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Title: The Book of Religions - Comprising the Views, Creeds, Sentiments, or Opinions, of All the Principal Religious Sects in the World, Particularly of All Christian Denominations in Europe and America, to Which are Added Church and Missionary Statistics, Together With Biographical Sketches
Author: Hayward, John, 1781-1869
Language: English
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                          The Book of Religions

                              Comprising The

                 Views, Creeds, Sentiments, or Opinions,

                                Of All The

                  Principal Religious Sects In The World

                             Particularly Of

                       All Christian Denominations

                                    In

                            Europe and America

                            To Which Are Added

                     Church and Missionary Statistics

                              Together With

                          Biographical Sketches

                             By John Hayward

                    Author of “New England Gazetteer”

                                 Boston:

                        Albert Colby And Company.

                          20 Washington Street.

                                   1860



CONTENTS


Preface.
Index.
Lutherans, Or, The Evangelical Lutheran Church.
Calvinists.
Hopkinsians.
Arians.
Socinians.
Humanitarians.
Sectarians.
Church Government.
Presbyterians.
Cumberland Presbyterians.
Episcopalians.
   Historical Notice Of The Church In The United States.
   Articles Of Religion.
Cambridge And Saybrook Platforms.
Moravians, Or United Brethren.
Tunkers.
Mennonites, Or Harmless Christians.
Disciples Of Christ; Sometimes Called Campbellites, or Reformers.
Friends, or Quakers.
Shakers, Or The United Society Of Believers.
Reformation.
Reformed Churches.
   Reformed Dutch Church.
   Reformed German Church.
Restorationists.
Universalists.
Roman Catholics.
Bereans.
Materialists.
Arminians.
Methodists, Or The Methodist Episcopal Church.
Methodists, Or The Methodist Protestant Church.
Protestants.
Sabellians.
Sandemanians.
Antinomians.
Pelagians.
Pre-Adamites.
Predestinarians.
Orthodox Creeds.
Andover Orthodox Creed.
New Haven Orthodox Creed.
Swedenborgians, Or, The New Jerusalem Church.
Fighting Quakers.
Harmonists.
Dorrelites.
Osgoodites.
Rogerenes.
Whippers.
Wilkinsonians.
Aquarians.
Baxterians.
Miller’s Views on the Second Coming of Christ.
Come-Outers.
Jumpers.
Baptists.
Anabaptists.
Free-Will Baptists.
Seventh-Day Baptists, Or Sabbatarians,
Six-Principle Baptists.
Quaker Baptists, Or Keithians.
Pedobaptists.
Anti-Pedobaptists.
Unitarians.
Brownists.
Puritans.
Bourignonists.
Jews.
Indian Religions.
Deists.
Atheists.
Pantheists.
Mahometans.
Simonians.
Pagans.
Satanians.
Abelians, or Abelonians.
Supralapsarians.
Dancers.
Epicureans.
Skeptics.
Wickliffites.
Diggers.
Zuinglians.
Seekers.
Wilhelminians.
Non-Resistants.
Southcotters.
Family Of Love.
Hutchinsonians.
Mormonites, Or The Church Of The Latter-Day Saints.
Daleites.
Emancipators.
Perfectionists.
Waldenses.
Allenites.
Johnsonians.
Donatists.
Se-Baptists.
Re-Anointers.
Tao-Se, or Taou-Tsze.
Quietists.
Knipperdolings.
Mendæans, Mendaites, Mendai Ijahi, Or Disciples Of St. John, That Is, The
Baptist.
Muggletonians.
Yezidees, Or Worshippers Of The Devil.
Greek or Russian Church.
Primitive Christians.
Trinitarians.
Millenarians.
Whitefield Calvinistic Methodists.
Nonjurors.
Nonconformists.
Christian Connection.
Puseyites.
Free Communion Baptists.
Transcendentalists.
Augsburg Confession Of Faith.
Armenians.
Primitive Methodists.
Novatians.
Nestorians.
High-Churchmen.
Ancient American Covenant Or Confession Of Faith.
Statistics Of Churches.
   Baptists.
   Free-Will Baptists.
   Seventh-Day Baptists.
   Christian Connection.
   Calvinistic Congregationalists.
   Disciples Of Christ.
   Episcopalians.
   Friends.
   Jews.
   Lutherans.
   Protestant Methodists.
   Methodists.
   Presbyterians.
   Other Presbyterian Communities.
   Reformed Dutch Church.
   Roman Catholics.
   Swedenborgians.
   Unitarians.
   Universalists.
Missionary Statistics.
   First Protestant Missions.
   Moravian Missions.
   London Missionary Society.
   American Board Of Foreign Missions.
   Presbyterian Board Of Foreign Missions.
   English Baptist Missionary Society.
   American Baptist Board Of Foreign Missions.
   Free-Will Baptists.
   Episcopal Missions.
   Society For Propagating The Gospel Among The Indians And Others.
   Wesleyan Or English Methodist Missionary Society.
   Missions Of The Methodist Episcopal Church.
   Seventh-Day Baptist Missionary Society.
   French Protestant Missionary Society.
   Netherlands Missionary Society.
   Scottish Missionary Society.
   German Missionary Society.
   Church Of Scotland Missions.
   Rhenish Missionary Society.
   Missions Of The Roman Catholic Church.
   Jews’ Missionary Society.
   Indians.
Biographical Sketches of the Fathers of the Reformation, Founders of
Sects, and of other Distinguished Individuals Mentioned in this Volume.
   John Wickliffe.
   Jerome of Prague.
   John Huss.
   John Œcolampadius.
   Martin Luther.
   Ulriucus Zuinglius.
   Martin Bucer.
   Philip Melancthon.
   Peter Martyr.
   Henry Bullinger.
   John Knox.
   John Calvin.
   Jerome Zanchius.
   Theodore Beza.
   Leo X.
   Justin.
   Arius.
   Athanasius.
   Moses Maimonides.
   John Agricola.
   Michael Servetus.
   Simonis Menno.
   Francis Xavier.
   Faustus Socinus.
   Robert Brown.
   James Arminius.
   Francis Higginson.
   Richard Baxter.
   George Fox.
   William Penn.
   Benedict Spinoza.
   Ann Lee.
   John Glass.
   George Keith.
   Nicholas Louis, Count Zinzendorf.
   William Courtney.
   Richard Hooker.
   Charles Chauncey.
   Roger Williams.
   John Clarke.
   Ann Hutchinson.
   Michael Molinos.
   John Wesley.
   George Whitefield.
   Selina Huntingdon.
   Robert Sandeman.
   Samuel Hopkins.
   Jonathan Mayhew.
   Samuel Seabury.
   Richard Clarke.
   Joseph Priestly.
   James Purves.
   John Jebb.
   John Gaspar Christian Lavater.
   John Tillotson.
   Isaac Newton.
   Charles V.
   Francis Bacon.
   Matthew Hale.
   Princess Elizabeth.
   Robert Boyle.
   John Locke.
   Joseph Addison.
   Isaac Watts.
   Philip Doddridge.
   John Murray.
   Elhanan Winchester.
   Saint Genevieve.
   Gilbert Burnet.
Theological Schools.
Footnotes



PREFACE.


A few years since, the Editor of the following pages published a volume of
“Religious Creeds and Statistics;” and, as the work, although quite
limited, met with general approbation, he has been induced to publish
another of the same nature, but on a much larger plan, trusting that it
will prove more useful, and more worthy of public favor.

His design has been, to exhibit to his readers, with the utmost
impartiality and perspicuity, and as briefly as their nature will permit,
the views, creeds, sentiments, or opinions, of all the religious sects or
denominations in the world, so far as utility seemed to require such an
exhibition; but more especially to give the rise, progress, and
peculiarities, of all the principal schemes or systems of religion which
exist in the United States at the present day.

The work is intended to serve as a manual for those who are desirous of
acquiring, with as little trouble as possible, a correct knowledge of the
tenets or systems of religious faith, presented for the consideration of
mankind;—to enable them, almost at a glance, to compare one creed or
system with another, and each with the holy Scriptures;—to settle the
minds of those who have formed no definite opinions on religious
subjects;—and to lead us all, by contrasting the sacred truths and sublime
beauties of Christianity with the absurd notions of pagan idolaters, of
skeptics, and of infidels, to set a just value on the doctrines of HIM WHO
SPAKE AS NEVER MAN SPAKE.

To accomplish this design, the Editor has obtained, from the most
intelligent and candid among the living defenders of each denomination,
full and explicit statements of their religious sentiments—such as they
believe and teach. He is indebted to the friends of some new sects or
parties in philosophy and religion, for an account of their respective
views and opinions. With regard to anterior sects, he has noticed, from
the best authorities, as large a number as is thought necessary for the
comparison of ancient with modern creeds.

The Church and Missionary Statistics are believed to be as accurate as can
be constructed from materials which annually undergo greater or less
changes.

The Biographical Sketches are derived from the most authentic sources.
While they convey useful knowledge in regard to the fathers and defenders
of the various systems of religious faith, they may also stimulate our
readers to the practice of those Christian virtues and graces which
adorned the lives of many of them, and render their names immortal.

A few only of the works from which valuable aid has been received, can be
mentioned:—Mosheim and McLaine’s Ecclesiastical History; Gregory and
Ruter’s Church History; Encyclopædia Americana; Brown’s Encyclopedia of
Religious Knowledge; Adams’s View of Religions, and History of the Jews;
Benedict’s History of all Religions; Evans’s Sketches; Buck’s and
Henderson’s Theological Dictionaries; Eliot’s, Allen’s, and Blake’s
Biographical Dictionaries; Davenport; Watson; Grant’s Nestorians,
Coleman’s Christian Antiquities; Ratio Disciplinæ; Haydn’s Dictionary of
Dates, &c.

To clergymen and laymen of all denominations, who have assisted the Editor
in presenting their various views with clearness and fairness; to the
secretaries of the several missionary boards; to editors of religious
journals, and to other persons who have kindly furnished documents for the
Statistics and Biographical Sketches, he tenders acknowledgments of
unfeigned gratitude.

While the Editor assures the public that the whole has been prepared with
much diligence and care, and with an entire freedom from sectarian zeal or
party bias, he cannot but indulge the hope that his “Book of Religions”
will prove acceptable and beneficial to the community, as imbodying a
great variety of facts on a subject of deep concern, worthy of the
exercise of our highest faculties, and requiring our most charitable
conclusions.



INDEX.


Abelians, or Abelonians, 243

Addison, Joseph, 417

Agricola, John, 370

Allenites, 280

American Missions, 336

Anabaptists, 190

Ancient American Covenant, 308

Andover Orthodox Creed, 138

Antinomians, 128

Anti-Pedobaptists, 196

Apostles’ Creed, 102

Aquarians, 168

Arians, 18

Arius, 368

Armenians, 303

Arminians, 115

Arminius, James, 373

Assembly’s Catechism, 141

Athanasian Creed, 102

Athanasius, 368

Atheists, 217

Augsburg Confession, 302

Bacon, Francis, 407

Baptists, 182, 311, 340
  Quaker, 193

Baptist Missions, English, 339

Baxter, Richard, 376

Baxterians, 169

Bereans, 109

Beza, Theodore, 366

Bible Chronology, 175

Biographical Sketches, 350

Bishops, Episcopal, 314

Bourignonists, 201

Boyle, Robert, 412

Brown, Robert, 373

Brownists, 200

Bucer, Martin, 360

Bullinger, Henry, 363

Burnet, Gilbert, 429

Calvin, John, 365

Calvinists, 11, 313

Cambridge Platform, 48

Campbellites, 58

Charles V., 405

Chauncey, Charles, 385

Christian Connection, 295, 313

Christianity, Progress of, 432

Chronology, Bible, 175

Church Government, 20

Church Statistics, 311

Clarke, John, 387

Clarke, Richard, 399

Come-Outers, 177

Congregationalists, 20, 313

Courtney, William, 384

Creed, Andover, 138
  Apostles’, 102
  Athanasian, 102
  Augsburg, 302
  New Haven, 142
  Nicene, 105
  Orthodox, 132

Cumberland Presbyterians, 25

Daleites, 272

Dancers, 244

Deists, 215

Diggers, 246

Disciples of Christ, 58, 314

Disciples of St John, 284

Dissenters. See _Puritans_.

Doddridge, Philip, 420

Donatists, 281

Dorrelites, 164

Dutch Reformed Church, 88

Elizabeth, Princess, 411

Emancipators, 272

English Baptist Missions, 339

—— Methodist Missions, 343

Epicureans, 244

Episcopalians, 26, 314, 341

Essenes, 202

Family of Love, 259

Fighting Quakers, 162

Fox, George, 377

Free Communion Baptists, 300

Free-Will Baptists, 190, 312, 341

French Missions, 346

Friends, or Quakers, 64, 319

Genevieve, 162, 428

German Missions, 346

German Reformed Church, 90

Glass, John, 383

Glassites, 126

Government, Church, 20

Greek Church, 288

Hale, Matthew, 408

Harmless Christians, 57

Harmonists, 163

Hicksites, 74, 319

High Churchmen, 308

Higginson, Francis, 310, 374

Hooker, Richard, 385

Hopkins, Samuel, 397

Hopkinsians, 13

Humanitarians, 19

Huntingdon, Lady Selina, 395

Huss, John, 354

Hutchinson, Ann, 389

Hutchinsonians, 259

Independents, 20

Indian Missions, 342
  Religions, 210
  Statistics, 347

Jebb, John, 401

Jerome of Prague, 352

Jews, 202, 319, 347

Johnsonians, 280

Jumpers, 181

Justin Martyr, 368

Keith, George, 383

Keithians, 193

Knipperdolings, 283

Knox, John, 363

Latter-Day Saints, 260

Lavater, John G. C., 402

Lee, Ann, 381

Leo X., 367

Locke, John 415

London Missionary Society, 335

Luther, Martin, 355

Lutherans, 9, 320

Mahometans, 220

Maimonides, Moses, 203, 370

Martyr, Peter, 362

Materialists, 112

Mayhew, Jonathan, 398

Mendæans, 284

Melancthon, Philip, 361

Mennonites, 57

Menno, Simonis, 372

Methodists, Episcopal, 117, 321
  Protestant, 123, 321
  Methodists, Primitive, 305
  Methodists’ Missions, 344
  Views of Perfection, 274

Miller’s Views on the Second Coming of Christ, 170

Millenarians, 292

Missionary Statistics, 333

Missions, American Foreign, 336

Missions, Indian, 342

Molinos, Michael, 389

Moravians, 49, 333

Mormonites, 260

Muggletonians, 284

Murray, John, 423

N.

Necessarians. See _Materialists_.

Nestorians, 306

Netherland Missions, 346

New Haven Orthodox Creed, 142

New Jerusalem Church, 150

Newton, Isaac, 403

Nicene Creed, 105

Nonconformists, 294

Nonjurors, 294

Non-Resistants, 247

Novatians, 305

Oberlin Views of Sanctification, 278

Œcolampadius, John, 355

Orthodox Creeds, 132

Osgoodites, 166

Pantheists, 219

Pagans, 234

Pedobaptists, 193

Pelagians, 130

Penn, William, 378

Perfectionists, 274

Pharisees, 202

Popes of Rome, 326

Pre-Adamites, 131

Predestinarians, 132

Presbyterians, 22, 322
  Cumberland, 25

Presbyterian Missions, 338

Priestley, Joseph, 400

Primitive Christians, 290
  Methodists, 305

Princess Elizabeth, 411

Progress of Christianity, 432

Protestants, 125

Protestant Methodists, 123, 321
  Missions, 333

Puritans, 200

Purves, James, 401

Puseyites, 299

Quakers, or Friends, 64

Quaker Baptists, 193

Quietists, 283

Ranters. See _Seekers_.

Re-Anointers, 282

Reformation, 85

Reformed Churches, 88

Reformed Dutch Church, 88, 324
  German Church, 90

Rhenish Missions, 347

Restorationists, 91

Rogerenes, 166

Roman Catholics, 102, 324, 347

Russian Church, 288

Sabbatarians, 191

Sabellians, 125

Sadducees, 202

Sanctification, Views on, 278

Sandemanians, 126

Sandeman, Robert, 396

Satanians, 243

Saybrook Platform, 48

Seabury, Samuel, 33, 398

Schools, Theological, 432

Scottish Missions, 346, 347

Se-Baptists, 281

Sectarians, 20

Seekers, 247

Servetus, Michael, 371

Seventh-Day Baptists, 191, 312, 345

Shakers, 75

Simonians, 233

Six-Principle Baptists, 192

Skeptics, 245

Socinius, Faustus, 372

Socinians, 19

Southcotters, 255

Spinoza, Benedict, 380

Statistics of Churches, 311
  of Missions, 333

Succession of Bishops, 315

Supralapsarians, 243

Swedenborg, 150

Swedenborgians, 150, 330

Tao-Se, 282

Taylor’s (Dr.) Views, 142

Theological Schools, 432

Tillotson, John, 402

Transcendentalists, 301

Trinitarians, 290

Tunkers, or Tumblers, 55

Unitarians, 196, 331

United Brethren, 49

United Society of Believers, 75

Universalists, 95, 331

Waldenses, 279

Water-Drinkers, 168

Watts, Isaac, 418

Wesley, John, 390

Wesleyan Missions, 343

Westminster Catechism, 141

Whippers, 167

Whitefield, George, 393

Whitefield Methodists, 293

Wickliffe, John, 350

Wickliffites, 245

Wilhelminians, 247

Wilkinsonians, 167

Williams, Roger, 386

Winchester, Elhanan, 425

Worshippers of the Devil, 285

Xavier, Francis, 161, 372

Yezidees, or Worshippers of the Devil, 285

Zanchius, Jerome, 366

Zinzendorf, Count, 383

Zuinglius, Ulricus, 359

Zuinglians, 246



LUTHERANS, OR, THE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH.


This denomination adheres to the opinions of Martin Luther, the celebrated
reformer.

The Lutherans, of all Protestants, are those who differ least from the
Romish church, as they affirm that the body and blood of Christ are
materially present in the sacrament of the Lord’s supper, though in an
incomprehensible manner: this they term _consubstantiation_. They likewise
represent some rites and institutions, as the use of images in churches,
the vestments of the clergy, the private confession of sins, the use of
wafers in the administration of the Lord’s supper, the form of exorcism in
the celebration of baptism, and other ceremonies of the like nature, as
tolerable, and some of them useful. The Lutherans maintain, with regard to
the divine decrees, that they respect the salvation or misery of men in
consequence of a previous knowledge of their sentiments and characters,
and not as founded on the mere will of God. See _Augsburg Confession of
Faith_.

Towards the close of the last century, the Lutherans began to entertain a
greater liberality of sentiment than they had before adopted, though in
many places they persevered longer in despotic principles than other
Protestant churches. Their public teachers now enjoy an unbounded liberty
of dissenting from the decisions of those symbols of creeds which were
once deemed almost infallible rules of faith and practice, and of
declaring their dissent in the manner they judge most expedient.

The capital articles which Luther maintained are as follow:—

1. That the holy Scriptures are the only source whence we are to draw our
religious sentiments, whether they relate to faith or practice. (See 2
Tim. 3:15-17. Prov. 1:9. Isa. 8:20. Luke 1:4. John 5:39; 20:31. 1 Cor 4:6,
&c.)

2. That justification is the effect of faith, exclusive of good works, and
that faith ought to produce good works, purely in obedience to God, and
not in order to our justification. (See Gal. 2:21.)

3. That no man is able to make satisfaction for his sins. (See Luke
17:10.)

In consequence of these leading articles, Luther rejected tradition,
purgatory, penance, auricular confession, masses, invocation of saints,
monastic vows, and other doctrines of the church of Rome.

The external affairs of the Lutheran church are directed by three
judicatories, viz., a vestry of the congregation, a district or special
conference, and a general synod. The synod is composed of ministers, and
an equal number of laymen, chosen as deputies by the vestries of their
respective congregations. From this synod there is no appeal.

The ministerium is composed of ministers only, and regulates the internal
or spiritual concerns of the church, such as examining, licensing, and
ordaining ministers, judging in controversies about doctrine, &c. The
synod and ministerium meet annually.

Confession and absolution, in a very simple form, are practised by the
American Lutherans; also confirmation, by which baptismal vows are
ratified, and the subjects become communicants. Their liturgies are simple
and impressive, and the clergy are permitted to use extempore prayer. See
_Statistics of Churches_.



CALVINISTS.


This denomination of Christians, of the Congregational order, are chiefly
descendants of the English Puritans, who founded most of the early
settlements in New England. They derive their name from John Calvin, an
eminent reformer.

The Calvinists are divided into three parties,—_High_, _Strict_, and
_Moderate_. The _High_ Calvinists favor the Hopkinsian system. The
_Moderate_ Calvinists embrace the leading features of Calvin’s doctrine,
but object to some parts, particularly to his views of the doctrines of
predestination, and the extent of the design of Christ’s death. While they
hold to the election of grace, they do not believe that God has reprobated
any of his creatures. They believe that the atonement is, in its nature,
general, but in its application, particular; and that free salvation is to
be preached to sinners indiscriminately. The doctrines of the _Strict_
Calvinists are those of Calvin himself, as established at the synod of
Dort, A. D. 1618, and are as follow, viz.:—

1. They maintain that God hath chosen a certain number of the fallen race
of Adam in Christ, before the foundation of the world, unto eternal glory,
according to his immutable purpose, and of his free grace and love,
without the least foresight of faith, good works, or any conditions
performed by the creature; and that the rest of mankind he was pleased to
pass by, and ordain to dishonor and wrath, for their sins, to the praise
of his vindictive justice. (See Prov. 16:4. Rom. 9: from ver. 11 to end of
chap.; 8:30. Eph. 1:4. Acts 13:48.)

2. They maintain that, though the death of Christ be a most perfect
sacrifice, and satisfaction for sins, of infinite value, abundantly
sufficient to expiate the sins of the whole world,—and though, on this
ground, the gospel is to be preached to all mankind indiscriminately, yet
it was the will of God that Christ, by the blood of the cross, should
efficaciously redeem all those, and those only, who were from eternity
elected to salvation, and given to him by the Father. (See Ps. 33:11. John
6:37; 10:11; 17:9.)

3. They maintain that mankind are totally depraved, in consequence of the
fall of the first man, who being their public head, his sin involved the
corruption of all his posterity, and which corruption extends over the
whole soul, and renders it unable to turn to God, or to do any thing truly
good, and exposes it to his righteous displeasure, both in this world and
that which is to come. (See Gen. 8:21. Ps. 14:2, 3. Rom. 3:10, 11, 12,
&c.; 4:14; 5:19. Gal. 3:10. 2 Cor. 3:6, 7.)

4. They maintain that all whom God hath predestinated unto life, he is
pleased, in his appointed time, effectually to call, by his word and
Spirit, out of that state of sin and death, in which they are by nature,
to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ. (See Eph. 1:19; 2:1, 5. Phil.
2:13. Rom. 3:27. I Cor. 1:31, Titus 3:5.)

5. Lastly, they maintain that those whom God has effectually called, and
sanctified by his Spirit, shall never finally fall from a state of grace.
They admit that true believers may fall partially, and would fall totally
and finally, but for the mercy and faithfulness of God, who keepeth the
feet of his saints; also, that he who bestoweth the grace of perseverance,
bestoweth it by means of reading and hearing the word, meditation,
exhortations, threatenings, and promises; but that none of these things
imply the possibility of a believer’s falling from a state of
justification. (See Isa. 53:4, 5, 6; 54:10. Jer. 32:38, 40. Rom. 8:38, 39.
John 4:14; 6:39; 10:28; 11:26. James 1:17. 1 Pet. 2:25.) See _Orthodox
Creeds_, and _Hopkinsians_.



HOPKINSIANS.


This denomination of Christians derives its name from Samuel Hopkins, D.
D., formerly pastor of the first Congregational church in Newport, R. I.

The following is a summary of the distinguishing tenets of the
Hopkinsians, together with a few of the reasons they bring forward in
support of their sentiments:—


    “1. That all true virtue, or real holiness, consists in
    disinterested benevolence. The object of benevolence is universal
    being, including God and all intelligent creatures. It wishes and
    seeks the good of every individual, so far as is consistent with
    the greatest good of the whole, which is comprised in the glory of
    God and the perfection and happiness of his kingdom. The law of
    God is the standard of all moral rectitude or holiness. This is
    reduced into love to God, and our neighbor as ourselves; and
    universal good-will comprehends all the love to God, our neighbor,
    and ourselves, required in the divine law, and, therefore, must be
    the whole of holy obedience. Let any serious person think what are
    the particular branches of true piety; when he has viewed each one
    by itself, he will find that disinterested friendly affection is
    its distinguishing characteristic. For instance, all the holiness
    in pious fear, which distinguishes it from the fear of the wicked,
    consists in love. Again, holy gratitude is nothing but good-will
    to God and our neighbor,—in which we ourselves are included,—and
    correspondent affection, excited by a view of the good-will and
    kindness of God. Universal good-will also implies the whole of the
    duty we owe to our neighbor; for justice, truth, and faithfulness,
    are comprised in universal benevolence; so are temperance and
    chastity. For an undue indulgence of our appetites and passions is
    contrary to benevolence, as tending to hurt ourselves or others,
    and so, opposite to the general good, and the divine command, in
    which all the crime of such indulgence consists. In short, all
    virtue is nothing but benevolence acted out in its proper nature
    and perfection; or love to God and our neighbor, made perfect in
    all its genuine exercises and expressions.

    “2. That all sin consists in selfishness. By this is meant an
    interested, selfish affection, by which a person sets himself up
    as supreme, and the only object of regard; and nothing is good or
    lovely in his view, unless suited to promote his own private
    interest. This self-love is, in its whole nature, and every degree
    of it, enmity against God; it is not subject to the law of God,
    and is the only affection that can oppose it. It is the foundation
    of all spiritual blindness, and, therefore, the source of all the
    open idolatry in the heathen world, and false religion under the
    light of the gospel: all this is agreeable to that self-love which
    opposes God’s true character. Under the influence of this
    principle, men depart from truth, it being itself the greatest
    practical lie in nature, as it sets up that which is comparatively
    nothing above universal existence. Self-love is the source of all
    profaneness and impiety in the world, and of all pride and
    ambition among men, which is nothing but selfishness, acted out in
    this particular way. This is the foundation of all covetousness
    and sensuality, as it blinds people’s eyes, contracts their
    hearts, and sinks them down, so that they look upon earthly
    enjoyments as the greatest good. This is the source of all
    falsehood, injustice, and oppression, as it excites mankind by
    undue methods to invade the property of others. Self-love produces
    all the violent passions—envy, wrath, clamor, and evil speaking;
    and every thing contrary to the divine law is briefly comprehended
    in this fruitful source of all iniquity—self-love.

    “3. That there are no promises of regenerating grace made to the
    doings of the unregenerate. For, as far as men act from self-love,
    they act from a bad end; for those who have no true love to God,
    really do no duty when they attend on the externals of religion.
    And as the unregenerate act from a selfish principle, they do
    nothing which is commanded; their impenitent doings are wholly
    opposed to repentance and conversion, therefore not implied in the
    command to repent, &c.: so far from this, they are altogether
    disobedient to the command. Hence it appears that there are no
    promises of salvation to the doings of the unregenerate.

    “4. That the impotency of sinners, with respect to believing in
    Christ, is not natural, but moral; for it is a plain dictate of
    common sense, that natural impossibility excludes all blame. But
    an unwilling mind is universally considered as a crime, and not as
    an excuse, and is the very thing wherein our wickedness consists.
    That the impotence of the sinner is owing to a disaffection of
    heart, is evident from the promises of the gospel. When any object
    of good is proposed and promised to us upon asking, it clearly
    evinces that there can be no impotence in us, with respect to
    obtaining it, besides the disapprobation of the will; and that
    inability which consists in disinclination, never renders any
    thing improperly the subject of precept or command.

    “5. That, in order to faith in Christ, a sinner must approve, in
    his heart, of the divine conduct, even though God should cast him
    off forever; which, however, never implies love of misery, nor
    hatred of happiness. For if the law is good, death is due to those
    who have broken it. The Judge of all the earth cannot but do
    right. It would bring everlasting reproach upon his government to
    spare us, considered merely as in ourselves. When this is felt in
    our hearts, and not till then, we shall be prepared to look to the
    free grace of God, through the redemption which is in Christ, and
    to exercise faith in his blood, ‘who is set forth to be a
    propitiation to declare God’s righteousness, that he might be
    just, and yet be the justifier of him who believeth in Jesus.’

    “6. That the infinitely wise and holy God has exerted his
    omnipotent power in such a manner as he purposed should be
    followed with the existence and entrance of moral evil into the
    system. For it must be admitted on all hands, that God has a
    perfect knowledge, foresight, and view of all possible existences
    and events. If that system and scene of operation, in which moral
    evil should never have existed, were actually preferred in the
    divine mind, certainly the Deity is infinitely disappointed in the
    issue of his own operations. Nothing can be more dishonorable to
    God than to imagine that the system which is actually formed by
    the divine hand, and which was made for his pleasure and glory, is
    yet not the fruit of wise contrivance and design.

    “7. That the introduction of sin is, upon the whole, for the
    general good. For the wisdom and power of the Deity are displayed
    in carrying on designs of the greatest good; and the existence of
    moral evil has, undoubtedly, occasioned a more full, perfect, and
    glorious discovery of the infinite perfections of the divine
    nature, than could otherwise have been made to the view of
    creatures. If the extensive manifestations of the pure and holy
    nature of God, and his infinite aversion to sin, and all his
    inherent perfections, in their genuine fruits and effects, is
    either itself the greatest good, or necessarily contains it, it
    must necessarily follow that the introduction of sin is for the
    greatest good.

    “8. That repentance is before faith in Christ. By this is not
    intended, that repentance is before a speculative belief of the
    being and perfections of God, and of the person and character of
    Christ; but only that true repentance is previous to a saving
    faith in Christ, in which the believer is united to Christ, and
    entitled to the benefits of his mediation and atonement. That
    repentance is before faith in this sense, appears from several
    considerations. 1. As repentance and faith respect different
    objects, so they are distinct exercises of the heart; and
    therefore one not only may, but must, be prior to the other. 2.
    There may be genuine repentance of sin without faith in Christ,
    but there cannot be true faith in Christ without repentance of
    sin; and since repentance is necessary in order to faith in
    Christ, it must necessarily be prior to faith in Christ. 3. John
    the Baptist, Christ, and his apostles, taught that repentance is
    before faith. John cried, ‘Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at
    hand;’ intimating that true repentance was necessary in order to
    embrace the gospel of the kingdom. Christ commanded, ‘Repent ye,
    and believe the gospel.’ And Paul preached ‘repentance toward God,
    and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ.’

    “9. That, though men became sinners by Adam, according to a divine
    constitution, yet they have, and are accountable for, no sins but
    personal; for, 1. Adam’s act, in eating the forbidden fruit, was
    not the act of his posterity; therefore they did not sin at the
    same time he did. 2. The sinfulness of that act could not be
    _transferred_ to them afterwards, because the sinfulness of an act
    can no more be transferred from one person to another than an act
    itself. 3. Therefore Adam’s act, in eating the forbidden fruit,
    was not the _cause_ but only the _occasion_, of his posterity’s
    being sinners. God was pleased to make a constitution, that, if
    Adam remained holy through his state of trial, his posterity
    should, in consequence, be holy also; but if he sinned, his
    posterity should, in consequence, be sinners likewise. Adam
    sinned, and now God brings his posterity into the world sinners.
    _By_ Adam’s sin we are become sinners, not _for_ it; his sin being
    only the _occasion_, not the _cause_, of our committing sins.

    “10. That, though believers are justified _through_ Christ’s
    righteousness, yet his righteousness is not _transferred_ to them.
    For, 1. Personal righteousness can no more be transferred from one
    person to another, than personal sin. 2. If Christ’s personal
    righteousness were transferred to believers, they would be as
    perfectly holy as Christ, and so stand in no need of forgiveness.
    3. But believers are not conscious of having Christ’s personal
    righteousness, but feel and bewail much indwelling sin and
    corruption. 4. The Scripture represents believers as receiving
    only the _benefits_ of Christ’s righteousness in justification, or
    their being pardoned and accepted for Christ’s righteousness’
    sake; and this is the proper Scripture notion of imputation.
    Jonathan’s righteousness was imputed to Mephibosheth when David
    showed kindness to him for his father Jonathan’s sake.”


The Hopkinsians warmly contend for the doctrine of the divine decrees,
that of particular election, total depravity, the special influences of
the Spirit of God in regeneration, justification by faith alone, the final
perseverance of the saints, and the consistency between entire freedom and
absolute dependence, and, therefore, claim it as their just due, since the
world will make distinctions, to be called HOPKINSIAN CALVINISTS.

The statistics of this denomination are included with those of the
_Calvinists_, near the close of this volume.



ARIANS.


The followers of Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, about A.
D. 315, who held that the Son of God was totally and essentially distinct
from the Father; that he was the first and noblest of those beings whom
God had created, the instrument by whose subordinate operation he formed
the universe, and, therefore, inferior to the Father, both in nature and
dignity; also, that the Holy Ghost was not God, but created by the power
of the Son. The Arians owned that the Son was the Word, but denied that
Word to have been eternal. They held that Christ had nothing of man in him
but the flesh, to which the Word was joined, which was the same as the
soul in us.

In modern times, the term _Arian_ is indiscriminately applied to those who
consider Jesus simply subordinate to the Father. Some of them believe
Christ to have been the creator of the world; but they all maintain that
he existed previously to his incarnation, though, in his preëxistent
state, they assign him different degrees of dignity.

(See Matt. 4:10; 19:17; 27:46. Mark 5:7; 13:32 John 4:23; 14:28; 20:17.
Acts 4:24. 1 Cor. 1:4; 11:3; 15:24. Eph. 1:17; 4:6. Phil. 1:3, 4, &c.)



SOCINIANS.


A sect so called from Faustus Socinus, who died in Poland, in 1604. There
were two who bore the name of Socinus,—uncle and nephew,—and both
disseminated the same doctrine; but it is the nephew who is generally
considered as the founder of this sect. They maintain that Jesus Christ
was a mere man, who had no existence before he was conceived by the Virgin
Mary; that the Holy Ghost is no distinct person; but that the Father is
truly and properly God. They own that the name of God is given, in the
holy Scriptures, to Jesus Christ, but contend that it is only a deputed
title, which, however, invests him with a great authority over all created
beings. They deny the doctrines of satisfaction and imputed righteousness,
and say that Christ only preached the truth to mankind, set before them,
in himself, an example of heroic virtue, and sealed his doctrines with his
blood. Original sin, and absolute predestination, they esteem scholastic
chimeras. Some of them likewise maintain the sleep of the soul, which,
they say, becomes insensible at death, and is raised again, with the body,
at the resurrection, when the good shall be established in the possession
of eternal felicity, while the wicked shall be consigned to a fire that
will not torment them eternally, but for a certain duration, proportioned
to their demerits. (See Acts 2:22; 17:31. 1 Tim. 2:5.)



HUMANITARIANS.


The Humanitarians believe in the simple humanity of Christ, or that he was
nothing more than a mere man, born according to the usual course of
nature, and who lived and died according to the ordinary circumstances of
mankind.



SECTARIANS.


This term is used among Christians to denote those who form separate
communions, and do not associate with one another in religious worship and
ceremonies. Thus we call Papists, Lutherans, Calvinists, different sects,
not so much on account of their differences in opinion, as because they
have established to themselves different fraternities, to which, in what
regards public worship, they confine themselves; the several denominations
above mentioned having no intercommunity with one another in sacred
matters. High, Strict, and Moderate Calvinists, High Church and Low
Church, we call only parties, because they have not formed separate
communions. Great and known differences in opinion, when followed by no
external breach in the society, are not considered constituting distinct
sects, though their differences in opinion may give rise to mutual
aversion.

The Jewish, Christian, Mahometan, and Pagan world is divided into an
almost innumerable variety of sects, each claiming to themselves the title
of orthodox, and each charging their opponents with heresy.

Where perfect religious liberty prevails, as in the United States, and
where emigrants from all quarters of the globe resort in great numbers, it
is not surprising that most of the Christian sects in foreign countries,
with some of native origin, should be found in this part of the American
continent.



CHURCH GOVERNMENT.


There are three modes of church government, viz., the _Episcopalian_, from
the Latin word _episcopus_, signifying _bishop_; the _Presbyterian_, from
the Greek word _presbuteros_, signifying _senior_, _elder_, or
_presbyter_; and the Congregational or Independent mode. Under one of
these forms, or by a mixture of their several peculiarities, every church
in the Christian world is governed. The Episcopal form is the most
extensive, as it embraces the Catholic, Greek, English, Methodist, and
Moravian churches.

Episcopalians have three orders in the ministry, viz., bishops, priests,
and deacons; they all have liturgies, longer or shorter, which they either
statedly or occasionally use. All Episcopalians believe in the existence
and the necessity of an apostolic succession of bishops, by whom alone
regular and valid ordinations can be performed.

The Presbyterians believe that the authority of their ministers to preach
the gospel and to administer the sacraments is derived from the Holy
Ghost, by the imposition of the hands of the presbytery. They affirm,
however, that there is no order in the church, as established by Christ
and his apostles, superior to that of presbyters; that all ministers,
being ambassadors of Christ, are equal by their commission; that
_presbyter_ and _bishop_, though different words, are of the same import;
and that prelacy was gradually established upon the primitive practice of
making the _moderator_, or speaker of the presbytery, a permanent officer.

The Congregationalists, or Independents, are so called from their
maintaining that each congregation of Christians, which meets in one house
for public worship, is a complete church, has sufficient power to act and
perform every thing relating to religious government within itself, and is
in no respect subject or accountable to other churches.

Independents, or Congregationalists, generally ordain their ministers by a
council of ministers called for the purpose: but still they hold that the
essence of ordination lies in the voluntary choice and call of the people,
and that public ordination is no other than a declaration of that call.



PRESBYTERIANS.


The first settlers of New England were driven away from Old England, in
pursuit of religious liberty. They were required to conform to the
established Protestant Episcopal church, in all her articles of belief,
and modes of worship and discipline: their consciences forbade such
conformity: their ministers were displaced: their property was tithed for
the support of an ecclesiastical prelacy, which they renounced; and the
only relief which they could find, was in abandoning their country for the
new world.

Most of the first settlers of New England were Congregationalists; and
established the government of individuals by the male communicating
members of the churches to which they belonged, and of congregations by
sister congregations, met by representation in ecclesiastical councils. A
part of the ministers and people of Connecticut, at a very early period of
her history, were Presbyterians in their principles of church government.
Being intermixed, however, with Congregational brethren, instead of
establishing presbyteries in due form, they united with their
fellow-Christians in adopting, in 1708, the Saybrook Platform, according
to which the churches and pastors are consociated, so as virtually to be
under Presbyterian government, under another name.

The first Presbyterian churches duly organized in the United States, were
the first Presbyterian church in Philadelphia, and the church at Snow
Hill, in Maryland.

The first presbytery in the United States was formed about 1794, by the
voluntary association of several ministers, who had received Presbyterian
orders in Europe, and who agreed to govern themselves agreeably to the
Westminster Confession of Faith, Form of Government, Book of Discipline,
and Directory for Worship. (See _Andover Orthodox Creed_.)

The reason why the Presbyterians first settled in Pennsylvania, Maryland,
and New Jersey, was undoubtedly this—that in these places they found
toleration, and equal religious rights, while the Episcopacy was
established by law in Virginia, Congregationalism in New England, and the
Reformed Dutch church, with Episcopacy, in New York.

The doctrines of the Presbyterian church are Calvinistic; and the only
fundamental principle which distinguishes it from other Protestant
churches is this—that God has authorized the government of his church by
presbyters, or elders, who are chosen by the people, and ordained to
office by predecessors in office, in virtue of the commission which Christ
gave his apostles as ministers in the kingdom of God; and that, among all
presbyters, there is an official parity, whatever disparity may exist in
their talents or official employments.

All the different congregations, under the care of the general assembly,
are considered as the one Presbyterian church in the United States,
meeting, for the sake of convenience and edification, in their several
places of worship. Each particular congregation of baptized people,
associated for godly living, and the worship of Almighty God, may become a
Presbyterian church, by electing one or more elders, agreeably to the form
prescribed in the book styled the Constitution of the Presbyterian Church,
and having them ordained and installed as their session.

They judge that to presbyteries the Lord Jesus has committed the spiritual
government of each particular congregation, and not to the whole body of
the communicants; and on this point they are distinguished from
Independents and Congregationalists. If all were governors, they should
not be able to distinguish the overseers or bishops from all the male and
female communicants; nor could they apply the command, “Obey them that
have the rule over you, and submit yourselves; for they watch for your
souls, as they that must give account.” (Heb. 13:17.) If all are rulers in
the church who are communicants, they are at a loss for the meaning of the
exhortation, “We beseech you, brethren, to know them that labor among you,
_and are over you in the __ Lord_, and admonish you; and to esteem them
very highly in love for their work’s sake.”

If an aggrieved brother should tell the story of his wrongs to each
individual communicant, he would not thereby tell it to the church
judicially, so that cognizance could be taken of the affair. It is to the
church, acting by her proper organs, and to her overseers, met as a
judicatory, that he must bring his charge, if he would have discipline
exercised in such a way as God empowered his church to exercise it.

The general assembly is the highest judicatory in the Presbyterian church,
and is constituted by an equal number of teaching and ruling elders,
elected by each presbytery annually, and specially commissioned to
deliberate, vote, and determine, in all matters which may come before that
body. Each presbytery may send one bishop and one ruling elder to the
assembly: each presbytery, having more than twelve ministers, may send two
ministers and two ruling elders, and so, in the same proportion, for every
twelve ministerial members.

Every Presbyterian church elects its own pastor; but, to secure the whole
church against insufficient, erroneous, or immoral men, it is provided
that no church shall prosecute any call, without first obtaining leave
from the presbytery under whose care that church may be; and that no
licentiate, or bishop, shall receive any call, but through the hands of
his own presbytery.

Any member of the Presbyterian church may be the subject of its
discipline; and every member, if he judges himself injured by any portion
of the church, may, by appeal, or complaint, carry his cause up from the
church session to the presbytery, from the presbytery to the synod, and
from the synod to the general assembly, so as to obtain the decision of
the whole church, met by representation in this high judicatory.

Evangelical ministers of the gospel, of all denominations, are permitted,
on the invitation of a pastor, or of the session of a vacant church, to
preach in their pulpits; and any person known properly, or made known to a
pastor or session, as a communicant in good, regular standing, in any
truly Christian denomination of people, is, in most of their churches,
affectionately invited to occasional communion. They wish to have
Christian fellowship with all the redeemed of the Lord, who have been
renewed by his Spirit; but, in ecclesiastical government and discipline,
they ask and expect the coöperation of none but Presbyterians. See
_Statistics_.



CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIANS.


In the year 1800, a very great revival of religion took place within the
bounds of the synod of Kentucky, in consequence of which, a greater number
of new congregations were formed than it was possible to supply with
regularly-educated ministers. To remedy this evil, it was resolved to
license men to preach who were apt to teach, and sound in the faith,
though they had not gone through any course of classical study. This took
place at the Transylvania presbyter; but, as many of its members were
dissatisfied with the proposed innovation, an appeal was made to the
synod, which appointed a commission to examine into the circumstances of
the case, the result of whose report was, a prohibition of the labors of
uneducated ministers, which led the opposite party to form themselves into
an independent presbytery, which took its name from the district of
Cumberland, in which it was constituted.

As to the doctrinal views, they occupy a kind of middle ground between
Calvinists and Arminians. They reject the doctrine of eternal reprobation,
and hold the universality of redemption, and that the Spirit of God
operates on the world, or as coëxtensively as Christ has made the
atonement, in such a manner as to leave all men inexcusable.

The Cumberland Presbyterians have about 550 churches and ministers, and
about 70,000 members. They have a college at Cumberland, Ky.



EPISCOPALIANS.


That form of Church polity, in which the ministry is divided into the
three orders of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, each having powers and
duties, distinct from the others, the Bishops being superior to the
Priests and Deacons, and the immediate source of all their authority, is
called EPISCOPACY, and those who adhere to this polity, are called
EPISCOPALIANS.

It is believed, by Episcopalians, that the Savior, when upon earth,
established a Church, or Society, of which He was the Ruler and Head, and
with which He promised to be, till the end of the world. They believe,
that, during the forty days in which He remained upon earth, after His
resurrection, “speaking” to His disciples “of the things pertaining to the
kingdom of God,” He gave them such directions for the government and
management of this Society, or Church, as were necessary; which
directions, they implicitly followed: and that, from their subsequent
practice, these directions of the Savior, whatever they may have been, are
to be ascertained.

“That it was the design of our blessed Redeemer to continue a ministry in
the Church, after His ascension, is a truth, for which we ask no better
proof, than that furnished by the narratives of the Evangelists, and the
practice of the Apostles. If, then, a ministry, divinely authorized, was
to exist, it is equally evident, that it would assume some definite form.
It would consist, either of a single grade of office, in which every
person ordained would have an equal share in its functions and
prerogatives; or, of two, three, or more grades, distinguished from each
other by degrees of authority and peculiarities of duty.” There must,
also, exist, _somewhere_, the power of transmitting the ministry, by
ordination. Among those, who suppose there is but one grade of office,
this power is lodged in every minister. By Episcopalians, the power is
confined to the highest order of the ministry,—the Bishops. It is evident,
that the Savior could not have established both these different modes; and
therefore both cannot possibly be correct. “To suppose, that He, who is
the Fountain of all wisdom, could have been the Author of such inevitable
disorder,—a kind of disorder which must ever keep the axe at the root of
that _unity_ for which He prayed,—is not only an absurdity, but an opinion
equally repudiated by all parties.” “It is manifest,” therefore, “that
whatever may prove itself to be THE form of ministry, established and
authorized by Jesus Christ, every other must be altogether void of such
authority, and based simply on human appointment.”

That this Church, or Society, might endure, it must be provided with a
well-arranged organization, or form of government, and consist of officers
and members. No society can exist, without this; and the powers and duties
of the officers should be well defined, and so adjusted, as to promote, in
the best manner, the permanent good of the society. That this Society
might endure forever, some provision must be made for the renewal of its
officers, so that, when any were taken away, by death, their places might
be supplied with suitable successors. That the Savior made all necessary
provision for these purposes, there can be no doubt; and that the
organization which He directed His Apostles to establish, was Episcopal,
is easily susceptible of proof.

Throughout the Bible, different orders in the ministry are recognized or
referred to. Under the Jewish dispensation, (which, be it remembered, was
established by God Himself,) there were the three orders of High Priest,
Priests, and Levites. When the Savior was upon earth, He was the visible
head of the Church,—the “Bishop and Shepherd of our souls,”—and the
Apostles and seventy Disciples were the other two orders. After his
ascension, the Apostles became the visible heads of the Church, the lower
orders being Bishops, (called also Priests or Presbyters, and Elders,) and
Deacons. When the Apostles were called hence, their successors did not
assume the name or title of Apostle, but took that of Bishop, which
thenceforth was applied exclusively to the highest order of the ministry,
the other two orders being the Presbyters (Priests or Elders) and Deacons.
Thus it has continued to the present day.

It is worthy of remark, that “early writers have been careful to record
the ecclesiastical genealogy or succession of the Bishops, in several of
the principal Churches. Thus, we have catalogues of the Bishops of
Jerusalem, Antioch, Rome, &c.; though it does not appear that the
Presbyters and Deacons of those Churches were honored with any similar
notice.” In like manner, catalogues of temporal Rulers are preserved, when
the names of officers subordinate to them are suffered to pass into
oblivion. It is easy to trace back the line of Bishops, by name, from our
own day, up to the Apostles themselves.

There is no ancient writer on ecclesiastical matters, who does not speak
of the division of the ministry into different and distinct Orders, and of
certain individuals as Bishops of particular Churches; or who mentions, as
existing at the same time, and in the same Churches, any other persons by
the same name of Bishops.

But, it is to be observed, that it is not only necessary that a Church
should preserve the true Order in the Ministry, but also that it retain
the true faith. For a true faith and true Order are both necessary to
constitute a Church. All the heretical sects of the ancient Church had the
Apostolic Ministry; but, when they departed from the true faith, they were
excluded from the communion of the Church. “The Arians, the Donatists, the
Novatians, &c. &c., were all Episcopal in their Ministry, and in this
respect differed in nothing from the Orthodox Catholic Church. Their grand
error lay in the want of that union of Order _and_ Faith, which are
essential to the being of a Church.”

An external commission, conveyed by Episcopal consecration or ordination,
is considered necessary to constitute a lawful ministry; and it is
therefore declared, by the Church, that “no man shall be accounted or
taken to be a lawful Bishop, Priest, or Deacon, in this Church, or
suffered to execute any of said functions,” unless he has “had Episcopal
consecration or ordination;” and the power of ordaining, or setting apart
to the ministry, and of laying on hands upon others, is vested in the
Bishops.

The _ministry_ is of Divine appointment, and consists of three orders,
only,—Bishop, Priest, and Deacon. The _government_ is of human regulation,
and may be modified as circumstances require. Other officers may be
appointed, and the manner in which ministers are invested with their
jurisdiction may be varied. To use the language of the Episcopal Church in
the United States, in the Preface to her Book of Common Prayer, “It is a
most invaluable part of that blessed liberty, wherewith Christ hath made
us free, that, in His worship, different forms and usages may, without
offence, be allowed, provided the substance of the faith be kept entire;
and that, in every Church, what cannot be clearly determined to belong to
Doctrine, must be referred to Discipline; and therefore, by common consent
and authority, may be altered, abridged, enlarged, amended, or otherwise
disposed of, as may seem most convenient for the edification of the
people, ‘according to the various exigencies of times and occasions.’ ...
The particular Forms of Divine Worship, and the Rites and Ceremonies
appointed to be used therein, being things in their own nature indifferent
and alterable, and so acknowledged, it is but reasonable, that, upon
weighty and important considerations, according to the various exigencies
of times and occasions, such changes and alterations should be made
therein, as to those, who are in places of authority should, from time to
time, seem either necessary or expedient.”

In the Church of England, there are Archbishops, Deans, and various other
officers and titles of office; but these are of local authority, and do
not interfere with the three Divinely-appointed orders. To use the
language of Hooker, “I may securely, therefore, conclude, that there are,
at this day, in the Church of England, no other than the same degrees of
ecclesiastical orders, namely, Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, which had
their beginning from Christ and His blessed Apostles themselves. As for
Deans, Prebendaries, Parsons, Vicars, Curates, Archdeacons, and such like
names, being not found in the Scriptures, we have been thereby, through
some men’s errors, thought to allow ecclesiastical degrees not known nor
ever heard of in the better ages of former times. All these are in truth
but titles of office,” admitted “as the state of the Church doth need,
degrees of order still remaining the same as they were from the
beginning.”

Two hundred years ago, Hooker gave the following challenge, which has
never yet been accepted:—“We require you to find but one Church upon the
face of the whole earth that hath not been ordered by Episcopal regiment
since the time that the blessed Apostles were here conversant.” And
though, says Bishop Doane, departures from it, since the time of which he
spoke, have been but too frequent and too great, “Episcopal regiment” is
still maintained as Christ’s ordinance, for the perpetuation and
government of his Church, and is received as such by eleven twelfths of
the whole Christian world. For a period of fifteen hundred years after the
Apostolic age, ordination by Presbyters was totally unknown, except in a
few crooked cases, where the attempt was made, and followed by instant
condemnation from the Church, and the declaration that they were utterly
null and void. There was no ministry in existence, before the era of the
Reformation, but that which had come down direct from the Apostles, that
is, the Episcopal. This is admitted by nearly all the opponents of
Episcopacy.

The Episcopal Church in the United States, agrees with that of England, in
doctrine, discipline, and worship, with some few unessential variations.
Their Ritual, or Form of Worship, is the same, except that some few parts
have been omitted for the sake of shortening the service, or for other
reasons. Changes became necessary in the prayers for Rulers, in
consequence of the independence of the United States.

The different Episcopal parishes in each of the United States, (except in
some of the newly-settled parts of the Country, where two or more States
are united for this purpose,) are connected by a Constitution, which
provides for a convention of the clergy and lay delegates from each parish
in the State or Diocese. This Convention is held annually, and regulates
the local concerns of its own Diocese, the Bishop of which, is the
President of the Convention. The Conventions of the different Dioceses
elect Deputies to a General Convention, which is held once in three years.
Each Diocese may elect four Clergymen and four Laymen, as delegates, who,
when assembled in General Convention, form what is called the “House of
Clerical and Lay Deputies,” each Order from a Diocese having one vote, and
the concurrence of both being necessary to every act of the Convention.
The Bishops form a separate House, with a right to originate measures for
the concurrence of the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies, each House
having a negative upon the other, as in the Congress of the United States.
The whole Church is governed by Canons, framed by the General Convention.
These Canons regulate the mode of elections of Bishops, declare the age
and qualifications necessary for obtaining the orders of Deacon or Priest,
the studies to be previously pursued, the examinations which each
candidate is to undergo, and all other matters of permanent legislation.
Deacon’s orders cannot be conferred on any person under the age of
twenty-one, nor those of Priest before that of twenty-four. A Bishop must
be at least thirty years of age. Prejudices have prevailed against the
Episcopal Church, and probably still exist in the minds of some persons,
from an impression, that Episcopacy is not congenial with a republican
form of government, and the civil institutions of our Country. But, that
this is an erroneous opinion, will be evident, to any one who will
carefully and impartially examine the subject. It will he seen, from what
has been stated above, that its Constitution is founded on the
representative principle, and is strikingly analogous to the form of
government of the United States. “In the _permanent_ official stations of
the Bishops and Clergy in her legislative bodies, our own Church,” says
Bishop Hobart, “resembles all other religious communities, whose clergy
also are permanent legislators. But, in some respects, she is more
conformed than they are to the organization of our civil governments. Of
these, it is a characteristic, that legislative power is divided between
two branches. And it is a peculiar character of our own Church, that her
legislative power is thus divided. Again, a single responsible Executive
characterizes our civil constitutions. The same feature marks our own
Church, in the single Episcopal Executive in each Diocese, chosen, in the
first instance, by the Clergy and representatives of the Laity. Nor are
these the only points in which the Bishop of our Church may feel pleasure
in asserting the free and republican constitution of our government; for,
in our ecclesiastical judicatories, the representatives of the laity
possess strict coordinate authority,—the power of voting as a separate
body, and of annulling, by a majority of votes, the acts of the Bishops
and Clergy.”

The doctrines of the Episcopal Church are contained in the Thirty-nine
Articles of Religion, subjoined to this notice. See Book of Homilies, the
Canons of the Church, Archbishop Potter’s Discourse on Church Government,
Hooker’s Ecclesiastical Polity, Daubeny’s Guide to the Church, Burton’s
Early English Church, the Church Dictionaries of Rev. Dr Hook and Rev. Mr.
Staunton, Bishop Onderdonk’s Episcopacy Examined and Reexamined, and other
similar works.



Historical Notice Of The Church In The United States.


Though the greater proportion of the early emigrants to this Country were
opposed to the form of religious worship established in the Mother
Country, some of them were devoted adherents of that establishment, and
Episcopal churches existed, of course, in several of the Colonies, at an
early period, although, from the opposition made to them by the other
emigrants, and from other causes, the number was not so considerable as
might have been expected under different circumstances. At the
commencement of the Revolutionary War, there were not more than eighty
parochial clergymen North and East of Maryland; and these, with the
exception of those in the towns of Boston and Newport, and the cities of
New York and Philadelphia, derived the principal part of their support
from England, through the “Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in
Foreign Parts,” an old and venerable Institution, yet in existence, and
still zealously engaged in spreading the Gospel to the utmost parts of the
earth. In Maryland and Virginia, the members of the Church were much more
numerous, than in the other parts of the Country, and the clergy were
supported by a legal establishment.

The distance of this from the Mother Country, and the consequent
separation of the members of the Church from their parent stock, which
rendered them dependent for the ministry upon emigrations from England, or
obliged them to send candidates to that Country, for Holy Orders, operated
as a serious obstacle to the increase of the Church here. All the clergy
of this Country were attached to the diocese of the Bishop of London, who
thus became the only bond of union between them; but his authority could
not be effectually exerted, at such a distance, in those cases where it
was most needed; and, for these and other reasons, several efforts were
made by the clergy to obtain an American Episcopate. But the jealousy with
which such a measure was regarded by other denominations, and the great
opposition with which it consequently met, prevented the accomplishment of
the design. When, however, the tie, which had thus bound the members of
the Church together in one communion, had been severed, by the
independence of the United States, it was necessary that some new bond of
union should be adopted; and renewed efforts were made to procure an
Episcopate.

The clergy of the Church in Connecticut, at a meeting held in March, 1783,
elected the Rev. Samuel Seabury, D. D., their Bishop, and sent him to
England, with an application to the Archbishop of Canterbury for his
consecration to that holy office. The English Bishops were unable to
consecrate him, till an Act of Parliament, authorizing them so to do,
could be passed; and he then made application to the Bishops of the Church
in Scotland, who readily assented to the request, and he was consecrated
by them, in Aberdeen, on the 14th of November, 1784. The Prelates, who
were thus the instruments of first communicating the Episcopate to this
Country, were, the Right Reverend Robert Kilgour, D. D., Bishop of
Aberdeen, the Right Reverend Arthur Petrie, D. D., Bishop of Ross and
Moray, and the Right Reverend John Skinner, D. D., Coadjutor Bishop of
Aberdeen. Bishop Seabury returned to this Country, immediately after his
consecration, and commenced his Episcopal duties without delay.

A few clergymen of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, having held a
meeting at Brunswick, N. J., on the 13th and 14th of May, 1784, for the
purpose of consulting in what way to renew a Society for the support of
widows and children of deceased clergymen, determined to procure a larger
meeting on the 5th of the ensuing October, not only for the purpose of
completing the object for which they had then assembled, but also to
confer and agree on some general principles of a union of the Church
throughout the States. At this latter meeting, a plan of ecclesiastical
union was agreed upon, with great unanimity; and a recommendation to the
several States, to send delegates to a general meeting, at Philadelphia,
in September, 1785, was adopted.

At the meeting, in Philadelphia, in September and October, 1785, there
were present, deputies from seven of the thirteen States. This Convention
framed an Ecclesiastical Constitution, recommended sundry alterations in
the Book of Common Prayer, to adapt it to the local circumstances of the
Country, now severed from the parent State, and also took some measures
towards procuring the Episcopate from England. An Address was forwarded to
the English Bishops, through his Excellency John Adams, then Minister to
England, and afterwards President of the United States who zealously used
his influence to promote the views of the Convention.

Another Convention was held in Philadelphia, in June, 1786, at which, a
Letter was read, from the Archbishops and Bishops of England, in answer to
the Address forwarded from the preceding Convention; and another Address
to the same Right Reverend Prelates, was adopted, to accompany the
Ecclesiastical Constitution now finally agreed upon. This Convention then
adjourned, to meet again whenever answers should be received from England.
The next meeting was held at Wilmington, in Delaware, in October, 1786, at
which, Letters from the English Prelates were read, and also an Act of
Parliament, authorizing the consecration of Bishops for foreign places.
Sundry further amendments and modifications of the Ecclesiastical
Constitution, and Book of Common Prayer, were agreed upon, another Address
to the English Prelates was adopted, and testimonials signed for three
clergymen, who had been elected Bishops by their respective Dioceses. Two
of these clergymen proceeded to England, in the course of the next month;
and, after some further delays, all difficulties were finally removed, and
the Rev. William White, D. D., of Philadelphia, and the Rev. Samuel
Provoost, D. D., of New York, having been elected to the Bishoprics of
Pennsylvania and New York, were consecrated to their high and holy office,
on the fourth of February, A. D. 1787, in the chapel of the Archiepiscopal
palace at Lambeth, by the Most Reverend John Moore, D. D., Archbishop of
Canterbury, assisted by the Most Reverend William Markham, D. D.,
Archbishop of York, the Right Reverend Charles Moss, D. D., Bishop of Bath
and Wells, and the Right Reverend Charles Hinchliff, D. D., Bishop of
Peterborough. The newly-consecrated Bishops returned to America, April 7,
1787, and soon after, began the exercise of their Episcopal functions in
their respective dioceses.

Of these three original Bishops of the Church, Bishop Seabury discharged
his Episcopal duties between nine and ten years, and died, February 25,
1796. Bishop White continued to be as a patriarch of the Church for many
years, his life having been prolonged to the age of 88, and the discharge
of his Episcopal functions having continued forty-nine years. He died,
July 17, 1836. Bishop Provoost died, September 6, 1815, in the
twenty-ninth year of his Episcopate.

The first triennial Convention of the Church was held in July and August,
1789, and the sessions of this body continue to be regularly held every
three years. Rev. James Madison, D. D., was consecrated Bishop of
Virginia, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, September 19, 1790, and died
March 6, 1812. Rev. Thomas John Claggett, D. D., of Maryland, was the
first Bishop consecrated in the United States, having been elevated to
that holy Order by the Right Reverend Bishops Provoost, Seabury, White,
and Madison, in New York, September 17, 1792; since which time,
thirty-three Bishops have been consecrated, making the whole number,
thirty-eight, of whom twenty are now living. For the succession of
Bishops, from the first establishment of the Church, to the present day,
see _Statistics_.

The last General Convention was held in New York, in October, 1841, at
which time, there were present, twenty-one Bishops, and 79 clerical and 57
lay members. The Bishops reported the consecration of 93 churches, the
ordination of 355 clergymen, and the confirmation of 14,767 persons, in
the years 1838 to 1841. The whole number of clergymen, at the present
time, (1842,) is 1114. Other facts of interest, in relation to the Church
in this Country, will be found among the Statistics of this volume; and
for more full information, the reader is referred to “Swords’s Pocket
Almanack, Churchman’s Register, and Ecclesiastical Calendar,” a valuable
little manual, published annually, and to the “Churchman’s Almanack,” also
published annually; and for historical notices, reference may be made to
Bishop White’s “Memoirs of the Protestant Episcopal Church,” Journals of
the General, and State Conventions, Hawks’s Ecclesiastical History of
different States, and other similar works.



Articles Of Religion.


    _As established by the Bishops, the Clergy, and Laity of the
    Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in
    Convention, on the twelfth Day of September, in the Year of our
    Lord, one thousand eight hundred and one._


“ARTICLE I. _Of Faith in the Holy Trinity._—There is but one living and
true God, everlasting, without body, parts, or passions; of infinite
power, wisdom, and goodness; the Maker and Preserver of all things, both
visible and invisible. And in unity of this Godhead there be three
persons, of one substance, power, and eternity; the Father, the Son, and
the Holy Ghost.

“ART. II. _Of the Word, or Son of God, which was made very Man._—The Son,
which is the Word of the Father, begotten from everlasting of the Father,
the very and eternal God, of one substance with the Father, took man’s
nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin, of her substance: so that two
whole and perfect natures, that is to say, the Godhead and Manhood, were
joined together in one person, never to be divided; whereof is one Christ,
very God, and very Man; who truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and
buried, to reconcile His Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for
original guilt, but also for actual sins of men.

“ART. III. _Of the going down of Christ into Hell._—As Christ died for us,
and was buried, so also is it to be believed, that He went down into hell.

“ART. IV. _Of the Resurrection of Christ._—Christ did truly rise again
from death, and took again His body, with flesh, bones, and all things
appertaining to the perfection of man’s nature, wherewith He ascended into
heaven, and there sitteth, until He return to judge all men at the last
day.

“ART. V. _Of the Holy Ghost._—The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father
and the Son, is of one substance, majesty, and glory, with the Father and
the Son, very and eternal God.

“ART. VI. _Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for __
Salvation._—Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation;
so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not
to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the
faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the name of
the Holy Scripture we do understand those Canonical Books of the Old and
New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church.

“_Of the Names and Number of the Canonical Books._—Genesis, Exodus,
Leviticus, Numeri, Deuteronomium, Joshue, Judges, Ruth, The First Book of
Samuel, The Second Book of Samuel, The First Book of Kings, The Second
Book of Kings, The First Book of Chronicles, The Second Book of
Chronicles, The First Book of Esdras, The Second Book of Esdras, The Book
of Hester, The Book of Job, The Psalms, The Proverbs, Ecclesiastes or
Preacher, Cantica or Songs of Solomon, Four Prophets the greater, Twelve
Prophets the less.

“And the other Books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for example
of life, and instruction of manners, but yet doth it not apply them to
establish any doctrine; such are these following:

“The Third Book of Esdras, The Fourth Book of Esdras, The Book of Tobias,
The Book of Judith, The Rest of the Book of Hester, The Book of Wisdom,
Jesus the Son of Sirach, Baruch the Prophet, The Song of the Three
Children, The Story of Susanna, Of Bel and the Dragon, The Prayer of
Manasses, The First Book of Maccabees, The Second Book of Maccabees.

“All the Books of the New Testament, as they are commonly received, we do
receive, and account them Canonical.

“ART. VII. _Of the Old Testament._—The Old Testament is not contrary to
the New; for both in the Old and New Testament, everlasting life is
offered to mankind by Christ, who is the only Mediator between God and
man, being both God and Man. Wherefore they are not to be heard, which
feign, that the old fathers did look only for transitory promises Although
the law given from God by Moses, as touching ceremonies and rites, do not
bind Christian men, nor the civil precepts thereof ought of necessity to
be received in any commonwealth; yet, notwithstanding, no Christian man
whatsoever is free from the obedience of the commandments which are called
Moral.

“ART. VIII. _Of the Creeds._—The Nicene Creed, and that which is commonly
called the Apostles’ Creed, ought thoroughly to be received and believed;
for they may be proved by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.

“ART. IX. _Of Original or Birth-Sin._—Original sin standeth not in the
following of Adam, (as the Pelagians do vainly talk,) but it is the fault
and corruption of the nature of every man, that naturally is engendered of
the offspring of Adam, whereby man is very far gone from original
righteousness, and is, of his own nature, inclined to evil, so that the
flesh lusteth always contrary to the Spirit; and therefore, in every
person born into this world, it deserveth God’s wrath and damnation. And
this infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated;
whereby the lust of the flesh, called in Greek, _Phronema sarkos_, which
some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the
desire, of the flesh, is not subject to the law of God. And although there
is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized, yet the Apostle
doth confess, that concupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of
sin.

“ART. X. _Of Free Will._—The condition of man, after the fall of Adam, is
such, that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength
and good works, to faith, and calling upon God; wherefore we have no power
to do good works pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God
by Christ preventing us, that we may have a good will, and working with
us, when we have that good will.

“ART. XI. _Of the Justification of Man._—We are accounted righteous before
God, only for the merit of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ by faith, and
not for our own works or deservings. Wherefore, that we are justified by
faith only, is a most wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort, as
more largely is expressed in the Homily of Justification.

“ART. XII. _Of Good Works._—Albeit that good works, which are the fruits
of faith, and follow after justification, cannot put away our sins, and
endure the severity of God’s judgment; yet are they pleasing and
acceptable to God in Christ, and do spring out, necessarily, of a true and
lively faith, insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently
known, as a tree discerned by the fruit.

“ART. XIII. _Of Works before Justification._—Works done before the grace
of Christ, and the inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to God,
forasmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they
make men meet to receive grace, or (as the school authors say) deserve
grace of congruity; yea, rather, for that they are not done as God hath
willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not but they have the
nature of sin.

“ART. XIV. _Of Works of Supererogation._—Voluntary works, besides over and
above God’s commandments, which they call works of supererogation, cannot
be taught without arrogancy and impiety; for by them men do declare, that
they do not only render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but that
they do more for His sake than of bounden duty is required; whereas Christ
saith plainly, When ye have done all that are commanded to you, say, We
are unprofitable servants.

“ART. XV. _Of Christ alone without Sin._—Christ, in the truth of our
nature, was made like unto us in all things, sin only except, from which
He was clearly void, both in His flesh and in His spirit. He came to be a
Lamb without spot, who, by sacrifice of Himself once made, should take
away the sins of the world; and sin (as Saint John saith) was not in Him.
But all we the rest (although baptized and born again in Christ) yet
offend in many things; and if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves,
and the truth is not in us.

“ART. XVI. _Of Sin after Baptism._—Not every deadly sin willingly
committed after baptism, is sin against the Holy Ghost, and unpardonable.
Wherefore the grant of repentance is not to be denied to such as fall into
sin after baptism. After we have received the Holy Ghost, we may depart
from grace given, and fall into sin, and by the grace of God (we may)
arise again, and amend our lives. And therefore they are to be condemned,
which say, they can no more sin as long as they live here, or deny the
place of forgiveness to such as truly repent.

“ART. XVII. _Of Predestination and Election._—Predestination to life is
the everlasting purpose of God, whereby (before the foundations of the
world were laid) He hath constantly decreed, by His counsel, secret to us,
to deliver from curse and damnation those whom He hath chosen in Christ
out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ to everlasting salvation, as
vessels made to honor. Wherefore they, which be endued with so excellent a
benefit of God, be called according to God’s purpose by His Spirit working
in due season: they, through grace, obey the calling: they be justified
freely: they be made sons of God by adoption: they be made like the image
of His only begotten Son Jesus Christ, they walk religiously in good
works; and at length, by God’s mercy, they attain to everlasting felicity.

“As the godly consideration of predestination, and our election in Christ,
is full of sweet, pleasant, and unspeakable comfort to godly persons, and
such as feel in themselves the working of the Spirit of Christ, mortifying
the works of the flesh and their earthly members, and drawing up their
mind to high and heavenly things, as well because it doth greatly
establish and confirm their faith of eternal salvation, to be enjoyed
through Christ, as because it doth fervently kindle their love towards
God; so, for curious and carnal persons, lacking the Spirit of Christ, to
have continually before their eyes the sentence of God’s predestination,
is a most dangerous downfall, whereby the devil doth thrust them either
into desperation, or into wretchlessness of most unclean living, no less
perilous than desperation.

“Furthermore, we must receive God’s promises in such wise as they be
generally set forth to us in Holy Scripture and, in our doings, that will
of God is to be followed, which we have expressly declared unto us in the
Word of God.

“ART. XVIII. _Of obtaining eternal Salvation only by the Name of
Christ._—They also are to be had accursed, that presume to say, That every
man shall be saved by the law or sect which he professeth, so that he be
diligent to frame his life according to that law, and the light of nature.
For Holy Scripture doth set out unto us only the Name of Jesus Christ,
whereby men must be saved.

“ART. XIX. _Of the Church._—The visible Church of Christ is a congregation
of faithful men, in the which the pure Word of God is preached, and the
sacraments be duly ministered according to Christ’s ordinance, in all
those things that of necessity are requisite to the same.

“As the Church of Hierusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch, have erred, so also
the Church of Rome hath erred, not only in their living and manner of
ceremonies, but also in matters of faith.

“ART. XX. _Of the Authority of the Church._—The Church hath power to
decree rites or ceremonies, and authority in controversies of faith; and
yet it is not lawful for the Church to ordain any thing that is contrary
to God’s Word written; neither may it so expound one place of Scripture,
that it be repugnant to another. Wherefore, although the Church be a
witness and a keeper of Holy Writ, yet, as it ought not to decree any
thing against the same, so besides the same ought it not to enforce any
thing to be believed for necessity of salvation.

“ART. XXI. _Of the Authority of General Councils._(1)

“ART. XXII. _Of Purgatory._—The Romish doctrine concerning purgatory,
pardons, worshipping, and adoration, as well of images as of reliques, and
also invocation of saints, is a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded
upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God.

“ART. XXIII. _Of Ministering in the Congregation._—It is not lawful for
any man to take upon him the office of public preaching, or ministering
the sacraments in the Congregation, before he be lawfully called, and sent
to execute the same. And those we ought to judge lawfully called and sent,
which be chosen and called to this work by men who have public authority
given unto them in the Congregation, to call and send ministers into the
Lord’s vineyard.

“ART. XXIV. _Of Speaking in the Congregation in such a Tongue as the
People understandeth._—It is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God,
and the custom of the primitive Church, to have public prayer in the
Church, or to minister the sacraments, in a tongue not understanded of the
people.

“ART. XXV. _Of the Sacraments._—Sacraments ordained of Christ, be not only
badges or tokens of Christian men’s profession; but rather they be certain
sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and God’s good will toward
us, by the which He doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken,
but also strengthen and confirm our faith in Him.

“There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, that
is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord.

“Those five commonly called sacraments, that is to say, Confirmation,
Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for
Sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown, partly of the corrupt
fallowing of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed by the
Scriptures; but yet have not like nature of Sacraments with Baptism and
the Lord’s Supper, for that they have not any visible sign or ceremony
ordained of God.

“The Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be
carried about, but that we should duly use them. And in such only as
worthily receive the same, they have a wholesome effect or operation; but
they that receive them unworthily purchase to themselves damnation, as
Saint Paul saith.

“ART. XXVI. _Of the Unworthiness of the Ministers, which hinders not the
Effect of the Sacraments._—Although in the visible Church, the evil be
ever mingled with the good, and sometime the evil have chief authority in
the ministration of the Word and Sacraments; yet, forasmuch as they do not
the same in their own name, but in Christ’s, and do minister by his
commission and authority, we may use their ministry, both in hearing the
Word of God, and in receiving the Sacraments. Neither is the effect of
Christ’s ordinance taken away by their wickedness, nor the grace of God’s
gifts diminished from such as, by faith, and rightly, do receive the
Sacraments ministered unto them, which be effectual, because of Christ’s
institution and promise, although they be ministered by evil men.

“Nevertheless, it appertaineth to the discipline of the Church, that
inquiry be made of evil ministers, and that they be accused by those that
have knowledge of their offences; and finally, being found guilty, by just
judgment, be deposed.

“ART. XXVII. _Of Baptism._—Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and
mark of difference, whereby Christian men are discerned from others that
be not christened; but it is also a sign of regeneration, or new birth,
whereby, as by an instrument, they that receive Baptism rightly are
grafted into the Church: the promises of the forgiveness of sin, and of
our adoption to be the sons of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly signed
and sealed: faith is confirmed, and grace increased by virtue of prayer
unto God. The Baptism of young children is in any wise to be retained in
the Church, as most agreeable with the institution of Christ.

“ART. XXVIII. _Of the Lord’s Supper._—The Supper of the Lord is not only a
sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves one to
another; but rather it is a Sacrament of our redemption by Christ’s death:
insomuch that, to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith, receive the
same, the Bread which we break is a partaking of the body of Christ; and
likewise the Cup of Blessing is a partaking of the blood of Christ.

“Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of bread and wine) in
the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but it is repugnant
to the plain words of Scripture, overthrowing the nature of a sacrament,
and hath given occasion to many superstitions.

“The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the Supper, only after a
heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean, whereby the body of Christ is
received and eaten in the Supper, is faith.

“The Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper was not by Christ’s ordinance
reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshipped.

“ART. XXIX. _Of the Wicked, which eat not of the Body of Christ in the Use
of the Lord’s Supper._—The wicked, and such as be void of a lively faith,
although they do carnally and visibly press with their teeth (as Saint
Augustine saith) the Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ; yet in
nowise are they partakers of Christ; but rather, to their condemnation, do
eat and drink the sign or sacrament of so great a thing.

“ART. XXX. _Of Both Kinds._—The Cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the
lay people; for both the parts of the Lord’s Sacrament, by Christ’s
ordinance and commandment, ought to be ministered to all Christian men
alike.

“ART. XXXI. _Of the one Oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross._—The
offering of Christ once made, is that perfect redemption, propitiation,
and satisfaction for all the sins of the whole world, both original and
actual; and there is none other satisfaction for sin, but that alone.
Wherefore the sacrifice of masses, in the which it was commonly said, that
the Priest did offer Christ for the quick and the dead, to have remission
of pain or guilt, were blasphemous fables, and dangerous deceits.

“ART. XXXII. _Of the Marriage of Priests._—Bishops, Priests, and Deacons,
are not commanded by God’s law either to vow the estate of single life, or
to abstain from marriage: therefore it is lawful for them, as for all
other Christian men, to marry at their own discretion, as they shall judge
the same to serve better to godliness.

“ART. XXXIII. _Of excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided._—That
person which, by open denunciation of the Church, is rightly cut off from
the unity of the Church, and excommunicated, ought to be taken, of the
whole multitude of the faithful, as a heathen and publican, until he be
openly reconciled by penance, and received into the Church by a judge that
hath authority thereunto.

“ART. XXXIV. _Of the Traditions of the Church._—It is not necessary that
traditions and ceremonies be in all places one, or utterly like; for at
all times they have been divers, and may be changed according to the
diversity of countries, times, and men’s manners, so that nothing be
ordained against God’s Word. Whosoever, through his private judgment,
willingly and purposely doth openly break the traditions and ceremonies of
the Church, which be not repugnant to the Word of God, and be ordained and
approved by common authority, ought to be rebuked openly, (that other may
fear to do the like,) as he that offendeth against the common order of the
Church, and hurteth the authority of the magistrate, and woundeth the
consciences of the weak brethren.

“Every particular or national Church hath authority to ordain, change, and
abolish ceremonies or rites of the Church, ordained only by man’s
authority, so that all things be done to edifying.

