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Title: Compound Words - Typographic Technical Series for Apprentices #36
Author: Hamilton, Frederick W. (Frederick William), 1860-1940
Language: English
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The subject of compounds is one of the most difficult of the matters
relating to correct literary composition. The difficulty arises from the
fact that usage, especially in the matter of the presence or absence of
the hyphen, is not clearly settled. Progressive tendencies are at work
and there is great difference of usage, even among authorities of the
first rank, with regard to many compounds in common use.

An attempt is made to show first the general character of the problems
involved. Then follows a discussion of the general principles of
compounding. The general rules for the formation of compounds are stated
and briefly discussed. The various components of compounds are fully
analyzed and tabulated. The best modern usage in the matter of the
employment of the hyphen is set forth in a series of rules. The whole is
concluded by practical advice to the compositor as to the use of the
rules in the actual work of the office.



  INTRODUCTION                         1

  GENERAL PRINCIPLES                   4

  ACCENT IN COMPOUNDING                5




  SUPPLEMENTARY READING               16

  REVIEW QUESTIONS                    17



The English language contains a great many words and phrases which are
made up of two or more words combined or related in such a way as to
form a new verbal phrase having a distinct meaning of its own and
differing in meaning from the sum of the component words taken singly.
_Income_ and _outgo_, for example, have quite definite meanings related,
it is true, to _come_ and _go_ and to _in_ and _out_, but sharply
differentiated from those words in their ordinary and general
signification. We use these compound words and phrases so commonly that
we never stop to think how numerous they are, or how frequently new ones
are coined. Any living language is constantly growing and developing new
forms. New objects have to be named, new sensations expressed, new
experiences described.

Sometimes these words are mere aggregations like _automobile_,
_monotype_, _sidewalk_, _policeman_ and the like. Sometimes, indeed very
often, they are short cuts. A _hatbox_ is a box for carrying a hat, a
_red-haired_ man is a man with red hair. A _bookcase_ is a case to
contain books, etc.

Sometimes the phrase consists of two or more separate words, such as
_well known_ or _nicely kept_. Sometimes it consists of words joined by
a hyphen, such as _boarding-house_, _sleeping-car_. Sometimes it
consists of a single word formed by amalgamating or running together the
components, such as _penholder_, _nevertheless_.

In which of these forms shall we write the phrase we speak so easily?
How shall we shape the new word we have just coined? Which of these
three forms shall we use, and why? Ordinarily we look for the answer to
such questions from three sources, historical development, the past of
the language; some logical principle of general application; or some
recognized standard of authority. Unfortunately we get little help from
either of these sources in this special difficulty.

The history of the language is a history of constant change. The
Anglo-Saxon tongue was full of compounds, but the hyphen was an unknown
device to those who spoke it. The English of Chaucer, the period when
our new-born English tongue was differentiated from those which
contributed to its composition, is full of compounds, and the compounds
were generally written with a hyphen. Shakespeare used many compound
words and phrases some of which sound strange, if not uncouth, to modern
ears, but used the hyphen much less than Chaucer. In modern times the
tendency has been and is to drop the hyphen. The more general
progression seems to be (1) two words, (2) two words hyphenated, (3) two
words run together into one. Sometimes, however, the hyphen drops,
leaving two words separated. That there is constant change, and that the
change is progressing consistently in the direction of eliminating the
hyphen is fairly clear. This, however, does not help us much. At what
stage of the process are we with regard to any given word? Which form of
the process is operating in any given case?

There are no laws or principles of universal application on which we may
build a consistent system of practice. Certain general principles have
been laid down and will be here set forth. While they are helpful to the
understanding of the subject they are not sufficiently universal to
serve as practical guides in all cases. In any event they need to be
supplemented by careful study of the rules for the use of the hyphen, by
careful study of the best usage in particular cases, and by thorough
knowledge of the style of each particular office, as will be pointed out
later. Authorities and usage differ widely, and it is often difficult to
say that a particular form is right or wrong.

There is no recognized standard authority. The dictionaries do not agree
with each other and are not always consistent with themselves. They may
always write a certain word in a certain way but they may write another
word to all appearance exactly analogous to the first in another way.
For example Worcester has _brickwork_ and _brasswork_, but _wood-work_
and _iron-work_. Webster, on the other hand, has _woodwork_ and

The best that the printer can do is to adopt a set of rules or style of
his own and stick to it consistently. Here and there a generally
accepted change, like the dropping of the hyphen from _tomorrow_ and
_today_ will force itself upon him, but for the most part he may stick
to his style. Of course, the author, if he has a marked preference, must
be permitted to use his own methods of compounding except in magazine
publications and the like. In such cases, when the author's work is to
appear in the same volume with that of other writers, the style of the
printing office must rule and the individual contributors must bow to


Three general principles are laid down by Mr. F. Horace Teall which will
be found useful, though they must be supplemented in practice by more
specific rules which will be given later. They are as follows:

I All words should be separate when used in regular grammatical
relations and construction unless they are jointly applied in some
arbitrary way.

     An _iron fence_ means a fence made of iron. The meaning and
     construction are normal and the words are not compounded.

     An _iron-saw_ means a saw for cutting iron. The meaning is not the
     same as _iron saw_ which would mean a saw made of iron. The
     hyphenated compound indicates the special meaning of the words used
     in this combination.

