422 L.J.

How do you account for the change in
the pronoun from "he" to "we"?                        422, 425, 494 L.J.

Tell what happened at Troas.                          425 L.J.

For what event was Paul hurrying back to Jerusalem?   425, 426 L.J.

What premonitions did Paul make known to the
Ephesians whom he met at Miletus?                     426, 429 L.J.

At what points did Paul touch on his journey
to Jerusalem?                                         429, 430 L.J.


In the Hands of his Enemies

What objection to Paul did his enemies
in Jerusalem raise?                                   433 L.J.

What did they do?                                     433, 434 L.J.

Give the substance of Paul's defense                  434-438 L.J.

What was the effect upon the mob?                     438 L.J.

What conversation did Paul have with the
Roman commandant?                                     441 L.J.

What was the effect of this conversation?             441 L.J.


Before the Council

Describe Paul's hearing before the council.           442, 445 L.J.

What oath did about forty of the Jews
take at this time?                                    445 L.J.

Describe their plot.                                  445, 446 L.J.

How was the conspiracy defeated?                      446, 447 L.J.

To whom was Paul sent?                                447 L.J.

Give the contents of the letter sent to Felix.        447 L.J.

What decision did Felix make in regard to the case?   447 L.J.


{84}

Before Felix

Who appeared as accusers at the hearing against Paul? 448 L.J.

What were the charges brought against Paul?           448 L.J.

What was Paul's defense?                              448-451 L.J.

What was the result of the hearing?                   451 L.J.

What was the effect of Paul's private
conversations with Felix?                             452 L.J.


Before Festus

What was Paul's condition when
Festus became governor?                               452 L.J.

How did Festus arrange a hearing for Paul?            452 L.J.

What appeal did Paul make during his trial?           455 L.J.

Why could this appeal not be denied?                  498 L.J.


Before Agrippa

Give the story of Paul as told by
Festus to King Agrippa                                455, 456 L.J.

What reason did Festus give for
bringing Paul before Agrippa?                         457 L.J.

Give the substance of Paul's speech before Agrippa?   457-461 L.J.

What confession did the king make to Paul?            461 L.J.

What did Agrippa say about Paul's innocence?          461 L.J.


Voyage to Rome

Give a general description of Paul's voyage to Rome.  462-466 L.J.

Why was there doubt about proceeding
from Fair Havens?                                     469 L.J.

What was Paul's advice?                               469 L.J.

For what reason was the advice not taken?             470 L.J.

Describe the weather when the ship sailed.            470 L.J.

What happened soon after?                             470 L.J.

What did the sailors do after the storm struck?       470 L.J.

How did Paul try to encourage the hopeless sailors?   470, 473 L.J.

What happened on the fourteenth night?                473 L.J.

Tell what happened when it was day.                   474 L.J.

What happened on the island of Malta?                 474, 477 L.J.

Describe the remainder of the trip to Rome.           477 L.J.


{85}

In Rome

What liberty was Paul permitted by the
authorities at Rome?                                  478 L.J.

How did he employ his time there?                     478, 481 L.J.

Name some of the perils that Paul says
he has passed through in his life.                    482 L.J.

What spirit did Paul show in his farewell words?      482 L.J.


{86}

SONGS OF THE AGES

Most of the questions on this volume are of a literary nature and will
be found in Part IV, "The Bible in Literature."


The Prophets

What broader meaning does the word prophet
have than that of merely signifying a predicter
of future events?                                     263 S.A.

Name the four great prophets.                         263 S.A.

Why were the Minor Prophets so called?                263 S.A.

What was the work of the prophets?                    263 S.A.


Isaiah

Who was the greatest prophet of the Old Testament?    264 S.A.

What was the condition of the kingdom of Judah
when Isaiah came to prophesy?                         264 S.A.

How did Isaiah respond to his vision?                 264, 265 S.A.

What alliance did Ahaz form in
spite of Isaiah's advice?                             266, 267 S.A.

What do you think of the effectiveness of
the words used by Isaiah where he threatens
Judah against invasion by the Assyrians?              283 S.A.

What prophecy did Isaiah make to Hezekiah
about the future of Judah?                            268, 271 S.A.

For what purpose did Sennacherib invade Judah?        271 S.A.

Tell how Rabshakeh tried to turn the common people
away from their allegiance to King Hezekiah.          271-273 S.A.

How did Isaiah encourage King Hezekiah?               274 S.A.

What further word did Sennacherib send to Hezekiah?   274 S.A.

How was Judah saved from the Assyrians?               275, 276 S.A.

(Questions on the literary value of Isaiah's
poems may be found in Part IV.)


{87}

Jeremiah

Give the condition of Judah in the time of Jeremiah.  297 S.A.

In what way does the life of Jeremiah compare
with that of Savonarola?                              297 S.A.

What were the circumstances of Jeremiah's call?       298-301 S.A.

Sum up in a few words Jeremiah's
message to the people.                                305 S.A.

What did the king do to the roll
of Jeremiah's prophecy?                               305-308 S.A.

When Jeremiah continued to rebuke the people,
what happened to him?                                 309-312 S.A.

How did Jeremiah escape?                              312, 313 S.A.

How was Jeremiah treated by the foreign conqueror?    314-318 S.A.

Who was appointed governor over the Jews who
remained in their land?                               318 S.A.

Where did Jeremiah and the royal governor
make their headquarters?                              318 S.A.

How did Gedaliah treat the Jews?                      318-320 S.A.

What was Gedaliah's fate?                             320 S.A.

What was Jeremiah's warning to the people
who wished to take refuge in Egypt?                   322-325 S.A.

What did the people do?                               325, 326 S.A.

What does Jeremiah say is to be the
punishment for the people who went into Egypt?        326-331 S.A.

Give the substance of Jeremiah's prophecy
concerning the doom of Babylon.                       331-343 S.A.


Ezekiel

How does the book of Ezekiel differ from
every other book of prophecy?                         344 S.A.

What was Ezekiel's great aim?                         344 S.A.

The prophecy of Ezekiel falls into three divisions:
(1) Prophecies concerning the fall of the Jewish
nation; (2) Prophecies concerning the destruction
of foreign nations; (3) Prophecies of restoration
of the Jews. Pick out instances of the three and
note the effective symbolism used.                    344-353 S.A.

From Ezekiel's "Doom of Tyre," describe the
commercial activity of a great city in ancient times. 346-351 S.A.


{88}

Amos

In what kingdom did Amos prophesy?                    354 S.A.

Tell something of Amos' early life and
call to be a prophet.                                 354 S.A.

Where did Amos make his first appearance and
what was his message?                                 354, 355 S.A.

How did Amos defy the priest?                         355, 356 S.A.

What charges did Amos bring against the people?       356-361 S.A.

Against what abuse did Amos speak?                    361, 362 S.A.


Hosea

What was Hosea's special message?                     363 S.A.

What particular sins did Hosea ascribe to the people? 363-365 S.A.

What relation between God and his people
did Hosea point out?                                  365, 366 S.A.


Micah

In what respect did Micah's prophecy resemble
that of Isaiah?                                       367 S.A.

What social corruptions did Micah especially condemn? 367 S.A.

What did Micah mention as the enduring foundations
of the spiritual world?                               369 S.A.


Obadiah

What was the main theme of the prophecy of Obadiah?   370-373 S.A.


Joel

What was the occasion of the prophecy of Joel?        374 S.A.

How did the people receive Joel's warning?            378 S.A.

What words of Joel were quoted by Peter on
the day of Pentecost?                                 379 S.A., 326 L.J.


Zephaniah


Of what does the prophecy of Zephaniah consist?       380 S.A.

Of his declarations of threats and promises pick
out strong examples.                                  380-384 S.A.


{89}

Nahum

For what reasons was Nineveh so bitterly hated
by the Hebrew people?                                 385 S.A.

What was the theme of Nahum's prophecy?               385 S.A.

What striking picture does Nahum draw in the
"Doom of Nineveh"?                                    387-391 S.A.


Habakkuk

What new problem is dealt with in the prophecy of
Habakkuk?                                             392 S.A.

What national condition of the Jews brought up
this problem?                                         392 S.A.

What would you say is the great thought brought
out in "Warnings of the Watchman"?                    392,393 S.A.


Haggai

What was the national condition of the Hebrews when
Haggai prophesied?                                    397 S.A.

What was Haggai's particular message to the people?   397-400 S.A.

Was Haggai successful?                                397 S.A.


Zechariah

What was Zechariah's aim in his prophecies?           401 S.A.

Compare the beginning of Zechariah's prophecy
with that of Haggai in point of time.                 398, 401 S.A.

Name some of the strange symbols that Zechariah
used in his prophecy.                                 401-407 S.A.

What encouragements did the prophet give to
Zerubbabel to rebuild the temple?                     404 S.A.

What is the meaning of the vision of the flying book? 405 S.A.

What is the meaning of the vision of the
woman in the barrel?                                  405, 406 S.A.

What is the meaning of the vision of the
chariots of the four winds?                           406, 407 S.A.


Malachi

What was the national condition of the Hebrews
in the time of Malachi?                               408 S.A.

What was Malachi's message to the people?             408, 409 S.A.


{90}

The Epistles

In what effective way did Paul follow up his visits
to the various churches which he founded?             413 S.A.

Name some of the occasions that called
forth Paul's letters.                                 413 S.A.

What influences other than Jewish are
found in Paul's letters?                              414, 415 S.A.

Number the commands given in Paul's message
to the Romans                                         415-419 S.A.

Divide these exhortations into two classes,
those for personal righteousness and those for
social betterment.                                    415-419 S.A.

How many of these commands might be followed to-day?  415-419 S.A.

What did Paul say about obedience?                    419 S.A.

What were Paul's words about contentment?             420 S.A.

What attitude did Paul say was worthy of
the calling of a Christian?                           420 S.A.

What particular gifts did Paul say were given men
for the building up of Christ's kingdom?              421 S.A.

What did Paul say about being angry?                  421 S.A.

What did Paul say about the fruits of the Spirit?     422, 423 S.A.

About what things did Paul say we should think?       424 S.A.

Of all the spiritual gifts to be desired
what did Paul say was the greatest?                   425 S.A.

Give Paul's definition of true love.                  425 S.A.

Why can a person be joyful when falling
into temptation?                                      426 S.A.

How does temptation begin?                            427 S.A.

What did James lay down as the two elements of
pure religion?                                        427, 428 S.A.

What did James say of faith and works?                428 S.A.

How large a part does the control of the tongue
have in the making of character, according to James?  428, 429 S.A.

To what two things is the tongue compared?            428 S.A.

What three things did James declare the tongue to be? 428,429 S.A.

How did James say the peaceable spirit
could be obtained?                                    429, 430 S.A.

What did James say about the rich and the poor?       430, 433 S.A.

Give James' definition of sin and compare it
to John's definition on page 435 S.A..                434 S.A.

Name the two definitions of God as given by John.     435, 436 S.A.


{91}

How does John say we may prove our
fellowship with God?                                  435 S.A.

What does John say proves our love for God?           436 S.A.

Compare John's estimate of love with Paul's.          425, 436, 437 S.A.

Make a list of the rules laid down by Paul for
the spiritual athlete. How do these rules compare
with the requirements for the physical athlete?       438, 439 S.A.

What games do you think Paul may have referred
to in this letter?                                    414, 438 S.A.

What does Paul say about the foundation of
the Christian temple?                                 440 S.A.

What does Paul say dwells in the Christian temple?    443 S.A.

What does Paul say makes the Christian temple strong? 443 S.A.

What do you think may have suggested to Paul
the figure of the Christian as a warrior?             414, 447 S.A.

Describe the spiritual armor.                         447, 448 S.A.

What does Paul say are the enemies against which
the Christian warrior must fight?                     447 S.A.

What does Paul say of the immortality of the soul?    449-455 S.A.

What message did John write to the church in Ephesus? 460 S.A.

What promise for faithfulness was given the
church in Smyrna?                                     460, 461 S.A.

What was the charge against the church in Pergamum?   461 S.A.

What was the message to the church in Thyatira?       462 S.A.

For what was the church in Sardis rebuked?            462, 463 S.A.

What promise was given to the church in Philadelphia? 463,464 S.A.

What charge was brought against
the church in Laodicea?                               464 S.A.

What beautiful promise was held
out to the Laodiceans?                                464 S.A.

Name some of the symbols used in the successive
scenes of this revelation.                            467-478 S.A.

What name was given, in John's vision,
to the Heavenly City?                                 476 S.A.

Name some of the characteristics
of the Heavenly City.                                 477, 478 S.A.


{92}

{93}

PART III

THE LAND OF THE BIBLE

_Visiting Palestine with THE BIBLE STORY_

{94}

"A land not of sailors, not of traders, not of foresters, but a land
of lonely highlanders who won their living from the soil, from grain
fields, from vineyards, from orchards, and from sheepfolds. A land of
paths, not of thoroughfares, with but one great city. A land, not far
from the highroad between Europe and the East, yet secluded on its
hilltops, where prophets and patriots dreamed in its safe caverns. A
land which, because it had little possible outreach, reached upward."

                                         --_William Byron Forbush_.

{95}

{96}

[Illustration: RADIAL KEY MAP ILLUSTRATING THE OLD TESTAMENT (With
approximate distances and directions from Jerusalem). Used by
permission of the American Baptist Publication Society.
_Copyrighted by Geo. May Powell, 1901_.]


{97}

VISITING PALESTINE WITH THE BIBLE STORY

A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE LAND

The land of Palestine would be one of the most interesting even if
sacred events had never occurred within its borders.

In the first place, it is part of the world's largest oasis. Have you
ever thought that it is the most isolated country on earth? Hemmed in
by the desert, on part of one end by high mountains and on the west by
the sea, it seems separated from an other lands as for some peculiar
purpose.

It is most astonishing in its physical contour. Though smaller than
New Hampshire and of about the same shape, its elevation varies from
the height of Mount Hermon, 9000 feet above the sea, to the lower
level of the Jordan, 1300 feet below it. In the short distance of
twenty miles from the Mount of Olives to the Dead Sea there is a drop
of over 4000 feet. Within these limits flourish the pine and the palm,
the wheat and the cane, the grackle and the skylark, the mountain wolf
and the gazelle. The mountain may be covered with snow when the plain
is green with verdure. From more than one hilltop the traveler can see
at once the glaciers of Hermon and the steaming cauldron of the Dead
Sea.

These diversities explain many interesting points of history, and we
may understand them more clearly through some of the rare and
attractive photographs in THE BIBLE STORY.


The Seacoast Plain

Palestine may be most easily described as consisting of four strips
widening from north to south, and broken across by Mount Carmel and
the Valley of Esdraelon. These strips are, from west to east: the
lowland plain, the highlands, the Jordan valley, and the tablelands
east of the Jordan.

{98}

The lowland plain has several significant features. The coast line of
Palestine, as you may see by the map (14 T.J.), is broken by only one
indentation, that of the headland of Carmel, and has not a single
harbor. The general character of its shores is admirably illustrated
by the picture (110 S.A.), and their exposure by the picture of
ancient Ascalon (474 T.J.). Jaffa, anciently Joppa, was then as now
the common landing place for imports, but the small boats (168 T.J.)
indicate how limited must have been the foreign commerce that could be
carried among the rocks which fringe that shore. The plain farther
inland was known at the north as the Plain of Sharon and at the south
as the Plain of the Philistines. As the map (112 T.J.) shows, the main
highroad from Asia Minor to Egypt ran through it. That Jerusalem was a
spiritual rather than a commercial capital is seen in the fact that it
was not on this road. Aijalon (364 H.T.) was one of those easy
gateways at which Judea struggled with Philistia, and the valley of
Sorek (180 T.J.), deeper among the hills, was the home of the
individualistic patriot, Samson.


The Highlands

When Abraham came down over the backbone of Canaan and stood on the
summit of Mount Ebal, which crowns the highlands, he chose for himself
the hill country of Judah and Hebron. There may have been a stern
prescience in this, as well as generosity to his luxury-loving nephew.
Thenceforth the history of the Hebrews, like that of the Scotch, was
largely that of highlanders. How suited were those hills for defense
is suggested by photographs (304, 344, 356 H.T.). These highlands
slope up gradually from the lowland plain on the west, but on the east
they fall toward the Jordan with frightful rapidity, broken by kopjes,
small canyons, and almost inaccessible swift streams. What this
country is like is suggested by the picture (154 G.B.). It was a
fitting home for such lonely prophets as Elijah and John the Baptist.
Along these highlands rested the high towns of Hebron (44 H.T.),
Bethlehem (14 H.T.), Jerusalem (496 H.T.), Shechem (82 H.T.), Samaria
(156 T.J.), and, beyond Esdraelon, Nazareth (60 L.J.). Farther to the
north lived the brave prophets of the Northern Kingdom among the
mountain sanctuaries of the Lebanon (44 S.A., 460 H. T.) under the
shadow of the King of the Land, Mount Hermon (60 S.A.). On these
highlands this mere speck of a people intrenched themselves for ages
against the mightiest of world powers. Here lived all their great men.
Here were written their histories. Here were their two capitals. In
one of their hill towns lived the Master for thirty years; in another,
Jerusalem, he consummated his mission.


{99}

The Jordan Valley

Jordan is more glorious in poetry than in history or in fact. As a
stream it begins nowhere and ends in a salt lake. Its lower banks are
a great hot muggy bowl (126, 394 T.J., 280, 290 H.T.). The stream has
never been anything but a boundary, since it is not navigable and is
too low for purposes of irrigation. Its fords have been the scene of
many wars of conquest and defense (284 H.T., 64 L.J.), but the people
living near it have always been weak and degenerate. It has been
called the pantry of Canaan, fertile for food but ever open for easy
attack. In literature, the stream has been often referred to as the
symbol of the transition of death, and the outlet, the Dead Sea, as
the emblem of judgment (34, 258 H.T.).


Esdraelon and the Lake of Galilee

Where the Kishon crosses northern Canaan is a long triangular valley,
bounded on the south by the low range of Carmel (118 T.J.). This is
Esdraelon, the fertile (328 H.T., 56 T.J.). It was Israel's natural
battleground, and recalls Deborah, Gideon, Sisera, Saul, Ahab, Elijah,
Jehu, Josiah, Pharaoh-necho, the Maccabees, the Romans, the Arabs, the
Crusaders, and Napoleon. The seer of Patmos foresaw other world
conflicts even more majestic in this valley of Armageddon.

A part of the Jordan valley, but upon the level of Esdraelon and
sharing its salubrity, is the Lake of Galilee, unmentioned in the Old
Testament, but in the time of Jesus a busy center of work and trade
and the scene of his longest ministry. It is a sapphire sea, set in a
golden frame (96, 108 G.B.).


The Eastern Tableland

The high levels east of the Jordan were the border of the desert (318
H.T.). They were always occupied, as now, by wandering tribes, and
they were decidedly foreign country. To the North there is more
irregularity, as in the valley of the Jabbok (78 H.T.) mentioned in
the story of Jacob. Down this tableland was another caravan road into
Egypt past Sinai (200, 206 H.T.), from Damascus (410 T.J.), the
treasure-house of the East.


{100}

UNDERSTANDING GEOGRAPHY BY PICTURES

The inscription on the back of each of the pictures referred to below
will answer the question and the text, referred to in brackets, will
tell the story more in detail.

Why is Hebron one of the most interesting spots
in the world?                                         166 G.B., 44, 74 H.T.

Of what interesting events was the Ancient Shechem,
now known as Nablous, the scene?                      24, 82 H.T.
                                                      (82-87 L.J.)

Who is associated with the town of Ramah?             136, 349 H. T.

What kind of boats were used on the Nile
and what were they called?                            154 H.T.

Of what value was the Nile to Egypt?                  148 H.T.

Describe the wilderness where the children of
Israel wandered for forty years.                      200, 206, 224,
                                                      240 H.T.

What important discovery was made in the monastery
of Saint Catherine near Mount Sinai?                  210 H.T.

Why is Palestine called a "living Pompeii"?           234 H.T.

What is a Druse family?                               134 G.B.

Why is Petra one of the strangest and most
marvelous cities in the world?                        252 H.T.

Locate it on the map.                                 14 T.J.

What happens when the muddy waters of the
Jordan flow into the Dead Sea, and why?               258 H.T.

Tell the name of "the city of palm trees" and
two important facts about it.                         280, 290 H.T.
                                                      (287-292 H.T.)

What is the modern condition of this once
important city?                                       390, 394 T.J.

How does Smith explain this condition?                279 H.T.

Give three important facts about
the Plain of Esdraelon.                               328 H.T., 56 T.J.

Explain the meaning of the national saying,
"from Dan to Beersheba."                              340 H.T.

{101}

What valley was called the
"Valley of the Smiths," and why?                      364 H.T.

What do you know about Endor?                         378 H.T.
                                                      (376-380 H.T.)

What were the two chief industries of Judea?
In illustrating his mission by referring to
these pursuits, what words did Jesus use?             410 H.T.

What do you know about the rock-hewn tombs
used in Bible lands?                                  176, 310, 450 H.T.

What do you know of the Cedars of Lebanon, and
what is the meaning of the word "Lebanon"?            454, 460 H.T.

What stands to-day on the old temple
area in Jerusalem?                                    464, 468 H.T.

What awful contest between rival faiths was fought
out for a full day on Mount Carmel?                   118 T.J.
                                                      (116-122 T.J.)

What influence did the great wilderness of the
Brook Cherith have on the life and literature
of the Hebrew people?                                 126 T.J.

Between what two important cities of Palestine does
the road run that is made famous by the story of
the Good Samaritan? Why is it called the "Ascent
of Blood"? For what reasons have pilgrims, both in
Jesus' time and ours, traveled this road?             132 T.J., 90 L.J.

What two great prophets are associated with
the village of Shunem, and how?                       136 T.J.
                                                      (138-143 T.J.)

In whose reign was Samaria made capital of the
Northern Kingdom?                                     384 T.J., 374 T.J.

How did the location of Samaria make it easy
for it to resist assault? Tell the story of
one dreadful siege there.                             156 T.J.
                                                      (152-157 T.J.)

How was Samaria finally brought low?                  (411-413 T.J.)

How does the city to-day justify Isaiah's name
for it, "the crown of the pride of Ephraim"?          360 T.J.

What other ruins tell the story of the
once proud city?                                      350 T.J.

Explain the statement made in the time
of Jesus (82 L.J.)  "For Jews have no
dealings with Samaritans"                             237 T.J., 488 L.J.

What great seaport, the only inside harbor between
Egypt and Mount Carmel, was the scene of Jonah's
attempt to escape from the command of the Lord?       167,458 T.J.
                                                      (165-171 T.J.)

Through what valley does the modern railroad
from Jaffa to Jerusalem run?                          180 T.J.

What great loss was suffered
there in the time of Eli?                             180 T.J.
                                                      (342-346 H.T.)

{102}

Give the name of some of the gates in the ancient
wall of Jerusalem and explain their use               216 T.J.
                                                      322, 338 L.J.

What was the fate of the first wall
that surrounded the city?                             224 T.J.

Does any of the wall still exist?                     224, 230 T.J.

When and for what reason did the ancient
Jews gather at their wailing place in Jerusalem?      244 T.J.

What two important mounts are separated by
the valley of Jehosaphat, also known as Kidron?       252 T.J.

Name something that distinguishes each mount.         (264 L.J., 461 H.T.)

What important roads run through the valley of
Jehosaphat? Tell some other interesting features
of the valley.                                        260, 264 T.J.

What little village at the base of the Mount of
Olives is remembered because of its pool,
which was the scene of one of Jesus' miracles?        274 T.J. (197 L.J.)

What interesting discovery has been made
in connection with this pool?                         304 T.J.

What was the system of water supply
in ancient Jerusalem?                                 298 T.J.

What astonishing discovery has been made
by excavation concerning the mound that covers
the ancient city of Lachish in Palestine?             310 T.J.

What mount was made a rival of Jerusalem by
the erection of a temple which marked it as
the central shrine of the nation?                     366 T.J.

What range is the great mountain barrier of
northern Palestine?                                   372 T.J., 60 S.A.

Locate this range on map.                             213 L.J.

Tell the name and character of the famous
monument of Mesha, king of Moab.                      376 T.J.

What can be said of the city of Damascus
both as to character and location?                    406 T.J.

What great man of New Testament times is
associated with this city?                            (371 L.J.)

In the midst of Mohammedan occupancy to-day,
what portion of the old Christian city of Damascus
is left to preserve the prophecy, "Thy kingdom,
O Christ, is an everlasting kingdom"?                 378 L.J.

What river at Damascus was once compared with
the Jordan river?                                     410 T.J.

{103}

By whom was it compared?                              (144 T.J.)

What two famous cities on the eastern coast
of the Mediterranean held the commercial
supremacy of the East?                                436, 442 T.J.

How did a king of one of these cities come
into business relations with a king of Israel?        (457 H.T.)

What Judean city possessed such fertile soil
that it was called the "House of Bread"?              478 T.J.

What beautiful character is associated with
these harvest fields?                                 (35 T.J.)

What is the meaning of the name "Gethsemane,"
and why was the garden so called?                     260 L.J.

How did the location of Lydda make
it a business center?                                 352 L.J.

Name and locate the Roman city in which Paul
the Apostle grew to manhood; and give two
sources of civic pride.                               374 L.J.

What great prophet had his home in Anathoth,
a little city near Jerusalem?                         316 S.A.

What scenes in the lives of two great men of
Judea were laid in the hill country of Judea
now marked by the Convent of Mar-Sarba?               358 S.A.

What were some of the distinguishing features
of the city of Corinth in the time of Paul?           418, 432 S.A.

How did her situation contribute
to Corinth's greatness?                               402 L.J.

For what characteristics did Corinth became
proverbial in the ancient world?                      410 L.J.
                                                      (408-412 L.J.)

Name and describe the most pronounced object
in Ancient Athens.                                    406 L.J.,442 S.A.

What Bible hero visited these scenes on his travels?  398 L.J.
                                                      (404-408 L.J.)

Tell how the situation of Antioch made it a place
of concourse for all classes and kinds of people.     446 S.A.

Locate Antioch on map.                                381 L.J.

What historical ground did Paul's
route in Macedonia cover?                             428 L.J.

What natural cause accounts for the decay of
the city of Miletus which was in Paul's day one
of the leading centers of Greek civilization?         420 L.J.
                                                      (425,426 L.J.)

Describe the aspect, as seen from the sea, of the
city of Assos, visited by Paul on his
third missionary journey.                             424 L.J. (425 L.J.)

{104}

What is the appearance of the AEgean Sea
to-day, commercially speaking,
as compared with classic times?                       432 L.J.

Of what historical events was the city of Salonica
the scene and by what name was it known in
the time of Paul?                                     436 L.J.
                                                      (403,404 L.J.)

What interesting points might have been
viewed by Paul from the deck of the
"Twin Brothers," as it lay in the port of Puteoli?    440 L.J.

Name and give the interesting events that centered
about the mount known as the "Mount of God".          94 S.A.

What stands on the island of Malta to-day
commemorating Paul's visit there?                     480 L.J.
                                                      (474-477 L.J.)

Describe and give the name of the great Way
which has been called the "Queen of Roads".           476 L.J.


{105}

LOCATING BIBLE CHARACTERS IN THE LAND

(Use map at the beginning of this chapter except when referred
elsewhere. )


Abraham

Locate the place of Abram's birth, Ur in Chaldea.     21, 487 H.T.

Trace his migration, with his father and family,
to Haran in Mesopotamia, 21, 487 H.T.; and his
route from there to the land of Canaan, passing
through: Shechem (also known as Sichem), his first
stopping place, 22, 487 H.T.; Bethel, where he built
an altar, 22, 487 H.T.; Hebron, where he made his
permanent home and where later Sarah died,            25,45 H.T.

Sodom and Gomorrah were situated in the valley of
the Jordan where it broadens out in its southern
part into a plain. The present Dead Sea is said
to lie over the site of these two cities. Trace
out on the map the distance covered by Abram when
he pursued the five foreign kings "as far as Dan."     25, 26, 488 H.T.

How does the extent of land, "from the river of
Egypt unto the great river Euphrates," which was
promised to Abram and his family, correspond to
that territory ruled over by the great king Solomon?  28, 455, 488 H.T.

Locate the town of Beer-sheba,
one of the homes of Abram.                            42, 488 H. T.

Solomon built the great temple on Mount Moriah
in Jerusalem. 461 H.T. What other event do some
think happened at this place?                         41, 491 H.T.


Isaac

Locate and give the meaning of the name of the
far distant land where Isaac's wife was sought.       50,491 H.T.


Jacob

Locate Paddan-aram, where Jacob fled from his
home in Canaan to be with his uncle Laban.            68, 492 H.T.

Locate the ford of Jabbok near which Jacob
wrestled with the angel.                              80, 492 H.T.


{106}

Joseph

Find the city of Dothan where Joseph's brothers
conspired against him.                                95, 492 H.T.

What other great man was associated with Dothan?      151. T.J.,492 H.T.

In what part of Egypt was the fat land of Goshen,
which Pharaoh gave to Joseph's father and brothers
for a dwelling place?                                 125, 493 H.T.

(Note, in the story of the plagues, 158 H.T.,
that the Hebrews still dwelt in this particular
part of Egypt in the days of oppression.)


Moses

Trace out the general route taken by the children
of Israel from Egypt to Canaan, locating the Red
Sea, where the hosts of Pharaoh were drowned, 180
H.T.; Mount Sinai, where the Ten Commandments were
given, 201 H. T.; the wilderness, between the arms
of the Red Sea, where the people wandered so long,
242 H. T.; Hebron, to which the spies were sent,
243 H. T.; Kadesh, where the people abode for many
years and where Miriam died, 248 H.T.; Edom, the
hostile land through which the people wished to
pass, 249 H.T.; Mount Hor, where Aaron died, 250
H.T.; Moab, where the Israelites encamped for some
time, 255 H.T.; the Jordan river, at the head of
the Dead Sea, where the Israelites finally crossed
into the land of Canaan, 285 H.T.

Joshua

(See larger map of Palestine, 14 T.J., for
conquests of Canaan.)

When the children of Israel crossed the Jordan
into the land of Canaan, they found it full of
foes. Joshua, the courageous warrior, won the land
for the Israelites.

Locate the scene of many of his mighty
conquests--Jericho, 287 H.T.; Ai, also known as
Hai, 294 H.T.; Gibeon, 300 H.T.; Jerusalem, 305
H.T.

Where was Gilgal, the place of Joshua's camp?         300 H.T.


Ehud

From what section of the land did the Moabites
come who warred against the Israelites in the
time of the judge Ehud?                               315 H.T.

This is the same Moab to which the family of Naomi
and Elimelech went to escape famine in their
native city of Bethlehem (35 T.J.), which was six
miles south of Jerusalem.

{107}

By what physical formation were the people of
Bethlehem able to see that there was food in
the land of Moab?                                     487 T.J.


Gideon

Locate the land of the Midianites, the Arab
wanderers who oppressed Israel in the time of Gideon. 319 H.T.

(This is said to be the same country whither Moses
fled when he killed the Egyptian, 141 H.T.)


Samuel

(Map, page 14 T.J.)

By noting the three great cities of Philistia,
Ashdod, Askelon, and Gath, give the general
location of the land of the Philistines, the
people so long at enmity with the Israelites
(342,360,375 H.T.) from whose hosts came the
giant Goliath (386 H.T.)                              493 H.T.


Saul

Locate the country of Gilead where at Jabesh
Saul's first battle was fought.                       359 H.T.

(Note how the people of Jabesh-gilead later
remembered Saul's help. 359,381,494 H.T.)


David

(Map, page 14 T.J.)

Where was the town of Gath, the home
of the giant Goliath?                                 386, 497 H.T.

(Note that later King Uzziah broke down the walls
of Gath. 287, 288 T.J.)

Locate the land belonging to the tribe of
Judah on whose hills David lived as a boy
and tended sheep.                                     382 H.T.


Solomon

Describe the location of the city of Jerusalem,
the capital of the kingdom of David and Solomon.
Give its position with respect to the Dead Sea,
the Mediterranean, Dan, and Beer-sheba.               461 H.T.

Did the Queen of Sheba come far to visit Solomon?
Trace what was probably her route. Note how far
Solomon's fame had spread.                            487, 498 H.T.


{108}

Locate Ezion-geber, the town on the Red Sea from
which Solomon sent his ships to trade in
Egypt and Arabia.                                     482, 498 H. T.

(Note that the same people who were formerly in
bitter bondage in Egypt were trading on equal
terms with that nation. 498 H.T.).


Deborah

(Map, page 14 T.J.)

What general section of the Israelitish country was
concerned in the story of Deborah?                    487 T.J.

Locate the principal places: the hill country of
Ephraim near the country belonging to the tribe of
Naphtali from which Barak came to seek Deborah's
help, 52, 53 T.J.; Bethel where Deborah lived, 52
T.J.


Elijah and Elisha

(Map, page 112 T.J.)

Trace out the journeys of Elijah from Samaria, the
capital of Ahab's kingdom (113 T.J.) to Zarephath,
where the widow served him, 114, 115 T.J.; Mount
Carmel near Jezreel where he met the prophets of
Baal, 116-122 T.J.; Beer-sheba, where he left his
servant, 123 T.J.; Mount Horeb, where he received
new courage, 123, 124 T.J.; Jezreel, the scene of
Naboth's vineyard, 127-130 T.J.; the Jordan, near
Jerusalem, where Elijah was taken in a chariot of
fire and where Elisha took up his work, 130-134 T.J.

Locate Syria and its capital, Damascus, the home of
Naaman, the leper who came to Elisha to be healed.    143-147 T.J.


Jonah

Locate Joppa, from which place Jonah sailed to
Tarshish.

Locate Nineveh to which he finally went.              165-171, 493 T.J.


Samson

(Map, page 14 T.J.)

Locate the city of Dan which was Samson's home, and
in general the scenes of his raids into Philistia.    172-182, 493 T.J.


Daniel

Locate Babylon, where Daniel lived in the court of
Nebuchadnezzar.                                       183 T.J.


{109}

Esther, Nehemiah

Locate Shushan, prominent in the stories of Esther
and Nehemiah.                                         60, 212, 488 T.J.

Life of Jesus

(Use map, page 24 L.J., in addition to map in this
volume.)

The scenes of Jesus' life were laid in many places throughout the land
of Palestine. These places are here tabulated and divided according to
the periods of His life. Three practical tests are proposed:--

(1) How many of the places given below suggest to you familiar
stories?

(2) How many of these scenes can you locate on the map?

(3) Make an outline of the life of Jesus from the sequence of events
here given by writing out in brief the incident connected with each
place.


The Boyhood

  Bethlehem of Judea.                                 37 L.J.

  Jerusalem.                                          49 L.J.

  Egypt.                                              45 L.J.

  Nazareth.                                           49 L.J.


Preparation for the Ministry

  The Jordan River.                                   65 L.J.

  The Wilderness near Jericho.                        70 L.J.


The Ministry

  Cana.                                               78 L.J.

  Samaria.                                            82 L.J.

  The Mount of Beatitudes.                            105, 107, 108 L.J.

  Capernaum.                                          125 L.J.

  The City of Nain.                                   130 L.J.

  The Lake of Gennesaret.                             136, 489 L.J.

  The Banquet Hall of Herod.                          154 L.J.

  The Pool of Bethesda.                               167, 489 L.J.

  Caesarea Philippi.                                  178 L.J.

  Bethany.                                            215 L.J.

  Jericho.                                            221 L.J.

{110}

Passion Week

  An Upper Chamber.                                   249 L.J.

  The Mount of Olives.                                264 L.J.

  Palace of the High Priest.                          269 L.J.

  Pilate's Palace.                                    272 L.J.

  The Palace of Herod.                                275 L.J.

  Pilate's Judgment Hall.                             276 L.J.

  Golgotha (Calvary)                                  281 L.J.

  Joseph's Garden.                                    286 L.J.


The Resurrection

  The Village of Emmaus.                              301 L.J.

  The Sea of Galilee.                                 307 L.J.

  The Mount of Ascension.                             310 L.J.


Trace out on the map on page 381 the first
missionary journey of Paul.                           376 L.J.

Trace out on the map on page 393 Paul's second
missionary journey.                                   392 L.J.

Trace out on the map on page 415 Paul's third
missionary journey.                                   417 L.J.

Follow the route on page 449 of Paul's
journey to Rome.                                      462 L.J.


{111}

PART IV

THE BIBLE IN LITERATURE

_For Lovers of Literature_

{112}

"It is surely good that our youth, during the formative period, should
have displayed to them, in a literary dress as brilliant as that of
Greek literature, in lyrics which Pindar cannot surpass, in rhetoric as
forcible as that of Demosthenes, or contemplative prose not inferior to
Plato's--a people dominated by an utter passion for righteousness."
                                               --_Richard G. Moulton_.

{113}

THE BIBLE IN LITERATURE

THE BIBLE'S PLACE IN LITERATURE

It may well be said that, like our English speech, our literature has
drawn its material and its inspiration from many tongues and peoples.
Its sources are world-wide. Its stream flows from innumerable springs
and fountains. Some of them have been shallow and some have given up
only the waters of bitterness, but many there are which keep the
current broad and pure and deep. And of those fountains that ever pour
out living water the most abounding is our English Bible.

So abundantly has our literature drawn from the Bible that a study of
it is the very beginning of the knowledge of English writings. He
alone can be called educated who knows this Book; for its _style_, its
_substance_ and its _spirit_ are thoroughly woven into the thought and
language of English-speaking people.

In the age of Elizabeth, when the Bible was translated, our English
words were coming fresh coined to our language from the mint of life.
New words were being made out of men's experiences. Such words brought
the pictures and images of things and actions vividly to the mind as
our abstract speech of to-day can never do. It was this living,
concrete language which men like Tindale and Coverdale wrought into
what became the King James Version; and with such mastery that to this
day the Bible has no peer in the vigor, the directness, and the
simplicity of its style. Then, too, in those days religious belief was
often a matter of life and death. Many of the translators finally gave
up their lives rather than to renounce their convictions, and it could
only be that such men would give to the Bible a style that breathes
always the noble dignity and earnestness of martyrs.

Thus he who would appraise our English writings must weigh whatever
they possess of the earnestness, the simplicity, the vigor, the
directness of the Bible. He must himself have mastered well that great
source of English style.

{114}

Then who shall measure the treasures of the Bible substance that our
writers have poured into their books? The Bible has contributed their
language, their plots, their incidents, their characters, their moral
lessons, even their names. Words can no more than faintly suggest how
full to overflowing of the Bible is our literature. An allusion from
the Scriptures adorns almost every page of such writers as Browning
and Ruskin. Five hundred Biblical allusions appear in the Ring and the
Book alone. Thousands of them are scattered through Shakespeare and in
their use the poet climbs perhaps oftenest to the heights of his
genius. It has been said that no other passage in Shakespeare has the
sublimity of that one patterned by the lover of Jessica from the Book
of Job:--

  [Footnote: Lorenzo thus addresses Jessica. (See page 157.)]

  "Look how the floor of heaven
  Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold;
  There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st
  But in his motion like an angel sings."

Our masters of poetry and prose have thus become the Bible's
messengers; but such also are the lesser writers and speakers of every
day. The Bible words find a response that is universal; for Truth
knows no chosen vessel but rather has chosen all. Story and lyric,
epic and drama, alike carry onward the Bible's messages and continue
to spread their truth among all people of the English tongue.

But perhaps most precious of all the Bible's contributions to our
literature is the gift of its spirit. The creators of the best in
English have shared that spirit in that their works have shared the
Bible's lofty purposes. Who so earnestly preaches the living of a life
as John Bunyan in Pilgrim's Progress? Who more resembles the Hebrew
seer warning his people of their danger, than Lincoln, when with
solemn prophecy he declares: "'A house divided against itself cannot
stand.' I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave
and half free"? Carlyle calling the world to repentance, Dickens and
Thackeray calling it to reform, Emerson pointing new heights for
reason and faith and love, Browning proclaiming "The best is yet to
be"--each in his own way seeks to bring in the Kingdom. And what is
the spirit of the Bible, unless it be the spirit of a people seeking
after God if haply they might find Him?

If we should study what has called out the best in men or letters in
order that we may understand that best, how much more ought we to know
the Bible for itself. The deep experiences of the soul are the {115}
stuff of which literature is made; and in language whose appeal is
alike to the wise and the simple this Book dramatizes the life of the
soul. Though struggling much between right and wrong and falling
often, the Old Testament heroes groped their way upward to better
things, and established their belief in one God upon a firm
foundation. Their story is the epic of the soul's struggle and
victory; but it is also the revelation of humanity's past, the mirror
of its present of progress and defeat, the prophecy of its triumphant
future. The Psalms, in the words of Heine, collect within themselves
"sunrise and sunset, birth and death, promise and fulfillment--the
whole drama of humanity." Excepting only those of the New Testament
literature, no authors of any land or time have seized upon truths so
unchanging and so everlasting as the writers of Job and the books of
the Prophets. Ignoring life's vanities, soaring far above the things
that are temporal, these writings ever summon the minds of men to
dwell upon things eternal.

Finally in the literature of the New Testament the victories of faith
replace the victories of war; the groping instinct of survival is
justified in the Demonstration of Immortality; the Cult of the Chosen
People gives way to the Gospel of Universal Brotherhood; the
Omnipotent Creator is revealed also the God of Love; the Deity of
Retribution and Justice becomes a Father; Man, the Child.

{116}

QUESTIONS BRINGING OUT THE BIBLE'S LITERARY VALUE

1. The Poetry of the Bible

What is the difference between the rhythm of Hebrew
poetry and that of English poetry?                    11 S.A.

What three forms does this rhythm take?               12 S.A.

In the words quoted from Jesus are any
of these forms used?                                  13 S.A.

What is the richest part of Biblical poetry?          13 S.A.


Rhythm and Feeling

What form of rhythm illustrated on page 12 S.A.
is used in the psalms:

  The Righteous Man.                                  19 S.A.

  A Morning Prayer.                                   20 S.A.

  A Song of Deliverance.                              26 S.A.

  A Song in Time of Trouble.                          61 S.A.

  The Cry of the Needy.                               98 S.A.

  Idols of Silver and Gold.                           136 S.A.

  Our Father.                                         118 S.A.

  A Pilgrim Song.                                     156 S.A.

What two qualities, necessary to Hebrew poetry,
are found in Deborah's Song of Triumph?               54-59 T.J., 11 S.A.

What deep feeling prompted the Song of Judith?        105-107 T.J.

How can the "Song of Songs" be compared with the
lyrical poetry of the Elizabethan period in England?  234-239 S.A.


The Psalms a Collection of Lyric Poetry

For what purpose was the Book of Psalms written?      17 S.A.

What is the leading theme of the Psalms?              17 S.A.

Mention some of the other themes.                     17 S.A.

Name the Psalm in which every verse, it is said,
contains a reference to the law of God.               505 S.A.

{117}

In what way is Psalm 119 (143 S.A.)
an alphabetic Psalm?                                  505 S.A.

Ruskin says that, among others, Psalms 1, 8, 15,
19, 23, 24,  well studied and believed, are
sufficient for all personal guidance. What
principles of conduct are enjoined in:--

  The Righteous Man.                                  19 S.A.

  Little Lower than God.                              22 S.A.

  The Upright Man.                                    23 S.A.

  Song of the Earth and Sky.                          30 S.A.

  The Good Shepherd.                                  35 S.A.

  The Earth is the Lord's.                            36 S.A.

Ruskin says that Psalm 72 contains many principles
of just government. State in modern terms some of
the principles of government enjoined in "The
Righteous King".                                      88 S.A.

Ruskin says that Psalm 104 anticipates the
triumphs of natural sciences. From the reading of
the Psalm can you suggest those anticipated? Read
note 503 S.A.                                         120 S.A.

Compare Manasseh's prayer, 320 T.J., with the
Prayer of Repentance.                                 75 S.A.

Can you suggest an act of David to which this
Psalm is probably related?                            75 S.A.


Job a Dramatic Poem

What characteristic makes Job a dramatic poem?        180 S.A.

What is the distinction between Hebrew drama, as
illustrated in Job, and the Greek and English drama?  180 S.A.

What is the central theme of the book of Job?         179 S.A.

What are the characters of the book of Job?           178 S.A.

Trace the dramatic climax in the messages
brought to Job.                                       182 S.A.

Locate Job's two sublime statements of faith,
often quoted.                                         194, 200 S.A.

What description of man, noted in literature,
does Job give?                                        195 S.A.

What great question asked by Job is the theme
of many poems, such as Tennyson's "In Memoriam"?      195 S.A.

Give the summary of the thought contained
in the first cycle of speeches.                       195 S.A.

Give the summary of the thought contained
in the second cycle.                                  204 S.A.

Give the summary of the thought contained in
the third cycle.                                      213 S.A.

{118}

What does Elihu add to the thought of the poem?       221 S.A.

What reply does the book of Job give to the
question, "Why do good people suffer?"                231 S.A.


The Apocalypse a Rhapsody

Dr. Richard G. Moulton calls the Apocalypse a
rhapsody, or a fusion of all other styles of
Hebrew writing. Can you discover evidences of the
dramatic lyric and narrative styles used?             456-478 S.A.

The proper preparation for appreciating the
Apocalypse, it is said, is the study of other
Hebrew rhapsodies, in particular Isaiah and
Zechariah. What similarity can you find in
"Visions of the Heavenly City" and Isaiah's
"Awake, O Zion"?                                      286 S.A.

What similarity can you find both of style and
content in the Apocalypse, 456-478 S.A., and
Zechariah's "Vision Rhapsody"?                        401-407 S.A.


Hero Poems

What is the book of Jashar?                           306, 426, 493 H. T.


2. The Oratory in the Bible

Compare the opening sentences of the speech on
Mars Hill with those of Paul's sermon at Antioch;
how, or in what characteristic, does the contrast
show that Paul was a great speaker?                   380, 407 L.J.

Senator Albert J. Beveridge says Paul's speech on
Mars Hill has never been excelled in brevity of
statement and in force of thought, and that in
these regards it compares favorably with Lincoln's
speech at Gettysburg. How does Paul gain his
audience's attention? How does he compliment the
Greeks in the course of his speech? What is the
substance of his argument against paganism? What
thoughts form the principal message of this
speech?                                               407, 408 L.J.

It is said that Moses' speeches to the children of
Israel during their wanderings in the wilderness
are examples of fine oratory, sometimes producing
upon the people all the effect of drama. In his
speech on pages 271, 272 H.T., what do you think
of his methods of swaying his audience as compared
to the modern orator's?

{119}

Daniel Webster's customary preparation for the
delivery of an oration was to read Isaiah's
magnificent address, "Comfort Ye My People." What
oratorical beauties can you discover from a
reading of this address?                              284, 285 S.A.


3. Other Literary Forms Found in the Bible

What is the nature of the book of Ecclesiastes and
the author's view of life?                            242-246 S.A.

What is the nature of the book of Proverbs?           248 S.A.

Give the gist of the teachings of the Proverbs.       248 S.A.

Give in modern terms three principles of conduct
taught in "Enter not into the Path of the Wicked"     255 S.A.


Wisdom Literature

Dr. Richard G. Moulton says there are three
characteristic methods employed in stating the
Proverbs: antithesis, comparison, and imagery. In
the selection, "Praise of the Wise and Virtuous
Woman," can you find examples of these three
methods?                                              256 S.A.

The literary forms of the Proverbs are fourfold:
the single couplet; clusters of couplets, where
several independent sayings are gathered about a
common theme; the epigram; and wisdom sonnets.
Note these four forms.                                501 G.B.
                                                      249-257 S.A.


Letters

In what literary form are the writings of Paul?       413 S.A.

What can be said of the style of Paul's letters?      413 S.A.

How did Paul's wide experience contribute
to his writings?                                      414 S.A.


Varied Styles

What type of story common to-day is told by one of
the brothers of Abimelech?                            333 H.T.

Do you think Nathan's method of bringing David to
repentance peculiarly effective? Give three
literary devices used by Nathan in support of your
opinion.                                              432 H.T.

What three stories in the Bible are recognized as
among the most charming love stories in the world?
49 H.T.                                               60 T.J., 35 T.J.

{120}

What is the circumstance of the only riddle in the
Bible?                                                173 T.J.

What literary form did Jesus most often use in
speaking to the people?                               133 L.J.


4. The Literary Value of the Books of Prophecy

Isaiah

In what literary form are many of Isaiah's
prophecies written?                                   277 S.A.

What qualities in Isaiah's poetry give it a high
place in literature?                                  277 S.A.

Dr. Richard G. Moulton says that in Isaiah's
poetry, men's thoughts are directed toward the
great idea of a universal spiritual dominion. In
"Comfort Ye My People," what passages do you think
have this purpose?                                    284, 285 S.A.

Isaiah is said to be a master of satire and
pathos, of proverb and parable, of simile and
metaphor. In his sublime words, "The Triumph of
the Man of Sorrows," can you find evidences of
these literary forms?                                 288, 289 S.A.


Jeremiah

What was the theme of Jeremiah's prophecy?            297 S.A.

What symbolic use did Jeremiah make of the potter
and his clay?                                         301 S.A.


Hosea

Through what personal experience was Hosea able to
interpret the love of God? Can you discover in
"The Longing of God for His Children" the strong
feeling due to this experience?                       365, 366 S.A.


Amos

Because of the circumstances of his early life
Amos drew most of his figures from nature and
agricultural occupations. How many such
allusions can you find in the selections here
given?                                                354-362 S.A.


Micah

In the prophecy of Micah appear probably the most
striking words ever written predicting world
peace. Locate them.                                   367-369 S.A.

{121}

Nahum

In what regards do you consider the description of
war in "The Doom of Nineveh" an adequate picture
of modern day warfare?                                387-391 S.A.


Habakkuk

Compare the theme of the prophecy of Habakkuk with
the theme of the book of Job.                         179, 392 S.A.

The prayer of Habakkuk is said to be a composition
unrivaled for boldness of conception, sublimity
of thought, and majesty of diction. After reading
can you pick out passages that confirm this
estimate of it?                                       393-396 S.A.


Haggai

What is said of the style of Haggai's writing?        397 S.A.


Zechariah

What is the meaning of the prophecy of Zechariah?     401 S.A.


5. The Bible-an Inspiration to Writers

Compare Victor Hugo's account of the Fall of
Jericho with the Bible account.                       293, 287-292 H. T.

Show how the wilderness journey of the children of
Israel is traced out in the poem, "Lead Me On".       238 H.T.

How many of the twenty and more allusions to the
Bible in Whittier's poem, "Palestine," can you
pick out and explain?                                 15-17 H.T.

To what event of Israelitish history does the
"Song of the Manna Gatherers" refer?                  198 H.T. (196 H.T.)


Poems Inspired by the Bible

The following well-known poems were inspired by
passages in the Old Testament. Bring out some of
the beauty and power which the poets saw in these
passages by comparing them with the poems.

The Finding of Moses.                                 134 H.T. (138 H.T.)

The Seventh Plague of Egypt.                          162 H.T. (166 H.T.)

The Burial of Moses.                                  274 H.T.
                                                      (272,273 H.T.)

Saul and David                                        395 H.T. (396 H.T.)

{122}

Cave of Adullam.                                      437 H.T. (438 H.T.)

Ruth.                                                 49 T.J. (35 T.J.)

Belshazzar.                                           211 T.J.
                                                      (201-206 T.J.)

The Destruction of Sennacherib.                       315 T.J.
                                                      (271-276 S.A.)

Hymn by the Euphrates.                                316 T.J.
                                                      (346, 347 T.J.)

How does Dante, in his "Divine Comedy,"
use Psalm 114 (134, 135 S.A.)?                        504 S.A.

What famous writer at the age of fifteen composed
a hymn founded on Psalm 136 (162, 163 S.A.)?          506 S.A.

What Psalm has been most often translated into
English verse?                                        35 S.A.

Name some poets who have translated the Shepherd
Psalm into verse.                                     498 S.A.

Consider the passages descriptive of the relation
of the Eastern shepherd to his sheep, on pages 200
and 201 L.J. and 285 S.A., and study the pictures,
noting the inscription on back, on pages 210 and
288 G.B. What qualities had this relationship
peculiar to the East? State the peculiar qualities
of this relationship that make the figure of the
shepherd used in the first three lines of Psalm 23
particularly appropriate as applied to God.           35 S.A.

Find the lines in Psalm 72 (88 S.A.) on which is
based the tradition, evidenced by many poems, that
the three Wise Men from the East were Kings.          501 S.A., 29, 41 L.J.

What lines of Psalm 80 (91 S.A.) underlie
Elizabeth Barrett Browning's, "The Measure,"
stanza 2?                                             501 S.A.

What lines in Psalm 86 (98 S.A.) are beautifully
used by Tennyson in the verse quoted from
"Rizpah"?                                             502 S.A.

What lines in Psalm 87 (100 S.A.) furnished the
motto for Augustine's great work, "The City of
God"?                                                 502 S.A.

What well-known tune derived its name from the
number of the Psalm which was used with it?           116,503 S.A.


Story Suggested by the Bible

Can you name a popular modern story that has its
inspiration in "The Wise Men"?                        41 L.J.

Read the following stories from the volume, "The
Life of Jesus," with your reading of Van Dyke's
beautiful story, "The Other Wise Man," and note
the interesting correspondence. Alternate Van
Dyke's story with THE BIBLE STORY and read as
follows:--

{123}

_The Other Wise Man_

  The Sign in the Sky
  By the Waters of Babylon

THE BIBLE STORY        The Wise Men, 41 L.J.

_The Other Wise Man_   For the Sake of a Little Child

THE BIBLE STORY        A Journey to the Land of the Pharaohs, 45 L.J.

_The Other Wise Man_   In the Hidden Way of Sorrow

THE BIBLE STORY        The Crucifixion, 281 L.J.

_The Other Wise Man_   A Pearl of Great Price


Book Titles Taken from the Bible

The fact that many books of every style and content bear names taken
from the Bible and develop themes suggested by the Bible is a tribute
to the beauty and picturesqueness of Bible diction and indicates the
extensive scope of its writings. What would you expect the theme of
each of the following books to be, judging by the thought which the
titles suggest?

"The Inside of the Cup"         Winston Churchill

"The Fruit of the Tree"         Edith Wharton

"All the Days of My Life"       Margaret Sangster

"From My Youth Up"              Amelia Barr

"Titus"                         Florence Morse Kingsley

"Following the Star"            Florence Barclay

"Barabbas"                      Marie Corelli

"The Yoke"                      Elizabeth Miller

"The Wages of Sin"              M. S. Harrison

"The Sins of the Father"        Bertha M. Clay

"The Eternal City"              Hall Caine

"A Voice in the Wilderness"     Grace Livingston Hill Lutz

"The Thirteenth Commandment"    Rupert Hughes

"The Hands of Esau"             Margaret Deland

"A Certain Rich Man"            William Allen White

"The Promised Land"             Mary Antin

"Prince of the House of David"  J. H. Ingraham

"The Far Country"               Winston Churchill

"Unleavened Bread"              Robert Grant

"Judas Iscariot"                L. N. Andrew

"These Twain"                   Arnold Bennett

"The Good Shepherd"             John Roland

"Prodigals and Sons"            John Ayscough

{124}

"The Lost Boy"                  Henry Van Dyke

"God's Remnants"                Samuel Gordon

"The Foolish Virgin"            Thomas Dixon

"The Heritage of Cain"          Isabel Ostrander

"Behold the Woman"              T. Everett Horre

"If Any Man Sin"                H. A. Cody

"The Crown of Life"             Gordon Arthur Smith

"The Clean Heart"               A. S. M. Hutchinson

"The House of Bondage"          Reginald Wright Kauffman

"The Mark of the Beast"         Reginald Wright Kauffman

"The House of the Lord"         J. E. Talmage

"Where the Laborers are Few"    Margaret Deland

"The Old Adam"                  Arnold Bennett

(These are only a few of the many books that have drawn their
titles from the Bible.)

{125}

THE BIBLE'S GIFT TO OUR LANGUAGE

How often in listening to a speaker or in reading our everyday
literature we find our imagination stirred by a forceful phrase taken
from the Bible. If we know the part of the Bible from which the phrase
comes it always throws a flood of light upon the message. But due to
ignorance of the Bible, too many of us grope for the phrase's
meaning.


Ignorance of the Bible a Handicap to the Student

In these days even high school and college graduates cannot explain
the simplest Bible allusions. Charles Dudley Warner, writing in
Harper's Magazine, says that a "boy or girl at college, in the
presence of the works set forth for either to master, without a fair
knowledge of the Bible, is an ignoramus, and is disadvantaged
accordingly. For example, in Shakespeare there are quotations from
fifty-four books of the Bible, thirty-one from Genesis alone; in
Tennyson there are two hundred and one quotations or allusions from
the Old Testament. Wholly apart from its religious or its ethical
value, the Bible is the one book of which no intelligent person, who
wishes to come into contact with the world of thought, and to share
the ideas of the great minds of the Christian era, can afford to be
ignorant."


Dramatic Terms Used by a Greek Scholar

The Bible indeed holds supremacy over all other sources of literary
allusion in the addresses and writings of public men. The
_Independent_ calls attention to a eulogy written by a prominent
university professor in which were found, in an article of less than
six pages, fourteen expressions from the Bible: "Every good word and
work," "Fountain sealed," "Discernment of spirits," "Hid treasure,"
"Sinned with their lips," "Faith in his high calling," "Seeing him who
is invisible," "Time would fail me," "Slept or slumbered," "Egyptian
taskmaster," "Bloweth where it listeth," "Make a plain path,"
"Recompense of reward," and one direct quotation, "This is the way;
walk ye in it." Against these fourteen cases is only one use of
classical {126} phrases and one allusion each to Milton and
Wordsworth. And Professor Gildersleeve is not known as a Bible
scholar; he is past master of all our Grecians, and master also of a
most delightful style. "He could have spattered his address over with
Greek and Latin references and expressions without winking, so easy
would it have been for him, but they could not have fitted into the
serious purpose of plain and tender address as do the words of the two
Testaments."


Superficial Knowledge of the Bible Prevalent

It makes no difference what a man's profession may be; whether he be a
literary man, a lawyer, a teacher, or a clergyman, Bible words will
unconsciously drop off his tongue, so familiar have the striking terms
and phrases of the Bible become. And yet a mere superficial knowledge
of the Book of books prevails to-day to such an extent that many
grotesque mistakes and misquotations occur. London's leading newspaper
solemnly affirmed one morning that if the Government of the day came
to grief it would "fall, like the walls of Jericho, before the noise
of empty pitchers." Can you discover the mistake in this simile? (287,
329 H.T.) A great lecturer on one occasion alluded to "Pharaoh and his
hosts being overwhelmed in the Jordan." What two events are confused
in this quotation? (184, 285 H.T.)

Whenever such an expression presents itself and is found to be vague
or confusing, turn to the following list of allusions, which are those
in most common use, and arranged alphabetically for easy reference.
[Footnote: Note there are two lists of allusions, both alphabetically
arranged.] Clear up the obscurity by reading the Bible passage that
explains the doubtful phrase.

Each of these allusions has been used many times in common speech or
in our great English writings, as illustrated by the many quotations
that follow. A knowledge of the meaning and derivation of such phrases
opens up a new world of interest and understanding and the ability to
use them correctly infuses speech and writing alike with a new power
of graphic expression.

How many of these allusions recall definitely a certain incident or
story to your mind?

As strong as a spider's web.                          190 S.A.

Ananias.                                              335 L.J.

Apples of gold in baskets of silver.                  504 G.B.

Appeal unto Caesar.                                   452 L.J.

{127}

Add a cubit to his stature.                           106 G.B.

At their wits' end.                                   132 S.A.

All things to all men.                                438 S.A.

As a lamb to the slaughter.                           289 S.A.

As locusts for multitude,                             319 H. T.

As a hart panteth after the water brooks.             61 S.A.

As sheep having no shepherd.                          144 L.J.

As high as Haman.                                     73 T.J.

Balaam's ass.                                         259 H.T.

The beauty of holiness.                               505 T.J.

Cast to the dogs.                                     172 L.J.

Clearer than the noonday.                             193 S.A.

Carpenter of Nazareth.                                50 L.J.

Cattle upon a thousand hills.                         73 S.A.

City set on a hill.                                   106 L.J.

Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?              77 L.J.

Clothed and in his right mind.                        139 L.J.

Cake not turned.                                      364 S.A.

Driving of Jehu.                                      160 T.J.

Doubting Thomas.                                      306 L.J.

The day of small things.                              404 S.A.

Darkness which may be felt.                           171 H. T.

Dan to Beer-sheba.                                    339, 342 H.T.

Doorkeeper in the house of God.                       96 S.A.

Delivered out of the hand of the Egyptians.           143, 357 H.T.

Draught of fishes.                                    307 L.J.

Earth thy footstool.                                  343 L.J.

Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard.                     502 T.J.

Ebenezer.                                             249 H.T.

Eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.               110 L.J.

Earn thy bread by the sweat of thy brow.              20 T.J.

The ewe lamb.                                         432 H.T.

Every good and perfect gift.                          427 S.A.

Faith hath made thee whole.                           140 L.J.

Fishers of men.                                       94 L.J.

Flight into Egypt.                                    45 L.J.

Faithful unto death 506 H.T.                          461 S.A.

Flesh pots of Egypt.                                  192 H.T.

Friend of publicans and sinners.                      154 L.J.

A far country.                                        203 L.J.

The grass withereth, the flower fadeth.               284 S.A.

{128}

Gathered unto his fathers.                            59 H. T.

Gallows fifty cubits high.                            70 T.J.

The hills melted like wax.                            502 T.J.

High calling.                                         504 H.T.

Half hath not been told.                              481 H.T.

He that trod the sea.                                 148 L.J.

He that ruleth his spirit
is better than he that taketh a city.                 502 G.B.

His enemies shall lick the dust.                      88 S.A.

Hearing of the ear.                                   231 S.A.

Ishmaelite.                                           395 H.T.

Job's comforters.                                     197 S.A.

Kill the fatted calf.                                 204 L.J.

Kick against the goad, kick against the pricks.       458 L.J.

Loaves and fishes.                                    147 L.J.

Love is strong as death.                              239 S.A.

Leaven in the lump.                                   439 S.A.

Law of the Medes and Persians.                        207 T.J.

Lift up your heads, O ye gates.                       503 H.T.

Let another man praise thee.                          504 G.B.

Let your speech be yea, yea; and nay, nay.            109 L.J.

Looking for a sign.                                   92 L.J.

Man of sorrows.                                       288 S.A.

Mighty in words and works.                            341 L.J.

A merry heart is a good medicine.                     503 G.B.

Mighty man of valor.                                  352 H.T.

More than conquerors.                                 508 H.T.

Man goeth to his long home.                           245 S.A.

Macedonian cry.                                       396 L.J.

A mother in Israel.                                   54 T.J.

Man shall not live by bread alone.                    70 L.J.

Manger lowly.                                         37 L.J.

Man wise in his own conceit.                          504 G.B.

Man hasty in his words.                               504 G.B.

My lines are fallen in pleasant places.               24 S.A.

Not slothful in business.                             505 L.J.

Not by might, nor by power.                           404 S.A.

Outer darkness.                                       246 L.J.

One having authority.                                 118 L.J.

Prophet without honor.                                92 L.J.

Pride goeth before destruction.                       502 G.B.

Philistines be upon thee.                             177 T.J.

Passover.                                             173 H. T.

{129}

Purple and fine linen.                                257 S.A., 206 L.J.

Pitched his tent toward Sodom.                        25 H.T.

Prince of demons.                                     171 L.J.

Pass by on the other side.                            88 L.J.

Quit yourselves like men.                             345, 505 H. T.

Rain on the just and the unjust.                      110 L.J.

Rod of iron.                                          476 S.A.

Sounding brass and tinkling cymbal.                   425 S.A.

Speak with the tongues of men and of angels.          425 S.A.

Salt of the earth.                                    106 L.J.

Stone which the builders rejected.                    239 L.J., 141 S.A.

Sweeter than honey and the honeycomb.                 31 S.A.

Sojourners in a strange land.                         340 L.J.

Spirit descending as a dove.                          69 L.J.

She hath done what she could.                         230 L.J.

Sackcloth and ashes.                                  67 T.J.

A soft answer turneth away wrath.                     502 G.B.

Sow the wind and reap the whirlwind.                  365 S.A.

Sharper than a two-edged sword.                       504 T.J.

Seat of the scornful.                                 19 S.A.

Shineth more and more unto the perfect day.           255 S.A.

Seed that fell on stony ground.                       133 L.J.

Smite the Egyptian.                                   341 L.J.

Spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.             264 L.J.

Son of perdition.                                     262 L.J.

The Sower.                                            133 L.J.

Take up thy bed and walk.                             128, 167 L.J.

Tell it not in Gath.                                  426 H.T.

Tongues of fire.                                      325 L.J.

The twelve.                                           94 L.J.

Thirty pieces of silver.                              248 L.J.

Tents of wickedness.                                  96 S.A.

The truth shall make you free.                        194 L.J.

Turn the other cheek.                                 110 L.J.

Take up his cross.                                    504 H. T.

To thy tents, O Israel.                               239 T.J.

They that go down to the sea in ships.                131 S.A.

Thine enemies thy footstool.                          328 L.J.

To the ant, thou sluggard.                            255 S.A.

The Lord will provide.                                41 H.T.

Trees choosing a king.                                333 H.T.

Unto the half of my kingdom.                          154 L.J.

{130}

The unjust steward.                                   204 L.J.

The upper room.                                       249 L.J.

Unprofitable servant.                                 246 L.J.

A very present help in trouble.                       68 S.A.

Widow's mite.                                         243 L.J.

The wings of the wind.                                26 S.A.

Wolf shall dwell with the lamb.                       303 G.B.

Wiles of the devil.                                   506 H.T.

The way of all the earth.                             451 H. T.

The wings of the morning.                             164 S.A.

Without money and without price.                      507 T.J.

Whom the Lord loveth, he chasteneth,                 502 T.J.

We shall reap, if we faint not.                      506 L.J.

We piped unto you, and ye did not dance.             153 L.J.

Where moth and rust doth corrupt.                    115 L.J.

Your old men shall dream dreams,
Your young men shall see visions.                    379 S.A.

From reading these literary passages can you clearly explain the
incident or story each Bible phrase suggests?

Aaron's Serpent.                                      152 H.T.

  "And hence one master passion in the breast,
  Like Aaron's serpent, swallows up the rest."
               --_Pope, Essay on Man_.

Abraham's Bosom.                                      206 L.J.

  "Sweet peace, conduct his soul
  to the bosom of good old Abraham."
               --_Shakespeare, Richard II 4:1_.

The Alabaster Box.                                    169 L.J.

  "Thou wilt not let her wash thy dainty feet
  With such salt thing as tears or with rude hair
  Dry them."
               --_Lowell, A Legend of Brittany_.

The Angel's Song.                                     37 L.J.

  "Blow, bugles of battle, the marches of peace,
  East, west, north and south let the long quarrel cease:
  Sing the song of great joy that the angels began,
  Sing of glory to God and of good will to man!"
               --_Whittier, A Christmas Carmen_.

{131}

The Apple of His Eye.                                 25 S.A.

  "Bestows on her too parsimonious lord,
  An infant for the apple of his eye."
               --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

As a Little Child.                                    188 L.J.

  "Once said a Man--and wise was He--
  Never shalt thou the heavens see,
  Save as a little child thou be."
               --_Sidney Lanier, The Symphony._

As Ye Sow, so shall Ye Reap.                          423 S.A.

  "Look before you ere you leap;
  For as you sow y' are like to reap."
               --_Butler, Hudibras_.

Babel.                                                32 T.J.

  "In vain a fresher mould we seek,
    Can all the varied phrases tell
  What Babel's wandering children speak,
    How thrushes sing or lilacs smell?"
               --_Holmes, To My Readers_.

Barabbas.                                             276 L.J.

  "Thou hand'st sweet Socrates his hemlock sour;
  Thou sav'st Barabbas in that hideous hour,
  And stabb'st the good."
               --_Sidney Lanier, Remonstrance_.

The Best till the Last.                               78 L.J.

  "Perhaps like him of Cana in Holy Writ
  Our Arthur kept his best until the last."
               --_Tennyson, The Holy Grail_.

Betrayed with a Kiss.                                 267 L.J.

  "So Judas kiss'd his master,
  And cried, 'all hail!' whenas he meant, all harm."
               --_Shakespeare, III Henry VI 5:7_.

Bitter Waters 191 H.T.

  "The Gospel has the only branch that
  sweetens waters of a bitter popular discontent."
                                      --_Anonymous_.

{132}

Blood on the Lintel.                                  177 H. T.

  "I do not suppose that your troops are to be
  beaten in actual conflict with the foe, or that
  they will be driven into the sea; but I am certain
  that many homes in England in which there now
  exists a fond hope that the distant one may
  return, many such homes may be rendered desolate
  when the next mail shall arrive. There is no one
  to sprinkle with blood the lintel and the two side
  posts of our doors, that the Angel of Death may
  spare and pass on."
                                   --_John Bright_.

Book of Life.                                         463 S.A.

  "The Power . . . .
  May hear well pleased the language of the soul,
  And in His Book of Life the inmates poor enroll."
            --_Burns, The Cotter's Saturday Night_.

The Breastplate of Righteousness.                     448 S.A.

  "What stronger breastplate than a heart untainted!"
               --_Shakespeare, II Henry VI 3:2_.

Bricks without Straw.                                 150 H.T.

  "For long years," writes Teufelsdrockh, "had the
  poor Hebrew, in this Egypt of an
  Auscultatorship, painfully toiled, baking bricks
  without stubble, before ever the question once
  struck him with entire force: For What?"
    --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Book II, Chapter 5_.

The Broken Reed.                                      272 S.A.

  "He (the genius) becomes obstinate in his
  errors, no less than in his virtues, and the
  arrows of his aims are blunted, as the reeds of
  his trust are broken."
                        --_Ruskin, A Joy For Ever_.

The Burning Bush                                      142 H.T.

  "In wonder-workings, or some bush aflame,
    Men look for God, and fancy him concealed,
    But in earth's common things he stands revealed,
  While grass and flowers and stars spell out his name."
                              --_Minot J. Savage_.

{133}

The Burning Fiery Furnace.                            190 T.J.

  "Be it floor or blood the path that's trod,
  All the same it leads to God.
  Be it furnace fire voluminous
  One like God's Son will walk with us."
                        --_Christina G. Rossetti_.

By Their Fruits Ye shall Know Them.                   109 G.B., 117 L.J.

  "If the tree be known by the fruit
  and fruit by the tree."
                  --_Shakespeare, I Henry IV 2:4_.

Carry Off the City's Gates.                           176 T.J.

  "Samson, master: . . . he carried the
  town gates on his back like a porter."
        --_Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost 1:2_.

Casting Lots for His Garments.                        281 L.J.

  "They are now casting lots,
  Ay, with that gesture quaint and cry uncouth,
  For the coat of One murdered an hour ago."
               --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

Cast Out of Eden.                                     21 T.J.

  "What of Adam cast out of Eden?
       (Alas the hour)
  Lo! with care like a shadow shaken
  He tills the hard earth whence he was taken."
                        --_Rossetti, Eden Bower_.

Cedars of Lebanon.                                    457 H.T.

  "Feasted the woman wisest then,
  in halls of Lebanonian cedar."
                      --_Tennyson, The Princess_.

The Chariot of Fire.                                  134 T.J.

       "As he, whose wrongs
  The bears avenged, at its departure saw
  Elijah's chariot, when the steeds erect
  Raised their steep flight for heaven; his eyes, meanwhile,
  Straining pursued them, till the flame alone,
  Upsoaring like a misty speck, he kenned."
                        --_Dante, Divine Comedy_.

{134}

The Chosen People.                                    51 S.A.

  "I shall be most happy indeed if I shall be an
  humble instrument in the hands of the Almighty,
  and of this, his almost chosen people, for
  perpetuating the object of that great struggle."
     --_Lincoln, Speech to the Senate of New Jersey_.

The Chosen Vessel.                                    372 L.J.

  "He came who was the Holy Spirit's vessel;
  Barefoot and lean."
                         --_Dante, Divine Comedy_.

A Cloud by Day and a Pillar of Fire by Night.         179 H.T.

  "He is only a cloud and a smoke
  who was once a pillar of fire."
                         --_Tennyson, Despair_.

A Cloud Like a Man's Hand.                            122 T.J.

  "And from that song-cloud shaped as a man's hand
  There comes the sound as of abundant rain."
                  --_Rossetti, The House of Life_.

Cloud of Witnesses.                                   506 H. T.

  "It is thus . . . that the Wise Man stands ever
  encompassed, and spiritually embraced, by a
  cloud of witnesses and brothers."
   --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Book III, Chapter 7_.

Coat of Many Colors.                                  91 H.T.

  "Not without meaning was the love of Israel to
  his chosen son expressed by the coat of many
  colors."
                --_Ruskin, The Stones of Venice_.

Confusion of Tongues.                                 325 L.J.

  "There had been a confusion of tongues in the
  narrow streets for many days."
            --_Henry Van Dyke, The Other Wise Man_.

Consider the Lilies.                                  116 L.J.

  "He who stills the raven's clam'rous nest
    And decks the lily fair in flow'ry pride,
  Would, in the way His wisdom sees the best,
    For them and for their little ones provide."
           --_Burns, The Cotter's Saturday Night_.

{135}

The Cool of the Day.                                  19 T.J.

  "At cool of day with God I walk
    My garden's grateful shade;
  I hear his voice among the trees,
    And I am not afraid."
                          --_C. A. Mason_.

The Covenant of the Rainbow.                          31 T.J.

  "And bright as Noah saw it, yet
  For you the arching rainbow glows."
                          --_Lowell, Ode_.

The Cross.                                            281 L.J.

  "The lies that serve great parties well,
  While truths but give their Christ a cross."
                  --_Sidney Lanier, To Beethoven_.

Crown of Thorns.                                      279 L.J.

  "How was I worthy so divine a loss,
    Deepening my midnights, kindling all my morns?
  Why waste such precious wood to make my cross,
    Such far-sought roses for my crown of thorns?"
                  --_Lowell, Das Ewig Weibliche_.

The Curse of Cain.                                    22 T.J.

    "The curse of Cain
  Light on his head who pierced thy innocent breast,
  And seared the angel soul that was its guest."
                             --_Shelley, Adonais_.

David's Harp                                          396 H.T., 152 G.B.

  "Tune, to please a peasant's ear,
  The harp a king had loved to hear."
           --_Scott, The Lay of the Last Minstrel_.

Deep Calleth unto Deep.                               61 S.A.

  "Deep calling unto deep."
               --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

{136}

Defrauded of His Birthright.                          60 H.T.

  "An American child who is allowed to grow up
  without a knowledge of the Bible is defrauded of
  his birthright."
                         --_Youth's Companion_.

Den of Thieves.                                       237 L.J.

  "What makes a church a den of thieves?
  A dean and chapter, and white sleeves."
                          --_Butler, Hudibras_.

Devils in Swine.                                      139 L.J.

  "Bass. If it please you to dine with us!
  Shy. Yes, to smell pork, to eat of the
  habitation which your prophet,
  the Nazarite, conjured the devil into."
            --_Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice 1:3_.

Do Men Gather Grapes of Thorns, or Figs of Thistles?  109 G.B.

  "Conceits himself as God that he can make
  Figs out of thistles."
               --_Tennyson, The Last Tournament_.

Dust Thou Art, and unto Dust shalt Thou Return.       21 T.J.

  "Dust to dust! but the pure spirit shall flow
  Back to the burning fountain whence it came."
                            --_Shelley, Adonais_.

Earthly House.                                        452 S.A.

  "All the angels that inhabit this temple of the
  body appear at the windows, and all the gnomes
  and vices also."
                      --_Emerson, Essay on Love_.

Easier for a Camel to Go through the Eye of a Needle. 212 L.J.

  "It is as hard to come as for a camel
  To thread through the postern of a needle's eye."
                  --_Shakespeare, Richard II 5:5_.

Eat, Drink, and be Merry.                             212 L.J.

  "I built myself a lordly pleasure house,
    Wherein at ease for aye to dwell;
  I said, 'O soul, make merry and carouse,
    Dear soul, for all is well.'"
                  --_Tennyson, The Palace of Art_.

{137}

Eden.                                                 19 T.J.

  "He who is wearied of his village plain
  May roam the Edens of the world in vain."
                              --_Holmes, Poetry_.

Egyptian Taskmaster.                                  137 H.T.

  "Not a hard 'taskmaster,' ever on the watch to
  see that we are always at our brickmaking, but a
  Deliverer, who can bring us forth out of the
  'land of bondage' and lead us through the
  wilderness of difficulty onward to the Promised
  Land."
                       --_T. Campbell Finlayson_.

The Everlasting Hills.                                394 S.A.

  "Changeless march the stars above,
    Changeless morn succeeds to even;
  And the everlasting hills
    Changeless watch the changeless heaven."
                      --_Kingsley, Saint's Tragedy_.

Faith and Works.                                      428 S.A.

  "Wi' sappy unction, has he burkes
  The hopes O' men that trust in works."
               --_Stevenson, A Lowden Sabbath Morn_.

The Fall of Jericho.                                  287 H.T.

  "Toppling down the walls of his own Jericho."
                  --_Charles Lamb, Essays of Elia_.

Fallen among Thieves.                                 88 L.J.

  "Certain only that he has been, and is, a
  Pilgrim and Traveler from a far Country; more or
  less footsore and travel-soiled; has parted with
  road companions; fallen among thieves," etc.
     --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Book I, Chapter II_.

Fed by Ravens.                                        114 T.J.

  "One was the Tishbite
  Whom the ravens fed."
                    --_Tennyson, The Palace of Art_.

{138}

Feet of Clay.                                         188 T.J.

  "And judge all nature from her feet of clay."
                   --_Tennyson, Merlin and Vivien_.

Fight the Good Fight.                                 503 H.T.

    "Well hast thou fought
  The better fight, who single hast maintain'd
  Against revolted multitudes the cause
  Of truth, in word mightier than they in arms."
                         --_Milton, Paradise Lost_.

The Finger of God.                                    158 H. T.

  "She went first to the best adviser, God--
  Whose finger unmistakably was felt
  In all this retribution of the past."
               --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

The Firmament Showeth His Handiwork.                  30 S.A.

  "The spacious firmament on high
  With all the blue ethereal sky
  And spangled heavens, a shining frame,
  Their Great Original proclaim."
                              --_Joseph Addison_.

Gethsemane.                                           264 L.J.

  "I am in the garden of Gethsemane now and my cup
  of bitterness is full and overflowing."
  --_Abraham Lincoln,
       Conversation with Judge Gillespie_.

Get Thee Behind Me, Satan.                            178 L.J.

  "Get thee behind me, Satan. Oft unfurled,
  Thy perilous wings can beat and break like lath
  Much mightiness of men to win thee praise."
                  --_Rossetti, The House of Life_.

Gideon's Fleece.                                       324 H.T.

  "His storms came near, but never touched us;
  contrary to Gideon's miracle, while all around
  were drenched, our fleece was dry."
                 --_Charles Lamb, Essays of Elia_.

{139}

God Save the King.                                    358 H.T.

  "When, crowned with joy, the camps of England ring,
  A thousand voices shout, 'God save the King.'"
                               --_Holmes, Poetry_.

The Golden Bowl.                                      246 S.A.

  "Ah, broken is the golden bowl! the spirit flown forever!
  Let the bell toll!--A saintly soul floats on the Stygian river."
                                --_Poe, Lenore_.

A Good Name Rather than Riches.                       503 G.B.

  "Who steals my purse, steals trash,
  But he that filches from me my good name
  Robs me of that which not enriches him
  And makes me poor indeed."
                      --_Shakespeare, Othello 3:3_.

Good Samaritan, Priest, and Levite.                   88 L.J.

  "Grim-hearted world, that look'st with Levite eyes
  On those poor fallen by too much faith in man."
                  --_Lowell, A Legend of Brittany_.

The Golden Calf.                                      204 H. T.

  "We too, who mock at Israel's golden calf
  And scoff at Egypt's sacred scarabee,
  Would have our amulets to clasp and kiss."
           --_Holmes, Wind-Clouds and Star-Drifts_.

The Golden Rule.                                      115 L.J.

  "The golden rule of Christ
  will bring the golden age to man."
                               --_Frances Willard_.

Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh.                        42 L.J.

  "'Tis not the weight of jewel or plate
    Or the fondle of silk and fur;
  'Tis the spirit in which the gift is rich
    As the gifts of the wise men were;
  And we are not told whose gift was gold
    Or whose the gift of myrrh."
                           --_Edmund Vance Cooke_.

{140}

Golgotha.                                             281 L.J.

  "Having seen thine evil doom
  In Golgotha and Khartoum."
                --_Stevenson, If This Were Faith_.

A Grain of Mustard Seed.                              134 L.J., 201 G.B.

  "World-renowned far-working Institution; like a
  grain of right mustard-seed once cast into the
  right soil, and now stretching out strong boughs
  to the four winds, for the birds of the air to
  lodge in."
  --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Book II, Chapter 10_.

Grapes of Canaan.                                     243 H.T.

  "Tis not the grapes of Canaan that repay
  But the high faith that failed not by the way."
                              --_James R. Lowell_.

The Greatest of These is Love.                        425 S.A.

  "In faith and hope the world will disagree
  But all mankind's concern is charity:
  All must be false that thwart this one great end;
  And all of God, that bless mankind, or mend."
                           --_Pope, Essay on Man_.

Hands of Esau.                                        62 H.T.

  "A heart as rough as Esau's hand."
                             --_Tennyson, Godiva_.

The Handwriting on the Wall                           201, 211 T.J.

  "Unhappy if we are but Half-men, in whom that
  divine handwriting has never blazed forth,
  all-subduing, in true sun-splendour."
  --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Book II, Chapter 9_.

The Healing of the Nations.                           478 S.A.

  "O books, ye monuments of mind, concrete wisdom of the wisest;
  Sweet solaces of daily life, proofs and results of immortality;
  Trees yielding all fruits, whose leaves are for the healing of the
  nations."
        --_Tupper, Proverbial Philosophy of Reading_.

{141}

Heap Coals of Fire upon His Head.                     507 T.J., 504 G.B.

  "The furnace-coals alike of public scorn,
  Private remorse, heaped glowing on his head."
               --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

Her Children Rise up and Call Her Blessed.            257 S.A.

  "Her children shall rise up to bless her name,
  And wish her harmless length of days,
  The mighty mother of a mighty brood."
        --_Lowell, An Ode for the Fourth of July_.

He Who Runs may Read.                                 392 S.A.

  "Perchance more careful whoso runs may read,
  Than erst when all, it seemed, could read who ran."
               --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

Herod of Jewry.                                       45 L.J.

  "Let me have a child to whom
  Herod of Jewry may do homage."
        --_Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra, 1:2_.

High as Haman.                                        73 T.J.

  "Will hang as high as Haman."
       --_Tennyson, The Foresters, Act IV, Scene 1_.

A Hoary Head is a Crown of Glory.                     502 G.B.

  "Honoured and even fair,
  Shines in the eye of the mind
  the crown of the silver hair."
                   --_Stevenson, In Memoriam E. H_.

A House Divided Against Itself.                       171 L.J.

  "'A house divided against itself cannot stand.'
  I believe this Government cannot endure
  permanently, half slave and half free. I do not
  expect the Union to be dissolved--I do not expect
  the house to fall--but I do expect it will cease
  to be divided."
            --_Lincoln, Speech before the Illinois
                State Convention, June 16, 1858_.

House not Made with Hands.                            506 L.J.

  "His holy places may not be of stone,
  Nor made with hands, yet fairer far than aught
  By artist feigned or pious ardor reared,
  Fit altars for who guards inviolate
  God's chosen seat, the sacred form of man."
                        --_Lowell, The Cathedral_.

{142}

The House on the Sand.                                118 L.J.

  "Sudden change is a house on sand;"
           --_Tennyson, Becket, Act III, Scene 3_.

How are the Mighty Fallen.                            426 H. T.

  "How are the mighty fallen, Master Cranmer."
        --_Tennyson, Queen Mary, Act IV, Scene 2_.

I Go Whence I shall not Return.                       192 S.A.

  "The undiscovered country from whose bourn
  No traveler returns."
                          --_Shakespeare, Hamlet_.

In Him We Live, and Move, and Have Our Being.         407 L.J.

  "Shall not the heart which has received so much,
  trust the Power by which it lives?"
               --_Emerson, New England Reformers_.

In the Image of God.                                  17 T.J.

  "In native worth and honor clad,
  With beauty, courage, strength adorned,
  Erect with front serene he stands,
  A man, the lord and king of nature all,--
  The soul, the breath and image of his God."
                             --_Haydn's Creation_.

In the Twinkling of an Eye.                           451 S.A.

  "In a moment, in the twinkle of an eye."
              --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

Jacob's Ladder.                                       68 H.T.

  "A Jacob's ladder falls."
                       --_Tennyson, Early Spring_.

Jonah's Gourd.                                        171 T.J.

  "That day whereof we keep record,
  When near thy city-gates the Lord
  Sheltered His Jonah with a gourd."
              --_Rossetti, The Burden of Nineveh_.

{143}

Joshua's Moon.                                        306 H.T.

  "Joshua's moon in Ajalon."
                     --_Tennyson, Locksley Hall_.

Joseph of Arimathea.                                  286 L.J.

  "Arimathean Joseph."
                    --_Tennyson, The Holy Grail_.

Jot or Tittle.                                        106 L.J.

          . . . "Turn and see
  If, by one jot or tittle, I vary now!"
             --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

Joy Cometh in the Morning.                            45 S.A.

  "Wait for the morning:--it will come, indeed,
  As surely as the night hath given need."
                                       --_Riley_.

Judas.                                                253 L.J.

  "There walks Judas, he who sold
  Yesterday his Lord for gold,
  Sold God's presence in his heart
  For a proud step in the mart."
                      --_Lowell, The Ghost-Seer_.

King of Terrors.                                      199 S.A.

  "Death gives us more than was in Eden lost,
  This king of terrors is the prince of peace."
                       --_Young, Night Thoughts_.

A Lamp unto My Feet.                                  148 S.A.

  "God shall be my hope,
  My stay, my guide and lantern to my feet."
                --_Shakespeare, II Henry VI 2:3_.

A Land Flowing with Milk and Honey.                   144 H.T.