“ART. XXXV. _Of Homilies._—The second Book of Homilies, the several titles
whereof we have joined, under this article, doth contain a godly and
wholesome doctrine, and necessary for these times, as doth the former Book
of Homilies, which were set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth; and
therefore we judge them to be read in Churches by the Ministers,
diligently and distinctly, that they may be understanded of the people.

“_Of the Names of the Homilies._—1. Of the right Use of the Church. 2.
Against Peril of Idolatry. 3. Of repairing and keeping clean of Churches.
4. Of Good Works; first of Fasting. 5. Against Gluttony and Drunkenness.
6. Against Excess of Apparel. 7. Of Prayer. 8. Of the Place and Time of
Prayer. 9. That Common Prayers and Sacraments ought to be ministered in a
known Tongue. 10. Of the reverent Estimation of God’s Word. 11. Of
Alms-doing. 12. Of the Nativity of Christ. 13. Of the Passion of Christ.
14. Of the Resurrection of Christ. 15. Of the worthy receiving of the
Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ. 16. Of the Gifts of the Holy
Ghost. 17. For the Rogation-Days. 18. Of the State of Matrimony. 19. Of
Repentance. 20. Against Idleness. 21. Against Rebellion.

“[This article is received in this Church, so far as it declares the Books
of Homilies to be an explication of Christian doctrine, and instructive in
piety and morals. But all references to the constitution and laws of
England are considered as inapplicable to the circumstances of this
Church, which also suspends the order for the reading of said Homilies in
Churches, until a revision of them may be conveniently made, for the
clearing of them, as well from obsolete words and phrases, as from the
local references.]

“ART. XXXVI. _Of Consecration of Bishops and Ministers._—The Book of
Consecration of Bishops, and Ordering of Priests and Deacons, as set forth
by the General Convention of this Church, in 1792, doth contain all things
necessary to such consecration and ordering; neither hath it any thing
that, of itself, is superstitious and ungodly: and, therefore, whosoever
are consecrated or ordered according to said form, we decree all such to
be rightly, orderly, and lawfully, consecrated and ordered.

“ART. XXXVII. _Of the Power of the Civil Magistrates._—The power of the
civil magistrate extendeth to all men, as well clergy as laity, in all
things temporal; but hath no authority in things purely spiritual. And we
hold it to be the duty of all men, who are professors of the Gospel, to
pay respectful obedience to the civil authority, regularly and
legitimately constituted.

“ART. XXXVIII. _Of Christian Men’s Goods which are not common._—The riches
and goods of Christians are not common, as touching the right, title, and
possession, of the same, as certain Anabaptists do falsely boast.
Notwithstanding, every man ought, of such things as he possesseth,
liberally to give alms to the poor, according to his ability.

“ART. XXXIX. _Of a Christian Man’s Oath._—As we confess that vain, and
rash swearing is forbidden Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ, and
James his Apostle; so we judge that Christian religion doth not prohibit,
but that a man may swear when the magistrate requireth, in a cause of
faith and charity, so it be done according to the prophet’s teaching, in
justice, judgment, and truth.”



CAMBRIDGE AND SAYBROOK PLATFORMS.


The Cambridge Platform of church government, and the Confession of Faith
of the New England churches, adopted in 1680; the Saybrook Platform,
adopted in 1708; and the Heads of Agreement, assented to by the
Presbyterians and Congregationalists in England in 1690,—form a volume,
and cannot, therefore, be inserted in this work.

The form of church government, however, embraced in those Platforms, is
essentially the same as that now in use by the Orthodox Congregationalists
at the present day, and the Confession of Faith the same in substance to
that we term the “Andover Orthodox Creed.”



MORAVIANS, OR UNITED BRETHREN.


A name given to the followers of Nicholas Lewis, count of Zinzendorf, who,
in the year 1721, settled at Bartholdorf, in Upper Lusatia. There he made
proselytes of two or three Moravian families, and, having engaged them to
leave their country, received them at Bartholdorf, in Germany. They were
directed to build a house in a wood, about half a league from that
village, where, in 1722, this people held their first meeting.

This society increased so fast, that, in a few years, they had an
orphan-house and other public buildings. An adjacent hill, called the
Huth-Berg, gave the colonists occasion to call this dwelling-place
Herrnhut, which may be interpreted _the guard_ or _protection of the
Lord_. Hence this society are sometimes called _Herrnhuters_.

The Moravians avoid discussions respecting the speculative truths of
religion, and insist upon individual experience of the practical
efficiency of the gospel in producing a real change of sentiment and
conduct, as the only essentials in religion. They consider the
manifestation of God in Christ as intended to be the most beneficial
revelation of the Deity to the human race; and, in consequence, they make
the life, merits, acts, words, sufferings, and death, of the Savior the
principal theme of their doctrine, while they carefully avoid entering
into any theoretical disquisitions on the mysterious essence of the
Godhead, simply adhering to the words of Scripture. Admitting the sacred
Scriptures as the only source of divine revelation, they nevertheless
believe that the Spirit of God continues to lead those who believe in
Christ into all further truth, not by revealing new doctrines, but by
teaching those who sincerely desire to learn, daily, better to understand
and apply the truths which the Scriptures contain. They believe that, to
live agreeably to the gospel, it is essential to aim, in all things, to
fulfil the will of God. Even in their temporal concerns, they endeavor to
ascertain the will of God. They do not, indeed, expect some miraculous
manifestation of his will, but only endeavor to test the purity of their
purposes by the light of the divine word. Nothing of consequence is done
by them, as a society, until such an examination has taken place; and, in
cases of difficulty, the question is decided by lot, to avoid the undue
preponderance of influential men, and in the humble hope that God will
guide them right by its decision, where their limited understanding fails
them. In former times, the marriages of the members of the society were,
in some respects, regarded as a concern of the society, as it was part of
their social agreement that none should take place without the approval of
the elders; and the elders’ consent or refusal was usually determined by
lot. But this custom was at length abandoned; and nothing is now requisite
to obtain the consent of the elders, but propriety of conduct in the
parties. They consider none of their peculiar regulations essential, but
all liable to be altered or abandoned, whenever it is found necessary, in
order better to attain their great object—the promotion of piety.

What characterizes the Moravians most, and holds them up to the attention
of others, is their missionary zeal. In this they are superior to any
other body of people in the world. “Their missionaries,” as one observes,
“are all of them volunteers; for it is an inviolable maxim with them to
_persuade_ no man to engage in missions. They are all of one mind as to
the doctrines they teach, and seldom make an attempt where there are not
half a dozen of them in the mission. Their zeal is calm, steady,
persevering. They would reform the world, but are careful how they quarrel
with it. They carry their point by address, and the insinuations of
modesty and mildness, which commend them to all men, and give offence to
none. The habits of silence, quietness, and decent reserve, mark their
character.”

The following is a sketch of the mode of life of the Moravians, or United
Brethren, where they form separate communities, which, however, is not
always the case; for, in many instances, societies belonging to the Unity
are situated in larger and smaller cities and towns, intermingled with the
rest of the inhabitants, in which cases their peculiar regulations are, of
course, out of the question. In their separate communities, they do not
allow the permanent residence of any persons as householders who are not
members in full communion, and who have not signed the written instrument
of brotherly agreement, upon which their constitution and discipline rest;
but they freely admit of the temporary residence among them of such other
persons as are willing to conform to their external regulations. According
to these, all kinds of amusements considered dangerous to strict morality
are forbidden, as balls, dancing, plays, gambling of any kind, and all
promiscuous assemblies of youth of both sexes. These, however, are not
debarred from forming, under proper advice and parental superintendence,
that acquaintance which their future matrimonial connections may require.
In the communities on the European continent, whither, to this day,
numbers of young persons of both sexes resort, in order to become members
of the society from motives of piety and a desire to prepare themselves to
become missionaries among the heathen, and where, moreover, the
difficulties of supporting a family greatly limit the number of marriages,
a stricter attention to this point becomes necessary. On this account, the
unmarried men and boys, not belonging to the families of the community,
reside together, under the care of an elder of their own class, in a
building called the _single brethren’s house_, where usually divers trades
and manufactures are carried on, for the benefit of the house or of the
community, and which, at the same time, furnishes a cheap and convenient
place for the board and lodging of those who are employed as journeymen,
apprentices, or otherwise, in the families constituting the community.
Particular daily opportunities of edification are there afforded them; and
such a house is the place of resort where the young men and boys of the
families spend their leisure time, it being a general rule, that every
member of the society shall devote himself to some useful occupation. A
similar house, under the guidance of a female superintendent, and under
similar regulations, is called the _single sisters’ house_, and is the
common dwelling-place of all unmarried females, not members of any family,
or not employed as servants in the families of the community. Even these
regard the sisters’ house as their principal place of association at
leisure hours. Industrious habits are here inculcated in the same way. In
the communities of the United Brethren in America, the facilities of
supporting families, and the consequent early marriages, have superseded
the necessity of single brethren’s houses; but they all have sisters’
houses of the above description, which afford a comfortable asylum to aged
unmarried females, while they furnish an opportunity of attending to the
further education and improvement of the female youth after they have left
school. In the larger communities, similar houses afford the same
advantages to such widows as desire to live retired, and are called
_widows’ houses_. The individuals residing in these establishments pay a
small rent, by which, and by the sums paid for their board, the expenses
of these houses are defrayed, assisted occasionally by the profits on the
sale of ornamental needle-work, &c., on which some of the inmates subsist.
The aged and needy are supported by the same means. Each division of sex
and station just alluded to, viz., widows, single men and youths, single
women and girls past the age of childhood, is placed under the special
guidance of elders of their own description, whose province it is to
assist them with good advice and admonition, and to attend, as much as may
be, to the spiritual and temporal welfare of each individual. The children
of each sex are under the immediate care of the superintendent of the
single choirs, as these divisions are termed. Their instruction in
religion, and in all the necessary branches of human knowledge, in good
schools, carried on separately for each sex, is under the special
superintendence of the stated minister of each community, and of the board
of elders. Similar special elders are charged to attend to the spiritual
welfare of the married people. All these elders, of both sexes, together
with the stated minister, to whom the preaching of the gospel is chiefly
committed, (although all other elders who may be qualified participate
therein,) and with the persons to whom the economical concerns of the
community are intrusted, form together the board of elders, in which rests
the government of the community, with the concurrence of the committee
elected by the inhabitants for all temporal concerns. This committee
superintends the observance of all regulations, has charge of the police,
and decides differences between individuals. Matters of a general nature
are submitted to a meeting of the whole community, consisting either of
all male members of age, or of an intermediate body elected by them.
Public meetings are held every evening in the week. Some of these are
devoted to the reading of the Scriptures, others to the communication of
accounts from the missionary stations, and others to the singing of hymns
or selected verses. On Sunday mornings, the church litany is publicly
read, and sermons are delivered to the congregation, which, in many
places, is the case likewise in the afternoon. In the evening, discourses
are delivered, in which the texts for that day are explained and brought
home to the particular circumstances of the community. Besides these
regular means of edification, the festival days of the Christian church,
such as Easter, Pentecost, Christmas, &c., are commemorated in a special
manner, as well as some days of peculiar interest in the history of the
society. A solemn church music constitutes a prominent feature of their
means of edification, music in general being a favorite employment of the
leisure of many. On particular occasions, and before the congregation
meets to partake of the Lord’s supper, they assemble expressly to listen
to instrumental and vocal music, interspersed with hymns, in which the
whole congregation joins, while they partake together of a cup of coffee,
tea, or chocolate, and light cakes, in token of fellowship and brotherly
union. This solemnity is called a _love-feast_, and is in imitation of the
custom of the agapæ in the primitive Christian churches. The Lord’s supper
is celebrated at stated intervals, generally by all communicant members
together, under very solemn but simple rites.

Easter morning is devoted to a solemnity of a peculiar kind. At sunrise,
the congregation assembles in the graveyard; a service, accompanied by
music, is celebrated, expressive of the joyful hopes of immortality and
resurrection, and a solemn commemoration is made of all who have, in the
course of the last year, departed this life from among them, and “gone
home to the Lord”—an expression they often use to designate death.

Considering the termination of the present life no evil, but the entrance
upon an eternal state of bliss to the sincere disciples of Christ, they
desire to divest this event of all its terrors. The decease of every
individual is announced to the community by solemn music from a band of
instruments. Outward appearances of mourning are discountenanced. The
whole congregation follows the bier to the graveyard, (which is commonly
laid out as a garden,) accompanied by a band, playing the tunes of
well-known verses, which express the hopes of eternal life and
resurrection; and the corpse is deposited in the simple grave during the
funeral service. The preservation of the purity of the community is
intrusted to the board of elders and its different members, who are to
give instruction and admonition to those under their care, and make a
discreet use of the established church discipline. In cases of immoral
conduct, or flagrant disregard of the regulations of the society, this
discipline is resorted to. If expostulations are not successful, offenders
are for a time restrained from participating in the holy communion, or
called before the committee. For pertinacious bad conduct, or flagrant
excesses, the culpable individual is dismissed from the society. The
ecclesiastical church officers, generally speaking, are the
bishops,—through whom the regular succession of ordination, transmitted to
the United Brethren through the ancient church of the Bohemian and
Moravian Brethren, is preserved, and who alone are authorized to ordain
ministers, but possess no authority in the government of the church,
except such as they derive from some other office, being, most frequently,
the presidents of some board of elders,—the civil seniors,—to whom, in
subordination to the board of elders of the Unity, belongs the management
of the external relations of the society,—the presbyters, or ordained
stated ministers of the communities, and the deacons. The degree of deacon
is the first bestowed upon young ministers and missionaries, by which they
are authorized to administer the sacraments. Females, although elders
among their own sex, are never ordained; nor have they a vote in the
deliberations of the board of elders, which they attend for the sake of
information only.

The Moravians that first visited the United States, settled at Savannah,
Ga., in 1735.



TUNKERS.


A denomination of Seventh-Day Baptists, which took its rise in the year
1724. It was founded by a German, who, weary of the world, retired to an
agreeable solitude, within sixty miles of Philadelphia, for the more free
exercise of religious contemplation. Curiosity attracted followers, and
his simple and engaging manners made them proselytes. They soon settled a
little colony, called Ephrata, in allusion to the Hebrews, who used to
sing psalms on the border of the River Euphrates. This denomination seem
to have obtained their name from their baptizing their new converts by
plunging. They are also called _Tumblers_, from the manner in which they
perform baptism, which is by putting the person, while kneeling, head
first under water, so as to resemble the motion of the body in the action
of tumbling. They use the trine immersion, with laying on the hands and
prayer, even when the person baptized is in the water. Their habit seems
to be peculiar to themselves, consisting of a long tunic or coat, reaching
down to their heels, with a sash or girdle round the waist, and a cap or
hood hanging from the shoulders. They do not shave the head or beard.

The men and women have separate habitations and distinct governments. For
these purposes, they erected two large wooden buildings, one of which is
occupied by the brethren, the other by the sisters, of the society; and in
each of them there is a banqueting-room, and an apartment for public
worship; for the brethren and sisters do not meet together even at their
devotions.

They used to live chiefly upon roots and other vegetables, the rules of
their society not allowing them flesh, except upon particular occasions,
when they hold what they call a love-feast; at which time, the brethren
and sisters dine together in a large apartment, and eat mutton, but no
other meat. In each of their little cells they have a bench fixed, to
serve the purpose of a bed, and a small block of wood for a pillow. They
allow of marriages, but consider celibacy as a virtue.

The principal tenet of the Tunkers appears to be this—that future
happiness is only to be obtained by penance and outward mortifications in
this life, and that, as Jesus Christ, by his meritorious sufferings,
became the Redeemer of mankind in general, so each individual of the human
race, by a life of abstinence and restraint, may work out his own
salvation. Nay, they go so far as to admit of works of supererogation, and
declare that a man may do much more than he is in justice or equity
obliged to do, and that his superabundant works may, therefore, be applied
to the salvation of others.

This denomination deny the eternity of future punishments, and believe
that the dead have the gospel preached to them by our Savior, and that the
souls of the just are employed to preach the gospel to those who have had
no revelation in this life. They suppose the Jewish Sabbath, sabbatical
year, and year of jubilee, are typical of certain periods after the
general judgment, in which the souls of those who are not then admitted
into happiness are purified from their corruption. If any, within those
smaller periods, are so far humbled as to acknowledge the perfections of
God, and to own Christ as their only Savior, they are received to
felicity; while those who continue obstinate are reserved in torments,
until the grand period, typified by the jubilee, arrives, in which all
shall be made happy in the endless fruition of the Deity.

They also deny the imputation of Adam’s sin to his posterity. They
disclaim violence, even in cases of self-defence, and suffer themselves to
be defrauded, or wronged, rather than go to law.

Their church government and discipline are the same with other Baptists;
except that every brother is allowed to speak in the congregation; and
their best speaker is usually ordained to be the minister. They have
deacons and deaconesses from among their ancient widows and exhorters, who
are all licensed to use their gifts statedly.

The Tunkers are not so rigid in their dress and manner of life as
formerly; still they retain the faith of their fathers, and lead lives of
great industry, frugality, and purity.



MENNONITES, OR HARMLESS CHRISTIANS.


The Mennonites derive their name from Menno Simons, an illustrious
reformer. This people came to the United States from Holland, and first
settled in Pennsylvania, where a large body of them now reside.

It is a universal maxim of this denomination, that practical piety is the
essence of religion, and that the surest mark of the true church is the
sanctity of its members. They all unite in pleading for toleration in
religion, and debar none from their assemblies who lead pious lives, and
own the Scriptures for the word of God. They teach that infants are not
the proper subjects of baptism; that ministers of the gospel ought to
receive no salary; and that it is not lawful to swear, or wage war, upon
any occasion. They also maintain that the terms _person_ and _Trinity_ are
not to be used in speaking of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

The Mennonites meet privately, and every one in the assembly has the
liberty to speak, to expound the Scriptures, to pray, and sing.

The Mennonites do not baptize by immersion, though they administer the
ordinance to none but adult persons. Their common method is this: The
person who is to be baptized, kneels; the minister holds his hands over
him, into which the deacon pours water, and through which it runs on the
crown of the kneeling person’s head; after which follow imposition of
hands and prayer.

Mr. Van Beuning, the Dutch ambassador, speaking of these _Harmless
Christians_, as they choose to call themselves, says, “The Mennonites are
good people, and the most commodious to a state of any in the world;
partly, because they do not aspire to places of dignity; partly, because
they edify the community by the simplicity of their manners, and
application to arts and industry; and partly, because we fear no rebellion
from a sect who make it an article of their faith never to bear arms.”



DISCIPLES OF CHRIST; SOMETIMES CALLED CAMPBELLITES, OR REFORMERS.


The rise of this society, if we only look back to the drawing of the lines
of demarkation between it and other professors, is of recent origin. About
the commencement of the present century, the Bible alone, without any
human addition in the form of creeds or confessions of faith, began to be
preached by many distinguished ministers of different denominations, both
in Europe and America.

With various success, and with many of the opinions of the various sects
imperceptibly carried with them from the denominations to which they once
belonged, did the advocates of the Bible cause plead for the union of
Christians of every name, on the broad basis of the apostles’ teaching.
But it was not until the year 1823, that a restoration of the _original
gospel_ and _order of things_ began to be advocated in a periodical,
edited by Alexander Campbell, of Bethany, Virginia, entitled “The
Christian Baptist.”

He and his father, Thomas Campbell, renounced the Presbyterian system, and
were immersed, in the year 1812. They, and the congregations which they
had formed, united with the Redstone Baptist association, protesting
against all human creeds as bonds of union, and professing subjection to
the Bible alone. This union took place in the year 1813. But, in pressing
upon the attention of that society and the public the all-sufficiency of
the _sacred_ Scriptures for every thing necessary to the perfection of
Christian character,—whether in the private or social relations of life,
in the church, or in the world,—they began to be opposed by a strong
creed-party in that association. After some ten years debating and
contending for the Bible alone, and the apostles’ doctrine, Alexander
Campbell, and the church to which he belonged, united with the Mahoning
association, in the Western Reserve of Ohio; that association being more
favorable to his views of reform.

In his debates on the subject and action of baptism with Mr. Walker, a
seceding minister, in the year 1820, and with Mr. M’Calla, a Presbyterian
minister of Kentucky, in the year 1823, his views of reformation began to
be developed, and were very generally received by the Baptist society, as
far as these works were read.

But in his “Christian Baptist,” which began July 4, 1823 his views of the
need of reformation were more fully exposed, and, as these gained ground
by the pleading of various ministers of the Baptist denomination, a party
in opposition began to exert itself, and to oppose the spread of what they
were pleased to call heterodoxy. But not till after great numbers began to
act upon these principles, was there any attempt towards separation. After
the Mahoning association appointed Mr. Walter Scott an evangelist, in the
year 1827, and when great numbers began to be immersed into Christ, under
his labors, and new churches began to be erected by him and other laborers
in the field, did the Baptist associations begin to declare non-fellowship
with the brethren of the reformation. Thus by constraint, not of choice,
they were obliged to form societies out of those communities that split,
upon the ground of adherence to the apostles’ doctrine. The distinguishing
characteristics of their views and practices are the following:—

They regard all the sects and parties of the Christian world as having, in
greater or less degrees, departed from the simplicity of faith and manners
of the first Christians, and as forming what the apostle Paul calls “the
apostasy.” This defection they attribute to the great varieties of
speculation and metaphysical dogmatism of the countless creeds,
formularies, liturgies, and books of discipline, adopted and inculcated as
bonds of union and platforms of communion in all the parties which have
sprung from the Lutheran reformation. The effect of these synodical
covenants, conventional articles of belief, and rules of ecclesiastical
polity, has been the introduction of a new nomenclature,—a human
vocabulary of religious words, phrases, and technicalities, which has
displaced the style of the living oracles, and affixed to the sacred
diction ideas wholly unknown to the apostles of Christ.

To remedy and obviate these aberrations, they propose to ascertain from
the holy Scriptures, according to the commonly-received and
well-established rules of interpretation, the ideas attached to the
leading terms and sentences found in the holy Scriptures, and then to use
the words of the Holy Spirit in the apostolic acceptation of them.

By thus expressing the ideas communicated by the Holy Spirit, in the terms
and phrases learned from the apostles, and by avoiding the artificial and
technical language of scholastic theology, they propose to restore a pure
speech to the household of faith; and, by accustoming the family of God to
use the language and dialect of the heavenly Father, they expect to
promote the sanctification of one another through the truth, and to
terminate those discords and debates which have always originated from the
words which man’s wisdom teaches, and from a reverential regard and esteem
for the style of the great masters of polemic divinity; believing that
speaking the same things in the same style, is the only certain way to
thinking the same things.

They make a very marked difference between faith and opinion; between the
testimony of God and the reasonings of men; the words of the Spirit and
human inferences. Faith in the testimony of God, and obedience to the
commandments of Jesus, are their bond of union, and not an agreement in
any abstract views or opinions upon what is written or spoken by divine
authority. Hence all the speculations, questions, debates of words, and
abstract reasonings, found in human creeds, have no place in their
religious fellowship. Regarding Calvinism and Arminianism, Trinitarianism
and Unitarianism, and all the opposing theories of religious sectaries, as
_extremes_ begotten by each other, they cautiously avoid them, as
equidistant from the simplicity and practical tendency of the promises and
precepts, of the doctrine and facts, of the exhortations and precedents,
of the Christian institution.

They look for unity of spirit and the bonds of peace in the practical
acknowledgment of one faith, one Lord, one immersion, one hope, one body,
one Spirit, one God and Father of all; not in unity of opinions, nor in
unity of forms, ceremonies, or modes of worship.

The holy Scriptures of both Testaments they regard as containing
revelations from God, and as all necessary to make the man of God perfect,
and accomplished for every good word and work; the New Testament, or the
living oracles of Jesus Christ, they understand as containing the
Christian religion; the testimonies of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, they
view as illustrating and proving the great proposition on which our
religion rests, viz., _that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, the
only-begotten and well-beloved Son of God, and the only Savior of the
world_; the Acts of the Apostles as a divinely-authorized narrative of the
beginning and progress of the reign or kingdom of Jesus Christ, recording
the full development of _the gospel_ by the Holy Spirit sent down from
heaven, and the procedure of the apostles in setting up the church of
Christ on earth; the Epistles as carrying out and applying the doctrine of
the apostles to the practice of individuals and congregations, and as
developing the tendencies of the gospel in the behavior of its professors;
and all as forming a complete standard of Christian faith and morals,
adapted to the interval between the ascension of Christ and his return
with the kingdom which he has received from God; the Apocalypse, or
Revelation of Jesus Christ to John, in Patmos, as a figurative and
prospective view of all the fortunes of Christianity, from its date to the
return of the Savior.

Every one who sincerely believes the testimony which God gave of Jesus of
Nazareth, saying, “_This is my Son, the beloved, in whom I delight_,” or,
in other words, believes what the evangelists and apostles have testified
concerning him, from his conception to his coronation in heaven as Lord of
all, and who is willing to obey him in every thing, they regard as a
proper subject of immersion, and no one else. They consider immersion into
the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, after a public, sincere, and
intelligent confession of the faith in Jesus, as necessary to admission to
the privileges of the kingdom of the Messiah, and as a solemn pledge, on
the part of Heaven, of the actual remission of all past sins, and of
adoption into the family of God.

The Holy Spirit is promised only to those who believe and obey the Savior.
No one is taught to expect the reception of that heavenly Monitor and
Comforter, as a resident in his heart, till he obeys the gospel.

Thus, while they proclaim faith and repentance, or faith and a change of
heart, as preparatory to immersion, remission, and the Holy Spirit, they
say to all penitents, or all those who believe and repent of their sins,
as Peter said to the first audience addressed after the Holy Spirit was
bestowed, after the glorification of Jesus, “Be immersed, every one of
you, in the name of the Lord Jesus, for the remission of sins, and you
shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.” They teach sinners that God
commands _all men_, every where, to reform, or to turn to God; that the
Holy Spirit strives with them, so to do, by the apostles and prophets;
that God beseeches them to be reconciled, through Jesus Christ; and that
it is the duty of all men to believe the gospel, and turn to God.

The immersed believers are congregated into societies, according to their
propinquity to each other, and taught to meet every first day of the week,
in honor and commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus, and to break the
loaf, which commemorates the death of the Son of God, to read and hear the
living oracles, to teach and admonish one another, to unite in all prayer
and praise, to contribute to the necessities of saints, and to perfect
holiness in the fear of the Lord.

Every congregation chooses its own overseers and deacons, who preside over
and administer the affairs of the congregations; and every church, either
from itself, or in coöperation with others, sends out, as opportunity
offers, one or more evangelists, or proclaimers of the word, to preach the
word, and to immerse those who believe, to gather congregations, and to
extend the knowledge of salvation where it is necessary, as far as their
means allow. But every church regards these evangelists as its servants;
and, therefore, they have no control over any congregation, each
congregation being subject to its own choice of presidents or elders, whom
they have appointed. Perseverance in all the work of faith, labor of love,
and patience of hope, is inculcated, by all the disciples, as essential to
admission into the heavenly kingdom.

Such are the prominent outlines of the faith and practices of those who
wish to be known as the Disciples of Christ; but no society among them
would agree to make the preceding items either a confession of faith or a
standard of practice, but, for the information of those who wish an
acquaintance with them, are willing to give, at any time, a reason for
their faith, hope, and practice.



FRIENDS, OR QUAKERS.


This class of Christians arose in England about the middle of the 17th
century. They were at first called _Seekers_, from their seeking the
truth; and afterwards _Quakers_, for directing their enemies to tremble at
the word of the Lord. They prefer the more endearing appellation of
FRIENDS, which has been transmitted to them by their predecessors.

George Fox was the first who publicly advocated their principles in
England, and the celebrated William Penn in America.

The following is a SUMMARY of the doctrines and discipline of the society
of Friends, published in London in 1800, and sanctioned by the orthodox
society of Friends in this country.

DOCTRINE.—“We agree, with other professors of the Christian name, in the
belief of one eternal God, the Creator and Preserver of the universe, and
in Jesus Christ, his Son, the Messiah, and Mediator of the new covenant.

“When we speak of the gracious display of the love of God to mankind, in
the miraculous conception, birth, life, miracles, death, resurrection, and
ascension, of our Savior, we prefer the use of such terms as we find in
Scripture; and, contented with that knowledge which Divine Wisdom hath
seen meet to reveal, we attempt not to explain those mysteries which
remain under the veil; nevertheless, we acknowledge and assert the
divinity of Christ, who is the wisdom and power of God unto salvation.

“To Christ, alone, we give the title of the Word of God, and not to the
Scriptures; although we highly esteem these sacred writings, in
subordination to the Spirit, from which they were given forth; and we
hold, with the apostle Paul, that they are able to make wise unto
salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus.

“We reverence those most excellent precepts which are recorded, in
Scripture, to have been delivered by our great Lord; and we firmly believe
that they are practicable, and binding on every Christian, and that, in
the life to come, every man will be rewarded according to his works. And,
further, it is our belief that, in order to enable mankind to put in
practice these sacred precepts, many of which are contradictory to the
unregenerate will of man, every man, coming into the world, is endued with
a measure of the light, grace, or good spirit, of Christ, by which, as it
is attended to, he is enabled to distinguish good from evil, and to
correct the disorderly passions and corrupt propensities of his nature,
which mere reason is altogether insufficient to overcome. For all that
belongs to man is fallible, and within the reach of temptation; but this
divine grace, which comes by Him who hath overcome the world, is, to those
who humbly and sincerely seek it, an all-sufficient and present help in
time of need. By this, the snares of the enemy are detected, his
allurements avoided, and deliverance is experienced, through faith in its
effectual operation; whereby the soul is translated out of the kingdom of
darkness, and from under the power of Satan, into the marvellous light and
kingdom of the Son of God.

“Being thus persuaded that man, without the Spirit of Christ inwardly
revealed, can do nothing to the glory of God, or to effect his own
salvation, we think this influence especially necessary to the performance
of the highest act of which the human mind is capable,—even the worship of
the Father of lights and of spirits, in spirit and in truth; therefore we
consider as obstruction to pure worship, all forms which divert the
attention of the mind from the secret influence of this unction from the
Holy One. Yet, although true worship is not confined to time and place, we
think it incumbent on Christians to meet often together, in testimony of
their dependence on the heavenly Father, and for a renewal of their
spiritual strength: nevertheless, in the performance of worship, we dare
not depend, for our acceptance with him, on a formal repetition of the
words and experiences of others; but we believe it to be our duty to lay
aside the activity of the imagination, and to wait in silence, to have a
true sight of our condition bestowed upon us; believing even a single
sight, arising from such a sense of our infirmities, and of the need we
have of divine help, to be more acceptable to God than any performances,
however specious, which originate in the will of man.

“From what has been said respecting worship, it follows that the ministry
we approve must have its origin from the same source; for that which is
needful for man’s own direction, and for his acceptance with God, must be
eminently so to enable him to be helpful to others. Accordingly, we
believe that the renewed assistance of the light and power of Christ is
indispensably necessary for all true ministry, and that this holy
influence is not at our command, or to be procured by study, but is the
free gift of God to chosen and devoted servants. Hence arises our
testimony against preaching for hire, in contradiction to Christ’s
positive command, ‘Freely ye have received, freely give;’ and hence our
conscientious refusal to support such ministry by tithes or other means.

“As we dare not encourage any ministry but that which we believe to spring
from the influence of the Holy Spirit, so neither dare we attempt to
restrain this influence to persons of any condition in life, or to the
male sex alone; but, as male and female are one in Christ, we allow such
of the female sex as we believe to be endued with a right qualification
for the ministry, to exercise their gifts for the general edification of
the church; and this liberty we esteem a peculiar mark of the gospel
dispensation, as foretold by the prophet Joel, and noticed by the apostle
Peter.

“There are two ceremonies in use among most professors of the Christian
name—water baptism, and what is termed the Lord’s supper. The first of
these is generally esteemed the essential means of initiation into the
church of Christ, and the latter of maintaining communion with him. But,
as we have been convinced that nothing short of his redeeming power,
inwardly revealed, can set the soul free from the thraldom of sin, by this
power alone we believe salvation to be effected. We hold that, as there is
one Lord, and one faith, so his baptism is one, in nature and operation;
that nothing short of it can make us living members of his mystical body;
and that the baptism with water, administered by his forerunner John,
belonged, as the latter confessed, to an inferior and decreasing
dispensation.

“With respect to the other rite, we believe that communion between Christ
and his church is not maintained by that, nor any other external
performance, but only by a real participation of his divine nature,
through faith; that this is the supper alluded to in Revelation, ‘Behold,
I stand at the door and knock; if any man hear my voice, and open the
door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me;’ and
that, where the substance is attained, it is unnecessary to attend to the
shadow, which doth not confer grace, and concerning which, opinions so
different, and animosities so violent, have arisen.

“Now, as we thus believe that the grace of God, which comes by Jesus
Christ, is alone sufficient for salvation, we can neither admit that it is
conferred on a few only, whilst others are left without it, nor, thus
asserting its universality, can we limit its operation to a partial
cleansing of the soul from sin, even in this life. We entertain worthier
notions, both of the power and goodness of our heavenly Father, and
believe that he doth vouchsafe to assist the obedient to experience a
total surrender of the natural will to the guidance of his pure, unerring
Spirit, through whose renewed assistance they are enabled to bring forth
fruits unto holiness, and to stand perfect in their present rank.

“There are not many of our tenets more generally known than our testimony
against oaths, and against war. With respect to the former of these, we
abide literally by Christ’s positive injunction, delivered in his Sermon
on the Mount, ‘Swear not at all.’ From the same sacred collection of the
most excellent precepts of moral and religious duty, from the example of
our Lord himself, and from the correspondent convictions of his Spirit in
our hearts, we are confirmed in the belief that wars and fightings are, in
their origin and effects, utterly repugnant to the gospel, which still
breathes peace and good-will to men. We also are clearly of the judgment,
that, if the benevolence of the gospel were generally prevalent in the
minds of men, it would effectually prevent them from oppressing, much more
enslaving, their brethren, (of whatever color or complexion,) for whom, as
for themselves, Christ died; and would even influence their conduct in
their treatment of the brute creation, which would no longer groan, the
victims of their avarice, or of their false ideas of pleasure.

“Some of our tenets have, in former times, as hath been shown, subjected
our friends to much suffering from government, though to the salutary
purposes of government our principles are a security. They inculcate
submission to the laws in all cases wherein conscience is not violated.
But we hold that, as Christ’s kingdom is not of this world, it is not the
business of the civil magistrate to interfere in matters of religion, but
to maintain the external peace and good order of the community. We,
therefore, think persecution, even in the smallest degree, unwarrantable.
We are careful in requiring our members not to be concerned in illicit
trade, nor in any manner to defraud the revenue.

“It is well known that the society, from its first appearance, has disused
those names of the months and days, which having been given in honor of
the heroes or false gods of the heathen, originated in their flattery or
superstition; and the custom of speaking to a single person in the plural
number, as having arisen also from motives of adulation. Compliments,
superfluity of apparel, and furniture, outward shows of rejoicing and
mourning, and the observation of days and times, we esteem to be
incompatible with the simplicity and sincerity of a Christian life; and
public diversions, gaming, and other vain amusements of the world, we
cannot but condemn. They are a waste of that time which is given us for
nobler purposes, and divert the attention of the mind from the sober
duties of life, and from the reproofs of instruction, by which we are
guided to an everlasting inheritance.

“To conclude: Although we have exhibited the several tenets which
distinguish our religious society, as objects of our belief, yet we are
sensible that a true and living faith is not produced in the mind of man
by his own effort, but is the free gift of God in Christ Jesus, nourished
and increased by the progressive operation of his Spirit in our hearts,
and our proportionate obedience. Therefore, although, for the preservation
of the testimonies given us to bear, and for the peace and good order of
the society, we deem it necessary that those who are admitted into
membership with us should be previously convinced of those doctrines which
we esteem essential, yet we require no formal subscription to any
articles, either as a condition of membership, or a qualification for the
service of the church. We prefer the judging of men by their fruits, and
depending on the aid of Him, who, by his prophet, hath promised to be ‘a
spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment.’ Without this there is
a danger of receiving numbers into outward communion, without any addition
to that spiritual sheepfold, whereof our blessed Lord declared himself to
be both the door and the shepherd; that is, such as know his voice, and
follow him in the paths of obedience. (See Heb. 12:24. 1 Cor. 1:24. John
1:1. 2 Pet. 1:21. 2 Tim. 3:15. Matt. 16:27. John 1:9-16, 33. 1 John 2:20,
27. Heb. 10:25. Rom 8:26. Jer. 23:30-32. Matt 10:8. Joel 2:28, 29. Acts
2:16, 17. Eph. 4:5. John 3:30. 2 Pet. 1:4. Rev. 3:20. Matt. 5:48. Eph.
4:13. Col. 4:12. Matt. 5:34, 39, 44, &c.; 26:52, 53. Luke 22:51. John
18:11. Eph. 2:8. John 7:17. Isa. 28:6. John 10:7, 11.)

“DISCIPLINE.—The purposes which our discipline hath chiefly in view, are,
the relief of the poor; the maintenance of good order; the support of the
testimonies which we believe it is our duty to bear to the world; and the
help and recovery of such as are overtaken in faults.

“In the practice of discipline, we think it indispensable that the order
recommended by Christ himself be invariably observed. ‘If thy brother
shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and
him alone; if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother; but if he
will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth
of two or three witnesses, every word may be established; and if he shall
neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church.’

“To effect the salutary purposes of discipline, meetings were appointed,
at an early period of the society, which, from the times of their being
held, were called _quarterly meetings_. It was afterward found expedient
to divide the districts of those meetings, and to meet more frequently;
from whence arose _monthly meetings_, subordinate to those held quarterly.
At length, in 1669, a _yearly meeting_ was established, to superintend,
assist, and provide rules for the whole; previously to which, _general
meetings_ had been occasionally held.

“A monthly meeting is usually composed of several particular
congregations, situated within a convenient distance from each other. Its
business is to provide for the subsistence of the poor, and for the
education of their offspring; to judge of the sincerity and fitness of
persons appearing to be convinced of the religious principles of the
society, and desiring to be admitted into membership; to excite due
attention to the discharge of religious and moral duty; and to deal with
disorderly members. Monthly meetings also grant to such of their members
as remove into other monthly meetings, certificates of their membership
and conduct, without which they cannot gain membership in such meetings.
Each monthly meeting is required to appoint certain persons, under the
name of _overseers_, who are to take care that the rules of our discipline
be put in practice, and, when any case of complaint, or disorderly
conduct, comes to their knowledge, to see that private admonition,
agreeably to the gospel rule before mentioned, be given, previously to its
being laid before the monthly meeting.

“When a case is introduced, it is usual for a small committee to be
appointed to visit the offender, to endeavor to convince him of his error,
and to induce him to forsake and condemn it. If they succeed, the person
is by minute declared to have made satisfaction for the offence; if not,
he is disowned as a member of the society.

“In disputes between individuals, it has long been the decided judgment of
the society, that its members should not sue each other at law. It
therefore enjoins all to end their differences by speedy and impartial
arbitration, agreeably to rules laid down. If any refuse to adopt this
mode, or, having adopted it, to submit to the award, it is the direction
of the yearly meeting that such be disowned.

“To monthly meetings, also, belongs the allowing of marriages; for our
society hath always scrupled to acknowledge the exclusive authority of the
priests in the solemnization of marriage. Those who intend to marry appear
together, and propose their intention to the monthly meeting, and, if not
attended by their parents and guardians, produce a written certificate of
their consent, signed in the presence of witnesses. The meeting then
appoints a committee to inquire whether they be clear of other engagements
respecting marriage; and if, at a subsequent meeting, to which the parties
also come and declare the continuance of their intention, no objections be
reported, they have the meeting’s consent to solemnize their intended
marriage. This is done in a public meeting for worship, toward the close
whereof the parties stand up, and solemnly take each other for husband and
wife. A certificate of the proceedings is then publicly read, and signed
by the parties, and afterward by the relations and others as witnesses. Of
such marriage the monthly meeting keeps a record, as also of the births
and burials of its members. A certificate of the date, of the name of the
infant, and of its parents, signed by those present at the birth, is the
subject of one of these last-mentioned records, and an order for the
interment, countersigned by the grave-maker, of the other. The naming of
children is without ceremony. Burials are also conducted in a simple
manner. The body, followed by the relations and friends, is sometimes,
previously to interment, carried to a meeting; and at the grave a pause is
generally made; on both which occasions it frequently falls out, that one
or more friends present have somewhat to express for the edification of
those who attend; but no religious rite is considered as an essential part
of burial.

“Several monthly meetings compose a quarterly meeting. At the quarterly
meeting are produced written answers from the monthly meetings, to certain
queries respecting the conduct of their members, and the meetings’ care
over them. The accounts thus received are digested into one, which is sent
also in the form of answers to queries, by representatives, to the yearly
meeting. Appeals from the judgment of monthly meetings are brought to the
quarterly meetings, whose business also it is to assist in any difficult
case, or where remissness appears in the care of the monthly meetings over
the individuals who compose them.

“The yearly meeting has the general superintendence of the society in the
country in which it is established; and therefore, as the accounts which
it receives discover the state of inferior meetings, as particular
exigencies require, or as the meeting is impressed with a sense of duty,
it gives forth its advice, makes such regulations as appear to be
requisite, or excites to the observance of those already made, and
sometimes appoints committees to visit those quarterly meetings which
appear to be in need of immediate advice. Appeals from the judgment of
quarterly meetings are here finally determined; and a brotherly
correspondence, by epistles, is maintained with other yearly meetings.

“In this place it is proper to add that, as we believe women may be
rightly called to the work of the ministry, we also think that to them
belongs a share in the support of our Christian discipline, and that some
parts of it, wherein their own sex is concerned, devolve on them with
peculiar propriety; accordingly, they have monthly, quarterly, and yearly
meetings of their own sex, held at the same time and in the same place
with those of the men, but separately, and without the power of making
rules; and it may be remarked that, during the persecutions, which, in the
last century, occasioned the imprisonment of so many of the men, the care
of the poor often fell on the women, and was by them satisfactorily
administered.

“In order that those who are in the situation of ministers may have the
tender sympathy and counsel of those of either sex, who, by their
experience in the work of religion, are qualified for that service, the
monthly meetings are advised to select such, under the denomination of
_elders_. These, and ministers approved by their monthly meetings, have
meetings peculiar to themselves, called _meetings of ministers and
elders_, in which they have an opportunity of exciting each other to a
discharge of their several duties, and of extending advice to those who
may appear to be weak, without any needless exposure. Such meetings are
generally held in the compass of each monthly, quarterly, and yearly
meeting. They are conducted by rules prescribed by the yearly meeting, and
have no authority to make any alteration or addition to them. The members
of them unite with their brethren in the meetings for discipline, and are
equally accountable to the latter for their conduct.

“Thus have we given a view of the foundation and establishment of our
discipline; by which it will be seen that it is not, as hath been
frequently insinuated, merely the work of modern times, but was the early
care and concern of our pious predecessors. We cannot better close this
short sketch of it, than by observing that, if the exercise of discipline
should in some instances appear to press hard upon those, who, neglecting
the monitions of divine counsel in their hearts, are also unwilling to be
accountable to their brethren, yet, if that great, leading, and
indispensable rule, enjoined by our Lord, be observed by those who
undertake to be active in it,—‘Whatsoever ye would that men should do to
you, do ye even so to them,’—it will prevent the censure of the church
from falling on any thing but that which really obstructs the progress of
truth. Discipline will then promote, in an eminent degree, that love of
our neighbor which is the mark of discipleship, and without which a
profession of love to God, and to his cause, is a vain pretence. ‘He,’
said the beloved disciple, ‘that loveth not his brother, whom he hath
seen, how can he love God, whom he hath not seen? And this commandment
have we from him, that he who loveth God, love his brother also.’ ”

                  -------------------------------------

The Friends are divided in sentiment; there are, in fact, two sects,
denominated _Orthodox_ and _Hicksites_.

Some opinion of Elias Hicks’s sentiments, in regard to the Trinity, may be
formed by an extract from one of his publications, (Sermons, vol. iv. pp.
288, 289.)

“He that laid down his life, and suffered his body to be crucified by the
Jews, without the gates of Jerusalem, is Christ, the only Son of the most
high God. But that the _outward person which suffered_ was properly the
Son of God, we utterly deny. Flesh and blood cannot enter into heaven. By
the analogy of reason, spirit cannot beget a material body, because the
thing begotten must be of the same nature with its father. Spirit cannot
beget any thing but spirit: it cannot beget flesh and blood. ‘_A body hast
thou prepared me_,’ said the Son: _then the Son was not the body_, though
the body was the Son’s.”



SHAKERS, OR THE UNITED SOCIETY OF BELIEVERS.


The editor gives an account of the religious tenets, &c., of this society,
in the precise words of his worthy friends and correspondents at Enfield,
N. H.:—


    “Respected Friend,

    “Having received your circular, requesting information concerning
    our society, we freely notice it, and are most willing to give you
    any information respecting us.

    “It appears your request extends sufficiently far to embrace an
    exposition of our moral and religious tenets, our faith,
    principles, and manner of life, our secular concerns, &c.

    “We have seen several historical sketches of our society by
    different writers; but it is very rare to find one free from
    misrepresentations of some kind, which must be owing either to
    ignorance or prejudice. Therefore, in our communications, we may
    be somewhat particular on some points; in any of which, if there
    be any thing found agreeable to your desires, you are welcome to
    it; and, as it is presumed your publication is intended for
    information, among other truths, we hope to see something relative
    to us, different from most of the descriptions of former writers.

    “In obtaining information of one society, you get a general
    understanding of all; for we are of one heart and one mind. Our
    faith is one, our practice is one.

    “We are acknowledged and distinguished as a peculiar people,
    singular from all others; which peculiarity arises wholly from
    these two principles—our faith and manner of life, which comprise
    our motives in separating from the course and practice of the
    world, the manner in which our property is held, &c. &c.

    “It is a fact acknowledged by all professed Christians, that there
    are two creations, an old and a new; or, which is the same thing,
    two kingdoms, the kingdom of this world, and the kingdom of
    Christ. It is also a truth as frankly granted, that these two
    creations, or kingdoms, are headed, the one by the first Adam,
    denominated the _old man_, and the other by the second Adam,
    Christ Jesus, denominated the _new man_—two different personages,
    possessing very different spirits, and executing very different
    works. As positive as the preceding declarations are, that there
    exist two distinct creations, and which are headed by two distinct
    characters, so positive are the following:—that the subjects of
    each kingdom bear a strong resemblance to their respective king,
    and plainly represent the particular kingdom they inhabit; for,
    ‘As we have borne the image of the earthly, we shall also bear the
    image of the heavenly.’ (1 Cor. 15:49.)

    “Also that no person can have demands upon, and privileges in,
    these two men and creations at one and the same time. We must
    either hold to the old, and have nothing to do with the new, or we
    must come out and forsake the old, and come into the new. We must
    either put off the old man, Adam, and his works, which are well
    known to be multiplying and supporting of an earthly kingdom,
    which is the kingdom of this world, or we must put on the new man,
    Christ Jesus, and his works, which are well known to be a life
    without spot, chaste, virgin, and unstained by indulgences in any
    of those things which a beloved worthy said constitutes the world.
    (1 John 2:15, 16.) To these principles of faith we are strict, and
    may be called rigid, adherents; equally tenacious in the practical
    part of the new man, and in the same degree pointed against the
    old.

    “The second part of this subject of singularity in us consists in
    the manner in which we hold our property, which, perhaps, is well
    known to be in common, after the order of the primitive church in
    the days of the apostles, in which state we have lived rising
    forty years, ‘of one heart and one soul;’ not any of us saying
    that ‘aught of the things which he possessed was his own,’ (Acts
    4:32;) ‘buying as though we possessed not,’ (1 Cor. 7:30;) and
    ‘having nothing, and yet possessing all things.’ (2 Cor. 6:10.) In
    consequence thereof, we are retired from the world, as not of that
    kingdom; ‘My kingdom is not of this world,’ &c., (John 18:36;) by
    which we enjoy a closer communion with our God, and by which we
    follow the instruction of the Spirit, which saith, ‘Come ye out
    from among them, and be ye separate,’ &c. (2 Cor. 6:17.)

    “Our society contains three distinct families, comprising 233
    souls; 103 males, and 130 females. The number of persons over 70
    is 18; between 60 and 70, 21; between 21 and 60, 125; under 21,
    63. The oldest person is 88. Deaths since the gathering of the
    society, in 1792, 85.

    “Our village is situated in the N. W. corner of the town, on the
    western shore of _Mascomy Pond_, a pleasant sheet of water, of
    nearly five miles in length, and half a mile average width. Our
    village and home are pleasant to us, and are said to be so by
    travellers. It is about ten miles S. E. from Dartmouth College,
    forty N. W. from Concord, and one hundred from Boston.

    “In all the families there are nearly thirty buildings, unadorned,
    except with neatness, simplicity, and convenience, besides many
    out-buildings. Among the buildings are one house of public
    worship, one convenient school-house, three dwelling-houses, one
    for each family, sufficiently large to accommodate us as places
    for cooking, eating, sleeping, and retirement from labor, and
    shops for the different branches of work. Our privilege for mills
    is very small; consequently our machinery cannot be extensive. Yet
    the little water that is running in small brooks, which can be
    conveniently collected into artificial ponds, is improved, by
    their emptying from one to another, and by the interspersion of
    mills upon their discharging streams. We have three saw-mills, two
    grist-mills, and some other machinery.

    “As strangers, who many times wish to call, are frequently much
    straitened and embarrassed by not knowing where to call, or what
    to say, we should be pleased to have it particularly noticed, that
    we have one building designated from the rest by the sign,
    ‘Trustees’ Office,’ over the door, where strangers are received,
    where our commercial business is transacted, and where civil
    people wishing for information may freely obtain it, or be
    directed where it can be obtained.

    “In our occupation we are agriculturists and mechanics. The
    products of the garden may be said to be as important as any;
    which are principally seeds, herbs, &c., from which this section
    of the country is chiefly supplied. Our manufactures are wooden
    ware, such as tubs, pails, half-bushel and other measures, boxes,
    &c.; also, whips, corn-brooms, leather, and various other
    articles.

    “We keep from 1200 to 1500 sheep, mostly Saxon and Merino, which
    afford wool for our own wear, and is likewise a source of small
    trade with us. We keep about eighty cows, which supply us with
    milk for a dairy, for our own consumption only.

    “The education of our youth and children has been a subject of
    much conversation among many people. It has been reported, that
    the children which we frequently take in and bring up with us, are
    kept in ignorance, having no opportunity of improving their minds
    by a literary education. But the weight of this censure is
    gradually growing less, by the contrary proof to the hundreds of
    visitors who flock into our school, and who are not at all sparing
    of their high encomiums upon it. It is conducted partially on the
    Lancasterian system, and is said to surpass any of the common
    schools about us. Our school-room is furnished with books and
    apparatus of a superior kind, which, we presume, is not equalled
    by any school in the country, save the one among our people at
    Canterbury, which, perhaps, is not in any respect inferior.

    “In this society are two physicians. Each family has its
    respective elders or ministers; among these and other individuals
    of the society, are public speakers, whom you would denominate the
    clergy.

    “You see, from what we have here written, that we have taken up
    many subjects, and several of them explicitly treated upon,
    although short; from which, together with the pamphlet
    accompanying this letter, we conclude you may be able to get
    considerable of an understanding, and which you are at liberty to
    call at your pleasure. But it is sincerely to be hoped, if you
    publish any thing concerning us, you will be careful to preserve
    the true ideas of our communications.”


From the pamphlet above mentioned we make the following extracts:—


    “Faith And Principles Of The Society.

    “1. A life of _innocence_ and _purity_, according to the example
    of Jesus Christ and his first true followers; implying entire
    abstinence from all sensual and carnal gratifications.

    “2. LOVE.—‘By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if
    ye have love one to another. Love is the fulfilling of the law.’
    This is our bond of union.

    “3. PEACE.—‘Follow peace with all men,’ is a divine precept; hence
    our abstinence from war and bloodshed, from all acts of violence
    towards our fellow-men, from all the party contentions and
    politics of the world, and from all the pursuits of pride and
    worldly ambition. ‘My kingdom (said Christ) is not of this world.’

    “4. JUSTICE.—‘Render to every man his due. Owe no man any thing,
    but to love one another.’ We are to be just and honest in all our
    dealings with mankind, to discharge all just dues, duties, and
    equitable claims, as seasonably and effectually as possible.

    “5. HOLINESS.—‘Without which no man shall see the Lord.’ Which
    signifies to be _consecrated_, or set apart from a common to a
    sacred use. Hence arise all our doctrines and practical rules of
    dedicating our persons, services, and property, to social and
    sacred uses, having adopted the example of the first gospel
    church, in establishing and supporting one _consecrated_ and
    _united_ interest by the voluntary choice of every member, as a
    sacred privilege, and not by any undue constraint or persuasion.

    “6. GOODNESS.—Do good to all men, as far as opportunity and
    ability may serve, by administering acts of charity and kindness,
    and promoting light and truth among mankind. ‘Whatsoever ye would
    that men should do to you, do ye even so to them.’

    “7. TRUTH.—This principle is opposed to falsehood, lying, deceit,
    and hypocrisy, and implies fidelity, reality, good, earnest
    sincerity, and punctuality in keeping vows and promises. These
    principles are the genuine basis of our institution, planted by
    its first founders, exhibited in all our public writings,
    justified by Scripture and fair reason, and practically commended
    as a system of morality and religion, adapted to the best interest
    and happiness of man, both here and hereafter.

    “Manner Of Admitting Members.

    “1. All persons who unite with this society, in any degree, must
    do it freely and voluntarily, according to their own faith and
    unbiased judgment.

    “2. In the testimony of the society, both public and private, no
    flattery nor any undue influence is used, but the most plain and
    explicit statements of its faith and principles are laid before
    the inquirer, so that the whole ground may be comprehended, as far
    as possible, by every candidate for admission.

    “3. No considerations of property are ever made use of, by this
    society, to induce any person to join it, nor to prevent any one
    from leaving it; because it is our faith, that no act of devotion,
    or service, that does not flow from the free and voluntary
    emotions of the heart, can be acceptable to God, as an act of true
    religion.

    “4. No believing husband, or wife, is allowed, by the principles
    of this society, to separate from an unbelieving partner, except
    by mutual agreement, unless the conduct of the unbeliever be such
    as to warrant a separation by the laws of God and man. Nor can any
    husband, or wife, who has otherwise abandoned his or her partner,
    be received into communion with the society.

    “5. Any person becoming a member, must rectify all his wrongs,
    and, as fast and as far as it is in his power, discharge all just
    and legal claims, whether of creditors or filial heirs. Nor can
    any person, not conforming to this rule, long remain in union with
    the society. But the society is not responsible for the debts of
    any individual, except by agreement because such responsibility
    would involve a principle ruinous to the institution.

    “6. No difference is to be made in the distribution of parental
    estate among the heirs, whether they belong to the society or not;
    but an equal partition must be made, as far as may be practicable,
    and consistent with reason and justice.

    “7. If an unbelieving wife separate from a believing husband, by
    agreement, the husband must give her a just and reasonable share
    of the property; and if they have children who have arrived to
    years of understanding sufficient to judge for themselves, and who
    choose to go with their mother, they are not to be disinherited on
    that account. Though the character of this institution has been
    much censured on this ground, yet we boldly assert that the rule
    above stated has never, to our knowledge, been violated by this
    society.

    “8. Industry, temperance, and frugality, are prominent features of
    this institution. No member who is able to labor, can be permitted
    to live idly upon the labors of others. All are required to be
    employed in some manual occupation, according to their several
    abilities, when not engaged in other necessary duties.”

                  -------------------------------------

    “The rules of government in the society are adapted to the
    different orders of which it is composed. In all (as far as
    respects adults) it is spiritual; its powers and authorities
    growing out of the _mutual faith, love, and confidence_, of all
    the members, and harmoniously concurring in the general form and
    manner of government established by the first founders of the
    society.

    “The leading authority of the society is vested in a ministry,
    generally consisting of four persons, including both sexes. These,
    together with the elders and trustees, constitute the general
    government of the society in all its branches, and, being
    supported by the general union and approbation of the members, are
    invested with power to appoint their successors and other
    subordinate officers, as occasion may require; to counsel, advise,
    and direct, in all matters, whether of a spiritual or temporal
    nature; to superintend the concerns of the several families, and
    establish all needful orders, rules, and regulations, for the
    direction and protection of the several branches of the society;
    but no rule can be made, nor any member assume a lead, contrary to
    the original faith and known principles of the society. And
    nothing which respects the government, order, and general
    arrangement, of the society is considered as fully established
    until it has received the general approbation of the society, or
    of that branch thereof which it more immediately concerns.

    “This community is divided into several different branches,
    commonly called _families_. This division is generally made for
    the sake of convenience, and is often rendered necessary on
    account of local situation and occurrent circumstances; but the
    proper division and arrangement of the community, without respect
    to local situation, are into three classes, or progressive degrees
    of order.

    “Those children taken into the society are treated with care and
    tenderness, receive a good school education, and, according to
    their genius, are trained to industry and virtuous habits,
    restrained from vice, and, at a suitable age, led into the
    knowledge of the sacred Scriptures, and practically taught the
    divine precepts contained in them, particularly those of Jesus
    Christ and the apostles.

    “During a period of more than forty years, since the permanent
    establishment of this society at New Lebanon and Watervliet, there
    never has been a legal claim entered by any person for the
    recovery of property brought into the society but all claims of
    that nature, if any have existed, have been amicably settled, to
    the satisfaction of the parties concerned. Complaints and legal
    prosecutions have not, hitherto, come from persons who brought
    property into the institution, but from those who came destitute
    of property, and who, generally speaking, have been no benefit to
    the society in any way, but, on the contrary, after having enjoyed
    its hospitality, and brought no small share of trouble upon the
    people, have had the assurance to lay claim to wages which they
    never earned, or property to which they never had any just or
    legal claim.

    “No person can be received into this order until he shall have
    settled all just and legal claims, both of creditors and filial
    heirs; so that whatever property he may possess, may be justly and
    truly his own. Minors cannot be admitted as covenant members of
    this order; yet they may be received under its immediate care and
    protection. And when they shall have arrived at lawful age, if
    they should choose to continue in the society, and sign the
    covenant of the order, and support its principles, they are then
    admitted to all the privileges of members. The members of this
    order are all equally entitled to the benefits and privileges
    thereof, without any difference made on account of what any one
    may have contributed to the interest of the society. All are
    equally entitled to their support and maintenance, and to every
    necessary comfort, whether in health, sickness, or old age, so
    long as they continue to maintain the principles, and conform to
    the orders, rules, and regulations, of the institution. They,
    therefore, give their property and services for the most valuable
    of all temporal considerations—an ample security, during life, for
    every needful support, if they continue faithful to their contract
    and covenant, the nature of which they clearly understand before
    they enter into it.

    “We believe it will be generally granted that the history of the
    world does not furnish a single instance of any religious
    institution which has stood fifty years without a visible
    declension of the principles of the institution, in the general
    purity and integrity of its members. This has been generally
    acknowledged by the devotees of such institutions and facts have
    fully verified it. But we would appeal to the candid judgment of
    those who have known this institution from the beginning, and have
    had a fair opportunity of observing the progress of its
    improvement, whether they have, in reality, found any declension,
    either in the external order and regulations of the society, or in
    the purity and integrity of its members, in the general practice
    of the moral and Christian duties; and whether they have not, on
    the contrary, discovered a visible and manifest increase in all
    these respects. And hence they may judge for themselves, whether
    the moral character of the society, and its progressive
    improvement, can be ascribed to any other cause than the blessing,
    protection, and government, of Divine Power and Wisdom.”


This denomination is also styled the _millennial church_. Although
celibacy is enjoined by the Shakers upon their members, yet their numbers
rather increase, by converts from the world.

There are fifteen societies of Shakers in the United States, located in
the following places:—Alfred, New Gloucester, and Poland, Me.; Canterbury
and Enfield, N. H.; Shirley, Harvard, Tyringham, and Hancock, Mass.;
Enfield, Conn.; Watervliet and New Lebanon, N. Y.; Union Village and
Watervliet, Ohio; Pleasant Hill and South Union, Ky. The number of Shakers
in the United States is about 6000.

This sect of Christians arose at Manchester, in England; and ANN LEE has
the credit of being its founder. They derive their name from their manner
of worship, which is performed by singing, dancing, and clapping their
hands in regular time, to a novel, but rather pleasant kind of music. This
sect was persecuted in England, and came to America in 1774. They first
settled in Watervliet, near Albany, N. Y. They have, or think they have,
revelations from Heaven, or gifts from the Holy Spirit, which direct them
in the choice of their leaders, and in other important concerns. Their
dress and manners are similar to those of the society of Friends; hence
they are often called _Shaking Quakers_. They display great skill and
science in agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts; and their
honesty, industry, hospitality, and neatness, are proverbial. These people
choose their locations with great taste and judgment. A _Shaker village_
always presents a scene of beauty.

We close this article with an extract from a speech of the Hon. John
Breathitt, late governor of Kentucky.

“Much has been urged against Shakerism, much has been said against their
covenant; but, I repeat it, _that_ individual who is prepared to sign the
church covenant, stands in an enviable situation: his situation is,
indeed, an enviable one, who, devoted to God, is prepared to say of his
property, ‘Here it is, little or much; take it, and leave me unmolested to
commune with my God. Indeed, I dedicate myself to what? not to a fanatical
tenet; O, no! to a subject far beyond; to the worship of Almighty God, the
great Creator and Governor of the universe. Under the influence of his
love, I give my all: only let me worship according to my faith, and in a
manner I believe acceptable to my God!’

“I say again, the world cannot produce a parallel to the situation which
such a man exhibits—resigned to the will of Heaven, free from all the
feelings of earthly desire, and pursuing, quietly, the peaceful tenor of
his way.”



REFORMATION.


This term is used, by way of eminence, to denote that great change which
took place in the Christian world, under the ministry of Luther, Calvin,
Zuinglius, Melancthon, and others, who successfully opposed some of the
doctrines, and many of the practices, of the Roman church. It commenced at
Wittemberg, in Saxony, in 1517, and greatly weakened the Papal authority.

It was from causes seemingly fortuitous, and from a source very
inconsiderable, that all the mighty effects of the reformation flowed. Leo
X., when raised to the Papal throne, in 1513, found the revenues of the
church exhausted by the vast projects of his two ambitious predecessors.
His own temper, naturally liberal and enterprising, rendered him incapable
of severe and patient economy; and his schemes for aggrandizing the family
of Medicis, his love of splendor, and his munificence in rewarding men of
genius, involved him daily in new expenses, in order to provide a fund for
which, he tried every device that the fertile invention of priests had
fallen upon, to drain the credulous multitude of their wealth. Among
others, he had recourse to a sale of indulgences.

The Romish church believe that pious persons may do works of
supererogation, that is to say, more good works than are necessary for
their own salvation. All such works, according to their doctrine, are
deposited, together with the infinite merits of Jesus Christ, in one
inexhaustible treasury. The keys of this were committed to St. Peter, and
to his successors the popes, who may open it at pleasure, and, by
transferring a portion of this superabundant merit to any particular
person for a sum of money, may convey to him either pardon for his own
sins, or a release for any one, for whom he feels an interest, from the
pains of purgatory. Such indulgences were offered as a recompense for
those who engaged in the wars of the crusades against the Infidels. Since
those times, the power of granting indulgences has been greatly abused in
the church of Rome. Pope Leo X., finding that the sale of indulgences was
likely to be lucrative, granted to Albert, elector of Mentz and archbishop
of Magdeburg, the benefit of the indulgences of Saxony, and the
neighboring parts, and farmed out those of other countries to the highest
bidders; who, to make the best of their bargain, procured the ablest
preachers to cry up the value of the commodity. The form of these
indulgences was as follows.—“May our Lord Jesus Christ have mercy upon
thee, and absolve thee by the merits of his most holy passion. And I, by
his authority, that of his blessed apostles, Peter and Paul and of the
most holy pope, granted and committed to me in these parts, do absolve
thee, first, from all ecclesiastical censures, in whatever manner they may
have been incurred; then from all thy sins, transgressions, and excesses,
how enormous soever they may be; even from such as are reserved for the
cognizance of the holy see, and as far as the keys of the holy church
extend. I remit to you all punishment which you deserve in purgatory on
their account; and I restore you to the holy sacraments of the church, to
the unity of the faithful, and to that innocence and purity which you
possessed at baptism; so that, when you die, the gates of punishment shall
be shut, and the gates of the paradise of delight shall be opened; and if
you shall not die at present, this grace shall remain in full force when
you are at the point of death. In the name of the Father, Son, and the
Holy Ghost.”

According to a book, called the “Tax of the Sacred Roman Chancery,” in
which are the exact sums to be levied for the pardon of each particular
sin, some of the fees are thus stated:—For simony, 10_s._ 6_d._; for
sacrilege, 10_s._ 6_d._; for taking a false oath, 9_s._; for robbing,
12_s._; for burning a neighbor’s house, 12_s._; for defiling a virgin,
9_s._; for murdering a layman, 7_s._ 6_d._; for keeping a concubine,
10_s._ 6_d._; for laying violent hands on a clergyman, 10_s._ 6_d._

The terms in which the retailers of these abominable licenses described
their advantages to the purchasers, and the arguments with which they
urged the necessity of obtaining them, were so extravagant that they
appear almost incredible. “If any man,” said they, “purchase letters of
indulgence, his soul may rest secure with respect to its salvation. The
souls confined in purgatory, for whose redemption indulgences are
purchased, as soon as the money is paid, instantly escape from that place
of torment, and ascend into heaven.” They said that the efficacy of
indulgences was so great, that the most heinous sins would be remitted and
expiated by them, and the person be freed both from punishment and guilt:
this was the unspeakable gift of God, in order to reconcile man to
himself; the cross erected by the preachers of indulgences was equally
efficacious with the cross of Christ. “Lo,” said they, “the heavens are
open; if you enter not now, when will you enter? For twelve pence you may
redeem the soul of your father out of purgatory; and are you so ungrateful
that you will not rescue the soul of your parent from torment? If you had
but one coat, you ought to strip yourself of that instantly, and sell it,
in order to purchase such benefit,” &c.

It was against these preachers of licentiousness, and their diabolical
conduct, that Luther began first to declaim.



REFORMED CHURCHES.


The Reformed churches comprehend the whole Protestant churches in Europe
and America, whether Lutheran, Calvinistic, Independent, Quaker, Baptist,
or any other denomination who dissent from the church of Rome. The term
_Reformed_ is now, however, more particularly employed to distinguish the
Calvinists from the Lutherans.

The Reformed churches in America are the two following:—



Reformed Dutch Church.


This is the oldest body of Presbyterians in America: it descended
immediately from the church of Holland; and, for about a century from its
commencement in this country, it hung in colonial dependence on the
Classis of Amsterdam, and the Synod of North Holland, and was unable to
ordain a minister, or perform any ecclesiastical function of the kind,
without a reference to the parent country and mother church.

The origin of this church will lead us back to the earliest history of the
city and state of New York; for they were first settled by this people,
and by them a foundation was laid for the first churches of this
persuasion, the most distinguished of which were planted at New York,
(then called New Amsterdam,) Flatbush, Esopus, and Albany. The church at
New York was probably the oldest, and was founded at, or before, the year
1639; this is the earliest period to which its records conduct us. The
first minister was the Rev. Evarardus Bogardus. But when he came from
Holland, does not appear. Next to him were two ministers by the name of
Megapolensis, John and Samuel.

The first place of worship built by the Dutch in the colony of New
Netherlands, as it was then called, was erected in the fort at New York,
in the year 1642. The second, it is believed, was a chapel built by
Governor Stuyvesant, in what is now called the Bowery. In succession,
churches of this denomination arose on Long Island, in Schenectady, on
Staten Island, and in a number of towns on the Hudson River, and several,
it is believed, in New Jersey. But the churches of New York, Albany, and
Esopus, were the most important, and the ministers of these churches
claimed and enjoyed a kind of episcopal dignity over the surrounding
churches.

The Dutch church was the established religion of the colony, until it
surrendered to the British in 1664; after which its circumstances were
materially changed. Not long after the colony passed into the hands of the
British, an act was passed, which went to establish the Episcopal church
as the predominant party; and for almost a century after, the Dutch and
English Presbyterians, and all others in the colony, were forced to
contribute to the support of that church.

The first judicatory higher than a consistory, among this people, was a
Cœtus, formed in 1747. The object and powers of this assembly were merely
those of advice and fraternal intercourse. It could not ordain ministers,
nor judicially decide in ecclesiastical disputes, without the consent of
the Classis of Amsterdam.

The first regular Classis among the Dutch was formed in 1757. But the
formation of this Classis involved this infant church in the most unhappy
collisions, which sometimes threatened its very existence. These disputes
continued for many years, by which two parties were raised in the church,
one of which was for, and the other against, an ecclesiastical
subordination to the judicatories of the mother church and country. These
disputes, in which eminent men on both sides were concerned, besides
disturbing their own peace and enjoyment, produced unfavorable impressions
towards them among their brethren at home.

In 1766, John H. Livingston, D. D., then a young man, went from New York
to Holland, to prosecute his studies in the Dutch universities. By his
representations, a favorable disposition was produced towards the American
church in that country; and, on his return, in full convention of both
parties, an amicable adjustment of their differences was made and a
friendly correspondence was opened with the church in Holland, which was
continued until the revolution of the country under Bonaparte.

The Dutch church suffered much in the loss of its members, and in other
respects, by persisting to maintain its service in the Dutch language
after it had gone greatly into disuse. The solicitation for English
preaching was long resisted, and Dr. Laidlie, a native of Scotland, was
the first minister in the Dutch church in North America, who was expressly
called to officiate in the English language.



Reformed German Church.


As the Dutch Reformed church in this country is an exact counterpart of
the church of Holland, so the German Reformed is of the Reformed or
Calvinistic church of Germany. The people of this persuasion were among
the early settlers of Pennsylvania: here their churches were first formed;
but they are now to be found in nearly all the states south and west of
the one above named. The German Reformed churches in this country remained
in a scattered and neglected state until 1746, when the Rev. Michael
Schlatter, who was sent from Europe for the purpose, collected them
together, and put their concerns in a more prosperous train. They have
since increased to a numerous body, and are assuming an important stand
among the American Presbyterians.

This denomination is scattered over the Middle, Western, and Southern
States, but is most numerous in the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The
population of this church in the United States is estimated at 300,000;
180 ministers, 600 congregations, and 30,000 communicants.



RESTORATIONISTS.


The Restorationists are those who believe that all men will ultimately
become holy and happy. They maintain that God created only to bless, and
that, in pursuance of that purpose, he sent his Son to “be for salvation
to the ends of the earth;” that Christ’s kingdom is moral in its nature,
and extends to moral beings in every state or mode of existence; that the
probation of man is not confined to the present life, but extends through
the mediatorial reign; and that, as Christ died for all, so, before he
shall have delivered up the kingdom to the Father, all shall be brought to
a participation of the knowledge and enjoyment of that truth which maketh
free from the bondage of sin and death. They believe in a general
resurrection and judgment, when those who have improved their probation in
this life will be raised to more perfect felicity, and those who have
misimproved their opportunities on earth will come forward to shame and
condemnation, which will continue till they become truly penitent; that
punishment itself is a mediatorial work, a discipline, perfectly
consistent with mercy; that it is a means, employed by Christ to humble
and subdue the stubborn will, and prepare the mind to receive a
manifestation of the goodness of God, which leadeth the sinner to true
repentance. (See Gen. 12:3; 22:18. Gal. 3:8. Isa. 45:22, 23. Phil. 2:10,
11. Rev. 5:13. 1 Tim. 2:1-6. Col. 1:20. Eph. 1:7-11. Rom. 5:12-21; 8:20,
21. 1 Cor. 15:24-28.)

They contend that this doctrine is not only sustained by particular texts,
but grows necessarily out of some of the first principles of divine
revelation. They maintain that it is immediately connected with the
perfections of the Deity; that God, being infinitely benevolent, must have
desired the happiness of all his offspring; that his infinite wisdom would
enable him to form a perfect plan, and his almighty power will secure its
accomplishment. They contend that the mission of Christ is abortive on any
other plan, and that nothing short of the “restitution of all things” can
satisfy the ardent desires of every pious soul. On this system alone can
they reconcile the attributes of justice and mercy, and secure to the
Almighty a character worthy of our imitation.

They insist that the words rendered _everlasting_, _eternal_, and
_forever_, which are, in a few instances, applied to the misery of the
wicked, do not prove that misery to be endless, because these terms are
loose in their signification, and are frequently used in a limited sense;
that the original terms, being often used in the plural number, clearly
demonstrate that the period, though indefinite, is limited in its very
nature. They maintain that the meaning of the term must always be sought
in the subject to which it is applied, and that there is nothing in the
nature of punishment which will justify an endless sense. They believe
that the doctrine of the restoration is the most consonant to the
perfections of the Deity, the most worthy of the character of Christ, and
the only doctrine which will accord with pious and devout feelings, or
harmonize with the Scriptures. They teach their followers that ardent love
to God, active benevolence to man, and personal meekness and purity, are
the natural results of these views.

Though the Restorationists, as a separate sect, have arisen within a few
years, their sentiments are by no means new. Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen,
Didymus of Alexandria, Gregory Nyssen, and several others, among the
Christian fathers of the first four centuries, it is said, believed and
advocated the restoration of all fallen intelligences. A branch of the
German Baptists, before the reformation, held this doctrine, and
propagated it in Germany. Since the reformation, this doctrine has had
numerous advocates; and some of them have been among the brightest
ornaments of the church. Among the Europeans, we may mention the names of
Jeremy White, of Trinity College, Dr. Burnet, Dr. Cheyne, Chevalier
Ramsay, Dr. Hartley, Bishop Newton, Mr. Stonehouse, Mr. Petitpierre, Dr.
Cogan, Mr. Lindsey, Dr. Priestley, Dr. Jebb, Mr. Relly, Mr. Kenrick, Mr.
Belsham, Dr. Southworth, Smith, and many others. In fact, the restoration
is the commonly-received doctrine among the English Unitarians at the
present day. In Germany, a country which, for several centuries, has taken
the lead in all theological reforms, the Orthodox have espoused this
doctrine. The restoration was introduced into America about the middle of
the eighteenth century, though it was not propagated much till about 1775
or 1780, when John Murray and Elhanan Winchester became public advocates
of this doctrine, and by their untiring labors extended it in every
direction. From that time to the present, many men have been found, in all
parts of our country, who have rejoiced in this belief. This doctrine
found able advocates in the learned Dr. Chauncy, of Boston, Dr. Rush, of
Philadelphia, and Dr. Smith, of New York: Mr. Foster, of New Hampshire,
may also be mentioned as an advocate of the restoration.

Most of the writers whose names are given above, did not belong to a sect
which took the distinctive name of Restorationists. They were found in the
ranks of the various sects into which the Christian world has been
divided. And those who formed a distinct sect were more frequently
denominated Universalists than Restorationists. In 1785, a convention was
organized at Oxford, Massachusetts, under the auspices of Messrs.
Winchester and Murray. And as all who had embraced universal salvation
believed that the effects of sin and the means of grace extended into a
future life, the terms _Restorationist_ and _Universalist_ were then used
as synonymous; and those who formed that convention adopted the latter as
their distinctive name.

During the first twenty-five years, the members of the Universalist
convention were believers in a future retribution. But, about the year
1818, Hosea Ballou, now of Boston, advanced the doctrine that all
retribution is confined to this world. That sentiment, at first, was
founded upon the old Gnostic notion that all sin originates in the flesh,
and that death frees the soul from all impurity. Subsequently, some of the
advocates for the no-future punishment scheme adopted the doctrine of
materialism, and hence maintained that the soul was mortal; that the whole
man died a temporal death, and that the resurrection was the grand event
which would introduce all men into heavenly felicity.

Those who have since taken to themselves the name of Restorationists,
viewed these innovations as corruptions of the gospel, and raised their
voices against them. But a majority of the convention having espoused
those sentiments, no reformation could be effected. The Restorationists,
believing these errors to be increasing, and finding in the connection
what appeared to them to be a want of engagedness in the cause of true
piety, and in some instances an open opposition to the organization of
churches, and finding that a spirit of levity and bitterness characterized
the public labors of their brethren, and that practices were springing up
totally repugnant to the principles of Congregationalism, resolved to obey
the apostolic injunction, by coming out from among them, and forming an
independent association. Accordingly a convention, consisting of Rev. Paul
Dean, Rev. David Pickering, Rev. Charles Hudson, Rev. Adin Ballou, Rev.
Lyman Maynard, Rev. Nathaniel Wright, Rev. Philemon R. Russell, and Rev.
Seth Chandler, and several laymen, met at Mendon, Massachusetts, August
17, 1831, and formed themselves into a distinct sect, and took the name of
_Universal Restorationists_.

The Restorationists are Congregationalists on the subject of church
government.