     _Ironwood_ is a specific name applied to a certain kind of very
     hard wood. Hence, it becomes a single word compounded but without a
     hyphen. Either of the other forms would be ambiguous or impossible
     in meaning.

II Abnormal associations of words generally indicate unification in
sense and hence compounding in form.

     A _sleeping man_ is a phrase in which the words are associated
     normally. The man sleeps.

     A _sleeping-car_ is a phrase in which the words are associated
     abnormally. The car does not sleep. It is a specially constructed
     car in which the passengers may sleep comfortably.

     A _king fisher_ might be a very skilful fisherman. A _kingfisher_
     is a kind of bird. Here again we have an abnormal association of
     words and as the compound word is the name of a specific sort of
     bird there is no hyphen. A _king-fisher_, if it meant anything,
     would probably mean one who fished for kings, as a _pearl-diver_ is
     one who dives for pearls.

III Conversely, no expression in the language should ever be changed
from two or more words into one (either hyphenated or solid) without
change of sense.

     _Saw trimmer_ is not compounded because there is no change in the
     commonly accepted sense of either word.

     _Color work_ is not compounded because the word _color_, by usage
     common in English, has the force of an adjective, and the words are
     used in their accepted sense. In other languages it would be
     differently expressed, for example, in French it would be _oeuvre_,
     or _imprimerie en couleur_, _work_, or, _printing in color_.

     _Presswork_ is compounded because it has a special and specific
     meaning. Good or bad presswork is a good or bad result of work done
     on a press.

     Here as everywhere in printing the great purpose is to secure
     plainness and intelligibility. Print is made to read. Anything
     which obscures the sense, or makes the passage hard to read is
     wrong. Anything which clears up the sense and makes the passage
     easy to read and capable of only one interpretation is right.


Some writers lay much stress on the influence of accent in the formation
of compounds while others ignore it entirely. Accent undoubtedly has
some influence and the theory may be easily and intelligibly expressed.
It ought to be understood, but it will not be found an entirely safe
guide. Usage has modified the results of compounding in many cases in
ways which do not lend themselves to logical explanation and

The general principle as stated by Mr. Teall is as follows:

     When each part of the compound is accented, use the hyphen;

     When only one part is accented, omit the hyphen; _many sided_.

     When the accent is changed, print the compound solid; _broadsword_.
     This follows the general rule of accenting the first syllable in
     English words.


I Two nouns used together as a name form a compound noun unless:

     (_a_) The first is used in a descriptive or attributive sense, that
           is, is really an adjective, or

     (_b_) The two are in apposition.

Various uses of the noun as an adjective, that is, in some qualifying or
attributive sense are when the noun conveys the sense of:

     1. "Made of;" _leather belt_, _steel furniture_.

     2. "Having the shape, character, or quality of;" _diamond pane_,
        _iron ration_, _bull calf_.

     3. "Pertaining to, suitable for, representing;" _office desk_,
        _labor union_.

     4. "Characterized by;" _motor drive_.

     5. "Situated in, and the like;" _ocean current_, _city life_.

     6. "Supporting or advocating;" _union man_, _Bryan voter_.

     7. "Existing in or coming from;" _Yellowstone geyser_, _California

     8. "Originated or made by, named for;" _Gordon Press_, _Harvard

     Placing the two nouns in apposition is much the same as using the
     first as an adjective.

     Such compounds are generally written as two words without the
     hyphen, but see specific rules for use of hyphens.

II Every name apparently composed of a plain noun and a noun of agent or
verbal noun, but really conveying the sense of a phrase with suffix
_er_, _or_, or _ing_, should be treated as a compound; _roller

III Possessive phrases used as specific names (generally plants) are
treated as compounds.

     They are hyphenated unless very common, in which case they are
     closed up; _crane's-bill_, _ratsbane_.

IV Any phrase used as a specific name in an arbitrary application not
strictly figurative is written as a compound; _blueberry_, _red-coat_,

V Any pair of words used as one name of which the second is a noun but
the first not really an adjective should be written as a compound;
_foster-brother_, _down-town_, _after-consideration_.

     As elsewhere the use of the hyphen depends largely in the
     familiarity of the phrase; _spoilsport_, _pickpocket_.

VI Any two words other than nouns should be treated as a compound,
generally solid, when arbitrarily associated as a name; _standpoint_,

VII A name or an adjective made by adding a suffix to a proper name
compounded of two words should be treated as a compound with a hyphen;
_East-Indian_, _New-Yorker_. If the name is not inflected this rule does
not apply; _East India Company_, _New York man_.

VIII Any pair or series of words arbitrarily associated in a joint sense
different from their sense when used separately, should be compounded;
_workman-like_, _warlike_.


Compounds having the force of nouns may be made up in several ways.

     1. Two nouns used in other than their natural signification;

     2. A noun and an adjective used in other than their natural
        signification; _great-uncle_, _dry-goods_.

     3. A noun and an adverb; _touch-down_, _holder-forth_.

     4. A noun and an adverb; _down-draft_, _flare-back_.

     5. A noun and a verb; _know-nothing_, _draw-bar_.

     6. A noun and a preposition; _between-decks_.

     7. Two adjectives; _high-low_, _wide-awake_.

     8. Two verbs; _make-believe_.

     9. A verb and an adverb; _cut-off_, _break-up_.

     10. A verb and a preposition; _to-do_, _go-between_.

Compounds having the force of adjectives may be made up in several ways.