  "A land of promise flowing with the milk
  And honey of delicious memories."
                  --_Tennyson, The Lover's Tale_.

{144}

The Last Trump.                                       451 S.A.

  "So when the last and dreadful hour
  This crumbling pageant shall devour,
  The trumpet shall be heard on high
  The dead shall live, the living die,
  And Music shall untune the sky."
       --_Dryden, A Song for St. Cecilia's Day_.

Let not Thy Left Hand Know What Thy Right Hand Doeth. 111 L.J.

  "Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand
  doeth! Neither shalt thou prate even to thy own
  heart of 'those secrets known to all.'"
  --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus. Book III, Chapter 3_.

A Light Hid under a Bushel.                           106 L.J.

  "How far that little candle throws his beams.
  So shines a good deed in a naughty world."
       --_Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice 5:1_.

Lips Touched with Coal from off the Altar.            265 S.A.

  "Nor shall thy lips be touched with living fire,
  Who blow'st old altar-coals with sole desire
  To weld anew the spirit's broken chains."
                         --_Lowell, Bibliolaters_.

A Little Child shall Lead Them.                       303 G.B.

  "She might have served a painter to portray
  That heavenly child which in the latter days
  Shall walk between the lion and the lamb."
                 --_Rossetti, A Last Confession_.

The Little Foxes That Spoil the Vineyards.            236 S.A.

  "O fox whose home is 'mid the tender grape--"
             --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

A Little Lower than the Angels.                       22 S.A.

  "What a piece of work is man! how noble in
  reason, how infinite in faculty, in form and
  moving how express and admirable, in action
  how like an angel."
                     --_Shakespeare, Hamlet 2:2_.

{145}

Locusts and Wild Honey.                               65 L.J.

  "In our wild Seer, shaggy, unkempt, like a
  Baptist living on locusts and wild honey, there
  is an untutored energy, a silent, as it were,
  unconscious strength, which, except in the
  higher walks of literature, must be rare."
    --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Book I, Chapter 3_.

Lord, How Long.                                       470 S.A.

  "O Lord, how long, how long be unavenged?"
              --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

The Lord is My Fortress.                              106 S.A.

  "God is our fortress."
                 --_Shakespeare, I Henry VI 2:-1_.

The Lord Watch between Me and Thee when
We are Absent One from Another.                       75 H. T.

  "Deal between thee and me."
                     --_Shakespeare, Macbeth 4:3_.

Lot's Wife.                                           36 H.T.

  "Stiff as Lot's wife."
                      --_Tennyson, The Princess_.

Love, the Fulfilling of the Law.                      416 S.A.

  "Charity itself fulfills the law
  And who can sever love from charity?"
       --_Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost 4:3_.

Mammon of Unrighteousness.                            205 L.J.

  "Mammon is after him."
                          --_Abraham Lincoln_.

A Man after His Own Heart.                            362 H. T.

           "O Saul, it shall be
  A Face like my face that receives thee; a Man like to me,
  Thou shalt love and be loved by, forever: a Hand like this hand
  Shall throw open the gates of new life to thee! See the Christ stand!"
                          --_Browning, Saul_.

{146}

Manna in the Wilderness                               162 L.J., 192 H.T.

  "As manna on my wilderness."
              --_Tennyson, Supposed Confessions_.

The Mantle of Elijah.                                 134 T.J.

  "Tennyson rising in a heavenly chariot out of
  the temple of song, forgot to cast his mantle
  upon some waiting Elisha, but carried the divine
  garment into the realm beyond the clouds."
  --_Newell Dwight Hillis, Great Books as Life Teachers_.

The Mark of Cain.                                     23 T.J.

  "He answered not but with a sudden hand
  Made bare his branded and ensanguined brow,
  Which was like Cain's or Christ's--oh! that it should be so!"
                            --_Shelley, Adonais_.

Mess of Pottage.                                      60 H.T.

  "A hungry imposter practising for a mess of pottage."
                                    --_Carlyle_.

The Money-Changers in the Temple.                     237 L.J.

             "Once more
  He may put forth his hand 'gainst such, as drive
  Their traffic in that sanctuary, whose walls
  With miracles and martyrdoms were built."
                        --_Dante, Divine Comedy_.

More Precious than Rubies.                            252 S.A.

  "The drawing . . . is . . . a thing which I
  believe Gainsborough would have given one of
  his own pictures for--old-fashioned as red-tipped
  daisies are . . . and more precious than rubies."
                       --_Ruskin, Academy Notes_.

The Mote and Beam.                                    110 L.J.

  "You found his mote; the king your mote did see.
  But I a beam do find in each of three."
        --_Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost 4:3_.

{147}

My Brother's Keeper.                                  22 T.J.

  "If not in word only, but in face of truth, he
  undoes the deed of Cain and becomes truly his
  brother's keeper."
       --_Ruskin, The Schools of Art in Florence_.

My Cup Runneth Over.                                  35 S.A.

  "Through this concession my full cup runs o'er."
              --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

My Name is Legion.                                    139 L.J.

  "Does Legion still lurk in him, though
  repressed; or has he exorcised that Devil's
  Brood?"
   --_Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Book II, Chapter 8_.

Noah's Ark.                                           24 T.J.

        "Nobler is a limited command
  Given by the love of all your native land,
  Than a successive title, long and dark,
  Drawn from the mouldy rolls of Noah's ark."
              --_Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel_.

The Nobleman's Son.                                   92 L.J.

  "We do not need Christ's visible presence to
  cope with the evils of our times any more than
  the father needed it for the cure of his boy."
                               --_Wm. M. Taylor_.

Now through a Glass Darkly, then Face to Face.        425 S.A.

  "I hope to see my Pilot face to face
  When I have crost the bar."
                  --_Tennyson, Crossing the Bar_.

O Generation of Vipers.                               65 L.J.

  "Is love a generation of vipers?"
       --_Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida 3:1_.

The Olive Leaf.                                       30 T.J.

  "One final deluge to surprise the Ark
  Cradled and sleeping on its mountain-top:
  Their outbreak-signal--what but the dove's coo,
  Back with the olive in her bill for news
  Sorrow was over?"
            --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

{148}

Out of the Mouth of Babes and Sucklings               22 S.A., 237 L.J.

  "He that of greatest works is finisher
  Oft does them by the weakest minister:
  So holy writ in babes hath judgment shown."
    --_Shakespeare, All's Well That Ends Well 2:1_.

The Pale Horse.                                       470 S.A.

           "Behind her Death,
  Close following pace for pace, not mounted yet
  On his pale horse."
                       --_Milton, Paradise Lost_.

Parting of the Waters                                 184 H.T.

  "All things are fitly cared for and the Lord
  Will watch as kindly o'er the exodus
  Of us his servants now, as in old time.
  We have no cloud or fire, and haply we
  May not pass dry-shod through the ocean stream;
  But, saved or lost, all things are in his hand."
         --_Lowell, A Glance Behind the Curtain_.

Peace, be Still.                                      136 L.J.

  "There are prayers that will plead with the
  storm when it raves, And whisper 'Be still!' to
  the turbulent waves."
                            --_Holmes, Farewell_.

The Peacemakers.                                      105 L.J.

          "I perceived
  Near me as 'twere the waving of a wing,
  That fanned my face, and whispered: 'Blessed they,
  The peace-makers: they know not evil wrath."
                        --_Dante, Divine Comedy_.

Pentecost.                                            325 L.J.

  "Hereafter thou, fulfilling Pentecost
  Must learn to speak the tongues of all the world."
                  --_Tennyson, Sir John Oldcastle_.

{149}

Peter's Denial.                                       270 L.J.

  "Treble denial of the tongue of flesh
  Like Peter's when he fell."
              --_Tennyson, Harold, Act III, Scene 1_.

Peter's Sheet.                                        354 L.J.

  "White as the great white sheet that Peter saw in his vision,
  By the four corners let down and descending out of the heavens."
                       --_Longfellow, Elizabeth_.

Pharaoh's Kine                                        104 H.T.

  "If to be fat be to be hated then
  Pharaoh's lean kine are to be loved."
                 --_Shakespeare, I Henry IV 2:3_.

Picking up the Fragments.                             147 L.J.

  "The immigrants that come to us ought to have
  plenty of bread to eat and enough fragments left
  over to be worth picking up, for while in the
  bread is the living, in the fragments is the
  life. To them America means economic fragments."
                         --_Edward A. Steiner_.

Pillar of Salt.                                       36 H. T.

  "One looks close for the glance forward in the
  eyes, which distinguishes such pillars from
  the pillars, not of flesh, but of salt, whose
  eyes are set backwards."
                --_Ruskin, The Cestus of Aglaia_.

The Poor Ye Have Always with You.                     230 L.J.

  "Yet Thy poor endure,
  And are with us yet."
              --_Swinburne, Christmas Antiphones_.

Possess the Land                                      244, 278 H. T.

  "There is a loud call for courageous idealists
  and brave fighters to stand forth and summon
  other men to go forward and possess the land of
  a better social order. The giants of greed and
  the walls of difficulty cannot be allowed to
  shut us out nor to frighten us away."
                     --_Charles Reynolds Brown_.

{150}

The Potter's Clay                                     301 S.A.

  "Enough to throw one's thoughts in heaps
  Of doubt and horror,--what to say
  Or think,--this awful secret sway,
  The potter's power over the clay!
  Of the same lump (it has been said).
  For honour and dishonour made,
  Two sister vessels."
                            --_Rossetti, Jenny_.

The Precious Ointment                                 230, 169 L.J.

  "One Mary bathes the blessed feet
    With ointment from her eyes,
  With spikenard one, and both are sweet,
    For both are sacrifice."
                  --_Lowell, Godminster Chimes_.

Prince of Peace.                                      278 S.A.

    "No trumpet-blast profaned
  The hour in which the Prince of Peace was born;
    No bloody streamlet stained
  Earth's silver rivers on that sacred morn."
                  --_Bryant, Christmas in 1875_.

The Print of the Nails.                               306 L.J.

  "Thou also hast had the world's buffets and scorns,
  And to thy life were not denied
  The wounds in the hands and feet and side."
           --_Lowell, The Vision of Sir Launfal_.

The Prodigal's Portion.                               203 L.J.

  "What prodigal portion have I spent that I
  should stand to such penury?"
              --_Shakespeare, As You Like It 1:1_.

Prodigal Son.                                         203 L.J.

  "Ready to meet the wanderer ere he reach
  The door he seeks, forgetful of his sin,
  Longing to clasp him in a father's arms,
  And seal his pardon with a pitying tear."
           --_Holmes, Wind-Clouds and Star-Drifts_.

{151}

The Promised Land                                     268 H.T.

  "With foretaste of the Land of Promise."
              --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

Put not Your Trust in Princes.                        170 S.A.

     "O, how wretched
  Is that poor man that hangs on princes' favors."
                  --_Shakespeare, Henry VIII 3:2_.

Render unto Caesar the Things That are Caesar's.      240 L.J.

  "A kindly rendering
  Of 'Render unto Caesar.'"
           --_Tennyson, Harold, Act III, Scene 2_.

Repent Ye.                                            65 L.J.

  "Let us be diverted by none of those sophistical
  contrivances, . . . reversing the divine rule,
  and calling, not the sinners, but the righteous
  to repentance."
                                      --_Lincoln_.

Return Good for Evil.                                 416 S.A.

  "With a piece of Scripture
  Tell them that God bids do good for evil."
                 --_Shakespeare, Richard III 1:3_.

The Scarlet Thread in the Window                      282 H.T.

    "No Rahab thread,
  For blushing token of the spy's success."
     --_Browning, The Red Cotton Night-cap Country_.

A Serpent in Eden.                                    19 T.J.

  "We are our own devils; we drive ourselves out
  of our Edens."
                                       --_Goethe_.

Shake Off the Dust That is under Your Feet.           143 L.J.

  "So from my feet the dust
  Of the proud World I shook."
                            --_Lowell, The Search_.

{152}

The Sheep and the Goats.                              246 L.J.

  "Some great cause, God's new Messiah,
    offering each the bloom or blight,
  Parts the goats upon the left hand,
    and the sheep upon the right,
  And the choice goes by forever
    'twixt that darkness and that light."
                   --_Lowell, The Present Crisis_.

The Silver Cord.                                      246 S.A.

  "And here's the silver cord which--what's our word?
  Depends from the gold bowl, which loosed (not "lost")
  Lets us from heaven to hell,--one chop we're loose!"
              --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

Slaughter of the Innocents.                           45 L.J.

  "Whiles the mad mothers with their howls confused,
  Do break the clouds, as did the wives of Jewry
  At Herod's bloody-hunting slaughtermen."
                   --_Shakespeare, Henry V 3:3_.

Smite the Rock                                        247 H.T.

    "That God would move
  And strike the hard, hard rock, and thence
  Sweet in their utmost bitterness,
  Would issue tears of penitence."
               --_Tennyson, Supposed Confessions_.

The Snare of the Fowler.                              106 S.A.

  "Twice it may be, or thrice, the fowler's aim;
  But in the sight of one whose plumes are full,
  In vain the net is spread, the arrow winged."
                     --_Dante, Divine Comedy_.

Son of Man.                                           246 L.J.

    "That claimest with a cunning face
  Those rights the true, true Son of man doth own
  By Love's authority."
              --_Sidney Lanier, Remonstrance_.

Sparks Which Fly Upward.                              186 S.A.

  "But the troubles which he is born to are as
  sparks which fly upward, not as flames burning
  to the nethermost Hell."
                              --_Ruskin, Notes_.

{153}

Star of Bethlehem.                                     41 L.J.

  "Some astronomers believe that they have found
  the great star around which the whole universe
  of stars revolves: whether that be true or not,
  it is undoubtedly true that the Star of
  Bethlehem is the center of this world's
  spiritual astronomy."
                        --_Theodore L. Cuyler_.

The Stars Fought in Their Courses.                    58 T.J.

  "Promptings from heaven and hell, as if the stars
  Fought in their courses for a fate to be."
              --_Browning, The Ring and the Book_.

A Still Small Voice.                                  124 T.J.

  "A still small voice spake unto me."
                     --_Tennyson, The Two Voices_.

The Stirring of the Waters.                           167 L.J.

  "To-day a golden pinion stirred
    The world's Bethesda pool,
  And I believed the song I heard
    Nor put my heart to school;
  And through the rainbows of the dream
    I saw the gates of Eden gleam."
                --_Alfred Noyes, The Hill Flower_.

The Stone Rolled Away.                                297 L.J.

  "Pitiless walls of gray,
    Gathered around us, a growing tomb
    From which it seemed not death or doom
  Could roll the stone away."
           --_Alfred Noyes, The Enchanted Island._

Tables of Stone                                       207,212 H.T.

    "Heard the voice
  Of him who met the Highest in the mount,
  And brought them tables, graven with His hand."
         --_Holmes, Wind-Clouds and Star-Drifts_.

{153}

The Talent Hid in the Earth.                          245 L.J.

  "When I consider how my light is spent
  Ere half my days in this dark world and wide,
  And that one talent which is death to hide
  Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent
  To serve therewith my Maker, and present
  My true account, lest He returning chide."
             --_Milton, Sonnet to His Blindness_.

Temperate in All Things.                              438 S.A.

  "'Tis to thy rules, O Temperance, that we owe
  All pleasures that from health and strength can flow;
  Vigor of body, purity of mind,
  Unclouded reason, sentiment refined."
                                    --_Chandler_.

There the Wicked Cease from Troubling
and the Weary are at Rest.                            184 S.A.

  "To lie within the light of God,
    as I lie upon your breast--
  And the wicked cease from troubling
    and the weary are at rest."
                     --_Tennyson, The May Queen_.

Threescore Years and Ten.                             104 S.A.

  "Worn to a thread by threescore years and ten."
              --_Browning The Ring and the Book_.

To Eat Husks.                                         203 L.J.

  "You would think that I had a hundred and fifty
  tattered prodigals lately come from swine
  keeping, from eating draft and husks."
                 --_Shakespeare, I Henry IV 4:2_.

To Everything There is a Season.                      243 S.A.

  "There is a time for all things."
             --_Shakespeare. Comedy of Errors 2:2_.

To Touch His Garments.                                140 L.J.

  "The world sits at the feet of Christ,
  Unknowing, blind and unconsoled.
  It yet shall touch his garment's fold
  And feel the heavenly alchemist
  Transform its very dust to gold."
                                   --_Anonymous_.

{155}

Treading the Winepress.                               476 S.A.

  "But ye that have seen how the ages have shrunk
  from my rod, And how red is the winepress
  wherein at my bidding they trod."
                                 --_The Paradox_.

The Tree of Knowledge.                                19 T.J.

  "Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
  Of that forbidden tree, whose Mortal taste
  Brought death into the World and all our woe
  . . .
  Sing Heavenly Muse."
               --_Milton, Paradise Lost, Book I_.

Truth Endureth Forever.                               139 S.A.

  "It fortifies my soul to know
  That, though I perish, Truth is so:
  That, howsoe'er I stray and range,
  Whate'er I do Thou dost not change.
  I steadier step when I recall
  That, if I slip, Thou dost not fall."
              --_Arthur Hugh Clough, Ambarvalia_.

The Unknown God.                                      407 L.J.

  "Greece, Egypt, Rome,--did any god
  Before whose feet men knelt unshod
  Deem that in this unblest abode
  Another scarce more unknown god
  Should house with him, from Nineveh?"
             --_Rossetti, The Burden of Nineveh_.

Unto Seventy Times Seven.                             186 L.J.

  "We poor ill-tempered mortals--must forgive,
  Though seven times sinning threescore times and ten."
                            --_Holmes, Manhood_.

The Valley of the Shadow.                             35 S.A.

  "Drew to the valley
  Named of the shadow."
              --_Tennyson, Merlin and the Gleam_.

{156}

Vine and Fig Tree                                     456 H.T., 369 S.A.

  "You may see as thorough patriarchs as Abraham
  was any day, and as carefully visited by angels,
  sitting under their vine and fig tree."
                              --_Ruskin, Notes_.

Voice Crying in the Wilderness.                       65 L.J.

  "In this bleak wilderness I hear
  A John the Baptist crying."
       --_Lowell, An Interview with Miles Standish_.

Walking on the Waters.                                148 L.J.

  "So Lycidas sunk low, but mounted high
  Through the dear might of Him that walked the waves."
                    --_Milton, Lycidas, line 172_.

The Water of Life.                                    508 L.J.

  "The natural thirst ne'er quenched but from the well
  Whereof the woman of Samaria craved."
                         --_Dante, Divine Comedy_.

Weaver's Beam.                                        386 H.T.

  "Then for her spear she might have a weaver's beam."
                 --_Ruskin, Crown of Wild Olive_.

Weighed in the Balance.                               206 T.J.

  "Their errors have been weighed and found to
  have been dust in the balance."
                --_Shelley, A Defence of Poetry_.

We Spend Our Years as a Tale That is Told.            104 S.A.

  "Ay! when life seems scattered apart,
    Darkens, ends as a tale that is told,
  One, we are one, O heart of my heart,
    One, still one, while the world grows old."
                         --_Alfred Noyes, Unity_.

What is Man That Thou art Mindful of Him?             22 S.A.

  "A man is but a little thing among the objects
  of nature, yet, by the moral quality radiating
  from his countenance, he may abolish all
  considerations of magnitude, and in his manners
  equal the majesty of the world."
                  --_Emerson, Essay on Manners_.

{157}

When the Morning Stars Sang Together.                 222 S.A.

  "Look how the floor of heaven
  Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold;
  There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st
  But in his motion like an angel sings."
         --_Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice 5:1_.

The Wind Fulfills His Word.                           173 S.A.

  "The snow, the vapour and the stormy wind
  fulfill his word."
       --_Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture_.

Wisdom, Crying in the Streets.                        249 S.A.

  "Wisdom cries out in the streets and no man regards it."
                   --_Shakespeare, I Henry IV 1:2_.

Wisdom shall Die with You.                            194 S.A.

  "A man of superior sagacity may be pardoned for
  thinking with the friends of Job, that Wisdom
  will die with him."
                                       --_Ruskin_.

Wrestling Jacob.                                      80 H.T.

  "Like that strange angel which of old,
  Until the breaking of the light
  Wrestled with wandering Israel."
                               --_Tennyson, To--_.

Ye Cannot Serve God and Mammon.                       205 L.J.

  "We mean by war all that war ever meant,
  Destruction's ministers, Death's freemen, Lust's
  Exponents, daily like a blood-red dawn
  In flames and crimson seas we shall advance
  Against the ancient immaterial reign
  Of Spirit, and our watchword shall be still,
  Get thee behind me, God,--I follow Mammon."
        --_John Davidson, Mammon and His Message_.

Yoke of Bondage.                                      507 H. T.

  "Judah was a captive by the waters of Babylon
  and the sons of Jacob were in bondage to our
  kings . . . from the remnant that dwells in Judea
  under the yoke of Rome neither star nor sceptre
  shall arise."
          --_Henry Van Dyke, The Other Wise Man_.

{158}

Zeal That Consumes.                                   151 S.A.

  "The zeal for truth and righteousness and
  goodness anywhere, in politics, or in
  literature, or in education, does not seize hold
  of men with the vigor which may be described, in
  the Bible phrase, as a zeal that eats one up."
                      --_Samuel Valentine Cole_.

Zion                                                  470 H.T.

  "Why should we fly? Nay, why not rather stay
  And rear again our Zion's crumbled walls."
         --_Lowell, A Glance behind the Curtain_.

{159}

PART V

THE BIBLE AND THE TEACHER

_For the Bible School Teacher_

{160}

"Talk about the questions of the time: There is but
one question:--How to bring the truths of God's Word
into vital contact with the minds and hearts of all
classes of the people."
                          --_William E. Gladstone_.


{161}

THE BIBLE AND THE TEACHER

FOR THE BIBLE SCHOOL TEACHER

The two greatest needs of the Bible School teacher are thorough
preparation of the lesson, and enthusiasm in presenting it. These
needs are effectively and abundantly met in THE BIBLE STORY. This
volume is so arranged that the teacher in any department may find what
is best adapted to a particular age. The following definite
suggestions as to how THE BIBLE STORY may be used in the Bible School
will be found interesting and helpful for teachers in the
accomplishment of their great aims of imparting knowledge, developing
character, and leading the pupil on to service.


1. In the Primary Department:--

Supplementary Work

Many primary teachers use a few minutes of the Bible School hour for
supplementary work, in which they follow any desired line of teaching
regardless of the prescribed lesson. For this supplementary work the
following suggestions in this volume may be used:--

  Memorizing Bible Verses, page 15.

  Teaching God's Relation to the World, page 16.

  Understanding Life in Bible Times, page 19.


Story Telling

"Of all the things that a teacher should know how to do," says a great
educator, "the most important, without any exception, is telling a
story." The most beautiful Bible stories, especially suited to little
children, are listed on pages 17, 18, and 19 of this volume, and
teachers will find those referring to "The Golden Book" (G.B.) very
attractively told for children. The stories are graded from the very
simple to the more difficult and so may be adapted to the different
classes.


{162}

The Art of Questioning

Questioning is an art only when it stirs the imagination and leads to
thinking. The true teacher can always stimulate interest by his wise
questions. The questions at the end of Part I of this volume are
designed for use as a review of the lessons given from "The Golden
Book."


Memory Gems

"The Golden Book" is especially rich in children's poems, carrying
practical, helpful thoughts. Verses and couplets from these make
beautiful Memory Gems.


2. In the Junior, Intermediate, and Senior Departments:--

Indirect Precept

The central teaching of a lesson, whether it be generosity, charity,
forgiveness, or some other virtue, is brought home most effectively by
illustration and example. As an educative force, emulation far
surpasses exhortation.

From Foundation Stones, page 33 of this volume, may be selected the
stories of all those men and women of the Bible who wrought out in
their lives whatever quality of character may be central in the
lesson. Here also such words of Jesus, of the prophets, or of the
Psalms as emphasize and enforce the teaching, are grouped and may
readily be found.


Historical Connections

A great deal of Bible School teaching touches only the mountain peaks
of history without traversing the connecting valleys. Study of lesson
after lesson with no attention to their connections leaves but a
series of detached thoughts.

Often lessons, which have become an old story to boys and girls,
become interesting and fascinating when linked up with the history of
the world in Bible times, or when the Bible events themselves are
joined in connected narrative.

THE BIBLE STORY presents an unusual opportunity to a teacher for
establishing these connections.


{163}

(A) The Table of Contents of "Hero Tales" suggests the chronology of
Hebrew history as far as the minor kings.

(B) The chart on page 236 T.J. links up the minor kings with the
prophets in point of time.

(C) The life of Jesus may be traced out chronologically from the
sequence of places given on pages 109 and 110 of this volume.

(D) The questions on The World in Bible Times beginning at page 38 of
this volume will increase interest in Hebrew history itself by showing
the relationship between the Jews and surrounding nations.


Geographical Setting

"Teaching, like pictures, must have background and foreground." The
central group of characters in the lesson must have prominence, but
their setting must be clearly defined, too, that the whole may be
appreciated. By many pupils the Bible is regarded as a Book entirely
apart from life. If asked to recall a well-known historical incident
connected with Egypt or Assyria or Rome, a pupil does not naturally
think of a Bible incident. A teacher may often open an entirely new
field of thought for pupils by bringing the Holy Land down out of the
skies and "placing it on the map."

In Part III of this volume are given a bird's-eye view of Palestine
for general reference; questions on the well-known places in Bible
lands and of especial interest because they refer to pictures which
may be used in class; and questions which locate the Bible characters
in the land. For the latter section it is well to use a blackboard or
sand map in class to make plain the setting of each lesson. All of
Part III furnishes helpful material for the teacher's study and
presents interesting sidelights to give what has seemed a commonplace
lesson new meaning and new interest.


The Question Method

To hold attention in class the question method is best. It is most
effective because in order to give the answers the pupil must think
for himself.

Questions are so important that a wise teacher will always prepare
them in advance. If put in order they will form an outline or plan to
be followed in presenting the lesson.

At the end of Part II of this volume are one thousand questions on the
Bible passages listed according to names and periods for easy {164}
reference. They are useful in many ways: As an outline for the
teacher, as suggested above; as review questions when two classes may
unite for a contest; and as an incentive to the pupils to study the
lesson. Give out a striking question on the coming lesson each week
instead of the general request to "study the lesson."


Use of Pictures

In teaching little children pictures have long been considered
invaluable, but their practical value in the more advanced departments
is not so generally conceded. The adult mind, however, has not
outgrown its love for the truths of life as expressed in pictorial
form and the teacher of adult classes who owns THE BIBLE STORY is
fortunate indeed in having right at hand impressive illustrations for
a great many Bible lessons.

There is a threefold advantage in using these pictures:--

To Save Time--Pictures suggest ideas more forcibly than words. For
example, much time would be wasted in trying to convey by words any
idea of such a ship as Paul used in traveling to Rome, but the picture
on page 464 L.J. is at once striking and accurate. The index of
illustrations in the back of the volume "Songs of the Ages" suggests
the wealth of illustrations in THE BIBLE STORY and indicates their
location.

To Give Correct Impressions--For understanding Oriental conditions no
agency is so helpful as pictures of Eastern customs and life. Many of
these customs are referred to in Part 1 on page 19 of this volume, and
much of the life of the Hebrews is brought out by the questions
beginning at page 100, which refer, for their answers, to pictures.

To Inspire Beautiful Ideals--THE BIBLE STORY reproduces many beautiful
pictures by artists who have thrown their religious conceptions into
their work and thus infused it with the highest devotional spirit.
Holding these pictures before a class will often create the atmosphere
most desired for teaching the story depicted. For example, a
conception of the spirit of the conversation between Jesus and the
woman at Jacob's well may be obtained from Hofmann's beautiful picture
(84 L.J.). Many others may be used to instill the greatest spiritual
ideas.


{165}

Illuminating Points

A careful study of Part IV of this volume will enable a teacher of
adults to give from Bible characters and books many striking points
appropriate to the lesson.

"Living with the Bible," beginning at page 42 of this volume, will
suggest to the adult teacher many passages to use in developing the
different lessons.

"Jesus' Character-Building Stories," on page 32 of this volume, will
give Jesus' teaching on the various subjects taken up in the lessons.

Part III of this volume will furnish the teacher of adults with the
lesson setting, both by picture and by map.


{166}

{167}

PART VI

PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY

{168}

"The knowledge of words is a gate to scholarship."
                                     --_Wilson_.

{169}-{179}

KEY

Marked letters are pronounced as in the following words. Vowels found
in unaccented syllables are unmarked and are given the natural, or
long, sound.

[Illustration: Eleven pages of word pronunciation.]


[End of "HOW TO USE THE BIBLE STORY"]

-------------------------------------------------------

[Start of "VOLUME ONE: THE GOLDEN BOOK"]

{1}

{2}

{3}

THE BIBLE STORY

{6}

[Illustration: Magi following the Star of Bethlehem.]

{7}

THE BIBLE STORY

VOLUME ONE

THE GOLDEN BOOK

ARRANGED AND EDITED BY

REV. NEWTON MARSHALL HALL, D.D.

MINISTER OF THE NORTH CHURCH, SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS

AND

REV. IRVING FRANCIS WOOD, PH.D.

PROFESSOR OF
BIBLICAL LITERATURE AND COMPARATIVE RELIGION
AT SMITH COLLEGE

Authors of
_"The Early Days of Israel"_
_"Advanced Bible Studies" Etc._


THE KING-RICHARDSON COMPANY
SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS

CHICAGO, CLEVELAND

{8}

COPYRIGHT, 1906,

COPYRIGHT, 1917,

BY THE KING-RICHARDSON COMPANY,

SPRINGFIELD, MASS.

{9}

INTRODUCTION TO THE SERIES

The editors of this series believe that no task can be more important
than that of winning the interest of children to their precious
heritage, the Bible. The stories of the old Greek and Roman mythologies,
the folk and fairy tales, have been given the child in beautiful form,
suitably graded and arranged, with significant illustrations. The
editors of this series attempt to do the same thing for the Bible: to
take the matchless prose and poetry of the Bible and put it in the form
which will make it most attractive to the child, to give the Bible an
equal chance in the child's library with the "King Arthur Stories" and
the tales of mythology.

Every parent desires to have the children of the home gain an
acquaintance with the best that is in the Bible. Heretofore no text has
been prepared which exactly met this need, giving appropriate passages
for children of various ages. These volumes are especially designed to
make "Sunday afternoon" reading attractive to children, putting the
fascinating stories of the Bible in the same dress and on the same
footing with the secular classics which have {10} always charmed. With
such an arrangement it is believed that the child will read the Bible as
freely as any book.

The plan of the Readers gives unity to each story and selection. Each
story or episode is given in a complete form, and not merely as an
extract. Passages which are clearly not relevant to the story or which
involve unnecessary difficulties to a young reader are omitted. Obsolete
words are modernized. Many versions, both ancient and modern, together
with the original texts, have been compared in determining the
translation. In every case the graphic, pictorial word which would
appeal to the imagination of the child and enlarge its vocabulary has
been sought. At the same time the effort has been made not to impair the
literary strength and beauty of the older versions. Nothing has been
omitted which is suitable to the mind of the child, and everything has
been arranged with the end in view of meeting the needs of the child.

This series does not aim to supplant the ordinary texts of the Bible nor
to take the place of the common versions any more than literature
readers take the place of literature. The editors have endeavored to
select such passages of the Bible as are particularly suited to the
child's mind, to present them in a novel and attractive form, and thus
to arouse the interest of children, stimulating them to more careful
study in later years.

This series is not, however, intended simply for children's reading. The
editors believe that for general {11} reading for the older members of
the family no version of the Bible will be found more satisfactory.

There is no Book which so lends itself to illustration as the Bible.
Palestine in relation to the New Testament has been called a "Fifth
Gospel." For the child especially the actual locality is the best
commentary on the text and the best means of arousing interest in the
text.

The Bible makes contact with the great civilizations in a way which is
not fully appreciated. The attempt has been made to illustrate very
fully the contact with Egypt in the Old Testament and with Greece and
Rome in the New Testament.

The editors believe that the three hundred and fifty illustrations which
have been provided form a collection which has never been surpassed in
fullness and accuracy. Many friends have freely offered their fine
collections. A large number of pictures taken by friends are unique in
their individual interest, and have never before been published. We are
especially indebted to the following: Prof. David G. Lyon, D.D., of the
Department of Semitic Languages of Harvard University, Prof. H. G.
Mitchell, D.D., of the Department of Theology of Boston University, Rev.
Warren J. Moulton, Ph.D., of Athol, Mass., for the use of valuable
private collections; the Departments of Greek and Latin at Smith
College, the Public Library at Springfield and the Forbes Public Library
at Northampton, Mass., for {12} constant courtesy and the use of rare
books, photographs, and engravings; Miss Clara L. Bodman, Miss Julia W.
Snow, Mr. S. E. Bridgman of Northampton, and Prof. Louis F. Giroux of
the International College, Springfield, for the loan of photographs;
Mrs. Fontaine Meriwether of Sedalia, Missouri, for selections from a
remarkably fine collection of views personally taken while on a trip to
the East; Rev. Frank L. Goodspeed, Ph.D., and Mrs. Goodspeed for unique
and valuable views taken by themselves; W. J. Aitchison, Esq., of
Hamilton, Canada, for fine views; the officers of the Palestine
Exploration Fund, and the Detroit Photograph Company, for permission to
use pictures in their possession; Prof. Arthur S. Cooley, Ph.D., of
Auburndale, the well known lecturer, for permission to use unique views
illustrating the journeys of Paul; Miss Mary Medlicott of Longmeadow for
the use of a rare book.

We are also especially indebted to Prof. Henry D. Sleeper, head of the
Music Department of Smith College, for the charming airs to which he has
set some of the poems for children in the first volume.

On the literary side the editors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness
to Miss Esther M. Carver of Northampton for suggestions from her
experience as a teacher, to Miss Caroline M. Yale and Miss Frances W.
Gawith of the Clarke School for the Deaf, to Prof. Charles F.
Richardson, and Prof. Fred P. Emery of Dartmouth College, {13} Prof.
Clyde W. Votaw of Chicago University, Mr. William Orr, Principal of the
High School, Springfield, Mass. We are much indebted to President George
T. Angell for suggestions for the chapter, "Little Brothers of the Air
and Fields," in the first volume, also to a very wide circle of friends
for their interest and for valuable suggestions, many of which have been
incorporated in the work. The help of various versions of the Bible is
also acknowledged, as well as the version of the prophets by George Adam
Smith. Thanks are rendered to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Messrs.
Charles Scribner's Sons, E. P. Dutton & Co., J. B. Lippincott, Biglow &
Main, Mr. Theodore E. Perkins, and Charles Ray Palmer, D.D., for
permission to use copyrighted material.

Without the co-operation of these and many other friends we feel that so
large a measure of excellence as we believe the volumes possess could
not have been attained.

{14}

{15}

PREFACE

The editors have endeavored to make this volume a treasure house of all
the good things, new and old, which would serve to assist in the moral
training of little children. The volume includes a Primer, arranged on
the plan of the ordinary school primer, designed to give the elemental
religious truths in the simplest form. Any child who is learning to read
at school can learn also to read these sentences. The texts at the
bottom of the pages are to be read by the parent to the child, and may
with profit be committed to memory by the child. The short Bible stories
which follow may also be easily read by children. The hymns and poems
and most of the pictures are "classic." They should be known by every
child for their own worth, and as an antidote for the rubbish which
constitutes so large a proportion of the reading of children. Parents
will be pleased to find the fine old hymns of Watts and Jane Taylor,
some of them set to delightful music by Prof. Sleeper of Smith College.
These poems should not be allowed by neglect to pass out of the
possession of modern children.

It is hoped that this volume will go far toward solving the problem of
Sunday afternoon occupation for children, and will meet the constant
demand for such a collection of religious literature.

{16}

{17}

CONTENTS

A BIBLE PRIMER                                                  23

HYMNS FOR THE MORNING                                           69

  When Morning Gilds the Skies.  _From the German_              71

  A Song of Thanksgiving.  _From the German_                    75

  Heaven is Not Reached at a Single Bound.  _J. G. Holland_     77

  Still, Still With Thee.   _Harriet Beecher Stowe_             78

SHORT BIBLE STORIES                                             79

  God Sees Me.                                                  81

  What Does God Want Me To Do?                                  82

  What God Gives.                                               85

  Jesus and His Friends.                                        86

  Jesus Had No Home.                                            89

  The People Loved Jesus.                                       93

  The Sea of Galilee.                                           94

  The Boyhood of Jesus.                                         97

  Jesus and Sick People.                                        98

  Talking With Our Father.                                      101

  God is Our Father.                                            105

  What Jesus Said About Birds and Flowers.                      106

  What Jesus Said About Trees.                                  109

  Jesus and the Little Girl.                                    110

  The Baby Hid in a Basket.                                     117

  An Old Book of Songs.                                         121

  A Story Which Jesus Told.                                     126

  Some Words Which Jesus Taught the People.                     130

  The Boy Who Came When He Was Called.                          132

{18}

  _Stories of David_:

    The Shepherd Boy Who Killed a Giant.                        139

    David and King Saul.                                        151

    David and Jonathan.                                         156

    David and His Three Brave Soldiers.                         163

    David and His Son Absalom.                                  167

  The Story of a Good King.                                     170

  Joseph and His Brethren.                                      177

  The Boy Who Was Raised from the Dead.                         193

  The Kingdom of Heaven.                                        201

  The Little Captive Maid.                                      205

  How the People Traveled in the Lands of the Bible.            208

  Houses in the Lands of the Bible.                             214

  Children in the Lands of the Bible.                           217

  Jerusalem.                                                    218

  The Jordan.                                                   224

  The Dead Sea.                                                 226

  Beth-lehem.                                                   229


HYMNS FOR THE DAY.                                              231

  Lord of All Being, Throned Afar.  _Oliver Wendell Holmes_     233

  On Our Way Rejoicing              _John S. B. Monsell_        234

  Of Such is the Kingdom            _Jemima Thompson Luke_      237

  Sun of My Soul.                   _John Keble_                238

  Day by Day.                                                   239

  What Can Little Hands Do?         _Fabin_                     240

  How Gentle God's Commands         _Philip Doddridge_          241

  Above the Clear Blue Sky          _John Chandler_             242


BEDTIME STORIES                                                 243

  The Story of the First Christmas.                             245

  The Story of Palm Sunday.                                     251

  How Jesus Gave His Life for the World.                        257

{19}

  The Story of the First Easter Day.                            265

  The Story of the First Thanksgiving.                          270

  Who Was the Neighbor?                                         279

  The Good Shepherd.                                            282

  Little Brothers of the Air and Fields.                        292


SHEPHERD HYMNS.                                                 305

  Saviour, Like a Shepherd Lead Us         _Dorothy A. Thrupp_  309

  Was There Ever Kindest Shepherd?   _Frederick William Faber_  310

  Gracious Saviour, Holy Shepherd
                            _Jane E. Leeson and J. Whittemore_  313

  In Heavenly Love Abiding                    _Anna L. Waring_  314

  The King of Love My Shepherd Is.           _Sir H. W. Baker_  315


PRAYERS FOR LITTLE CHILDREN.                                    317


OLD TIME VERSES FOR LITTLE CHILDREN.                            325

  Against Idleness and Mischief.                 _Isaac Watts_  327

  Against Pride in Clothes.                      _Isaac Watts_  328

  The Ant, or Emmet.                             _Isaac Watts_  329

  A Morning Song.                                _Isaac Watts_  330

  An Evening Song.                               _Isaac Watts_  333

  The Sluggard.                                  _Isaac Watts_  334

  Praise for Mercies, Spiritual and Temporal.    _Isaac Watts_  337

  The Rose.                                      _Isaac Watts_  338

  Praise for Creation and Providence.            _Isaac Watts_  341

  A General Song of Praise to God.               _Isaac Watts_  342

  Innocent Play.                                 _Isaac Watts_  343

  Against Quarreling and Fighting.               _Isaac Watts_  344

  Love Between Brothers and Sisters.             _Isaac Watts_  345

  A Summer Evening.                              _Isaac Watts_  346

  Summer.                                        _Jane Taylor_  349

{20}

  The Star (with music).                         _Jane Taylor_  350-351

  The Flower and the Lady, About Getting Up.     _Jane Taylor_  352

  The Field Daisy.                               _Jane Taylor_  353

  The Little Child.                              _Jane Taylor_  354

  Going to Bed.                                  _Jane Taylor_  357

  Time to Get Up.                                _Jane Taylor_  358

  The Snowdrop.                                  _Jane Taylor_  359

  Getting Up (with music).                       _Jane Taylor_  360-361

  A Fine Thing.                                  _Jane Taylor_  362

  A Pretty Thing.                                 _Ann Taylor_  365

  The Sheep.                                     _Jane Taylor_  366

  The Cow.                                       _Jane Taylor_  369

  Going to Bed (with music).                     _Jane Taylor_  370-371

  Baby and Mamma.                                 _Jane Taylor_  372

  The Tempest.                                    _Jane Taylor_  375

  The Violet.                                     _Jane Taylor_  376

  May Day Song.                                    _John Keble_  379

  The Lamb.                                     _William Blake_  380

  Some Murmur When Their Sky is Clear.      _Archbishop Trench_  383

  Little Drops of Water.                   _Ebenezer C. Brewer_  384


CHRISTMAS HYMNS                                                  385

  Christmas Lullaby                    _John Addington Symonds_  389

  The Star                                                       390

  A Christmas Carol.                                             393

  The Guiding Star                             _William C. Dix_  394

  A Christmas Carol.                       _Dinah Maria Mulock_  397

  Hail the Night! All Hail the Morn.        _Old German Choral_  398

  The Christmas Tree.                                            401

  A Christmas Carol.                         _Charles Kingsley_  402

  Song of the Angels                  _Ancient Christmas Songs_  405

  Carol, Sweetly Carol.                                          406

{21}

  Cradle Hymn.                                  _Martin Luther_  409

  Cradle Hymn. (with music)                       _Isaac Watts_  410-411

  Chorus.                                      _Robert Herrick_  412

  Once in Royal David's City.            _Mrs. C. F. Alexander_  415

  Calm on the Listening Ear of Night.   _Edmund Hamilton Sears_  419


HYMNS AND POEMS FOR THE TWILIGHT HOUR.                           421

  Ready for Bed.                                      _Ida Fay_  423

  Baby's Boat.                                  _George Cooper_  424

  Little Voices.                                                 427

  The Twilight Falls, the Night is Near.                         429

  Saviour, Breathe an Evening Blessing.        _James Edmeston_  430

  Summer Rain.                                                   433

  The Glorious Heavens.                               _Addison_  434

  Twilight.                        _Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_  437

  The Pebble and the Acorn.                             _Gould_  438

  A Psalm of Life.                 _Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_  440

  While Thee I Seek, Protecting Power.   _Helen Maria Williams_  442

  Oft in the Stilly Night.                       _Thomas Moore_  445

  The Bridge                       _Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_  446

  Kindness.                                       _Colesworthy_  448

  Perseverance. 451

  The Light of Stars.              _Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_  452

  We Are Seven.                            _William Wordsworth_  454

  Children.                        _Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_  459

  One by One.                            _Adelaide Ann Procter_  461

  To-day and To-morrow.                                          463

  Still with Thee.                        _James Drummond Burns_ 464

  Lead, Kindly Light.                       _John Henry Newman_ 467

  Now the Day is Over.                        _S. Baring-Gould_ 468

  A Farewell.                                _Charles Kingsley_ 471

  Good Night and Good Morning.                  _Lord Houghton_ 472

{22}

  New Year's Eve.                            _Alfred Tennyson_  473

  All Things Beautiful.                           _John Keble_  476

  The Chambered Nautilus.              _Oliver Wendell Holmes_  477

  The Day is Done.                _Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_  481

  A Child's Thought of God.       _Elizabeth Barrett Browning_  483

  Lullaby Song.                              _From the German_  484

  The Pilgrims of the Night.         _Frederick William Faber_  487


MEMORY VERSES AND PROVERBS.                                     489

{23}

A BIBLE PRIMER

{24}

{25}

A BIBLE ALPHABET

A  Ask and ye shall receive.

B  Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits.

C  Create in me a clean heart, O God.

D  Do unto others as ye would that they should do unto you.

E  Even Christ pleased not himself.

F  Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.

G  Give us this day our daily bread.

H  Him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.

I  I am the bread of life.

J  Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever.

K  Keep thy tongue from evil.

L  Little children, love one another.

M  My son, give me thine heart.

N  Now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation.

{26}

O  Oh, that men would praise the Lord for his goodness.

P  Pray without ceasing.

Q  Quit you like men, be strong.

R  Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth.

S  Suffer the little children to come unto me.

T  Teach me thy way, O Lord.

U  Unto thee, O God, do we give thanks.

V  Verily, verily, I say unto you, he
   that believeth on me hath everlasting life.

W  What time I am afraid, I will trust in thee.

X  Examine yourselves.

Y  Ye are bought with a price.

Z  Zealous of good works.

  From an old alphabet belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman, and
  used by her kind permission.


{27}

my   father   mother   dear


My father.

My mother.

My dear father.

My dear mother.


  "Honor thy father and thy mother."--_Exodus 20:12_.

  "Children, obey your parents in all things, for this is well
  pleasing unto the Lord."--_Colossians 3:20_.

  "My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not
  the law of thy mother."--_Proverbs 1:8_.


{28}

I   brother   sister   love


I love my father.

I love my mother.

I love my brother.

I love my sister.


  "Have love one to another."--_John 13:35_.

  "Beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another."
  --_I John 4:11_.

  "Let us love one another: for love is of God."--_I John 4:7_.

{29} {30}

[Illustration]
  THE DIVINE MOTHER AND THE CHILD
  By Murillo (1618-1682)

  Bartolome Esteban Murillo was born at Seville, Spain, January 1, 1618.
  Very poor at first, he afterward gained wealth and fame by his
  masterly work, which made him an artist of the first rank. "The
  peasant-painter of Spain," as he has been called, was a man of deep
  religious convictions. "He alone in the seventeenth century kept alive
  the pure flame of religious fervor which burned within the devout
  Italians of the early school." His Madonnas are all of an especially
  sweet and gentle and motherly type.
[End illustration]


{31}

God   me   is


My father loves me.

My mother loves me.

God loves me.

God is my Father.

God loves me.

I love God.


  "God is love."--_I John 4:8_.

  "We love him because he first loved us."--_I John 4:19_.

  "Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon
  us that we should be called the sons of God."--_I John 3:1_.


{32}

a   gives   all   have   home


I have a home.

I have a father.

I have a mother.

God gives me my father.

God gives me my mother.

God gives me my home.

God gives me all I have.


  "Every good gift, and every perfect gift, is from above and
  cometh down from the Father."--_James 1:17_.

  "Give us this day our daily bread."--_Matt. 6:11_.

{33}{34}

[Illustration]
  A QUIET AFTERNOON IN THE UPLAND PASTURES

  "Go out in the springtime among the meadows that slope from the shores
  of the Swiss lakes to the roots of their lower mountains There,
  mingled with the taller gentians and the white narcissus, the grass
  grows deep and free; and as you follow the winding mountain paths,
  beneath arching boughs, all veiled and dim with blossom--paths that
  forever droop and rise over the green banks and mounds sweeping down
  in scented undulation, steep to the blue water, studded here and there
  with new mown heaps, filling all the air with fainter sweetness,--look
  up toward the higher hills, where the waves of everlasting green roll
  into their long inlets among the shadows of the pines: and we may
  perhaps at last know the meaning of those quiet words of the 147th
  Psalm, 'He maketh grass to grow upon the mountains.'"--_John Ruskin_
[End illustration]


{35}

see     the    grass

makes   grow   green


See the grass.

I see the grass.

The grass grows.

The grass is green.

I see the green grass.

God makes the grass.

God makes the grass grow.

God makes the green grass grow.


  "He shall come down like rain upon the mown grass,
  As showers that water the earth."--_Psalms 72:6_.

{36}

flower   lily   white

rose     red    you


I see a flower.

The flower is a lily.

The lily is white.

I see a rose.

The rose is red.

I have a lily and a rose.

I love the lily and the rose.

Have you a flower?

I have a white flower.

God loves the flowers and makes them grow.


  "Consider the lilies, how they grow. They toil not neither do
  they spin."--_Matthew 6:28_.

{37}{38}

[Illustration]
  RESTING BENEATH THE TREES
  By Corot (1796-1875)

  Jean Baptiste Camille Corot was a famous painter of landscapes. He
  was born at Paris, and while his work was not at first appreciated
  he is now recognized as one of the greatest of the French school.

  "The groves were God's first temples. Ere man learned
  To hew the shaft, and lay the architrave,
  And spread the roof above them--ere he framed
  The lofty vault, to gather and roll back
  The sound of anthems; in the darkling wood,
  Amid the cool and silence, he knelt down,
  And offered to the Mightiest solemn thanks
  And supplication. . . ."

  --_William Cullen Bryant_
[End illustration]


{39}

bird   sparrow  nest  flies  in

sorry  when     it    hurt


Do you see the bird?

It is a sparrow.

The sparrow flies.

The sparrow makes a nest.

It makes a nest in the green grass.

See the nest in the grass!

See the sparrow fly!

God loves the sparrow.

God is sorry when the sparrow is hurt.

Do not hurt the sparrow.


  "Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings?
  And not one of them is forgotten in the sight of God."
  --_Luke 12:6_.


{40}

day   done   bed     will   go

hear  say    prayer  to     heaven


The day is done.

The sparrow will go to bed.

It will go to bed in its nest.

The lily and the rose will go to bed.

I will go to bed.

I go to bed in my dear home.

My mother will hear me say my prayer.

I say my prayer to my Father in heaven.

My Father in heaven loves to hear me say my prayer.


  "I laid me down and slept;
  I awaked, for the Lord sustained me."--_Psalms 3:5_.

  "Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and
  cometh down from the Father of lights."--_James 1:17_.

{41}{42}

[Illustration]
  THE "MATER AMABILIS IN GLORIA"
  By Bodenhausen

  "The extremely popular 'Mater Amabilis in Gloria,' where a girlish
  young mother, her long hair streaming about her, stands in upper
  air, poised above the great ball of the earth, holding her sweet
  babe to her heart. Pictures like these constantly reiterate the
  story of a mother's love--an old, old story, which begins again with
  every new birth."--_Hurll_
[End illustration]

{43}

star    sky    above    trees

shines  night  twinkle  them


It is night.

I see a star.

The star shines at night.

The star twinkles.

The star twinkles in the sky.

Do you see the star?

It shines above the trees.

I love to see the birds, and the flowers, and the stars.

God made them all.

God loves them all.

God loves you.


  "He telleth the number of the stars;
  He calleth them all by their names."
  _Psalms 147:4_.

{44}

morning  sun   rises  hills

glad     here  are    awaken


The night is done.

The day is here.

I awaken when it is day.

The birds awaken when it is day.

The flowers awaken when it is day.

I see the sun in the sky.

The sun rises above the hills.

The sun rises above the trees.

The birds and the flowers are glad to see the sun.

Are you glad the night is done?


  "Day unto day uttereth speech,
  And night unto night showeth knowledge."--_Psalms 19:2_.

{45}{46}

[Illustration]
  THE INFANT SAMUEL
  By Reynolds (1723-1792)

  Sir Joshua Reynolds is thought by many to have been the greatest of
  English painters. He was a Devonshire lad, and was intended by his
  father for the medical profession. He early showed such aptitude for
  painting that he was permitted to have his way, and after studying
  in Italy, returned to England, where an exhibition of his work
  aroused great enthusiasm, and his popularity continued through his
  life.
[End illustration]

{47}

this  saying  kneeling  thanking

his   beside  goodness  child


See this little child.

He is going to bed.

He is saying his prayer.

He is kneeling beside his bed.

He is thanking his Father in heaven for his goodness.

Do you say your prayer?

I say my prayer night and morning.


  "Ask, and it shall be given you."--_Matthew 7:7_.

  "For the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are
  open unto their prayers."--_I Peter 3:12_.

{48}

sheep  cows  cover   rain    falls

eat    for   waters  garden  earth


Clouds cover the sky.

The rain falls.

The rain waters the earth.

The flowers in the garden are glad.

The red rose is glad.

The white lily is glad.

The green grass is glad.

The rain makes the grass grow.

The sheep and the cows eat the grass.

God gives the rain.

God makes the grass grow for the sheep and the cows.


  "Praise ye the Lord;
  Who covereth the heavens with clouds,
  Who prepareth rain for the earth,
  Who maketh the grass to grow upon the mountains."
                                  _Psalms 147:8_.

{49}{50}

[Illustration]
  PLOWING IN PALESTINE
  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood
  and used by special permission

  Very little advance has been made in methods of agriculture in
  Palestine since the early days of which the Bible tells. The plow is
  often still the crooked stick, sometimes strengthened by iron, but
  still very primitive. It is no wonder that crops are so poor and
  life is so hard under these conditions
[End illustration]

{51}

spring-time  snow       ice    gone

robin        blue-bird  seeds  help


The Spring-time has come.

The birds have come.

The blue-birds are flying in the air.

I see a robin in my garden.

I will go to my garden.

I will plant seeds in my garden.

The seeds will grow to be flowers.

I love to see them grow.

Have you a garden?

Do you see the birds in your garden?

What seeds do you plant in your garden?

God makes the flowers grow.

He gives the rain and the sun.

The rain and the sun help to make the flowers grow.


  "Thou makest it soft with showers; thou blessest the springing
  thereof."--_Psalms 65:10_

{52}

summer    warm  cool  woods  who

brightly  bees  sing  pick   hum


Summer is here.

The birds sing in the trees.

I hear the robins sing.

The flowers have come.

I will go to my garden and pick the roses and the lilies.

The sun shines brightly.

I love the warm sun.

The bees hum in the garden.

The woods are cool.

I love the cool woods.

Who gives us the warm summer days?

God gives us the summer days.


  "Thou hast made summer and winter."--_Psalms 74:17_.

{53}{54}

[Illustration: ]
  THE AUTUMN WOODS

  "The autumn-time has come;
  On woods that dream of bloom,
  And over purpling vines,
  The low sun fainter shines.

  The aster-flower is failing,
  The hazel's gold is paling;
  Yet overhead more near
  The eternal stars appear!"
                            --_John Greenleaf Whittier_
[End illustration]

{55}

autumn   frosty  yellow  large

peaches  moon    with    nuts

gather   crack   fire    before


This is autumn.

The summer has gone.

The nights are frosty.

The days are cool.

The trees are red and yellow.

The leaves are falling from the trees.

Soon the snow will come.

The moon is large in the sky.

It looks like a great yellow ball.

The stars shine brightly.

I love to see the moon and the stars.

{56}

I love the large red apples.

Have you apples in your garden?

I love the peaches and the pears.

I go with my father to  the woods, and gather nuts.

I will crack the nuts on the frosty nights,
and eat them before the fire.

God made the apples, and nuts, and peaches, and pears.

I will thank God for his goodness.


  "Thou crownest the year with thy goodness."--_Psalms 65:11_.

  "The earth is full of the goodness of the Lord."--_Psalms 33:5_.

  "The earth is the Lord's, and the fullness thereof."--_Psalms 24:1_.

  "The pastures are clothed with flocks: the valleys also are
  covered over with grain."--_Psalms 65:18_.

{57}{58}

[Illustration]
  WINTER

  "Leafless are the trees; their purple branches
  Spread themselves abroad, like reefs of coral,
    Rising silent
  In the Red Sea of the winter sunset."
                                --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_

  "A chill no coat, however stout,
  Of homespun stuff could quite shut out,
  A hard, dull bitterness of cold,
  That checked, mid-vein, the circling race
  Of life blood in the sharpened face,
  The coming of the snowstorm told."
                                --_John Greenleaf Whittier_
[End illustration]

{59}

  winter  play    sleep

  cold    frozen  covers

  under   lake    fort


It is winter.

Summer and autumn have gone.

The air is cold.

The robins and the bluebirds have gone.

The snow falls from the sky.

The snow covers the hills and the woods and the fields.

The flowers sleep under the snow in my garden.

They will wake when it is spring.

{60}

The lake is frozen.

I see the white snow in my garden.

I love to play in the snow.

I will make a fort of the white snow in my garden.

I love the cold winter days.

God gives us the winter days as well as the summer days.


  "He giveth snow like wool;
  He scattereth the hoar-frost like ashes."--_Psalms 147:16_.

{61}{62}

[Illustration]
THE SEA

  "Unchangeable save to thy wild waves' play,
  Time writes no wrinkles on thine azure brow--
  Such as creation's dawn beheld, thou rollest now."
                                      --_Lord Byron_
[End illustration]

{63}

Harold      beach  man

sea-shore   dug    owns

went        sand   sailing

            ships


Harold went to the sea-shore.

He went with his father and his mother.

It was summer when he went.

The days were long and bright.

He played all day on the beach.

He dug in the sand.

He made hills in the sand.

When he went to bed at night, he heard the sea.

{64}

He said his prayer beside his mother,
and the sea sang him to sleep with its song.

He saw the sea when the sun rose in the morning.

The sun rose above the sea, when the
night was gone, and the stars went to sleep.

In the bright morning, he saw the ships sailing on the sea.

No man owns the sea.

God made it, and it is his.

  "The sea is his, and he made it."--_Psalms 95:5_.

{65}{66}

[Illustration]
THE MOUNTAINS

  "You should have seen that long hill-range
    With gaps of brightness riven,
  How through each pass and hollow streamed
    The purpling lights of heaven,--

  "Rivers of gold-mist flowing down
    From far celestial fountains,--
  The great sun flaming through the rifts
    Beyond the wall of mountains."
                         --_John Greenleaf Whittier_
[End illustration]

{67}

Margaret  high       brooks

flow      down       climb

look      beautiful  think

often     near


The mountains are high.

They are often covered with trees.

Brooks flow down the mountains.

Margaret went to the mountains in summer.

She could not climb the mountains.

She played in the woods and fields near the mountains.

She picked the red and white and yellow flowers in the fields.

She saw the birds and the bees and the beautiful trees.

{68}

She loved the brook.

She loved to see the mountains.

They were beautiful when the sun set.

When she said her prayer at night,
she looked at the beautiful hills and mountains.

It made her think of God to see the mountains which he made.


  "I will lift mine eyes unto the hills,
  From whence cometh my help.
  My help cometh from the Lord,
  Which made heaven and earth."--_Psalms 121:1,2_.

{69}

HYMNS FOR THE MORNING

{70}
{71}

WHEN MORNING GILDS THE SKIES

  When morning gilds the skies,
  My heart awaking cries,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!
  Alike at work and prayer,
  To Jesus I repair;
    May Jesus Christ be praised!

  To Thee, O God above,
  I cry with glowing love,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!
  This song of sacred joy,
  It never seems to cloy,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!

  Does sadness fill my mind?
  A solace here I find,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!
  Or fades my earthly bliss?
  My comfort still is this,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!

  When evil thoughts molest,
  With this I shield my breast,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!
  The powers of darkness fear,
  When this sweet chant they hear,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!

  When sleep her balm denies,
  My silent spirit sighs,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!   {72}
  The night becomes as day,
  When from the heart we say,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!

  Be this, while life is mine,
  My canticle divine,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!
  Be this the eternal song,
  Through all the ages long,
    May Jesus Christ be praised!
                                   --_From the German_.

{73}{74}
[Illustration]
  THE BOY JESUS
  By Winterstein

  "Whatever father or mother wanted done in the house, fetching water,
  drink, bread, meat, looking after the house and other things of that
  sort, whatever he was bidden, that did the dear little Jesus, like
  any other child."
                                                  --_Martin Luther_
[End illustration]

{75}

A SONG OF THANKSGIVING

  We plough the fields and scatter
    The good seed on the land,
  But it is fed and watered
    By God's almighty hand;
  He sends the snow in winter,
    The warmth to swell the grain,
  The breezes and the sunshine,
    And soft refreshing rain.
      All good gifts around us
        Are sent from heaven above,
      Then thank the Lord, O thank the Lord,
        For all His love!

  He only is the Maker
    Of all things near and far;
  He paints the wayside flower,
    He lights the evening star;
  The winds and waves obey Him,
    By Him the birds are fed;
  Much more to us, His children,
    He gives our daily bread.
      All good gifts around us
        Are sent from heaven above,
      Then thank the Lord, O thank the Lord,
        For all His love!

  We thank Thee, then, O Father,
    For all things bright and good,
  The seedtime and the harvest,
    Our life, our health, our food;   {76}
  Accept the gifts we offer
    For all Thy love imparts,
  And what Thou most desirest,
    Our humble, thankful hearts.
      All good gifts around us
        Are sent from heaven above,
      Then thank the Lord, O thank the Lord,
        For all His love!
                          --_From the German of Mathias Claudius_.

{77}

HEAVEN IS NOT REACHED AT A SINGLE BOUND

  Heaven is not reached at a single bound,
    But we build the ladder on which we rise,
    From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies,
  And we mount to the summit round by round.

  I count this thing to be grandly true,
    That a noble deed is a step toward God,--
    Lifting a soul from the common clod,
  To a purer air and a broader view.
                                       --_J. G. Holland_.

  By permission of Charles Scribner's Sons.

{78}

STILL, STILL WITH THEE

  Still, still with Thee, when purple morning breaketh,
    When the bird waketh, and the shadows flee:
  Fairer than morning, lovelier than the daylight,
    Dawns the sweet consciousness, I am with Thee.

  Alone with Thee, amid the mystic shadows,
    The solemn hush of Nature newly born;
  Alone with Thee, in breathless adoration,
    In the calm dew and freshness of the morn.

  When sinks the soul, subdued by toil, to slumber,
    Its closing eye looks up to Thee in prayer;
  Sweet the repose, beneath Thy wings o'ershadowing,
    But sweeter still to wake and find Thee there.

  So shall it be at last in that bright morning
    When the soul waketh, and life's shadows flee;
  O in that hour, and fairer than day's dawning,
    Shall rise the glorious thought, I am with Thee.

                                   --_Harriet Beecher Stowe_.

{79}

SHORT BIBLE STORIES

{80}
{81}

GOD SEES ME

When does God see me?

God sees me when I am good, and it makes him glad.

God sees me when I am bad, and it makes him sorry.

God sees me when I play, and knows if I am kind.

God sees me when I am at school, and knows if I am faithful.

God sees me when I am at home, and knows
if I obey my father and my mother.

God sees me when I am cross, and knows how ugly I look and feel.

God sees me when I am happy, and knows how glad I am.

God sees me all day long, and wants me to love him.

God sees me all night long, and watches over me while I sleep.


  "When I run about all day,
  When I kneel at night to pray,
    God sees.
  Need I ever know a fear
  Night and day, my Father near?
    God sees."

  "Thou God seest me."--_Genesis 16:13_.

{82}

WHAT DOES GOD WANT ME TO DO?

God wants me to be kind to other children.

God wants me to be gentle and loving.

God wants me to be kind to animals.

God wants me to obey my father and my mother.

God wants me to care more for others than for myself.

God wants me to keep the Sabbath day.

God wants me to pray to him every day.

God wants me to tell the truth.

God wants me to be happy all the day.

God wants me to be good, and then I shall be happy.

God wants me to do these things because he loves me.

I ought to want to do the things he wants me to do.

{83}{84}

[Illustration]
  PLOWING IN THE LANDS OF THE BIBLE

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton,
  and used by her kind permission.

  How strange it looks to see a camel harnessed to a plow! If you look
  closely you will see that the plow is strange, too. It is a crooked
  branch with a plowshare fastened to it. It has only one handle. It
  was a plow almost exactly like this that was used in the times of
  the Bible. This picture was taken in the plains of old Philistia.
[End illustration]

{85}

WHAT GOD GIVES

God is always giving.

God gives to the trees their leaves and fruit.

God gives to the earth the rain in summer to make the grass grow,
and the snow in winter to cover the ground.

God gives to the beasts and to the birds their food.

God gives to us our homes and friends and all that makes us happy.

God gives us the Bible to tell us how he loves us.

God gives us sweet sleep at night.

God gives us health to enjoy all his gifts.

What has God given you to-day? Have you thanked him for it?

  "Who giveth food to the hungry."--_Psalms 146:7_.
  "Who giveth to the beast his food."--_Psalms 147:9_.
  "So he giveth his beloved sleep."--_Psalms 127:2_.
  "He giveth snow like wool."--_Psalms 147:16_.
  "Give us this day our daily bread."--_Matthew 6:11_.
  "My peace I give unto you."--_John 14:27_.
  "Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom for all."--_I Timothy 2:6_.

{86}

JESUS AND HIS FRIENDS

Jesus had many friends.

Some of them were people whom he had healed.

Some of them had heard him talk, and had learned to love him.

Sometimes they stayed with him, day after day.

Jesus loved his friends.

Jesus told his friends about God.

Jesus was so kind and loving to his friends
that they could not help loving him.

The friends of Jesus were called disciples.

Disciple means learner.

The disciples learned what Jesus had taught.

Jesus picked out from his friends a few to be with him all the time.

They were sometimes called disciples, too.

Sometimes they were called apostles.

Apostle means one who is sent.

Jesus sent the apostles out to tell others about himself.

There were twelve of the apostles.

The names of three of them were Peter, James, and John.

{87}{88}

[Illustration]
  BEAUTIFUL NAZARETH:
  OUTLOOK FROM HILLS ABOVE TOWN TO HISTORIC ESDRAELON

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  After he began his active ministry Jesus had no home, but while he
  was a boy his home was in the town of Nazareth, beautifully situated
  among the hills of Galilee. A traveler there describes the town as
  it now is;--

  "Almost in the center of this chain of hills there is a singular
  cleft in the limestone, forming the entrance to a little valley.
  As a traveler leaves the plain he will ride up a steep and narrow
  pathway, broidered with grass and flowers, through scenery which is
  neither colossal nor overwhelming, but infinitely beautiful and
  picturesque. Beneath him, on the right-hand side, the vale will
  gradually widen, until it becomes about a quarter of a mile in
  breadth. The basin of the valley is divided by hedges of cactus into
  little fields and gardens, which, about the fall of the spring
  rains, wear an aspect of indescribable calm, and glow with a tint of
  the richest green. Beside the narrow pathway, at no great distance
  apart from each other, are two wells, and the women who draw water
  there are more beautiful, and the ruddy, bright-eyed shepherd boys
  who sit or play by the well sides, in their gay-colored Oriental
  costume, are a happier, bolder, brighter-looking race than the
  traveler will have seen elsewhere. Gradually the valley opens into a
  little natural amphitheater of hills, supposed by some to be the
  crater of an extinct volcano; and there, clinging to the hollows of
  a hill, which rises to the height of some five hundred feet above
  it, lie, 'like a handful of pearls in a goblet of emerald,' the flat
  roofs and narrow streets of a little Eastern town. There is a small
  church; the massive buildings of a convent; the tall minaret of a
  mosque; a clear, abundant fountain; houses built of white stone, and
  gardens scattered among them, umbrageous with figs and olives, and
  rich with the white and scarlet blossoms of orange and pomegranate.
  In spring, at least, everything about the place looks indescribably
  bright and soft; doves murmur in the trees; the hoopoe flits about
  in ceaseless activity; the bright blue roller-bird, the commonest
  and loveliest bird of Palestine, flashes like a living sapphire over
  fields which are enameled with innumerable flowers."
[End illustration]

{89}

JESUS HAD NO HOME

Jesus had no home of his own after he grew up.

Once a man wanted to be his disciple.

Jesus wanted this man to know that he had no
fine house where he could entertain him.

He said that the foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have
nests, but that he had not where to lay his head.

His friends asked him to visit them.

They were always glad when he came to see them.

Sometimes a rich man asked Jesus and his friends to dinner.

He made no difference between the rich and the poor among his friends.

One of the homes where he liked to be was the home of a fisherman.

The fisherman's name was Simon.

{90}

Sometimes he was called by another name, Peter.

He caught fish in the lake of Galilee.

His house stood near the lake.

His fishing boat was drawn up upon the shore.

Another home where Jesus liked to stay was the home of Lazarus.

Lazarus had two sisters. Their names were Mary and Martha.

The brother and the sisters lived in a little town called Bethany.

Jesus loved these people very much.

Why was Jesus so poor?

  "Though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor,
  that ye through his poverty might become rich."--_2 Corinthians 8:90_

{91}{92}

[Illustration]
  BETHANY

  From a picture taken by Mrs. Frank L. Goodspeed,
  and used by her kind permission.

  This is a picture of the village of Bethany, not far from Jerusalem.
  It was here in the home of Mary and Martha that Jesus liked so much
  to stay.
[End illustration]

{93}

THE PEOPLE LOVED JESUS

The people loved Jesus.

They crowded about him to hear him talk.

Sometimes Jesus and his friends did not have time to eat.

Sometimes the people came after sunset.

Sometimes they came early in the morning.

Sometimes so many people came that the house would not hold them.

Then they had to go out of doors.

Jesus loved to talk with the people out of doors.

He loved to look up and see the blue sky and the green hills.

He told the people many stories while out of doors.

Jesus never turned the people away without trying to help them.


  "Many were gathered together, so that there was no longer room for
  them."--_Mark 2:2_.

  "And he went forth again by the seaside, and many came unto him, and
  he taught them."--_Mark 2:13_.

  "And all the city was gathered together at the door where Jesus
  was."--_Mark 1:33_.

  "And Jesus with his disciples withdrew to the sea . . . and a great
  multitude, hearing what great things he did, came unto him."
  --_Mark 3:7, 8_.

{94}

THE SEA OF GALILEE

Do you know what a lake is?

Did you ever see a lake?

There was a lake in the country where Jesus lived.

It was a pretty lake.

There were hills and mountains all about it.

There were towns and villages on its shores.

Jesus sometimes stayed in these villages.

The lake had a long name.

It was called Gennesaret.

It also had other names.

Sometimes it was called the Sea of Tiberias.

Sometimes it was called the Sea of Galilee.

There were many boats on the Lake of Gennesaret.

How swiftly they sailed along!

How the little waves danced on the waters!

How pretty the hills were on either side!

Some of the boats belonged to the friends of Jesus.

Sometimes these friends took Jesus in their boats.

One day he was standing by the Lake of Gennesaret.

The people were crowding about him.

He could not talk because they crowded so.

He had the boat pushed out a little way from shore.

Then he sat down and taught the people.

The people all sat on the shore and listened.

{95}

[Illustration]
  TIBERIAS, ON THE COAST OF THE SEA OF GALILEE

  Used by special permission of the Detroit Photograph Company.

  On this beautiful lake Jesus very often sailed with his fishermen
  disciples.

  At that time there were many towns and cities on its shores, but
  now, except for a few small hamlets, the once populous shores are
  desolate. But the lake is still as beautiful, its blue waters
  sparkle in the sun, and the stars looking down from the brilliant
  eastern sky are reflected in its bosom as when Jesus "walked in
  Galilee".
[End illustration]

{97}

THE BOYHOOD OF JESUS

When Jesus was a boy, he lived at Nazareth.

Nazareth was a village among the hills.

It was itself on a hill.

All about it were green fields.

In the spring, the fields were filled with pretty flowers.

Jesus' father was a carpenter.

He made doors and chairs and tables.

Jesus helped about the shop.

He was a good boy and loved to help his father.

He helped his mother to draw water from the well.

He went to school and learned to read and write.

He went to church on the Sabbath.

The church to which he went was called a synagogue.

Do you suppose Jesus played with other boys and girls?

He played with them in the village streets.

He was always kind to them.

He never teased them or did things that were mean.

There is still a village of Nazareth.

The hills and the fields about it are the same as then.

{98}

JESUS AND SICK PEOPLE

Jesus was very sorry for people who were sick.

How pale and thin some of them looked!

How some of them suffered!

Jesus loved to heal them.

He was glad to see them get well again.

How happy they and their friends were when they were made well!

How glad the little children were to see their
fathers and mothers come home again, well!

As soon as people knew that Jesus could heal the sick,
they brought all their friends who were sick to Jesus.

Sometimes they brought sick children.

How glad Jesus was to make the children well!


  "And at even when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that
  were sick . . . And all the city was gathered together at the door.
  And he healed many that were sick."--_Mark 1:32-34_.

  "And when they were come out of the boat, straightway the people
  knew him, and ran round about that whole region, and began to carry
  about on their beds those that were sick, where they heard he
  was."--_Mark 6:54-56_.

{99}{100}

[Illustration]
  NAZARETH

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  This is a picture of the village of Nazareth, where Jesus lived when
  he was a boy. When he climbed the hills about the town he had a most
  beautiful view of the mountains and valleys of Palestine. Looking
  westward, the waters of the Mediterranean were spread out before
  him, and he could see the white sails of the passing ships.
[End illustration]

{101}

TALKING WITH OUR FATHER

Because God is our Father we want to talk with him.

We want to tell him about many things.

We want to tell him how happy we are.

If we have been naughty, we want to tell him how sorry we are.

Sometimes we want to tell him how much we love him.

Why do we do this?

When people give us gifts, it is polite to say, "thank you."

God gives us gifts, and we should say "thank you," to him.

When we love people we want to talk with them.

If we love God we will want to talk with him.

When we have been naughty to anyone, we are sorry,
and we want to say "please forgive me."

When we have been naughty, we ought also to ask God to forgive us.

{102}

It makes God sorry when we are naughty.

Would it be right to get up in the morning, and play all day when your
father was at home, without saying one word to him?

Would it make your father glad or sorry?

Is it right, then, to take gifts from your Father in heaven all day
long, and not say a word to him?

Does it make him glad or sorry?

Talking with our Father in heaven, we call praying.

It is telling him all the things we want to tell a loving father.

{103}{104}

[Illustration]
  JESUS HEALING THE SICK
  By Heinrich Hofmann

  Jesus was rightly called the "Great Physician." In the picture are
  shown some of the sufferers whom Jesus delighted to help--the poor
  little child, white and still in its mother's arms, the lame, and
  the blind.
[End illustration]

{105}

GOD IS OUR FATHER

We call God our Father.

The prayer which Jesus taught us to pray, begins, "Our Father."

Why do we call God our Father?

Because God does for us what a good father does for his children.

A good father loves his children.

God loves his children.

A good father gets food and clothing, and other
things which his children need.

God gets for his children what he sees they need.

A good father wants his children to be good.

God wants his children to be good.

A good father will not let his children have
what would be bad for them.

God will not let us have what will be bad for us.

When we call God our Father, it is a way of saying, "God loves me, God
will take care of me."


  "Our Father who art in heaven."--_Matthew 6:9_.

  "One is your father, even he who is in heaven."--_Matthew 23:9_.

  "One God and Father of all."--_Ephesians 4:6_.

{106}

WHAT JESUS SAID ABOUT BIRDS AND FLOWERS

"Behold the birds of the heaven, that they sow not, neither do they
reap, nor gather into barns, and your heavenly Father feedeth them.
Are not ye of much more value than they? And which of you by being
anxious can add one cubit unto his stature? And why are ye anxious
concerning raiment?

"Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not,
neither do they spin; and yet I say unto you, that Solomon in all his
glory was not arrayed like one of these. Wherefore if God so clothe
the grass of the field, . . .      shall he not much more clothe you,
O ye of little faith?"--_Matt. 6:26-30_.

{107}{108}

[Illustration]
  THE LAKE OF GALILEE

  Another picture of the beautiful lake on which Jesus so often sailed
  with his disciples. The lake abounded in fish, and there was a great
  fleet of fishing boats which sailed about the lake and brought the
  fish to the many towns and cities on its shores. Some of Jesus'
  disciples were fishermen.

  "And walking by the lake of Galilee, he saw two brethren, Simon who
  is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the
  lake; for they were fishers. And he saith unto them, Come ye after
  me, and I will make you fishers of men.

  "And they straightway left their nets, and followed him.

  "And going on from thence he saw other two brethren, James the son
  of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their
  father, mending their nets; and he called them. And they straightway
  left the boat and their father, and followed him."--_Matt. 4:18-22_
[End illustration]

{109}

WHAT JESUS SAID ABOUT TREES

"Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns,
or figs of thistles? Even so, every good tree bringeth forth good
fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree
cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth
good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down
and cast into the fire. Therefore, by their fruits ye shall know
them."--_Matt. 7:16-20_.

"And he spake to them a parable: Behold the fig tree and all the
trees; when they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves
that the summer is now nigh at hand."--_Luke 21:29-30_.

{110}

JESUS AND THE LITTLE GIRL

  Beseech
    Beg.

  Suffered
    Allowed.

  Many weeping and wailing
    In the Bible times, when a person died, women were hired to weep
    and wail. This was supposed to honor the dead.


Once upon a time, there was a man named Jairus. He was a very important
man among the Jews. He was one of the rulers of the synagogue; that
means that he was one of those who had charge of the worship in the
synagogue or church of the town. This man had a dear little daughter.
This little girl was twelve years old, and her father and her mother
loved her very much. One day she was taken sick. Her parents were very
anxious about her, for each day she seemed to be growing worse. Then her
father remembered that Jesus could cure people who were sick. So he went
to find Jesus, and ask him if he would come and make his little girl
well. Jesus was very busy when Jairus found him. He was talking to a
great multitude of people. Jairus pushed through the crowd, and fell
down at Jesus' feet, and begged him to come and make his little girl
well. Jesus was very glad to come, but there were so many people about
him that he had to walk very slowly. He stopped to heal a poor sick
woman on the way. At last he drew near Jairus' house, but people came
out of the house and said it was too late, for the little girl was dead.
How badly the poor father felt then! But Jesus told him not to be
afraid, just to have faith in him. Here is the whole story, as it is
told in the Bible:--

{111}{112}

[Illustration]
  JESUS AND THE LITTLE GIRL
  By Gustav Richter (1823-1884)

  "The healing of His seamless dress
    Is by our beds of pain;
  We touch Him in life's throng and press,
    And we are whole again.

  "Through Him the first fond prayers are said
    Our lips of childhood frame,
  The last low whispers of our dead
    Are burdened with His name."
                            --_John Greenleaf Whittier_
[End illustration]

{113}

One day a great multitude was gathered about Jesus as he taught by the
sea. And there cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by
name; and seeing him, he falleth at his feet, and beseecheth him much,
saying:--

"My little daughter is at the point of death: I pray thee, that thou
come and lay hands on her, that she may be made whole, and live."

And he went with him; and a great multitude followed him.

As he approached the house, people came out, who said to Jairus:--

"Thy daughter is dead; why troublest thou the Master any further?"

But Jesus, not heeding the word spoken, saith unto the ruler of the
synagogue:--

"Fear not, only believe."

And they come to the house of the ruler of the synagogue; and he
beholdeth a tumult, and many weeping and wailing greatly. And when he
had entered in, he saith unto them:--     {114}

"Why make ye a tumult, and weep? The child is not dead but sleepeth."

And they laughed him to scorn. But he, having put them all forth,
taketh the father of the child and her mother and them that were with
him, and goeth in where the child was. And taking the child by the
hand, he saith unto her:--

"Talitha cumi," which means in the language of the country, "Little
girl, I say unto thee, Arise."

And straightway the little girl rose up, and walked.

{115}{116}

[Illustration]
  EGYPTIAN TEMPLE ON THE ISLAND OF PHILAE

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  This is one of the beautiful temples of Egypt on an island in the
  river Nile. This island has lately been covered by the waters of
  the great artificial lake formed by the dam built by the English
  government across the Nile to control the flow of the river. In the
  foreground is seen a "dahabiyeh," one of the peculiar boats for
  sailing upon the Nile.
[End illustration]

{117}

THE BABY HID IN A BASKET

  Flags
    Plants which grow in the water at the edges of ponds and rivers.

  Bulrushes
    Plants which were used for the weaving of baskets.

  Ark
    A woven basket.

  Pitch
    A sticky substance daubed on the basket to keep out the water.

  Handmaid
    A servant.


Once upon a time a little boy was born to some poor Hebrew people who
were slaves in Egypt. The pharaoh, or king of that country, did not
like the Hebrew people, and he said that all the little boy babies
born to them must be killed. But the mother of this little boy wanted
to save her pretty baby if she could. So she hid him three months. And
when she could no longer hide him, she took for him an ark of
bulrushes, and daubed it with pitch; and she put the child therein,
and laid it in the flags by the river's brink. And his sister stood
afar off, to know what would be done with him. And the daughter of
Pharaoh came down to bathe at the river; and her maidens walked  {118}
along by the river side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent
her handmaid to fetch it. And she opened it, and saw the child: and,
behold, the babe wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, "This
is one of the Hebrews' children."

Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, "Shall I call thee a nurse
of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?"

And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Go."

And the maid went and called the child's mother. And Pharaoh's
daughter said unto her, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me,
and I will give thee thy wages."

And the woman took the child, and nursed it. And the child grew, and
she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. And
she called his name Moses.

{119}{120}

[Illustration]
  THE RIVER NILE

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  The great river Nile was the very life of the country of Egypt which
  lies along its banks. A little way back from the river the desert
  begins. On the little green strip of the banks lived the proud and
  powerful people who enslaved the Israelites. A fleet of dahabiyehs
  is being loaded by the shore.
[End illustration]

{121}

AN OLD BOOK OF SONGS

  Gates and Courts
    The gates and open spaces of the temple of God.

  Endureth
    Lasteth.

  Faithfulness
    God will keep his promises.

  Unto all generations
    Always.


In a city of the Bible land, called Jerusalem, there was a great
temple, a sort of big church. Every day people came to this temple to
worship in it. On the Sabbath, all the people came to worship in it.
They did not sit in seats as we do in church, but stood up and
listened. In front of where they stood were steps. Here, where all the
people could see, stood a great band of singers dressed in white
robes. Near by, were men with silver trumpets. When they blew the
trumpets, all the people bowed down to pray. Then the singers sang
praises to God, and the musicians played upon all the instruments of
music, and the great temple was filled with glad, joyous song. The
book of songs from which they sang is the book of Psalms in our Bible.
Many of the songs were calls to the people to praise God for his
goodness. Here is one of them:--

  Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all ye lands.
  Serve the Lord with gladness:
  Come before his presence with singing.   {122}
  Know ye that the Lord he is God:
  It is he that hath made us, and we are his;
  We are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
  Enter into his gates with thanksgiving,
  And into his courts with praise:
  Give thanks unto him, and bless his name.
  For the Lord is good; and his mercy endureth for ever;
  And his faithfulness unto all generations.

Here is another beautiful song of praise:--

  O come, let us sing unto the Lord:
  Let us make a joyful noise unto the rock of our salvation.
  Let us come into his presence with thanksgiving,
  Let us make a joyful noise unto him with psalms.
  In his hand are the deep places of the earth;
  The heights of the mountains are his also.
  The sea is his, and he made it;
  And his hands formed the dry land.
  O come, let us worship and bow down;
  Let us kneel before the Lord our Maker:
  For he is our God,
  And we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand.

{123}{124}

[Illustration]
  THE PYRAMIDS AND THE SPHINX

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  The great pyramids of Egypt are among the wonders of the world. They
  are the tombs of some of the Pharaohs. They are great masses of stone,
  and we can hardly imagine how in those days it was possible to build
  them. The sphinx is a great stone figure of a beast with a human
  face. The pyramids and the sphinx were built before Joseph came to
  Egypt.
[End illustration]

{125}

Here is a song of trust in God, who watches over us day and night:--

  I will lift up mine eyes unto the mountains:
  From whence shall my help come?
  My help cometh from the Lord,
  Which made heaven and earth.
  He will not suffer thy foot to be moved;
  He that keepeth thee will not slumber.
  Behold, he that keepeth Israel
  Shall neither slumber nor sleep.
  The Lord is thy keeper:
  The Lord is thy shade upon thy right hand.
  The sun shall not smite thee by day,
  Nor the moon by night.
  The Lord shall keep thee from all evil;
  He shall keep thy soul.
  The Lord shall keep thy going out and thy coming in,
  From this time forth and for evermore.

The shortest song of all those in the book is a song of praise:--

  O praise the Lord, all ye nations:
  Praise him, all ye peoples.
  For his merciful kindness is great toward us:
  And the truth of the Lord endureth for ever.
  Praise ye the Lord.

{126}

A STORY WHICH JESUS TOLD

  Straightway
    At once.

  Tribulation
    Trouble.

  Persecution
    Injury done one by an enemy.


Jesus often told the people little stories when he was
teaching them to be good. These little stories he called
parables. Here is one of the parables:--


THE STORY OF THE SOWER

And Jesus said, "Behold the sower went forth to sow; and, as he sowed,
some seeds fell by the wayside, and the birds came and devoured them:
and others fell upon the rocky places, where they had not much earth;
and straightway they sprang up, because they had no deepness of earth,
and when the sun was risen, they were scorched; and because they had no
root, they withered away. And others fell among the thorns; and the
thorns grew up and choked them: and others fell upon the good ground,
and yielded fruit, some a hundred fold, some sixty, some thirty."

{127}{128}
[Illustration]
  THRESHING IN THE LANDS OF THE BIBLE:

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton,
  and used by her kind permission.

  What a strange company of animals we have here! A camel, two oxen,
  and a little white donkey! And is this not a hard way to thresh out
  the grain? This field, with its beasts at work, does not much
  resemble a great wheat field in the western states of America, with
  its wonderful machinery. It shows how little progress has been made
  in the East, to find the same methods employed now as in Bible times.
[End illustration]

{129}

Then Jesus explained the story to his disciples in this way. He said,
"When anyone heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not,
then cometh the evil one, and snatcheth away that which hath been sown
in his heart. This is he that was sown by the wayside. And he that was
sown upon the rocky places, this is he that heareth the word, and
straightway with joy receiveth it; yet hath he not root in himself, but
endureth for a while; and when tribulation or persecution ariseth
because of the word, straightway he stumbleth. And he that was sown
among the thorns, this is he that heareth the word; and the cares of
this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he
becometh unfruitful. And he that was sown upon the good ground, this is
he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; who verily beareth
fruit, and bringeth forth, some a hundred fold, some sixty, some
thirty."

{130}

SOME THINGS WHICH JESUS TAUGHT THE PEOPLE

At one time Jesus went up the slopes of a mountain, and many people
gathered about him and he taught them these words, which are called

THE BEATITUDES.

"Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

"Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.

"Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.

"Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness:
for they shall be filled.

"Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

"Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

"Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called sons of God.

"Blessed are they that have been persecuted for righteousness' sake:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

{131}

Blessed are ye when men shall reproach you, and persecute you, and say
all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be
exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven; for so persecuted
they the prophets which were before you."

{132}

THE BOY WHO CAME WHEN HE WAS CALLED

  Wax
    To grow.