The difference between the Restorationists and Universalists relates
principally to the subject of a future retribution. The Universalists
believe that a full and perfect retribution takes place in this world,
that our conduct here cannot affect our future condition, and that the
moment man exists after death, he will be as pure and as happy as the
angels. From these views the Restorationists dissent. They maintain that a
just retribution does not take place in time; that the conscience of the
sinner becomes callous, and does not increase in the severity of its
reprovings with the increase of guilt; that men are invited to act with
reference to a future life; that, if all are made perfectly happy at the
commencement of the next state of existence, they are not rewarded
according to their deeds; that, if death introduces them into heaven, they
are saved by death, and not by Christ; and if they are made happy by being
raised from the dead, they are saved by physical, and not by moral means,
and made happy without their agency or consent; that such a sentiment
weakens the motives to virtue, and gives force to the temptations of vice;
that it is unreasonable in itself, and opposed to many passages of
Scripture. (See Acts 24:25; 17:30, 31. Heb. 9:27, 28. Matt. 11:23, 24. 2
Pet. 2:9. 2 Cor. 5:8-11. John 5:28, 29. Matt. 10:28. Luke 12:4, 5;
16:19-31. 1 Pet. 3:18-20.)



UNIVERSALISTS.


The grand distinguishing characteristic of this class of Christians is
their belief in the final holiness and happiness of the whole human
family. Some of them believe that all punishment for sin is endured in the
present state of existence, while others believe it extends into the
future life; but all agree that it is administered in a spirit of
kindness, is intended for the good of those who experience it, and that it
will finally terminate, and be succeeded by a state of perfect and endless
holiness and happiness.



Doctrine.


The following is the “Profession of Belief,” adopted by the General
Convention of Universalists in the United States, at the session holden in
1803. It has never been altered, and it is perfectly satisfactory to the
denomination.


    “ART. I. We believe that the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New
    Testaments contain a revelation of the character of God, and of
    the duty, interest, and final destination, of mankind.

    “ART. II. We believe that there is one God, whose nature is love;
    revealed in one Lord Jesus Christ, by one Holy Spirit of grace,
    who will finally restore the whole family of mankind to holiness
    and happiness.

    “ART. III. We believe that holiness and true happiness are
    inseparably connected, and that believers ought to be careful to
    maintain order, and practise good works; for these things are good
    and profitable unto men.”



History.


Universalists claim that the salvation of all men was taught by Jesus
Christ and his apostles. It was also taught and defended by several of the
most eminent Christian fathers; such as Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, &c.
In the third and fourth centuries, this doctrine prevailed extensively,
and, for aught which appears to the contrary, was then accounted orthodox.
It was at length condemned, however, by the fifth general council, A. D.
553; after which, we find few traces of it through the dark ages, so
called.

It revived at the period of the reformation, and since that time has found
many able and fearless advocates;—in Switzerland, Petitpierre and Lavater;
in Germany, Seigvolk, Everhard, Steinbart, and Semler; in Scotland,
Purves, Douglass, and T. S. Smith; in England, Coppin, Jeremy White, Dr.
H. More, Dr. T. Burnet, Whiston, Hartley, Bishop Newton, Stonehouse,
Barbauld, Lindsey, Priestley, Belsham, Carpenter, Relly, Vidler, Scarlett,
and many others.

At the present day, Universalism prevails more extensively than elsewhere
in England, Germany, and the United States.

In England, the Unitarian divines, generally, believe in the final
salvation of all men. Dr. Lant Carpenter says, “Most of us, however,
believe that a period will come to each individual, when punishment shall
have done its work—when the awful sufferings with which the gospel
threatens the impenitent and disobedient, will have humbled the stubborn,
purified the polluted, and eradicated malignity, impiety, hypocrisy, and
every evil disposition; that a period will come (which it may be the
unspeakable bliss of those who enter the joy of their Lord to accelerate,
which, at least, it will be their delight to anticipate,) when he who
‘must reign till he hath put _all enemies_ under his feet,’ ‘shall have
put down all rule, and all authority, and power.’ ‘The LAST ENEMY, death,
shall be DESTROYED.’ ‘Every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is
Lord, to the glory of God the Father,’ ‘who wills that all men should be
saved, and come to the knowledge of the truth,’—that truth which
sanctifies the heart,—that knowledge which is life eternal,—and God shall
be ALL IN ALL.”

In Germany, nearly every theologian is a believer in the final salvation
of all men. Speaking of Professor Tholuck, Professor Sears says, “The most
painful disclosures remain yet to be made. This distinguished and
excellent man, in common with the _great majority of the Evangelical
divines_ of Germany, though he professes to have serious doubts, and is
cautious in avowing the sentiment, believes that all men and fallen
spirits will finally be saved.” Mr. Dwight, in his recent publication,
says, “The doctrine of the eternity of future punishments is almost
universally rejected. I have seen but one person in Germany who believed
it, and but one other whose mind was wavering on this subject.”
Universalism may, therefore, be considered the prevailing religion in
Germany.

In the United States, Universalism was little known until about the middle
of the last century; and afterwards it found but few advocates during
several years. Dr. George de Benneville, of Germantown, Penn., Rev.
Richard Clarke, of Charleston, S. C., and Jonathan Mayhew, D. D., of
Boston, were, perhaps, the only individuals who publicly preached the
doctrine before the arrival of Rev. John Murray, in 1770. Mr. Murray
labored almost alone until 1780, when Rev. Elhanan Winchester, a popular
Baptist preacher, embraced Universalism, though on different principles.
About ten years afterwards, Rev. Hosea Ballou embraced the same doctrine,
but on principles different from those advocated by Mr. Murray or Mr.
Winchester. To the efforts of these three men is to be attributed much of
the success which attended the denomination in its infancy. Although they
differed widely from each other in their views of punishment, yet they
labored together in harmony and love, for the advancement of the cause
which was dear to all their hearts. The seed which they sowed has since
produced an abundant harvest.

The ministry of the Universalist denomination in the United States,
hitherto, has been provided for, not so much by the means of schools, as
by the unaided, but irresistible influence of the gospel of Christ. This
has furnished the denomination with its most successful preachers. It has
turned them from other sects and doctrines, and brought them out from
forests and fields, and from secular pursuits of almost every kind, and
driven them, with inadequate literary preparation, to the work of
disseminating the truth. This state of things has been unavoidable, and
the effect of it is visible. It has made the ministry of the Universalist
denomination very different from that of any other sect in the country;
studious of the Scriptures, confident in the truth of their distinguishing
doctrine, zealous, firm, industrious; depending more on the truths
communicated for their success, than on the manner in which they are
stated. It has had the effect, also, to give the ministry a polemic
character—the natural result of unwavering faith in the doctrine believed,
and of an introduction into the desk without scholastic training. But the
attention of the denomination, in various parts of the country, has of
late been turned to the education of the ministry; and conventions and
associations have adopted resolves requiring candidates to pass
examinations in certain branches of literature. The same motives have
governed many in their effort to establish literary and theological
institutions. The desire to have the ministry respectable for literary
acquirements, is universal.

A few years since, a small number separated from the denomination, and
adopted the appellation of _Restorationists_. To prevent misapprehension,
it may be repeated, that, although a few have thus seceded, yet a
difference of opinion in regard to the duration of punishment has not
disturbed the harmony of the denomination generally, nor is it regarded as
sufficient cause for breach of fellowship, or alienation of heart and
affection.

The Universalists quote the following texts of Scripture, among others, in
support of their sentiments:—Gen. 22:18. Ps. 22:27; 86:9. Isa. 25:6, 7, 8;
45:23, 24. Jer. 31:33, 34. Lam. 3:31-33. John 12:32. Acts 3:31. Rom. 5:18,
21; 8:33, 39; 11:25-36. 1 Cor. 15:22-28, and 51-57. 2 Cor. 5:18, 19. Gal.
3:8. Eph. 1:9, 10. Phil. 2:9-11. Col. 1:19, 29. 1 Tim. 2:1-6. Heb. 8:10,
11. Rev. 5:13; 21:3, 4.

                  -------------------------------------

We copy the following from the _Trumpet and Universalist Magazine_ of June
4, 1836. It is by the Rev. HOSEA BALLOU, of Boston, in answer to the
question, “Who are Universalists?”

“There seems to be an evident propriety in calling all who believe in the
final holiness and happiness of all mankind, _Universalists_. There
appears no good reason why those who believe in a limited punishment, in
the future state, should have a less or a greater claim to be called
Universalists, than those who entertain a hope that all sin and misery end
when the functions of life cease in the mortal body. As they both agree in
the belief that God is the Savior of all men, if this belief entitle one
to the name of Universalist, of course it gives the other the same title.
The Rev. John Murray was called a Universalist, and he called himself by
this name, although he admitted there might be suffering hereafter, in
consequence of blindness or unbelief. It is true, he did not allow that
the sinner was punished for sin, either here or in the future world, in
his own person, because he maintained that the whole penalty of the divine
law, for the sin of the whole world, was suffered by the Lord Jesus, as
the head of every man. He allowed, notwithstanding, that the natural
consequences of sin would inevitably follow transgression, as we see is
the case by every day’s observation. So, likewise, was the Rev. Elhanan
Winchester called a Universalist, and he called himself so, although his
views respecting a state of retribution, and the sufferings to which the
wicked in the world to come will be subjected, were widely different from
those entertained by Mr. Murray. Mr. Winchester believed in a place of
material fire and brimstone, where the wicked would endure a torment as
intense as has been represented by those Christians who believe in endless
misery. But, as he believed that all these sufferings will end, though
they might continue for many thousand years, and that those miserable
wretches will at last be subdued and reconciled to the divine government,
and be happy, he was denominated a Universalist.

“The Rev. Dr. Huntington is ranked a Universalist, equally with those who
have been named; but he believed in no punishment hereafter, being
Calvinistic in his views of the demerit of sin, and of the atonement made
by Christ.

“From the commencement of the denomination of Univeralists in this
country, there has been a difference of opinion respecting the doctrine of
rewards and punishments, among both the clergy and the laity belonging to
the connection. But this difference was not considered, in those times, a
good reason for a distinction of either name, denomination, or fellowship.
All united in the cheering hope that, in the fulness of the dispensation
of times, sin will be finished, transgression ended, and all moral
intelligences reconciled to God, in true holiness and everlasting
happiness. A view so grand and glorious, so full of comfort, of joy, and
of peace, and so triumphant, was sufficiently powerful to draw together
all who enjoyed it, and to hold them together as a denomination distinct
from all those who hold the unmerciful doctrine of endless punishment.

“When the General Convention of the New England States, professing the
doctrine of universal salvation, appointed a committee to draft articles
of faith and a constitution, by which it might be known and distinguished
from other religious sects, care was taken to appoint on that committee
brethren whose views differed respecting the subject of a future state of
rewards and punishments. The worthy and fondly-remembered brother Walter
Ferriss, who penned that instrument, was a believer in future rewards and
punishments; but he so wrote that confession of faith as to comprehend the
full belief of universal salvation, without making any distinction between
the belief of future punishment, or no future punishment. And it is well
remembered that this circumstance was, at the time of accepting the report
of the committee, viewed as one of its excellences.

“It seems improper to give so much weight to different opinions, which
differ not in principle, but in circumstances only, as to constitute them
walls of separation and disfellowship. If one believe that all misery ends
with this mortal state, and another believe that it may continue twenty
years after, and then come to an end, is there any real difference as to
principle? All believe that our heavenly Father holds all times and
seasons, and all events, in his own power, and that he worketh all things
after the counsel of his own will. And, moreover, all believe that God
will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the
truth. This constitutes us all Universalists, and calls on us to keep the
unity of the spirit, and to walk in the bonds of peace.”



ROMAN CATHOLICS.


The following Creeds and Rule of Faith contain the fundamental principles
of the Latin or Roman church.

Apostles’ Creed.


    “I believe in God the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and
    earth; and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord, who was
    conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered
    under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; he
    descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead; he
    ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God the Father
    almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the living and the
    dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy Catholic church; the
    communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of
    the body; and life everlasting. AMEN.”


It is doubtful who composed the above Creed. It was not in common use in
the church until the end of the fifth century. See _King’s History of the
Apostles’ Creed_.

The Symbol, Or Creed Of St. Athanasius.


    “Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that
    he hold the Catholic faith;

    “Which faith except every one do keep entire and inviolate,
    without doubt he shall perish everlastingly.

    “Now, the Catholic faith is this—that we worship one God in
    Trinity, and Trinity in Unity.

    “Neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance.

    “For one is the person of the Father, another of the Son, another
    of the Holy Ghost.

    “But the Godhead of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
    Ghost, is all one, the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal.

    “Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy
    Ghost.

    “The Father is uncreated, the Son is uncreated, and the Holy Ghost
    uncreated.

    “The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the
    Holy Ghost incomprehensible.

    “The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Ghost eternal.

    “And yet they are not three Eternals, but one Eternal.

    “As also they are not three Uncreated, nor three
    Incomprehensibles; but one Uncreated, and one Incomprehensible.

    “In like manner, the Father is almighty, the Son almighty, and the
    Holy Ghost almighty.

    “And yet they are not three Almighties, but one Almighty.

    “So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God.

    “And yet they are not three Gods, but one God.

    “So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, and the Holy
    Ghost is Lord.

    “And yet they are not three Lords, but one Lord,

    “For, as we are compelled by the Christian truth to acknowledge
    every person by himself to be God and Lord,

    “So we are forbidden by the Catholic religion to say there are
    three Gods or three Lords.

    “The Father is made of no one, neither created nor begotten.

    “The Son is from the Father alone, not made, nor created, but
    begotten.

    “The Holy Ghost is from the Father and the Son, not made, nor
    created, nor begotten, but proceeding.

    “So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three
    Sons; one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts.

    “And in this Trinity there is nothing before or after, nothing
    greater or less; but the whole three Persons are co-eternal to one
    another, and coëqual.

    “So that in all things, as has been already said above, the Unity
    is to be worshipped in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity.

    “He, therefore, that will be saved, must thus think of the
    Trinity.

    “Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation, that he
    also believe rightly the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

    “Now, the right faith is, that we believe and confess that our
    Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is both God and Man.

    “He is God of the substance of his Father, begotten before the
    world; and he is Man of the substance of his mother, born in the
    world.

    “Perfect God and perfect Man; of a rational soul, and human flesh
    subsisting.

    “Equal to the Father according to his Godhead, and less than the
    Father according to his Manhood.

    “Who, although he be both God and Man, yet he is not two, but one
    Christ.

    “One, not by the conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by the
    taking of the Manhood unto God.

    “One altogether, not by confusion of substance, but by unity of
    person.

    “For as the rational soul and the flesh is one man, so God and Man
    is one Christ.

    “Who suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose again
    the third day from the dead.

    “He ascended into heaven: he sitteth at the right hand of God the
    Father almighty; thence he shall come to judge the living and
    dead.

    “At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies, and
    shall give an account of their own works.

    “And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and
    they that have done evil into everlasting fire.

    “This is the Catholic faith, which except a man believe faithfully
    and steadfastly, he cannot be saved.

    “Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As
    it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, one God, world
    without end. AMEN.”


This Creed is said to have been drawn up in the fourth century. “It
obtained in France about A. D. 850, and was received in Spain and Germany
about one hundred and eighty years later. We have clear proofs of its
being sung alternately in the English churches in the tenth century. It
was in common use in some parts of Italy in 960, and was received at Rome
about A. D. 1014.” This Creed is retained by the church of England, but
the Protestant Episcopal churches in the United States have rejected it.

The Nicene Creed.

“Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, Factorem cœli et terræ,
visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum,
Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum, ante omnia sæcula. Deum de Deo,
Lumen de Lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum, non factum;
consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos
homines, et propter nostram salutem, descendit de cœlis. Et incarnatus est
de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine; ET HOMO FACTUS EST: crucifixus etiam
pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia
die, secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in cœlum, sedet ad dexteram Patris.
Et iterum venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos: cujus regni
non erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et Vivificantem; qui ex
Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et
conglorificatur; qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam Sanctam,
Catholicam, et Apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum Baptisma, in
remissionem peccatorum. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam
venturi sæculi. Amen.”


    Translation.

    “I believe in one God, the Father almighty, Maker of heaven and
    earth, of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus
    Christ, the only-begotten Son of God. And born of the Father,
    before all ages. God of God, Light of Light, true God of true God,
    begotten, not made; consubstantial to the Father, by whom all
    things were made. Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down
    from heaven. And was incarnated by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin
    Mary; AND HE WAS MADE MAN: was crucified also under Pontius
    Pilate; he suffered, and was buried. And the third day he rose
    again, according to the Scriptures. And he ascended into heaven.
    Sits at the right hand of the Father. And he is to come again with
    glory to judge the living and the dead; of whose kingdom there
    shall be no end. And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of
    Life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, who, together with
    the Father and the Son, is adored and glorified; who spoke by the
    Prophets. And One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolical Church. I
    confess one Baptism, for the remission of sins. And I look for the
    resurrection of the dead; and the life of the world to come.
    Amen.”


This Creed was adopted at Constantinople, A. D. 381. It is used in the
Protestant Episcopal churches in England, and occasionally in those of the
United States.

The foregoing Creeds are copied from Catholic books.

                  -------------------------------------

The Catholics, both in Europe and America, acknowledge the following Rule
is “all that, and only that, belongs to Catholic belief, which is revealed
in the word of God, and which is proposed by the Catholic church to all
its members to be believed with divine faith.”

“Guided by this certain criterion,” they say, “we profess to believe,

1. “That Christ has established a church upon earth, and that this church
is that which holds communion with the see of Rome, being one, holy,
Catholic, and apostolical.

2. “That we are obliged to hear this church; and, therefore, that she is
infallible, by the guidance of Almighty God, in her decisions regarding
faith.

3. “That St. Peter, by divine commission, was appointed the head of this
church, under Christ, its Founder; and that the pope, or bishop of Rome,
as successor to St. Peter, has always been, and is, at present, by divine
right, head of this church.

4. “That the canon of the Old and New Testament, as proposed to us by this
church, is the word of God; as also such traditions, belonging to faith
and morals, which, being originally delivered by Christ to his apostles,
have been preserved by constant succession.

5. “That honor and veneration are due to the angels of God and his saints;
that they offer up prayers to God for us; that it is good and profitable
to have recourse to their intercession; and that the relics, or earthly
remains, of God’s particular servants, are to be held in respect.

6. “That no sins ever were, or can be, remitted, unless by the mercy of
God, through Jesus Christ; and, therefore, that man’s justification is the
work of divine grace.

7. “That the good works which we do, receive their whole value from the
grace of God; and that, by such works, we not only comply with the
precepts of the divine law, but that we thereby likewise merit eternal
life.

8. “That, by works done in the spirit of penance, we can make satisfaction
to God for the temporal punishment which often remains due, after our
sins, by the divine goodness, have been forgiven us.

9. “That Christ has left to his church a power of granting indulgences,
that is, a relaxation from such temporal chastisement only, as remains due
after the divine pardon of sin; and that the use of such indulgences is
profitable to sinners.

10. “That there is a purgatory, or middle state; and that the souls of
imperfect Christians, therein detained, are helped by the prayers of the
faithful.

11. “That there are seven sacraments, all instituted by Christ—baptism,
confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, holy order, matrimony.

12. “That, in the most holy sacrament of the eucharist, there is truly,
really, and substantially, the body and blood, together with the soul and
divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ.

13. “That, in this sacrament, there is, by the omnipotence of God, a
conversion, or change, of the whole substance of the bread into the body
of Christ, and of the whole substance of the wine into his blood, which
change we call TRANSUBSTANTIATION.

14. “That, under either kind, Christ is received whole and entire.

15. “That, in the mass, or sacrifice of the altar, is offered to God a
true, proper, and propitiatory, sacrifice for the living and the dead.

16. “That, in the sacrament of penance, the sins we fall into after
baptism are, by the divine mercy, forgiven us.

“These are the great points of Catholic belief, by which we are
distinguished from other Christian societies; and these, only, are the
real and essential tenets of our religion. We admit, also, the other grand
articles of revealed and natural religion, which the gospel and the light
of reason have manifested to us. To these we submit, as men and as
Christians, and to the former as obedient children of the Catholic
church.”



BEREANS.


The Bereans are a sect of Protestant dissenters from the church of
Scotland, who take their title from, and profess to follow the example of,
the ancient Bereans, in building their system of faith and practice upon
the Scriptures alone, without regard to any human authority whatever. The
Bereans first assembled, as a separate society of Christians, in the city
of Edinburgh, in the autumn of 1773. Mr. Barclay, a Scotch clergyman, was
the founder of this sect.

The Bereans agree with the great majority of Christians respecting the
doctrine of the Trinity, which they hold as a fundamental article; and
they also agree, in a great measure, with the professed principles of our
Orthodox churches, respecting predestination and election, though they
allege that these doctrines are not consistently taught. But they differ
from the majority of all sects of Christians in various other important
particulars, such as,—

1. Respecting our knowledge of the Deity. Upon this subject, they say the
majority of professed Christians stumble at the very threshold of
revelation; and, by admitting the doctrine of natural religion, natural
conscience, natural notices, &c., not founded upon revelation, or derived
from it by tradition, they give up the cause of Christianity at once to
the infidels, who may justly argue, as Mr. Paine, in fact, does, in his
“Age of Reason,” that there is no occasion for any revelation or word of
God, if man can discover his nature and perfections from his works alone.
But this, the Bereans argue, is beyond the natural powers of human reason;
and, therefore, our knowledge of God is from revelation alone; and,
without revelation, man would never have entertained an idea of his
existence.

2. With regard to faith in Christ, and assurance of salvation through his
merits, they differ from almost all other sects whatsoever. These they
reckon inseparable, or rather the same, because (they say) “God hath
expressly declared, He that believeth shall be saved; and, therefore, it
is not only absurd, but impious, and, in a manner, calling God a liar, for
a man to say, ‘I believe the gospel, but have doubts, nevertheless, of my
own salvation.’ ” With regard to the various distinctions and definitions
that have been given of different kinds of faith, they argue that there is
nothing incomprehensible or obscure in the meaning of this word, as used
in Scripture; but that, as faith, when applied to human testimony,
signifies neither more nor less than the mere simple belief of that
testimony as true, upon the authority of the testifier, so, when applied
to the testimony of God, it signifies precisely “the belief of his
testimony, and resting upon his veracity alone, without any kind of
collateral support from concurrence of any other evidence or testimony
whatever.” And they insist that, as this faith is the gift of God alone,
so the person to whom it is given is as conscious of possessing it, as the
being to whom God gives life is of being alive; and, therefore, he
entertains no doubts, either of his faith, or his consequent salvation
through the merits of Christ, who died and rose again for that purpose. In
a word, they argue that the gospel would not be what it is held forth to
be,—glad tidings of great joy,—if it did not bring full personal assurance
of eternal salvation to the believer; which assurance, they insist, is the
present infallible privilege and portion of every individual believer of
the gospel.

3. Consistently with the above definition of faith, they say that the sin
against the Holy Ghost, which has alarmed and puzzled so many in all ages,
is nothing else but unbelief; and that the expression, “it shall not be
forgiven, neither in this world nor that which is to come,” means only
that a person dying in infidelity would not be forgiven, neither under the
former dispensation by Moses, (the then present dispensation, kingdom, or
government, of God,) nor under the gospel dispensation, which, in respect
of the Mosaic, was a kind of future world, or kingdom to come.

4. The Bereans interpret a great part of the Old Testament prophecies,
and, in particular, the whole of the Psalms, excepting such as are merely
historical or laudatory, to be typical or prophetical of Jesus Christ, his
sufferings, atonement, mediation, and kingdom; and they esteem it a gross
perversion of these psalms and prophecies, to apply them to the
experiences of private Christians. In proof of this, they not only urge
the words of the apostle, that no prophecy is of any private
interpretation, but they insist that the whole of the quotations from the
ancient prophecies in the New Testament, and particularly those from the
Psalms, are expressly applied to Christ. In this opinion, many other
classes of Protestants agree with them.

5. Of the absolute, all-superintending sovereignty of the Almighty, the
Bereans entertain the highest idea, as well as of the uninterrupted
exertion thereof over all his works, in heaven, earth, and hell, however
unsearchable by his creatures. A God without election, they argue, or
choice in all his works, is a God without existence, a mere idol, a
nonentity. And to deny God’s election, purpose, and express will, in all
his works, is to make him inferior to ourselves.

The Bereans consider infant baptism as a divine ordinance, instituted in
the room of circumcision, and think it absurd to suppose that infants,
who, all agree, are admissible to the kingdom of God in heaven, should,
nevertheless, be incapable of being admitted into his visible church on
earth.

They commemorate the Lord’s supper generally once a month; but, as the
words of the institution fix no particular period, they sometimes
celebrate it oftener, and sometimes at more distant periods, as it may
suit their general convenience. They meet every Lord’s day, for the
purpose of preaching, praying, and exhorting to love and good works. With
regard to admission and exclusion of members, their method is very simple:
when any person, after hearing the Berean doctrines, professes his belief
and assurance of the truths of the gospel, and desires to be admitted into
their communion, he is cheerfully received, upon his profession, whatever
may have been his former manner of life. But, if such a one should
afterwards draw back from his good profession or practice, they first
admonish him, and, if that has no effect, they leave him to himself. They
do not think that they have any power to deliver a backsliding brother to
Satan; that text, and other similar passages, such as, “Whatsoever ye
shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven,” &c., they consider as
restricted to the apostles, and to the inspired testimony alone, and not
to be extended to any church on earth, or any number of churches, or of
Christians, whether decided by a majority of votes, or by unanimous
voices. Neither do they think themselves authorized, as a Christian
church, to inquire into each other’s political opinions, any more than to
examine into each other’s notions of philosophy.

They both recommend and practise, as a Christian duty, submission to
lawful authority; but they do not think that a man, by becoming a
Christian, or joining their society, is under any obligation, by the rules
of the gospel, to renounce his right of private judgment upon matters of
public or private importance. Upon all such subjects, they allow each
other to think and act as each may see it his duty; and they require
nothing more of the members, than a uniform and steady profession of the
apostolic faith, and a suitable walk and conversation. (See Acts 17:11.
Rom. 10:9.)

The Berean doctrines have found converts in various parts of Europe and
America.



MATERIALISTS.


Materialists are those who maintain that the soul of man is material, or
that the principle of perception and thought is not a substance distinct
from the body, but the result of corporeal organization. There are others
called by this name who have maintained that there is nothing but matter
in the universe.

The followers of the late Dr. Priestley are considered as Materialists, or
philosophical Necessarians. According to the doctor’s writings, he
believed,—

1. That man is no more than what we now see of him; his being commenced at
the time of his conception, or perhaps at an earlier period. The corporeal
and mental faculties, inhering in the same substance, grow, ripen, and
decay together; and whenever the system is dissolved, it continues in a
state of dissolution, till it shall please that Almighty Being who called
it into existence, to restore it to life again. For if the mental
principle were, in its own nature, immaterial and immortal, all its
peculiar faculties would be so too; whereas we see that every faculty of
the mind, without exception, is liable to be impaired, and even to become
wholly extinct, before death. Since, therefore, all the faculties of the
mind, separately taken, appear to be mortal, the substance or principle,
in which they exist, must be pronounced mortal too. Thus we might conclude
that the body was mortal, from observing that all the separate senses and
limbs were liable to decay and perish.

This system gives a real value to the doctrine of the resurrection from
the dead, which is peculiar to revelation; on which alone the sacred
writers build all our hope of future life; and it explains the uniform
language of the Scriptures, which speak of one day of judgment for all
mankind, and represent all the rewards of virtue, and all the punishments
of vice, as taking place at that awful day, and not before. In the
Scriptures, the heathen are represented as without hope, and all mankind
as perishing at death, if there be no resurrection of the dead.

The apostle Paul asserts, in 1 Cor. 15:16, that “if the dead rise not,
then is not Christ risen; and if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain,
ye are yet in your sins: then they also who are fallen asleep in Christ
are perished.” And again, verse 32, “If the dead rise not, let us eat and
drink, for to-morrow we die.” In the whole discourse, he does not even
mention the doctrine of happiness or misery without the body.

If we search the Scriptures for passages expressive of the state of man at
death, we shall find such declarations as expressly exclude any trace of
sense, thought, or enjoyment. (See Ps. 6:5. Job 14:7, &c.)

2. That there is some fixed law of nature respecting the will, as well as
the other powers of the mind, and every thing else in the constitution of
nature; and consequently that it is never determined without some real or
apparent cause foreign to itself, i. e., without some motive of choice; or
that motives influence us in some definite and invariable manner, so that
every volition, or choice, is constantly regulated and determined by what
precedes it; and this constant determination of mind, according to the
motives presented to it, is what is meant by its _necessary
determination_. This being admitted to be fact, there will be a necessary
connection between all things past, present, and to come, in the way of
proper cause and effect, as much in the intellectual as in the natural
world; so that, according to the established laws of nature, no event
could have been otherwise than it _has been_, or _is to be_, and therefore
all things past, present, and to come, are precisely what the Author of
Nature really intended them to be, and has made provision for.

To establish this conclusion, nothing is necessary but that throughout all
nature the same consequences should invariably result from the same
circumstances. For if this be admitted, it will necessarily follow that,
at the commencement of any system, since the several parts of it, and
their respective situations, were appointed by the Deity, the first change
would take place according to a certain rule established by himself, the
result of which would be a new situation; after which the same laws
containing another change would succeed, according to the same rules, and
so on forever; every new situation invariably leading to another, and
every event, from the commencement to the termination of the system, being
strictly connected, so that, unless the fundamental laws of the system
were changed, it would be impossible that any event should have been
otherwise than it was. In all these cases, the circumstances preceding any
change are called the causes of that change; and, since a determinate
event, or effect, constantly follows certain circumstances, or causes, the
connection between cause and effect is concluded to be invariable, and
therefore necessary.

It is universally acknowledged that there can be no effect without an
adequate cause. This is even the foundation on which the only proper
argument for the being of a God rests. And the Necessarian asserts that
if, in any given state of mind, with respect both to dispositions and
motives, two different determinations, or volitions, be possible, it can
be on no other principle, than that one of them should come under the
description of an effect without a cause; just as if the beam of a balance
might incline either way, though loaded with equal weights. And if any
thing whatever—even a thought in the mind of man—could arise without an
adequate cause, any thing else—the mind itself, or the whole
universe—might likewise exist without an adequate cause.

This scheme of philosophical necessity implies a chain of causes and
effects established by infinite wisdom, and terminating in the greatest
good of the whole universe; evils of all kinds, natural and moral, being
admitted, as far as they contribute to that end, or are in the nature of
things inseparable from it. Vice is productive, not of good, but of evil,
to us, both here and hereafter, though good may result from it to the
whole system; and, according to the fixed laws of nature, our present and
future happiness necessarily depends on our cultivating good dispositions.



ARMINIANS.


Those persons who follow the doctrines of Arminius, who was pastor at
Amsterdam, and afterwards professor of divinity at Leyden. Arminius had
been educated in the opinions of Calvin; but, thinking the doctrine of
that great man, with regard to free will, predestination, and grace, too
severe, he began to express his doubts concerning them in the year 1591,
and, upon further inquiry, adopted the sentiments of those whose religious
system extends the love of the Supreme Being and the merits of Jesus
Christ to all mankind.

The distinguishing tenets of the Arminians may be comprised in the five
following articles relative to predestination, universal redemption, the
corruption of man, conversion, and perseverance, viz.:—


    “1. That God determined to bestow pardon and present salvation on
    all who repent and believe in Christ, and final salvation on all
    who persevere to the end, and to inflict everlasting punishment on
    those who should continue in their unbelief, and resist his divine
    succors; so that election was conditional, and reprobation, in
    like manner, the result of foreseen infidelity and persevering
    wickedness, (See Ezek. 18:30-32. Acts 17:24-30. Matt. 23:37. Rom.
    2:4, 5; 5:18. 1 Tim. 11:1-4. 2 Pet. 1:10; 3:9.)

    “2. That Jesus Christ, by his sufferings and death, made an
    atonement for the sins of all mankind in general, and of every
    individual in particular; that, however, none but those who
    believe in him can be partakers of divine benefits. (See John 2:2;
    3:16, 17. Heb. 2:9. Isa. 50:19, 20. 1 Cor. 8:11.)

    “3. That true faith cannot proceed from the exercise of our
    natural faculties and powers, nor from the force and operation of
    free will; since man, in consequence of his natural corruption, is
    incapable either of thinking or doing any good thing; and that,
    therefore, it is necessary, in order to his conversion and
    salvation, that he be regenerated and renewed by the operation of
    the Holy Ghost, which is the gift of God through Jesus Christ.

    “4. That this divine grace, or energy, of the Holy Ghost, begins
    and perfects every thing that can be called good in man, and,
    consequently, all good works are to be attributed to God alone;
    that, nevertheless, this grace is offered to all, and does not
    force men to act against their inclinations, but may be resisted,
    and rendered ineffectual, by the perverse will of the impenitent
    sinner. Some modern Arminians interpret this and the last article
    with a greater latitude. (See Isa. 1:16. Deut. 10:16. Eph. 4:22.)

    “5. That God gives to the truly faithful, who are regenerated by
    his grace, the means of preserving themselves in this state.”


The first Armenians, indeed, had some doubt with respect to the closing
part of the latter article; but their followers uniformly maintain, “that
the regenerate may lose true, justifying faith, fall from a state of
grace, and die in their sins.” (See Heb. 6:4-6. 2 Pet. 2:20, 21. Luke
21:35. 2 Pet. 3:17.)



METHODISTS, OR THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH.


This denomination arose in England, in 1729, and derived their name from
the exact regularity of their lives. In 1741, they divided into two
parties, under George Whitefield and John Wesley. The former adopted the
sentiments of Calvin, and the latter those of Arminius. The Arminian class
compose the great body of Methodists in this country and in Great Britain.
Both of those men were eminently distinguished for the variety and extent
of their labors.

The following are the articles of religion, as published in the “Doctrines
and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church:”—


    “1. There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without
    body or parts, of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness; the Maker
    and Preserver of all things, visible and invisible. And in unity
    of this Godhead, there are three persons, of one substance, power
    and eternity—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

    “2. The Son, who is the Word of the Father, the very and eternal
    God, of one substance with the Father, took man’s nature in the
    womb of the blessed Virgin; so that two whole and perfect natures,
    that is to say, the Godhead and manhood, were joined together in
    one person, never to be divided, whereof is one Christ, very God
    and very man, who truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried,
    to reconcile his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for
    original guilt, but also for the actual sins of men.

    “3. Christ did truly rise again from the dead, and took again his
    body, with all things appertaining to the perfection of man’s
    nature, wherewith he ascended into heaven, and there sitteth,
    until he return to judge all men at the last day.

    “4. The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is of
    one substance, majesty, and glory, with the Father and the Son,
    very and eternal God.

    “5. The holy Scriptures contain all things necessary to salvation;
    so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby,
    is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an
    article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to
    salvation. By the name of the holy Scriptures, we do understand
    those canonical books of the Old and New Testament, of whose
    authority was never any doubt in the church. [Here follow the
    names of the canonical books of the Scriptures.]

    “6. The Old Testament is not contrary to the New; for, both in the
    Old and New Testament, everlasting life is offered to mankind by
    Christ, who is the only Mediator between God and man, being both
    God and man. Wherefore they are not to be heard, who feign that
    the old fathers did look only for transitory promises. Although
    the law given from God by Moses, as touching ceremonies and rites,
    doth not bind Christians, nor ought the civil precepts thereof of
    necessity to be received in any commonwealth, yet,
    notwithstanding, no Christian whatsoever is free from the
    obedience of the commandments which are called moral.

    “7. Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam, (as the
    Pelagians do vainly talk,) but it is the corruption of the nature
    of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of
    Adam, whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness,
    and of his own nature inclined to evil, and that continually.

    “8. The condition of man, after the fall of Adam, is such, that he
    cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength and
    works, to faith, and calling upon God; wherefore we have no power
    to do good works, pleasant and acceptable to God, without the
    grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have a good
    will, and working with us when we have that good will.

    “9. We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of
    our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ by faith, and not for our own
    works or deservings. Wherefore, that we are justified by faith
    only, is a most wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort.

    “10. Although good works, which are the fruits of faith, and
    follow after justification, cannot put away our sins, and endure
    the severity of God’s judgments, yet are they pleasing and
    acceptable to God in Christ, and spring out of a true and lively
    faith, insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently
    known, as a tree is discerned by its fruit.

    “11. Voluntary works, being over and above God’s commandments,
    which are called works of supererogation, cannot be taught without
    arrogancy and impiety. For by them men do declare that they do not
    only render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but they do
    more for his sake than of bounden duty is required; whereas Christ
    saith plainly, ‘When ye have done all that is commanded you, say,
    We are unprofitable servants.’

    “12. Not every sin willingly committed after justification, is the
    sin against the Holy Ghost, and unpardonable. Wherefore, the grant
    of repentance is not to be denied to such as fall into sin after
    justification; after we have received the Holy Ghost, we may
    depart from grace given, and fall into sin, and, by the grace of
    God, rise again, and amend our lives. And, therefore, they are to
    be condemned who say they can no more sin as long as they live
    here, or deny the place of forgiveness to such as truly repent.

    “13. The visible church of Christ is a congregation of faithful
    men, in which the pure word of God is preached, and the sacraments
    duly administered according to Christ’s ordinance, in all those
    things that of necessity are requisite to the same.

    “14. The Romish doctrine concerning purgatory, pardon, worshipping
    and adoration as well of images as of relics, and also invocation
    of saints, is a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded upon no
    warrant of Scripture, but repugnant to the word of God.

    “15. It is a thing plainly repugnant to the word of God, and the
    custom of the primitive church, to have public prayer in the
    church, or to minister the sacraments, in a tongue not understood
    by the people.

    “16. Sacraments ordained of Christ are not only badges or tokens
    of Christian men’s profession, but rather they are certain signs
    of grace, and God’s good-will towards us, by the which he doth
    work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also
    strengthen and confirm, our faith in him.

    “There are two sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord to the
    gospel; that is to say, baptism and the supper of the Lord.

    “Those five commonly called _sacraments_—that is to say,
    confirmation, penance, orders, matrimony, and extreme unction—are
    not to be counted for sacraments of the gospel, being such as have
    partly grown out of the _corrupt_ following of the apostles, and
    partly are states of life allowed in the Scriptures, but yet have
    not the like nature of baptism and the Lord’s supper, because they
    have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God.

    “The sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or
    to be carried about, but that we should duly use them. And in such
    only as worthily receive the same, they have a wholesome effect or
    operation; but they that receive them unworthily, purchase to
    themselves condemnation, as St. Paul saith. (1 Cor. 11:29.)

    “17. Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of
    difference, whereby Christians are distinguished from others that
    are not baptized, but it is also a sign of regeneration, or the
    new birth. The baptism of young children is to be retained in the
    church.

    “18. The supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that
    Christians ought to have among themselves one to another, but
    rather is a sacrament of our redemption by Christ’s death;
    insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith,
    receive the same, the bread which we break is a partaking of the
    body of Christ, and likewise the cup of blessing is a partaking of
    the blood of Christ.

    “Transubstantiation, or the change of the substance of bread and
    wine in the supper of our Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ, but
    is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the
    nature of a sacrament, and hath given occasion to many
    superstitions.

    “The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in the supper,
    only after a heavenly and scriptural manner. And the means whereby
    the body of Christ is received and eaten in the supper, is faith.

    “The sacrament of the Lord’s supper was not by Christ’s ordinance
    reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshipped.

    “19. The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the lay people;
    for both the parts of the Lord’s supper, by Christ’s ordinance and
    commandment, ought to be administered to all Christians alike.

    “20. The offering of Christ, once made, is that perfect
    redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction, for all the sins of
    the whole world, both original and actual; and there is none other
    satisfaction for sin but that alone. Wherefore the sacrifice of
    masses, in the which it is commonly said that the priest doth
    offer Christ for the quick and the dead, to have remission of pain
    or guilt, is a blasphemous fable and dangerous deceit.

    “21. The ministers of Christ were not commanded by God’s law
    either to vow the estate of single life, or to abstract from
    marriage; therefore it is lawful for them, as for all other
    Christians, to marry at their own discretion, as they shall judge
    the same to serve best to godliness.

    “22. It is not necessary that rites and ceremonies should in all
    places be the same, or exactly alike; for they have been always
    different, and may be changed according to the diversity of
    countries, times, and men’s manners, so that nothing be ordained
    against God’s word. Whosoever, through his private judgment,
    willingly and purposely doth openly break the rites and ceremonies
    of the church to which he belongs, which are not repugnant to the
    word of God, and are ordained and approved by common authority,
    ought to be rebuked openly, that others may fear to do the like,
    as one that offendeth against the common order of the church, and
    woundeth the consciences of weak brethren.

    “Every particular church may ordain, change, and abolish, rites
    and ceremonies, so that all things may be done to edification.

    “23. The president, the congress, the general assemblies, the
    governors, and the councils of state, _as the delegates of the
    people_, are the rulers of the United States of America according
    to the division of power made to them by the Constitution of the
    United States, and by the constitutions of their respective
    states. And the said states are a sovereign and independent
    nation, and ought not to be subject to any foreign
    jurisdiction.(2)

    “24. The riches and goods of Christians are not common, as
    touching the right, title, and possession, of the same, as some do
    falsely boast. Notwithstanding every man ought, of such things as
    he possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according to
    his ability.

    “25. As we confess that vain and rash swearing is forbidden
    Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ and James his apostle, so
    we judge that the Christian religion doth not prohibit but that a
    man may swear when the magistrate requireth, in a cause of faith
    and charity, so it be done according to the prophet’s teaching, in
    justice, judgment, and truth.”



METHODISTS, OR THE METHODIST PROTESTANT CHURCH.


The Protestant Methodists adhere to the Wesleyan Methodist doctrines, but
discard certain parts of the discipline, particularly those concerning
episcopacy and the manner of constituting the general conference. They
seceded from the _Methodist Episcopal Church_ in 1830, and formed a
constitution and discipline of their own.

The following preamble and articles precede the constitution:—


    “We, the representatives of the associated Methodist churches, in
    general convention assembled, acknowledging the Lord Jesus Christ
    as the only HEAD of the church, and the word of God as the
    sufficient rule of faith and practice, in all things pertaining to
    godliness, and being fully persuaded that the representative form
    of church government is the most scriptural, best suited to our
    condition, and most congenial with our views and feelings as
    fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of God; and
    whereas, a written constitution, establishing the form of
    government, and securing to the ministers and members of the
    church their rights and privileges, is the best safeguard of
    Christian liberty. We, therefore, trusting in the protection of
    Almighty God, and acting in the name and by the authority of our
    constituents, do ordain and establish, and agree to be governed
    by, the following elementary principles and constitution:—

    “1. A Christian church is a society of believers in Jesus Christ,
    and is a divine institution.

    “2. Christ is the only Head of the church, and the word of God the
    only rule of faith and conduct.

    “3. No person who loves the Lord Jesus Christ, and obeys the
    gospel of God our Savior, ought to be deprived of church
    membership.

    “4. Every man has an inalienable right to private judgment in
    matters of religion, and an equal right to express his opinion in
    any way which will not violate the laws of God, or the rights of
    his fellow-men.

    “5. Church trials should be conducted on gospel principles only;
    and no minister or member should be excommunicated except for
    immorality, the propagation of unchristian doctrines, or for the
    neglect of duties enjoined by the word of God.

    “6. The pastoral or ministerial office and duties are of divine
    appointment, and all elders in the church of God are equal; but
    ministers are forbidden to be lords over God’s heritage, or to
    have dominion over the faith of the saints.

    “7. The church has a right to form and enforce such rules and
    regulations only as are in accordance with the holy Scriptures,
    and may be necessary or have a tendency to carry into effect the
    great system of practical Christianity.

    “8. Whatever power may be necessary to the formation of rules and
    regulations, is inherent in the ministers and members of the
    church; but so much of that power may be delegated, from time to
    time, upon a plan of representation, as they may judge necessary
    and proper.

    “9. It is the duty of all ministers and members of the church, to
    maintain godliness, and to oppose all moral evil.

    “10. It is obligatory on ministers of the gospel to be faithful in
    the discharge of their pastoral and ministerial duties, and it is
    also obligatory on the members to esteem ministers highly for
    their works’ sake, and to render them a righteous compensation for
    their labors.

    “11. The church ought to secure to all her official bodies the
    necessary authority for the purposes of good government; but she
    has no right to create any distinct or independent sovereignties.”


We omit the constitution, as the preceding elementary principles
sufficiently develop the peculiarities of this denomination.



PROTESTANTS.


A name first given, in Germany, to those who adhered to the doctrine of
Luther; because, in 1529, they protested against a decree of the emperor
Charles V., and the diet of Spires, declaring that they appealed to a
general council. The same name has also been given to the Calvinists, and
is now become a common denomination for all sects which differ from the
church of Rome.



SABELLIANS.


A sect, in the third century, that embraced the opinions of Sabellius, a
philosopher of Egypt, who openly taught that there is but one person in
the Godhead.

The Sabellians maintained that the Word and the Holy Spirit are only
virtues, emanations, or functions of the Deity, and held that he who is in
heaven is the Father of all things; that he descended into the Virgin,
became a child, and was born of her as a Son; and that, having
accomplished the mystery of our salvation, he diffused himself on the
apostles in tongues of fire, and was then denominated the _Holy Ghost_.
This they explained by resembling God to the sun; the illuminated virtue
or quality of which was the Word, and its warming virtue the Holy Spirit.
The Word, they taught, was darted, like a divine ray, to accomplish the
work of redemption; and that, being re-ascended to heaven, the influences
of the Father were communicated after a like manner to the apostles.



SANDEMANIANS.


So called from Mr. Robert Sandeman, a Scotchman, who published his
sentiments in 1757. He afterwards came to America, and established
societies at Boston, and other places in New England, and in Nova Scotia.

This sect arose in Scotland about the year 1728, where it is distinguished
at the present day by the name of _Glassites_, after its founder, Mr. John
Glass, a minister of the established church.

The Sandemanians consider that faith is neither more nor less than a
simple assent to the divine testimony concerning Jesus Christ, delivered
for the offences of men, and raised again for their justification, as
recorded in the New Testament, They also maintain that the word _faith_,
or belief, is constantly used by the apostles to signify what is denoted
by it in common discourse, viz., a persuasion of the truth of any
proposition, and that there is no difference between believing any common
testimony and believing the apostolic testimony, except that which results
from the testimony itself, and the divine authority on which it rests.

They differ from other Christians in their weekly administration of the
Lord’s supper; their love-feasts, of which every member is not only
allowed, but required, to partake, and which consist of their dining
together at each other’s houses in the interval between the morning and
afternoon service; their kiss of charity, used on this occasion, at the
admission of a new member, and at other times, when they deem it necessary
and proper; their weekly collection, before the Lord’s supper, for the
support of the poor, and defraying other expenses; mutual exhortation;
abstinence from blood and things strangled; washing each other’s feet,
when, as a deed of mercy, it might be an expression of love, the precept
concerning which, as well as other precepts, they understand literally;
community of goods, so far as that every one is to consider all that he
has in his possession and power liable to the calls of the poor and the
church; and the unlawfulness of laying up treasures upon earth, by setting
them apart for any distant, future, or uncertain use. They allow of public
and private diversions, so far as they are not connected with
circumstances really sinful; but, apprehending a lot to be sacred,
disapprove of lotteries, playing at cards, dice, &c.

They maintain a plurality of elders, pastors, or bishops, in each church,
and the necessity of the presence of two elders in every act of
discipline, and at the administration of the Lord’s supper.

In the choice of these elders, want of learning and engagement in trade
are no sufficient objections, if qualified according to the instructions
given to Timothy and Titus; but second marriages disqualify for the
office; and they are ordained by prayer and fasting, imposition of hands,
and giving the right hand of fellowship.

In their discipline they are strict and severe, and think themselves
obliged to separate from communion and worship of all such religious
societies as appear to them not to profess the simple truth for their only
ground of hope, and who do not walk in obedience to it. (See John 13:14,
15; 16:13. Acts 6:7. Rom. 3:27; 4:4, 5; 16:16. 1 Cor. 16:20. 2 Cor. 4:13.
1 Pet. 1:22.)



ANTINOMIANS.


As we elsewhere give the sentiments of the ancient _Bereans_, _Pelagians_,
and _Sabellians_, it is proper to notice those of Agricola, an eminent
doctor in the Lutheran church, who flourished about the middle of the
sixteenth century. The word _Antinomian_ is derived from two Greek words,
signifying _against law_.

It will be observed that the above names are used to denote sentiments or
opinions, rather than sects or denominations.

The principal doctrines of the Antinomians, together with a short specimen
of the arguments made use of in their defence, are comprehended in the
following summary:—


    “1. That the law ought not to be proposed to the people as a rule
    of manners, nor used in the church as a means of instruction; and
    that the gospel alone is to be inculcated and explained, both in
    the churches and in the schools of learning.

    “For the Scriptures declare that Christ is not the lawgiver; as it
    is said, ‘The law was given by Moses; but grace and truth came by
    Jesus Christ.’ Therefore the ministers of the _gospel_ ought not
    to teach the _law_. Christians are not ruled by the law, but by
    the spirit of regeneration; according as it is said, ‘Ye are not
    under the law, but under grace.’ Therefore the law ought not to be
    taught in the church of Christ.

    “2. That the justification of sinners is an immanent and eternal
    act of God, not only preceding all acts of sin, but the existence
    of the sinner himself.

    “For nothing new can arise in God; on which account, he calls
    things that are not, as though they were; and the apostle saith,
    ‘Who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly
    places, in Christ Jesus, before the foundation of the world.’
    Besides, Christ was set up from everlasting, not only as the Head
    of the church, but as the surety of his people; by virtue of which
    engagement, the Father decreed never to impute unto them their
    sins. (See 2 Cor. 5: 19.)

    “3. That justification by faith is no more than a manifestation to
    us of what was done before we had a being.

    “For it is thus expressed, in Heb. 11:1: ‘Now, faith is the
    substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.’
    We are justified only by Christ; but by faith we perceive it, and
    by faith rejoice in it, as we apprehend it to be our own.

    “4. That men ought not to doubt of their faith, nor question
    whether they believe in Christ.

    “For we are commanded to ‘draw near in full assurance of faith.’
    (Heb. 10:22.) ‘He that believeth on the Son of God, hath the
    witness in himself,’ (2 John 5:10;) i. e., he has as much evidence
    as can be desired.

    “5. That God sees no sin in believers; and they are not bound to
    confess sin, mourn for it, or pray that it may be forgiven.

    “For God has declared, (Heb. 10:17,) ‘Their sins and iniquities I
    will remember no more.’ And in Jer. 50:20, ‘In those days, and in
    that time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought
    for, and there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they
    shall not be found; for I will pardon them whom I reserve.’

    “6. That God is not angry with the elect, nor doth he punish them
    for their sins.

    “For Christ has made ample satisfaction for their sins. See Isaiah
    53:5, ‘He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for
    our iniquities,’ &c. And to inflict punishment once upon the
    surety, and again upon the believer, is contrary to the justice of
    God, as well as derogatory to the satisfaction of Christ.

    “7. That by God’s laying our iniquities upon Christ, he became as
    completely sinful as we, and we as completely righteous as Christ.

    “For Christ represents our persons to the Father; and we represent
    the person of Christ to him. The loveliness of Christ is
    transferred to us. On the other hand, all that is hateful in our
    nature is put upon Christ, who was forsaken by the father for a
    time. See 2 Cor. 5:21, ‘He was made sin for us, who knew no sin;
    that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.’

    “8. That believers need not fear either their own sins or the sins
    of others, since neither can do them any injury.

    “See Rom. 8:33, 34, ‘Who shall lay any thing to the charge of
    God’s elect?’ &c. The apostle does not say that they never
    transgress, but triumphs in the thought that no curse can be
    executed against them.

    “9. That the new covenant is not made properly with us, but with
    Christ for us; and that this covenant is all of it a promise,
    having no conditions for us to perform; for faith, repentance, and
    obedience, are not conditions on our part, but Christ’s; and he
    repented, believed, and obeyed for us.

    “For the covenant is so expressed, that the performance lies upon
    the Deity himself. ‘For this is the covenant that I will make with
    the house of Israel, after those days, saith the Lord; I will put
    my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts; and I
    will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people.’ Heb.
    8:10.

    “10. That sanctification is not a proper evidence of
    justification.

    “For those who endeavor to evidence their justification by their
    sanctification, are looking to their own attainments, and not to
    Christ’s righteousness, for hopes of salvation.”



PELAGIANS.


A denomination which arose in the fifth century, so called from Pelagius,
a monk, who looked upon the doctrines which were commonly received,
concerning the original corruption of human nature, and the necessity of
divine grace to enlighten the understanding and purify the heart, as
prejudicial to the progress of holiness and virtue, and tending to
establish mankind in a presumptuous and fatal security. He maintained the
following doctrines:—


    “1. That the sins of our first parents were imputed to them only,
    and not to their posterity; and that we derive no corruption from
    their fall, but are born as pure and unspotted as Adam came out of
    the forming hand of his Creator.

    “2. That mankind, therefore, are capable of repentance and
    amendment, and of arriving to the highest degrees of piety and
    virtue, by the use of their natural faculties and powers. That,
    indeed, external grace is necessary to excite their endeavors, but
    that they have no need of the internal succors of the divine
    Spirit.

    “3. That Adam was, by nature, mortal, and, whether he had sinned
    or not, would certainly have died.

    “4. That the grace of God is given in proportion to our merits.

    “5. That mankind may arrive at a state of perfection in this life.

    “6. That the law qualified men for the kingdom of heaven, and was
    founded upon equal promises with the gospel.”



PRE-ADAMITES.


This denomination began about the middle of the sixteenth century. Their
principal tenet is _that there must have been men before Adam_. One proof
of this they bring from Rom. 5:12, 13, 14. The apostle says, “_Sin was in
the world till the law_;” meaning the law given to Adam. But sin, it is
evident, was not imputed, though it might have been committed, till the
time of the pretended first man. “_For sin is not imputed when there is no
law._”

The election of the Jews, they say, is a consequence of the same system.
It began at Adam, who is called their father or founder. God is also their
Father, having espoused the Judaical church. The Gentiles are only adopted
children, as being Pre-Adamites. Men (or Gentiles) are said to be made by
the word of God. (Gen. 1:26, 27.) Adam, the founder of the Jewish nation,
whose history alone Moses wrote, is introduced in the second chapter, as
the workmanship of God’s own hands, and as created apart from other men.

They argue thus:—Cain, having killed his brother Abel, was afraid of being
killed himself. By whom? He married—yet Adam had then no daughter. What
wife could he get? He built a town—what architects, masons, carpenters,
and workmen, did he employ? The answer to all these questions is in one
word—Pre-Adamites.

This reasoning is opposed by sundry texts of Scripture, (See Gen. 1:26;
2:7; 3:20. Mark 10:6. I Cor. 15:45, 47.)



PREDESTINARIANS.


Are those who believe that God, for his own glory, hath foreordained
whatsoever comes to pass. (See Matt. 25:34. Rom. 8:29, 30. Eph. 1:3, 6,
11. 2 Tim. 1:9. 2 Thess. 11:13. 1 Pet. 1:1, 2. John 6:37; 17:2-24. Rev.
13:8; 17:8. Dan. 4:35. 1 Thess. 5:19. Matt. 11:26. Exod. 4:21. Prov. 16:4.
Acts 13:48.)



ORTHODOX CREEDS.


Orthodoxy literally signifies _correct opinions_. The word is generally
used to denote those who are attached to the Trinitarian scheme of
Christian doctrine.

The following article is found in the “Spirit of the Pilgrims,” vol. v.
No. 1, and is supposed to have been written by the late Rev. BENJAMIN B.
WISNER, D. D., pastor of the Old South church, Boston.

The following summary contains the more material parts of the Orthodox
faith. Those who embrace this system believe,—


    “That, since the fall of Adam, men are, in their natural state,
    altogether destitute of true holiness, and entirely depraved.

    “That men, though thus depraved, are justly required to love God
    with all the heart, and justly punishable for disobedience; or, in
    other words, they are complete moral agents, proper subjects of
    moral government, and truly accountable to God for their actions.

    “That in the unspeakable wisdom and love of God was disclosed a
    plan of redemption for sinful men.

    “That, in the development of this plan, God saw fit to reveal so
    much concerning the nature and the mode of the divine existence,
    as that he is manifested to his creatures as the Father, the Son,
    and the Holy Ghost; and that these three, each partaking of all
    the attributes of the Deity, and being entitled to receive divine
    worship and adoration, are the one living and true God.

    “That the Son of God, laying aside the glory which he had with the
    Father from everlasting, came down from heaven, took upon himself
    man’s nature, and by his humiliation, sufferings, and death, made
    an atonement for the sins of the world.

    “That, in consequence of this atonement, the offer of pardon and
    eternal life was freely made to all; so that those who truly
    repent of sin, and believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, will be
    saved.

    “That men are naturally so averse to God and holiness, that, if
    left to themselves, they reject the offers of salvation, and
    neither repent of sin nor truly believe in a Savior.

    “That God, being moved with infinite love and compassion, sends
    forth the Holy Spirit, according to his sovereign pleasure, by
    whose beneficent energy an innumerable multitude of the human
    family are renewed, sanctified, and prepared for heaven; while
    others are suffered to pursue the course which they have freely
    chosen, and in which they obstinately persevere till the day of
    salvation is past.

    “That God, in his providential dispensations, in the bestowment of
    his saving mercy, and in his universal government, exhibits his
    adorable perfections, in such a manner as will call forth the
    admiration and love of all holy beings forever.

    “That believers are justified by faith, through the efficacy of
    the atonement, so that all claims of human merit, and all grounds
    of boasting, are forever excluded.

    “That the law of God is perpetually binding upon all moral beings,
    and upon believers not less than other men, as a rule of life; and
    that no repentance is genuine unless it bring forth fruits meet
    for repentance, and no faith is saving unless it produce good
    works.

    “That those who have been renewed by the Spirit will be preserved
    by the power of God, and advanced in holiness unto final
    salvation. And,

    “That Christ, as the great King of the universe, the Lord and
    Proprietor of created beings, will judge the world at the last
    day, when the righteous will be received to life eternal, and the
    wicked will be consigned to endless punishment.”

                  -------------------------------------

    “Since the reformation from Popery, those who profess to admit
    these doctrines, and others necessarily connected with them, and
    forming a part of the same system, have been denominated Orthodox,
    while to those who openly reject them, or any considerable part of
    them, this appellation has been denied.

    “It is not to be inferred, however, that the Orthodox have been,
    or are, entirely _unanimous_ on the subject of religion. In
    matters comparatively unessential, and in their modes of stating,
    explaining, and establishing essential truths, there has always
    been more or less a diversity. Thus persons may disagree as to the
    form of church government, or as to the mode of administering
    ordinances, and yet have an equal claim to be entitled Orthodox.
    Or persons may disagree in their interpretation of particular
    passages of Scripture, and as to the manner in which these bear on
    the doctrines of religion, without forfeiting their title to the
    some honorable appellation. For instance, one person may regard a
    particular passage as proof conclusive of the divinity of Christ,
    while another may be in doubt respecting it, or may apply it
    differently, and yet both be firm believers in the divinity of
    Christ. Many passages which the old writers quoted as proof-texts,
    have, in the progress of critical science, been differently
    interpreted; and yet the evidence in support of the Orthodox
    system, so far from being weakened in this way, has been
    constantly gaining strength.

    “Again: persons may disagree, to a certain extent, at least, in
    their statements and explanations of the most essential doctrines,
    and yet be properly and equally Orthodox. In illustration of this
    remark, several examples will be given.

    “All Orthodox Christians believe in the full inspiration of the
    sacred Scriptures; or that the holy men, through whose
    instrumentality the world originally received these Scriptures,
    spake and wrote ‘as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.’ They
    believe in this as a _fact_ of the utmost importance. But there
    have been various modes of stating, explaining, and illustrating
    this fact. Some, for instance, have spoken of two or three kinds
    of inspiration; others have insisted that there can be but one
    kind; while others have thought it better to state the subject in
    general terms, without attempting very minutely to define or
    explain them.

    “All Orthodox Christians believe in the doctrine of the Trinity,
    or that the one God exists in a threefold distinction, commonly
    called persons,—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. They
    believe this as a revealed fact, and as an essential part of the
    Christian doctrine. But how differently has this fact been stated
    by different individuals! What different explanations have been
    put upon it! While not a few have preferred to leave the
    subject—as God seems to have left it—altogether unexplained.

    “All Orthodox Christians believe in the universality of God’s
    eternal purposes, in the certainty of their execution, and that
    they are so executed as not to obstruct or impair the free agency
    of man. But respecting the _manner_ of God’s executing his
    purposes,—whether by the instrumentality of motives, or by a
    direct efficiency,—persons having equal claims to the appellation
    of Orthodox, have not been agreed.

    “All the Orthodox believe in the natural and entire depravity of
    man; or that, in consequence of the sin of his first progenitors,
    and previous to regeneration, every thing within him, going to
    constitute moral character, is sinful. But how many theories have
    been framed to account for the connection of our sin with that of
    Adam! And how many explanations have been put upon the doctrine of
    entire depravity! Some have made this depravity to extend to all
    the powers of the soul; others have restricted it to our voluntary
    exercises and actions; while others have confined it chiefly to a
    moral taste, disposition, or instinct, which is regarded as back
    of our voluntary exercises, and the source of them.

    “All the Orthodox believe in the doctrine of atonement; but all do
    not state or explain this important doctrine after the same
    manner. Some suppose the atonement of Christ to consist wholly in
    his obedience, others wholly in his sufferings, and others in both
    his obedience and sufferings. Some hold that Christ suffered the
    penalty of the law for sinners, and others that he only opened a
    way in which, on condition of repentance, this penalty may be
    remitted. Some think the atonement made only for the elect, while
    others regard it as the propitiation for the sins of the whole
    world.

    “The doctrine of instantaneous regeneration by the special
    operations of the Holy Spirit, is believed by all who have any
    claim to be called Orthodox. But this doctrine, like the others
    mentioned, is variously stated and explained. Some consider man as
    entirely active in regeneration, others as entirely passive, and
    others as not entirely the one or the other. Some believe there is
    a holy principle implanted in regeneration, which ever afterwards
    remains in the heart of the subject, while others believe the
    change to consist in the commencement of holy exercises, which may
    be subsequently interrupted, though not finally lost. As to the
    manner in which the Spirit operates in regeneration, there is also
    a difference of opinion; some holding that he changes the heart by
    a direct efficiency, and others that this is done by the more
    powerful presentation and impression of motives.

    “Another doctrine of the Orthodox system is, that of justification
    by faith in Christ. But this, also, has been differently stated
    and explained. Some think the believer justified by Christ’s
    righteousness, others by the influence of his sufferings and
    death, and others by the joint efficacy of both his obedience and
    sufferings. Some believe justification to be the same as
    forgiveness, while others regard it as implying, not only
    forgiveness, but also a title to eternal life.

    “It is evident, from the examples here given, that, although
    Orthodoxy denotes a general system of important doctrines or facts
    on the subject of religion, it is not to be inferred, either by
    friends or foes, that Orthodox Christians are tied up to precisely
    the same views of subjects, or that there exists no diversity of
    sentiment among them. There is, and always has been, a diversity
    of sentiment, in regard not only to modes and forms, but to the
    statement, proofs, and explanations, of the most important
    doctrines. Some of them, to be sure, are little more than verbal;
    but others are _real_, are fitted to excite interest, and are
    entitled to very serious consideration. Still, as they are all
    held in avowed consistency with that great series of facts which
    go to constitute the Orthodox system, they should not be regarded
    as placing their advocates beyond the proper limits of Orthodoxy.
    They constitute a wide field of important discussion, over which
    those who agree in holding the Head,—in holding the great
    doctrines of redemption by the blood of Christ, and of
    sanctification by the Holy Spirit,—may freely and fraternally
    traverse. Modes and forms, the interpretation of passages, and
    explanations of particular doctrines, (so long as essential
    doctrines are not discarded,) may be discussed without the
    interruption of brotherly affection, and without the imputation
    and reproach of heresy. One person may hold that all Scripture is
    given by the inspiration of _suggestion_; and another that, while
    some parts are the fruit of immediate suggestion, others may more
    properly be attributed to the inspiration of _superintendence_;
    and neither should charge the other with denying the inspiration
    of the Scriptures, or with being a heretic, or an infidel. One
    person may insist that the passage in 1 John 5:7, is authentic
    Scripture, and strong proof of the doctrine of the Trinity; and
    another may doubt this, or deny it altogether; and neither should
    be charged with intentionally corrupting the Scriptures, or with
    being a Unitarian. One person may hold that God executes his
    immutable and eternal decrees by a direct efficiency, and another
    that he does it by the intervention of motives, and yet one be no
    more an Arminian than the other.”



ANDOVER ORTHODOX CREED.


Every person appointed or elected a professor in the Theological
Institution at Andover, in the state of Massachusetts, shall, on the day
of his inauguration into office, publicly make and subscribe the following
CREED and DECLARATION:—


    Creed.

    “I believe that there is one, and but one, living and true GOD;
    that the word of GOD, contained in the Scriptures of the Old and
    New Testament, is the only perfect rule of faith and practice;
    that, agreeably to those Scriptures, GOD is a Spirit, infinite,
    eternal, and unchangeable, in his being, wisdom, power, holiness,
    justice, goodness, and truth; that in the Godhead are three
    Persons, the FATHER, the SON, and the HOLY GHOST; and that those
    THREE are ONE GOD, the same in substance, equal in power and
    glory; that God created man, after his own image, in knowledge,
    righteousness, and holiness; that the glory of GOD is man’s chief
    end, and the enjoyment of GOD his supreme happiness; that this
    enjoyment is derived solely from conformity of heart to the moral
    character and will of GOD; that ADAM, the federal head and
    representative of the human race, was placed in a state of
    probation, and that, in consequence of his disobedience, all his
    descendants were constituted sinners; that, by nature, every man
    is personally depraved, destitute of holiness, unlike and opposed
    to GOD; and that, previously to the renewing agency of the DIVINE
    SPIRIT, all his moral actions are adverse to the character and
    glory of GOD; that, being morally incapable of recovering the
    image of his CREATOR, which was lost in ADAM, every man is justly
    exposed to eternal damnation; so that, except a man be born again,
    he cannot see the kingdom of GOD; that GOD, of his mere good
    pleasure, from all eternity, elected some to everlasting life, and
    that he entered into a covenant of grace, to deliver them out of
    this state of sin and misery by a REDEEMER; that the only REDEEMER
    of the elect is the eternal SON of GOD, who, for this purpose,
    became man, and continues to be GOD and man, in two distinct
    natures, and one person, forever; that CHRIST, as our Redeemer,
    executeth the office of a Prophet, Priest, and King; that,
    agreeably to the covenant of redemption, the SON of GOD, and he
    alone, by his sufferings and death, has made atonement for the
    sins of all men; that repentance, faith, and holiness, are the
    personal requisites in the gospel scheme of salvation; that the
    righteousness of CHRIST is the only ground of a sinner’s
    justification; that this righteousness is received through faith;
    and that this faith is the gift of GOD; so that our salvation is
    wholly of grace; that no means whatever can change the heart of a
    sinner, and make it holy; that regeneration and sanctification are
    effects of the creating and renewing agency of the HOLY SPIRIT,
    and that supreme love to GOD constitutes the essential difference
    between saints and sinners; that, by convincing us of our sin and
    misery, enlightening our minds, working faith in us, and renewing
    our wills, the HOLY SPIRIT makes us partakers of the benefits of
    redemption; and that the ordinary means by which these benefits
    are communicated to us, are the word, sacraments, and prayer; that
    repentance unto life, faith to feed upon CHRIST, love to GOD, and
    new obedience, are the appropriate qualifications for the Lord’s
    supper; and that a Christian church ought to admit no person to
    its holy communion, before he exhibit credible evidence of his
    godly sincerity; that perseverance in holiness is the only method
    of making our calling and election sure, and that the final
    perseverance of saints, though it is the effect of the special
    operation of GOD on their hearts, necessarily implies their own
    watchful diligence; that they who are effectually called, do, in
    this life, partake of justification, adoption, and sanctification,
    and the several benefits which do either accompany or flow from
    them; that the souls of believers are, at their death, made
    perfect in holiness, and do immediately pass into glory; that
    their bodies, being still united to CHRIST, will, at the
    resurrection, be raised up to glory, and that the saints will be
    made perfectly blessed in the full enjoyment of GOD, to all
    eternity: but that the wicked will awake to shame and everlasting
    contempt, and, with devils, be plunged into the lake that burneth
    with fire and brimstone forever and ever. I moreover believe that
    GOD, according to the counsel of his own will, and for his own
    glory, hath foreordained whatsoever comes to pass, and that all
    beings, actions, and events, both in the natural and moral world,
    are under his providential direction; that GOD’S decrees perfectly
    consist with human liberty, GOD’S universal agency with the agency
    of man, and man’s dependence with his accountability; that man has
    understanding and corporeal strength to do all that GOD requires
    of him; so that nothing but the sinner’s aversion to holiness
    prevents his salvation; that it is the prerogative of GOD to bring
    good out of evil, and that he will cause the wrath and rage of
    wicked men and devils to praise him; and that all the evil which
    has existed, and will forever exist, in the moral system, will
    eventually be made to promote a most important purpose, under the
    wise and perfect administration of that ALMIGHTY BEING, who will
    cause all things to work for his own glory, and thus fulfil all
    his pleasure.”

    Declaration.

    “And, furthermore, I do solemnly promise that I will open and
    explain the Scriptures to my pupils with integrity and
    faithfulness; that I will maintain and inculcate the Christian
    faith, as expressed in the creed, by me now repeated, together
    with all the other doctrines and duties of our holy religion, so
    far as may appertain to my office, according to the best light GOD
    shall give me, and in opposition, not only to Atheists and
    Infidels, but to Jews, Papists, Mahometans, Arians, Pelagians,
    Antinomians, Arminians, Socinians, Sabellians, Unitarians, and
    Universalists, and to all heresies and errors, ancient and modern,
    which may be opposed to the gospel of CHRIST, or hazardous to the
    souls of men; that, by my instruction, counsel, and example, I
    will endeavor to promote true piety and godliness; that I will
    consult the good of this INSTITUTION, and the peace of the
    churches of our Lord Jesus Christ on all occasions; and that I
    will religiously conform to the constitution and laws of this
    SEMINARY, and to the statutes of this foundation.”


The foregoing creed is considered a summary of what is commonly called the
ASSEMBLY’S CATECHISM.

The _Westminster Assembly_ met in London, in the reign of Charles I, A. D.
1643. It was a synod of learned divines, assembled by order of parliament,
for the purpose of settling the government, liturgy, and doctrine, of the
church of England.



NEW HAVEN ORTHODOX CREED.


Considerable anxiety existed, a few years since, in regard to the
Orthodoxy of the Rev. Dr. TAYLOR, professor of divinity at Yale College,
at New Haven, in the state of Connecticut. The following letter from Dr.
TAYLOR to the Rev. Dr. HAWES, of Hartford, contains a full exposition of
the religious views of that distinguished theologian:—


    YALE COLLEGE, _Feb. 1, 1832._

    “Dear Brother:

    “I thank you for yours of the 23d ult., in which you express your
    approbation of my preaching during the protracted meetings at
    Hartford. This expression of fraternal confidence is grateful to
    me, not because I ever supposed that we differed in our views of
    the great doctrines of the gospel, but because, for some reason or
    other, an impression has been made, to some extent, _that I am
    unsound in the faith_. This impression, I feel bound to say, in my
    own view, is wholly groundless and unauthorized. You think,
    however, that ‘I owe it to myself, to the institution with which I
    am connected, and to the Christian community, to make a frank and
    full statement of my views of some of the leading doctrines of the
    gospel, and that this cannot fail to relieve the minds of many,
    who are now suspicious of my Orthodoxy.’

    “Here I must be permitted to say, that the repeated and full
    statements of my opinions, which I have already made to the
    public, would seem to be sufficient to prevent or remove such
    suspicions. The course you propose, however, may furnish
    information to some who would desire it before they form an
    opinion, as well as the means of correcting the misrepresentations
    of others. I therefore readily comply with your request, and
    submit to your disposal the following statement of my belief on
    some of the leading doctrines of the gospel. I believe,—

    “1. That there are three persons in one God,—the Father, the Son,
    and the Holy Ghost.

    “2. That the eternal purposes of God extend to all actual events,
    sin not excepted; or that God foreordains whatsoever comes to
    pass, and so executes these purposes, as to leave the free moral
    agency of man unimpaired.

    “3. That all mankind, in consequence of the fall of Adam, are born
    destitute of holiness, and are by nature totally depraved; in
    other words, that all men, from the commencement of moral agency,
    do, without the interposition of divine grace, sin, and only sin,
    in all their moral conduct.

    “4. That an atonement for sin has been made for all mankind by the
    Lord Jesus Christ; that this atonement was necessary to magnify
    the law, and to vindicate and unfold the justice of God in the
    pardon of sin; and that the sinner who believes in the Lord Jesus
    Christ is freely justified on the ground of his atoning sacrifice,
    and on that ground alone.

    “5. That the change in regeneration is a _moral_ change,
    consisting in a new, holy disposition, or governing purpose of the
    heart, as a permanent principle of action; in which change, the
    sinner transfers the _supreme_ affection of his heart from all
    inferior objects to the living God, chooses him as the portion of
    his soul, and his service and glory as his supreme good, and thus,
    in respect to moral character, becomes a _new man_.

    “6. That this moral change is never produced in the human heart by
    _moral suasion_, i. e., by the mere influence of truth and
    motives, as the Pelagians affirm, but is produced by the influence
    of the Holy Spirit, operating on the mind through the truth, and
    in perfect consistency with the nature of moral action, and laws
    of moral agency.

    “7. That all men (in the words of the article of your church) may
    accept of the offers of salvation freely made to them in the
    gospel, but that no one will do this, except he be drawn by the
    Father.

    “8. That the necessity of the influence of the Holy Spirit in
    regeneration results solely from the voluntary perverseness of the
    sinner’s heart, or disinclination to serve God, which, while it
    leaves him a complete moral agent, and without excuse for
    neglecting his duty, suspends his actual salvation on the
    sovereign will of God.

    “9. That the renewing grace of God is _special_, in distinction
    from that which is common, and is resisted by the sinful mind,
    inasmuch as it is that which is designed to secure, and does
    infallibly secure, the conversion of the sinner.

    “10. That all who are renewed by the Holy Spirit are elected or
    chosen of God from eternity, that they should be holy, not on
    account of foreseen faith, or good works, but according to the
    good pleasure of his will.

    “11. That all who are renewed by the Holy Spirit, will, through
    his continual influence, persevere in holiness to the end, and
    obtain eternal life.

    “Such is my faith in respect to some of the lending doctrines of
    the gospel. These doctrines I preach; these I teach in the
    theological department of this Seminary; these I have repeatedly
    published to the world. With what truth or justice any regard me
    as a ‘teacher of theology, introducing heresy into our churches,’
    the candid can judge.

    “But it may be asked, whether, after all, there are not some
    points on which I differ from my brethren generally, or, at least,
    from some of them. I answer,—It would be strange if any two man
    should be found to agree exactly in all the minute matters of
    religious opinion. With respect, however, to what is properly
    considered the Orthodox or Calvinistic SYSTEM of doctrines, as
    including the great FACTS of Christianity, and as opposed to, and
    distinguished from, the Unitarian, Pelagian, and Arminian
    _systems_, I suppose there is between the Orthodox ministry and
    myself an entire agreement. In respect to comparatively minor
    points, and philosophical theories, and modes of defending the
    Calvinistic system of doctrines, there has always been, as you are
    aware, a diversity of opinion, with freedom of discussion, among
    the Calvinists in this country, especially in New England, but
    which has never impaired their fellowship or mutual confidence. To
    these topics of difference, greater or less importance has been
    attached by different individuals. In respect to some of these,
    (and, in respect to them, I suppose myself to agree with a large
    majority of our Calvinistic clergy,) I will now briefly but
    frankly state what I do _not_, and what I do, believe.

    “I do _not_ believe that the posterity of Adam are, in the proper
    sense of the language, guilty of his sin; or that the ill desert
    of that sin is truly theirs; or that they are punished for that
    sin. But I do believe that, by the wise and holy constitution of
    God, all mankind, in consequence of Adam’s sin, become sinners by
    their own act.

    “I do _not_ believe that the nature of the human mind, which God
    creates, is itself sinful; or that God punishes men for the nature
    which he creates; or that sin pertains to any thing in the mind
    which precedes all conscious mental exercise or action, and which
    is neither a matter of consciousness nor of knowledge. But I do
    believe that sin, universally, is no other than selfishness, or a
    _preference_ of one’s self to all others,—of some inferior good to
    God; that this free, voluntary preference is a permanent principle
    of action in all the unconverted; and that this is sin, and all
    that in the Scriptures is meant by sin. I also believe that such
    is the _nature_ of the human mind, that it becomes the occasion of
    universal sin in men in all the appropriate circumstances of their
    existence, and that, therefore, they are truly and properly said
    to be sinners _by nature_.