     1. A group of words compacted into one idea;

     2. Two adjectives; _white-hot_, _ashy-blue_.

     3. An adjective and a participle or noun and suffix simulating a
        participle; _odd-looking_, _foreign-born_, _bow-legged_.

     4. An adjective and a noun; _fire-new_, _type-high_.

     5. A noun and a participle (or noun and suffix simulating a
        participle); _hand-printed_, _peace-making_.

     6. An adverb and an adjective used together before a noun;
        _well-bred_, _long-extended_.

     7. Two nouns used adjectively before another noun; _cotton-seed
        oil_, _shoe-sewing machine_, _Sunday-school teacher_.

     8. An adjective and a noun used together before a noun;
        _civil-service examination_, _free-trade literature_, _fresh-water

     9. A verb and a noun; _John Lack-land_.

Four compounds occur with the force of verbs.

     1. Two verbs; _balance-reef_.

     2. A verb and a noun; _silver-plate_, _house-break_.

     3. A verb and an adjective; _cold-press_, _fine-still_.

     4. A verb and an adverb; _cross-examine_.

Several combinations are used with the force of adverbs.

     1. Two adverbs; _upright_, _henceforth_.

     2. A noun and an adverb; _brain-sickly_.

     3. An adjective and an adverb (or compound adjective with suffix,
        simulating an adverb); _stout-heartedly_, _ill-naturedly_.

     4. An adjective and a verb; _broadcast_.

     5. Two nouns; _piecemeal_, _half-mast_.

     6. A noun and an adjective; _cost-free_, _pointblank_.

     7. A noun and a preposition; _down-stairs_, _above-board_,


1. Hyphenate nouns formed by the combination of two nouns standing in
objective relation to each other, that is, one of whose components is
derived from a transitive verb:

     _well-wisher_             _wood-turning_
     _mind-reader_             _child-study_
     _office-holder_           _clay-modeling_

When such compounds are in very common use, and especially when they
have a specific or technical meaning, they are printed solid;

     _typewriter_              _stockholder_
     _proofreader_             _copyholder_
     _lawgiver_                _dressmaker_

2. Hyphenate a combination of a present participle with a noun when the
meaning of the combination is different from that of the two words taken
separately; _boarding-house_, _sleeping-car_, _walking-stick_.

3. Hyphenate a combination of a present participle with a preposition
used absolutely (not governing the following noun); _the putting-in or
taking-out of a hyphen_.

4. As a rule compounds of _book_, _house_, _will_, _room_, _shop_, and
_work_ should be printed solid when the prefixed noun has one syllable;
should be hyphenated when it contains two; should be printed in two
separate words when it contains three or more;

     _handbook_, _notebook_, _story-book_, _pocket-book_, _reference

     _clubhouse_, _storehouse_, _engine-house_, _power-house_,

     _handmill_, _sawmill_, _water-mill_, _paper-mill_, _chocolate

     _classroom_, _lecture-room_, _recitation room_.

     _tinshop_, _tailor-shop_, _carpenter shop_.

     _woodwork_, _metal-work_, _filigree work_.

Unusual combinations such as _source-book_ and _wheat-mill_ are
sometimes hyphenated, and the hyphen is sometimes omitted for the sake
of the appearance as in _school work_.

5. Compounds of _maker_, _dealer_, and other words denoting occupation
are generally hyphenated; _harness-maker_, _job-printer_.

The tendency is to print these words solid when they come into very
common use; _dressmaker_.

6. Hyphenate nouns when combined in an adjectival sense before the name
of the same person; _the martyr-president Lincoln_, _the poet-artist

7. Compounds of _store_ are generally hyphenated when the prefix
contains one syllable, otherwise not; _drug-store_, _fruit-store_ (but
_bookstore_), _provision store_.

8. Compounds of _fellow_ are hyphenated; _fellow-being_, _play-fellow_,
but _bedfellow_.

9. Compounds of _father_, _mother_, _brother_, _sister_, _daughter_,
_parent_, and _foster_ should be hyphenated when the word in question
forms the first part of the compound; _father-love_, _mother-country_,
_brother-officer_, _sister-state_, _daughter-cell_, _parent-word_,
_foster-brother_, but (by exception) _fatherland_.

10. Hyphenate compounds of _great_ in phrases indicating degrees of
descent; _great-grandmother_, _great-great-grandfather_.

11. Hyphenate compounds of _life_ and _world_; _life-history_,
_world-influence_, but (by exception) _lifetime_.

12. Compounds of _skin_ with words of one syllable are printed solid,
otherwise as two separate words; _calfskin_, _sheepskin_, _alligator

13. Hyphenate compounds of _master_; _master-builder_, _master-stroke_,
but (by exception) _masterpiece_.

14. Hyphenate compounds of _god_ when this word forms the second
element; _sun-god_, _war-god_, _godsend_, _godson_.

15. Hyphenate compounds of _half_ and _quarter_; _half-truth_,
_quarter-circle_, _half-title_, but on account of difference in meaning
of _quarter_, _quartermaster_, _headquarters_.