  Ark of God
    A box of wood which was kept in the temple, and which the Jews
    thought was very precious and sacred.


There was once a woman who lived in the Bible land, and her name was
Hannah. She had a little boy named Samuel. When Samuel was a baby, his
mother made up her mind that she would give him to God, to serve in
the temple. So she took him to the temple, and as soon as he was old
enough he helped the good priest Eli about his work. Every year Hannah
made a little coat for her boy, and gave it to him, when she came to
see him at the temple. It was very hard for Hannah to have her dear
little boy away from home, but she was very happy when she came to
see him every year, and heard what a good boy he was. The old priest
Eli was very fond of him. His own sons were very bad men, and that
made him love Samuel all the more. Here is a story about Samuel and
Eli, which shows what a good and obedient boy he was. Samuel grew up
to be a very wise and a very great man, and served his country and God
faithfully all his life.

{133}{134}

[Illustration]
  A DRUSE FAMILY

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton,
  and used by her kind permission.

  The Druses are a remarkable people living on the mountains of
  Lebanon in the northern part of Palestine. For a thousand years they
  have been a separate people, preserving many of the customs and
  manners of living of Bible times. This makes them a very interesting
  people to us. Most of them are well to do, but there is occasionally
  a poor family like the one shown in our picture. You will notice the
  cow shed at the front door, and the family dog, but can you see the
  donkey? What looks like a great brush heap in the middle of the
  picture is really a little donkey loaded with brush! If you look
  sharply you may see his little feet. At the left of the picture, on
  the hilltop, are the ruins of an old castle built by the Crusaders.
[End illustration]

{135}

And it came to pass at that time, when Eli was laid down in his place,
and his eyes began to wax dim, that he could not see; and ere the lamp
of God went out in the temple of the Lord, where the ark of God was,
and Samuel was laid down to sleep; that the Lord called Samuel; and he
answered:--

"Here am I."

And he ran unto Eli and said, "Here am I; for thou calledst me."

And he said, "I called not; lie down again."

And he went and lay down.

And the Lord called yet again, "Samuel."

And Samuel arose and went to Eli, and said, "Here am I; for thou didst
call me."

And he answered, "I called not, my son; lie down again."

Now Samuel did not yet know the Lord, neither was the word of the Lord
yet revealed unto him. And the Lord called Samuel again the third time.
And he arose and went to Eli, and said, "Here am I; for thou didst call
me." And Eli perceived that the Lord had called the child. Therefore Eli
said unto Samuel:--

{136}

"Go, lie down: and it shall be if he call thee, that thou shalt say,
'Speak, Lord, for thy servant heareth.'"

So Samuel went and lay down in his place.

And the Lord came, and stood, and called as at other times, "Samuel,
Samuel."

Then Samuel answered, "Speak, for thy servant heareth."

{137}{138}

[Illustration]
  BETHLEHEM

  This is a picture of the village as seen close at hand, the Church
  of the Nativity in the foreground.

  "Seated on the summit level of the hill country of Judah, with deep
  gorges descending east to the Dead Sea, and west to the plains of
  Philistia, the shepherds of Bethlehem had to contend not only with
  bears and lions, but also with human enemies, the Philistines on the
  west, and Arab robbers on the east. They would therefore from
  childhood be accustomed to bear fatigue, hunger, heat and cold,
  both by night and by day, and also to brave every kind of danger
  and fight with every kind of antagonist. Thus the youthful David
  learned to sling stones when he led his father's flocks over the
  hills, and thus was he prepared to conquer Goliath; and so, too, by
  defending his charge against lions and bears, he learned to face
  lion-like men in war and conquer them."--"_The Land and the Book_"
[End illustration]

{139}

STORIES OF DAVID

THE SHEPHERD BOY WHO KILLED A GIANT

  Cubit.
    A measure used in Bible lands, thought to be about nineteen
    inches. The span was another measure, about half a cubit.
    According to this, the height of Goliath was about ten feet. A
    very tall giant indeed!

  Greaves
    Armor for the legs.

  Target
    A round shield.

  Weaver's Beam
    The heavy round piece of wood used in old looms.


Once upon a time there lived in the little village of Bethlehem among
the hills of Judea, a shepherd lad whose name was David. Every day he
led his flock of sheep to the greenest pasture and then watered them
at the still pools of water.

This work was very pleasant when the weather was fair and warm, but
sometimes it grows very cold in the hill country of Judea. The wind
blows and the ground is covered with snow. Sometimes the shepherd is
forced to stay out all night with his flock. Sometimes a lamb  {140}
is lost, and the shepherd has to search all night in the darkness,
along dangerous paths in the hills. Sometimes wild beasts attack the
flock and the shepherd must beat them off. Sometimes the wild people
of the East try to carry off the sheep, and the shepherd is in danger
of his life.

But this hard work and constant danger made David a strong, brave boy.
He grew very skillful with the sling, which was a weapon much used
in those days. With it even a boy could throw a stone very hard and
far. Once when he was keeping the flock, a bear came to steal a lamb,
and, at another time, a mountain lion, and David killed them both.

While David was still no more than a big boy, war broke out between
his country and the Philistines. These people lived in the lower
country to the west of Judea, and the two nations were very often at
war. This time the two armies camped on opposite sides of a narrow
valley.

The Philistines had a giant in their army, who used to come out every
day and challenge anyone in the army of the Israelites to fight. This
is how the giant is described:--

{141}{142}

[Illustration]
  WATER WORKS IN OLD PHILISTIA

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton,
  and used by her kind permission.

  This unusual picture was taken at the village of Yebnah, between.
  Jaffa and Ashdod, in the country of old Philistia. The camel is
  harnessed to a pole, and, walking in a circle, turns the clumsy
  machinery which lifts the water from the well.
[End illustration]

{143}

"And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines,
named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. And he
had a helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of
mail, and he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass
between his shoulders, and the staff of his spear was like a weaver's
beam, and a servant bearing a shield went before him."

Every day this great giant came out before the army and shouted out
his challenge. "Choose you a man for you," he cried, "and let him come
to me. If he be able to fight with me and kill me, then will we be
your servants: but if I prevail against him and kill him, then shall
ye be our servants and serve us."

What a terrible sight he must have been with the sun shining on his
bright brass armor, and his great roaring voice, which echoed among
the hills! It is no wonder that the whole army of the Israelites was
afraid, and that no champion was brave enough to come out to meet him.


All this time David was at home taking care of the sheep. He had three
older brothers who were away with the army, but David was thought too
young to be a soldier. It must have  {144} been very hard for such a
brave boy to stay at home, but he was a good boy as well as a brave
one, and he patiently did his work.

One day David's mother had made some very nice bread, and some cheese,
and she remembered that the boys in camp would have very poor food. So
David's father said he might go up to camp and take some roasted corn
and the bread to his brothers, and he sent, too, ten cheeses to the
captain of the boys' company.

David was delighted to go. He came quickly to the camp, and, leaving
his bread, and corn, and cheese with a servant in the rear, went right
up to the front where the line of battle was intrenched. He was just
in time to see Goliath come out and shout his challenge. Just then
David's oldest brother caught sight of him, and thought he had run
away from home to see the battle.

"What are you doing here, David?" he shouted angrily. "Why have you
left that little flock of sheep to be eaten up by wild beasts in the
pastures? You are a naughty boy, and you have just come here to see
the battle."

David replied, "What have I done now? Isn't there a good reason why I
have come?"

{145}{146}

[Illustration]
  AN EASTERN SHEPHERD AND HIS SHEEP

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton, and used by
  her kind permission.

  This is an exceptionally fine picture of a flock of sheep and their
  shepherd as they appear in the country of the Bible. This picture
  was taken in the springtime on the beautiful plain of Sharon which
  borders the seacoast from Joppa to Mt. Carmel. The prophet Isaiah
  says, "Sharon shall be a pasturage for flocks." The picture shows
  how the whole plain is carpeted with bright colored flowers.
[End illustration]

{147}

And there was good reason, when no one in all the army was brave
enough to fight Goliath.

David went to king Saul, who was the general of the army, and offered
to fight the giant. The king was very much surprised, and told him he
was only a boy, while the giant had been a soldier for many years.

But David told Saul how he had killed the lion and the bear, and said
that the God who helped him in his fight with these wild beasts would
help him in his fight with the giant.

Then Saul allowed him to try, and offered him a suit of armor. David
tried it on, but it was not what the shepherd boy had been used to
wear, so he would not take it.

He went down to the brook and picked out five smooth, round stones,
just right for his sling. Then, with his shepherd's staff and bag and
his sling, he went out of the lines of the army to meet the giant.

When the great giant saw the shepherd lad, he laughed, and then he
grew very angry.

"Am I a dog," he said, "that you come to fight me with a shepherd's
stick? Come to me, and I will give thy flesh to the fowls of the air
and to the beasts of the field."

{148}

Then little David answered, "Thou comest to me with a sword, and with
a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the Lord
of Hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied."

Then Goliath marched forward in all his brass armor to kill David; and
David ran, too, straight toward the giant. When he was at the right
distance he put a stone into his sling and took good aim. Away went
the stone and struck the giant right in the middle of the forehead!
Down he fell on his face with a crash.

Then David marched up and drew the giant's great sword out of its
sheath and cut off his head.

What a shout arose from the army of Israel when they saw that the
great giant whom they so much feared, was dead! And this is the way a
brave boy killed a great boastful giant, with all his bragging words
and his brass armor.

{149}{150}

[Illustration]
  THE "TOMB OF RACHEL" WITH BETHLEHEM IN THE DISTANCE

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Fontaine Meriwether,
  and used by her kind permission.

  This picture is chiefly interesting for the beautiful view it gives
  of Bethlehem, lying white against the hillside in the distance.
[End illustration]

{151}

DAVID AND KING SAUL

After David had killed the giant Goliath, King Saul would not let him
go back to his father's house at Bethlehem, but made him stay at the
court, and gave him a high command in the army. King Saul was not
well. He had a disease of the mind which made him at times almost, if
not quite, insane. At such times he was very sad and gloomy. David
could play very sweetly on the harp. When the king felt this trouble
in his mind, he would send for David, who would play on the harp and
the playing would soothe and calm the king so that he would be himself
again.

David was a poet; he not only played upon the harp but he wrote some
of the beautiful songs or psalms which he sang. In some of these songs
he told about the love of God, who cares for his children as the
shepherd cares for his flock.

The poet Browning wrote a beautiful poem about Saul and David and how
the skillful playing of the shepherd had helped the king. Here  {152}
is a stanza of the poem. David is supposed to be telling someone about
his playing to the king.

  "Then I tuned my harp,--took off the lilies
    we twine round its chords
  Lest they snap 'neath the stress of the noontide
    --those sunbeams like swords!
  And I first played the tune all our sheep know,
    as, one after one,
  So docile they come to the pen-door
    till folding be done.
  They are white and untorn by the bushes,
    for lo, they have fed
  Where the long grasses stifle the water
    within the stream's bed;
  And now one after one seeks its lodging,
    as star follows star
  Into eve and the blue far above us,
    --so blue and so far!"

But in spite of David's playing the king's health grew worse. He
became very jealous of David. David was young and strong and handsome,
and a favorite with everyone. Saul at last came to hate him. Once he
threw his spear at David, but missed his aim and David escaped. David
was afraid that the king would kill him, so he gathered a few bold men
about him, and became an outlaw. Day after day Saul and his soldiers
pursued David but he always managed to escape, hiding in caves by day
and marching by night.

{153}{154}

[Illustration]
  THE CONVENT OF MAR-SARBA IN THE WILDERNESS OF JUDEA

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  It was in this wild and desolate country on the eastern edge of
  Palestine that David hid in caves and ravines when pursued by his
  enemy, King Saul.
[End illustration]

{155}

More than once David had Saul in his power and might have put him to
death, but he was too brave and generous to take advantage of his
weakness, and besides he felt that it was wrong to harm the nation's
king. One night Saul and his soldiers had encamped near the place
where David and his men were hiding. The night was dark. All the
sentries were asleep. Quietly, David and one of his men stole into the
camp, and came to the spot where Saul lay asleep with his spear stuck
in the ground beside his head. The soldier wanted David to kill his
enemy, but he would not do it. He took Saul's spear and the water skin
which was beside him and crept safely past the sentries and out of the
camp again.

When he had gone to a safe distance, he stood on a hill and shouted
and awakened the men in the camp, and told them to look for the spear
and the water skin. So they knew that David had truly been in the camp
and had spared the king's life.

{156}

DAVID AND JONATHAN

While David was living at the king's court his dearest friend was
Jonathan, Saul's son. These two young men loved each other as soon as
they met, which was after David had killed the giant. They went
everywhere together. They hunted and played their games together. They
were like two brothers. Jonathan was never jealous of David. He wanted
him to be liked by others. He gave him the best that he had himself.
He was a very kind hearted and generous young man. It made him very
sad because his father was so cruel to David. He could not believe
that his father really wished to kill his friend.

At last David did not dare to come to the king's court nor to take his
place at the king's table. Still Jonathan did not believe that his
father really meant to do harm to his friend. To test the king they
planned to leave David in a hiding place in the field while Jonathan
went home to see his father. When David did not take his place at the
table, the king grew very gloomy. "Where is David?" he said.

{157}{158}

[Illustration]
  WINNOWING IN THE LANDS OF THE BIBLE

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton,
  and used by her kind permission.

  In the East, after the grain is threshed out by the trampling of
  cattle or by driving over it with sledges, it is tossed up in the
  air by a kind of fork. The wind blows the light chaff away, while
  the heavier grain falls in a heap. This explains many of the
  allusions in the Bible.
[End illustration]

{159}

"He asked permission to run home to Bethlehem to offer the sacrifice
with his family," replied Jonathan.

At that the king grew furious in his rage. He told his son that David
wanted to steal the kingdom away from him (for Jonathan was the oldest
son and would be king when Saul died).

Saul was so angry that he even threw his spear at his own son, and so
Jonathan knew that his father had determined to kill his friend.

David was hiding behind a great rock in the field, and, according to a
plan they had made beforehand, Jonathan came out the next day with his
bow and arrows and pretended to shoot at a mark. He had a little boy
with him to run for the arrows.

The plan was this: If Jonathan said to the boy, "The arrows are on
this side of you," David would know that all was safe. But if he said,
"The arrows are beyond you," he would know that he was in great
danger.

Jonathan came and shot his arrows, and cried, "The arrows are beyond
you."

So David knew that the king intended to kill him. They waited until
the boy had gone and then David came out, and Jonathan told {160} him
how sorry he was that the friend he loved so much must go away. In
many other ways Jonathan showed his great love for his friend.

At last both Saul and Jonathan were killed in a great battle with the
Philistines. Then David mourned deeply for Jonathan and he made a song
of mourning about their friendship. This is a part of it:--

  "Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives,
  And in their death they were not divided;
  They were swifter than eagles,
  They were stronger than lions.
  How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle!
  O Jonathan, thou wast slain in thine high places!
  I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan:
  Very pleasant hast thou been to me,
  Thy love was wonderful,
  Passing the love of women.
  How are the mighty fallen,
  And the weapons of war perished!"

{161}{162}

[Illustration]
  WINNOWING OF GRAIN AFTER THRESHING IN EGYPT

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  After the grain was threshed it was winnowed. The mixture of grain,
  chaff, and broken straw was turned over and shaken with a wooden
  fork. It was thrown high in the air so that the wind might carry
  away the chaff. This work was often carried on at night to take
  advantage of the night wind, which was usually stronger than during
  the day. After the first process another was carried on by the
  "fan," a kind of shovel by which there was a still further
  separation of impurities. The final cleansing was accomplished by a
  sieve. The chaff was burned or blown away by the wind. In the
  picture the blurred appearance is the chaff which has just been
  tossed up and is being blown away.
[End illustration]

{163}

DAVID AND HIS THREE BRAVE SOLDIERS

Once when David was fighting against the Philistines the little town
of Beth-lehem was in the hands of the enemy. David had a great longing
for a drink of the cool water of the well which was near the gate of
the town. It seemed to him that he would be perfectly happy if he
could taste that water which he used to enjoy so much when he was a
boy. He wanted it so much that he spoke out loud and said, "Oh, that
one would give me a drink of the water of the well of Beth-lehem which
is near the gate!"

Some of his men overheard him as he said this to himself, and three of
his brave soldiers left the cave where they were hiding, and broke
through the enemy's lines and brought back a drink of the water to
David. But when David saw them all bleeding from the wounds which they
had received, he would not drink the water which they brought, because
it had cost so much in the blood of his men.

{164}

So he poured it out upon the ground as an offering to God of something
very sacred and precious, and as a way of showing his friends that he
prized their love more than the water for which he longed.

{165}{166}

[Illustration]
  HEBRON

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  It was here that perhaps the oldest city in Palestine was built. The
  picture shows the character of the country, the hills and valleys
  with the towns showing white on the hillsides or nestling in the
  valleys.
[End illustration]

{167}

DAVID AND HIS SON ABSALOM

After Saul and Jonathan had been killed in battle David became king.
He did many brave and wise things and some foolish and evil things.
For the wrong deeds he was punished by great sorrows.

He had a favorite son named Absalom. Absalom grew up to be a very bad
boy. No doubt David was foolish in his affection and did not train the
boy as he should.

He grew so bad at last that he gathered an army and rebelled against
the king. At first he was successful and actually drove his father out
of Jerusalem.

But David's army rallied and defeated Absalom and his bad friends in a
great battle.

When Absalom knew that his army was defeated he tried to escape by
riding away on the back of a swift mule. But as he passed under a
great oak in the dark forest where the battle was fought, his long
hair was caught in the low hanging branches: Here he hung helplessly
until the soldiers of David came up and killed him.

{169}

David was very sorrowful while the battle was being fought, because he
loved the boy so much. He sat at the gate of the city and watched and
waited. Suddenly the watchman on the tower called out that he saw a
man running, and in a few moments he said that he saw another.

In the lands of the Bible, messengers, swift of foot and trained in
running, always brought the news to the city as quickly as they could
run.

When the first messenger came the king said quickly, "Is the young man
Absalom safe?"

"I saw a great tumult when I left the battle field," said the runner,
"but I knew not what it meant."

"Stand aside here," said the king.

Then came the second man and he called out, "Tidings, my lord the
king!"

"Is my boy Absalom safe?" again cried the king.

Then the messenger replied, "The enemies of my lord the king, and all
that rise up against thee to do thee hurt, be as that young man is."

{169}

The king knew that this meant that the boy he loved so much was dead.

And the king was deeply moved, and went up to the chamber over the
gate, and wept, and as he went there he said, "O my son Absalom, my
son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee. O Absalom, my son,
my son!"

{170}

THE STORY OF A GOOD KING

When King David died, Solomon his son became king. He was the wisest
and best king the people ever had. He is often called "the wise king."
One night soon after he became king he had a dream. In his dream he
seemed to see the Lord, who said, "Ask what I shall give thee."

Instead of asking for great riches or honor or power, Solomon asked
for wisdom.

He said, "I am but a little child; I know not how to go out or come
in. Give therefore thy servant an understanding heart."

And the Lord replied, "Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast
not asked for thyself long life, neither hast asked riches for
thyself, nor hast asked for the life of thine enemies, but hast asked
for thyself understanding, behold, I have done according to thy word;
I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart, and I have given
thee that which thou hast not asked, both riches and honor, so that
there shall not be any among the kings like thee all thy days."

{171}{172}

[Illustration]
  CHILDREN AT CANA

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Fontaine Meriwether and used by her
  kind permission.
[End illustration]

{173}

Then Solomon awoke and knew it was a dream, but in after years the
dream came true, and Solomon became the wisest and richest king in the
world.

Every year his ships sailed away and brought many rare and costly
things from the East. They brought gold, and silver, and precious
stones, and ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

At one time Solomon had a visit from the Queen of Sheba, who had heard
of his great wisdom and wished very much to see him. She came with a
great many servants riding upon camels, and she brought him as
presents, gold, and precious stones, and spices.

Many kings came also to see him and they brought as presents, gold,
and silver, and costly cloths, and spices, and horses, and mules with
their harnesses.

Solomon's greatest wish was to build a beautiful house in which to
worship God. So he sent to King Hiram, who lived in the north country
where the great cedars of Lebanon grew, and Hiram sent his woodcutters
into the forest and they cut down the great cedars {174} and squared
the logs into beams. Then the lumber was taken to the coast and
floated on rafts in the sea along the shore and then brought over the
land to Jerusalem.

There were also men working in the stone quarries hewing out the great
stones for the foundation, and skillful workmen making the golden
ornaments and the beautiful carving.

So carefully were the stones and timbers cut and marked that they were
all put together without the sound of hammer or axe. This beautiful
building was the first temple which the Israelites built and it has
always been called "Solomon's Temple."

{175}{176}
[Illustration]
  CAMEL MERCHANTS

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton, and used by
  her kind permission.

  These men are on the way from Palestine to sell their camels in
  Egypt. Every year great herds of camels are still brought from the
  East to sell for the carrying of merchandise in caravans, just as
  they were used in the days of the Bible.
[End illustration]

{177}

JOSEPH AND HIS BRETHREN

  Vesture
    Clothing.

  Famine
    A time when the crops fail and there is no food,
    and people often starve.

  Hostage
    One who is held by an enemy to be sure that promises are kept.

  Myrrh and balm
    Precious gums very much used in the East.


There was once a boy whose father loved him very much indeed. The
boy's name was Joseph. His father's name was Jacob. The father gave
the boy a coat of many colors. It was a very fine coat and he was very
proud of it. He had eleven brothers, and they hated him because he was
his father's favorite. He had a dream in which he saw the sun and the
moon and eleven stars bowing down before him. This made the brothers
hate him still more, and even his father was none too well pleased.

One day the brothers were taking care of the sheep in a distant
pasture, and Jacob sent Joseph to see how the boys were getting along.


The shepherd boys saw him while he was still a long way off, and they
said, "Here comes {178} the dreamer. Let us kill him and put him into
some pit, and say to father, 'Some wild beast has killed him,' and
then see what will become of his dreams!" They were very bad boys
indeed.

They all agreed but Reuben, who was the only one who had any pity for
Joseph. He really wanted to save his brother, but in order to deceive
the others he said, "Do not kill him, but put him alive into some pit,
in an out-off the-way place." He said this hoping to come back and
rescue Joseph when the others had gone.

They finally consented; so, when Joseph came up, they took off his
coat of many colors and put him into a pit. Probably they did not
handle him at all gently!

Then Reuben went away and the others calmly sat down to eat their
dinner. While they were eating, they looked up and saw a long caravan
with camels loaded with spices and balm and myrrh going from the East
down to Egypt.

Then an idea came to Judah, one of the brothers. "Let us sell Joseph,"
he said, "so we shall get rid of him and no guilt of his blood will be
on our hands."

{179}{180}

[Illustration]
  ONE OF THE PYRAMIDS

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  Another one of the great pyramids which rise above the level
  country of Egypt, monuments to the departed greatness of her rulers.
  Recent explorations show that the civilization of Egypt goes back
  more than four thousand years before the time of Christ.
[End illustration]

{181}

They drew Joseph, who must have been well frightened by this time, out
of the pit, and sold him to the traders for twenty pieces of silver.

When Reuben came back he was very much distressed, but he did not dare
to tell his father the truth. They agreed to dip Joseph's coat of many
colors in blood and say that a wild beast had eaten him. Then they
went home and pretended to be very sorry and told their poor old
father this lie which they had made up. The father believed it because
they showed him the coat of many colors which they had dipped in
blood. Jacob was very sad and mourned a long time for his boy.

The traders carried Joseph to Egypt and sold him as a slave. He was
treated badly and at last put into prison. While he was there the
Pharaoh, the king of the country, had a dream. He dreamed that he saw
seven fat oxen come up out of a river and feed in a meadow. Then seven
lean and hungry oxen came out of the river and ate up the fat oxen.
Then he saw seven fine full ears of corn on one stalk, but there grew
also seven poor thin ears, which destroyed the good ears.

No one could tell the king what his dream {182} meant, until he heard
that Joseph, who was in prison, was able to tell the meaning of
dreams. So he called Joseph, who was very glad to come out of the dark
prison. Joseph told the king at once what his dream meant. He said
that there would be seven years of plenty in Egypt, when there would
be great crops of grain. Then would come seven years of famine, when
no crops would grow. Joseph advised the king to build great store
houses and to store up the grain during the years of plenty, so that
the people might not starve during the years of famine.

Pharaoh was much pleased because Joseph told him the meaning of the
dream, and at once appointed him as the man to gather the grain during
the years of plenty.

And Pharaoh said to Joseph, "See, I have set thee over all the land of
Egypt."

And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's
hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain
about his neck; and he made him to ride in the second chariot which he
had, and they cried before him, "Bow the knee!" and he made him ruler
over all the land of Egypt.

{183}{184}

[Illustration]
  TEMPLE AT THEBES

  From an old photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  This is another of the great Egyptian temples, built thousands of
  years ago, with the massive columns still standing.
[End illustration]

{185}

And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, "I am Pharaoh, and without thy consent
no man shall lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt." So
the shepherd boy, who had been sold as a slave in Egypt, became next
to Pharaoh the chief man in all the country!

During the next seven years, there never had been such harvests, and
Joseph went about gathering up the great loads of grain into all the
storehouses.

Then came the terrible famine. No grain grew in the fields. But Joseph
was ready. The people came to him and bought grain to keep them from
starving.

All this time Joseph's father thought he was dead and he never ceased
to mourn for his boy. By and by the famine reached the land where
Joseph's father lived and he sent his sons down to Egypt to buy food,
but of course they did not know that the ruler of Egypt was Joseph.

Ten of Jacob's sons, each with his donkey, went to Egypt, but the
youngest boy, Benjamin, Jacob kept at home.

When they came to the palace where Joseph lived, he knew at once that
they were his {186} brothers, but they did not know him. At first
Joseph treated them roughly. He said they were spies. But they told
him they were all brothers who lived in the land of Canaan and their
youngest brother and their father they had left at home. Joseph still
seemed to be very angry and put them in prison for three days.

Then he let them out and told them to go home, all but Simeon, whom he
would keep as a hostage, and bring back their youngest brother, and
then he would believe that they spoke the truth.

They started back, each with his donkey loaded with grain. When they
stopped at an inn they found that the money which they had paid for
the grain was in the top of each sack.

They reached home at last and told their father all that had happened.
The story made the old man very sad. He would not let them go back to
Egypt. He said that he had lost two sons, Joseph and Simeon, and he
could not let Benjamin, whom he loved next to Joseph, go with them.


{187}{188}

[Illustration]
  AN EASTERN HOUSE

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton, and used by
  her kind permission.

  This house is made of mud--that is, sun-dried clay, with a roof of
  thatch, and shows how houses were made and looked in Bible times.
  The children of the village have come to have their eyes treated by
  the doctor. Many of the children in the hot countries of the East
  have trouble with their eyes, and blindness. The little village of
  mud houses where this was taken is on the site of the ancient
  Ashdod, one of the five powerful cities of the Philistines.
[End illustration]

{189}

But the famine kept on. They had nothing to eat and at last Jacob was
forced to let them go. They promised to take the best of care of
Benjamin and started on their journey.

When they reached Egypt Joseph was more kind. He asked them how they
were and said, "Is your father well, the old man of whom ye spoke? Is
he yet alive?"

And they answered, "Thy servant, our father, is yet alive. He is in
good health."

Then he saw Benjamin and said, "Is this your younger brother of whom
ye spoke unto me?"

And he said, "God be gracious unto thee, my son."

He gave them a feast, and told them to go home, but as soon as they
were gone he sent an officer after them. The officer caught up with
them and opened the bags of grain, and there was Joseph's own golden
cup in the mouth of Benjamin's sack!

They were wild with fear. They said that their poor old father would
die if anything happened to Benjamin. But the stern officer took them
back to Joseph.

Then Joseph told them who he was, and forgave them for the evil they
had once done him.

{190}

He said to them, "Go home and say to Jacob, 'Thus saith thy son
Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt; come down unto me, tarry
not; and thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be
near unto me, thou and thy children's children, and thy flocks and thy
herds, and all that thou hast.' And ye shall tell my father of all my
glory in Egypt and of all that ye have seen, and ye shall haste and
bring down my father hither."

The brothers went home and the old man Jacob and all his family came
to Egypt to live. So Jacob saw Joseph again before he died.

And Joseph ruled wisely and well over Egypt all the days of his life.

{191}{192}

[Illustration]
  THE GREAT STATUES OF MEMNON

  From a photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library, and used by kind permission.

  These great statues, carved out of the solid rock, were erected to
  the honor of two of the Pharaohs of Egypt. You may realize something
  of the immense size of these monuments by noticing how small the
  camel standing at the base seems in comparison.
[End illustration]

{193}

THE BOY WHO WAS RAISED FROM THE DEAD

Once upon a time there was a widow who lived, with her only son, in a
city in the land of the Bible. She was very poor, and one year she
found herself still poorer. Everybody was poor that year, for there
was a famine in the land. How thin and hungry some of the children
became! How glad they were to get even poor food! How carefully the
poor widow watched her barrel of flour and her jar, or cruse, of oil,
with which the flour was mixed for baking! How hard she worked to get
more! At last she had only a little flour and a little oil left. She
was almost starving. There was just enough left to make one more cake
for herself and her boy, and after that was gone she did not know what
they would do. Perhaps they must die. She went out to gather some
sticks for a fire. While she was gathering them, a man came by. He was
a prophet, named Elijah, but she did not know him. He called to {194}
her, and said, "Fetch me, I pray thee, a little water in a vessel,
that I may drink."

And as she was going to fetch it, he called to her, and said, "Bring
me, I pray thee, a morsel of bread in thine hand."

And she said, "As the Lord thy God liveth, I have not a cake, but an
handful of meal in a barrel, and a little oil in a cruse: and, behold,
I am gathering two sticks, that I may go in and dress it for me and my
son, that we may eat it, and die."

And Elijah said to her, "Fear not; go and do as thou hast said: but
make me thereof a little cake first, and bring it to me, and after
make for thee and for thy son.

"For thus saith the Lord God of Israel, 'The barrel of meal shall not
waste, neither shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day that the
Lord sendeth rain upon the earth.'"

And she went and did according to the saying of Elijah: and she, and
he, and her house, did eat many days.

And the barrel of meal wasted not, neither did the cruse of oil fail,
according to the word of the Lord, which he spoke by Elijah.

{195}{196}

[Illustration]
  ON THE ROAD NEAR TIBERIAS,
  WITH THE LAKE OF GALILEE IN THE DISTANCE

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Fontaine Meriwether, and used by her
  kind permission.

  This interesting picture, with laden camel and group of native
  people, shows very well the nature of the country about the lake of
  Galilee, the hill rising above the lake and the village nestling on
  its shore. In the distance can be seen the waters of the lake and
  the shadowy hills upon the farther shore. It is thus that the
  country must have looked in the old days when it was the center of
  so much active life.
[End illustration]

{197}

And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the woman, the
mistress of the house, fell sick; and his sickness was so sore, that
there was no breath left in him.

And she said to Elijah, "What have I to do with thee, O thou man of
God? art thou come unto me to call my sin to remembrance, and to slay
my son?"

And he said to her, "Give me thy son."

And he took him out of her bosom, and carried him up into a loft,
where he abode, and laid him upon his own bed.

And he cried to the Lord; and said, "O Lord my God, hast thou also
brought evil upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son?"

And he stretched himself upon the child three times, and cried to the
Lord, and said, "O Lord my God, I pray thee, let this child's soul
come into him again."

And the Lord heard the voice of Elijah; and the soul of the child came
into him again, and he revived.

And Elijah took the child, and brought him down out of the chamber
into the house, and delivered him to his mother: and Elijah said,
"See, thy son liveth!"

{198}

And the woman said to Elijah, "Now by this I know that thou art a man
of God, and that the word of the Lord in thy mouth is truth."

{199}{200}

[Illustration]
  GOING TO THE DOCTOR

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton, and used by
  her kind permission.

  These poor women of the East have brought their poor little sick
  children on the patient old donkey to the doctor. As the custom is
  in the East, the faces of the women are covered by veils. This is
  the way the Eastern mothers used to bring their sick little children
  to Jesus in the old days.
[End illustration]

{201}

THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN

The people of the Bible land had lost their kingdom before the time of
Christ. They had no king of their own, but governors came from Rome, a
city hundreds of miles away, and ruled them. But the people hoped that
this would not last. They wanted a kingdom of their own. They believed
God would give it to them some day. They prayed that it might come.
When Jesus began to teach and hear people, they thought perhaps he
would be a king to bring this kingdom that God would give them. But
Jesus had something better than a great kingdom on earth. He tried to
make them understand what it was. He called it the kingdom of heaven.
By that he meant the rule of God in the world.

God's rule is not in a great palace, with soldiers and a throne and
great splendor. It is in the heart, and grows up very quietly, like
the plants in the field. Jesus once told a story to show this. It was
the story of

THE MUSTARD SEED

"The kingdom of heaven is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man
took, and sowed in his field.

{202}

"Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is
the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of
the air come and lodge in the branches thereof."

So the kingdom of heaven grows very quietly. But it is very precious,
even if it is hidden away so closely. One might better let anything
else go than that.

Again, he told them, the kingdom of heaven is like to a net, that was
cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind.

Again, the kingdom is like to a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls.

How proud a man is to be a citizen of a great country! In this country
we are proud to be Americans. Do you suppose you could be a citizen of
the kingdom of God? Yes. Jesus said once that children and people who
were like children belong to this kingdom.

"Suffer the little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for
of such is the kingdom of heaven."

{203}{204}

[Illustration]
  LOADING CAMELS AT JERUSALEM

  From a photograph taken by Prof. D. G. Lyon, and used by his kind
  permission.

  In the East much of the commerce is still carried on by means of
  caravans of camels; sometimes there are several thousand camels in
  one of these great caravans conveying all kinds of merchandise from
  one point to another. The camel will carry a very heavy load, but
  it utters piteous cries of complaint when it thinks the load is too
  heavy.
[End illustration]

{205}

THE LITTLE CAPTIVE MAID

  Leprosy.
    A very dreaded disease.

  Leper.
    One who has leprosy.

  Rent his clothes.
    To show great sorrow or trouble.

  Chariot.
    A small wagon with two wheels, used in war.

  Flesh shall come again.
    In leprosy the flesh dries up, and the person becomes very thin.


In the old times war was very cruel. Houses were burned and men and
women killed, and very often the little children were taken far away
and sold for slaves. Sometimes they never came back to their homes or
friends again.

There had been war between the people in Israel and the people who
lived in a country called Syria, which lay to the north of Israel. In
this war a little girl had been taken away, and sold as a slave. She
was bought by a great general named Naaman, who took her home, and she
waited on Naaman's wife. Naaman and his wife must have been kind to
the little slave girl, for when he was sick she wished that he could
be made well.

{206}

Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Syria, was a great man
with his master, and honorable, because by him the Lord had given
deliverance to Syria: he was also a mighty man of valor, but he was a
leper. And the little maid said to her mistress, "Would God my lord
were with the prophet that is in Samaria! for he would heal him of his
leprosy." And one went in, and told his lord, saying, "Thus and thus
said the maid that is of the land of Israel." And the king of Syria
said, "I will send a letter unto the king of Israel."

And he departed, and took with him a large present of money and fine
clothes.

And he brought the letter to the king of Israel, saying, "Now when
this letter is come unto thee, behold, I have therewith sent Naaman my
servant to thee, that thou mayest heal him of his leprosy."

And it came to pass, when the king of Israel had read the letter, that
he rent his clothes, and said, "Am I God, to kill and to make alive,
that this man doth send unto me to heal a man of his leprosy?
wherefore consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh a quarrel
against me."

And it was so, when Elisha the man of God {207} had heard that the
king of Israel had rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, saying,
"Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? let him come now to me, and he
shall know that there is a prophet in Israel."

So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariot, and stood at the
door of the house of Elisha.

And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying, "Go and wash in Jordan
seven times, and thy flesh shall come again to thee, and thou shalt be
clean."

Then Naaman was angry, and turned to go away in a rage.

And his servants came near, and spoke unto him, and said, "My father,
if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not
have done it? how much rather then, when he saith to thee, 'Wash, and
be clean'?"

Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according
to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto
the flesh of a little child, and he was clean.


{208}

HOW THE PEOPLE TRAVELED IN THE LANDS OF THE BIBLE

Did they have railroads? Oh, no. Railroads were first built less than
a hundred years ago, and the Bible times were many hundreds of years
ago.

Then they must have traveled in wagons? Not often.

There were few roads, and wagons were not very common.

Then they went on horseback? Sometimes, but not often. In the earliest
Bible times horses were only used in war, and only the kings of great
countries kept a few, for their most honored soldiers to ride on.

How did they travel, then? Very often they rode on the backs of
donkeys and asses. These are smaller than horses, but can go almost as
fast. Do you remember how Jesus rode into Jerusalem on an ass, with
the children shouting and waving palm branches before him? For short
journeys, or in the land of Palestine itself, the ass was the animal
most used.

But on many sides of the land of Palestine the roads that go out pass
over country that is more and more bare, until finally the green grass
is seen no more and only here and there is a small tree, and there are
no flocks of white sheep, for there is nothing on which they can feed,
and it is a long way, sometimes a whole day's journey, from one spring
of water to another. Nothing but yellow sand and bare rocks!

{209}{210}

[Illustration]
  SHEPHERD BOY ON THE HILLS NEAR BETHLEHEM

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  This attractive picture of the shepherd lad shows that the work of
  the shepherd still goes on in Judea as it did in the days of the
  shepherd boy, David. A writer gives this picture of the shepherd
  life at the present day: "Sometimes we enjoyed our noonday rest
  beside one of those Judean wells, to which two or three shepherds
  come down with their flocks. The flocks mixed with each other, and
  we wondered how each shepherd would get his own again. But after the
  watering and the playing were over, the shepherds one by one went up
  different sides of the valley, and each called out his peculiar
  call; and the sheep of each drew out of the crowd, to their own
  shepherd, and the flocks passed away as orderly as they came. 'The
  Shepherd of the Sheep, . . . when he putteth forth his own sheep, he
  goeth before them, and the sheep follow him, for they know his
  voice. And a stranger will they not follow,' 'I am the Good
  Shepherd, and know my sheep and am known of mine.' These words our
  Lord spake in Judea."
[End illustration]

{211}

How the hot sun beats down in the summer! How dry all the ground
looks! That is a desert. The little donkeys find it hard to travel on
the long, stony desert roads. They must carry water to drink, or they
would die of thirst. But if they carry water, they cannot carry much
else.

Did you ever see a camel? They have long legs and broad feet, that can
walk over the sand without sinking in. What long necks and queer
humped backs they have! They are not beautiful animals. I am sorry to
say that they are not very good tempered either, but are often very
cross and stubborn. Sometimes they reach out that long neck and try to
bite. Sometimes they refuse to go if they think they are loaded too
heavily. But often they are very patient. They carry heavy loads and
travel long distances. They can go a long time without drinking, where
a horse or an ass would die of thirst. They are made for a desert
country. Men call them "the ship of the desert." They were often used
for long journeys in Bible times, as they are still in the same
countries. Here is a story which tells how a servant of Abraham made a
long journey on camels, and how the camels were given drink at the
close of the journey.


"And the servant took ten camels of the camels of his master, and
departed; for all the goods of his master were in his hand: and he
arose, and went to Mesopotamia, to the city of {212} Nahor. And he
made his camels to kneel down without the city by a well of water at
the time of the evening, even the time that women go out to draw
water," and Rebekah, a niece of Abraham, "came out with her pitcher
upon her shoulder. And the maiden was very fair to look upon: and she
went down to the well, and filled her pitcher, and came up. And the
servant ran to meet her, and said, 'Let me, I pray thee, drink a
little water of thy pitcher.'

"And she said, 'Drink, my lord': and she hasted, and let down her
pitcher upon her hand, and gave him to drink.

"And when she had done giving him drink, she said, 'I will draw water
for thy camels also, until they have done drinking.'

"And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher into the trough, and ran
again unto the well to draw water, and drew for all his camels."

Then she went home and told of him, and her brother ran and came out
to the servant and said, "'Come in, thou blessed of the Lord;
wherefore standest thou without? for I have prepared the house, and
room for the camels.'

"And the man came into the house: and he ungirded his camels, and gave
straw and {213} provender for the camels, and water to wash his feet
and the men's feet that were with him. And there was set food before
him to eat."

A few days later Rebekah, with her servant, mounted the camels, too,
and went back with Abraham's servant, the long desert journey, to be
the wife of Abraham's son Isaac.

{214}

HOUSES IN THE LANDS OF THE BIBLE

The people in Bible lands did not have houses like those we live in
to-day. You would not like to live in their houses. They were low, and
small, and dark. Some were built of stone, but many were built of a
sun-dried brick. They had flat roofs, where the people often went and
where they slept in warm weather. A stair led up to the roof from the
outside. Those that were made of the sun-dried brick were not very
durable. Thieves could easily "break through and steal." The house
which the man "built upon the sand" crumbled into mud and was swept
away when "the winds blew and the floods came" and "great was the fall
of it."

Of course the king lived in a beautiful palace and rich people had
fine houses, but the houses of the poor people were only huts.

{215}{216}

[Illustration]
  CHILDREN OF NAZARETH

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Fontaine Meriwether.
  and used by her kind permission.
[End illustration]


{217}

CHILDREN IN THE LANDS OF THE BIBLE

The children of Bible lands were very well cared for. They were sent
to school. They were taught the Bible very carefully and every Sabbath
they went to church. The children were very busy. They learned early
to watch over the sheep, to work in the fields, to card and spin the
wool and weave the cloth. Every child was taught some special trade or
business. Still they had time to play and enjoyed their games as much
as you do.

Jesus was taught to be a carpenter like Joseph. Nazareth, where he
lived when he was a boy, is a small town in Galilee. There are
beautiful fields and hills about. When he climbed the hills he could
see, far away, the sea. He must have loved to pick the lovely lilies
which grew in the fields. All the little boys and girls must have
liked to play with Jesus, for he must have been always gentle and
kind.


{218}

JERUSALEM

The city that the Bible tells most about is Jerusalem. It is on a high
ridge of hills in the middle of the land. On one side of it is a deep
valley, and across the valley a hill called the Mount of Olives. On
that hill there was a village, Bethany, where some of Jesus' friends
lived. Deep valleys were on two other sides of the city.

Why did they build cities on the hilltops, and not in the valleys?
Because, in the old days when wars often took place, a city on a
hilltop could not be so easily taken. It was a safe place to live. To
make it still safer, a wall was built around it, very thick and high.
On the top there was a path, with a low wall outside, so that in war
armed men could go up and shoot from the wall. In the walls there were
great gates, that were shut at night and when there was a war.

In the city of Jerusalem was the palace of the Jewish kings, and the
temple. King Solomon built the first temple. It stood for over three
hundred and fifty years, then it was destroyed in a war. The city was
burned and the walls thrown down, and many of the people were killed.
After more than fifty years, another temple was built on the same
spot. It was later added to and made more beautiful. It was built of
white stone. A man who saw it wrote that it looked, when the sun shone
on it, like a mountain of snow.

{219}{220}

[Illustration]
  THE SISTINE MADONNA
  By Raphael (1483-1520)

  Raphael is generally considered the greatest of all painters, and
  the Sistine Madonna is the most famous Madonna in the world.

  "The Sistine Madonna is above all words of praise; all extravagance
  of expression is silenced before her simplicity. Not one false
  note, not one exaggerated emphasis, jars upon the harmony of body,
  soul, and spirit. Confident, but entirely unassuming; serious, but
  without sadness; joyous, but not to mirthfulness; eager, but without
  haste; she moves steadily forward with steps timed to the rhythmic
  music of the spheres."--_Estelle M. Hurll_
[End illustration]

{221}

This stood a long time, almost six hundred years, then in another war
it also was thrown down, and never has been built again. It was this
temple that was standing when Christ lived. He often taught in the
open spaces about it. When he was a boy of twelve he first visited it,
and the last days of his life he spent teaching in it. Jesus loved the
temple and Jerusalem very much. He was very sorry that it must be
destroyed. He said once, "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the
prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I
have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood
under her wings, and ye would not!"

A Jewish poet wrote a little poem about Jerusalem, to show how he
loved it. Here it is:--

  "I was glad when they said unto me,
  Let us go into the house of the Lord.

  "Our feet shall stand within thy gates, O Jerusalem.

  "Jerusalem is builded as a city that is compact together:

  "Whither the tribes go up, the tribes of the
  Lord, unto the testimony of Israel, to give
  thanks unto the name of the Lord.

  "Pray for the peace of Jerusalem:
  they shall prosper that love thee.        {222}

  "Peace be within thy walls,
  and prosperity within thy palaces.

  "For my brethren and companions' sakes,
  I will now say, Peace be within thee.

  "Because of the house of the Lord our God
  I will seek thy good."

Another poet who was living in a foreign land, wrote
another poem:--

  "By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat
  down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion.

  "We hung our harps upon the willows in
  the midst thereof.

  "For there they that carried us away captive
  required of us a song; and they that
  wasted us required of us mirth, saying,
  Sing us one of the songs of Zion.

  "How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land?

  "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,
  let my right hand forget her cunning.

  "If I do not remember thee, let my tongue
  cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer
  not Jerusalem above my chief joy."

{223}

When one Bible writer hoped for some great good in the future, and
wanted to make a very glorious picture, as splendid as he could, he
told of a city coming down from heaven, and called it the New
Jerusalem, because that city was dearer to him than any other place he
knew, and he said:--

  "AND I JOHN SAW THE HOLY CITY,
  NEW JERUSALEM,
  COMING DOWN FROM GOD OUT OF HEAVEN."

{224}

THE JORDAN

Up among the mountains in the North of the land of the Bible a little
stream flows down from a rocky valley. After wandering through
beautiful hills with many trees and vines, it comes into a wide valley
and passes through a little lake. Then it goes tumbling and roaring
down a narrow gorge with high rocks on each side.

After that it widens out into the beautiful lake of Gennesaret, or Sea
of Galilee. In the time of Jesus there were many towns about this lake
and many boats sailing over it.

After leaving this lake, the river flows through a valley, winding
from one side of it to the other. The valley grows deeper and deeper,
until at last to get into it one must go down, down long, steep hills
by winding roads, down narrow valleys where the rocks are piled high
above one. At last the river flows through a wide, sandy plain into
the Dead Sea.

The Jordan is the largest river of the Bible {225} land. The Hebrews
used to tell their little children that in the ancient time, when they
first came into the land, the Jordan stopped flowing so that their
fathers, with all their little children, and cattle and sheep, crossed
it on dry ground. Later King David crossed it, once when he found that
all his country had gone over to his enemies. A few weeks later he
came back, and many people went down to the river to welcome him. The
great general who had leprosy was sent to wash in the river, and he
was healed.

Jesus was baptized in the river. He often crossed it, and he lived and
taught on the banks of the Sea of Galilee, through which it flows.


{226}

THE DEAD SEA

The strangest lake in the world is the lake that is called the Dead
Sea. It is east of Canaan. The Jordan runs into it, but no river runs
out of it. It lies deep down between mountains. On one side the hills
rise so steep that one cannot climb them. On the other, there is only
here and there a place where a man on horseback can scramble down the
rocks into the valley.

Why is it called the Dead Sea? Because the water is so salt that no
fish live in it. It looks very clear and beautiful as it lies in the
sunshine, but no one can drink it, it is so salt. Sometimes people
bathe in it. It is so heavy that no one can sink. No towns were ever
on its shore. Not a single person lives near it. Few people have ever
sailed on its waters. The valley in which it lies is so deep that it
is much lower than the ocean. All these things make it the strangest
lake in the world.

{227}{228}

[Illustration]
  ON THE SHORES OF THE DEAD SEA

  From a photograph in the possession of Rev. Louis F. Giroux of the
  American International College, Springfield, Mass., and used by his
  kind permission.

  "The water is very nauseous to the taste and oily to the touch,
  leaving on the skin when it dries a thick crust of salt. But it is
  very brilliant. Seen from far away no lake on earth looks more blue
  and beautiful. Swim out upon it, and at a depth of twenty feet you
  can count the pebbles through the transparent water. It is difficult
  to sink the limbs deep enough to swim; if you throw a stick on the
  surface it seems to rest as on a mirror, so little of it actually
  penetrates the water. No fish or any living thing can exist in its
  waters."--_Smith_
[End illustration]

{229}

BETH-LEHEM

  Moab
    A country east of Palestine.

  Glean
    To follow after the reapers and pick up what they have left behind.


The "little town of Beth-lehem," as it lies among the hills of Judaea,
is one of the most famous places in all the world. But it is not
famous because of its wealth or its size, it is famous because of the
people who lived there. Beth-lehem means in the Hebrew language,
"House of Bread," and it was in the fields of Boaz about Beth-lehem
that the beautiful Ruth of Moab gleaned.

Then it was David's home. In the pastures beyond the town he used to
feed his father's flocks. Sometimes it has been called "the city of
David."

But what makes it more famous than all else is the fact that in
"Beth-lehem's manger" the little child Jesus was born, and over the
old town hung in the night the star of Beth-lehem. It was here that
the shepherds {230} who were keeping their flocks outside the town
came to see the newborn child, and it was here that the Wise Men came
to worship him and bring him gifts. It is true that Jesus did not stay
here long. The wicked King Herod wished to kill him, and Mary and
Joseph took him to Egypt. When they came back they lived in the town
of Nazareth. But all the world loves the little town of Beth-lehem
because it was Jesus' birthplace.

{231}

HYMNS FOR THE DAY

{232}

{233}

LORD OF ALL BEING

  Lord of all being; throned afar,
  Thy glory flames from sun and star;
  Center and soul of every sphere,
  Yet to each loving heart how near!

  Sun of our life, Thy quickening ray
  Sheds on our path the glow of day;
  Star of our hope, Thy softened light
  Cheers the long watches of the night.

  Our midnight is Thy smile withdrawn;
  Our noontide is Thy gracious dawn;
  Our rainbow arch Thy mercy's sign;
  All, save the clouds of sin, are Thine.

  Lord of all life, below, above,
  Whose light is truth, whose warmth is love,
  Before Thy ever-blazing throne
  We ask no luster of our own.

  Grant us Thy truth to make us free,
  And kindling hearts that burn for Thee,
  Till all Thy living altars claim
  One holy light, one heavenly flame.
                              --_Oliver Wendell Holmes_.

  By permission of Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

{234}

ON OUR WAY REJOICING

  On our way rejoicing,
    As we homeward move,
  Hearken to our praises,
    O Thou God of love.
  Is there grief or sadness?
    Thine it cannot be.
  Is our sky beclouded?
    Clouds are not from Thee.

  If with honest-hearted
    Love for God and man,
  Day by day Thou find us
    Doing what we can,
  Thou who giv'st the seedtime
    Wilt give large increase,
  Crown the head with blessings,
    Fill the heart with peace.

  On our way rejoicing
    Gladly let us go;
  Conquered hath our Leader;
    Vanquished is our foe.
  Christ without, our safety;
    Christ within, our joy;
  Who, if we be faithful,
    Can our hope destroy?
                         --_John Samuel Bewley Monsell_.

{235}{236}

[Illustration]
  JESUS BLESSING THE LITTLE CHILDREN
  By Bernard Plockhorst (1825- )

  GOING TO JESUS

  "The Master has come over Jordan."
    Said Hannah the mother one day;
  He is healing the people who throng Him
    With a touch of His finger, they say.

  "And now I shall carry the children,
    Little Rachel and Samuel and John;
  I shall carry the baby Esther
    For the Lord to look upon."

  The father looked at her kindly,
    But he shook his head and smiled.
  "Now who but a doting mother
    Would think of a thing so wild?

  "If the children were tortured by demons,
    Or dying of fever, 't were well;
  Or had they the taint of the leper,
    Like many in Israel."

  "Nay, do not hinder me. Nathan,
    I feel such a burden of care;
  If I carry it to the Master,
    Perhaps I shall leave it there.

  "If He lay His hands on the children,
    My heart will be lighter, I know;
  For a blessing for ever and ever
    Will follow them as they go."

  So over the hills of Judah,
    Along the vine-rows green.
  With Esther asleep on her bosom,
    And Rachel her brothers between,

  'Mong the people who hung on His teaching,
    Or waited His touch or His word,
  Through the row of proud Pharisees listening
    She passed to the feet of her Lord.

  "Now why shouldst thou hinder the Master,"
    Said Peter, "with children like these?
  Seest not how from morning to evening
    He teacheth, and healeth disease?"

  Then Christ said, "Forbid not the children;
    Permit them to come unto Me:"
  And He took in His arms little Esther,
    And Rachel He set on His knee.

  And the heavy heart of the mother
    Was lifted all earth-care above,
  As He laid His hands on the brothers,
    And blest them with tenderest love;

  As He said of the babes in His bosom,
    "Of such is the kingdom of heaven:"
  And strength for all duty and trial
    That hour to her spirit was given.
                                      --_Julia Gill_
[End illustration]

{237}

OF SUCH IS THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN

  I think, when I read that sweet story of old,
    When Jesus was here among men,
  How He called little children as lambs to His fold,
    I should like to have been with them then.

  I wish that His hands had been placed on my head,
    That His arm had been thrown around me,
  And that I might have seen His kind look when He said,
    "Let the little ones come unto Me."

  Yet still to His footstool in prayer I may go,
    And ask for a share in His love;
  And if I thus earnestly seek Him below,
    I shall see Him and hear Him above,

  In that beautiful place He has gone to prepare
    For all who are washed and forgiven;
  And many dear children shall be with Him there,
    For "of such is the kingdom of heaven."

  But thousands and thousands who wander and fall
    Never heard of that heavenly home;
  I wish they could know there is room for them all,
    And that Jesus has bid them to come.

  I long for the joy of that glorious time,
    The sweetest, the brightest, the best,
  When the dear children of every clime
    Shall crowd to His arms and be blest.
                                 --_Jemima Thompson Luke_.

{238}

SUN OF MY SOUL

  Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear,
  It is not night if Thou be near;
  Oh, may no earth-born cloud arise
  To hide Thee from Thy servant's eyes!

  When soft the dews of kindly sleep
  My weary eyelids gently steep,
  Be my last thought--how sweet to rest
  Forever on my Saviour's breast.

  Abide with me from morn till eve,
  For without Thee I cannot live;
  Abide with me when night is nigh,
  For without Thee I dare not die.

  Be near to bless me when I wake,
  Ere through the world my way I take;
  Abide with me till in Thy love
  I lose myself in heaven above.
                                --_John Keble_.


{239}

DAY BY DAY

  Every day has its dawn,
    Its soft and silent eve,
  Its noontide hours of bliss or bale,--
    Why should we grieve?

  Why do we heap huge mounds of years
    Before us and behind,
  And scorn the little days that pass
    Like angels on the wind?

  Each turning round a small, sweet face,
    As beautiful as near;
  Because it has so small a face
    We will not see it clear:

  We will not clasp it as it flies,
    And kiss its lips and brow:
  We will not bathe our wearied souls
    In its delicious Now.

  And so it turns from us, and goes
    A way in sad disdain:
  Though we would give our lives for it,
    It never comes again.


{240}

WHAT CAN LITTLE HANDS DO?

  Oh, what can little hands do
    To please the King of heaven?
  The little hands some work may try
  To help the poor in misery:
    Such grace to mine be given.

  Oh, what can little lips do,
    To please the King of heaven?
  The little lips can praise and pray,
  And gentle words of kindness say:
    Such grace to mine be given.

  Oh, what can little eyes do,
    To please the King of heaven?
  The little eyes can upward look,
  And learn to read God's holy Book:
    Such grace to mine be given.

  Oh, what can little hearts do,
    To please the King of heaven?
  Our hearts, if God His Spirit send,
  Can love and trust their Saviour-Friend:
    Such grace to mine be given.

  When hearts, and hands, and lips unite
    To please the King of heaven,
  And serve the Saviour with delight,
  They are most precious in His sight:
    Such grace to mine be given.
                                       --_Fabin_.


{241}

HOW GENTLE GOD'S COMMANDS

  How gentle God's commands,
    How kind His precepts are!
  Come cast your burdens on the Lord,
    And trust His constant care.

  While Providence supports,
    Let saints securely dwell;
  That hand which bears all nature up
    Shall guide His children well.

  Why should this anxious load
    Press down your weary mind?
  Haste to your heavenly Father's throne,
    And sweet refreshment find.

  His goodness stands approved,
    Down to the present day;
  I'll drop my burden at His feet,
    And bear a song away.
                                  --_Philip Doddridge_.


{242}

ABOVE THE CLEAR BLUE SKY

  Above the clear blue sky,
    In heaven's bright abode,
  The angel host on high
    Sing praises to their God:
      Alleluia!
    They love to sing
    To God their King
      Alleluia!

  But God from children's tongues
    On earth receiveth praise;
  We then our cheerful songs
    In sweet accord will raise:
      Alleluia!
    We, too, will sing
    To God our King
      Alleluia!

  O blessed Lord, Thy truth
    To all Thy flock impart,
  And teach us in our youth
    To know Thee as Thou art.
      Alleluia!
    Then shall we sing
    To God our King
      Alleluia!
                         --_John Chandler_.

{243}

BEDTIME STORIES

{244}

{245}

THE STORY OF THE FIRST CHRISTMAS

Once there were two little children who lived in a large, red brick
house, on a quiet street in the city. The names of these little
children were Margaret and Harold. Margaret was five years old, and
Harold was eight. Margaret and Harold used to have the best of times
together. They played with their dog Sport and their cat Spot. They
built houses of blocks. They colored pictures with their crayons. In
winter, Harold drew Margaret on his sled, and in summer they played in
the garden. But, better than all else, they loved to hear their mamma
tell stories. Every night, before they went to bed, she told them a
story.

"What shall it be to-night?" said mamma, as they sat before the fire
after a cold winter's day.

"A Bible story," said Margaret.

"Very well," replied mamma. "It shall be a Bible story to-night, and
since it is almost Christmas-time, I will tell you about the dear
little Christ-child who was born in Bethlehem, and the first
Christmas."

So Margaret cuddled up in her mamma's lap, and Harold sat at her feet,
and she began.


THE STORY OF THE FIRST CHRISTMAS.

"Once upon a time, there was a little town called Bethlehem of Judea,
and late one afternoon in winter, a man named Joseph, and his wife
named Mary, came to this {246} town. They were very glad to reach the
village, for they were cold and hungry. But they were disappointed. No
one would take them in. There is an old song which tells about it:--

  "'O, dark was the night,
    And cold blew the wind,
  But Joseph and Mary
    No shelter could find.

  "'In all the fair city
    Of Bethlehem,
  In cottage or inn,
    Was no room for them.'"

"Wouldn't anyone let them in?" said Margaret.

"No," said mamma. "They went to the inn, or hotel, of Bethlehem, and
the keeper of the inn said, 'No room for you here, go away.' They went
to each one of the houses, and the people who lived in them said
crossly, 'No room for you here, go away.'"

"I would have let them in if I had been there," said Harold,
earnestly.

"I would, too," said Margaret. "Were they very cold, dear mamma?"

"Yes, my dears," said mamma, smiling, "I know that you would have been
kind to them. But you see this was before Jesus had taught people to
be good and kind to others. Well, they were very cold and very sad,
but at last the keeper of the inn let them go into his stable, and
there were oxen there, and hay, and stalls for the cattle, and
mangers."

{247}{248}

[Illustration]
  BETHLEHEM AT SUNSET

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Frank L. Goodspeed, and used by her
  kind permission.

  This beautiful picture of Bethlehem was taken just at sunset, with a
  cloud effect unusual in Eastern skies. "So must the little town have
  looked when Joseph and Mary, weary from their long journey,
  approached it. The short winter's day was probably closing in as the
  two travelers from Nazareth neared their journey's end. The way had
  been long and weary. A sense of rest and peace must almost
  unconsciously have crept over the travelers when at last they
  reached the rich fields that surrounded the ancient 'House of
  Bread,' and, passing through the valley, which, like an
  amphitheater, sweeps up to the twain heights along which Bethlehem
  stretches, ascended through the terraced vineyards and
  gardens."--_Edersheim_
[End illustration]

{249}

"Like grandpapa's barn?" asked Harold.

"Yes," answered mamma, "only not so nice and comfortable, for this
stable was a cave, cut out of the rock. That night, in the stable, the
little baby Jesus was born, and his dear mother Mary wrapped him all
warmly up, and laid him in one of the cattle mangers for a cradle."

"Was he a little tiny, tiny baby, like Grace's little brother?" asked
Margaret.

"Yes, my dear," said mamma, "and the sweetest little tiny baby you
ever saw.

"And in the fields near by there were shepherds keeping watch over
their flocks by night, and while they watched they saw suddenly a
great light, and an angel stood before them and said, 'Be not afraid,
for I bring you good tidings of great joy for all the people. For
there is born in Bethlehem a little child Jesus, who is to be the
Saviour of the world.' And when the angel had finished speaking, they
heard voices, singing like a great chorus in the sky, and this was the
song they sang,--

  "'Glory to God in the highest,
    And on earth peace among men in whom he is well pleased.'

"Then the shepherds went to Bethlehem, and found the little child
Jesus lying in the manger, and loved him, and told everyone what they
had seen and heard.

"And later, wise men from the East came on their three white camels,
guided by the star of Bethlehem, which shone in the sky. And as they
came near to Bethlehem, they {250} said to everyone, 'Where is he
which is born king of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the East,
and have come to worship him.'

"And the star led them at last to the stable where Jesus was, and they
brought beautiful gifts, gold, frankincense and myrrh, and they
worshiped him."

"And that is how Christmas came!" said Margaret.

"I am very glad that the little child Jesus was born."

"You must love him very much," said mamma, "for he was born, and grew
up, and died at last, for our sakes. And now I want to read you a
sweet little poem, which a very good man, named Phillips Brooks, once
wrote about Bethlehem. I want you both to learn it to say to papa. Now
listen while I read."

  "O little town of Bethlehem,
    How still we see thee lie;
  Above thy deep and dreamless sleep.
    The silent stars go by;
  Yet in thy dark streets shineth
    The everlasting light;
  The hopes and fears of all the years
    Are met in thee to-night.

  "O holy child of Bethlehem,
    Descend to us we pray,
  Cast out our sin, and enter in,
    Be born in us to-day.
  We hear the Christmas angels
    The great glad tidings tell;
  Oh, come to us, abide with us,
    Our Lord Immanuel."

[Footnote: By courtesy of E. P. Dutton & Co.]


{251}

THE STORY OF PALM SUNDAY

One Sunday Harold noticed that all the people who came from one of the
churches wore a little piece of palm, or evergreen.

"What does that mean?" said Harold.

"Oh, this is Palm Sunday," said mamma. "This was one of the glad days
in Jesus' life. To-night I will tell you all about it."

When it grew dark mamma called Margaret and Harold, and began


THE STORY OF PALM SUNDAY.

"You know that Jesus was poor and homeless, yet he was very rich in
the love of his friends. He was never honored but once as his friends
liked. That was on Palm Sunday, and the children helped to do it.

"It happened at the great city of Jerusalem. Jesus did not go to the
city very often. He liked to live in the villages and in the country
better. At this time there was a great feast in the city, and Jesus
was going to the feast with his friends."

"What sort of a feast was it, mamma?" asked Harold.

"It was not exactly what we call a feast," mamma replied. "It was more
like a great celebration. It recalled a great event in the nation's
history, the escape of the Jews from captivity. It was called the
'Feast of the Passover.' {252} The Jewish people from all over the
world came to Jerusalem to celebrate it."

"Why, it must have been the Fourth of July of the Jews," said Harold.

"Something like that," replied mamma, smiling. "Only the little Jewish
boys did not make as much noise as my small son makes on his country's
birthday.

"Well, the friends of Jesus who came with him to this feast wanted to
show how much they loved him. They often wanted to treat him as though
he were a king. Once they did treat him in this way, and Jesus did not
forbid it. It does people good to show their friends how much they
love them.

"Jesus stayed at night with his friends, in a village not far from the
city, and every morning he came into the city. One morning he came
over the hill, on the road which leads into the city, riding on an
ass. It was a beautiful morning, and all his friends who were with him
were filled with gladness. They shouted and sang as they marched
along. They shouted 'Hosanna!' just as you shout 'Hurrah!' when you
are marching in your processions. 'This man is going to be our king!'
they called. 'Praise God for our king!' People from the city saw them
coming and went out to meet them, so that there was a great multitude.
They broke off branches of the palm trees along the way, and waved
them in the air, just as the soldiers wave the royal banners of the
king. Some of the people took off their cloaks and laid them on the
ground for him to ride over, just as if he were a great king. They
placed their palm branches on the ground, too, so that they seemed
like a beautiful green carpet."

{253}{254}

[Illustration]
  JESUS ENTERING JERUSALEM IN TRIUMPH
  By Bernard Plockhorst (1825- )

  "And as he went, they spread their garments in the way. And as he
  was now drawing nigh, even at the descent of the Mount of Olives,
  the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise
  God with a loud voice for all the mighty works which they had seen;
  saying, Blessed is the King that cometh in the name of the Lord:
  peace in heaven, and glory in the highest."--_Luke 19:36-38_
[End illustration]

{255}

"Oh," said Margaret, "how pleased Jesus must have been!"

"Yes," said mamma, "Jesus was pleased to know that the people loved
him. And he was a king, you know, though he never sat upon a throne.
The Bible sometimes calls him, 'King of kings, and Lord of lords.'

"When they reached the city, there were many little children in the
streets and about the temple. Now the children always loved Jesus, and
when they saw him coming in this procession they all ran to meet him.
They all joined in the procession, and sang songs, and shouted
'Hosanna!' and waved their hands for the children's king. Some of
those people who did not like Jesus tried to stop the children. But
Jesus would not tell them to stop."

"If I had been there, I would have shouted for Jesus," said Harold.

"That is my brave boy," said mamma. "But you must remember that there
is just as much chance to let people know that you stand up for Jesus
now, as then. You must never be afraid to let it be known that you are
Jesus' friend.

"Now we will sing that hymn that you like so much. It is a good hymn
for Palm Sunday."

So they sang,--

  "Onward, Christian soldiers,
    Marching as to war,
  With the cross of Jesus
    Going on before. {256}
  Christ, the royal Master,
    Leads against the foe;
  Forward into battle,
    See, His banners go.

  "Like a mighty army
    Moves the church of God;
  Brothers, we are treading
    Where the saints have trod;
  We are not divided,
    All one body we,
  One in hope and doctrine,
    One in charity.

  "Crowns and thrones may perish,
    Kingdoms rise and wane,
  But the church of Jesus
    Constant will remain;
  Gates of hell can never
    'Gainst that church prevail;
  We have Christ's own promise,
    And that cannot fail.

  "Onward, then, ye people,
    Join our happy throng,
  Blend with ours your voices
    In the triumph song;
  Glory, laud, and honor
    Unto Christ the King;
  This through countless ages
    Men and angels sing."


{257}

HOW JESUS GAVE HIS LIFE FOR THE WORLD

One afternoon in the springtime, just before Easter, Margaret was
playing with her dolls. Her mamma came into the room and said:--

"I want my little girl to be good while I am gone; I am going to
church."

"Why, mamma," said Margaret, "this is not Sunday, this is Friday."

"Yes," said mamma, "and this evening I will tell you and Harold why I
am going to church on Friday."

At bedtime, mamma said, "Now I will tell you


HOW JESUS GAVE HIS LIFE FOR THE WORLD.

"It is a very sad and yet a very sweet story. It is very sad to think
that Jesus had enemies who hated him so much that they could kill him,
and yet we love the story because it tells us how much Jesus loved us.


"If we love anyone very much, we are willing to give up things for
him."

"Yes," said Margaret, "Harold loves me, and he gave up his party when
I was sick, and noise troubled me."

"That was a very kind and unselfish thing for Harold to do," said
mamma, "but Jesus gave up very much more than that for our sakes.

"You would have to love anyone very much indeed to give up your home
for him. You would have to love {258} anyone better than you love
yourself to give up your life for him."

"Do you mean like Frank's papa," said Harold, "when he ran into the
fire when his house burned, to get Frank, and almost died?"

"Yes," said mamma, "Frank's papa loved his little boy better than he
loved his own life, and he was ready to give his own life that his
little boy might be saved."

"But why is the story sad, then?" said Margaret.

"It is sad," replied mamma, "because his death was such a cruel one,
and because he suffered so much.

"One night Jesus gathered his dearest friends about him, and they had
supper together, and he told them how much he loved them, and that
they must never forget him.

"After the supper was over he went out into the night, to a place
called the Garden of Gethsemane. Then his enemies came with torches,
and found him there, and seized hold upon him, and bound him with
ropes, and led him away.

"After they had treated him with great cruelty, they took him to a
hill called Calvary outside the city, and there, before a great
multitude of people, they nailed his hands and his feet to a cross of
wood, and after he had suffered very much, he died there upon the
cross. Then it grew dark upon the hill, and an earthquake shook the
ground, and the people ran away in terror, because they began to see
what a wicked thing they had done."

"Oh, what wicked people," said Margaret, "to kill dear Jesus!"


{259}{260}

[Illustration]
  JESUS IN THE HOME OF MARY AND MARTHA
  By Siemiradski (1843- )

  "And fast beside the olive-bordered way
  Stands the blessed home where Jesus deigned to stay;
  The peaceful home, to zeal sincere
  And heavenly contemplation dear,
  Where Martha loved to wait with reverence meet,
  And wiser Mary lingered at Thy sacred feet."
                                            --_John Keble_
[End illustration]

{261}

"Jesus loved even them," said mamma, softly. "He was so good that he
loved them, even while they were killing him, and asked his Father in
heaven to forgive them, too.

"You must remember that when we do what is wrong, we hurt our Father
in heaven very much, but Jesus has taught us that he loves us still,
and is ready to forgive us when we ask him.

"So this is the reason why we love Jesus so much. 'We love him because
he first loved us.' This is the reason why mamma went to church
to-day, to thank God for sending to the world such a loving Jesus, and
to remember the day on which he died for us, and for all the world.

"Now mamma will sing you a beautiful hymn about the cross. The cross
was dreadful then, but we love it now because it makes us remember the
love of Jesus."

  "In the cross of Christ I glory;
    Towering o'er the wrecks of time;
  All the light of sacred story
    Gathers round its head sublime.

  "When the woes of life o'ertake me,
    Hopes deceive and fears annoy,
  Never shall the cross forsake me;
    Lo! it glows with peace and joy.

  "When the sun of bliss is beaming
    Light and love upon my way,
  From the cross the radiance streaming
    Adds new luster to the day.

{262}

  "Bane and blessing, pain and pleasure,
    By the cross are sanctified;
  Peace is there that knows no measure,
    Joys that through all time abide.

  "In the cross of Christ I glory;
    Towering o'er the wrecks of time;
  All the light of sacred story
    Gathers round its head sublime."

{263}{263}

[Illustration]
  THE FIRST EASTER DAWN
  By J. K. Thompson

  "The day of resurrection,
    Earth, tell it out abroad:
  The Passover of gladness,
    The Passover of God.
  From death to life eternal,
    From earth unto the sky,
  Our Christ hath brought us over
    With hymns of victory."
                              --_John of Damascus_
[End illustration]


{265}

THE STORY OF THE FIRST EASTER DAY

It was Easter Day. Both Margaret and Harold went to church. It was a
beautiful day, warm and pleasant. The grass was green, and the tulips
and the crocuses were blossoming in the gardens. Everybody was glad
that the snow and the cold of winter had gone. When they were on their
way to church, they saw a robin on a branch of a tree. The children
laughed with pleasure to see Mr. Robin Redbreast back again. At church
there were beautiful flowers, and the choir sang Easter songs and
hymns. One of the hymns Harold liked very much indeed. He said it made
him feel that the world was so glad that it couldn't help singing its
gladness right out. This hymn began--

  "Christ the Lord is risen to-day
    Sons of men and angels say,
  Raise your joys and triumphs high,
    Sing, ye heavens, and, earth, reply."

In the evening they sat with their mamma, watching the beautiful
sunset.

"Mamma," said Harold, "I don't think that I just understand about that
long word the minister used so much this morning--resurrection; won't
you explain it, please?"

{266}

"Well," said mamma, "it is not very easy for little folks to
understand, but I will try. I will tell you the


STORY OF THE FIRST EASTER DAY.

"You know that the enemies of Jesus crucified him as I told you, and
he died upon the cross."

"Yes," said Margaret, soberly, "I know about that. My little kittie
died. She went to sleep, and couldn't wake up any more. Poor little
kittie!"

"Yes," said mamma, "and you know that dear Grand-mamma White went to
sleep and didn't wake up, and God took her dear, beautiful soul to be
with him.

"After Jesus had suffered on the cross, he went to sleep, that sound,
sound sleep that we call death. Then they took him from the cross, and
placed his body in a tomb dug out of the rock, and rolled a great
stone before the door. His disciples and all his friends were very,
very sad, because they thought they would never see him again."

"But they did, mamma," said Harold.

"Oh, yes," said Margaret, "he wasn't truly dead."

"Ah, yes, my dears," said mamma, "he was truly dead, but after he had
lain there quietly for three days, a wonderful thing happened. He came
to life again. He came out from the tomb. He went to see his friends
and his disciples. He made them very happy. He told them that soon he
must go back to his Father in heaven, and that they must go everywhere
in all the world, telling people about him.

"Now I will read you the beautiful story of the first Easter Day, as
it is told in the Bible:--

{267}

"'Now on the first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, while
it was yet dark, unto the tomb, and seeth the stone taken away from
the tomb. She runneth, therefore, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to
the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, "They have
taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we know not where they have
laid him."

"'Peter therefore went forth, and the other disciple, and they went
toward the tomb. And they both ran together: and the other disciple
outran Peter, and came first to the tomb; and stooping and looking in
he seeth the linen cloths lying, yet entered he not in. Simon Peter
therefore cometh, following him, and entered into the tomb; and he
beholdeth the linen cloths lying, and the napkin, that was upon his
head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by
itself. Then entered in therefore the other disciple also, which came
first to the tomb, and he saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not
the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. So the disciples
went away again unto their own home.

"'But Mary was standing without at the tomb weeping. So, as she wept,
she stooped and looked into the tomb; and she beholdeth two angels in
white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of
Jesus had lain. And they say unto her, "Woman, why weepest thou?"

"'She said unto them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I
know not where they have laid him."

"'When she had thus said, she turned herself back, and beholdeth Jesus
standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

{268}

"'Jesus saith unto her, "Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou?"

"'She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, "Sir, if thou
hast borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will
take him away."

"'Jesus saith unto her, "Mary!"

"'She turneth herself, and saith unto him in Hebrew, "Rabboni!" which
is to say, "Master."

"'Jesus saith to her, "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended unto my
Father and your Father, and my God and your God."

"'Mary Magdalene cometh and telleth the disciples, "I have seen the
Lord"; and how that he had said these things unto her.'"


"That is a very beautiful story, is it not?" said mamma, when she had
finished reading. "And how glad Mary and all the friends of Jesus must
have been to see him again! Now the sunset has faded, and I will sing
you an Easter hymn."

[Footnote: Tune, "The Son of God goes forth to war."]

  "The terror of the night has fled,
    Its shadows fade away;
  The tomb wherein our Lord lay dead
    Is open to the day.

  "That Easter morn when He came forth,
    Who gave Him greeting there?
  The flowers, the birds, the radiant earth,
    And all the garden fair.

{269}

  "Once more the glorious day is here,
    The day that saw Him rise,
  When Love was victor over fear,
    And glory filled the skies.

  "Who comes to greet our risen King?
    Not birds and flowers alone,
  Our loyal hearts to Him we bring,
    And worship at His throne."

{270}

THE STORY OF THE FIRST THANKSGIVING

Harold and Margaret had been hoping for a snowy Thanksgiving, and they
were very happy when, two days before Thanksgiving, the snow began to
fall in great flakes. The sun shone again on Thanksgiving morning, and
at nine o'clock the sleigh with the two dapple gray horses was ready
to take all the family to Grandpa Emerson's over the river and away
four miles across the snowy fields in the country. How they enjoyed
the ride in the fresh cold air! What a merry tune was sung by the
jingling of the sleighbells! And how happy they were after they
reached the big old farmhouse! First, of course, they were kissed and
hugged by Grandpa Emerson and Grandma Emerson. Then they went out to
the barn to see the horses and cows. Then they went sliding down the
hill behind the barn. Then they made a beautiful snow man, and by that
time they were ready for Grandma Emerson's Thanksgiving dinner. They
were to stay at the farm for a few days, and toward evening as they
sat before the roaring fire in the big fireplace they asked mamma for
a story. "I will tell you," she said,


THE STORY OF THE FIRST THANKSGIVING.

"The first settlers of New England were the Pilgrims who came across
the sea from England in the ship Mayfower."

{271}

"Oh, yes," said Harold, "I remember when we went to Plymouth and saw
the Plymouth Rock and the old houses and the monument on the hill."

"Yes," said mamma, "that is where they landed and built their log
houses. I will recite a poem which I learned when I was a girl and
went to school like Margaret."

  "The breaking waves dashed high
    On a stern and rockbound coast,
  And the woods against a stormy sky
    Their giant branches tossed;

  "And the heavy night hung dark
    The hills and waters o'er,
  When a band of exiles moored their bark
    On the wild New England shore.

  "Not as the conqueror comes,
    They, the true-hearted, came,
  Not with the roll of the stirring drums,
    And the trumpet that sings of fame;

  "Not as the flying come,
    In silence and in fear,--
  They shook the depths of the desert gloom
    With their hymns of lofty cheer.

  "Amidst the storm they sang,
    And the stars heard and the sea!
  And the sounding aisles of the dim wood rang
    To the anthem of the free!

{272}

  "The ocean eagle soared
    From his nest by the white wave's foam,
  And the rocking pines of the forest roared--
    This was their welcome home!

  "There were men with hoary hair
    Amidst that pilgrim band--
  Why had they come to wither there
    Away from their childhood's land?

  "There was woman's fearless eye,
    Lit by her deep love's truth;
  There was manhood's brow, serenely high,
    And the fiery heart of youth.

  "What sought they thus afar?
    Bright jewels of the mine?
  The wealth of seas, the spoils of war?--
    They sought a faith's pure shrine.

  "Ay, call it holy ground,
    The soil where first they trod!
  They have left unstain'd what there they found--
    Freedom to worship God!"


"Did they have a very hard time at Plymouth?" said Margaret.

"Yes, my dear," replied mamma, "a very hard time. There were little
children, and they often had to go cold and hungry. After the
Mayflower brought them to Plymouth, it had to sail away again to
England and leave them in the wilderness alone."

"There were Indians, too," said Harold.

{273}{274}

[Illustration]
  THRESHING

  From a photograph taken by Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton, and used by
  her kind permission.

  In the East the grain is threshed by the trampling of beasts, or
  sometimes, as in this picture, by a rude kind of threshing wheel.
  The wheels are carried in the framework on which the man is sitting.
  Sometimes a sledge with iron or stone teeth driven into the bottom
  is used.
[End illustration]

{275}

"Yes," said mamma, "but they had the brave Miles Standish to protect
them. At one time, so the story goes, they were almost starving. The
winter was coming on, and they did not know what to do. So they set
apart a certain day to fast and ask God's help in their distress. I am
not sure that it is true, but we will suppose that a little girl and
boy like you had climbed the hill to gather a few sticks of wood for
the fire. We will suppose that the little girl was looking out to sea,
and suddenly she cried, 'Oh, John, what can that be, is it a sail?'

"And we will suppose that John said, 'Oh, no, Priscilla, that is
nothing but a seagull; there is no ship coming.'

"But Priscilla insisted.

"'It is, John, it is a sail.' And John looked again and cried, 'Yes!
yes! it is, it is a sail!'

"Then how they ran to the village shouting, 'A sail! a sail!' and how
the people came crowding out of the little church where they had
gathered to pray, and how happy they all were!

"I do not know whether the children caught sight of the sail first,
but it is true that on the day appointed for fast and prayer, a ship
came from England, and the fast day was turned into a day of feasting
and thanksgiving to God for his mercies. And ever after in New
England, and now all over this country, the people keep this day; a
day for feasting and joy, but a day also of humble thankfulness to God
for all his goodness to his children.

"Now, we will draw the curtains and sing a Thanksgiving hymn."

{276}

  "O God, beneath Thy guiding hand
    Our exiled fathers crossed the sea,
  And when they trod the wintry strand
    With prayer and psalm they worshiped Thee.

  "Thou heard'st well pleased the song, the prayer:
    Thy blessing came; and still its power
  Shall onward through all ages bear
    The memory of that holy hour.

  "Laws, freedom, truth, and faith in God,
    Came with those exiles o'er the waves.
  And where their pilgrim feet have trod,
    The God they trusted guards their graves.

  "And here Thy name, O God of love,
    Their children's children shall adore
  Till these eternal hills remove,
    And spring adorns the earth no more."

{277}{278}

[Illustration]
  SHEEP
  By Jacque

  "Little lambs, so white and fair,
  Are the shepherd's constant care;
  Now he leads their tender feet
  Into pastures green and sweet.

  "Now they listen and obey,
  Following where he leads the way;
  Heavenly Father, may we be
  Thus obedient unto Thee."
                            --_Selected_
[End illustration]

{279}

WHO WAS THE NEIGHBOR?

"What is that long word?" asked Harold.

"That is 'neighbor,'" said mamma. "Can you tell me what it means?"

"Oh, yes," said Harold. "It means the people who live close by. Ralph
and Elizabeth are our neighbors, because they live in the house next
door."

"Yes," said mamma, "and in the old times when people did not travel as
much as they do now, they did not know much about any except their
neighbors. The Old Testament says that you should love your neighbor.
That meant the people you meet day by day. The people of Jesus' time
said that you should love your neighbor, but you might hate your
enemy. Jesus said that was not right. Do you remember what he said
about that, Harold?"

"I know," said Margaret, "we had it in our Sunday School class last
Sunday. 'Love your enemies.'"

"Yes," said mamma, "and he once told a story about neighbors. It is
called the story of


THE GOOD SAMARITAN.

"'And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying,
Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?

"'He said unto him, What is written in the law? How readest thou?

{280}

"'And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy
heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all
thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself.

"'And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou
shalt live.

"'But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my
neighbor?

"'And Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to
Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his raiment, and
wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.

"'And by chance there came down a certain priest that way: and when he
saw him, he passed by on the other side.

"'And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on
him, and passed by on the other side.

"'But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and
when he saw him, he had compassion on him.

"'And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine,
and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care
of him.

"'And on the morrow when he departed, he took, out two pence, and gave
them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever
thou spendest more, when I come again I will repay thee.

"'Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbor unto him that
fell among thieves?

"'And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him,
Go, and do thou likewise.'

"What do you think that story means?" asked mamma.

{281}

"I think," said Harold, "that it means that to be neighbor to anybody
is to help him."

Margaret thought a minute. "It seems to me," she said, "that neighbors
can live a long way off, then. Our teacher said she would tell us next
Sunday how we could help poor little children in a big city five
hundred miles away. That will make us neighbors to them, won't it,
mamma?"

"Why, yes," said mamma. "So it will." Then she smiled a little and
said, "I think we have some neighbors living in China and some others
living in India."

What do you suppose mamma meant?


{282}

THE GOOD SHEPHERD

Harold and Margaret were looking at a picture of an Eastern shepherd
with his flocks.

"Mamma," said Harold, "is this our country? This man is not dressed as
men are here."

"No," said mamma, "it is a picture of a shepherd and his sheep in the
country of the Bible."

"What makes the shepherd go before the sheep, mamma?" asked Harold.

"In that country," said mamma, "the sheep are not driven, but led."

"Were sheep more plenty in the Bible land than in ours? I have never
seen many sheep," said Harold.

"Yes," answered mamma, "most of the children in the Bible land knew all
about sheep. Many of the hillsides had little white flocks of sheep on
them. They were not kept in fields with fences. They wandered about over
the open pasture lands; and so a man or a boy must be with them to watch
over them. He was called the shepherd. He took them to the best
pastures. At some seasons of the year he had to lead them a long way to
find water. He kept the bears and the wolves and the lions away. He kept
away the thieves who might come to steal the sheep. At night he drove
the sheep to a fold, or shed, or sometimes he slept with them all night
in the open air, beneath the stars.

{283}{284}

[Illustration]
  AN EASTERN SHEPHERD AND HIS SHEEP

  From a photograph taken by W. J. Aitchison, Esq., of Hamilton,
  Canada, and used by his kind permission.

  These sheep are feeding just outside Jerusalem. "All the plateaus
  east of the Jordan, and the mountains of Palestine and Syria, are
  pasture grounds for innumerable flocks and herds. In the spring
  there is plenty of grass. Later, when the rain has ceased, the sheep
  still nibble the dry herbage and stubble and flourish where, to a
  western eye, all is barren desert. They require water but once a
  day. The descendants of the same shepherds who tended the flocks in
  Bible days still occupy the great sheep walks of Palestine"
[End illustration]

{285}

The shepherd named the sheep, and the sheep all knew him and loved
him. They would follow him, but they would not follow a stranger.
Because the people of the Bible land knew so much about the sheep and
the shepherds, the writers of the Bible said a good deal about them.
Now get the Bible and I will read you some of the things which it says
about sheep."


Margaret brought the Bible, and mamma read first what Jesus said about
himself as the good shepherd:--

"'Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door
into the fold of the sheep, but climbeth up some other way, the same
is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door is the
shepherd of the sheep. To him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear
his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out.
When he hath put forth all his own, he goeth before them, and the
sheep follow him, for they know his voice. And a stranger will they
not follow, but will flee from him: for they know not the voice of
strangers.'



"'Jesus said unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the
door of the sheep. All that came before me are thieves and robbers:
but the sheep did not hear them. I am the door: by me if any man enter
in, he shall go in and out, and shall find pasture. The thief cometh
not, but that he may steal, and kill, and destroy: I came that they
may have life, and may have it abundantly. I am the good shepherd: the
good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep. He that is a
hireling, and not a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, beholdeth
the wolf coming, {286} and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolf
snatcheth them, and scattereth them: he fleeth because he is a
hireling, and careth not for the sheep. I am the good shepherd; and I
know mine own, and mine own know me, even as the Father knoweth me,
and I know the Father; and I lay down my life for the sheep.'"