    “I do _not_ believe that sin can be proved to be the necessary
    means of the greatest good, and that, as such, God prefers it, on
    the whole, to holiness in its stead; or that a God of sincerity
    and truth punishes his creatures for doing that which he, on the
    whole, prefers they should do, and which, as the means of good, is
    the best thing they can do. But I do believe that holiness, as the
    means of good, may be better than sin; that it may be true that
    God, all things considered, prefers holiness to sin in all
    instances in which the latter takes place, and, therefore,
    sincerely desires that all men should come to repentance, though,
    for wise and good reasons, he _permits_, or does not prevent, the
    existence of sin. I do _not_ believe that it can be proved that an
    omnipotent God would be _unable_ to secure more good by means of
    the perfect and universal obedience of his creatures, if they
    would render it, than by means of their sin. But I do believe that
    it may involve a dishonorable limitation of his power to suppose
    that he could not do it.(3)

    “I do _not_ believe that the grace of God can be truly said to be
    _irresistible_, in the primary, proper import of this term. But I
    do believe that, in all cases, it _may be_ resisted by man as a
    free moral agent, and that, when it becomes effectual to
    conversion, as it infallibly does in the case of all the elect, it
    is _unresisted_.

    “I do _not_ believe that the grace of God is necessary, as
    Arminians and some others maintain, to render man an accountable
    agent, and responsible for rejecting the offers of eternal life.
    But I do believe that man would be such an agent, and thus
    responsible, were no such grace afforded, and that otherwise
    ‘grace would be no more grace.’

    “I do _not_ believe that it is necessary that the sinner, in using
    the means of regeneration, should commit sin in order to become
    holy. But I do believe that, as a moral agent, he is qualified so
    to use these means, i. e., the truth of God when present to his
    mind, as to become holy at once; that he is authorized to believe
    that, through the grace of the Holy Spirit, this _may be_ done;
    and that, except in so doing, he cannot be truly and properly said
    to _use_ the means of regeneration.

    “I do _not_ believe that we are authorized to assure the sinner,
    as Arminians do, and some others also, that the Holy Spirit is
    always ready to convert him. But I do believe that we are
    authorized to assure any sinner that it _may be true_ that the
    Holy Spirit is now ready to convert him; ‘that God PERADVENTURE
    will now give him repentance;’ and that thus, in view of the
    possible intervention of divine influence, we remove what would
    otherwise be a ground of fatal discouragement to the sinner, when
    we exhort him to immediate repentance.

    “I have dwelt the more on some of these particulars, because much
    pains has been taken, by some individuals, to make the impression
    that I have departed from the true faith respecting the influences
    of the Holy Spirit, even denying his influences altogether. So far
    is this from the fact, that, as you well know, no one attaches
    higher importance to this doctrine than I do, preaches it more
    decisively, or appreciates more highly its practical relations and
    bearings. In my own view, the power of the gospel on the mind of
    the sinner very much consists in the two great facts of his
    complete moral agency as the basis of his obligation, of his
    guilt, and of his duty;—and of his dependence on the sovereign
    grace of God, resulting from his voluntary perverseness in sin.
    Without the latter, we could, in my opinion, neither show the
    Christian what thanks he owes his Deliverer from sin, nor awaken
    the sinner to flee from the wrath to come. This doctrine seems to
    be indispensable to destroy the presumptuous reliance of the
    sinner on future repentance, as it shows him how fearfully he
    provokes an offended God to withhold the grace on which all
    depends. At the same time, one thing is indubitably certain, viz.,
    that God never revealed the doctrine of the sinner’s dependence on
    his Spirit, to present the sinner from doing his duty at once. God
    does not call sinners to instant compliance with the terms of
    life, and then assure them that such compliance is utterly out of
    the question, and to be wholly despaired of. The opposite
    impression, however, is not uncommon; and it is an error not less
    fatal to immediate repentance, than the fond hope of repenting
    hereafter. Both are to be destroyed; and he who does not preach
    the gospel in that manner which tends to destroy both, preaches it
    but imperfectly.

    “In the earlier revivals of this country, great prominence was
    given, in the preaching, to the doctrine of dependence, in the
    forms of regeneration, election, &c. This was what was to be
    expected from the Calvinistic preachers of the time, in view of
    the prevalence of Arminianism. In the more recent revivals,
    however, a similar prominence seems to be given to moral agency,
    in the forms of present obligation to duty, its present
    practicability, &c. The preaching, thus distinguished in its more
    prominent characteristics, has been undeniably owned and blessed
    by the Spirit of God, although we are very apt to believe that
    what is true of one kind of preaching at one time, must be true of
    it at another. Now, I believe that both the doctrines of
    dependence and moral accountability must be _admitted by the
    public mind_, to secure upon that mind the full power of the
    gospel. I also believe that greater or less _prominence_ should be
    given to the one or the other of these doctrines, according to the
    prevailing state of public opinion. When, at the earlier periods
    alluded to, the doctrine of dependence was dwelt on chiefly, (I do
    not suppose exclusively,) the public mind believed enough—I might
    say too much—concerning the free moral agency of man, and had not
    so well learned as since to pervert the doctrine of dependence to
    justify the waiting attitude of a passive recipient. And, then,
    both doctrines told with power on the mind and the conscience,
    and, through God, were attended with great and happy results. But
    the prominence given to the doctrine of dependence, in preaching,
    was continued, until, if I mistake not, it so engrossed the public
    attention, and so obscured or weakened the doctrine of
    responsibility, that many fell into the opposite error of quietly
    waiting for God’s interposition. Hence, when this prevailing error
    is again corrected by a more prominent exhibition of man’s
    responsibility, in the form of immediate obligation, &c., the
    power of both doctrines is again combined on the public mind, and
    we see the same or even greater results in revivals of religion.
    Nor would it be strange if the latter kind of preaching should, in
    its turn, prevail so exclusively and so long, that the practical
    influence of the doctrine of dependence should be greatly
    impaired, to be followed with another dearth of revivals and a
    quiet reliance of sinful men on their own self-sufficiency. On
    this subject, I have often, in view of the tendency of the human
    mind to vacillate from one extreme to the other, expressed my
    apprehensions. In some of my brethren, whom I love and respect, I
    see what I esteem a _disproportioned_ estimate of the importance
    of preaching dependence; in others, whom I equally respect, I see
    what I regard as a _disproportioned_ estimate of the importance of
    preaching moral responsibility. In regard to myself, I can say
    that I have aimed, in this respect, rightly to divide the word of
    truth, and that those discourses in which I have best succeeded in
    bringing the two doctrines to bear, in their combined force, on
    the mind, have been more blessed to the awakening and conversion
    of sinners, than almost any others which I preach. When both
    doctrines are wisely and truly presented, the sinner has no
    resting-place. Ho cannot well avoid a sense of guilt while
    proposing to remain in his sins, for he sees that he is a free
    moral agent, under all the responsibilities of such an agent to
    immediate duty. He cannot well presume on his resolution of future
    repentance, for he sees that sovereign, injured grace may at once
    abandon him to hopeless sin. He is thus shut up to the faith,—to
    the immediate performance of his duty. In accordance with these
    views, I aim, in my instructions to those who are preparing for
    the ministry, to inculcate the importance of a consistent,
    well-proportioned exhibition of the two great doctrines of the
    sinner’s dependence and responsibility, that, in this respect,
    they may hold the minds of their hearers under the full influence
    of that gospel which is the power of God to salvation.

    “I have thus stated, more minutely, perhaps, than you anticipated,
    my views and opinions. I could wish that they might be
    satisfactory to all our Orthodox brethren. I have no doubt that
    they will be to very many, and to some who have been alarmed by
    groundless rumors concerning my unsoundness in the faith. With
    respect to what I have called _leading doctrines_, I regard these
    as among the cardinal truths of the Christian system. They are
    truths to which I attach the highest importance, and in which my
    faith is more and more confirmed, the more I examine the word of
    God. To _some_ of those of which I have spoken as _comparatively
    minor points_, I attach a high importance in their practical
    bearings and doctrinal connections. They are points, however, in
    regard to which there is more or less diversity of opinion among
    the Orthodox; and, as it is not my intention nor my practice to
    denounce others as heretics, merely because they differ from me in
    these matters, so I should be pleased with the reciprocation of
    the like catholicism on their part.”



SWEDENBORGIANS, OR, THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH.


Emanuel Swedenborg, the father of this sect, was the son of a bishop of
West Gothnia, in the kingdom of Sweden, whose name was Swedberg, a man of
considerable learning and celebrity in his time. The son was born at
Stockholm, January 29, 1688, and died in London, 1772. He enjoyed early
the advantages of a liberal education, and, being naturally endowed with
uncommon talents for the acquirement of learning, his progress in the
sciences was rapid and extensive, and he soon distinguished himself by
several publications in the Latin language, which gave proof of equal
genius and erudition. It may reasonably be supposed that, under the care
of his pious and reverend father, our author’s religious instruction was
not neglected. This, indeed, appears plain from the general tenor of his
life and writings, which are marked with strong and lively characters of a
mind deeply impressed with a sense of the divine Being, and of all the
relative duties thence resulting. He was ennobled in the year 1719, by
Queen Ulrica Eleonora, and named Swedenborg, from which time he took his
seat with the nobles of the equestrian order, in the triennial assembly of
the states.

Baron Swedenborg had many eccentricities; but perhaps the most remarkable
circumstance respecting him was his asserting that, during the
uninterrupted period of twenty-seven years, he enjoyed open intercourse
with the world of departed spirits, and during that time was instructed in
the internal sense of the sacred Scriptures, hitherto undiscovered.

_Articles of Faith, Of the New Church, signified by the New Jerusalem in
the Revelation._

“1. That JEHOVAH GOD, the Creator and Preserver of heaven and earth, is
Love Itself and Wisdom Itself, or Good Itself and Truth Itself: That he is
One both in Essence and in Person, in whom, nevertheless, is the Divine
Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, which are the Essential Divinity,
the Divine Humanity, and the Divine Proceeding, answering to the soul, the
body, and the operative energy, in man: And that the Lord and Savior Jesus
Christ is that GOD.

“2. That JEHOVAH GOD himself descended from heaven, as Divine Truth, which
is the Word, and took upon him Human Nature for the purpose of removing
from man the powers of hell, and restoring to order all things in the
spiritual world, and all things in the church: That he removed from man
the powers of hell, by combats against and victories over them; in which
consisted the great work of Redemption: That by the same acts, which were
his temptations, the last of which was the passion of the cross, he
united, in his Humanity, Divine Truth to Divine Good, or Divine Wisdom to
Divine Love, and so returned into his Divinity in which he was from
eternity, together with, and in, his Glorified Humanity; whence he forever
keeps the infernal powers in subjection to himself: And that all who
believe in him, with the understanding, from the heart, and live
accordingly, will be saved.

“3. That the Sacred Scripture, or Word of GOD, is Divine Truth itself;
containing a Spiritual Sense heretofore unknown, whence it is divinely
inspired, and holy in every syllable; as well as a Literal Sense, which is
the basis of its Spiritual Sense, and in which Divine Truth is in its
fulness, its sanctity, and its power; thus that it is accommodated to the
apprehension both of angels and men: That the spiritual and natural senses
are united, by correspondences, like soul and body, every natural
expression and image answering to, and including, a spiritual and divine
idea: And thus that the Word is the medium of communication with heaven,
and of conjunction with the Lord.

“4. That the government of the Lord’s Divine Love and Wisdom is the Divine
Providence; which is universal, exercised according to certain fixed laws
of Order, and extending to the minutest particulars of the life of all
men, both of the good and of the evil: That in all its operations it has
respect to what is infinite and eternal, and makes no account of things
transitory, but as they are subservient to eternal ends; thus that it
mainly consists, with man, in the connection of things temporal with
things eternal; for that the continual aim of the Lord, by his Divine
Providence, is to join man to himself and himself to man, that he may be
able to give him the felicities of eternal life: And that the laws of
permission are also laws of the Divine Providence; since evil cannot be
prevented without destroying the nature of man as an accountable agent;
and because, also, it cannot be removed unless it be known, and cannot be
known unless it appear. Thus that no evil is permitted but to prevent a
greater; and all is overruled, by the Lord’s Divine Providence, for the
greatest possible good.

“5. That man is not life, but is only a recipient of life from the Lord,
who, as he is Love Itself and Wisdom Itself, is also Life Itself; which
life is communicated by influx to all in the spiritual world, whether
belonging to heaven or to hell, and to all in the natural world; but is
received differently by every one, according to his quality and consequent
state of reception.

“6. That man, during his abode in the world, is, as to his spirit, in the
midst between heaven and hell, acted upon by influences from both, and
thus is kept in a state of spiritual equilibrium between good and evil; in
consequence of which he enjoys free will, or freedom of choice, in
spiritual things as well as in natural, and possesses the capacity of
either turning himself to the Lord and his kingdom, or turning himself
away from the Lord, and connecting himself with the kingdom of darkness:
And that, unless man had such freedom of choice, the Word would be of no
use, the church would be a mere name, man would possess nothing by virtue
of which he could be conjoined to the Lord, and the cause of evil would be
chargeable on GOD himself.

“7. That man at this day is born into evil of all kinds, or with
tendencies towards it: That, therefore, in order to his entering the
kingdom of heaven, he must be regenerated, or created anew; which great
work is effected in a progressive manner, by the Lord alone, by charity
and faith as mediums, during man’s coöperation: That, as all men are
redeemed, all are capable of being regenerated, and, consequently saved,
every one according to his state: And that the regenerate man is in
communion with the angels of heaven, and the unregenerate with the spirits
of hell: But that no one is condemned for hereditary evil, any further
than as he makes it his own by actual life; whence all who die in infancy
are saved, special means being provided by the Lord in the other life for
that purpose.

“8. That Repentance is the first beginning of the Church in man; and that
it consists in a man’s examining himself, both in regard to his deeds and
his intentions, in knowing and acknowledging his sins, confessing them
before the Lord, supplicating him for aid, and beginning a new life: That,
to this end, all evils, whether of affection, of thought, or of life, are
to be abhorred and shunned as sins against GOD, and because they proceed
from infernal spirits, who in the aggregate are called the Devil and
Satan; and that good affections, good thoughts, and good actions, are to
be cherished and performed, because they are of GOD and from GOD: That
these things are to be done by man as of himself; nevertheless, under the
acknowledgment and belief, that it is from the Lord, operating in him and
by him: That so far as man shuns evils as sins, so far they are removed,
remitted, or forgiven; so far also he does good, not from himself, but
from the Lord; and in the same degree he loves truth, has faith, and is a
spiritual man: And that the Decalogue teaches what evils are sins.

“9. That Charity, Faith, and Good Works, are unitedly necessary to man’s
salvation; since charity, without faith, is not spiritual, but natural;
and faith, without charity, is not living, but dead; and both charity and
faith, without good works, are merely mental and perishable things,
because without use or fixedness: And that nothing of faith, of charity,
or of good works, is of man; but that all is of the Lord, and all the
merit is his alone.

“10. That Baptism and the Holy Supper are sacraments of divine
institution, and are to be permanently observed; Baptism being an external
medium of introduction into the Church, and a sign representative of man’s
purification and regeneration; and the Holy Supper being an external
medium to those who receive it worthily, of introduction, as to spirit,
into heaven, and of conjunction with the Lord; of which also it is a sign
and seal.

“11. That, immediately after death, which is only a putting off of the
material body, never to be resumed, man rises again in a spiritual or
substantial body, in which he continues to live to eternity; in heaven, if
his ruling affections, and hence his life, have been good; and in hell, if
his ruling affections, and thence his life, have been evil.

“12. That Now is the time of the Second Advent of the Lord which is a
Coming, not in Person, but in the power and glory of his Holy Word: That
it is attended, like his first Coming, with the restoration to order of
all things in the spiritual world, where the wonderful divine operation,
commonly expected under the name of the Last Judgment, has in consequence
been performed; and with the preparing of the way for a New Church on the
earth,—the first Christian Church having spiritually come to its end or
consummation, through evils of life and errors of doctrine, as foretold by
the Lord in the Gospels: And that this New or Second Christian Church,
which will be the Crown of all Churches, and will stand forever, is what
was representatively seen by John, when he beheld the holy city, New
Jerusalem, descending from GOD out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned
for her husband.”

                  -------------------------------------

The leading theological works of Swedenborg are, the _Heavenly Arcana_, in
twelve octavo volumes, giving an explanation of the books of Genesis and
Exodus, being a key to what he calls the internal or spiritual sense of
the sacred Scriptures. The next in importance is the _Apocalypse
Explained_, in six octavo volumes, containing a full explanation of that
book.

From his last work, _The True Christian Religion_, we make the following
extracts, to show some of his peculiar views and style of writing:—

“Concerning the Spiritual World.

“The spiritual world has been treated of in a particular work concerning
HEAVEN AND HELL, in which many things of that world are described; and,
because every man, after death, comes into that world, the state of men
there is also described. Who does not know, or may not know, that man
lives after death? both because he is born a man, created an image of God,
and because the Lord teaches it in his word. But what life he is to live,
has been hitherto unknown. It has been believed that then he would be a
soul, of which they entertained no other idea than as of ether, or air;
thus that it is breath, or spirit, such as man breathes out of his mouth
when he dies, in which, nevertheless, his vitality resides; but that it is
without sight, such as is of the eye, without hearing, such as is of the
ear, and without speech, such as is of the mouth; when yet, man, after
death, is equally a man, and such a man, that he does not know but that he
is still in the former world. He walks, runs, and sits, as in the former
world; he lies down, sleeps, and wakes up, as in the former world; he eats
and drinks, as in the former world; he enjoys conjugial delight, as in the
former world; in a word, he is a man as to all and every particular;
whence it is manifest, that death is not an extinction, but a
continuation, of life, and that it is only a transition.

“That man is equally a man after death, although he does not then appear
to the eyes of the material body, may be evident from the angels seen by
Abraham, Hagar, Gideon, Daniel, and some of the prophets,—from the angels
seen in the Lord’s sepulchre, and afterwards, many times, by John,
concerning whom in the Revelation,—and especially from the Lord himself,
who showed that he was a man by the touch and by eating, and yet he became
invisible to their eyes. Who can be so delirious, as not to acknowledge
that, although he was invisible, he was still equally a man? The reason
why they saw him was, because then the eyes of their spirit were opened;
and, when these are opened, the things which are in the spiritual world
appear as clearly as those which are in the natural world. The difference
between a man in the natural world and a man in the spiritual world is,
that the latter is clothed with a substantial body, but the former with a
material body, in which, inwardly, is his substantial body; and a
substantial man sees a substantial man as clearly as a material man sees a
material man; but a substantial man cannot see a material man, nor a
material man a substantial man, on account of the difference between
material and substantial, which is such as may be described, but not in a
few words.

“From the things seen for so many years, I can relate the following: That
there are lands in the spiritual world, as well as in the natural world,
and that there are also plains, and valleys, and mountains, and hills, and
likewise fountains and rivers; that there are paradises, gardens, groves,
and woods; that there are cities, and in them palaces and houses; and also
that there are writings and books; that there are employments and
tradings; and that there are gold, silver, and precious stones; in a word,
that there are all things whatsoever that are in the natural world; but
those in heaven are immensely more perfect. But the difference is, that
all things that are seen in the spiritual world are created in a moment by
the Lord, as houses, paradises, food, and other things; and that they are
created for correspondence with the interiors of the angels and spirits,
which are their affections and thoughts thence; but that all things that
are seen in the natural world exist and grow from seed.

“Since it is so, and I have daily spoken there with the nations and people
of this world,—thus not only with those who are in Europe, but also with
those who are in Asia and in Africa, thus with those who are of various
religions,—I shall add, as a conclusion to this work, a short description
of the state of some of them. It is to be observed, that the state of
every nation and people in general, as well as of each individual in
particular, in the spiritual world, is according to the acknowledgment of
God, and the worship of him; and that all who in heart acknowledge a God,
and, after this time, those who acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ to be
God, the Redeemer and Savior, are in heaven; and that those who do not
acknowledge him are under heaven, and are there instructed; and that those
who receive are raised up into heaven, and that those who do not receive
are cast down into hell.”

Swedenborg says, “The Dutch are easily distinguished from others in the
spiritual world, because they appear in garments like those which they
wore in the natural world; with the distinction, that those appear in
finer ones, who have received faith and spiritual life. The reason why
they are clothed in the like garments is, because they remain constantly
in the principles of their religion; and all in the spiritual world are
clothed according to them; wherefore, those there who are in divine
truths, have white garments, and of fine linen.

“The cities in which the Dutch live are guarded in a singular manner: all
the streets in them are covered with roofs, and there are gates in the
streets, so that they may not be seen from the rocks and hills round
about: this is done on account of their inherent prudence in concealing
their designs, and not divulging their intentions; for such things, in the
spiritual world, are drawn forth by inspection. When any one comes for the
purpose of exploring their state, and is about to go out, he is led to the
gates of the streets, which are shut, and thus is led back, and led to
others, and this even to the highest degree of vexation, and then he is
let out; this is done that he may not return. Wives, who affect dominion
over their husbands, live at one side of the city, and do not meet their
husbands, except when they are invited, which is done in a civil manner;
and then they also lead them to houses, where consorts live without
exercising dominion over each other, and show them how clean and elegant
their houses are, and what enjoyment of life they have, and that they have
these things from mutual and conjugal love. Those wives who attend to
these things, and are affected by them, cease to exercise dominion, and
live together with their husbands; and then they have a habitation
assigned to them nearer to the middle, and are called angels: the reason
is, because truly conjugal love is heavenly love, which is without
dominion.

“With respect to the English nation, the best of them are in the centre of
all Christians, because they have interior intellectual light. This does
not appear to any one in the natural world, but it appears conspicuously
in the spiritual world. This light they derive from the liberty of
speaking and writing, and thereby of thinking. With others, who are not in
such liberty, that light, not having any outlet, is obstructed. That
light, indeed, is not active of itself, but it is made active by others,
especially by men of reputation and authority. As soon as any thing is
said by them, that light shines forth.

“For this reason, they have moderators appointed over them in the
spiritual world; and priests are given to them, of high reputation and
eminent talents, in whose opinions, from this their natural disposition,
they acquiesce.

“There are two great cities, like London, into which most of the English
come after death: it has been given me to see the former city, and also to
walk over it. The middle of that city is where the merchants meet in
London, which is called the Exchange: there the moderators dwell. Above
that middle is the east, below it is the west, on the right side is the
south, on the left side is the north. In the eastern quarter, those dwell
who have preëminently led a life of charity: there are magnificent
palaces. In the southern quarter the wise dwell, with whom there are many
splendid things. In the northern quarter, those dwell who have
preëminently loved the liberty of speaking and writing. In the western
quarter, those dwell who boast of justification by faith atone. On the
right there, in this quarter, is the entrance into this city, and also a
way out of it: those who live ill are sent out there. The ministers who
are in the west, and teach that faith alone, dare not enter the city
through the great streets, but through narrow alleys; since no other
inhabitants are tolerated in the city itself, than those who are in the
faith of charity. I have heard them complaining of the preachers from the
west, that they compose their sermons with such art and eloquence, and
introduce into them the strange doctrine of justification by faith, that
they do not know whether good ought to be done or not. They preach faith
as intrinsic good, and separate this from the good of charity, which they
call meritorious, and thus not acceptable to God. But, when those who
dwell in the eastern and southern quarters of the city hear such sermons,
they go out of the temples; and the preachers afterwards are deprived of
the priestly office.”

“Concerning the Popish Saints in the Spiritual World.

“It is known that man has innate or hereditary evil from parents; but it
is known to few in what that dwells, in its fulness: it dwells in the love
of possessing the goods of all others, and in the love of ruling; for this
latter love is such, that, as far as the reins are given to it, so far it
bursts forth, until it burns with the desire of ruling over all, and, at
length, wishes to be invoked and worshipped as a god. This love is the
serpent, which deceived Eve and Adam; for it said to the woman, _God doth
know, in the day that ye eat of the fruit of that tree, your eyes will be
opened,_ AND THEN YE WILL BE AS GOD. (Gen. iii. 4, 5.) As far, therefore,
as man, without restraint, rushes into this love, so far he averts himself
from God, and turns to himself, and becomes a worshipper of himself; and
then he can invoke God with a warm mouth from the love of self, but with a
cold heart from contempt of God. And then, also, the divine things of the
church may serve for means; but, because the end is dominion, the means
are regarded no more than as they are subservient to it. Such a person, if
he is exalted to the highest honors, is, in his own imagination, like
Atlas bearing the terraqueous globe upon his shoulders, and like Phœbus,
with his horses, carrying the sun around the world.

“Since man hereditarily is such, therefore all who, by papal bulls, have
been made saints, in the spiritual world are removed from the eyes of
others, and concealed, and all intercourse with their worshippers is taken
away from them; the reason is, lest that most pernicious root of evil
should be excited in them, and they should be brought into such fantastic
deliriums as there are with demons. Into such deliriums those come, who,
while they live in the world, zealously aspire to be made saints after
death, that they may be invoked.

“Many of the Roman Catholic persuasion, especially the monks, when they
come into the spiritual world, inquire for the saints, particularly the
saint of their order; but they do not find them, at which they wonder; but
afterwards they are instructed that they are mixed together, either with
those who are in heaven, or with those who are in the earth below; and
that, in either case, they know nothing of the worship and invocation of
themselves, and that those who do know, and wish to be invoked, fall into
deliriums, and talk foolishly. The worship of saints is such an
abomination in heaven, that, if they only hear it, they are filled with
horror; since, as far as worship is ascribed to any man, so far it is
withheld from the Lord; for thus, he alone is not worshipped; and, if the
Lord alone is not worshipped, a discrimination is made, which destroys
communion, and the happiness of life flowing from it. That I might know
what the Roman Catholic saints are, in order that I might make it known,
as many as a hundred were brought forth from the earth below, who knew of
their canonization. They ascended behind my back, and only a few before my
face; and I spoke with one of them, who, they said, was Xavier. He, while
he talked with me, was like a fool; yet he could tell, that, in his place,
where he was shut up with others, he was not a fool, but that he becomes a
fool as often as he thinks that he is a saint, and wishes to be invoked. A
like murmur I heard from those who were behind my back. It is otherwise
with the saints, so called, in heaven: these know nothing at all of what
is done on earth; nor is it given them to speak with any of the Roman
Catholic persuasion, who are in that superstition, lest any idea of that
thing should enter into them.

“From this their state, every one may conclude that invocations of them
are only mockeries; and, moreover, I can assert, that they do not hear
their invocations on earth, any more than their images do at the sides of
the streets, nor any more than the walls of the temple, nor any more than
the birds that build their nests in towers. It is said by their servants
on earth, that the saints reign in heaven, together with the Lord Jesus
Christ; but this is a figment and a falsehood; for they no more reign with
the Lord, than a hostler with a king, a porter with a grandee, or a
footman with a primate; for John the Baptist said, concerning the Lord,
_that he was not worthy to unloose the latchet of his shoe_, (Mark 1:7.
John 1:27.) What, then, are those who are such?

“There appears, sometimes, to the people of Paris, who are in the
spiritual world, in a society, a certain woman of a common stature, in
shining raiment, and of a face, as it were, holy; and she says that she is
GENEVIEVE; but, when any begin to adore her, then her face is immediately
changed, and also her raiment, and she becomes like an ordinary woman, and
reproves them for wishing to adore a woman, who, among her companions, is
in no higher estimation than as a maid-servant, wondering that the men of
the world should be captivated by such trifles.

“To the above, I shall add this, which is most worthy of attention. Once,
MARY, THE MOTHER OF THE LORD, passed by, and was seen overhead in white
raiment; and then, stopping a while, she said that she was the mother of
the Lord, and that he was indeed born of her; but that he, being made God,
put off all the human from her, and that, therefore, she now adores him as
her God; and that she is unwilling that any one should acknowledge him for
her son, since in him all is divine.”



FIGHTING QUAKERS.


The term _Fighting_ or _Wet_ Quaker is applied to those who retain the
Quaker faith, but adopt the manners and costume, of other denominations.
The celebrated Nathaniel Greene was one of this character, as were many of
the people of Rhode Island, where religious liberty first erected its
standard in America.

“When the British army had possession of Philadelphia, a committee of
three of the leading men of the society of Friends had permission to go to
the head-quarters of General Washington, relative to some matters of
inconvenience of some of their brethren, within Washington’s command. The
general listened to them with his usual courtesy and wisdom, but could not
determine the business till the next day. In the mean time, he told them
he would put them under the protection of an officer of their own society,
and thereupon sent for General Nathaniel Greene; and when he arrived, in
full uniform, he introduced ‘the Friends’ to each other. After a little
silence, Friend James Pemberton turned slowly to General Greene, and said,
‘Dost thou profess to be one of our persuasion?’ ‘O, yes,’ said the
general; ‘I was so educated.’ The committee looked at each other, and upon
the general’s sword, when one of them said, ‘May I ask General Greene what
part of our land thou wast born and brought up in?’ ‘O, yes, yes,’ replied
Greene; ‘I’m from RHODE ISLAND.’ ‘Oho,’ rejoined more than one of them,
‘yes, yes, a RHODE ISLAND QUAKER! Yes, Friend Greene, we are satisfied
with thy explanation, and will accept of thy kind offer.’ Greene betrayed
a momentary flush of disconcertion, at which, it was said, Washington’s
countenance half smiled at the _Rhode Island Quaker_!”



HARMONISTS.


Mr. George Rapp and other emigrants arrived from Germany, and settled in
the interior of Pennsylvania, about the year 1805. They formed an economy
on the primitive plan of having “all things in common.” They appear to
have prospered. In 1814 they sold their property in Pennsylvania and
removed to Indiana, to form a new establishment, on an improved plan. They
profess the Protestant religion, but admit of universal toleration. They
cultivate the learned languages and professions, and maintain strict
morals, with a due observation of the Sabbath. They keep watch by turns at
night; and, after crying the hour, add, “A day is past, and a step made
nearer our end. Our time runs away, and the joys of heaven are our
reward.” (See Acts 4:32.)



DORRELITES.


A sectary, by the name of Dorrel, appeared in Leyden, Mass., about fifty
years ago, and made some proselytes. The following are some of his leading
sentiments:—Jesus Christ is, as to substance, a spirit, and is God. He
took a body, died, and never rose from the dead. None of the human race
will ever rise from their graves. The resurrection, spoken of in
Scripture, is only one from sin to spiritual life, which consists in
perfect obedience to God. Written revelation is a type of the substance of
the true revelation, which God makes to those whom he raises from
spiritual death. The substance is God revealed in the soul. Those who have
it are perfect, are incapable of sinning, and have nothing to do with the
Bible. The eternal life, purchased by Christ, was an eternal succession of
natural generation. Heaven is light, and hell is darkness. God has no
wrath. There is no opposition between God and the devil, who have equal
power in their respective worlds of light and darkness. Those who are
raised are free from all civil laws; are not bound by the marriage
covenant; and the perfect have a right to promiscuous intercourse. Neither
prayer nor any other worship is necessary. There is no law but that of
nature. There is no future judgment, nor any knowledge in the future
state, of what is done in this world. God has no forethought, no knowledge
of what passes in the dark world, which is hell, nor any knowledge of what
has taken place, or will take place, in this world. Neither God nor the
devil has any power to control man. There are two kinds of perfection—that
of the head, and that of the members. The leader is perfect as the head;
but none of his followers can be so, in this sense, so long as the leader
continues. All covenants which God has heretofore entered into with man,
are at an end, and a new covenant made with the leader, (Dorrel,) in which
he has all power to direct, and all the blessings of which must be looked
for through him. Neither Moses nor Christ wrought any miracles. I (says
Dorrel) stand the same as Jesus Christ in all respects. My disciples stand
in the same relation to me, as the disciples of Christ did to him. I am to
be worshipped in the same manner as Christ was to be worshipped, as God
united to human flesh. This sect was broken up in the following manner:—

One of Dorrel’s lectures was attended by Captain Ezekiel Foster, of
Leyden, a man of good sense, of a strong, muscular frame, and a
countenance which bespoke authority. When Dorrel came to the declaration
of his extraordinary powers, he had no sooner uttered the words, “No arm
can hurt my flesh,” than Foster rose, indignant at the imposture he was
practising on his deluded followers, and knocked down Dorrel with his
fist. Dorrel, in great trepidation, and almost senseless, attempted to
rise, when he received a second blow, at which he cried for mercy. Foster
engaged to forbear, on condition that he would renounce his doctrines, but
continued beating him. Soon a short parley ensued, when Dorrel consented,
and did renounce his doctrines in the hearing of all his astonished
followers. He further told them, that his object was to see what fools he
could make of mankind. His followers, ashamed and chagrined at being made
the dupes of such an unprincipled fellow, departed in peace to their
homes. Dorrel promised his assailant, upon the penalty of his life never
to attempt any similar imposition upon the people.



OSGOODITES.


These people profess to believe in one God, who is fully acquainted with
all his own works; but they believe there are some things done by wicked
agents, of which God has no knowledge. They reject the idea of Christ’s
divinity, and of any thing special in regeneration. They pretend to
miraculous gifts, such as healing the sick, and praying down the judgments
of God upon those who oppose them. They deny any thing peculiarly sacred
in the Christian Sabbath, although they generally meet on that day for
religious worship, but without much regard to order. They reject the
ordinances of baptism and the Lord’s supper. They are opposed to Bible
societies, and other moral and religious institutions of the day,
particularly to temperance societies.

This sect arose about the year 1812, in the county of Merrimack, N. H.
where a few societies exist. Jacob Osgood is their leader.



ROGERENES.


This is a sect calling themselves Seventh-Day Baptists, that arose in New
England about the year 1674. John and James Rogers were their leaders.
They were peculiar in their language, dress, and manners; they employed no
physician, nor used any medicine: they paid no regard to the Christian
Sabbath, and disturbed and abused those that did. It is said that a few of
this people still remain. See the _Battle-Axe_, a work published by them a
few years ago, at their printing establishment, at Groton, Conn.



WHIPPERS.


This denomination sprang up in Italy, in the thirteenth century, and was
thence propagated through almost all the countries of Europe. The society
that embraced this new discipline, ran in multitudes, composed of persons
of both sexes, and all ranks and ages, through the public streets, with
whips in their hands, lashing their naked bodies with the most astonishing
severity, with a view to obtain the divine mercy for themselves and
others, by their voluntary mortification and penance. This sect made their
appearance anew in the fourteenth century, and taught, among other things,
that flagellation was of equal virtue with baptism and other sacraments;
that the forgiveness of all sins was to be obtained by it from God,
without the merit of Jesus Christ; that the old law of Christ was soon to
be abolished, and that a new law, enjoining the baptism of blood, to be
administered by whipping, was to be substituted in its place.

A new denomination of Whippers arose in the fifteenth century, who
rejected the sacraments and every branch of external worship, and placed
their only hopes of salvation in _faith_ and _flagellation_.



WILKINSONIANS.


The followers of Jemima Wilkinson, who was born in Cumberland, R. I. In
1776, she asserted that she was taken sick, and actually died, and that
her soul went to heaven. Soon after, her body was reanimated with the
spirit and power of Christ, upon which she set up as a public teacher, and
declared she had an immediate revelation for all she delivered, and was
arrived to a state of absolute perfection. It is also said she pretended
to foretell future events, to discern the secrets of the heart, and to
have the power of healing diseases; and if any person who had made
application to her was not healed, she attributed it to his want of faith.
She asserted that those who refused to believe these exalted things
concerning her, will be in the state of the unbelieving Jews, who rejected
the counsel of God against themselves; and she told her hearers that was
the eleventh hour, and the last call of mercy that ever should be granted
them; for she heard an inquiry in heaven, saying, “Who will go and preach
to a dying world?” or words to that import; and she said she answered,
“Here am I—send me;” and that she left the realms of light and glory, and
the company of the heavenly host, who are continually praising and
worshipping God, in order to descend upon earth, and pass through many
sufferings and trials for the happiness of mankind. She assumed the title
of the _universal friend of mankind_.

Jemima made some converts in Rhode Island and New York, and died in 1819.
She is said to have been a very beautiful, but artful woman.



AQUARIANS.


WATER-DRINKERS, a branch of the _Encratites_, a sect in the second
century, who abstained from marriage, wine, and animal food; who carried
their aversion to wine so far, that they substituted water in the holy
communion, though some refused it only in their _morning_ ceremonies. It
is well known that the ancient Christians mingled water with their wine
for sacred use, partly, perhaps, for economy, and partly from sobriety;
but Cyprian gives a mystical reason—because the wine and water represent
Christ and his people united.



BAXTERIANS.


The Baxterian strikes into a middle path between Arminianism and
Calvinism, and thus endeavors to unite both schemes. With the Calvinist,
he professes to believe that a certain number, determined upon in the
divine councils, will be infallibly saved; and with the Arminian, he joins
in rejecting the doctrine of reprobation, as absurd and impious;—admits
that Christ, in a certain sense, died for all, and supposes that such a
portion of grace is allotted to _every_ man, as renders it his own fault
if he does not attain to eternal life.

This conciliatory system was espoused by the famous Nonconformist, Richard
Baxter, who was celebrated for the acuteness of his controversial talents,
and the utility of his practical writings.

Among Baxterians are ranked both Watts and Doddridge. Dr. Doddridge,
indeed, has this striking remark—“That a Being who is said not to tempt
any one, and even swears that he desires not the death of a sinner, should
_irresistibly_ determine millions to the commission of every sinful action
of their lives, and then, with all the pomp and pageantry of a universal
judgment, condemn them to eternal misery, on account of these actions,
that hereby he may promote the happiness of others who are, or shall be,
irresistibly determined to virtue, in the like manner, is of all
incredible things to me the most incredible!”

In the scale of religious sentiment, Baxterianism seems to be, with
respect to the subject of divine favor, what Arianism is with respect to
the person of Christ. It appears to have been considered by some pious
persons as a safe middle way between two extremes.



MILLER’S VIEWS ON THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.


The following letter from Rev. WILLIAM MILLER to Rev. JOSHUA V. HIMES
contains a synopsis of Mr. Miller’s views on this interesting subject:—

“Rev. J. V. Himes:

“My dear brother: You have requested a synopsis of my views of the
Christian faith. The following sketch will give you some idea of the
religious opinions I have formed, by a careful study of the word of God:—

“I believe all men, coming to years of discretion, do and will disobey
God; and this is, in some measure, owing to corrupted nature by the sin of
our parent. I believe God will not condemn us for any pollution in our
father; but the soul that sinneth shall die. All pollution of which we may
be partakers from the sins of our ancestors, in which we could have no
agency, can and will be washed away in the blood and sacrifice of Jesus
Christ, without our agency. But all sins committed by us as rational,
intelligent agents, can only be cleansed by the blood of Jesus Christ,
through our repentance and faith. I believe in the salvation of all men
who receive the grace of God by repentance and faith in the mediation of
Jesus Christ. I believe in the condemnation of all men who reject the
gospel and mediation of Christ, and thereby lose the efficacy of the blood
and righteousness of our Redeemer, as proffered to us in the gospel. I
believe in practical godliness, as commanded us in the Scriptures, (which
are our only rule of faith and practice,) and that they only will be
entitled to heaven and future blessedness, who obey and keep the
commandments of God, as given us in the Bible, which is the word of God. I
believe in God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is a Spirit,
omnipresent, omniscient, having all power, Creator, Preserver, and
self-existent. As being holy, just, and beneficent, I believe in Jesus
Christ, the Son of God, having a body in fashion and form like man, divine
in his nature, human in his person, godlike in his character and power. He
is a Savior for sinners, a Priest to God, a Mediator between God and man,
and King in Zion. He will be all to his people, God with us forever. The
spirit of the Most High is in him, the power of the Most High is given
him, the people of the Most High are purchased by him, the glory of the
Most High shall be with him, and the kingdom of the Most High is his on
earth.

“I believe the Bible is the revealed will of God to man, and all therein
is necessary to be understood by Christians in the several ages and
circumstances to which they may refer;—for instance, what may be
understood to-day, might not have been necessary to have been understood a
thousand years ago; for its object is to reveal things new and old, that
the man of God may be thoroughly furnished for, and perfected in, every
good word and work, for the age in which he lives. I believe it is
revealed in the best possible manner for all people, in every age and
under every circumstance, to understand, and that it is to be understood
as literal as it can be and make good sense; and that in every case where
the language is figurative, we must let the Bible explain its own figures.
We are in no case allowed to speculate on the Scriptures, and suppose
things which are not clearly expressed, nor reject things which are
plainly taught. I believe all of the prophecies are revealed to try our
faith, and to give us hope, without which we could have no reasonable
hope. I believe that the Scriptures do reveal unto us, in plain language,
that Jesus Christ will appear again on this earth; that he will come in
the glory of God, in the clouds of heaven, with all his saints and angels;
that he will raise the dead bodies of all his saints who have slept,
change the bodies of all that are alive on the earth that are his, and
both these living and raised saints will be caught up to meet the Lord in
the air. There the saints will be judged and presented to the Father,
without spot or wrinkle. Then the gospel kingdom will be given up to God
the Father. Then will the Father give the bride to the Son Jesus Christ;
and when the marriage takes place, the church will become the ‘New
Jerusalem,’ the ‘beloved city.’ And while this is being done in the air,
the earth will be cleansed by fire, the elements will melt with fervent
heat, the works of men will be destroyed, the bodies of the wicked will be
burned to ashes, the devil and all evil spirits, with the souls and
spirits of those who have rejected the gospel, will be banished from the
earth, shut up in the pit or place prepared for the devil and his angels,
and will not be permitted to visit the earth again until a thousand years.
This is the first resurrection, and first judgment. Then Christ and his
people will come down from the heavens, or middle air, and live with his
saints on the new earth in a new heaven, or dispensation, forever, even
forever and ever. This will be the restitution of the right owners to the
earth.

“Then will the promise of God to his Son be accomplished—‘I will give him
the heathen for his inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for his
possession.’ Then ‘the whole earth shall be full of his glory.’ And then
will the holy people take possession of their joint heirship with Christ,
and his promise be verified, ‘The meek shall inherit the earth,’ and the
kingdom of God will have come, and ‘his will done in earth as in heaven.’
After a thousand years shall have passed away, the saints will all be
gathered and encamped in the beloved city. The sea, death, and hell, will
give up their dead, which will rise up on the breadths of the earth, out
of the city, a great company like the sand of the sea-shore. The devil
will be let loose, to go out and deceive this wicked host. He will tell
them of a battle against the saints, the beloved city; he will gather them
in the battle around the camp of the saints. But there is no battle; the
devil has deceived them. The saints will judge them; the justice of God
will drive them from the earth into the lake of fire and brimstone, where
they will be tormented day and night, forever and ever. ‘This is the
second death.’ After the second resurrection, second judgment, the
righteous will then possess the earth forever.

“I understand that the judgment day will be a thousand years long. The
righteous are raised and judged in the commencement of that day, the
wicked in the end of that day. I believe that the saints will be raised
and judged about the year 1843, according to Moses’ prophecy, Lev. ch. 26;
Ezek. ch. 39; Daniel, ch. 2, 7, 8-12; Hos. 5:1-3; Rev., the whole book;
and many other prophets have spoken of these things. Time will soon tell
if I am right, and soon he that is righteous will be righteous still, and
he that is filthy will be filthy still. I do most solemnly entreat mankind
to make their peace with God, to be ready for these things. ’The end of
all things is at hand.’ I do ask my brethren in the gospel ministry to
consider well what they say before they oppose these things. Say not in
your hearts, ‘My Lord delayeth his coming.’ Let all do as they would wish
they had if it does come, and none will say they have not done right if it
does not come. I believe it will come; but if it should not come, then I
will wait and look until it does come. Yet I must pray, ‘Come, Lord Jesus,
come quickly.’

“This is a synopsis of my views. I give it as a matter of faith. I know of
no scripture to contradict any view given in the above sketch. Men’s
theories may oppose. The ancients believed in a temporal and personal
reign of Christ on earth. The moderns believe in a temporal, spiritual
reign as a millennium. Both views are wrong; both are too gross and
carnal. I believe in a glorious, immortal, and personal reign of Jesus
Christ, with all his people, on the purified earth forever. I believe the
millennium is between the two resurrections and two judgments, the
righteous and the wicked, the just and the unjust. I hope the dear friends
of Christ will lay by all prejudice, and look at and examine these three
views by the only rule and standard, the BIBLE.

“William Miller.”

A Bible Chronology, From Adam To Christ.

By William Miller.

No.   Names of            Age.   A. M.   B. C.   Reference.
      Patriarchs,
      &c.
      Creation,                      1    4157   Gen. i., ii.
 2.   Adam                 130     130    4027   Gen. v. 3.
 3.   Enos                  90     325    3832   Gen. v. 6.
 4.   Cainan                70     395    3762   Gen. v. 9.
 5.   Mahalaleel            65     460    3697   Gen. v. 15.
 6.   Jared                162     622    3535   Gen. v. 18.
 7.   Enoch                 65     687    3470   Gen. v. 21.
 8.   Methuselah           187     874    3283   Gen. v. 25.
 9.   Lamech               182    1056    3101   Gen. v. 28.
10.   Noah                 600    1656    2501   Gen. vii. 6.
      The Flood              1    1657    2500   Gen. viii. 13.
11.   Shem                   2    1659    2498   Gen. xi. 10.
12.   Arphaxad              35    1694    2463   Gen. xi. 12.
13.   Salah                 30    1724    2433   Gen. xi. 14.
14.   Heber                 34    1758    2399   Gen. xi. 16.
15.   Peleg                 30    1788    2369   Gen. xi. 18.
16.   Reu                   32    1820    2337   Gen. xi. 20.
17.   Serug                 30    1850    2307   Gen. xi. 22.
18.   Nahor                 29    1879    2278   Gen. xi. 24.
19.   Terah’s life      205(4)    2084    2073   Gen. xi. 32.
20.   Exode, &c.        430(5)    2514    1643   Exod. xii. 40, 41.
21.   Wilderness            40    2554    1603   Josh. v. 6; xiv. 7.
22.   Joshua             25(6)    2579    1578   Josh. xxiv. 29.
 1.   Elders and            18    2597    1560   See Josephus.
      Anarchy,(7)
 2.   Under Cushan           8    2605    1552   Judges iii. 8.
 3.   Othniel               40    2645    1512   Judges iii.  11.
 4.   Eglon                 18    2663    1494   Judges iii. 14.
 5.   Ehud                  80    2743    1414   Judges iii. 30.
 6.   Jabin                 20    2763    1394   Judges  iv. 3.
 7.   Barak                 40    2803    1354   Judges v. 31.
 8.   Midianites             7    2810    1347   Judges vi. 1.
 9.   Gideon                40    2850    1307   Judges viii. 28.
10.   Abimelech              3    2853    1304   Judges ix. 22.
11.   Tola                  23    2876    1281   Judges x. 2.
12.   Jair                  22    2898    1259   Judges x. 3.
13.   Philistines           18    2916    1241   Judges x. 8.
14.   Jephthah               6    2922    1235   Judges xii. 7.
15.   Ibzan                  7    2929    1228   Judges xii. 9.
16.   Elon                  10    2939    1218   Judges xii. 11.
17.   Abdon                  8    2947    1210   Judges xii. 14.
18.   Philistines           40    2987    1170   Judges xiii. 1.
19.   Eli                40(8)    3027    1130   1 Sam. iv. 18.
20.   Samuel,            24(9)    3051    1106   1 Sam. vii.  2-17.
      prophet
 1.   Saul, King            40    3091    1066   Acts xiii. 21.
 2.   David                 40    3131    1026   2 Sam. v. 4.
 3.   Solomon               40    3171     986   1 Kings xi. 42.
 4.   Rehoboam              17    3188     969   2 Chron. xii. 13.
 5.   Abijam                 3    3191     966   1 Kings xv. 2.
 6.   Asa                   41    3232     925   1 Kings xv. 10.
 7.   Jehoshaphat           25    3257     900   1 Kings xxii. 42.
 8.   Jehoram                5    3262     895   2 Kings viii. 17.
 9.   Ahaziah                1    3263     894   2 Kings viii. 26.
10.   Athaliah,              6    3269     888   2 Kings xi. 3, 4.
      his mother
11.   Joash                 40    3309     818   2 Kings xii. 1.
12.   Amaziah               29    3338     819   2 Kings xiv. 2.
      Interregnum(10)       11    3349     808   2 Kings xv. 1, 2.
13.   Azariah               52    3401     756   2 Kings xv. 2.
14.   Jotham                16    3417     740   2 Kings xv. 33.
15.   Ahaz                  16    3433     724   2 Kings xvi. 2.
16.   Hezekiah              29    3462     695   2 Kings xviii. 2.
17.   Manasseh              55    3517     640   2 Kings xxi. 1.
18.   Amon                   2    3519     638   2 Kings xxi. 19.
19.   Josiah                31    3550     607   2 Kings xxii. 1.
20.   Jehoahaz                    3550     607   2 Kings xxiii. 31.
21.   Jehoiakim             11    3561     596   2 Kings xxiii. 36.
      The 70 years of       70    3631     526   2 Chron. xxxvi.
      Captivity began                            5-10.
      Cyrus                  6    3637     520   Rollin i.  p. 354.
      Cambyses               7    3644     513   Rollin i.  p. 366.
      Darius                36    3680     477   Rollin ii. p. 9.
      Hystaspes
      Xerxes                13    3693     464   Rollin ii. p. 9.
      Artaxerxes             7    3700     457   Ezra vii. 10-13.
      Longimanus
      Birth of             457    4157
      Christ(11)
      Add present         1840    5997
      year, 1840
      To 1843                3    6000

Mr. Miller adduces the following texts of Scripture in support of his
sentiments:—Rev. 22:20. Ps. 130:6. 1 Thess. 3:13. Ps. 50:4. Rev. 11:15.
Isa. 2:19-21. John 5:28. 1 Thess. 4:17. 2 Thess. 1:5-7. 1 Cor. 15:52. Rev
5:9. Dan. 7:9-14. Rev. 14:14-16. Matt. 26:64. Isa. 27:13. Matt. 24:29.
Rev. 20:11. Isa. 66:15, 16. Mal. 4:1. Isa. 5:24. Rev. 19:18. Ezek.
39:17-20. Dan. 2 35, 44. Isa. 17:13. Rev. 13:1-7; 20:10. Isa. 24:20, 23. 2
Pet. 3:13. Rev. 19:8; 21:2. Heb. 4:9-11; 6:2, 3. Isa. 35:10; 65:17. Rev.
20:6; 20:9. Zech. 8:5. Rev. 3:12; 5:10, 20:2, 3, 7; 21:1; 20:8, 9, 13.
Rom. 7:5. 1 Pet. 4:6. Ps. 59:6-14. Jer. 4:12. Rev. 21:12, 27. Zech.
14:9-11. 1 Cor. 6:2. Rev. 20:9, 14, 15. Mal. 4:2. Isa. 4:3-5. Hos. 13:14.
Rom. 8:17. Rev. 21:23; 22:5. Jer. 31:12-14. Eph. 1:10. Tit. 2:13. Rev.
4:11. Eph. 6:13. Heb. 10:36, 37.


    The believers in Mr. Miller’s theory are numerous, and converts to
    his doctrines are increasing.

    Mr. Miller was born at Hampton, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1782. He is a
    farmer, of common school education, and possesses strong
    intellectual and colloquial powers. He is a man of unexceptionable
    character, is a member of the Baptist church, in good standing,
    and has a license to preach the gospel. For the last fifteen
    years, he has almost exclusively devoted himself to investigating
    Scripture prophecies, and in promulgating his peculiar views of
    them to the world.


The Rev J. V. Himes and Rev. J. Litch, No. 14 Devonshire Street, Boston,
publish the _Signs of the Times_, a weekly paper, devoted to Miller’s
views. They also publish Miller’s works, and a variety of other books,
embracing similar sentiments.



COME-OUTERS.


This is a term which has been applied to a considerable number of persons
in various parts of the Northern States, principally in New England, who
have recently _come out_ of the various religious denominations with which
they were connected;—hence the name. They have not themselves assumed any
distinctive name, not regarding themselves as a sect, as they have not
formed, and do not contemplate forming, any religious organization. They
have no creed, believing that every one should be left free to hold such
_opinions_ on religious subjects as he pleases, without being held
accountable for the same to any human authority. Hence, as might be
expected, they hold a diversity of opinions on many points of belief upon
which agreement is considered essential by the generality of professing
Christians. Amongst other subjects upon which they differ is that of the
authority of the Scriptures of the Old and the New Testaments, some among
them holding the prevailing belief of their divine inspiration, whilst
others regard them as mere human compositions, and subject them to the
same rules of criticism as they do any other book, attaching to them no
authority any further than they find evidence of their truth. They believe
the commonly-received opinion of the plenary inspiration of the writers of
those books to be unfounded, not claimed by the writers themselves, and
therefore _unscriptural_, as well as unreasonable. Whilst, then, they
believe the authors of the Gospels to have been fallible men, liable to
err both in relation to matters of fact and opinion, they believe they
find in their writings abundant evidence of their honesty. Therefore they
consider their testimony satisfactory as regards the main facts there
stated of the life of Jesus Christ, at least so far, that there can be no
difficulty in deducing therefrom the great principles of the religion
which he taught. They _all_ believe him to have been a divinely-inspired
teacher, and his religion, therefore, to be a revelation of eternal truth.
They regard him as the only authorized expositor of his own religion, and
believe that to apply in practice its principles as promulgated by him,
and as exemplified in his life, is all that is essential to constitute a
Christian, according to his testimony, (Matt. 7:24,)—“_Whosoever heareth
these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man
which built his house upon a rock,_” &c. Hence they believe that to make
it essential to Christianity to assent to all the opinions expressed by
certain men, good men though they were, who wrote either before or after
his time, involves a denial of the words of Christ. They believe that,
according to his teachings, true religion consists in purity of heart,
holiness of life, and not in opinions; that _Christianity, as it existed
in the mind of Christ, is a life rather than a belief_.

This class of persons agree in the opinion that _he only is a Christian
who has the spirit of Christ_; that all such as these are members of his
church, and that it is composed of none others; therefore that membership
in the Christian church is not, and cannot, in the nature of things, be
determined by any human authority. Hence they deem all attempts to render
the church identical with any outward organizations as utterly futile, not
warranted by Christ himself, and incompatible with its spiritual
character. Having no organized society, they have no stations of authority
or superiority, which they believe to be inconsistent with the Christian
idea, (Matt. 23:8,)—“But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master,
even Christ; and all ye are brethren.” (Matt. 20:25, 26,)—“Ye know that
the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are
great exercise authority upon them. _But it shall not be so among you._”

As might be inferred from the foregoing, they discard all outward
ordinances as having no place in a spiritual religion the design of which
is to purify the heart, and the extent of whose influence is to be
estimated, by its legitimate effects in producing a life of practical
righteousness, and not by any mere arbitrary sign, which cannot be
regarded as a certain indication of the degree of spiritual life, and must
consequently be inefficient and unnecessary.

Their views of worship correspond, as they believe, with the spiritual
nature of the religion they profess. They believe that true Christian
worship is independent of time and place; that it has no connection with
forms, and ceremonies, and external arrangements, any further than these
are the exponents of a divine life; that it spontaneously arises from the
pure in heart at all times and in all places: in short, they regard the
terms _Christian worship_ and _Christian obedience_ as synonymous,
believing that he gives the highest and only conclusive evidence of
worshipping the Creator, who exhibits in his life the most perfect
obedience to his will. These views they consider in perfect harmony with
the teachings of Jesus, particularly in his memorable conversation with
the woman of Samaria.

They also agree in the belief that the religion of Christ asserts the
equality of all men before God; that it confers upon no man, or class of
men, a monopoly of Heaven’s favors; neither does it give to a portion of
his children any means of knowing his will not common to the race. They
believe the laws of the soul are so plain that they may be easily
comprehended by all who sincerely seek to know them, without the
intervention of any human teacher or expounder. Hence they regard no
teaching as authoritative but that of the Spirit of God, and reject all
priesthoods but the universal priesthood which Christianity establishes.
They believe that every one whose soul is imbued with a knowledge of the
truth is qualified to be its minister, and it becomes his duty and his
pleasure, by his every word and action, to preach it to the world. It
follows, then, that, as Christ prepares and appoints his own ministers,
and as they receive their commissions only from him, they are accountable
to him alone for their exercise, and not to any human authority
whatsoever. They therefore reject all human ordinations, appointments, or
control, or any designation by man of an order of men to preach the
gospel, as invasions of his rightful prerogative.

Amongst the prevailing sins, against which they feel bound to bear
testimony, are slavery and war; and it is alleged as the main reason why
many of them have disconnected themselves from the professedly Christian
denominations to which they belonged, that those bodies gave their
sanction to those anti-Christian practices. They believe slaveholding to
be sinful under all circumstances, and that, therefore, it should be
immediately abandoned. They believe, not only that national wars are
forbidden by Christianity, but that the taking of human life for any
purpose, by governments or individuals, is incompatible with its spirit. A
large proportion of them, also, consider all resort to punishment, as a
penalty for crime, equally inconsistent with the law of love. Hence they
deem it their duty to withhold their voluntary sanction or support from
human governments, and all institutions which claim the right to exercise
powers which they thus regard as unlawful.

In various places, these persons hold meetings on the first day of the
week, which are conducted consistently with their views of Christian
freedom and equality. It is understood that the object of thus meeting
together, is to promote their spiritual welfare. For this purpose, they
encourage a free interchange of sentiment on religious subjects, without
any restraint or formality. They have no prescribed exercises, but every
one is left free to utter his thoughts as he may feel inclined; and even
those who differ from them in opinion are not only at liberty, but are
invited, to give expression to their thoughts. They believe this to be the
only mode of holding religious meetings consistent with the genius of
their religion, and for an example of like gatherings they refer to those
of the primitive Christians. They meet on the _first day of the week_, not
because they believe it incumbent to devote that portion of time more than
any other to objects regarded as peculiarly religious,—for they regard all
days as equally holy, and equally devoted to the service of the Lord,—but
merely because they have become habituated to abstain from their ordinary
occupations on that day, and it is, therefore, the most convenient time
for them to assemble.

The practical acknowledgment of the moral equality of the sexes is another
distinguishing characteristic of these people. They regard woman as
equally qualified to hold any station in society from which she is not
excluded by her physical disability; and that she alone must decide for
herself what position she shall occupy, or what duties in the community
she shall perform; the control of woman never, as they conceive, having
been delegated to man by the Creator. Therefore they consider her equal in
all mental and intellectual pursuits. And when they associate together for
religious and benevolent objects, they exercise the various duties
pertaining to them indiscriminately.

The number of persons who hold a similarity of opinions on these subjects
cannot be known. It is, at present, comparatively small, but rapidly
increasing.



JUMPERS.


Persons so called from the practice of jumping during the time allotted
for religious worship. This singular practice began, it is said, in the
western part of Wales, about the year 1760. It was soon after defended by
Mr. William Williams, (the Welsh poet, as he is sometimes called,) in a
pamphlet, which was patronized by the abettors of jumping in religious
assemblies. Several of the more zealous itinerant preachers encouraged the
people to cry out, “_Goganiant_,” (the Welsh word for _glory_,) “Amen,”
&c. &c., to put themselves in violent agitations, and, finally, to jump
until they were quite exhausted, so as often to be obliged to fall down on
the floor, or the field, where this kind of worship was held.



BAPTISTS.


This denomination of Christians holds that a personal profession of faith
and an immersion in water are essential to baptism. There are several
bodies of Baptists in the United States, which will be found under their
different names. The _Regular_ or _Associated Baptists_ are, in sentiment,
moderate Calvinists, and form the most numerous body of Baptists in this
country.

The Baptists being Independent, or Congregational, in their form of church
government, their ecclesiastical assemblies disclaim all right to
interfere with the concerns of individual churches. Their public meetings,
by delegation from different churches, are held for the purpose of mutual
advice and improvement, but not for the general government of the whole
body.

The following Declaration of Faith, with the Church Covenant, was recently
published by the Baptist Convention of New Hampshire, and is believed to
express, with little variation, the general sentiments of the Regular or
Associated Baptists:—


    “I. OF THE SCRIPTURES.—We believe the Holy Bible was written by
    men divinely inspired, and is a perfect treasure of heavenly
    instruction; that it has God for its Author, salvation for its
    end, and truth, without any mixture of error, for its matter; that
    it reveals the principles by which God will judge us, and
    therefore is, and shall remain to the end of the world, the true
    centre of Christian union, and the supreme standard by which all
    human conduct, creeds, and opinions, should be tried.

    “II. OF THE TRUE GOD.—That there is one, and only one, true and
    living God, whose name is JEHOVAH, the Maker and Supreme Ruler of
    heaven and earth; inexpressibly glorious in holiness; worthy of
    all possible honor, confidence, and love; revealed under the
    personal and relative distinctions of the Father, the Son, and the
    Holy Ghost equal in every divine perfection, and executing
    distinct but harmonious offices in the great work of redemption.

    “III. OF THE FALL OF MAN.—That man was created in a state of
    holiness, under the law of his Maker, but by voluntary
    transgression fell from that holy and happy state; in consequence
    of which all mankind are now sinners, not by constraint, but
    choice; being by nature utterly void of that holiness required by
    the law of God, wholly given to the gratification of the world, of
    Satan, and of their own sinful passions, and therefore under just
    condemnation to eternal ruin, without defence or excuse.

    “IV. OF THE WAY OF SALVATION.—That the salvation of sinners is
    wholly of grace, through the mediatorial offices of the Son of
    God, who took upon him our nature, yet without sin; honored the
    law by his personal obedience, and made atonement for our sins by
    his death; being risen from the dead, he is now enthroned in
    heaven; and uniting in his wonderful person the tenderest
    sympathies with divine perfections, is every way qualified to be a
    suitable, a compassionate, and an all-sufficient Savior.

    “V. OF JUSTIFICATION.—That the great gospel blessing which Christ,
    of his fulness, bestows on such as believe in him, is
    justification; that justification consists in the pardon of sin
    and the promise of eternal life, on principles of righteousness;
    that it is bestowed, not in consideration of any works of
    righteousness which we have done, but solely through his own
    redemption and righteousness; that it brings us into a state of
    most blessed peace and favor with God, and secures every other
    blessing needful for time and eternity.

    “VI. OF THE FREENESS OF SALVATION.—That the blessings of salvation
    are made free to all by the gospel; that it is the immediate duty
    of all to accept them by a cordial and obedient faith; and that
    nothing prevents the salvation of the greatest sinner on earth,
    except his own voluntary refusal to submit to the Lord Jesus
    Christ; which refusal will subject him to an aggravated
    condemnation.

    “VII. OF GRACE IN REGENERATION.—That, in order to be saved, we
    must be regenerated, or born again; that regeneration consists in
    giving a holy disposition to the mind, and is effected in a manner
    above our comprehension or calculation, by the power of the Holy
    Spirit, so as to secure our voluntary obedience to the gospel; and
    that its proper evidence is found in the holy fruit which we bring
    forth to the glory of God.

    “VIII. OF GOD’S PURPOSE OF GRACE.—That election is the gracious
    purpose of God, according to which he regenerates, sanctifies, and
    saves sinners; that, being perfectly consistent with the free
    agency of man, it comprehends all the means in connection with the
    end; that it is a most glorious display of God’s sovereign
    goodness, being infinitely wise, holy, and unchangeable; that it
    utterly excludes boasting, and promotes humility, prayer, praise,
    trust in God, and active imitation of his free mercy; that it
    encourages the use of means in the highest degree; that it is
    ascertained by its effects in all who believe the gospel; is the
    foundation of Christian assurance; and that to ascertain it with
    regard to ourselves, demands and deserves our utmost diligence.

    “IX. OF THE PERSEVERANCE OF SAINTS.—That such only are real
    believers as endure unto the end; that their persevering
    attachment to Christ is the grand mark which distinguishes them
    from superficial professors; that a special Providence watches
    over their welfare; and they are kept by the power of God through
    faith unto salvation.

    “X. HARMONY OF THE LAW AND GOSPEL.—That the law of God is the
    eternal and unchangeable rule of his moral government; that it is
    holy, just, and good; and that the inability which the Scriptures
    ascribe to fallen men to fulfil its precepts, arises entirely from
    their love of sin; to deliver them from which, and to restore
    them, through a Mediator, to unfeigned obedience to the holy law,
    is one great end of the gospel, and of the means of grace
    connected with the establishment of the visible church.

    “XI. OF A GOSPEL CHURCH.—That a visible church of Christ is a
    congregation of baptized believers, associated by covenant in the
    faith and fellowship of the gospel; observing the ordinances of
    Christ; governed by his laws; and exercising the gifts, rights,
    and privileges, invested in them by his word; that its only proper
    officers are bishops, or pastors, and deacons, whose
    qualifications, claims, and duties, are defined in the Epistles to
    Timothy and Titus.

    “XII. OF BAPTISM AND THE LORD’S SUPPER.—That Christian baptism is
    the immersion of a believer in water, in the name of the Father,
    Son, and Spirit; to show forth, in a solemn and beautiful emblem,
    our faith in a crucified, buried, and risen Savior, with its
    purifying power; that it is prerequisite to the privileges of a
    church relation, and, to the Lord’s supper, in which the members
    of the church, by the use of bread and wine, are to commemorate
    together the dying love of Christ,—preceded always by solemn
    self-examination.

    “XIII. OF THE CHRISTIAN SABBATH.—That the first day of the week is
    the Lord’s day, or Christian Sabbath, and is to be kept sacred to
    religious purposes, by abstaining from all secular labor and
    recreations; by the devout observance of all the means of grace,
    both private and public; and by preparation for that rest which
    remaineth for the people of God.

    “XIV. OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT.—That civil government is of divine
    appointment, for the interests of good order of human society; and
    that magistrates are to be prayed for, conscientiously honored,
    and obeyed, except in things opposed to the will of our Lord Jesus
    Christ, who is the only Lord of the conscience, and the Prince of
    the kings of the earth.

    “XV. OF THE RIGHTEOUS AND THE WICKED.—That there is a radical and
    essential difference between the righteous and the wicked; that
    such only as through faith are justified in the name of the Lord
    Jesus, and sanctified by the Spirit of our God, are truly
    righteous in his esteem; while all such as continue in impenitence
    and unbelief are in his sight wicked, and under the curse; and
    this distinction holds among men both in and after death.

    “XVI. OF THE WORLD TO COME.—That the end of this world is
    approaching; that, at the last day, Christ will descend from
    heaven, and raise the dead from the grave to final retribution;
    that a solemn separation will then take place; that the wicked
    will be adjudged to endless punishment, and the righteous to
    endless joy; and that this judgment will fix forever the final
    state of men, in heaven or hell, on principles of righteousness.

    “CHURCH COVENANT.—having been, as we trust, brought by divine
    grace to embrace the Lord Jesus Christ, and to give up ourselves
    wholly to him, we do now solemnly and joyfully covenant with each
    other, TO WALK TOGETHER IN HIM WITH BROTHERLY LOVE, to his glory
    as our common Lord. We do, therefore, in his strength engage,

    “That we will exercise a mutual care, as members one of another,
    to promote the growth of the whole body in Christian knowledge,
    holiness, and comfort; to the end that we may stand perfect and
    complete in all the will of God.

    “That, to promote and secure this object, we will uphold the
    public worship of God and the ordinances of his house, and hold
    constant communion with each other therein; that we will
    cheerfully contribute of our property for the support of the poor,
    and for the maintenance of a faithful ministry of the gospel among
    us.

    “That we will not omit closet and family religion at home, nor
    allow ourselves in the too common neglect of the great duty of
    religiously training up our children, and those under our care,
    with a view to the service of Christ and the enjoyment of heaven.

    “That we will walk circumspectly in the world, that we may win
    their souls; remembering that God hath not given us the spirit of
    fear, but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind, that we are
    the light of the world and the salt of the earth, and that a city
    set on a hill cannot be hid.

    “That we will frequently exhort, and, if occasion shall require,
    admonish, one another, according to Matthew 18th, in the spirit of
    meekness; considering ourselves, lest we also be tempted; and
    that, as in baptism, we have been buried with Christ, and raised
    again, so there is on us a special obligation henceforth, to walk
    in newness of life.

    “And may the God of peace, who brought again from the dead our
    Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of
    the everlasting covenant, make us perfect in every good work to do
    his will; working in us that which is well pleasing in his sight,
    through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory forever and ever. AMEN.”

    (See Matt. 3:5, 6, 11, 13-16; 20:22, 23; 21:25; 28:19. Mark 1:4,
    5, 8, 9, 10; 11:30; 16:15, 16. Luke 3:3, 7, 12, 16, 21; 7:29, 30;
    12:50; 20:4. John 1:28, 31, 33; 3:22, 23; 4:1, 2. Acts 1:5,2 2;
    2:38, 41; 8: 12, 13, 36-39; 9:18; 10:37, 47, 48; 13:24; 16:15, 33;
    18:8, 25; 19:4, 5; 22:16. Rom. 6:3, 4. 1 Cor. 1: 13-17; 10:2;
    12:13; 15:29. Gal. 3:27. Eph. 4:5. Col. 2:12. Heb. 6:2. 1 Pet.
    3:31.)

                  -------------------------------------

    “This denomination claims an immediate descent from the apostles,
    and asserts that the constitution of their churches is from the
    authority of Jesus Christ himself, and his immediate successors.
    Many others, indeed, deduce their origin as a sect from much later
    times, and affirm that they first sprang up in Germany in the
    sixteenth century. This denomination of Christians is
    distinguished from others by their opinions respecting the mode
    and subjects of baptism. Instead of administering the ordinance by
    sprinkling or pouring water, they maintain that it ought to be
    administered only by immersion: such, they insist, is the meaning
    of the Greek word _baptizo_, to wash or dip, so that a command to
    baptize is a command to immerse. They also defend their practice
    from the phrase _buried with him in baptism_, from the first
    administrators’ repairing to rivers, and the practice of the
    primitive church, after the apostles.

    “With regard to the _subjects_ of baptism, this denomination
    alleges that it ought not to be administered to children or
    infants at all, nor to adults in general; but to those only who
    profess repentance for sin and faith in Christ. Our Savior’s
    commission to his apostles, by which Christian baptism was
    instituted, is to _go and teach all nations, baptizing them_, &c.,
    that is, not to baptize all they meet with, but first to examine
    and instruct them, and whoever will receive instruction, to
    baptize in the _name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the
    Holy Ghost_. This construction of the passage is confirmed by
    another passage—‘_Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel
    to every creature; he that believeth, and is baptized, shall be
    saved._’ To such persons, and to such only, this denomination
    says, baptism was administered by the apostles and the immediate
    disciples of Christ; for those who were baptized in primitive
    times are described as repenting of their sins, and believing in
    Christ. (See Acts 2:38, 8:37, and other passages of Scripture.)

    “They further insist that all positive institutions depend
    entirely upon the will and declaration of the institutor; and
    that, therefore, reasoning by analogy from previous abrogated
    rites is to be rejected, and the express commands of Christ
    respecting the mode and subjects of baptism ought to be our only
    rule.

    “They observe that the meaning of the word _baptizo_ signifies
    immersion or dipping only; that John baptized in Jordan; that he
    chose a place where there was _much_ water; that Jesus came up
    _out of_ the water; that Philip and the eunuch went down both
    _into_ the water; that the terms _washing_, _purifying_, _burying
    in baptism_, so often mentioned in Scripture, allude to this mode;
    that immersion _only_ was the practice of the apostles and the
    first Christians; and that it was only laid aside from the love of
    novelty, and the coldness of our climate. These positions, they
    think, are so clear from Scripture, and the history of the church,
    that they stand in need of but little argument to support them.”


There are some interesting facts connected with the history of the
Baptists in America. In 1631, the Rev. Roger Williams, who had been a
clergyman of the church of England, but, disliking its formalities,
seceded, and ranged himself with the Nonconformists, fled to America from
the persecutions which then raged in England. The great principles of
civil and religious liberty were not then understood in the western world,
and, as Mr. Williams was a man of intrepid firmness in advocating those
principles, we are not surprised at the excitement and opposition which
his doctrines awakened. He settled first in Salem, New England, the
magistracy of which condemned his opinions, and subsequently sentenced him
to banishment. Under that cruel act of legislation, he was driven from his
family, in the midst of winter, to seek for refuge among the wild Indians.
After great sufferings, having conciliated the Indians, he commenced the
formation of a colony, to which he gave the name of _Providence_, situate
in Rhode Island, a name which it still bears.

Thus he became the founder of a new order of things. Several of his
friends afterwards joined him, and in that infant settlement he sustained
the twofold character of minister and lawgiver. He formed a constitution
on the broad principle of civil and religious liberty, and thus became the
first ruler that recognized equal rights. Nearly a century and a half
after that, when the Americans achieved their independence, thirteen of
the states united in forming a government for themselves, and adopted that
principle; thus America became, what the little colony of Providence had
been before, a refuge for the persecuted for conscience sake. It has been
well observed that the millions in both hemispheres who are now rejoicing
in the triumph of liberal principles, should unite in erecting a monument
to perpetuate the memory of ROGER WILLIAMS, the first governor who held
liberty of conscience, as well as of person, to be the birthright of man.

In the year 1639, Mr. Williams formed the _first_ Baptist church in
America, at Providence. Throughout succeeding years, few changes,
comparatively, were experienced in the movements of the Baptist
denomination on this vast continent. Baptist churches multiplied
exceedingly, until they assumed a leading attitude among the religious
communities of America. They have amply provided for an efficient and
learned ministry, and the extraordinary revivals with which they have been
frequently favored, invest them with a moral strength and glory which
cannot be contemplated but with astonishment and admiration.



ANABAPTISTS.


Those who maintain that baptism ought always to be performed by immersion.
The word is compounded of _ana_ “new,” and _baptistes_, “a Baptist,”
signifying that those who have been baptized in their infancy, ought to be
baptized _anew_. It is a word which has been indiscriminately applied to
Christians of very different principles and practices. The English and
Dutch Baptists do not consider the word as at all applicable to their
sect, because those persons whom they baptize they consider as never
having been baptized before, although they have undergone what they term
the ceremony of sprinkling in their infancy.



FREE-WILL BAPTISTS.


The first church gathered, of this order, was in New Durham, N. H., in the
year 1780, principally by the instrumentality of Elder Benjamin Randall,
who then resided in that town. Soon after, several branches were collected
which united with this church; and several preachers, of different
persuasions, were brought to see the beauties of a _free salvation_, and
united as fellow-laborers with Elder Randall.

They believe that, by the death of Christ, salvation was provided for all
men; that, through faith in Christ, and sanctification of the
Spirit,—though by nature entirely sinners,—all men may, if they improve
every means of grace in their power, become new creatures in this life,
and, after death, enjoy eternal happiness; that all who, having actually
sinned, die in an unrenewed state, will suffer eternal misery.

Respecting the divine attributes of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, they
in substance agree with other Orthodox Christians. They hold the holy
Scriptures to be their only rule of religious faith and practice, to the
exclusion of all written creeds, covenants, rules of discipline, or
articles of organization. They consider that elders and deacons are the
officers of the church designed in the Scriptures, and maintain that
piety, and a call to the work, are the essential qualifications of a
minister, without regard to literary attainments.



SEVENTH-DAY BAPTISTS, OR SABBATARIANS,


Are those who keep the seventh day of the week as the Sabbath. They are to
be found principally, if not wholly, among the Baptists. They object to
the reasons which are generally alleged for keeping the first day, and
assert that the change from the seventh to the first was effected by
Constantine, on his conversion to Christianity, A. D. 321. The three
following propositions contain a summary of their principles as to this
article of the Sabbath, by which they stand distinguished:—

1. That God hath required the seventh or last day of every week to be
observed by mankind, universally, for the weekly Sabbath.

2. That this command of God is perpetually binding on man till time shall
be no more.

3. That this sacred rest of the seventh-day Sabbath is not by divine
authority changed from the seventh and last to the first day of the week,
and that the Scripture doth nowhere require the observation of any other
day of the week for the weekly Sabbath, but the seventh day only. They
hold, in common with other Christians, the distinguishing doctrines of
Christianity.



SIX-PRINCIPLE BAPTISTS.


This appellation is given to those who hold the imposition of hands,
subsequent to baptism, and generally on the admission of candidates into
the church, as an indispensable prerequisite for church membership and
communion. They support their peculiar principle chiefly from Heb. 6:1,
2—“Therefore, leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go
on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from
dead works, and faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptism, and of
laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal
judgment,” As these two verses contain six distinct propositions, one of
which is the laying on of hands, these brethren have, from thence,
acquired the name of _Six-Principle Baptists_, to distinguish them from
others, whom they sometimes call _Five-Principle Baptists_. They have
fourteen churches in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.



QUAKER BAPTISTS, OR KEITHIANS.


