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´╗┐Title: Pung Chow - The Game of a Hundred Intelligences. Also known as Mah-Diao, Mah-Jong, Mah-Cheuk, Mah-Juck and Pe-Ling
Author: Harr, Lew Lysle, 1882-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Pung Chow - The Game of a Hundred Intelligences. Also known as Mah-Diao, Mah-Jong, Mah-Cheuk, Mah-Juck and Pe-Ling" ***

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PUNG-CHOW

THE GAME OF A HUNDRED INTELLIGENCES

_Also known as_

MAH-DIAO

MAH-JONG

MAH-CHEUK

MAH-JUCK

_and_

PE-LING

by

L. L. HARR



[Illustration]


Harper & Brothers, _Publishers_
New York and London

Copyright, 1922
by L. L. Harr

Printed in the U. S. A.



NOTE


Mr. L. L. Harr's skill in the game of Pung Chow has been acquired
through more than twenty years of intimate contact with the business and
official circles of cultured Chinese in Canton, Shanghai, Tientsin,
Pekin and other centers of China. Mr. Harr has enjoyed more opportunity
to mingle in polite Chinese society than any other European or American
resident I knew in China.

Mr. Harr, in consequence, was perhaps one of the first foreigners who
learned the game from the best players in China. What is more, Mr.
Harr's unusually keen appreciation and enthusiasm were largely
instrumental in arousing the popularity of this extraordinarily
fascinating Chinese game in the Western Hemisphere. To use a familiar
American phrase, Mr. Harr was unquestionably one of the pioneers who put
"PUNG CHOW" on the map west of Suez.

Mr. Harr has not only brought the game to America, but has written the
first authoritative book on "Pung Chow," based on the best modern
methods of Chinese play.

    J. D. BUSH,
      Professor of English Literature,
      Pekin National University,
      Pekin, China.

    January, 1923.



PUNG-CHOW


Score Card

For Hands Played Without a Limit


Winning Hand Bonus Scores

    For Mah-Jong                                            20 points

    For no sequences in hand or on table                    10 points

    For no other score than Mah-Jong in hand or on table    10 points

    For winning on a draw from the loose tiles              10 points

    For drawing the winning piece                            2 points

    For filling in the only place to win                     2 points


Combination Scores

                                               On Table     In Hand
                                               (Exposed)   (Concealed)

    For 3 of a kind of twos, threes, fours,
      fives, sixes, sevens or eights            2 points     4 points

    For 3 of a kind of ones, nines, winds
      or dragons                                4 points     8 points

    For 4 of a kind of twos, threes, fours,
      fives, sixes, sevens or eights            8 points    16 points

    For 4 of a kind of ones, nines, winds
      or dragons                               16 points    32 points

    For a pair of any dragon or the player's
      own wind                                               2 points


Doubling Honors

    For three (or four) green dragons,        double total score once.

    For three (or four) red   dragons,        double total score once.

    For three (or four) white dragons,        double total score once.

    For three (or four) of own wind,          double total score once.

    For having all one suit except honor pieces,
                                              double total score once.

    For all one suit,                      double total score 3 times.

    For all honor pieces,                  double total score 3 times.

    For winning on original hand as drawn from the wall,
                                           double total score 3 times.

See page 65 for scoring values when hands are played with a limit.



INTRODUCTION


Out of China has come this stately game with the lure of Oriental
mysticism to whet jaded appetites and with possibilities for study that
challenge the keenest intelligence.

There is a mysticism about the Oriental and his mode of life that
challenges the imagination and induces a curiosity hard to decipher. The
dress of the Chinese, their strange customs, their difficult language,
and their apparently impenetrable mask-like faces appeal to the fancy
and throw a veil of mystery around even the commonplace.

The origin of this game is lost in the mist of centuries past. There is,
though, an oral tradition to the effect that it was originated in the
Court of the King of Wu, now known as Ning-Po, during the year of 472
B.C. to entertain his consort and her court ladies and to help them
while away the time which lay heavily on their hands. This was about the
time of Confucius. It is, however, known to have been the Royal game,
restricted to the use of Emperors and their friends of the Mandarin
class for two thousand years. To them it was known as Pe-Ling
(pronounced Bah-Ling) taking its name from the "bird of a hundred
intelligences," the lark-like creature sacred in the Chinese faith which
now may be seen reproduced on most Chinese tapestries and embroideries.
The penalty paid by one of any other class for playing Pe-Ling at that
time, was the loss of his head. Later--no one knows just when--the
privilege of playing this wonder game was extended to the merchant or
middle classes--and when, some 70 years ago--a social uprising
threatened, one of the concessions granted to calm the unrest was the
universal privilege of playing this game. In this way was caused the
confusion of names for the game which exists even to-day in China; for,
with the abolishing of Pe-Ling, each province applied their own name and
pronunciation to the game, with the result that now we have from twelve
to eighteen different names, by which the game is known. A few of these
are Ma-Cheuk, Mah-Jong, Mah-Juck, Mah-Diao and Mah-Jongg.

Pung Chow is made to withstand the climatic conditions which soon
destroy the article imported under the name of Mah-Jongg and the other
corruptions of Mah-Diao, and it is the true and original Chinese game
translated by the addition of numerals just enough to be readily
understood and not enough to spoil the artistry of the tiles. The
addition of numerals has been overdone in the marking of many of the
cheaper imported sets, and give the appearance of having had numerals
sprinkled on them regardless of where they may land and permitted to
stay.

The fundamentals of this game are simple and require only practice to
master. The science of Pung Chow must in the greater part be studied out
by the individual player and one may spend the rest of his life in
attaining to past mastery in its thousand-fold intricacies.



SUMMARY OF THE GAME


Before going thoroughly into the details of the playing of the game, it
is better to give a general view of the play and its object.

Pung Chow is played by thoroughly shuffling all of the tiles face down
in the middle of the table, and forming them in a double-tiered, hollow
square, called the wall. This wall is then broken at some point
determined by the dice and each player draws an original hand of 13
tiles. This leaves about two-thirds of the wall intact, and the rest of
the play is devoted to drawing and discarding from this remainder of the
wall; each player improving and matching his own individual hand until
having arranged it into four sets and a pair, some player wins. A set is
three of a kind, four of a kind or three in a sequence. Every set has a
scoring value, and the players add their scores and settle after every
hand. A player may win with a score as low as 22 points or scores may
run to 380,928 points. These possibilities will unfold as the following
pages on the details of the play are read.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 1. The thirty-four different tiles and
the counters]



DESCRIPTION OF TILES


The game is played with 136 tiles, which are divided into four distinct
and separate suits. These four suits are called the _Bamboo_, _Dot_,
_Character_ and _Honor Suits_.

The first three of these suits score equally and are arranged in the
same manner, that is, there are 36 tiles in each, numbering from one to
nine, and there are four tiles of each numeral.

The fourth suit, known as the honor suit, is divided into three parts:
the _Dragons_, the _Winds_ and the _Mandarins_. Of the _Dragons_, there
are four apiece of three different kinds, the Red, Green and White
Dragons. The _Winds_ are North, South, East and West with four tiles
alike for each. The _Mandarins_ (also called _Seasons_, and _Flowers_),
are 8 in number, and as they are only used in limit hands, will be
discussed later.

From Illustration No. 2 a player will see that there are four of every
different tile in the set, and that there are 34 different tiles.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 2--The complete set of tiles]



PROCEDURE OF PLAY


A. EAST WIND.

Position of the players for the first game is determined by a throw of
the dice; all players throw once, the one throwing the highest number
becoming first _East Wind_. In the event of a tie, players tieing throw
again. The player sitting opposite _East Wind_ will be known as _West
Wind_, to the right of _East Wind_ as _South Wind_, and the left of
_East Wind_, as _North Wind_. The dice need only be thrown to determine
_East Wind_ for the first game of an evening's play, for if the player
representing _East Wind_ wins, or if the game is a draw, he remains
_East Wind_. If he loses, the player to his right becomes _East Wind_,
he in turn becoming _North Wind_.

_East Wind_ is sometimes called _Banker_, for he must pay double stakes
when he loses, and wins double stakes when he wins.