16. These prefixes

     _ante_-     _infra_-     _re_-
     _anti_-     _inter_-     _semi_-
     _bi_-       _intra_-     _sub_-
     _co_-       _pre_-       _super_-
     _demi_-     _post_-      _tri_-

are ordinarily joined to the word with which they are used without a
hyphen, except when followed by the same letter as that with which they
terminate or by _w_ or _y_;

     _antechamber_             _post-temporal_
     _antiseptic_              _post-graduate_
     _anti-imperialistic_      _prearrange_
     _biennial_                _pre-empt_
     _bipartisan_              _recast_
     _co-equal_                _re-enter_
     _co-ordinate_             _semiannual_
     _demigod_                 _subconscious_
     _inframarginal_           _subtitle_
     _international_           _superfine_
     _intersperse_             _tricolor_
     _intramural_              _co-workers_
     _intra-atomic_            _co-yield_

Exceptions are

(_a_) Combinations with proper names or adjectives derived therefrom,
and long or unusual compounds;

     _ante-bellum_             _sister-university_
     _anti-license_            _post-revolutionary_
     _anti-security_           _pre-Raphaelite_
     _demi-relievo_            _re-tammanize_

(_b_) Words in which the omission of the hyphen would alter the sense;

     _re-formation_            _reformation_
     _re-cover_                _recover_
     _re-creation_             _recreation_

17. The negative prefixes _un_, _in_, _il_, _im_, and _a_ do not take a
hyphen except in very rare or artificial combinations; _unmanly_,
_invisible_, _illimitable_, _impenetrable_, _asymmetrical_.

The negative prefix _non_ calls for a hyphen except in very common

     _non-existent_            _non-combatant_
     _non-interference_        _nonsense_
     _non-unionist_            _nonessential_

18. The prefixes _quasi_, _extra_, _supra_, _ultra_, and _pan_ call for
a hyphen;

     _quasi-historical_        _supra-normal_
     _quasi-corporation_       _ultra-conservative_
     _extra-mural_             _Pan-Germanism_

     _Ultramontaine_, probably because a specific party designation, is
     always printed solid.

19. _Over_ and _under_ do not ordinarily call for a hyphen;
_overemphasize_, _underfed_, but _over-careful_, _over-spiritualistic_.

20. Combinations having _self_ and _by_ as the first element of the
compound call for a hyphen; _self-evident_, _self-respecting_, _by-law_,
_by-product_, but _selfhood_, _selfish_, and _selfsame_.

21. Combinations of _fold_ are printed as one word if the number
contains only one syllable but as two if it contains more than one;

     _twofold_                 _fifteen fold_
     _tenfold_                 _a hundred fold_

22. Adjectives formed by a noun preceding _like_ do not take a hyphen if
the noun is a monosyllable, except when ending in _l_ or a proper noun;
if the noun contains more than one syllable a hyphen should be used;
_childlike_, _warlike_, _catlike_, _bell-like_, _Napoleon-like_, but (by
exception) _Christlike_.

23. _Vice_, _elect_, _ex_, _general_, and _lieutenant_ as parts of
titles are connected with the chief noun by a hyphen; _vice-consul_,
_ex-president_, _governor-elect_, _postmaster-general_,

24. _Today_, _tonight_, and _tomorrow_ are printed without a hyphen.

25. In fractional numbers spelled out connect the numerator and
denominator by a hyphen. "_The day is three-quarters gone_," _four and
five-eighths_, _thirty-hundredths_, _ninety-two thousandths_.

Do not use the hyphen in an instance as "_One half the business is owned
by Mr. Jones, one quarter by Mr. Smith, and one eighth each by Mr.
Browne and Mr. Robinson._"

26. Where two or more compound words occur together having one of their
components in common, this component is often omitted from all but the
last word and the omission indicated by a hyphen;

     _French-and Spanish-speaking countries_, _wood-iron-and
     steel-work_, _one-two-three-four and five-cent stamps_.

     This usage is objected to in some offices as being a Germanized
     form. It is however, less ambiguous than where the hyphen is
     omitted and is therefore preferable.

27. Ordinal numbers compounded with nouns take the hyphen in such
expressions as _second-hand_, _first-rate_, and the like.

28. Numerals of one syllable take a hyphen in compounds with
self-explanatory words such as _four-footed_, _one-eyed_, and the like.

29. Numerals compounded with nouns to form an adjective take the hyphen;
_twelve-inch rule_, _three-horse team_, _six-point lead_.

30. The hyphen is used in compounding a noun in the possessive case with
another noun; _jew's-harp_, _crow's-nest_.

31. The hyphen is used with most compounds of _tree_; _apple-tree_,
_quince-tree_, but not when a particular object, not a tree (vegetable),
is meant; _whippletree_, _crosstree_.

32. Use the hyphen in compounding two adjectives generally, especially
personal epithets; _asked-for opinion_, _sea-island cotton_, _dry-plate
process_, _hard-headed_, _strong-armed_, _broad-shouldered_.

33. The hyphen is not used in points of the compass unless doubly
compounded; _northeast_, _southwest_, _north-northeast_,
_south-southwest by south_.

34. Compounds ending with _man_ or _woman_ are run solid; _pressman_,

35. Omit the hyphen in such phrases as _by and by_, _by the bye_, _good
morning_ (except when used adjectively, _a good-morning greeting_,)
_attorney at law_, _coat of arms_.