"This means, my dears," said mamma, "that Jesus cares for you and for
all his children, just as a good and faithful shepherd cares for his
sheep. The good shepherd brings his sheep safely home at night, and
the porter, or keeper of the fold, opens the door and lets them in.
The sheep hear his voice, and he calls each one by name and they
follow him, but they will not follow a stranger."

"What does 'hireling' mean?" said Margaret.

"It means, dear," replied mamma, "one who is hired to care for the
sheep, but who does not know them or love them as the good shepherd
does."

"I know," said Harold; "it means that Jesus can take care of us better
than anyone else."

"Yes," said mamma, "that is just what it means. And here is another
story from the Bible, which Jesus told to show how very tenderly he
loves and cares for his little ones":--


"'Jesus said, See that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I
say unto you, that in heaven their angels do always behold the face of
my Father which is in heaven. How think ye? If any man have a hundred
sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety
and nine, and go unto the mountains and seek that which goeth astray?

{287}{288}

[Illustration]
  THE GOOD SHEPHERD
  By W. C. T. Dobson

  "I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd layeth down his life for
  the sheep. He that is a hireling, and not a shepherd, whose own the
  sheep are not, beholdeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and
  fleeth, and the wolf snatcheth them, and scattereth them: he fleeth
  because he is a hireling, and careth not for his sheep. I am the
  good shepherd; and I know mine own, and mine own know me, even as
  the Father knoweth me, and I know the Father; and I lay down my life
  for the sheep. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold:
  them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and they shall
  become one flock, one shepherd."--_The Words of Jesus_
[End illustration]

{289}

And if so be that he find it, verily, I say unto you, he rejoiceth
over it more than over the ninety and nine which have not gone astray.
Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven that one
of these little ones shall perish.'"

"In the book of the Bible called the Psalms," continued mamma, "the
twenty-third is often called the Shepherd Psalm."

"Oh, we know that psalm," said Margaret.

"Suppose," said mamma, "that one of the sheep in our picture could talk
and think like you. Would he not wish to say something about his
shepherd, very much like this psalm? The sheep would tell you how the
shepherd led him to the green pastures, and let him rest by the brooks
that flow gently through the meadows, and kept him safe in the valleys
where no wild beasts were hiding to kill him, and put out his long staff
to guide him and to help him up the steep paths of the hills. Now let us
say the psalm together."

  "'The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
  He maketh me to lie down in green pastures:
  He leadeth me beside the still waters.
  He restoreth my soul:
  He guideth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake.
  Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
  I will fear no evil; for thou art with me:
  Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me.
  Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:  {290}
  Thou hast anointed my head with oil; my cup runneth over.
  Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life:
  And I will dwell in the House of the Lord for ever.'"

"Mamma," said Harold, "sheep don't eat at tables, or have cups."

"No," said mamma, smiling, "that shows us that, after all, this psalm
is about a man, and not about a sheep. It means that when troubles and
dangers are all about us God still gives all that we need. Sometime
that will mean a great deal more to you than it does now."

"I don't understand," said Margaret, "about anointing the head with
oil, and dwelling in the house of the Lord."

"In the Bible land," said mamma, "when a man wished to honor a guest
whom he had invited to a feast, he poured out a little sweet-smelling
oil upon his head. The psalm means that God makes his people, even
when they are in the midst of danger, feel as happy as though they
were honored guests at a feast. To dwell in the house of the Lord
forever means that we are to feel always perfectly secure, as though
we were living in God's own house, where nothing could ever harm us."

Harold thought a moment, and then he said, "I think that I know what
all the stories about sheep in the Bible mean. They mean that people
are like sheep, and they can't take care of themselves, but that God
loves them very much, and that he will always take care of them."

"Yes, that is just it," said mamma, "and now! as it is {291} growing
dark, let us sing that song which is the twenty-third psalm put into
different words."

  "The Lord is my shepherd; no want shall I know;
    I feed in green pastures, safe-folded I rest;
  He leadeth my soul where the still waters flow,
    Restores me when wandering, redeems when oppressed.

  "Through the valley and shadow of death though I stray,
    Since Thou art my guardian, no evil I fear;
  Thy rod shall defend me, Thy staff be my stay;
    No harm can befall, with my Comforter near.

  "In the midst of affliction my table is spread;
    With blessings unmeasured my cup runneth o'er;
  With perfume and oil Thou anointest my head;
    O what shall I ask of Thy providence more?

  "Let goodness and mercy, my bountiful God,
    Still follow my steps till I meet Thee above;
  I seek, by the path which my forefathers trod
    Through the land of their sojourn, Thy kingdom of love."


{292}

LITTLE BROTHERS OF THE AIR AND FIELDS

Margaret and Harold had learned to be kind to animals. They belonged
to a "Band of Mercy," a company of boys and girls who were pledged
never to be unkind to any dumb creature, and to rescue any poor beast
who might be in distress or suffering cruel treatment. They had many
chances to help poor dogs and cats which were being persecuted by
cruel boys. One day they came home from school and told about a poor
little kitten which they had protected when it was almost dead from
fright. "That was very kind," said mamma, "and to-night I will read
you some stories and poems about kindness to animals which I have been
saving. Margaret and Harold played with their dog Sport and their big
cat Spot until supper time. After supper they were ready for the
stories and poems.

"Once upon a time," said mamma, "there lived a very good man who came
to be known as St. Francis of Assisi. He was very kind to all birds
and animals. He called the birds 'little brothers of the air' and the
animals 'little brothers of the field and woods.' These stories are
told about him:--

"'Once, full of joy, he was going on his way when, perceiving some
flocks of birds, he turned aside a little from the road to go to them.
Far from taking flight, they flocked around him as if to bid him
welcome.

{293}{294}

[Illustration]
  HEAD OF DOG
[End illustration]

{295}

"Brother birds," he said to them, "you ought to praise and love your
Creator very much. He has given you feathers for clothing, wings for
flying, and all that is needful for you. He has made you the noblest
of his creatures; he permits you to live in the pure air; you have
neither to sow nor to reap, and yet he takes care of you, watches over
you and guides you." Then the birds began to arch their necks, to
spread out their wings, to open their beaks, to look at him, as if to
thank him, while he went up and down in their midst stroking them with
the border of his tunic, sending them away at last with his blessing.'

"'In this same tour, passing through Alviano, he began to preach to
the people, but the swallows so filled the air with their chirping
that he could not make himself heard. "It is my turn to speak," he
said to them; "little swallow sisters, hearken to the word of God;
keep silent and be very quiet until I have finished.'"

"'At Rieti a family of redbreasts were the guests of the monastery,
and the young birds made marauding expeditions on the very table where
the Brothers were eating. Not far from there, at Greccio, at another
time, they brought to Francis a little rabbit that had been taken
alive in a trap. "Come to me, Brother Rabbit," he said to it. And as
the poor creature, being set free, ran to him for refuge, he took it
up, caressed it, and finally put it on the ground that it might run
away; but it returned to him again and again, so that he was obliged
to send it to the neighboring forest before it would consent to return
to freedom.'

{296}

"'One day he was crossing the Lake of Rieti. The boatman in whose bark
he was making the passage offered him a fish of uncommon size. Francis
accepted it with joy, but, to the great amazement of the fisherman,
put it back into the water, bidding it bless God.'

"Here is a story which I once read about a very good and distinguished
man who tells how he learned when he was a boy not to kill even the
smallest animal needlessly.

"'I saw one day a little spotted turtle sunning itself in the shallow
water, and I lifted the stick in my hand to kill it, for, though I had
never killed any creature, I had seen other boys kill birds, squirrels,
and the like, and I had a disposition to follow their wicked example;
but all at once something checked my little arm, and a voice within me
said, clear and loud, "It is wrong," and so I held my uplifted stick
until the turtle vanished from my sight. Then I went home and told my
mother, and asked her what it was that told me it was wrong. She wiped a
tear from her eye, and took me in her arms, and said: "Some call it
conscience, but I call it the voice of God in the human soul. If you
listen to it and obey it, then it will speak clearer and clearer, and
always guide you right. But if you do not listen to it, or disobey it,
then it will fade out, little by little, and leave you in the dark
without a guide. Your life, my child, depends on heeding that little
voice."'

"And here are some poems which teach us to be gentle and kind to the
dumb animals who depend upon us for life and look to us for mercy. The
poet Cowper says:--

{297}{298}

[Illustration]
  BOY AND DOG
  By Blume
[End illustration]

{299}

  "'I would not enter on my list of friends,
  Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,
  Yet wanting sensibility, the man
  Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.'


"Coleridge in a great poem, 'The Ancient Mariner,'
which I will read to you when you are a little older, says:--

  "'He prayeth well who loveth well
    Both man and bird and beast.

  "'He prayeth best who loveth best
    All things, both great and small;
  For the dear God who loveth us,
    He made and loveth all.'


"And here are two verses whose author I do not know:--


  "'Maker of earth, and sea, and sky,
    Creation's Sovereign Lord and King;
  Who hung the starry worlds on high
    And formed alike the sparrow's wing:
  Bless the dumb creatures of Thy care,
    And listen to their voiceless prayer.

  "'All-Father! who on Mercy's throne
    Hear'st Thy dumb creatures' faintest moan,--
  Thy love be ours, and ours shall be
    Returned in deeds to these and Thee.'


"There is a poem by John Ruskin which speaks of that
good time coming when cruelty shall cease and terrible
wars shall be no more."

{300}

A SONG OF PEACE.

  "'Put off, put off your mail, ye kings, and beat your brands to dust;
  A surer grasp your hands must know, your hearts a better trust.
  Nay, bend aback the lance's point, and break the helmet bar,
  A noise is in the morning winds, but not the note of war!

  "'Among the grassy mountain paths the glittering troops increase;
  They come! they come! how fair their feet--they come that publish peace.
  Yea, Victory, fair Victory, our enemies are ours,
  And all the clouds are clasped in light, and all the earth with flowers.

  "'Ah! still depressed and dim with dew, but wait a little while,
  And radiant with the deathless rose the wilderness shall smile,
  And every tender, living thing shall feed by streams of rest,
  Nor lamb shall from the fold be lost, nor nursling from the nest.'"


"That reminds us of what the prophet said about the time when all the
beasts even shall lose their cruel traits and live at peace with each
other, and even play with little children."

"Could that ever be true, mamma?" interrupted Harold.


{301}{302}

[Illustration]
  ON GUARD
[End illustration]


{303}

"Well, even now, my dear," replied mamma, "wild and fierce animals
have been wholly tamed by kindness. We cannot tell what beautiful
things might happen if all evil and unkindness should be driven from
the world and men should live as Christ taught us to live.

"Here are the prophet's words: 'And the wolf shall dwell with the
lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and
the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall
lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones
shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And
the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned
child shall put his hand on the adder's den. They shall not hurt nor
destroy in all my holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the
knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.'

"These verses are from the Psalms and the Proverbs:--

  "'For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a
  thousand hills.

  "'I know all the fowls of the mountains: and the wild beasts of the
  field are mine.'

  "'The merciful man doeth good to his own soul; but he that is cruel
  troubleth his own flesh.'

  "'A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast; but the tender
  mercies of the wicked are cruel.'

"And here are some of the words of Jesus about animals and birds
and about kindness:--

{304}

  "'Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.'

  "'Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.'

  "'The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the
  Son of man hath not where to lay his head.'

  "'Therefore I say unto you, Be not anxious for your life, what ye
  shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye
  shall put on. Is not the life more than the food, and the body than
  the raiment? Behold the birds of the heavens, that they sow not,
  neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; and your Heavenly
  Father feedeth them. Are ye not of much more value than they?'

  "'Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and not one of them
  shall fall on the ground without your Father; but the very hairs of
  your head are all numbered.'"

  "And now it is late and my little lambs must go to their beds. I am
  sure that you both will be kind in every way to your little brothers
  of the air and the woods and fields, and your little dumb brothers
  in the streets of the city."

{305}

SHEPHERD HYMNS

{306}

{307} {308}

[Illustration]
  THE GOOD SHEPHERD
  By Bernard Plockhorst (1825- )

  "Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door
  into the fold of the sheep, but climbeth up some other way, the same
  is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door is the
  shepherd of the sheep. To him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear
  his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them
  out. When he hath put forth all his own, he goeth before them, and
  the sheep follow him: for they know his voice. And a stranger will
  they not follow, but will flee from him: for they know not the voice
  of strangers."--_The Words of Jesus_
[End illustration]

{309}

SAVIOUR, LIKE A SHEPHERD LEAD US

  Saviour, like a shepherd lead us,
    Much we need Thy tenderest care;
  In Thy pleasant pastures feed us,
    For our use Thy folds prepare;
      Blessed Jesus,
    Thou hast bought us, Thine we are.

  We are Thine, do Thou befriend us,
    Be the guardian of our way;
  Keep Thy flock, from sin defend us,
    Seek us when we go astray;
      Blessed Jesus,
    Hear the children when they pray.

  Early let us seek Thy favor,
    Early let us do Thy will;
  Holy Lord, our only Saviour,
    With Thy grace our bosoms fill;
      Blessed Jesus,
    Thou hast loved us, love us still.
                                  --_Dorothy Ann Thrupp_.

{310}

WAS THERE EVER KINDEST SHEPHERD?

  Was there ever kindest shepherd
    Half so gentle, half so sweet
  As the Saviour, who would have us
    Come and gather round His feet?
  There's a wideness in God's mercy,
    Like the wideness of the sea;
  There's a kindness in His justice,
    Which is more than liberty.

  For the love of God is broader
    Than the measure of man's mind;
  And the heart of the Eternal
    Is most wonderfully kind.
  If our love were but more simple,
    We should take Him at His word;
  And our lives would be all sunshine
    In the sweetness of our Lord.
                               --_Frederick William Faber_

{311}{312}

[Illustration]
  THE LOST LAMB FOUND
  By P. Giradet

  Sometimes in winter the sheep suffer greatly from the cold and heavy
  snowstorms. This is a description of sheep covered by the snow in
  winter:--

  "The flock was buried Beneath a great white billow as high as a barn
  and as broad as a house. This great drift was rolling and curling
  beneath the violent blast, tufting and combing with rustling swirls,
  and carved as if patterns of cornice where the grooving-chisel of
  the wind swept round. Ever and again the tempest snatched little
  whiffs from the channeled edges, twirled them round and made them
  dance over the chine of the monster pile, then let them lie like
  herringbones or the seams of the sand where the tide has been. And
  all the while, from the smothery sky, more and more fiercely at
  every blast, came the pelting pitiless arrows winged with murky
  white and pointed with the barbs of the frost."--_Blackmore_
[End illustration]

{313}

GRACIOUS SAVIOUR, HOLY SHEPHERD

  Gracious Saviour, holy Shepherd,
    Little ones are dear to Thee;
  Gathered with Thine arms, and carried
    In Thy bosom, may they be
  Sweetly, fondly, safely tended,
    From all want and danger free.

  Let Thy holy words instruct them;
    Fill their minds with heavenly light;
  Let Thy love and grace constrain them
    To approve whate'er is right;
  Let them feel Thy yoke is easy,
    Let them prove Thy burden light.

  Taught to lisp Thy holy praises
    Which on earth Thy children sing,
  With both lips and hearts, unfeigned,
    Glad thank-offering may they bring;
  Then with all Thy saints in glory
    Join to praise their Lord and King.
                      --_Jane E. Leeson and J. Whittemore_.


{314}

IN HEAVENLY LOVE ABIDING

  In heavenly love abiding,
    No change my heart shall fear,
  And safe is such confiding,
    For nothing changes here.
  The storm may roar without me,
    My heart may low be laid;
  But God is round about me,
    And can I be dismayed?

  Wherever He may guide me,
    No want shall turn me back;
  My Shepherd is beside me,
    And nothing can I lack.
  His wisdom ever waketh,
    His sight is never dim,
  He knows the way He taketh,
    And I will walk with Him.

  Green pastures are before me,
    Which yet I have not seen;
  Bright skies will soon be o'er me,
    Where darkest clouds have been.
  My hope I cannot measure,
    My path to life is free;
  My Saviour has my treasure,
    And He will walk with me.
                               --_Anna L. Waring_.

{315}

THE KING OF LOVE

  The King of love my Shepherd is,
    Whose goodness faileth never;
  I nothing lack if I am His,
    And He is mine forever.

  Where streams of living water flow
    My ransomed soul He leadeth,
  And where the verdant pastures grow,
    With food celestial feedeth.

  Perverse and foolish oft I strayed,
    But yet in love He sought me,
  And on His shoulder gently laid,
   And home, rejoicing, brought me.

  In death's dark vale I fear no ill
    With Thee, dear Lord, beside me;
  Thy rod and staff my comfort still,
    Thy cross before to guide me.

  And so, through all the length of days
    Thy goodness faileth never;
  Good Shepherd, may I sing Thy praise
    Within Thy house forever.
                                --_Sir H. W. Baker_.

{316}

{317}

PRAYERS FOR LITTLE CHILDREN

{318}

{319}

PRAYERS FOR LITTLE CHILDREN

  Our Father which art in heaven,
  Hallowed be Thy name.
  Thy kingdom come.
  Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on earth.
  Give us this day our daily bread.
  And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.
  And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.
  For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever.
     AMEN.


  Jesus, take this heart of mine,
  Make it pure, and only Thine.
  I Thy little child would be,
  Help me, Lord, to live for Thee. AMEN.

  I thank Thee, Lord, for quiet rest,
    And for Thy care of me;
  Oh, let me through this day be blest,
    And kept from harm by Thee.
  Oh, let me thank Thee, kind Thou art
    To children such as I,
  Give me a gentle, loving heart;
    Be Thou my friend on high. AMEN.
                         --_Beginner's Reading Book_.


  Dear Lord, for these three things I pray:
    To know Thee more clearly,
    To love Thee more dearly,
    To follow Thee more nearly.
  Every day.   AMEN.


{320}

  Father in heaven, help Thy little children
    To love and serve Thee throughout this day.
  Help us to be truthful, help us to be kindly,
    That we may please Thee in all we do or say.

  Dear Lord, we pray Thee, keep Thy little children
    From doing wrong throughout this happy day.
  Hear our morning promises. Father, help us keep them,
    That we may please Thee in all we do or say.     AMEN.


  For Jesus Christ, the children's friend,
    We thank Thee, heavenly Father.
  For Jesus Christ, who keeps us to the end,
    We thank Thee, heavenly Father.           AMEN.


  Father, we thank Thee for the night,
    And for the pleasant morning light;
  For rest and food and loving care,
    And all that makes the day so fair.

  Help us to do the things we should,
    To be to others kind and good;
  In all we do in work or play,
    To grow more loving every day.      AMEN.


  Dear Lord, we thank Thee for Thy care,
    And all Thy mercy sends;
  For food we eat, the clothes we wear,
    Our health and home and friends.       AMEN.

{321}{322}

[Illustration]
  THE SOUL'S AWAKENING
  By James Sant (1820- )

  "Can a little child like me,
  Thank the Father fittingly?
  Yes, oh, yes,--be good and true,
  Patient, kind in all you do,
  Love the Lord and do your part,
  Learn to say with all your heart,--
    Father, we thank Thee;
    Father in heaven, we thank Thee."
                                   --_Mary Mapes Dodge_
[End illustration]


{323}

  Loving Jesus, meek and mild,
  Look upon a little child.
  Make me gentle as Thou art,
  Come and live within my heart.

  Take my childish hand in Thine,
  Guide these little feet of mine,
  And the world shall ever see
  Christ, the holy child, in me.       AMEN.


  Lord, though Thy home is in the sky,
    Thou art not far away;
  Thou lookest down with loving eye
    When little children pray.

  We thank Thee for Thy tender care,
    And for Thy precious love,
  For all the beauty Thou hast made
    Of earth and heaven above.          AMEN.


  Jesus, tender Shepherd, hear me;
    Bless Thy little lamb to-night.
  Through the darkness be Thou near me;
    Keep me safe till morning light.

  All this day Thy hand has led me,
    And I thank Thee for Thy care;
  Thou hast warmed me, clothed and fed me,
    Listen to my evening prayer.

  Let my sins be all forgiven,
    Bless the friends I love so well;
  Take us all at last to heaven,
    Happy there with Thee to dwell.     AMEN.


{324}

My Father in heaven, I thank Thee for my many blessings. I love Thee
very much. Help me to love Thee more and to obey Thee better. Forgive
all my sins, I pray Thee. Give me good thoughts. Give me
understanding. Bless all my friends and keep them and me, both now and
forever.   AMEN.
             --_By courtesy of the Clarke School, Northampton, Mass_.


A CHILD'S GRACE

  Some hae meat and canna eat,
    And some wad eat that want it;
  But we hae meat and we can eat,
    And sae the Lord be thankit.   AMEN.
                                         --_Robert Burns_.


GRACE FOR A CHILD

  Here, a little child, I stand,
  Heaving up my either hand;
  Cold as paddocks though they be,
  Here I lift them up to Thee,
  For a benison to fall
  On our meat and on us all.   AMEN.
                                      --_Robert Herrick_.

{325}

OLD TIME VERSES FOR LITTLE CHILDREN

{326}

{327}

AGAINST IDLENESS AND MISCHIEF

  How doth the little busy bee
    Improve each shining hour,
  And gather honey all the day
    From every opening flower!

  How skillfully she builds her cell!
    How neat she spreads the wax!
  And labors hard to store it well.
    With the sweet food she makes.

  In works of labor or of skill
    I would be busy, too:
  For Satan finds some mischief still
    For idle hands to do.

  In books, or work, or healthful play,
    Let my first years be pass'd;
  That I may give for every day
    Some good account at last.
                                --_Isaac Watts_.


{328}

AGAINST PRIDE IN CLOTHES

  How proud we are! how fond to show
  Our clothes, and call them rich and new,
  When the poor sheep and silkworm wore
  That very clothing long before.

  The tulip and the butterfly
  Appear in gayer coats than I;
  Let me be dress'd fine as I will,
  Flies, worms, and flowers exceed me still.
  Then will I set my heart to find
  Inward adornings of the mind;
  Knowledge and virtue, truth and grace!
  These are the robes of richest dress.
  No more shall worms with me compare,
  This is the raiment angels wear;
  The Son of God, when here below,
  Put on this best apparel, too.

  It never fades, it ne'er grows old,
  Nor fears the rain, nor moth, nor mould;
  It takes no spot, but still refines;
  The more 't is worn the more it shines.
  In this on earth would I appear,
  Then go to heaven and wear it there;
  God will approve it in His sight,
  'Tis His own work and His delight.
                                     --_Isaac Watts_.


{329}

THE ANT, OR EMMET

  These emmets, how little they are in our eyes!
  We tread them to dust, and a troop of them dies,
    Without our regard or concern;
  Yet, as wise as we are, if we went to their school,
  There's many a sluggard and many a fool
    Some lessons of wisdom might learn.

  They wear not their time out in sleeping or play,
  But gather up corn in a sunshiny day,
    And for winter they lay up their stores;
  They manage their work in such regular forms
  One would think they foresaw all the frosts and the storms,
    And so brought their food within doors.

  But I have less sense than a poor creeping ant
  If I take not due care for the things I shall want,
    Nor provide against dangers in time;
  When death or old age shall once stare in my face,
  What a wretch shall I be in the end of my days
    If I trifle a way all their prime!

  Now, while my strength and my youth are in bloom,
  Let me think what shall serve me when sickness shall come,
    And pray that my sins be forgiven;
  Let me read in good books, and believe, and obey,
  That, when death turns me out of this cottage of clay,
    I may dwell in a palace in heaven.
                                           --_Isaac Watts_.


{330}

A MORNING SONG

  My God, who makes the sun to know
    His proper hour to rise,
  And, to give light to all below,
    Doth send him round the skies.

  When from the chambers of the east
    His morning race begins,
  He never tires, nor stops to rest,
    But round the world he shines.

  So, like the sun, would I fulfill
    The business of the day;
  Begin my work betimes, and still
    March on my heavenly way.

  Give me, O Lord, Thine early grace,
    Nor let my soul complain,
  That the young morning of my days
    Has all been spent in vain.
                                    --_Isaac Watts_.

{331}{332}

[Illustration]
  MADONNA OF THE ANGELS
  By Adolph Bouguereau (1825-1905)

  "The mother with the Child,
    Whose tender winning arts
  Have to His little arms beguiled
    So many wounded hearts."
                                   --_Matthew Arnold_
[End illustration]

{333}

AN EVENING SONG

  And now another day is gone,
    I'll sing my Maker's praise;
  My comforts every hour make known
    His providence and grace.

  But how my childhood runs to waste!
    My sins, how great their sum!
  Lord, give me pardon for the past,
    And strength for days to come.

  I lay my body down to sleep,
    Let angels guard my head;
  And, through the hours of darkness, keep
    Their watch around my bed.

  With cheerful heart I close my eyes,
    Since Thou wilt not remove;
  And in the morning let me rise,
    Rejoicing in Thy love.
                                     --_Isaac Watts_.


{334}

THE SLUGGARD

  'T is the voice of the Sluggard: I heard him complain,
  "You have waked me too soon! I must slumber again!"
  As a door on its hinges, so he on his bed
  Turns his sides, and his shoulders, and his heavy head.

  "A little more sleep and a little more slumber!"
  Thus he wastes half his days and his hours without number;
  And when he gets up he sits folding his hands,
  Or walks about sauntering, or trifling he stands.

  I pass'd by his garden and saw the wild brier,
  The thorn and the thistle grow broader and higher;
  The clothes that hang on him are turning to rags,
  And his money still wastes, till he starves or he begs.

  I made him a visit, still hoping to find
  He had took better care for improving his mind:
  He told me his dreams, talked of eating and drinking;
  But he scarce reads his Bible, and never loves thinking.

  Said I then to my heart, "Here's a lesson for me!
  That man's but a picture of what I might be;
  But thanks to my friends for their care in my breeding,
  Who have taught me betimes to love working and reading."
                                                   --_Isaac Watts_.


{335}{336}

[Illustration]
  THE DIVINE SHEPHERD
  By Murillo (1618-1682)
[End illustration]


{337}

PRAISE FOR MERCIES, SPIRITUAL AND TEMPORAL

  Whene'er I take my walks abroad,
    How many poor I see!
  What shall I render to the Lord
    For all His gifts to me!

  Not more than others I deserve,
    Yet God hath given me more;
  For I have food, while others starve,
    Or beg from door to door.

  How many children in the street
    Half naked I behold!
  While I am clothed from head to feet
    And cover'd from the cold.

  While some poor wretches scarce can tell
    Where they may lay their head,
  I have a home wherein to dwell,
    And rest upon my bed.

  While others early learn to swear,
    And curse, and lie, and steal;
  Lord, I am taught Thy name to fear,
    And do Thy holy will.

  Are these Thy favors, day by day,
    To me above the rest?
  Then let me love Thee more than they,
    And try to serve Thee best.
                                     --_Isaac Watts_.

{338}

THE ROSE

  How fair is the Rose! What a beautiful flower!
    The glory of April and May;
  But the leaves are beginning to fade in an hour,
    And they wither and die in a day.

  Yet the Rose has one powerful virtue to boast,
    Above all the flowers of the field!
  When its leaves are all dead and fine colors are lost,
    Still how sweet a perfume it will yield!

  So frail is the youth and the beauty of man,
    Though they bloom and look gay like the Rose;
  But all our fond care to preserve them is vain,
    Time kills them as fast as he goes.

  Then I'll not be proud of my youth and my beauty,
    Since both of them wither and fade;
  But gain a good name by well doing my duty:
    This will scent like a rose when I'm dead.
                                                --_Isaac Watts_.

{339}{340}

[Illustration]
  MADONNA AND CHILD
  By Carlo Dolci (1616-1686)
[End illustration]


{341}

PRAISE FOR CREATION AND PROVIDENCE

  I sing th' Almighty power of God,
    That made the mountains rise,
  That spread the flowing seas abroad,
    And built the lofty skies.

  I sing the wisdom that ordain'd
    The sun to rule the day;
  The moon shines full at His command,
    And all the stars obey.

  I sing the goodness of the Lord,
    That fill'd the earth with food;
  He formed the creatures with His word,
    And then pronounced them good.

  Lord, how Thy wonders are display'd
    Where'er I turn mine eye!
  If I survey the ground I tread,
    Or gaze upon the sky!

  There's not a plant or flower below
    But makes Thy glories known:
  And clouds arise, and tempests blow,
    By order from Thy throne.

  Creatures (as numerous as they be)
    Are subject to Thy care:
  There's not a place where we can flee,
    But God is present there.
                                        --_Isaac Watts_.


{342}

A GENERAL SONG OF PRAISE TO GOD

  How glorious is our heavenly King,
    Who reigns above the sky!
  How shall a child presume to sing
    His dreadful majesty?

  How great His power is none can tell,
    Nor think how large His grace:
  Not men below, nor saints that dwell
    On high before His face.

  Not angels, that stand round the Lord,
    Can search His secret will;
  But they perform His heavenly word,
    And sing His praises still.

  Then let me join this holy tram,
    And my first offerings bring;
  The eternal God will not disdain
    To hear an infant sing.

  My heart resolves, my tongue obeys,
    And angels shall rejoice,
  To hear their mighty Maker's praise
    Sound from a feeble voice.
                                    --_Isaac Watts_.


{343}

INNOCENT PLAY

  Abroad in the meadows, to see the young lambs
  Run sporting about by the side of their dams,
    With fleeces so clean and so white;
  Or a nest of young doves in a large open cage,
  When they play all in love, without anger or rage,
    How much we may learn from the sight!

  If we had been ducks, we might dabble in mud;
  Or dogs, we might play till it ended in blood:
    So foul and so fierce are their natures;
  But Thomas and William, and such pretty names,
  Should be cleanly and harmless as doves or as lambs,
    Those lovely, sweet innocent creatures.

  Not a thing that we do, nor a word that we say,
  Should injure another in jesting or play,
    For he's still in earnest that's hurt:
  How rude are the boys that throw pebbles and mire;
  There's none but a madman will fling about fire,
    And tell you, "'T is all but in sport!"
                                            --_Isaac Watts_.


{344}

AGAINST QUARRELING AND FIGHTING

  Let dogs delight to bark and bite,
    For God hath made them so;
  Let bears and lions growl and fight,
    For 't is their nature, too:

  But, children, you should never let
    Such angry passions rise;
  Your little hands were never made
    To tear each other's eyes.

  Let love through all your actions run,
    And all your words be mild;
  Live like the blessed Virgin's Son,
    That sweet and lovely Child.

  His soul was gentle as a lamb;
    And as His stature grew,
  He grew in favor both with man
    And God, His Father, too.

  Now, Lord of all, He reigns above,
    And from His heavenly throne
  He sees what children dwell in love,
    And marks them for His own.
                                  --_Isaac Watts_.

{345}

LOVE BETWEEN BROTHERS AND SISTERS

  Whatever brawls disturb the street,
    There should be peace at home;
  Where sisters dwell and brothers meet,
    Quarrels should never come.

  Birds in their little nests agree,
    And 't is a shameful sight,
  When children of one family
    Fall out, and chide, and fight.

  Hard names at first, and threatening words
    That are but noisy breath,
  May grow to clubs and naked swords,
    To murder and to death.

  The devil tempts one mother's son
    To rage against another;
  So wicked Cain was hurried on
    Till he had killed his brother.

  The wise will make their anger cool,
    At least before 't is night;
  But in the bosom of a fool
    It burns till morning light.

  Pardon, O Lord, our childish rage,
    Our little brawls remove;
  That, as we grow to riper age,
    Our hearts may all be love.
                                  --_Isaac Watts_.


{346}

A SUMMER EVENING

  How fine has the day been! How bright was the sun!
  How lovely and joyful the course that he run;
  Though he rose in a mist when his race he begun,
    And there follow'd some droppings of rain:
  But now the fair traveler's come to the West,
  His rays are all gold, and his beauties are best;
  He paints the skies gay as he sinks to his rest,
    And foretells a bright rising again.

  Just such is the Christian. His course he begins,
  Like the sun in the mist, when he mourns for his sins,
  And melts into tears; then he breaks out and shines,
    And travels his heavenly way:
  But when he comes nearer to finish his race
  Like a fine setting sun, he looks richer in grace,
  And gives a sure hope, at the end of his days,
    Of rising in brighter array.
                                          --_Isaac Watts_.

{347}{348}

[Illustration]
  THE PITTI MADONNA
  By Murillo (1618-1682)

  "The Pitti Madonna is one of this sweet company, and perhaps the
  loveliest of them all. Both she and her beautiful boy are full of
  gentle earnestness, and if they are too simple-minded to realize
  what is in store for them, they are none the less ready to do the
  Father's will."--_Hurll_
[End illustration]


{349}

SUMMER

  The heats of Summer come hastily on,
    The fruits are transparent and clear;
  The buds and the blossoms of April are gone,
    And the deep colored cherries appear.

  The blue sky above us is bright and serene,
    No cloud on its bosom remains;
  The woods and the fields and the hedges are green,
    And the haycock smells sweet from the plains.

  But, hark! from the woodlands what sound do I hear?
    The voices of pleasure so gay;
  The merry young haymakers cheerfully bear
    The heat of the hot summer's day.

  While some with bright scythe, singing shrill to the tone,
    The tall grass and buttercups mow,
  Some spread it with rakes, and by others 't is thrown
    Into sweet smelling cocks in a row.

  Then since joy and glee with activity join,
    This moment to labor I'll rise;
  While the idle love best in the shade to recline,
    And waste precious time as it flies.
                                            --_Jane Taylor_,


{350}

[Illustration]
  Music for "The Star"
[End illustration]


{351}

THE STAR

  Twinkle, twinkle, little star
  How I wonder what you are!
  Up above the world so high,
  Like a diamond in the sky.

  When the blazing sun is gone,
  When he nothing shines upon,
  Then you show your little light,
  Twinkle, twinkle, all the night.

  Then the traveler in the dark
  Thanks you for your tiny spark.
  He could not see which way to go,
  If you did not twinkle so.

  In the dark blue sky you keep,
  And often through my curtains peep;
  For you never shut your eye
  Till the sun is in the sky.

  As your bright and tiny spark
  Lights the traveler in the dark,
  Though I know not what you are,
  Twinkle, twinkle, little star.
                                     --_Jane Taylor_.


{352}

THE FLOWER AND THE LADY,
ABOUT GETTING UP

  Pretty flower, tell me why
    All your leaves do open wide,
  Every morning, when on high
    The noble sun begins to ride.

  This is why, my lady fair,
    If you would the reason know,
  For betimes the pleasant air
    Very cheerfully doth blow.

  And the birds on every tree
    Sing a merry, merry tune,
  And the busy honey bee
    Comes to suck my sugar soon.

  This is, then, the reason why
    I my little leaves undo.
  Little lady, wake and try
    If I have not told you true.
                                    --_Jane Taylor_.


{353}

THE FIELD DAISY

  I'm a pretty little thing,
  Always coming with the spring.
  In the meadows green I'm found,
  Peeping just above the ground;
  And my stalk is covered flat
  With a white and yellow hat.

  Little Mary, when you pass
  Lightly o'er the tender grass,
  Skip about, but do not tread
  On my bright but lowly head;
  For I always seem to say,
  "Surely winter's gone away."
                                    --_Jane Taylor_.


{354}

THE LITTLE CHILD

  I'm a very little child,
    Only just have learned to speak;
  So I should be very mild,
    Very tractable and meek.

  If my dear mamma were gone,
    Oh, I think that I should die,
  When she left me all alone,
    Such a little thing as I.

  Now what service can I do,
    To repay her for her care?
  For I cannot even sew,
    Nor make anything I wear.

  Well, then, I will always try
    To be very good and mild;
  Never now be cross or cry,
    Like a fretful little child.

  How unkind it is to fret,
    And my dear mamma to tease,
  When my lesson I should get,
    Sitting still upon her knees!

  Oh, how can I serve her so,
    Such a good mamma as this?
  Round her neck my arms I'll throw,
    And her gentle cheek I'll kiss.

  Then I'll tell her that I will
    Try not any more to fret her,
  And as I grow older still,
    Try to show I love her better.
                                     --_Jane Taylor_.

{355}{356}

[Illustration]
  THE "GRANDUCA MADONNA"
  By Raphael

  "Around the mighty master came
    The marvels which his pencil wrought,
  Those miracles of power, whose fame
    Is wide as human thought.

  "There drooped thy more than mortal face,
    O Mother, beautiful and mild!
  Enfolding in one dear embrace
    Thy Saviour and thy Child!"
                                 --_John Greenleaf Whittier_
[End illustration]

{357}

GOING TO BED

  The moon is up, the sun is gone,
  Now nothing here he shines upon;
  The pretty birds are in their nest,
  The cows are lying down to rest,
  Or wait, beneath the farmer's shed,
  To hear the merry milkmaid's tread.

  The pleasant flowers that opened wide,
  And smelt so sweet at morning-tide,
  Fold up their leaves, as if to say,
  "Good-by, we'll come another day;
  And now, dear little lady, you
  Must sleep, as we shall seem to do."

  Yes,--here's my pretty bed, and I
  Will kiss mamma, and say "by, by!"
  So nice and warm, so smooth and white,
  So comfortable all the night!
  And when my little prayer is said,
  How could I cry to go to bed?
                                      --_Jane Taylor_.


{358}

TIME TO GET UP

  The cock, who soundly sleeps at night,
  Rises with the morning light;
  Very loud and shrill he crows;
  Then the sleeping ploughman knows
  He must rise and hasten, too,
  All his morning work to do.

  And the little lark does fly
  To the middle of the sky.
  You may hear his merry tune,
  In the morning very soon;
  For he does not like to rest
  Idly in his downy nest.

  While the cock is crowing shrill,
  Leave my little bed I will,
  And I'll rise to hear the lark,
  Now it is no longer dark.
  'T would be a pity there to stay,
  When 't is bright and pleasant day.
                                       --_Jane Taylor_.


{359}

THE SNOWDROP

  Now the spring is coming on,
  Now the snow and ice are gone,
  Come, my little snowdrop root,
  Will you not begin to shoot?

  Ah! I see your pretty head
  Peeping on the flower bed,
  Looking all so green and gay
  On this fine and pleasant day.

  For the mild south wind doth blow,
  And hath melted all the snow,
  And the sun shines out so warm,
  You need not fear another storm.

  So come up, you pretty thing,
  Just to tell us it is spring,
  Hanging down your modest head
  On my pleasant flower bed.
                                  --_Jane Taylor_.

{360}

[Illustration]
  Music for "Getting Up"
[End illustration]

{361}

GETTING UP

  Now, my baby, ope your eye,
  For the sun is in the sky,
  And he's peeping once again
  Through the frosty windowpane.
  Little baby, do not keep
  Any longer fast asleep.

  There now, sit in mother's lap,
  That she may untie your cap;
  For the little strings have got
  Twisted into such a knot.
  Yes, you know you've been at play
  With the bobbin as your lay.

  There it comes, now let us see
  Where your petticoats can be;
  Oh, they're in the window seat,
  Folded very smooth and neat;
  When my baby older grows
  She shall double up her clothes.

  Now one pretty little kiss,
  For dressing you so nice as this.
  But before we go downstairs,
  Don't forget to say your prayers,
  For 't is God who loves to keep
  Little babies fast asleep.
                                    --_Jane Taylor_.


{362}

A FINE THING

  Who am I with noble face,
  Shining in a clear blue place?
  If to look at me you try,
  I shall blind your little eye.

  When my noble face I show,
  Over yonder mountain blue,
  All the clouds away do ride,
  And the dusky night beside.

  Then the clear wet dews I dry
  With the look of my bright eye;
  And the little birds awake,
  Many a merry tune to make.

  Cowslips, then, and harebells blue,
  And lily-cups their leaves undo;
  For they shut themselves up tight,
  All the dark and foggy night.

  Then the busy people go,
  Some to plow, and some to sow;
  When I leave, their work is done,
  Guess if I am not the Sun.
                                    --_Jane Taylor_.

{363}{364}

[Illustration]
  MADONNA AND CHILD
  By Georg Papperitz
[End illustration]


{365}

A PRETTY THING

  Who am I that shines so bright
  With my pretty yellow light,
  Peeping through your curtains gray?
  Tell me, little girl, I pray.

  When the sun is gone, I rise
  In the very silent skies;
  And a cloud or two doth skim
  Round about my silver rim.

  All the little stars do seem
  Hidden by my brighter beam;
  And among them I do ride,
  Like a queen in all her pride.

  Then the reaper goes along,
  Singing forth a merry song,
  While I light the shaking leaves
  And the yellow harvest sheaves.

  Little girl, consider well,
  Who this simple tale doth tell;
  And I think you'll guess it soon,
  For I only am the Moon.
                                   --_Ann Taylor_.


{366}

THE SHEEP

  Lazy sheep, pray tell me why
  In the pleasant fields you lie,
  Eating grass or daisies white,
  From the morning till the night?
  Everything can something do,
  But what kind of use are you?

  Nay, my little master, nay,
  Do not serve me so, I pray.
  Don't you see the wool that grows
  On my back to make your clothes?
  Cold, and very cold you'd be,
  If you had not wool from me.

  True, it seems a pleasant thing
  To nip the daisies in the spring;
  But many chilly nights I pass
  On the cold and dewy grass,
  Or pick a scanty dinner where
  All the common's brown and bare.

  Then the farmer comes at last,
  When the merry spring is past,
  And cuts my woolly coat away,
  To warm you in the winter's day.
  Little master, this is why
  In the pleasant fields I lie.
                                    --_Jane Taylor_.

{367}{368}

[Illustration]
  THE WOUNDED LAMB
  By Von Bremen

  "How think ye? if any man have a hundred sheep, and one of them be
  gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and go unto the
  mountains, and seek that which goeth astray? And if so be that he
  find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth over it more than over
  the ninety and nine which have not gone astray. Even so it is not
  the will of your Father who is in heaven, that one of these little
  ones should perish."--_The Words of Jesus_
[End illustration]


{369}

THE COW

  Thank you, pretty cow, that made
  Pleasant milk to soak my bread,
  Every day, and every night,
  Warm, and fresh, and sweet, and white.

  Do not chew the hemlock rank,
  Growing on the weedy bank;
  But the yellow cowslips eat,
  They perhaps will make it sweet.

  Where the purple violet grows,
  Where the bubbling water flows,
  Where the grass is fresh and fine,
  Pretty cow, go there and dine.
                                    --_Jane Taylor_.


{370}

[Illustration]
  Music for "Going to Bed".
[End illustration]


{371}

GOING TO BED

  Little baby, lay your head
  On your pretty cradle-bed;
  Shut your eye-peeps, now the day
  And the light are gone away.
  All the clothes are tucked in tight;
  Little baby dear, good night!

  Yes, my darling, well I know
  How the bitter wind doth blow;
  And the winter's snow and rain
  Patter on the window pane.
  But they cannot come in here,
  To my little baby dear;

  For the window shutteth fast,
  Till the stormy night is past;
  Or the curtains we may spread
  Round about her cradle-bed.
  So, till morning shineth bright,
  Little baby dear, good night!
                                    --_Jane Taylor_.


{372}

BABY AND MAMMA

  What a little thing am I!
  Hardly higher than the table.
  I can eat, and play, and cry,
  But to work I am not able.

  Nothing in the world I know,
  But mamma will try and show me.
  Sweet mamma, I love her so,
  She's so very kind unto me.

  And she sets me on her knee,
  Very often, for some kisses.
  Oh! how good I'll try to be,
  For such a dear mamma as this is.
                                       --_Jane Taylor_.

{373}{374}

[Illustration]
  CHILD WITH DOG
  Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)
[End illustration]


{375}

THE TEMPEST

  See the dark vapors cloud the sky,
    The thunder rumbles round and round;
  The lightning's flash begins to fly,
    Big drops of rain bedew the ground:
  The frightened birds with ruffled wing,
    Fly through the air and cease to sing.

  'T is God who on the tempest rides
    And with a word directs the storm,
  'T is at His nod the wind subsides,
    Or heaps of heavy vapors form.
  In fire and cloud He walks the sky,
    And lets His stores of tempest fly.
                                         --_Jane Taylor_.


{376}

THE VIOLET

  Down in a green and shady bed
    A modest violet grew;
  Its stalk was bent, it hung its head,
    As if to hide from view.

  And yet it was a lovely flower,
    Its colors bright and fair.
  It might have graced a rosy bower,
    Instead of hiding there.

  Yet there it was content to bloom,
    In modest tints arrayed;
  And there diffused its sweet perfume,
    Within the silent shade.

  Then let me to the valley go,
    This pretty flower to see,
  That I may also learn to grow
    In sweet humility.
                                --_Jane Taylor_.

{377}{378}

[Illustration]
  SHEEP
  By Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899)

  One of the most famous artists of the world, born at Bordeaux,
  France, March 22, 1822, died 1899. Her best known pictures are the
  "Horse Fair" and "Tillage in Nivernais." During the siege of Paris
  her studio was saved by the special order of the crown prince of
  Prussia. She received the cross of the Legion of Honor in 1865
[End illustration]


{379}

MAY DAY SONG

  April's gone, the king of showers;
  May is come, the queen of flowers;
  Give me something, gentles dear,
  For a blessing on the year.
  For my garland give, I pray,
  Words and smiles of cheerful May:
  Birds of spring, to you we come,
  Let us pick a little crumb.
                                   --_John Keble_.


{380}

THE LAMB

  Little lamb, who made thee?
  Dost thou know who made thee,
  Gave thee life and bade thee feed
  By the stream and o'er the mead;
  Gave thee clothing of delight,
  Softest clothing, woolly, bright;
  Gave thee such a tender voice,
  Making all the vales rejoice?
  Little lamb, who made thee?
  Dost thou know who made thee?

  Little lamb, I'll tell thee;
  Little lamb, I'll tell thee.
  He is called by thy name,
  For He calls Himself a Lamb.
  He is meek and He is mild,
  He became a little child.
  I a child and thou a lamb,
  We are called by His name.
  Little lamb, God bless thee.
  Little lamb, God bless thee.
                                  --_William Blake_.

{381}{382}

[Illustration]
  THE AGE OF INNOCENCE
  Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)
[End illustration]


{383}

SOME MURMUR WHEN THEIR SKY IS CLEAR

  Some murmur when their sky is clear
    And wholly bright to view,
  If one small speck of dark appear
    In their great heaven of blue.

  And some with thankful love are filled,
    If but one streak of light,
  One ray of God's good mercy gild
    The darkness of their night.

  In palaces are hearts that ask,
    In discontent and pride,
  Why life is such a dreary task
    And all good things denied.

  And hearts in poorest huts admire
    How love has in their aid,
  Love that not ever seems to tire,
    Such rich provision made.
                             --_Archbishop Trench_.


{384}

LITTLE DROPS OF WATER

  Little drops of water,
    Little grains of sand,
  Make the mighty ocean,
    And the pleasant land.

  Then the little minutes,
    Humble though they be,
  Make the mighty ages
    Of eternity.
                            --_Ebenezer Cobham Brewer_.

{385}

CHRISTMAS HYMNS

{386}

{387} {388}

[Illustration]
  THE ANNOUNCEMENT TO THE SHEPHERDS
  By Bernard Plockhorst (1825- )

  "And there were shepherds in the same country abiding in the field,
  and keeping watch by night over their flock. And an angel of the
  Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about
  them: and they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, 'Be
  not afraid; for behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy which
  shall be to all the people: for there is born to you this day in the
  city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And this is the
  sign unto you; Ye shall find a babe wrapped in swaddling clothes,
  and lying in a manger.'

  "And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly
  host praising God, and saying,--

    'Glory to God in the highest,
    And on earth peace among men in whom he is well pleased.'"
                                            --_Luke 2:8-14_


{389}

CHRISTMAS LULLABY

  Sleep, baby, sleep. The mother sings:
  Heaven's angels kneel and fold their wings.
    Sleep, baby, sleep!

  With swaths of scented hay Thy bed
  By Mary's hand at eve was spread.
    Sleep, baby, sleep!

  At midnight came the shepherds, they
  Whom seraphs wakened by the way.
    Sleep, baby, sleep!

  And three kings from the East afar,
  Ere dawn, came, guided by the star.
    Sleep, baby, sleep!

  They brought Thee gifts of gold and gems,
  Pure orient pearls, rich diadems.
    Sleep, baby, sleep!

  But Thou who liest slumbering there,
  Art King of kings, earth, ocean, air.
    Sleep, baby, sleep!

  Sleep, baby, sleep. The shepherds sing:
  Through heaven, through earth, hosannas ring.
    Sleep, baby, sleep!
                                    --_John Addington Symonds_.


{390}

THE STAR

  They followed the star the whole night through;
  As it moved with the midnight, they moved, too;
  And cared not whither it led, nor knew,
    Till Christmas day in the morning.

  We have followed the star a whole long year,
  And watched it beckon, now faint, now clear,
  And now it stands still as we draw near
    To Christmas day in the morning.

  And just as the wise men did of old,
  In the hush of the winter's dawning, cold,
  We come to the stable, and we behold
    The Child on the Christmas morning.

  And just as the wise men deemed it meet
  To offer Him gold and perfumes sweet,
  We would lay our gifts at His holy feet,
    Our gifts on Christmas morning.

  O Babe, once laid in the oxen's bed,
  With never a pillow for Thy head,
  Now throned in the highest heaven instead,
    O Lord of the Christmas morning!

  Because we have known and have loved Thy star
  And have followed it long and have followed it far
  From the land where the shadows and darkness are
    To find Thee on Christmas morning,--

  Accept the gifts we dare to bring,
  Though worthless and poor the offering,
  And help our souls to rise and sing
    On Christmas day in the morning.

{391}{392}

[Illustration]
  MADONNA AND CHILD
  By Sichel

  "All my heart this night rejoices
    As I hear, far and near,
  Sweetest angel voices:
    'Christ is born!' their choirs are singing,
  Till the air everywhere
    Now with joy is ringing."
                                      --_Paul Gerhardt_
[End illustration]


{393}

A CHRISTMAS CAROL

  What sweeter music can we bring,
  Than a carol for to sing
  The birth of this our heavenly King?
  Awake the voice! A wake the string!
  Heart, ear, and eye, and everything
  Awake! the while the active finger
  Runs divisions with the singer.

  Dark and dull night, fly hence away,
  And give the honor to this day,
  That sees December turned to May.
  If we may ask the reason, say
  The why, and wherefore all things here
  Seem like the springtime of the year?

  Why does the chilling winter's morn
  Smile like a field beset with corn?
  Or smell like to a mead new shorn,
  Thus on the sudden? Come and see
  The cause why things thus fragrant be:
  'Tis He is born, whose quickening birth
  Gives light and luster, public mirth,
  To heaven and the under earth.


{394}


THE GUIDING STAR

  As with gladness men of old
  Did the guiding star behold,
  As with joy they hailed its light,
  Leading onward, beaming bright;
  So, most gracious Lord, may we
  Evermore be led by Thee.

  As with joyful steps they sped
  To that lowly manger bed,
  There to bend the knee before
  Him whom heaven and earth adore;
  So may we with willing feet
  Ever seek the mercy seat.

  As they offered gifts most rare
  At that manger rude and bare;
  So may we with holy joy,
  Pure and free from sin's alloy,
  All our costliest treasures bring,
  Christ, to Thee, our heavenly King.
                                      --_William C. Dix_.

{395}{396}

[Illustration]
THE HOLY NIGHT
By Correggio (1493-1534)

  Antonio Allegri Correggio, named from the Italian town in which he
  was born

  "We sate among the stalls at Bethlehem;
  The dumb kine from their fodder turning there,
  Softened their horned faces
  To almost human gazes
  Toward the newly born.
  The simple shepherds from the starlit brooks
  Brought visionary looks,
  As yet in their astonied hearing, rung
  The strange, sweet angel tongue;
  The Magi from the East in sandals worn
  Knelt reverent, sweeping round
  With long pale beards, their gifts upon the ground,
  The incense, myrrh, and gold,
  These baby hands are impotent to hold;
  So let all earthlies and celestials wait
  Upon thy royal state:
  Sleep, O my kingly One!"
                                  --_Elizabeth Barrett Browning_
[End illustration]


{397}

A CHRISTMAS CAROL

  God rest ye, merry gentlemen; let nothing you dismay,
  For Jesus Christ, our Saviour, was born on Christmas day.
  The dawn rose red o'er Bethlehem, the stars shone through the gray,
  When Jesus Christ, our Saviour, was born on Christmas day.

  God rest ye, little children; let nothing you affright,
  For Jesus Christ, your Saviour, was born this happy night;
  Along the hills of Galilee the white flocks sleeping lay,
  When Christ, the child of Nazareth, was born on Christmas day.

  God rest ye, all good Christians; upon this blessed morn,
  The Lord of all good Christians was of a woman born:
  Now all your sorrows He doth heal, your sins He takes away;
  For Jesus Christ, our Saviour, was born on Christmas day.

                                           --_Dinah Maria Mulock_.


{398}

HAIL THE NIGHT! ALL HAIL THE MORN!

  Hail the night! All hail the morn!
  When the Prince of Peace was born;
  When, amid the watchful fold,
  Tidings good the angel told.

  Now our solemn chant we raise
  Duly to the Saviour's praise;
  Now with carol hymns we bless
  Christ the Lord, our Righteousness.

  While resounds the joyful cry,
  "Glory be to God on high,
  Peace on earth, good-will to men!"
  Gladly we respond "amen!"
                                --_Old German Carol_.

{399}{400}

[Illustration]
  THE NATIVITY

  "Some say that ever 'gainst that season comes,
  Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated,
  The bird of dawning singeth all night long;
  And then, they say, no spirit can walk abroad;
  The nights are wholesome; then no planets strike;
  No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm;
  So hallowed and so gracious is the time."
                                             --_Shakespeare_.
[End illustration]


{401}

THE CHRISTMAS TREE

  There's a wonderful tree, a wonderful tree,
  The happy children rejoice to see,
  Spreading its branches year by year,
  It comes from the forest to flourish here;
  Oh! this beautiful tree, with its branches wide,
  Is always blooming at Christmas-tide.

  'T is not alone in the summer's sheen
  Its boughs are broad and its leaves are green,
  It blooms for us when the wild winds blow,
  And earth is white with feathery snow:
  And this wonderful tree with its branches wide,
  Bears many a gift for the Christmas-tide.

  'T is all alight with its tapers' glow,
  That flash on the shining eyes below,
  And the strange sweet fruit on each laden bough
  Is all to be plucked by the gatherers now.
  Oh! this wonderful tree, with its branches wide,
  We hail it with joy at the Christmas-tide.

  And a voice is telling, its boughs among,
  Of the shepherds' watch and angels' song;
  Of a holy babe in a manger low,
  The beautiful story of long ago,
  When a radiant star threw its beams so wide
  To herald the earliest Christmas-tide.

  Then spread thy branches, wonderful tree,
  And bring some dainty gift to me,
  And fill my heart with a burning love
  To Him who came from His home above--
  From His beautiful home with the glorified,
  To give us the joys of the Christmas-tide.


{402}

A CHRISTMAS CAROL

  It chanced upon the merry, merry Christmas eve
    I went sighing past the church, across the moorland dreary,--
  "Oh! never sin and want and woe this earth will leave,
    And the bells but mock the wailing round, they sing so cheery.
  How long, O Lord, how long, before Thou come again?
    Still in cellar, and in garret, and on moorland dreary,
  The orphans moan, and widows weep, and poor men toil in vain,
    Till the earth is sick of hope deferred, though Christmas bells
       be cheery."

  Then arose a joyous clamor from the wild fowl on the mere,
    Beneath the stars, across the snow, like clear bells ringing,
  And a voice within cried, "Listen! Christmas carols even here!
    Though thou be dumb, yet o'er their work the stars and snows
       are singing.
  Blind! I live, I love, I reign; and all the nations through
    With the thunder of my judgments even now are ringing;
  Do thou fulfill thy work, but as yon wild fowl do,
    Thou wilt heed no less the wailing yet hear through it angels'
       singing."
                                              --_Charles Kingsley_.

{403}{404}

[Illustration]
  THE HOLY FAMILY
  By Carl Mueller

  "Ah, dearest Jesus, holy Child,
  Make Thee a bed, soft, undefiled,
  Within my heart that it may be,
  A quiet chamber kept for Thee.

  "My heart for very joy doth leap,
  My lips no more can silence keep;
  I, too, must sing with joyful tongue
  That sweetest ancient cradle song."
                                       --_Martin Luther_
[End illustration]


{405}

SONG OF THE ANGELS

  While shepherds watched their flocks by night,
    All seated on the ground,
  The angel of the Lord came down;
    And glory shone around.

  "Fear not," said he, for mighty dread
    Had seized their troubled minds;
  "Glad tidings of great joy I bring
    To you and all mankind.

  "To you, in David's town, this day,
    Is born of David's line,
  The Saviour, who is Christ the Lord;
    And this shall be the sign:

  "The heavenly babe you there shall find
    To human view displayed,
  All meanly wrapped in swathing bands
    And in a manger laid."

  Thus spoke the seraph, and forthwith
    Appeared a shining throng
  Of angels, praising God, and thus
    Addressed their joyful song:

  "All glory be to God on high,
    And to the earth be peace;
  Good-will henceforth from heaven to men
    Begin, and never cease."
                               --_Ancient Christmas Song_.


{406}

CAROL, SWEETLY CAROL

  Carol, sweetly carol,
    A Saviour born to-day;
  Bear the joyful tidings,
    Oh, bear them far away!
  Carol, sweetly carol,
    Till earth's remotest bound
  Shall hear the mighty chorus,
    And echo back the sound.


CHORUS.

  Carol, sweetly carol,
    Carol sweetly to-day;
  Bear the joyful tidings,
    Oh, bear them far away.


  Carol, sweetly carol,
    As when the angel throng,
  O'er the vales of Judah,
    Awoke the heavenly song:
  Carol, sweetly carol,
    Good will, and peace, and love,
  Glory in the highest
    To God who reigns above.

  Carol, sweetly carol,
    The happy Christmas time:
  Hark! the bells are pealing
    Their merry, merry chime:
  Carol, sweetly carol,
    Ye shining ones above,
  Sing in loudest numbers,
    Oh, sing redeeming love!


{407} {408}

[Illustration]
  THE COMING OF THE MAGI

  "'What means this glory round our feet,'
    The Magi mused, 'more bright than morn?'
  And voices chanted, clear and sweet,
    'To-day the Prince of Peace is born.'"
                                         --_James Russell Lowell_

  "Lo! star-led chiefs Assyrian odors bring,
    And bending Magi seek their Infant King."
                                               --_Heber_
[End illustration]


{409}

CRADLE HYMN

  Away in a manger, no crib for a bed,
  The little Lord Jesus laid down His head.
  The stars in the bright sky looked down where He lay--
  The little Lord Jesus asleep on the hay.

  The cattle are lowing, the baby awakes,
  But little Lord Jesus, no crying He makes.
  I love Thee, Lord Jesus, look down from the sky,
  And stay by my cradle till morning is nigh.
                                             --_Martin Luther_.

{410}

[Illustration]
  Music for "Cradle Hymn".
[End illustration]


{411}

CRADLE HYMN

  Hush, my dear, lie still and slumber;
    Holy angels guard thy bed;
  Heav'nly blessings without number
    Gently falling on thy head.

  Sleep, my babe, thy food and raiment,
    House and home, thy friends provide;
  All without thy care or payment,
    All thy wants are well supplied.

  How much better thou'rt attended
    Than the Son of God could be,
  When from heaven he descended,
    And became a child like thee.

  Soft and easy is thy cradle;
    Coarse and hard thy Saviour lay,
  When his birthplace was a stable,
    And his softest bed was hay.
                                      --_Isaac Watts_.


{412}

CHORUS

  We see Him come, and know Him ours,
  Who, with His sunshine and His showers,
  Turns all the patient ground to flowers.

  The Darling of the world is come,
  And fit it is we find a room
  To welcome Him. The nobler part
  Of all the house here, is the heart,

  Which we will give Him; and bequeath
  This holly, and this ivy wreath,
  To do Him honor, who's our King,
  And Lord of all this reveling.
                                      --_Robert Herrick_.


{413}{414}

[Illustration]
  THE ADORATION OF THE CHILDREN
  Gherado delle Notte

  "O come, all ye faithful, joyfully triumphant,
    To Bethlehem hasten now with glad accord,
  Lo! in a manger lies the King of angels;
    O come, let us adore Him, Christ the Lord"
[End illustration]


{415}

ONCE IN ROYAL DAVID'S CITY

  Once in royal David's city,
    Stood a lowly cattle shed,
  Where a mother hid her baby
    In a manger for his bed;
  Mary was that mother mild,
  Jesus Christ her little child.

  He came down to earth from heaven,
    Who is God and Lord of all,
  And His shelter was a stable,
    And His cradle was a stall:
  With the poor, and mean, and lowly,
  Lived on earth our Saviour holy.

  And thro' all His wondrous childhood,
    He would honor and obey,
  Love and watch the lowly maiden
    In whose gentle arms He lay;
  Christian children all must be
  Mild, obedient, good as He.

  For He is our childhood's pattern,
    Day by day like us He grew,
  He was little, weak and helpless,
    Tears and smiles like us He knew:
  And He feeleth for our sadness,
  And He shareth in our gladness.

  And our eyes at last shall see Him,
    Through His own redeeming love,
  For that Child so dear and gentle
    Is our Lord in heaven above:       {416}
  And He leads His children on
  To the place where He is gone.

  Not in that poor lowly stable,
    With the oxen standing by,
  We shall see Him; but in heaven,
    Set at God's right hand on high;
  When like stars His children crowned
  All in white shall wait around.
                                 --_Mrs. C. F. Alexander_.

{417}{418}

[Illustration]
  MADONNA AND CHILD

  "Thou didst leave Thy throne and Thy kingly crown
    When Thou camest to earth for me;
  But in Bethlehem's home there was found no room
    For Thy holy nativity.
  O come to my heart, Lord Jesus,
    There is room in my heart for Thee."
                                     --_Emily Elizabeth Elliott_.
[End illustration]


{419}

CALM ON THE LISTENING EAR OF NIGHT

  Calm on the listening ear of night
    Come heaven's melodious strains,
  Where wild Judea stretches far
    Her silver-mantled plains;
  Celestial choirs from courts above
    Shed sacred glories there;
  And angels with their sparkling lyres
    Make music on the air.

  The answering hills of Palestine
    Send back the glad reply,
  And greet from all their holy heights
    The Dayspring from on high.
  O'er the blue depths of Galilee
    There comes a holier calm;
  And Sharon waves in solemn praise,
    Her silent groves of palm.

  "Glory to God!" the lofty strain
    The realm of ether fills;
  How sweeps the song of solemn joy
    O'er Judah's sacred hills.
  "Glory to God!" the sounding skies
    Loud with their anthems ring:
  "Peace on the earth; good will to men,
    From heaven's eternal King."

  Light on thy hills, Jerusalem!
    The Saviour now is born!
  More bright on Bethlehem's joyous plains
    Breaks the first Christmas morn;         {420}
  And brighter on Moriah's brow,
    Crowned with her temple-spires,
  Which first proclaim the newborn light,
    Clothed with its orient fires.

  This day shall Christian tongues be mute,
    And Christian hearts be cold?
  O catch the anthem that from heaven
    O'er Judah's mountains rolled!
  When nightly burst from seraph-harps
    The high and solemn lay,--
  "Glory to God; on earth be peace;
    Salvation comes to-day!"
                                 --_Edmund Hamilton Sears_.

{421}

HYMNS AND POEMS FOR THE TWILIGHT HOUR

{422}

{423}

READY FOR BED

  Hark! the clock strikes from the steeple;
  Now good-night to all good people;
  Bed is ready to receive us;
  Yet you say, "Oh, do not leave us!"
  Thank you, friends, but we must hurry,
  Else our dear old nurse will worry.

  Good-bye, father; good-bye, mother;
  Come now, baby; come now, brother:
  By your sisters three attended,
  All must go, for play is ended.--
  Early go, if wise and wealthy
  We would be, and also healthy.

  So good-night to all good people!
  Hark! from yet another steeple,
  One, two, three, four, five, six, seven:
  Now to bed, and bless you, Heaven.
  Good advice comes from the steeple:
  So good-night to all good people!
                                          --_Ida Fay_.


{424}

BABY'S BOAT

  Baby's in the boat,
    Rocking to and fro;
  Tautest craft afloat,--
    Baby's watch below.

  Snowy sails are set:
    Little lullabies,
  Hush the pretty pet,
    Close the laughing eyes.

  Storms can never harm;
    Mother watches near:
  Oh! her loving arm
    Knows the way to steer.

  Quiet now, at last,
    Till the morning beams;
  Baby's anchored fast
    In the port of dreams.
                              --_George Cooper_.


{425}{426}

[Illustration]
  THE ADORATION OF THE ANGELS
  By William Adolph Bouguereau (1825-1905)

  "Angels from the realms of glory,
    Wing your flight o'er all the earth,
  Ye who sang creation's story,
    Now proclaim Messiah's birth;
      Come and worship,
  Worship Christ, the newborn King."
                                       --_James Montgomery_
[End illustration]


{427}

LITTLE VOICES

  What says the little brook?
    "I am but a little brook;
      Yet on me
    The stars as brightly gleam
    As on the mighty stream;
    I sparkle on my way
      To the sea."

  What says the little ray?
    "I am but a little ray,
      Sent to earth
    By the sun so great and bright,
    Giving food and heat and light;
    Yet I gladden every spot
    The palace and the cot
      Hail my birth."

  What says the little flower?
    "I am but a little flower
      At your feet;
    Yet on the path you tread,
    Some joy and grace I shed;
    So I am happy too
    For the little I can do
      When we meet."

  What says the little lamb?
    "I am but a little lamb
      Soft and mild;
    Yet in the meadows sweet
    I ramble and I bleat;       {428}
    And soon my wool will grow,
    To clothe you with, you know,
      Darling child."

  What says the little bird?
    "I am but a little bird
      With my song;
    Come, hear me singing now,
    As I hop from bough to bough;
    For I cheer the old and sad
    With my voice, and I am glad
      All day long,"

  What says the little child?
    "I am but a little child
      Fond of play;
    Yet in my heart, I know
    The grace of God will grow,
    If I try to do His will,
    And His law of love fulfill,
      And obey."


{429}

THE TWILIGHT FALLS, THE NIGHT IS NEAR

  The twilight falls, the night is near.
    I fold my work away,
  And kneel to One who bends to hear
    The story of the day.

  The old, old story; yet I kneel
    To tell it at Thy call,
  And cares grow lighter as I feel
    That Jesus knows them all.

  Thou knowest all: I lean my head;
    My weary eyelids close;
  Content and glad awhile to tread
    This path, since Jesus knows.

  And He has loved me: all my heart
    With answering love is stirred,
  And every anguished pain and smart
    Finds healing in the word.

  So here I lay me down to rest,
    As nightly shadows fall,
  And lean confiding on His breast
    Who knows and pities all.


{430}

SAVIOUR, BREATHE AN EVENING BLESSING

  Saviour, breathe an evening blessing
    Ere repose our spirits seal;
  Sin and want we come confessing,
    Thou canst bless, and Thou canst heal.

  Though destruction walk around us,
    Though the arrow past us fly,
  Angel-guards from Thee surround us,
    We are safe if Thou art nigh.

  Though the night be dark and dreary,
    Darkness cannot hide from Thee;
  Thou art He who, never weary,
    Watchest where Thy people be.
                                    --_James Edmeston_.


{431}{432}

[Illustration]
  THE MADONNA OF THE HARPIES
  By Andrea del Sarto (1487-1583)

  One of the most famous painters of the Florentine school. He lived
  and worked in his native city of Florence except for a sojourn at
  Paris, where he was invited by Francis I. This picture is called the
  "Madonna of the Harpies" because of the strange figures of harpies
  in the border, not shown in this reproduction
[End illustration]


{433}

SUMMER RAIN

  The mountain streams are silent,
    Or whisper faint and low;
  The earth is grateful to the dews
  For moisture which the clouds refuse;
    Blow, west wind, blow!
   And fall, O gentle rain!
  Awake the music of the bowers,
  Unfold the beauty of the flowers;
  The cornfields long to hear thy voice,
  And woods and orchards will rejoice
    To see thee, gentle rain!

  It comes! The gushing wealth descends!
    Hark! how it patters on the leaves!
    Hark! how it drops from cottage eaves!
  The pastures and the clouds are friends.
    Drop gently, gentle rain!
  The fainting cornstalk lifts its head,
  The grass grows greener at thy tread,
    The woods are musical again;
  And from the hillside springing,
  Down comes the torrent singing,
  With grateful nature in accord,
  A full-voiced anthem to the Lord,
    To thank Him for the rain.


{434}

THE GLORIOUS HEAVENS

  The spacious firmament on high,
  With all the blue ethereal sky,
  And spangled heavens, a shining frame,
  Their great Original proclaim.
  Th' unwearied sun, from day to day,
  Does his Creator's power display,
  And publishes to every land
  The work of an almighty hand.

  Soon as the evening shades prevail
  The moon takes up the wondrous tale,
  And nightly to the listening earth
  Repeats the story of her birth;
  Whilst all the stars that round her burn,
  And all the planets in their turn,
  Confirm the tidings as they roll,
  And spread the truth from pole to pole.

  What though in solemn silence all
  Move round the dark terrestrial ball?
  What though nor real voice nor sound
  Amidst the radiant orbs be found?
  In reason's ear they all rejoice,
  And utter forth a glorious voice,
  Forever singing as they shine,
  "The hand that made us is divine."
                                     --_Addison_.

_Adapted from the nineteenth Psalm_.


{435}{436}

[Illustration]
  JESUS AND JOHN
  By Murillo (1618-1682)
[End illustration]


{437}

TWILIGHT

  The twilight is sad and cloudy,
    The wind blows wild and free,
  And like the wings of sea-birds
    Flash the white caps of the sea.

  But in the fisherman's cottage
    There shines a sudden light;
  And a little face at the window
    Peers out into the night.

  Close, close it is pressed to the window,
    As if those childish eyes
  Were looking into the darkness
    To see some form arise.

  And a woman's waving shadow
    Is passing to and fro,
  Now rising to the ceiling,
    Now bowing and bending low.

  What tale do the roaring ocean,
    And the night wind, bleak and wild,
  As they beat at the crazy casement,
    Tell to that little child?

  And why do the roaring ocean,
    And the night wind, wild and bleak,
  As they beat at the heart of the mother,
    Drive the color from her cheek?
                                --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_.

By permission of Houghton, Mifflin & Co.


{438}

THE PEBBLE AND THE ACORN

  "I am a Pebble and yield to none!"
  Were the swelling words of a tiny stone;
  "Nor change nor season can alter me:
  I am abiding while ages flee.
  The pelting hail and the drizzling rain
  Have tried to soften me long in vain;
  And the tender dew has sought to melt
  Or to touch my heart,--but it was not felt.

  "None can tell of the Pebble's birth;
  For I am as old as the solid earth.
  The children of men arise and pass
  Out of the world like blades of grass;
  And many a foot on me has trod
  That's gone from sight and under the sod!
  I am a Pebble! but who art thou,
  Rattling along from the restless bough?"

  The Acorn was shocked at this rude salute,
  And lay for a moment abashed and mute;
  And she felt for a while perplexed to know
  How to answer a thing so low.
  But to give reproof of nobler sort
  Than the angry look or the keen retort,
  At length she said, in a gentle tone,
  "Since it has happened that I am thrown

  "From the lighter element, where I grew,
  Down to another so hard and new,             {439}
  And beside a personage so august,
  Abashed I will cover my head with dust,
  And quickly retire from the sight of one
  Whom time nor season, nor storm nor sun,
  Nor the gentler dew, nor the grinding wheel,
  Has ever subdued or made to feel."

  And soon in the earth she sunk away
  From the comfortless spot where the Pebble lay;
  But it was not long ere the soil was broke
  By the peering head of an ancient oak;
  And as it arose, and its branches spread,
  The Pebble looked up, and, wondering, said,--
  "A modest acorn never to tell
  What was enclosed in her simple shell--

  "That the pride of the forest was thus shut up
  Within the space of her little cup!
  And meekly to sink in the darksome earth
  To prove that nothing could hide her worth.
  And, O, how many will tread on me
  To come and admire that beautiful tree,
  Whose head is towering toward the sky,
  Above such a worthless thing as I!

  "Useless and vain, a cumberer here,
  I have been idling from year to year;
  But never from this shall a vaunting word
  From the humble Pebble again be heard,
  Till something without me, or within,
  Can show the purpose for which I've been!"
  The Pebble could not its vow forget
  And it lies there wrapped in silence yet.
                                             --_Gould_.


{440}

A PSALM OF LIFE

  Tell me not, in mournful numbers,
    Life is but an empty dream!
  For the soul is dead that slumbers,
    And things are not what they seem.

  Life is real! Life is earnest!
    And the grave is not its goal;
  "Dust thou art, to dust returnest,"
    Was not spoken of the soul.

  Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,
    Is our destined end or way;
  But to act, that each to-morrow
    Find us farther than to-day.

  Art is long and Time is fleeting,
    And our hearts, though stout and brave,
  Still, like muffled drums, are beating
    Funeral marches to the grave.

  In the world's broad field of battle,
    In the bivouac of Life,
  Be not like dumb, driven cattle!
    Be a hero in the strife!

  Trust no Future, howe'er pleasant!
    Let the dead Past bury its dead!
  Act,--act in the living Present!
    Heart within, and God o'erhead!    {441}

  Lives of great men all remind us
    We can make our lives sublime,
  And, departing, leave behind us
    Footprints on the sands of time;--

  Footprints, that perhaps another,
    Sailing o'er life's solemn main,
  A forlorn and shipwrecked brother,
    Seeing, shall take heart again.

  Let us, then, be up and doing,
    With a heart for any fate;
  Still achieving, still pursuing,
    Learn to labor and to wait.
                                 --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_.

By permission of Houghton. Mifflin & Co.


{442}

WHILE THEE I SEEK, PROTECTING POWER

  While Thee I seek, protecting Power,
    Be my vain wishes stilled;
  And may this consecrated hour
    With better hopes be filled.
  Thy love the power of thought bestowed,
    To Thee my thoughts would soar,
  Thy mercy o'er my life has flowed,
    That mercy I adore.

  In each event of life, how clear
    Thy ruling hand I see;
  Each blessing to my soul more dear,
    Because conferred by Thee.
  In every joy that crowns my days,
    In every pain I bear,
  My heart shall find delight in praise,
    Or seek relief in prayer.

  When gladness wings my favored hour,
    Thy love my thoughts shall fill;
  Resigned, when storms of sorrow lower,
    My soul shall meet Thy will.
  My lifted eye, without a tear,
    The lowering storm shall see;
  My steadfast heart shall know no fear,
    That heart will rest on Thee.
                                   --_Helen Maria Williams_.

{443}{444}

[Illustration]
  MADONNA DELLA TENDA
  By Raphael (1483-1520)

  "Think ye the notes of holy song
    On Milton's tuneful ear have died?
  Think ye that Raphael's angel throng
    Has vanished from his side?

  "Oh, no!--We live our life again;
    Or warmly touched, or coldly dim,
  The pictures of the Past remain,--
    Man's works shall follow him!"
                                   --_John Greenleaf Whittier_.
[End illustration]


{445}

OFT IN THE STILLY NIGHT

  Oft in the stilly night,
    Ere slumber's chain has bound me,
  Fond memory brings the light
    Of other days around me;
      The smiles, the tears,
      Of boyhood's years,
    The words of love then spoken,
      The eyes that shone,
      Now dimmed and gone,
    The cheerful hearts now broken!
  Thus in the stilly night
    Ere slumber's chain has bound me,
  Sad memory brings the light
    Of other days around me.

  When I remember all
    The friends, so link'd together,
  I've seen around me fall,
    Like leaves in wintry weather;
      I feel like one
      Who treads alone,
    Some banquet hall deserted,
      Whose lights are fled,
      Whose garlands dead,
    And all but he departed.
  Thus in the stilly night,
    Ere slumber's chain has bound me,
  Sad memory brings the light
    Of other days around me.
                                    --_Thomas Moore_.


{446}

THE BRIDGE

  I stood on the bridge at midnight,
    As the clocks were striking the hour,
  And the moon rose o'er the city,
    Behind the dark church tower.

  I saw her bright reflection
    In the waters under me,
  Like a golden goblet falling
    And sinking into the sea.

  And far in the hazy distance
    Of that lovely night in June,
  The blaze of the flaming furnace
    Gleamed redder than the moon.

  Among the long, black rafters
    The wavering shadows lay,
  And the current that came from the ocean
    Seemed to lift and bear them away;

  As, sweeping and eddying through them,
    Rose the belated tide,
  And, streaming into the moonlight,
    The seaweed floated wide.

  And like those waters rushing
    Among the wooden piers,
  A flood of thoughts came o'er me
    That filled my eyes with tears.

  How often, O how often,
    In the days that had gone by,
  I had stood on that bridge at midnight
    And gazed on that wave and sky!       {447}

  How often, O how often,
    I had wished that the ebbing tide
  Would bear me away on its bosom
    O'er the ocean wild and wide!

  For my heart was hot and restless,
    And my life was full of care,
  And the burden laid upon me
    Seemed greater than I could bear.

  But now it has fallen from me,
    It is buried in the sea;
  And only the sorrow of others
    Throws its shadow over me.

  Yet whenever I cross the river
    On its bridge with wooden piers,
  Like the odor of brine from the ocean
    Comes the thought of other years.

  And I think how many thousands
    Of care encumbered men,
  Each bearing his burden of sorrow,
    Have crossed the bridge since then.

  I see the long procession
    Still passing to and fro,
  The young heart hot and restless,
    And the old subdued and slow!

  And forever and forever,
    As long as the river flows,
  As long as the heart has passions,
    As long as life has woes;

  The moon and its broken reflection
    And its shadows shall appear
  As the symbol of love in heaven,
    And its wavering image here.
                                  --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_.

By permission of Houghton, Mifflin & Co.


{448}

KINDNESS

  A little word in kindness spoken,
    A motion or a tear,
  Has often healed the heart that's broken,
    And made a friend sincere.

  A word--a look--has crushed to earth
    Full many a budding flower,
  Which, had a smile but owned its birth,
    Would bless life's darkest hour.

  Then deem it not an idle thing
    A pleasant word to speak;
  The face you wear, the thoughts you bring,
    A heart may heal or break.
                                    --_Colesworthy_.

{449}{450}

[Illustration]
  MADONNA
  By Murillo (1618-1682)

  "Bright angels are around thee,
  They that have served thee from thy birth are there;
  Their hands with stars have crowned thee;
  Thou, peerless Queen of Air,
  As sandals to thy feet the silver moon doth wear."
                                      --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_.
[End illustration]

{451}

PERSEVERANCE

    A swallow in the spring
  Came to our granary, and 'neath the eaves
  Essayed to make her nest, and there did bring
    Wet earth, and straw, and leaves.

    Day after day she toiled
  With patient art; but ere her work was crowned
  Some sad mishap the tiny fabric spoiled
    And dashed it to the ground.

    She found the ruin wrought;
  Yet not cast down, forth from her place she flew
  And with her mate fresh earth and grasses brought
    And built her nest anew.

    But scarcely had she placed
  The last soft feather on its ample floor,
  When wicked hands, or chance, again laid waste,
    And wrought the ruin o'er.

    But still her heart she kept
  And toiled again; and, last night hearing calls,
  I looked, and lo! three little swallows slept
    Within the earth-made walls.

    What trust is here, O man!
  Hath Hope been smitten in its early dawn?
  Have clouds o'ercast thy purpose, trust, or plan?
    Have faith, and struggle on!


{452}

THE LIGHT OF STARS

  The night is come, but not too soon;
    And sinking silently,
  All silently, the little moon
    Drops down behind the sky.

  There is no light in earth or heaven,
    But the cold light of stars;
  And the first watch of night is given
    To the red planet Mars.

  Is it the tender star of love?
    The star of love and dreams?
  O no! from that blue tent above
    A hero's armor gleams.

  And earnest thoughts within me rise,
    When I behold afar,
  Suspended in the evening skies
    The shield of that red star.

  O star of strength! I see thee stand
    And smile upon my pain;
  Thou beckonest with thy mailed hand,
    And I am strong again.

  Within my breast there is no light,
    But the cold light of stars;
  I give the first watch of the night
    To the red planet Mars.           {453}

  The star of the unconquered will.
    He rises in my breast
  Serene, and resolute, and still.
    And calm, and self-possessed.

  And thou, too, whosoe'er thou art
    That readest this brief psalm,
  As one by one thy hopes depart,
    Be resolute and calm.

  O fear not in a world like this,
    And thou shalt know ere long,
  Know how sublime a thing it is
    To suffer and be strong.
                              --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_.

By permission of Houghton, Mifflin & CD.


{454}

WE ARE SEVEN

  I met a little cottage girl;
    She was eight years old she said;
  Her hair was thick with many a curl
    That clustered round her head.

  She had a rustic woodland air,
    And she was wildly clad;
  Her eyes were fair, and very fair,
    --Her beauty made me glad.

  "Sisters and brothers, little maid,
    How many may you be?"
  "How many? Seven in all," she said,
    And wondering looked at me.

  "And who are they? I pray you tell."
    She answered, "Seven are we;
  And two of us at Conway dwell
    And two are gone to sea.

  "Two of us in the churchyard lie,
    My sister and my brother;
  And in the churchyard cottage, I
    Dwell near them with my mother."

  "You say that two at Conway dwell
    And two are gone to sea,
  Yet ye are seven! I pray you tell,
   Sweet maid, how this may be."      {455}

  Then did the little maid reply,
    "Seven boys and girls are we;
  Two of us in the churchyard lie
    Beneath the churchyard tree."

  "You run about, my little maid,
    Your limbs they are alive;
  If two are in the churchyard laid,
    Then ye are only five."

  "Their graves are green, they may be seen,"
    The little maid replied,
  "Twelve steps or more from my mother's door,
    And they are side by side.

  "My stockings there I often knit,
    My kerchiefs there I hem;
  And there upon the ground I sit
    And sing a song to them.

  "And often after sunset, sir,
    When it is light and fair,
  I take my little porringer
    And eat my supper there.

  "The first that died was sister Jane;
    In bed she moaning lay
  Till God released her from her pain;
    And then she went away.

  "So in the churchyard she was laid;
    And, when the grass was dry,
  Together round her grave we played,
    My brother John and 1.

  "And when the ground was white with snow,
    And I could run and slide,
  My brother John was forced to go,
    And he lies by her side."        {456}

  "How many are you then," said I,
    "If there are two in heaven?"
  Quick was the little maid's reply,
    "O master! We are seven."

  "But they are dead: those two are dead;
    Their spirits are in heaven!"
  'T was throwing words away; for still
  The little maid would have her will,
    And said, "Nay, we are seven!"
                                     --_William Wordsworth_.

{457}{458}

[Illustration]
  JESUS IN THE TEMPLE
  By William Holman Hunt (1827-1910)

  One of the famous English school of so called pre-Raphaelite
  painters. This picture, "Jesus in the Temple," is one of his most
  celebrated paintings
[End illustration]


{459}

CHILDREN

  Come to me, O ye children!
    For I hear you at your play,
  And the questions that perplexed me
    Have vanished quite away.

  Ye open the eastern windows,
    That look toward the sun,
  Where thoughts are singing swallows
    And the brooks of morning run.

  In your hearts are the birds and the sunshine,
    In your thoughts the brooklet's flow,
  But in mine is the wind of autumn
    And the first fall of the snow.

  Ah! what would the world be to us
    If the children were no more?
  We should dread the desert behind us
    Worse than the dark before.

  What the leaves are to the forest,
    With light and air for food,
  Ere their sweet and tender juices
    Have been hardened into wood,--

  That to the world are children;
    Through them it feels the glow
  Of a brighter and sunnier climate
    Than reaches the trunks below.    {460}

  Come to me, O ye children!
    And whisper in my ear
  What the birds and the winds are singing
    In your sunny atmosphere.

  For what are all our contrivings,
    And the wisdom of our books,
  When compared with your caresses,
    And the gladness of your looks?

  Ye are better than all the ballads
    That ever were sung or said;
  For ye are living poems,
    And all the rest are dead.
                                  --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_.

By permission of Houghton. Mifflin & Co.


{461}

ONE BY ONE

  One by one the sands are flowing,
    One by one the moments fall;
  Some are coming, some are going;
    Do not strive to grasp them all.

  One by one thy duties wait thee,
    Let thy whole strength go to each;
  Let no future dreams elate thee,
    Learn thou first what these can teach.

  One by one (bright gifts from heaven)
    Joys are sent thee here below;
  Take them readily when given,--
    Ready, too, to let them go.

  One by one thy griefs shall meet thee,
    Do not fear an armed band;
  One will fade as others greet thee--
    Shadows passing through the land.

  Do not look at life's long sorrow;
    See how small each moment's pain;
  God will help thee for to-morrow;
    So each day begin again.

  Every hour, that fleets so slowly,
    Has its task to do or bear;
  Luminous the crown and holy,
    When each gem is set with care.   {462}

  Do not linger with regretting,
    Or for passing hours despond;
  Nor, the daily toil forgetting,
    Look too eagerly beyond.

  Hours are golden links, God's token,
    Reaching heaven; but one by one
  Take them, lest the chain be broken,
    Ere the pilgrimage be done.
                                  --_Adelaide Ann Procter_.


{463}

TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW

  If Fortune, with a smiling face,
    Strew roses in our way,
  When shall we stoop to pick them up?--
    To-day, my friend, to-day.
  But should she frown with face of care
    And talk of coming sorrow,
  When shall we grieve, if grieve we must?--
    To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

  If those who've wronged us own their faults
    And kindly pity pray,
  When shall we listen and forgive?--
    To-day, my friend, to-day.
  But if stern Justice urge rebuke,
    And warmth from memory borrow,
  When shall we chide, if chide we dare?--
    To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.

  For virtuous acts and harmless joys
    The minutes will not stay;
  We've always time to welcome them
    To-day, my friend, to-day.
  But care, resentment, angry words,
    And unavailing sorrow,
  Come far too soon, if they appear
    To-morrow, friend, to-morrow.


{464}


STILL WITH THEE

  Still, still with Thee, my God,
    I would desire to be,
  By day, by night, at home, abroad,
    I would be still with Thee.

  With Thee when dawn comes in,
    And calls me back to care,
  Each day returning to begin
    With Thee, my God, in prayer.

  With Thee amid the crowd
    That throngs the busy mart,
  To hear Thy voice, 'mid clamor loud,
    Speak softly to my heart.