                  West
              +-----------+
              |           |
              |           |
       North  |           |  South
              |           |
              |           |
              +-----------+
                  East

[Illustration: Illustration No. 3. Positions of Winds about Table.]


B. BUILDING AND BREAKING THE WALL.

Before building the wall the tiles must all be turned face down on the
table and thoroughly shuffled. Then each player proceeds to build one
side of the wall by taking 34 of the tiles at random, and arranging them
side by side in a row 17 tiles long and 2 tiers high.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 4.]

Each player then moves his side of the wall forward, the four sides
forming a hollow square. This represents a Chinese wall or fort common
in the protection of cities.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 5.]

To find the point at which the wall is to be broken, _East Wind_ always
throws the dice. The number thrown will indicate the player who is to
break the wall. The player is found by _East Wind_ counting around the
table to the right, starting with himself as "one," until he reaches the
number thrown which will designate the player to break the wall.

                    W
                  3-7-11
              +-----------+
              |           |
           N  |           |  S
      4-8-12  |           |  2-6-10
              |           |
              +-----------+
                    E
                   5-9

[Illustration: Illustration No. 6.]

In this illustration, if _East Wind_ threw a "7," starting with himself
as one, _South_ would be 2, _West_ 3, _North_ 4, _East_ 5, _South_ 6,
and _West_ 7, designating _West_ as the player to break the wall.

The player who has been designated to break the wall then throws the
dice to determine the exact tile at which he shall break the wall,
adding this throw to _East Wind_. This sum will indicate the tile at
which the wall is to be broken, the player to break the wall counting
the sum off from the right end of his own side, i.e., if 14 is the sum
of the two throws, the wall will be broken by lifting out the 14th tile
from the right with the one under it and placing both on the top of the
wall to the right of where it was broken. These two are called loose
tiles and they mark the end of the wall.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 7. _East Wind_ threw "7" indicating
_West Wind_ as the wall-breaker. _West Wind_ then threw "7" designating
the 14th tile from the right end of his side of the wall, as the exact
spot where the wall was to be broken. The loose tiles are shown in
correct position.]


C. DRAWING THE ORIGINAL HAND:

Each player then draws the 13 tiles which go to make up his original
hand. _East Wind_ starts the drawing by taking the first four tiles (2
blocks of 2 each) at the beginning of the wall, the player on his right
the next four and so on around the table three times which will give
each player 12 tiles. Then one tile apiece is drawn in regular order
giving every player 13 tiles, except _East Wind_ who draws an extra tile
as he must make the first discard.


D. PLAYING THE HAND:

[Illustration: Illustration No. 8. The wall--after the original hands
have been drawn. Wall showing draw.]

Each player then takes his original hand and arranges it to suit his own
convenience. It is advised, however, that he arrange it in suits in
order to see at a glance, the value of any one tile to his hand in the
drawing and discarding of which the rest of the game consists.

When the hands have been arranged, _East Wind_ starts the play by
discarding any tile in his hand, face up in the center of the table. It
is because of this first discard that he drew an extra tile. The play
then goes to the right, it becoming the turn of _South Wind_ to draw the
next tile in the wall and discard any one he may choose. _West Wind_
then draws and discards and so on around the table, constantly in a
counter-clockwise direction.

The players during this drawing and discarding are gradually improving
their hands, and matching them into four sets and an extra tile, a set
being _three of a kind_, _four of a kind_, or _three in a sequence_.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 9.

                        Examples of
    Three of a kind    Four of a kind    Three in sequence ]

When a player accomplishes this, he must only match the extra tile
forming a _pair_ and thus, completing his hand, having four complete
sets and a pair. He announces "_Mah-Jongg_" wins, the game is over, the
scores are settled and the wall built up for the next game.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 10. Several completed hands]

As completing a hand entirely by draw from the wall would be a
difficult task, the players are permitted to make use of any discard,
_as it is discarded_, provided they have the required tiles already in
their hand as explained below in "_Chow_" and "_Pung_."


E. TO CHOW:

A player having two tiles in his hand which, together with the tile just
discarded by the player before him (to his left), would form a sequence
or run of three, may by announcing "_Chow_" pick up the discard, add it
to the two in his hand, and place the three in sequence face up on the
table to the right of his hand. This appropriating the discard serves as
the player's draw and he must then discard and the play goes on in the
usual manner.

For example: If one has a 5-6 of _character_ and the player preceding
him discards either a 4 or a 7 of _character_, he may "_Chow_" the tile,
and discard; or ignore it and draw from the wall and discard, in hopes
of building a better hand, as often will be found advisable.

The main point to be remembered in "_Chowing_" is that a player may
"_Chow_" _only in his regular turn_, i.e., he may "_Chow_" only tiles
discarded by the player to his left and then _only when he has the other
two tiles in his hand_ to form the sequence. Sequences can only be built
up in sets of three.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 11. In this illustration the player
having a 4 and 6 of character in his hand has "_chowed_" the 5 character
which the player to his left discarded and after setting out his
sequence, discards himself, leaving the usual 13 tiles in his hand.]


F. TO PUNG:

A player may also appropriate another player's discard to fill a set of
three of a kind or four of a kind by announcing "_Pung_." In order to do
this, the player must have _a pair_, or _three of a kind in his hand_ to
match with the discard, thus completing three or four of a kind, which
he places, as in the case of a "_Chow_," to the right of his hand, face
up on the table. For example: A player having a pair or three fives of
the character suit, may _pung_ when another player discards a five
character, expose his set and discard, the play going on in the regular
direction from him.

It is not necessary for it to be the player's turn to draw in order to
"_Pung_" as it is in the case of a "_Chow_." A player having a pair
similar to a tile discarded, may announce "_Pung_" and appropriate the
tile, _regardless of who discarded it and of whose turn it is to draw_.
Also after a player "_Pungs_" and discards, the play goes on from him to
the right. It can be seen that due to _punging_ one or even two players
are liable to lose their turn.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 12. In this illustration, _East_ played
in regular turn and _South_ drew the 9 _character_, which, having no use
for, he discarded. _East_ having a pair of nines _character_ in his hand
"_Punged_," completing the set and causing _West_ and _North Winds_ to
lose their turns. _East_ then exposed his set of nines next to the
sequence of three he had previously _chowed_ and exposed, discarded and
play went on in the usual routine, _North_ drawing and discarding.]

There are a few rules applying to the "_Chow_" and "_Pung_." They are as
follows:

1. All tiles must be "_punged_" or "_chowed_" _as they are discarded_;
for a tile discarded by a player and allowed to remain in discard until
the next player discards, becomes "dead" and _cannot be_ touched during
the rest of the game.

2. It has been stated that one cannot "_pung_" unless it makes up three
or four of a kind. This is true with one exception. In the case: when a
tile will complete a player's hand allowing him to "_Mah-Jongg_," the
tile may be punged. Example: A player with four sets and an odd tile may
_pung_ a tile which matches his odd one. The rule is that "_a player may
at any time 'Pung' a discard which will complete his hand and allow him
to Mah-Jongg_."

3. The denomination and suit of each tile must be announced as it is
discarded, a player discarding a 3 of _character_, announcing _3
character_, to prevent confusion of a player who may be studying his
hand. This is more of a courtesy of the game, than a rule.

4. A "_Pung_" has precedence over a "_Chow_" and if one player can pung
the same discard that another player can chow, the former has the right
to appropriate the tile.

5. If a player can pung a discard which will complete his _hand_ and
another player can pung the same discard to complete a _set_, the former
has the right to take the discard.

6. If two players pung the same tile to complete their hands, the
precedence is given to the player claiming the tile nearest to the
discarder in a counter-clockwise direction around the table.



FOUR OF A KIND:


Before speaking of "_four of a kind_," it is better to give the reason
for exposing a set made up of a pair and a punged discard, and make
clear at the same time, what is to be done when three of a kind are
completed by draw.

A set made up of a pair and a punged discard must be "exposed" by
setting it out face up, on the table to the right of the players' tiles,
first, to show to the other players that he had the required pair, which
gave him the right to appropriate the discard, and secondly, to separate
the set from those completed entirely by draw from the wall. Sets
completed by help of an appropriated (punged) discard, have only
one-half the scoring value of exactly the same sets, completed by draw
from the wall and kept in the hand.