36. Compounds ending in _holder_ and _monger_ are run solid;
_bondholder_, _cheesemonger_.

37. Compounds beginning with _eye_ are run solid; _eyeglass_,

38. Compounds unless very unusual, beginning with _deutero_, _electro_,
_pseudo_, _sulpho_, _thermo_, etc., are run solid; _electrotype_,
_pseudonym_, _thermostat_.

39. Do not separate

     _meanwhile_     _anywhere_       _somebody_
     _meantime_      _anybody_        _somehow_
     _moreover_      _anyhow_         _something_
     _forever_       _anything_       _sometime_
     _everywhere_    _anyway_         _somewhat_

In phrases like _in the meantime_ and _forever and ever_ the words are
printed separately.

_Any one_ and _some one_ are separate words.

40. In compounds of color the hyphen is not used except when a noun is
used with an adjective to specify color; _reddish-brown_, _gray-white_,
_lemon-yellow_, _olive-green_, _silver-gray_.

41. Following is a list of words of everyday occurrence which should be
hyphenated, and which do not fall under any of the above

     _after-years_       _food-stuff_     _sea-level_
     _bas-relief_        _guinea-pig_     _sense-perception_
     _birth-rate_        _horse-power_    _son-in-law_
     _blood-relations_   _loan-word_      _subject-matter_
     _common-sense_      _man-of-war_     _thought-process_
     _cross-examine_     _object-lesson_  _title-page_
     _cross-reference_   _page-proof_     _wave-length_
     _cross-section_     _pay-roll_       _well-being_
     _death-rate_        _poor-law_       _well-nigh_
     _folk-song_         _post-office_    _will-power_

These rules are the consensus of opinion of a considerable number of
good authorities from DeVinne (1901) to Manly and Powell (1913). The
great practical difficulty is that authorities differ as to their
application. DeVinne uses the dieresis instead of the hyphen in such
cases as _co-operate_ or _pre-eminent_, writing _coöperate_,
_preëminent_. Many of the rules have exceptions and authorities differ
as to the extent of the exceptions. There are many differences in the
great number of unclassified compounds. For example, Manly and Powell
write _coat-of-arms_, while Orcutt writes _coat of arms_. Common usage
omits the hyphen from post office except when used as an adjective, e. g.,
_post-office accounts_.

A strict adherence to the rules given would probably result, not in bad
composition, but in a much greater use of hyphens than would be found on
the pages of many recent books from the presses of some of the best
publishers. This is due partly to the fact that usage has never been
strictly uniform and partly to the constant progressive change noted at
the beginning of this study. We are gradually discontinuing the use of
the hyphen just as we are diminishing our use of capital letters,
punctuation marks, and italics.

The compositor should ground himself thoroughly in the principles and
rules. He should learn the best usage with regard to special words and
phrases. He should master the office style. He should follow copy if the
author has distinct and definite ideas which are not absolutely wrong
and would not introduce inconsistencies in magazines and the like by
violating the office style which is followed in other parts of the same
publication. If it is clear that the author knows what he wants, the
compositor should follow copy. Questions of correctness and conformity
to style belong not to him but to the copy editor and proofreader.


English Compound Words and Phrases. By Francis Horace Teall. Funk &
     Wagnalls, New York.

The Compounding of English Words, When and Why Joining or Separation
     is Preferable. By Francis Horace Teall. J. Ireland, New York.

Correct Composition. By Theodore L. De Vinne. The Oswald Publishing Co.,
     New York.

A Manual for Writers. By John Matthews Manly and John Arthur Powell.
     The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

The Writer's Desk Book. By William Dana Orcutt. Frederick A. Stokes Co.,
     New York.


1. What is meant by a "compound"?

2. What is the purpose of a compound?

3. In what three forms do compounds appear?

4. Where should we expect to find guidance in the choice of these forms?

5. Do we so find it, and why?

6. What tendency is observable in usage regarding compounds?

7. What can the printer do?

8. Give Teall's rules, and show the application of each.

9. What is the influence of accent in compounding?

10. What is the rule about two nouns used together to form a name?

11. What is the rule about names composed of a plain noun and a verbal

12. How are possessive phrases used as specific names treated?

13. What is the rule about phrases used as specific names?

14. How do you write a pair of words used as a name when the second word
is a noun and the first not really an adjective?