A party from the society of Friends, in Pennsylvania, separated in the
year 1691. It was headed by the famous GEORGE KEITH. They practised
baptism, and received the Lord’s supper, but retained the language, dress,
and manners, of the Friends, or Quakers.



PEDOBAPTISTS.


Are those who practise the baptism of children, without regard to personal
faith.

Pedobaptists, in common with all others, claim for their practice an
apostolical origin; and, although they differ much in theological
opinions, in forms of church government, and modes of worship, yet they
all adopt substantially the same mode of reasoning in their defence of
pedobaptism. They say that the church, under both the old and new
dispensations, has ever been the same, although under a different form;
that infants, as well as parents, were admitted into the church under the
earlier dispensations, the rite of circumcision being the sign of their
introduction, into it; and that the Christian dispensation (as the Savior
came not to destroy, but to fulfil, the law and the prophets) did not
annul or abridge any of the privileges of the church that were possessed
under the dispensations of former times. But as the right of children, who
are bound to their parents by the strongest natural tie, to be solemnly
and visibly dedicated to God, and to come within the pale and under the
watch of the church, is a blessing and a privilege, we are entitled to ask
for the passages in the New Testament which require its abandonment. We
take it for granted, that children are to be publicly dedicated to God,
now, as in former times, unless some positive directions can be shown to
the contrary. It appearing, therefore, that children may be dedicated to
God, by their parents, in some public and visible way, and there remaining
no outward ceremony, under the Christian dispensation, suitable to that
purpose, but baptism, we infer that baptism is designed to take the place
of circumcision, and that children may be baptized. And these views are
thought to be encouraged by the affectionate saying of Christ, “Suffer
little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the
kingdom of God.” (Mark 10:14.)

A second argument in favor of infant baptism is derived from the repeated
accounts, in the Acts, of the baptism of whole families. The families
referred to are those of Lydia, a seller of purple in the city of
Thyatira, of the jailer, in the same city, and of Cornelius, the
centurion, of Cæsarea. Instances of this kind are not to be considered as
conclusively proving the Scripture authority of infant baptism of
themselves; but they form a presumptive argument, in its favor, of great
weight.

And, further, it may be shown, from ecclesiastical history, that the
baptism of infants was practised in the time of the primitive Christians.
This being the fact, the conclusion seems to follow irresistibly, that
they received the practice from the apostles, and that it was, therefore,
known and recognized by the Savior himself; and, if it were known and
recognized by him, or even introduced, subsequently and solely, by those
he commissioned, it must be received, in either case, as the will of
Christ, and as a law of the Christian dispensation.

Again, they say that the particular mode of baptism can not be determined
from the meaning of the word _baptizo_, which may mean either to immerse
or to lave, according to the particular connection in which it is found.
(See Mark 7:4. Heb. 9:10.)

None of the accounts of baptism, which are given in the New Testament,
necessarily imply that it was performed by immersion. It is true the
Savior and the eunuch, when they were baptized, went up out of, or rather
_from_, the water, but the inference that they went _under_ the water,
which is sometimes drawn from these expressions, does not appear to be
sufficiently warranted.

The circumstances attending the baptism of the jailer and his family are
of such a nature as to render the opinion of its being performed by
immersion improbable. The baptism was evidently performed at midnight, and
within the limits of the prison,—a time and a situation evidently implying
some other mode than plunging. Similar views will hold in respect to the
baptism of the three thousand at the season of Pentecost.

As, therefore, there are no passages of Scripture which positively require
immersion, but various scriptural considerations against it, besides its
being always inconvenient, and not unfrequently impracticable, the
Pedobaptists have ever thought it fit and requisite, as a general rule, to
practise baptism by sprinkling or laving.

The Greek church, in all its branches,—whether in the frozen regions of
Siberia, or in the torrid zone,—practise trine immersion. All Pedobaptists
require of adults, who seek for baptism, a personal profession of their
faith, and so far agree with the Baptists. They also, with the Baptists,
allow immersion to be valid baptism; but, in opposition to them, the
Baptists deny that any other mode of administering this rite is valid.
(See Exod. 14:22. Isa. 44:3. Matt. 3:11; 19:13. Mark 7:4. Acts 2:39; 19:2,
5. Rom. 4:11; 11:17. 1 Cor. 7:14; 10:2. Eph. chap. 2. Heb. 9:10, 13, 14.)

The term _Pedobaptist_ is derived from two Greek words—_pais_, a child,
and _baptismos_, baptism. This mode of baptism is practised by nearly the
whole Christian world, except the Baptists and Friends.



ANTI-PEDOBAPTISTS.


A name given to those who object to the baptism of infants. The word is
derived from the Greek words signifying _against_, _a child_, and _I
baptize_.



UNITARIANS.


Those Christians who are usually designated by this name in the United
States, and who are also called _Liberal Christians_, are mostly
Congregationalists, and are found principally in New England.

They acknowledge no other rule of faith and practice than the holy
Scriptures, which they consider it the duty of every man to search for
himself, prayerfully, and with the best exercise of his understanding.
They reject all creeds of human device, as generally unjust to the truth
of God and the mind of man, tending to produce exclusiveness, bigotry, and
divisions, and at best of doubtful value. They regard, however, with favor
the earliest creed on record, commonly called the Apostles’, as
approaching nearest to the simplicity of the gospel, and as imbodying the
grand points of the Christian faith.

They adopt the words of St. Paul, (1 Cor. 8:6,) “_To us there is but one
God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus
Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him._” They make great account
of the doctrine of God’s paternal character and government, and
continually set it forward as the richest source of consolation, and the
most powerful motive to repentance and improvement.

Receiving and trusting in Christ as their Lord, Teacher, Mediator,
Intercessor, Savior, they hold in less esteem than many other sects, nice
theological questions and speculations concerning his precise rank, and
the nature of his relation to God. They feel that by honoring him as _the
Son of God_, they honor him as he desired to be honored; and that by
obeying and imitating him, they in the best manner show their love.

They believe that the Holy Ghost is not a distinct person in the Godhead,
but that _power of God_, that _divine influence_, by which Christianity
was established through miraculous aids, and by which its spirit is still
shed abroad in the hearts of men.

They advocate the most perfect toleration. They regard CHARITY as the
crowning Christian grace,—the end of the commandment of God. They consider
a pure and lofty morality as not only inseparable from true religion, but
the most acceptable service that man can render to his Maker, and the only
indubitable evidence of a believing heart.

They believe that sin is its own punishment, and virtue its own rewarder;
that the moral consequences of a man’s good or evil conduct go with him
into the future life, to afford him remorse or satisfaction; that God will
be influenced in all his dealings with the soul by mercy and justice,
punishing no more severely than the sinner deserves, and always for a
benevolent end. Indeed, the greater part of the denomination are
Restorationists.

Unitarians consider that, besides the Bible, all the Ante-Nicene
fathers—that is, all Christian writers for three centuries after the birth
of Christ—give testimony in their favor, against the modern popular
doctrine of the Trinity. As for _antiquity_, it is their belief that it is
really on their side.

In the _First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians_, which was written
towards the close of the first century,—and the evidence for the
genuineness of which is stronger than for that of any other of the
productions attributed to the apostolical fathers,—the supremacy of the
Father is asserted or implied throughout, and Jesus is spoken of in terms
mostly borrowed from the Scriptures. He is once called the “sceptre of the
majesty of God;” and this highly-figurative expression is the most exalted
applied to him in the whole Epistle.

Justin Martyr, the most distinguished of the ancient fathers of the
church, who flourished in the former part of the second century, and whose
writings (with the exception of those attributed to the _apostolic_
fathers) are the earliest Christian records next to the New Testament,
expressly says, “We worship God, the Maker of the universe, offering up to
him prayers and thanks. But, assigning to Jesus, who came to teach us
these things, and for this end was born, the ‘_second place_’ after God,
we not without reason honor him.”

The germ and origin of the doctrine of the Trinity, the Unitarians find in
the speculations of those Christianized philosophers of the second
century, whose minds were strongly tinctured with the Platonic philosophy,
combined with the _emanation system_, as taught at Alexandria, and held by
Philo. From this time they trace the gradual formation of the doctrine
through successive ages down to Athanasius and Augustine; the former of
whom, A. D. 362, was the first to insist upon the equality of the Holy
Ghost with the Father and the Son; and the latter, about half a century
afterwards, was the first to insist upon their numerical unity.

In all ages of the church, there have been many learned and pious men who
have rejected the Trinity as unscriptural and irrational. The first
attempt, at the council of Nice, to establish and make universal the
Trinitarian creed, caused disturbances and dissensions in the church,
which continued for ages, and produced results the most deplorable to
every benevolent mind which exalts _charity_ over faith.

Soon after the reformation, the Unitarian faith was avowed by Martin
Cellarius, who was then finishing his studies at Wittenberg, where Luther
was professor. In 1546, the Unitarian opinions made a considerable
movement in Italy, and several persons of learning and eminence were put
to death. In 1553, Michael Servetus was burned for this heresy, at Geneva.
The elder Socinus made his escape from this persecution, and spread his
views throughout several countries of Europe, more particularly in Poland,
where a large part of the Reformed clergy embraced them, and were
separated, in 1565, from the communion of the Calvinists and Lutherans.

In England, the number of Unitarians was considerable, according to
Strype, as early as 1548; and in 1550, he represents the Unitarian
doctrine as spreading so fast that the leading Churchmen were alarmed, and
“thought it necessary to suppress its expression by rigid measures.” These
“rigid measures,” such as imprisonment and burning, were successful for a
time. But afterwards, the “heresy” gained new and able supporters, such as
Biddle, Firmin, Dr. S. Clarke, Dr. Lardner, Whiston, Emlyn, Sir Isaac
Newton, &c., and has been spreading to this day.

In the north of Ireland, the Unitarians compose several presbyteries.
There are also congregations of Unitarians in Dublin, and in other
southern cities of the kingdom.

In Scotland, there are chapels of this character in Edinburgh, Glasgow,
and other principal places.

In the United States, Unitarian opinions were not prevalent till towards
the close of the last century. Since that time, however, they have
advanced rapidly, and have been embraced by some of the wisest and best
men in the land.

Of late years, the Congregational Unitarians have generally abstained from
controversy, in the United States. They have, however, published and
circulated extensively a large number of tracts, of a doctrinal and
practical character. They have at the present time assumed a _positive_
condition, gained a strong and permanent hold amongst the Christian sects,
and are manifesting new signs of vitality and usefulness.

The following proof-texts are some of those upon which the Unitarians rest
their belief in the inferiority of the Son to the Father:—John 8:17, 18.
John 17:3. Acts 10:38 1 Tim. 2:5. 1 John 4:14. Rom. 8:34 1 Cor. 11:3. John
10:29. John 14:28. Matt. 19:17. John 17:21. John 20:17. 1 Cor. 8:5, 6.
John 10:25; 7:16, 17, 8:28; 5:19, 20; 8:49, 50. Matt. 20:23. John 6:38,
57; 5:30. Mark 13:32. Luke 6:12. John 11:41, 42. Matt. 27:46. Acts
2:22-24. Phil. 2:11. Col. 1:15. Rev. 3:14. Heb. 3:3. Matt. 12:18. Luke
2:52.



BROWNISTS.


A denomination which sprung up in England towards the close of the
sixteenth century. They derive their name from their leader, Robert Brown.

This denomination did not differ in point of doctrine from the church of
England, or from the other Puritans; but they apprehended, according to
Scripture, that every church ought to be confined within the limits of a
single congregation, and that the government should be democratical. They
maintained the discipline of the church of England to be Popish and
antichristian, and all her ordinances and sacraments invalid. Hence they
forbade their people to join with them in prayer, in hearing the word, or
in any part of public worship. They not only renounced communion with the
church of England, but with all other churches, except such as were of the
same model.



PURITANS.


This name was given to a party which appeared in England in the year 1565,
who opposed the liturgy and ceremonies of the church of England.

They acquired this denomination from their professed design to establish a
purer form of worship and discipline.

Those who were first styled _Puritans_ were Presbyterians, but the term
was afterwards applied to others who differed from the church of England.

Those who separated from the church of England were also styled
_Dissenters_.



BOURIGNONISTS.


The followers of Antoinette Bourignon, a lady in France, who pretended to
particular inspirations. She was born at Lisle, in 1616. At her birth, she
was so deformed that it was debated some days in the family whether it was
not proper to stifle her as a monster; but, her deformity diminishing, she
was spared, and afterwards obtained such a degree of beauty, that she had
her admirers. From her childhood to her old age she had an extraordinary
turn of mind. She set up for a reformer, and published a great number of
books, filled with very singular notions; the most remarkable of which are
entitled “The Light of the World,” and “The Testimony of Truth.” In her
confession of faith, she professes her belief in the Scriptures, the
divinity and atonement of Christ. She believed, also, that man is
perfectly free to resist or receive divine grace; that God is ever
unchangeable love towards all his creatures, and does not inflict any
arbitrary punishment, but that the evils they suffer are the natural
consequence of sin; that religion consists not in outward forms of
worship, nor systems of faith, but in an entire resignation to the will of
God. She held many extravagant notions, among which, it is said, she
asserted that Adam, before the fall, possessed the principles of both
sexes, that, in an ecstasy, God represented Adam to her mind in his
original state, as also the beauty of the first world, and how he had
drawn from it the chaos; and that every thing was bright, transparent, and
darted forth life and ineffable glory, with a number of other wild ideas.
She dressed like a hermit, and travelled through France, Holland, England,
and Scotland. She died at Franeker, in the province of Frise, October 30,
1680.



JEWS.


A complete system of the religious doctrines of the Jews is contained in
the five books of Moses, their great lawgiver, who was raised up to
deliver them from their bondage in Egypt, and to conduct them to the
possession of Canaan, the promised land.

The principal sects among the Jews, in the time of our Savior, were the
Pharisees, who placed religion in external ceremony; the Sadducees, who
were remarkable for their incredulity; and the Essenes, who were
distinguished by an austere sanctity.

The Pharisees and Sadducees are frequently mentioned in the New Testament;
and an acquaintance with their principles and practices serves to
illustrate many passages in the sacred history. At present, the Jews have
two sects—the Caraites, who admit no rule of religion but the law of
Moses; and the Rabbinists, who add to the laws the tradition of the
Talmud, a collection of the doctrines and morality of the Jews. The
expectation of a Messiah is the distinguishing feature of their religious
system. The word _Messiah_ signifies one anointed, or installed into an
office by an unction.

Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Messiah, in whom all the
Jewish prophecies are accomplished. The Jews, infatuated with the idea of
a temporal Messiah, who is to subdue the world, still wait for his
appearance.

The most remarkable periods in the history of the Jews are the call of
Abraham, the giving of the law by Moses, their establishment in Canaan
under Joshua, the building of the temple by Solomon, the division of the
tribes, their captivity in Babylon, their return under Zerubbabel and the
destruction of their city and temple by Titus, afterwards emperor, A. D.
70.

Maimonides, an illustrious rabbi, drew up for the Jews, in the eleventh
century, a confession of faith, which all Jews admit. It is as follows:—


    “1. I believe, with a true and perfect faith, that God is the
    Creator, whose name be blessed, Governor, and Maker, of all
    creatures, and that he hath wrought all things, worketh and shall
    work forever.

    “2. I believe, with a perfect faith, that the Creator, whose name
    be blessed, is _one_, and that such a unity as in him can be found
    in none other, and that he alone hath been our God, is, and
    forever shall be.

    “3. I believe, with a perfect faith, that the Creator, whose name
    be blessed, is not corporeal, nor to be comprehended with any
    bodily property, and that there is no bodily essence that can be
    likened unto him.

    “4. I believe, with a perfect faith, the Creator, whose name be
    blessed, to be the first and the last, that nothing was before
    him, and that he shall abide the last forever.

    “5. I believe, with a perfect faith, that the Creator, whose name
    be blessed, is to be worshipped, and none else.

    “6. I believe, with a perfect faith, that all the words of the
    prophets are true.

    “7. I believe, with a perfect faith, the prophecies of Moses, our
    master,— may he rest in peace;—that he was the father and chief of
    all wise men that lived before him, or ever shall live after him.

    “8. I believe, with a perfect faith, that all the law which at
    this day is found in our hands, was delivered by God himself to
    our master, Moses. God’s peace be with him.

    “9. I believe, with a perfect faith, that the same law is never to
    be changed, nor another to be given us of God, whose name be
    blessed.

    “10. I believe, with a perfect faith, that God, whose name be
    blessed, understandeth all the works and thoughts of men, as it is
    written in the prophets. He fashioneth their hearts alike; he
    understandeth all their works.

    “11. I believe, with a perfect faith, that God will recompense
    good to them that keep his commandments, and will punish them who
    transgress them.

    “12. I believe, with a perfect faith, that the Messiah is yet to
    come; and, although he retard his coming, yet I will wait for him
    till he come.

    “13. I believe, with a perfect faith, that the dead shall be
    restored to life, when it shall seem fit unto God the Creator,
    whose name be blessed, and memory celebrated, world without end.
    AMEN.”


This people constitute one of the most singular and interesting portions
of mankind. For about three thousand years, they have existed as a
distinct nation; and, what is remarkable, by far the greatest part of this
time they have been in bondage and captivity.

The calling of Abraham, the father and founder of this nation; the
legislation of Moses; the priesthood of Aaron: the Egyptian bondage; the
conquest of Canaan, and the history of the Jews to the coming of the
Messiah; their cruel and injurious treatment of this august and innocent
personage,—are facts which the Scriptures disclose, and with which, it is
presumed, every reader is well acquainted.

For about eighteen hundred years, this wonderful people have maintained
their peculiarities of religion, language, and domestic habits, among
Pagans, Mahometans, and Christians, and have suffered a continued series
of reproaches, privations, and miseries, which have excited the admiration
and astonishment of all who have reflected on their condition.

The siege and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, the Roman general, was
one of the most awful and distressing scenes that mortals ever witnessed;
and the details, as given by Josephus, are enough to make humanity
shudder. During the siege, which lasted nearly five months, upwards of
eleven hundred thousand Jews perished. John and Simon, the two generals of
the Hebrews, who were accounted the ringleaders of the rebellious nation,
with seven hundred of the most beautiful and vigorous of the Jewish youth,
were reserved to attend the victor’s triumphal chariot. The number taken
captive, during this fatal contest, amounted to ninety-seven thousand;
many of whom were sent into Syria, and the other provinces, to be exposed
in public theatres, to fight like gladiators, or to be devoured by wild
beasts. The number of those destroyed in the whole war, of which the
taking of the holy city was the bloody and tremendous consummation, is
computed to have been one million, four hundred and sixty thousand.

In addition to the terrors of the Roman sword, this devoted nation was
exposed to famine, pestilence, and the implacable fury of contending
parties among themselves, which all conspired together to make the siege
of Jerusalem surpass, in horror, every account of any other siege in the
records of the world.

A small portion, indeed, of this wretched, ruined nation were permitted to
remain, and establish themselves in Judea, who, by degrees, reorganized a
regular system of government, which became the centre of Jewish
operations, not only for those in Judea, but for such as were dispersed in
other nations. But the yoke of foreign masters was so grievous and
burdensome, that they were continually restless and impatient; and, in
consequence of a general revolt under the emperor Adrian, in 134, they
were a second time slaughtered in multitudes, and were driven to madness
and despair. Bither, the place of their greatest strength, was compelled
to surrender, and Barchochba, their leader, who pretended to be the
Messiah, was slain, and five hundred and eighty thousand fell by the sword
in battle, besides vast numbers who perished by famine, sickness, fire,
and other calamities.

Kings have enacted the severest laws against them, and employed the hand
of executioners to ruin them. The seditious multitudes, by murders and
massacres, have committed outrages against them, if possible, still more
violent and tragical. Besides their common share in the sufferings of
society, they have undergone a series of horrid and unutterable
calamities, which no other description of men has ever experienced in any
age, or in any country. Princes and people, Pagans, Mahometans, and
Christians, disagreeing in so many things, have united in the design of
exterminating this fugitive and wretched race, but have not succeeded.
They have been banished, at different times, from France, Germany, Spain,
Bohemia, Hungary, and England; and from some of these kingdoms they have
been banished and recalled many times in succession.

The Romans and Spaniards have probably done more than any other nations to
oppress and destroy this people; and the inquisition has doomed multitudes
of them to torture and death.

At different times, they were accused of poisoning wells, rivers, and
reservoirs of water, and, before any proof of these strange and malicious
charges was produced, the populace in many parts of Germany, Italy, and
France, have fallen upon them with merciless and murderous severity. At
one time, the German emperor found it necessary to issue an edict for
their banishment, to save them from the rage of his exasperated and
unrestrained subjects.

As the Jews have generally been the _bankers_ and _brokers_ of the people
among whom they have resided, and have made a show of much wealth, this
has tempted their avaricious adversaries to impose upon them enormous
taxes and ruinous fines.

Muley Archy, a prince of one of the Barbary states, by seizing the
property of a rich Jew, was enabled to dispossess his brother of the
throne of Morocco.

The English parliament of Northumberland, in 1188, for the support of a
projected war, assessed the Jews with 60,000 pounds, while only 70,000
were assessed upon the Christians; which proves either that the Jews were
immensely rich, or that the parliament was extremely tyrannical.

The English king John was unmercifully severe upon this afflicted people.
In 1210, regardless of the costly freedom he had sold them, he subjected
them all, as a body, to a fine of 60,000 marks. The ransom required by
this same unfeeling king, of a rich Jew of Bristol, was 10,000 marks of
silver; and on his refusing to pay this ruinous fine, he ordered one of
his teeth to be extracted every day; to which the unhappy man submitted
seven days, and on the eighth day he agreed to satisfy the king’s
rapacity. Isaac of Norwich was, not long after, compelled to pay a similar
fine. But the king, not satisfied with these vast sums extorted from these
injured Israelites, in the end confiscated all their property, and
expelled them from the kingdom.

About the beginning of the 16th century, the Jews in Persia were subjected
to a tax of two millions of gold. Long would be the catalogue of injuries
of this kind, which this outcast and hated nation has sustained. Numerous
are the cases in which those who have become deeply in debt to them for
borrowed money, have procured their banishment, and the confiscation of
their property, as the readiest way to cancel their demands; and, as they
have ever been addicted to usurious practices, they have, by this means,
furnished plausible pretexts to their foes to fleece and destroy them.

The fraternal disposition of this people led them to seek the society of
each other; and, notwithstanding the wideness of their dispersion, in
process of time, they, by uniting under different leaders, formed two
communities of considerable extent, known by the name of the eastern and
western Jews. The western Jews inhabited Egypt, Judea, Italy, and other
parts of the Roman empire; the eastern Jews settled in Babylon, Chaldea,
Persia, &c. The head of the western division was known by the name of the
patriarch, while he who presided over the eastern Jews, was called the
prince of the captivity. The office of patriarch was abolished, by
imperial laws, about 429, from which time the western Jews were solely
under the rule of the chiefs of their synagogues, whom they called
primates. But the princes of the captivity had a longer and more splendid
sway. They resided at Babylon, or Bagdad, and exercised an extensive
authority over their brethren, as far down as the 12th century. About this
period, a Jewish historian asserts that he found, at Bagdad, the prince of
the captivity, lineally descended from David, and permitted, by the
caliph, to exercise the rights of sovereignty over the Jews from Syria to
Indostan.

The existence of a succession of these imaginary potentates, from the
destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, the Jews have ever been strenuous
in maintaining, partly to aggrandize their nation, and partly to deprive
Christians of the benefit of an argument furnished by the prophecy of
Jacob, concerning the termination of the Jewish polity and independence,
soon after the coming of the Messiah.

Notwithstanding the world, in general, has shown a spirit of hostility and
contempt for the remnant of Israel, yet they have found a few, in every
age, who, either from motives of policy or justice, have treated them with
kindness and respect. The first Mahometan caliphs, a number of the Roman
pontiffs, and some of the Asiatic and European sovereigns, have shown them
friendship and protection. Don Solomon, a learned and illustrious Jew of
Portugal, in the 12th century, was raised to the highest military command
in that kingdom. Casimir the Great, of Poland, in the 14th century,
received the Jews as refugees into his kingdom, and granted them extensive
privileges; and from that time to the present, they have been more
numerous in that country than in any other in Europe.

For many centuries, this persecuted race found a favorite asylum in
Holland, and, by their dexterity and success in commerce, became very
affluent.

Cromwell, seeing the benefit which the Netherlands had derived from this
money-making and money-lending community, was very desirous to recall them
to England, from which they had been exiled about three hundred and fifty
years. The celebrated Manasses Ben Israel had many interviews with the
Protector; and so high were the expectations of the Israelites, from the
clemency and authority of this illustrious statesman, that they began to
look up to him as the promised Messiah. And, although Cromwell’s friendly
proposals, as to their recall, were overruled by the bigoted and
intolerant policy of the times, yet, from that period, they have found
favor and protection in England, and have been much more numerous and
prosperous there than formerly.

In France and the United States, the Jews are admitted to equal rights
with all other citizens, which cannot be said of any other nations in
Christendom. In the United States, they have acquired this freedom, of
course, with all other citizens of this free country. In France, they were
admitted to it by Bonaparte; and afterwards, in 1807, by his directions,
they convened a Grand Sanhedrim, consisting, according to ancient custom,
of 70 members, exclusive of the president. The number and distinction of
the spectators of this Sanhedrim greatly added to the solemnity of the
scene. This venerable assembly passed and agreed to various articles
respecting the Mosaic worship, and their civil and ecclesiastical
concerns.

The extreme aversion of the Jews to every thing which bears the Christian
name, and their obstinate attachment to their ancient religion, have, in
former years, discouraged all attempts to convert them to the Christian
faith. And not only has their conversion been neglected, but for many
centuries they have been persecuted, plundered, and destroyed, by those
who have called themselves Christians; they have not been permitted to
enter their churches as worshippers, nor their dwellings as guests, nor
reside in their territories, where Pagans and Mahometans have found an
unmolested abode. While we, then, blame the blindness and incredulity of
the descendants of Abraham, let us lament the folly and unkindness of the
professed disciples of the mild and compassionate Redeemer. But a
different spirit is now prevailing in many parts of Christendom, and a new
era, as to the tribes of Israel, seems about to burst upon the world.
Societies are formed in Europe and America for their benefit, and a
disposition is said to be increasing, among the Jews, favorable to that
Messiah and that religion which they have so long hated and rejected.

The history of this people certainly forms a striking evidence of the
truth of divine revelation. They are a living and perpetual miracle,
continuing to subsist as a distinct and peculiar race for upwards of three
thousand years, intermixed among almost all the nations of the world,
flowing forward in a full and continued stream, like the waters of the
Rhone, without mixing with the waves of the expansive lake through which
the passage lies to the ocean of eternity.



INDIAN RELIGIONS.


    “Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutored mind
    Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind;
    His soul proud science never taught to stray
    Far as the solar walk, or milky way;
    Yet simple nature to his hope has given,
    Behind the cloud-topped hill, an humbler heaven—
    Some safer world in depth of woods embraced,
    Some happier island in the watery waste,
    Where slaves once more their native land behold,
    No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold.
    To be, contents his natural desire;
    He asks no angel’s wing, no seraph’s fire;
    But thinks, admitted to that equal sky,
    His faithful dog will bear him company.”—POPE.


The natives of CANADA have an idea of the Supreme Being; and they all, in
general, agree in looking upon him as the First Spirit, and the Governor
and the Creator of the world. It is said that almost all the nations of
the Algonquin language give this Sovereign Being the appellation of the
Great Hare. Some, again, call him Michabou, and others Atahocan. Most of
them hold the opinion that he was born upon the waters, together with his
whole court, entirely composed of four-footed animals, like himself; that
he formed the earth of a grain of sand, which he took from the bottom of
the ocean; and that he created man of the bodies of the dead animals.
There are, likewise, some who mention a god of the waters, who opposed the
designs of the Great Hare, or, at least, refused to be assisting to him.
This god is, according to some, the Great Tiger. They have a third, called
Matcomek, whom they invoke in the winter season.

The Agreskoui of the Hurons, and the Agreskouse of the Iroquois, is, in
the opinion of these nations, the Sovereign Being, and the god of war.
These Indians do not give the same original to mankind with the
Algonquins; they do not ascend so high as the first creation. According to
them, there were, in the beginning, six men in the world; and, if you ask
them who placed them there, they answer you, they do not know.

The gods of the Indians have bodies, and live much in the same manner as
themselves, but without any of those inconveniences to which they are
subject. The word _spirit_, among them, signifies only a being of a more
excellent nature than others.

According to the Iroquois, in the third generation there came a deluge, in
which not a soul was saved; so that, in order to repeople the earth, it
was necessary to change beasts into men.

Beside the First Being, or the Great Spirit, they hold an infinite number
of genii, or inferior spirits, both good and evil, who have each their
peculiar form of worship.

They ascribe to these beings a kind of immensity and omnipresence, and
constantly invoke them as the guardians of mankind. But they never address
themselves to the evil genii, except to beg of them to do them no hurt.

They believe in the immortality of the soul, and say that the region of
their everlasting abode lies so far westward, that the souls are several
months in arriving at it, and have vast difficulties to surmount. The
happiness which they hope to enjoy is not believed to be the recompense of
virtue only; but to have been a good hunter, brave in war, &c., are the
merits which entitle them to this paradise, which they, and the other
American natives, figure as a delightful country, blessed with perpetual
spring, whose forests abound with game, whose rivers swarm with fish,
where famine is never felt, and uninterrupted plenty shall be enjoyed
without labor or toil.

The natives of NEW ENGLAND believed not only a plurality of gods, who made
and governed the several nations of the world, but they made deities of
every thing they imagined to be great, powerful, beneficial, or hurtful to
mankind. Yet they conceived an Almighty Being, who dwells in the
south-west regions of the heavens, to be superior to all the rest. This
Almighty Being they called Kichtan, who at first, according to their
tradition, made a man and woman out of a stone, but, upon some dislike,
destroyed them again; and then made another couple out of a tree, from
whom descended all the nations of the earth; but how they came to be
scattered and dispersed into countries so remote from one another, they
cannot tell. They believed their Supreme God to be a good being, and paid
a sort of acknowledgment to him for plenty, victory, and other benefits.

But there is another power, which they called _Hobamocko_, (the devil,) of
whom they stood in greater awe, and worshipped merely from a principle of
fear.

The immortality of the soul was universally believed among them. When good
men die, they said, their souls go to Kichtan, where they meet their
friends, and enjoy all manner of pleasures; when wicked men die, they go
to Kichtan also, but are commanded to walk away, and wander about in
restless discontent and darkness forever.

After the coming of the white people, the Indians in NEW JERSEY, who once
held a plurality of deities, supposed there were only three, because they
saw people of three kinds of complexion, viz., English, negroes, and
themselves.

It was a notion generally prevailing among them, that the same God who
made them did not make us, but that they were created after the white
people; and it is probable they supposed their God gained some special
skill by seeing the white people made, and so made them better; for it is
certain they considered themselves and their methods of living, which they
said their God expressly prescribed for them, vastly preferable to the
white people and their methods.

With regard to a future state of existence, many of them imagined that the
Chichung, i. e., the shadow, or what survives the body, will, at death, go
southward, to some unknown, but curious place,—will enjoy some kind of
happiness, such as hunting, feasting, dancing, or the like; and what they
suppose will contribute much to their happiness in the next state, is,
that they shall never be weary of these entertainments.

Those who have any notion about rewards and sufferings in a future state,
seem to imagine that most will be happy, and that in the delightful
fields, chasing the game, or reposing themselves with their families; but
the poor, frozen sinners cannot stir one step towards that sunny region.
Nevertheless, their misery has an end; it is longer or shorter, according
to the degree of their guilt; and, after its expiation, they are permitted
to become inhabitants of the Indian paradise.

The Indians of VIRGINIA gave the names of _Okee_, _Quioccos_, or _Kiwasa_,
to the idol which they worshipped. These names might possibly be so many
epithets, which they varied according to the several functions they
ascribed to this deity, or the different notions they might form to
themselves of it in their religious exercises and common discourses.
Moreover, they were of opinion that this idol is not one sole being, but
that there were many more of the same nature, besides the tutelary gods.
They gave the general name of Quioccos to all these genii, or beings, so
that the name of Kiwasa might be particularly applied to the idol in
question.

These savages consecrated chapels and oratories to this deity, in which
the idol was often represented under a variety of shapes. They even kept
some of these in the most retired parts of their houses, to whom they
communicated their affairs, and consulted them upon occasion. In this
case, they made use of them in the quality of tutelary gods, from whom
they supposed they received blessings on their families.

The sacerdotal vestment of their priests was like a woman’s petticoat
plaited, which they put about their necks, and tied over the right
shoulder; but they always kept one arm out, to use it as occasion
required. This cloak was made round at bottom, and descended no lower than
the middle of the thigh; it was made of soft, well-dressed skins, with the
hair outwards.

These priests shaved their heads close, the crown excepted, where they
left only a little tuft, that reached from the top of the forehead to the
nape of the neck, and even on the top of the forehead. They here left a
border of hair, which, whether it was owing to nature, or the stiffness
contracted by the fat and colors with which they daubed themselves,
bristled up, and came forward like the corner of a square cap.

The natives of Virginia had a great veneration for their priests; and the
latter endeavored to procure it, by daubing themselves all over in a very
frightful manner, dressing themselves in a very odd habit, and tricking up
their hair after a very whimsical manner. Every thing they said was
considered as an oracle, and made a strong impression on the minds of the
people; they often withdrew from society, and lived in woods or in huts,
far removed from any habitation. They were difficult of access, and did
not give themselves any trouble about provisions, because care was always
taken to set food for them near their habitations. They were always
addressed in cases of great necessity. They also acted in the quality of
physicians, because of the great knowledge they were supposed to have of
nature. In fine, peace or war was determined by their voice; nor was any
thing of importance undertaken without first consulting them.

They had not any stated times nor fixed days, on which they celebrated
their festivals, but they regulated them only by the different seasons of
the year; as, for instance, they celebrated one day at the arrival of
their wild birds, another upon the return of the hunting season, and for
the maturity of their fruits; but the greatest festival of all was at
harvest time. They then spent several days in diverting themselves, and
enjoyed most of their amusements, such as martial dances and heroic songs.

After their return from war, or escaping some danger, they lighted fires,
and made merry about them, each having his gourd-bottle, or his little
bell, in his hand. Men, women, and children, often danced in a confused
manner about these fires. Their devotions, in general, consisted only of
acclamations of joy, mixed with dances and songs, except in seasons of
sorrow and affliction, when they were changed into howlings. The priests
presided at this solemnity, dressed in their sacerdotal ornaments, part of
which were the gourd-bottle, the petticoat above mentioned, and the
serpents’ or weasels’ skins, the tails of which were dexterously tied upon
their heads like a tiara, or triple crown. These priests began the song,
and always opened the religious exercise, to which they often added
incantations, part of the mysteries of which were comprehended in the
songs. The noise, the gestures, the wry faces, in a word, every thing,
contributed to render these incantations terrible.



DEISTS.


The Deists believe in a God, but reject a written revelation from him.
They are extravagant in their encomiums on natural religion, though they
differ much respecting its nature, extent, obligation, and importance. Dr.
Clarke, in his treatise on Deism, divides them into four classes,
according to the number of articles comprised in their creed.

The first are such as pretend to believe the existence of in eternal,
infinite, independent, intelligent Being, and who, to avoid the name of
Epicurean Atheists, teach also that this Supreme Being made the world;
though, at the same time, they agree with the Epicureans in this—that they
fancy God does not at all concern himself in the government of the world,
nor has any regard to, or care of, what is done therein.

The second sort of Deists are those who believe not only the being, but
also the providence, of God, with respect to the _natural_ world, but who,
not allowing any difference between moral good and evil, deny that God
takes any notice of the morally good or evil actions of men; these things
depending, as they imagine, on the arbitrary constitution of human laws.

A third sort of Deists there are, who, having right apprehensions
concerning the natural attributes of God and his all-governing providence,
and some notion of his moral perfections also, yet, being prejudiced
against the notion of the immortality of the soul, believe that men perish
entirely at death, and that one generation shall perpetually succeed
another, without any further restoration or renovation of things.

A fourth and last sort of Deist are such as believe the existence of a
Supreme Being, together with his providence in the government of the
world; also all the obligations of natural religion, but so far only as
these things are discoverable by the light of nature alone, without
believing any divine revelation.

These, the learned author observes, are the only true Deists; but, as
their principles would naturally lead them to embrace the Christian
revelation, he concludes there is now no consistent scheme of Deism in the
world. Dr. Clarke then adds, “The heathen philosophers—those few of them
who taught and lived up to the obligations of natural religion—had,
indeed, a consistent scheme of Deism, as far as it went. But the case is
not so now; the same scheme is not any longer consistent with its own
principles; it does not now lead men to embrace revelation, as it then
taught them to hope for it. Deists in our days, who reject revelation when
offered to them, are not such men as Socrates and Cicero were; but, under
pretence of Deism, it is plain they are generally ridiculers of all that
is truly excellent in natural religion itself. Their trivial and vain
cavils; their mocking and ridiculing without and before examination; their
directing the whole stress of objections against particular customs, or
particular and perhaps uncertain opinions or explications of opinions,
without at all considering the main body of religion; their loose, vain,
and frothy discourses; and, above all, their vicious and immoral
lives,—show, plainly and undeniably, that they are not real Deists, but
mere Atheists, and, consequently, not capable to judge of the truth of
Christianity.”

Dr. Paley observes, “Of what a revelation discloses to mankind, one, and
only one, question can be properly asked.—Was it of importance to mankind
to know or to be better assured of? In this question, when we turn our
thoughts to the great Christian doctrine of a resurrection from the dead
and a future judgment, no doubt can be possibly entertained. He who gives
me riches or honors does nothing; he who even gives me health, does little
in comparison with that which lays before me just grounds for expecting a
restoration to life, and a day of account and retribution, which thing
Christianity hath done for millions.”



ATHEISTS.


The Atheists are those who deny the existence of God; this is called
_speculative_ Atheism. Professing to believe in God, and yet acting
contrary to this belief, is called _practical_ Atheism. Absurd and
irrational as Atheism is, it has had its votaries and martyrs. In the
seventeenth century, Spinosa was its noted defender. Lucilio Venini, a
native of Naples also publicly taught Atheism in France; and, being
convicted of it at Toulouse, was condemned and executed in 1619. It has
been questioned, however, whether any man ever seriously adopted such a
principle.

Archbishop Tillotson says, “I appeal to any man of reason, whether any
thing can be more unreasonable than obstinately to impute an effect to
chance, which carries in the very face of it all the arguments and
characters of a wise design and contrivance. Was ever any considerable
work in which there were required a great variety of parts, and a regular
and orderly disposition of those parts, done by chance? Will chance fit
means to ends, and that in ten thousand instances, and not fail in any
one? How often might a man, after he had jumbled a set of letters in a
bag, fling them out upon the ground, before they would fall into an exact
poem! yea, or so much as make a good discourse in prose! And may not a
little book be as easily made by chance as the great volume of the world?
How long might a man be in sprinkling colors upon canvass with a careless
hand, before they would happen to make the exact picture of a man! And is
a man easier made by chance than his picture? How long might twenty
thousand blind men, who should be sent out from several remote parts of
England, wander up and down before they would all meet upon Salisbury
Plain, and fall into rank and file in the exact order of an army! And yet
this is much more easy to be imagined than how the innumerable blind parts
of matter should rendezvous themselves into a world. A man that sees Henry
the Seventh’s chapel at Westminster, might with as good reason maintain
(yea, with much better, considering the vast difference betwixt that
little structure and the huge fabric of the world) that it was never
contrived or built, by any means, but that the stones did by chance grow
into those curious figures into which they seem to have been cut and
graven; and that, upon a time, (as tales usually begin,) the materials of
that building—the stone, mortar, timber, iron, lead, and glass—happily met
together, and very fortunately ranged themselves into that delicate order
in which we see them now, so close compacted, that it must be a very great
chance that parts them again. What would the world think of a man that
should advance such an opinion as this, and write a book for it? If they
would do him right, they ought to look upon him as mad; but yet with a
little more reason than any man can have to say that the world was made by
chance, or that the first men grew up out of the earth as plants do now.
For can any thing be more ridiculous, and against all reason, than to
ascribe the production of men to the first fruitfulness of the earth,
without so much as one instance and experiment, in any age or history, to
countenance so monstrous a supposition? The thing is, at first sight, so
gross and palpable, that no discourse about it can make it more apparent.
And yet these shameful beggars of principles give this precarious account
of the original of things; assume to themselves to be the men of reason,
the great wits of the world, the only cautious and wary persons, that hate
to be imposed upon, that must have convincing evidence for every thing,
and can admit of nothing without a clear demonstration of it.”

Lord Bacon remarks, that “A _little_ philosophy inclineth a man’s mind to
Atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men’s minds about to religion;
for, while the mind of man looketh upon second causes scattered, it may
rest in them, and go no farther; but when it beholdeth _the chain_ of them
confederated and linked together, it must needs fly to Providence and
Deity.”



PANTHEISTS.


Abner Kneeland’s “Philosophical Creed,” as he terms it, is probably a good
definition of the views of those who consider the universe as an immense
animal,


    “Whose body nature is, and God the soul.”


Mr. Kneeland says, “I believe in the existence of a universe of suns and
planets, among which there is one sun belonging to our planetary system,
and that other suns, being more remote, are called stars; but that they
are indeed suns to other planetary systems. I believe that the whole
universe is NATURE, and that the word NATURE embraces the whole universe,
and that God and Nature, so far as we can attach any rational idea to
either, are perfectly synonymous terms. Hence I am not an Atheist, but a
PANTHEIST; that is, instead of believing there is no God, I believe that,
in the abstract, all is God; and that all power that is, is in God, and
that there is no power except that which proceeds from God. I believe that
there can be no will or intelligence where there is no sense, and no sense
where there are no organs of sense; and hence sense, will, and
intelligence, is the effect, and not the cause, of organization. I believe
in all that logically results from those premises, whether good, bad, or
indifferent. Hence I believe that God is all in all; and that it is in God
we live, move, and have our being; and that the whole duty of man consists
in living as long as he can, and in promoting as much happiness as he can
while he lives.”



MAHOMETANS.


Mahometanism is a scheme of religion formed and propagated by _Mahomet_,
who was born at Mecca, A. D. 569, and died at Medina, in 632.

His system is a compound of Paganism, Judaism, and Christianity; and the
Koran, which is their Bible, is held in great reverence. It is replete
with absurd representations, and is supposed to have been written by a
Jew. The most eloquent passage is allowed to be the following, where God
is introduced, bidding the waters of the deluge to cease:—“Earth, swallow
up the waters; heaven, draw up those thou hast poured out; immediately the
waters retreated, the command of God was obeyed, the ark rested on the
mountains, and these words were heard—‘Woe to the wicked!’ ”

This religion is still professed and adhered to by the Turks and Persians,
and by several nations in Asia and Africa. The best statistical writers
estimate the number of Mahometans in the world at about one hundred and
forty millions.

Mahomet descended from an honorable tribe, and from the noblest family of
that tribe; yet his original lot was poverty. By his good conduct, he
obtained the hand of a widow of wealth and respectability, and was soon
raised to an equality with the richest people in Mecca.

Soon after his marriage, he formed the scheme of establishing a new
religion, or, as he expressed it, of replanting the only true and ancient
one professed by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and all the prophets,
by destroying the gross idolatry into which most of his countrymen had
fallen, and weeding out the corruptions and superstitions which the later
Jews and Christians had, as he thought, introduced into their religion,
and reducing it to its original purity, which consisted chiefly in the
worship of one God.

The Mahometans divide their religion into two general parts, faith and
practice, of which the first is divided into six distinct branches—belief
in God, in his angels, in his Scriptures, in his prophets, in the
resurrection and final judgment, and in God’s absolute decrees. The points
relating to practice are, prayer, with washings, alms, fasting, pilgrimage
to Mecca, and circumcision.

They believe that both Mahomet and those among his followers who are
reckoned orthodox, had, and continue to have, just and true notions of
God, and that his attributes appear so plain from the Koran itself, and
all the Mahometan divines, that it would be loss of time to refute those
who suppose the God of Mahomet to be different from the true God, and only
a fictitious deity, or idol of his own creation.

They believe that the existence of angels, and their purity, are
absolutely required to be believed in the Koran; and he is reckoned an
infidel who denies there are such beings, or hates any of them, or asserts
any distinction of sexes among them. They believe them to have pure and
subtile bodies, created of fire; that they neither eat, drink, nor
propagate their species; that they have various forms and offices, some
adoring God in different postures, others singing praises to him, or
interceding for mankind. They hold that some of them are employed in
writing down the actions of men, others in carrying the throne of God, and
other services.

As to the Scriptures, the Mahometans are taught by the Koran, that God, in
divers ages of the world, gave revelations of his will in writing to
several prophets, the whole and every one of which it is absolutely
necessary for a good Moslem to believe. The number of these sacred books
were, according to them, one hundred and four; of which ten were given to
Adam, fifty to Seth, thirty to Edris or Enoch, ten to Abraham, and the
other four, being the Pentateuch, the Psalms, the Gospel, and the Koran,
were successively delivered to Moses, David, Jesus, and Mahomet; which
last being the seal of the prophets, those revelations are now closed, and
no more are to be expected. All these divine books, except the four last,
they agree now to be entirely lost, and their contents unknown, though the
Sabians have several books which they attribute to some of the
antediluvian prophets. And of those four, the Pentateuch, Psalms, and
Gospel, they say, have undergone so many alterations and corruptions,
that, though there may possibly be some part of the true word of God
therein, yet no credit is to be given to the present copies in the hands
of the Jews and Christians.

They believe that the number of the prophets which have been from time to
time sent by God into the world, amounts to no less than 224,000,
according to one Mahometan tradition; or to 124,000, according to another;
among whom 313 were apostles, sent with special commissions to reclaim
mankind from infidelity and superstition; and six of them brought new laws
or dispensations, which successively abrogated the preceding: these were
Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mahomet. All the prophets in
general the Mahometans believe to have been freed from great sins and
errors of consequence, and professors of one and the same religion, that
is, Islamism, notwithstanding the different laws and institutions which
they observed. They allow of degrees among them, and hold some of them to
be more excellent and honorable than others. The first place they give to
the revealers and establishes of new dispensations, and the next to the
apostles.

They believe in a general resurrection and a future judgment.

The time of the resurrection the Mahometans allow to be a perfect secret
to all but God alone; the angel Gabriel himself acknowledging his
ignorance in this point, when Mahomet asked him about it. However, they
say the approach of that day may be known from certain signs which are to
precede it.

After the examination is past, and every one’s work weighed in a just
balance, they say that mutual retaliation will follow, according to which
every creature will take vengeance one of another, or have satisfaction
made them for the injuries which they have suffered. And, since there will
then be no other way of returning like for like, the manner of giving this
satisfaction will be by taking away a proportional part of the good works
of him who offered the injury, and adding it to those of him who suffered
it; which being done, if the angels (by whose ministry this is to be
performed) say, “_Lord we have given to every one his due, and there
remaineth of this person’s good works so much as equalleth the weight of
an ant,_” God will, of his mercy, cause it to be doubled unto him, that he
may be admitted into paradise; but if, on the contrary, his good works be
exhausted, and there remain evil works only, and there be any who have not
yet received satisfaction from him, God will order that an equal weight of
their sins be added unto his, that he may be punished for them in their
stead, and he will be sent to hell laden with both. This will be the
method of God’s dealing with mankind. As to brutes, after they shall have
likewise taken vengeance of one another, he will command them to be
changed into dust; wicked men being reserved to more grievous punishment,
so that they shall cry out, on hearing this sentence passed on the brutes,
“_Would to God that we were dust also!_”

The trials being over, and the assembly dissolved, the Manometans hold
that those who are to be admitted into paradise will take the right hand
way, and those who are destined into hell-fire will take the left; but
both of them must first pass the bridge called in Arabic _al Sirat_,
which, they say, is laid over the midst of hell, and described to be finer
than a hair, and sharper than the edge of a sword; so that it seems very
difficult to conceive how any one shall be able to stand upon it; for
which reason most of the sect of the Motazalites reject it as a fable;
though the orthodox think it a sufficient proof of the truth of this
article, that it was seriously affirmed by him who never asserted a
falsehood, meaning their prophet, who, to add to the difficulty of the
passage, has likewise declared that this bridge is beset on each side with
briers and hooked thorns, which will, however, be no impediment to the
good; for they shall pass with wonderful ease and swiftness, like
lightning, or the wind, Mahomet, and his Moslems leading the way; whereas
the wicked, what with the slipperiness and extreme narrowness of the path,
the entangling of the thorns, and the extinction of the light which
directed the former to paradise, will soon miss their footing, and fall
down headlong into hell, which is gaping beneath them.

As to the punishment of the wicked, the Mahometans are taught that hell is
divided into seven stories or apartments, one below another, designed for
the reception of as many distinct classes of the damned.

The first, which they call _Jehenan_, they say, will be the receptacle of
those who acknowledged one God, that is, the wicked Mahometans; who, after
having been punished according to their demerits, will at length be
released; the second, named _Ladha_, they assign to the Jews; the third,
named _al Hotama_, to the Christians; the fourth, named _al Sair_, to the
Sabians; the fifth; named _Sakar_, to the Magians; the sixth, named _al
Jahin_, to the idolaters; and the seventh, which is the lowest and worst
of all, and is called _al Howyat_, to the hypocrites, or those who
outwardly professed some religion, but in their hearts were of none. Over
each of these apartments they believe there will be set a guard of angels,
nineteen in number; to whom the damned will confess the just judgment of
God, and beg them to intercede with him for some alleviation of their
pain, or that they may be delivered by being annihilated.

Mahomet has, in his Koran and traditions, been very exact in describing
the various torments of hell, which, according to him, the wicked will
suffer, both from intense heat and excessive cold. The degrees of these
pains will also vary in proportion to the crimes of the sufferer, and the
apartment he is condemned to; and he who is punished the most lightly of
all will be shod with shoes of fire, the fervor of which will cause his
skull to boil like a caldron. The condition of these unhappy wretches, as
the same prophet teaches, cannot be properly called either _life_ or
_death_; and their misery will be greatly increased by their despair of
being ever delivered from that place, since, according to that frequent
expression in the Koran, _they must remain therein forever_. It must be
remarked, however, that the infidels alone will be liable to eternity of
damnation; for the Moslems, or those who have embraced the true religion,
and have been guilty of heinous sins, will be delivered thence after they
shall have expiated their crimes by their sufferings. The time which these
believers shall be detained there, according to a tradition handed down
from their prophet, will not be less than nine hundred years, nor more
than seven thousand. And, as to the manner of their delivery, they say
that they shall be distinguished by the marks of prostration on those
parts of their bodies with which they used to touch the ground in prayer,
and over which the fire will therefore have no power; and that, being
known by this characteristic, they will be released by the mercy of God,
at the intercession of Mahomet and the blessed whereupon those who shall
have been dead will be restored to life, as has been said; and those whose
bodies shall have contracted any sootiness or filth, from the flames and
smoke of hell, will be immersed in one of the rivers of paradise, called
the _River of Life_, which will wash them whiter than pearls.

The righteous, as the Mahometans are taught to believe, having surmounted
the difficulties, and passed the sharp bridge above mentioned, before they
enter paradise, will be refreshed by drinking at the _Pond_ of their
prophet, who describes it to be an exact square, of a month’s journey in
compass; its water, which is supplied by two pipes from al Cawthay, one of
the rivers of paradise, being whiter than milk or silver, and more
odoriferous than musk, with as many cups set round it as there are stars
in the firmament; of which water whoever drinks will thirst no more
forever. This is the first taste which the blessed will have of their
future and now near-approaching felicity.

Though paradise be so very frequently mentioned in the Koran, yet it is a
dispute among the Mahometans, whether it be already created, or to be
created hereafter; the Motazalites and some other sectaries asserting that
there is not at present any such place in nature, and that the paradise
which the righteous will inhabit in the next life will be different from
that from which Adam was expelled. However, the orthodox profess the
contrary, maintaining that it was created even before the world, and
describe it from their prophet’s traditions in the following manner:—

They say it is situated in the seventh heaven, and next under the throne
of God; and, to express the amenity of the place, tell us that the earth
of it is of the finest wheat-flour, or of the purest mask, or, as others
will have it, of saffron; that its stones are pearls and jacinths, the
walls of its building enriched with gold and silver, and that the trunks
of all its trees are of gold; among which the most remarkable is the tree
called _tuba_, or the tree of happiness. Concerning this tree, they fable
that it stands in the palace of Mahomet though a branch of it will reach
to the house of every true believer; that it will be laden with
pomegranates, grapes, dates, and other fruits of surprising bigness, and
of tastes unknown to mortals; so that, if a man desire to eat of any
particular kind of fruit, it will immediately be presented him; or, if he
choose flesh, birds ready dressed will be set before him, according to his
wish. They add that the boughs of this tree will spontaneously bend down
to the hand of the person who would gather of its fruits, and that it will
supply the blessed not only with food, but also with silken garments, and
beasts to ride on ready saddled and bridled, and adorned with rich
trappings, which will burst forth from its fruits; and that this tree is
so large, that a person mounted on the fleetest horse, would not be able
to gallop from one end of its shade to the other in one hundred years.

As plenty of water is one of the greatest additions to the pleasantness of
any place, the Koran often speaks of the rivers of paradise as a principal
ornament thereof: some of these rivers, they say, flow with water, some
with milk, some with wine, and others with honey; all taking their rise
from the root of the tree tuba.

But all these glories will be eclipsed by the resplendent and ravishing
girls of paradise, called, from their large black eyes, _Hur al oyun_, the
enjoyment of whose company will be a principal felicity of the faithful.
These, they say, are created, not of clay, as mortal women are, but of
pure musk; being, as their prophet often affirms in his Koran, free from
all natural impurities, of the strictest modesty, and secluded from public
view in pavilions of hollow pearls, so large that, as some traditions have
it, one of them will be no less than sixty miles square.

The name which the Mahometans usually give to this happy mansion is _al
Jannat_, or “the Garden;” and sometimes they call it the “Garden of
Paradise,” the “Garden of Eden,” the “Garden of Abode,” the “Garden of
Pleasure,” and the like; by which several appellations some understand so
many different gardens, or at least places of different degrees of
felicity, (for they reckon no less than one hundred such in all,) the very
meanest whereof will afford its inhabitants so many pleasures and
delights, that one would conclude they must even sink under them, had not
Mahomet declared that, in order to qualify the blessed for a full
enjoyment of them, God will give to every one the abilities of one hundred
men.

The orthodox doctrine is, that whatever hath or shall come to pass in this
world, whether it be good or whether it be bad, proceedeth entirely from
the divine will, and is irrevocably fixed and recorded from all eternity
in the preserved table; God having secretly predetermined not only the
adverse and prosperous fortune of every person in this world, in the most
minute particulars, but also his faith or infidelity, his obedience or
disobedience, and consequently his everlasting happiness or misery after
death; which fate or predestination it is not possible by any foresight or
wisdom to avoid.

The pilgrimage to Mecca is so necessary a point of practice, that,
according to a tradition of Mahomet, he who dies without performing it,
may as well die a Jew or a Christian; and the same is expressly commanded
in the Koran.

What is principally reverenced in Mecca, and gives sanctity to the whole,
is a square stone building, called the _Caaba_. Before the time of
Mahomet, this temple was a place of worship for the idolatrous Arabs, and
is said to have contained no less than three hundred and sixty different
images, equalling in number the days of the Arabian year. They were all
destroyed by Mahomet, who sanctified the Caaba, and appointed it to be the
chief place of worship for all true believers. The Mussulmen pay so great
a veneration to it, that they believe a single sight of its sacred walls,
without any particular act of devotion, is as meritorious in the sight of
God as the most careful discharge of one’s duty, for the space of a whole
year, in any other temple.

The Mahometans have an established priesthood and a numerous body of
clergymen: their spiritual head, in Turkey, whose power is not inferior to
the Roman Pontiff, or the Grecian Patriarch, is denominated the _Mufti_,
and is regarded as the oracle of sanctity and wisdom. Their houses of
worship are denominated mosques, many of which are very magnificent, and
very richly endowed. The revenues of some of the royal mosques are said to
amount to the enormous sum of 60,000 pounds sterling. In the city of Fez,
the capital of the emperor of Morocco, there are near one thousand
mosques, fifty of which are built in a most magnificent style, supported
by marble pillars. The circumference of the grand mosque is near a mile
and a half, in which near a thousand lamps are lighted every night. The
Mahometan priests, who perform the rites of their public worship, are
called _Imams_; and they have a set of ministers called _Sheiks_, who
preach every _Friday_, the Mahometan Sabbath, much in the manner of
Christian preachers. They seldom touch upon points of controversy in their
discourses, but preach upon moral duties, upon the dogmas and ceremonies
of their religion, and declaim against vice, luxury, and corruption of
manners.

The rapid success which attended the propagation of this new religion was
owing to causes that are plain and evident, and must remove, or rather
prevent, our surprise, when they are attentively considered. The terror of
Mahomet’s arms, and the repeated victories which were gained by him and
his successors, were, no doubt, the irresistible arguments that persuaded
such multitudes to embrace his religion, and submit to his dominion.
Besides, his law was artfully and marvellously adapted to the corrupt
nature of man, and, in a most particular manner, to the manners and
opinions of the Eastern nations, and the vices to which they were
naturally addicted; for the articles of faith which it proposed were few
in number, and extremely simple; and the duties it required were neither
many nor difficult, nor such as were incompatible with the empire of
appetites and passions. It is to be observed, further, that the gross
ignorance under which the Arabians, Syrians, Persians, and the greatest
part, of the Eastern nations, labored at this time, rendered many an easy
prey to the artifice and eloquence of this bold adventurer. To these
causes of the progress of Mahometanism we may add the bitter dissensions
and cruel animosities that reigned among the Christian sects—dissensions
that filled a great part of the East with carnage, assassinations, and
such detestable enormities as rendered the very name of Christianity
odious to many. Other causes of the sudden progress of that religion will
naturally occur to such as consider attentively its spirit and genius, and
the state of the world at this time.

To show the subtlety of Mahomet’s mind, and the extreme ignorance of his
followers, we give the story of that impostor’s night journey from Mecca
to Jerusalem, and from thence to heaven.

The story, as related in the Koran, and believed by the Mahometans, is
this: “At night, as he lay in his bed, with his best beloved wife Ayesha,
he heard a knocking at his door; upon which, arising, he found there the
angel Gabriel, with seventy pair of wings, expanded from his sides, whiter
than snow, and clearer than crystal, and the beast Alborak standing by
him; which, they say, is the beast on which the prophets used to ride,
when they were carried from one place to another, upon the execution of
any divine command. Mahomet describes it to be a beast as white as milk,
and of a mixed nature, between an ass and a mule, and also of a size
between both; but of such extraordinary swiftness as to equal even
lightning itself.

“As soon as Mahomet appeared at the door, the angel Gabriel kindly
embraced him, saluted him in the name of God, and told him that he was
sent to bring him unto God, into heaven, where he should see strange
mysteries, which were not lawful to be seen by any other man. He prayed
him, then, to get upon Alborak; but the beast, having lain idle and
unemployed from the time of Christ to Mahomet, was grown so mettlesome and
skittish, that he would not stand still for Mahomet to mount him, till at
length he was forced to bribe him to it by promising him a place in
paradise. When he was firmly seated on him, the angel Gabriel led the way,
with the bridle of the beast in his hand, and carried the prophet from
Mecca to Jerusalem in the twinkling of an eye. On his coming thither, all
the departed prophets and saints appeared at the gate of the temple to
salute him, and, thence attending him into the chief oratory, desired him
to pray for them, and then withdrew. After this, Mahomet went out of the
temple with the angel Gabriel, and found a ladder of light, ready fixed
for them, which they immediately ascended, leaving Alborak tied to a rock
till their return.

“On their arrival at the first heaven, the angel knocked at the gate; and,
informing the porter who he was, and that he had brought Mahomet, the
friend of God, he was immediately admitted. This first heaven, he tells
us, was all of pure silver; from whence he saw the stars hanging from it
by chains of gold, each as big as Mount Noho, near Mecca, in Arabia. On
his entrance, he met a decrepit old man, who, it seems, was our first
father, Adam; and, as he advanced, he saw a multitude of angels in all
manner of shapes—in the shape of birds, beasts, and men. We must not
forget to observe that Adam had the piety immediately to embrace the
prophet, giving God thanks for so great a son, and then recommended
himself to his prayers. From this first heaven he tells us that he
ascended into the second, which was at the distance of five hundred years’
journey above it, and this he makes to be the distance of every one of the
seven heavens, each above the other. Here the gates being opened to him as
before, at his entrance he met Noah, who, rejoicing much at the sight of
him, recommended himself to his prayers. This heaven was all of pure gold,
and there were twice as many angels in it as in the former; for he tells
us that the number of angels in every heaven increased as he advanced.
From this second heaven he ascended into the third, which was made of
precious stones, where he met Abraham, who also recommended himself to his
prayers; Joseph, the son of Jacob, did the same in the fourth heaven,
which was all of emerald; Moses in the fifth, which was all of adamant;
and John the Baptist in the sixth, which was all of carbuncle; whence he
ascended into the seventh, which was of divine light; and here he found
Jesus Christ. However, it is observed that here he alters his style; for
he does not say that Jesus Christ recommended himself to his prayers, but
that he recommended himself to the prayers of Jesus Christ.

“The angel Gabriel, having brought him thus far, told him that he was not
permitted to attend him any farther, and therefore directed him to ascend
the rest of the way to the throne of God by himself. This he performed
with great difficulty, passing through rough and dangerous places, till he
came where he heard a voice saying unto him, ‘O Mahomet, salute thy
Creator;’ whence ascending higher, he came into a place where he saw a
vast expansion of light, so exceedingly bright, that his eyes could not
bear it. This, it seems, was the habitation of the Almighty, where his
throne was placed; on the right side of which, he says, God’s name and his
own were written in these Arabic words: ‘La ellah ellallah Mahomet reful
ollah;’ that is, ‘THERE IS NO GOD BUT GOD, AND MAHOMET IS HIS PROPHET,’
which is at this day the creed of the Mahometans. Being approached to the
divine presence, he tells us that God entered into a familiar converse
with him, revealed to him many hidden mysteries, made him understand the
whole of his law, gave him many things in charge concerning his
instructing men in the knowledge of it, and, in conclusion, bestowed on
him several privileges above the rest of mankind. He then returned, and
found the angel Gabriel waiting for him in the place where he left him.
The angel led him back along the seven heavens, through which he had
brought him, and set him again upon the beast Alborak, which stood tied to
the rock near Jerusalem. Then he conducted him back to Mecca, in the same
manner as he brought him thence; and all this within the space of the
tenth part of one night.”

                  -------------------------------------

Dr. Joseph White thus concludes one of his discourses on Mahometanism:
“What raises Christ and his religion far above all the fictions of
Mahomet, is that awful alternative of hopes and fears, that looking-for of
judgment, which our Christian faith sets before us. At that day, when
time, the great arbiter of truth and falsehood, shall bring to pass the
accomplishment of the ages, and the Son of God shall make his enemies his
footstool,—then shall the deluded followers of the great Impostor,
disappointed of the expected intercession of their prophet, stand
trembling and dismayed at the approach of the glorified Messiah. Then
shall they say, ‘Yonder cometh in the clouds that Jesus whose religion we
labored to destroy; whose temples we profaned; whose servants and
followers we cruelly oppressed! Behold, he cometh, but no longer the
humble son of Mary; no longer a mere mortal prophet, the equal of Abraham,
and of Moses, as that deceiver taught us, but the everlasting Son of the
everlasting Father; the Judge of mankind; the Sovereign of angels; the
Lord of all things, both in earth and in heaven!’ ”



SIMONIANS.


An infidel sect, organized in France, some years since, whose fundamental
principle is, that religion is to perfect the social condition of man;
therefore Christianity is no longer suitable for society, because it
separates the Christian from other men, and leads him to live for another
world. The world requires a religion that shall be of this world, and,
consequently, a God of this world. They reject whatever they suppose to
have been derived from the philosophy of the East; they consider the Deity
neither as spirit nor matter, but as including the whole universe, and are
thus plainly Pantheists; and they regard evil as nothing more than an
indication of the progress which mankind are doomed make, in order to be
freed from it; in itself, they maintain it is nothing. Its members are
principally of the higher ranks, and display, not without success, the
greatest activity in spreading the venom of their infidel principles. They
occupy, in Paris, the largest and most handsomely fitted halls, where they
meet in great numbers.

What is very curious in the history of the Simonians is, that they were,
at first, merely philosophers, and not at all the founders of a religion.
They spoke of science and industry, but not of religious doctrines. All at
once, however, it seemed to occur to them to teach a religion. Then their
school became a church, and their association a sect. It is evident that,
with them, religion was not originally the end of their institution, but
has been employed by them as the means of collecting a greater number of
hearers.



PAGANS.


A general term, applied to heathen idolaters, who worship false gods, and
are not acquainted either with the doctrines of the Old Testament or the
Christian dispensation. The worship of the Grand Lama is of the most
extensive and splendid character among the Pagan idolaters. This extends
all over Thibet and Mongolia, is almost universal in Bucharia and several
provinces of Tartary; it has followers in Cashmere, and is the predominant
religion of China.

The Grand Lama is a name given to the sovereign pontiff, or high priest,
of the Thibetian Tartars, who resides at Patoli, a vast palace on a
mountain, near the banks of Burhampooter, about seven miles from Lahassa.
The foot of this mountain is inhabited by twenty thousand Lamas, or
priests, who have their separate apartments round about the mountain, and,
according to their respective quality, are placed nearer or at a greater
distance from the sovereign pontiff. He is not only the sovereign pontiff,
the vicegerent of the Deity on earth, but the more remote Tartars are said
to absolutely regard him as the Deity himself, and call him _God, the
everlasting Father of heaven_. They believe him to be immortal, and
endowed with all knowledge and virtue. Every year they come up, from
different parts, to worship, and make rich offerings at his shrine. Even
the emperor of China, who is a Manchou Tartar, does not fail in
acknowledgments to him, in his religious capacity, and actually
entertains, at a great expense, in the palace of Pekin, an inferior Lama,
deputed as his nuncio from Thibet. The Grand Lama, it has been said, is
never to be seen but in a secret place of his palace, amidst a great
number of lamps, sitting cross-legged upon a cushion, and decked all over
with gold and precious stones; where, at a distance, the people prostrate
themselves before him, it being not lawful for any so much as to kiss his
feet. He returns not the least sign of respect, nor ever speaks, even to
the greatest princes, but only lays his hand upon their heads; and they
are fully persuaded they receive from thence a full forgiveness of all
their sins.

The magnificence and number of the ancient heathen temples almost exceed
calculation or belief. At one time, there were no less than 424 temples in
the city of Rome, The temple of Diana, at Ephesus, was accounted one of
the seven wonders of the world. It was 425 feet in length, 220 in breadth,
and was adorned with 100 columns 60 feet high; and, as each column is said
to have contained 150 tons of marble,—as the stupendous edifice, outside
and in, was adorned with gold, and a profusion of ornaments,—how immense
must have been the whole expense of its erection!

At the present day, many of the pagan nations go to immense expense in the
support of their religious worship. It is stated, in the Indo-Chinese
Gleaner, a paper published by the missionaries in China, that there are,
in that empire, 1056 temples dedicated to Confucius, where above 60,000
animals are annually offered. The followers of Confucius form one of the
smallest of the three leading sects among the Chinese.

Mr. Ward, a distinguished missionary, was present at the worship of the
goddess Doorga, at Calcutta, in 1806. After describing the greatness of
the assembly, the profusion of the offerings, and the many strange
peculiarities of the worship, he observes, “The whole produced on my mind
sensations of the greatest honor. The dress of the singers, their indecent
gestures, the abominable nature of the songs, the horrid din of their
miserable drum, the lateness of the hour, the darkness of the place, with
the reflection that I was standing in an idol temple, and that this
immense multitude of rational and immortal creatures, capable of superior
joys, were, in the very act of worship, perpetrating a crime of high
treason against the God of heaven, while they themselves believed they
were performing an act of merit,—excited ideas and feelings in my mind
which time can never obliterate.”

The vast empire of China, misnamed the _Celestial Empire_, is given up to
the vilest idolatry. Idols are encountered at every step, not merely in
the temples, but in the houses, and even in the vessels, where a part of
the forecastle is consecrated to them, as the most honorable place. The
idol is dressed and adorned with a splendor proportioned to the wealth of
the captain of the vessel, and daily receives an offering, composed of
flesh and fruits, together with the smoke of perfumes. Besides this
regular service, the captain makes a solemn sacrifice to his wooden deity,
on all important occasions; as, for instance, in passing from one river
into another, or in time of tempest, or when the sails flap idly in a
calm. The Chinese have likewise a practice of deifying their dead
ancestors, and of prostrating themselves before the monumental tablets
which are erected to their memory. Yet they appear to have no real
veneration for any of their idols; nor do they hesitate to profane the
temples, by smoking their pipes, and taking refreshments, and even by
gambling, within the consecrated precincts. The priests are shameless
impostors. They practise the mountebank sciences of astrology, divination,
necromancy, and animal magnetism, and keep for sale a liquid, which, they
pretend, will confer immortality on those who drink it.

Tortures of various kinds, burning, and burying alive, are considered
religious duties among the pagans.

The festival of Juggernaut is annually held on the sea-coast of Orissa,
where there is a celebrated temple, and an idol of the god. The idol is a
carved block of wood, with a frightful visage, painted black, and a
distended mouth of a bloody color. He is dressed in gorgeous apparel, and
his appellation is one of the numerous names of Vishnu, the preserving
power of the universe, according to the theology of the Bramins. On
festival days, the throne of the idol is placed upon a stupendous movable
tower, about sixty feet in height, resting on wheels, which indent the
ground deeply, as they turn slowly under the ponderous machine. He is
accompanied by two other idols, his brother Balaram, and his sister
Shubudra, of a white and yellow color, each on a separate tower, and
sitting on thrones of nearly an equal height. Attached to the principal
tower are six ropes, of the length and size of a ship’s cable, by which
the people draw it along. The priests and attendants are stationed around
the throne, on the car, and occasionally address the worshippers in
libidinous songs and gestures. Both the walls of the temple and sides of
the car are covered with the most indecent emblems, in large and durable
sculpture. Obscenity and blood are the characteristics of the idol’s
worship. As the tower moves along, devotees, throwing themselves under the
wheels, are crushed to death; and such acts are hailed with the
acclamations of the multitude, as the most acceptable sacrifices. A body
of prostitutes are maintained in the temple, for the use of the
worshippers; and various other systematic indecencies, which will not
admit of description, form a part of the service. A number of sacred bulls
are kept in the place, which are generally fed with vegetables from the
hands of the pilgrims, but, from the scarcity of the vegetation, are
commonly seen walking about, and eating the fresh ordure of the
worshipping crowds. In the temple, also, is preserved a bone of Krishna,
which is considered as a most venerable and precious relic, and which few
persons are allowed to see.

The following is an account of the burning of a Gentoo woman, on the
funeral pile of her deceased husband:—“We found,” says M. Stavorinus, “the
body of the deceased lying upon a couch, covered with a piece of white
cotton, and strewed with betel leaves. The woman, who was to be the
victim, sat upon the couch, with her face turned to that of the deceased.
She was richly adorned, and held a little green branch in her right hand,
with which she drove away the flies from the body. She seemed like one
buried in the most profound meditation, yet betrayed no signs of fear.
Many of her relations attended upon her, who, at stated intervals, struck
up various kinds of music.

“The pile was made by driving green bamboo stakes into the earth, between
which was first laid fire-wood, very dry and combustible; upon this was
put a quantity of dry straw, or reeds, besmeared with grease: this was
done alternately, till the pile was five feet in height; and the whole was
then strewed with rosin, finely powdered. A white cotton sheet, which had
been washed in the Ganges, was then spread over the pile, and the whole
was ready for the reception of the victim.

“The widow was now admonished, by a priest, that it was time to begin the
rites. She was then surrounded by women, who offered her betel, and
besought her to supplicate favors for them when she joined her husband in
the presence of Ram, or their highest god, and, above all, that she would
salute their deceased friends whom she might meet in the celestial
mansions.

“In the mean time, the body of the husband was taken and washed in the
river. The woman was also led to the Ganges for ablution, where she
divested herself of all her ornaments. Her head was covered with a piece
of silk, and a cloth was tied round her body, in which the priests put
some parched rice.

“She then took a farewell of her friends, and was conducted by two of her
female relations to the pile. When she came to it, she scattered flowers
and parched rice upon the spectators, and put some into the mouth of the
corpse. Two priests next led her three times round it, while she threw
rice among the bystanders, who gathered it up with great eagerness. The
last time she went round, she placed a little earthen burning lamp to each
of the four corners of the pile, then laid herself down on the right side,
next to the body, which she embraced with both her arms; a piece of white
cotton was spread over them both; they were bound together with two easy
bandages, and a quantity of fire-wood, straw, and rosin, was laid upon
them. In the last place, her nearest relations, to whom, on the banks of
the river, she had given her nose-jewels, came with a burning torch, and
set the straw on fire, and in a moment the whole was in a flame. The noise
of the drums, and the shouts of the spectators, were such that the shrieks
of the unfortunate woman, if she uttered any, could not have been heard.”

Instances are related of women eighty years of age, or upwards, perishing
in this manner. One case is mentioned, by Mr. Ward, of a Bramin who had
married upwards of a hundred wives, thirty-seven of whom were burnt with
him. The pile was kept burning for _three days_, and when one or more of
them arrived, they threw themselves into the _blazing fire_.

The Pagans worship an immense variety of idols, both animate and
inanimate, and very frequently make to themselves gods of objects that are
contemptible even among brutes. In Hindoo, the _monkey_ is a celebrated
god. A few years since, the rajah of Nudeeya expended $50,000 in
celebrating the marriage of a pair of those mischievous creatures, with
all the parade and solemnity of a Hindoo wedding.

A Bramin of superior understanding gave Mr. Ward the following _confession
of faith_, as the present belief of the philosophical Hindoos, concerning
the nature of God, viz.:—“God is invisible, independent, ever-living,
glorious, uncorrupt, all-wise, the ever-blessed, the almighty; his
perfections are indescribable and past finding out; he rules over all,
supports all, destroys all, and remains after the destruction of all;
there is none like him; he is silence; he is free from passion, from
birth, &c., and from increase and decrease, from fatigue, the need of
refreshment, &c. He possesses the power of infinite diminution and
lightness, and is the soul of all.

“He created, and then entered into, all things, in which he exists in two
ways, untouched by matter, and receiving the fruits of practice. He now
assumes visible forms for the sake of engaging the minds of mankind. The
different gods are parts of God, though his essence remains undiminished,
as rays of light leave the sun his undiminished splendor. He created the
gods to perform those things in the government of the world, of which man
was incapable. Some gods are parts of other gods, and there are deities of
still inferior powers. If it be asked why God himself does not govern the
world, the answer is, that it might subject him to exposure, and he
chooses to be concealed: he therefore governs by the gods, who are
emanations from the one God, possessing a portion of his power: he who
worships the gods as the one God, substantially worships God. The gods are
helpful to men in all human affairs, but they are not friendly to those
who seek final absorption, being jealous lest, instead of attaining
absorption, they should become gods, and rival them.

“Religious ceremonies procure a fund of merit to the performer, which
raises him in every future birth, and at length advances him to heaven,
where he enjoys happiness for a limited period, or carries him towards
final absorption. A person may sink to earth again by crimes committed in
heaven. The joys of heaven arise only from the gratification of the
senses. A person raised to heaven is considered as a god.

“When the following lines of Pope were read to a learned Bramin, he
started from his seat, begged a copy of them, and declared the author must
have been a Hindoo:—


    “All are but parts of one stupendous whole,
    Whose body Nature is, and God the soul; ...
    Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,
    Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees,
    Lives through all life, extends through all extent,
    Spreads undivided, operates unspent.”


“Such are the best views of the best of men among the Hindoos. Such a
mixture of truth and error, of sense and folly, do they believe and
teach.”

According to the best accounts that can be obtained from missionaries and
others, the number of Pagans, in different countries, exceeds half the
population of the globe.