Thus there are many advantages in drawing the third tile to complete a
set of three of a kind when compared to "punging" the same, for in the
former case, the set has twice as much scoring value, they are kept
concealed in the hand and the opponents can only guess as to how nearly
complete a concealed hand may be. A concealed set is counted as one of
the four sets required to win, just as an exposed set would be, and a
player having a set of three of a kind concealed has very good chances
of filling it and thus forming four of a kind which counts a great deal
higher.

A player may complete a set of four of a kind either by draw from the
wall or "punging" an opponent's discard, if he has three of a kind
_already in his hand_. In _either_ case he must place the completed set
on the table to the right of his tiles; all four face up if he "punged"
the fourth, the two end tiles face down if he has "drawn" the fourth.

The player must immediately draw a "_loose tile_" (one of the two tiles
on top of, and marking the end of the wall). Usually the one farthest
from the end is taken, the one on the end moved up, and replaced by a
tile from the end of the wall itself.

The "_loose tile_" was drawn because every time a player completes a
set of four of a kind, he causes the rest of his hand to be one tile
short. This must be made up every time four of a kind is filled by an
extra tile drawn from the "_loose_" tiles.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 13. In this illustration the player had
three one dots in his hand when one of the opponents discarded the
fourth one dot. This player "_punged_" it, matched the four of a kind,
exposed them, drew a "loose tile" and discarded.]

[Illustration: Illustration No. 14. In this illustration the player had
three one dots in his hand and _drew_ the fourth in his regular turn to
draw. This set counts in scoring as much as it would in his hand but
must be exposed in order to draw the "loose tile." Therefore the end
tiles are turned down to show that in counting the score that the set is
counted as if it were held in the hand.]

[Illustration: Illustration No. 15. In this illustration the player has
one set of 3 one dots punged and completed, and is now trying to match
up the rest of his hand. If another player discards a one dot he cannot
touch it and must let it go by. However, if he draws the fourth one dot
himself, he may add it on to his set of 3, draw a loose tile and discard
as usual. As can be seen from the last three illustrations, the rule in
the case of four of a kind is as follows:]

_In any set which a player may have exposed on the table there must not
be more than_ (1) _punged tile_.

A player having three of a kind in his hand may _pung_ the fourth when
it is discarded or having three of a kind on the table and drawing the
fourth may add it to his 3 exposed tiles. The rule, however, bars him
from appropriating some one else's discard to make a fourth for an
exposed set of three of a kind because in order to appropriate this
discard he would have to pung it. This he has not the privilege of
doing, because he already must have one "_punged_" tile in his exposed
set or it wouldn't be exposed.



MAH-JONGG OR MAH-DIAO


As has been mentioned before when a player has matched his hand into
four (4) sets and by a draw or a pung has mated the final pair he wins
and announces "_Mah-Jongg_" or "_Mah-Diao_" (Dee-O), either being
correct and in common usage, the latter being the most logical because
of its English translation "mating the pair." A player must at all times
during the game have thirteen (13) tiles, his draw every round
momentarily giving him fourteen (14), his discard leaving him the
thirteen (13). Then for every four of a kind that he fills he should
have an extra tile in his hand on account of the extra loose tile draw.

Thus one is able at any time during the game to check his hand and
ascertain whether or not he has the correct number of tiles in it. If he
has not sets of four of a kind he should have thirteen tiles in his
hand. If he _has_ one set of four of a kind he should have fourteen
tiles in his hand, two sets of four of kind 15 tiles, and so on.

If, at any time during the game, a player has an incorrect number of
tiles in his hand, it becomes "dead." He must continue drawing and
discarding, but when the scores are settled his score does not count and
therefore he must pay all players. His only chance lies in endeavoring
to prevent the other players from completing their hands, by holding the
tiles which he believes they need and thus causing a draw game.



SETTLING THE SCORES


When the first player to complete his hand calls "_Mah-Jongg_" the game
is ended, and all players expose their hands and count up their scores.
The winner of the game collects full value of his score from each of the
other players and throwing his hand into the discard is thru for that
game.

The remaining three players then settle among themselves the
_difference_ of their scores, the high hand of the three collecting the
difference between his score and each of the remaining two players. Then
throwing his hand into the discard, leaves the remaining two to settle
their scores, the highest hand of which collects the difference.

It must be remembered here that East Wind (or banker) pays or collects
double, if he loses or wins.

Scores are most conveniently settled by the use of the counters which
are furnished with the sets. These are spotted to denote different
denominations and at the end of every hand the actual scores or
differences in scores are settled between players by the exchange of
these counters. There are several styles of counter sets. The one in
most common usage contains counters valued as follows:

                         Points

         1 Gold dot       1,000

         5 Black dots       500

         1 Black dot        100

        10 Red dots          10

         2 Red dots           2



SUGGESTIONS FOR CAREFUL PLAYING OF HANDS


In a game of this nature where every hand is different from the
preceding one and so much depends on the draw, it is very hard to lay
down any specific rules of how it should be played. There are, however,
a few points which would help if kept in mind during the play. A player
should study his original hand and after the first few draws and
discards form a general plan of what he is going to try and fill in his
hand and decide on how high a score he will have a good chance of
making. This will be decided by:

1. The condition of his own hand.

2. The discards of the other three players.

If he has an exceptionally strong hand in any one suit he will play for
that suit regardless of the other players. If he has a well-divided
hand, by watching the other players' discards, he will be able to form a
fairly good opinion of what they are doing with their hand.

After judging his hand, visualizing the sort of hand that he is to try
to fill, he should use his own judgment in drawing and discarding,
constantly watching his own hand for opportunities and his opponents'
discards for disclosures, and upon the slightest suspicion that one of
these opponents is nearing the completion of his hand, should
immediately forego any thoughts of a higher hand himself and seek to
complete his own hand as quickly as possible.

Summing this up; a player should plan and play to win at all times with
as high a hand as possible, then as the wall grows shorter and the
probability of one of the opponents completing his hand grows larger,
the player should reconsider, and

1. If he has at that stage an exceptionally good hand which will win
back for him from the other two players that which he loses to the
winner, should go on improving his hand and take the chance of another
player winning.

2. If he has just an ordinarily good hand he should stop playing to
improve his hand and start to complete it as quickly as possible, i.e.,
form sequences and mix suits, in order to win before the other players
and save himself.

3. If his hand has not improved at all or very little since the
beginning of the game and he has small chance of completing his hand in
any way before some other player does, his only plan is to hold the
tiles which he thinks would help the other players and discard only
those which he is sure they will not pung. These tiles can be
ascertained by carefully searching the discards in the center of the
table and the sets already exposed by the other players. By playing this
way he may be able to cause the game to be a draw.

There are a few other points which are taken up in the last four layouts
in Part I.



USE OF THE MANDARINS

(Flowers and Seasons)


The _Mandarins_, also called _Flowers_ and _Seasons_, are eight in
number, two for each of the four winds. They may be eliminated from the
set and are not usually used in the play, as they add a large element of
chance into the game.

If they are used, each side of the wall is increased by two tiles,
making each side a double tiered row of 18 tiles side by side.

Then, if a player draws one of his own _wind mandarins_, he exposes it
on the table and draws a "loose tile," the _mandarin_ of his own wind
permitting him to double his score once. If then he draws the other
_mandarin_ of his own wind he repeats the above process and may double
his total score again. Where "_Seasons_ and _Flowers_" are used instead
of _mandarins_ the numbers on them, 1, 2, 3 and 4, represent _East,
South, West and North winds_ respectively. The red numbers are the
"_Seasons_" and the green numbers are the "_Flowers_." They are used
exactly as are the _mandarins_, i.e., One's own "_Season_" will double
the value of his hand, as _will_ his own "_Flower_." Both of them will
double the value twice.



SCORE CARD


It will be seen at a glance that the scoring values are divided into
three parts. First, the bonus scores which only the winner can use;
secondly, the combination scores which all four players can use; finally
the doubling honors which all four players may use, so it is that in
settling the scores the winner starts at the top with twenty (20) points
for "_Mah-Jongg_" or for winning and goes down the list scoring ten
points, if he has no sequence in his hand and so on thru the bonus
scores, adding to these whatever scores he obtains from combinations in
his hand or on the table and doubling the sum as many times as he has
doubling honors.