15. How do you treat two words, not nouns, arbitrarily used as a name?

16. How do you treat a compound consisting of a suffix and a compound
proper name?

17. How do you treat words so associated that their joint sense is
different from their separate sense?

18. How may compounds having the force of nouns be made up?

19. How may compounds having the force of adjectives be made up?

20. How may compounds having the force of verbs be made up?

21. How may compounds having the force of adverbs be made up?

22. How are compound nouns written when one of the components is derived
from a transitive verb?

23. How is a compound of a present participle and a noun written?

24. How is a compound of a present participle and a preposition treated?

25. What is the usage in compounds of _book_, _house_, _will_, _room_,
_shop_, and _work_?

26. How are compounds of _maker_ and _dealer_ written?

27. What is done when nouns are combined in a descriptive phrase before
a name of a person?

28. How are compounds of _store_ treated?

29. How are compounds of _fellow_ treated?

30. How are compounds of _father_, _mother_, _brother_, _sister_,
_daughter_, _parent_, and _foster_ treated?

31. What compounds of _great_ are hyphenated?

32. How are compounds of _life_ and _world_ treated?

33. What is the rule about compounds of _skin_?

34. How are compounds of _master_ treated?

35. What is the rule about compounds of _god_?

36. Give fifteen common prefixes and tell how they are used, stating

37. What are the negative prefixes and how are they used?

38. What is the rule about the prefixes _quasi_, _extra_, _supra_,
_ultra_, and _pan_?

39. What is the rule about _over_ and _under_?

40. What is the rule about compounds of _self_ and _by_?

41. How are compounds of _fold_ treated?

42. What is the rule about compounds of a noun followed by _like_?

43. How are titles treated when compounded with _vice_, _elect_, _ex_,
_general_, and _lieutenant_?

44. How do you write three familiar compounds denoting time?

45. How should you treat fractional numbers spelled out?

46. What is done when two or more compound words with a common component
occur in succession?

47. How do you write compounds of ordinal numbers and nouns?

48. What rule is given about numerals of one syllable?

49. What rule is given about numerals compounded with nouns?

50. How do you treat a compound of two nouns one in the possessive case?

51. How are compounds of _tree_ treated?

52. What is the rule about compounds of two adjectives?

53. What is the rule about points of the compass?

54. What should you do with compounds ending in _man_ or _woman_?

55. Give certain common typical phrases which omit the hyphen.

56. How do you treat compounds ending in _holder_ and _monger_?

57. How do you treat compounds beginning with _eye_?

58. What is said of compounds beginning with _deutero_, _electro_,
_pseudo_, _sulpho_, _thermo_, and the like?

59. Give some common compounds which are always run solid.

60. How are compounds of color treated?

61. Are these rules universally followed?

62. What is the duty of the compositor in these cases, especially when

In this volume, as in so many in this section, much depends upon
practice drills. The memorizing of rules is difficult and is of very
little use unless accompanied by a great deal of practice so that the
apprentice will become so thoroughly familiar with them that he will
apply them at once without conscious thought. He should no more think of
the rule when he writes _fellow-man_, than he thinks of the
multiplication table when he says seven times eight are fifty-six. This
drill may be given in several ways, by asking the student to explain the
use or omission of hyphens in printed matter, by giving written matter
purposely incorrect in parts and asking him to set it correctly, or by
giving dictations and having the apprentice write out the matter and
then set it up. Later, when it will not be too wasteful of time, the
apprentice can be given the ordinary run of copy as customers send it in
and told to set it in correct form. He will probably find enough errors
in it to test his knowledge of compounding and of many other things.


The following list of publications, comprising the TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL
SERIES FOR APPRENTICES, has been prepared under the supervision of the
Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in
trade classes, in course of printing instruction, and by individuals.

Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of
authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers
of the United States--employers, journeymen, and apprentices--with a
comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable,
up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the
printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.

The publications of the series are of uniform size, 5 x 8 inches. Their
general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as
practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the
particular contents and other chief features of each volume will be
found under each title in the following list.

Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in
each publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary
information and essential facts necessary to an understanding of the
subject. Care has been taken to make all statements accurate and clear,
with the purpose of bringing essential information within the
understanding of beginners in the different fields of study. Wherever
practicable, simple and well-defined drawings and illustrations have
been used to assist in giving additional clearness to the text.

In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use
in trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is
accompanied by a list of Review Questions covering essential items of
the subject matter. A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the
subject or department treated is also added to many of the books.

These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.

Address all orders and inquiries to COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, UNITED

PART I--_Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials_

1. =Type: a Primer of Information=                      By A. A. Stewart

     Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes,
     font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture.
     44 pp.; illustrated; 74 review questions; glossary.

2. =Compositors' Tools and Materials=                   By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads,
     brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47 pp.;
     illustrated; 50 review questions; glossary.

3. =Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture=               By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets,
     case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43 pp.;
     illustrated; 33 review questions; glossary.

4. =Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances=             By A. A. Stewart

     Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the
     press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59
     pp.; illustrated; 70 review questions; glossary.

5. =Proof Presses=                                      By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the customary methods and machines
     for taking printers' proofs. 40 pp.; illustrated; 41 review
     questions; glossary.

6. =Platen Printing Presses=                             By Daniel Baker

     A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical
     construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand
     press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on
     automatic presses of small size. 51 pp.; illustrated; 49 review
     questions; glossary.

7. =Cylinder Printing Presses=                       By Herbert L. Baker

     Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types
     of cylinder printing machines. 64 pp.; illustrated; 47 review
     questions; glossary.

8. =Mechanical Feeders and Folders=               By William E. Spurrier

     The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines;
     with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.

9. =Power for Machinery in Printing Houses=             By Carl F. Scott

     A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and
     allied machinery with particular reference to electric drive. 53
     pp.; illustrated; 69 review questions; glossary.

10. =Paper Cutting Machines=                           By Niel Gray, Jr.

     A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever
     cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting
     paper. 70 pp.; illustrated; 115 review questions; glossary.