  With Thee when day is done,
    And evening calms the mind;
  The setting, as the rising, sun
    With Thee my heart would find.

  With Thee when darkness brings
    The signal of repose,
  Calm in the shadow of Thy wings
    Mine eyelids I would close.

  With Thee, in Thee, by faith
    Abiding I would be;
  By day, by night, in life, in death,
    I would be still with Thee.
                                  --_James Drummond Burns_.

{465}{466}

[Illustration]
  THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD
  By William Holman Hunt (1827-1910)

  The original of this famous picture is owned by Keble College,
  Oxford, and is hung in a small room adjoining the chapel.

  "The legend beneath it is the beautiful verse--'Behold I stand at the
  door and knock. If any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will
  come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.' REV. iii.
  26. On the left-hand side of the picture is seen this door of the
  human soul. It is fast barred; its bars and nails are rusty; it is
  knitted and bound to its stanchions by creeping tendrils of ivy,
  shewing that it has never been opened. A bat hovers about it; its
  threshold is overgrown with brambles, nettles, and fruitless
  corn,--the wild grass, 'whereof the mower filleth not his hand, nor
  he that bindeth the sheaves his bosom.' Christ approaches it in the
  night-time,--Christ, in his everlasting offices, of Prophet, Priest,
  and King. He wears the white robe, representing the power of the
  Spirit upon him; the jeweled robe and breastplate, representing the
  sacerdotal investiture; the rayed crown of gold, inwoven with the
  crown of thorns; not dead thorns, but now bearing soft leaves, for
  the healing of the nations.

  "Now, when Christ enters any human heart, he bears with him a
  twofold light: first, the light of conscience, which displays past
  sin, and afterwards the light of peace, the hope of salvation. The
  lantern, carried in Christ's left hand, is this light of conscience.
  Its fire is red and fierce; it falls only on the closed door, on the
  weeds which encumber it, and on an apple shaken from one of the
  trees of the orchard, thus marking that the entire awakening of
  the conscience is not merely to committed, but to hereditary guilt.

  "The light is suspended by a chain wrapt about the wrist of the
  figure, shewing that the light which reveals sin appears to the
  sinner also to chain the hand of Christ. The light which proceeds
  from the head of the figure, on the contrary, is that of the hope of
  salvation; it springs from the crown of thorns, and, though itself
  sad, subdued, and full of softness, is yet so powerful that it
  entirely melts into the glow of it the forms of the leaves and
  boughs, which it crosses, shewing that every earthly object must be
  hidden by this light, where its sphere extends."--_Ruskin, "Arrows of
  the Chace._"
[End illustration]


{467}

LEAD, KINDLY LIGHT

  Lead, kindly Light, amid th' encircling gloom,
      Lead Thou me on;
  The night is dark and I am far from home,
      Lead Thou me on;
  Keep Thou my feet; I do not ask to see
  The distant scene; one step enough for me.

  I was not ever thus, nor prayed that Thou
      Should'st lead me on;
  I loved to choose and see my path, but now
      Lead Thou me on!
  I loved the garish day, and spite of fears
  Pride ruled my will; remember not past years.

  So long Thy power has blest me, sure it still
      Will lead me on
  O'er moor and fen, o'er crag and torrent, till
      The night is gone,
  And with the morn those angel faces smile
  Which I have loved long since, and lost awhile!
                                          --_John Henry Newman_.


{469}

NOW THE DAY IS OVER

  Now the day is over,
    Night is drawing nigh,
  Shadows of the evening
    Steal along the sky.

  Now the darkness gathers,
    Stars begin to peep;
  Birds and beasts and flowers
    Soon will be asleep.

  Jesus, give the weary
    Calm and sweet repose:
  With Thy tenderest blessing
    May our eyelids close.

  Grant to little children
    Visions bright of Thee;
  Guard the sailors tossing
    On the deep blue sea.

  Comfort every sufferer
    Watching late in pain;
  Those who plan some evil
    From their sin restrain.

  Through the long night watches
    May Thine angels spread
  Their white wings above me,
    Watching round my bed.

  When the morning wakens,
    Then may I arise,
  Pure, and fresh, and sinless
    In Thy holy eyes.
                                   --_S. Baring-Gould_.

{469}{470}

[Illustration]
  THE LITTLE MOTHER
  By Ferruzzi
[End illustration]


{471}

A FAREWELL

  My fairest child, I have no song to give you,
    No lark could pipe to skies so dull and gray,
  Yet ere we part, one lesson I can leave you,
      For every day.

  Be good, sweet child, and let who will be clever;
    Do noble things, not dream them all day long,
  And make life, death, and that vast forever,
      One grand, sweet song.
                                   --_Charles Kingsley_.


{472}

GOOD NIGHT AND GOOD MORNING

  A fair little girl sat under a tree
  Sewing as long as her eyes could see;
  Then smoothed her work and folded it right,
  And said, "Dear work, good night, good night!"

  Such a number of rooks came over her head
  Crying "Caw, caw!" on their way to bed;
  She said, as she watched their curious flight,
  "Little black things, good night, good night!"

  The horses neighed and the oxen lowed;
  The sheep's "Bleat, bleat!" came over the road,
  All seeming to say, with a quiet delight,
  "Good little girl, good night, good night!"

  She did not say to the sun "Good night!"
  Though she saw him there like a ball of light;
  For she knew that he had God's own time to keep
  All over the world, and never could sleep.

  The tall pink foxglove bowed his head,
  The violets curtsied and went to bed;
  And good little Lucy tied up her hair,
  And said, on her knees, her favorite prayer.

  And while on her pillow she softly lay,
  She knew nothing more till again it was day,
  And all things said to the beautiful sun,
  "Good morning, good morning! our work is begun!"
                                            --_Lord Houghton_.

{473}{474}

[Illustration]
  CHRISTMAS BELLS
  By Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848- )

  "It is the calm and solemn night!
    A thousand bells ring out, and throw
  Their joyous peals abroad, and smite
    The darkness, charmed and holy now!
  The night that erst no name had worn,
    To it a happy name is given;
  For in that stable lay new born,
    The peaceful Prince of Earth and Heaven,
        In the solemn midnight
          Centuries ago!"
                                    --_Alfred Domett_
[End illustration]


{475}

NEW YEAR'S EVE

  Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky,
    The flying cloud, the frosty light;
    The year is dying in the night;
  Ring out, wild bells, and let him die.

  Ring out the old, ring in the new;
    Ring, happy bells, across the snow;
    The year is going, let him go;
  Ring out the false, ring in the true.

  Ring out the grief that saps the mind,
    For those that here we see no more;
    Ring out the feud of rich and poor,
  Ring in redress to all mankind.

  Ring out a slowly dying cause,
    And ancient forms of party strife;
    Ring in the nobler modes of life,
  With sweeter manners, purer laws.

  Ring out false pride in place and blood,
    The civic slander and the spite;
    Ring in the love of truth and right,
  Ring in the common love of good.

  Ring out old shapes of foul disease,
    Ring out the narrowing lust of gold;
    Ring out the thousand wars of old,
  Ring in the thousand years of peace.

  Ring in the valiant man and free,
    The larger heart, the kindlier hand;
    Ring out the darkness of the land,
  Ring in the Christ that is to be.
                                     --_Alfred Tennyson_.


{476}

ALL THINGS BEAUTIFUL

  All things bright and beautiful,
    All creatures great and small,
  All things wise and wonderful,
    The Lord God made them all.

  Each little flower that opens,
    Each little bird that sings,
  He made their glowing colors,
    He made their tiny wings.

  The purple-headed mountains,
    The river running by,
  The morning and the sunset
    That lighteth up the sky.

  The tall trees in the greenwood,
    The pleasant summer sun,
  The ripe fruits in the garden,
    He made them everyone.

  He gave us eyes to see them,
    And lips that we might tell,
  How great is God Almighty,
    Who hath made all things well.
                                      --_John Keble_.


{477}

THE CHAMBERED NAUTILUS

  This is the ship of pearl, which, poets feign,
  Sails the unshadowed main,--
      The venturous bark that flings
      On the sweet summer wind its purpled wings
      In gulfs enchanted, where the Siren sings,
  And coral reefs lie bare,
  Where the cold sea maids rise to sun their streaming hair.

  Its webs of living gauze no more unfurl;
  Wrecked is the ship of pearl!
      And every chambered cell,
      Where its dim dreaming life was wont to dwell,
      Before thee lies revealed,--
  Its irised ceiling rent, its sunless crypt unsealed!

  Year after year beheld the silent toil
  That spread his lustrous coil;
      Still, as the spiral grew,
      He left the past year's dwelling for the new,
      Stole with soft step its shining archway through,
  Built up its idle door,
  Stretched in his last-found home, and knew the old no more.

  Thanks for the heavenly message brought by thee,
  Child of the wandering sea,
      Cast from her lap forlorn!
      From thy dead lips a clearer note is born
      Than ever Triton blew from wreathed horn.
  While on mine ear it rings,
  Through the deep caves of thought I hear a voice that sings:--

{478}

  Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul,
  As the swift seasons roll!
      Leave thy low-vaulted past!
      Let each new temple, nobler than the last,
      Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast,
  Till thou at length art free,
  Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea!

                                           --_Oliver Wendell Holmes_.

Used by the kind permission of Houghton, Mifflin and Company.


{479}{480}

[Illustration]
  THE CHILDREN OF THE SHELL
  By Murillo (1618-1682)

  This is one of the famous pictures of the great artist Murillo. The
  little child John is giving the little Jesus a drink from a shell.
  "The child nature is charmingly portrayed, so innocent and
  gentle--seeming to suggest a lovable nature in the artist himself.
  His pictures always arouse the reverential feeling--which puts the
  stamp of artistic greatness upon them."
[End illustration]


{481}

THE DAY IS DONE

  The day is done, and the darkness
    Falls from the wings of Night,
  As a feather is wafted downward
    From an eagle in his flight.

  I see the lights of the village
    Gleam through the rain and the mist,
  And a feeling of sadness comes o'er me
    That my soul cannot resist:

  A feeling of sadness and longing,
    That is not akin to pain,
  And resembles sorrow only
    As the mist resembles the rain.

  Come, read to me some poem,
    Some simple and heartfelt lay,
  That shall soothe this restless feeling,
    And banish the thoughts of day.

  Not from the grand old masters,
    Not from the bards sublime,
  Whose distant footsteps echo
    Through the corridors of Time.

  For, like strains of martial music,
    Their mighty thoughts suggest
  Life's endless toil and endeavor;
    And to-night I long for rest.

  Read from some humbler poet,
    Whose songs gushed from his heart,
  As showers from the clouds of summer,
    Or tears from the eyelids start;      {482}

  Who, through long days of labor,
    And nights devoid of ease,
  Still heard in his soul the music
    Of wonderful melodies.

  Such songs have power to quiet
    The restless pulse of care,
  And come like the benediction
    That follows after prayer.

  Then read from the treasured volume
    The poem of thy choice,
  And lend to the rhyme of the poet
    The beauty of thy voice.

  And the night shall be filled with music,
    And the cares that infest the day,
  Shall fold their tents, like the Arabs,
    And as silently steal away.

                            --_Henry Wadsworth Longfellow_.

Used by the kind permission of Houghton, Mifflin and Company.


{483}

A CHILD'S THOUGHT OF GOD

  They say that God lives very high.
    But if you look above the pines
  You cannot see God. And why?

  And if you dig down in the mines
    You never see Him in the gold
  Though from Him all that's glory shines.

  God is so good, He wears a fold
    Of heaven and earth across His face--
  Like secrets kept, for love, untold.

  But still I feel that His embrace
    Slides down by thrills, through all things made,
  Through sight and sound of every place:

  As if my tender mother laid
    On my shut lids her kisses' pressure,
  Half waking me at night; and said,
    "Who kissed through the dark, dear guesser?"

                                   --_Elizabeth Barrett Browning_.


{484}

LULLABY SONG

      Sleep, baby, sleep!
      Thy father watches his sheep;
  Thy mother is shaking the dreamland tree,
  And down comes a little dream on thee.
      Sleep, baby, sleep!

      Sleep, baby, sleep!
      The large stars are the sheep;
  The little stars are the lambs, I guess;
  And the gentle moon is the shepherdess.
      Sleep, baby, sleep!

      Sleep, baby, sleep!
      Our Saviour loves His sheep:
  He is the Lamb of God on high,
  Who for our sakes came down to die.
      Sleep, baby, sleep!
                                   --_From the German_.

{485}{486}

[Illustration]
  HEAD OF ANGEL

  "See that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto
  you, that in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my
  Father which is in heaven."--_The Words of Jesus_
[End illustration]


{487}

THE PILGRIMS OF THE NIGHT

  Hark, hark, my soul, angelic songs are swelling
    O'er earth's green fields and ocean's wave-beat shore.
  How sweet the truth those blessed strains are telling
    Of that new life, when sin shall be no more.
        Angels of Jesus,
          Angels of light,
        Singing to welcome
          The pilgrims of the night.

  Onward we go, for still we hear them singing,
    "Come, weary souls, for Jesus bids you come."
  And through the dark, its echoes sweetly ringing,
    The music of the gospel leads us home.
        Angels of Jesus,
          Angels of light,
        Singing to welcome
          The pilgrims of the night.

  Far, far away, like bells at evening pealing,
    The voice of Jesus sounds o'er land and sea;
  And laden souls by thousands meekly stealing,
    Kind Shepherd, turn their weary steps to Thee.
        Angels of Jesus,
          Angels of light,
        Singing to welcome
          The pilgrims of the night.      {488}

  Rest comes at last; though life be long and dreary,
    The day must dawn, and darksome night be past;
  All journeys end in welcomes to the weary,
    And heaven, the heart's true home, will come at last.
        Angels of Jesus,
          Angels of light,
        Singing to welcome
          The pilgrims of the night.

  Angels, sing on, your faithful watches keeping,
    Sing us sweet fragments of the songs above,
  While we toil on, and soothe ourselves with weeping,
    Till life's long night shall break in endless love.
        Angels of Jesus,
          Angels of light,
        Singing to welcome
          The pilgrims of the night.
                                       --_Frederick William Faber_.

{489}

MEMORY VERSES

{490}

{491}

MEMORY VERSES

_One for Each Week of the Year_.


  I said, "Thou art my God."
  My times are in thy hand.                 --_Psalms 31:14-15_.


  Let the words of my mouth,
  and the meditations of my
  heart, be acceptable in thy sight,
  O Lord, my strength and my redeemer.       --_Psalms 19:14_.


  Let your speech be always with grace.      --_Colossians 4:6_.


  O Lord, thou hast searched me,
  and known me.                             --_Psalms 139:1_.


  Bless the Lord, O my soul;
  and all that is within me,
  bless his holy name.                      --_Psalms 103:1_.


  Blessed are the peacemakers:
  for they shall be called
  the children of God.                      --_Matthew 5:9_.


  Ye are of God, little children.           --_I John 4:4_.


  Mark the perfect man,
  and behold the upright, for the
  end of that man is peace.                 --_Psalms 37:37_.

{492}

  Let not your heart be troubled:
  ye believe in God,
  believe also in me.
  In my Father's house are many mansions.   --_John 14:1_.


  Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace,
  whose mind is stayed on thee:
  because he trusteth in thee.              --_Isaiah 26:3_.


  Ask, and it shall be given you.           --_Matthew 7:7_.


  Blessed are the pure in heart:
  for they shall see God.                   --_Matthew 5:8_.


  Be not overcome of evil,
  but overcome evil with good.               --_Romans 12:21_.


  Let us therefore follow after
  the things which make for peace.          --_Romans 14:19_.


  Keep yourselves in the love of God.       --_Jude 21_.


  The Lord is merciful and gracious,
  slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy.    --_Psalms 103:8_.


  Be not weary in well-doing.               --_II Thessalonians 3:13_.


  Bear ye one another's burdens,
  and so fulfill the law of Christ.         --_Galatians 6:2_.


  Thy word is a lamp unto my feet,
  and a light unto my path.                 --_Psalms 119:105_.

{493}

  He that loveth not, knoweth not God;
  for God is love.                          --_I John 4:8_.


  Blessed is the nation
  whose God is the Lord.                    --_Psalms 33:12_.


  The Lord is on my side; I will not fear.  --_Psalms 118:6_.


  Abstain from every form of evil.          --_I Thessalonians 5:22_.


  If ye love me keep my commandments.       --_John 14:15_.


  Thou shalt love the Lord thy God
  with all thine heart,
  and with all thy soul,
  and with all thy might.                   --_Deuteronomy 6:5_.


  The heavens declare the glory of God;
  and the firmament showeth his handiwork.  --_Psalms 19:1_.


  Seek ye the Lord while he may be found,
  call ye upon him while he is near.        --_Isaiah 55:6_.


  Hear instruction, and be wise,
  and refuse it not.                        --_Proverbs 8:33_.


  Suffer the little children
  to come unto me; forbid them not:
  for of such is the kingdom of God.        --_Mark 10:14_.


  Prove all things.
  Hold fast that which is good.             --_I Thessalonians 5:21_.


  Blessed are the merciful:
  for they shall obtain mercy.              --_Matthew 5:7_.

{494}

  For there is not a word in my
  tongue, but, lo, O Lord,
  thou knowest it altogether.               --_Psalms 139:4_.


  Like as a father pitieth his children,
  so the Lord pitieth them that fear him.   --_Psalms 103:13_.


  Come unto me, all ye that
  labor and are heavy laden,
  and I will give you rest.                 --_Matthew 11:28_.


  This is my commandment,
  that ye love one another,
  as I have loved you.                      --_John 15:12_.


  Be strong in the Lord,
  and in the strength of his might.         --_Ephesians 6:10_.


  Rejoice in the Lord always.               --_Philippians 4:4_.


  Honour thy father and thy mother;
  that thy days may be long upon the land
  which the Lord thy God giveth thee.       --_Exodus 20:12_.


  Bless them which persecute you;
  bless, and curse not.                     --_Romans 12:14_.


  Thou shalt not steal.                     --_Exodus 20:15_.


  Give to him that asketh thee.             --_Matthew 5:42_.


  Thou shalt not bear false witness
  against thy neighbor.                     --_Exodus 20:16_.

{495}

  Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.  --_Matthew 22:39_.


  I will say of the Lord,
  He is my refuge, and my fortress:
  my God; in him will I trust.              --_Psalms 91:2_.


  In the day of my trouble
  I will call upon thee:
  for thou wilt answer me.                  --_Psalms 86:7_.


  The eyes of the Lord
  are upon the righteous,
  and his ears are open unto their cry.     --_Psalms 34:15_.


  Show me thy ways,
  O Lord, teach me thy paths.               --_Psalms 25:4_.


  Be ye therefore followers of God,
  as dear children.                         --_Ephesians 5:1_.


  I am the good shepherd,
  and know my sheep, and am known of mine.  --_John 10:14_


  Ye are the light of the world.
  A city that is set on a hill
  cannot be hid.                            --_Matthew 5:14_


  God is our refuge and strength,
  a very present help in trouble.           --_Psalms 46:1_

  My peace I give unto you:
  not as the world giveth,
  give I unto you.                          --_John 14:27_.

{496}

God tells us in the Bible.

  Thou shalt love the Lord thy God.         --_Matthew 22:37_.

  Love one another.                         --_I John 3:23_.

  Be ye kind one to another.                --_Ephesians 4:23_.

  Pray to thy Father.                       --_Matthew 6:6_.

  Lie not.                                  --_Colossians 3:9_.

  Speak the truth.                          --_Zechariah 8:16_.

  Thou shalt not steal.                     --_Exodus 20:15_.

  Thou shalt not kill.                      --_Exodus 20:13_.

  Children, obey your parents.              --_Ephesians 6:1_.

  Give to the poor.                         --_Matthew 19:21_.

  Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. --_Exodus 20:8_.

  Search the Scriptures (study the Bible).  --_John 5:39_.

  Do no wrong.                              --_Jeremiah 22:3_.

  Do that which is right.                   --_Exodus 15:26_.

  Sin not.                                  --_John 5:14_.


[_By courtesy of the Clarke School, Northampton. Mass._]


{497}{498}

[Illustration]
  JESUS KNOCKING AT THE DOOR
  By Heinrich Hofmann (1824- )
[End illustration]


{499}

PROVERBS

{500}

{501}

PROVERBS

These wise and true sayings are taken from the book in the Bible
called "Proverbs." Some of them are said to have been written by
Solomon, the wise king of Israel.


  My son, if sinners entice thee,
  Consent thou not.

  A wise son maketh a glad father:
  But a foolish son is the heaviness of his mother.

  He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand:
  But the hand of the diligent maketh rich.

  The tongue of the righteous is as choice silver:
  The heart of the wicked is little worth.

  The blessing of the Lord, it maketh rich:
  And he addeth no sorrow therewith.

  A false balance is an abomination to the Lord:
  But a just weight is His delight.

  A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast:
  But the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel.

  A wise son heareth his father's instruction:
  But a scorner heareth not rebuke.

{502}

  Walk with wise men, and thou shalt be wise:
  But the companion of fools shall smart for it.

  Righteousness exalteth a nation:
  But sin is a reproach to any people.

  A soft answer turneth away wrath:
  But a grievous word stirreth up anger.

  The eyes of the Lord are in every place:
  Keeping watch upon the evil and the good.

  A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance:
  But by sorrow of heart is the spirit broken.

  Better is a little with the fear of the Lord:
  Than great treasure and trouble therewith.
  Better is a dinner of herbs where love is:
  Than a stalled ox and hatred therewith.

  A wise son maketh a glad father:
  But a foolish man despiseth his mother.

  A wrathful man stirreth up contention:
  But he that is slow to anger appeaseth strife.

  Pride goeth before destruction:
  And a haughty spirit before a fall.

  The hoary head is a crown of glory,
  If it be found in the way of righteousness.

  He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty;
  And he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.

{503}

  A merry heart is a good medicine:
  But a broken spirit drieth up the bones.

  Wine is a mocker,
  Strong drink is a brawler;
  And whoso erreth thereby is not wise.

  Even a child maketh himself known by his doings,
  Whether his work be pure, and whether it be right.

  Whoso stoppeth his ears at the cry of the poor,
  He also shall cry, but shall not be heard.

  He that followeth after righteousness and mercy
  Findeth life, righteousness, and honour.

  A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches,
  And loving favour rather than silver and gold.

  The rich and the poor meet together:
  The Lord is the maker of them all.

  Train up a child in the way he should go,
  And when he is old he will not depart from it.

  He that loveth pureness of heart,
  For the grace of his lips the king shall be his friend.

  Remove not the ancient landmark,
  Which thy fathers have set.

  Seest thou a man diligent in his business?
    He shall stand before kings;
    He shall not stand before mean men.

{504}

  A word fitly spoken
    Is like apples of gold
    In baskets of silver.

  Seest thou a man wise in his own conceit?
  There is more hope for a fool than for him.

  If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat;
  And if he be thirsty, give him water to drink:
  For thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head,
  And the Lord shall reward thee.

  Seest thou a man hasty in his words?
  There is more hope for a fool than for him.

  Let another man praise thee, and not thine own mouth;
  A stranger, and not thine own lips.

{505}

PROVERBS

The following proverbs are from various sources outside the Bible.


  An idle youth becomes in age a beggar.
  Idle people take the most pains.
  Let honesty and industry be thy constant companions.
                                                  --_Franklin_.


  Haste makes waste and waste makes want.
  The more haste the less speed.
  Ill habits gather by unseen degrees,
  As brooks make rivers, rivers run to seas.
                                                  --_Dryden_.


  Small habits well pursued betimes
  May reach the dignity of crimes.
                                               --_Hannah More_.


  God is always at leisure to do good to those that ask it.
  God helps those who help themselves.


  What we gave we have,
  what we spent we had,
  what we left we lost.
                              --_Epitaph of Edward, Earl of Devon_.


  You may know him by the company he keeps.
  Better alone than in bad company.


  A guilty conscience needs no accuser.


  Content is more than a kingdom.


  Deeds not words.


  A goodly outside apple rotten at the heart,
  O what a goodly outside falsehood hath.
                                               --_Shakespeare_.

{506}

  Cleanliness is next to godliness.
                                               --_Wesley_.


  They conquer who believe they can.
                                               --_Virgil_.


  Never make a mountain out of a mole hill.
  Employ thy time well, and since thou art
  not sure of a minute throw not away an hour.
  Virtue is its own reward.

                                               --_Prior_.

  Early to bed and early to rise,
  Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
                                               --_Franklin_.


  Count that day lost whose low descending sun
  Views from thy hand no worthy action done.

  Never leave that till to-morrow
  which you can do to-day.
                                               --_Franklin_.


  Kind hearts are the gardens,
  Kind thoughts are the roots,
  Kind words are the blossoms,
  Kind deeds are the fruits.
                                       --_New Education Reader_.


  Do you know how many children,
    Go to little beds at night,
  And, without a care or trouble,
    Wake up with the morning light?
  God in heaven each name can tell;
    Knows you, too, and knows you well.
                                       --_New Education Reader_.

  Be kind and be gentle,
    To those who are old,
  For kindness is dearer
    And better than gold.
                                       --_New Education Reader_.

{507}

  Please is a very little word,
  And thank-you is not long.


  Jesus loves me, this I know,
  For the Bible tells me so.
  Little ones to Him belong,
  I am weak, but He is strong.



  Love God with all your soul and strength,
    With all your heart and mind,
  And love your neighbor as yourself,
    Be faithful, just, and kind.
  Deal with another as you'd have
    Another deal with you:
  What you're unwilling to receive,
    Be sure you never do.
                                         --_New England Primer_.


  Politeness is to do or say
  The kindest thing in the kindest way.
                                         --_New Education Reader_.


  Do all the good you can
  In all the ways you can,
  For all the people you can
  Just as long as you can.
                           --_Lippincott's Beginner's Reading Book_.


  Be to others kind and true,
  As you'd have others be to you.
                                           --_New Education Reader_.


[End of "VOLUME ONE: THE GOLDEN BOOK"]

------------------------------------------------

[Start of "VOLUME TWO: HERO TALES"]


{1}

{2}

{3}

THE BIBLE STORY

{6}
[Illustration]
  Joseph, the Prime Minister, Greeting his family.

  "And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went
  up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen; and he
  presented himself unto him, and fell on his neck,
  and wept on his neck a good while."
[End illustration]

{7}
THE BIBLE STORY

VOLUME TWO

HERO TALES


ARRANGED AND EDITED BY

REV. NEWTON MARSHALL HALL, D.D.

MINISTER OF THE NORTH CHURCH, SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS

AND

REV. IRVING FRANCIS WOOD, PH.D.

PROFESSOR OF
BIBLICAL LITERATURE AND COMPARATIVE RELIGION
AT SMITH COLLEGE

_Authors of "The Early Days of Israel" "Advanced Bible Studies" Etc_.


THE KING-RICHARDSON COMPANY

SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS

CHICAGO
CLEVELAND

{8}

COPYRIGHT, 1906,
COPYRIGHT, 1917,

BY THE KING-RICHARDSON COMPANY,

SPRINGFIELD, MASS.

{9}

PREFACE

This volume contains those Old Testament stories of heroic lives, which
never lose their charm. No better nor more fascinating stories were ever
written than those of Abraham, and Joseph, and Gideon, and Moses. In the
ordinary volume, however, they are scattered over many chapters and even
books, and the reader has great difficulty in piecing them together.
Here they are told as continuous narratives, with illustrations of the
famous places, which enhance their charm. We believe that the old heroic
figures will come, in this way, before the children, and older people as
well, with a vividness and reality never before realized.

{10}

{11}

CONTENTS

                     PAGE

THE PATRIARCHS.

  1 Abraham            21

  2 Isaac              49

  3 Jacob              60

  4 Joseph             91

THE GREAT CAPTAINS.

  1 Moses             137

  2 Joshua            277

THE JUDGES.

  1 Ehud              315

  2 Gideon            319

  3 Abimelech         332

  4 Samuel            338

THE GREAT KINGS.

  1 Saul              349

  2 David             382

  3 Solomon           452

NOTES                 485

MEMORY VERSES         503

{12}

{13}{14}

[Illustration]
  ON THE WEST OF JERUSALEM, LOOKING TOWARD BETHLEHEM

  From a photograph belonging to the Forbes Library, Northampton,
  Mass., and used by special permission.
[Illustration]


{15}

PALESTINE

  Blest land of Judea! thrice hallowed of song,
  Where the holiest of memories pilgrim-like throng;
  In the shade of thy palms, by the shores of thy sea,
  On the hills of thy beauty, my heart is with thee.

  With the eye of a spirit I look on that shore,
  Where pilgrim and prophet have lingered before;
  With the glide of a spirit I traverse the sod
  Made bright by the steps of the angels of God.

  Blue sea of the hills!--in my spirit I hear
  Thy waters, Gennesaret, chime on my ear;
  Where the Lowly and Just with the people sat down.
  And thy spray on the dust of His sandals was thrown.

  Beyond are Bethulia's mountains of green,
  And the desolate hills of the wild Gadarene;
  And I pause on the goat-crags of Tabor to see
  The gleam of thy waters, O dark Galilee!

  Hark, a sound in the valley! where, swollen and strong
  Thy river, O Kishon, is sweeping along;
  Where the Canaanite strove with Jehovah in vain,
  And thy torrent grew dark with the blood of the slain.

  There down from his mountains stern Zebulon came,
  And Naphtali's stag, with his eyeballs of flame,
  And the chariots of Jabin rolled harmlessly on,
  For the arm of the Lord was Abinoam's son!

{16}

  There sleep the still rocks and the caverns which rang
  To the song which the beautiful prophetess sang,
  When the princes of Issachar stood by her side,
  And the shout of a host in its triumph replied.

  Lo, Bethlehem's hill-site before me is seen,
  With the mountains around, and the valleys between;
  There rested the shepherds of Judah, and there
  The song of the angels rose sweet on the air.

  And Bethany's palm-trees in beauty still throw
  Their shadows at noon on the ruins below;
  But where are the sisters who hastened to greet
  The lowly Redeemer, and sit at His feet?

  I tread where the Twelve in their wayfaring trod,
  I stand where they stood with the Chosen of God,--
  Where His blessing was heard and His lessons were taught,
  Where the blind were restored and the healing was wrought.

  Oh, here with His flock the sad Wanderer came,--
  These hills He toiled over in grief are the same,--
  The founts where He drank by the wayside still flow,
  And the same airs are blowing which breathed on His brow!

  And throned on her hills sits Jerusalem yet,
  But with dust on her forehead, and chains on her feet;
  For the crown of her pride to the mocker hath gone,
  And the holy Shechinah is dark where it shone.

  But wherefore this dream of the earthly abode
  Of Humanity clothed in the brightness of God?
  Were my spirit but turned from the outward and dim,
  It could gaze, even now, on the presence of Him!

  Not in clouds and in terrors, but gentle as when,
  In love and in meekness, He moved among men;
  And the voice which breathed peace to the waves of the sea
  In the hush of my spirit would whisper to me!

{17}

  And what if my feet may not tread where He stood,
  Nor my ears hear the dashing of Galilee's flood,
  Nor my eyes see the cross which He bowed Him to bear,
  Nor my knees press Gethsemane's garden of prayer?

  Yet, Loved of the Father, Thy Spirit is near,
  To the meek, and the lowly, and penitent here;
  And the voice of Thy love is the same even now
  As at Bethany's tomb on Olivet's brow.

  Oh, the outward hath gone!--but, in glory and power,
  The Spirit surviveth the things of an hour;
  Unchanged, undecaying, its Pentecost flame
  On the heart's secret altar is burning the same!

                                     --_John Greenleaf Whittier_.

[By permission of Houghton. Mifflin & Co.]

{18}

{19}

The Patriarchs

The earliest years of Jewish history are called the Patriarchal Age, and
the men who were the leaders of the people were called Patriarchs. It
was a very simple age. The people were nomadic, wandering from place to
place to find pasturage for their great flocks and herds. They lived in
tents. The patriarchs were the sheiks of the tribes, like sheik Ilderim
in the story of "Ben-Hur." It must be remembered that they lived in a
rude and uncivilized time. They had none of the high moral teaching
which we have. They often did things which were evil, but they also
sought earnestly after God, and often in the silence of the desert,
under the stars of night, found him, and worshiped him as truly  as we
do. Their story is the common human tale of struggle and defeat and
victory, which is repeated under different circumstances in every age.

{20}

{21}

ABRAHAM

_The Story of the First Great Hero of Israel's History. How He Tented
with His Flocks on the Upland Pastures of Palestine, and Became the
Father of a Great Nation._


THE MIGRATION.

_He Leaves His Father's Home and Journeys to a New Country_.

There was a man named Abram, who lived in the city of Ur of the
Chaldees.

Now the Lord said unto Abram, "Get thee out of thy country, and from thy
kindred, and from thy father's house, unto the land that I will show
thee: and I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and
make thy name great; and be thou a blessing: and I will bless them that
bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse: and in thee shall
all the families of the earth he blessed."

So Abram went, as the Lord had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him:
and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.
And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their
substance that they had gathered, and all their families and servants;
and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of
Canaan they came.

And Abram passed through the land unto the place of {22} Shechem, unto
the oak of Moreh. And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said, "Unto thy
family will I give this land": and there builded he an altar unto the
Lord, who appeared unto him.

And he removed from thence unto the mountain on the east of Beth-el, and
pitched his tent, having Beth-el on the west, and Ai on the east; and
there he builded an altar unto the Lord, and called upon the name of the
Lord. And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the South.


ABRAM AND LOT.

_The Division of the Land_.

And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold. And Lot also,
who went with Abram, had flocks, and herds, and tents. And the land was
not able to hold them, that they might dwell together: for their
substance was great, so that they could not dwell together. And there
was a strife between the herd men of Abram's cattle and the herdmen of
Lot's cattle.

And Abram said unto Lot, "Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between
me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen; for we are
brethren. Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray
thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the
right; or if thou take the right hand, then I will go to the left."

And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the Plain of Jordan, that it
was well watered everywhere, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and
Gomorrah, like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt.

{23}{24}

[Illustration]
  THE TRADITIONAL OAK OF ABRAHAM, NEAR HEBRON
  From a photograph belonging to Miss Julia W. Snow
  and used by her kind permission.

  "And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem, unto
  the Oak of Moreh."
[End illustration]

{25}

So Lot chose for himself all the Plain of Jordan; and Lot journeyed
east: and they separated themselves the one from the other. Abram
dwelled in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelled in the cities of the
Plain, and moved his tent as far as Sodom. Now the men of Sodom were
wicked and sinners against the Lord exceedingly. And the Lord said
unto Abram, after Lot was separated from him, "Lift up now thine eyes,
and look from the place where thou art, northward and southward and
eastward and westward: for all the land which thou seest, to thee will
I give it, and to thy family for ever. And I will make thy family as
the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the
earth, then shall thy family also be numbered. Arise, walk through the
land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will
I give it."

And Abram moved his tent, and came and dwelt by the oaks of Mamre,
which are in Hebron, and built there an altar un to the Lord.

THE FIGHT OF THE FIVE KINGS AGAINST THE FOUR.

_The Capture of Lot, and His Rescue by Abram_.

And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and
the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the
same is Zoar); and they set the battle in array against them in the
vale of Siddim; against Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Tidal, king of
Goiim, and Amraphel, king of Shinar, and Arioch, king of Ellasar; four
kings against the five.

Now the vale of Siddim was full of pitch pits; and the {26} kings of
Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and they that remained
fled to the mountain. And they took all the goods of Sodom and
Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went their way. And they took
Lot, Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and
departed. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the
Hebrew.

And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he led forth
his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and
pursued as far as Dan. And he divided himself against them by night,
he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah,
which is on the left hand of Damascus. And he brought back all the
goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the
women also, and the people.

And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from the
slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him. And
Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought forth bread and wine: and he was
priest of God Most High. And he blessed him, and said, "Blessed be
Abram of God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth: and blessed be
God Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand." And he
gave him a tenth of all.

And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, "Give me the persons and take
the goods to thyself." And Abram said to the king of Sodom, "I have
lifted up my hand unto the Lord, God Most High, possessor of heaven
and earth, that I will not take a thread or a shoelatchet nor aught
that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, 'I have made Abram rich': {27}
save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the
men which went with me; let them take their portion."

GOD'S PROMISES.

_The Making of the Covenant_.

After these things the word of the Lord came unto Abram in a vision,
saying, "Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great
reward."

And Abram said, "O Lord God, what wilt thou give me, seeing I am
childless, and he that shall be possessor of my house is my servant,
Eliezer of Damascus?"

And Abram said, "Behold, to me thou hast given no child: and, lo, one
born in my house is mine heir." And, behold, the word of the Lord came
unto him, saying, "This man shall not be thine heir; but he that shall
be thine own son shall be thine heir."

And he brought him forth abroad, and said, "Look now toward heaven,
and number the stars, if thou be able to number them": and he said
unto him, "So shall thy family be."

And he believed in the Lord; and he counted it to him for
righteousness. And he said unto him, "I am the Lord who brought thee
out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it." And
he said, "O Lord God, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?"

And he said unto him, "Take me an heifer of three years old, and a
she-goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a
turtle dove, and a young pigeon."

And he took him all these, and divided them in the {28} midst, and
laid each half over against the other: but the birds divided he not.
And the birds of prey came down upon the carcases, and Abram drove
them away. And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon
Abram; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell upon him. And he said
unto Abram, "Know of a surety that thy family shall be a stranger in a
land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict
them four hundred years; and also that nation, whom they shall serve,
will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.
But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a
good old age. And in the fourth generation they shall come hither
again: for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet full."

And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark,
behold a smoking furnace, and a flaming torch that passed between
these pieces. In that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying,
"Unto thy family have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto
the great river Euphrates."


THE BIRTH OF ISHMAEL.

_Abram Receives a New Name. Visit of the Messengers_.

(Now Sarai, Abram's wife, had no children, and, as the custom
sometimes was in those days, she gave him her handmaid Hagar, to be
his wife. And Hagar had a child, and Abram called the name of the
child Ishmael.)

And when Abram was ninety and nine years old, the Lord appeared to
Abram, and said unto him, "I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be
thou perfect. And I {29} will make my covenant between me and thee,
and will multiply thee exceedingly."

And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying, "As for
me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be the father of
a multitude of nations. Neither shall thy name any more be called
Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of
nations have I made thee. And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and
I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee. And I
will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy family after
thee throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a
God unto thee and to thy family after thee. And I will give unto thee,
and to thy family after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the
land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their
God."

And God said unto Abraham, "And as for thee, thou shalt keep my
covenant, thou, and thy family after thee throughout their
generations."

And God said unto Abraham, "As for Sarai, thy wife, thou shalt not
call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be. And I will bless
her, and moreover I will give thee a son of her: yea, I will bless
her, and she shall be a mother of nations; she shall bear thee a son;
and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant
with him for an everlasting covenant for his family after him."

And the Lord appeared unto him by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat in the
tent door in the heat of the day; and he lifted up his eyes and
looked, and, lo, three men stood over against {30} him: and when he
saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself to
the earth and said, "My lord, if now I have found favor in thy sight,
pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant: let now a little water
be fetched, and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree:
and I will fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort ye your heart; after
that ye shall pass on: forasmuch as ye are come to your servant."

And they said, "So do, as thou hast said."

And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said, "Make ready
quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes."

And Abraham ran to the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and
gave it to the servant; and he hasted to dress it. And he took butter,
and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them;
and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.

And the men rose up from thence, and looked toward Sodom: and Abraham
went with them to bring them on the way. And the Lord said, "Shall I
hide from Abraham that which I do; seeing that Abraham shall surely
become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth
shall be blessed in him? For I have known him, to the end that he may
command his children and his household after him, that they may keep
the way of the Lord, to do justice and judgment; to the end that the
Lord may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him."

And the Lord said, "Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great,
and because their sin is very grievous; {31} I will go down now, and
see whether they have done altogether according to the report of it,
which is come unto me; and if not, I will know."

And the men turned from thence, and went toward Sodom: but Abraham
stood yet before the Lord. And Abraham drew near, and said, "Wilt thou
consume the righteous within the city: wilt thou consume and not spare
the place for the fifty righteous that are therein? That be far from
thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked,
that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from thee:
shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?"

And the Lord said, "If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the
city, then I will spare all the place for their sake."

And Abraham answered and said, "Behold now, I have taken upon me to
speak unto the Lord, who am but dust and ashes: peradventure there
shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt thou destroy all the city
for lack of five?"

And he said, "I will not destroy it, if I find there forty and five."

And he spake unto him yet again, and said, "Peradventure there shall
be forty found there."

And he said, "I will not do it for the forty's sake."

And he said, "Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak:
peradventure there shall be thirty found there."

And he said, "I will not do it, if I find thirty there." And he said,
"Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord: peradventure
there shall be twenty found there."

{32}

And he said, "I will not destroy it for the twenty's sake." And he
said, "Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak but this once:
peradventure ten shall be found there."

And he said, "I will not destroy it for the ten's sake." And the Lord
went his way, as soon as he had done communing with Abraham: and
Abraham returned unto his place.


DESTRUCTION OF THE CITIES OF THE PLAIN.

_The Fate of Sodom and Gomorrah_.

And the two angels came to Sodom at evening; and Lot sat in the gate
of Sodom: and Lot saw them and rose up to meet them; and he bowed
himself with his face to the earth; and he said, "Behold now, my
lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry
all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on
your way."

And they said, "Nay; but we will abide in the street all night."

And he urged them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered
into his house; and he made them a feast, and baked unleavened bread,
and they ate.

And the men said unto Lot, "Hast thou here any besides? son in law,
and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whomsoever thou hast in the city;
bring them out of the place: for we will destroy this place, because
the cry of them has grown great before the Lord; and the Lord hath
sent us to destroy it."

{33}{34}
[Illustration]
  THE DEAD SEA

  The five "Cities of the Plain" are supposed to have been situated to
  the north of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is 47 miles long, with an
  extreme breadth of about 10 miles. It lies 1290 feet below the sea
  level and is itself 1300 feet deep in the deepest part. (See note on
  page 257)
[End illustration]

{35}

And Lot went out, and spoke to his sons in law, which married his
daughters, and said, "Up, get you out of this place; for the Lord will
destroy the city." But he seemed to his sons in law as one who mocked.

And when the morning came, then the angels hastened Lot, saying,
"Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters who are here; lest thou
be consumed in the iniquity of the city."

But he lingered; and the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the
hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the Lord
being merciful unto him: and they brought him forth, and set him
without the city.

And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he
said, "Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in
all the Plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed."

And Lot said to them, "Oh, not so, my lord: behold now, thy servant
hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy,
which thou hast showed unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape
to the mountain, lest evil overtake me, and I die: behold now, this
city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one: Oh, let me escape
thither (is it not a little one?) and my soul shall live."

And he said unto him, "See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing
also, that I will not overthrow the city of which thou hast spoken.
Haste thee, escape thither; for I cannot do anything till thou be come
thither." Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar, that is,
"Little."

The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came to Zoar. Then the Lord
rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah {36} brimstone and fire from the
Lord out of heaven; and he overthrew those cities, and all the Plain
and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the
ground. But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a
pillar of salt.

And Abraham got up early in the morning to the place where he had
stood before the Lord: and he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and
toward all the land of the Plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of
the land went up as the smoke of a furnace.

And it came to pass, when God destroyed the cities of the Plain, that
God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the
overthrow, when he overthrew the cities in the which Lot dwelt.


BIRTH OF ISAAC.

_Hagar and Ishmael Are Cast Out. Treaty with Abimelech_.

And a child was born to Sarah, according as the Lord had promised, and
Abraham called the name of his son, Isaac. And the child grew, and was
weaned: and Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was
weaned. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, which she had
borne unto Abraham, mocking. Wherefore she said unto Abraham, "Cast
out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall
not be heir with my son, even with Isaac."


{37}{38}

[Illustration]
  HAGAR AND ISHMAEL
  By Cazin
[End illustration]

{39}

And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight on account of his
son. And God said unto Abraham, "Let it not be grievous in thy sight
because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah
saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy family
be called. And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a
nation, because he is thy son."

And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle
of water, and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the
child, and sent her away: and she departed and wandered in the
wilderness of Beer-sheba. And the water in the bottle was spent, and
she cast the child under one of the shrubs. And she went, and sat her
down over against him a good way off, as it were a bowshot: for she
said, "Let me not look upon the death of the child."

And she sat over against him, and lifted up her voice, and wept. And
God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar
out of heaven, and said unto her, "What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not;
for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is. Arise, lift up
the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great
nation."

And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went,
and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink. And God was
with the lad, and he grew; and he dwelt in the wilderness, and became
an archer. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother
took him a wife out of the land of Egypt.

And it came to pass at that time, that Abimelech and Phicol, the
captain of his host, spoke to Abraham, saying, "God is with thee in
all that thou doest: now therefore swear {40} unto me here by God that
thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son's
son: but according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou
shalt do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned."

And Abraham said, "I will swear."

And Abraham reproved Abimelech because of the well of water, which
Abimelech's servants had violently taken away. And Abimelech said, "I
know not who hath done this thing: neither didst thou tell me, neither
yet heard I of it, but to-day."

And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them unto Abimelech; and
they two made a covenant. And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock
by themselves. And Abimelech said unto Abraham, "What mean these seven
ewe lambs which thou hast set by themselves?"

And he said, "These seven ewe lambs shalt thou take of my hand, that
it may be a witness unto me, that I have digged this well."

Wherefore he called that place Beer-sheba; because there they sware
both of them. So they made a covenant at Beer-sheba: and Abimelech
rose up, and Phicol, the captain of his host, and they returned into
the land of the Philistines. And Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in
Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting
God. And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines many days.


{41}

THE TESTING OF ABRAHAM.

_God Provides the Sacrifice_.

And it came to pass after these things, that God proved Abraham, and
said to him, "Abraham!"

And he said, "Here am I."

And he said, "Take now thy son, thine only son, whom thou lovest, even
Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a
burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of."

And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took
two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son; and he split the
wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of
which God had told him. On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes,
and saw the place afar off. And Abraham said to his young men, "Abide
ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go yonder; and we will
worship, and come again to you."

And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon
Isaac, his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and
they went both of them together. And Isaac spoke unto Abraham, his
father, and said, "My father": and he said, "Here am I, my son."

And he said, "Behold, the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for
a burnt offering?"

And Abraham said, "God will himself provide the lamb for a burnt
offering, my son": so they went both of them together.

And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham
built the altar there, and laid the wood in {42} order, and bound
Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood. And Abraham
stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. And the
angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, and said, "Abraham,
Abraham."

And he said, "Here am I."

And he said, "Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou
anything unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou
hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from me."

And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold, behind him a
ram caught in the thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the
ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the place of his son.
And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovah-jireh (that is,
Jehovah will provide): as it is said to this day, "In the mount of the
Lord it shall be provided." And the angel of the Lord called unto
Abraham a second time out of heaven, and said, "By myself have I
sworn, saith the Lord, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not
withheld thy son, thine only son: that I will certainly bless thee,
and I will certainly multiply thy family as the stars of the heaven,
and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy family shall
possess the gate of his enemies; and in thy family shall all the
nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice."

So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went
together to Beer-sheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba.

{43}{44}
[Illustration]
  HEBRON

  Used by special permission of the Palestine Exploration Fund.

  This is one of the most interesting spots in all the world; for here
  is the cave of Machpelah, the one ancient burial place which has
  been handed down from remote antiquity as the genuine site. The
  spot, as the burial place of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah,
  Jacob and Leah, has been venerated always by the adherents of the
  three great religions--Jews, Moslems, and Christians. The space
  containing the caves is inclosed by a great quadrangle of masonry
  197 feet long and 111 feet wide called the Haram. Within this
  inclosure, directly over the caves, is built a mosque. For six
  hundred years no European except, in disguise was known to have
  set foot in the sacred precincts. In 1862 the Prince of Wales
  was given permission, with much reluctance, to visit the
  inclosure. Since then a few visits have been made, but the cave
  itself has never been explored. A few visitors have been
  permitted to look down a shaft in the rock beneath the mosque,
  but there is no positive information as to what exists below the
  surface.
[End illustration]


{45}

DEATH AND BURIAL OF SARAH.

_Abraham Buys a Place to Lay His Dead_.

And the life of Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty years: these
were the years of the life of Sarah. And Sarah died in Kiriath-arba
(the same is Hebron), in the land of Canaan: and Abraham came to mourn
for Sarah, and to weep for her. And Abraham rose up from before his
dead, and spoke unto the children of Heth, saying, "I am a stranger
and a sojourner with you: give me a possession of a burying place with
you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight."

And the children of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him, "Hear us,
my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us: in the choice of our
sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his
sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead."

And Abraham rose up and bowed himself to the people of the land, even
to the children of Heth. And he communed with them, saying, "If it be
your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me, and
intreat for me to Ephron, the son of Zohar, that he may give me the
cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field;
for the full price let him give it to me in the midst of you for a
possession of a burying place."

Now Ephron was sitting in the midst of the children of Heth: and
Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the audience of the children of
Heth, even of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying, "Nay,
my lord, hear me: the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein,
I give it {46} thee; in the presence of the sons of my people give I
it thee: bury thy dead."

And Abraham bowed himself down before the people of the land. And he
spoke unto Ephron in the audience of the people of the land, saying,
"But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me: I will give the price of the
field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there."

And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him, "My lord, hearken unto
me: a piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that
betwixt me and thee? bury therefore thy dead."

And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the
silver, which he had named in the audience of the children of Heth,
four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant. So
the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre,
the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were
in the field, that were in all the border thereof round about, were
made sure unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the
children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of the city.

And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field
of Machpelah before Mamre (the same is Hebron), in the land of Canaan.
And the field, and the cave that is therein, were made sure unto
Abraham for a possession of a burying place by the children of Heth.


{47}{48}

[Illustration]
  REBEKAH AND ELIEZER
  From the Sculpture by Therwaldsen.

  "And she said, 'Drink, my Lord.' And she hasted and let down her
  pitcher upon her hand and gave him drink."
[End illustration]


{49}

ISAAC

_The Story of a Man Who Was Quiet and Gentle in His
Nature, Who Lived in Peace with God and Man_.

ISAAC AND REBEKAH.

_How Abraham Sought a Fair Maiden of Nahor to be His Son's
Wife_.

And Abraham was old, and the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things.

And Abraham said to his servant, who ruled over all that he had, "Put,
I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh: and I will make thee swear by
the Lord, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that thou shalt
not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among
whom I dwell: but thou shalt go unto my country, and to my kindred,
and take a wife for my son Isaac."

And the servant said unto him, "Peradventure the woman will not be
willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again
unto the land from whence thou camest?"

And Abraham said to him, "Beware thou that thou bring not my son
thither again. The Lord, the God of heaven, who took me from my
father's house, and from the land of my nativity, and that spoke unto
me, and that swore unto me, saying, 'Unto thy family will I give this
land'; he shall send his angel before thee, and thou shalt {50} take a
wife for my son from thence. And if the woman be not willing to follow
thee, then thou shalt be clear from this my oath; only thou shalt not
bring my son thither again."

And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master,
and swore to him concerning this matter. And the servant took ten
camels, of the camels of his master, and departed; having all goodly
things of his master's in his hand: and he arose, and went to
Mesopotamia, unto the city of Nahor. And he made the camels kneel down
outside the city by the well of water at the time of evening, the time
that women go out to draw water.

And he said, "O Lord, the God of my master Abraham, send me, I pray
thee, good speed this day, and shew kindness unto my master Abraham.
Behold, I stand by the fountain of water; and the daughters of the men
of the city come out to draw water: and let it come to pass, that the
maiden to whom I shall say, 'Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I
may drink'; and she shall say, 'Drink, and I will give thy camels
drink also': let the same be she that thou hast appointed for thy
servant Isaac; and thereby shall I know that thou hast showed kindness
unto my master.'"

And it came to pass, before he had done speaking, that, behold,
Rebekah came out, who was born to Bethuel, the son of Milcah, the wife
of Nahor, Abraham's brother, with her pitcher upon her shoulder. And
the maiden was very fair to look upon, and she went down to the
fountain, and filled her pitcher, and came up. And the servant ran to
meet her, and said, "Give me to drink, I pray thee, a little water out
of thy pitcher."

{51}

And she said, "Drink, my lord": and she hasted, and let down her
pitcher upon her hand, and gave him drink.

And when she had done giving him drink, she said, "I will draw for thy
camels also, until they have done drinking."

And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher into the trough, and ran again
unto the well to draw, and drew for all his camels. And the man looked
steadfastly on her; holding his peace, to know whether the Lord had
made his journey prosperous or not.

And it came to pass, as the camels had done drinking, that the man
took a golden ring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her
hands of ten shekels weight of gold; and said, "Whose daughter art
thou? tell me, I pray thee. Is there room in thy father's house for us
to lodge in?"

And she said unto him, "I am the daughter of Bethuel, the son of
Milcah, which she bare unto Nahor." She said moreover unto him, "We
have both straw and provender enough, and room to lodge in."

And the man bowed his head, and worshiped the Lord. And he said,
"Blessed be the Lord, the God of my master Abraham, who hath not
forsaken his mercy and his truth toward my master: as for me, the Lord
hath led me in the way to the house of my master's brethren."

And the maiden ran, and told her mother's house according to these
words. And Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban: and Laban
ran out unto the man, unto the fountain. And it came to pass, when he
saw the {52} ring, and the bracelets upon his sister's hands, and when
he heard the words of Rebekah, his sister, saying, "Thus spoke the man
unto me"; that he came unto the man; and, behold, he stood by the
camels at the fountain.

And he said, "Come in, thou blessed of the Lord; wherefore standest
thou without? for I have prepared the house, and room for the camels."

And the man came into the house, and he ungirded the camels; and he
gave straw and provender for the camels, and water to wash his feet
and the men's feet that were with him.

And there was set food before him to eat: but he said, "I will not
eat, until I have told mine errand."

And he said, "Speak on."

And he said, "I am Abraham's servant. And the Lord hath blessed my
master greatly; and he is become great: and he hath given him flocks
and herds, and silver and gold, and menservants and maidservants, and
camels and asses. And Sarah, my master's wife, bore a son to my master
when she was old: and unto him hath he given all that he hath. And my
master made me swear, saying, 'Thou shalt not take a wife for my son
of the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell: but thou
shalt go unto my father's house, and to my kindred, and take a wife
for my son.' And I said unto my master, 'Peradventure the woman will
not follow me.' And he said unto me, 'The Lord, before whom I walk,
will send his angel with thee, and prosper thy way; and thou shalt
take a wife for my son of my kindred, and of my father's house: then
shalt thou be clear from my oath, when thou comest to my kindred; and
if they give her not to thee, thou shalt be clear from my oath.'

{53}{54}

[Illustration]
  REBEKAH
  By Goodall.
[End illustration]


{55}

"And I came this day unto the fountain, and said, 'O Lord, the God of
my master Abraham, if now thou do prosper my way which I go: behold, I
stand by the fountain of water; and let it come to pass, that the
maiden which cometh forth to draw, to whom I shall say, "Give me, I
pray thee, a little water out of thy pitcher to drink"; and she shall
say to me, "Both drink thou, and I will also draw for thy camels": let
the same be the woman whom the Lord hath appointed for my master's
son.' And before I had done speaking in mine heart, behold, Rebekah
came forth with her pitcher on her shoulder; and she went down unto
the fountain, and drew: and I said unto her, 'Let me drink, I pray
thee.' And she made haste, and let down her pitcher from her shoulder,
and said, 'Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also': so I drank,
and she made the camels drink also. And I asked her, and said, 'Whose
daughter art thou?' And she said, 'The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor's
son, whom Milcah bore unto him': and I put the ring upon her nose, and
the bracelets upon her hands. And I bowed my head and worshiped the
Lord, and blessed the Lord, the God of my master Abraham, which had
led me in the right way to take my master's brother's daughter for his
son. And now if ye will deal kindly and truly with my master, tell me:
and if not, tell me; that I may turn to the right hand, or to the
left."

Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, "The {56} thing proceedeth
from the Lord: we cannot speak unto thee bad or good. Behold, Rebekah
is before thee, take her, and go, and let her be thy master's son's
wife, as the Lord hath spoken."

And it came to pass, that, when Abraham's servant heard their words,
he bowed himself down to the earth unto the Lord. And the servant
brought forth jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and
gave them to Rebekah: he gave also to her brother and to her mother
precious things.

And they ate and drank, he and the men that were with him, and tarried
all night; and they rose up in the morning, and he said, "Send me away
unto my master."

And her brother and her mother said, "Let the maiden abide with us a
few days, at the least ten; after that she shall go."

And he said unto them, "Hinder me not, seeing the Lord hath prospered
my way; send me away that I may go to my master."

And they said, "We will call the maiden, and inquire of her."

And they called Rebekah, and said unto her, "Wilt thou go with this
man?"

And she said, "I will go." And they sent away Rebekah their sister,
and her nurse, and Abraham's servant, and his men.

And they blessed Rebekah, and said to her, "Our sister, be thou the
mother of thousands of ten thousands, and let thy family possess the
gate of those who hate them."

{57}{58}

[Illustration]
  A CAMEL RIDER

  From a photograph belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman
  and used by her kind permission.
[End illustration]


{59}

And Rebekah arose, and her maidservants, and they rode upon the
camels, and followed the man: and the servant took Rebekah and went
his way.

And Isaac came from the way of Beer-lahai-roi; for he dwelt in the
land of the South. And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the
eventide: and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, there were
camels coming.

And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she alighted
from the camel. And she said unto the servant, "What man is this who
walketh in the field to meet us?"

And the servant said, "It is my master": and she took her veil and
covered herself. And the servant told Isaac all the things that he had
done. And Isaac brought her to his mother Sarah's tent, and took
Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her: and Isaac was
comforted after his mother's death.


THE DEATH OF ABRAHAM.

And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived,
an hundred threescore and fifteen years. And Abraham died in a good
old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his
people. And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the cave of
Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which
is before Mamre; the field which Abraham purchased of the children of
Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah, his wife. And it came to
pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed Isaac his son.

{60}

JACOB

_The Story of the Man Who Struggled Much Between
Right and Wrong and Who Suffered Many Things_.

THE STRIFE BETWEEN THE BROTHERS.

_Esau Sells His Birthright. Jacob Deceives His Father and
Receives the Blessing Intended for Esau_.

(Isaac, the son of Abraham, and Rebekah, his wife, had twin sons,
named Jacob and Esau. Esau was a bold, rough, reckless boy, fond of
hunting and adventure. Jacob was more quiet, but also more cunning.
The recklessness of Esau and the cunning of Jacob many times cost them
dear in later life.)

And the boys grew: and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field;
and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.

Now Isaac loved Esau, because he ate of his venison: and Rebekah loved
Jacob. And Jacob boiled pottage: and Esau came in from the field, and
he was faint: and Esau said to Jacob, "Feed me, I pray thee, with that
same red pottage; for I am faint."

And Jacob said, "Sell me this day thy birthright."

And Esau said, "Behold, I am at the point of death: and what profit
shall the birthright be to me?"

And Jacob said, "Swear to me this day"; and he swore unto him: and he
sold his birthright to Jacob.

And Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentils; and {61} he ate and
drank, and rose up, and went his way: so Esau despised his birthright.

And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim,
so that he could not see, he called Esau his elder son, and said to
him, "My son": and he said to him, "Here am I."

And he said, "Behold now, I am old, I know not the day of my death.
Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow,
and go out to the field, and take me venison; and make me savoury
meat, such as I love, and bring it to me, that I may eat; that my soul
may bless thee before I die."

And Rebekah heard when Isaac spoke to Esau his son. And Esau went to
the field to hunt for venison, and to bring it. And Rebekah spoke to
Jacob her son, saying, "Behold, I heard thy father speak to Esau thy
brother, saying, 'Bring me venison, and make me savoury meat, that I
may eat, and bless thee before the Lord before my death.' Now
therefore, my son, obey my voice according to that which I command
thee. Go now to the flock, and fetch me from thence two good kids of
the goats; and I will make them savoury meat for thy father, such as
he loveth: and thou shalt bring it to thy father, that he may eat, so
that he may bless thee before his death."

And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, "Behold, Esau my brother is a
hairy man, and I am a smooth man. My father peradventure will feel me,
and I shall seem to him as a deceiver; and I shall bring a curse upon
me, and not a blessing."

{62}

And his mother said unto him, "Upon me be thy curse, my son: only obey
my voice, and go fetch me them."

And he went, and fetched, and brought them to his mother: and his
mother made savoury meat, such as his father loved. And Rebekah took
the goodly garments of Esau her elder son, which were with her in the
house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son: and she put the skins
of the kids of the goats upon his hands, and upon the smooth of his
neck: and she gave the savoury meat and the bread, which she had
prepared, into the hand of her son Jacob. And he came unto his father,
and said, "My father": and he said, "Here am I; who art thou, my son?"

And Jacob said unto his father, "I am Esau thy firstborn; I have done
according as thou badest me: arise, I pray thee, sit and eat of my
venison, that thy soul may bless me."

And Isaac said unto his son, "How is it that thou hast found it so
quickly, my son?"

And he said, "Because the Lord thy God sent me good speed."

And Isaac said unto Jacob, "Come near, I pray thee, that I may feel
thee, my son, whether thou be my very son Esau or not."

And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father; and he felt him, and said,
"The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau."

And he knew him not, because his hands were hairy, as his brother
Esau's hands: so he blessed him.

And he said, "Art thou my very son Esau?"

{63}{64}

[Illustration]
  JACOB'S DREAM
  By Murillo
[End illustration]

{65}

And he said, "I am."

And he said, "Bring it near to me, and I will eat of my
son's venison, that my soul may bless thee."

And he brought it near to him, and he ate: and he
brought him wine, and he drank. And his father Isaac
said unto him, "Come near now, and kiss me, my son."
And he came near, and kissed him.

And he smelled the smell of his garment, and blessed
him, and said,--

  "See, the smell of my son
  Is as the smell of a field which the Lord hath blessed:
  And God give thee of the dew of heaven,
  And of the fatness of the earth,
  And plenty of corn and wine:
  Let peoples serve thee,
  And nations bow down to thee:
  Be lord over thy brethren,
  And let thy mother's sons bow down to thee:
  Cursed be everyone that curseth thee,
  And blessed be everyone that blesseth thee."

And it came to pass, as soon as Isaac had made an end of blessing
Jacob, and Jacob was yet scarce gone out from the presence of Isaac
his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting. And he
also made savoury meat, and brought it unto his father; and he said
unto his father, "Let my father arise, and eat of his son's venison,
that thy soul may bless me."

And Isaac his father said unto him, "Who art thou?"

{66}

And he said, "I am thy son, thy firstborn, Esau." And Isaac trembled
very exceedingly, and said, "Who then is he that hath taken venison
and brought it to me, and I have eaten of all before thou earnest, and
have blessed him? yea, and he shall be blessed."

When Esau heard the words of his father, he cried with an exceeding
great and bitter cry, and said unto his father, "Bless me, even me
also, O my father."

And he said, "Thy brother came with guile, and hath taken away thy
blessing."

And he said, "Is not he rightly named Jacob? for he hath supplanted me
these two times: he took away my birthright; and, behold, now he hath
taken away my blessing."

And he said, "Hast thou not reserved a blessing for me?"

And Isaac answered and said unto Esau, "Behold, I have made him thy
lord, and all his brethren have I given to him for servants; and with
corn and wine have I sustained him: and what then shall I do for thee,
my son?"

And Esau said unto his father, "Hast thou but one blessing, my father?
bless me, even me also, O my father."

And Esau lifted up his voice, and wept. And Isaac his father answered
and said unto him:--

  "Behold, of the fatness of the earth shall be thy dwelling,
  And of the dew of heaven from above;
  And by thy sword shalt thou live, and thou shalt serve thy brother;
{67}
  And it shall come to pass when thou shalt break loose,
  That thou shalt shake his yoke from off thy neck."

And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father
blessed him: and Esau said in his heart, "The days of mourning for my
father are at hand; then will I slay my brother Jacob."

And the words of Esau her elder son were told to Rebekah; and she sent
and called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him, "Behold, thy
brother Esau comforts himself, purposing to kill thee. Now therefore,
my son, obey my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother to
Haran; and tarry with him a few days, until thy brother's fury turn
away; until thy brother's anger turn away from thee, and he forget
that which thou hast done to him: then I will send, and fetch thee
from thence: why should I be bereaved of you both in one day?"


JACOB GOES FORTH FROM HOME.

_He Dreams a Dream of of Ladder Reaching to Heaven_.

And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said
unto him, "Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan.
Arise, go to Paddan-aram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father;
and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy
mother's brother. And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful,
and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a company of peoples; and give
thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy family with thee;
that thou mayest {68} inherit the land of thy sojournings, which God
gave unto Abraham."

And Isaac sent away Jacob: and he went to Paddan-aram to Laban, son of
Bethuel the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob's and Esau's mother.
Now Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to
Paddan-aram, to take him a wife from thence; and that as he blessed
him he gave him a charge, saying, "Thou shalt not take a wife of the
daughters of Canaan"; and that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother,
and was gone to Paddan-aram.

And Jacob went out from Beer-sheba, and went toward Haran. And he came
upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was
set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his
head, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and behold
a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and
behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold,
the Lord stood above it, and said, "I am the Lord, the God of Abraham
thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee
will I give it, and to thy family; and thy family shall be as the dust
of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the
east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy
family shall all the families of the earth be blessed. And, behold, I
am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will
bring thee again into this land; for {69} I will not leave thee, until
I have done that which I have spoken to thee of."

And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said, "Surely the Lord is in
this place; and I knew it not."

And he was afraid, and said, "How dreadful is this place! this is none
other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven."

And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had
put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon
the top of it. And he called the name of that place Beth-el: but the
name of the city was Luz at the first.

And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, "If God will be with me, and will keep
me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment
to put on, so that I come again to my father's house in peace, then
shall the Lord be my God, and this stone, which I have set up for a
pillar, shall be God's house: and of all that thou shalt give me I
will surely give the tenth unto thee."


JACOB AND RACHEL.

_How Jacob Served Seven Years for the Woman He Loved_.

Then Jacob went on his journey, and came to the land of the children
of the east. And he looked, and behold a well in the field, and, lo,
three flocks of sheep lying there by it; for out of that well they
watered the flocks: and the stone upon the well's mouth was great. And
thither were all the flocks gathered: and they rolled the stone from
the well's mouth, and watered the sheep, and {70} put the stone again
upon the well's mouth in its place. And Jacob said unto them, "My
brethren, whence are ye?" And they said, "Of Haran are we." And he
said unto them, "Know ye Laban the son of Nahor?"

And they said, "We know him."

And he said unto them, "Is it well with him?"

And they said, "It is well: and, behold, Rachel his daughter cometh
with the sheep."

And he said, "Lo, it is yet high day, neither is it time that the
cattle should be gathered together: water ye the sheep, and go and
feed them."

And they said, "We cannot, until all the flocks be gathered together,
and they roll the stone from the well's mouth; then we water the
sheep."

While he yet spoke with them, Rachel came with her father's sheep; for
she kept them. And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter
of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's
brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well's
mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother. And Jacob
kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept. And Jacob told
Rachel that he was her father's nephew, and that he was Rebekah's son:
and she ran and told her father. And it came to pass, when Laban heard
the tidings of Jacob his sister's son, that he ran to meet him, and
embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. And he
told Laban all these things.

And Laban said to him, "Surely thou art my bone and my flesh."

{71}

And he abode with him the space of a month.. And Laban said unto
Jacob, "Because thou art my nephew, shouldest thou therefore serve me
for nought? tell me what shall thy wages be?"

And Laban had two daughters: the name of the elder was Leah, and the
name of the younger was Rachel. And Leah's eyes were tender; but
Rachel was beautiful and well favored. And Jacob loved Rachel; and he
said, "I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter."

And Laban said, "It is better that I give her to thee, than that I
should give her to another man: abide with me."

And Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they seemed unto him but
a few days, for the love he had to her.


JACOB SETS OUT FOR HIS NATIVE LAND.

_He Is Pursued by Laban, but a Covenant of Peace Is Made Between Them_.

(Jacob also took Leah to be his wife. After many years of service, in
which time many sons and daughters were born to him, Jacob, who
increased exceedingly, and had large flocks, and maidservants and
menservants, and camels and asses, wished to depart from the household
of his father-in-law to his native land. So he went away secretly,
with his wives and all his possessions. )

Now Laban was angry, and pursued Jacob, and Laban came up with Jacob.
Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mountain: and Laban with his
brethren pitched in the mountain of Gilead. And Laban said to Jacob,
"What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen away unawares to me, and
carried away my daughters as captives of the {72} sword? Wherefore
didst thou flee secretly, and steal away from me; and didst not tell
me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth and with songs, with
tabret and with harp; and hast not suffered me to kiss my sons and my
daughters? now hast thou done foolishly. It is in the power of my hand
to do you hurt: but the God of your father spoke unto me yesternight,
saying, 'Take heed to thyself that thou speak not to Jacob either good
or bad.'"

And Jacob was wroth with Laban: and Jacob answered and said to Laban,
"What is my trespass? what is my sin, that thou hast hotly pursued
after me? This twenty years have I been with thee. The sheep of the
flock which were torn of beasts I brought not unto thee; I bore the
loss of them; of my hand didst thou require them, whether stolen by
day or stolen by night. Thus I was; in the day the drought consumed
me, and the frost by night; and my sleep fled from mine eyes. These
twenty years have I been in thy house; I served thee fourteen years
for thy two daughters, and six years for thy flock: and thou hast
changed my wages ten times. Except the God of my father, the God of
Abraham, and the Fear of Isaac, had been with me, surely now hadst
thou sent me away empty. God hath seen mine affliction and the labor
of my hands, and rebuked thee yesternight."

{73}{74}

[Illustration]
  HEBRON

  Hebron, famous in Old Testament story, is to-day one of the four
  sacred cities of the Moslems. It is in a little valley surrounded by
  hills, which are still covered with vineyards.
[End illustration]

{75}

And Laban answered and said unto Jacob, "The daughters are my
daughters, and the children are my children, and the flocks are my
flocks and all that thou seest is mine: and what can I do this day
unto these my daughters, or unto their children which they have borne?
And now come, let us make a covenant, I and thou; and let it be for a
witness between me and thee."

And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. And Jacob said
unto his brethren, "Gather stones"; and they took stones, and made an
heap: and they ate there by the heap. And Laban called it
"Jegar-sahadutha": but Jacob called it Galeed.

And Laban said, "This heap is witness between me and thee this day."
Therefore was the name of it called Galeed: and "Mizpah" (that is,
watchtower), for he said,

  "The Lord watch between me and thee,
   When we are absent one from another."

"If thou shalt afflict my daughters, and if thou shalt take wives
beside my daughters, no man is with us; see, God is witness between me
and thee."

And Laban said to Jacob, "Behold this heap, and behold the pillar,
which I have set between me and thee. This heap be witness, and the
pillar be witness, that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and
that thou shalt not pass over this heap and this pillar unto me, for
harm.

"The God of Abraham, and the God of Nahor, the God of their father,
judge between us."

And Jacob swore by the Fear of his father Isaac. And Jacob offered a
sacrifice in the mountain, and called his brethren to eat bread: and
they did eat bread, and tarried all night in the mountain. And early in
the morning {76} Laban rose up, and kissed his sons and his daughters,
and blessed them: and Laban departed, and returned unto his place.

And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him. And Jacob said
when he saw them, "This is God's host": and he called the name of that
place Mahanaim (that is, Two Hosts).


JACOB FEARS THE WRATH OF ESAU.

_He Wrestles with the Angel. The Brothers Meet and are Reconciled_.

And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land
of Seir, the field of Edom. And he commanded them, saying, "Thus shall
ye say unto my lord Esau; 'Thus saith thy servant Jacob, I have
sojourned with Laban, and stayed until now: and I have oxen, and asses
and flocks, and menservants and maidservants: and I have sent to tell
my lord, that I may find grace in thy sight.'"

And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, "We came to thy brother
Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with
him."

Then Jacob was greatly afraid and was distressed: and he divided the
people that was with him, and the flocks, and the herds, and the
camels, into two companies; and he said, "If Esau come to the one
company, and smite it, then the company which is left shall escape."



{77}{78}

[Illustration]
  THE VALLEY OF THE JABBOK

  From a photograph taken by Prof. H. G. Mitchell
  and used by his kind permission.

  Over this stream Jacob sent his family and his flock while he
  remained to wrestle with the angel through the night.
[End illustration]

{79}

And Jacob said, "O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father
Isaac, O Lord, who saidst unto me, 'Return unto thy country, and to
thy kindred, and I will do thee good': I am not worthy of the least of
all the mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast showed unto thy
servant; for with my staff I passed over this Jordan; and now I am
become two companies. Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand of my
brother, from the hand of Esau: for I fear him, lest he come and smite
me, the mother with the children. And thou saidst, 'I will surely do
thee good, and make thy family as the sand of the sea, which cannot be
numbered for multitude.'"

And he lodged there that night; and took of that which he had with him
a present for Esau his brother; two hundred she-goats and twenty
he-goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, thirty milch camels and
their colts, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty she-asses and ten foals.
And he delivered them into the hand of his servants, every drove by
itself; and said unto his servants, "Pass over before me, and put a
space between drove and drove."

And he commanded the foremost, saying, "When Esau my brother meeteth
thee, and asketh thee, saying, 'Whose art thou? and whither goest
thou? and whose are these before thee?' then thou shalt say, 'They are
thy servant Jacob's; it is a present sent unto my lord Esau: and,
behold, he also is behind us.'"

And he commanded also the second, and the third, and all that followed
the droves, saying, "On this manner shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye
find him; and ye shall say, 'Moreover, behold, thy servant Jacob is
behind us.'"

For he said, "I will appease him with the present that {80} goeth
before me, and afterward I will see his face; peradventure he will
accept me."

So the present passed over before him: and he himself
lodged that night in the company.

And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two
handmaids, and his eleven children, and passed over the ford of
Jabbok. And he took them, and sent them over the stream, and sent over
that which he had. And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man
with him until the breaking of the day. And when he saw that he
prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the
hollow of Jacob's thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him. And he
said, "Let me go, for the day breaketh."

And he said, "I will not let thee go, except thou bless me."

And he said unto him, "What is thy name?"

And he said, "Jacob."

And he said, "Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for
thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed."

And Jacob asked him and said, "Tell me, I pray thee, thy name."

And he said, "Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?"

And he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of the place
Penuel: for, said he, "I have seen God face, to face, and my life is
preserved."

{81}{82}

[Illustration]
  NABLOUS, THE ANCIENT SHECHEM, IN THE VALLEY BETWEEN
  MOUNTS EBAL AND GERIZIM

  Used by special permission of the Detroit Photograph Company.

  The first camping place of Abraham. Jacob built an altar here, and
  dug a well, and here Joseph was buried. Joshua set up a great stone
  "as a witness" here at the end of his life. It was here at "Jacob's
  well," about a mile and a half from the town, that Jesus met the
  woman of Samaria.
[End illustration]

{83}

And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Penuel, and he limped upon
his thigh.

And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, and, behold, Esau came, and
with him four hundred men. And he divided the children unto Leah, and
unto Rachel, and unto the two handmaids. And he put the handmaids and
their children foremost, and Leah and her children after, and Rachel
and Joseph hindermost. And he himself passed over before them, and
bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came near to his
brother. And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his
neck, and kissed him: and they wept. And he lifted up his eyes, and
saw the women and the children; and said, "Who are these with thee?"

And he said, "The children which God hath graciously given thy
servant."

Then the handmaids came near, they and their children, and they bowed
themselves. And Leah also and her children came near, and bowed
themselves: and after came Joseph near and Rachel, and they bowed
themselves. And he said, "What meanest thou by all this company which
I met?"

And he said, "To find grace in the sight of my lord." And Esau said,
"I have enough; my brother, let that which thou hast be thine."

And Jacob said, "Nay, I pray thee, if now I have found grace in thy
sight, then receive my present at my hand: forasmuch as I have seen
thy face, as one seeth the face of God, and thou wast pleased with me.
Take, I {84} pray thee, my gift that is brought to thee; because God
hath dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough."

And he urged him, and he took it.

And he said, "Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go
before thee."

And he said unto him, "My lord knoweth that the children are tender,
and that the flocks and herds with me have their young: and if they
overdrive them one day, all the flocks will die. Let my lord, I pray
thee, pass over before his servant: and I will lead on gently,
according to the pace of the cattle that are before me and according
to the pace of the children, until I come unto my lord unto Seir."

And Esau said, "Let me now leave with thee some of the folk that are
with me."

And he said, "What needeth it? let me find grace in the sight of my
lord."

So Esau returned that day on his way unto Seir. And Jacob journeyed to
Succoth, and built him an house, and made booths for his cattle:
therefore the name of the place is called Succoth.

And Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem, which is in the land
of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and encamped before the
city. And he bought the parcel of ground where he had spread his tent,
at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hundred
pieces of money. And he erected there an altar, and called it "God,
the God of Israel."

{85}{86}

[Illustration]
  BETHEL

  Photograph taken by Mrs. Frank L. Goodspeed, of Springfield, Mass.,
  and used by her kind permission.

  One of Abraham's camping grounds and the place of Jacob's dream.
[End illustration]


{87}

JACOB ERECTS AN ALTAR AT BETH-EL.

_He Is Given a New Name. The Death of Rachel_.

And God said to Jacob, "Arise, go up to Beth-el, and dwell there: and
make there an altar unto God, who appeared unto thee when thou
fleddest from the face of Esau thy brother."

Then Jacob said unto his household, and to all that were with him,
"Put away the foreign gods that are among you, and purify yourselves,
and change your garments: and let us arise, and go up to Beth-el; and
I will make there an altar unto God, who answered me in the day of my
distress, and was with me in the way which I went."

And they gave to Jacob all the foreign gods which were in their hand,
and the rings which were in their ears; and Jacob hid them under the
oak which was by Shechem. And they journeyed: and a great terror was
upon the cities that were round about them, and they did not pursue
after the sons of Jacob. So Jacob came to Luz (the same is Beth-el),
he and all the people that were with him. And he built there an altar,
and called the place, "The God of Beth-el": because there God was
revealed to him, when he fled from the face of his brother. And
Deborah Rebekah's nurse died, and she was buried below Beth-el under
the oak: and the name of it was called "The Oak of Weeping."

And God appeared to Jacob again, when he came from Paddan-aram, and
blessed him. And God said unto him, "Thy name is Jacob: thy name shall
not be called any {88} more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name:" and
he called his name Israel.

And God said unto him, "I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a
nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come
from thee; and the land which I gave unto Abraham and Isaac, to thee I
will give it, and to thy family after thee will I give the land."

And God went up from him in the place where he spoke with him. And
Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he spoke with him, a pillar
of stone: and he poured out a drink offering thereon, and poured oil
thereon. And Jacob called the name of the place where God spoke with
him, "Beth-el."

And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath (the same is
Bethlehem). And Jacob set up a pillar upon her grave: the same is the
Pillar of Rachel's grave unto this day.

(In this place Jacob lived for many years; but the sorrow that came to
him, and the wonderful things that befell him in his old age, and how
he journeyed to Egypt, and died there, are told in the next story, the
story of Joseph, his son.)

{89}{90}

[Illustration]
  MOSES

  From the frieze of the Prophets, by Sargent, in the Boston Public
  Library.
[End illustration]


{91}

JOSEPH

_The Story of the Shepherd Boy Who Was Sold into Bondage, and How He
Became Ruler in a Great Nation_.

A COWARDLY DEED.

_Joseph Arouses the Enmity of His Older Brethren, and They Sell Him into
Slavery_.


(Joseph and Benjamin were the sons of Rachel, Jacob's best loved wife.
Their mother died while Joseph was still a little boy and Benjamin was a
baby. Their father loved the two motherless boys very much.)


Joseph, when he was seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with
his brethren; and he was a lad with the sons of Bilhah, and with the
sons of Zilpah, his father's wives: and Joseph brought an evil report
of them unto their father. Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his
children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a
coat of many colors. And his brethren saw that their father loved him
more than all his brethren; and they hated him, and could not speak
peaceably unto him. And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it to his
brethren: and they hated him yet the more. And he said unto them,
"Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed: for, behold, we
were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and stood
upright; and, {92} behold, your sheaves came round about, and bowed
down to my sheaf."

And his brethren said to him, "Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or
shalt thou indeed have dominion over us?"

And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words. And
he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said,
"Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream; and, behold, the sun and the moon
and eleven stars bowed down to me."

And he told it to his father, and to his brethren; and his father
rebuked him, and said unto him, "What is this dream that thou hast
dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow
down ourselves to thee to the earth?"

And his brethren envied him; but his father kept the saying in mind.
And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. And
Israel said unto Joseph, "Do not thy brethren feed the flock in
Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them."

And he said to him, "Here am I."

And he said to him, "Go now, see whether it is well with thy brethren,
and well with the flock; and bring me word again."

So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. And
a certain man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the field:
and the man asked him, saying, "What seekest thou?" And he said, "I
seek my brethren: tell me, I pray thee, where they are feeding the
flock."

{93}{94}

[Illustration]
  A CARAVAN LOADING FOR A JOURNEY

  From a photograph in the possession of Dr. W. J. Moulton
  and used by his kind permission.
[End illustration]

{95}

And the man said, "They are departed hence: for I heard them say, 'Let
us go to Dothan.'"

And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan. And they
saw him afar off, and before he came near unto them, they conspired
against him to slay him. And they said one to another, "Behold, this
dreamer cometh. Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him
into one of the pits, and we will say, 'An evil beast hath devoured
him': and we shall see what will become of his dreams."

And Reuben heard it, and delivered him out of their hand; and said,
"Let us not take his life."

And Reuben said unto them, "Shed no blood; cast him into this pit that
is in the wilderness, but lay no hand upon him": that he might deliver
him out of their hand, to restore him to his father.

And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they
stript Joseph of his coat, the coat of many colors that was on him;
and they took him and cast him into the pit: and the pit was empty,
there was no water in it. And they sat down to eat bread: and they
lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites
came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and
myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. And Judah said unto his
brethren, "What profit is it if we slay our brother and conceal his
blood? Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our
hand be upon him; for he is our brother, our flesh," And his brethren
hearkened unto him.

{96}

And they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to
the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. And they brought Joseph
into Egypt. And Reuben returned un to the pit; and, behold, Joseph was
not in the pit; and he rent his clothes. And he returned unto his
brethren, and said, "The child is not; and I, whither shall I go?"

And they took Joseph's coat, and killed a he-goat, and dipped the coat
in the blood; and they sent the coat of many colors, and they brought
it to their father; and said, "This have we found: know now whether it
be thy son's coat or not."

And he knew it, and said, "It is my son's coat; an evil beast hath
devoured him; Joseph is without doubt torn in pieces."

And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and
mourned for his son many days. And all his sons and all his daughters
rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said,
"For I will go down to the grave to my son mourning." And his father
wept for him.


JOSEPH IN EGYPT.

_Fortunate at First, He is Cast into Prison, but Even There He Finds
Favor_.

And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of
Pharaoh's, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hand
of the Ishmaelites, who had brought him down thither. And the Lord was
with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his
master the Egyptian.

{97}{98}

[Illustration]
  A VIEW OF THE PYRAMIDS AND THE SPHINX

  From a photograph belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman and used by her
  kind permission.

  Egypt is a land of wonder and romance, the seat of one of the oldest
  civilizations on the face of the globe. Its ancient temples and
  statues, though in ruins, are among the most beautiful and wonderful
  in the world. Many of the tombs have been plundered, yet one has
  only just been opened which contained untouched the priceless
  memorial of that early time. This is the land over which the Hebrew
  shepherd lad Joseph ruled and out of which the Hebrew people finally
  marched to freedom.
[End illustration]

{99}

And his master saw that the Lord was with him, and that the Lord made
all that he did to prosper in his hand. And Joseph found grace in his
sight, and he ministered unto him: and he made him overseer over his
house, and all that he had he put into his hand. And it came to pass
from the time that he made him overseer in his house, and over all
that he had, that the Lord blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's
sake; and the blessing of the Lord was upon all that he had, in the
house and in the field. And he left all that he had in Joseph's hand;
and he knew not aught that was with him, save the bread which he did
eat.

(But Joseph's mistress was a wicked woman, and, because Joseph would
not do wrong, told what was not true about him to his master, so that
Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, the place where
the king's prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison.)

But the Lord was with Joseph, and showed kindness unto him, and gave
him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. And the keeper of
the prison committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in
the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it. The
keeper of the prison looked not to anything that was under his hand,
because the Lord was with him; and that which he did, the Lord made it
to prosper.


JOSEPH INTERPRETS THE DREAMS OF PHARAOH'S OFFICERS.

_The Fate of the Chief Butler and of the Baker of the King_.

And it came to pass after these things, that the butler of the king of
Egypt and his baker offended their lord the {100} king of Egypt. And
Pharaoh was wroth against his two officers, against the chief of the
butlers, and against the chief of the bakers. And he put them into the
prison, the place where Joseph was bound. And the captain of the guard
charged Joseph with them, and he ministered unto them: and they
continued a season in prison.

And they dreamed a dream both of them, each man his dream, in one
night, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were bound
in the prison. And Joseph came in to them in the morning, and saw
them, and, behold, they were sad. And he asked Pharaoh's officers that
were with him in prison, saying, "Wherefore look ye so sad to-day?"

And they said unto him, "We have dreamed a dream, and there is none
that can interpret it."

And Joseph said unto them, "Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell
it me, I pray you."

And the chief butler told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, "In my
dream, behold, a vine was before me; and in the vine were three
branches: and it was as though it budded, and its blossoms shot forth;
and the clusters thereof brought forth ripe grapes: and Pharaoh's cup
was in my hand; and I took the grape: and pressed them into Pharaoh's
cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand."

{101}{102}

[Illustration]
  A GROVE OF DATE PALMS IN EGYPT

  From a photograph belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman
  and used by her kind permission.
[End illustration]

{103}

And Joseph said unto him, "This is the interpretation of it: the three
branches are three days; within yet three days shall Pharaoh lift up
thine head, and restore thee unto thine office: and thou shalt give
Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the former manner when thou wast
his butler. But have me in thy remembrance when it shall be well with
thee, and show kindness, I pray thee, to me, and make mention of me
unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house: for indeed I was stolen
away out of the land of the Hebrews: and here also have I done nothing
that they should put me into the dungeon."