In the bonus scores for the winning hand only there are six items:

1. "_Mah-Jongg_" which gives 20 points for winning the hand.

2. _No sequence in hand or on table._ This is a bonus of 10 points given
to a player if he wins without use of sequences.

3. _Drawing the winning piece._ This is a bonus of 2 points given to the
winning player if he _draws_ the tile which completes his hand from the
wall. Of course _punging_ the winning tile will forfeit this bonus.

4. _Filling the only place to win._ This is a bonus of 2 points given
to a player who fills the only possible place to win, i.e., winning by
matching the pair or drawing the middle tile of a sequence.

5. _Winning on a draw from a loose tile._ This of course is a bonus of
ten points given to the winning player if any of his loose tile draws
have been fortunate enough to complete his hand.

6. _No other score than "Mah-Jongg" in hand or on table._ This is a
bonus of ten points given to the winning player having only 20 points
for "_Mah-Jongg_" as his score, and is a hand made up of four sequences
and a pair in which there is no score, a sequence having no scoring
value whatsoever. Of course even drawing the winning piece will forfeit
this bonus as can easily be seen.

In the combination scores exposed sets are those on the table; face up
to the right of the player, concealed sets are those which are in his
hand at the time of winning. As will be seen by the score card,
concealed sets having been made up by the player without the assistance
of a pung or chow score twice as much as the same set would if it were
on the table. This together with the fact that sets of ones, nines,
winds or dragons score twice as much as sets of twos, threes, fours,
fives, sixes, sevens and eights should be helpful in memorizing the
score which is essential to the careful playing of each hand.

As for the doubling honors, each set or combination doubles the total
score once, and if there are five _doubling honors_ in a hand, the total
score should be doubled five times--for example: a player goes
_Mah-Jongg_ or _Mah-Diao_ having 32 points in bonus scores, 18 in
combination scores, making his total score 50. Then if he has five
_doubling honors_ his final score is 1,600 points, i.e.,
50-100-200-400-800-1,600.



EXAMPLE OF HANDS AND HOW THEY ARE SCORED


[Illustration: Example No. 1.]

    For Mah-Jongg                         20
    For Three 2 Dots                       2
                                        ----
                                          22 Total Score
    No double honors:                     22 Final Score

In this hand the player punged the 2 dot which completed his hand, 20
for _Mah-Jongg_ as the only bonus score he has because: 1. He has
sequences. 2. He did not draw the winning piece. 3. He did not fill the
only place to win. 4. He has other score than _Mah-Jongg_. 5. He did not
win on a loose tile draw. In combination value, he has only two points
for the set of three 2 dots, the sets of sequences helping complete the
hand, but scoring nothing. There are no doubling honors in the hand so
the final score is 22. This is the lowest winning hand that can be
scored.


[Illustration: Example No. 2]

    Winner chowed the 1 character to complete hand. Score is

    Mah-Jongg                             20
                                        ----
    No other scores on hand or on table   10
                                        ----
                                          30 Total Score
    No combination scores or doubling
                                honors    30 Final Score


[Illustration: Example No. 3]

    Mah-Jongg--20                         20
    No sequences--10                      10
    Filling only place to win--2           2
    Drawing wins p.--2                     2
                                        ----
                                          34
    3 ones concealed                       8
    3 threes concealed                     4
    3 fives exposed                        2
    3 fours exposed                        2
                                        ----
                                          50 Total Score
    No doubling honors:                   50 Final Score


[Illustration: Example No. 4]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
    Drawing winning piece                  2
                                        ----
                                          32
    3 sixes (concealed)                    4
    3 twos (exposed)                       2
    3 dragons (exposed)                    4
    3 threes (exposed)                     2
                                        ----
                                          44 Total Score
    Double once for red dragons           88 Final Score


[Illustration: Example No. 5]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
    Drawing winning piece                  2
    Filling only place to win              2
                                        ----
                                          34
    3 twos (exposed)                       2
    3 nines (exposed)                      4
    3 ones (exposed)                       4
    3 dragons (exposed)                    4
                                        ----
                                          48 Total Score
    Double once for green dragons         96
    Double once for all one suit except
      winds or dragons                   192 Final Score


[Illustration: Example No. 6]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
    Drawing winning piece                  2
    Filling only place to win              2
                                        ----
                                          34
    4 nines (concealed)                   32
    3 sevens (exposed)                     2
    3 fours (concealed)                    4
    3 ones (concealed)                     8
                                        ----
                                          80 Total Score
    Double three times for               160
    All one suit                         320
                                         640 Total Score


[Illustration: Example No. 7]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
                                        ----
                                          30
    4 dragons (concealed)                 32
    4 winds (exposed)                     16
    3 dragons (exposed)                    4
    3 dragons (concealed)                  8
                                        ----
                                          90 Total Score
    Double three times for all           180
    One suit (honor)                     360
                                         720
    Double once for red dragons         1440
    Double once for white dragons       2880
    Double once for green dragons       5760 Total Score

If this hand is held by the East Wind he may double again for having a
set of his own wind, making his score 11,520, and being East Wind, he
collects double from each player when he wins, making his total 23,040
from each of the other three players or 69,120 in all.


[Illustration: Example No. 8]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
                                        ----
                                          30
    3 dragons (exposed)                    4
    3 fours (exposed)                      2
    3 eights (exposed)                     2
    3 dragons (concealed)                  8
                                        ----
                                          46 Total Score
    Double once for white dragons         92
    Double once for green dragons        184 Final Score

If player is East Wind, he collects double, or 368 from each player. If
any other wind, he collects 368 from East Wind and 184 from the other
two players.


[Illustration: Example No. 9]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No other score in hand or on table    10
                                        ----
                                          30  Total Score
    Double three times for all            60
    One suit                             120
                                         240  Final Score

Note: In this hand the player did not even fill the only place to win
as a 6 character would have won also.

If player is East Wind, he collects 480 from each of the other three
players. If any other wind, he collects 480 from East Wind and 240 from
the other two players.


[Illustration: Example No. 10]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
    Winning on loose tile draw            10
    Drawing winning piece                  2
    Filling only place to win              2
                                        ----
                                          44
    4 nines (exposed)                     16
    4 ones (concealed)                    32
    4 dragons (exposed)                   16
    4 dragons (exposed)                   16
                                        ----
                                         124 Total Score
    Double once for red dragons          248
    Double once for green dragons        496 Final Score


[Illustration: Example No. 11]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
    Drawing winning piece                  2
                                        ----
                                          32
    3 winds (concealed)                    8
    3 dragons (concealed)                  8
    3 twos (concealed)                     4
    3 nines (concealed)                    8
                                        ----
                                          60 Total Score
    Double once for all one suit
      except winds or dragons            120
    Double once for red dragons          240

    Double once for own wind             480 Final Score

This illustration assumes player to be North Wind. This player collects
double, or 960, from East Wind and 480 each from South and West Winds.


[Illustration: Example No. 12]

    Mah-Jongg                             20
                                        ----
                                          20
    3 fives (exposed)                      2
    3 winds (exposed)                      4
    2 dragons                              2
                                        ----
                                          28 Total Score
    Double once for all one suit except
      winds or dragons                    56 Final Score

Note: Two points for pair of red dragons. Dragons and own wind are only
pairs that score, and they are limited to two points.


[Illustration: Example No. 13]

PLAYER IS EAST WIND

    Mah-Jongg                             20
    No sequence                           10
                                        ----
                                          30
    3 winds (exposed)                      4
    3 ones (exposed)                       4
    3 fours (exposed)                      2
    3 dragons (exposed)                    8
                                        ----
                                          48 Total Score
    Double once for all one suit
      except winds or dragons             96
    Double once for red dragons          192
    Double once for own wind             384
    Collect double from each player
       being east wind and winning       768 Final Score
                                             from each player


[Illustration: Example No. 14]

PLAYER IS WEST WIND

    Mah-Jongg                            20
    No sequence                          10
    Draw winning piece                    2
                                       ----
                                         32
    3 winds (concealed)                   8
    3 winds (concealed)                   8
    4 winds (concealed)                  32
    3 winds (exposed)                     4
                                       ----
                                         84
    Double 3 times for all one          168
    Suit (honor)                        336
                                        672
    Double once for own wind           1344

Collects 2688 from East Wind and 1344 apiece from North and South Winds.