Considerable attempts have been made, of late years, for the enlightening
of the heathen; and there is every reason to believe good has been done.
From the aspect of Scripture prophecy, we are led to expect that the
kingdoms of the heathen at large shall be brought to the light of the
gospel. (Matt. 24:14, Isa. 60, Ps. 22:28, 29; 2:7, 8.) It has been much
disputed whether it be possible that the heathen should be saved without
the knowledge of the gospel; some have absolutely denied it, upon the
authority of those texts which universally require faith in Christ; but to
this it is answered, that those texts regard only such to whom the gospel
comes, and are capable of understanding the contents of it. “The truth,”
says Dr. Doddridge, “seems to be this—that none of the heathen will be
condemned for not believing the gospel, but they are liable to
condemnation for the breach of God’s natural law: nevertheless, if there
be any of them in whom there is a prevailing love to the Divine Being,
there seems reason to believe that, for the _sake_ of Christ, though to
them unknown, they may be accepted by God; and so much the rather, as the
ancient Jews, and even the apostles, during the time of our Savior’s abode
on earth, seem to have had but little notion of those doctrines, which
those who deny the salvability of the heathen are most apt to imagine.”
(Rom. 2:10-22, Acts 10:34, 35. Matt. 8:11, 12.) Grove, Watts, Saurin, and
the immortal Newton, favor the same opinion; the latter of whom thus
observes: “If we suppose a heathen brought to a sense of his misery; to a
conviction that he cannot be happy without the favor of the great Lord of
the world; to a feeling of guilt, and desire of mercy; and that, though he
has no explicit knowledge of a Savior, he directs the cry of his heart to
the unknown Supreme, to have mercy upon him,—who will prove that such
views and desires can arise in the heart of a sinner, without the energy
of that Spirit which Jesus is exalted to bestow? Who will take upon him to
say that his blood has not sufficient efficacy to redeem to God a sinner
who is thus disposed, though he have never heard of his name? Or who has a
warrant to affirm that the supposition I have made is in the nature of
things impossible to be realized?”

“That there exist beings, one or many, powerful above the human race, is a
proposition,” says Lord Kaimes, “universally admitted as true in all ages
and among all nations. I boldly call it _universal_, notwithstanding what
is reported of some gross savages; for reports that contradict what is
acknowledged to be general among men, require able vouchers. Among many
savage tribes there are no words but for objects of external sense: is it
surprising that such people are incapable of expressing their religious
perceptions, or any perception of internal sense? The conviction that men
have of superior powers, in every country where there are words to express
it, is so well vouched, that, in fair reasoning, it ought to be taken for
granted among the few tribes where language is deficient.” The same
ingenious author shows, with great strength of reasoning, that the
operations of nature and the government of this world, which to us loudly
proclaim the existence of a Deity, are not sufficient to account for the
universal belief of superior beings among savage tribes. He is, therefore,
of opinion that this universality of conviction can spring only from the
image of Deity stamped upon the mind of every human being, the ignorant
equally with the learned. This, he thinks, may be termed the _sense of
Deity_.



SATANIANS.


A branch of the Messalians, who appeared about the year 390. It is said,
among other things, that they believed the devil to be extremely powerful,
and that it was much wiser to respect and adore than to curse him.



ABELIANS, OR ABELONIANS.


A sect which arose in the diocese of Hippo, in Africa, in the fifth
century. They regulated marriage after the example of Abel, who, they
pretended, was married, but lived in a state of continence: they therefore
allowed each man to marry one woman, but enjoined them to live in the same
state. To keep up the sect, when a man and woman entered into this
society, they adopted a boy and a girl, who were to inherit their goods,
and to marry upon the same terms of not having children, but of adopting
two of different sexes.



SUPRALAPSARIANS.


Persons who hold that God, without any regard to the good or evil works of
men, has resolved, by an eternal decree, _supra lapsum_, antecedently to
any knowledge of the fall of Adam, and independently of it, to save some
and reject others; or, in other words, that God intended to glorify his
justice in the condemnation of some, as well as his mercy in the salvation
of others, and, for that purpose, decreed that Adam should necessarily
fall.



DANCERS.


A sect which sprung up, about 1373, in Flanders, and places about. It was
their custom all of a sudden to fall a-dancing, and, holding each other’s
hands, to continue thereat, till, being suffocated with the extraordinary
violence, they fell down breathless together. During these intervals of
vehement agitation, they pretended to be favored with wonderful visions.
Like the Whippers, they roved from place to place, begging their victuals,
holding their secret assemblies, and treating the priesthood and worship
of the church with the utmost contempt.



EPICUREANS.


The disciples of Epicurus, who flourished about A. M. 3700. This sect
maintained that the world was formed not by God, nor with any design, but
by the fortuitous concourse of atoms. They denied that God governs the
world, or in the least condescends to interfere with creatures below; they
denied the immortality of the soul, and the existence of angels; they
maintained that happiness consisted in pleasure; but some of them placed
this pleasure in the tranquillity and joy of the mind, arising from the
practice of moral virtue, and which is thought by some to have been the
true principle of Epicurus: others understood him in the gross sense, and
placed all their happiness in corporeal pleasure. When Paul was at Athens,
he had conferences with the Epicurean philosophers. (Acts 17:18) The word
_Epicurean_ is used, at present, for an indolent, effeminate, and
voluptuous person, who only consults his private and particular pleasure.



SKEPTICS.


The word _Skeptic_ properly signifies considerative and inquisitive, or
one who is always weighing reasons on one side or the other, without ever
deciding between them. The word is applied to an ancient sect of
philosophers founded by Pyrrho, who denied the real existence of all
qualities in bodies, except those which are essential to primary atoms,
and referred every thing else to the perceptions of the mind produced by
external objects; in other words, to appearance and opinion. In modern
times, the word has been applied to Deists, or those who doubt of the
truth and authenticity of the sacred Scriptures.



WICKLIFFITES.


The followers of the famous John Wickliffe, called “the first reformer,”
who was born in Yorkshire, in the year 1324. He attacked the jurisdiction
of the pope and the bishops. He was for this twice summoned to a council
at Lambeth, to give an account of his doctrines, but, being countenanced
by the duke of Lancaster, was both times dismissed without condemnation.
Wickliffe, therefore, continued to spread his new principles, as usual,
adding to them doctrines still more alarming; by which he drew after him a
great number of disciples. Upon this, William Courtney, archbishop of
Canterbury, called another council in 1382, which condemned 24
propositions of Wickliffe and his disciples, and obtained a declaration of
Richard II. against all who should preach them; but while these
proceedings were agitating, Wickliffe died at Lutterworth, leaving many
works behind him for the establishment of his doctrines. He was buried in
his own church, at Lutterworth, in Leicestershire, where his bones were
suffered to rest in peace till the year 1428, when, by an order from the
pope, they were taken up and burnt. Wickliffe was doubtless a very
extraordinary man, considering the times in which he lived. He discovered
the absurdities and impositions of the church of Rome, and had the honesty
and resolution to promulgate his opinions, which a little more support
would probably have enabled him to establish: they were evidently the
foundation of the subsequent reformation.



DIGGERS.


A denomination which sprung up in Germany, in the fifteenth century; so
called because they dug their assemblies under ground, in caves and
forests. They derided the church, its ministers, and sacraments.



ZUINGLIANS.


A branch of the Reformers, so called from Zuinglius, a noted divine of
Switzerland. His chief difference from Luther was concerning the
eucharist. He maintained that the bread and wine were only
_significations_ of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, whereas Luther
believed in _consubstantiation_.



SEEKERS.


A denomination which arose in the year 1645. They derived their name from
their maintaining that the true church ministry, Scripture, and
ordinances, were lost, for which they were seeking. They taught that the
Scriptures were uncertain; that present miracles were necessary to faith;
that our ministry is without authority; and that our worship and
ordinances are unnecessary or vain.



WILHELMINIANS.


A denomination in the 13th century, so called from Wilhelmina, a Bohemian
woman, who resided in the territory of Milan. She persuaded a large number
that the Holy Ghost was become incarnate in her person, for the salvation
of a great part of mankind. According to her doctrines, none were saved by
the blood of Jesus but true and pious Christians, while the Jews,
Saracens, and unworthy Christians, were to obtain salvation through the
Holy Spirit which dwelt in her, and that, in consequence thereof, all
which happened in Christ during his appearance upon earth in the human
nature, was to be exactly renewed in her person, or rather in that of the
Holy Ghost, which was united to her.



NON-RESISTANTS.


This is a name assumed by those who believe in the inviolability of human
life, and whose motto is, RESIST NOT EVIL,—that is, by the use of carnal
weapons or brute force. They cannot properly be called a religious sect,
in the common acceptation of that term, and they repudiate the title; for
they differ very widely among themselves in their religious speculations,
and have no forms, ordinances, creed, church, or community. Some of them
belong to almost every religious persuasion, while others refuse to be
connected with any denomination, and to be called by any sectarian name.
Like the friends of negro emancipation, or of total abstinence from all
intoxicating substances, their eyes are fastened upon a common object, and
their hearts united together by a common principle; and whatever calls for
the violation of that principle, or for the sacrifice of that object, they
feel in duty bound to reject.

In the autumn of 1838, an association was formed in Boston, called the
“NEW ENGLAND NON-RESISTANCE SOCIETY,” the principles of which are
comprehensively imbodied in the second article of its constitution, as
follows:—

“The members of this society agree in opinion that no man, or body of men,
however constituted, or by whatever name called, have the right to take
the life of man as a penalty for transgression; that no one, who professes
to have the Spirit of Christ, can consistently sue a man at law for
redress of injuries, or thrust any evil-doer into prison, or fill any
office in which he would come under obligation to execute penal
enactments, or take any part in the military service, or acknowledge
allegiance to any human government, or justify any man in fighting in
defence of property, liberty, life, or religion; that he cannot engage in
or countenance any plot or effort to revolutionize, or change, by physical
violence, any government, however corrupt or oppressive; that he will obey
‘the powers that be,’ except in those cases in which they bid him violate
his conscience—and then, rather than to resist, he will meekly submit to
the penalty of disobedience; and that, while he will cheerfully endure all
things for Christ’s sake, without cherishing even the desire to inflict
injury upon his persecutors, yet he will be bold and uncompromising for
God, in bearing his testimony against sin, in high places and in low
places, until righteousness and peace shall reign in all the earth, and
there shall be none to molest or make afraid.”

On the same occasion, a DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS was adopted, in which
the views of Non-Resistants are set forth in the following positive and
argumentative form:—

“We cannot acknowledge allegiance to any human government; neither can we
oppose any such government by a resort to physical force. We recognize but
one KING and LAWGIVER, one JUDGE and RULER of mankind. We are bound by the
laws of a kingdom which is not of this world; the subjects of which are
forbidden to fight; in which MERCY and TRUTH are met together, and
RIGHTEOUSNESS and PEACE have kissed each other; which has no state lines,
no national partitions, no geographical boundaries; in which there is no
distinction of rank, or division of caste, or inequality of sex; the
officers of which are PEACE, its exactors RIGHTEOUSNESS, its walls
SALVATION, and its gates PRAISE; and which is destined to break in pieces
and consume all other kingdoms.

“Our country is the world, our countrymen are all mankind. We love the
land of our nativity only as we love all other lands. The interests,
rights, liberties of American citizens, are no more dear to us than are
those of the whole human race. Hence we can allow no appeal to patriotism,
to revenge any national insult or injury. The PRINCE OF PEACE, under whose
stainless banner we rally, came not to destroy, but to save, even the
worst of enemies. He has left us an example, that we should follow his
steps. GOD COMMENDETH HIS LOVE TOWARD US, IN THAT, WHILE WE WERE YET
SINNERS, CHRIST DIED FOR US.

“We conceive that, if a nation has no right to defend itself against
foreign enemies, or to punish its invaders, no individual possesses that
right in his own case. The unit cannot be of greater importance than the
aggregate. If one man may take life, to obtain or defend his rights, the
same license must necessarily be granted to communities, states, and
nations. If _he_ may use a dagger or a pistol, _they_ may employ cannon,
bomb-shells, land and naval forces. The means of self-preservation must be
in proportion to the magnitude of interests at stake, and the number of
lives exposed to destruction. But if a rapacious and bloodthirsty
soldiery, thronging these shores from abroad, with intent to commit rapine
and destroy life, may not be resisted by the people or magistracy, then
ought no resistance to be offered to domestic troublers of the public
peace, or of private security. No obligations can rest upon Americans to
regard foreigners as more sacred in their persons than themselves, or to
give them a monopoly of wrong-doing with impunity.

“The dogma, that all the governments of the world are approvingly ordained
of God, and that THE POWERS THAT BE, in the United States, in Russia, in
Turkey, are in accordance with his will, is not less absurd than impious.
It makes the impartial Author of human freedom and equality unequal and
tyrannical. It cannot be affirmed that THE POWERS THAT BE, in any nation,
are actuated by the spirit, or guided by the example, of Christ, in the
treatment of enemies; therefore they cannot be agreeable to the will of
God; and, therefore, their overthrow, by a spiritual regeneration of their
subjects, is inevitable.

“We register our testimony, not only against all wars, whether offensive
or defensive, but all preparations for war; against every naval ship,
every arsenal, every fortification; against the militia system and a
standing army; against all military chieftains and soldiers; against all
monuments commemorative of victory over a foreign foe, all trophies won in
battle, all celebrations in honor of military or naval exploits; against
all appropriations for the defence of a nation by force and arms, on the
part of any legislative body; against every edict of government requiring
of its subjects military service. Hence we deem it unlawful to bear arms,
or to hold a military office.

“As every human government is upheld by physical strength, and its laws
are enforced virtually at the point of the bayonet, we cannot hold any
office which imposes upon its incumbent the obligation to compel men to do
right, on pain of imprisonment or death. We therefore voluntarily exclude
ourselves from every legislative and judicial body, and repudiate all
human politics, worldly honors, and stations of authority. If _we_ cannot
occupy a seat in the legislature, or on the bench, neither can we elect
_others_ to act as our substitutes in any such capacity.

“It follows that we cannot sue any man at law, to compel him by force to
restore any thing which he may have wrongfully taken from us or others;
but, if he has seized our coat, we shall surrender up our cloak rather
than subject him to punishment.

“We believe that the penal code of the old covenant, AN EYE FOR AN EYE,
AND A TOOTH FOR A TOOTH, has been abrogated by JESUS CHRIST; and that,
under the new covenant, the forgiveness, instead of the punishment, of
enemies has been enjoined upon all his disciples, in all cases whatsoever.
To extort money from enemies, or set them upon a pillory, or cast them
into prison or hang them upon a gallows, is obviously not to forgive, but
to take retribution. VENGEANCE IS MINE—I WILL REPAY, SAITH THE LORD.

“The history of mankind is crowded with evidences proving that physical
coërcion is not adapted to moral regeneration; that the sinful
dispositions of man can be subdued only by love; that evil can be
exterminated from the earth only by goodness; that it is not safe to rely
upon an arm of flesh, upon man, whose breath is in his nostrils, to
preserve us from harm; that there is great security in being gentle,
harmless, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy; that it is only the meek
who shall inherit the earth, for the violent, who resort to the sword, are
destined to perish with the sword. Hence, as a measure of sound policy,—of
safety to property, life, and liberty,—of public quietude and private
enjoyment,—as well as on the ground of allegiance to HIM who is KING OF
KINGS and LORD OF LORDS,—we cordially adopt the non-resistance principle;
being confident that it provides for all possible consequences, will
insure all things needful to us, is armed with omnipotent power, and must
ultimately triumph over every assailing force.

“We advocate no Jacobinical doctrines. The spirit of Jacobinism is the
spirit of retaliation, violence, and murder. It neither fears God nor
regards man. _We_ would be filled with the Spirit of CHRIST. If we abide
by our principles, it is impossible for us to be disorderly, or plot
treason, or participate in any evil work: we shall submit to every
ordinance of man, FOR THE LORD’S SAKE; obey all the requirements of
government, except such as we deem contrary to the commands of the gospel;
and in no case resist the operation of law, except by meekly submitting to
the penalty of disobedience.

“But while we shall adhere to the doctrine of non-resistance and passive
submission to enemies, we purpose, in a moral and spiritual sense, to
speak and act boldly in the cause of GOD; to assail iniquity in high
places and in low places; to apply our principles to all existing civil,
political, legal, and ecclesiastical institutions; and to hasten the time
when the kingdoms of this world will have become the kingdoms of our LORD
and of his CHRIST, and he shall reign forever.

“It appears to us a self-evident truth, that whatever the gospel is
designed to destroy at any period of the world, being contrary to it,
ought now to be abandoned. If, then, the time is predicted, when swords
shall be beaten into ploughshares, and spears into pruning-hooks, and men
shall not learn the art of war any more, it follows that all who
manufacture, sell, or wield those deadly weapons, do thus array themselves
against the peaceful dominion of the SON OF GOD on earth.”

Having thus frankly stated their principles and purposes, they proceed to
specify the measures they propose to adopt, in carrying their object into
effect, as follows:—

“We expect to prevail through THE FOOLISHNESS OF PREACHING, striving to
commend ourselves unto every man’s conscience, in the sight of GOD. From
the press, we shall promulgate our sentiments as widely as practicable. We
shall endeavor to secure the coöperation of all persons, of whatever name
or sect. The triumphant progress of the cause of TEMPERANCE and of
ABOLITION in our land, through the instrumentality of benevolent and
voluntary associations, encourages us to combine our own means and efforts
for the promotion of a still greater cause. Hence we shall employ
lecturers, circulate tracts and publications, form societies, and petition
our state and national governments, in relation to the subject of
UNIVERSAL PEACE. It will be our leading object to devise ways and means
for effecting a radical change in the views, feelings and practices of
society, respecting the sinfulness of war and the treatment of enemies.

“In entering upon the great work before us, we are not unmindful that, in
its prosecution, we may be called to test our sincerity, even as in a
fiery ordeal. It may subject us to insult, outrage, suffering, yea, even
death itself. We anticipate no small amount of misconception,
misrepresentation, calumny. Tumults may arise against us. The ungodly and
violent, the proud and Pharisaical, the ambitious and tyrannical,
principalities and powers, and spiritual wickedness in high places, may
combine to crush us. So they treated the MESSIAH, whose example we are
humbly striving to imitate. If we suffer with him, we know that we shall
reign with him. We shall not be afraid of their terror, neither be
troubled. Our confidence is in the LORD ALMIGHTY, not in man.

“Having withdrawn from human protection, what can sustain us but that
faith which overcomes the world? We shall not think it strange concerning
the fiery trial which is to try us, as though some strange thing had
happened unto us, but rejoice, inasmuch as we are partakers of CHRIST’S
sufferings. Wherefore we commit the keeping of our souls to GOD, in
well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator. FOR EVERY ONE THAT FORSAKES
HOUSES, OR BRETHREN, OR SISTERS, OR FATHER, OR MOTHER, OR WIFE, OR
CHILDREN, OR LANDS FOR CHRIST’S SAKE, SHALL RECEIVE A HUNDRED FOLD, AND
SHALL INHERIT EVERLASTING LIFE.”

For entertaining these sentiments, they say that they “have been
stigmatized as no human government men,” and ranked among disorganizers
and anarchists. But they believe that the gospel requires men to suppress
every angry emotion, to forgive every injury, to revenge none; and they
ask, “Shall we forgive as individuals, and retaliate as communities? Shall
we turn the other cheek as individuals, and plunge a dagger into the heart
of our enemy as nations? We might as well be sober as individuals, and
drunk as nations. We might as well be merciful as individuals, and rob as
patriots.” They believe that the forgiveness of enemies, whether foreign
or domestic, is the essence, the chief virtue, the soul of the gospel;
that we should preach our Savior’s peace, even if it brings us to our
Savior’s cross; that Christians should not punish, either to amend those
who trespass against them, or to comfort themselves; for they do not amend
others by fines and imprisonments, nor do they need any better comfort
than that of their Savior, who, on the cross, not only prayed, but
apologized for his murderers; that, if the gospel is right in prescribing
pardon, the law is wrong in inflicting punishment; that, if a Christian
reigns, he reigns by love, not by force; that he cannot smile with frowns,
forgive with punishment, love with hatred, bless with the sword, do good
with evil, be humble with pride, love God and serve Mammon; that moral
power would govern men altogether cheaper and better than physical; that
the destruction of every kingdom that has heretofore existed, proves that
men will not, cannot be governed by physical force; that the refusal of
our Savior to govern, when he had the power of miracles, was his greatest
miracle; and that his obedience, forgiveness, sufferings, and death,
established the constitution of a government, in which peace on earth and
good-will to men will be maintained by the God of peace, the Prince of
peace, and the Spirit of peace. They believe that, when Jesus referred his
hearers to the law of retaliation, which law constituted the great
fundamental principle in the Jewish civil government, and when, in express
terms, he repealed that law, he laid the axe at the root of that
government, and virtually repealed or abrogated the whole of it; for of
what force can any civil government be, which cannot enforce its laws by
inflicting evil upon its violators? When Jesus took from the Jewish civil
ruler the right to inflict punishment, he declared the only civil
government, which God had ever instituted, and recognized as of any
rightful authority, to be null and void forever. They think it will be
admitted, by all who receive the plain declarations of Scripture as truth,
that no man, as an individual, has the right to render evil for evil, or
to enforce even his lawful claims, by his fist, the club, or the sword.
But if a man has no such right as an individual, he has none as a member
of a family, or as the inhabitant of a town, county, state, or nation;
hence he cannot delegate any such right to others, called legislators,
magistrates, judges, sheriffs, &c. If no man has the right to retaliate
with the fist, or club, or sword, it is equally and immutably true that he
has no right to render evil for evil, by using laws, or magistrates, or
judges, or sheriffs, as the clubs, or swords, or the instruments of such
retaliation. When men “resist evil,” either by the use of the club, or of
human law, the principle upon which they act is the same in both cases;
the only difference is in the instruments employed.



SOUTHCOTTERS.


Dr. Evans gives the following account of the religious views and opinions
of Joanna Southcott, who made considerable noise in England, towards the
close of the last century:—

“The mission of this prophetess commenced in the year 1792, and the number
of people who have joined with her from that period to the present time,
as believing her to be divinely inspired, was considerable. It was
asserted that she was the instrument, under the direction of Christ, to
announce the establishment of his kingdom on earth, as a fulfilment of all
the promises in the Scriptures, and of that prayer which he himself gave
to his followers; and more particularly of the promise made to the woman
in the fall, through which the human race is to be redeemed from all the
effects of it in the end. We are taught by the communication of the Spirit
of truth to her, that the seven days of the creation were types of the two
periods in which the reign of Satan and of Christ are to be proved and
contrasted. Satan was conditionally to have his reign tried for six
thousand years, shadowed by the six days in which the Lord worked, as his
Spirit has striven with man while under the powers of darkness; but
Satan’s reign is to be shortened, for the sake of the elect, as declared
in the gospel; and Satan is to have a further trial at the expiration of
the thousand years, for a time equal to the number of the days shortened.
At the close of the seven thousand years, the judgment is to take place,
and the whole human race will collectively bring forward the testimony of
the evil they suffered under the reign of Satan, and of the good they
enjoyed under the spiritual reign of Christ. These two testimonies will be
evidence, before the whole creation of God, that the pride of Satan was
the cause of his rebellion in heaven, and that he was the root of evil
upon earth; and, consequently, when those two great proofs have been
brought forward, that part of the human race that has fallen under his
power, to be tormented by being in the society of Satan and his angels,
will revolt from him in that great day, will mourn that they have been
deluded, will repent, and the Savior of all will hold out his hand to them
in mercy, and will then prepare a new earth for them to work
righteousness, and prepare them ultimately to join his saints, who have
fought the good fight in this world, while under the reign of Satan.

“The mission of Joanna is to be accomplished by a perfect obedience to the
Spirit that directs her, and so to be made to claim the promise of
‘bruising the head of the serpent;’ and which promise was made to the
woman on her casting the blame upon Satan, whom she unwittingly obeyed,
and thus man became dead to the knowledge of the good; and so he blamed
his Creator for giving him the woman, who was pronounced his helpmate for
good. To fulfil the attribute of justice, Christ took upon himself that
blame, and assumed his humanity, to suffer on the cross for it, that he
might justly bring the cross upon Satan, and rid him from the earth, and
then complete the creation of man, so as to be after his own image. It is
declared that ‘the seed of the woman’ are those who in faith shall join
with her in claiming the promise made in the fall; and they are to
subscribe with their hands unto the Lord that they do thus join with her,
praying for the destruction of the powers of darkness, and for the
establishment of the kingdom of Christ. Those who thus come forward in
this spiritual war, are to have the seal of the Lord’s protection; and if
they remain faithful soldiers, death and hell shall not have power over
them; and these are to make up the sealed number of one hundred and
forty-four thousand, to stand with the Lamb on Mount Sion. The fall of
Satan’s kingdom will be a second deluge over the earth; so that, from his
having brought the human race under his power, a great part of them will
fall with him; for the Lord will pluck out of his kingdom all that offend
and do wickedly. The voice which announces the coming of the Messiah is
accompanied with judgments, and the nations must be shaken and brought low
before they will lay these things to heart. When all these things are
accomplished, then the desire of nations will come in glory, so that
‘every eye shall see him,’ and he will give his kingdom to his saints.

“It is represented that in the Bible is recorded every event by which the
Deity will work the ultimate happiness of the human race, but that the
great plan is, for the most part, represented by types and shadows, and
otherwise so wrapped up in mysteries, as to be inscrutable to human
wisdom. As the Lord pronounced that man should become dead to knowledge if
he ate the forbidden fruit, so the Lord must prove his words true. He
therefore selected a peculiar people as depositaries of the records of
that knowledge; and he appeared among them, and they proved themselves
dead to every knowledge of him, by crucifying him. He will, in like
manner, put the wild olive to the same test; and the result will be, that
he will be now crucified in the spirit.

“The mission of Joanna began in 1792, at which time she had prophecies
given her, showing how the whole was to be accomplished. Among other
things, the Lord said he should visit the surrounding nations with various
calamities for fifteen years, as a warning to _this_ land; and that then
he should bring about events here which should more clearly manifest the
truth of her mission, by judgment and otherwise; so that this should be
the happy nation to be the first redeemed from its troubles, and be the
instrument for awakening the rest of the world to a sense of what is
coming upon all, and for destroying _the Beast_, and those who worship his
image.

“Joanna Southcott died of a protracted illness. It Was given out that she
was to be the mother of a _Second Shiloh_. Presents were accordingly made
her for the _Babe_, especially a superb cradle, with a Hebrew inscription
in poetry. But she expired, and no child appeared on the occasion. A stone
placed over her remains in the New Burial-ground, Mary-le-bone, has this
mystic inscription:—


    In Memory Of
    Joanna Southcott.
    Who departed this life December 27th, 1814,
    Aged 60 years.

    While, through all thy wondrous days,
    Heaven and earth enraptured gaze,—
    While vain sages think they know
    Secrets thou alone canst show,—
    Time alone will tell what hour
    Thou’lt appear in greater power.”



FAMILY OF LOVE.


A sect that arose in Holland, in the sixteenth century, founded by Henry
Nicholas, a Westphalian. He maintained that he had a commission from
Heaven to teach men that the essence of religion consisted in the feelings
of divine love; that all other theological tenets, whether they related to
objects of faith or modes of worship, were of no sort of moment, and,
consequently, that it was a matter of the most perfect indifference what
opinions Christians entertained concerning the divine nature, provided
their hearts burned with the pure and sacred flame of piety and love.



HUTCHINSONIANS.


Hutchinsonians, the followers of John Hutchinson, born in Yorkshire, 1674,
and who, in the early part of his life, served the duke of Somerset in the
capacity of steward. The Hebrew Scriptures, he says, comprise a perfect
system of natural philosophy, theology, and religion. In opposition to Dr.
Woodward’s “Natural History of the Earth,” Mr. Hutchinson, in 1724,
published the first part of his curious book, called “Moses’ Principia.”
Its second part was presented to the public in 1727, which contains, as he
apprehends, the principles of the Scripture philosophy, which are a plenum
and the air. So high an opinion did he entertain of the Hebrew language,
that he thought the Almighty must have employed it to communicate every
species of knowledge, and that, accordingly, every species of knowledge is
to be found in the Old Testament. Of his mode of philosophizing, the
following specimen is brought forward to the reader’s attention:—“The air,
he supposes, exists in three conditions,—fire, light, and spirit;—the two
latter are the finer and grosser parts of the air in motion; from the
earth to the sun, the air is finer and finer, till it becomes pure light
near the confines of the sun, and fire in the orb of the sun, or solar
focus. From the earth towards the circumference of this system, in which
he includes the fixed stars, the air becomes grosser and grosser, till it
becomes stagnant, in which condition it is at the utmost verge of this
system, from whence, in his opinion, the expression of _outer darkness_,
and _blackness of darkness_, used in the New Testament, seems to be
taken.”

The followers of Mr. Hutchinson are numerous, and among others the Rev.
Mr. Romaine, Lord Duncan Forbes, of Culloden, and the late amiable Dr.
Horne, bishop of Norwich.



MORMONITES, OR THE CHURCH OF THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.


In a little work entitled _Religious Creeds and Statistics_, published in
1836, we gave some account of the origin and faith of the Mormonites, or
_Latter-Day Saints_, as they prefer being called. Since that time, we have
received an additional stock of the publications of this people, and are
now enabled to tell their story in their own words.

In a letter dated Nauvoo, Illinois, March 1, 1842, Prophet Joseph Smith
says:—


    “On the evening of the 21st of September, A. D. 1823, while I was
    praying unto God, and endeavoring to exercise faith in the
    precious promises of Scripture, on a sudden a light like that of
    day, only of a far purer and more glorious appearance and
    brightness, burst into the room; indeed, the first sight was as
    though the house was filled with consuming fire; the appearance
    produced a shock that affected the whole body In a moment, a
    personage stood before me surrounded with a glory yet greater than
    that with which I was already surrounded. This messenger
    proclaimed himself to be an angel of God, sent to bring the joyful
    tidings, that the covenant which God made with ancient Israel was
    at hand to be fulfilled; that the preparatory work for the second
    coming of the Messiah was speedily to commence; that the time was
    at hand for the gospel, in all its fulness, to be preached, in
    power, unto all nations, that a people might be prepared for the
    millennial reign.

    “I was informed that I was chosen to be an instrument in the hands
    of God to bring about some of his purposes in this glorious
    dispensation.

    “I was also informed concerning the aboriginal inhabitants of this
    country, and shown who they were, and from whence they came; a
    brief sketch of their origin, progress, civilization, laws,
    governments, of their righteousness and iniquity, and the
    blessings of God being finally withdrawn from them as a people,
    was made known unto me. I was also told where there were deposited
    some plates, on which was engraven an abridgment of the records of
    the ancient prophets that had existed on this continent. The angel
    appeared to me three times the same night, and unfolded the same
    things. After having received many visits from the angels of God,
    unfolding the majesty and glory of the events that should
    transpire in the last days, on the morning of the 22d of
    September, A. D 1827, the angel of the Lord delivered the records
    into my hands.

    “These records were engraven on plates which had the appearance of
    gold; each plate was six inches wide and eight inches long, and
    not quite so thick as common tin. They were filled with
    engravings, in Egyptian characters, and bound together in a
    volume, as the leaves of a book, with three rings running through
    the whole. The volume was something near six inches in thickness,
    a part of which was sealed. The characters on the unsealed part
    were small, and beautifully engraved. The whole book exhibited
    many marks of antiquity in its construction, and much skill in the
    art of engraving. With the records was found a curious instrument,
    which the ancients called ‘Urim and Thummim,’ which consisted of
    two transparent stones set in the rim of a bow fastened to a
    breastplate.

    “Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the
    record, by the gift and power of God.

    “In this important and interesting book the history of ancient
    America is unfolded, from its first settlement by a colony that
    came from the tower of Babel, at the confusion of languages, to
    the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. We are
    informed by these records that America, in ancient times, has been
    inhabited by two distinct races of people. The first were called
    Jaredites, and came directly from the tower of Babel. The second
    race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred
    years before Christ. They were principally Israelites, of the
    descendants of Joseph. The Jaredites were destroyed about the time
    that the Israelites came from Jerusalem, who succeeded them in the
    inheritance of the country. The principal nation of the second
    race fell in battle towards the close of the fourth century. The
    remnant are the Indians that now inhabit this country. This book
    also tells us that our Savior made his appearance upon this
    continent after his resurrection, that he planted the gospel here
    in all its fulness, and richness, and power, and blessing; that
    they had apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, and evangelists;
    the same order, the same priesthood, the same ordinances, gifts,
    powers, and blessing, as were enjoyed on the eastern continent;
    that the people were cut off in consequence of their
    transgressions; that the last of their prophets who existed among
    them was commanded to write an abridgment of their prophecies,
    history, &c., and to hide it up in the earth, and that it should
    come forth, and be united with the Bible, for the accomplishment
    of the purposes of God in the last days. For a more particular
    account, I would refer to the Book of Mormon, which can be
    purchased at Nauvoo, or from any of our travelling elders.

    “As soon as the news of this discovery was made known, false
    reports, misrepresentation, and slander flew, as on the wings of
    the wind, in every direction; the house was frequently beset by
    mobs and evil-designing persons; several times I was shot at, and
    very narrowly escaped, and every device was made use of to get the
    plates away from me; but the power and blessing of God attended
    me, and several began to believe my testimony.

    “On the 6th of April, 1830, the ‘Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-Day Saints’ was first organized in the town of Manchester,
    Ontario county, state of New York. Some few were called and
    ordained by the spirit of revelation and prophecy, and began to
    preach as the Spirit gave them utterance; and though weak, yet
    were they strengthened by the power of God, and many were brought
    to repentance, were immersed in the water, and were filled with
    the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. They saw visions and
    prophesied: devils were cast out, and the sick healed by the
    laying on of hands. From that time, the work rolled forth with
    astonishing rapidity, and churches were soon formed in the states
    of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri.
    In the last-named state, a considerable settlement was formed in
    Jackson county; numbers joined the church, and we were increasing
    rapidly; we made large purchases of land, our farms teemed with
    plenty, and peace and happiness were enjoyed in our domestic
    circle and throughout our neighborhood; but we could not associate
    with our neighbors, who were many of them of the basest of men.”


After giving an account of their removal from Jackson to Clay, and from
Clay to Caldwell and Davies counties, Missouri, with a relation of their
persecutions and consequent distresses, the prophet proceeds:—


    “We arrived in the state of Illinois in 1839, where we found a
    hospitable people and a friendly home; a people who were willing
    to be governed by the principles of law and humanity. We have
    commenced to build a city, called ‘Nauvoo,’ in Hancock county. We
    number from six to eight thousand here, besides vast numbers in
    the county around, and in almost every county of the state. We
    have a city charter granted us, and a charter for a legion, the
    troops of which now number fifteen hundred. We have also a charter
    for a university, for an agricultural and manufacturing society,
    have our own laws and administrators, and possess all the
    privileges that other free and enlightened citizens enjoy.

    “Persecution has not stopped the progress of truth, but has only
    added fuel to the flame; it has spread with increasing rapidity.
    Proud of the cause which they have espoused, and conscious of
    their innocence, and of the truth of their system, amidst calumny
    and reproach have the elders of this church gone forth, and
    planted the gospel in almost every state in the Union; it has
    penetrated our cities, it has spread over our villages, and has
    caused thousands of our intelligent, noble, and patriotic citizens
    to obey its divine mandates, and be governed by its sacred truths.
    It has also spread into England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. In
    the year 1839, where a few of our missionaries were sent, over
    five thousand joined the standard of truth. There are numbers now
    joining in every land.

    “Our missionaries are going forth to different nations; and in
    Germany, Palestine, New Holland, the East Indies, and other
    places, the standard of truth has been erected. No unhallowed hand
    can stop the work from progressing. Persecutions may rage, mobs
    may combine, armies may assemble, calumny may defame, but the
    truth of God will go forth boldly, nobly, and independent, till it
    has penetrated every continent, visited every clime, swept every
    country, and sounded in every ear, till the purposes of God shall
    be accomplished, and the great Jehovah shall say, ‘The work is
    done!’


“We believe in God, the eternal Father, and in his Son Jesus Christ, and
in the Holy Ghost.

“We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and not for
Adam’s transgression.

“We believe that, through the atonement of Christ, all mankind may be
saved by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel.

“We believe that these ordinances are, 1. faith in the Lord Jesus Christ;
2. repentance; 3. baptism, by immersion, for the remission of sins; 4.
laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost.

“We believe that a man must be called of God by ‘prophecy, and by laying
on of hands,’ by those who are in authority to preach the gospel, and
administer in the ordinances thereof.

“We believe in the same organization that existed in the primitive church,
viz., apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, &c.

“We believe in the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions,
healing, interpretation of tongues, &c.

“We believe the Bible to be the word of God, as far as it is translated
correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God.

“We believe all that God has revealed, all that he does now reveal, and we
believe that he will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining
to the kingdom of God.

“We believe in the literal gathering of Israel, and in the restoration of
the ten tribes; that Zion will be built upon this continent; that Christ
will reign personally upon the earth; and that the earth will be renewed
and receive its paradisaic glory.

“We claim the privilege of worshipping Almighty God according to the
dictates of our conscience, and allow all men the same privilege, let them
worship how, where, or what, they may.

“We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and
magistrates, in obeying, honoring, and sustaining the law.

“We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent virtuous, and in
doing good to _all men_. Indeed, we may say that we follow the admonition
of Paul,—we ’believe all things, we hope all things;’—we have endured many
things, and hope to be able to endure all things. If there is any thing
virtuous, lovely, or of good report, or praiseworthy, we seek after these
things.”

                  -------------------------------------

From the _Gospel Reflector_, a volume edited by B. Winchester, presiding
elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Philadelphia, we
extract the following.


    “History Of The Ancients Of America, And Also Of The Book Of
    Mormon.

    “Six hundred years B. C, according to the Book of Mormon, Lehi,
    who was a righteous man, was forewarned of the destruction of
    Jerusalem and the Babylonish captivity, who was commanded by the
    Lord, took his family and fled into the wilderness. He pitched his
    tent in the wilderness, near the Red Sea, and sent back his sons
    to Jerusalem, who persuaded one Ishmael and his family to
    accompany them to their father Lehi. The Lord promised to lead
    them to a choice land above all lands; therefore they set out on
    their journey for this land. After a long and tedious journey,
    they came to the great waters, or the ocean. Nephi, the son of
    Lehi, who was also a prophet, and their pilot, or leader, in the
    wilderness, was commanded and instructed to build a ship
    sufficiently large to transport them over the sea. This work was
    accomplished in eight years from the time they left Jerusalem.
    They set sail, and in a proper time they landed, as we infer from
    their record, somewhere on the western coast of South America.
    They immediately commenced tilling the earth, and erecting
    mansions for dwelling-places.

    “Lehi had six sons, Laman, Lemuel, Nephi, Sam, Jacob, and Joseph.
    Laman, Lemuel, and the sons of Ishmael, rebelled against God, and
    would not keep his commandments; for this they were cursed. Their
    posterity, in process of time, became a powerful nation, but
    extremely wicked; and their chief occupations were hunting,
    plundering, and roving about from place to place. In the Book of
    Mormon, they are called Lamanites. The other sons of Lehi were
    obedient to the commands of God. Their posterity, also, in the
    course of time, became a great nation, and were called Nephites.
    To them God committed his divine oracles, (the holy priesthood,)
    and they had prophets and inspired men among them. They also kept
    a record of their prophecies and revelations, and the proceedings
    of their nation. When they left Jerusalem, they brought with them
    the law of Moses, and the writings of the former prophets, down to
    the days of Jeremiah. This accounts for the quotations from Isaiah
    and others, which are found in the Book of Mormon.

    “The Nephites tilled the land, built cities, and erected temples
    for places of worship; but the Lamanites lived a more indolent
    life, although, in some instances, they built cities. The Nephites
    were at times faithful to God; at other times they were
    indifferent, and would not be faithful. They frequently had long
    and tedious wars with the Lamanites, and were often driven before
    them. They were constantly emigrating to the north. At length they
    commenced settlements in the region of country not far from the
    Isthmus of Darien; and, while in those parts, they advanced
    further in science and arts than at any time previous, and built
    more spacious cities and buildings than they did before.

    “Six hundred and thirty odd years from the time Lehi left
    Jerusalem, Christ, after his resurrection, appeared unto many of
    the Nephites, and established his church, chose disciples, and
    sent them throughout the land to preach his gospel, thus
    fulfilling the saying, ‘Other sheep I have, which are not of this
    fold; them I must go and bring also.’

    “Individuals of the Lamanites, at times, were obedient to the
    faith. The Nephites, after Christ’s appearance, were faithful for
    many years; but, in the third or fourth century, iniquity began to
    abound, and their love began to wax cold. Some dissented, and
    raised up churches for the sake of gain; and thus they were
    troubled with the spirit of pride and haughtiness. God commanded
    Mormon, who lived in the fourth century, to preach repentance to
    them, and foretell their destruction if they would not repent. The
    Lord, foreseeing that they would not repent, commanded Mormon to
    collect the writings of his forefathers,—their revelations and
    prophecies, &c.,—and make an abridgment of them, and engrave them
    upon new plates, (their manner of keeping records was to engrave
    them on metallic plates.) But in consequence of their wars, and
    their flight to the north, to escape the Lamanites, he did not
    live to finish this work; and, when the final destruction of the
    Nephites drew near, he gave the records to his son Moroni, who
    lived to see their final extermination, or destruction, by the
    hands of the Lamanites, and they, with his father, left to moulder
    on the plain.

    “Thus a powerful nation, whose fathers were the favorites of
    Heaven, were cut off, and their names have faded into oblivion!

    “The Indians of America are the descendants of the Lamanites, and,
    according to predictions that are in the Book of Mormon, they will
    yet lay down their weapons of war, and be converted unto the Lord.

    “Moroni finished compiling and abridging the records of his
    fathers, which he engraved upon new plates, for that purpose, to
    use his own words, as follows:—‘And now, behold, we have written
    this record, according to our knowledge, in the characters which
    are called among us _the reformed Egyptian_; being handed down and
    altered by us, according to our manner of speech. And, if our
    plates had been sufficiently large, we should have written in
    Hebrew; but the Hebrew hath been altered by us also; and, if we
    could have written in Hebrew, behold, ye would have had no
    imperfection in our record. But the Lord knoweth the things which
    we have written, and also that none other people knoweth our
    language; therefore he hath prepared means for the interpretation
    thereof.’

    “He also engraved on them an account, called the ‘Book of Ether’
    of a people who left the old world, and came to this continent at
    the time the language was confounded at Babel, which was a partial
    fulfilment of the saying, ‘So the Lord scattered them abroad from
    thence upon the face of all the earth.’ (Gen. 11:8.)

    “Moroni was then commanded to deposit this record in the earth,
    together with the _Urim and Thummim_, or, as the Nephites would
    have said, _Interpreters_, which were instruments to assist in the
    work of the translation, with a promise from the Lord that it
    should be brought to light by means of a Gentile nation that
    should possess the land, and be published to the world, and go
    forth to the Lamanites, and be one of the instruments in the hands
    of God for their conversion. It remained safe in the place where
    it was deposited, till it was brought to light by the
    administration of angels, and translated by the gift and power of
    God.”


The Mormon Bible contains five hundred and eighty-eight duodecimo pages,
and purports to have been written at different times, and by the different
authors, whose names the parts respectively bear. The following are the
names of the different books, in the order in which they occur:—


    1. First Book of Nephi.

    2. Second Book of Nephi.

    3. Book of Jacob, brother of Nephi.

    4. Book of Enos, son of Jacob.

    5. Book of Jarom, son of Enos.

    6. Book of Omni, son of Jarom.

    7. Words of Mormon.

    8. Book of Mosiah.

    9. Book of Alma.

    10. Book of Helaman.

    11. Book of Nephi, son of Nephi, son of Helaman.

    12. Book of Nephi, son of Nephi, one of the disciples of Christ.

    13. Book of Mormon.

    14. Book of Ether.

    15. Book of Moroni.


Two new books have recently been published,—the Prophecies of Enoch, in
the _Morning and Evening Star_, and the Book of Abraham, in the _Times and
Seasons_.

The Mormons seem to think that revelations from Heaven and miracles
wrought, are as necessary now, and as important to the salvation of the
present generation, as they were to any generation in any preceding age or
period.

In a volume entitled “Doctrine and Covenants,” are a great number of
revelations, purporting to be from Jesus Christ to Smith and his
coadjutors. The following extracts from a revelation given on the 22d and
23d of September, 1832, convey, it is believed, a fair specimen of the
whole. We copy _verbatim_.


    “Verily, verily, I say unto you, It is expedient that every man
    who goes forth to proclaim mine everlasting gospel, that, inasmuch
    as they have families, and receive moneys by gift, that they
    should send it unto them, or make use of it for their benefit, as
    the Lord shall direct them; for thus it seemeth me good. And let
    all those who have not families, who receive moneys, send it up
    unto the bishop in Zion, or unto the bishop in Ohio, that it may
    be consecrated for the bringing forth of the revelations, and the
    printing thereof, and for establishing Zion.

    “And if any man shall give unto any of you a coat, or a suit, take
    the old and cast it unto the poor, and go your way rejoicing. And
    if any man among you be strong in the Spirit, let him take with
    him he that is weak, that he may be edified in all meekness, that
    he may become strong also.

    “And the bishop, also, should travel round about and among all the
    churches, searching after the poor, to administer to their wants
    by humbling the rich and the proud; he should, also, employ an
    agent to take charge and to do his secular business, as he shall
    direct; nevertheless, let the bishop go unto the city of New York,
    and also to the city of Albany, and also to the city of Boston,
    and warn the people of those cities with the sound of the gospel,
    with a loud voice, of the desolation and utter abolishment which
    awaits them if they do reject these things; for if they do reject
    these things, the hour of their judgment is nigh, and their house
    shall be left unto them desolate. Let him trust in me, and he
    shall not be confounded, and a hair of his head shall not fall to
    the ground unnoticed.

    “And verily I say unto you, the rest of my servants, Go ye forth,
    as your circumstances shall permit, in your several callings, unto
    the great and notable cities and villages, reproving the world, in
    righteousness, of all their unrighteous and ungodly deeds, setting
    forth clearly and understandingly the desolation of abomination in
    the last days; for with you, saith the Lord Almighty, I will rend
    their kingdoms; I will not only shake the earth, but the starry
    heavens shall tremble; for I the Lord have put forth my hand to
    exert the powers of heaven: ye cannot see it now; yet a little
    while and ye shall see it, and know that I am, and that I will
    come and reign with my people. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning
    and the end. Amen.”


Joseph Smith is the son of a farmer, and was born in Sharon, Vermont, 23d
December, 1805. His father removed to the state of New York about the year
1815, and resided in Palmyra, and afterwards in Manchester.

Smith has many enemies, and his doctrines are warmly opposed; still, it
must be acknowledged that, by his talents, or the magic influence his
scheme of religion has on the minds of men, or by a union of both, he has
acquired an imposing station in the world. He is styled _Prophet and High
Priest of Jesus Christ, President of the Council of the Church of the
Latter-Day Saints,_ and _Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion_. He
sends his elders, bishops, priests, and teachers, by scores, into all
lands, and more than _seventy-five thousand people_ bow, with willing
subjection, to his mandates.

                  -------------------------------------

Nauvoo, Illinois, formerly Commerce, is situated on the east side of the
Mississippi River, at the head of Des Moines Rapids, about two hundred and
ten miles (by the river) above St. Louis, thirteen hundred and fifty miles
above New Orleans, and about three hundred miles below Dubuque, in Iowa.
It comprises two miles square of fertile land. The city of Nauvoo, which
was incorporated in 1841, is delightfully located, on rising ground, near
the bank of the river. It contains many handsome buildings of brick and
stone, among which are the Nauvoo House, a large stone building for the
accommodation of travellers, and the Mormon Temple, likewise of stone,
measuring on the ground one hundred by one hundred and twenty feet,
exclusive of the wings of the building. This place has one of the best
landings on the river, and its trade is considerable. The number of
inhabitants, at the present time, is about eight thousand, chiefly
Mormons. _Nauvoo_ is said to signify, THE CITY OF GOD.



DALEITES.


The followers of David Dale, a very industrious manufacturer, a most
benevolent Christian, and the humble pastor of an Independent congregation
at Glasgow. At first, he formed a connection with the _Glassites_, in many
of whose opinions he concurred, but was disgusted by their narrow and
worldly spirit: he therefore separated from them, chiefly on the ground of
preferring practical to speculative religion, and Christian charity to
severity of church discipline. As he grew rich by industry, he devoted all
his property to doing good, and ranks high among the philanthropists of
his age. He was founder of the celebrated institution of New Lanark, now
under Mr. Robert Owen, his son-in-law. The Daleites now form the second
class of Independents in Scotland.



EMANCIPATORS.


This body of Christians was formed in Kentucky, in 1805, by the
association of a number of ministers and churches of the Baptist
denomination. They differ in no respect from the regular Baptists, except
in the decided stand they have taken against slavery, in every branch of
it, both in principle and practice, as being a sinful and abominable
system, fraught with peculiar evils and miseries, which every good man
ought to abandon and bear his testimony against. Their desires and
endeavors are, to effect, as soon as it can be done, and in the most
prudent and advantageous manner, both to the slaves and to their owners,
the general and complete emancipation of this numerous race of enslaved,
ignorant, and degraded beings, who are now, by the laws and customs of the
land, exposed to hereditary and perpetual bondage. (See Exod. 3:7, 9;
10:3; 6:2; 21:2, 16. Levit. 19:18. Deut. 15:12, 18; 23:15; 24:7. Job 6:14;
29:11. Ps. 12:5; 103:6. Prov. 16:8; 22:16. Eccl. 4:1; 5:8. Isa. 1:16;
33:15; 58:6. Jer. 5:26; 21:12; 22:13; 34:10, 11, 17; 50:33, 34. Ezek.
18:5, 9; 22:29; 27:13. Dan. 4:27. Joel 3:3, 6. Mal. 2:10. Matt. 5:7; 7:12.
Luke 4:18; 6:36. Rom. 12:9. 1 Cor. 7:23. Gal. 5:13. Col. 4:1. 1 Tim. 1:10.
Heb. 13:3. James 2:13; 5:4. 2 Pet. 2:2. 1 John 4:20. Rev. 18:11, 13.)

The Emancipators say to Christians of all denominations in the United
States, in the words of an eloquent philanthropist, “Banish from your land
the remains of slavery. Be consistent with your congressional declaration
of rights. Remember, there never was, nor will be, a period when justice
should not be done. Do what is just, and leave the event with God. Justice
is the pillar that upholds the whole fabric of human society, and mercy is
the genial ray which cheers and warms the habitations of men. The
perfection of our social character consists in properly tempering the two
with one another; in holding that middle course which admits of our being
just without being rigid, and allows us to be generous without being
unjust. May all the citizens of America be found in the performance of
such social duties as will secure them peace and happiness in this world,
and in the world to come life everlasting!”



PERFECTIONISTS.


A modern sect in New England, who believe that every individual action is
either wholly sinful or wholly righteous, and that every being in the
universe, at any given time, is either entirely holy or entirely wicked.
Consequently, they unblushingly maintain that they themselves are free
from sin. In support of this doctrine, they say that Christ dwells in and
controls believers, and thus secures their perfect holiness; that the body
of Christ, which is the church, is nourished and guided by the life and
wisdom of its Head. Hence they condemn the greatest portion of the
religion in the world named Christianity, as the work of Antichrist. “All
the essential features of Judaism,” they say, “and of its successor,
Popery, may be distinctly traced in nearly every form of Protestantism;
and although we rejoice in the blessings which the reformation has given
us, we regard it as rightly named the _reformation_, it being an
improvement of Antichrist, not a restoration of Christianity.” This last
opinion, which has some foundation in truth, has been long held, variously
modified, in different parts of the Christian world.

An unsuccessful attempt was made to propagate the views of this sect
through the medium of a paper published at New Haven, Conn., entitled the
_Perfectionist_.

Methodists’ Views Of Perfection.

“The highest perfection which man can attain, while the soul dwells in the
body, does not exclude ignorance, and error, and a thousand other
infirmities. Now, from wrong judgments, wrong words and actions will often
necessarily flow; and in some cases, wrong affections, also, may spring
from the same source. I may judge wrong of you; I may think more or less
highly of you than I ought to think; and this mistake in my judgment may
not only occasion something wrong in my behavior, but it may have a still
deeper effect; it may occasion something wrong in my affection. From a
wrong apprehension, I may love and esteem you either more or less than I
ought. Nor can I be freed from a liableness to such a mistake while I
remain in a corruptible body. A thousand infirmities, in consequence of
this, will attend my spirit, till it returns to God, who gave it; and, in
numberless instances, it comes short of doing the will of God, as Adam did
in paradise. Hence the best of men may say from the heart,


    “Every moment, Lord, I need
      The merit of thy death,”


for innumerable violations of the Adamic, as well as the angelic law. It
is well, therefore, for us, that we are not now under these, but under the
law of love. “Love is [now] the fulfilling of the law,” which is given to
fallen man. This is now, with respect to us, “the perfect law.” But even
against this, through the present weakness of our understanding, we are
continually liable to transgress. Therefore every man living needs the
blood of atonement; or he could not stand before God.

“What is, then, the perfection of which man is capable while he dwells in
a corruptible body? It is the complying with that kind command, ‘My son,
give me thy heart.’ It is the ‘loving the Lord his God with all his heart,
and with all his soul, and with all his mind.’ This is the sum of
Christian perfection: it is all comprised in that one word, _love_. The
first branch of it is the love of God; and, as he that loves God loves his
brother also, it is inseparably connected with the second, ‘Thou shalt
love thy neighbor as thyself;’ thou shalt love every man as thy own soul,
as Christ loved us. ‘On these two commandments hang all the law and the
prophets:’ these contain the whole of Christian perfection.

“Another view of this is given us in those words of the great apostle,
‘Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus.’ For, although
this immediately and directly refers to the humility of our Lord, yet it
may be taken in a far more extensive sense, so as to include the whole
disposition of his mind, all his affections, all his tempers, both toward
God and man. Now, it is certain that, as there was no evil affection in
him, so no good affection or temper was wanting; so that ‘whatsoever
things are holy, whatsoever things are lovely,’ are all included in ‘the
mind that was in Christ Jesus.’

“St. Paul, when writing to the Galatians, places perfection in yet another
view. It is the one undivided _fruit of the Spirit_, which he describes
thus: ‘The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering,
gentleness, goodness, fidelity, [so the word should be translated here,]
meekness, temperance.’ What a glorious constellation of grace is here!
Now, suppose all these things to be knit together in one, to be united
together in the soul of a believer,—this is Christian perfection.

How To Be Sought.

“’But what is that faith whereby we are sanctified, saved from sin, and
perfected in love?’ It is a divine evidence and conviction, first, that
God hath promised it in the holy Scripture. Till we are thoroughly
satisfied of this, there is no moving one step farther. And one would
imagine there needed not one word more to satisfy a reasonable man of this
than the ancient promise, ‘Then will I circumcise thy heart, and the heart
of thy seed, to love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy
soul, and with all thy mind.’ How clearly does this express the being
perfected in love!—how strongly imply the being saved from all sin! For as
long as love takes up the whole heart, what room is there for sin therein?

“It is a divine evidence and conviction, secondly, that what God hath
promised he is able to perform. Admitting, therefore, that ‘with men it is
impossible’ ‘to bring a clean thing out of an unclean,’ to purify the
heart from all sin, and to fill it with all holiness,—yet this creates no
difficulty in the case, seeing ‘with God all things are possible.’ And
surely no one ever imagined it was possible to any power less than that of
the Almighty! But if God speaks, it shall be done. God saith, ‘Let there
be light; and there [is] light.’

“It is, thirdly, a divine evidence and conviction that he is able and
willing to do it now. And why not? Is not a moment to him the same as a
thousand years? He cannot want more time to accomplish whatever is his
will. And he cannot want to stay for any more _worthiness_ or _fitness_ in
the persons he is pleased to honor. We may, therefore, boldly say, at any
point of time, ‘Now is the day of salvation!’ ‘To-day, if ye will hear his
voice, harden not your hearts.’ ‘Behold, all things are now ready; come
unto the marriage.’

“To this confidence that God is both able and willing to sanctify us now,
there needs to be added one thing more—a divine evidence and conviction
that he doeth it. In that hour it is done: God says to the inmost soul,
‘According to thy faith be it unto thee.’ Then the soul is pure from every
spot of sin; it is clean ‘from all unrighteousness.’ The believer then
experiences the deep meaning of those solemn words, ‘If we walk in the
light as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the
blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.’

“ ‘But does God work this great work in the soul gradually, or
instantaneously?’ Perhaps it may be gradually wrought in some: I mean, in
this sense, they do not advert to the particular moment wherein sin ceases
to be. But it is infinitely desirable, were it the will of God, that it
should be done instantaneously; that the Lord should destroy sin ‘by the
breath of his mouth,’ in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye. And so he
generally does—a plain fact, of which there is evidence enough to satisfy
any unprejudiced person. _Thou_, therefore, look for it every moment.”—See
_Wesley’s Sermons_, vols. i. and ii.

Oberlin Views Of Sanctification.

In the fall of 1836, during an interesting revival of religion in Oberlin,
Ohio, the minds of many became deeply interested in the inquiry, “Can we
live holy lives? and, if we can, how?” At first, fears were entertained
that some would run into the errors of the Perfectionists; but, finally,
after much prayer and investigation, they adopted the following views of
sanctification:—


    “1. That entire obedience to the moral law constitutes entire
    sanctification or holiness.

    “2. That all moral agents are able to render this obedience.

    “3. That because all moral agents are able to render this
    obedience, they are bound to do so.

    “4. That sufficient grace for the actual attainment of this state
    is abundantly in the gospel, and that nothing prevents any
    Christian from making this attainment in this life, but a neglect
    to avail himself of the proffered grace of Christ.

    “5. That all are bound to aim at and pray for this attainment in
    this life, and that aiming at this state is indispensable to
    Christian character.

    “6. That obedience to the moral law, or a state of entire
    sanctification, is in such a sense attainable, as to make it an
    object of rational pursuit, with the _expectation of attaining
    it_.

    “7. That the philosophy of the mind, the commandments of God, the
    promises and provisions of the gospel, and the attainments of Paul
    and many others, should be presented, to induce men to aim at a
    state of entire sanctification, with the expectation of attaining
    it.”


Since these views were embraced at Oberlin, they have been extensively
circulated by many books and pamphlets, and a paper, entitled the _Oberlin
Evangelist_. By many Christians and ministers of different denominations
these views have been received; but by others they are opposed.



WALDENSES.


Many authors of note make the antiquity of this denomination coeval with
the apostolic age. The following is an extract from their confession of
faith, which is said to have been copied out of certain manuscripts,
bearing date nearly four hundred years before the time of Luther:—


    “1. That the Scriptures teach that there is one God, almighty,
    all-wise, and all-good, who made all things by his goodness; for
    he formed Adam in his own image and likeness; but that, by the
    envy of the devil, sin entered into the world; and that we are
    sinners in and by Adam.

    “2. That Christ was promised to our fathers, who received the law;
    that so knowing, by the law, their unrighteousness and
    insufficiency, they might desire the coming of Christ, to satisfy
    for their sins, and accomplish the law by himself.

    “3. That Christ was born in the time appointed by God the Father;
    that is to say, in the time when all iniquity abounded, that he
    might show us grace and mercy, as being faithful; that Christ is
    our life, truth, peace, and righteousness, as also our pastor,
    advocate, and priest, who died for the salvation of all who
    believe, and is risen for our justification; that there is no
    mediator and advocate with God the Father, save Jesus Christ;
    that, after this life, there are only two places, the one for the
    saved, and the other for the damned; that the feasts, the vigils
    of saints, the water which they call holy, as also to abstain from
    flesh on certain days, and the like, but especially the masses,
    are the inventions of men, and ought to be rejected; that the
    sacraments are signs of the holy thing, visible forms of the
    invisible grace; and that it is good for the faithful to use those
    signs, or visible forms, but that they are not essential to
    salvation; that there are no other sacraments but baptism and the
    Lord’s supper; that we ought to honor the secular powers, by
    subjection, ready obedience, and paying of tribute.”



ALLENITES.


The disciples of Henry Allen, of Nova Scotia, who began to propagate his
doctrines in that country about the year 1778, and died in 1783, during
which interval he made many proselytes, and at his death left a
considerable party behind him, though now much declined. He published
several treatises and sermons, in which he declares that the souls of all
the human race are emanations, or rather parts, of the one great Spirit;
that they were all present in Eden, and were actually in the first
transgression. He supposes that our first parents, in innocency, were pure
spirits, and that the material world was not then made; but that, in
consequence of the fall, that mankind might not sink into utter
destruction, this world was produced, and men clothed with material
bodies; and that all the human race will, in their turn, be invested with
such bodies, and in them enjoy a state of probation for immortal
happiness.



JOHNSONIANS.


The followers of Mr. John Johnson, many years Baptist minister at
Liverpool, in the last century, of whose followers there are still several
congregations in different parts of England. He denied that faith was a
duty, or even action of the soul, and defined it “an active principle”
conferred by grace; and denied also the duty of ministers to exhort the
unconverted, or preach any _moral duties_ whatever.

Though Mr. Johnson entertained high Supralapsarian notions on the divine
decrees, he admitted the universality of the death of Christ. On the
doctrine of the Trinity, his followers are said to have embraced the
indwelling scheme, with Calvinistic views of justification and the
atonement.



DONATISTS.


A denomination which arose in the fourth century. They derived their name
from Donatus, bishop of Numidia. They maintained that their community was
alone to be considered as the true church, and avoided all communication
with other churches, from an apprehension of contracting their impurity
and corruption. Hence they pronounced the sacred rites and institutions
void of all virtue and efficacy among those Christians who were not
precisely of their sentiments, and not only rebaptized those who came over
to their party from other churches, but, with respect to those who had
been ordained ministers of the gospel, they either deprived them of their
office, or obliged them to be ordained the second time.



SE-BAPTISTS.


A sect of small note, which was formed in England about the beginning of
the seventeenth century, by one John Smith, who maintained that it was
lawful for every one to baptize himself. There is at this day an
inconsiderable sect in Russia who are known by this name, and who perform
the rite upon themselves, from an idea that no one is left on earth
sufficiently holy to administer it aright.



RE-ANOINTERS.


A sect in Russia, which sprang up about the year 1770. They do not
rebaptize those who join them from the Greek church, but insist on the
necessity of their having the mystery of the chrism or unction again
administered to them. They are very numerous in Moscow.



TAO-SE, OR TAOU-TSZE.


The name of a famous sect among the Chinese, who owe their rise to
_Laou-tsze Lao Kian_, or _Laokium_, a philosopher, who lived, if we may
credit his disciples, about five hundred years before Christ. He professed
to restore the religion of _Tao_, (_Taou_,) or Reason. Some of his
writings are still extant, and are full of maxims and sentiments of virtue
and morality. Among others, this sentence is often repeated in them:
“_Tao_ hath produced one, one hath produced two, two have produced three,
and three have produced all things.”

The morality of this philosopher and his disciples is not unlike that of
the Epicureans, consisting in a tranquillity of mind, free from all
vehement desires and passions. But as this tranquillity would be disturbed
by thoughts of death, they boast of a liquor that has the power of
rendering them immortal. They are addicted to chemistry, alchemy, and
magic, and are persuaded that, by the assistance of demons, whom they
invoke, they can obtain all that they desire. The hope of avoiding death
prevailed upon a great number of mandarins to study this diabolical art,
and certain credulous and superstitious emperors brought it greatly into
vogue.

The doctrine of this sect, concerning the formation of the world,
according to Dr. Milne, much resembles that of the Epicureans. If they do
not maintain the eternity of matter, on the other hand, they do not deny
it; but, in analogy with the favorite science of alchemy, they represent
the first pair as drawn out of the boiling mouth of an “immense crucible,”
by a celestial being. The Platonic notion of an _anima mundi_, or soul of
the world, is very common; and hence it is that the heavens are considered
the body of this imaginary being, the wind its breath, the lights of
heaven as proceeding from its eyes, the watery fluids as its spittle and
tears.



QUIETISTS.


The disciples of Michael de Molinos, a Spanish priest, who flourished in
the seventeenth century, and wrote a book called “The Spiritual Guide.”
They argue thus:—“The apostle tells us, that ‘the Spirit makes
intercession for,’ or _in_ ‘us.’ Now, if the Spirit pray in us, we must
resign ourselves to his impulses, by remaining in a state of absolute
rest, or quietude, till we attain the perfection of the unitive life”—a
life of union with, and, as it should seem, of absorption in, the Deity.



KNIPPERDOLINGS.


A denomination in the sixteenth century, so called from Bertrand
Knipperdoling, who taught that the righteous, before the day of judgment,
shall have a monarchy on earth, and the wicked be destroyed; that men are
not justified by their faith in Christ Jesus; that there is no original
sin; that infants ought not to be baptized, and immersion is the only mode
of baptism; that every one has authority to preach, and administer the
sacraments; that men are not obliged to pay respect to magistrates; that
all things ought to be in common; and that it is lawful to marry many
wives.



MENDÆANS, MENDAITES, MENDAI IJAHI, OR DISCIPLES OF ST. JOHN, THAT IS, THE
BAPTIST.


From twenty to twenty-five thousand families of this sect still remain,
chiefly in the neighborhood of Bassora, a city between Arabia and Persia,
on the extremity of the desert of Irac. They are sometimes called
_Christians of St. John_—a name which they probably received from the
Turks, and to which they contentedly submit for the sake of the toleration
it affords them; but they are better known in ecclesiastical history as
_Hemero_ (or every day) _Baptists_, from their frequent washings.



MUGGLETONIANS.


The followers of Ludovic Muggleton, a journeyman tailor, who, with his
companion Reeves, set up for great prophets, in the time of Cromwell. They
pretended to absolve or condemn whom they pleased, and gave out that they
were the two last witnesses spoken of in the Revelation, who were to
appear previous to the final destruction of the world. They affirmed that
there was no devil at all without the body of man or woman; that the devil
is man’s spirit of unclean reason and cursed imagination; that the
ministry in this world, whether prophetical or ministerial, is all a lie,
and abomination to the Lord; with a variety of other vain and inconsistent
tenets.

Muggleton died in 1697, and on his gravestone is this inscription:—


    “Whilst mausoleums and large inscriptions give
    Might, splendor, and, past death, make potents live,
    It is enough briefly to write thy name:
    Succeeding times by that will read thy fame;
    Thy deeds, thy acts, around the world resound;
    No foreign soil where Muggleton’s not found.”


The raven plume of oblivion hath long ago waved over this prophet’s grave.



YEZIDEES, OR WORSHIPPERS OF THE DEVIL.


From a very interesting work recently published by Asahel Grant, M. D., a
medical missionary to the Nestorians, we copy the following account:—

“The passage of the Tigris transferred me from Mesopotamia into Assyria,
and I stood upon the ruins of Nineveh, ‘that great city,’ where the
prophet Jonah proclaimed the dread message of Jehovah to so many repenting
thousands whose deep humiliation averted for a time the impending ruin.
But when her proud monarchs had scourged idolatrous Israel and carried the
ten tribes into captivity, and raised their hands against Judah and the
holy city, the inspired strains of the eloquent Nahum, clothed in terrible
sublimity as they were, met their full accomplishment in the utter
desolation of one of the largest cities on which the sun ever shone.
‘Nineveh is laid waste! who will bemoan her? She is empty, and void, and
waste; her nobles dwell in the dust; her people are scattered upon the
mountains, and no man gathereth them.’

“Where her gorgeous palaces once resounded to the strains of music and the
shouts of revelry, a few black tents of the wandering Arab and Tûrkomân
are now scattered among the shapeless mounds of earth and rubbish,—the
ruins of the city,—as if in mockery of her departed glory; while their
tenants were engaged in the fitting employment of weaving ‘sackcloth of
hair,’ as if for the mourning attire of the world’s great emporium, whose
‘merchants’ were multiplied above the stars of heaven. The largest mound,
from which very ancient relics and inscriptions are dug, is now crowned
with the Moslem village of Neby Yûnas, or the prophet Jonah, where his
remains are said to be interred, and over which has been reared, as his
mausoleum, a temple of Islâm.

“Soon after leaving the ruins of Nineveh, we came in sight of two villages
of the Yezidees, the reputed worshippers of the devil. Large and luxuriant
olive-groves, with their rich green foliage, and fruit just ripening in
the autumnal sun, imparted such a cheerful aspect to the scene as soon
dispelled whatever of pensive melancholy had gathered around me, while
treading upon the dust of departed greatness. Several white sepulchres of
Yezidee sheiks attracted attention as I approached the villages. They were
in the form of fluted cones or pyramids, standing upon quadrangular bases,
and rising to the height of some twenty feet or more. We became the guests
of one of the chief Yezidees of Baa-sheka, whose dwelling, like others in
the place, was a rude stone structure, with a flat terrace roof. Coarse
felt carpets were spread for our seats in the open court, and a formal
welcome was given us; but it was evidently not a very cordial one. My
Turkish cavass understood the reason, and at once removed it. Our host had
mistaken me for a Mahometan towards whom the Yezidees cherish a settled
aversion. As soon as I was introduced to him as a Christian, and he had
satisfied himself that this was my true character, his whole deportment
was changed. He at once gave me a new and cordial welcome, and set about
supplying our wants with new alacrity. He seemed to feel that he had
exchanged a Moslem foe for a Christian friend, and I became quite
satisfied of the truth of what I had often heard,—that the Yezidees are
friendly towards the professors of Christianity.

“They are said to cherish a high regard for the Christian religion, of
which clearly they have some corrupt remains. They practise the rite of
baptism, make the sign of the cross, so emblematical of Christianity in
the East, put off their shoes, and kiss the threshold when they enter a
Christian church; and it is said that they often speak of wine as the
blood of Christ, hold the cup with both hands, after the sacramental
manner of the East, when drinking it, and, if a drop chance to fall on the
ground, they gather it up with religious care.

“They believe in one supreme God, and, in some sense at least, in Christ
as a Savior. They have also a remnant of Sabianism, or the religion of the
ancient fire-worshippers. They bow in adoration before the rising sun, and
kiss his first rays when they strike on a wall or other object near them;
and they will not blow out a candle with their breath, or spit in the
fire, lest they should defile that sacred element.

“Circumcision and the passover, or a sacrificial festival allied to the
passover in time and circumstance, seem also to identify them with the
Jews; and, altogether, they certainly present a most singular chapter in
the history of man.

“That they are really the worshippers of the devil can only be true, if at
all, in a modified sense, though it is true that they pay him so much
deference as to refuse to speak of him disrespectfully, (perhaps for fear
of his vengeance;) and, instead of pronouncing his name, they call him the
‘lord of the evening,’ or ‘prince of darkness;’ also, Sheik Maazen, or
Exalted Chief. Some of them say that Satan was a fallen angel, with whom
God was angry; but he will at some future day be restored to favor, and
there is no reason why they should treat him with disrespect.

“The Christians of Mesopotamia report that the Yezidees make votive
offerings to the devil, by throwing money and jewels into a certain deep
pit in the mountains of Sinjar, where a large portion of them reside; and
it is said that when that district, which has long been independent, was
subjugated by the Turks, the pacha compelled the Yezidee priest to
disclose the place, and then plundered it of a large treasure, the
offerings of centuries. The Yezidees here call themselves Daseni, probably
from the ancient name of the district, Dasen, which was a Christian
bishopric in early times. Their chief place of concourse, the religious
temple of the Yezidees, is said to have once been a Christian church or
convent. The late Mr. Rich speaks of the Yezidees as ‘lively, brave,
hospitable, and good-humored,’ and adds that, ‘under the British
government, much might be made of them.’

“The precise number of the Yezidees it is difficult to estimate, so little
is known of them; but it is probable that we must reckon them by tens of
thousands, instead of the larger computations which have been made by some
travellers, who have received their information merely from report. Still
they are sufficiently numerous to form an important object of attention to
the Christian church; and I trust, as we learn more about them, sympathy,
prayer, and effort, will be enlisted in their behalf. It will be a scene
of no ordinary interest when the voice of prayer and praise to God shall
ascend from hearts now devoted to the service of the prince of darkness,
‘the worshippers of the devil’! May that day be hastened on!”



GREEK OR RUSSIAN CHURCH.


The Greek church separated from the Latin or Romish church about A. D.
1054. It is under the jurisdiction of the patriarchs or bishops of
Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. The Greek or Russian
church is very extensive. Its jurisdiction embraces more territory than
that of the Roman see. The population of this church is estimated at about
forty millions.

The following are some of the chief tenets held by the Greek or Russian
church:—They disown the authority of the pope, and deny that the church of
Rome is the true catholic church. They do not baptize their children till
they are three, four, five, six, ten, nay, sometimes eighteen years of
age: baptism is performed by trine immersion. They insist that the
sacrament of the Lord’s supper ought to be administered in both kinds, and
they give the sacrament to children immediately after baptism. They grant
no indulgences, nor do they lay any claim to the character of
infallibility, like the church of Rome. They deny that there is any such
place as purgatory; notwithstanding, they pray for the dead, that God
would have mercy on them at the general judgment. They practise the
invocation of saints; though, they say, they do not invoke them as
deities, but as intercessors with God. They exclude confirmation, extreme
unction, and matrimony out of the seven sacraments. They deny auricular
confession to be a divine precept, and say it is only a positive
injunction of the church. They pay no religious homage to the eucharist.
They administer the communion in both kinds to the laity, both in sickness
and in health, though they have never applied themselves to their
confessors, because they are persuaded that a lively faith is all which is
requisite for the worthy receiving of the Lord’s supper. They maintain
that the Holy Ghost proceeds only from the Father, and not from the Son.
They believe in predestination. They admit of no images in relief or
embossed work, but use paintings and sculptures in copper or silver. They
approve of the marriage of priests, provided they enter into that state
before their admission into holy orders. They condemn all fourth
marriages. They observe a number of holy days, and keep four fasts in the
year more solemn than the rest, of which the fast in Lent, before Easter,
is the chief. They believe the doctrine of consubstantiation, or the union
of the body of Christ with the sacramental bread.

The Russians adhere to the doctrine and ceremonies of the Greek church,
though they are now independent of the patriarch of Constantinople. The
church service is contained in twenty-four volumes, folio, in the
Sclavonian language, which is not well understood by the common people.



PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANS.


A new sect, professing to be an association of Christians to promote the
revival and spread of primitive Christianity, has recently sprung up at
Bradford, in England. Its originators, or founders, are a Mr. Barker and a
Mr. Trother, who have recently been expelled from the ministry of the New
Connection of Methodists, by the annual assembly or conference of the
members of that body, for some difference of opinion on doctrinal points
between them and the conference.



TRINITARIANS.


By this term we are to understand those who believe that there are three
distinct, persons in the Godhead, the FATHER, SON, and HOLY SPIRIT, the
same in substance, equal in power and dignity, and that these _three_ are
_one_. Hence it is said they believe in a _triune_ God. (See Deut. 6:4. 2
Kings 19:15. Ps. 19:1; 83:18; 139:7. Isa. 6:3, 9; 9:6; 11:3; 14:5, 23, 25.
Jer. 17:10; 23:6. Ezek. 8:1, 3. Matt. 3:16, 17; 9:6; 18:20; 23:19. Luke
1:76; 24:25. John 1:1; 2:1; 5:19, 23; 10:30; 16:10, 15. Acts 5:4; 28:23,
25. Rom. 1:5; 9:5; 14:12, 19. 1 Cor. 2:10; 8:6. 2 Cor. 13:14. Phil. 2:5,
6, 7, &c.; 3:21. Heb. 1:3, 6, 10, 11, 12; 9:14; 13:8. 1 John 5:7, 20. Rev.
1:4, 5, 6, 8; 3:14; 5:13, &c.) The Unitarians believe that there is but
one person in the Godhead, and that this person is the Father; and they
insist that the Trinitarian distinction of persons is contradictory and
absurd.

The _unity_ of God is a doctrine which both parties consider the
foundation of all true religion.

Although the doctrine of the Trinity is ostensibly the main subject of
dispute between Trinitarians and Unitarians, yet it is in reality
respecting the character of Christ. Those who believe in his proper deity
very easily dispose of all the other difficulties in the Trinitarian
system; while anti-Trinitarians find more fault with this doctrine than
any other in the Trinitarian creed; and the grand obstacle to their
reception of the Trinitarian faith is removed, when they can admit that
Jesus Christ is God, as well as man; so that the burden of labor, on both
sides, is either to prove or disprove the proper deity of the Son of God.

In proof of this doctrine, the Trinitarians urge many declarations of the
Scripture, which, in their opinion, admit of no consistent explanation
upon the Unitarian scheme; they there find that offices are assigned to
Christ, and to the Holy Spirit, which none but God can perform;
particularly the creation of the world, and the grand decisions of the day
of judgment. As they read the Scriptures, the attributes of _omnipotence_,
_omniscience_, _omnipresence_, _unchangeableness_, and _eternity_, are
ascribed to Jesus Christ; and they infer that a being to whom all these
perfections are ascribed must be truly God, coëqual and coëternal with the
Father.

The Unitarians, on the other hand, contend that some of these passages are
interpolations, and that the others are either mistranslated or
misunderstood. The passage in John, in particular, respecting the _three_
that bear record, &c., has been set aside by such high authority, that
they consider it unfair to introduce it in the controversy.

                  -------------------------------------

The excellent and learned Stillingfleet, in the preface to his Vindication
of the Doctrine of the Trinity, says, “Since both sides yield that the
matter they dispute about is above their reach, the wisest course they can
take is, to assert and defend _what is revealed_, and not to be
_peremptory_ and quarrelsome about that which is acknowledged to be above
our comprehension; I mean as to the _manner_ how the _three persons_
partake of the _divine nature_.”



MILLENARIANS.