When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said
unto Joseph, "I also was in my dream, and, behold, three baskets of
white bread were on my head: and in the uppermost basket there was all
manner of bakemeats for Pharaoh; and the birds ate them out of the
basket upon my head."

And Joseph answered and said, "This is the interpretation thereof: the
three baskets are three days; within yet three days shall Pharaoh lift
up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the
birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee."

And it came to pass the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, that
he made a feast unto all his servants: and he lifted up the head of
the chief butler and the head of the chief baker among his servants.
And he restored the chief butler unto his butlership again; and he
gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand: but he hanged the chief baker: as
Joseph had interpreted to them. Yet did not the chief butler remember
Joseph, but forgot him.


{104}

THE SEVEN FAT KINE AND THE SEVEN LEAN KINE


_Which Joseph Told the King Meant Seven Fat Years of Plenty and Seven
Lean Years of Want. The Hebrew Boy is Made Chief Ruler of Egypt. The
Famine Comes_.


And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh
dreamed: and, behold, he stood by the river. And, behold, there came
up out of the river seven kine, well favored and fatfleshed; and they
fed in the reed-grass. And, behold, seven other kine came up after
them out of the river, ill favored and leanfleshed; and stood by the
other kine upon the brink of the river. And the ill favored and
leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favored and fat kine. So
Pharaoh awoke.

And he slept and dreamed a second time: and, behold, seven ears of
corn came up upon one stalk, full and good. And, behold, seven ears,
thin and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them. And the
thin ears swallowed up the seven full and good ears. And Pharaoh
awoke, and, behold, it was a dream. And it came to pass in the morning
that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the
magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told
them his dream; but there was none that could interpret them unto
Pharaoh.

Then spoke the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, "I do remember my
faults this day: Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in
prison in the house of the captain of the guard, me and the chief
baker: and we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he; we dreamed each
man according to the interpretation of his dream. And {105} there was
with us there a young man, an Hebrew, servant to the captain of the
guard; and we told him, and he interpreted to us our dreams; to each
man according to his dream he did interpret. And it came to pass as he
interpreted to us, so it was; me he restored unto mine office, and him
he hanged."

Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him hastily out
of the dungeon: and he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and
came in to Pharaoh.

And Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I have dreamed a dream, and there is none
that can interpret it: and I have heard say of thee, that when thou
hearest a dream thou canst interpret it."

And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, "It is not in me: God shall give
Pharaoh an answer of peace."

And Pharaoh spoke unto Joseph, "In my dream, behold, I stood upon the
brink of the river: and, behold, there came up out of the river seven
kine, fatfleshed and well favored; and they fed in the reed-grass:
and, behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor and very ill
favored and leanfleshed, such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt
for badness: and the lean and ill favored kine ate up the first seven
fat kine: and when they had eaten them up, it could not be known that
they had eaten them; but they were still ill favored as at the
beginning. So I awoke.

"And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears came up upon one
stalk, full and good: and, behold, seven ears, {106} withered, thin,
and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them: and the thin
ears swallowed up the seven good ears: and I told it unto the
magicians; but there was none that could declare it to me."

And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, "The dream of Pharaoh is one: what God
is about to do he hath declared unto Pharaoh. The seven good kine are
seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years: the dream is
one. And the seven lean and ill favored kine that came up after them
are seven years, and also the seven empty ears blasted with the east
wind; they shall be seven years of famine. That is the thing which I
spoke unto Pharaoh: what God is about to do he hath showed unto
Pharaoh. Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all
the land of Egypt: and there shall arise after them seven years of
famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt;
and the famine shall consume the land; and the plenty shall not be
known in the land by reason of that famine which followeth; for it
shall be very grievous. And the reason that the dream was doubled to
Pharaoh is because the thing is established by God, and God will
shortly bring it to pass. Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man
discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt. Let Pharaoh do
this, and let him appoint overseers over the land, and take up the
fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years. And let
them gather all the food of these good years that come, and lay up
corn under the hand of Pharaoh for food in the cities, and let them
keep it. And the food shall be for {107} a store to the land against
the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt; that
the land perish not through the famine."

And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all
his servants. And Pharaoh said to his servants, "Can we find such a
one as this, a man in whom the spirit of God is?"

And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, "Forasmuch as God hath showed thee all
this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou: thou shalt be over
my house, and according to thy word shall all my people be ruled: only
in the throne will I be greater than thou." And Pharaoh said unto
Joseph, "See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt."

And Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand, and put it upon
Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a
gold chain about his neck; and he made him to ride in the second
chariot which he had; and they cried before him, "Bow the knee": and
he set him over all the land of Egypt. And Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I
am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or his foot
in all the land of Egypt."

And Pharaoh gave Joseph Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera the priest
of On to be his wife. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.

And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, king of
Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went
throughout all the land of {108} Egypt. And in the seven plenteous
years the earth brought forth by handfuls. And he gathered up all the
food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up
the food in the cities: the food of the field, which was round about
every city, laid he up in the same. And Joseph laid up corn as the
sand of the sea, very much, until he left measuring; for it was
without measure. And to Joseph were born two sons before the year of
famine came, which his wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest
of On bore to him. And Joseph called the name of the firstborn
Manasseh: "For," said he, "God hath made me forget all my toil, and
all my father's house." And the name of the second called he Ephraim:
"For God hath made me fruitful in the land of my affliction."

And the seven years of plenty, that was in the land of Egypt, came to
an end. And the seven years of famine began to come, according as
Joseph had said: and there was famine in all lands; but in all the
land of Egypt there was bread. And when all the land of Egypt was
famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread: and Pharaoh said unto
all the Egyptians, "Go to Joseph; what he saith to you, do."

And the famine was over all the face of the earth: and Joseph opened
all the storehouses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine was
sore in the land of Egypt. And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph
to buy corn; because the famine was sore in all the earth.

{109}{110}

[Illustration]
  A VIEW OF THE PYRAMIDS, WITH A VILLAGE IN THE FOREGROUND

  From a photograph belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman
  and used by her kind permission.

  The pyramids, which are seen in the distance in this picture, were
  considered one of the "Seven Wonders of the World." There are
  seventy of them in Egypt and they were built as tombs of the
  Pharaohs. The "Great Pyramid" is four hundred and eighty feet and
  nine inches high; it is supposed to have taken one hundred thousand
  men fifty years to build it, and the date is given as from 3229 to
  2123 B.C.
[End illustration]

{111}

THE SONS OF JACOB COME TO EGYPT TO BUY CORN.

_They Do Not Recognize, in the Ruler of the Land, the Brother Whom They
Sold. He Commands Them to Bring Their Youngest Brother to Egypt_.


Now Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, and Jacob said to his
sons, "Why do ye look one upon another?"

And he said, "Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt: get
you down thither, and buy for us from thence; that we may live, and
not die."

And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn from Egypt. But
Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren; for he
said, "Lest peradventure mischief befall him."

And the sons of Israel came to buy among those that came: for the
famine was in the land of Canaan. And Joseph was the governor over the
land; he it was that sold to all the people of the land: and Joseph's
brethren came, and bowed down themselves to him with their faces to
the earth. And Joseph saw his brethren, and he knew them, but made
himself strange to them, and spoke roughly with them; and he said unto
them, "Whence come ye?"

And they said, "From the land of Canaan to buy food." And Joseph knew
his brethren, but they knew not him.

And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them, and said
unto them, "Ye are spies; to see the nakedness of the land ye are
come."

And they said unto him, "Nay, my lord, but to buy food are thy
servants come. We are all one man's sons; we are true men, thy
servants are no spies."

{112}

And he said to them, "Nay, but to see the nakedness of the land ye are
come."

And they said, "We thy servants are twelve brethren, the sons of one
man in the land of Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this day with
our father, and one is not."

And Joseph said unto them, "That is it that I spoke unto you, saying,
'Ye are spies': hereby ye shall be proved: 'by the life of Pharaoh ye
shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither.
Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother, and ye shall be
bound, that your words may be proved, whether there be truth in you:
or else by the life of Pharaoh surely ye are spies." And he put them
all together into prison three days.

And Joseph said unto them the third day, "This do, and live; for I
fear God: if ye be true men, let one of your brethren be bound in your
prison house; but go ye, carry corn for the famine of your houses: and
bring your youngest brother unto me; so shall your words be verified,
and ye shall not die."

And they did so. And they said one to another, "We are verily guilty
concerning our brother, in that we saw the distress of his soul, when
he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come
upon us."

And Reuben answered them, saying, "Spoke I not unto you, saying, 'Do
not sin against the child'; and ye would not hear? therefore also,
behold, his blood is required."

And they knew not that Joseph understood them; for there was an
interpreter between them.

And he turned himself about from them, and wept; {113} and he returned
to them, and spoke to them, and took Simeon from among them, and bound
him before their eyes. Then Joseph commanded to fill their vessels
with corn, and to restore every man's money into his sack, and to give
them provisions for the way: and thus was it done unto them. And they
loaded their asses with their corn, and departed thence. And as one of
them opened his sack to feed his ass in the lodging place, he espied
his money; and, behold, it was in the mouth of his sack. And he said
unto his brethren, "My money is restored; and, lo, it is even in my
sack": and their heart failed them, and they turned trembling one to
another, saying, "What is this that God hath done unto us?"

And they came to Jacob their father to the land of Canaan, and told
him all that had befallen them; saying, "The man, the lord of the
land, spoke roughly with us, and took us for spies of the country. And
we said to him, 'We are true men; we are no spies: we are twelve
brethren, sons of our father; one is not, and the youngest is this day
with our father in the land of Canaan.'

"And the man, the lord of the land, said unto us, 'Hereby shall I know
that ye are true men; leave one of your brethren with me, and take
corn for the famine of your houses, and go your way: and bring your
youngest brother unto me: then shall I know that ye are no spies, but
that ye are true men: so will I deliver you your brother, and ye shall
traffic in the land.'"

And it came to pass as they emptied their sacks, that, behold, every
man's bundle of money was in his sack: and {114} when they and their
father saw their bundles of money, they were afraid. And Jacob their
father said unto them, "Me have ye bereaved of my children: Joseph is
not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away: all these
things are against me."

And Reuben spoke unto his father, saying, "Slay my two sons, if I
bring him not to thee: deliver him into my hand, and I will bring him
to thee again." And he said, "My son shall not go down with you; for
his brother is dead, and he only is left: if mischief befall him by
the way in which ye go, then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with
sorrow to the grave."


JOSEPH AND HIS BROTHERS.

_Jacob at First Refuses, but at Length Consents, to Let Benjamin Go.
Joseph Places the Money in the Sacks. He Threatens the Brothers with
Punishment. He tells His Brothers Who He Is, Forgives Them, and Takes
Them Into His Favor_.


And the famine was sore in the land. And it came to pass, when they
had eaten up the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, their
father said unto them, "Go again, buy us a little food."

And Judah spoke unto him, saying, "The man did solemnly protest unto
us, saying, 'Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with
you.' If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy
thee food: but if thou wilt not send him, we will not go down: for the
man said unto us, 'Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be
with you.'"

{115}

And Israel said, "Wherefore dealt ye so ill with me, as to tell the
man whether ye had yet a brother?"

And they said, "The man asked strictly concerning ourselves, and
concerning our kindred, saying, 'Is your father yet alive? have ye
another brother?' and we told him according to the nature of these
words: could we in any wise know that he would say, 'Bring your
brother down'?"

And Judah said unto Israel his father, "Send the lad with me, and we
will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou,
and also our little ones. I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt
thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before
thee, then let me bear the blame for ever: for except we had lingered,
surely we had now returned a second time."

And their father Israel said unto them, "If it be so now, do this;
take of the choice fruits of the land in your vessels, and carry down
the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spicery and
myrrh, nuts, and almonds: and take double money in your hand; and the
money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks carry again in your
hand; peradventure it was an oversight: take also your brother, and
arise, go again unto the man: and God Almighty give you mercy before
the man, that he may release unto you your other brother and Benjamin.
And if I be bereaved of my children, I am bereaved."

And the men took that present, and they took double money in their
hand, and Benjamin; and rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood
before Joseph. And when {116} Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said
to the steward of his house, "Bring the men into the house, and slay,
and make ready; for the men shall dine with me at noon."

And the man did as Joseph bade; and the man brought the men into
Joseph's house. And the men were afraid, because they were brought
into Joseph's house; and they said, "Because of the money that was
returned in our sacks at the first time are we brought in; that he may
seek occasion against us, and fall upon us, and take us for bondmen,
and our asses."

And they came near to the steward of Joseph's house, and they spoke
unto him at the door of the house, and said, "Oh my lord, we came
indeed down at the first time to buy food: and it came to pass, when
we came to the lodging place, that we opened our sacks, and, behold,
every man's money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full
weight: and we have brought it again in our hand. And other money have
we brought down in our hand to buy food: we know not who put our money
in our sacks."

And he said, "Peace be to you, fear not: your God, and the God of your
father, hath given you treasure in your sacks: I had your money."

And he brought Simeon out to them. And the man brought the men into
Joseph's house, and gave them water, and they washed their feet; and
he gave their asses provender. And they made ready the present for
Joseph's coming at noon: for they heard that they should eat there.

And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in
their hand into the house, and bowed {117} down themselves to him to
the earth. And he asked them of their welfare, and said, "Is your
father well, the old man of whom ye spoke? Is he yet alive?" and they
said, "Thy servant our father is well, he is yet alive." And they
bowed the head, and made obeisance.

And he lifted up his eyes and saw Benjamin his brother, his mother's
son, and said, "Is this your youngest brother, of whom ye spoke unto
me?" And he said, "God be gracious unto thee, my son."

And Joseph made haste; for his heart yearned over his brother: and he
sought where to weep; and he entered into his chamber, and wept there.
And he washed his face and came out; and he refrained himself, and
said, "Set on food."

And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and
for the Egyptians, who ate with him, by themselves: because the
Egyptians could not eat with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination
to the Egyptians. And they sat before him, the firstborn according to
his birthright, and the youngest according to his youth: and the men
marveled one with another. And he took of the food and sent portions
to them from before him: but Benjamin's portion was five times as much
as any of theirs. And they drank, and were merry with him.

And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, "Fill the men's
sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man's money
in his sack's mouth. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's
mouth of the youngest, and his corn money."

{118}

And he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken. As soon as
the morning was light the men were sent away, they and their asses.
And when they were gone out of the city, and were not yet far off,
Joseph said to his steward, "Up, follow after the men; and when thou
dost overtake them, say to them, 'Wherefore have ye rewarded evil for
good? Is not this the cup from which my lord drinketh, and whereby he
indeed divineth? ye have done evil in so doing.'"

And he overtook them, and he spoke unto them these words. And they
said unto him, "Wherefore speaketh my lord such words as these? God
forbid that thy servants should do such a thing. Behold, the money,
which we found in our sacks' mouths, we brought again unto thee out of
the land of Canaan: how then should we steal out of thy lord's house
silver or gold? With whomsoever of thy servants it be found, let him
die, and we also will be my lord's bondmen."

And he said, "Now also let it be according unto your words: he with
whom it is found shall be my bondman; and ye shall be blameless."

Then they hasted, and took down every man his sack to the ground, and
opened every man his sack. And he searched, and began at the eldest,
and left off at the youngest: and the cup was found in Benjamin's
sack. Then they rent their clothes, and loaded every man his ass, and
returned to the city. And Judah and his brethren came to Joseph's
house; and he was yet there: and they fell before him on the ground.
And Joseph said {119} unto them, "What deed is this that ye have done?
know ye not that such a man as I can indeed divine?"

And Judah said, "What shall we say unto my lord? what shall we speak?
or how shall we clear ourselves? God hath found out the iniquity of
thy servants: behold, we are my lord's bondmen, both we, and he also
in whose hand the cup is found."

And he said, "God forbid that I should do so: the man in whose hand
the cup is found, he shall be my bondman; but as for you, get you up
in peace unto your father."

Then Judah came near unto him, and said, "Oh my lord, let thy servant,
I pray thee, speak a word to my lord, and let not thine anger burn
against thy servant: for thou art even as Pharaoh. My lord asked his
servants, saying, 'Have ye a father, or a brother?' And we said unto
my lord, 'We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a
little one; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his
mother, and his father loveth him.' And thou saidst unto thy servants,
'Bring him down unto me, that I may set mine eyes upon him.' And we
said to my lord, 'The lad cannot leave his father: for if he should
leave his father, his father would die.' And thou saidst unto thy
servants, 'Except your youngest brother come down with you, ye shall
see my face no more.' And it came to pass when we came up to thy
servant my father, we told him the words of my lord. And our father
said, 'Go again, buy us a little food.' And we said, 'We cannot go
down: if our youngest brother be with us, then will {120} we go down:
for we may not see the man's face, except our youngest brother be with
us.' And thy servant my father said to us, 'Ye know that my wife bore
me two sons: and the one went out from me, and I said, "Surely he is
torn in pieces"; and I have not seen him since: and if ye take this
one also from me, and mischief befall him, ye shall bring down my gray
hairs in sorrow to the grave.' Now therefore when I come to thy
servant my father, and the lad be not with us; seeing that his life is
bound up in the lad's life; it shall come to pass, when he seeth that
the lad is not with us, that he will die: and thy servants shall bring
down the gray hairs of thy servant our father with sorrow to the
grave. For thy servant became surety for the lad unto my father,
saying, 'If I bring him not unto thee, then shall I bear the blame to
my father for ever.' Now therefore, let thy servant, I pray thee,
abide instead of the lad a bondman to my lord; and let the lad go up
with his brethren. For how shall I go up to my father, and the lad be
not with me? lest I see the evil that shall come on my father."

Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by
him; and he cried, "Cause every man to go out from me."

And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known to
his brethren. And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians heard, and the
house of Pharaoh heard. And Joseph said unto his brethren, "I am
Joseph; doth my father yet live?"

And his brethren could not answer him; for they were {121} troubled at
his presence. And Joseph said to his brethren, "Come near to me, I
pray you."

And they came near. And he said, "I am Joseph your brother, whom ye
sold into Egypt. And now be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves,
that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve
life. For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and there
are yet five years, in the which there shall be neither plowing nor
harvest. And God sent me before you to preserve you a remnant in the
earth, and to save you alive by a great deliverance. So now it was not
you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to
Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and ruler over all the land of
Egypt. Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, 'Thus saith
thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me,
tarry not: and thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt
be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children,
and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast: and there will
I nourish thee; for there are yet five years of famine; lest thou come
to poverty, thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast. And,
behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is
my mouth that speaketh unto you.' And ye shall tell my father of all
my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall haste
and bring down my father hither."

And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck and wept; and Benjamin
wept upon his neck. And he kissed all his {122} brethren, and wept
with them: and after that his brethren talked with him.

And the report thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house, saying, "Joseph's
brethren are come": and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants. And
Pharaoh said unto Joseph, "Say unto thy brethren, 'This do ye; load
your beasts, and go, get you unto the land of Canaan; and take your
father and your households, and come unto me: and I will give you the
good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land.' Now
thou art commanded, this do ye; take you wagons out of the land of
Egypt for your little ones, and for your wives, and bring your father,
and come. Also regard not your possessions; for the good of all the
land of Egypt is yours."

And the sons of Israel did so: and Joseph gave them wagons, according
to the commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them provisions for the way.
To all of them he gave each man changes of raiment; but to Benjamin he
gave three hundred pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment. And
to his father he sent after this manner; ten asses laden with the good
things of Egypt, and ten she-asses laden with corn and bread and
victual for his father by the way.

So he sent his brethren away, and they departed: and he said to them,
"See that ye fall not out by the way."

And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan to
Jacob their father. And they told him, saying, "Joseph is yet alive,
and he is ruler over all the land of Egypt." And his heart fainted,
for he {123} believed them not. And they told him all the words of
Joseph, which he had said unto them: and when he saw the wagons which
Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father
revived: and Israel said, "It is enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I
will go and see him before I die."


JACOB IN EGYPT.

_The Famine Wastes the Land. Death of Jacob. Death of Joseph_.


And Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to
Beer-sheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac. And
God spoke unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, "Jacob,
Jacob."

And he said, "Here am I."

And he said, "I am God, the God of thy father: fear not to go down
into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation: I will go
down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again:
and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes."

And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba: and the sons of Israel carried
Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in the
wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. And they took their cattle
and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came
into Egypt, Jacob, and all his family with him: his sons, and his
sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all
his family brought he with him into Egypt.

And he sent Judah before him unto Joseph, to show the way before him
unto Goshen; and they came into the {124} land of Goshen. And Joseph
made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to
Goshen; and he presented himself to him, and fell on his neck, and
wept on his neck a good while. And Israel said unto Joseph, "Now let
me die, since I have seen thy face, and know that thou art yet alive."

And Joseph said to his brethren, and to his father's house, "I will go
up, and tell Pharaoh, and will say unto him, 'My brethren, and my
father's house, which were in the land of Canaan, are come unto me;
and the men are shepherds, for they have been keepers of cattle; and
they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they
have.' And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you, and
shall say, 'What is your occupation?' that ye shall say, 'Thy servants
have been keepers of cattle from our youth even until now, both we,
and our fathers': that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every
shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians."

Then Joseph went in and told Pharaoh, and said, "My father and my
brethren, and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have,
are come out of the land of Canaan; and, behold, they are in the land
of Goshen."

And from among his brethren he took five men, and presented them to
Pharaoh. And Pharaoh said to his brethren, "What is your occupation?"

And they said to Pharaoh, "Thy servants are shepherds, both we, and
our fathers."

And they said to Pharaoh, "To sojourn in the land are we come; for
there is no pasture for thy servants' {125} flocks; for the famine is
sore in the land of Canaan: now therefore, we pray thee, let thy
servants dwell in the land of Goshen."

And Pharaoh spoke unto Joseph, saying, "Thy father and thy brethren
are come to thee: the land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the
land make thy father and thy brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen
let them dwell: and if thou knowest any able men among them, then make
them rulers over my cattle."

And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh:
and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, "How many are
the days of the years of thy life?"

And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, "The days of the years of my pilgrimage
are an hundred and thirty years: few and evil have been the days of
the years of my life, and they have not attained unto the days of the
years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage."

And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from the presence of Pharaoh.
And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a
possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land
of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. And Joseph nourished his father,
and his brethren, and all his father's household, with food, according
to their families.

And there was no food in all the land; for the famine was very sore,
so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan fainted by reason of
the famine. And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the
land of {126} Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which
they bought: and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house. And
when the money was all spent in the land of Egypt, and in the land of
Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Joseph, and said, "Give us bread:
for why should we die in thy presence? for our money faileth."

And Joseph said, "Give your cattle; and I will give you for your
cattle if money fail."

And they brought their cattle unto Joseph: and Joseph gave them food
in exchange for the horses, and for the flocks, and for the herds, and
for the asses: and he fed them with food in exchange for all their
cattle for that year. And when that year was ended, they came to him
the second year, and said to him, "We will not hide from my lord, how
that our money is all spent; and the herds of cattle are my lord's;
there is nought left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our
lands: wherefore should we die before thine eyes, both we and our
land? buy us and our land for food, and we and our land will be
servants unto Pharaoh: and give us seed, that we may live, and not
die, and that the land be not desolate."

So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians
sold every man his field, because the famine was sore upon them: and
the land became Pharaoh's. And as for the people, he removed them to
the cities from one end of the border of Egypt even to the other end
thereof.

{127}{128}

[Illustration]
  A VIEW IN LUXOR

  From a photograph belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman
  and used by her kind permission.
[End illustration]

{129}

Only the land of the priests bought he not: for the priests had a
portion from Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which Pharaoh gave
them; wherefore they sold not their land. Then Joseph said unto the
people, "Behold, I have bought you this day and your land for Pharaoh:
lo, here is seed for you, and ye shall sow the land. And it shall come
to pass at the ingatherings, that ye shall give a fifth to Pharaoh,
and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and for your
food, and for them of your households, and for food for your little
ones."

And they said, "Thou hast saved our lives: let us find grace in the
sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh's servants."

And Joseph made it a statute concerning the land of Egypt unto this
day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth; only the land of the priests
alone became not Pharaoh's. And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt, in
the land of Goshen; and they got them possessions therein, and were
fruitful, and multiplied exceedingly.

And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years: so the days of
Jacob, the years of his life, were an hundred forty and seven years.
And the time drew near that Israel must die: and he called his son
Joseph, and said unto him, "If now I have found grace in thy sight,
put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly
with me; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt: bury me with my fathers
in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, in the cave
that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land
of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite
for a possession of a buryingplace: there they {130} buried Abraham
and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and
there I buried Leah: the field and the cave that is therein, which was
purchased from the children of Heth."

And when Jacob made an end of charging his sons, he laid himself down
upon his bed and died. And Joseph fell upon his father's face, and
wept upon him, and kissed him. And Joseph commanded his servants the
physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel.
And forty days were fulfilled for him; for so are fulfilled the days
of embalming: and the Egyptians wept for him threescore and ten days.

And when the days of weeping for him were past, Joseph spoke unto the
house of Pharaoh, saying, "If now I have found grace in your eyes,
speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, 'My father made me
swear, saying, Lo, I die: in my grave which I have digged for me in
the land of Canaan, there shalt thou bury me. Now therefore let me go
up, I pray thee, and bury my father, and I will come again.'"

And Pharaoh said, "Go up, and bury thy father, according as he made
thee swear." And Joseph went up to bury his father: and with him went
up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the
elders of the land of Egypt, and all the house of Joseph, and his
brethren, and his father's house: only their little ones, and their
flocks and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen. And there
went up with him both chariots and horsemen: and it was a very great
{131} company. And they came to the threshing-floor of Atad, which is
beyond Jordan, and there they lamented with a very great and sore
lamentation: and he made a mourning for his father seven days. And
when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in
the floor of Atad, they said, "This is a grievous mourning to the
Egyptians": wherefore the name of it was called "The Mourning of
Egypt," which is beyond Jordan. And his sons did unto him according as
he commanded them: for his sons carried him into the land of Canaan,
and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham
bought with the field, for a possession of a buryingplace, of Ephron
the Hittite, before Mamre.

And Joseph returned into Egypt, he, and his brethren, and all that
went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.
And when Joseph's brethren saw that their father was dead, they said,
"It may be that Joseph will hate us, and will fully requite us all the
evil which we did unto him." And they sent a message unto Joseph,
saying, "Thy father did command before he died, saying, 'So shall ye
say unto Joseph, Forgive, I pray thee now, the transgression of thy
brethren, and their sin, in that they did unto thee evil': and now, we
pray thee, forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of thy
father."

And Joseph wept when they spoke unto him. And his brethren also went
and fell down before his face; and they said, "Behold, we are thy
servants." And Joseph {132} said unto them, "Fear not: for am I in the
place of God? And as for you, ye meant evil against me; but God meant
it for good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people
alive. Now therefore fear ye not: I will nourish you, and your little
ones." And he comforted them, and spoke kindly unto them.

And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father's house: and Joseph
lived an hundred and ten years. And Joseph saw Ephraim's children of
the third generation. And Joseph said unto his brethren, "I die: but
God will surely visit you, and bring you up out of this land unto the
land which he swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob."

And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, "God will
surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence."

So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed
him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

{133}

The Great Captains

The word "captain" following the use in the Bible and all literature
down to the present day, is not the particular term, designating the
commander of a small company of soldiers, but a general term, standing
for leadership in the largest sense. Moses, according to this meaning
of the word, was one of the greatest of the worlds captains, for he
took a cowardly, unorganized mob of slaves and led them through the
most appalling difficulties and dangers, to freedom, and to a position
where national existence was possible. While there was little actual
fighting in the journey from Egypt to Palestine, yet there was
necessity, every step of the way, for the highest qualities of
leadership.

Joshua was a great captain in the more strictly military sense of the
word. He found the force organized and disciplined by the leadership
of Moses, and he used it as a skillful swordsman uses a keen and
tempered blade. In his campaigns he displayed the abilities of the
great military genius.

{134}


THE FINDING OF MOSES

  Slow glides the Nile: amid the margin flags,
  Closed in a bulrush ark, the babe is left,--
  Left by a mother's hand. His sister waits
  Far off; and pale, 'tween hope and fear, beholds
  The royal maid, surrounded by her train,
  Approach the river bank,--approach the spot
  Where sleeps the innocent: she sees them stoop
  With meeting plumes; the rushy lid is oped,
  And wakes the infant, smiling in his tears,
  As when along a little mountain lake
  The summer south-wind breathes, with gentle sigh,
  And parts the reeds, unveiling, as they bend,
  A water-lily floating on the wave.

{135}{136}

[Illustration]
  VIEW FROM RAMAH, THE TRADITIONAL HOME OF SAMUEL
  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood
  and used by special permission.

  "We know not with certainty the situation of Ramah. Of Samuel as of
  Moses it may be said, 'No man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this
  day.' But the lofty peak above Gibeon, which has long borne his
  name, has this feature (in common, to a certain extent, with any
  high place which can have been the scene of his life and death),
  that it overlooks the whole of that broad table-land, on which the
  fortunes of the Jewish monarchy were afterwards unrolled. Its
  towering eminence, from which the pilgrims first obtained their view
  of Jerusalem, is no unfit likeness of the solitary grandeur of the
  prophet Samuel, who lived and died in the very midst of the future
  glory of his country"
[End illustration]


{137}

MOSES

_The Story of the Man Who Led a Race of Slaves Out of Bondage, and
Became the Emancipator of a Great Nation_.


THE ISRAELITES ARE ENSLAVED IN EGYPT.

_The Slave Who Was Brought Up in a King's Palace. Moses Kills
One of the Egyptian Taskmasters and Flees from the Country_.


Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph. And he
said to his people, "Behold, the people of the children of Israel are
more and mightier than we: come, let us deal wisely with them; lest
they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any
war, they also join themselves unto our enemies, and fight against us,
and get them up out of the land."

Therefore they set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their
burdens. And they built for Pharaoh store cities, Pithom and Raamses.
But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the
more they spread abroad. And they were grieved because of the children
of Israel. And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with
rigor: and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar
and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field, all their
service, wherein they made them serve with rigor.

{138}

And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, "Every son that is born to
the Hebrews ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall
save alive."

And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took for his wife a
daughter of Levi. And the woman had a son: and when she saw that he
was a goodly child, she hid him three months. And when she could not
longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it
with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the flags by
the river's brink. And his sister stood afar off, to know what would
be done to him. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe at the
river; and her maidens walked along by the river side; and she saw the
ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it. And she opened
it and saw the child: and, behold, the babe wept. And she had
compassion on him, and said, "This is one of the Hebrews' children."

Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, "Shall I go and call thee
a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?"

And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Go."

And the maid went and called the child's mother. And Pharaoh's
daughter said to her, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and
I will give thee thy wages."

And the woman took the child, and nursed it. And the child grew, and
she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. And she
called his name Moses, and said, "Because I drew him out of the
water."


{139}{140}

[Illustration]
  THE SPHINX

  From a photograph in the possession of Mr. S. E. Bridgman
  and used by his kind permission.

  The Great Sphinx at Gizeh is a colossal figure carved out of the
  solid rock. It perhaps represents the reigning monarch as a
  conqueror. The age of the Great Sphinx is thought to be about the
  same as that of the pyramids
[End illustration]

{141}

And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown up, that he
went out to his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he saw an
Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren. And he looked this
way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he smote the
Egyptian, and hid him in the sand. And he went out the second day,
and, behold, two men of the Hebrews strove together: and he said to
him that did the wrong, "Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?"

And he said, "Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? thinkest
thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian?"

And Moses feared, and said, "Surely the thing is known."

Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses
fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian: and he
sat down by a well. Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and
they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their
father's flock. And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses
stood up and helped them, and watered their flock. And when they came
to Reuel their father, he said, "How is it that ye are come so soon
to-day?"

And they said, "An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the
shepherds, and moreover he drew water for us, and watered the flock."
And he said to his daughters, "And where is he? why is it that ye have
left the man? call him, that he may eat bread."

And Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he gave Moses
Zipporah his daughter. And she had a {142} son, and he called his name
Gershom: for he said, "I have been a sojourner in a strange land."

And it came to pass in the course of those many days, that the king of
Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the
bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of
the bondage. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered them.


THE VOICE OF GOD FROM THE BURNING BUSH.

_The Lord Commissions Moses to Lead His People Out of Bondage_.


Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the
priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the back of the wilderness,
and came to the mountain of God, to Horeb. And the angel of the Lord
appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he
looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not
consumed. And Moses said, "I will turn aside now, and see this great
sight, why the bush is not burnt."

And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him
out of the midst of the bush, and said, "Moses, Moses."

And he said, "Here am I."

And he said, "Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy
feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground." Moreover he
said, "I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of
Isaac, and the God of Jacob."

{143}

And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God. And the
Lord said, "I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are
in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for
I know their sorrows; and I am come down to deliver them out of the
hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land to a good
land and a large, to a land flowing with milk and honey. And now,
behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come to me: moreover I
have seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. Come
now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest
bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt."

And Moses said to God, "Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and
that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?"

And he said, "Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be the
token unto thee, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth
the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain."

And Moses said unto God, "Behold, when I come unto the children of
Israel, and shall say unto them, 'The God of your fathers hath sent me
unto you'; and they shall say to me, 'What is his name?' what shall I
say unto them?" And God said unto Moses, "I am that I am": and he
said, "Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, 'I am hath
sent me unto you.'"

[Footnote: These phrases are a reference to the name Jehovah, which
was thought to mean "He is."]

{144}

And God said moreover to Moses, "Thus shalt thou say to the children
of Israel, 'The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the
God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me to you': this is my
name for ever, and this is my memorial to all generations. Go, and
gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, 'The Lord,
the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob,
hath appeared to me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that
which is done to you in Egypt: and I have said, I will bring you up
out of the affliction of Egypt, to a land flowing with milk and
honey.' And they shall hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou
and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and ye shall say to
him, 'The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, hath met with us: and now let
us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we
may sacrifice to the Lord our God.' And I know that the king of Egypt
will not give you leave to go, no, not by a mighty hand. And I will
put forth my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do
in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go. And I will
give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall
come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty: but every woman
shall ask of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house,
jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put
them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the
Egyptians."

And Moses answered and said, "But, behold, they will {145} not believe
me, nor hearken unto my voice: for they will say, 'The Lord hath not
appeared to thee.'"

And the Lord said unto him, "What is that in thine hand?"

And he said, "A rod."

And he said, "Cast it on the ground."

And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled
from before it. And the Lord said unto Moses, "Put forth thine hand,
and take it by the tail." And he put forth his hand, and laid hold of
it, and it became a rod in his hand.

And the Lord said furthermore to him, "Put now thine hand into thy
bosom."

And he put his hand into his bosom: and when he took it out, behold,
his hand was leprous, as white as snow. And he said, "Put thine hand
into thy bosom again." And he put his hand into his bosom again; and
when he took it out of his bosom, behold, it was turned again as his
other flesh.

The Lord said, "It shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee,
neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe
the voice of the latter sign. And it shall come to pass, if they will
not believe even these two signs, neither hearken to thy voice, that
thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry
land: and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become
blood upon the dry land."

And Moses said unto the Lord, "Oh Lord, I am not eloquent, neither
heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken {146} unto thy servant: for I
am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue."

And, the Lord said unto him, "Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh
a man dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? is it not I, the Lord? Now
therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou
shalt speak."

And he said, "Oh Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou
wilt send."

And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses, and he said, "Is
there not Aaron thy brother the Levite? I know that he can speak well.
And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee: and when he seeth
thee, he will be glad in his heart. And thou shalt speak to him, and
put the words in his mouth: and I will be with thy mouth, and with his
mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do. And he shall be thy
spokesman unto the people: and it shall come to pass, that he shall be
to thee a mouth, and thou shalt be to him as God. And thou shalt take
in thine hand this rod, wherewith thou shalt do the signs."

And Moses went and returned to Jethro his father-inn law, and said
unto him, "Let me go, I pray thee, and return to my brethren which are
in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive."

And Jethro said to Moses, "Go in peace."

And the Lord said to Moses in Midian, "Go, return into Egypt: for all
the men are dead which sought thy life."


{147}{148}

[Illustration]
  THE BANKS OF THE NILE NEAR CAIRO
  From a photograph owned by Mr. S. E. Bridgman
  and used by his kind permission.

  The Nile was the life and glory of Egypt. It afforded a magnificent
  waterway for commerce, and the annual overflow gave the greatest
  fertility to the soil.
[End illustration]

{149}

And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he
returned to the land of Egypt: and Moses took the rod of God in his
hand. And the Lord said to Moses, "When thou goest back into Egypt,
see that thou do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in
thine hand: but I will harden his heart, and he will not let the
people go. And thou shalt say to Pharaoh, 'Thus saith the Lord, Israel
is my son, my firstborn: and I have said to thee, Let my son go, that
he may serve me; and thou hast refused to let him go: behold I will
slay thy son, thy firstborn.'"

And the Lord said to Aaron, "Go into the wilderness to meet Moses." And
he went, and met him in the mountain of God, and kissed him. And Moses
told Aaron all the words of the Lord wherewith he had sent him, and all
the signs wherewith he had charged him. And Moses and Aaron went and
gathered together all the elders of the children of Israel: and Aaron
spoke all the words which the Lord had spoken to Moses, and did the
signs in the sight of the people. And the people believed.


"LET MY PEOPLE GO."

_Moses and Aaron Demand the Release of the Israelites_.

_Pharaoh Refuses_.


And afterward Moses and Aaron came, and said to Pharaoh, "Thus saith
the Lord, the God of Israel, 'Let my people go, that they may hold a
feast unto me in the wilderness.'"

And Pharaoh said, "Who is the Lord, that I should hearken to his voice
to let Israel go? I know not the Lord, and moreover I will not let
Israel go."

{150}

And they said, "The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us go, we
pray thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to
the Lord our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the
sword."

And the king of Egypt said to them, "Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron,
loose the people from their works? get you to your burdens." And
Pharaoh said, "Behold, the people of the land are now many, and ye
make them rest from their burdens."

And the same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people, and
their officers, saying, "Ye shall no more give the people straw to
make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for
themselves. And the number of the bricks, which they did make
heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish aught
thereof: for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying, 'Let us go and
sacrifice to our God.' Let heavier work be laid upon the men, that
they may labor therein; and let them not regard lying words."

And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and
they spoke to the people, saying, "Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give
you straw. Go yourselves, get you straw where ye can find it: for
naught of your work shall be diminished."

So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt
to gather stubble for straw. And the taskmasters were urgent, saying,
"Fulfill your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw."

And the officers of the children of Israel, which {151} Pharaoh's
taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, "Wherefore
have ye not fulfilled your task both yesterday and to-day, in making
brick as heretofore?"

Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried to Pharaoh,
saying, "Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants? There is no
straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us, 'Make brick': and,
behold, thy servants are beaten; but the fault is in thine own
people."

But he said, "Ye are idle, ye are idle: therefore ye say, 'Let us go
and sacrifice to the Lord.' Go therefore now, and work; for there
shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the number of
bricks."

And the officers of the children of Israel saw that they were in deep
trouble when it was said, "Ye shall not diminish aught from your
bricks, your daily tasks."

And they met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came forth
from Pharaoh: and they said to them, "The Lord look upon you, and
judge; because ye have made us to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh,
and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay
us."

And the Lord said unto Moses, "Now shalt thou see what I will do to
Pharaoh: for by a strong hand shall he let them go, and by a strong
hand shall he drive them out of his land."

And it came to pass on the day when the Lord spoke unto Moses in the
land of Egypt, that the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, "I am the Lord:
speak thou to Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I speak to thee."

{152}

And Moses said before the Lord, "Behold, I am slow of speech and of a
slow tongue, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me?"

And the Lord said unto Moses, "See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh:
and Aaron thy brother shall be thy spokesman. Thou shalt speak all
that I command thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh,
that he let the children of Israel go out of his land. And I will
harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the
land of Egypt. But Pharaoh will not hearken unto you, and I will lay
my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth my hosts, my people the children
of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments. And the
Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I stretch forth mine
hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among
them."

And Moses and Aaron did so; as the Lord commanded them, so did they.

And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying, "When Pharaoh shall
speak to you, saying, 'Show a wonder for you:' then thou shalt say
unto Aaron, 'Take thy rod, and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it
become a serpent.'"

And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as the Lord
had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before
his servants, and it became a serpent. Then Pharaoh also called for
the wise men and the magicians: and they also did in like manner with
their enchantments.

{153}{154}

[Illustration]
  THE RIVER NILE

  From a photograph belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman
  and used by her kind permission.

  "And all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood."

  This picture shows the broad Nile with one of the boats now in use
  called a "dahabiyeh." There has been built recently on the upper
  Nile an immense dam which will be used to regulate the flow of water
  and bring great agricultural prosperity to Egypt
[End illustration]

{155}

For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but
Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods. And Pharaoh's heart was hardened,
and he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had spoken.


THE PLAGUES OF EGYPT.

1. THE PLAGUE OF BLOOD.

And the Lord said unto Moses, "Pharaoh's heart is stubborn, he
refuseth to let the people go. Get thee to Pharaoh in the morning; lo,
he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink
to meet him; and the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take
in thine hand. And thou shalt say unto him, 'The Lord, the God of the
Hebrews, hath sent me to thee, saying, Let my people go, that they may
serve me in the wilderness: and, behold, hitherto thou hast not
hearkened. Thus saith the Lord, In this thou shalt know that I am the
Lord: behold, I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the
waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood. And
the fish that are in the river shall die, and the river shall stink;
and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink water from the river.'"

And the Lord said to Moses, "Say unto Aaron, 'Take thy rod, and
stretch out thine hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers,
over their streams, and over their pools, and over all their ponds of
water, that they may become blood; and there shall be blood throughout
all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and in vessels of
stone.'"

{156}

And Moses and Aaron did so, as the Lord commanded; and he lifted up
the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of
Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that
were in the river were turned to blood. And the fish that were in the
river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink
water from the river; and the blood was throughout all the land of
Egypt.

And the magicians of Egypt did in like manner with their enchantments:
and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as
the Lord had spoken. And Pharaoh turned and went into his house,
neither did he lay even this to heart. And all the Egyptians digged
round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of
the water of the river. And seven days were fulfilled, after the Lord
had smitten the river.


2. THE PLAGUE OF FROGS.

And the Lord spoke to Moses, "Go in unto Pharaoh, and say unto him,
'Thus saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me. And if
thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with
frogs: and the river shall swarm with frogs, which shall go up and
come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and
into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine
ovens, and into thy kneading-troughs: and the frogs shall come up
both upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants.'"

And the Lord said to Moses, "Say to Aaron, 'Stretch {157} forth thine
hand with thy rod over the rivers, over the streams, and over the
pools, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt.'"

And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the
frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt. And the magicians did in
like manner with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the
land of Egypt.

Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, "Intreat the Lord,
that he take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will
let the people go, that they may sacrifice unto the Lord."

And Moses said to Pharaoh, "For what time shall I intreat for thee,
and for thy servants, and for thy people, that the frogs be destroyed
from thee and thy houses, and remain in the river only?"

And he said, "For to-morrow."

And he said, "Be it according to thy word: that thou mayest know that
there is none like unto the Lord our God. And the frogs shall depart
from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy
people; they shall remain in the river only."

And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto the
Lord concerning the frogs which he had brought upon Pharaoh. And the
Lord did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs died out of the
houses, out of the courts, and out of the fields. And they gathered
them together in heaps: and the land stank. But when Pharaoh saw that
there was relief, he {158} hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto
them; as the Lord had spoken.


3. THE PLAGUE OF LICE.

And the Lord said unto Moses, "Say unto Aaron, 'Stretch out thy rod,
and smite the dust of the earth, that it may become lice throughout
all the land of Egypt.'"

And they did so; and Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and
smote the dust of the earth, and there were lice upon man, and upon
beast; all the dust of the earth became lice throughout all the land
of Egypt. And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring
forth lice, but they could not: and there were lice upon man, and upon
beast.

Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, "This is the finger of God": and
Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not to them; as the
Lord had spoken.


4. THE PLAGUE OF FLIES.

And the Lord said to Moses, "Rise up early in the morning, and stand
before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water; and say to him,
'Thus saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me. Else,
if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies
upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy
houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of
flies, and also the ground whereon they are. And I will set apart in
that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms
of flies shall be there; to the end thou mayest know that I am the
{159} Lord in the midst of the earth. And I will put a division
between my people and thy people: by to-morrow shall this sign be.'"

And the Lord did so; and there came grievous swarms of flies into the
house of Pharaoh, and into his servants' houses: and in all the land
of Egypt the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies. And
Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, "Go ye, sacrifice to
your God in the land."

And Moses said, "It is not right so to do; for we shall sacrifice the
holy things of the Egyptians to the Lord our God: lo, shall we
sacrifice the holy things of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will
they not stone us? We will go three days' journey into the wilderness,
and sacrifice to the Lord our God, as he shall command us."

And Pharaoh said, "I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the
Lord your God in the wilderness; only ye shall not go very far away:
intreat for me."

And Moses said, "Behold, I go out from thee, and I will intreat the
Lord that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his
servants, and from his people, to-morrow: only let not Pharaoh deal
deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the
Lord."

And Moses went out from Pharaoh and intreated the Lord. And the Lord
did according to the word of Moses; and he removed the swarms of flies
from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained
not one. And Pharaoh hardened his heart this time also, and he did not
let the people go.


{160}

5. THE PLAGUE OF CATTLE DISEASE.

Then the Lord said unto Moses, "Go in to Pharaoh, and tell him, 'Thus
saith the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, Let my people go that they may
serve me. For if thou refuse to let them go, and wilt hold them still,
behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thy cattle which are in the
field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the
herds, and upon the flocks: there shall be a very grievous distemper.
And the Lord shall distinguish between the cattle of Israel and the
cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that belongeth to
the children of Israel.'"

And the Lord appointed a set time, saying, "To-morrow the Lord shall
do this thing in the land."

And the Lord did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt
died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one. And
Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not so much as one of the cattle
of the Israelites dead. But the heart of Pharaoh was stubborn, and he
did not let the people go.


6. THE PLAGUE OF BOILS.

And the Lord said unto Moses and unto Aaron, "Take to you handfuls of
ashes, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of
Pharaoh. And it shall become small dust over all the land of Egypt,
and shall be a boil breaking forth upon man and upon beast, throughout
all the land of Egypt."

And they took ashes, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it
up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth upon man and
upon beast.

{161}

And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for
the boils were upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians. And the
Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not to them: as the
Lord had spoken to Moses.

And the Lord said to Moses, "Rise up early in the morning, and stand
before Pharaoh, and say to him, 'Thus saith the Lord, the God of the
Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me. For I will this
time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and
upon thy people; that thou mayest know that there is none like me in
all the earth. For now I had put forth my hand, and smitten thee and
thy people with pestilence, and thou hadst been cut off from the
earth: but for this very cause have I made thee to stand, in order to
show thee my power, that my name may be declared throughout all the
earth. Exaltest thou thyself still against my people, that thou wilt
not let them go? Behold, to-morrow about this time I will cause a very
grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the day it was
founded even until now. Now therefore send, hasten in thy cattle and
all that thou hast in the field; for every man and beast which shall
be found in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall
come down upon them, and they shall die.'"

He that feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh made
his servants and his cattle flee into the houses: and he that regarded
not the word of the Lord left his servants and his cattle in the field.


{162}

THE SEVENTH PLAGUE OF EGYPT

I.

  'T was morn,--the rising splendor rolled
  On marble towers and roofs of gold;
  Hall, court, and gallery, below,
  Were crowded with a living flow;
  Egyptian, Arab, Nubian, there,--
  The bearers of the bow and spear,
  The hoary priest, the Chaldee sage,
  The slave, the gemmed and glittering page,--
  Helm, turban, and tiara, shone
  A dazzling ring round Pharaoh's throne.

II.

  There came a man:--the human tide
  Shrank backward from his stately stride:
  His cheek with storm and time was tanned;
  A shepherd's staff was in his hand;
  A shudder of instinctive fear
  Told the dark king what step was near;
  On through the host the stranger came,
  It parted round his form like flame.

III.

  He stooped not at the footstool stone,
  He clasped not sandal, kissed not throne;
  Erect he stood amid the ring,
  His only words, "Be just, a king!"
  On Pharaoh's cheek the blood flushed high,
  A fire was in his sullen eye;   {163}
  Yet on the chief of Israel
  No arrow of his thousands fell;
  All mute and moveless as the grave
  Stood chilled the satrap and the slave.

IV.

  "Thou'rt come," at length the monarch spoke;
  (Haughty and high the words outbroke;)
  "Is Israel weary of its lair,
  The forehead peeled, the shoulder bare?
  Take back the answer to your band:
  Go, reap the wind! go, plow the sand!
  Go, vilest of the living vile,
  To build the never-ending pile,
  Till, darkest of the nameless dead,
  The vulture on their flesh is fed!
  What better asks the howling slave
  Than the base life our bounty gave?"

V.

  Shouted in pride the turbaned peers,
  Upclashed to heaven the golden spears..
  "King! thou and thine are doomed!--Behold!'
  The prophet spoke,--the thunder rolled!
  Along the pathway of the sun
  Sailed vapory mountains, wild and dun.
  "Yet there is time," the prophet said:
  He raised his staff,--the storm was stayed:
  "King! be the word of freedom given:
  What art thou, man, to war with Heaven?"

VI.

  There came no word.--The thunder broke!--
  Like a huge city's final smoke,
  Thick, lurid, stifling, mixed with flame,
  Through court and hall the vapors came.
  Loose as the stubble in the field,    {164}
  Wide flew the men of spear and shield;
  Scattered like foam along the wave,
  Flew the proud pageant, prince and slave;
  Or in the chains of terror bound,
  Lay, corpse-like, on the smouldering ground.
  "Speak, king!--the wrath is but begun!--
  Still dumb?--then, Heaven, thy will be done!"

VII.

  Echoed from earth a hollow roar
  Like ocean on the midnight shore!
  A sheet of lightning o'er them wheeled,
  The solid ground beneath them reeled;
  In dust sank roof and battlement;
  Like webs the giant walls were rent;
  Red, broad, before his startled gaze
  The monarch saw his Egypt blaze.
  Still swelled the plague,--the flame grew pale,
  Burst from the clouds the charge of hail:
  With arrowy keenness, iron weight,
  Down poured the ministers of fate;
  Till man and cattle, crushed, congealed,
  Covered with death the boundless field.

VIII.

  Still swelled the plague,--uprose the blast,
  The avenger, fit to be the last:
  On ocean, river, forest, vale,
  Thundered at once the mighty gale.
  Before the whirlwind flew the tree,
  Beneath the whirlwind roared the sea;
  A thousand ships were on the wave--
  Where are they?--ask that foaming grave!
  Down go the hope, the pride of years,
  Down go the myriad mariners;
  The riches of earth's richest zone,
  Gone! like a flash of lightning, gone!

{165}

IX.

  And, lo! that first fierce triumph o'er,
  Swells ocean on the shrinking shore;
  Still onward, onward, dark and wide,
  Engulfs the land the furious tide..
  Then bowed thy spirit, stubborn king,
  Thou serpent, reft of fang and sting;
  Humbled before the prophet's knee,
  He groaned, "Be injured Israel free!"

X.

  To heaven the sage upraised his hand;
  Back rolled the deluge from the land;
  Back to its caverns sank the gale;
  Fled from the moon the vapors pale;
  Broad burned again the joyous sun:
  The hour of wrath and death was done.
                                         --_Croly_.

{166}

7. THE PLAGUE OF HAIL.


And the Lord said to Moses, "Stretch forth thine hand toward heaven,
that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and upon
beast, and upon every herb of the field, throughout the land of
Egypt."

And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the Lord sent
thunder and hail, and lightning; and the Lord sent hail upon the land
of Egypt. So there was hail, and lightning mingled with the hail, very
grievous, such as had not been in all the land of Egypt since it
became a nation. And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt
all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote
every herb of the field, and broke every tree of the field. Only in
the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no
hail. And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said to
them, "I have sinned this time: the Lord is righteous, and I and my
people are wicked. Intreat the Lord; for there hath been enough of
these mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall
stay no longer."

And Moses said unto him, "As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will
spread abroad my hands to the Lord; the thunders shall cease, neither
shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know that the earth is
the Lord's. But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye will not
yet fear the Lord God."

And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and {167} spread abroad
his hands unto the Lord: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the
rain was not poured upon the earth. And when Pharaoh saw that the rain
and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and
hardened his heart, he and his servants. And the heart of Pharaoh was
hardened, and he did not let the children of Israel go; as the Lord
had spoken by Moses.

And the Lord said unto Moses, "Go in to Pharaoh: for I have hardened
his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my
signs in the midst of them: and that thou mayest tell to thy son, and
to thy son's son, what things I have wrought upon Egypt, and my signs
which I have done among them; that ye may know that I am the Lord."

And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and said to him, "Thus saith
the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, 'How long wilt thou refuse to humble
thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me. Else, if
thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to-morrow will I bring
locusts into thy border: and they shall cover the face of the earth,
that one shall not be able to see the earth: and they shall eat what
remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which
groweth for you out of the field: and thy houses shall be filled, and
the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians;
as neither thy fathers nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the
day that they were upon the earth to this day.'" And he turned, and
went out from Pharaoh.

And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, "How long {168} shall this man
be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the Lord their
God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?"

And Moses and Aaron were brought again to Pharaoh: and he said unto
them, "Go, serve the Lord your God: but who are they that shall go?"
And Moses said, "We will go with our young and with our old, with our
sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will
we go; for we must hold a feast unto the Lord."

And he said unto them, "No, I will not let you go with your little
ones. Not so. But go now ye that are men, and serve the Lord; for that
is what ye desire."

And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.


8. THE PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS.

And the Lord said to Moses, "Stretch out thine hand over the land of
Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt,
and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left."

And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the Lord
brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all the night; and
when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. And the locusts
went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the borders of
Egypt; very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts
as they, neither after them shall be such. For they covered the face of
the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they ate every herb
of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and
there remained not any green thing, either tree or herb of the field,
through all the land of Egypt.

{169}{170}

[Illustration]
  CLIFFS NEAR LUXOR. TEMPLE OF DAR EL BAHARI
  From a photograph belonging to Miss Clara L. Bodman
  and used by her kind permission.
[End illustration]

{171}

Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, "I have
sinned against the Lord your God, and against you. Now therefore
forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the Lord your
God, that he may take away from me this death only."

And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the Lord. And the Lord
turned an exceeding strong west wind, which took up the locusts, and
drove them into the Red Sea; there remained not one locust in all the
border of Egypt. But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not
let the children of Israel go.


9. THE PLAGUE OF DARKNESS.

And the Lord said to Moses, "Stretch out thine hand toward heaven,
that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which
may be felt."

And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a
thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days; they saw not one
another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the
children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

And Pharaoh called to Moses, and said, "Go ye, serve the Lord; only
let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go
with you."

And Moses said, "Thou must also give into our hand sacrifices and
burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the Lord our God. Our
cattle also shall go with us; there {172} shall not an hoof be left
behind; for thereof must we take to serve the Lord our God; and we
know not with what we must serve the Lord, until we come thither."

But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

And Pharaoh said to him, "Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see
my face no more; for in the day thou seest my face thou shalt die."

And Moses said, "Thou hast spoken well; I will see thy face again no
more."

And the Lord said to Moses, "Yet one plague more will I bring upon
Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he
shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.
Speak now to the people, and let them ask every man of his neighbor,
and every woman of her neighbor, jewels of silver, and jewels of
gold."

And the Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians.
Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the
sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.

And Moses said, "Thus saith the Lord, 'About midnight will I go out
into the midst of Egypt: and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt
shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne,
even to the firstborn of the maidservant who grinds at the mill; and
all the firstborn of cattle. And there shall be a great cry throughout
all the land of Egypt, such as there hath been none like it, nor shall
be like it any more. But against {173} any of the children of Israel
shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may
know how that the Lord doth put a difference between the Egyptians and
Israel.' And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow
down themselves unto me, saying, 'Get thee out, and all the people
that follow thee: and after that I will go out.'" And he went out from
Pharaoh in hot anger.

And the Lord said unto Moses, "Pharaoh will not hearken unto you: that
my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt."

And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the Lord
hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go
out of his land.

(After the ninth plague, the plague of darkness, came a tenth plague,
the very worst of all, the description of which is given in another
place.)


THE FEAST OF THE PASSOVER.

_The Israelites Make Ready for the March_.

And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
"This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the
first month of the year to you. Speak ye to all the congregation of
Israel, saying, 'In the tenth day of this month they shall take to
them every man a lamb, according to their fathers' houses, a lamb for
an household: and if the household be too little for a lamb, then
shall he and his neighbor next unto his house take one according to
the number of the souls. {174} Your lamb shall be without blemish, a
male of the first year: ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the
goats: and ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same
month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill
it at even. And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two
side posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat
it. And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roasted with fire, and
unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall eat it. Eat not of it
raw, nor boiled with water, but roast with fire; its head with its
legs and with the inwards thereof. And ye shall let nothing of it
remain until the morning; but that which remaineth of it until the
morning ye shall burn with fire.

"'And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your
feet, and your staff in your hand: and ye shall eat it in haste: it is
the Lord's passover. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that
night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man
and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments:
I am the Lord. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the
houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you,
and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the
land of Egypt.'"

{175}{176}

[Illustration]
  THE VALLEY OF THE TOMBS OF THE KINGS, AT THEBES

  Here the steep ramparts were divided by a tortuous cleft, which
  wound back with many cross fissures deep into the desert. The ravine
  was simply a chasm with perpendicular sides of naked rock. This was
  the valley of the Tombs of the Kings.
                                             --"The Yoke"
[End illustration]

{177}

Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them,
"Draw out, and take you lambs according to your families, and kill the
passover. And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood
that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts
with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of
the door of his house until the morning. For the Lord will pass
through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the
lintel, and on the two side posts, the Lord will pass over the door,
and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite
you. And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to
thy sons for ever. And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the
land which the Lord will give you, according as he hath promised, that
ye shall keep this service. And it shall come to pass, when your
children shall say unto you, 'What mean ye by this service?' that ye
shall say, 'It is the sacrifice of the Lord's passover, who passed
over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the
Egyptians, and delivered our houses.'"

And the people bowed the head and worshiped. And the children of
Israel went and did so; as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so
did they.


10. THE PLAGUE OF THE DEATH OF THE FIRSTBORN.

And it came to pass at midnight, that the Lord smote all the firstborn
in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his
throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and
all the firstborn of cattle.

And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all
the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a
house where there was {178} not one dead. And he called for Moses and
Aaron by night, and said, "Rise up, get you forth from among my
people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as
ye have said. Take both your flocks and your herds, as ye have said,
and be gone; and bless me also."

And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, to send them out of the
land in haste; for they said, "We be all dead men."

And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading
troughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. And the
children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked
of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
and the Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so
that they let them have what they asked. And they took the spoil of
the Egyptians.


OUT OF BONDAGE.

_On the Road to Freedom_.

And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about
six hundred thousand men on foot, beside children. And a mixed
multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very
much cattle. And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they
brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were
thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared
for themselves any food. Now the sojourning of the children of Israel,
which they sojourned {179} in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty
years. And it came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty
years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of
the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. It is a night to be much
observed unto the Lord for bringing them out from the land of Egypt.

And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led
them not by the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was
near; for God said, "Lest peradventure the people repent when they see
war, and they return to Egypt."

But God led the people about, by the way of the wilderness by the Red
Sea: and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of
Egypt. And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had
strictly charged the children of Israel, saying, "God will surely
visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you."

And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in
the edge of the wilderness. And the Lord went before them by day in a
pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of
fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night: the
pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night.


{180}

"THE HORSE AND HIS RIDER HATH HE THROWN INTO THE SEA."

_Pursuit of the Egyptians. The Host of Pharaoh Is Drowned in
the Red Sea_.

And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, "Speak unto the children of
Israel, that they turn back and encamp by the sea. And Pharaoh will
say of the children of Israel, 'They are entangled in the land, the
wilderness hath shut them in.' And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and
he shall follow after them; and I will get me honor upon Pharaoh, and
upon all his host; and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord."
And they did so.

And it was told the king of Egypt that the people were fled: and the
heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was changed towards the people,
and they said, "What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go
from serving us?"

And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him: and he
took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and
captains over all of them. And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh
king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: for the
children of Israel went out with an high hand.

And the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of
Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping
by the sea. And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted
up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they
were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the Lord.

{181}{182}
[Illustration]
  THE VALLEY OF THE TOMBS OF THE KINGS AT THEBES
  (A view nearer the entrance)

  From a photograph in the possession of the Springfield Public
  Library and used by permission.

  "There is nothing in the whole valley of the Nile which is more
  grandly characteristic of old Egypt than the Tombs of the Kings at
  Thebes. The entire course of the ravine presents a spectacle of
  desolate grandeur which is to the highest degree impressive"
[End illustration]

{183}

And they said unto Moses, "Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast
thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt
thus with us, to bring us forth out of Egypt? Is not this the word
that we spoke unto thee in Egypt, saying, 'Let us alone, that we may
serve the Egyptians?' For it were better for us to serve the
Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness."

And Moses said unto the people, "Fear ye not, stand still, and see the
salvation of the Lord, which he will work for you to-day: for the
Egyptians whom ye have seen to-day, ye shall see them again no more
for ever. The Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace."

And the Lord said unto Moses, "Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak to
the children of Israel, that they go forward. And lift thou up thy
rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the
children of Israel shall go into the midst of the sea on dry ground.
And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they
shall go in after them: and I will get me honor upon Pharaoh, and upon
all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. And the
Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gotten me honor
upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen."

And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed
and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before
them, and stood behind them: and it came between the camp of Egypt and
the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud and the {184} darkness,
yet gave it light by night: and the one came not near the other all
the night. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord
caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all the night, and
made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. And the children
of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the
waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.

And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them into the midst of
the sea, all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. And it
came to pass in the morning watch, that the Lord looked forth upon the
host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of cloud, and
discomfited the host of the Egyptians. And he took off their chariot
wheels, that they drove them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, "Let
us flee from the face of Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them
against the Egyptians."

And the Lord said to Moses, "Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that
the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and
upon their horsemen."

And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned
to its strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled
against it; and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the
sea. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the
horsemen, even all the host of Pharaoh that went in after them into
the sea; there remained not so much as one of them.

But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the
sea; and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on
their left.


{185}{186}

[Illustration]
  LOOKING ACROSS THE RED SEA FROM SINAI TOWARD EGYPT
  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood
  and used by special permission.

  "The Israelites were encamped on the western shore of the Red Sea,
  when suddenly a cry of alarm ran through the vast multitude. Over
  the ridges of the desert hills were seen the well-known horses, the
  terrible chariots of the Egyptian host: Pharaoh pursued after the
  children of Israel, and they were sore afraid

  "They were sore afraid; and in that terror and perplexity the sun
  went down behind the huge mountain range which rose on their rear,
  and cut off their return to Egypt; and the dark night fell over the
  waters of the sea which rolled before them, and cut off their
  advance into the desert. So closed in upon them that evening; where
  were they when the morning broke over the hills of Arabia? Where
  were they, and where were their enemies?

  "They stood in safety on the further shore; and the chariots, and
  the horsemen, and the host of Pharaoh had vanished in the waters"
[End illustration]

{187}

Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians;
and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. And Israel saw
the great work which the Lord did upon the Egyptians, and the people
feared the Lord: and they believed in the Lord, and in his servant
Moses.

For the horses of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his
horsemen into the sea, and the Lord brought again the waters of the
sea upon them; but the children of Israel walked on dry land in the
midst of the sea. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took
a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with
timbrels and with dances.

And Miriam sang:--

THE SONG OF VICTORY.

  Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously;
  The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
  Thy right hand, O Lord, dasheth in pieces the enemy.
  And in the greatness of thine excellency thou
    overthrowest them that rise up against thee:
  Thou sendest forth thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble.
  And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were piled up,
  The floods stood upright as an heap;
  The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea.
  The enemy said,
  "I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil:  {188}
  My desire shall be satisfied upon them;
  I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them."
  Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them:
  They sank as lead in the mighty waters.
  Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods?
  Who is like thee, glorious in holiness,
  Fearful in praises, doing wonders?
  Thou stretchedst out thy right hand,
  The earth swallowed them.
  Thou in thy mercy hast led the people which thou hast redeemed:
  Thou hast guided them in thy strength to thy holy habitation.
  The peoples have heard, they tremble:
  Pangs have taken hold on the inhabitants of Philistia.
  Then were the dukes of Edom amazed;
  The mighty men of Moab, trembling taketh hold upon them:
  All the inhabitants of Canaan are melted away.
  Terror and dread falleth upon them;
  By the greatness of thine arm they are as still as a stone;
  Till thy people pass over, O Lord,
  Till the people pass over which thou hast purchased.
  Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the
    mountain of thine inheritance,
  The place, O Lord, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in,
  The sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established.
  The Lord shall reign for ever and ever.

{189}{190}

[Illustration]
  SHEPHERD WITH HIS FLOCK NEAR TEKOA
  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood
  and used by special permission.

  Two of the great prophets of Israel lived in this region, Amos at
  Tekoa and Jeremiah at Anathoth. It is a wild and desolate region

  "The wilderness of Judea played a great part in her history as the
  refuge of political fugitives and religious solitaries--a part which
  it still continues. The story of Saul's hunt after David and of
  David's narrow escapes becomes very vivid among those tossed and
  broken hills, where the valleys are all alike and large bodies of
  men may camp near each other without knowing it. Ambushes are
  everywhere possible and alarms pass rapidly across the bare and
  silent hills. You may travel for hours and feel as solitary as at
  sea without a sail in sight; but if you are in search of anyone,
  your guide's signal will make men leap from slopes that did not seem
  to shelter a rabbit, and if you are suspected, your passage may be
  stopped by a dozen men as though they had sprung from the earth."
[End illustration]

{191}

THE WANDERINGS IN THE WILDERNESS

THE RED SEA IS LEFT BEHIND AND THE MARCH TO CANAAN IS BEGUN.

_The Bitter Water of Marah_.

And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into
the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness,
and found no water. And when they came to Marah, they could not drink
of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it
was called "Marah," that is, bitter.

And the people murmured against Moses, saying, "What shall we drink?"

And he cried to the Lord; and the Lord showed him a tree, and he cast
it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There he made for
them a statute and an ordinance, and there he proved them; and he
said, "If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the Lord thy
God, and wilt do that which is right in his eyes, and wilt give ear to
his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of the
diseases upon thee, which I have put upon the Egyptians: for I am the
Lord that healeth thee."

And they came to Elim, where were twelve springs of water, and
threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters.

And they took their journey from Elim, and all the {192} congregation
of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is
between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after
their departing out of the land of Egypt. And the whole congregation
of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron in
the wilderness: and the children of Israel said unto them, "Would that
we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat
by the flesh pots, when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have
brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole multitude
with hunger."


_The Quails and the Manna_.

Then said the Lord unto Moses, "Behold, I will rain bread from heaven
for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day's portion every
day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or not.
And it shall come to pass on the sixth day, that they shall prepare
that which they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather
daily."

And Moses and Aaron said to all the children of Israel, "At even, then
ye shall know that the Lord hath brought you out from the land of
Egypt: and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the Lord;
for that he heareth your murmurings against the Lord: and what are we,
that ye murmur against us?"

And Moses said unto Aaron, "Say to all the congregation of the
children of Israel, 'Come near before the Lord: for he hath heard your
murmurings.'"


{193}{194}

[Illustration]
  RESTING PLACE UNDER THE PALMS AT THE "SPRING OF MOSES"
  IN THE WILDERNESS OF SINAI

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood
  and used by special permission.

  This brackish pool of water with palms growing about it is supposed
  to be the place of the "bitter waters of Marah" which Moses
  sweetened for the weary Israelites in their flight, the first
  stopping place after escaping from Egypt. This place is not far from
  Suez.
[End illustration]

{195}

And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the
children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and,
behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud. And the Lord
spoke to Moses, saying, "I have heard the murmurings of the children
of Israel: speak unto them, saying, 'At even ye shall eat flesh, and
in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I
am the Lord your God.'"

And it came to pass at even, that the quails came up, and covered the
camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the camp. And when
the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness
a small round thing, small as the hoar frost on the ground. And when
the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, "What is it?"
for they knew not what it was.

And Moses said to them, "It is the bread which the Lord hath given you
to eat. This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, 'Gather ye of
it every man according to his eating; an omer a head, according to the
number of your persons, shall ye take it, every man for them which are
in his tent.'"

And the children of Israel did so, and gathered some more, some less.
And Moses said unto them, "Let no man leave of it till the morning."

Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left
of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was
wroth with them. And they gathered it morning by morning, every man
according to his eating: and when the sun grew hot, it melted. And it
came to pass, that on the sixth day they {196} gathered twice as much
bread, two omers for each one: and all the rulers of the congregation
came and told Moses. And he said to them, "This is that which the Lord
hath spoken, 'To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the
Lord: bake that which ye will bake, and boil that which ye will boil;
and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the
morning.'"

And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not
stink, neither was there any worm therein. And Moses said, "Eat that
to-day; for to-day is a sabbath unto the Lord: to-day ye shall not
find it in the field. Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh
day is the sabbath, in it there shall be none."

And it came to pass on the seventh day, that there went out some of
the people to gather, and they found none.

And the Lord said unto Moses, "How long refuse ye to keep my
commandments and my laws? See, because the Lord hath given you the
sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two
days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place
on the seventh day."

So the people rested on the seventh day. And the house of Israel
called the name thereof "Manna": and it was like coriander seed,
white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.

And Moses said, "This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, 'Let
an omerful of it be kept for your generations; that they may see the
bread wherewith I fed you {197} in the wilderness, when I brought you
forth from the land of Egypt.'"

And Moses said unto Aaron, "Take a pot, and put an omerful of manna
therein, and lay it up before the Lord, to be kept for your
generations."

As the Lord commanded Moses, so Aaron did. And the children of Israel
ate the manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they
ate the manna, until they came to the borders of the land of Canaan.


_The Battle with Amalek at Rephidim_.

Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim. And Moses said
to Joshua, "Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek:
to-morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in
mine hand."

So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and
Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. And it came to
pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he
let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. But Moses' hands were heavy; and
they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron
and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on
the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the
sun. And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the
sword.

And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah my Banner:
and he said, "The Lord hath sworn: the Lord will have war with Amalek
from generation to generation."

{198}

THE SONG OF THE MANNA GATHERERS

  Comrades, haste! the tent's tall shading
    Lies along the level sand,
  Far and faint: the stars are fading
    Over the gleaming western strand,
      Airs of morning
    Freshen the bleak burning land.

  Haste, or e'er the third hour glowing
    With its eager thirst prevail
  O'er the moist pearls, now bestrowing
    Thymy slope and rushy vale.

  . . . . . . .

  Comrades--what our sires have told us,
    Watch and wait, for it will come.

  . . . . . . .

  Not by manna show'rs at morning
    Shall our board be then supplied,
  But a strange pale gold, adorning
    Many a tufted mountain's side,
      Yearly feed us,
    Year by year our murmurings chide.

  There, no prophet's touch awaiting,
    From each cool deep cavern start
  Rills, that since their first creating
    Ne'er have ceased to sing their part;
      Oft we hear them
    In our dreams, with thirsty heart.

                                         --_John Keble_.

{199}{200}

[Illustration]
  IN THE WILDERNESS OF SINAI

  From a photograph belonging to the Forbes Library,
  Northampton, Mass., and used by special permission.
[End illustration]


{201}

MOSES CLIMBS MOUNT SINAI TO TALK WITH GOD.

_The Giving of the Commandments_.

In the third month after the children of Israel had gone forth out of
the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of
Sinai. And when they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the
wilderness of Sinai, they camped in the wilderness; and there Israel
camped before the mount. And Moses went up to God, and the Lord called
to him out of the mountain, saying, "Thus shalt thou say to the house
of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; 'Ye have seen what I did
unto the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings, and brought
you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and
keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure to me from
among all peoples: for all the earth is mine: and ye shall be to me a
kingdom of priests, and an holy nation.' These are words which thou
shalt speak unto the children of Israel."

And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and set before
them all these words which the Lord commanded him. And all the people
answered together, and said, "All that the Lord hath spoken we will
do."

And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet God; and
they stood at the foot of the mount. And all Mount Sinai smoked,
because the Lord descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof
ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked
greatly. And when the voice of the trumpet grew louder and louder,
Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice. And the {202} Lord came
down upon Mount Sinai, to the top of the mount: and the Lord called
Moses to the top of the mount; and Moses went up.

And God spoke all these words, saying,--


THE COMMANDMENTS.

"I am the Lord thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt,
out of the house of bondage.

I.

"Thou shalt have none other gods before me.

II.

"Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor the likeness of any
form that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that
is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself unto
them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God,
visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children upon the third
and upon the fourth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy
unto thousands, of them that love me and keep my commandments.

III.

"Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the
Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

IV.

"Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor,
and do all thy work: but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the Lord
thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy
daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy
stranger that is within thy gates: for in six days the Lord made
heaven and {203} earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested
the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and
hallowed it.

V.

"Honor thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the
land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.

VI.

"Thou shalt not kill.

VII.

"Thou shalt not commit adultery.

VIII.

"Thou shalt not steal.

IX.

"Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.

X.

"Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy
neighbor's wife, not his manservant, not his maidservant, nor his ox,
nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor's.


And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the
voice of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people
saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off. And they said to Moses,
"Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us,
lest we die."

And Moses said to the people, "Fear not: for God is come to prove you,
and that his fear may be before you, that ye sin not."

{204}

And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near to the thick
darkness where God was.


THE GOLDEN CALF.

_Israel Sins Grievously and Is Severely Punished_.

And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the
mount, the people gathered themselves together about Aaron, and said
to him, "Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this
Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know
not what is become of him."

And Aaron said to them, "Break off the golden rings, which are in the
ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring
them to me."

And all the people broke off the golden rings which were in their
ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received the gold at their
hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf:
and they said, "These are thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up
out of the land of Egypt."

And when Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made
proclamation, and said, "To-morrow shall be a feast to the Lord."

And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt offerings, and
brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink,
and rose up to play.


{205}{206}

[Illustration]
  HILL OF THE GOLDEN CALF (JEBEL AARON) AND ITS MOSLEM
  TOWER BELOW THE RIDGE OF SINAI

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  A traveler writes: "We started to descend by the gorge on the
  northeast side of the mountain (Jethro's Path), by which possibly
  Moses may have descended when he heard the sounds of the camp before
  he could see what was taking place there. We were completely shut in
  by the sides of the gorge until just as we emerged near the bottom.
  There was no sound below for us to hear, but we could readily accept
  Mr. Palmeston's statement that he had distinctly heard the sounds of
  his own camp at the foot of the mountain which was entirely hidden
  from view. If the worship of the golden calf be supposed to have
  taken place anywhere in the neighborhood of the hill of Aaron this
  circumstance would be in striking conformity with the several other
  facts which singularly adapt this place to be the scene of the
  lawgiving."
[End illustration]


{207}

And the Lord spoke unto Moses, "Go, get thee down; for thy people,
which thou broughtest up out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted
themselves: they have turned aside quickly out of the way which I
commanded them: they have made them a molten calf, and have worshiped
it, and have sacrificed unto it, and said, 'These are thy gods, O
Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.'"

And the Lord said to Moses, "I have seen this people, and, behold, it
is a stiffnecked people: now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may
grow hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of
thee a great nation."

And Moses besought the Lord his God, and said, "Lord, why doth thy
wrath grow hot against thy people, which thou hast brought forth out
of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand?
Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying, 'For evil did he bring
them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from
the face of the earth'? Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent of this
evil against thy people. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy
servants, to whom thou swarest by thine own self, and saidst unto
them, 'I will multiply your family as the stars of heaven, and all
this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your family, and they
shall inherit it for ever.'"

And the Lord repented of the evil which he said he would do unto his
people.

And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, with the two tables of
the testimony in his hand; tables that were written on both sides; on
the one side and on {208} the other were they written. And the tables
were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven
upon the tables.

And when Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said
to Moses, "There is a noise of war in the camp."

And he said, "It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery,
neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome: but the
noise of them that sing do I hear."

And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he
saw the calf and the dancing: and Moses' anger grew hot, and he cast
the tables out of his hands, and broke them beneath the mount.

And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it with fire, and
ground it to powder, and strewed it upon the water, and made the
children of Israel drink of it. And Moses said to Aaron, "What did
this people unto thee, that thou hast brought a great sin upon them?"

And Aaron said, "Let not the anger of my lord grow hot: thou knowest
the people, that they are set on evil. For they said to me, 'Make us
gods, which shall go before us: for as for this Moses, the man that
brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of
him.' And I said to them, 'Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it
off'; so they gave it me: and I cast it into the fire, and there came
out this calf."

And when Moses saw that the people were broken loose; for Aaron had
let them loose for a derision among their enemies: then Moses stood in
the gate of the camp, and said, "Whoso is on the Lord's side, let him
come unto me."

{209}{210}

[Illustration]
  FAMOUS MONASTERY OF SAINT CATHERINE IN THE SHADOW OF MOUNT SINAI

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  It was in this monastery that Prof. C. Tischendorf discovered one of
  the oldest and most valuable manuscripts of the Bible in existence.
  Tischendorf made three visits to the monastery, in 1844, 1853, and
  1859. On the first visit he found forty-three leaves of the
  manuscript in a wastebasket. Later he found the entire manuscript
  with the exception of a few pages. It was published by Czar
  Alexander II in celebration of the first millennium of the Russian
  Empire. A traveler says, "When on a visit to Mount Sinai in March,
  1877, I saw a copy of the magnificent four volume edition in the
  convent library and mentioned the name of Tischendorf, the sub-prior
  kindled up in indignation and called him a thief, who had stolen
  their greatest treasure on the pretext of a temporary loan; and when
  I reminded him of the large reward of the Emperor of Russia, who had
  furnished a new silver shrine for the coffin of Saint Catherine, he
  admitted it reluctantly, but remarked that they did not want the
  silver, but the manuscript--the manuscript which their monks could
  not read and were about to throw into the fire."
[End illustration]

{211}

And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him. And he
said unto them, "Thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel, 'Put ye every
man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate
throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his
companion, and every man his neighbor.'"

And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there
fell of the people that day about three thousand men. And Moses said,
"Consecrate yourselves to-day to the Lord, yea, every man against his
son, and against his brother; that he may bestow upon you a blessing
this day."

And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people,
"Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto the Lord;
peradventure I shall make atonement for your sin."

And Moses returned unto the Lord, and said, "Oh, this people have
sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold. Yet now, if thou
wilt forgive their sin--; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy
book which thou hast written."

And the Lord said to Moses, "Whosover hath sinned against me, him will
I blot out of my book. And now go, lead the people unto the place of
which I have spoken unto thee: behold, mine angel shall go before
thee: nevertheless in the day when I punish, I will punish them for
their sins."

{212}

And the Lord smote the people, because they made the calf, which Aaron
made.


THE NEW TABLES OF STONE.

_How the Tables Which Had Been Broken Were Replaced_.

And the Lord said unto Moses, "Hew thee two tables of stone like unto
the first: and I will write upon the tables the words that were on the
first tables, which thou brokest.

"And be ready by the morning, and come up in the morning unto Mount
Sinai, and present thyself there to me on the top of the mount.

"And no man shall come up with thee; neither let any man be seen
throughout all the mount; neither let the flocks nor herds feed before
that mount."

And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; and Moses rose
up early in the morning, and went up unto Mount Sinai, as the Lord had
commanded him, and took in his hand two tables of stone.

And the Lord descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and
proclaimed the name of the Lord.

And the Lord passed by before him, and a voice said, "The Lord, the
Lord, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abundant in
loving kindness and truth; keeping loving kindness for thousands,
forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin; who will by no means
clear the guilty."

And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and
worshiped.

And he said, "If now I have found favor in thy sight, {213} O Lord,
let the Lord, I pray thee, go in the midst of us; and pardon our
iniquity and our sin, and take us for thine inheritance."

And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he did
neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the
words of the covenant, the ten commandments.

And Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two tables of the
testimony in his hand.


{214}

THE TABERNACLE IN THE WILDERNESS

THE PEOPLE GIVE A FREE-WILL OFFERING TO THE LORD.


And Moses assembled all the congregation of the children of Israel,
and said unto them, "These are the words which the Lord hath
commanded, that ye should do them. 'Six days shall work be done, but
on the seventh day there shall be to you an holy day, a sabbath of
solemn rest to the Lord: whosoever doeth any work therein shall be put
to death. Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the
sabbath day.'"

And Moses spoke unto all the congregation of the children of Israel,
saying, "This is the thing which the Lord commanded, saying, 'Take ye
from among you an offering unto the Lord: whosoever is of a willing
heart, let him bring it, the Lord's offering; gold, and silver, and
brass; and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats'
hair; and rams' skins dyed red, and sealskins, and acacia wood; and
oil for the light, and spices for the anointing oil, and for the sweet
incense; and onyx stones, and stones to be set, for the ephod, and for
the breastplate.

"'And let every skilled workman among you come, and make all that the
Lord hath commanded; the tabernacle, its tent, and its covering, its
clasps, and its boards, its bars, its pillars, and its sockets; the
ark, and the staves {215} thereof, the mercy-seat, and the veil of the
screen; the table, and its staves, and all its vessels, and the
shewbread; the candlestick also for the light, and its vessels, and
its lamps, and the oil for the light; and the altar of incense, and
its staves, and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and the
screen for the door, at the door of the tabernacle; the altar of burnt
offering, with its grating of brass, its staves, and all its vessels,
the laver and its base; the hangings of the court, the pillars
thereof, and their sockets, and the screen for the gate of the court;
the pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their
cords; the finely wrought garments, for ministering in the holy
place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of
his sons, to minister in the priest's office.'"

And all the congregation of the children of Israel departed from the
presence of Moses.

And they came, everyone whose heart stirred him up, and everyone whom
his spirit made willing, and brought the Lord's offering, for the work
of the tent of meeting, and for all the service thereof, and for the
holy garments.

And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing hearted,
and brought brooches, and earrings, and signet-rings, and armlets, all
jewels of gold; even every man that offered an offering of gold unto
the Lord.

And every man, who had blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen,
and goats' hair, and rams' skins dyed red, and sealskins, brought
them. Everyone that offered an offering of silver and brass brought
the Lord's offering: {216} and every man, who had acacia wood for any
work of the service, brought it.

And all the women that were skillful spun with their hands, and
brought that which they had spun, the blue, and the purple, the
scarlet, and the fine linen.

And all the women who were skillful spun the goats' hair.

And the rulers brought the onyx stones, and the stones to be set, for
the ephod, and for the breastplate; and the spice, and the oil; for
the light, and for the anointing oil, and for the sweet incense.

The children of Israel brought a freewill offering unto the Lord;
every man and woman, whose heart made them willing to bring for all
the work, which the Lord had commanded to be made by the hand of
Moses.

And Moses said unto the children of Israel, "See, the Lord hath called
by name Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of
Judah; and he hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in
understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship; and
to devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass,
and in cutting of stones for setting, and in carving of wood, to work
in all manner of cunning workmanship. And he hath put in his heart
that he may teach, both he, and Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the
tribe of Dan. Them hath he filled with wisdom of heart, to work all
manner of workmanship, of the engraver, and of the cunning workman,
and of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in
fine linen, and of the {217} weaver, even of them that do any
workmanship, and of those that devise cunning works."



THE TABERNACLE AND ITS FURNISHINGS.

_The Tent_.


And every skillful man among them that wrought the work made the
tabernacle with ten curtains; of fine linen, and blue, and purple, and
scarlet, with cherubim the work of the cunning workman made he them.
The length of each curtain was eight and twenty cubits, and the
breadth of each curtain four cubits: all the curtains had one measure.
And he coupled five curtains one to another: and the other five
curtains he coupled one to another. And he made loops of blue upon the
edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling: likewise he
made in the edge of the curtain that was outmost in the second
coupling. Fifty loops made he in the one curtain, and fifty loops made
he in the edge of the curtain that was in the second coupling: the
loops were opposite one to another. And he made fifty clasps of gold,
and coupled the curtains one to another with the clasps: so the
tabernacle was one. And he made curtains of goats' hair for a tent
over the tabernacle: eleven curtains he made. The length of each
curtain was thirty cubits, and four cubits the breadth of each
curtain: the eleven curtains had one measure. And he coupled five
curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves. And he made
fifty loops on the edge of the curtain that was outmost in the
coupling, and fifty loops made he upon the edge of the curtain which
{218} was outmost in the second coupling. And he made fifty clasps of
brass to couple the tent together, that it might be one. And he made a
covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of
sealskins above.

And he made the boards for the tabernacle of acacia wood, standing up.
Ten cubits was the length of a board, and a cubit and a half the
breadth of each board. Each board had two tenons, joined one to
another: thus did he make for all the boards of the tabernacle. And he
made the boards for the tabernacle; twenty boards for the south side
southward; and he made forty sockets of silver under the twenty
boards; two sockets under one board for its two tenons, and two
sockets under another board for its two tenons. And for the second
side of the tabernacle, on the north side, he made twenty boards, and
their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two
sockets under another board. And for the hinder part of the tabernacle
westward he made six boards. And two boards made he for the corners of
the tabernacle in the hinder part. And there were eight boards, and
their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; under every board two
sockets. And he made bars of acacia wood; five for the boards of the
one side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the other
side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the tabernacle
for the hinder part westward. And he made the middle bar to pass
through in the midst of the boards from the one end to the other. And
he overlaid the boards with gold, and made their rings of gold for
places for the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold.

{219}

And he made the veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined
linen: with cherubim the work of the cunning workman made he it. And
he made thereunto four pillars of acacia, and overlaid them with gold:
their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver.
And he made a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue, and purple,
and scarlet, and fine linen, the work of the embroiderer; and the five
pillars of it with their hooks: and he overlaid their capitals and
their fillets with gold: and their five sockets were of brass.


_The Workmen Are Chosen_.


"And Bezalel and Oholiab shall work, and every skillful man, in whom
the Lord hath put wisdom and understanding to know how to work all the
work for the service of the sanctuary, according to all that the Lord
hath commanded."