[Illustration: Example No. 15]

PLAYER IS EAST WIND

    Mah-Jongg                            20
    No sequence                          10
    Only place to win                     2
                                       ----
                                         32
    4 ones (concealed)                   32
    4 nines (concealed)                  32
    4 fours (exposed)                     8
    4 sevens (exposed)                    8
                                       ----
                                        112 Total Score
    Double 3 times for all              224
    One suit                            448
                                        896
    Double once because player is East
      wind and won                     1792 Final Score
                                            from each player


[Illustration: Example No. 16]

PLAYER IS EAST WIND

    Mah-Jongg                            20
                                       ----
    3 fours (concealed)                  20
    3 dragons (concealed)                 4
                                          8
                                       ----
                                         32 Total Score
    Double 3 times for winning on
      Original hand                      64
                                        128
                                        256
    Double once for red dragons         512
    Collects double because is East
      wind and won                          1024 Final Score
                                            from each player


[Illustration: Example No. 17]

PLAYER IS SOUTH WIND

    Mah-Jongg                            20
    Drawing winning piece                 2
    Filling only place to win             2
                                       ----
                                         24
    3 ones (concealed)                    8
    3 fours (concealed)                   4
    4 winds (concealed)                  32
    2 own wind                            2
                                       ----
                                         70 Total Score
    Double once for all one suit except
      winds or dragons                  140 Final Score

Collects double, or 280, from East wind; 140 from North and South
respectively.


[Illustration: Example No. 18]

PLAYER IS NORTH WIND

    Mah-Jongg                            20
    No sequence                          10
                                       ----
                                         30
    4 ones (concealed)                   32
    4 nines (exposed)                    16
    4 nines (concealed)                  32
    3 dragons (concealed)                 8
                                       ----
                                        118 Total Score
    Double once for green dragons       236 Final Score

Collects double, or 472, from East wind: 236 from West and South winds
respectively.


[Illustration: Example No. 19]

PLAYER IS WEST WIND

    Mah-Jongg                            20
                                       ----
                                         20
    3 winds (concealed)                   8
    3 dragons (exposed)                   4
                                       ----
                                         32
    Double once for all one suit except
    winds or dragons                     64
    Double once for white dragons       128
    Double once for own wind            256

Collects 512 from East wind, 256 from North and South, respectively.


[Illustration: Example No. 20]

PLAYER IS EAST WIND

    Mah-Jongg                            20
    No sequence                          10
    Winning on loose tile draw           10
    Drawing winning piece                 2
    Filling only place to win             2
                                       ----
                                         44
    4 dragons (concealed)                32
    4 dragons (concealed)                32
    4 dragons (concealed)                32
    4 winds (concealed)                  32
                                       ----
                                        172 Total Score
    Double 3 times for all of one suit
      (honor)                           344
                                        688
                                       1376
    Double once for green dragons      2752
    Double once for white dragons      5504
    Double once for red dragons       11008
    Double once for own wind          22016
    Double once because everyone must
      pay East wind double when he
      wins                            44032 Final Score

East wind collects this amount from each of the other three players,
making a total of 132,096 points that East may win in one hand. This is
the highest hand which is probable. There is a hand composed of sets of
3 of a kind, similar to this, which, if drawn on the original draw, will
yield more points than this, but it is highly improbable that the hand
will ever actually be drawn by any given player.



ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCORE SETTLING


In the four layouts following, the illustrations represent all the hands
together as they are laid down after one of the players wins. They serve
to clear up "settling" of the scores and also bring out important points
in the playing of the hands. In each case the score of the four players
is given in total and practice in the calculating of scores can be
obtained by beginners by scoring these hands and comparing their results
with the given scores.

                  West Wind
                     400
                +-----------+
                |           |
    North Wind  |           |  South Wind
        16      |           |      64
                |           |
                +-----------+
                  East Wind
                     608

[Illustration:

West Wind 400

South Wind 64

East Wind 608

North Wind 16]

East Wind "Mah-Jongged" with a total score of 608 points. He collects
double this amount from each of the other three winds because he is East
Wind, and winning, collects double. This makes 1216 from each player or
a total of 3648. He then throws his hand into the discard and the other
three players settle, the high hand collecting the difference between
his hand and the remaining two. In the illustration, West Wind is the
high hand and he collects 336 from South Wind and 484 from North Wind,
the difference between his hand and those of South and North Winds,
respectively. He then discards his hand and leaves the South and North
Winds to settle. They do this by South Wind collecting 48 points from
North; both discard their tiles, and the scores are settled. It might be
best here to analyze the above layout to see how the play went. East
Wind's hand appeared harmless enough because he had most of it
concealed, only exposing two sets. On this account, none of the other
opponents would hesitate about discarding the eight of bamboo which
allowed him to Mah-Jongg. North and South Winds having poor hands
themselves might have held the eight of bamboo and not have taken a
chance on it "putting him out" if they had been warned how near he was
to winning, for West Wind had an exceptionally fine hand with the best
part of it concealed and he won back from North and South Winds more
than half of his payment to East, the winner.

North and South Winds fell in a conflict of suits, one of the most
frequent occurrences of the game and one which spoils a great many
otherwise good hands. They were both attempting to complete "all dot"
hands and each has two conflicting pairs, namely, 5 and 6 of dots.
Either of them to win can only have one pair in their hand, and each was
holding the other from any chance of winning.

When two players play for the same suit, it is best for both to give up
any idea of obtaining all of one suit, and fill in the hand with one or
two sets of winds or dragons. Very often one can get three doubles in
this way when it would be impossible to complete a hand of all one suit.


[Illustration:

West Wind 2816

South Wind 8

East Wind 4

North Wind 22]

NORTH WIND MAH-JONGGS

North Wind Mah-Jonggs with 22 points as his total score. He collects 22
points apiece from North Wind and South Wind. East, however, must pay
him double or 44, being banker and losing. This gives North Wind a total
of 88. The other three then settle West Wind with a total of 2816;
collects the difference between his hand and East Wind's which is 2814,
doubled because he won from East Wind and East Wind must pay double when
he loses. This gives West Wind 5628 from East Wind, and just the
difference in their hands from South Wind which is 2808. Then South Wind
in settling with East Wind collects the difference, 4, double or 8. This
layout demonstrates the point that it is not always necessary to
Mah-Jongg or win, in order to take in the highest number of points.
North Wind "Mah-Jongged" and collected only 88 points, whereas West Wind
collected a total of 8,436 points. What evidently took place in this
hand goes as follows: West Wind was exceptionally fortunate in the draw
and soon had three sets of winds and dragons exposed, or on the table.
The other three players seeing in this a dangerous hand, "ran for
cover," this consisting of gathering all the sequences possible
together, and mixing the suits. By doing this a player can very quickly
complete his hand and win, although his score will be low when he does
win. However, the one who does "Mah-Jongg," no matter how low his score
may be, collects that amount, and escapes any exceptionally high scoring
hands which the other players may hold. In this case it was North Wind
who won out and avoided paying many points to West Wind by doing so.


[Illustration:

West Wind 64

South Wind 10

East Wind 56

North Wind 416]

NORTH WIND MAH-JONGGS

In the above layout, North Wind winning, scores 416; West Wind 64;
South Wind 10, and East Wind 56; North Wind then takes 832 from East
Wind, and 416 from West and South Winds. West Wind collects 54 from
South Wind and 16 from East Wind; East Wind then collects 46 doubled or
92 from South Wind.

In this game both North and West Winds played for all dot hands; North
Wind foreseeing this early in the game filled in his hand with winds and
dragons, in this way winning out over West Wind; East Wind starting with
a pair of green dragons kept them until he had all characters except the
pair. Then came the time for him to decide on whether he would discard
the pair and try to fill an all character hand, or use the dragons. He
decided on the latter because looking at North Wind's exposed tiles he
saw that North Wind was dangerously near to winning. He filled his
dragons and attempted to win as quickly as possible, almost succeeding
and needing only one tile to complete his hand.