The Millenarians are those who believe that Christ will reign personally
on earth for a thousand years; and their name, taken from the Latin
_mille_, a thousand, has a direct allusion to the duration of the
spiritual empire.

The doctrine of the millennium, or a future paradisaical state of the
earth, it is said, is not of Christian, but of Jewish origin. The
tradition is attributed to Elijah, which fixes the duration of the world,
in its present imperfect condition, to six thousand years, and announces
the approach of a Sabbath of a thousand years of universal peace and
plenty, to be ushered in by the glorious advent of the Messiah. This idea
may be traced in the Epistle of Barnabas, and in the opinions of Papias,
who knew of no written testimony in its behalf. It was adopted by the
author of the Revelation, by Justin Martyr, by Irenæus, and by a long
succession of the fathers. As the theory is animating and consolatory,
when it is divested of cabalistic numbers and allegorical decorations, it
will no doubt always retain a number of adherents.

However the Millenarians may differ among themselves respecting the nature
of this great event, it is agreed, on all hands, that such a revolution
will be effected in the latter days, by which vice and its attendant
misery shall be banished from the earth; thus completely forgetting all
those dissensions and animosities by which the religious world hath been
agitated, and terminating the grand drama of Providence with universal
felicity. We are not unmindful of the prophetic language of Isaiah,
(49:22, 23,) together with a sublime passage from the book of the
Revelation, (11:15,) with which the canon of Scripture concludes—“Thus
saith the Lord God, Behold, I will lift up mine hand to the Gentiles, and
set up my standard to the people. And kings shall be thy nursing fathers,
and their queens thy nursing mothers, [they shall become good themselves,
and be the protectors of religion and liberty,] and thou shalt know that I
am the Lord, for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me. And the
seventh angel sounded, and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The
kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his
Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever.” (See Matt 13:29, 30; 27:32.
Luke 17:29, 30. Acts 3:21. Heb. 1:12. Phil. 3:9, 11. 2 Pet. 3:13. Rev.
20:1-6, and chaps. 21, 22. Apoc. chap. 21. Ezek. chap. 36.)



WHITEFIELD CALVINISTIC METHODISTS.


The _Tabernacle_ or _Lady Huntingdon Connection_, formed by Whitefield, is
so called from the name given to several places of worship, in London,
Bristol, &c. In some of the chapels in this Connection, the service of the
church of England is read; in others, the worship is conducted much in the
same way as among the Congregationalists; while, in all, the system of
supply is more or less kept up, consisting in the employment, for a month
or six weeks, of ministers from different parts of the country, who either
take the whole duty, or assist the resident minister. Some of the
congregations consist of several thousand hearers; and, by the blessing of
God on the rousing and faithful sermons which are usually delivered to
them, very extensive good is effected in the way of conversion. Most of
the ministers now employed as supplies in this Connection are of the
Congregational order, to which, of late years, there appears to be a
gradual approximation; and it is not improbable that ere long both bodies
will coalesce. The number of chapels belonging to this body, at the
present time, is about sixty, in all of which the liturgy of the church of
England is read, and most of her forms scrupulously kept up. The
ministers, who used formerly to supply at different chapels in the course
of the year, are now become more stationary, and have assumed more of the
pastoral character. They have a respectable college at Cheshunt, in
Hertfordshire.

The Calvinistic Methodists in Wales are very numerous.—See _Biographical
Sketches_ of Whitefield, Wesley, and Lady Huntingdon.



NONJURORS.


Those who refused to take the oaths to government, and who were, in
consequence, under certain incapacities, and liable to certain severe
penalties. The members of the Episcopal church of Scotland have long been
denominated Nonjurors; but perhaps they are now called so improperly, as
the ground of their difference from the established church is more on
account of ecclesiastical than political principles.



NONCONFORMISTS.


Those who refuse to join the established church. Nonconformists in England
may be considered of three sorts:—1. Such as absent themselves from divine
worship in the established church through total irreligion, and attend the
service of no other persuasion.—2. Such as absent themselves on the plea
of conscience; as, Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, &c.—3. Internal
Nonconformists, or unprincipled clergymen, who applaud and propagate
doctrines quite inconsistent with several of those articles they promised
on oath to defend. The word is generally used in reference to those
ministers who were ejected from their livings by the Act of Uniformity, in
1662. The number of these was about two thousand. However some affect to
treat these men with indifference, and suppose that their consciences were
more tender than they need be, it must be remembered that they were men of
as extensive learning, great abilities, and pious conduct, as ever
appeared.



CHRISTIAN CONNECTION.


This denomination, among themselves, are generally called simply
_Christians_. This they do merely to denote their character as the
followers of Christ; but, when applied to them collectively, it
necessarily becomes the name of a denomination. They are sometimes, by
their opposers, called _Christ-ians_; but this pronunciation of the word
they universally reject as very improper.

The Christians began to associate and to form a distinct people about the
beginning of the nineteenth century, so that they may be said to have
existed but about forty years. They seem to have sprung up almost
simultaneously in different and remote parts of the country, without any
interchange of sentiments, concert of action, or even knowledge of each
other’s views or movements, till after a public stand had been taken in
several parts of the country.

The first branch arose in Virginia and North Carolina, and consisted of
seceders from the Methodists. At first, there were about one thousand
communicants.

The northern branch of this denomination sprung up in New England. It
commenced by the formation of several new churches, under the
administration of a few ministers who had separated themselves from the
Baptists, who were soon joined by several other ministers, and nearly
whole churches, from the same denomination.

The western branch arose in Kentucky, and was composed of seceders from
the Presbyterians. Some of their ministers were men of strong and
well-cultivated minds, who urged forward the reform they had undertaken,
till they have spread over most of the Western States.

In all these different sections, their leading purpose, at first, appears
to have been, not so much to establish any peculiar or distinctive
doctrine, as to assert for individuals and churches more liberty and
independence in relation to matters of faith and practice; to shake off
the authority of human creeds, and the shackles of prescribed modes and
forms; to make the Bible their only guide, claiming for every man the
right to judge for himself what is its doctrine, and what are its
requirements; and in practice to follow more strictly the simplicity of
the apostles and primitive Christians.

This class of believers recognize no individual as a leader or founder,
and no man claims this high eminence, although several persons were
instrumental in giving rise and progress to the society. They point all to
Christ as the Leader and Founder, and professedly labor to bring all to
the first principles of original, apostolic Christianity.

Seceding, as the first ministers did, from different denominations, they
necessarily brought with them some of the peculiarities of faith and usage
in which they had been educated. But the two prominent sentiments that led
them out, both kept them together, by rendering them tolerant toward each
other, and gradually brought them to be very similar both in faith and
practice. These two sentiments were, that the Scriptures _only_ should be
consulted as a rule of faith and duty, and that all Christians should
enjoy universal toleration. Hence scarcely any churches have written
creeds, although nearly all record their principles of action. Very few
are Trinitarians, though nearly all believe in the preëxistence and proper
Sonship of Christ. Perhaps not any believe in or practise sprinkling, but
almost all practise immersion; from which circumstance many, though very
improperly, call them Christian Baptists.

Perfect uniformity does not exist among all the members of this community,
although the approximation to it is far greater than many have supposed it
ever could be without a written creed. But there are several important
points in which they generally agree fully; and these are regarded as
sufficient to secure Christian character, Christian fellowship, and
concert of action. Some of these points are the following:—That the
Scriptures, including the Old and New Testament, were given by inspiration
of God, and are sufficient to teach what men should believe, and what they
should practise. That every man has a right to study the Scriptures, and
to exercise his own judgment with regard to their true import and meaning.
That there is one God, perfect and infinite. That Jesus Christ is the Son
of God in the highest possible sense, and that salvation is found in him
alone. That all men have sinned and come short of the glory of God,
therefore are polluted and guilty. That no transgressor can find pardon
but by repentance and faith in Jesus Christ. That the Holy Spirit reproves
all sinners, and comforts all Christians. That whoever has sinned has also
a way of salvation set before him. That pardon and eternal salvation are
found alone through regeneration. That none are proper subjects of church
membership, or the ordinances except the regenerated. That God calls men
to the ministry, and no others are his true ministers. That perseverance
to the end is the only condition on our part that can secure our eternal
happiness. That revivals of religion are of the first importance, and
should be labored for continually. That every believer should be immersed,
and become a public member of some visible church. That every church
should continue to observe the Lord’s supper. That there will be a
resurrection of the dead, both of the just and of the unjust; and that, at
the day of judgment, the righteous and the wicked will be separated, and
pass, the righteous into everlasting life, and the wicked into eternal
damnation.

On all the above points, there is but very little difference of opinion or
practice throughout the whole body.

Candidates for baptism and church membership are required to give the
reason of their hope, by a relation of their Christian experience; and
persons coming from other churches are expected to furnish satisfactory
testimonials of their Christian character.

Their communions are always open and free for all Christians of every
denomination; but no unconverted or immoral person is invited to the
Lord’s table.

Each church is so far independent as to have a right to transact all its
internal affairs without foreign interference. Every church makes choice
of its own minister, agrees on its own principles of action, and
administers its own discipline, as they understand the New Testament; but
the imposition of hands is invariably administered by ordained ministers.

The connection between the several churches, and between the ministers, is
kept up by means of associations called _conferences_, each of which is
generally composed of the ministers and churches within a certain
district. These hold annual sessions, at which the ministers meet in
person, and the churches by delegates. The churches and ministers are
generally thus associated; but, if any choose not to do so, the fraternal
bonds are not thereby impaired.

Very few of their ministers are thoroughly educated men; but they are
generally well acquainted with the Bible, and many of them good
sermonizers and powerful preachers. All the important means by which pure
Christianity may be advanced are fast gaining favor both in the ministry
and the churches.

Within the last few years, there has been a very rapid spread, and great
increase; while all has been settling upon a firm and consistent basis.
While many are engaged calling sinners to repentance, the churches are set
in order, and thus mightily the word of God grows and prevails.



PUSEYITES.


This school of theology, which has become famous both in England and
abroad, had its origin at Oxford, about A. D. 1838. Some distinguished
members of the university thought that the church of England was in an
alarming position, and that irreligious principles and false doctrines had
been admitted into the measures of the government of the country on a
large scale. To check the progress of these supposed errors and
mischievous practices, they published a series of “Tracts for the Times,”
on such subjects as the _constitution of the church; the authority of its
ministers; refutations of the errors of Romanism, and how to oppose it_,
&c. &c.

The Puseyites strenuously assert the _apostolical succession_; in other
words, that the clergy derive their power from the apostles, through
_episcopal_ ordination.

In regard to _church polity_, they maintain that the church is an empire
and government of its own,—a government appointed by God,—and that its
laws, as they are to be found in the Book of Common Prayer, ought to be
implicitly obeyed. They deprecate the neglect of the _daily service_, the
desecration of festivals, and the scanty administration of the eucharist.

With respect to _sacraments_, the Puseyites hold that they are not
subjects of discussion, or for speculation; but “high, mysterious, awful
Christian privileges—to be _felt_, reverenced, embraced, realized, acted.”

With respect to _church authority_, they hold that human tradition has no
place in revelation; that no individuals, since the apostles, can be
regarded as expositors of the will of Christ; that the _unanimous witness_
of Christendom, as to the teaching of the apostles, is the only and the
fully-sufficient guaranty of the whole revealed faith, and that we do
possess historically such a guaranty in the remains of the primitive
church.

The Puseyites inculcate the necessity of dispensing religious truth with
caution and reverence, not throwing it promiscuously before minds ill
suited to receive it.

A characteristic feature of the Oxford school of theology, is its
opposition to what is called the “popular religionism of the day.” The
masters of the school grieve that men are sent from the seat of their
education with the belief that they are to _think_, not _read_; _judge_,
rather than _learn_; and look to their own minds for truth, rather than to
some permanent external standard.

At the head of this school are Dr. Pusey, Regius professor of Hebrew, and
canon of Christ Church, Rev. J. Keble, professor of poetry, Rev. J. H.
Newman, Rev. J. Williams, and Rev. W. Sewall, professor of moral
philosophy.



FREE COMMUNION BAPTISTS.


This denomination of Christians dissent from the regular Baptists on the
point that immersion is a prerequisite to the privileges of a church
relation, and permit Christians of all denominations, in regular church
standing, to partake with them at the Lord’s table.

The Rev. Robert Hall, of England, one of the most learned and eloquent
Baptist ministers of the age, was an unflinching opposer of the practice
of “close communion,” which he denounced as “unchristian and unnatural.”
In a tract written in defence of his views on this subject, he remarks,
“It is too much to expect an enlightened public will be eager to enroll
themselves among the members of a sect which displays much of the
intolerance of Popery, without any portion of its splendor, and
prescribes, as the pledge of conversion, the renunciation of the whole
Christian world.”

In reference to the mode of baptism, Mr. Hall says, “I would not myself
baptize in any other way than by immersion, because I look upon immersion
as the ancient mode; that it best represents the meaning of the original
term employed, and the substantial import of this institution; and because
I should think it right to guard against the spirit of innovation, which,
in positive rites, is always dangerous and progressive; _but I should not
think myself authorized to rebaptize any one who has been sprinkled in
adult age_.”

This class of Baptists are found chiefly in the western and northern parts
of the state of New York. They number between forty and fifty churches and
ministers.



TRANSCENDENTALISTS.


TRANSCENDENT and TRANSCENDENTAL are technical terms in philosophy.
According to their etymology, (from _transcendere_,) they signify that
which goes beyond a certain limit; in philosophy, that which goes beyond,
or transcends, the circle of experience, or of what is perceptible by the
senses. Properly speaking, all philosophy is in this sense transcendental,
because all philosophical investigations rise above the sensual, even if
they start from that which is perceptible by the senses. But philosophical
inquiries are to be distinguished according as they proceed from
experience, or from principles and ideas not derived from that source. The
latter sort are called, in a narrower sense, _pure_, or _transcendental_.
The school of Kant makes a still further distinction: it gives the name of
_transcendental_ to that which does not, indeed, originate from
experience, but yet is connected with it, because it contains the grounds
of the possibility of experience; but the term _transcendent_ it applies
to that which cannot be connected with experience, but transcends the
limit of possible experience and of philosophizing.

As applied in this country, especially when used as a term of reproach,
Transcendentalism would designate a system which builds on feeling, rather
than on reason, and relies more on the imagination than on the judgment.
In the main, however, the Transcendentalists are persons who hold that man
has the power to perceive intuitively truths which transcend the reach of
the senses; but they divide, some taking the unction of Sentimentalism,
and others of Mysticism.



AUGSBURG CONFESSION OF FAITH.


The first Protestant Confession was that presented, in 1530, to the diet
of Augsburg, by the suggestion and under the direction of John, elector of
Saxony. This wise and prudent prince, with the view of having the
principal grounds on which the Protestants had separated from the Romish
communion distinctly submitted to that assembly, intrusted the duty of
preparing a summary of them to the divines of Wittemberg. Nor was that
task a difficult one; for the Reformed doctrines had already been digested
into seventeen articles, which had been proposed at the conferences both
at Sultzbach and Smalcald, as the confession of faith to be adopted by the
Protestant confederates. These, accordingly, were delivered to the elector
by Luther, and served as the basis of the celebrated Augsburg Confession,
written “by the elegant and accurate pen of Melancthon”—a work which has
been admired by many even of its enemies, for its perspicuity, piety, and
erudition. It contains twenty-eight chapters, the leading topics of which
are, the true and essential divinity of Christ; his substitution and
vicarious sacrifice; original sin; human inability; the necessity,
freedom, and efficacy of divine grace; consubstantiation; and particularly
justification by faith, to establish the truth and importance of which was
one of its chief objects. The last seven articles condemn and confute the
Popish tenets of communion in one kind, clerical celibacy, private masses,
auricular confession, legendary traditions, monastic vows, and the
exorbitant power of the church. This Confession is silent on the doctrine
of predestination. This is the universal standard of orthodox doctrine
among those who profess to be Lutherans, in which no authoritative
alteration has ever been made.



ARMENIANS.


The chief point of separation between the Armenians on the one side, and
the Greeks and the Papists on the other, is, that, while the latter
believe in two natures and one person of Christ, the former believe that
the humanity and divinity of Christ were so united as to form but _one
nature_; and hence they are called _Monophysites_, signifying _single
nature_.

Another point on which they are charged with heresy by the Papists is,
that they adhere to the notion that the Spirit proceeds from the Father
only; and in this the Greeks join them, though the Papists say that he
proceeds from the Father and the Son. In other respects, the Greeks and
Armenians have very nearly the same religious opinions, though they differ
somewhat in their forms and modes of worship. For instance, the Greeks
make the sign of the cross with three fingers, in token of their belief in
the doctrine of the Trinity, while the Armenians use two fingers, and the
Jacobites, one.

The Armenians hold to seven sacraments, like the Latins although baptism,
confirmation, and extreme unction, are all performed at the same time; and
the forms of prayer for confirmation and extreme unction are perfectly
intermingled, which leads one to suppose that, in fact, the latter
sacrament does not exist among them, except in name, and that this they
have borrowed from the Papists.

Infants are baptized both by triple immersion and pouring water three
times upon the head; the former being done, as their books assert, in
reference to Christ’s having been three days in the grave, and probably
suggested by the phrase _buried with him in baptism_.

The latter ceremony they derive from the tradition that, when Christ was
baptized, he stood in the midst of Jordan, and John poured water from his
hand three times upon his head. In all their pictures of this scene, such
is the representation of the mode of our Savior’s baptism. Converted Jews,
or Mahometans, though adults, are baptized in the same manner.

The Armenians acknowledge sprinkling as a lawful mode of baptism; for they
receive from other churches those that have merely been sprinkled, without
rebaptizing them.

They believe firmly in transubstantiation, and worship the consecrated
elements as God.

Unleavened bread is used in the sacrament, and the broken pieces of bread
are dipped in undiluted wine, and thus given to the people.

The latter, however, do not handle it, but receive it into their mouths
from the hands of the priest. They suppose it has in itself a sanctifying
and saving power. The Greeks, in this sacrament, use leavened bread, and
wine mixed with water.

The Armenians discard the Popish doctrine of purgatory but yet, most
inconsistently, they pray for the dead.

They hold to confession of sins to the priests, who impose penances and
grant absolution, though without money, and they give no indulgences.

They pray through the mediation of the virgin Mary, and other saints. The
belief that Mary was always a virgin, is a point of very high importance
with them; and they consider the thought of her having given birth to
children after the birth of Christ, as in the highest degree derogatory to
her character, and impious.

They regard baptism and regeneration as the same thing and have no
conception of any spiritual change; and they know little of any other
terms of salvation than penance, the Lord’s supper, fasting, and good
works in general.

The Armenians are strictly Trinitarians in their views, holding firmly to
the supreme divinity of Christ, and the doctrine of atonement for sin;
though their views on the latter subject, as well as in regard to faith
and repentance, are somewhat obscure. They say that Christ died to atone
for original sin, and that actual sin is to be washed away by
penances,—which, in their view, is repentance. Penances are prescribed by
the priests, and sometimes consist in an offering of money to the church,
a pilgrimage, or more commonly in repeating certain prayers, or reading
the whole book of Psalms a specified number of times. Faith in Christ
seems to mean but little more than believing in the mystery of
transubstantiation.—See _Coleman’s Christian Antiquities_.



PRIMITIVE METHODISTS.


This sect forms a party in England, which seceded from the Wesleyans in
1817. They differ from the Wesleyans chiefly in church government, by
admitting lay representation. They are said to increase rapidly. Their
present number is about seventy thousand.



NOVATIANS.


An heretical sect in the early church, which derives its name from
Novatian, an heresiarch of the third century, who was ordained a priest of
the church of Rome, and afterwards got himself clandestinely consecrated
bishop of Rome, by three weak men, upon whom he had imposed, and one of
whom afterwards did penance for his concern in the business. He was never
acknowledged bishop of Rome, but was condemned and excommunicated. He
still, however taught his doctrine, and became the head of the party that
bore his name. He denied, in opposition to the opinion of the church, that
those who had been guilty of idolatry could be again received by the
church.



NESTORIANS.


The branch of the Christian church known by this name is so called from
Nestorius, a patriarch of Constantinople, who was born in Germanica, a
city of Syria, in the latter part of the fourth century. He was educated
and baptized at Antioch, and, soon after his baptism, withdrew to a
monastery in the vicinity of that city. His great reputation for
eloquence, and the regularity of his life, induced the emperor Theodosius
to select him for the see of Constantinople; and he was consecrated bishop
of that church A. D. 429. He became a violent persecutor of heretics; but,
because he favored the doctrine of his friend Anastasius, that “the virgin
Mary cannot with propriety be called the mother of God,” he was
anathematized by Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, who, in his turn, was
anathematized by Nestorius. In the council of Ephesus, A. D. 431, (the
third General Council of the church,) at which Cyril presided, and at
which Nestorius was not present, he was judged and condemned without being
heard, and deprived of his see. He then retired to his monastery, in
Antioch, and was afterwards banished to Petra, in Arabia, and thence to
Oasis, in Egypt, where he died, about A. D. 435 or 439.

The decision of the council of Ephesus caused many difficulties in the
church; and the friends of Nestorius carried his doctrines through all the
Oriental provinces, and established numerous congregations, professing an
invincible opposition to the decrees of the Ephesian council. Nestorianism
spread rapidly over the East, and was embraced by a large number of the
oriental bishops. Barsumas, bishop of Nisibis, labored with great zeal and
activity to procure for the Nestorians a solid and permanent footing in
Persia; and his success was so remarkable that his fame extended
throughout the East. He established a school at Nisibis, which became very
famous, and from which issued those Nestorian doctors who, in that and the
following centuries, spread abroad their tenets through Egypt, Syria,
Arabia, India, Tartary, and China.

The Nestorian church is Episcopal in its government, like all the other
Oriental churches. Its doctrines, also, are, in general, the same with
those of those churches, and they receive and repeat, in their public
worship, the Nicene creed. Their _distinguishing_ doctrines appear to be,
their believing that Mary was not the mother of Jesus Christ, _as God_,
but only _as man_, and that there are, consequently, _two persons_, as
well as _two natures_, in the Son of God. This notion was looked upon in
the earlier ages of the church as a most momentous error; but it has in
later times been considered more as an error of words than of doctrine;
and that the error of Nestorius was in the words he employed to express
his meaning, rather than in the doctrine itself. While the Nestorians
believe that Christ had _two natures_ and _two persons_, they say “that
these natures and persons are so closely and intimately united that they
have but one _aspect_.” “Now, the word _barsopa_, by which they express
this _aspect_, is precisely of the same signification with the Greek word
προσωπον, which signifies _a person_; and hence it is evident that they
attached to the word _aspect_ the same idea that we attach to the word
_person_, and that they understood, by the word _person_, precisely what
we understand by the term _nature_.”

The Nestorians, of all the Christian churches of the East, have been the
most careful and successful in avoiding a multitude of superstitious
opinions and practices, which have infected the Romish and many Eastern
churches.

Our readers are referred to an interesting volume recently published by
Asahel Grant, M. D., in which is contained strong evidence that the
Nestorians and the “Lost Tribes” are one people.



HIGH-CHURCHMEN.


A term first given to the Nonjurors, who refused to acknowledge William
III. as their lawful king, and who had very proud notions of church power;
but it is now commonly used in a more extensive signification, and is
applied to all those who, though far from being Nonjurors, yet form high
conceptions of the authority and jurisdiction of the church.



ANCIENT AMERICAN COVENANT OR CONFESSION OF FAITH.


_Copy of the first Covenant, or Confession of Faith, of the First Church
in Salem, Massachusetts._

The first ordination to the pastoral office, and the first complete
organization and erection of a Protestant church, in North America, took
place in that town, in the year 1629.


    The First Covenant, Or Confession Of Faith, Of The First Church In
    Salem.

    “We covenant with our Lord, and one with another, and we do bind
    ourselves, in the presence of God, to walk together in all his
    ways, according as he is pleased to reveal himself unto us in his
    blessed word of truth; and do explicitly, in the name and fear of
    God, profess and protest to walk as followeth, through the power
    and grace of our Lord Jesus Christ:—

    “We avouch the Lord to be our God, and ourselves to be his people,
    in the truth and simplicity of our spirits.

    “We give ourselves to the Lord Jesus Christ, and the word of his
    grace, for the teaching, ruling, and sanctifying of us in matters
    of worship and conversation, resolving to cleave unto him alone
    for life and glory, and to reject all contrary ways, canons, and
    constitutions of men, in his worship.

    “We promise to walk with our brethren, with all watchfulness and
    tenderness, avoiding jealousies and suspicions, backbitings,
    censurings, provokings, secret risings of spirit against them;
    but, in all offences, to follow the rule of our Lord Jesus, and to
    bear and forbear, give and forgive, as he hath taught us.

    “In public or private, we will willingly do nothing to the offence
    of the church, but will be willing to take advice for ourselves
    and ours, as occasion shall be presented.

    “We will not, in the congregation, be forward, either to show our
    own gifts and parts in speaking or scrupling, or there discover
    the weakness or failings of our brethren; but attend an orderly
    call thereunto, knowing how much the Lord may be dishonored, and
    his gospel, and the profession of it, slighted by our distempers
    and weaknesses in public.

    “We bind ourselves to study the advancement of the gospel in all
    truth and peace, both in regard to those that are within or
    without; no way slighting our sister churches, but using their
    counsel, as need shall be; not laying a stumbling-block before
    any, no, not the Indians, whose good we desire to promote; and so
    to converse, as we may avoid the very appearance of evil.

    “We do hereby promise to carry ourselves in all lawful obedience
    to those that are over us, in church or commonwealth, knowing how
    well pleasing it will be to the Lord, that they should have
    encouragement in their places, by our not grieving their spirits
    through our irregularities.

    “We resolve to approve ourselves to the Lord in our particular
    callings, shunning idleness, as the bane of any state; nor will we
    deal hardly or oppressingly with any, wherein we are the Lord’s
    stewards.

    “Promising, also, unto our best ability, to teach our children and
    servants the knowledge of God, and of his will, that they may
    serve him also; and all this, not by any strength of our own, but
    by the Lord Christ, whose blood we desire may sprinkle this our
    covenant, made in his name”


“The above is a covenant,” says a learned divine, “to which all good
Christians, of every denomination, to the end of time, will be able to
subscribe their names,—written in a style of touching simplicity, which
has seldom been equalled, and containing sentiments which are felt to be
eloquent by every amiable and pious heart,—and should form the bond to
unite the whole church on earth, as they will unite the church of the
redeemed in heaven. This Covenant might well be adopted by all
Congregational and Protestant churches; and it will forever constitute the
glory, perpetuate the fame, and render precious the memory, of FRANCIS
HIGGINSON, the first minister of Salem.”(12)



STATISTICS OF CHURCHES.



Baptists.


The following table, from the Baptist Register of 1842, exhibits the
statistics of the Regular or Associated Baptists in a perspicuous light:—

Churches, Ministers, &c.

States.             Churches.   Ministers.   Baptized.   Members.
Maine                     261          181        2249      26490
New Hampshire             104           77        1042       9557
Vermont                   134           94         784      10950
Massachusetts             209          179        2355      25092
Rhode Island               32           25         348       5196
Connecticut                98           92         559      11266
New York                  814          697        7533      82200
New Jersey(13)             55           53         961       6716
Pennsylvania              252          181        2370      20983
Delaware                    9            8                    326
Maryland                   27           18         661       1710
Virginia                  477          238        3086      57390
North Carolina            448          193        1543      26169
South Carolina            367          192        1434      34092
Georgia                   651          276        1043      44022
Alabama                   503          250         908      25084
Mississippi               150           64         615       6050
Louisiana(14)              15            9                    288
Arkansas                   43           21         105        798
Tennessee                 666          444         938      30879
Kentucky                  627          300        5842      47325
Ohio                      502          284        3594      22333
Indiana                   437          229        1794      18198
Illinois                  351          250        1227      11408
Missouri                  282          161         817      11010
Michigan                  130           82         668       6276
Iowa                       14            9          10        382
Wisconsin                  15            9          58        385
British Provinces         225          125        4414      37127
Total                    7898         4741       46958     573702

PUBLICATIONS.—QUARTERLY: _Christian Review_, Boston, Mass.—MONTHLY:
_Missionary Magazine_, Boston, Mass.; _Sabbath School Treasury_, Boston,
Mass.; _Mother’s Monthly Journal_, Utica, N. Y.; _Sabbath School Gleaner_,
Philadelphia, Pa.; _Baptist Memorial_, N. Y.; _Michigan Christian Herald_,
Detroit, Mich.—SEMI-MONTHLY: _The Register_, Montreal, Ca.; _Baptist
Library_, Lexington, N. Y.—WEEKLY: _Zion’s Advocate_, Portland, Me.; _N.
H. Baptist Register_, Concord, N. H.; _Vermont Telegraph_, Brandon, Vt.;
_Vermont Baptist Journal_, Middlebury, Vt.; _Christian Watchman_, Boston,
Mass.; _Christian Reflector_, Boston, Mass.; _Christian Secretary_,
Hartford, Ct.; _N. Y. Baptist Register_, Utica, N. Y.; _Baptist Advocate_,
New York, N. Y.; _Baptist Record_, Philadelphia, Pa.; _Religious Herald_,
Richmond, Va.; _The Truth_, Morristown, Pa.; _Christian Index_, Penfield,
Ga.; _Banner and Pioneer_, Louisville, Ky.; _Cross and Journal_, Columbus,
Ohio; _Christian Messenger_, Halifax, N. S.



Free-Will Baptists.


This denomination of Baptists have in their connection nine hundred and
eighty-one churches, six hundred and forty-seven ordained ministers, one
hundred and seventy-two licensed preachers, forty-seven thousand two
hundred and seventeen communicants, eighty-seven quarterly and fourteen
yearly meetings. Of this number of members, thirty-five thousand two
hundred and eighty-seven reside in New England and New York. They are most
numerous in Maine and New Hampshire.

PUBLICATIONS, &c.—There are two periodicals published by this denomination
at Dover, N. H.: the _Morning Star_, a weekly paper, and the _Sabbath
School Repository_, published monthly; also the _Christian Soldier_,
Providence, R. I., once in two weeks.

The Free-Will Baptists have several benevolent institutions in Maine, and
flourishing seminaries of learning at Parsonsfield, Me., Strafford, N. H.,
Smithfield, R. I., and at Clinton and Varysburgh, N. Y.

These people do not believe in the doctrine of election and reprobation,
as taught by Calvin, and invite to the Lord’s table all evangelical
Christians in good standing in their churches.



Seventh-Day Baptists.


This people have in the United States about forty-eight churches,
thirty-four elders, twenty licentiates, and five thousand communicants.
They reside principally in Rhode Island and New York; but have a few
churches in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, &c. They are divided into three
associations, and meet by delegation annually in general conference. Their
government, however, is Independent. They have a general _Missionary
Society_, a _Society for the Promotion of Christianity among the Jews_, a
_Tract_ and an _Education Society_. Their principal institution of
learning is at DE RUYTER, N. Y., and is in a flourishing state, having
several teachers, and about two hundred scholars. They are close
communionists.



Christian Connection.


This denomination of Christians are found in almost every state in the
Union, and in Canada. In 1841, there were in America forty-one
conferences, five hundred and ninety-one churches, five hundred and
ninety-three ordained preachers, one hundred and eighty-nine unordained
preachers, and about thirty thousand church members.

PUBLICATIONS.—This connection has three religious periodicals, viz. The
_Christian Palladium_, Union Mills, N. Y.; _Christian Journal_, Exeter, N.
H.; and the _Christian Messenger_, Jacksonville, Illinois.



Calvinistic Congregationalists.


So late as the year 1700, eighty years after the landing of the Pilgrims,
there were, in all the New England States then settled, but one Episcopal
church, no Methodist church, and, with the exception of Rhode Island, not
more than half a dozen Baptist churches. At that time, however, there were
one hundred and twenty Congregational churches, composed of emigrants from
Europe and their descendants, and thirty others composed of converted
Indians. The great mass of the descendants of the early settlers of New
England are Congregationalists, maintaining, substantially, the same views
of church order and religious faith which their venerated ancestry
sacrificed home, and country, and life, to maintain and perpetuate.

The present number of Congregational churches in New England is about
fifteen hundred; and in the Middle and Western States there are about
fourteen hundred and fifty; although the mode of church government adopted
by some of them is, in some degree, modified by the “Plan of Union” with
Presbyterians. These churches contain, as nearly as can be ascertained,
about one hundred and ninety-four thousand communicants.

Recently, symptoms of dissatisfaction with the “Plan of Union” have
extensively developed themselves, particularly in New York, Ohio,
Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa; and the probability now is, that
a pure Congregational mode of church government will soon be generally
adopted by the descendants of New-England Congregationalists, who are
scattered over the great West.

These Congregational churches are more particularly denominated _Orthodox_
than any other churches in the United States, and adhere to the doctrines
of Calvin or Hopkins.

PUBLICATIONS.—The Orthodox Congregationalists publish a great number of
periodicals, the principal of which are the _Boston Recorder_, the _New
England Puritan_, Boston, Mass.; the _Christian Mirror_, Portland, Me.;
the _Congregational Journal_, Concord, N. H.; the _Vermont Chronicle_,
Windsor, Vt.; the _Congregational Observer_, Hartford, Ct.; and several in
the Western States, which are sustained partly by Congregationalists and
partly by Presbyterians.



Disciples Of Christ.


The largest number of this denomination is found in the region of country
around where its doctrines were first propagated. There are, however,
societies of this class of Christians in other parts of the country, some
adopting, and others rejecting, its views on baptism. The total number in
the United States is about one hundred and fifty thousand.

PUBLICATIONS. The Disciples of Christ publish a periodical, the
_Millennial Harbinger_, at Bethany, Va., (edited by CAMPBELL, the founder
of the sect,) and another, the _Evangelist_, at Carthage, Ohio.



Episcopalians.


We have already given, in the historical account of the Episcopal Church,
in this Country, a few brief notices of its condition; and we now present
the following additional statistics.

List Of Bishops.

It being the essential principle of Episcopacy, that legitimate church
authority is not originated by voluntary associations of men, but is of
Divine origin, derived from Christ, and transmitted through an unbroken
succession of Bishops, who trace their appointment to Him, we here give a
list of the names of persons who constitute such succession.

ORDER OF EPISCOPAL SUCCESSION.
A. D.

      JESUS CHRIST.
      44. St. Peter and St. Paul at Rome.
      66. Linus.
      81. Anacletus.
      91. Clement.
      102. Euarestus.
      111. Alexander.
      121. Sixtus I.
      130. Telesphorus.
      141. Hyginus.
      144. Pius.
      159. Anicetus.
      168. Soter.
      176. Eleutherius.
      193. Victor.
      201. Zephyrinus.
      218. Callistus.
      224. Urbanus.
      232. Pontianus.
      238. Anterus.
      238. Fabianus.
      252. Cornelius.
      254. Lucius.
      255. Stephanus.
      258. Sixtus II.
      265. Dionysius.
      270. Felix I.
      275. Eutychianus
      283. Caius.
      296. Marcellinus.
      304. Marcellus.
      309. Eusebius.
      311. Miltiades.
      314. Sylvester.
      336. Marcus.
      337. Julius.
      352. Liberius.
      356. Felix II.
      366. Damasus.
      385. Siricius.
      398. Anastasius I.
      402. Innocent.
      417. Zosimus.
      419. Boniface I.
      423. Celestine.
      434. Sixtus III.
      443. Leo (the Great.)
      464. Hilary.
      468. Simplicius.
      483. Felix III.
      492. Gelasius.
      496. Anastasius II.
      498. Symmachus
      514. Hormisdas.
      524. John I.
      526. Felix IV.
      530. Boniface II.
      532. John II.
      535. Agapetus.
      537. Silverius.
      540. Virgilius.
      555. Pelagius I.
      560. John III.
      574. Benedictus.
      578. Pelagius II.
      596. Gregory (the Great.)
      596. Augustine, Missionary Bishop to England.
      611. Laurentius.
      619. Melitus.
      624. Justus.
      628. Honorius.
      656. Adeodatus.
      668. Theodore.
      692. Brithwald.
      731. Tatwyn, or Cadwyn.
      735. Egbright.
      736. Nothelmus.
      742. Cuthbert.
      759. Bregwin.
      762. Lambert.
      793. Atheland.
      806. Wulfred.
      830. Theologild.
      830. Syred.
      831. Ceolnoth.
      871. Athelredus.
      889. Plegmund.
      915. Athelme.
      924. Wolfhelme.
      934. Odo Severus.
      957. Elfin.
      958. Brithelme.
      959. Dunstan.
      988. Ethelgarus.
      989. Siricius.
      994. Alfricus.
      1006. Ælfeagus.
      1013. Livingus, or Elstan.
      1020. Agelnoth.
      1038. Eadsius, or Eadsinus.
      1050. Robert Gemiticensis.
      1052. Stigand.
      1070. Lanfranc.
      1093. Anselme.
      1114. Rodolph, or Raphe.
      1122. William Corbel, or Corbois.
      1138. Theobald.
      1162. Thomas a Becket.
      1173. Richard.
      1184. Baldwin.
      1191. Reginald Fitz Joceline.
      1193. Hubert Walter.
      1207. Stephen Langton.
      1229. Richard Weatherhead.
      1235. Edmund.
      1244. Boniface III.
      1272. Robert Kilwarby.
      1278. John Peckam.
      1294. Robert Winchelsey.
      1313. Walter Raynolds.
      1327. Simon Mepham.
      1333. John Stratford.
      1349. Thomas Bradwardin.
      1349. Simon Islippe.
      1366. Simon Langham.
      1368. William Wittlesey.
      1375. Simon Sudbury.
      1381. William Courtney.
      1396. Thomas Arundel.
      1414. Henry Chichley.
      1443. John Stafford.
      1452. John Kemp.
      1454. Thomas Bourchier.
      1486. John Morton.
      1501. Henry Deane.
      1504. William Warham.
      1521. John Longland.
      1533. THOMAS CRANMER.(15)
      1536. Robert Parfew.
      1537. John Hodgskins.
      1559. Matthew Parker.
      1559. Edmund Grindal.
      1577. John Whitgift.
      1597. Richard Bancroft.
      1609. George Abbott.
      1617. George Monteigne
      1621. William Laud.
      1634. Matthew Wren.
      1660. Gilbert Sheldon.
      1674. Henry Compton.
      1677. William Sancroft.
      1685. Jonathan Trelawney.
      1715. John Potter.
      1737. Thomas Herring.
      1749. Frederick Cornwallis.
      1775. John Moore.
      1793. Charles Manners Sutton.
      1813. William Howley, (_now living._)
      1775. John Moore.
      1787. WILLIAM WHITE.
      1811. Alexander V. Griswold.

LIST OF BISHOPS OF THE CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES.

Those with an asterisk (*) are deceased.

      *1784. Samuel Seabury, D. D., Connecticut, died, 1796.
      *1787. William White, D. D., Pennsylvania, died, 1836.
      *1787. Samuel Provoost, D. D., New York, died, 1815.
      *1790. James Madison, D. D., Virginia, died, 1812.
      *1792. Thomas John Claggett, D. D., Maryland, died, 1816.
      *1795. Robert Smith, D. D., South Carolina, died, 1801.
      *1797. Edward Bass, D. D., Massachusetts, died, 1803.
      *1797. Abraham Jarvis, D. D., Connecticut, died, 1813.
      *1801. Benjamin Moore, D. D., New York, died, 1816.
      *1804. Samuel Parker, D. D., Massachusetts, died, 1804.
      *1811. John Henry Hobart, D. D., New York, died, 1830.
      1811. Alexander Viets Griswold, D. D., Massachusetts.
      *1812. Theodore Dehon, D. D., South Carolina, died, 1817.
      *1814. Richard Channing Moore, D. D., Virginia, died, 1841.
      *1814. James Kemp, D. D., Maryland, died, 1827.
      *1815. John Croes, D. D., Now Jersey, died, 1832.
      *1818. Nathaniel Bowen, D. D., South Carolina, died, 1839.
      1819. Philander Chase, D. D., Illinois.
      1819. Thomas Church Brownell, D. D., LL. D., Connecticut.
      *1823. John Stark Ravenscroft, D. D., North Carolina, died, 1830.
      1827. Henry Ustick Onderdonk, D. D., Pennsylvania.
      1829. William Meade, D. D., Virginia.
      *1830. William Murray Stone, D. D., Maryland, died, 1838.
      1830. Benjamin Tredwell Onderdonk, D. D., New York.
      1831. Levi Silliman Ives, D. D., LL. D., North Carolina.
      1832. John Henry Hopkins, D. D., Vermont.
      1832. Benjamin Bosworth Smith, D. D., Kentucky.
      1832. Charles Pettit McIlvaine, D. D., Ohio.
      1832. George Washington Doane, D. D., LL. D., New Jersey.
      1834. James Hervey Otey, D. D., Tennessee.
      1835. Jackson Kemper, D. D., Missionary Bishop, for Wisconsin Iowa,
      and the Indian territory North of Lat. 36-1/2°.
      1836. Samuel Allen McCoskry, D. D., Michigan.
      1838. Leonidas Polk, D. D., Louisiana.
      1839. William Heathcote De Lancey, D. D., Western New York.
      1840. Christopher Edwards Gadsden, D. D., South Carolina.
      1840. William Rollinson Whittingham, D. D., Maryland.
      1841. Stephen Elliott, jun., D. D., Georgia.
      1841. Alfred Lee, D. D., Delaware.

The following table contains the statistics of this church in the United
States:—

States.               Dioceses.   Bishops.   Clergy.
Maine                         1                    7
New Hampshire                 1                   10
Vermont                       1          1        24
Massachusetts                 1          1        49
Rhode Island                  1                   20
Connecticut                   1          1        92
New York                      1          1       196
Western New York              1          1       101
New Jersey                    1          1        42
Pennsylvania                  1          1       107
Delaware                      1          1        10
Maryland                      1          1        81
Virginia                      1          1        94
North Carolina                1          1        30
South Carolina                1          1        47
Georgia                       1          1        16
Louisiana, Alabama            1          1        18
Mississippi,                  1          1        23
Tennessee, Arkansas
Kentucky                      1          1        21
Ohio                          1          1        58
Illinois                      1          1         9
Michigan                      1          1        19
Indiana, Missouri,            1          1        44
Iowa, Wisconsin
Florida                       1                    4
Totals                       30         20      1114

The Dioceses of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, are
under the charge of the same Bishop. Indiana and Missouri are under the
charge of the Missionary Bishop for Wisconsin, Iowa, and the Indian
territory North of Lat. 36-1/2°. Alabama is under the charge of the Bishop
of Louisiana. Mississippi and Arkansas are under the charge of the Bishop
of Tennessee.

In the British American Provinces and Islands, there are six dioceses,
containing six Bishops, and 454 other clergymen.

There are numerous local Societies for religious purposes, in every
Diocese.

PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS.—WEEKLY: The _Churchman_, New York; _Gospel
Messenger_, Utica; _Gospel Messenger and Southern Episcopal Register_,
Charleston, S. C.; _Episcopal Recorder_, Philadelphia; _Southern
Churchman_, Alexandria, D. C.; _Christian Witness_, Boston; _Western
Episcopal Observer_, Cincinnati, Ohio; _Banner of the Cross_,
Philadelphia; _Practical Christian and Church Chronicle_, New Haven,
Ct.—MONTHLY: _Journal of Christian Education_, New York; _Children’s
Magazine_, New York; _Spirit of Missions_, New York; _Church Record_,
Flushing, N. Y.



Friends.


The Friends are found in most of the states in the Union, and some in the
British Provinces. They are most numerous in Pennsylvania, a state first
settled by them, under their worthy head and father, in this country,
WILLIAM PENN, in 1682.

In England and Ireland, they number about fifty thousand; and in America,
about two hundred thousand, and are divided into four hundred and fifty
congregations. About half are Orthodox, and the other half Hicksites, or
followers of ELIAS HICKS, who died at Jericho, N. Y. in 1830, aged 76.



Jews.


The number of Jews in the United States is estimated at about four
thousand. They have synagogues in Newport, R. I., the cities of New York,
Philadelphia, Charleston, S. C., and in other parts of the country. Their
mode of worship is exceedingly interesting. With regard to the number of
this people in the world, Blackwood’s Magazine says:—

“The statistics of the Jewish population are among the most singular
circumstances of this most singular of all people. Under all their
calamities and dispersions, they seem to have remained at nearly the same
amount as in the days of David and Solomon—never much more in prosperity,
never much less after ages of suffering. Nothing like this has occurred in
the history of any other race; Europe in general having doubled its
population within the last hundred years, and England nearly tripled hers
within the last half century; the proportion of America being still more
rapid, and the world crowding in a constantly-increasing ratio. Yet the
Jews seem to stand still in this vast and general movement. The population
of Judea, in its most palmy days, probably did not exceed, if it reached,
four millions. The numbers who entered Palestine from the wilderness, were
evidently not much more than three; and their census, according to the
German statists, who are generally considered to be exact, is now nearly
the same as that of the people under Moses—about three millions.”

On the above, Judge Noah, of New York, a learned Jew, remarks:—

“We apprehend there is some error in the above statistics, and that the
number of Jews throughout the world may be estimated at nearer six
millions than three. There are more than a million in Poland and Russia;
in all Asia, there are full two millions; half a million in Austria; in
the Barbary States and Africa, a million; in all Europe, two millions and
a half. We do not think, during the most splendid periods of Jewish
history, that they ever exceeded four millions; but then their colonies
and countries held tributary in Europe and Asia, amounted to many millions
more. For example, at one period all Spain paid tribute to King Solomon;
and all Spain and Portugal, at this day, are descendants of the Jews and
Moors; and there are many thousands of Jews, in both those countries, now
adhering in secret to the ancient faith of their fathers, while outwardly
professing the Catholic religion. All the familiar Spanish and Portuguese
names—Lopez, Mendez, Carvalho, Fonseca, Rodrigues, Peirara, Azavedo,
Montefiores, &c. &c.—are of Jewish origin. Their numbers, therefore, will
never be accurately known until the restoration, when thousands who, from
convenience and pride, and some from apprehension, conceal their religion,
will be most eager to avow it when their nation takes rank among the
governments of the earth.”



Lutherans.


The government of the Lutherans is somewhat singular. Where it is
established by law, the supreme head of the state is also supreme head of
the church. They have bishops, but no diocesan episcopacy, except in
Denmark and Sweden. These are called _superintendents_ in Germany, and
_presidents_ in the United States. There is but _one_ archbishop, and he
is the primate of Sweden.

They have in the United States about one thousand churches, four hundred
ministers, seventy thousand communing members, and about one hundred and
forty thousand which do not commune.

EDUCATION, &c.—They have a college, located at Gettysburg, Pa., and
several academies in different parts of the country; also four theological
seminaries, located at Gettysburg, Pa.; Columbus, Ohio; Lexington, S. C.;
Hartwich, N. Y., a fifth is contemplated in Indiana. Their different
education societies support about eighty beneficiaries, preparing for the
ministry, at an expense of one hundred dollars each, annually. The
_Lutheran Observer_ is published weekly, at Baltimore.

The Lutherans are one of the most numerous sects of Christians in the
world. The whole number in Europe is estimated at twenty-seven millions,
embracing seventeen reigning sovereigns. This estimate, of course,
includes the Moravians.



Protestant Methodists.


This infant church is rapidly increasing, especially in the middle States.
Its population in the United States exceeds one hundred and fifty
thousand.

This class of Christians have twenty-one annual conferences in as many
states; nearly four hundred travelling, and a large number of unstationed
ministers. They have a general conference, which meets once in four years,
consisting of two delegates from every thousand communicants, one a
minister, the other a layman: this is their legislative body. The number
of communicants is about sixty-five thousand.

PUBLICATIONS. The Protestant Methodists support four religious papers:—the
_Olive Branch_, Boston, Mass.; the _New York Luminary_, New York, the
_Methodist Protestant_, Baltimore, Md., and the _Western Recorder_,
Zanesville, Ohio.



Methodists.


The population of all denominations of Methodists in the United States
exceeds three millions.

PUBLICATIONS.—The _Christian Advocate and Journal_, New York city; _Zion’s
Herald and Wesleyan Journal_, Boston, Mass.; _Northern Advocate_, Auburn,
N. Y.; _Christian Repository_, Philadelphia, Pa.; _Richmond Christian
Advocate_, Richmond, Va.; _Southern Christian Advocate_, Charleston, S.
C.; _South-Western Christian Advocate_, Nashville, Tenn.; _Pittsburg
Christian Advocate_, Pittsburg, Pa.; _Western Christian Advocate_, and the
_Christian Apologist_, a German paper, Cincinnati, Ohio.

There is also published by this denomination, the _Methodist Quarterly
Review_, New York city; _Ladies’ Repository_, (monthly,) Cincinnati, Ohio;
_Guide to Christian Perfection_, (monthly,) Boston, Mass., _Sunday School
Advocate_, (semi-monthly,) New York city; _Sabbath School Messenger_,
(semi-monthly,) Boston, Mass. The Methodists have ten colleges, and thirty
academies.

In the Methodist church in Canada, are two weekly newspapers viz.,
_Christian Guardian_, Toronto, U. C.; _The Wesleyan_, Montreal, L. C.

From the “Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, for the Year 1840,” we copy the following table:—

Conferences, Ministers, &c.

Conferences.   Whites.   Colored.   Indians.   Total Com.   Trav. Prs.
Troy            24,488         78                  24,566          144
New England     22,319        235                  22,554          157
New             20,084                             20,084          151
Hampshire
Pittsburg       35,276        474                  35,750          136
Maine           22,359                             22,359          145
Black River     15,908         27                  15,935           96
Erie            17,860         50                  17,910          107
Oneida          22,909         65                  22,974          142
Michigan        11,308         12         87       11,407           74
Rock River       6,519         21         45        6,585           75
Genesee         27,931         50                  27,981          162
North Ohio      23,594         91        213       23,898           95
Ohio            53,621        662                  54,283          168
Illinois        24,607         80                  24,687          103
Missouri        12,386      1,224        382       13,992           66
Kentucky        30,679      6,321                  37,000          114
Tennessee       21,675      4,405                  26,080           95
Indiana         52,208        407                  52,615          156
Memphis         12,497      1,995                  14,492           69
Arkansas         4,228        725      1,524        6,479           41
Holston         25,902      2,420                  28,322           68
Mississippi      8,433      4,178         67       12,678           81
North           15,983      4,480                  20,463           61
Carolina
Texas            1,623        230                   1,853           19
Alabama         19,491      5,821                  25,312           87
South           26,945     30,481                  57,426          102
Carolina
Virginia        21,841      3,086                  24,927           94
Georgia         28,868      9,989                  38,857          127
Baltimore       42,789     13,904                  56,693          182
Philadelphia    35,094      8,778                  43,872          128
New Jersey      22,733        542                  23,275          108
New York        36,284        405                  36,689          215
Liberia                       922                     922           19
Mission
Total, 1840    748,442    102,158      2,318      852,918        3,587
Total, 1842    796,495    107,251      2,617      906,363        3,846



Presbyterians.


The Protestant faith was introduced into Scotland about 1527; and about
1592 Andrew Melville effected the introduction of the Presbyterian form of
church polity. This form, through much persecution, and even bloodshed,
has been maintained ever since. Its creed is Calvinistic. This church has
nearly a thousand ministers, and about one million five hundred thousand
church members. It is the established religion of Scotland, sustained by
law. There are also several bodies of dissenting Presbyterians in
Scotland.

                  -------------------------------------

Presbyterianism was first introduced into England by those Christians who
returned from Frankfort, after the death of Queen Mary. For a time, it
flourished, but at length lapsed into Socinianism. There are, however, a
few churches in England still pure, which are in fellowship with the
Scotch Presbyterians.

                  -------------------------------------

This denomination began its organized existence in America about the year
1700, and is the offspring of the church of Scotland. Its first ministers
were Rev. Francis McKemie, and the Rev. John Hampton, who labored in
Virginia.

The first church of this order was organized in Philadelphia, 1703, the
first presbytery, 1704, and the first synod in 1716. Since that time, they
have steadily increased, and their number in 1840 was ninety-six
presbyteries, twelve hundred and thirty-two ministers, eighteen hundred
and twenty-three churches, and one hundred and fifty-two thousand four
hundred and fifty-one communicants.

The Presbyterians are found chiefly in the Middle, Western, and Southern
States. The number of people attached to this form of church government in
the United States, is supposed to exceed two millions.

EDUCATION.—Within the bounds of the church there are thirteen theological
seminaries, three of which are under the care of the General Assembly.
They have a board of education, which has about four hundred young men in
training for the ministry.

The Calvinistic publications announce their sentiments.

                  -------------------------------------

In 1837, a division arose in the Presbyterian church, into Old and New
Schools, in consequence of variant views of doctrine and discipline. The
friends of the New School were exscinded, or cut off, from the old church,
but still claim to be the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church.
Unfortunately, the difficulty is not settled; we cannot, therefore, give
the strength of the parties.



Other Presbyterian Communities.


The Associate Presbyterians have about one hundred ministers, one hundred
and ninety congregations, and twenty thousand communicants. They are
principally found south and west of the Hudson River.

The Reformed Presbyterians, or Covenanters, are located principally in
Ohio. They have about thirty ministers, fifty congregations, and four
thousand communicants.

The Associate Reformed have about one hundred and twenty-five ministers,
more than two hundred congregations, and about fifteen thousand
communicants. They are located principally in Pennsylvania.



Reformed Dutch Church.


This church comprises one general synod, and two particular synods; one at
New York, and another at Albany. The two synods comprise eighteen classes,
about two hundred ministers, two hundred churches, twenty-seven thousand
communicants, and a population of about one hundred and thirty thousand.
This denomination of Christians is found almost entirely in the first
settlements in the states of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

The _Christian Intelligencer_, published at New York, advocates the
principles of this church.



Roman Catholics.


This denomination is spread over every section of the United States and
the British Provinces. They form, it is stated, more than three fourths of
the population of the Canadas. They are also found in large numbers in the
Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. In this Union, they are most
numerous in the Middle States; but in consequence of the great influx of
this people into North America, and their frequent change of location, it
is utterly impossible to state their numbers, in each state, with any
degree of accuracy. Their number in the United States is variously stated
from five hundred thousand to one million five hundred thousand. Their
number, probably, is not less than eight hundred thousand, nor more than
one million two hundred thousand. The population of Canada, in 1840, was
at least one million.

                  -------------------------------------

The first Roman Catholics that came to this country were from England,
under Lord Baltimore, a Catholic nobleman, in 1634. They settled the state
of Maryland; and, much to their honor, while some of the Protestant
provinces were persecuting all those who differed from them on religious
subjects, the Catholic Marylanders protected all sects that were moral and
civil in their deportment.

We copy from the “Metropolitan Catholic Almanac and Laity’s Directory for
1841” the following statistical table:—

STATISTICS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES

Diocese.       Churches   Clergymen   Clergymen   Eccl.   Clerical
               and        in the      otherwise   Inst.   Students.
               Chapels.   Ministry.   employed.
Baltimore            68          38          31       4          52
Richmond              7           6           1       0           0
Philadelphia         91          57           2       1          22
New York             64          65           1       1          14
Boston               30          31           0       0           0
Detroit              25          17           1       0           0
Cincinnati           38          34           2       1
Vincennes            27          25           5       1           9
Du Buque              5           8           0       0           0
St Louis             56          50          23       2          30
Bardstown            40          26          25       1
Nashville             1           6           0       1           2
New Orleans          38          39          11       1           9
Natchez               1           2
Mobile                7          12           7
Charleston           14          20           0       4           6
Total               512         436         109      17         144

Diocese.       Literary     Young Men   Female      Female    Pupils in
               Inst. for    in          Religious   Academ.   Female
               young Men.   College.    Inst.                 Academ.
Baltimore               5         633           5         9         530
Richmond                0           0           0         3         100
Philadelphia            2          60           0         1          30
New York                1                       0         2         120
Boston                  1          60           1         1
Detroit                 1                       1         1
Cincinnati              1                       2         2          70
Vincennes               1          50           1         1          50
Du Buque                1                       0         1
St Louis                3         320          10        10         640
Bardstown               3         300           3        10         528
Nashville               1                       0         0           0
New Orleans             1         100           4         4         526
Natchez                                                   0           0
Mobile                  2          70           2         2          60
Charleston              1                       2         2         128
Total                  24        1593          31        49        2782

The sacred college of cardinals has fifty-seven members. The total number
is seventy.

There are twelve patriarchs in the Christian world. The archbishops and
bishops amount to six hundred and seventy-one. The vicars apostolic in
different countries are fifty-seven in number, besides whom there are
thirty-eight coadjutor-bishops, making the grand total of the Catholic
episcopacy amount to seven hundred and sixty-six bishops.

CATHOLIC PERIODICALS.—The _United States Catholic Miscellany_, published
weekly in Charleston, S. C.; the _Catholic Telegraph_, published weekly in
Cincinnati, Ohio; the _Catholic Herald_, published weekly in Philadelphia;
the _Catholic Advocate_, published weekly in Bardstown, Ky.; _Der
Wahrheit’s Freund_, (German paper,) published weekly in Cincinnati, Ohio;
the _New York Catholic Register_, published weekly in the city of New
York; _Ordo divini Officii recitandi_, _Missæque celebrandæ, juxta
Rubricas Breviarii ac Missalis Romani_, published annually in Baltimore;
the _Young Catholic’s Magazine_, enlarged series, published on the first
of each month, in New York.

                  -------------------------------------

At the time of the reformation, 1517, papal power, or the power of the
pope of Rome, had acquired so great a spiritual dominion over the minds
and consciences of men, that all Europe submitted to it with implicit
obedience. At the present day, the Roman Catholic religion prevails, more
or less, in every country in Christendom. Its population is stated to
exceed eighty millions. It is the established religion of Austria, France,
Portugal, and Spain, and of thirteen other states in Europe.

Popes of Rome.(16) A. D.

      33. St. Peter, martyred.
      66. St. Linus, martyred.
      67. St. Clement, abdicated.
      77. St. Cletus, martyred.
      83. St. Anaclitus.
      96. St. Evaristus, coadjutor to the former, martyred.
      108. St. Alexander I., martyred.
      117. St. Sixtus I., martyred.
      127. Telesphorus, martyred.
      138. Hygenus, martyred. The first called _pope_.
      142. Pius I., martyred.
      150. Anicetus, martyred.
      162. Soter.
      171. Eleutherius, martyred.
      185. Victor I., martyred.
      197. Zephyrinus, martyred.
      217. Calixtus I., martyred.
      222. Urban I., martyred.
      230. Pontianus, martyred.
      235. Anterus, martyred.
      236. Fabian, martyred.
      236. Novatianus, antipope.
      250. Cornelius, beheaded.
      252. Lucius I., martyred.
      254. Stephen I., martyred.
      257. Sixtus II., coadjutor to the former, martyred.
      259. Dionysius.
      269. Felix I.
      274. Eutychianus.
      283. Caius.
      295. Marcellinus, martyred.
      304. Marcellus I., martyred.
      310. Eusebius, martyred.
      310. Melchiades, coadjutor to the former.
      314. Sylvester.
      336. Marcus.
      337. Julius I.
      352. Liberius, banished.
      356. Felix II., antipope.
      358. Liberius, again, abdicated.
      358. Felix became legal pope but was killed by Liberius.
      359. Liberius, again.
      366. Damasius.
      385. Siricius.
      399. Anastasius.
      401. Innocent I.
      417. Zosimus.
      418. Boniface I.
      422. Celestinus I.
      432. Sixtus III.
      440. Leo I., the Great.
      461. Hilary.
      468. Simplicius.
      483.  Felix III.
      492.  Gelasius.
      496.  Anastasius II.
      498.  Symmachus.
      514.  Hormisdas.
      523.  John I., died in prison at Ravenna.
      526.  Felix IV.
      530.  Boniface II.
      533.  John II.
      535.  Agapetus.
      536.  Sylvester; he was made prisoner by the antipope Vigilius, who
      enjoyed the papacy.
      538.  Vigilius, banished, and restored.
      555.  Pelagius I.
      560.  John III.
      574.  Benedict I.
      578.  Pelagius II.
      590.  Gregory the Great.
      604.  Sabiamus.
      606.  Boniface III.
      608.  Boniface IV.
      615.  Deusdedit.
      618.  Boniface V.
      624.  Honorius I.
      640.  Severinus.
      640.  John IV.
      642.  Theodorus.
      649.  Martin I., starved to death.
      654,  Eugenius I.
      657.  Vitalianus.
      672.  Adeodatus.
      676.  Donus.
      679.  Agatho.
      682.  Leo II.
      684.  Benedict II.
      685.  John V.
      686.  Conon.
      686.  Theodore and Pascan, antipopes.
      687.  Sergius.
      701.  John VI.
      705.  John VII.
      708.  Sisinnius.
      708.  Constantine.
      715.  Gregory II.
      731.  Gregory III.
      741.  Zacharias.
      752.  Stephen II., governed only four days.
      752.  Stephen III.
      757.  Paul I.
      768.  Stephen IV.
      792.  Adrian I.
      795.  Leo III.
      816.  Stephen V.
      817.  Paschal I.
      824.  Eugenius II.
      827.  Valentinus.
      828.  Gregory IV.
      844.  Sergius II.
      847.  Leo IV.
      855.  Benedict III.
      858.  Nicholas I.
      867.  Adrian II.
      872.  John VIII.
      882.  Martin II.
      883.  Adrian III.
      885.  Stephen VI.
      891.  Formosus.
      896.  Boniface VI.
      897.  Romanus, antipope.
      897.  Stephen VII.
      898.  Theodorus II., governed twenty-two days.
      898.  John IX.
      900.  Benedict IV.
      904.  Leo V., killed by Christiphilus.
      905.  Sergius III.
      913.  Anastasius III.
      914.  Laudo.
      915.  John X., was stifled.
      928. Leo VI.
      929. Stephen VIII.
      931. John XI.
      936. Leo VII.
      939. Stephen IX.
      943. Martin III.
      946. Agapetus II.
      956. John XII.
      963. Leo VIII., turned out.
      964. Benedict V., banished.
      964. Leo VIII.
      965. Benedict V., again.
      965. John XIII.
      972. Benedict VI.
      974. Domus.
      975. Benedict VII.
      975. Boniface VII.
      984. John XIV.
      985. John XV., died before consecration.
      986. John XVI.
      996. Gregory V.
      999. Silvester II.
      1003. John XVI.
      1004. John XVII.
      1009. Sergius VI.
      1012. Benedict VIII.
      1024. John XVIII.
      1033. Benedict IX., deposed.
      1045. Gregory VI.
      1046. Clement II.
      1047. Benedict IX., again, abdicated.
      1048. Damasius II.
      1049. Leo IX.
      1055. Victor II.
      1057. Stephen X.
      1058. Nicholas II.
      1061. Alexander II.
      1073. Gregory VII.
      1086. Victor III., poisoned
      1088. Urban II.
      1099. Paschal II.
      1118. Gelasius II.
      1119. Calixtus II.
      1124. Honorius II.
      1130. Innocent II.
      1143. Cælestine II.
      1144. Lucius II.
      1145. Eugenius III.
      1153. Anastasius IV., a short time.
      1154. Adrian IV., choked by a fly as he was drinking.
      1159. Alexander III.
      1181. Lucius III.
      1185. Urban III.
      1187. Gregory VIII.
      1187. Clement III.
      1191. Cælestine III.
      1198. Innocent III.
      1216. Honorius III.
      1227. Gregory IX.
      1241. Cælestine IV.
      1243. Innocent IV.
      1254. Alexander IV.
      1261. Urban IV.
      1265. Clement IV.
      1271. Gregory X.
      1276. Innocent V.
      1276. Adrian V.
      1276. Vicedominus, died the next day.
      1276. John XIX., killed by the fall of his chamber at Viterbium.
      1277. Nicholas III.
      1281. Martin IV.
      1285. Honorius IV.
      1288. Nicholas IV.
      1294. Cælestine V.
      1294. Boniface VIII.
      1303. Benedict XI.
      1305. Clement V.
      1316. John XX.
      1334. Benedict XII.
      1342. Clement VI.
      1352. Innocent VI.
      1362. Urban V.
      1370. Gregory XI.
      1378. Urban VI.
      1389. Boniface IX.
      1404. Innocent VII.
      1406. Gregory XII., deposed.
      1409. Alexander V.
      1410. John XXI.
      1417. Martin V.
      1431. Eugenius IV.
      1455. Calixtus III.
      1458. Pius II.
      1464. Paul II.
      1476. Sixtus IV.
      1484. Innocent VIII.
      1492. Alexander VI.
      1503. Pius III.
      1503. Julius II.
      1513. Leo X.
      1522. Adrian VI.
      1523. Clement VII.
      1534. Paul III.
      1550. Julius III.
      1555. Marcellus II.
      1555. Paul IV.
      1559. Pius IV.
      1566. Pius V.
      1572. Gregory XIII.
      1585. Sixtus V.
      1590. Urban VII.
      1590. Gregory XIV.
      1591. Innocent IX.
      1592. Clement VIII.
      1605. Leo XI.
      1605. Paul V.
      1621. Gregory XV.
      1623. Urban VIII.
      1644. Innocent X.
      1655. Alexander VII.
      1667. Clement IX.
      1670. Clement X.
      1676. Innocent XI.
      1689. Alexander VIII.
      1691. Innocent XII.
      1700. Clement XI.
      1721. Innocent XIII.
      1724. Benedict XIII.
      1730. Clement XII.
      1740. Benedict XIV.
      1758. Clement XIII.
      1769. Clement XIV., poisoned.
      1775. Pius VI., February 14.
      1800. Cardinal Chiaramonte. elected at Venice, as Pius VII., March
      13.
      1823. Annibal della Genga, Leo XII., Sept. 28.
      1831. Cardinal Mauro Capellari, as Gregory XVI., Feb. 2.

The title of _pope_ was originally given to all bishops. It was first
adopted by Hygenus, A. D. 138; and Pope Boniface III. procured Phocas,
emperor of the East, to confine it to the prelates of Rome, 606. By the
connivance of Phocas, also, the pope’s supremacy over the Christian church
was established. The custom of kissing the pope’s toe was introduced in
708. The first sovereign act of the popes of Rome was by Adrian I., who
caused money to be coined with his name, 780. Servius II. was the first
pope who changed his name, on his election, in 844. The first pope who
kept an army was Leo IX., 1054. Gregory VII. obliged Henry IV., emperor of
Germany, to stand three days, in the depth of winter, barefooted, at his
castle gate, to implore his pardon 1077. The pope’s authority was firmly
fixed in England 1079. Appeals from English tribunals to the pope were
introduced 1154. Henry II. of England held the stirrup for Pope Alexander
III. to mount his horse, 1161, and also for Becket, 1170. “When Louis,
king of France, and Henry II. of England, met Pope Alexander III. at the
castle of Torci, on the Loire, they both dismounted to receive him, and,
holding each of them one of the reins of his bridle, walked on foot by his
side, and conducted him in that submissive manner into the castle.” Pope
Adrian IV. was the only Englishman that ever obtained the tiara. His
arrogance was such, that he obliged Frederick I. to prostrate himself
before him, kiss his foot, hold his stirrup, and lead the white palfrey on
which he rode. Celestine III. kicked the emperor Henry VI.’s crown off his
head while kneeling, to show his prerogative of making and unmaking kings,
1191. The pope collected the tenths of the whole kingdom of England, 1226.
Appeals to Rome from England were abolished 1533. The words “Lord Pope”
were struck out of all English books 1541. The papal authority declined
about 1600. Kissing the pope’s toe, and other ceremonies, were abolished
by Clement XIV., 1773. The pope became destitute of all political
influence in Europe, 1787. Pius VI. was burnt in effigy at Paris, 1791. He
made submission to the French republic, 1796, was expelled from Rome, and
deposed, February 22, 1798, and died at Valence, August 19, 1799. Pius
VII. was elected in exile, March 13, 1800; he crowned Napoleon, December
2, 1804; was dethroned May 13, 1809; remained a prisoner at Fontainebleau
till Napoleon’s overthrow; and was restored May 24, 1814.



Swedenborgians.


Believers in the doctrines of Swedenborg are found in all the states in
the Union. In Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Ohio, are eight ordaining ministers,
ten priests and teaching ministers, fifteen licentiates, and between
thirty and forty societies. There are between two and three hundred towns
or places in the United States where the doctrines of the New Jerusalem
church are received by some portion of the people.

The number of Swedenborgians in the United States is about five thousand.
The societies of this class of Christians in England are more numerous
than in the United States. In Sweden they are quite numerous.

PERIODICALS.—The _New Jerusalem Magazine_ is issued monthly at Boston,
Mass.; the _Precursor_ is issued monthly at Cincinnati, Ohio; the _New
Churchman_ is issued quarterly at Philadelphia.



Unitarians.


Of this denomination, there are about three hundred churches and
congregations in the United States, and near that number of ministers. In
the city of Boston it is one of the most numerous and influential classes
of Christians, having eighteen societies, most of which are large and
flourishing. In the Middle, Southern, and Western States their
congregations are fewer, but gradually multiplying.

PERIODICALS.—The _Christian Examiner_, the _Monthly Miscellany_, and the
_Christian Register_, are published in Boston, Mass.

                  -------------------------------------

A favorite project of Christian philanthropy with the Unitarians has been
the “ministry to the poor” in large cities and towns. They have
established such an institution in Boston, New York, Cincinnati,
Louisville, Providence, and elsewhere. In Boston, three large and
commodious chapels have been erected, and three ministers constantly
employed, by the aid of funds obtained from individual donors and annual
subscriptions from associations in the several churches of the
denomination.



Universalists.


There are, in the United States and Territories, one United States
Convention, one United States Universalist Historical Society, twelve
State Conventions, fifty-nine Associations, eight hundred and seventy-five
societies, five hundred and fifty meeting-houses, and five hundred and
forty preachers. Besides these, there are twenty-one periodicals published
by the order, and twenty new books have been published within the year,
besides reprints. There are also five schools in the patronage of the
denomination. There is an Educational Association in Maine, a Sunday
School Association in Massachusetts, a Publishing Association in
Pennsylvania, a public library of fifteen hundred volumes in Ohio, and two
Book Associations in Indiana and Illinois.

By adding the numbers of societies, etc., in the British Provinces, to
those in the United States, there are, at present, the grand total of one
General Convention, twelve State Conventions, fifty-five Associations,
eight hundred and ninety-five societies, five hundred and fifty-six
meeting-houses, and five hundred and forty-six preachers.

                  -------------------------------------

PERIODICALS.—_Gospel Banner and Christian Pilot_, Augusta, Me.; EASTERN
ROSE-BUD, Portland, Me.; _Universalist and Family Visitor_,
Contoocookville, N. H.; _Universalist Watchman_, Montpelier, Vt.; _Trumpet
and Universalist Magazine_, Boston, Mass.; _Christian Freeman and Family
Visitor_, Boston, Mass.; _Universalist and Ladies Repository_, Boston,
Mass.; _Light of Zion, and Sabbath School Contributor_, Boston, Mass.;
_Star and Palladium_, Lowell, Mass.; _Gospel Messenger_, Providence, R.
I.; _Universalist_, Middletown, Ct.; _New York Christian Messenger_, New
York city; _Universalist Union_, New York city; _Evangelical Magazine and
Gospel Advocate_, Utica, N. Y.; _Western Luminary_, Rochester, N. Y.; _The
Nazarene_, Philadelphia, Pa.; _Christian Warrior_, Richmond, Va.;
_Southern Universalist_, Columbus, Ga.; _Star in the West_, Cincinnati,
Ohio; _Christian Teacher_, Lafayette, Ind.; _Better Covenant_, Rockford,
Ill.



MISSIONARY STATISTICS.


We have been much assisted in our missionary statistics by the kindness of
the secretaries of the several Missionary Boards, and by permission of the
proprietor, Mr. F. Rand, for the use of his valuable Missionary Chart,
prepared with great care, in 1840, by the Reverend Messrs. Jefferson
Hascall and Daniel Wise.

Those of the Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists, and Episcopalians,
are brought down to 1841, and are quite accurate; but the efforts of some
of the other denominations in this great and glorious cause are not fully
stated, as some of the items have not been reported.



First Protestant Missions.


The first Protestant mission on record was undertaken in 1559, by Michael,
who was sent into Lapland by Gustavus Vasa, king of Sweden.

John Eliot commenced the first mission to the Indians at _Nonantum_, now
Newton, Massachusetts, in 1646. This mission gave rise to a society in
England for the propagation of the gospel in New England, and to the
formation of several other missionary stations; so that, in 1696, there
were thirty Indian churches in New England.

In 1705, Messrs. Ziegenbalg and Plutcho, under the auspices of Frederick
IV., king of Denmark, commenced a mission at Tranquebar, in South
Hindoostan, which was very successful. Its fruits continue to the present
time.

In 1728, a mission was begun by Schultze, at Madras, under the patronage
of the Christian Knowledge Society. In the following thirty-three years,
fourteen hundred and seventy converts united with the church.



Moravian Missions.


The Moravians trace their origin to the ninth century, when the king of
Moravia united with the Greek church.

WEST INDIAN MISSION.—The Moravians commenced their mission on the Island
of St. Thomas in 1732. Its commencement was occasioned by a conversation
between a negro, named Anthony, and some servants of Count Zinzendorf. The
negro said he had a sister at St. Thomas, who was deeply anxious to be
instructed about religion. This remark was repeated to one of “the
_brethren_,” named Leonard Dober. He determined to visit St. Thomas,
“even,” as he said, “if he were obliged to sell himself for a slave to
effect his purpose.” Dober went; and though, for a time, little good was
effected, yet, in 1736, the Lord poured out his spirit, and many of the
slaves were awakened. There are now two stations on this island.

In 1734, they began their mission on the Island of St. Croix. It was soon
abandoned, but was reëstablished in 1740. In 1754, missions were commenced
on the Islands of St. Jan and Jamaica; in 1756, at Antigua; in 1765, at
Barbadoes; in 1777, at St. Christopher’s; and at Tobago in 1790.

GREENLAND MISSION.—This was commenced in 1733, at New Herrnhut, or
Lusatia, by Matthew and Christian Stach, when the congregation of the
brethren at home amounted to but six hundred members. They persevered
through cold, hunger, and discouragement, though for five years they had
no conversions. Greenland is _now_ a Christian country.

NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN MISSIONS.—These were begun in Georgia, 1735, among
the Creeks, at the instigation of Count Zinzendorf. It was followed by
numerous other stations, many of which have since become extinct.

SOUTH AMERICAN MISSIONS.—Surinam, a Dutch settlement in Guiana, was the
scene of their first operations here, about 1735 or 1738. They began on
the invitation of a planter. Several other settlements were attempted, but
were subsequently abandoned, for various causes. In 1767, they commenced a
prosperous station at Paramaribo.

LABRADOR MISSIONS.—Supposing that a natural affinity subsisted between
this people and the Greenlanders, the brethren commenced their labors here
in 1752. This attempt failed; but, in 1770, a settlement was effected at
Nain, by the agency of Messrs. Haven, Drachart, and Jensen.

SOUTH AFRICAN MISSION.—George Schmidt was the father of this mission. He
commenced it in 1737; but it was afterwards abandoned for about fifty
years, until, in 1792, a permanent settlement was effected at Gnadenthal,
one hundred and thirty-five miles east of Cape Town.

NOTE.—The brethren have also had missions, at different periods, in
Asiatic Russia, Egypt, Persia, Lapland, Guinea, Algiers, Ceylon and the
Nicobar Islands; all of which, for various causes, have been abandoned.

Summary.

In the year 1840, the Moravians had, in the afore-mentioned places and in
South Africa, forty-seven stations and out-stations, one hundred and
ninety-seven missionaries and assistants, seventeen thousand seven hundred
and three communicants, and fifty-seven thousand two hundred and
fifty-five souls under their care.



London Missionary Society.


The extensive and splendid missions of this board originated with the Rev.
David Bogue, while on a visit to London. From his suggestions, the society
was formed, in 1795, by several ministers of various denominations.

SOUTH SEA ISLANDS.—The society commenced their labors among these isles by
sending out thirty-six missionaries, in 1796, who arrived safely, and
commenced their duties at Otaheite, Tongataboo, and St. Christina, in
March, 1797. Subsequently, they spread their influence over nearly all the
islands of the Pacific Ocean. These missions have been eminently
successful.

NEW SOUTH WALES.—This mission was begun by the labors of Mr. Threlkeld, in
1826, in Bahtabee, on Lake Macquaire.

SOUTH AFRICAN MISSIONS.—The success of the missions in the islands of the
Pacific and South Seas, turned their attention to this dark land. Dr.
Vanderkemp, who was their first laborer, began his labors on the River
Keis Kamma, in Caffraria, in 1799. In 1801, he removed to Graff Reinet,
and preached to the Hottentots in that vicinity. These missions afterwards
spread very widely among the Caffres and Hottentots.

EAST INDIAN MISSIONS.—The society’s missions in this most interesting
quarter of the globe were commenced at Calcutta and Chinsura, by the Rev.
Mr. Forsyth, in 1798. Subsequently, their stations spread over Northern
and Peninsular India, India beyond the Ganges, into China, Siam, and some
of the Asiatic Isles.