And Moses called Bezalel and Oholiab, and every skillful man, in whose
heart the Lord had put wisdom, even everyone whose heart stirred him
up to come unto the work to do it: and they received of Moses all the
offering, which the children of Israel had brought for the work of the
service of the sanctuary, to make it. And they brought yet unto him
freewill offerings every morning. And all the wise men, that wrought
all the work of the sanctuary, came every man from his work which they
wrought; and they spoke unto Moses, saying, "The people bring much
more than enough for the service of the work, which the Lord commanded
to make."

{220}

And Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed
throughout the camp, saying,--

"Let neither man nor woman make any more work for the offering of the
sanctuary." So the people were restrained from bringing. For the stuff
they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, and too much.


_The Ark_.


And Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood: two cubits and a half was the
length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth of it, and a cubit
and a half the height of it: and he overlaid it with pure gold within
and without, and made a rim of gold to it round about. And he cast for
it four rings of gold, in the four feet thereof; two rings on the one
side of it, and two rings on the other side of it. And he made staves
of acacia wood, and overlaid them with gold. And he put the staves
into the rings on the sides of the ark, to bear the ark. And he made a
mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half was the length thereof,
and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof. And he made two cherubim
of gold; of beaten work made he them, at the two ends of the mercy
seat; one cherub at the one end, and one cherub at the other end: of
one piece with the mercy seat made he the cherubim at the two ends
thereof. And the cherubim spread out their wings on high, covering the
mercy seat with their wings, with their faces one to another; toward
the mercy seat were the faces of the cherubim.

{221}


_The Table_.


And he made the table of acacia wood: two cubits was the length
thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the
height thereof: and he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereto a
rim of gold round about. And he made for it a border of an handbreadth
round about, and made a golden rim to the border thereof round about.
And he cast for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four
corners that were on the four feet thereof. Close by the border were
the rings, the places for the staves to bear the table. And he made
the staves of acacia wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear the
table. And he made the vessels which were upon the table, the dishes
thereof, and the spoons thereof, and the bowls thereof, and the
flagons thereof, to pour out of, pure gold.


_The Candlestick_.


And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made he the
candlestick, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knobs, and
its flowers, were of one piece with it: and there were six branches
going out of the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick out
of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candlestick out of
the other side thereof: three cups made like almond blossoms in one
branch, a knob and a flower; and three cups made like almond blossoms
in the other branch, a knob and a flower: so for the six branches
going out of the candlestick. And in the candlestick were four cups
made like almond blossoms, the knobs thereof, and the flowers {222}
thereof: and a knob under two branches of one piece with it, and a
knob under two branches of one piece with it, and a knob under two
branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of it.
Their knobs and their branches were of one piece with it: the whole of
it was one beaten work of pure gold. And he made the lamps thereof,
seven, and the tongs thereof, and the snuff-dishes thereof, of pure
gold. Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all the vessels
thereof.


_The Altar of Incense_.


And he made the altar of incense of acacia wood: a cubit was the
length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, foursquare; and two
cubits was the height thereof; the horns thereof were of one piece
with it. And he overlaid it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the
sides thereof round about, and the horns of it: and he made unto it a
rim of gold round about. And he made for it two golden rings under the
rim thereof, upon the two ribs thereof, upon the two sides of it, for
places for staves to bear it withal. And he made the staves of acacia
wood, and overlaid them with gold. And he made the holy anointing oil,
and the pure incense of sweet spices, after the art of the perfumer.


_The Altar of Burnt Offering_.


And he made the altar of burnt offering of acacia wood: five cubits was
the length thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof, foursquare; and
three cubits the height thereof.

{223}{224}

[Illustration]
  THE TRADITIONAL SPOT ON WHICH MOSES READ THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  The traditional Sinai is bounded on the north by the great plain
  Er-Rahab out of which it rises precipitately. The northernmost peak
  is called the "Head of the Willow," probably from a willow tree
  growing in one of the gullies, and is commonly taken as the place of
  the giving of the Law. The height of the peak is 6,937 feet. "Now
  the whole prospect is before us. The vast plain of Er-Rahab, flecked
  with a few camels and black Arab tents, and capable of holding
  millions of people all in view of the Mount, gradually slopes away
  from the eminences where we are."
[End illustration]

{225}

And he made the horns thereof upon the four corners of it; the horns
thereof were of one piece with it: and he overlaid it with brass. And
he made all the vessels of the altar, the pots, and the shovels, and
the basins, the fleshhooks, and the firepans: all the vessels thereof
made he of brass. And he made for the altar a grating of network of
brass, under the ledge round it beneath, reaching halfway up. And he
cast four rings for the four ends of the grating of brass, to be
places for the staves. And he made the staves of acacia wood, and
overlaid them with brass. And he put the staves into the rings on the
sides of the altar, to bear it withal; he made it hollow with planks.

And he made the laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, of the
mirrors of the serving women which served at the door of the tent of
meeting.


_The Court_.


And he made the court: for the south side southward the hangings of
the court were of fine linen, an hundred cubits: their pillars were
twenty, and their sockets twenty, of brass; the hooks of the pillars
and their fillets were of silver. And for the north side an hundred
cubits, their pillars twenty, and their sockets twenty, of brass; the
hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. And for the west
side were hangings of fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their
sockets ten; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. And
for the east side eastward fifty cubits. The hangings for the one side
of the gate were {226} fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their
sockets three; and so for the other side: on this hand and that hand
by the gate of the court were hangings of fifteen cubits; their
pillars three, and their sockets three. All the hangings of the court
round about were of fine linen. And the sockets for the pillars were
of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver; and
the overlaying of their capitals of silver; and all the pillars of the
court were filleted with silver. And the screen for the gate of the
court was the work of the embroiderer, of blue, and purple, and
scarlet, and fine twined linen: and twenty cubits was the length, and
the height in the breadth was five cubits, corresponding to the
hangings of the court. And their pillars were four, and their sockets
four, of brass; their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their
capitals and their fillets of silver. And all the pins of the
tabernacle, and of the court round about, were of brass.


_The Workmen and the Materials_.


This is the sum of the things for the tabernacle, even the tabernacle of
the testimony, as they were counted, according to the commandment of
Moses, for the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, the son
of Aaron the priest. And Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the
tribe of Judah, made all that the Lord commanded Moses. And with him was
Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, and a
cunning workman, and an embroiderer in blue, and in purple, and in
scarlet, and fine linen.

{227}

All the gold that was used for the work in all the work of the
sanctuary, even the gold of the offering, was twenty and nine talents,
and seven hundred and thirty shekels, after the shekel of the
sanctuary. And the silver of them that were numbered of the
congregation was an hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and
threescore and fifteen shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary. And
the hundred talents of silver were for casting the sockets of the
sanctuary, and the sockets of the veil; an hundred sockets for the
hundred talents, a talent for a socket. And of the thousand seven
hundred seventy and five shekels he made hooks for the pillars, and
overlaid their capitals, and made fillets for them. And the brass of
the offering was seventy talents, and two thousand and four hundred
shekels. And therewith he made the sockets to the door of the tent of
meeting, and the brazen altar, and the brazen grating for it, and all
the vessels of the altar, and the sockets of the court round about,
and the sockets of the gate of the court, and all the pins of the
tabernacle, and all the pins of the court round about.


_The Garments of the Priests_.


And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet, they made finely wrought
garments, for ministering in the holy place, and made the holy
garments for Aaron; as the Lord commanded Moses.

And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine
linen. And they beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires,
to work it in the blue, and {228} in the purple, and in the scarlet,
and in the fine linen, the work of the cunning workman. They made
shoulderpieces for it, joined together: at the two ends was it joined
together. And the cunningly woven band, that was upon it, to gird it
on withal, was of the same piece and like the work thereof; of gold,
of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen; as the Lord
commanded Moses.

And they wrought the onyx stones, inclosed in clasps of gold, graven
with the engravings of a signet, according to the names of the
children of Israel. And he put them on the shoulderpieces of the
ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel; as the
Lord commanded Moses.

And he made the breastplate, the work of the cunning workman, like the
work of the ephod; of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine
linen. It was foursquare; they made the breastplate double: a span was
the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof, being double. And
they set in it four rows of stones: a row of sardius, topaz, and
carbuncle was the first row. And the second row, an emerald, a
sapphire, and a diamond. And the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and
an amethyst. And the fourth row, a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper: they
were inclosed in clasps of gold in their settings. And the stones were
according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to
their names; like the engravings of a signet, everyone according to
his name, for the twelve tribes.



{229}{230}

[Illustration]
  VIEW FROM MOUNT HOR
  From an old engraving.
[End illustration]

{231}

And he made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of blue; and the
hole of the robe in the midst thereof, as the hole of a coat of mail,
with a binding round about the hole of it, that it should not be rent.
And they made upon the skirts of the robe pomegranates of blue, and
purple, and scarlet, and linen. And they made bells of pure gold, and
put the bells between the pomegranates upon the skirts of the robe
round about, between the pomegranates; a bell and a pomegranate, a
bell and a pomegranate, upon the skirts of the robe round about, to
minister in; as the Lord commanded Moses.

And they made the coats of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and for
his sons, and the miter of fine linen, and the goodly turbans of fine
linen, and the linen breeches of fine linen, and the girdle of fine
twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, the work of the
embroiderer; as the Lord commanded Moses.

And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote upon
it a writing, like the engravings of a signet, "Holy to the Lord." And
they tied unto it a lace of blue, to fasten it upon the miter above;
as the Lord commanded Moses.

Thus was finished all the work of the tabernacle of the tent of
meeting: and the children of Israel did according to all that the Lord
commanded Moses, so did they.


_The Work Is Approved_.


And they brought the tabernacle to Moses, the Tent, and all its
furniture, its clasps, its boards, its bars, and {232} its pillars,
and its sockets; and the covering of rams' skins dyed red, and the
covering of sealskins, and the veil of the screen; the ark of the
testimony, and the staves thereof, and the mercy seat; the table, all
the vessels thereof, and the shewbread; the pure candlestick, the
lamps thereof, even the lamps to be set in order, and all the vessels
thereof, and the oil for the light; and the golden altar, and the
anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and the screen for the door of
the Tent; the brazen altar, and its grating of brass, its staves, and
all its vessels, the laver and its base; the hangings of the court,
its pillars, and its sockets, and the screen for the gate of the
court, the cords thereof, and the pins thereof, and all the
instruments of the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of meeting;
the finely wrought garments for ministering in the holy place, and the
holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to
minister in the priest's office. According to all that the Lord
commanded Moses, so the children of Israel did all the work. And Moses
saw all the work, and, behold, they had done it; as the Lord had
commanded, even so had they done it: and Moses blessed them.


_The Tabernacle Is Set Up_.


And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, "On the first day of the first
month shalt thou set up the tabernacle of the tent of meeting. And
thou shalt put therein the ark of the testimony, and thou shalt screen
the ark with the veil. And thou shalt bring in the table, and set in
order the things that are upon it; and thou shalt bring in the
candlestick, and light the lamps thereof.

{233}{234}

[Illustration]
  FOUR THOUSAND YEARS UNCHANGED PATRIARCHAL LIFE IN PALESTINE TO-DAY

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  The unchanged habits of the East render it in this respect a kind of
  living Pompeii. The outward appearances, which in the case of the
  Greeks and Romans we know only through art and writing, through
  marble, fresco, and parchment, in the case of Jewish history we know
  through the forms of actual men, living and moving before us,
  wearing almost the same garb, speaking in almost the same language,
  and certainly with the same general turns of speech and tone and
  manners. Such as we see them now, starting on a pilgrimage, or a
  journey, were Abraham and his brother's son, when they "went forth"
  to go into the land of Canaan. All their substance that they had
  "gathered" is heaped high on the backs of their kneeling camels. The
  slaves that they "had bought in Haran" run along by their sides.
  Round about them are their flocks of sheep and goats, and the asses
  moving underneath the towering forms of the camels. The chief is
  there, amidst the stir of movement, or resting at noon within his
  black tent, marked out from the rest by his cloak of brilliant
  scarlet, by the fillet of rope which binds the loose handkerchief
  round his head, by the spear which he holds in his hand to guide the
  march, and to fix the encampment. The chief's wife, the princess of
  the tribe, is there in her own tent, to make the cakes and prepare
  the usual meal of milk and butter; the slave or the child is ready
  to bring in the red lentil soup for the weary hunter, or to kill the
  calf for the unexpected guest
[End illustration]

{235}

And thou shalt set the golden altar for incense before the ark of the
testimony, and put the screen of the door to the tabernacle. And thou
shalt set the altar of burnt offering before the door of the
tabernacle of the tent of meeting. And thou shalt set the laver
between the tent of meeting and the altar, and shalt put water
therein. And thou shalt set up the court round about, and hang up the
screen of the gate of the court. And thou shalt take the anointing
oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt
hallow it, and all the furniture thereof: and it shall be holy. And
thou shalt anoint the altar of burnt offering, and all its vessels,
and sanctify the altar: and the altar shall be most holy. And thou
shalt anoint the laver and its base, and sanctify it. And thou shalt
bring Aaron and his sons unto the door of the tent of meeting, and
thou shalt wash them with water. And thou shalt put upon Aaron the
holy garments; and thou shalt anoint him, and sanctify him, that he
may minister unto me in the priest's office. And thou shalt bring his
sons, and put coats upon them: and thou shalt anoint them, as thou
didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto me in the
priest's office: and their anointing shall be to them for an
everlasting priesthood throughout their generations." Thus did Moses:
according to all that the Lord commanded him, so did he.

And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the
first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up. And Moses
set up the tabernacle, and laid its {236} sockets, and set up the
boards thereof, and put in the bars thereof, and set up its pillars.
And he spread the tent over the tabernacle, and put the covering of
the tent above upon it; as the Lord commanded Moses. And he put the
testimony into the ark, and set the staves on the ark, and put the
mercy seat above upon the ark: and he brought the ark into the
tabernacle, and set up the veil of the screen, and screened the ark of
the testimony; as the Lord commanded Moses. And he put the table in
the tent of meeting, upon the side of the tabernacle northward,
without the veil. And he set the bread in order upon it before the
Lord; as the Lord commanded Moses. And he put the candlestick in the
tent of meeting, over against the table, on the side of the tabernacle
southward. And he lighted the lamps before the Lord; as the Lord
commanded Moses. And he put the golden altar in the tent of meeting
before the veil: and he burnt therein incense of sweet spices; as the
Lord commanded Moses. And he put the screen of the door to the
tabernacle. And he set the altar of burnt offering at the door of the
tabernacle of the tent of meeting, and offered upon it the burnt
offering and the meal offering; as the Lord commanded Moses. And he
set the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar, and put water
therein, to wash withal. And Moses and Aaron and his sons washed their
hands and their feet thereat; when they went into the tent of meeting,
and when they came near unto the altar, they washed: as the Lord
commanded Moses. And he reared up the court round about the tabernacle
{237} and the altar, and set up the screen of the gate of the court.
So Moses finished the work.


_The Cloud of the Glory of God in the Tent_.


Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the Lord
filled the tabernacle. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent
of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the Lord
filled the tabernacle. And when the cloud was taken up from over the
tabernacle, the children of Israel went onward, throughout all their
journeys: but if the cloud was not taken up, then they journeyed not
till the day that it was taken up. For the cloud of the Lord was upon
the tabernacle by day, and there was fire therein by night, in the
sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.


{238}

LEAD ME ON

  Traveling to the better land,
  O'er the desert's scorching sand,
  Father! let me grasp thy hand;
    Lead me on, lead me on!

  When at Marah, parched with heat,
  I the sparkling fountain greet,
  Make the bitter water sweet;
    Lead me on!

  When the wilderness is drear,
  Show me Elim's palm-grove near,
  And her wells, as crystal clear:
    Lead me on!

  Through the water, through the fire,
  Never let me fall or tire,
  Every step brings Canaan nigher:
    Lead me on!

  Bid me stand on Nebo's height,
  Gaze upon the land of light,
  Then, transported with the sight,
    Lead me on!

  When I stand on Jordan's brink,
  Never let me fear or shrink;
  Hold me, Father, lest I sink:
    Lead me on!

  When the victory is won,
  And eternal life begun,
  Up to glory lead me on!
    Lead me on, lead me on!

{239}{240}

[Illustration]
  MOUNT HOREB

  From a photograph in the possession of the Forbes Library
  and used by permission.
[End illustration]

{241}

THE MARCH TO THE PROMISED LAND

THE PILLAR OF FIRE AND THE CLOUD OF SMOKE.


And on the day that the tabernacle was set up the cloud covered the
tabernacle, even the tent of the testimony: and at even it was upon
the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire, until morning. So it
was always: the cloud covered it, and the appearance of fire by night.
And whenever the cloud was taken up from over the Tent, then after
that the children of Israel journeyed: and in the place where the
cloud abode, there the children of Israel encamped. At the commandment
of the Lord the children of Israel journeyed, and at the commandment
of the Lord they encamped: as long as the cloud abode upon the
tabernacle they remained encamped. And when the cloud tarried upon the
tabernacle many days, then the children of Israel kept the charge of
the Lord, and journeyed not. And sometimes the cloud was a few days
upon the tabernacle; then according to the commandment of the Lord
they remained encamped, and according to the commandment of the Lord
they journeyed. And sometimes the cloud was from evening until
morning; and when the cloud was taken up in the morning, they
journeyed: or if it continued by day and by night, when the cloud was
taken up, they journeyed.

Whether it were two days, or a month, or a year, that the cloud
tarried upon the tabernacle, abiding thereon, the {242} children of
Israel remained encamped, and journeyed not: but when it was taken up,
they journeyed. At the commandment of the Lord they encamped, and at
the commandment of the Lord they journeyed: they kept the charge of
the Lord, at the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses.


_The Long Journey from Sinai Begins_.


And it came to pass in the second year, in the second month, on the
twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from over the
tabernacle of the testimony. And the children of Israel set forward
according to their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the
cloud abode in the wilderness of Paran. And they first took their
journey according to the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses.


And they set forward from the mount of the Lord three days' journey;
and the ark of the covenant of the Lord went before them three days'
journey, to seek out a resting place for them. And the cloud of the
Lord was over them by day, when they set forward from the camp.

And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said,--

  "Rise up, O Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered;
  And let them that hate thee flee before thee."

And when it rested he said,--

  "Return, O Lord,
  Unto the ten thousands of the thousands of Israel."

{243}

THE SENDING OUT OF THE SPIES.

_They Report "a Land Flowing with Milk and Honey_."

And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, "Send thou men, that they may spy
out the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel: of
every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, everyone a prince
among them."

And Moses sent them from the wilderness of Paran according to the
commandment of the Lord: all of them men who were heads of the
children of Israel.

And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, and said to them,
"Get you up this way by the south, and go up into the mountains: and
see the land, what it is; and the people that dwelleth therein,
whether they are strong or weak, whether they are few or many; and
what the land is that they dwell in, whether it is good or bad; and
what cities they are that they dwell in, whether in camps, or in
strong holds; and what the land is, whether it be fat or lean, whether
there be wood therein, or not. And be ye of good courage, and bring of
the fruit of the land."

Now the time was the time of the first ripe grapes. So they went up,
and spied out the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, to the
entering in of Hamath. And they went up by the south, and came to
Hebron; and the children of Anak were there.

And they came unto the valley of Eshcol, and cut down from thence a
branch with one cluster of grapes, and they bore it upon a staff
between two; they brought also of the pomegranates, and of the figs.
That place was called the valley of Eshcol (that is, "cluster"). And
they returned {244} from spying out the land at the end of forty days.
And they went and came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the
congregation of the children of Israel, to the wilderness of Paran, to
Kadesh; and brought back word unto them, and to all the congregation,
and showed them the fruit of the land. And they told him, and said,
"We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and surely it floweth
with milk and honey; and this is the fruit of it. Howbeit the people
that dwell in the land are strong, and the cities are fortified and
very great: and moreover we saw the children of Anak there. Amalek
dwelleth in the land of the south: and the Hittite, and the Jebusite,
and the Amorite, dwell in the mountains: and the Canaanite dwelleth by
the sea, and along by the side of Jordan."

And Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, "Let us go up at
once, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it."

But the men that went up with him said, "We are not able to go up
against the people; for they are stronger than we."

And they brought up an evil report of the land which they had spied
out unto the children of Israel, saying, "The land, through which we
have gone to spy it out, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants
thereof; and all the people that we saw in it are men of great
stature. And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak: and we were in
our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight."

{245}{246}

[Illustration]
  MOSES SMITING THE ROCK
  By Murillo
[End illustration]

{247}

And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the
people wept that night. And all the children of Israel murmured
against Moses and against Aaron: and the whole congregation said unto
them, "Would God, that we had died in the land of Egypt! or would God
we had died in this wilderness! And wherefore doth the Lord bring us
unto this land, to fall by the sword? Our wives and our little ones
shall be a prey: were it not better for us to return into Egypt?"

And they said one to another, "Let us make a captain, and let us
return into Egypt."

Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of
the congregation of the children of Israel. And Joshua the son of Nun
and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, which were of them that spied out the
land, rent their clothes: and they spoke unto all the congregation of
the children of Israel, saying, "The land, which we passed through to
spy it out, is an exceeding good land. If the Lord delight in us, then
he will bring us into this land, and give it to us; a land which
floweth with milk and honey. Only rebel not against the Lord, neither
fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us: their
defense is removed from over them, and the Lord is with us: fear them
not."


WATER FROM THE ROCK.

_Passage Through Edom Refused_.

(The people refused to believe the report of the courageous spies, and
their wanderings continued.)

And the children of Israel, even the whole multitude, {248} came into
the wilderness of Zin in the first month: and the people abode in
Kadesh; and Miriam died there, and was buried there. And there was no
water for the multitude: and they assembled themselves together
against Moses and against Aaron.

And the people strove with Moses, and spoke, saying, "Would God that
we had died when our brethren died before the Lord! And why have ye
brought the people of the Lord into this wilderness, that we should
die there, we and our cattle? And wherefore have ye made us to come up
out of Egypt, to bring us unto this evil place? it is no place of
seed, or of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates; neither is there
any water to drink."

And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the people to the door
of the tent of meeting, and fell upon their faces: and the glory of
the Lord appeared to them. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, "Take
the rod, and assemble the multitude, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and
speak ye to the rock before their eyes, that it give forth its water;
and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock: so thou
shalt give the multitude and their cattle drink."

And Moses took the rod from before the Lord, as he commanded him. And
Moses and Aaron gathered the people together before the rock, and he
said unto them, "Hear now, ye rebels; shall we bring you forth water
out of this rock?"

And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice:
and water came forth abundantly, and the {249} multitude drank, and
their cattle. And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, "Because ye
believed not in me, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of
Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this people into the land which I
have given them." These are the waters of Meribah (that is, strife);
because the children of Israel strove with the Lord, and he was
sanctified in them.

And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, "Thus saith
thy brother Israel, 'Thou knowest all the trouble that hath befallen
us: how our fathers went down into Egypt, and we dwelt in Egypt a long
time: and the Egyptians oppressed us, and our fathers: and when we
cried to the Lord, he heard our voice, and sent an angel, and brought
us forth out of Egypt: and, behold, we are in Kadesh, a city in the
uttermost of thy border: let us pass, I pray thee, through thy land:
we will not pass through field or through vineyard, neither will we
drink of the water of the wells: we will go along the king's highway,
we will not turn aside to the right hand nor to the left, until we
have passed thy border.'"

And Edom said unto him, "Thou shalt not pass through my land, lest I
come out with the sword against thee."

And the children of Israel said unto him, "We will go up by the
highway: and if we drink of thy water, I and my cattle, then will I
give the price thereof: let me only, without doing anything else, pass
through on my feet."

And he said, "Thou shalt not pass through."

And Edom came out against him with much people, and with a strong
hand. Thus Edom refused to give {250} Israel passage through his
border: wherefore Israel turned away from him.

And they journeyed from Kadesh: and the children of Israel, even the
whole multitude, came unto Mount Hor. And the Lord spoke unto Moses
and Aaron in Mount Hor, by the border of the land of Edom, saying,
"Aaron shall be gathered to his people: for he shall not enter into
the land which I have given to the children of Israel, because ye
rebelled against my word at the waters of Meribah. Take Aaron and
Eleazar his son, and bring them up unto Mount Hor: and strip Aaron of
his priestly garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son: and Aaron
shall be gathered to his people, and shall die there."

And Moses did as the Lord commanded: and they went up into Mount Hor
in the sight of all the multitude. And Moses stripped Aaron of his
priestly garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron died
there in the top of the mount: and Moses and Eleazar came down from
the mount. And when all the multitude saw that Aaron was dead, they
wept for Aaron thirty days, even all the house of Israel.


THE BRAZEN SERPENT.

And they journeyed from Mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, to go
around the land of Edom: and the soul of the people was much
discouraged because of the difficulties. And the people spoke against
God, and against Moses, "Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt
to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no
water; and our soul loatheth this bread of manna."

{251}{252}

[Illustration]
  ROCK TEMPLE IN PETRA, IN THE LAND OF EDOM

  From a photograph belonging to the Forbes Library, Northampton,
  Mass., and used by special permission.

  Hidden away in the rocky gorges of Edom, Petra is one of the
  strangest and most marvelous cities of the world. Even yet it has
  not been fully explored. Its temples and tombs are carved out of the
  solid rock
[End illustration]

{253}

And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the
people; and many people of Israel died. And the people came to Moses,
and said, "We have sinned, because we have spoken against the Lord,
and against thee; pray unto the Lord, that he take away the serpents
from us."

And Moses prayed for the people. And the Lord said unto Moses, "Make
thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a standard: and it shall come to
pass, that everyone who is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live."

And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the standard: and
it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked
unto the serpent of brass, he lived.


_Battles by the Way_.

And from thence they journeyed to Beer: that is the well whereof the
Lord said unto Moses, "Gather the people together, and I will give
them water."

Then sang Israel this song:--

  THE SONG OF THE WELL.

  "Spring up, O well; sing ye unto it:
  The well, which the princes digged,
  Which the nobles of the people delved,
  With the scepter, and with their staves."

And from the wilderness they journeyed past many places, to the top of
Pisgah, which looketh down upon the desert.

And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the {254} Amorites,
saying, "Let me pass through thy land: we will not turn aside into
field, or into vineyard; we will not drink of the water of the wells:
we will go by the king's highway, until we have passed thy border."
And Sihon would not suffer Israel to pass through his border: but
Sihon gathered all his people together, and went out against Israel
into the wilderness, and came to Jahaz: and he fought against Israel.
And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword, and possessed his
land from Arnon unto Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon: for the
border of the children of Ammon was strong.

And Israel took all these cities: and Israel dwelt in all the cities
of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all the towns thereof. For Heshbon
was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had fought against
the former king of Moab, and taken all his land out of his hand, even
to Arnon. Wherefore they that speak in proverbs say,--

  "Come ye to Heshbon,
  Let the city of Sihon be built and established:
  For a fire is gone out of Heshbon,
  A flame from the city of Sihon.
  It hath devoured Ar of Moab,
  The lords of the high places of Arnon.
  Woe to thee, Moab!
  Thou art undone, O people of Chemosh:
  He hath given his sons as fugitives,
  And his daughters into captivity,
  Unto Sihon king of the Amorites.    {255}
  We have shot at them; Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon,
  And we have laid waste even unto Nophah,
  Which reacheth unto Medeba."

Thus Israel dwelt in the land of the Amorites. And Moses sent to spy
out Jazer, and they took the towns thereof, and drove out the Amorites
that were there.

And they turned and went up by the way of Bashan: and Og the king of
Bashan went out against them, he and all his people, to battle at
Edrei. And the Lord said to Moses, "Fear him not: for I have delivered
him into thy hand, and all his people, and his land; and thou shalt do
to him as thou didst to Sihon king of the Amorites, which dwelt at
Heshbon."

So they smote him, and his sons, and all his people, until there was
none left him remaining: and they possessed his land.


BALAAM AND BALAK.

_The Story of the Prophet Who Was Tempted by a Bribe and of the Ass
Which Knew More Than His Master_.

And the children of Israel journeyed, and encamped in the plains of
Moab beyond the Jordan at Jericho.

And Balak the son of Zippor saw all that Israel had done to the
Amorites. And Moab was sore afraid of the people, because they were
many: and Moab was distressed because of the children of Israel. And
Moab said unto the elders of Midian, "Now shall this multitude lick
{256} up all that is round about us, as the ox licketh up the grass of
the field."

And Balak the son of Zippor was king of Moab at that time. And he sent
messengers unto Balaam the son of Beor, to Pethor, which is by the
River, to the land of the children of his people, to call him, saying,
"Behold, there is a people come out from Egypt: behold, they cover the
face of the earth, and they abide over against me: come now therefore,
I pray thee, curse me this people; for they are too mighty for me:
peradventure I shall prevail, that we may smite them, and that I may
drive them out of the land: for I know that he whom thou blessest is
blessed, and he whom thou cursest is cursed."

And the elders of Moab and the elders of Midian departed with bribes
in their hands; and they came unto Balaam, and spoke unto him the
words of Balak.

And he said unto them, "Lodge here this night, and I will bring you
word again, as the Lord shall speak unto me."

And the princes of Moab abode with Balaam. And God came unto Balaam,
and said, "What men are these with thee?"

And Balaam said unto God, "Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab, hath
sent unto me, saying, 'Behold, the people that is come out of Egypt,
it covereth the face of the earth: now, come curse me them;
peradventure I shall be able to fight against them, and shall drive
them out.'"

And God said unto Balaam, "Thou shalt not go with them; thou shalt not
curse the people: for they are blessed."

{257}{258}

[Illustration]
  VIEW OF THE DEAD SEA

  From a photograph taken by Mr. Louis L. Tribus, Consulting Engineer
  and Commissioner of Public Works of the Borough of Richmond, City of
  New York.

  An interesting fact in connection with this picture of the Dead Sea
  concerns the boat which is floating upon it. The owner succeeded in
  securing a concession from the Turkish Government to put a steamboat
  upon the Dead Sea. When he started to run it he was advised that the
  concession had not included the operation of the boat and a
  considerable further sum of money was desired by the officials. This
  being beyond the power of the man to raise, the boat has not been
  operated and remains as the picture shows it.

  The water of the Dead Sea contains about 25 per cent. of solid
  substances. There are common salt, chloride of calcium, chloride of
  magnesium, and other ingredients, and it is not to be wondered at
  that the human body floats easily on the surface.

  The area of the sea is 360 square miles. Its length is 47-1/2 miles;
  its greatest width, 10 miles. The surface is about 1295 feet below
  sea level.

  Scientific observation justifies the estimate that a daily average
  of 6,500,000 tons of water is received into the Dead Sea from the
  Jordan and other sources during the year. During the rainy season
  the amount is very much greater; during the dry season it is, of
  course, very much less, but this average will be maintained year
  after year.

  There is no outlet, and the level is kept down by evaporation only,
  which is very rapid because of the intense heat, the dry atmosphere
  and the dry winds which are constantly blowing down the gorges
  between the mountains.

  The waters of the Jordan, when they reach the sea, are as brown as
  the earth through which they flow--a thick solution of mud--but the
  instant they mingle with the salt water of the lake the particles of
  soil are precipitated and they become as clear as crystal, with an
  intensely green tint.
[End illustration]

{259}

And Balaam rose up in the morning, and said unto the princes of Balak,
"Get you into your land: for the Lord refuseth to give me leave to go
with you."

And the princes of Moab rose up, and they went unto Balak, and said,
"Balaam refuseth to come with us."

And Balak sent yet again princes, more, and more honorable than they.
And they came to Balaam, and said to him, "Thus saith Balak the son of
Zippor, 'Let nothing, I pray thee, hinder thee from coming unto me:
for I will promote thee unto very great honor, and whatsoever thou
sayest unto me I will do: come therefore, I pray thee, curse me this
people.'"

And Balaam answered and said unto the servants of Balak, "If Balak
would give me his house full of silver and gold, I cannot go beyond
the word of the Lord my God, to do less or more. Now therefore, I pray
you, tarry ye also here this night, that I may know what the Lord will
speak unto me more."

And God came unto Balaam at night, and said unto him, "If the men be
come to call thee, rise up, go with them; but only the word which I
speak unto thee, that shalt thou do."

And Balaam rose up in the morning, and saddled his ass, and went with
the princes of Moab. And God's anger was kindled because he went: and
the angel of the Lord placed himself in the way for an adversary
against him. Now he was riding upon his ass, and his two servants were
with him. And the ass saw the angel of the Lord standing in the way,
with his sword drawn in his hand: {260} and the ass turned aside out
of the way, and went into the field: and Balaam smote the ass, to turn
her into the way.

Then the angel of the Lord stood in a hollow place between the
vineyards, a fence being on this side, and a fence on that side. And
the ass saw the angel of the Lord, and she thrust herself unto the
wall, and crushed Balaam's foot against the wall: and he smote her
again.

And the angel of the Lord went further, and stood in a narrow place,
where was no way to turn either to the right hand or to the left.

And the ass saw the angel of the Lord, and she lay down under Balaam:
and Balaam's anger was kindled, and he smote the ass with his staff.

And the Lord opened the mouth of the ass, and she said unto Balaam,
"What have I done unto thee, that thou hast smitten me these three
times?"

And Balaam said unto the ass, "Because thou hast mocked me: I would
there were a sword in mine hand, for now I had killed thee."

And the ass said unto Balaam, "Am not I thine ass, upon which thou
hast ridden all thy life long unto this day? was I ever wont to do so
unto thee?"

And he said, "No."

Then the Lord opened the eyes of Balaam, and he saw the angel of the
Lord standing in the way, with his sword drawn in his hand: and he
bowed his head, and fell on his face.

And the angel of the Lord said unto him, "Wherefore {261} hast thou
smitten thine ass these three times? behold, I am come forth for an
adversary, because thy way is perverse before me: and the ass saw me,
and turned aside before me these three times: unless she had turned
aside from me, surely now I had even slain thee, and saved her alive."

And Balaam said unto the angel of the Lord, "I have sinned; for I knew
not that thou stoodest in the way against me: now therefore, if it
displease thee, I will get me back again."

And the angel of the Lord said unto Balaam, "Go with the men: but only
the word that I shall speak unto thee, that thou shalt speak."

So Balaam went with the princes of Balak. And when Balak heard that
Balaam was come, he went out to meet him unto the city of Moab, which
is on the border of Arnon.

And Balak said unto Balaam, "Did I not earnestly send unto thee to
call thee? wherefore earnest thou not unto me? am I not able indeed to
promote thee to honor?"

And Balaam said unto Balak, "Lo, I am come unto thee: have I now any
power at all to speak anything? the word that God putteth in my mouth,
that shall I speak."

And Balaam went with Balak, and they came unto Kiriath-huzoth. And
Balak sacrificed oxen and sheep, and sent to Balaam, and to the
princes that were with him. And it came to pass in the morning, that
Balak took Balaam, and brought him up into the high places of {262}
Baal, and he saw from thence the utmost part of the people.

And Balaam said unto Balak, "Build me here seven altars, and prepare
me here seven bullocks and seven rams."

And Balak did as Balaam had spoken; and Balak and Balaam offered on
every altar a bullock and a ram.

And Balaam said unto Balak, "Stand by thy burnt offering, and I will
go; peradventure the Lord will come to meet me: and whatsoever he
showeth me I will tell thee." And he went to a bare summit.

And God met Balaam: and he said unto him, "I have prepared the seven
altars, and I have offered up a bullock and a ram on every altar."

And the Lord put a word in Balaam's mouth, and said, "Return unto
Balak, and thus thou shalt speak."

And he returned unto him, and, lo, he stood by his burnt offering, he,
and all the princes of Moab. And Balaam said,--

  "From Aram hath Balak brought me,
  The king of Moab from the mountains of the East:
  'Come, curse me Jacob,
  And come, defy Israel.'
  How shall I curse, whom God hath not cursed?
  And how shall I defy, whom the Lord hath not defied?
  For from the top of the rocks I see him,
  And from the hills I behold him:
  Lo, it is a people that dwell alone,
  And shall not be reckoned among the nations.   {263}
  Who can count the dust of Jacob,
  Or number the fourth part of Israel?
  Let me die the death of the righteous,
  And let my last end be like his!"

And Balak said unto Balaam, "What hast thou done unto me? I took thee
to curse mine enemies, and, behold, thou hast blessed them
altogether."

And he answered and said, "Must I not take heed to speak that which
the Lord putteth in my mouth?"

And Balak said unto him, "Come, I pray thee, with me unto another
place, from whence thou mayest see them; thou shalt see but the utmost
part of them, and shalt not see them all: and curse me them from
thence."

And he took him into the field of Zophim, to the top of Pisgah, and
built seven altars, and offered up a bullock and a ram on every altar.

And he said unto Balak, "Stand here by thy burnt offering, while I
meet the Lord yonder."

And the Lord met Balaam, and put a word in his mouth, and said,
"Return unto Balak, and thus shalt thou speak."

And he came to him, and, lo, he stood by his burnt offering, and the
princes of Moab with him. And Balak said unto him, "What hath the Lord
spoken?" And he said,--

  "Rise up, Balak, and hear;
  Hearken unto me, thou son of Zippor:
  God is not a man, that he should lie;
  Neither the son of man, that he should repent:   {264}
  Hath he said, and shall he not do it?
  Or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good?
  Behold, I have received commandment to bless:
  And he hath blessed, and I cannot reverse it.
  He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob,
  Neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel:
  The Lord his God is with him,
  And the shout of a king is among them.
  God bringeth them forth out of Egypt;
  He hath as it were the strength of the wild ox.
  Surely there is no enchantment with Jacob,
  Neither is there any divination with Israel:
  Now shall it be said of Jacob and of Israel,
  'What hath God wrought!'
  Behold, the people riseth up as a lioness,
  And as a lion doth he lift himself up:
  He shall not lie down until he eat of the prey,
  And drink the blood of the slain."

And Balak said unto Balaam, "Neither curse them at all, nor bless them
at all." But Balaam answered and said unto Balak, "Told not I thee,
saying, 'All that the Lord speaketh, that I must do'?"

And Balak said unto Balaam, "Come now, I will take thee unto another
place; peradventure it will please God that thou mayest curse me them
from thence."

And Balak took Balaam unto the top of Peor, that looketh down upon the
desert.

And Balaam said unto Balak, "Build me here seven altars, and prepare
me here seven bullocks and seven rams."

{265}

And Balak did as Balaam had said, and offered up a bullock and a ram
on every altar.

And when Balaam saw that it pleased the Lord to bless Israel, he set
his face toward the wilderness. And Balaam lifted up his eyes, and he
saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes; and the spirit of God
came upon him. And he said,--

  "Balaam the son of Beor saith,
  And the man whose eye was closed saith:
  He saith, who heareth the words of God,
  Who seeth the vision of the Almighty,
  Falling down, and having his eyes open:
  How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob,
  Thy tabernacles, O Israel!
  As valleys are they spread forth,
  As gardens by the river side,
  As aloes which the Lord hath planted,
  As cedar trees beside the waters.
  Water shall flow from his buckets,
  And his family shall be in many waters,
  And his king shall be higher than Agag,
  And his kingdom shall be exalted.
  God bringeth him forth out of Egypt;
  He hath as it were the strength of the wild ox:
  He shall eat up the nations his adversaries,
  And shall break their bones in pieces,
  And smite them through with his arrows.
  He couched, he lay down as a lion,
  And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?
  Blessed be everyone that blesseth thee,
  And cursed be everyone that curseth thee."

{266}

And Balak's anger was kindled against Balaam, and he smote his hands
together: and Balak said unto Balaam, "I called thee to curse mine
enemies, and, behold, thou hast altogether blessed them these three
times. Therefore now flee thou to thy place: I thought to promote thee
unto great honor; but, lo, the Lord hath kept thee back from honor."

And Balaam said unto Balak, "Spoke I not also to thy messengers which
thou sentest unto me, saying, 'If Balak would give me his house full
of silver and gold, I cannot go beyond the word of the Lord, to do
either good or bad of mine own mind; what the Lord speaketh, that will
I speak'?

"And now, behold, I go unto my people: come, and I will announce to
thee what this people shall do to thy people in the latter days." And
he said,--

  "Balaam the son of Beor saith,
  And the man whose eye was closed saith:
  He saith, who heareth the words of God,
  And knoweth the knowledge of the Most High,
  Who seeth the vision of the Almighty,
  Falling down, and having his eyes open:
  I see him, but not now:
  I behold him, but not nigh:
  There shall come forth a star out of Jacob,
  And a scepter shall rise out of Israel,
  And shall smite through the corners of Moab,
  And break down all the sons of tumult.
  And Edom shall be a possession,
  Seir also shall be a possession, which were his enemies;  {267}
  While Israel doeth valiantly.
  And out of Jacob shall one have dominion,
  And shall destroy the remnant from the city."

And he looked on Amalek, and said,--

  "Amalek was the first of the nations;
  But his latter end shall come to destruction."

And he looked on the Kenite, and said,--

  "Strong is thy dwelling place,
  And thy nest is set in the rock.
  Nevertheless Kain shall be wasted,
  Until Asshur shall carry thee away captive."

And he said,--

  "Alas, who shall live when God doeth this?
  But ships shall come from the coast of Kittim,
  And they shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber,
  And he also shall come to destruction."

And Balaam rose up, and went and returned to his
place: and Balak also went his way.

{268}

THE DEATH OF MOSES.

_He Sees but Cannot Enter the Promised Land_.

(After the Israelites had wandered for many years in the desert, they
approached at last the river Jordan, on the borders of the promised
land. Moses, their great hero and leader, was not permitted to cross
the river, but, after giving the people his last words of advice,
climbed the rugged slopes of Mount Nebo, and was never again seen by
the eye of man.)

And Moses went and spoke these words unto all Israel. And he said to
them, "I am an hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go
out and come in: and the Lord hath said to me, 'Thou shalt not go over
this Jordan.' The Lord thy God, he will go over before thee; he will
destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt possess them:
and Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as the Lord hath spoken. And
the Lord shall do unto them as he did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of
the Amorites, and unto their land; whom he destroyed. And the Lord
shall deliver them up before you, and ye shall do to them according
unto all the commandment which I have commanded you. Be strong and of
a good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them: for the Lord thy
God, he it is that doth go with thee; he will not fail thee, nor
forsake thee."

And Moses called to Joshua, and said to him in the sight of all
Israel, "Be strong and of a good courage: for thou shalt go with this
people into the land which the Lord hath sworn unto their fathers to
give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it. And the Lord, he
it is that doth go before thee; he will be with thee, he will not fail
thee, neither forsake thee: fear not, neither be dismayed.

{269}{270}

[Illustration]
  MOSES ON MOUNT NEBO
  Thomas Nast

  This picture by the famous cartoonist Nast, represents Moses from
  the summit of Nebo gazing into the land which he was never to enter
[End illustration]


{271}

"For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not too
hard for thee, neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that thou
shouldest say, 'Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto
us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?' Neither is it beyond
the sea, that thou shouldest say, 'Who shall go over the sea for us,
and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?' But
the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that
thou mayest do it.

"See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and
evil; in that I command thee this day to love the Lord thy God, to
walk in his ways, and to keep his commandments and his statutes and
his judgments, that thou mayest live and multiply, and that the Lord
thy God may bless thee in the land whither thou goest in to possess
it. But if thine heart turn away, and thou wilt not hear, but shalt be
drawn away, and worship other gods, and serve them; I announce to you
this day, that ye shall surely perish; ye shall not prolong your days
upon the land, whither thou passest over Jordan to go in to possess
it. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I
have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse:
therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy families:
to love the Lord thy God, to obey his voice, and to cleave unto him:
for he is thy life, and the length of thy days: that thou mayest {272}
dwell in the land which the Lord swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham,
to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them."

And Moses made an end of speaking all these words to all Israel: and
he said to them, "Set your heart to all the words which I testify to
you this day; which ye shall command your children, to observe to do
all the words of this law. For it is no vain thing for you; because it
is your life, and through this thing ye shall prolong your days upon
the land, whither ye go over Jordan to possess it."

And the Lord spoke to Moses that selfsame day, saying, "Get thee up
into this mountain of Abarim, unto Mount Nebo, which is in the land of
Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan,
which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession: and die in
the mount whither thou goest up; as Aaron thy brother died in Mount
Hor: because ye trespassed against me in the midst of the children of
Israel at the waters of Meribah of Kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin;
because ye sanctified me not in the midst of the children of Israel.
For thou shalt see the land before thee; but thou shalt not go thither
into the land which I give the children of Israel."

And Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of
Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the Lord showed him all the
land of Gilead, as far as Dan; and all Naphtali, and the land of
Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, to the western sea;
and the South, and the Plain of the valley of Jericho the city of palm
trees, as far as Zoar. And the Lord said to {273} him, "This is the
land which I swore unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying,
'I will give it unto thy family': I have caused thee to see it with
thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither."

So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab,
according to the word of the Lord. And He buried him in the valley in
the land of Moab over against Beth-pear: but no man knoweth of his
sepulcher unto this day.

And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye
was not dim, nor his natural force abated. And the children of Israel
wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days: so the days of
weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended.

And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses,
whom the Lord knew face to face; in all the signs and the wonders,
which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to
all his servants, and to all his land; and in all the mighty hand, and
in all the great terror, which Moses wrought in the sight of all
Israel.

{274}

THE BURIAL OF MOSES

  By Nebo's lonely mountain,
  On this side Jordan's wave,
  In a vale in the land of Moab,
  There lies a lonely grave.
  And no man knows that sepulcher,
  And no man saw it e'er,
  For the angels of God upturned the sod,
  And laid the dead man there.

  That was the grandest funeral
  That ever passed on earth;
  But no man heard the trampling,
  Or saw the train go forth:
  Noiselessly as the daylight
  Comes back when night is done,
  And the crimson streak on ocean's cheek
  Grows into the great sun;

  Noiselessly as the spring-time
  Her crown of verdure weaves,
  And all the trees on all the hills
  Open their thousand leaves;
  So without sound of music
  Or voice of them that wept,
  Silently down from the mountain's crown
  The great procession swept.

  Perchance that bald old eagle
  On gray Beth-Peor's height,
  Out of his lonely eyrie
  Looked on the wondrous sight:    {275}
  Perchance the lion, stalking,
  Stills shuns that hallowed spot,
  For beast and bird have seen and heard
  That which man knoweth not.

  But when the warrior dieth,
  His comrades in the war,
  With arms reversed and muffled drum,
  Follow his funeral car;
  They show the banners taken,
  They tell his battles won,
  And after him lead his masterless steed,
  While peals the minute-gun.

  Amid the noblest of the land
  We lay the sage to rest,
  And give the bard an honored place.
  With costly marble drest,
  In the great minster transept
  Where lights like glories fall,
  And the organ rings and the sweet choir sings
  Along the emblazoned wall.

  This was the truest warrior
  That ever buckled sword,
  This the most gifted poet
  That ever breathed a word;
  And never earth's philosopher
  Traced with his golden pen,
  On the deathless page, truths half so sage
  As he wrote down for men.

  And had he not 'nigh honor,--
  The hillside for a pall,
  To lie in state while angels wait,
  With stars for tapers tall,          {276}
  And the dark rock-pines like tossing plumes
  Over his bier to wave,
  And God's own hand, in that lonely land,
  To lay him in the grave?

  In that strange grave without a name,
  Whence his uncoffined clay
  Shall break again, O wondrous thought!
  Before the judgment day,
  And stand with glory wrapt around
  On the hills he never trod,
  And speak of the strife that won our life
  With the Incarnate Son of God.

  O, lonely grave in Moab's land!
  O, dark Beth-Peor's hill!
  Speak to these curious hearts of ours,
  And teach them to be still.
  God hath his mysteries of grace,
  Ways that we cannot tell;
  He hides them deep, like the hidden sleep
  Of him he loved so well.
                                 --_Cecil Frances Alexander_.

{277}

JOSHUA

_The Story of the Hero Whose Genius as a Warrior Won
the Land of Canaan for Israel_.

(The Israelites found the land of Canaan occupied by a fierce and
warlike people with whom they fought many battles and waged long
campaigns. The story of this warfare is filled with deeds of cruelty
and violence, yet it is no more terrible than war has always been. We
cannot understand why God has permitted so much suffering, but we know
that in some cases at least the world has advanced in freedom through
the loss and sacrifice of war. Even in war men have grown less cruel,
and we may hope for the time when all war shall cease and men shall
live together as brethren.)


JOSHUA IS MADE CAPTAIN OF THE HOST.

_Spies Are Sent to Jericho_.

Now it came to pass after the death of Moses the servant of the Lord,
that the Lord spoke to Joshua the son of Nun, saying, "Moses my
servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and
all this people, to the land which I give to them, even to the
children of Israel. Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread
upon, to you have I given it, as I spoke to Moses. From the
wilderness, and this Lebanon, even unto the great river, the river
Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and to the great sea to the
going down of the sun, shall {278} be your border. There shall not any
man be able to stand before thee all the days of thy life: as I was
with Moses, so I will be with thee: I will not fail thee, nor forsake
thee. Be strong and of a good courage: for thou shalt cause this
people to inherit the land which I swore unto their fathers to give
them. Only be strong and very courageous, to observe to do according
to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee: turn not from
it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest have good
success whithersoever thou goest. This book of the law shall not
depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and
night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written
therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou
shalt have good success. Have not I commanded thee? Be strong and of a
good courage; be not affrighted, neither be thou dismayed: for the
Lord thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest."

Then Joshua commanded the officers of the people, saying, "Pass
through the midst of the camp, and command the people, saying,
'Prepare you victuals; for within three days ye are to pass over this
Jordan, to go in to possess the land, which the Lord your God giveth
you to possess it.'"

And Joshua the son of Nun sent out of Shittim two men as spies
secretly, saying, "Go view the land, and Jericho." And they went, and
came into the house of a woman whose name was Rahab, and lay there.
And it was told the king of Jericho, saying, "Behold, there came men
in hither to-night of the children of Israel to search out the land."

{279}{280}

[Illustration]
  MOUNDS MARKING THE SITE OF OLD JERICHO

  From the road from Jerusalem to Jericho

  From a photograph taken by Prof. D. G. Lyon
  and used by his kind permission.

  Jericho, "the city of palm trees," was the only important place in
  the Jordan valley. In Bible times it was a beautiful and prosperous
  city, but now it is only a waste. Its palm trees are gone and the
  site is desolate. It was often conquered by the armies which passed
  through Palestine. After its walls fell down before Joshua's hosts,
  "no great man was born in Jericho; no heroic deed was ever done in
  her. She never stood a siege and her inhabitants were always running
  away."   --_Smith_
[End illustration]

{281}

And the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, saying, "Bring forth the men
that are come to thee, which are entered into thine house: for they
are come to search out all the land."

And the woman took the two men, and hid them; and she said, "Yea, the
men came unto me, but I knew not whence they were: and it came to pass
about the time of the shutting of the gate, when it was dark, that the
men went out: whither the men went I know not: pursue after them
quickly; for ye shall overtake them."

But she had brought them up to the roof, and hid them with the stalks
of flax, which she had laid in order upon the roof. And the men
pursued after them along the way to Jordan to the fords: and as soon
as those who pursued after them were gone out, they shut the gate. And
before they were laid down, she came up to them upon the roof; and she
said to the men, "I know that the Lord hath given you the land, and
that the fear of you is fallen upon us, and that all the inhabitants
of the land melt away before you. For we have heard how the Lord dried
up the water of the Red Sea before you, when ye came out of Egypt; and
what ye did unto the two kings of the Amorites, that were beyond
Jordan, unto Sihon and to Og, whom ye utterly destroyed. And as soon
as we had heard it, our hearts melted, neither did there remain any
more spirit in any man, because of you: for the Lord your God, he is
God in heaven above, and on earth beneath. Now {282} therefore, I pray
you, swear unto me by the Lord, since I have dealt kindly with you,
that ye also will deal kindly with my father's house, and give me a
true token: and that ye will save alive my father, and my mother, and
my brethren, and my sisters, and all that they have, and will deliver
our lives from death."

And the men said to her, "Our life for yours, if ye speak not of this
our business; and it shall be, when the Lord giveth us the land, that
we will deal kindly and truly with thee."

Then she let them down by a cord through the window: for her house was
upon the town wall, and she dwelt upon the wall. And she said to them,
"Get you to the mountain, lest the pursuers find you; and hide
yourselves there three days, until the pursuers have returned: and
afterward may ye go your way."

And the men said unto her, "We will be guiltless of this thine oath
which thou hast made us to swear, unless, when we come into the land,
thou shalt bind this line of scarlet thread in the window which thou
didst let us down by: and thou shalt gather into the house thy father,
and thy mother, and thy brethren, and all thy father's household. And
it shall be, that whosoever shall go out of the doors of thy house
into the street, his blood shall be upon his head, and we will be
guiltless: and whosoever shall be with thee in the house, his blood
shall be on our head, if any hand be upon him. But if thou speak of
this our business, then we will be guiltless or thine oath which thou
hast made us to swear."

{283}{284}

[Illustration]
  LOWER FORDS OF THE JORDAN

  From a photograph in the possession of Rev. Louis F. Giroux
  of the International College, Springfield, Mass.,
  and used by his kind permission.

  Jordan river is a narrow, winding stream flowing down on the eastern
  border of the "Promised Land." When not in flood its width does not
  average over two hundred feet and it is rarely over five feet deep
  at such times; in flood it becomes in places a mile broad. It is so
  winding that in sixty-five miles direct course it covers a distance
  of two hundred miles. There are some fifty fords across the river,
  and in Roman times it was spanned by bridges. This picture shows the
  "lower fords." At this point, or near here, the Israelites crossed.
  "There are hundreds of other streams more large, more useful, or
  more beautiful; there is none which has been more spoken about by
  mankind"
[End illustration]

{285}

And she said, "According to your words, so be it." And she sent them
away, and they departed: and she bound the scarlet line in the window.

And they went, and came to the mountain, and hid there three days,
until the pursuers were returned: and the pursuers sought them
throughout all the way, but found them not. Then the two men returned,
and descended from the mountain, and passed over, and came to Joshua
the son of Nun; and they told him all that had befallen them. And they
said unto Joshua, "Truly the Lord hath delivered into our hands all
the land; and moreover all the inhabitants of the land do melt away
before us."


THE PASSAGE OF THE JORDAN.

_The Israelites Leave the Jordan Behind Them as They Left
the Red Sea_.

And Joshua rose up early in the morning, and they marched from
Shittim, and came to Jordan, he and all the children of Israel; and
they lodged there before they passed over. And it came to pass after
three days, that the officers went through the midst of the camp; and
they commanded the people, saying, "When ye see the ark of the
covenant of the Lord your God, and the priests the Levites bearing it,
then ye shall advance from your place, and go after it. Yet there
shall be a space between you and it, about two thousand cubits by
measure: come not near unto it, that ye may know the way by which ye
must go; for ye have not passed this way heretofore."

{286}

And Joshua said to the people, "Sanctify yourselves: for to-morrow the
Lord will do wonders among you."

And Joshua spoke to the priests, saying, "Take up the ark of the
covenant, and pass over before the people." And they took up the ark
of the covenant, and went before the people.

And the Lord said to Joshua, "This day will I begin to magnify thee in
the sight of all Israel, that they may know that, as I was with Moses,
so I will be with thee. And thou shalt command the priests that bear
the ark of the covenant, saying, 'When ye are come to the brink of the
waters of Jordan, ye shall stand still in Jordan.'"

And Joshua said unto the children of Israel, "Come hither, and hear
the words of the Lord your God."

And Joshua said, "Hereby ye shall know that the living God is among
you, and that he will without fail drive out from before you the
Canaanite, and all the people of the land. Behold, the ark of the
covenant of the Lord of all the earth passeth over before you into
Jordan. Now therefore take you twelve men out of the tribes of Israel,
for every tribe a man. And it shall come to pass, when the soles of
the feet of the priests that bear the ark of the Lord, the Lord of all
the earth, shall rest in the waters of Jordan, that the waters of
Jordan shall be cut off, even the waters that come down from above;
and they shall stand in one heap."

And it came to pass, when the people removed from their tents, to pass
over Jordan, the priests that bore the ark of the covenant being
before the people; and when they {287} that bore the ark were come to
Jordan, and the feet of the priests that bore the ark were dipped in
the brink of the water (for Jordan overfloweth all its banks all the
time of harvest), that the waters which came down from above stood,
and rose up in one heap, a great way off, at Adam, the city that is
beside Zarethan: and those that went down toward the Salt Sea were
wholly cut off: and the people passed over right opposite Jericho.

And the priests that bore the ark of the covenant of the Lord stood
firm on dry ground in the midst of Jordan, and all Israel passed over
on dry ground, until all the nation were passed wholly over Jordan.


SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF JERICHO.

_How the Walls of the City Fell Down_.

And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his
eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with
his sword drawn in his hand: and Joshua went to him, and said to him,
"Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?"

And he said, "Nay; but as captain of the host of the Lord am I now
come."

And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and worshiped, and said to
him, "What saith my Lord to his servant?" And the captain of the
Lord's host said to Joshua, "Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for
the place whereon thou standest is holy."

And Joshua did so.

(Now Jericho was closely besieged by the children {288} of Israel:
none went out, and none came in.) And the Lord said to Joshua, "See, I
have given into thine hand Jericho, and the king thereof, and the
mighty men of valor. And ye shall march around the city, all the men
of war, going about the city once. Thus shalt thou do six days. And
seven priests shall bear seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark:
and the seventh day ye shall march around the city seven times, and
the priests shall blow the trumpets. And it shall be, that when they
make a long blast with the ram's horn, and when ye hear the sound of
the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the
wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall go up
every man straight before him."

And Joshua the son of Nun called the priests, and said unto them,
"Take up the ark of the covenant, and let seven priests bear seven
trumpets of rams' horns before the ark of the Lord."

And they said unto the people, "Pass on, and march around the city,
and let the armed men pass on before the ark of the Lord."

And it was so, that when Joshua had spoken unto the people, the seven
priests bearing the seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Lord
passed on, and blew the trumpets: and the ark of the covenant of the
Lord followed them. And the armed men went before the priests that
blew the trumpets, and the rear guard went after the ark, the priests
blowing the trumpets as they went.

{289}{290}

[Illustration]
  THE PLAIN OF JERICHO, LOOKING TOWARD THE JORDAN
  FROM THE HILLS TO THE WEST.

  From a photograph taken by Prof. H. G. Mitchell
  and used by his kind permission.

  A view of the Jordan plain, showing the desolate
  nature of the country.
[End illustration]

{291}

And Joshua commanded the people, saying, "Ye shall not shout, nor let
your voice be heard, neither shall any word proceed out of your mouth,
until the day I bid you shout; then shall ye shout."

So he caused the ark of the Lord to pass around the city, going about
it once: and they came into the camp, and lodged in the camp.

And Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark
of the Lord. And the seven priests bearing the seven trumpets of rams'
horns before the ark of the Lord went on continually, and blew the
trumpets: and the armed men went before them; and the rear guard came
after the ark of the Lord, the priests blowing the trumpets as they
went.

And the second day they marched around the city once, and returned
into the camp: so they did six days. And it came to pass on the
seventh day, that they rose early at the dawning of the day, and
marched around the city after the same manner seven times. And it came
to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew the trumpets,
Joshua said to the people, "Shout! for the Lord hath given you the
city. And the city shall be devoted, even it and all that is therein,
to the Lord: only Rahab shall live, she and all that are with her in
the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent. And ye, be
sure to keep yourselves from the devoted thing, lest when ye have
devoted it, ye take of the devoted thing; so should ye make the camp
of Israel accursed, and trouble it. But all the silver, and gold, and
vessels of brass and iron, are holy {292} unto the Lord: they shall
come into the treasury of the Lord."

So the people shouted, and the priests blew the trumpets: and it came
to pass, when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, that the
people shouted with a great shout, and the wall fell down flat, so
that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him,
and they took the city. And they utterly destroyed all that was in the
city, both man and woman, both young and old, and ox, and sheep, and
ass, with the edge of the sword.

And Joshua said unto the two men that had spied out the land, "Go into
Rahab's house, and bring out thence the woman, and all that she hath,
as ye swore unto her." And the young men who were the spies went in,
and brought out Rahab, and her father, and her mother, and her
brethren, and all that she had, all her kindred also they brought out;
and they set them without the camp of Israel.

And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was therein: only the
silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, they put
into the treasury of the house of the Lord.

But Rahab and her father's household, and all that she had, did Joshua
save alive; and she dwelt in the midst of Israel, to this day; because
she hid the messengers, which Joshua sent to spy out Jericho.


{293}

THE FALL OF JERICHO

  Sound, sound for ever, Clarions of Thought!
  When Joshua 'gainst the high-walled city fought,
  He marched around it with his banners high.
  His troops in serried order following nigh.
  But not a sword was drawn, no shaft outsprang,
  Only the trumpets the shrill onset rang.
  At the first blast, smiled scornfully the king,
  And at the second sneered, half wonderingly:
  "Hop'st thou with noise my stronghold to break down?"
  At the third round, the ark of old renown
  Swept forward, still the trumpets sounding loud,
  And then the troops with ensigns waving proud.
  Stepped out upon the old walls children dark
  With horns to mock the notes and hoot the ark.

  At the fourth turn, braving the Israelites,
  Women appeared upon the crenelated heights--
  Those battlements embrowned with age and rust--
  And hurled upon the Hebrews stones and dust,
  And spun and sang when weary of the game.
  At the fifth circuit came the blind and lame,
  And with wild uproar clamorous and high
  Railed at the clarion ringing to the sky.
  At the sixth time, upon a tower's tall crest,
  So high that there the eagle built his nest,
  So hard that on it lightning lit in vain,
  Appeared in merriment the king again:
  "These Hebrew Jews musicians are, me-seems!"
  He scoffed, loud laughing, "but they live on dreams."
  The princes laughed, submissive to the king,
  Laughed all the courtiers in their glittering ring,
  And thence the laughter spread through all the town.
  At the seventh blast--the city walls fell down.

                                           --_Victor Hugo_.

{294}

THE ATTACK UPON AI.

_The Story of a Rout and an Ambush. Defeat Turned to Victory_.


(The spoil of the city of Jericho was "devoted," that is offered
to the Lord, and could be the private property of no person.
How the greed of one soldier got the better of him, the evil
consequences, the execution of the guilty soldier for disobedience of
military orders, and the subsequent victory of the Israelites are
told in the following chapter.)


But the children of Israel committed a trespass in the devoted thing:
for Achan, of the tribe of Judah, took of the devoted thing: and the
anger of the Lord was kindled against the children of Israel.

And Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is beside Beth-aven, on
the east side of Beth-el, and spoke unto them, saying, "Go up and spy
out the land." And the men went up and spied out Ai.

And they returned to Joshua, and said unto him, "Let not all the
people go up, but let about two or three thousand men go up and smite
Ai; make not all the people to toil thither; for they are but few."

So there went up thither of the people about three thousand men: and
they fled before the men of Ai. And the men of Ai smote of them about
thirty and six men: and they chased them from before the gate even
unto Shebarim, and smote them at the descent: and the hearts of the
people melted, and became as water. And Joshua rent his clothes, and
fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the Lord until the
evening, he and the elders of Israel; and they put dust upon their
heads.

{295}

And Joshua said, "Alas, O Lord God, wherefore hast thou at all brought
this people over Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites,
to cause us to perish? would that we had been content and dwelt beyond
Jordan! O Lord, what shall I say, after Israel hath turned their backs
before their enemies! For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of
the land shall hear of it, and shall surround us round, and cut off
our name from the earth: and what wilt thou do for thy great name?"

And the Lord said unto Joshua, "Get thee up; wherefore art thou thus
fallen upon thy face? Israel hath sinned; yea, they have even
transgressed my covenant which I commanded them: yea, they have even
taken of the devoted thing; and have also stolen, and lied also, and
they have even put it among their own goods. Therefore the children of
Israel cannot stand before their enemies, they turn their backs before
their enemies, because they are become accursed: I will not be with
you any more, except ye destroy the devoted thing from among you. Up,
sanctify the people, and say, 'Sanctify yourselves against tomorrow:
for thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel, There is a devoted thing
in the midst of thee, O Israel: thou canst not stand before thine
enemies, until ye take away the devoted thing from among you. In the
morning therefore ye shall be brought near by your tribes: and it
shall be, that the tribe which the Lord taketh shall come near by
families; and the family which the Lord shall take shall come near by
households; and the household which the Lord shall take shall come
near man by man. And it {296} shall be, that he that is taken with the
devoted thing shall be burnt with fire, he and all that he hath:
because he hath transgressed the covenant of the Lord, and because he
hath wrought folly in Israel.'"

So Joshua rose up early in the morning, and brought Israel near by
their tribes; and the tribe of Judah was taken: and he brought near
the family of Judah; and he took the family of the Zerahites: and he
brought near the family of the Zerahites man by man; and Zabdi was
taken: and he brought near his household man by man; and Achan was
taken. And Joshua said unto Achan, "My son, give, I pray thee, glory
to the Lord, the God of Israel, and make confession to him; and tell
me now what thou hast done; hide it not from me."

And Achan answered Joshua, and said, "Of a truth I have sinned against
the Lord, the God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done: when I saw
among the spoil a goodly Babylonish mantle, and two hundred shekels of
silver, and a wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight, then I coveted
them, and took them; and, behold, they are hid in the earth in the
midst of my tent, and the silver under it."

So Joshua sent messengers, and they ran unto the tent; and, behold, it
was hid in his tent, and the silver under it. And they took them from
the midst of the tent, and brought them to Joshua, and to all the
children of Israel; and they laid them down before the Lord. And
Joshua, and all Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah, and the
silver, and the mantle, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his
daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, and his {297} sheep, and his
tent, and all that he had: and they brought them up unto the valley of
Achor.

And Joshua said, "Why hast thou troubled us? the Lord shall trouble
thee this day."

And all Israel stoned him with stones; and they burned them with fire,
and stoned them with stones. And they raised over him a great heap of
stones, to this day; and the Lord turned from the fierceness of his
anger. Wherefore the name of that place was called, The valley of
Achor (that is, troubling), unto this day.

And the Lord said unto Joshua, "Fear not, neither be thou dismayed:
take all the people of war with thee, and arise, go up to Ai: see, I
have given into thy hand the king of Ai, and his people, and his city,
and his land: and thou shalt do to Ai and her king as thou didst unto
Jericho and her king: only the spoil thereof, and the cattle thereof,
shall ye take for a prey unto yourselves: set thee an ambush for the
city behind it."

So Joshua arose, and all the people of war, to go up to Ai: and Joshua
chose out thirty thousand men, the mighty men of valor, and sent them
forth by night. And he commanded them, saying, "Behold, ye shall lie
in ambush against the city, behind the city: go not very far from the
city, but be ye all ready: and I, and all the people that are with me,
will approach unto the city: and it shall come to pass, when they come
out against us, as at the first, that we will flee before them; and
they will come out after us, till we have drawn them away from the
city; for they will say, 'They flee before us, as at the first'; so we
will {298} flee before them: and ye shall rise up from the ambush, and
take possession of the city: for the Lord your God will deliver it
into your hand. And it shall be, when ye have seized upon the city,
that ye shall set the city on fire; according to the word of the Lord
shall ye do: see, I have commanded you."

And Joshua sent them forth: and they went to the ambushment, and took
their place between Beth-el and Ai, on the west side of Ai: but Joshua
camped that night among the people.

And Joshua rose up early in the morning, and mustered the people, and
went up, he and the elders of Israel, before the people to Ai. And all
the people, even the men of war that were with him, went up, and drew
nigh, and came before the city, to the north side of Ai: now there was
a valley between him and Ai. And he took about five thousand men, and
set them in ambush between Beth-el and Ai, on the west side of the
city. So they set the people, even all the host that was on the north
of the city, and their liers in wait that were on the west of the
city; and Joshua went that night into the midst of the vale. And it
came to pass, when the king of Ai saw it, that they hasted and rose up
early, and the men of the city went out against Israel to battle, he
and all his people, at the time appointed, before the valley; but he
knew not that there was an ambush against him behind the city.

And Joshua and all Israel pretended that they were beaten before them,
and fled by the way of the {299} wilderness. And all the people that
were in the city were called together to pursue after them: and they
pursued after Joshua, and were drawn away from the city. And there was
not a man left in Ai or Beth-el, that went not out after Israel: and
they left the city open, and pursued after Israel. And the Lord said
unto Joshua, "Stretch out the javelin that is in thy hand toward Ai;
for I will give it into thine hand."

And Joshua stretched out the javelin that was in his hand toward the
city. And the ambush arose quickly out of their place, and they ran as
soon as he had stretched out his hand, and entered into the city, and
took it; and they hasted and set the city on fire. And when the men of
Ai looked behind them, they saw, and, behold, the smoke of the city
ascended up to heaven, and they had no power to flee this way or that
way: and the people that fled to the wilderness turned back upon the
pursuers. And when Joshua and all Israel saw that the ambush had taken
the city, and that the smoke of the city ascended, then they turned
again and slew the men of Ai. And the others came forth out of the
city against them; so they were in the midst of Israel, some on this
side, and some on that side: and they smote them, so that they let
none of them remain or escape.

And the king of Ai they took alive, and brought him to Joshua. And it
came to pass, when Israel had made an end of slaying all the
inhabitants of Ai in the field, in the wilderness wherein they pursued
them, and they were all fallen by the edge of the sword, until they
were {300} consumed, that all Israel returned unto Ai, and smote it
with the edge of the sword. And all that fell that day, both of men
and women, were twelve thousand, even all the men of Ai. For Joshua
drew not back his hand, wherewith he stretched out the javelin, until
he had utterly destroyed all the inhabitants of Ai. Only the cattle
and the spoil of that city Israel took for a prey to themselves,
according to the word of the Lord which he commanded Joshua. So Joshua
burnt Ai, and made it an heap for ever, even a desolation, unto this
day.


THE SUBMISSION OF GIBEON.

_How a Timid People Used a Successful Trick_.


And it came to pass, when all the kings which were beyond Jordan, in
the hill country, and in the lowland, and on all the shore of the
great sea in front of Lebanon, heard of this, they gathered themselves
together, to fight with Joshua and with Israel, with one accord.

But when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done unto
Jericho and to Ai, they were very cunning, and they pretended to be
ambassadors, and took old sacks upon their asses, and wine skins, old
and rent and bound up; and shoes old and patched upon their feet, and
old garments upon them; and all the bread of their provision was dry
and was become mouldy. And they went to Joshua to the camp at Gilgal,
and said to him, and to the men of Israel, "We are come from a far
country: now therefore make ye a covenant with us."

And the men of Israel said unto the Gibeonites, "Perhaps {301} ye
dwell among us; and how shall we make a covenant with you?"

And they said to Joshua, "We are thy servants."

And Joshua said to them, "Who are ye? and from whence come ye?"

And they said unto him, "From a very far country thy servants are come
because of the name of the Lord thy God: for we have heard the fame of
him, and all that he did in Egypt, and all that he did to the two
kings of the Amorites, that were beyond Jordan, to Sihon king of
Heshbon, and to Og king of Bashan. And our elders and all the
inhabitants of our country spoke to us, saying, 'Take provision in
your hand for the journey, and go to meet them, and say unto them, We
are your servants: and now make ye a covenant with us.' This bread we
took hot for our provision out of our houses on the day we came forth
to go to you; but now, behold, it is dry, and is become mouldy: and
these wine skins, which we filled, were new; and, behold, they are
rent: and these garments and our shoes are become old by reason of the
very long journey."

And the men took of their provision, and asked not counsel at the
mouth of the Lord.

And Joshua made peace with them, and made a covenant with them, to let
them live: and the princes of the congregation swore unto them. And it
came to pass at the end of three days after they had made a covenant
with them, that they heard that they were their neighbors, and that
they dwelt among them. And the children of Israel {302} journeyed, and
came to their cities on the third day. And the children of Israel
smote them not, because the princes of the host had sworn unto them by
the Lord, the God of Israel. And all the host murmured against the
princes. But all the princes said unto all the host, "We have sworn
unto them by the Lord, the God of Israel: now therefore we may not
touch them. This we will do to them, and let them live; lest wrath be
upon us, because of the oath which we swore unto them." And the
princes said unto them, "Let them live: so they become hewers of wood
and drawers of water to all the people;" as the princes had spoken
unto them.

And Joshua called for them, and he spoke unto them, saying, "Wherefore
have ye tricked us, saying, 'We are very far from you'; when ye dwell
among us? Now therefore ye are cursed, and there shall never fail to
be of you bondmen, both hewers of wood and drawers of water for the
house of my God."

And they answered Joshua, and said, "Because it was certainly told thy
servants how that the Lord thy God commanded his servant Moses to give
you all the land, and to destroy all the inhabitants of the land from
before you; therefore we were sore afraid for our lives because of
you, and have done this thing. And now, behold, we are in thine hand:
as it seemeth good and right unto thee to do to us, do."

And so did he to them, and delivered them out of the hand of the
children of Israel, that they slew them not. And Joshua made them that
day hewers of wood and drawers of water for the people, and for the
altar of the Lord, to this day, in the place which he should choose.

{303}{304}

[Illustration]
  A PORTION OF THE RIDGE BY WHICH THE ROAD RAN EASTWARD
  FROM UPPER BETH-HORON

  From a photograph taken by Prof. H. G. Mitchell
  and used by his kind permission.

  This road along the ridge was one of the important highways of the
  East. Throughout history we see hosts swarming up this avenue or
  swept down it in flight. Here Joshua fought his famous fight with
  the five kings. Here Judas Maccabaeus won a great battle with the
  Syrians (see Tales of the Maccabees, Vol. III.). Joshua in his battle
  drove the Canaanites over the ridge and then cut them to pieces in
  the ravine on the other side.
[End illustration]


{305}


THE BATTLE WITH THE FIVE KINGS.

_How Joshua Won a Great Fight_.


Now it came to pass, when Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem heard how
Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to
Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the
inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;
that they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, as one of
the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all the men
thereof were mighty. Wherefore Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem sent unto
Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia
king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying, "Come up to me,
and help me, and let us smite Gibeon: for it hath made peace with
Joshua and with the children of Israel."

Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the
king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, the king of
Eglon, gathered themselves together, and went up, they and all their
hosts, and encamped against Gibeon, and made war against it. And the
men of Gibeon sent unto Joshua to the camp to Gilgal, saying, "Desert
not thy servants; come up to us quickly, and save us, and help us: for
all the kings of the Amorites that dwell in the hill country are
gathered together against us."

So Joshua went up from Gilgal, he, and all the people {306} of war
with him, and all the mighty men of valor. And the Lord said to
Joshua, "Fear them not: for I have delivered them into thine hands;
there shall not a man of them stand before thee."

Joshua therefore came upon them suddenly; for he went up from Gilgal,
marching all the night. And the Lord discomfited them before Israel,
and he slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them by
the way of the ascent to Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and
unto Makkedah. And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel,
while they were in the descent of Beth-horon, that the Lord cast down
great hailstones from heaven upon them, and they died: they were more
who died with the hailstones than they whom the children of Israel
slew with the sword.

Then spoke Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up
the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight
of Israel,--

  "Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon;
  And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon."
  And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed,
  Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies.

Is not this written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stayed in the
midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. And
there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lord
hearkened unto the voice of a man: for the Lord fought for Israel.

{307}

And these five kings fled, and hid themselves in the cave at Makkedah.
And it was told Joshua, saying, "The five kings are found, hidden in
the cave at Makkedah." And Joshua said, "Roll great stones unto the
mouth of the cave, and set men by it to keep them: but stay not ye;
pursue after your enemies, and smite the hindmost of them; suffer them
not to enter into their cities: for the Lord your God hath delivered
them into your hand."

And it came to pass, when Joshua and the children of Israel had made
an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they were
consumed, and the remnant which remained of them had entered into the
fortified cities, that all the people returned to the camp to Joshua
at Makkedah in peace: none moved his tongue against any of the
children of Israel. Then said Joshua, "Open the mouth of the cave, and
bring forth those five kings to me out of the cave."

And they did so, and brought forth those five kings to him out of the
cave, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth,
the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon. And it came to pass, when they
brought forth those kings to Joshua, that Joshua called for all the
men of Israel, and said to the chiefs of the men of war which went
with him, "Come near, put your feet upon the necks of these kings."

And they came near, and put their feet upon the necks of them.

And Joshua said unto them, "Fear not, nor be {308} dismayed; be
strong and of good courage: for thus shall the Lord do to all your
enemies against whom ye fight."

And afterward Joshua smote them and put them to death, and hung them
on five trees: and they were hanging upon the trees until the evening.
And it came to pass at the time of the going down of the sun, that
Joshua commanded, and they took them down off the trees, and cast them
into the cave wherein they had hidden themselves, and laid great
stones on the mouth of the cave, to this very day.


THE LAST ADDRESSES OF JOSHUA TO THE PEOPLE.

_Words of Warning and Advice_.


And it came to pass after many days, when the Lord had given rest unto
Israel from all their enemies round about, and Joshua was old; that
Joshua called for all Israel, for their elders and for their heads,
and for their judges and for their officers, and said to them, "I am
old and well stricken in years: and we have seen all that the Lord
your God hath done unto all these nations because of you; for the Lord
your God, he it is that hath fought for you.

"Therefore be ye very courageous to keep and to do all that is written
in the book of the law of Moses, that ye turn not aside therefrom to
the right hand or to the left; that ye come not among these nations,
these that remain among you; neither make mention of the name of their
gods, nor cause to swear by them, neither serve them, nor bow down
yourselves to them; but be loyal to the Lord your God, as ye have done
unto this day.

{309}{310}

[Illustration]
  AN OLD TOMB AT TIMNEH, CALLED THE TOMB OF JOSHUA
  From a photograph of the Palestine Exploration Fund
  and used by special permission.

  This is a good example of the rock-hewn tombs of Palestine. It is
  tradition only which calls it the resting place of the great captain.
[End illustration]

{311}

"For the Lord hath driven out from before you great nations and
strong: but as for you, no man hath stood before you unto this day.
One man of you shall chase a thousand; for the Lord your God, he it is
that fighteth for you, as he spoke unto you. Take good heed therefore
unto yourselves, that ye love the Lord your God."

And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, and called
for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges,
and for their officers; and they presented themselves before God.

And Joshua said unto all the people, "Thus saith the Lord, the God of
Israel, 'Fear the Lord, and serve him in sincerity and in truth; and
put away the gods which your fathers served beyond the River, and in
Egypt; and serve ye the Lord.' And if it seem evil to you to serve the
Lord, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which
your fathers served that were beyond the River, or the gods of the
Amorites, in whose land ye dwell: but as for me and my house, we will
serve the Lord."

And the people answered and said, "Far be it from us that we should
forsake the Lord, to serve other gods; for the Lord our God, he it is
that brought us and our fathers up out of the land of Egypt, from the
house of bondage, and that did those great signs in our sight, and
preserved us in an the way wherein we went, and among all the peoples
through the midst of whom we passed; and the Lord drove out from
before us all the peoples, even the Amorites that dwelt in the land:
therefore we also will serve the Lord; for he is our God."

{312}

And Joshua said unto the people, "Ye are not able to serve the Lord;
for he is a holy God; he is a jealous God; he will not forgive your
transgression nor your sins. If ye forsake the Lord, and serve foreign
gods, then he will turn and do you evil, and consume you, after that
he hath done you good."

And the people said unto Joshua, "Nay; but we will serve the Lord."

And Joshua said unto the people, "Ye are witnesses against yourselves
that ye have chosen you the Lord, to serve him."

And they said, "We are witnesses."


THE DEATH OF JOSHUA.

_The Great Captain Is Laid at Rest_.


And after many years of fighting, and many victories, Joshua the son
of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being an hundred and ten years
old. And they buried him in the border of his inheritance in
Timnath-serah, which is in the hill country of Ephraim, on the north
of the mountain of Gaash. And Israel served the Lord all the days of
Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, and had
known all the work of the Lord, that he had wrought for Israel.

{313}

The Judges

After the death of Joshua there followed a long period of unrest and
fighting. The land was by no means conquered. Many times the
Israelites were opposed by the neighboring people, and all but wiped
out of existence. But each time a hero arose who overthrew the
oppressor, and became the leader or judge, as the office was called,
of the people. These leaders were not all of the highest character,
but they served to hold the nation together, and to preserve it from
extinction, during this period of trouble and unrest.


{314}

{315}


EHUD

The Story of the Young Man Who Killed a King.

And the children of Israel again did that which was evil in the sight
of the Lord: and the Lord strengthened Eglon the king of Moab against
Israel, because they had done that which was evil in the sight of the
Lord. And he gathered to him the children of Ammon and Amalek; and he
went and smote Israel, and they possessed the city of palm trees (that
is, Jericho). And the children of Israel served Eglon the king of Moab
eighteen years. But when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord,
the Lord raised them up a saviour, Ehud the son of Gera, the
Benjamite, a left-handed man: and the children of Israel sent a
present by him unto Eglon the king of Moab. And Ehud made him a sword
which had two edges, of a cubit length; and he girded it under his
raiment upon his right thigh. And he offered the present unto Eglon
king of Moab: now Eglon was a very fat man. And when he had made an
end of offering the present, he sent away the people that bore the
present. But he himself turned back from the quarries that were by
Gilgal, and said, "I have a secret errand unto thee, O king."

And he said, "Keep silence." And all that stood by him went out from
him. And Ehud came to him; and he was sitting by himself alone in his
summer room. {316} And Ehud said, "I have a message from God to thee."
And he arose out of his seat.

And Ehud put forth his left hand, and took the sword from his right
thigh, and thrust it into his body: and the haft also went in after
the blade; and the fat closed upon the blade, for he drew not the
sword out of his body; and it came out behind. Then Ehud went forth
into the porch, and shut the doors of the room upon him, and locked
them. Now when he was gone out, his servants came; and they saw, and,
behold, the doors of the room were locked.

And they tarried till they were ashamed: and, behold, he opened not
the doors of the room; therefore they took the key, and opened them:
and, behold, their lord was fallen down dead on the earth.

And Ehud escaped while they tarried, and passed beyond the quarries,
and escaped to Seirah.

And it came to pass, when he was come, that he blew a trumpet in the
hill country of Ephraim, and the children of Israel went down with him
from the hill country, and he before them. And he said unto them,
"Follow after me: for the Lord hath delivered your enemies the
Moabites into your hand."

And they went down after him, and took the fords of Jordan against the
Moabites, and suffered not a man to pass over. And they smote of Moab
at that time about ten thousand men, every strong man, and every man
of valor; and there escaped not a man. So Moab was subdued that day
under the hand of Israel. And the land had rest fourscore years.

{317}{318}

[Illustration]
  A CAMP IN THE DESERT
  The black tents of the Arabs on the desert sands.

  From a photograph belonging to Mr. S. E. Bridgman
  and used by his kind permission.

  "The Midianites came up with their cattle and their tents, they came
  in as locusts for multitude; both they and their camels were
  without number: and they came into the land to destroy it." This is
  no doubt just the way in which the camps of the Midianites looked
  in the old days when they raided the farms of the Israelites.
[End illustration]


{319}

GIDEON

_The Story of a Brave Man Who Freed His People from Oppression_.


(There was a time when every year one of the tribes of the desert
which lies south and east of Palestine raided the farms and pastures
of the Israelites, plundering and burning, and carrying off the crops
and herds.)


The Midianites came up with their cattle and their tents, they came in
as locusts for multitude; both they and their camels were without
number: and they came into the land to destroy it. And Israel was
brought very low because of Midian; and the children of Israel cried
unto the Lord.

And it came to pass, when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord
because of Midian, that the Lord sent a prophet to the children of
Israel: and he said unto them, "Thus saith the Lord, the God of
Israel, 'I brought you up from Egypt, and brought you forth out of the
house of bondage; and I delivered you out of the hand of the
Egyptians, and out of the hand of all that oppressed you, and drove
them out from before you, and gave you their land; and I said to you,
I am the Lord your God; ye shall not fear the gods of the Amorites, in
whose land ye dwell: but ye have not hearkened unto my voice.'"

And the angel of the Lord came, and sat under the {320} oak which was
in Ophrah, which was on the land of Joash the Abiezrite: and his son
Gideon was beating out wheat in the wine press, to hide it from the
Midianites. And the angel of the Lord appeared to him, and said to
him, "The Lord is with thee, thou mighty man of valor."

And Gideon said to him, "O my lord, if the Lord is with us, why then
is all this befallen us? and where are all his wondrous works of which
our fathers told us, saying, 'Did not the Lord bring us up from
Egypt?' but now the Lord hath cast us off, and delivered us into the
hand of Midian."

And the Lord looked upon him, and said, "Go in thy might, and save
Israel from the hand of Midian: have not I sent thee?"

And he said to him, "O Lord, wherewith shall I save Israel? behold, my
family is the poorest in Manasseh, and I am the least in my father's
house."

And the Lord said unto him, "Surely I will be with thee, and thou
shalt smite the Midianites as one man."

And he said unto him, "If now I have found grace in thy sight, then
show me a sign that it is thou that talkest with me. Depart not hence,
I pray thee, until I come to thee, and bring forth my present, and lay
it before thee."

And he said, "I will tarry until thou come again."

And Gideon went in, and made ready a kid, and unleavened cakes of an
ephah of meal: the flesh he put in a basket, and he put the broth in a
pot, and brought it out to him under the oak, and presented it. And
the angel of God said unto him, "Take the flesh and the unleavened
cakes, and lay them upon this rock, and pour out the broth."

{321}{322}

[Illustration]
  DESERT WARRIORS

  Riding thus on their camels the hosts of Midian came out of the
  desert like locusts and swarmed over the fair fields of Palestine.
[End illustration]

{323}

And he did so. Then the angel of the Lord put forth the end of the
staff that was in his hand, and touched the flesh and the unleavened
cakes; and there went up fire out of the rock, and consumed the flesh
and the unleavened cakes; and the angel of the Lord departed out of
his sight. And Gideon saw that he was the angel of the Lord; and
Gideon said, "Alas, O Lord God! because I have seen the angel of the
Lord face to face."

And the Lord said unto him, "Peace be to thee; fear not: thou shalt
not die."

Then Gideon built an altar there to the Lord, and called it "Jehovah
is Peace": to this day it is yet in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.