[Illustration:

West Wind 64

South Wind 48

East Wind 80

North Wind 152]

NORTH WIND MAH-JONGGS

North Wind "Mah-Jongged," collects 304 from East and 152 from West and
South respectively. Then--East Wind collects 16 doubled or 32 from West
and 32 doubled or 64 from South. West Wind wins 16 from South who is the
loser all around. East Wind's difficulty above was that he decided on
all bamboo hand at the start of the game without having a sufficient
number of pairs in that suit. The result was that by the time that he
_drew_ the pairs and was ready to pung discards the other players had
already discarded a number of tiles which he needed in his hand. They
were then dead. The result of all this can be seen in his hand above; he
has still two pairs and a sequence to fill and the particular tiles
needed to do this (the 4, 5 and 8 of bamboo) have probably all been
discarded early in the game by the other players. The point thus
illustrated being: It is not advisable to attempt the completing of a
suit which all the other players are discarding unless sufficient pairs
are held from the start to withstand their attacks.



PART TWO

PLAYING WITH A LIMIT



PLAYING WITH A LIMIT


Pung-Chow, as it has been described in the foregoing pages, represents
the game as it is played with unlimited hands, that is where no limits
are set on the number of points permissible in the score of a hand. It
is impractical, however, to play with unlimited hands in a game where a
stake has been set due to the inconsistencies of the winning hand
scores; one _may_ win with a hand of 200,000 points, whereas the
ordinary or average winning hand numbers approximately only 500 to
1,000.

On this account the Chinese use a lower scoring system and set limits on
the hands whenever placing stakes on the game, with a view of limiting
losses between all players.

This setting of a limit changes the game considerably, for while the
procedure of the play is similar to that of the unlimited hand, the
scoring is almost totally different and the actual playing of the hand
is changed.

A player in a limited hand gains nothing by completing a hand scoring
high in the thousands when held down to the limit which is comparatively
low. This changes entirely the playing of hands, making each player's
object no longer to score as high a hand as possible and win, but to
score as closely to the limit as possible and win, which in practice
amounts to completing the hand as quickly as possible, mixing sequences
and sets of all suits and taking all good scoring sets as they come,
planning for none.

It can be seen that there is a larger element of fortune or "luck" in
this method of playing than there is in playing the unlimited hand,
though in either case the best player will win consistently.



THE PROCEDURE OF PLAY


[Illustration:

      Indicators       Wind Box]

In playing this sort of a game the wind indicators in their container,
the Cheung Huen or wind box, are always used, and their use changes the
method of commencing the game.

To start the game when using the wind markers the seats are
preliminarily chosen and any one of the four players throws the two dice
once, the result of this throw deciding which player is to throw again
for playing position. Counting of players being done in a
counter-clockwise direction as previously explained.

The players thus designated will shuffle the wind indicators thoroughly
face downward and places any one of them still face downward on top of
wind box. He then arranges the whole lot in a perpendicular straight
line in front of them all face downward, placing the box with the wind
indicator still on top of it in any order he pleases. (See Illustration
No. 1.)

[Illustration: Illustration No. 1]

In this illustration, C first threw the dice; the number was seven,
deciding A as the player who was to throw again for playing position or
seat. A has shuffled the markers and arranged them perpendicularly in
front of him, placing the wind box in second position. He had the
privilege of placing it in 1st, 3rd or 4th position if he had chosen. He
then throws with the dice, an 8; this designates D as the player to take
the first indicator; A the second (also the wind box), B the third, and
C the fourth.

He then throws the two dice and the number thrown will decide which
player is to pick up the indicator farthest from him (or the first
indicator in the accompanying illustration) counting in the usual manner
one player at a time in counter-clockwise direction, starting with
himself as 1. The player indicated will pick up the first indicator, the
player on his right the second indicator, the player opposite the third
and the player to his left the east.

The wind box goes to the player picking up the indicator on top of it
who then places it in front of him to mark the seat of East Wind. The
players then look at their indicators; the one drawing the East Wind
indicator becomes East Wind, and occupies the seat marked by the wind
box. The remaining three players seat themselves about the table
according to their draw or wind marker, i.e., draw of West Wind
indicator opposite to East, North Wind to the left and South Wind to the
right of him (East).

East Wind now takes charge of the wind box and the four indicators which
are placed in the wind box face up with East Wind on top. The East Wind
player retains the box until he loses a hand. When this occurs the box
goes to the right to the player who was South, but now becomes East
Wind. The East Wind indicator, however, still remaining on top as this
designates that the East Wind round is being played. The East Wind round
is over as soon as the fourth player to be East Wind in turn loses. He
is the one to take charge of the East Wind indicator and placing the
South Wind indicator on top to indicate the South Wind round, hands the
box to the original East Wind who now becomes the first East Wind of the
South Wind round. It will now be seen that four games make up a round
and four rounds make up a set. In every case the new wind-round must
commence from the original East Wind player and the box is for the
purpose of indicating which round of the wind is being played and who is
the East Wind in that particular hand.

It should be decided before starting how many sets are to be played.
Chinese players generally play from 4 to 8 sets in an evening.

The seats having been chosen and winds positioned, the procedure of play
continues exactly as has been described before. The wall is broken and
the tiles drawn in the same manner, "Chowing," "Punging" and filling
four of a kind are processes gone about in the same manner as they are
in the other type of game.

Mah-Jongg also is attained in the same way, i.e., completing four sets
and a pair.

Almost the entire difference in the two ways of playing the game is
found in the scoring.

In the scoring many new combinations have been added, scoring values
have been changed, and special bonuses, limit hands and new doubling
honors have been introduced which must now be taken, one at a time, and
explained in detail. The most important change is that _the last 14
tiles in the wall are never drawn and the game_ ends and is a draw if it
reaches this point without conclusion.

Loose tiles may be drawn of course during the play, but even a loose
tile cannot be drawn if there are only 14 tiles left in the wall
including the loose tiles. These last 14 tiles are usually separated a
little from the rest of the wall to indicate the end.


THE LIMIT HAND.

To keep the hands down to a reasonable amount when players are playing
for stakes, the system of setting a limit as to the number of points
that can be scored in a hand. This is usually 300 points; in games
giving a bonus of 10 points for Mah-Jongg, and 400 in games giving a
bonus of 20 points for Mah-Jongg. East Wind of course is liable for
double the limit and at the same time may win as high as double the
limit from each player. To non-winners settling their scores, settle the
difference in the score up to the limit if neither is East Wind, and up
to double the limit if either is East Wind.

The limit is of course entirely optional, and may be set by the players
at the beginning of the play. A limit of 600 points between players
seems the most popular at present in America.


WASHING THE TILES.

It is necessary before going into "Washing the Tiles" to explain the
meaning of "Heads." A Head is a one, nine, wind or a dragon, and a hand
containing 9 or more different "Heads" on the original hand drawn from
the wall entitles the player to "Wash Tiles." He calls out "no play" and
exposes his hand, collecting according to the following table:

    From each player

     9 Heads     50  points
    10 Heads     70  points
    11 Heads    100  points
    12 Heads    150  points
    13 Heads    200  points

When washing the tiles takes place, the tiles must be reshuffled and the
wall built over. East Wind retains the "Cheung" (wind box) and not
collecting double when he "washes tiles" does not have to pay any of the
other players double when they "wash tiles." It must be remembered that
in order to wash the tiles the heads must be different, that the hand
must be the original 13 tiles (14 in case of East Wind) and no drawing
is permitted.



BONUS SCORES


1. For Mah-Jongg or completing a hand a bonus is given and this is
generally 10 points unless specially agreed upon to be so.

2. For winning hand of absolutely no scoring value than Mah-Jongg, 10
points is given as a bonus.

3. For winning tile drawn by the player himself from the last tile which
may be drawn in the wall doubles the total score once (i.e., the 15th
tile from the end of the wall).

4. Winning on a draw from a loose tile doubles total score once.

5. To win on first card played a bonus of half the limit hand is given.
Washing cards have preference over this wind.

6. For completing the hand with the fourth card of an exposed set of
three of a kind--for example, if a player has an exposed set of 3 of a
kind and he draws or pungs the fourth tile, and if this very tile is the
winning tile, he may double the total score once.