11. =Printers' Rollers=                                 By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and
     care of inking rollers. 46 pp.; illustrated; 61 review questions;

12. =Printing Inks=                                     By Philip Ruxton

     Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by
     permission from Circular No. 53, United States Bureau of
     Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the
     everyday use of printing inks by Philip Ruxton. 80 pp.; 100 review
     questions; glossary.

13. =How Paper is Made=                      By William Bond Wheelwright

     A primer of information about the materials and processes of
     manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68 pp.; illustrated;
     62 review questions; glossary.

14. =Relief Engravings=                             By Joseph P. Donovan

     Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of
     engraving; woodcut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for
     reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

15. =Electrotyping and Stereotyping=  By Harris B. Hatch and A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and
     stereotyping. 94 pp.; illustrated; 129 review questions;

PART II--_Hand and Machine Composition_

16. =Typesetting=                                       By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying,
     spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

17. =Printers' Proofs=                                  By A. A. Stewart

     The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with
     observations on proofreading. Illustrated; review questions;

18. =First Steps in Job Composition=                   By Camille DeVéze

     Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in setting his first
     jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make
     good display in typography. 63 pp.; examples; 55 review questions;

19. =General Job Composition=

     How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and
     miscellaneous work. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

20. =Book Composition=                                 By J. W. Bothwell

     Chapters from DeVinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition,"
     revised and arranged for this series of text-books by J. W.
     Bothwell of The DeVinne Press, New York. Part I: Composition of
     pages. Part II: Imposition of pages. 229 pp.; illustrated; 525
     review questions; glossary.

21. =Tabular Composition=                               By Robert Seaver

     A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples
     of more difficult composition. 36 pp.; examples; 45 review

22. =Applied Arithmetic=                                By E. E. Sheldon

     Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade,
     calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard
     tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with
     examples and exercises. 159 pp.

23. =Typecasting and Composing Machines=            A. W. Finlay, Editor

    Section I--The Linotype                         By L. A. Hornstein
    Section II--The Monotype                        By Joseph Hays
    Section III--The Intertype                      By Henry W. Cozzens
    Section IV--Other Typecasting and Typesetting
                Machines                            By Frank H. Smith

     A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their
     mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.

PART III--_Imposition and Stonework_

24. =Locking Forms for the Job Press=                  By Frank S. Henry

     Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and
     about general work on the stone. Illustrated; review questions;

25. =Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press=           By Frank S. Henry

     Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods
     of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.

PART IV--_Presswork_

26. =Making Ready on Platen Presses=                     By T. G. McGrew

     The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive
     features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan,
     regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting
     gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; review questions;

27. =Cylinder Presswork=                                 By T. G. McGrew

     Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers,
     ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and
     overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; review questions;

28. =Pressroom Hints and Helps=                     By Charles L. Dunton

     Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with
     directions and useful information relating to a variety of
     printing-press problems. 87 pp.; 176 review questions.

29. =Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts=          By A. W. Elson

     A primer of information about the distinctive features of the
     relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing.
     84 pp.; illustrated; 100 review questions; glossary.

PART V--_Pamphlet and Book Binding_

30. =Pamphlet Binding=                            By Bancroft L. Goodwin

     A primer of information about the various operations employed in
     binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated;
     review questions; glossary.

31. =Book Binding=                                     By John J. Pleger

     Practical information about the usual operations in binding books;
     folding; gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case
     making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and
     blank-book binding. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

PART VI--_Correct Literary Composition_

32. =Word Study and English Grammar=                   By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about words, their relations, and their
     uses. 68 pp.; 84 review questions; glossary.

33. =Punctuation=                                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their
     use, both grammatically and typographically. 56 pp.; 59 review
     questions; glossary.

34. =Capitals=                                         By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical
     typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48 pp.; 92 review
     questions; glossary.

35. =Division of Words=                                By F. W. Hamilton

     Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks
     on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42 pp.; 70 review

36. =Compound Words=                                   By F. W. Hamilton

     A study of the principles of compounding, the components of
     compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34 pp.; 62 review questions.

37. =Abbreviations and Signs=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with
     classified lists of those in most common use. 58 pp.; 32 review

38. =The Uses of Italic=                               By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the history and uses of italic
     letters. 31 pp.; 37 review questions.

39. =Proofreading=                                     By Arnold Levitas

     The technical phases of the proofreader's work; reading, marking,
     revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated by
     examples. 59 pp.; 69 review questions; glossary.

40. =Preparation of Printers' Copy=                    By F. W. Hamilton

     Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in
     preparing copy for the composing room. 36 pp.; 67 review questions.

41. =Printers' Manual of Style=

     A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions
     relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization,
     abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.

42. =The Printer's Dictionary=                          By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about
     various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical
     terms explained. Illustrated.

PART VII--_Design, Color, and Lettering_

43. =Applied Design for Printers=                       By Harry L. Gage

     A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on
     the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats of
     harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and
     variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37 illustrations; 46
     review questions; glossary; bibliography.

44. =Elements of Typographic Design=                    By Harry L. Gage

     Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building
     material of typography: paper, types, ink, decorations and
     illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book,
     treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units.
     Illustrations; review questions, glossary; bibliography.