And it came to pass the same night, that the Lord said to him, "Take
thy father's bullock, and throw down the altar of Baal that thy father
hath, and cut down the pillar that is by it: and build an altar to the
Lord thy God upon the top of this stronghold, in the proper manner,
and take a bullock, and offer a burnt offering with the wood of the
pillar which thou shalt cut down." Then Gideon took ten men of his
servants, and did as the Lord had spoken to him: and it came to pass,
because he feared his father's household and the men of the city, so
that he dared not do it by day, that he did it by night. And when the
men of the city arose early in the morning, behold, the altar of Baal
was broken down, and the pillar was cut down that was by it, and the
bullock was offered upon {324} the altar that was built. And they said
one to another, "Who hath done this thing?" And when they inquired and
asked, they said, "Gideon the son of Joash hath done this thing."

Then the men of the city said to Joash, "Bring out thy son, that he
may die: because he hath broken down the altar of Baal, and because he
hath cut down the pillar that was by it."

And Joash said to all that stood against him, "Will ye plead for Baal?
or will ye save him? he that will plead for him, let him be put to
death whilst it is yet morning: if he be a god, let him plead for
himself, because one hath broken down his altar."

Therefore on that day he called him Jerubbaal, that is, "Let Baal
plead."


_How a Few Brave Men Saved the Nation_.

Then all the Midianites and the Amalekites and the children of the
east assembled themselves together; and they passed over, and camped
in the valley of Jezreel. But the spirit of the Lord came upon Gideon;
and he blew a trumpet; and the men of Abiezer were gathered together
after him. And he sent messengers throughout all Manasseh; and they
also were gathered together after him: and he sent messengers to
Asher, and to Zebulun, and to Naphtali; and they came up to meet them.
And Gideon said to God, "If thou wilt save Israel by mine hand, as
thou hast spoken, behold, I will put a fleece of wool on the
threshing-floor; if there be dew on the fleece only, and it {325} be
dry upon all the ground, then shall I know that thou wilt save Israel
by mine hand, as thou hast spoken."

And it was so: for he rose up early on the morrow, and pressed the
fleece together, and wrung the dew out of the fleece, a bowlful of
water.

And Gideon said to God, "Let not thine anger be kindled against me,
and I will speak but this once: let me prove, I pray thee, but this
once with the fleece; let it now be dry only upon the fleece, and upon
all the ground let there be dew."

And God did so that night: for it was dry upon the fleece only, and
there was dew on all the ground.

Then Jerubbaal (which is another name for Gideon), and all the people
that were with him, rose up early, and camped beside the spring of
Harod: and the camp of Midian was on the north side of them, by the
hill of Moreh, in the valley.

And the Lord said to Gideon, "The people that are with thee are too
many for me to give the Midianites into their hand, lest Israel boast
themselves against me, saying, 'Mine own hand hath saved me.' Now
therefore, proclaim in the ears of the people, saying, 'Whosoever is
fearful and trembling, let him return and depart from Mount Gilead.'"

And there returned of the people twenty and two thousand; and there
remained ten thousand.

And the Lord said to Gideon, "The people are yet too many; bring them
down unto the water, and I will try them for thee there: and it shall
be, that of whom I say {326} unto thee, 'These shall go with thee,'
the same shall go with thee; and of whomsoever I say unto thee, 'These
shall not go with thee,' the same shall not go."

So he brought down the people unto the water: and the Lord said unto
Gideon, "Everyone that lappeth of the water with his tongue, as a dog
lappeth, him shalt thou set by himself; likewise everyone that boweth
down upon his knees to drink."

And the number of them that lapped, putting their hand to their mouth,
was three hundred men: but all the rest of the people bowed down upon
their knees to drink water.

And the Lord said unto Gideon, "By the three hundred men that lapped
will I save you, and deliver the Midianites into thine hand: and let
all the people go every man to his place."

So the people took victuals in their hand, and their trumpets: and he
sent all the men of Israel every man to his tent, but retained the
three hundred men: and the camp of Midian was beneath him in the
valley.

And it came to pass the same night, that the Lord said to him, "Arise,
get thee down into the camp; for I have delivered it into thine hand.
But if thou fear to go down, go thou with Purah thy servant down to
the camp: and thou shalt hear what they say; and afterward shall thine
hands be strengthened to go down into the camp."


{327}{328}

[Illustration]
  THE PLAIN OF ESDRAELON

  From a photograph belonging to Prof. H. G. Mitchell
  and used by his kind permission.

  The plain of Esdraelon or Jezreel is one of the famous battle
  fields of the world's history. Lying in the heart of Palestine, the
  great highways of commerce come down through the hills and cross its
  level fields. Through it runs the little river Kishon. On the banks
  of this stream the hosts of Sisera were routed (see Tales of Brave
  Women, Vol. III). Here Gideon and his three hundred men swept before
  them the hordes of Midian in the panic of the night attack. Here
  began the battle between Saul and the Philistines which ended in the
  death of the king, whose force had been pushed back to the height of
  Gilboa (see The Great Kings in this volume). Here King Josiah was
  mortally wounded in his fatal fight with the armies of Egypt (see
  The Story of a Divided Kingdom, Vol. III). Through its fertile
  fields in all ages of history the armies of the great kingdoms of
  the East have marched to battle and conquest
[End illustration]

{329}

Then went he down with Purah his servant to the outermost part of the
armed men that were in the camp. And the Midianites and the Amalekites
and all the children of the east lay along in the valley like locusts
for multitude; and their camels were without number, as the sand which
is upon the sea shore for multitude. And when Gideon was come, behold,
there was a man that told a dream to his fellow, and said, "Behold, I
dreamed a dream, and, lo, a cake of barley bread tumbled into the camp
of Midian, and came to the tent, and smote it that it fell, and turned
it upside down, that the tent lay flat."

And his fellow answered and said, "This is nothing else save the sword
of Gideon the son of Joash, a man of Israel: into his hand God hath
delivered Midian, and all the host."

And when Gideon heard the telling of the dream, and the interpretation
thereof, he worshiped; and returned into the camp of Israel, and said,
"Arise; for the Lord hath delivered into your hand the host of
Midian."

And he divided the three hundred men into three companies, and he put
into the hands of all of them trumpets, and empty pitchers, with
torches within the pitchers. And he said to them, "Look on me, and do
likewise: and, behold, when I come to the outermost part of the camp,
it shall be that, as I do, so shall ye do. When I blow the trumpet, I
and all that are with me, then blow ye the trumpets also on every side
of all the camp, and say,--

  "'For the Lord and for Gideon.'"

So Gideon, and the hundred men that were with him, came unto the
outermost part of the camp in the beginning of the middle watch, when
they had but newly set {330} the watch: and they blew the trumpets,
and broke in pieces the pitchers that were in their hands. And the
three companies blew the trumpets, and broke the pitchers, and held
the torches in their left hands, and the trumpets in their right hands
to blow wherewith: and they cried, "The sword of the Lord and of
Gideon."

And they stood every man in his place round about the camp: and all
the host ran; and they shouted, and put them to flight. And they blew
the three hundred trumpets, and the Lord set every man's sword against
his fellow, and against all the host: and the host fled in confusion.
And the men of Israel were gathered together out of Naphtali, and out
of Asher, and out of all Manasseh, and pursued after Midian. And
Gideon sent messengers throughout all the hill country of Ephraim,
saying, "Come down against Midian, and hold the fords as far as the
fords of Jordan." So all the men of Ephraim were gathered together,
and held the fords as far as the fords of Jordan. And they took the
two princes of Midian, Oreb and Zeeb; and they slew Oreb at the rock
of Oreb, and Zeeb they slew at the wine press of Zeeb, and pursued
Midian: and they brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon beyond
Jordan.

Then the men of Israel said unto Gideon, "Rule thou over us, both
thou, and thy son, and thy son's son also: for thou hast saved us out
of the hand of Midian."

And Gideon said unto them, "I will not rule over you, neither shall my
son rule over you: the Lord shall rule over you."

{331}

So Midian was subdued before the children of Israel, and they lifted
up their heads no more. And the land had rest forty years in the days
of Gideon.

And Gideon the son of Joash died in a good old age, and was buried in
the sepulcher of Joash his father, in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.


{332}

ABIMELECH

_The Story of the Sons of Gideon, and the Evil Which Befell Them_.


ABIMELECH SEIZES THE LEADERSHIP.


(This is the first of the bloody conflicts for leadership in Hebrew
history, so common after the kingdom was established. Abimelech, the
son of Gideon, whose mother was a woman of Shechem and a servant,
killed all the other children but Jotham, and died himself in battle
after a brief period of supremacy.)


And Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem to his mother's
brethren, and spoke with them, and with all the family of the house of
his mother's father, saying, "Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all
the men of Shechem, 'Which is better for you, that all the sons of
Jerubbaal, who are threescore and ten persons, rule over you, or that
one rule over you? remember also that I am your bone and your flesh.'"

And his mother's brethren spoke of him in the ears of all the men of
Shechem all these words: and their hearts inclined to follow Abimelech;
for they said, "He is our brother." And they gave him threescore and ten
pieces of silver, wherewith Abimelech hired vain and light fellows, who
followed him. And he went unto his father's house at Ophrah, and slew
his brethren the sons of {333} Jerubbaal, being threescore and ten
persons, upon one stone: but Jotham the youngest son of Jerubbaal was
left; for he hid himself.


AN OLD FABLE.

(This is one of the earliest of those stories called fables in which
animals or trees or other things not living are represented as
speaking and acting like living persons. Such stories were
usually told to teach some lesson.)


And all the men of Shechem assembled themselves together, and all the
house of Millo, and went and made Abimelech king, by the oak of the
pillar that was in Shechem. And when they told it to Jotham, he went
and stood in the top of mount Gerizim, and lifted up his voice, and
cried, and said unto them, "Hearken unto me, ye men of Shechem, that
God may hearken unto you. The trees went forth on a time to anoint a
king over them; and they said unto the olive tree, 'Reign thou over
us.' But the olive tree said unto them, 'Should I leave my fatness,
wherewith by me they honor God and man, and go to wave to and fro over
the trees?' And the trees said to the fig tree, 'Come thou, and reign
over us.' But the fig tree said unto them, 'Should I leave my
sweetness, and my good fruit, and go to wave to and fro over the
trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come thou, and reign over
us.' And the vine said unto them, 'Should I leave my wine, which
cheereth God and man, and go to wave to and fro over the trees?' Then
said all the trees to the bramble, 'Come thou, and reign over us.' And
the bramble {334} said to the trees, 'If in truth ye anoint me king
over you, then come and put your trust in my shadow: and if not, let
fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon.'

"Now therefore, if ye have dealt truly and uprightly, in that ye have
made Abimelech king, and if ye have dealt well with Jerubbaal and his
house, and have done to him according to the deserving of his hands;
(for my father fought for you, and adventured his life, and delivered
you out of the hand of Midian: and ye are risen up against my father's
house this day, and have slain his sons, threescore and ten persons,
upon one stone, and have made Abimelech, the son of his maid-servant,
king over the men of Shechem, because he is your brother;) if ye then
have dealt truly and uprightly with Jerubbaal and with his house this
day, then rejoice ye in Abimelech, and let him also rejoice in you:
but if not, let fire come out from Abimelech, and devour the men of
Shechem, and the house of Millo; and let fire come out from the men of
Shechem, and from the house of Millo, and devour Abimelech." And
Jotham ran away, and fled, for fear of Abimelech his brother.


THE FATE OF ABIMELECH.

_After Several Years of Uneasy Rule Abimelech Met His Fate
at the Hands of His Enemies_.


And it was told Abimelech that all the men of the tower of Shechem
were gathered together. And Abimelech went up to mount Zalmon, he and
all the people that were with him; and Abimelech took an axe in his
hand, and cut down a bough from the trees, and took it up, and laid it
on his shoulder: and he said to the people that were with him, "What
ye have seen me do, make haste, and do as I have done."

{335}{336}

[Illustration]
  SHECHEM

  In the time of the Judges, Shechem was known as the City of
  Abimelech. The people of the town first made him king and then
  revolted against him. Afterward he captured the city and utterly
  destroyed it
[End illustration]

{337}

And all the people likewise cut down every man his bough, and followed
Abimelech, and put them about the tower, and set the hold on fire upon
them; so that all the men of the tower of Shechem died also, about a
thousand men and women.

Then went Abimelech to Thebez, and encamped against Thebez, and took
it. But there was a strong tower within the city, and thither fled all
the men and women, and all they of the city, and shut themselves in,
and went up to the roof of the tower. And Abimelech came unto the
tower, and fought against it, and went close under the door of the
tower to burn it with fire. And a certain woman cast an upper
millstone upon Abimelech's head, and broke his skull. Then he called
hastily unto the young man his armor-bearer, and said unto him, "Draw
thy sword, and kill me, that men say not of me, 'A woman slew him.'"

And his young man thrust him through, and he died.

And when the men of Israel saw that Abimelech was dead, they departed
every man unto his place.

{338}

SAMUEL

_The Story of a Man Who Began to Do Right When He Was a Boy, and Who
Never Departed from the Way in Which He Began_.


(Samuel is one of the finest characters in the Old Testament. In the
midst of evil times, and in contact with evil men, he never departed
from the strict way of truth and righteousness and service to God.
Samuel was fortunate in having an excellent mother. She dedicated her
son to God, and gave him very early to the service of God. She loved
him very much, and no doubt missed him very much from the home. Every
year she went to see him, and brought him a little coat which she had
made.

"But Samuel ministered before the Lord, being a child. Moreover his
mother made him a little robe, and brought it to him from year to
year, when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly
sacrifice.")


HOW SAMUEL LEARNED TO OBEY THE VOICE OF GOD.

And the child Samuel ministered to the Lord before Eli. And the word
of the Lord was precious in those days; there was no open vision. And
it came to pass at that time, when Eli was laid down in his place (now
his eyes had begun to grow dim, so that he could not see), and the
lamp of God was not yet gone out, and Samuel was laid down to sleep,
in the temple of the Lord, where the ark of God was; that the Lord
called Samuel: and he said, "Here am I."

{339}{340}

[Illustration]
  SOURCES OF THE JORDAN. THE ANCIENT DAN

  Dan was a city on the northern boundary of Palestine, and Beer-sheba
  was a city on the southern boundary, so there came to be a national
  saying "from Dan to Beer-sheba," to indicate the whole kingdom. "And
  all Israel from Dan even to Beer-sheba knew that Samuel was
  established to be a prophet of the Lord." The picture is taken near
  the supposed site of the ancient city at the point where a great
  spring bursting forth forms the principal source of the Jordan river.
[End illustration]

{341}

And he ran to Eli, and said, "Here am I; for thou calledst me."

And he said, "I called not; lie down again."

And he went and lay down. And the Lord called yet again, "Samuel."

And Samuel arose and went to Eli, and said, "Here am I; for thou
calledst me."

And he answered, "I called not, my son; lie down again."

Now Samuel did not yet know the Lord, neither was the word of the Lord
yet revealed to him. And the Lord called Samuel again the third time.
And he arose and went to Eli, and said, "Here am I; for thou calledst.
me."

And Eli perceived that the Lord had called the child.

Therefore Eli said to Samuel, "Go, lie down: and it shall be, if he
call thee, that thou shalt say, 'Speak, Lord; for thy servant
heareth.'"

So Samuel went and lay down in his place. And the Lord came, and
stood, and called as at other times, "Samuel, Samuel."

Then Samuel said, "Speak; for thy servant heareth." And the Lord said,
"Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of
everyone that heareth it shall tingle. In that day I will perform
against Eli all that I have spoken concerning his house, from the
beginning even unto the end. For I have told him that I will judge
{342} his house for ever, for the iniquity which he knew, because his
sons did bring a curse upon themselves, and he restrained them not.
And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of
Eli's house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering for ever."

And Samuel lay until the morning, and opened the doors of the house of
the Lord. And Samuel feared to show Eli the vision. Then Eli called
Samuel, and said, "Samuel, my son."

And he said, "Here am I."

And he said, "What is the thing that the Lord hath spoken unto thee? I
pray thee hide it not from me: God do so to thee, and more also, if
thou hide anything from me of all the things that he spoke unto thee."

And Samuel told him every word, and hid nothing from him. And he said,
"It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good."

And Samuel grew, and the Lord was with him, and let none of his words
fall to the ground. And all Israel from Dan even to Beer-sheba knew
that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the Lord.


HOW THE WICKEDNESS OF THE LEADERS BROUGHT SORE DEFEAT UPON ISRAEL AND
HOW ELI DIED WHEN HE HEARD THE NEWS.


Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and camped
beside Eben-ezer: and the Philistines camped in Aphek. And the
Philistines put themselves in array against Israel: and when they
joined battle, Israel was smitten before the Philistines: and they
slew of the army in the field about four thousand men.

{343}{344}

[Illustration]
  THE RUINS OF SHILOH (SEILUN), FROM THE NORTHEAST
  Used by special permission of the Palestine Exploration Fund.

  The mound is covered with foundations, heaps of stones, and walls.

  "And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and came to Shiloh
  the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head."
  Shiloh was one of the principal sanctuaries of Israel throughout the
  time of the Judges. Here the ark was kept, and here Eli was living
  when the man of Benjamin came out of the fatal fight to tell Eli
  that his sons were slain and the Ark of God was taken by the
  Philistines.
[End illustration]

{345}

And when the people were come into the camp, the elders of Israel
said, "Wherefore hath the Lord smitten us to-day before the
Philistines? Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of the Lord out of
Shiloh unto us, that it may come among us, and save us out of the hand
of our enemies."

So the people sent to Shiloh, and they brought from thence the ark of
the covenant of the Lord of hosts, which sitteth upon the cherubim:
and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark
of the covenant of God. And when the ark of the covenant of the Lord
came into the camp, all Israel shouted with a great shout, so that the
earth rang again. And when the Philistines heard the noise of the
shout, they said, "What meaneth the noise of this great shout in the
camp of the Hebrews?"

And they understood that the ark of the Lord was come into the camp.
And the Philistines were afraid, for they said, "God is come into the
camp." And they said, "Woe unto us! for there hath not been such a
thing heretofore. Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out of the hand of
these mighty gods? these are the gods that smote the Egyptians with
all manner of plagues in the wilderness. Be strong, and quit
yourselves like men, O ye Philistines, that ye be not servants unto
the Hebrews, as they have been to you: quit yourselves like men, and
fight."

And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled
every man to his tent: and there was a very {346} great slaughter; for
there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen. And the ark of God was
taken; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain. And
there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and came to Shiloh the
same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head. And when
he came, lo, Eli sat upon his seat by the wayside watching: for his
heart trembled for the ark of God. And when the man came into the
city, and told it, all the city cried out. And when Eli heard the
noise of the crying, he said, "What meaneth the noise of this tumult?"

And the man hasted, and came and told Eli. Now Eli was ninety and
eight years old; and his eyes were set, that he could not see.

And the man said unto Eli, "I am he that came out of the army, and I
fled to-day out of the army."

And he said, "How went the matter, my son?"

And he that brought the tidings answered and said, "Israel is fled
before the Philistines, and there hath been also a great slaughter
among the people, and thy two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, are
dead, and the ark of God is taken."

And it came to pass, when he made mention of the ark of God, that he
fell from off his seat backward by the side of the gate, and his neck
broke, and he died: for he was an old man, and heavy. And he had
judged Israel forty years.

{347}

The Great Kings

After the judges came the kings. There were many kings in Israel's
history, but the first three were really the greatest. Saul was the
founder of the kingdom, a mighty king in spite of his faults. David made
the nation great because he was great himself. Solomon by his wisdom and
skill raised Israel to such wealth and splendor as it never had before
or after.

{348}

{349}

SAUL

_The Story of the Farmer Who Became King_.

(Samuel was the last and the best of the Judges of Israel. He
conquered the Philistines, and for many years the land had peace. He
was a "circuit judge," going from district to district. As he grew old
he attempted to put his sons in his place, but they were not like
their father. They took bribes and did that which was evil. Then the
people demanded a king. How Samuel at first resisted, but at last
yielded and anointed Saul as king, is told in the following story.)


THE PEOPLE DEMAND A KING TO RULE OVER THEM.

_Samuel Warns Them of the Dangers of a Kingdom_.

After a great victory over the Philistines, Samuel took a stone, and
set it between Mizpah and Shen, and called the name of it Eben-ezer
(that is, the stone of help), saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped
us."

So the Philistines were subdued, and they came no more within the
border of Israel: and the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines
all the days of Samuel.

And Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life. And he went from
year to year in circuit to Beth-el, and Gilgal, and Mizpah; and he
judged Israel in all those places. And his return was to Ramah, for
there was his house; and there he judged Israel: and he built there an
altar unto the Lord.

{350}

And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he made his sons judges
over Israel. Now the name of his firstborn was Joel; and the name of
his second, Abijah: they were judges in Beer-sheba. And his sons
walked not in his ways, but turned aside after money, and took bribes,
and perverted judgment.

Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came
to Samuel unto Ramah: and they said to him, "Behold, thou art old, and
thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all
the nations."

But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, "Give us a king to
judge us."

And Samuel prayed unto the Lord. And the Lord said unto Samuel,
"Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee:
for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I
should not be king over them. According to all the works which they
have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt even to
this day, in that they have forsaken me, and served other gods, so do
they also to thee. Now therefore hearken to their voice: howbeit thou
shalt protest solemnly to them, and shalt show them the manner of the
king that shall reign over them."

And Samuel told all the words of the Lord unto the people that asked
of him a king. And he said, "This will be the manner of the king that
shall reign over you: he will take your sons, and appoint them unto
him, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and they shall run
before {351} his chariots: and he will appoint them for captains of
thousands, and captains of fifties; and he will set some to plow his
ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war,
and the instruments of his chariots. And he will take your daughters
to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be bakers. And he will
take your fields, and your vineyards, and your oliveyards, even the
best of them, and give them to his servants. And he will take the
tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers,
and to his servants. And he will take your menservants, and your
maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put
them to his work. He will take the tenth of your flocks: and ye shall
be his servants. And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king
which ye shall have chosen you; and the Lord will not answer you in
that day."

But the people refused to hearken to the voice of Samuel; and they
said, "Nay; but we will have a king over us; that we also may be like
all the nations; and that our king may judge us, and go out before us,
and fight our battles."

And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and he repeated them in
the ears of the Lord. And the Lord said to Samuel, "Hearken to their
voice, and make them a king."

And Samuel said to the men of Israel, "Go ye every man unto his city."


{352}

THE TALL SON OF KISH IS CHOSEN.

_Saul Is Secretly Anointed by Samuel to Be King_.


Now there was a man of Benjamin, whose name was Kish, a Benjamite, a
mighty man of valor. And he had a son whose name was Saul, a young man
and a goodly: and there was not among the children of Israel a
goodlier person than he: from his shoulders and upward he was higher
than any of the people. And the asses of Kish Saul's father were lost.
And Kish said to Saul his son, "Take now one of the servants with
thee, and arise, go seek the asses."

And he passed through the hill country of Ephraim, but they found them
not: and he passed through the land of the Benjamites, but they found
them not. When they were come to the land of Zuph, Saul said to his
servant that was with him, "Come and let us return; lest my father
stop caring for the asses, and be anxious for us."

And he said to him, "Behold now, there is in this city a man of God,
and he is a man who is held in honor; all that he saith cometh surely
to pass: now let us go thither; peradventure he can tell us concerning
our journey whereon we go."

Then said Saul to his servant, "But, behold, if we go, what shall we
bring the man? for the bread is spent in our vessels, and there is not
a present to bring to the man of God: what have we?" And the servant
answered Saul again, and said, "Behold, I have in my hand the fourth
part of a shekel of silver: that will I give to the man of God, to
tell us our way."

{353}

Then said Saul to his servant, "Well said; come, let us go."

So they went unto the city where the man of God was. As they went up
the ascent to the city, they found young maidens going out to draw
water, and said to them, "Is the seer here?"

And they answered them and said, "He is; behold, he is before thee:
make haste now, for he is come to-day into the city; for the people
have a sacrifice to-day in the high place: as soon as ye are come into
the city, ye shall straightway find him, before he goes up to the high
place to eat: for the people will not eat until he come, because he
doth bless the sacrifice; and afterwards those eat who are bidden. Now
therefore get you up; for at this time ye shall find him."

And they went up to the city; and as they came within the city,
behold, Samuel came out toward them to go up to the high place.

Now the Lord had revealed to Samuel a day before Saul came, saying,
"To-morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of
Benjamin, and thou shalt anoint him to be prince over my people
Israel, and he shall save my people out of the hand of the
Philistines: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is
come unto me."

And when Samuel saw Saul, the Lord said to him, "Behold the man of
whom I spoke to thee! this same shall have authority over my people."

Then Saul drew near to Samuel in the gate, and said. "Tell me, I pray
thee, where the seer's house is."

{354}

And Samuel answered Saul, and said, "I am the seer; go up before me
unto the high place, for ye shall eat with me to-day: and in the
morning I will let thee go, and will tell all that is in thine heart.
And as for thine asses that were lost three days ago, set not thy mind
on them; for they are found. And for whom is all that is desirable in
Israel? Is it not for thee, and for all thy father's house?"

And Saul answered and said, "Am not I a Benjamite, of the smallest of
the tribes of Israel? and my family the least of all the families of
the tribe of Benjamin? wherefore then speakest thou to me after this
manner?"

And Samuel took Saul and his servant and brought them into the guest
chamber, and made them sit in the chiefest place among those who were
bidden, who were about thirty persons. And Samuel said to the cook,
"Bring the portion which I gave thee, of which I said to thee, 'Set it
by thee.'"

And the cook took up the shoulder, and that which was upon it, and set
it before Saul. And Samuel said, "Behold that which hath been
reserved! set it before thee and eat; because to the appointed time
hath it been kept for thee, for I said, 'I have invited the people.'"

So Saul did eat with Samuel that day. And when they were come down
from the high place into the city, he communed with Saul upon the
housetop.

And they arose early: and it came to pass about the dawning of the
day, that Samuel called to Saul on the housetop, saying, "Up, that I
may send thee away."


{355}{356}

[Illustration]
  THE ANCIENT MIZPAH, LOOKING FROM THE SOUTH.
  It is situated on a high hill to the northwest of Jerusalem.
  From a photograph taken by Prof. H. G. Mitchell,
  and used by his kind permission.

  There were many places in Palestine called Mizpah, "watch tower,"
  but it seems probable that the location shown in the picture was the
  site of Samuel's home.
[End illustration]


{357}

And Saul arose, and they went out both of them, he and Samuel, abroad.
As they were going down at the end of the city, Samuel said to Saul,
"Bid the servant pass on before us" (and he passed on), "but stand
thou still that I may cause thee to hear the word of God."

Then Samuel took the vial of oil, and poured it upon his head, and
kissed him, and said, "Is it not that the Lord hath anointed thee to
be prince over his inheritance?" And Saul departed from Samuel.

And when Saul reached home his uncle said to him and to his servant,
"Whither went ye?" And he said, "To seek the asses: and when we saw
that they were not found, we came to Samuel."

And Saul's uncle said, "Tell me, I pray thee, what Samuel said to
you." And Saul said to his uncle, "He told us plainly that the asses
were found." But concerning the matter of the kingdom, whereof Samuel
spoke, he told him not.


SAUL IS PUBLICLY PROCLAIMED KING.

"_God Save the King!_"


And Samuel called the people together to the Lord to Mizpah; and he
said to the children of Israel, "Thus saith the Lord, the God of
Israel, I brought up Israel out of Egypt, and I delivered you out of
the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of all the kingdoms
that oppressed you: but ye have this day rejected your God, who
himself saveth you out of all your calamities and your distresses; and
ye have said to him, 'Nay, but set a king over us.' Now {358}
therefore present yourselves before the Lord by your tribes, and by
your thousands."

So Samuel brought all the tribes of Israel near, and the tribe of
Benjamin was chosen. And he brought the tribe of Benjamin near by
their families, and the family of the Matrites was chosen: and Saul
the son of Kish was chosen; but when they sought him, he could not be
found. Therefore they asked of the Lord further, "Is the man yet come
hither?"

And the Lord answered, "Behold, he hath hid himself in the camp."

And they ran and fetched him thence; and when he stood among the
people, he was higher than any of the people from his shoulders and
upward. And Samuel said to all the people, "See ye him whom the Lord
hath chosen, that there is none like him among all the people?"

And all the people shouted, and said,--

  "God save the king!"

Then Samuel told the people the manner of the kingdom, and wrote it in
a book, and laid it up before the Lord. And Samuel sent all the people
away, every man to his house. And Saul also went to his house to
Gibeah; and there went with him the host, whose hearts God had
touched.

But certain worthless fellows said, "How shall this man save us?"

And they despised him, and brought him no present. But he held his
peace.


{359}

SAUL IS TRIED AND IS NOT FOUND WANTING.

_The First Battle of the New King_.

Then Nahash the Ammonite came up, and encamped against Jabesh-gilead:
and all the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, "Make a covenant with us,
and we will serve thee."

And Nahash the Ammonite said unto them, "On this condition will I make
it with you, that all your right eyes be put out; and I will lay it
for a reproach upon all Israel."

And the elders of Jabesh said to him, "Give us seven days' respite,
that we may send messengers to all the borders of Israel: and then, if
there be none to save us, we will come out to thee."

Then came the messengers to Gibeah of Saul, and spoke these words in
the ears of the people: and all the people lifted up their voice, and
wept. And, behold, Saul came following the oxen out of the field; and
Saul said, "What aileth the people that they weep?"

And they told him the words of the men of Jabesh. And the spirit of
God came mightily upon Saul when he heard those words, and his anger
was kindled greatly. And he took a yoke of oxen, and cut them in
pieces, and sent them throughout all the borders of Israel by the hand
of messengers, saying, "Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and
after Samuel, so shall it be done to his oxen."

And the dread of the Lord fell on the people, and they came out as one
man. And he numbered them in Bezek; and the children of Israel were
three hundred thousand, and the men of Judah thirty thousand. And they
said {360} to the messengers that came, "Thus shall ye say unto the
men of Jabesh-gilead, 'To-morrow, by the time the sun is hot, ye shall
have deliverance.'"

And the messengers came and told the men of Jabesh; and they were
glad. Therefore the men of Jabesh said, "To-morrow we will come out
unto you, and ye shall do with us all that seemeth good unto you."

And it was so on the morrow, that Saul put the people in three
companies; and they came into the midst of the camp in the morning
watch, and smote the Ammonites until the heat of day: and it came to
pass, that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them
were not left together.

And the people said to Samuel, "Who is he that said, 'Shall Saul reign
over us?' bring the men, that we may put them to death."

And Saul said, "There shall not a man be put to death this day: for
to-day the Lord hath wrought deliverance in Israel."


SAUL THE WARRIOR.

_Battles and Victories_.

Saul was thirty years old when he began to reign; and he reigned two
years over Israel. And Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel;
whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in the mount of
Beth-el, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and
the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent. And Jonathan
smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the
Philistines heard of it. And Saul {361} blew the trumpet throughout
all the land, saying, "Let the Hebrews hear." And all Israel heard
that Saul had smitten the garrison of the Philistines, and that Israel
also was held in abomination by the Philistines. And the people were
gathered together after Saul to Gilgal.

And the Philistines assembled themselves together to fight with
Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and
people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude: and they
came up and pitched in Michmash, eastward of Beth-aven. When the men
of Israel saw that they were in a strait (for the people were
distressed), then the people hid themselves in caves, and in thickets,
and in rocks, and in holds, and in pits. Now some of the Hebrews had
gone over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead; but as for Saul, he
was yet in Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.

And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had
appointed: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people were
scattered from him. And Saul said, "Bring hither the burnt offering to
me, and the peace offerings." And he offered the burnt offering. And
it came to pass that, as soon as he had made an end of offering the
burnt offering, behold, Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet him,
that he might salute him. And Samuel said, "What hast thou done?" And
Saul said, "Because I saw that the people were scattered from me, and
that thou earnest not within the days appointed, and that the
Philistines assembled themselves together at Michmash; therefore said
I, 'Now will the Philistines come {362} down upon me to Gilgal, and I
have not intreated the favor of the Lord': I forced myself therefore
to do it, and offered the burnt offering."

And Samuel said to Saul, "Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept
the commandment of the Lord thy God, which he commanded thee: for now
would the Lord have established thy kingdom upon Israel forever. But now
thy kingdom shall not continue: the Lord hath sought him a man after his
own heart, and the Lord hath appointed him to be prince over his people,
because thou hast not kept that which the Lord commanded thee."

And Samuel arose, and went up from Gilgal to Gibeah of Benjamin. And
Saul numbered the people that were present with him, about six hundred
men. And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were present
with them, abode in Geba of Benjamin: but the Philistines encamped in
Michmash. And bands of the Philistines came out and ravaged the
country all about.

Now there was no blacksmith found throughout all the land of Israel:
for the Philistines said, "There shall be no blacksmith, lest the
Hebrews make them swords or spears": but all the Israelites went down
to the Philistines, to sharpen their axes and ploughshares and other
tools.

So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword
nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with Saul
and Jonathan; except in the hands of Saul and Jonathan his son. And
the garrison of the Philistines went out unto the pass of Michmash.



{363}{364}

[Illustration]
  THE VALLEY OF AIJALON

  "Throughout history we see hosts swarming up this avenue or swept
  down it in flight. Joshua drove the Canaanites down this valley.
  Down Aijalon the early men of Ephraim and Benjamin raided the
  Philistines. Up Aijalon the Philistines swarmed to the very heart of
  Israel's territory at Michmash, disarmed the Israelites, and forced
  them to come down the vale to get their tools sharpened, so that the
  mouth of the vale was called the 'Valley of the Smiths,' even till
  after the Exile. Down Aijalon Saul and Jonathan beat the Philistines
  from Michmash."   --_George Adam Smith_

  David also fought in Aijalon, and in 66 A. D., a Roman army suffered
  a terrible defeat in the valley.
[End illustration]

{365}

Now it fell upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said unto the
young man who bore his armor, "Come and let us go over to the
Philistines' garrison, that is on yonder side."

But he told not his father. And Saul abode in the uttermost part of
Gibeah under the pomegranate tree which is in Migron: and the people
that were with him were about six hundred men. And the people knew not
that Jonathan was gone. And between the passes, by which Jonathan
sought to go over unto the Philistines' garrison, there was a rocky
crag on the one side, and a rocky crag on the other side. The one crag
rose up on the north in front of Michmash, and the other on the south
in front of Geba. And Jonathan said to the young man that bore his
armor, "Come and let us go over unto the garrison of the Philistines:
it may be that the Lord will work for us: for there is no reason why
the Lord cannot save by many or by few."

And his armorbearer said to him, "Do all that is in thine heart: turn
thee, behold I am with thee according to thy wish." Then said
Jonathan, "Behold, we will pass over to the men, and we will show
ourselves to them. If they say thus unto us, 'Tarry until we come to
you'; then we will stand still in our place, and will not go up to
them. But if they say thus, 'Come up to us'; then we will go up: for
the Lord hath delivered them into our hand: and this shall be the sign
to us."

And both of them showed themselves to the garrison of the Philistines:
and the Philistines said, "Behold, the Hebrews come forth out of the
holes where they had hid {366} themselves." And the men of the
garrison answered Jonathan and his armorbearer, and said, "Come up to
us, and we will show you something."

And Jonathan said to his armorbearer, "Come up after me: for the Lord
hath delivered them into the hand of Israel."

And Jonathan climbed up upon his hands and upon his feet, and his
armorbearer after him: and they fell before Jonathan; and his
armorbearer slew them after him. And that first slaughter, which
Jonathan and his armorbearer made, was about twenty men, within an
acre of land. And there was a trembling in the camp, in the field, and
among all the people. And the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of Benjamin
looked; and, behold, the multitude melted away, and they went hither
and thither.

Then said Saul to the people that were with him, "Number now, and see
who is gone from us."

And when they had numbered, behold, Jonathan and his armorbearer were
not there. And Saul said to Ahijah, "Bring hither the ark of God."

For the ark of God was there at that time with the children of Israel.
And it came to pass, while Saul talked unto the priest, that the
tumult that was in the camp of the Philistines went on and increased:
and Saul said to the priest, "Withdraw thine hand."

And Saul and all the people that were with him were gathered together,
and came to the battle: and, behold, every man's sword was against his
fellow, and there was a very great rout. Now the Hebrews that were
with the {367} Philistines as beforetime, which went up with them into
the camp from the country round about; even they also turned to be
with the Israelites that were with Saul and Jonathan. Likewise all the
men of Israel which had hid themselves in the hill country of Ephraim,
when they heard that the Philistines fled, even they also followed
hard after them in the battle.

So the Lord saved Israel that day: and the battle passed over by
Beth-aven. And the men of Israel were distressed that day: but Saul
commanded the people, saying, "Cursed be the man that eateth any food
until it be evening, and I be avenged on mine enemies." So none of the
people tasted food. And all the people came into the forest; and there
was honey upon the ground. And when the people were come unto the
forest, behold, the honey dropped: but no man ate any; for the people
feared the oath. But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the
people with the oath: wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that
was in his hand, and dipped it in the honeycomb, and ate it; and he
was strengthened. Then said one of the people, "Thy father straitly
charged the people with an oath, saying, "Cursed be the man that
eateth food this day."

And the people were faint. Then said Jonathan, "My father hath
troubled the land: see, I pray you, how I have been strengthened,
because I tasted a little of this honey. How much more, if the people
had eaten freely to-day of the spoil of their enemies which they
found? for now hath there been no great slaughter among the
Philistines."

{368}

And they smote of the Philistines that day from Michmash to Aijalon:
and the people were very faint. And the people flew upon the spoil,
and took sheep, and oxen, and calves, and slew them on the ground: and
the people did eat them with the blood. Then they told Saul, saying,
"Behold, the people sin against the Lord, in that they eat with the
blood." And he said, "Ye have dealt treacherously: roll a great stone
to me this day."

And Saul said, "Disperse yourselves among the people, and say to them,
'Bring me hither every man his ox, and every man his sheep, and slay
them here, and eat; and sin not against the Lord in eating with the
blood.'"

And all the people brought every man his ox with him that night, and
slew them there. And Saul built an altar unto the Lord: the same was
the first altar that he built to the Lord.

And Saul said, "Let us go down after the Philistines by night, and
fight them until the morning light, and let us not leave a man of
them."

And they said, "Do whatsoever seemeth good unto thee." Then said the
priest, "Let us draw near hither to God."

And Saul asked counsel of God, "Shall I go down after the Philistines?
wilt thou deliver them into the hand of Israel?"

But he answered him not that day. And Saul said, "Draw nigh hither,
all ye chiefs of the people: and know and see wherein this sin hath
been this day. For as the Lord liveth, who saveth Israel, though it be
in Jonathan {369} my son, he shall surely die." But there was not a
man among all the people that answered him.

Then said he unto all Israel, "Be ye on one side, and I and Jonathan
my son will be on the other side."

And the people said to Saul, "Do what seemeth good to thee."

Therefore Saul said to the Lord, the God of Israel, "Show the right."

And Jonathan and Saul were chosen by lot: but the people escaped.

And Saul said, "Cast lots between me and Jonathan my son." And
Jonathan was chosen.

Then Saul said to Jonathan, "Tell me what thou hast done."

And Jonathan told him, and said, "I did certainly taste a little honey
with the end of the rod that was in mine hand; and, lo, I must die."

And Saul said, "God do so and more also: for thou shalt surely die,
Jonathan."

And the people said to Saul, "Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought
this great salvation in Israel? God forbid: as the Lord liveth, there
shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground; for he hath wrought
with God this day."

So the people rescued Jonathan, that he died not.

Then Saul went up from following the Philistines: and the Philistines
went to their own place.

Now when Saul had taken the kingdom over Israel, he fought against all
his enemies on every side, against Moab, and against the children of
Ammon, and against Edom, {370} and against the kings of Zobah, and
against the Philistines: and whithersoever he went he defeated them.


THE DISOBEDIENCE OF SAUL.

"_To Obey Is Better than Sacrifice._"


And Samuel said to Saul, "The Lord sent me to anoint thee to be king
over his people, over Israel: now therefore hearken thou to the voice
of the words of the Lord. Thus saith the Lord of hosts, 'I have marked
that which Amalek did to Israel, how he set himself against him in the
way, when he came up out of Egypt. Now go and smite Amalek, and
utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both
man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.'"

And Saul summoned the people, and numbered them in Telaim, two hundred
thousand footmen, and ten thousand men of Judah. And Saul came to the
city of Amalek, and laid wait in the valley. And Saul said unto the
Kenites, "Go, depart, get you down from among the Amalekites, lest I
destroy you with them: for ye showed kindness to all the children of
Israel, when they came up out of Egypt."

So the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites, and Saul smote the
Amalekites and defeated them. And he took Agag the king of the
Amalekites alive, and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge
of the sword. But Saul and the people spared Agag, and the best of the
sheep, and of the oxen, and of the fatlings, and the lambs, and all
that was good, and would not utterly destroy them: but everything that
was useless and refuse, that they destroyed utterly. .

{371}

[Illustration]
  RUINS OF A ROMAN BRIDGE AT BETH-SHAN, OVER WHICH THE
  ROAD TO GADARA PASSED

  Used by special permission of the Palestine Exploration Fund.

  After the battle of Gilboa the bodies of Saul and his sons were
  found on the field by the Philistines and carried to the town of
  Beth-shan and fastened to the wall. But the men of Jabesh-Gilead
  heard of this indignity to the dead, and making a night march
  removed the bodies.
[End illustration]

{373}

Then came the word of the Lord unto Samuel, saying, "It repenteth me
that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned back from
following me, and hath not performed my commandments."

And Samuel was wroth; and he cried to the Lord all night. And Samuel
rose early to meet Saul in the morning; and it was told Samuel,
saying, "Saul came to Carmel, and, behold, he set him up a monument,
and is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to Gilgal." And Samuel
came to Saul: and Saul said to him, "Blessed be thou of the Lord: I
have performed the commandment of the Lord."

And Samuel said, "What meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine
ears, and the lowing of the oxen which I hear?"

And Saul said, "They have brought them from the Amalekites: for the
people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen, to sacrifice to
the Lord thy God; and the rest we have utterly destroyed."

Then Samuel said to Saul, "Stay, and I will tell thee what the Lord
hath said to me this night."

And he said unto him, "Say on."

And Samuel said, "Though thou wast little in thine own sight, wast
thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel? And the Lord anointed
thee king over Israel; and the Lord sent thee on a journey, and said,
'Go and utterly destroy the sinners the Amalekites, and fight against
them until they be consumed.' Wherefore then didst thou not obey {374}
the voice of the Lord, but didst fly upon the spoil, and didst that
which was evil in the sight of the Lord?"

And Saul said unto Samuel, "Yea, I have obeyed the voice of the Lord,
and have gone the way which the Lord sent me, and have brought Agag
the king of Amalek, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites. But the
people took of the spoil, sheep and oxen, the chief of the devoted
things, to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God in Gilgal."

And Samuel said, "Hath the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings
and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold,--

   "To obey is better than sacrifice,
   and to harken than the fat of rams."

"For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as
idolatry and image worship. Because thou hast rejected the word of the
Lord, he hath also rejected thee from being king."

And Saul said to Samuel, "I have sinned: for I have transgressed the
commandment of the Lord, and thy words: because I feared the people,
and obeyed their voice. Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin, and
turn again with me, that I may worship the Lord."

And Samuel said to Saul, "I will not return with thee: for thou hast
rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord hath rejected thee from
being king over Israel."

And as Samuel turned about to go away, he laid hold upon the skirt of
his robe, and it rent. And Samuel said to him, "The Lord hath rent the
kingdom of Israel from {375} thee this day, and hath given it to a
neighbor of thine, that is better than thou. And also the Strength of
Israel will not lie nor repent: for he is not a man, that he should
repent."

Then he said, "I have sinned: yet honor me now, I pray thee, before
the elders of my people, and before Israel; and turn again with me,
that I may worship the Lord thy God."

So Samuel turned again after Saul; and Saul worshiped the Lord.

Then said Samuel, "Bring ye hither to me Agag the king of the
Amalekites." And Agag came unto him cheerfully. And Agag said, "Surely
the bitterness of death is past."

And Samuel said, "As thy sword hath made women childless, so shall thy
mother be childless among women."

And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal.

Then Samuel went to Ramah; and Saul went up to his house to Gibeah of
Saul. And Samuel came no more to see Saul until the day of his death;
for Samuel mourned for Saul: and the Lord repented that he had made
Saul king over Israel.


THE DOWNFALL OF THE KING.

"_God is Departed from Me_."


(For some time after this Saul continued to be king over Israel, but
he had many troubles. These troubles made him sad {376} and
despondent, so that often the people thought him insane. At last war
broke out again with the fierce and powerful Philistines, who lived on
the plains to the west of the hill-country which was the home of the
Israelites. Saul was very much discouraged at the beginning of this
war. The story of what he did, and how he died at last like a hero on
the battle-field, is as follows.)


Now Samuel was dead, and all Israel had lamented him, and buried him
in Ramah, even in his own city. And Saul had put away those that had
familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land. And the
Philistines gathered themselves together, and came and camped in
Shunem: and Saul gathered all Israel together, and they camped in
Gilboa. And when Saul saw the host of the Philistines, he was afraid,
and his heart trembled greatly. And when Saul inquired of the Lord,
the Lord answered him not.

Then said Saul to his servants, "Seek me a woman that hath a familiar
spirit, that I may go to her, and inquire of her."

And his servants said to him, "Behold, there is a woman that hath a
familiar spirit at En-dor."

And Saul disguised himself and put on other raiment, and went, he and
two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said,
"Divine unto me, I pray thee, by the familiar spirit, and bring me up
whomsoever I shall name unto thee."

And the woman said unto him, "Behold, thou knowest what Saul hath
done, how he hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, and the
wizards, out of the land: wherefore then layest thou a snare for my
life, to cause me to die?"

{377}{378}

[Illustration]
  EN-DOR

  This was where the great king came at night, in despair, to consult
  the woman "with the familiar spirit."
[End illustration]

{379}

And Saul swore to her by the Lord, saying, "As the Lord liveth, there
shall no punishment happen to thee for this thing."

Then said the woman, "Whom shall I bring up unto thee?"

And he said, "Bring me up Samuel."

And when the woman saw Samuel, she cried with a loud voice: and the
woman spoke to Saul, saying, "Why hast thou deceived me? for thou art
Saul."

And the king said to her, "Be not afraid: for what seest thou?"

And the woman said to Saul, "I see one like a god coming up out of the
earth."

And he said unto her, "What form is he of?"

And she said, "An old man cometh up; and he is covered with a robe."

And Saul perceived that it was Samuel, and he bowed with his face to
the ground, and did obeisance. And Samuel said to Saul, "Why hast thou
disquieted me, to bring me up?"

And Saul answered, "I am sore distressed; for the Philistines make war
against me, and God is departed from me, and answereth me no more,
neither by prophets, nor by dreams: therefore I have called thee, that
thou mayest make known to me what I shall do."

And Samuel said, "Wherefore dost thou ask of me, seeing the Lord is
departed from thee, and is become thine {380} adversary? And the Lord
hath done unto thee as he spoke by me: and the Lord hath rent the
kingdom out of thine hand, and given it to thy neighbor, even to
David. Because thou obeyedst not the voice of the Lord, and didst not
execute his fierce wrath upon Amalek, therefore hath the Lord done
this thing unto thee this day. Moreover the Lord will deliver Israel
also with thee into the hand of the Philistines: and to-morrow shalt
thou and thy sons be with me: the Lord shall deliver the host of
Israel also into the hand of the Philistines."

Then Saul fell straightway his full length upon the earth, and was
sore afraid, because of the words of Samuel; and there was no strength
in him; for he had eaten no food all the day, nor all the night.


THE FATAL FIELD OF GILBOA.

_The Tide of Battle Rolls Over King Saul and His Sons_.

Now the Philistines fought against Israel: and the men of Israel fled
from before the Philistines, and fell down slain in Mount Gilboa. And
the Philistines followed hard upon Saul, and upon his sons; and the
Philistines slew Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchi-shua, the sons of
Saul. And the battle went sore against Saul, and the archers overtook
him; and he was greatly distressed by reason of the archers.

Then said Saul to his armorbearer, "Draw thy sword, and thrust me
through therewith; lest the Philistines come and thrust me through,
and maltreat me."

{381}

But his armorbearer would not; for he was sore afraid. Therefore Saul
took his sword and fell upon it.

And when his armorbearer saw that Saul was dead, he likewise fell upon
his sword, and died with him. So Saul died, and his three sons, and
his armorbearer, and all his men, that same day together. And when the
men of Israel that were on the other side of the valley, and they that
were beyond Jordan, saw that the men of Israel fled, and that Saul and
his sons were dead, they forsook the cities, and fled; and the
Philistines came and dwelt in them.

And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines came to strip
the slain, that they found Saul and his three sons fallen in Mount
Gilboa. And they cut off his head, and stripped off his armor, and
sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to carry the
tidings unto the house of their idols, and to the people. And they put
his armor in the house of the god Ashtaroth: and they fastened his
body to the wall of Beth-shan. And when the inhabitants of
Jabesh-gilead heard what the Philistines had done to Saul, all the
valiant men arose, and went all night, and took the body of Saul and
the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan; and they came to
Jabesh, and burnt them there. And they took their bones and buried
them under the tamarisk tree in Jabesh, and fasted seven days.

{382}

DAVID

_The Story of the Shepherd Boy Who Became King_.

THE SHEPHERD LAD OF BETHLEHEM.

_Samuel Secretly Anoints David as the Future King of Israel_.

(After Samuel had said to Saul that God wanted no king who would not
do exactly as he said, he himself became very sad, because he loved
Saul.)

But the Lord said to Samuel, "How long wilt thou mourn for Saul,
seeing I have rejected him from being king over Israel? fill thine
horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Beth-lehemite:
for I have provided me a king among his sons."

And Samuel said, "How can I go? if Saul hear it, he will kill me."

And the Lord said, "Take an heifer with thee, and say, 'I am come to
sacrifice to the Lord.' And call Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will
show thee what thou shalt do: and thou shalt anoint to me him whom I
name to thee."

And Samuel did that which the Lord spoke, and came
to Beth-lehem. And the elders of the city came to meet
him trembling, and said, "earnest thou peaceably?"

And he said, "Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice to the Lord: sanctify
yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice." And he sanctified
Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice.

{383}{384}

[Illustration]
  DAVID

  This is the head of the great statue of David in Florence, carved by
  the most famous of all sculptors, Michael Angelo. The story is that
  the great sculptor took a piece of marble partly spoiled by another
  man, and carved this wonderful statue out of it. The statue shows
  the young shepherd with his sling, ready for the conflict with the
  giant.
[End illustration]

{385}

And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eliab, and
said, "Surely the Lord's anointed is before him."

But the Lord said unto Samuel, "Look not on his countenance, or on the
height of his stature; because I have rejected him: for the Lord seeth
not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the
Lord looketh on the heart."

Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made him pass before Samuel. And he
said, "Neither hath the Lord chosen this."

Then Jesse made Shammah to pass by. And he said, "Neither hath the
Lord chosen this."

And Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel
said unto Jesse, "The Lord hath not chosen these."

And Samuel said unto Jesse, "Are here all thy children?"

And he said, "There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he
keepeth the sheep."

And Samuel said unto Jesse, "Send and fetch him: for we will not sit
down till he come hither."

And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a
beautiful countenance, and goodly to look upon. And the Lord said,
"Arise, anoint him; for this is he."

Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him {386} in the midst
of his brethren: and the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon David
from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.


DAVID AND GOLIATH.

_How a Giant Was Killed by a Stone from a Shepherd's Sling_.


Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle. And Saul
and the men of Israel were gathered together, and camped in the vale
of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines. And the
Philistines stood on the mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on
the mountain on the other side: and there was a valley between them.

And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines,
named Goliath of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. And he
had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was clad with a coat of
mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.
And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a javelin of brass
between his shoulders. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's
beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and
his shieldbearer went before him. And he stood and cried to the armies
of Israel, and said to them, "Why are ye come out to set your battle
in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a
man for you, and let him come down to me. If he be able to fight with
me, and kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail
against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve
us."

{387}{388}

[Illustration]
  SCENE OF THE FIGHT BETWEEN DAVID AND GOLIATH IN THE VALLEY OF ELAH

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.

  "It is the very battlefield for those ancient foes. Israel in one of
  the gateways to her mountain land; the Philistines on the low hills
  they so often overran; and between them the great valley. The
  Philistines were probably on the hill of Sochoh.

  "Sochoh is a strong position isolated from the rest of the ridge,
  and it keeps open the line of retreat down the valley. Saul's army
  was probably not immediately opposite, but a little way up on the
  slopes of the incoming Wady el Jindy, and so placed that the
  Philistines, in attacking it, must cross not only the level land and
  the main stream, but one of the two other streams as well, and must
  also climb the slopes for some distance. Both positions were thus
  very strong, and this fact perhaps explains the long hesitation of
  the armies in face of each other, even though the Philistines had
  the advantage of Goliath. The Israelite position certainly looks the
  stronger. It is interesting, too, that from its rear the narrow pass
  goes right up to the interior of the land near Bethlehem; so that
  the shepherd boy, whom the story represents as being sent by his
  father for news of the battle, would have almost twelve miles to
  cover between his father's house and the camp"
[End illustration]

{389}

And the Philistine said, "I defy the armies of Israel this day; give
me a man, that we may fight together."

And when Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they
were dismayed, and greatly afraid.

Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehem-judah, whose
name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man was an old man in
the days of Saul. And the three eldest sons of Jesse had gone after
Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons that went to the
battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the
third Shammah. And David was the youngest: and the three eldest
followed Saul.

And Jesse said to David his son, "Take now for thy brethren an ephah
of this parched corn, and these ten loaves, and carry them quickly to
the camp to thy brethren; and bring these ten cheeses unto the captain
of their thousand; and look how thy brethren fare, and bring back some
token of their welfare."

Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, were in the vale of
Elah, fighting with the Philistines. And David rose up early in the
morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took the presents and
went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the barricade of
wagons, as the host which was going forth to the fight shouted for the
battle. And Israel and the Philistines put the battle in array, army
against army. And David left the presents he had brought in the hand
of the keeper of the baggage, and ran to the army, and came and
saluted his brethren. And as he talked with them, behold, there {390}
came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of
the ranks of the Philistines, and spoke as before: and David heard
him. And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him,
and were sore afraid. And the men of Israel said, "Have ye seen this
man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up, and it shall
be that the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great
riches, and will give him his daughter in marriage, and make his
father's house free in Israel."

And David spoke to the men that stood by him, saying, "What shall be
done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the
reproach from Israel? for who is this Philistine, that he should defy
the armies of the living God?"

And the people answered him after this manner, saying, "So shall it be
done to the man that killeth him."

And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spoke unto the men; and
Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, "Why art thou
come down? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the
wilderness? I know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart; for
thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle."

And David said, "What have I done now? I have only asked a question."

And he turned away from him toward another, and spoke after the same
manner: and the people answered him again in the same way. And when
the words were heard which David spoke, they rehearsed them before
Saul; and he sent for him. And David said to Saul, "Let no {391} man's
heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this
Philistine."

And Saul said to David, "Thou art not able to go against this
Philistine to fight with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man
of war from his youth."

And David said to Saul, "Thy servant kept his father's sheep; and when
there came a lion, or a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock, I went
out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and
when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him,
and slew him. Thy servant smote both the lion and the bear: and this
Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies
of the living God." And David said, "The Lord that delivered me out of
the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver
me out of the hand of this Philistine."

And Saul said to David, "Go, and the Lord shall be with thee."

And Saul clad David with his own garments, and he put an helmet of
brass upon his head, and he clad him with a coat of mail. And David
girded on his sword. But David said to Saul, "I cannot go with these;
for I have not proved them."

And David put them off him. And he took his staff in his hand, and
chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in the
shepherd's bag which he had, and his sling was in his hand: and he
drew near to the Philistine. And the Philistine came on and drew near
to David; and the man that bore the shield went before him. And when
{392} the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he despised him: for
he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance. And the
Philistine said to David, "Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with
staves?"

And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. And the Philistine said
to David, "Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the
air, and to the beasts of the field."

Then said David to the Philistine, "Thou comest to me with a sword,
and with a spear, and with a javelin: but I come to thee in the name
of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast
defied. This day will the Lord deliver thee into mine hand; and I will
smite thee, and take thine head from off thee; and I will give the
carcases of the host of the Philistines this day to the fowls of the
air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know
that there is a God in Israel: and that all this host may know that
the Lord saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the
Lord's, and he will give you into our hand."

And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh
to meet David, that David hastened, and ran toward the army to meet
the Philistine. And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a
stone, and slung it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead; and the
stone sank into his forehead, and he fell upon his face to the earth.
So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone,
and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the
hand of David. Then {393} David ran, and stood over the Philistine,
and took his sword and drew it out of its sheath, and slew him, and
cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw that their
champion was dead, they fled. And the men of Israel and of Judah
arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, to the gates of
Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way. And
the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines,
and they plundered their camp. And David took the head of the
Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armor in his
tent.

And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto
Abner, the captain of the host, "Abner, whose son is this youth?"

And Abner said, "As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell."

And the king said, "Inquire thou whose son the stripling is."

And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took
him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in
his hand. And Saul said to him, "Whose son art thou, young man?"

And David answered, "I am the son of thy servant Jesse the
Beth-lehemite."

And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul,
that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and
Jonathan loved him as his own soul.

And Saul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his
father's house. Then Jonathan and {394} David made a covenant, because
he loved him as his own soul. And Jonathan stripped himself of the
robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his apparel, even to
his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle. And David went out
whithersoever Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set
him over the men of war, and it was good in the sight of all the
people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.

{395}

SAUL AND DAVID

  Deep was the furrow in the royal brow,
  When David's hand, lightly as vernal gales
  Rippling the brook of Kedron, skimm'd the lyre:
  He sung of Jacob's youngest born,--the child
  Of his old age,--sold to the Ishmaelite;
  His exaltation to the second power
  In Pharaoh's realm; his brethren thither sent;
  Suppliant they stood before his face, well known,
  Unknowing,--till Joseph fell upon the neck
  Of Benjamin, his mother's son, and wept.
  Unconsciously the warlike shepherd paused;
  But when he saw, down the yet quivering string,
  The tear-drop trembling glide, abash'd, he check'd,
  Indignant at himself, the bursting flood,
  And, with a sweep impetuous, struck the chords:
  From side to side his hands transversely glance,
  Like lightning 'thwart a stormy sea; his voice
  Arises 'mid the clang, and straightway calms
  Th' harmonious tempest, to a solemn swell
  Majestical, triumphant; for he sings
  Of Arad's mighty host by Israel's arm
  Subdued; of Israel through the desert led
  He sings; of him who was their leader, call'd
  By God himself, from keeping Jethro's flock,
  To be a ruler o'er the chosen race.
  Kindles the eye of Saul; his arm is poised,
  Harmless the javelin quivers in the wall.

{396}

THE JEALOUSY OF SAUL.


_How Saul Was Jealous of David and Hated Him, and How
Jonathan Loved Him_.


And it came to pass as they came, when David returned from the
slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities
of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul, with timbrels, with
joy, and with instruments of music. And the women sang one to another
in their play, and said,--

  "Saul hath slain his thousands,
  And David his ten thousands."

And Saul was very wroth, and this saying displeased him; and he said,
"They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have
ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the kingdom?"

And Saul eyed David jealously from that day and forward.

And it came to pass on the morrow, that an evil spirit from God came
mightily upon Saul, and he raved in the midst of the house: and David
played upon his harp, as he did day by day: and Saul had his spear in
his hand. And Saul cast the spear; for he said, "I will smite David
even to the wall."

And David escaped from his presence twice. And Saul was afraid of
David, because the Lord was with him, and was departed from Saul.
Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a
thousand; and he went out and came in before the people. And David
behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the Lord was with him.

{397}{398}

[Illustration]
  THE VALLEY OF THE KIDRON, IN THE WILDERNESS OF JUDEA.

  The building on the left is the convent of Mar Saba.

  Used by special permission of the Palestine Exploration Fund

  The "Wilderness of Judaea" is a wonderful place. Much of it is not a
  wilderness at all in our understanding of the term. It is, on its
  western edge at least, just a wild pasture land. But it was a very
  wild, desolate, and solitary place. The shepherd who kept his flocks
  there was in danger from the wild beasts and from raids of fierce
  robbers. Below the pasture land it is wilderness indeed. The land
  breaks off abruptly and falls in crag and precipice down to the very
  shores of the Dead Sea. "You cannot live in Judaea without being
  daily aware of the presence of the awful deep which bounds it on the
  east. From Beth-lehem and other points you look down into that deep,
  and you feel Judaea rising from it about you almost as a sailor
  feels his narrow deck."
[End illustration]

{399}

And when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely, he stood in awe
of him. But all Israel and Judah loved David; for he went out and came
in before them.

And Saul spoke to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they
should slay David. But Jonathan Saul's son delighted much in David.
And Jonathan told David, saying, "Saul my father seeketh to slay thee:
now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself in the morning, and
abide in a secret place, and hide thyself: and I will go out and stand
beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will talk with my
father of thee; and if I see aught, I will tell thee."

And Jonathan spoke good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto
him, "Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because
he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been very
good toward thee; for he put his life in his hand, and smote the
Philistine, and the Lord wrought a great victory for all Israel: thou
sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against
innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?"

And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul swore, "As the
Lord liveth, he shall not be put to death."

And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan showed him all those things.
And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence, as
before.

And there was war again: and David went out, and fought with the
Philistines, and slew them with a great {400} slaughter; and they fled
before him. And an evil spirit from the Lord was upon Saul, as he sat
in his house with his spear in his hand; and David played upon his
harp. And Saul sought to smite David even to the wall with the spear;
but he slipped away out of Saul's presence, and he struck the spear
into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night.

And David came and said to Jonathan, "What have I done? what is mine
iniquity? and what is my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my
life?"

And he said, "God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father doeth
nothing either great or small, but that he discloseth it unto me: and
why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so."

And David swore moreover, and said, "Thy father knoweth well that I
have found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, 'Let not Jonathan know
this, lest he be grieved': but truly as the Lord liveth, and as thy
soul liveth, there is but a step between me and death."

Then said Jonathan to David, "Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will
even do it for thee."

And David said to Jonathan, "Behold, to-morrow is the new moon, and I
should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I
may hide myself in the field until the third day at even. If thy
father miss me at all, then say, 'David earnestly asked leave of me
that he might run to Beth-lehem his city: for it is the yearly
sacrifice there for all the family.' If he say thus, 'It is well'; thy
servant shall have peace: but if he be wroth, then know {401} that
evil is determined by him. Therefore deal kindly with thy servant; for
thou hast brought thy servant into a covenant of the Lord with thee:
but if there be in me iniquity, slay me thyself; for why shouldest
thou bring me to thy father?"

And Jonathan said, "Far be it from thee: for if I should at all know
that evil were determined by my father to come upon thee, then would
not I tell it thee?"

Then said David to Jonathan, "Who shall tell me if perchance thy
father answer thee roughly?"

And Jonathan said to David, "Come and let us go out into the field."
And they went out both of them into the field.

And Jonathan said to David, "The Lord, the God of Israel, be witness;
when I have sounded my father about this time to-morrow, or the third
day, behold, if there be good toward David, shall I not then send unto
thee, and disclose it unto thee? The Lord do so to Jonathan, and more
also, should it please my father to do thee evil, if I disclose it not
unto thee, and send thee away, that thou mayest go in peace: and the
Lord be with thee, as he hath been with my father. And thou shalt not
only while yet I live show me the kindness of the Lord, that I die
not: but also thou shalt not cut off thy kindness from my house for
ever: no, not when the Lord hath cut off the enemies of David everyone
from the face of the earth."

So Jonathan made a covenant with David.

And Jonathan caused David to swear again, for the love that he had to
him: for he loved him as he loved his {402} own soul. Then Jonathan
said to him, "To-morrow is the feast of the new moon: and thou shalt
be missed, because thy seat will be empty. And when thou hast stayed
three days, thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where
thou didst hide thyself before. And I will shoot three arrows, as
though I shot at a mark. And, behold, I will send the lad, saying,
'Go, find the arrows.' If I say to the lad, 'Behold, the arrows are on
this side of thee: take them,' then come; for there is peace to thee
and no hurt, as the Lord liveth. But if I say thus to the boy,
'Behold, the arrows are beyond thee': go thy way; for the Lord hath
sent thee away. And as touching the matter which thou and I have
spoken of, behold, the Lord is between thee and me for ever."

So David hid himself in the field: and when the feast of the new moon
was come, the king sat down to eat. And the king sat upon his seat, as
at other times, even upon the seat by the wall; and Jonathan stood up,
and Abner sat by Saul's side: but David's place was empty.
Nevertheless Saul spoke not anything that day: for he thought,
"Something hath befallen him." And it came to pass on the morrow after
the new moon, which was the second day, that David's place was empty:
and Saul said to Jonathan his son, "Wherefore cometh not the son of
Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to-day?"

And Jonathan answered Saul, "David earnestly asked leave of me to go
to Beth-lehem: and he said, 'Let me go, I pray thee; for our family
hath a sacrifice in the city; and my brother, he hath commanded me to
be there: and now, if I have found favor in thine eyes, let me get
away, I pray thee, and see my brethren.' Therefore he is not come unto
the king's table."

{403}{404}

[Illustration]
  RUINS OF THE FORTRESS OF MASSADA, WILDERNESS OF JUDAEA

  This is another picture of a portion of the "Wilderness of Judaea."
  It is easy to see how David, who was thoroughly familiar with the
  country, could hide himself and his men safely from pursuit during
  the time in which he was an outlaw and a fugitive from the king.

  This fortress was the scene of a terrible siege and massacre in 70
  A. D., after the fall of Jerusalem. About a thousand men, women, and
  children fled to this place. The Romans followed and in spite of
  almost insurmountable difficulties besieged the place. Driven to the
  last extremity, the defenders killed the women and children and then
  themselves. Only two women and five children survived
[End illustration]

{405}

Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said, "Do not I
know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own shame? For as
long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be
stablished, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me,
for he shall surely die."

And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said to him, "Wherefore
should he be put to death? what hath he done?"

And Saul cast his spear at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew
that it was determined of his father to put David to death. So
Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did eat no meat the
second day of the month: for he was grieved for David, because his
father had done him shame.

And it came to pass in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the
field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him. And
he said to his lad, "Run, find now the arrows which I shoot."

And as the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him.

And when the lad was come to the place of the arrow which Jonathan had
shot, Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, "Is not the arrow beyond
thee?"

And Jonathan cried after the lad, "Make speed, haste, stay not."

And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came {406} to his
master. But the lad knew not anything: only Jonathan and David knew
the matter. And Jonathan gave his weapons to his lad, and said unto
him, "Go, carry them to the city."

And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of his hiding place,
and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and
they kissed one another, and wept one with another. And Jonathan said
to David, "Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the
name of the Lord, saying, 'The Lord shall be between me and thee, and
between my family and thy family, for ever.'"

And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city.


DAVID AN OUTLAW.

_How He Showed Mercy to His Enemy_.

(After this David became a fugitive from the king, who pursued him and
tried to kill him. David gathered a band of followers and for a time
lived as an outlaw, hiding in caves, plundering farms, living from
hand to mouth. Several times he had the king in his power, but each
time he allowed him to escape. This is the story of one of these
adventures.)


And the Ziphites came to Saul to Gibeah, saying, "Doth not David hide
himself in the hill of Hachilah, which is before the desert?"

Then Saul arose, and went down to the wilderness of Ziph, having three
thousand chosen men of Israel with him, to seek David in the
wilderness of Ziph. And Saul encamped in the hill of Hachilah, which
is before the {407} desert. But David abode in the wilderness, and he
saw that Saul came after him into the wilderness. David therefore sent
out spies, and understood that Saul was certainly come. And David
arose, and came to the place where Saul had encamped: and David beheld
the place where Saul lay, and Abner the son of Ner, the captain of his
host: and Saul lay within the barricade of the wagons, and the people
were encamped round about him. Then said David, "Who will go down with
me to Saul to the camp?"

And Abishai said, "I will go down with thee."

So David and Abishai came to the people by night: and, behold, Saul
lay sleeping within the barricade of the wagons, with his spear stuck
in the ground at his head: and Abner and the people lay round about
him. Then said Abishai to David, "God hath delivered up thine enemy
into thine hand this day: now therefore let me smite him, I pray thee,
with the spear to the earth at one stroke, and I will not need to
smite him the second time."

And David said to Abishai, "Destroy him not: for who can put forth his
hand against the Lord's anointed, and be guiltless?"

And David said, "As the Lord liveth, the Lord shall smite him; or his
day shall come to die; or he shall go down into the battle, and
perish. The Lord forbid that I should put forth mine hand against the
Lord's anointed: but now take, I pray thee, the spear that is at his
head, and the jar of water, and let us go."

So David took the spear and the jar of water from Saul's {408} head;
and they went away, and no man saw it, nor knew it, neither did any
awake: for they were all asleep; because a deep sleep from the Lord
was fallen upon them. Then David went over to the other side, and
stood on the top of the mountain afar off; a great space being between
them: and David cried to the people, and to Abner the son of Ner,
saying, "Answerest thou not, Abner?"

Then Abner answered and said, "Who art thou that criest to the king?"

And David said to Abner, "Art not thou a valiant man? and who is like
to thee in Israel? wherefore then hast thou not kept watch over thy
lord the king? for there came one of the people in to destroy the king
thy lord. This thing is not good that thou hast done. As the Lord
liveth, ye are worthy to die, because ye have not kept watch over your
lord, the Lord's anointed. And now, see where the king's spear is, and
the jar of water that was at his head."

And Saul knew David's voice, and said, "Is this thy voice, my son
David?"

And David said, "It is my voice, my lord, O king." And he said,
"Wherefore doth my lord pursue after his servant? for what have I
done? or what evil is in mine hand? Now therefore, I pray thee, let my
lord the king hear the words of his servant. If it be the Lord that
hath stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering: but if it
be the children of men, cursed be they before the Lord; for they have
driven me out this day that I should not cleave to the inheritance of
the Lord, saying, 'Go, serve other gods.'

{409}{410}

[Illustration]
  A SHEPHERD NEAR DAVID'S HOUSE LEADING HIS FLOCK OVER THE JUDEAN
  HILLS.

  Copyright by Underwood & Underwood and used by special permission.
[End illustration]


  The principal business and the greatest interest of the people in
  the hill country of Judea was connected with the flocks.

  "If, as we have seen, the prevailing character of Judaea be
  pastoral, with husbandry only incidental to her life, it is not
  surprising that the forms which have impressed both her history and
  her religion upon the world should be those of the pastoral habit.
  Her origin; more than once her freedom and power of political
  recuperation; more than once her prophecy; her images of God, and
  her sweetest poetry of the spiritual life, have been derived from
  this source. It is the stateliest shepherds of all time whom the
  dawn of history reveals upon her fields--men not sprung from her own
  remote conditions, nor confined to them, but moving across the world
  in converse with great empires, and bringing down from heaven truths
  sublime and universal to wed with the simple habits of her life.
  These were the patriarchs of the nation. The founder of its one
  dynasty, and the first of its literary prophets, were also taken
  from following the flocks. The king and every true leader of men was
  called a shepherd. Jehovah was the Shepherd of His people, and they
  the sheep of His pasture. It was in Judaea that Christ called
  Himself the Good Shepherd, as it was in Judaea also that, taking the
  other great feature of her life, He said He was the True Vine."
[End illustration]

{411}

Now therefore, let not my blood fall to the earth away from the
presence of the Lord: for the king of Israel is come out to seek a
flea, as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains."

Then said Saul, "I have sinned: return, my son David: for I will no
more do thee harm, because my life was precious in thine eyes this
day: behold, I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly."

And David answered and said, "Behold the spear, O king! let then one
of the young men come over and fetch it. And the Lord shall render to
every man his righteousness and his faithfulness: because the Lord
delivered thee into my hand to-day, and I would not put forth mine
hand against the Lord's anointed. And, behold, as thy life was very
precious this day in mine eyes, so let my life be precious in the eyes
of the Lord, and let him deliver me out of all tribulation."

Then Saul said to David, "Blessed be thou, my son David: thou shalt
both do mightily, and shalt surely prevail."

So David went his way, and Saul returned to his place.


SAUL'S PURSUIT OF DAVID.

_How David a Second Time Spared the King's Life_.

(Day after day Saul pursued David. First, some one would
report David at a certain point, then he would be seen at another.
But every time, by forced marches, hiding in caves by day, and
stealing out by night, the bold outlaw escaped his foe. Once Saul
entered the very cave where David and his faithful men were {412}
hiding in the shadows. Again Saul was in David's power. Again
his men wished him to kill the king, but David refused, and spared
the king's life.)

And David abode in the wilderness in the strongholds, and remained in
the hill country in the wilderness of Ziph. And Saul sought him every
day, but God delivered him not into his hand.

And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life: and David was
in the wilderness of Ziph in the wood. And Jonathan Saul's son arose,
and went to David into the wood, and strengthened his hand in God. And
he said unto him, "Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not
find thee; and thou shalt be king over Israel, and I shall be next
unto thee; and that also Saul my father knoweth."

And they two made a covenant before the Lord: and David abode in the
wood, and Jonathan went to his house.

Then came up the Ziphites to Saul to Gibeah, saying, "Doth not David
hide himself with us in the strongholds in the wood, in the hill of
Hachilah, which is on the south of the desert? Now therefore, O king,
come down, according to all the desire of thy soul to come down; and
our part shall be to deliver him up into the king's hand."

And Saul said, "Blessed be ye of the Lord; for ye have had compassion
on me. Go, I pray you, make yet more sure, and know and see his place
where his haunt is, and who hath seen him there: for it is told me
that he dealeth very subtilly. See therefore, and take knowledge of
all the lurking places where he hideth himself, and come ye again to
me of a certainty, and I will go with you: and it {413} shall come to
pass, if he be in the land, that I will search him out among all the
thousands of Judah."

And they arose, and went to Ziph before Saul: but David and his men
were in the wilderness of Maon. And Saul and his men went to seek him.
And they told David: wherefore he came down to the rock, and abode in
the wilderness of Maon. And when Saul heard that, he pursued after
David in the wilderness of Maon.

And Saul went on this side of the mountain, and David and his men on
the other side of the mountain: and David made haste to get away for
fear of Saul; for Saul and his men compassed David and his men round
about to take them. But there came a messenger to Saul, saying, "Haste
thee, and come; for the Philistines have made a raid upon the land."

So Saul returned from pursuing after David.

And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the
Philistines, that it was told him, saying, "Behold, David is in the
wilderness of En-gedi."

Then Saul took three thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and went
to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats.

And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where was a cave; and Saul
went in.

Now David and his men were abiding in the innermost parts of the cave.
And the men of David said unto him, "Behold, the day of which the Lord
said unto thee, 'Behold, I will deliver thine enemy into thine hand,
and thou shalt do to him as it shall seem good unto thee.'"

{414}

Then David arose, and cut off the skirt of Saul's robe privily. And it
came to pass afterward, that David's heart smote him, because he had
cut off Saul's skirt.

And he said unto his men, "The Lord forbid that I should do this thing
unto my lord, the Lord's anointed, to put forth mine hand against him,
seeing he is the Lord's anointed."

So David checked his men with these words, and suffered them not to
rise against Saul. And Saul rose up out of the cave, and went on his
way.

David also arose afterward, and went out of the cave, and cried after
Saul, saying, "My lord the king!"

And when Saul looked behind him, David bowed with his face to the
earth, and did obeisance.

And David said to Saul, "Wherefore hearkenest thou to men's words,
saying, 'Behold, David seeketh thy hurt'? Behold, this day thine eyes
have seen how that the Lord had delivered thee to-day into mine hand
in the cave: and some bade me kill thee: but mine eye spared thee; and
I said, 'I will not put forth mine hand against my lord; for he is the
Lord's anointed.'

"Moreover, my father, see, yea, see the skirt of thy robe in my hand:
for in that I cut off the skirt of thy robe, and killed thee not, know
thou and see that there is neither evil nor transgression in mine
hand, and I have not sinned against thee, though thou huntest after my
soul to take it.

"The Lord judge between me and thee, and the Lord avenge me of thee:
but mine hand shall not be upon thee."

{415}{416}

[Illustration]
  STREET OF JERUSALEM
  "The Joppa Gate" in the center.

  This is a characteristic scene in Jerusalem, the bazaars in the area
  outside, the camels and donkeys with their burdens, and the traffic
  going in and out of the city. "In an aperture of the western wall of
  Jerusalem hang the 'oaken valves' called the Beth-lehem or Joppa
  Gate. The area outside is one of the notable places of the city.
  Long before David coveted Zion there was a citadel there. When at
  last the son or Jesse ousted the Jebusites, and began to build, the
  site of the citadel became the northwest corner of the wall,
  defended by a tower much more imposing than the old one. The
  location of the gate, however, was not disturbed, for the reason,
  most likely, that the roads which met and merged in front of it
  could not well be transferred to another spot, while the area
  outside had become a recognized market place. In Solomon's day there
  was a great traffic at this locality, shared in by traders from
  Egypt and the rich dealers from Tyre and Sidon."
                                          --_Lew Wallace in "Ben-Hur_"
[End illustration]

{417}

And it came to pass, when David had made an end of speaking these
words unto Saul, that Saul said, "Is this thy voice, my son David?"
And Saul lifted up his voice, and wept.

And he said to David, "Thou art more righteous than I: for thou hast
rewarded me good, whereas I have rewarded thee evil.

"And thou hast showed this day how that thou hast dealt well with me:
forasmuch as when the Lord had delivered me into thine hand, thou
killedst me not.

"For if a man find his enemy, will he let him go well away? wherefore
the Lord reward thee good for that thou hast done unto me this day.

"And now, behold, I know well that thou shalt surely be king, and that
the kingdom of Israel shall be established in thine hand.

"Swear now therefore unto me by the Lord, that thou wilt not cut off
my seed after me, and that thou wilt not destroy my name out of my
father's house."

And David swore unto Saul. And Saul went home; but David and his men
went up to the stronghold.


ONE OF DAVID'S ADVENTURES IN THE WILDERNESS.

_How the Sheep Master of Maon Refused to Pay Tribute_.

(While David was roaming about the country followed by a company of
men as young and gallant as himself, much as Robin Hood roamed about
the forests of England, he had many adventures, some of them
chivalrous and some of which he was perhaps afterward, when he became
king, just a little ashamed. This is the story of one of these
adventures.)

{418}

There was a man in Maon whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man
was very rich, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats:
and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel.

Now the name of the man was Nabal (the Fool); and the name of his wife
Abigail: and the woman was of good understanding, and of a beautiful
countenance: but the man was churlish and evil in his doings; and he
was of the house of Caleb.

And David heard in the wilderness that Nabal sheared his sheep. And
David sent ten young men, and David said unto the young men, "Get you
up to Carmel, and go to Nabal, and greet him in my name: and thus
shall ye say, 'All hail! Peace be both unto thee, and peace be to
thine house, and peace be unto all that thou hast. And now I have
heard that thou hast shearers: thy shepherds have now been with us,
and we did them no hurt, neither was there aught missing unto them,
all the while they were in Carmel. Ask thy young men, and they will
tell thee: wherefore let the young men find favor in thine eyes, for
we come in a good day: give, I pray thee, whatsoever cometh to thine
hand, unto thy servants, and to thy son David.'"

And when David's young men came, they spoke to Nabal according to all
those words in the name of David, and ceased.

And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, "Who is David? and who
is the son of Jesse? there are many servants nowadays that break away
every man from his {419} master. Shall I then take my bread, and my
water, and my flesh that I have killed for my shearers, and give it
unto men of whom I know not whence they be?"

So David's young men turned on their way, and went back, and came and
told him according to all these words.

And David said unto his men, "Gird ye on every man his sword." And
they girded on every man his sword; and David also girded on his
sword: and there went up after David about four hundred men; and two
hundred remained in the camp.

But one of the young men told Abigail, Nabal's wife, saying, "Behold,
David sent messengers out of the wilderness to salute our master; and
he flew upon them. But the men were very good unto us, and we were not
hurt, neither missed we anything, as long as we were with them, when
we were in the fields: they were a wall unto us both by night and by
day, all the while we were with them keeping the sheep. Now therefore
consider what thou wilt do; for evil is determined against our master,
and against all his house: for he is such a worthless fellow that one
cannot speak to him."

Then Abigail made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles
of wine, and five sheep ready dressed, and five measures of parched
corn, and an hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of
figs, and laid them on asses.

And she said unto her young men, "Go on before me; behold, I come
after you."

But she told not her husband Nabal. And it was so, {420} as she rode
on her ass, and came down by the covert of the mountain, that, behold,
David and his men came down against her; and she met them.

Now David had said, "Surely in vain have I kept all that this fellow
hath in the wilderness, so that nothing was missed of all that
pertained unto him: and he hath returned me evil for good. God do so
unto the enemies of David, and more also, if I leave of all that
pertain to him by the morning light so much as one man child."

And when Abigail saw David, she hasted, and lighted off her ass, and
fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground. And
she fell at his feet, and said, "Upon me, my lord, upon me be the
iniquity: and let thine handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thine ears,
and hear thou the words of thine handmaid.' Let not my lord, I pray
thee, regard this worthless fellow, even Nabal: for as his name is, so
is he; Nabal [the Fool] is his name, and folly is with him: but I
thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send.

"Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord liveth, and as thy soul liveth,
seeing the Lord hath withholden thee from bloodguiltiness, and from
avenging thyself with thine own hand, now therefore let thine enemies,
and them that seek evil to my lord, be as Nabal. And now this present
which thy servant hath brought unto my lord, let it be given unto the
young men that follow my lord.

"Forgive, I pray thee, the trespass of thine handmaid: for the Lord
will certainly make my lord a sure house, because my lord fighteth the
battles of the Lord; and evil shall not be found in thee all thy days.


{421}{422}

[Illustration]
  JERUSALEM, LOOKING UP THROUGH THE VALLEY OF HINNOM.

  It is said that continual fires were kept burning in the valley of
  Hinnom for the destruction of the refuse from the city. It was here,
  too, that the human sacrifices to the god Molech took place, where
  the victims were made "to pass through the fire."
[End illustration]

{423}

And though man be risen up to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul, yet
the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord
thy God; and the souls of thine enemies, them shall he sling out, as
from the hollow of a sling.

"And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord
according to all the good that he hath spoken concerning thee, and
shall have appointed thee prince over Israel; that this shall be no
grief unto thee, nor offense of heart unto my lord, either that thou
hast shed blood causeless, or that my lord hath avenged himself: and
when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember thine
handmaid."

And David said to Abigail, "Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel,
which sent thee this day to meet me: and blessed be thy wisdom, and
blessed be thou, which hast kept me this day from bloodguiltiness, and
from avenging myself with mine own hand. For in very deed, as the
Lord, the God of Israel, liveth, which hath withholden me from hurting
thee, except thou hadst hasted and come to meet me, surely there had
not been left unto Nabal by the morning light so much as one man
child."

So David received of her hand that which she had brought him: and he
said unto her, "Go up in peace to thine house; see, I have hearkened
to thy voice, and have accepted thy person."

And Abigail came to Nabal; and, behold, he held a feast in his house,
like the feast of a king; and Nabal's heart was merry within him, for
he was very drunken: {424} wherefore she told him nothing, less or
more, until the morning light.

And it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of
Nabal, that his wife told him these things, and his heart died within
him, and he became as a stone.

And it came to pass about ten days after, that the Lord smote Nabal,
that he died.

And when David heard that Nabal was dead, he said, "Blessed be the
Lord, that hath pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of
Nabal, and hath kept back his servant from evil: and the evil-doing of
Nabal hath the Lord returned upon his own head."

And David sent and spoke concerning Abigail, to take her to him to
wife. And when the servants of David were come to Abigail to Carmel,
they spoke unto her, saying, "David hath sent us unto thee, to take
thee to him to wife."

And she arose, and bowed herself with her face to the earth, and said,
"Behold, thine handmaid is a servant to wash the feet of the servants
of my lord."

And Abigail hasted, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five damsels
of hers that followed her; and she went after the messengers of David,
and became his wife.


DAVID BECOMES KING.

_The Lament for Saul and Jonathan. After Long Waiting the
Throne is Gained_.

(At last came that fatal battle with the Philistines in the hills and,
when the sun set, Saul and his three sons lay dead upon the field.)

And it came to pass after the death of Saul, on the {425} third day,
that, behold, a man came out of the camp from Saul with his clothes
rent, and earth upon his head: and when he came to David, he fell to
the earth, and did obeisance. And David said to him, "From whence
comest thou?" And he said unto him, "Out of the camp of Israel am I
escaped."

And David said to him, "How went the day? I pray thee, tell me."

And he answered, "The people are fled from the battle, and many of the
people also are fallen and dead; and Saul and Jonathan his son are
dead also."

And David said to the young man that told him, "How knowest thou that
Saul and Jonathan his son are dead?"

And the young man that told him said, "As I happened by chance upon
Mount Gilboa, behold, Saul leaned upon his spear; and, lo, the
chariots and the horsemen followed hard after him. And when he looked
behind him, he saw me, and called unto me. And I answered, 'Here am
I.'

"And he said unto me, 'Who art thou?'

"And I answered him, 'I am an Amalekite.'

"And he said to me, 'Stand, I pray thee, beside me, and slay me, for
anguish hath taken hold of me; because my life is yet whole in me.' So
I stood beside him, and slew him, because I was sure that he could not
live after he was fallen: and I took the crown that was upon his head,
and the bracelet that was on his arm, and have brought them hither
unto my lord."

Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; {426} and likewise
all the men that were with him: and they mourned, and wept, and fasted
until even, for Saul, and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of
the Lord, and for the house of Israel; because they were fallen by the
sword. And David said to the young man that told him, "Whence art
thou?"

And he answered, "I am the son of a stranger, an Amalekite."

And David said to him, "Why wast thou not afraid to put forth thine
hand to destroy the Lord's anointed?"

And David called one of the young men and said, "Go near, and fall
upon him." And he smote him that he died.

And David said to him, "Thy blood be upon thy head; for thy mouth hath
testified against thee, saying, 'I have slain the Lord's anointed.'"

And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan
his son: and he bade them teach the children of Judah the song of the
bow.

_The Song of the Bow_.

  Thy glory, O Israel, is slain upon thy high places!
  How are the mighty fallen!
  Tell it not in Gath,
  Publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon;
  Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice,
  Lest the daughters of our enemies triumph.
  Ye mountains of Gilboa,
  Let there be no dew nor rain upon you, neither fields of offerings:
  For there the shield of the mighty was vilely