LIMIT HANDS


A player holding a winning hand of any one of the following combinations
receives from each of the players the full amount agreed upon.

1. A winning hand of single heads one only of each with a pair of heads
different from the rest representing the final pair.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 2]

2. A winning hand containing _sets_ of heads _only_ with a pair of
_heads_ as the final pair.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 3]

3. A winning hand of four different sets of winds and any kind of a
final pair. In China this hand is called the four happinesses and
superstition has it that one holding this hand has much good fortune
coming to him having the four happinesses at his door.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 4]

4. The winning hand of 3 different sets of winds with a pair of the
other winds as the final pair.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 5]

5. A winning hand made up entirely of sets of four of a kind with any
pair as the final pair.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 6]

6. East Wind winning on original draw from the wall. This wind has
preference over washing cards. The Chinese consider this hand as a
forecast of misfortunes to come.

7. A winning hand containing the 3 sets of dragons; red, green and
white. In China these are known as the 3 Doctors of Literature. The
inference of course being that many tiles must be turned away before
these three sets can be made up just as many students in China are
turned away by competitive examinations before the three best scholars
are chosen to pursue their studies at the Royal Court with the title of
Doctors of Literature.



SCORING VALUES


[A]WINNING HAND.

    Mah-Jongg                                                  10 Points
    No other score in hand or on table than Mah-Jong           10 Points

                                                     On Table  In Hand
    Of three of a kind of 2 to 8                        2         6
    Of three of a kind of heads                         4        10
    Of four of a kind 2 to 8                            8        16
    Of four of a kind of heads                         16        32
    Pair of 2 to 8 punged to complete hand              0         2
    Pair of 2 to 8 drawn to complete hand               0         4
    Pair of heads punged to complete hand               0         4
    Pair of heads drawn to complete hand                0         6
    Pair of the player's own wind punged by
      him in his own wind round to complete
      hand                                              0         6
    Pair of the player's own wind drawn by
      him in his own wind round to complete
      hand                                              0         8
    Filling a sequence in the middle on the
      only open end to complete hand                 By Chow      2
    Filling a sequence with both ends open by
      draw to complete hand                          By draw      4

[Footnote A: Count for winning hand only.]

    Other Hands                                      On Table  In Hand
    Three of a kind of 2 to 8                           2         4
    Three of a kind of heads                            4         8
    Four of a kind 2 to 8                               8        16
    Four of a kind heads                               16        32
    One pair of a kind any dragon                      ..         2
    One pair of own wind                               ..         2
    One pair of wind of the round                      ..         2
    One pair of players own wind in the wind
      of his own wind round                            ..         4



EXPLANATION OF ITEMS IN THE TABLE OF SCORING VALUES


1. Pair of 2-8 punged to complete hand. A player must have four sets and
a pair to win. The above scoring value is given if the pair is from 2 to
8 and if he pungs one of them to win.

2. Pair of 2-8 drawn to complete hand. This score is given as above when
the player's extra pair is from 2-8, but he must match the pair by draw.

3. Pair of heads punged to complete hand. This four points is given when
player pungs to match his final pair.

4. Pair of heads drawn to complete hand. This six points is given when
player draws and matches his final pair.

5. Pair of player's own wind punged by him in his own wind round to
complete his hand. This six points is given to a player who "pungs" to
match this final pair when his final pair is his own wind and it is his
own wind round.

6. Pair of the player's own wind in his own wind round drawn by him to
complete his hand. This is similar to the one above except that the
player draws the tile instead of punging it, thereby getting 8 points
instead of 6 points.

7. Filling a sequence in the middle or on the only open end to complete
hand. An example would be chowing a 6 character, have a 5 character and
a 7 character, or have the 2 and chowing the 3 (only open end).

Filling a sequence with both ends open, by draw to complete hand. An
example would be, having a 7 and 8 of character and drawing a 6 or a 9.
In both this and the above case when the sequence is filled by draw, it
must immediately be set out face up on the table to the right of player,
with the draw tile drawn on top of the other two according to the
illustration.



DOUBLING HONOR SCORES


1. A set of a player's own wind doubles his total score once.

2. A set of a player's own wind in his own wind round doubles his total
score twice.

3. A set of red dragons doubles his total score once.

4. A set of green dragons doubles his total score once.

5. A set of white dragons doubles his total score once.

[B]6. A hand of all one suit except winds or dragons doubles his total
score once.

[B]7. A winning hand having no sequences in it doubles the total score
once. This hand is known as "Tei Tei Woo" (mixed sets or no sequences)
among the Cantonese Chinese.

[B]8. A winning hand entirely of one suit, doubles the total score three
times.

[Footnote B: Count for winning hand only.]



PENALTIES


1. In the event of a player announcing Mah-Jongg when his hand is not
complete, the player making the error must pay to each of the other 3
players half of the limit. East Wind receiving full limit or paying full
limit as the case may be.

2. The one discarding a tile that permits another player to win must
bear the entire losses of all other players; if the player winning had
any of the following four combinations of tiles exposed at the time of
discarding, _unless the discarder himself had two complete doubling
honors and was waiting for the winning tile_ or _was waiting for the
winning tile which would give him more than two doubling honors_.

1. When nine tiles or more of the same suit are exposed and the
discarded tile gives a winning hand on entirely one suit.

2. When nine heads or more are exposed and the discarded tile gives a
winning hand of entirely heads.

3. When two sets of dragons are exposed and the discard of the other
kind of dragon gives the third set of dragon in a winning hand.

4. When three different sets of winds are exposed and the discard of the
other wind gives a winning hand.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 8a]

Example 1. Any player discarding a one or a four of dot would complete
this hand and unless he had two complete doubling honors and was waiting
for the winning card or was waiting for the winning card to complete his
hand, with more than 2 doubling honors, he must pay the winner for all.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 8b]

Example 2. Any player discarding a red dragon will permit this player to
win and will be penalized for his recklessness by having to pay all
scores, unless his own hand fulfills the requirements set out in Example
No. 1.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 8c]

Example 3. A player discarding a white dragon is liable to the penalty
above mentioned, unless his own hand fulfills the requirements given
above in No. 1; anyone may discard a one of dot which, though permitting
the player with the above hand to win, would not bring a penalty down
upon the discarder.

[Illustration: Illustration No. 8d]

Example 4. A player discarding an East Wind would allow this player to
win and would be penalized unless excepted as in the other examples.
Here as in Ex. 3, a discard to the other pair, i.e., a three of bamboo,
would not be penalized.

NOTE. (a) If a player has no choice in his discard; that is if he
discards the winning dot to an all dot hand when he has only dots to
discard, he is not penalized.

(b) When a penalty is imposed, all scores except that of the winning
hand are canceled.



EXAMPLE OF WINNING HANDS


Note: Arrow indicates tile which completed the hand in the following
Examples.

[Illustration: No. 1]

Player is East Wind; South Wind round.

    Mah-Jongg                                       10
    Three 8 character (concealed)                    6
    Three 3 bamboo (concealed)                       6
    Three Heads (1 dot) (concealed)                 10
    Three 5 character (exposed)                      2
    Pair of Heads drawn (1 character)                6
                                                  ----
                                                    40 Total Score
    For no sequences double once                    80 Total Score
    East Wind collects double if
      winning double once                          160 From each player

[Illustration: No. 2]

Player is North Wind in North Wind round.

    Mah-Jongg                                      10
    Three of Heads (9 character) (concealed)       10
    Three of Heads (North Wind) (concealed)        10
    Three Bamboo (concealed)                        6
    Three of Heads (Red Dragon) (exposed)           4
                                                 ----
                                                   40
    For three red dragons double once              80
                                                  160
    For three of own wind in own wind round
      double twice                                320
    For no sequence double once                   640

Player would collect 1280 from East Wind and 640 from other two winds.
If his score 640 were over the limit he would collect double the limit
from East and only the limit from South and West respectively.

[Illustration: No. 3]

North Wind--East Wind round.