45. =Rudiments of Color in Printing=                    By Harry L. Gage

     Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster
     effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with
     process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and
     chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value,
     intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory
     of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full
     color, and on various papers. Review questions; glossary;

46. =Lettering in Typography=                           By Harry L. Gage

     Printer's use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect.
     Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on
     type design. Classification of general forms in lettering.
     Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully
     illustrated; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

47. =Typographic Design in Advertising=                 By Harry L. Gage

     The printer's function in advertising. Precepts upon which
     advertising is based. Printer's analysis of his copy. Emphasis,
     legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising
     typography. Illustrations; review questions; glossary;

48. =Making Dummies and Layouts=                        By Harry L. Gage

     A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a
     proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout.
     Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy
     envelopes. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

PART VIII--_History of Printing_

49. =Books Before Typography=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the
     history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62 pp.;
     illustrated; 64 review questions.

50. =The Invention of Typography=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about.
     64 pp.; 62 review questions.

51. =History of Printing=--Part I                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the
     development of the book, the development of printers' materials,
     and the work of the great pioneers. 63 pp.; 55 review questions.

52. =History of Printing=--Part II                     By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the printing industry
     from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship,
     internal conditions and industrial relations. 94 pp.; 128 review

53. =Printing in England=                              By F. W. Hamilton

     A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present
     time. 89 pp.; 65 review questions.

54. =Printing in America=                              By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes
     on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98 pp.;
     84 review questions.

55. =Type and Presses in America=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and
     press building in the United States. 52 pp.; 61 review questions.

PART IX--_Cost Finding and Accounting_

56. =Elements of Cost in Printing=                    By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.

57. =Use of a Cost System=                            By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.

58. =The Printer as a Merchant=                       By Henry P. Porter

     The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing.
     The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of
     the finished product. Review questions. Glossary.

59. =Fundamental Principles of Estimating=            By Henry P. Porter

     The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for
     estimating. Review questions. Glossary.

60. =Estimating and Selling=                          By Henry P. Porter

     An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their
     relation to selling. Review questions. Glossary.

61. =Accounting for Printers=                         By Henry P. Porter

     A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary
     books and accessory records. Review questions. Glossary.

PART X--_Miscellaneous_

62. =Health, Sanitation, and Safety=                  By Henry P. Porter

     Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new;
     practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and
     rules for safety.

63. =Topical Index=                                    By F. W. Hamilton

     A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic
     Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

64. =Courses of Study=                                 By F. W. Hamilton

     A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for
     classroom and shop work.


This series of Typographic Text-books is the result of the splendid
co-operation of a large number of firms and individuals engaged in the
printing business and its allied industries in the United States of

The Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America, under
whose auspices the books have been prepared and published, acknowledges
its indebtedness for the generous assistance rendered by the many
authors, printers, and others identified with this work.

While due acknowledgment is made on the title and copyright pages of
those contributing to each book, the Committee nevertheless felt that a
group list of co-operating firms would be of interest.

The following list is not complete, as it includes only those who have
co-operated in the production of a portion of the volumes, constituting
the first printing. As soon as the entire list of books comprising the
Typographic Technical Series has been completed (which the Committee
hopes will be at an early date), the full list will be printed in each

The Committee also desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to the many
subscribers to this Series who have patiently awaited its publication.


    HENRY P. PORTER, _Chairman_,

  FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, _Education Director_.


=For Composition and Electrotypes=

  S. H. BURBANK & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  J. S. CUSHING & CO., Norwood, Mass.
  R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS CO., Chicago, Ill.
  GEO. H. ELLIS CO., Boston, Mass.
  EVANS-WINTER-HEBB, Detroit, Mich.
  GAGE PRINTING CO., LTD., Battle Creek, Mich.
  F. H. GILSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass.
  STEPHEN GREENE & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  WILLIAM GREEN, New York, N. Y.
  W. F. HALL PRINTING CO., Chicago, Ill.
  FRANK D. JACOBS CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  WILSON H. LEE CO., New Haven, Conn.
  J. B. LIPPINCOTT CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  MACCALLA & CO. INC., Philadelphia, Pa.
  THE PLIMPTON PRESS, Norwood, Mass.
  POOLE BROS., Chicago, Ill.
  EDWARD STERN & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, Mass.

=For Composition=

  WILLIAM F. FELL CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  OXFORD-PRINT, Boston, Mass.
  TOBY RUBOVITS, Chicago, Ill.


  C. J. PETERS & SON CO., Boston, Mass.
  ROYAL ELECTROTYPE CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
  H. C. WHITCOMB & CO., Boston, Mass.

=For Engravings=

  C. B. COTTRELL & SONS CO., Westerly, R. I.
  HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Mass.
  INLAND PRINTER CO., Chicago, Ill.
  GEO. H. MORRILL CO., Norwood, Mass.
  THE PRINTING ART, Cambridge, Mass.
  B. D. RISING PAPER COMPANY, Housatonic, Mass.

=For Book Paper=

  BRYANT PAPER CO., Kalamazoo, Mich.
  THE MIAMI PAPER CO., West Carrollton, Ohio.
  WEST VIRGINIA PULP & PAPER CO., Mechanicville, N. Y.

=For Book Cloth=

  INTERLAKEN MILLS, Providence, R. I.

Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _underscore_.

Passages in bold are indicated by =bold=.

According to the text on page 13, one example for rule 25 and one
example for rule 26 appear to be incorrect. These have been left
as presented in the original text.

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