    Mah-Jongg                                       10
    Three Heads (red dragon) (exposed)               4
    Three 7 character (exposed)                      2
                                                  ----
                                                    26
    For three red dragons double once               52


Player collects 104 from East Wind; 52 from South and West.

[Illustration: No. 4]

Player is North Wind in East Wind Round.

    Mah-Jongg                                       10
    Three of Heads (red dragons) (exposed)           4
    Three of Heads (green dragons) (concealed)      10
    Three of Heads (nine bamboo) (concealed)        10
    Three of bamboo (concealed)                      6
    Completing pair of player's own wind
      in his own wind round by draw                  8
                                                  ----
                                                    48 Total Score
    For no sequences double once                    96
    For three red dragons double once              192
    For three green dragons double once            384 Final Score

Players collect 768 from East; 384 from West and South.

[Illustration: No. 5]

Winning hand of "Single Heads." One of the "Limit" Hands, player
collecting double the limit from East and only the limit from the
others.

[Illustration: No. 6]

Winning hand containing sets of heads only; this is a "Limit Hand,"
winner collecting double the limit from East and only the limit from the
other two players.

[Illustration: No. 7]

Winning hand containing all three sets of dragons and any other set and
pair. This is a "Limit Hand," winner collecting double from East and the
limit from the other two players. In all limit hand cases, East Wind, if
winner, collects double limit from All players.

[Illustration: No. 8]

Player is South Wind in South Wind Round.

    Mah-Jongg                                       10
    Three Heads (white dragons) (concealed)         10
    Three 4 dot (exposed)                            2
    Three Heads (9 dot) (exposed)                    4
    Filling sequence in middle by draw to win        4
    Pair of own wind in own wind round               4
                                                  ----
                                                    34 Total Score
    For three white dragons double once             68
    For all one suit except winds and
      dragons double once                          136 Final Score

Players collect 272 from East, 136 from North and West.

[Illustration: No. 9]

Player is East Wind in South Wind round.

    Mah-Jongg                                       10
    Three 4 bamboo (exposed)                         2
    Three 6 bamboo (exposed)                         2
    Pair of Heads, completed by draw                 6
                                                  ----
                                                    20 Total Score
    For all one suit double three times             40
                                                    80
                                                   160 Final Score

Double because East Wind collects double when winning 320 from each
player.

[Illustration: No. 10]

Player's West Wind--East Wind round.

    Mah-Jongg                                       10
    Four Heads (red dragons) (exposed)              16
    Three 4 characters (exposed)                     2
    Filling a sequence on the only open end          4
                                                  ----
                                                    32 Total Score
    For four red dragons double once                64 Final Score

Player collects 128 from East and 64 from West and South.



TWO AND THREE-HANDED GAMES


Three or even two may play Pung Chow, though the game is essentially a
four-handed affair. It is played by two or three people in exactly the
same way that it is played by four, each player building up his own side
of the wall and then combining to build the fourth side.

This fourth side is regarded as the dummy wall. In the building and
breaking down of the wall, East Wind acts for the dummy, throwing the
dice for it whenever indicated. The three players then draw their
original hand and ignore the dummy the rest of the game, playing in
regular routine and omitting the dummy's turn of play.

When two play alone, each builds two sides of the wall and arrange the
usual wall. Then they throw the dice, East Wind throwing for either of
the two dummies, both draw their original hands and draw and discard
alternately until one wins.

Of course when two or three play there is less opposition or conflict
and far greater possibilities in the draw than in the four-handed game.
On this account, higher scores are the rule rather than the exception,
making a more exciting and entertaining game but hardly one upon which
stakes could be safely set.



Table of Contents


PART I

Playing Without a Limit

    Introduction                                     7

    Summary of the Game                              9

    Description of Tiles                            11

    Procedure of Play                               13

      A--East Wind                                  13

      B--Building and Breaking the Wall             13

      C--Drawing Original Hand                      16

      D--Playing the Hand                           16

      E--To "Chow"                                  18

      F--To "Pung"                                  19

    Four of a Kind                                  22

    Mah-Jongg or Mah-Diao                           24

    Settling the Scores                             25

    Suggestions for Careful Playing of Hands        26

    Use of the Mandarins (Flowers and Seasons)      29

    Score Card                                      29

    Examples of Hands and how they are scored       32

    Illustrations of Score Settling                 46

PART II

    Playing with a Limit                            56

    Procedure of Play                               57

      A--The limit hand                             60

      B--Washing the tiles                          61

    Bonus Scores                                    62

    Limit Hands                                     62

    Scoring Values                                  65

    Explanation of Scoring Values                   66

    Doubling Honor Scores                           67

    Penalties                                       67

    Examples of Winning Hands                       70

    Two and Three-Handed Games                      76



Pung-Chow

_The_ Game _of_ A Hundred Intelligences


The game which is rapidly replacing bridge and other card games, as well
as other forms of indoor pastimes.

Pung Chow is an American product differing from the imported sets only
in the following points:

It is more pleasing to the eye and the touch.

The beautiful Oriental colors are fast and cannot rub off, even though
the pieces be scrubbed with soap and water.

The pieces will not become sticky from the moisture of the hand.

Pung Chow pieces are not affected by the climate and will never work
loose.

Should one or more pieces be lost they may be easily and quickly
replaced.

Pung Chow is an article of beauty and quality and is practically
indestructible.


Manufactured by

    PUNG CHOW CO., Inc.
    30 Church Street,  New York City



ERRATA


Page 24. The concealed One of Circle in illustration 15 should be a One
of Bamboo.

Page 34. Two points should be scored for a pair of Dragons in Example 3.

Page 36. In Example 7 the three Dragons completed by a pung should be
exposed at right with the other three sets.

Page 41. Two points should be scored for a pair of Dragons in Example
14.

Page 42. At top of page, "Drew to complete hand" should read "Punged to
complete hand."

Page 44. In Example 18 the three Dragons completed by a pung should be
exposed at right with the other three sets.

In the same example "3 Dragons (concealed) ... 8" should read "3 Dragons
(exposed) ... 4."

Page 46 and 47. East Wind scores 480 instead of 608; West Wind scores
272 instead of 400.

Page 47. All Character tiles in hand of West Wind should be Bamboo
tiles.

Page 48. Lines 19 and 21 "Eight of Bamboo" should read "Eight of
Character."

Page 49. West Wind scores 2562 instead of 2816.

Page 53. In North Wind hand the three Sevens of Circles should be
exposed instead of in hand.

Page 54. Lines 1 and 2. Read "368" instead of "304," and "184" instead
of "152."

Page 72. Example 3. "26" and "52" should read "16" and "32"
respectively.

Example 4. Player is East Wind instead of North Wind.



           *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's Note


The Errata page above is transcribed from the original text. As it is
not possible to easily correct all the scoring errors noted, none of
these errors have been corrected in this e-text.

Punctuation has been normalized, and the following obvious typographical
errors in the original text have been corrected:

On Page 13 (A: East Wind): "South Wind, and the the left of" changed to
"South Wind, and the left of."

On Page 14 (B: Building and Breaking the Wall): "if 14 in the sum"
changed to "if 14 is the sum."

On Page 41 (Example 14): "Double 3 times for all Suit(honors)" changed
to "Double 3 times for all one Suit(honors)"

On Page 70 (Note. A): "if he discard the winning" changed to "if he
discards the winning."

On Page 72 (No. 4): "For bo sequences double once" changed to "For no
sequences double once."

Additionally it is noted that:

On Page 50 the phrase "22 points apiece from North" should likely read
"22 points apiece from West."

On Page 62 the phrase "Washing cards have preference over this wind"
should read either "Washing cards ... this hand" or "Washing cards ...
this win."

On Page 64 the phrase "this wind has preference" should read either
"this hand has preference," or "this win has preference."

On Page 66 the phrase "the 2 and chowing the 3" should most likely read
"the 1 and 2 and chowing the 3."

On Page 72 The phrase "Players collect 768 from" should likely read
"Player collects 768 from."

On Page 74 The phrase "Players collect 272 from" should likely read
"Player collects 272 from."

There are a number of inconsistencies between the Chapter Headings and
the Table of Contents. These have not been corrected.

In Part II, the numbering of illustrations is non-continuous: there is
no Illustration No. 7 in the original.





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