GUIANA AND WEST INDIES.—At the request of a pious Dutch planter, Mr. Wray
was sent to Demerara, in Guiana, in 1807. This was the beginning of the
society’s operations in South America.

OTHER MISSIONS.—Beside these, are the European and Mediterranean islands
missions, which, though of recent date, are promising in their aspects.

EDUCATION.—This society has several presses distributed over the vast
field occupied by their agents, by means of which millions of pages are
annually scattered among the people. They publish tracts parts of the
Scriptures, &c. &c. They have also upwards of four hundred native
assistants, which are not mentioned in the following summary.

Summary.

From the best accounts we can obtain, this society had, in 1840, in Asia,
the South Sea Islands, Africa, Guiana, and in Europe, about five hundred
and fifty missionary stations and out-stations, one hundred and sixty-four
missionaries, five thousand communicants, and about twenty-five thousand
scholars.



American Board Of Foreign Missions.


MISSIONS IN ASIA.—The news of the success of English missionary
enterprise, seconded by the zeal and influence of S. J. Mills, originated
the germ of the invaluable labors of this board, which was organized in
1810. Their first missions were in Asia. Bombay was the scene of their
first labors, in the year 1813, and Messrs. Nott, Newell, and Hall, their
first missionaries. From Bombay they extended their influence to Ceylon,
in 1816; to China, and South-eastern Asia, and to Siam, in 1830.

MEDITERRANEAN MISSIONS.—These missions were begun by sending out Messrs.
Parsons and Fisk on a voyage of research. The first station occupied was
Beyroot, in Syria, in 1823. To this, stations at Malta, in Greece, at
Constantinople, &c., have been added.

MISSIONS AT THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.—A special providence marked the
commencement of these missions. Two boys, named Obookiah and Hopu, were,
at their own request, brought to America. This gave rise to a train of
interesting circumstances, which led to the commencement of the mission,
in 1820, by Messrs. Bingham, Thurston, and others. Vast success has
attended this mission, especially of late.

NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN MISSIONS.—These were commenced in 1816, among the
Cherokees, by the Rev. C. Kingsbury. The Choctaws, the Chickasaws, the
Osages, and other tribes, have since shared the labors of the board. The
late unhappy removal of the Cherokee nation has done much towards the
prostration of missionary success among that interesting but
deeply-injured tribe.

MISSIONS IN AFRICA.—The efforts of the board in this quarter of the globe
are of recent date. Only seven years have elapsed since their
commencement. Some native towns on the western coast, and a numerous
aboriginal tribe called the Zulus, on the south-east shore, are the chief
objects of their labors at present. This field is considered very
promising, and it is confidently believed that its occupation will be one
effectual aid in the great work of regenerating that darkened, enslaved,
and degraded continent.

In 1841, this board had missions to the Zulus in South Africa, the Grebos
in West Africa, to Greece, to Turkey, Syria, the Nestorians of Persia, the
Independent Nestorians, the Persian Mahometans, to the Mahrattas in
Western India, to Madras and Madura in Southern India, to Ceylon, Siam,
China Singapore, Borneo, and to the Sandwich Islands.

They have missions to the Cherokee Indians, the Choctaws, Pawnees, to the
Oregon Indians, the Sioux, Ojibwas, Stockbridge Indians, New York Indians,
and to the Abenaquis.

Summary Of Foreign Missions.

The number of missions in this department is seventeen; of stations,
sixty-one; of ordained missionaries, one hundred and eleven, five of whom
are also physicians; of physicians, seven; of teachers, eight; of secular
superintendents, two; of printers, eleven; of bookbinders, one; of female
helpers, married and unmarried, one hundred and thirty-nine;—making a
total of laborers beyond sea from this country of two hundred and eighty.
To these add four native preachers, and one hundred and thirty-five other
native helpers, and the number of laborers who are employed and supported
by the board in the missions beyond sea, is four hundred and nineteen.

Summary Of Indian Missions.

Among the Indian nations, there are twenty-five stations; twenty-five
missionaries, two of whom are physicians; two other physicians, five
teachers; ten other male, and fifty-nine female, assistant missionaries;
three native preachers; and three other native assistants;—total, one
hundred and seven.

General Summary.

The number of the missions in 1841 was twenty-six; stations, eighty-five;
and ordained missionaries, one hundred and thirty-six, ten of whom were
physicians. There were nine physicians not preachers, thirteen teachers,
twelve printers and bookbinders, and twelve other male and one hundred and
ninety-eight female assistant missionaries. The whole number of laborers
from this country was three hundred and eighty-one, or sixteen more than
were reported in 1840. To these we must add seven native preachers, and
one hundred and thirty-eight native helpers, which made the whole number
five hundred and twenty-six, thirty-nine more than in 1840. Nine ordained
missionaries, three male and seventeen female assistant missionaries, have
been sent forth during the year.

The number of mission churches was fifty-nine, containing nineteen
thousand eight hundred and forty-two members, of whom four thousand three
hundred and fifty were received the year before.

There were fifteen printing establishments, twenty-nine presses, five
type-founderies, and fifty founts of type in the native languages. The
printing for the year was about fifty million pages; the amount of
printing from the beginning is about two hundred and ninety million pages.
Twenty-four thousand copies of the _Missionary Herald_ are now published
monthly, and sixty-five thousand copies of the _Day-spring_, a monthly
paper, are also issued.

Seven of the thirty-four boarding-schools have received the name of
seminaries, and these contain four hundred and ninety-nine boys; the other
twenty-seven contain two hundred and fifty three boys and three hundred
and seventy-eight girls;—making a total of boarding scholars of one
thousand one hundred and thirty. The number of free schools was four
hundred and ninety, containing about twenty-three thousand pupils.

The receipts have been two hundred and thirty-five thousand one hundred
and eighty-nine dollars, and the expenditures two hundred and sixty eight
thousand, nine hundred and fifteen dollars.



Presbyterian Board Of Foreign Missions.


Until within a few years, this body of Christians united with the American
board in their operations among the heathen. A distinct society, under the
name of the _Western Foreign Missionary Society_, was formed in 1831, by
the synod of Pittsburg, which was merged into the present board in 1837.

Three of the missions of the board were begun by this society, namely, the
Western Africa, the Hindoostan, and Iowa and Sac missions.

This board is intending to reënforce its missions, and to occupy several
new stations, as soon as the requisite arrangements can be made. Its main
efforts will be directed towards Hindoostan, where it has now two presses
in active coöperation with its missionaries. This denomination of
Christians have the following missions:—Iowa and Sac Indians; Chippewa and
Ottawa Indians; Texas; Western Africa, _Kroos_; Chinese, _Singapore_;
Siam; Northern India, _Lodiana_, Allahabad, Furrukhabad.

Summary.

This church has now under her care in the foreign field, fifty-seven
laborers sent from her own bosom, twenty-three of whom are ministers of
the gospel; besides eight native assistants, some of them men of learning,
all of them hopefully pious, and in different stages of preparation and
trial for the missionary work among their own benighted people. Through
the mission stations occupied by these brethren, the church is brought in
direct contact with five different heathen nations, containing two thirds
of the whole human race. Annual expenditure about sixty-five thousand
dollars.

The Presbyterian Domestic Board of Missions employs or aids two hundred
and sixty missionaries and agents, who have under their charge about
twenty thousand communicants, and twenty thousand Sabbath school scholars.
Annual disbursements about thirty-five thousand dollars.



English Baptist Missionary Society.


EAST INDIES.—A mission was commenced at Serampore in 1793. The English
Baptists were just awakening to a sense of their responsibility for the
conversion of the world, when Dr. Thomas arrived in London, to solicit
missionary aid for Hindoostan. The society took him under their patronage,
and sent him back in company with Dr. Cary. After laboring successfully in
various places, in 1800 Dr. Cary removed to Serampore, which thenceforward
became a central station.

WEST INDIAN MISSIONS.—In 1814, a mulatto preacher, named Baker, requested
this society to send a missionary to Jamaica. In compliance with this
request, Mr. I. Rowe was sent out, who, after laboring with pleasing
success, died; and, in 1815, the society sent out Mr. Compere and
assistants, who established a mission in Kingston. This was the origin of
the Baptist missions in the West Indies.

SOUTH AMERICAN MISSION.—On a representation to the society, that much good
might be done among the negro population and the Indians in and around
Honduras, in the Bay of Mexico, the society, in 1822, sent out Mr. J.
Bourne, who succeeded in establishing a church and congregation.

SOUTH AFRICAN MISSION.—In 1831, Rev. W. Davies was sent to Graham’s Town,
at the urgent solicitation of some Baptists, resident at that place.

Summary.

This society have, in Asia, the Asiatic Islands, West Indies, South
America, and South Africa, one hundred and twenty-nine stations and
out-stations, one hundred and thirty-four missionaries and assistants,
twenty-two thousand four hundred and eighty-eight communicants, and
seventeen thousand seven hundred and thirty-five scholars. This statement
does not contain the full amount of their labors to the present year.



American Baptist Board Of Foreign Missions.


MISSIONS IN ASIA.—Rev. A. Judson may be said to be the father of Baptist
missions in this country, and, indeed, of the missionary labors of this
society. It was his conversion to the principles of the Baptists, while a
missionary of the American board in India, that roused them to action. He
commenced his labors under discouraging circumstances, at Rangoon, in the
Burman empire, 1813. Since then, the operations of this board have become
very extensive, embracing immense portions of the Burman empire, Siam, &c.
Asia is their principal mission field, and they have laid sure foundations
for the evangelization of many parts of that benighted clime.

INDIAN MISSIONS.—An impression, made, no doubt, by divine influence, of
the importance of missions to this people, led, in 1817, to the
appointment of J. M. Peck and J. E. Welch to be missionaries to the North
American Indians. J. M. Peck commenced their first Indian mission among
the Cherokees in 1818. Many tribes are now embraced by the labors of the
board, and although the progress of truth has been slow among the “red
men,” yet the board have cause to rejoice over their Indian missions.

AFRICAN MISSION.—This mission was commenced by the offer of L. Cary and C.
Teage, colored men, to become the messengers of the churches in this work.
They commenced their duties, in 1821, at Liberia, where the board
continues its efforts for the redemption of Africa, with some success,
chiefly among the Bassas.

EUROPEAN MISSIONS.—These missions were commenced in 1832. Professor Chase
was sent to explore the kingdom of France, and the Rev. J. C. Rostan
commenced a course of evangelical demonstrations at Paris; since which,
Germany and Greece have shared the attention of the board. These are
missions of the first importance.

General Summary.

This board have missions as follow:—In North America, to the Ojibwas, near
Lake Superior; the Ottawas, in Michigan; Oneidas, in New York; Otoes, near
the junction of Missouri and Platte Rivers; Shawanoes, including the
Delawares, Putawatomies, and Western Ottawas, in the Indian Territory;
Cherokees, Creeks, and Choctaws, in the Indian Territory. In Europe, they
have missions to France, Germany, Denmark, and Greece;—to the Bassas, in
West Africa;—in Asia, to Burmah and the Karens; to Siam and China,
Arracan, Asam, and to the Teloogoos.

The number of Indian missions is eight; stations and out-stations,
sixteen; missionaries and assistant missionaries, twenty-eight; native
assistants, ten; churches, sixteen; baptisms reported the last year, two
hundred and seventy-one; present number of church members, one thousand
three hundred and twenty-four; schools, seven; scholars, one hundred and
ninety-two.

The number of European missions is three; stations and out-stations,
twenty; missionaries and assistant missionaries, seven; native preachers
and assistants, twenty-three; churches, twenty-seven; baptisms the past
year, one hundred and eighty-seven; church members, five hundred and
fifty-eight.

In the mission to West Africa there are two stations, five missionaries
and assistant missionaries, one native assistant, two churches of
twenty-five members, and two schools containing eighty-five scholars.

The number of the Asiatic missions is eight, stations and out-stations,
sixty-two; missionaries and assistant missionaries, fifty-nine; native
assistants, seventy-seven; churches, thirty-two; baptisms the past year,
three hundred and seventeen; church members, one thousand eight hundred
and two; schools, thirty-five, scholars, five hundred and sixty.

Grand total, twenty missions, one hundred stations and out-stations,
ninety-nine missionaries and assistant missionaries, one hundred and
eleven native preachers and assistants, seventy-seven churches, seven
hundred and eighty baptisms the past year, more than three thousand seven
hundred members of mission churches, forty-four schools, and eight hundred
and seventy-seven scholars.

The annual expenditure of the board is about eighty thousand dollars.



Free-Will Baptists.


This flourishing class of Christians have not, until recently, directed
their efforts to a foreign field. They now occupy one station in Orissa,
where they have two missionaries with their ladies. Two other missionaries
are about being located, for which purpose funds are now provided.



Episcopal Missions.


The Church of England has been actively engaged in missionary operations
since the year 1698, when the “Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge”
was formed. In 1701, the “Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in
Foreign Parts” was instituted. The “Church Missionary Society” was
established in 1800. These societies are still in active and vigorous
operation. They have missions in every quarter of the globe, and their
annual expenditures, for the propagation of the Gospel, amount to about
one million three hundred and seventeen thousand three hundred and
fifty-six dollars.

The Episcopal Church in the United States established a _Domestic and
Foreign Missionary Society_ in 1820; and the General Convention of 1835
resolved, That the Church itself was the missionary society and that every
member of the Church, by baptism, was, of course, bound to support her
missions. The missionary field was declared to be THE WORLD, _domestic
missions_ being those established within the territory of the United
States, and _foreign missions_ those without that territory. At each
triennial meeting of the General Convention, a Board of Missions,
consisting of about one hundred members, is selected from the different
dioceses. This Board has the general supervision of all the missionary
operations of the Church; and meets annually, or oftener, if necessary.

There are two standing committees of this Board,—the _Committee for
Domestic Missions_ and the _Committee for Foreign Missions_, to whom,
during the recess of the Board, the care and management of the missions is
confided. This Society now has under its charge one hundred and forty-five
domestic, and twelve foreign stations, employing eighty-five domestic and
eleven foreign missionaries, and also eighteen teachers and assistants in
the foreign stations.

The expenditures of this Board, for the year 1841, were sixty-one thousand
five hundred and eighty-six dollars and thirty-seven cents. This Society
has missionary stations in Athens, Crete, Constantinople, China, (Maca,)
Cape Palmas and other stations in Western Africa, and in Texas.



Society For Propagating The Gospel Among The Indians And Others.


This society derived its origin among the Puritans, in England, in 1648.
The charter under which it now acts was granted by the legislature of
Massachusetts, in 1687. Its list of past and present members in 1840,
comprised one hundred and twenty-five names of the most eminent divines,
jurists, and laymen in Massachusetts, in which state the operations of the
society are chiefly confined. The funds of this society, in 1840, amounted
to thirty-six thousand three hundred and eighty-seven dollars, the income
of which is annually expended for the “propagation of the gospel” among
the needy and destitute.

In conformity with the spirit and design of this ancient and venerable
society, all measures in any degree of a party or sectarian character, are
scrupulously avoided.



Wesleyan Or English Methodist Missionary Society.


Scarcely had Mr. Wesley raised the standard of Methodism in England,
before he turned his attention to the wants of other lands. America
presenting a vast field for missionary labor, he sent over Richard
Boardman and Joseph Pilmore, in 1769. These were the first Methodist
missionaries. From their labors the Methodist Episcopal church in the
United States gradually came into being. Dr. Coke was preëminently useful
in establishing missions in various places This society was organized in
1817.

WEST INDIES.—A peculiar providence marked the commencement of this
mission. Dr. Coke, with three preachers, was proceeding to Nova Scotia, in
September, 1786, but was driven, by stress of weather, to Antigua. Finding
a number of serious persons there, he preached Jesus to them, and by his
labors laid the foundation for extensive missions.

BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.—About 1779, several Methodist emigrants were the
means of awakening many souls. Among these was Mr. Black, who, after
laboring for some time with zeal and success, was appointed the
superintendent of the mission in British North America. This mission
embraces Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada, Newfoundland, and Honduras.

MISSIONS IN ASIA.—The plan of establishing missions in Asia originated
with Dr. Coke; and, in 1813, he sailed, with Messrs. Harvard, Clough,
Ault, Erskine, Squance, and Lynch, for Ceylon. Unfortunately, he died on
the passage. The brethren, after many trials, reached Ceylon, and
commenced their labors at Jaffna, Batticaloa, and Matura. From Ceylon, the
society directed its attention to continental India, where their labors
have become very extensive.

MISSIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA.—These missions were begun in 1816, by Rev.
Barnabas Shaw, among the Namaquas, a tribe of Hottentots. These missions
have subsequently spread over large portions of this benighted land.

MISSIONS IN THE SOUTH SEAS.—These missions include the Friendly Isles, New
Zealand, New South Wales, &c. They were commenced at the latter place, in
1815, by Mr. Leigh, who began his duties and labors at Sydney, with
favorable auspices and good success.

MISSIONS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN.—These were commenced in Gibraltar, in 1804,
by Mr. McMullen, who died a few days after beginning his labors. The
mission was then suspended until 1808, when Mr. William Griffith was
appointed to its charge. Besides this mission, the Methodists have
stations at Malta, Alexandria, and Zanto.

MISSIONS IN EUROPE.—These missions embrace the labors of the society in
Sweden, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Norman and Shetland Isles.
Notwithstanding many obstacles, arising from intolerance, ignorance, or
superstition, the good work progresses at these missions.

Summary.

In 1840, this society had, in the West Indies, fifty missionary stations;
in British North America, eighty-four stations; in Asia, twenty-two,; in
the South Seas, twenty-five; in Africa, thirty-one; and in Europe,
forty-two stations. In all these countries the society had two hundred and
fifty-four stations, six hundred and twenty-three missionaries and
teachers, seventy-two thousand seven hundred and twenty-four communicants,
and fifty-six thousand five hundred and twenty-two scholars.



Missions Of The Methodist Episcopal Church.


I. FOREIGN MISSIONS.

1. _The Liberia Mission_ was commenced in 1833, by the Rev. M. B. Cox,
who, in a few short months after, was called to his eternal reward. His
dying language was, “Though a thousand fall, Africa must not be given up.”
Five other missionaries have fallen in the same field. The Liberia mission
now includes an annual conference of seventeen preachers, all colored,
except the superintendent and the two brethren recently sent out. It has a
membership of nearly one thousand, of whom one hundred and fifty are
_natives_. There are thirteen day schools, in which from five hundred to
six hundred children are instructed, (of whom about forty are natives,
preparing for future usefulness,) fourteen churches, eight mission-houses,
three school-houses, one academy, (a stone building,) and one
printing-office. Total of missionaries, male and female, twenty-four.

2. _The Oregon Mission._—This mission was commenced by Rev. Messrs. Jason
and Daniel Lee, and now numbers twenty-one missionaries, including
preachers, teachers, physicians, farmers, mechanics, &c. The greater part
of these were sent out in 1840, making, with their wives and children,
about fifty souls—the largest missionary expedition going, at one time,
from this country. They are now laying the foundations of their future
work.

3. _The Texas Mission_ was commenced by Rev. Dr. Ruter, assisted by two
young preachers, who accompanied him to that country in 1837. An annual
conference was established in this mission field in 1840, which now
includes three regular presiding elders’ districts, and eighteen stations
and circuits. It numbers twenty-three travelling preachers, thirty-six
local preachers, (i. e., lay preachers, who support themselves, and preach
as they have opportunity) and two thousand seven hundred and ninety-five
members. There is a college at Rutersville.

II. DOMESTIC MISSIONS.

1. _German Missions._—The first German mission was established in
Cincinnati, in 1835, by Rev. William Nast. There are now seventeen German
missions, containing about one thousand members, in the states of Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and New York. A
German paper is published at Cincinnati, called _The Christian Apologist_,
having eleven hundred subscribers.

2. _Indian Missions._—There are eighteen missions, and one manual labor
school, among the Indians located within the bounds of Rock River,
Michigan, Holston, Missouri, Mississippi, and Arkansas conferences. These
now include two thousand six hundred and seventeen native church members.

3. _Missions among the Slaves._—There are forty-seven of these missions in
successful operation, including twelve thousand three hundred and
ninety-three in church fellowship.

4. _Missions in Destitute Portions of the Country._—There are one hundred
and eight domestic missions of this kind, which embrace twenty-three
thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight church members.

Aggregate.

Foreign missions—sixty-three missionaries, four thousand three hundred and
seventeen church members.—Domestic missions—one hundred and seventy-eight
missionaries, forty-one thousand church members.—Total—two hundred and
forty-one missionaries, forty-five thousand three hundred and seventeen
church members.

The whole amount of missionary money collected for the year ending April
20, 1842, is one hundred and five thousand two hundred and eighty-one
dollars; expended, one hundred and forty-nine thousand and sixty-five
dollars.



Seventh-Day Baptist Missionary Society.


The operations of this society are confined to the occasional assistance
of destitute churches at home. It employs six agents and missionaries. Its
receipts for 1838 were one hundred and eighty-six dollars.

The Seventh-Day Baptists have also a _Society for the Promotion of
Christianity among the_ JEWS, at home and abroad. It was organized in
1838.



French Protestant Missionary Society.


This society was formed in 1822, at the house of S. V. S. Wilder Esq., an
American merchant, then residing in Paris. It has a seminary for the
preparation of students. In 1829, it sent out three missionaries to their
first field of labor, among the French emigrants of South Africa, and
among the surrounding tribes. It had, in 1839, in South Africa, seven
stations, twelve missionaries, about one hundred converts, and five
hundred scholars.



Netherlands Missionary Society.


The principal labors of this society are expended in Dutch India and in
Siam. In Dutch India they have eighteen missionaries, at thirteen
stations. Of the success of this society, little is known in this country.



Scottish Missionary Society.


This society was established, in 1796, by the members of the Episcopal
church in Edinburgh. It has had missions in Tartary, Asia, and the West
Indies. Some of them are still sustained.



German Missionary Society.


This society was preceded in its formation by the Missionary Seminary at
Bâsle, in 1816. In 1821, the Missionary Society was formed by the various
pastors and churches of the surrounding country, under the encouragement
of Dr. Steinkopff. The scene of their first labors was among the German
colonies in Asiatic Russia, in 1822, when seven missionaries were sent to
prepare the way of the Lord in that important field. Others followed, and
their mission was beginning to promise great results, when, in 1837, by a
_ukase_ from the emperor of the Russias, they were required to abandon
their work.

In 1828, they commenced a mission at Liberia. Death became their opponent
here, and seven of their missionaries died through the sickliness of the
climate. Two missionaries are still laboring in that field.

They have seven missionaries in Hindoostan, who occupy two
stations,—Mangalore and Dharwar. They expect to establish another,
shortly, at Hoobly, for which five missionaries have been sent out. There
are several schools, and one seminary, connected with these stations.



Church Of Scotland Missions.


These missions appear to be of recent date. Most of their labor is
expended on Asia.

Calcutta, Bombay, Poonah, and Madras, are their principal stations. Their
missionaries devote a large portion of their efforts to the promotion of
education.



Rhenish Missionary Society.


The successes of the London Missionary Society inspired the pious
inhabitants of the valley of the Rhine with an ardent wish to imitate
their zeal. Under this impulse, a society was formed, in 1828, at Barmen,
on the Rhine, by a union of the previously-formed societies of Barmen,
Elberfield, Cologne, and Wesel.

Messrs. Gottlieb, Leipold, Zahn and Wurmb, were among their earliest
missionaries. Wurmb was formerly a soldier. He fought in the battle of
Leipsic as lieutenant, and obtained two medals of honor. He next studied
medicine, and gained a diploma; and when he became a subject of religious
influence, he laid all his honors and learning at the foot of the cross.
He began his labors at Wupperthal, in South Africa, in which country are
several missionaries, and four stations.



Missions Of The Roman Catholic Church.


We regret that it is not in our power to record the missionary efforts of
the Roman Catholics. Suffice it to say that their missions extend to all
countries, and that they are ardent in their zeal, indefatigable in their
labors, and unsparing in their expenditures, in the propagation of the
doctrines of this ancient church.



Jews’ Missionary Society.


This association was formed in England, in 1808. It is patronized chiefly
by ministers and members of the established church. It has forty-nine
missionaries and agents, who occupy twenty-three stations in Asia and
Europe. Of these missionaries, twenty-four are Jewish converts. Its
receipts in 1839 were upwards of eighty thousand dollars. Three or four
thousand Jews have been converted, by this and other instrumentalities,
within a few years.

In England, there is an institution for the purpose of receiving Jewish
converts, and teaching them a trade. A considerable number have enjoyed
its privileges.



Indians.


As great efforts are making, by almost all classes of Christians to spread
the benign influence of the gospel among the red men on our borders, it
may not be amiss to state their locations, numbers, &c. &c.

                  -------------------------------------

Mr. McCoy, in his valuable “Annual Register of Indian Affairs,” published
at Shawanoe, in the Indian Territory, makes many important statements
respecting this highly-interesting people.

He says that the number of Indians north of Mexico may be fairly estimated
at one million eight hundred thousand. He estimates the population of the
tribes east and west of the Mississippi as follows:—

Tribes East Of Mississippi River.

Indians in New England and New York       4,715
Indians from New York, at Green Bay         725
Wyandots, in Ohio and Michigan              623
Miamies                                   1,200
Winnebagoes                               4,591
Chippewas                                 6,793
Ottawas and Chippewas of Lake Michigan    5,300
Chippewas, Ottawas, and Putawatomies      8,000
Putawatomies                              1,400
Menominees                                4,200
Creeks                                   23,668
Cherokees                                10,000
Chickasaws                                5,429
Choctaws                                  3,500
Seminoles                                 2,420
Appalachicolas                              340
Total                                    81,904

Tribes West Of Mississippi River.

Sioux                                                27,500
Iowas                                                 1,200
Sauks of Missouri                                       500
Sauks and Foxes                                       6,400
Assinaboines                                          8,000
Crees                                                 3,000
Camanches                                             7,000
Crows                                                 4,500
Arrepahas, Kiawas, &c.                                1,400
Caddoes                                                 800
Snake and other tribes within the Rocky Mountains    20,000
Gros-ventres                                          3,000
Arrekaras                                             3,000
Cheyennes                                             2,000
Minatarees                                            1,500
Mandans                                               1,500
Black Feet                                           30,000
Tribes west of Rocky Mountains                       80,000
Total                                               201,300

The above tribes, although within the territory of the United States, are
not within what is commonly called the Indian Territory.

Mr. McCoy states the names and numbers of the indigenous and emigrant
tribes within the Indian Territory, so called, as follow:—

Indigenous Tribes.

Osage                 5,510
Kauzau, or Kansas     1,684
Otoe and Missouria    1,600
Omaha                 1,400
Pawnee               10,000
Puncah                  800
Quapau                  450
Total                21,444

Emigrant Tribes.

Choctaw                         15,000
Cherokee                         4,000
Creek                            3,600
Seneca and Shawanoo of Neosho      462
Wea                                225
Piankasha                          119
Peoria and Kaskaskias              135
Ottawa                              81
Shawanoe of Kauzau River           764
Delaware                           856
Kickapoo                           603
Putawatomie                        444
Emigrant                        26,289
Indigenous                      21,444
Total                           47,733

Among the population of the emigrant tribes are included thirteen hundred
and fifty negro slaves.

Mr. McCoy estimates that, of the one million eight hundred thousand
Indians in North America, about seventy thousand may be classed with
civilized man, having in greater or less degrees advanced towards
civilization.

                  -------------------------------------

By the Indian Territory is meant the country within the following limits,
viz.: Beginning on Red River, on the Mexican boundary, and as far west of
the state of Arkansas as the country is habitable; thence down Red River,
eastwardly, along the Mexican boundary to Arkansas; thence northwardly,
along the line of Arkansas, to the state of Missouri; thence north, along
its western line, to Missouri River; thence up Missouri River to Puncah
River; thence westerly as far as the country is habitable; thence
southwardly to the place of beginning.



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE FATHERS OF THE REFORMATION, FOUNDERS OF
SECTS, AND OF OTHER DISTINGUISHED INDIVIDUALS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME.



John Wickliffe.


A celebrated doctor, professor of divinity at Oxford, and deservedly
considered as the forerunner of Luther in the reformation. He was born at
Wickliffe, in Yorkshire, about 1324, and educated at Queen’s College, and
afterwards at Merton, and in 1361 raised to the mastership of Baliol
College. In 1365, he was made, by the scholars, head of Canterbury Hall,
just founded at Oxford by Archbishop Islip; but his elevation was opposed
by the monks, and Langham, the next primate; and the pope, to whom the
dispute was referred, displaced him and his secular associates. Thus
disgraced by violence, he retired to his living at Lutterworth, in
Leicestershire, meditating revenge against the authors of his unjust
privation. In the works of Marsilius of Padua, and other bold writers, he
found ample room to indulge his opposition; and, well aware of the
popularity of attacking a foreign power, which overawed the throne, and
submitted the industry and the revenues of the kingdom to its own
avaricious views, he loudly inveighed against the errors and the
encroachments of the Romish church. His writings alarmed the clergy, and a
council was assembled at Lambeth, by Archbishop Sudbury, 1377, and
Wickliffe summoned to give an account of his doctrines. He appeared before
it, accompanied by the duke of Lancaster, then in power; and he made so
able a defence, that he was dismissed without condemnation. His acquittal,
however, displeased the pope, Gregory XI., who directed his emissaries to
seize the offending heretic, or, if he were protected by the great and
powerful of the kingdom, to cite him to Rome, to answer in person before
the sovereign pontiff. In consequence of this, a second council assembled
at Lambeth, and the nineteen propositions, which the pope had declared
heretical, were so ably vindicated by the eloquence of the undaunted
reformer, that his judges, afraid of offending the nobles, or of exciting
a commotion among the people, who loudly supported the cause of their
champion, permitted him to depart in safety, and enjoined on him silence
in matters of religion and of controversy. Undismayed by the power of his
enemies, Wickliffe continued to preach his doctrines, which were now more
universally spread; and a third council, therefore, assembled, under
Courtnay, the primate, 1382, and twenty-four propositions of the reformer
were condemned as heretical, and fourteen as erroneous. The severity of
the church was, at the suggestion of the pope, and the concurrence of the
weak Richard II., directed with effect against the supporters of the new
heresy; but, while some of his followers suffered punishment for their
adherence to his principles, Wickliffe unhappily died at Lutterworth,
1384, at a time when nothing was wanting to emancipate the English nation
from the tyranny of Rome, but the boldness, perseverance, and eloquence,
of a popular leader. Of the several works which he wrote, his Trialogus is
almost the only one which has been printed. The noble struggle which
Wickliffe had made against the gigantic power of Rome was almost forgotten
after his death, till Martin Luther arose to follow his steps, and to
establish his doctrines on a foundation which will last till Christianity
is no more. The memory of Wickliffe was branded with ignominy by the
impotent Papists, and by the order of the council of Constance, whose
cruelties towards John Huss and Jerome of Prague are so well known, the
illustrious reformer was declared to have died an obstinate heretic; and
his bones were therefore dug up from holy ground, and contemptuously
burnt.



Jerome of Prague.


The celebrated lay reformer was born at Prague, about the year 1370. Very
little is extant relative to the early part of his life; but he was very
eager in the pursuit of knowledge, and spent his youth in the universities
of Prague, Paris, Heidelberg, Cologne, and Oxford. At the latter
university, he became acquainted with the works of Wickliffe, translated
them into his native language, professed himself, on his return to Prague,
to be an open favorer of him, and attached himself to the Reformed in
Bohemia, over whom Huss presided. Before the council of Constance, Jerome
was cited on the 17th of April, 1415, when Huss was confined at that
place. On his arrival, he found that he could not render any assistance to
Huss, and therefore thought it prudent to retire; and, on behalf of Huss,
he wrote to the emperor. At Kirsaw, Jerome was seized by an officer of the
duke of Sulzbach, who immediately wrote to the council concerning him, and
they directed him to send his prisoner to Constance. On his arrival at
that place, he was immediately brought before the council, accused of his
attachment to Protestant principles, and was remanded from the assembly
into a dungeon. As he was there sitting, ruminating on his approaching
fate, he heard a voice calling out in these words:—“Fear not, Jerome, to
die in the cause of that truth which, during thy life, thou hast
defended.” It was the voice of Madderwitz, who had contributed to the
comfort of Huss; but, in consequence of it, Jerome was conveyed to a
strong tower, and exposed to torture and want.

This suffering brought on him a dangerous illness, and attempts were then
made to induce him to retract his principles; but he remained immovable.
Unhappily, however, for his subsequent peace of mind, he was at length
induced to retract, and acknowledged the errors of Wickliffe and Huss,
assented to the condemnation of the latter, and declared himself a firm
believer in the church of Rome. But the conscience of Jerome would not
allow him to suffer that retraction to remain; and he accordingly
recanted, and demanded a second trial.

Accordingly, in the month of May, 1416, Jerome was again called before the
council, and charged with his adherence to the errors of Wickliffe, his
having had a picture of him in his chamber, his denial of
transubstantiation, with other matters of a similar description. On these
articles he answered with equal spirit. Through the whole oration he
manifested an amazing strength of memory. His voice was sweet, distinct,
and full. Firm and intrepid, he stood before the council; collected in
himself, and not only despising, but seeming even desirous of death.

His speech did not, however, excite pity; and he was delivered over to the
civil power for martyrdom. When surrounded by blazing fagots, he cried
out, “O Lord God, have mercy upon me!” and a little afterwards, “Thou
knowest how I have loved thy truth.” With cheerful countenance he met his
fate; and, observing the executioner about to set fire to the wood behind
his back, he cried out, “Bring thy torch hither: perform thy office before
my face. Had I feared death, I might have avoided it.” As the wood began
to blaze, he sang a hymn, which the violence of the flames did not
interrupt.

Jerome was, unquestionably, an excellent man. His Christianity must have
been sincere, thus to have supported him; and the uniform tenor of his
virtuous life corroborated the truth of that opinion. His temper was mild
and affable, and the relations of life he supported with great piety and
benevolence. He was a light set upon a hill; and though for a few moments
it was obscured and darkened, yet it again burst forth, and continued to
shine with splendor and advantage.



John Huss.


A famous divine and martyr, born in Bohemia, 1376, and educated at Prague,
where he took his degrees, and entered into the ministry. The writings of
Wickliffe converted him from the superstitions of Rome, and, with eloquent
zeal, he began to preach against the power and influence of the pope. His
efforts proved successful; the Papal authority began to be slighted in
Bohemia; but the archbishop of Prague issued two mandates against the
heresies of Wickliffe, and the labors of Huss and his followers; and this
exertion of power was soon seconded by a bull from Rome, for the
suppression of all tenets offensive to the holy see. Huss exclaimed
against these proceedings, and, though summoned to Rome to answer for his
conduct, he, supported by the favor of Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia,
disregarded the pope’s authority, and was excommunicated; and, soon after,
his friends and adherents were included in the same interdict. After
causing, by his opposition to the Papal decrees, various tumults in Prague
and Bohemia, Huss was prevailed upon to appear at the council of
Constance, to give an account of his doctrines. The emperor Sigismund
granted him his protection, and insured security to his person; but when,
soon after, he reached Constance, 1414, he was seized as a heretic, and
imprisoned, and, after a confinement of severe hardships for six months,
he was condemned without a hearing; and, when he refused to recant his
errors, he was tumultuously sentenced to be burnt. The emperor indeed
complained of the contempt shown to his authority, and of the perfidy used
towards the delinquent, but all in vain. Huss was inhumanly dragged to
execution; he was stripped of his sacerdotal habit, deprived of his
degrees, and, with a paper crown on his head, with pictures of devils
round, and the inscription of “Heresiarch,” he was burned alive, July,
1415. He endured his torments with uncommon fortitude and truly Christian
resignation. His ashes were collected, and then sprinkled in the Rhine.



John Œcolampadius.


An eminent German reformer, born, in 1482, at Weinsberg in Franconia. He
was converted to the Protestant faith by reading the works of Luther;
became professor of theology at Basle; embraced the opinions of Zuinglius
respecting the sacrament; contributed much to the progress of
ecclesiastical reform, and died in 1531.

Œcolampadius was of a meek and quiet disposition; in the undertaking of
any business he was very circumspect; nor was there any thing more
pleasing to him, than to spend his time in reading and commenting. His
publications are numerous, consisting chiefly of annotations on the holy
Scriptures.



Martin Luther.


The celebrated reformer was born at Isleben, in Saxony, 10th November,
1483. His parents wished him to devote himself to the labors of the bar,
but an extraordinary accident diverted his purpose. As he walked one day
in the fields with a fellow-student, he was struck down by lightning, and
his companion killed by his side; and this had such effect upon his mind
that, without consulting his friends, he retired from the world, into the
order of the Augustines. In this seclusion he found by accident a Latin
Bible, which he never before had seen, and in perusing it he was
astonished at the little knowledge of Scripture and of Christianity which
the clergy then imparted to the people. From the convent of Erfurt he was
removed to Wittemberg University; and here he read lectures on philosophy,
for three years, to numerous and applauding audiences. The completion of
St. Peter’s Church at Rome at this time required extraordinary sums, and
the pope, Leo X., to fill his coffers with greater facility, published
general indulgences for the forgiveness of sins to such as would
contribute to the pious work. The Dominicans were intrusted with the
selling of these indulgences in Germany, and in paying their money the
good friar Tetzel informed the superstitious people that they might
release themselves not only from past, but also future sins. This pious
imposition did not escape the discerning eye of Luther; he published, in
1517, a thesis, containing ninety-five propositions on indulgences, and
challenged opposition. Tetzel was not silent on the occasion; but while
he, with the voice of authority, called his opponent a damnable heretic,
and whilst he burnt the thesis with all possible ignominy, Luther asserted
boldly the inefficacy of indulgences, and regarded penitence and works of
mercy and charity alone capable of forming a reconciliation with Heaven.
Though attacked by numbers, Luther had the satisfaction to see his
sentiments embraced with eagerness by the body of the people; and, when
summoned by the pope to appear at Rome to answer for his conduct, he had
the firmness to refuse, though he, at the same time, in the most
submissive manner, exculpated himself, and deprecated the resentment of
the supreme pontiff. Maximilian, the emperor, was anxious to support the
cause of Rome; but Luther happily found a protector and friend in the
elector of Saxony, and, upon an assurance of personal safety, he did not
refuse to appear at Augsburg before the Papal legate, Cajetan. The
conference ended by the refusal of Luther to submit implicitly to the
pleasure of the Papal see. The pope, however, finding that violence could
not destroy the obstinacy of Luther, had recourse to milder means, and his
agent Miltitius was employed to visit the reformer, to argue with him, and
to offer terms of reconciliation. Luther was struck with the civilities
and the temper of the Papal missionary; but, instead of making submission,
he was roused to greater opposition by the exhortations of the Bohemians,
and the able support of Melancthon, Carolostadius, and other learned men.
In 1519, he was engaged in a personal controversy at Leipsic with Eccius,
divinity professor at Ingolstadt; but it tended only to sow greater enmity
and deeper variance between the disputants. The same year, his book
against indulgences was censured by the divines of Louvaine and Cologne;
but Luther disregarded their opinions, and appealed for protection to the
new emperor, Charles V. Though he had written, at the suggestion of
Miltitius, a letter to the pope, not indeed of submission, but rather of
exculpation, in language bold and energetic, he was in 1520 formally
condemned by a bull from Rome, which, after enumerating forty-one of his
heretical opinions, denounces against him the vengeance of the church, and
excommunication, if within sixty days he did not make a due submission.
This violent conduct Luther answered by “The Captivity of Babylon,” a book
in which he inveighed bitterly against the abuses of Rome; and then,
calling the students of Wittemberg together, he flung into the fire the
offensive decree, which he called the _execrable bull of Antichrist_. In
1521, he was summoned to appear before the emperor at the diet of Worms,
with a promise of protection; and, though his friends dissuaded him, and
told him that, as his opponents had burned his writings, so they would
treat him after the manner of Huss, he declared, with fearless voice, “If
I knew there were as many devils at Worms as tiles on the houses, I would
go.” At Worms he was required by Eccius to retract his opinions; but he
declared that, except what he advanced could be proved contrary to
Scripture, he neither could nor would recant. His obstinacy proved
offensive to the emperor; but, as he had promised him his protection, he
permitted him to depart. Charles, nevertheless, published his edict
against him and his adherents, and placed him under the ban of the empire.
Luther, however, remained secure under the protection of the elector, who
had thus effected his deliverance, and in the castle of Wittemberg, which
he denominated his _hermitage_ and his _Palmos_, he held a secret
correspondence with his friends, or composed books in defence of his
opinions. At the end of ten months, when the emperor was departed for
Flanders, he again appeared publicly at Wittemberg, and had the
satisfaction to find that, instead of being checked, his doctrines had
gained ground, and were universally embraced through Germany. In 1522, he
published, in conjunction with Melancthon, a Latin translation of the New
Testament; and the work was read with avidity by the German nation. In
1524, he had to contend with Erasmus, a man who had apparently adopted his
sentiments, though he had not the manliness to acknowledge them; and he
now found in him an able antagonist enlisted in defence of the pope. In
1524, Luther threw aside the monastic habit; and the next year he married
Catherine de Bore, a nun who had escaped from a convent; and though he was
ridiculed by his enemies, and censured for taking a young wife, he
defended his conduct by scriptural texts, and again set at nought the
authority of Rome and the cavils of her advocates. In 1525, the emperor
called a diet at Spires, in consequence of the war with the Turks, as well
as the troubled state of Germany in consequence of religious disputes; and
in the sitting of the next year he proposed that the edict of Worms should
be duly enforced, the Catholic religion supported, and heretics punished.
The new doctrines, though thus openly attacked by the head of the empire,
were ably defended by the electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, the
landgrave of Hesse, the prince of Anhalt, and others; and in another diet,
held again at Spires, these dissentient princes protested against the
measures of the empire, and were consequently called _Protestants_. In the
midst of the confusion of Germany, a confession of faith was drawn up by
Melancthon, the mildest and most moderate of Luther’s followers, and, as
it was presented to the emperor at Augsburg, it has been called the
_Augsburg Confession_. Thus the opposition raised against the mighty
empire of spiritual Rome by an obscure monk, was supported by intelligent
princes and powerful nations, and Luther, now regarded as the champion of
the faith through Germany, had nothing to apprehend from his persecutors,
but had only to labor earnestly to confirm what had been so happily
established. His German translation of the Bible appeared in 1535, and was
received with grateful raptures by the Germans. He died at Isleben, 18th
February, 1546, aged 63. This illustrious man, engaged, as Atterbury has
observed, against the united forces of the Papal world, stood the shock
with bravery and success. He was a man of high endowments of mind, and
great virtues. He had a vast understanding, which raised him to a pitch of
learning unknown in the age in which he lived. His works, collected after
his death, appeared at Wittemberg, in seven volumes, folio.



Ulriucus Zuinglius.


A zealous reformer, born at Wildehausen, in Switzerland, 1487. He studied
the learned languages at Bâsle and Berne, and applied himself to
philosophy at Vienna, and took his degree of doctor of divinity, at Bâsle,
1505. For ten years he acquired popularity as public preacher at Glaris,
and in 1516 he was invited to Zurich to undertake the office of minister.
The tenets of Luther, which were now propagated in Germany, encouraged the
Swiss preacher to oppose the sale of indulgences, and to regard them as
impositions from the court of Rome upon the superstitious credulity of the
people. Undaunted in the publication of his opinions, he continued to
increase the number of his adherents, and in 1523 he assembled the senate
and the clergy of Zurich, and presented before them in sixty-seven
propositions the minute articles of his faith. Though opposed by the
bishop of Constance, his doctrines were adopted by the full senate, and he
was exhorted to preach the word of God, whilst all pastors were forbidden
to teach any thing but what could be proved by the gospel. Another synod
still more powerfully favored the cause of Zuinglius and of truth; images
and relics were removed from churches, processions were forbidden, and the
greater part of the outward worship and ceremonies of the church of Rome
was abolished. While, however, successful in the establishment of his
doctrines in the canton of Zurich, Zuinglius met with violent opposition
in the other members of the Swiss confederacy, and, after the fruitless
conferences of Baden between Œcolampadius on the part of Zurich, and of
Eckius on the part of the Catholics, both sides had recourse to arms. In
one of the first encounters, the great champion of the reformation was
slain, 11th October, 1531. As a leader, Zuinglius displayed great
firmness, deep learning, and astonishing presence of mind. Though he
opposed the doctrines of the Romish church, he greatly differed from the
German reformer, and each, unhappily, paid little respect to the opinions
of the other. His followers continued to increase; and in bearing his name
they maintained doctrines on original sin, and on grace, which were
rejected by the other seceders from the jurisdiction of Rome. According to
Zuinglius, salvation was extended not only to infants, who died before
baptism, but to heathens of a virtuous and moral life. Some alterations
were afterwards introduced by Calvin, by Beza, and others; but whilst the
proselytes to these new opinions acquired the name of _Calvinists_ in
France, and in other parts of Europe, the Zuinglians, who firmly adhered
to the tenets of their founder, assumed the appellation of
_Sacramentarians_. The works of Zuinglius, as a controversialist, were
respectable, chiefly written in German, and were comprehended in four
volumes, folio.



Martin Bucer.


A Dominican, born in Alsace, in 1491, who early embraced the tenets of
Luther. He afterwards inclined more to the opinions of Zuinglius, and, in
his zeal for the reformation, attempted in vain to reconcile these two
powerful leaders. For twenty years, his eloquence was exerted at Strasburg
to establish the Protestant cause; but the turbulence of the times, and
his opposition to the views of the Catholics at Augsburg, rendered him
unpopular, so that he received with pleasure the invitations of Cranmer to
settle in England. He was received with gratitude by the nation. Edward
VI. treated him with great kindness, and he was appointed theological
professor at Cambridge, in 1549, where he died two years after. Five years
after, the persecutions of Mary were extended to his remains, which were
ignominiously burned; but the insult was repaired by the good sense of
Elizabeth. In learning, judgment, and moderation, Bucer was inferior to
none of the great reformers, and, with Melancthon, he may be considered as
the best calculated to restore and maintain unanimity among contending
churches and opposite sects. His writings, in Latin and German, were very
numerous, and all on theological subjects.



Philip Melancthon.


A celebrated reformer, born 16th February, 1497, at Bretten, in the
Palatinate of the Rhine. His father’s name was Schwartserdt, which
signifies _black earth_; but the word was changed, according to the
affectation of the times, by his friend Reuchlin, into Melancthon, which,
in Greek, expresses the same meaning. He studied at Bretten, Pfortsheim,
and Heidelberg, and with such success that, at thirteen, he wrote a comedy
of some merit. He left Heidelberg in 1512, because he was refused a degree
on account of his youth, and then passed to Tubingen, where he resided for
six years, and gave public lectures on Virgil, Terence, and other
classics. In 1518, by the recommendation of his friend Reuchlin, he was
appointed, by the elector of Saxony, Greek professor at Wittemberg; and
here began that intimacy with Luther, which contributed so much to the
progress of the reformation. He was, in 1527, appointed by his patron, the
duke, to visit the churches of the electorate, and afterwards he was
employed in the arduous labors of preparing those articles of faith which
have received the name of the Augsburg Confession, because presented to
the emperor at the diet of that city. In the disputes which he maintained
in those days of controversial enmity, he displayed great candor and
mildness, which his friend Luther attributed more to a spirit of timidity,
than to the meekness of the Christian character. His moderation, as well
as his learning, was so universally acknowledged, that he received a
liberal invitation from Francis I. to come to France, to settle the
disputes of the Protestants; but through the interference of the duke of
Saxony, the offer was declined, as likewise a similar invitation from the
king of England. He was engaged in the various conferences which took
place on religious subjects at Frankfort, Reinspurg, Worms, Spires, and
Ratisbon, and every where evinced the deepest learning, the most peaceable
temper, and the strongest moderation. The character of the times, and not
inclination, rendered him a controversialist, and his answer to his mother
displayed the great and the good man. When asked by the aged woman, who
repeated before him her prayers in a simple but pious manner, what she
must believe in this great confusion of creeds; he replied, “Go on,
mother, to believe and pray as you have done, and never trouble yourself
about controversies.” He died at Wittemberg, 19th April, 1560, and was
buried by the side of his friend Luther, in the church of the castle.
Among the reasons which, on his death-bed, he assigned for considering
dissolution as happiness, he said that it delivered him from theological
persecutions. His works were very numerous, and, as they were written in
the midst of controversy and ecclesiastical avocations, they were not
always so correct in language, as they proved useful in advancing the
reformation. A chronological catalogue of these was published in 1582, and
they appeared altogether in four volumes, folio, at Wittemberg, 1601.



Peter Martyr.


A celebrated reformer and theologian, whose real name was Vermigli, was
born, in 1500, at Florence. He was originally an Augustine monk, and
became an eminent preacher, and prior of St. Fridian’s, at Lucca. Having,
however, embraced the Protestant doctrines, he found it necessary to quit
his native country. After having been for some time professor of divinity
at Strasburg, he was invited to England, and appointed professor of
theology at Oxford. He left England on the accession of Mary, and died in
1561, theological professor at Zurich. He wrote several works, of great
erudition, among which are Commentaries upon parts of the Scriptures. His
personal character is said to have been extremely amiable.



Henry Bullinger.


One of the early reformers, born in the canton of Zurich at Baumgarten, in
1504. The works of Melancthon converted him to Protestantism, and he
became closely connected with Zuinglius, to whom he succeeded as pastor of
Zurich. He was one of the authors of the Helvetic Confession, and assisted
Calvin in drawing up the formulary of 1549. Bullinger was a moderate and
conscientious man; and it is much to his honor that, on the ground of its
being inconsistent with Christianity for any one to hire himself out to
slaughter those who had never injured him, he successfully opposed a
treaty for supplying France with a body of Swiss mercenaries. He died in
1575. His printed works form ten folio volumes.



John Knox.


The great champion of the Scottish reformation was born, in 1505, at
Gifford, in East Lothian, and was educated at Haddington and St. Andrews.
After he was created master of arts, he taught philosophy, most probably
as a regent in one of the colleges of the university. His class became
celebrated, and he was considered as equalling, if not excelling, his
master in the subtilties of the dialectic art. About the same time,
although he had no interest but what was procured by his own merit, he was
advanced to clerical orders, and ordained a priest before he reached the
age fixed by the canons of the church. At this time, the fathers of the
Christian church, Jerome and Augustine, attracted his particular
attention. By the writings of the former, he was led to the Scriptures as
the only pure fountain of divine truth, and instructed in the utility of
studying them in the original languages. In the works of the latter he
found religious sentiments very opposite to those taught in the Romish
church, who, while she retained his name as a saint in her calendar, had
banished his doctrine as heretical from her pulpits. From this time he
renounced the study of scholastic theology; and, although not yet
completely emancipated from superstition, his mind was fitted for
improving the means which Providence had given for leading him to a fuller
and more comprehensive view of the system of evangelical religion. It was
about the year 1535, when this favorable change commenced; but it does not
appear that he professed himself a Protestant before the year 1542. He was
converted from the Romish faith by Wishart, and became a zealous preacher
of the new doctrines. Having been compelled to take shelter in the castle
of St. Andrews, he fell into the hands of the French in July, 1547, and
was carried with the garrison to France, where he remained a captive on
board of the galleys till 1549. Subsequent to his liberation, he was for a
short time chaplain to Edward VI., after which he visited Geneva and
Frankfort, and, in 1555, returned to his native country. After having for
twelve months labored actively and successfully to strengthen the
Protestant cause in Scotland, he revisited Geneva, where he remained till
1559. During his residence in Geneva, he published his “First Blast of the
Trumpet against the monstrous Government of Women”—a treatise which was
levelled against Mary of England, but which gave serious offence to
Elizabeth. From April, 1559, when he once more and finally set foot on
Scottish earth, till his decease, which took place November 24, 1572, the
reformed church was triumphant, and he was one of its most prominent,
admired, and honored leaders.

When his body was laid in the grave, the regent of Scotland emphatically
pronounced his eulogium, in the well-known words, “There lies he who never
feared the face of man.”

Knox has been styled the intrepid reformer; and that character he
unquestionably deserves. In personal intrepidity and popular eloquence he
resembled Luther. His doctrinal sentiments were those of Calvin; and, like
Zuinglius, he felt an attachment to the principles of religious liberty.
He effected much in the great work of the reformation; but his manners
were so severe, and his temper so acrid, that whilst he may be equally
respected with Luther and Melancthon, he is not equally beloved. Knox was,
however, known and beloved by the principal persons among the reformed in
France, Switzerland, and Germany; and the affectionate veneration in which
his memory was held in Scotland after his death, evinced that the
influence he possessed among his countrymen, during his life, was not
constrained, but founded on the high opinion which they entertained.
Banatyne has thus drawn his character, and it is unquestionably entitled
to consideration:—“In this manner,” says he, “departed this man of God;
the light of Scotland, the comfort of the church within the same, the
mirror of godliness, and pattern and example to all true ministers, in
purity of life, soundness of doctrine, and boldness in reproving of
wickedness; one that cared not for the favor of men, how great soever they
were.”



John Calvin.


A celebrated reformer, born at Noyon, in Picardy, 10th July, 1509. His
family name was _Cauvin_, which he Latinized into _Calvinus_. He was first
intended for the church, and, subsequently, for the profession of civil
law. Having embraced the principles of Protestantism, he was under the
necessity of quitting France; and he settled at Bâsle, where he published
his celebrated “Institutions of the Christian Religion.” After having
visited Italy, he was returning by the way of Geneva, in 1536, when Farel
and other reformers induced him to take up his abode in that city. He was
chosen one of the ministers of the gospel, and professor of divinity. A
dispute with the city authorities soon compelled him to leave Geneva, and
he withdrew to Strasburg; whence he was recalled in 1541. From the time of
his recall, he possessed almost absolute power at Geneva; and he exerted
himself vigorously in establishing the Presbyterian form of church
government. The reformer, who so loudly exclaimed against the tyranny of
Rome, directed the whole torrent of his persecution against Servetus, a
physician, who had in an ambiguous style written upon the Trinity; and his
vengeance was not appeased till the unfortunate heretic had expired in the
flames. He died May 26, 1564; and, though he had long enjoyed a high
reputation and exercised an unbounded authority, he left only three
hundred crowns to his heirs, including his library, the books of which
sold afterwards at a great price. The works of Calvin were printed in
twelve volumes, folio, Geneva, and in nine, Amsterdam, in 1667.



Jerome Zanchius.


A native of Alzano, who entered in the congregation of the Lateran canons.
He embraced the tenets of the Protestants by the conversation of Peter
Martyr, who was of the same establishment; and, afraid of persecution, he
retired, 1553, to Strasburg, where he taught divinity and the philosophy
of Aristotle. He quitted Strasburg, in 1563, for Chiavene, and, in 1568,
removed to Heidelberg, where he was appointed professor of theology, and
where he died 19th November, 1590, aged eighty-four. He was author of
“Commentaries on St. Paul’s Epistles,” and other works, published together
at Geneva, in eight volumes, folio, 1613. In his character he was a man of
moderation, learned, benevolent, and pious.



Theodore Beza.


one of the most eminent of the reformers, was born at Vezelai, in the
Nivernois, in 1519, and was originally a Catholic, and intended for the
law. At the age of twenty, he gained an unenviable reputation by the
composition of Latin poetry which was at once elegant and licentious, and
which, some years afterwards, he published under the title of “Juvenile
Poems.” Though not in orders, he possessed benefices of considerable
value. These, however, he abandoned in 1548, and retired to Geneva, where
he publicly abjured Popery. To this he was induced by his having
meditated, during illness, upon the doctrines which he had heard from his
Protestant tutor, Melchior Wolmar; and perhaps also, in some measure, by
his attachment to a lady, whom he carried with him to Geneva, and married.
He now accepted the Greek professorship at Lausanne, which he held for ten
years. It was while he was thus occupied that he produced his tragedy of
“Abraham’s Sacrifice,” his version of the New Testament, and his hateful
defence of the right of the magistrate to punish heretics. In 1559, he
removed to Geneva, and became the colleague of Calvin, through whom he was
appointed rector of the academy, and theological professor. Two years
after this, he took a prominent part in the conference at Poissy, and was
present at the battle of Dreux. He returned to Geneva in 1563, succeeded
Calvin in his offices and influence, and was thenceforward considered as
the head of the Calvinistic church. After an exceedingly active life, he
died on the 13th of October, 1605.



Leo X.


Pope JOHN DE MEDICI, the son of the illustrious Lorenzo, was born in 1475,
at Florence, and was nominated a cardinal in his thirteenth year. In 1505,
he was made governor of Perugia; was intrusted with the command of the
Papal army in 1511; and was made prisoner, in the following year, at the
battle of Ravenna. He attained the Papal crown in 1513, on the death of
Julius II. He died in 1521. Leo was one of the most munificent patrons of
learning and of the arts; but he was prodigal, and on some occasions
grossly violated the principles of justice. To his shameless sale of
indulgences, to raise money to complete St. Peter’s Church at Rome, and
other extravagances, the world is indebted for the reformation of the
church by Luther and others.



Justin.


Surnamed the MARTYR, one of the fathers of the church, was born at
Neapolis, anciently Sichem, in Palestine, and was a philosopher of the
Platonic school. He is believed to have preached the gospel in Italy, Asia
Minor, and Egypt. He was beheaded at Rome, in 165. Of his works, the
principal are two Apologies for the Christians.



Arius.


Founder of the sect of the Arians, was an African by birth. Disappointment
made him a sectary. He propagated the opinion that the Word was not a
divine person; and the heresy, though condemned by various councils,
gained followers, and excited schisms in the Roman empire. The Nicene
creed was drawn up to combat his errors. He was a violent enemy of
Athanasius. He died at Alexandria, 386.



Athanasius.


The celebrated patriarch of Alexandria was born in that city about 296. At
the council of Nice, though then but a deacon of Alexandria, his
reputation for skill in controversy gained him an honorable place in the
council, and with signal ability he exposed the sophistry of those who
pleaded on the side of Arius. Six months after, he was appointed the
successor of Alexander. Notwithstanding the influence of the emperor, who
had recalled Arius from banishment, and, upon a plausible confession of
his faith, in which he affected to be Orthodox in his sentiments, directed
that he should be received by the Alexandrian church, Athanasius refused
to admit him to communion, and exposed his prevarication. The Arians upon
this exerted themselves to raise tumults at Alexandria, and to injure the
character of Athanasius with the emperor, who was prevailed upon by
falsehoods to pronounce against him a sentence of banishment. In the
beginning of the reign of Constantius, he was recalled to his happy
people, but was again disturbed and deposed through the influence of the
Arians. Accusations were also sent against him and other bishops from the
east to the west; but they were acquitted by Pope Julius in full council.
Athanasius was restored a second time to his see, upon the death of the
Arian bishop, who had been placed in it. Arianism, however, being in favor
at court, he was condemned by a council convened at Arles, and by another
at Milan, and was a third time obliged to fly into the deserts. His
enemies pursued him even here, and set a price upon his head. In this
situation, Athanasius composed writings full of eloquence to strengthen
the faith of believers, and expose the falsehood of his enemies. He
returned with the other bishops whom Julian the Apostate recalled from
banishment, and, in A. D. 362, held a council at Alexandria, where the
belief of a consubstantial Trinity was openly professed. Many now were
recovered from Arianism, and brought to subscribe the Nicene creed. But
his peace was again interrupted by the complaints of the heathen, whose
temples the zeal of Athanasius kept always empty. He was again obliged to
fly to save his life. The accession of Jovian brought him back. During the
reign of Jovian, also, Athanasius held another council, which declared its
adherence to the Nicene faith; and with the exception of a short
retirement under Valens, he was permitted to sit down in quiet and govern
his affectionate church of Alexandria, until his death, in 373. Of the
forty-six years of his official life, he spent twenty in banishment.

Athanasius (says the Encyclopedia Americana) is one of the greatest men of
whom the church can boast. His deep mind, his noble heart, his invincible
courage, his living faith, his unbounded benevolence, sincere humility,
lofty eloquence, and strictly virtuous life, gained the honor and love of
all. In all his writings, his style is distinguished for clearness and
moderation.



Moses Maimonides.


Moses son of Maimon, commonly called Moses Egypticus, because physician to
the sultan of Egypt, was a Jewish rabbi, born at Cordova, in Spain, 1131.
He opened a school in Egypt, and as his skill, not only in languages, but
in all branches of science and of philosophy, was very great, his
instructions were attended by numerous and respectable pupils. Thus
eminently distinguished as a scholar, as a physician, and also as a
divine, so as to be called inferior only to the legislator Moses, he
beheld with indifference, and even contempt, the fables and traditions of
his countrymen, and applied all the powers of learning, and the vast
resources of his mind, in the cause of truth, virtue, and philosophy. Some
of his works were written in Arabic, but are extant now in Hebrew only.
The most famous of these are his Commentaries on the Misna; Jad, a
complete pandect of the Jewish law; More Nevochim, a valuable work,
explaining the difficult passages, phrases, parables, and allegories, in
Scripture, and several other works. This great and learned man died in
Egypt at the age of seventy, and was buried with his nation in the land of
Upper Galilee. His death was mourned for three whole days by Jews and
Egyptians, and the year in which he died, in respect of his great virtues
and learning, was called Lamentum Lamentabile.



John Agricola.


A German divine, born at Isleb. He was the friend and the disciple of
Luther, but afterwards violently opposed him, and became the head of the
Antinomians, a sect which regarded faith as the whole of the duties of
man. He was also engaged in a dispute with Melancthon; but, with the most
laudable motives, he endeavored to effect a reconciliation between the
Catholics and Protestants. He died at Berlin, 1566, aged seventy-four.



Michael Servetus.


A native of Villanuova, in Arragon, son of a notary. He studied the law at
Toulouse, but afterwards applied to medicine at Paris, and took there his
doctor’s degree. The boldness and pertinacity of his opinions created him
enemies, and he left the capital to settle at Lyons, but afterwards he
retired to Charlieu. On the invitation of the archbishop of Vienne, in
Dauphiny, he was prevailed upon to fix his residence there, and he might
have lived in peace and respected, had he been satisfied to seek celebrity
in medical pursuits alone. Eager to publish his Arian opinions on
religion, he sent three questions to Calvin on the Divinity of Christ, on
Regeneration, and on the Necessity of Baptism, and, when answered with
civility, he reflected on the sentiments of his correspondent with
arrogant harshness. This produced a quarrel, and ended in the most
implacable hatred, so that Calvin, bent on revenge, obtained, by secret
means, copies of a work in which his antagonist was engaged, and caused
him to be accused before the archbishop as a dangerous man. Servetus
escaped from prison; but, on his way to Italy, he had the imprudence to
pass in disguise through Geneva, where he was recognized by Calvin, and
immediately seized by the magistrate as an impious heretic. Forty
heretical errors were proved against him by his accusers; but Servetus
refused to renounce them, and the magistrates, at last yielding to the
loud representations of the ministers of Bâsle, Berne, and Zurich, and
especially of Calvin, who demanded the punishment of a profane heretic,
ordered the unhappy man to be burnt. On the 27th October, 1553, the
wretched Servetus was conducted to the stake, and, as the wind prevented
the flames from fully reaching his body, two long hours elapsed before he
was freed from his miseries. This cruel treatment deservedly called down
the general odium on the head of Calvin, who ably defended his conduct and
that of the magistrates. Servetus published various works against the
Trinity, which were burnt in disgrace at Geneva, and other places.



Simonis Menno.


An ecclesiastic of Friesland, embraced the tenets of the Anabaptists, and,
after being again baptized by Ubbo Philippi, became a powerful leader of
his sect. He denied that Jesus Christ received a human shape from his
mother, the virgin Mary; and while he maintained the necessity of again
baptizing adults, he inveighed against the custom of infant baptism, which
he regarded as Popish innovation. His eloquence and his learning were so
much admired, that he gained a great number of followers in Westphalia,
Guelderland, Holland, and Brabant; but, though a price was set on his
head, he had the good fortune to escape his persecutors. He was, in his
opinions, more moderate than the rest of the Anabaptists. His followers
are still to be found in the Low Countries, under the name of
_Mennonites_, divided into two distinct sects. He died at Oldeslo, between
Lubec and Hamburg, 1565. His works were published at Amsterdam, 1681.



Francis Xavier.


Denominated the _Apostle of the Indies_, was born, in 1506, at the castle
of Xavier, in Navarre; studied at Paris; became one of the first and most
zealous disciples of Ignatius Loyola; was sent to the East by John III. of
Portugal, to propagate the gospel; performed his mission in Hindoostan,
the Moluccas, and Japan; and was on the point of landing in China, when he
died, 1552.



Faustus Socinus.


He who from whom the Socinians derive their name, was born, in 1539, at
Sienna, and was for a considerable period in the service of the grand duke
of Tuscany; after which he went to study theology, at Bâsle. The result of
his studies was the adoption of those anti-Trinitarian doctrines, which
his uncle Lelio Socinus is believed also to have professed. Faustus
settled in Poland, gained many followers, endured much persecution, and
died in 1604.



Robert Brown.


Educated at Cambridge, and was a man of good parts and some learning. He
began to inveigh openly against the ceremonies of the church, at Norwich,
in 1580; but, being much opposed by the bishops, he, with his
congregation, left England, and settled at Middleburgh, in Zealand, where
they obtained leave to worship God in their own way, and form a church
according to their own model. They soon, however, began to differ among
themselves, so that Brown, growing weary of his office, returned to
England in 1589, renounced his principles of separation, and was preferred
to the rectory of a church in Northamptonshire. He died in prison in 1630.
The revolt of Brown was attended with the dissolution of the church at
Middleburgh; but the seeds of Brownism which he had sown in England were
so far from being destroyed, that Sir Walter Raleigh, in a speech in 1592,
computes no less than twenty thousand of this sect.



James Arminius.


A native of Oude-water, in Holland, 1560, founder of the sect of the
Arminians. As he lost his father early, he was supported at the university
of Utrecht, and of Marpurg, by the liberality of his friends; but when he
returned home, in the midst of the ravages caused by the Spanish arms,
instead of being received by his mother, he found that she, as well as her
daughters, and all her family, had been sacrificed to the wantonness of
the ferocious enemy. His distress was for a while inconsolable; but the
thirst after distinction called him to the newly-founded university of
Leyden, where his industry acquired him the protection of the magistrates
of Amsterdam, at whose expense he travelled to Geneva and Italy, to hear
the lectures of Theodore Beza and James Zabarella. On his return to
Holland, he was ordained minister of Amsterdam, 1588. As professor of
divinity at Leyden, to which office he was called 1603, he distinguished
himself by three valuable orations on the object of theology, on the
author and end of it, and on the certainty of it; and he afterwards
explained the prophet Jonah. In his public and private life, Arminius has
been admired for his moderation; and though many gross insinuations have
been thrown against him, yet his memory has been fully vindicated by the
ablest pens, and he seemed entitled to the motto which he assumed,—_A good
conscience is a paradise._ A life of perpetual labor and vexation of mind
at last brought on a sickness of which he died, October 19, 1619. His
writings were all on controversial and theological subjects, and were
published in one volume, quarto, Frankfort, 1661.



Francis Higginson.


First minister of Salem, Massachusetts, after receiving his education at
Emanuel College, in Cambridge, became the minister of a church at
Leicester, in England. While his popular talents filled his church with
attentive hearers, such was the divine blessing upon his labors, that a
deep attention to religious subjects was excited among his people.
Becoming at length a conscientious Nonconformist to the rites of the
English church, some of which he thought not only were unsupported by
Scripture, but corrupted the purity of Christian worship and discipline,
he was excluded from the parish church, and became obnoxious to the High
Commission Court. One day two messengers came to his house, and with loud
knocks cried out, “Where is Mr. Higginson? We must speak with Mr.
Higginson!” His wife ran to his chamber, and entreated him to conceal
himself; but he replied, that he should acquiesce in the will of God. He
went down, and, as the messengers entered the hall, they presented him
with some papers, saying, in a rough manner, “Sir, we came from London,
and our business is to convey you to London, as you may see by those
papers.” “I thought so,” exclaimed Mrs. Higginson, weeping; but a woman’s
tears could have but little effect upon hard-hearted pursuivants. Mr.
Higginson opened the packet to read the form of his arrest, but, instead
of an order from Bishop Laud for his seizure, he found a copy of the
charter of Massachusetts, and letters from the governor and company,
inviting him to embark with them for New England. The sudden transition of
feeling from despondence to joy, may be better imagined than described.

Having sought advice and implored the divine direction, he resolved to
accept the invitation. In his farewell sermon, preached before a vast
assembly, he declared his persuasion, that England would be chastised by
war, and that Leicester would have more than an ordinary share of
sufferings. It was not long before his prediction was verified. It is not
meant that he claimed the power of foretelling future events, but he could
reason with considerable accuracy from cause to effect, knowing that
iniquity is generally followed by its punishment; and he lived in an age
when it was usual for ministers to speak with more confidence, and
authority, and efficacy, than at present. He sailed from Gravesend, April
25, 1629, accompanied by Mr. Skelton, whose principles accorded with his
own. When he came to the Land’s End, he called his children and the other
passengers on deck to take the last view of their native country; and he
now exclaimed, “Farewell, England! farewell, the church of God in England,
and all the Christian friends there! We do not go to America as
separatists from the church of England, though we cannot but separate from
its corruptions.” He then concluded with a fervent prayer for the king,
church, and state, in England. He arrived at Cape Ann, June 27, 1629, and,
having spent the next day there, which was Sunday, on the 29th he entered
the harbor of Salem. July the 20th was observed as a day of fasting by the
appointment of Governor Endicott, and the church then made choice of Mr.
Higginson to be their teacher, and Mr. Skelton their pastor.

Thus auspicious was the commencement of the settlement of Naumkeag, or
Salem; but the scene was soon changed. During the first winter, about one
hundred persons died, and Mr. Higginson was soon seized with a hectic,
which terminated his days in August, 1630, aged forty-two. In his last
sickness, he was reminded of his benevolent exertions in the service of
the Lord Jesus Christ. To consoling suggestions of this kind he replied,
“I have been an unprofitable servant, and all my desire is to win Christ,
and be found in him, not having my own righteousness.”



Richard Baxter.


A Nonconformist, born at Rowton, Shropshire, 12th November, 1615. He
compensated for the deficiencies of a neglected education by unusual
application, and was appointed master of Dudley free-school by the
interest of Mr. Richard Foley, of Stourbridge, and soon after admitted
into orders by the bishop of Winchester. His scruples were raised by the
oath which was proposed by the convention at that time sitting, and he was
among the number of those who showed their dislike to an unqualified
submission “to archbishops, bishops, et cetera,” as they knew not what the
_et cetera_ comprehended. In 1640, he was invited to be minister at
Kidderminster; but the civil war, which broke out soon after, exposed him
to persecution, as he espoused the cause of the parliament. He retired to
Coventry, and continued his ministerial labors till the success of the
republicans recalled him to his favorite flock at Kidderminster. The
usurpation of Cromwell gave him great offence, and he even presumed to
argue in private with the tyrant on the nature and illegality of his
power; but in the only sermon which he preached before him, he wisely
confined his subject to the dissensions which existed in the kingdom on
religious matters. He was in London after Cromwell’s death, and preached
before parliament the day before the king’s return was voted, and likewise
before the lord mayor for Monk’s successes. Charles II. made him one of
his chaplains, and Chancellor Clarendon offered him the bishopric of
Hereford, which he declined. He was, however, soon involved in the general
persecution of the Nonconformists. His paraphrase on the New Testament
drew upon him, in 1685, the vengeance of Jeffreys, and he was condemned to
be imprisoned for two years, from which punishment, six months after, he
was discharged by the interference of Lord Powis with King James. He died
December 8th, 1691, and was interred in Christ Church.



George Fox.


The founder of the society of Friends, or Quakers, was born, in 1624, at
Drayton, in Leicestershire, and was the son of a weaver, a pious and
virtuous man, who gave him a religious education. Being apprenticed to a
grazier, he was employed in keeping sheep—an occupation, the silence and
solitude of which were well calculated to nurse his naturally enthusiastic
feelings. When he was about nineteen, he believed himself to have received
a divine command to forsake all, renounce society, and dedicate his
existence to the service of religion. For five years, he accordingly led a
wandering life, fasting, praying, and living secluded; but it was not till
about 1648 that he began to preach his doctrines. Manchester was the place
where he first promulgated them. Thenceforth he pursued his career with
untirable zeal and activity, in spite of frequent imprisonment and brutal
usage. It was at Derby that his followers were first denominated
_Quakers_, either from their tremulous mode of speaking, or from their
calling on their hearers to “tremble at the name of the Lord.” The labors
of Fox were crowned with considerable success; and, in 1669, he extended
the sphere of them to America, where he spent two years. He also twice
visited the continent. He died in 1690. His writings were collected in
three volumes, folio. Whatever may be thought of the tenets of Fox there
can be no doubt that he was sincere in them, and that he was a man of
strict temperance, humility, moderation, and piety.



William Penn.


The founder of Pennsylvania, born in London, 1644, From a private school
at Chigwell, Essex, he entered, in 1660, as a gentleman commoner at Christ
Church, Oxford; but, as he withdrew from the national forms of worship
with other students, who, like himself, had listened to the preaching of
Thomas Loe, a Quaker of eminence, who was fined for Non-conformity, and,
the next year, as he pertinaciously adhered to his opinions, he was
expelled from the college. His father sent him to France, and, on his
return, he entered at Lincoln’s Inn, as a law student. In 1666, he was
sent to manage an estate in Ireland, and, during his residence there, he
renewed his acquaintance with Loe, and showed such partiality to the
Quakers, that he was, in those days of persecution, taken up at a meeting
at Cork, and imprisoned by the mayor, who at last restored him to liberty
at the request of Lord Orrery. His return to England produced a violent
altercation with his father, who wished him to abandon those singular
habits so offensive to decorum and established forms; and, when he refused
to appear uncovered before him and before the king, he a second time
dismissed him from his protection and favor. In 1668, he first appeared as
a preacher and as an author among the Quakers; and, in consequence of some
controversial dispute, he was sent to the Tower, where he remained in
confinement for seven months. The passing of the conventicle act soon
after again sent him to prison in Newgate, from which he was released by
the interest of his father, who about this time was reconciled to him, and
left him, on his decease some time after, a valuable estate of about
fifteen hundred pounds per annum. In 1672, he married Gulielma Maria
Springett, a lady of principles similar to his own, and then fixed his
residence at Rickmansworth, where he employed himself zealously in
promoting the cause of the Friends by his preaching, as well as by his
writings. In 1677, he went, with George Fox and Robert Barclay, to the
continent on a religious excursion; and, after visiting Amsterdam and the
other chief towns of Holland, they proceeded to the court of Princess
Elizabeth, the granddaughter of James I., at Herwerden or Herford, where
they were received with great kindness and hospitality. Soon after his
return to England, Charles II. granted him, in consideration of the
services of his father, and for a debt due to him from the crown, a
province of North America, then called New Netherlands, but now making the
state of Pennsylvania. In consequence of this acquisition, he invited,
under the royal patent, settlers from all parts of the kingdom, and drew
up, in twenty-four articles, the fundamental constitution of his new
province, in which he held out a greater degree of religious liberty than
had at that time appeared in the Christian world. A colony of people,
chiefly of his persuasion, soon flocked to share his fortunes; the lands
of the country were cleared and improved, and a town was built, which, on
the principle of brotherly love, received the name of _Philadelphia_. In
1682, Penn visited the province, and confirmed that good understanding
which he had recommended with the natives; and, after two years’
residence, and with the satisfaction of witnessing and promoting the
prosperity of the colonists, he returned to England. Soon after, Charles
died, and the acquaintance which Penn had with the new monarch was
honorably used to protect the people of his persuasion. At the revolution
however, he was suspected of treasonable correspondence with the exiled
prince, and therefore exposed to molestation and persecution. In 1694, he
lost his wife; but, though severely afflicted by the event, he in about
two years married again, and afterwards employed himself in travelling in
Ireland, and over England, in disseminating, as a preacher, the doctrines
of his sect. He visited, in 1699, his province with his wife and family,
and returned to England in 1701. The suspicion with which he had been
regarded under William’s government, ceased at the accession of Queen
Anne, and the unyielding advocate of Quakerism was permitted to live with
greater freedom, and to fear persecution less. In 1710, he removed to
Rushcomb, near Twyford, Berks, where he spent the rest of his life. Three
repeated attacks of an apoplexy at last came to weaken his faculties and
his constitution, and, after nearly losing all recollection of his former
friends and associates, he expired, 30th July, 1718, and was buried at
Jordan, near Beaconsfield, Bucks. The character of Penn is truly amiable,
benevolent, and humane; his labors were exerted for the good of mankind,
and, with the strictest consistency of moral conduct and religious
opinion, he endured persecution and malice with resignation; and, guided
by the approbation of a pure conscience, he showed himself indefatigable
in the fulfilling of what he considered as the law of God, and the clear
demonstration of the truth of the gospel. The long prosperity of
Pennsylvania, and of his favorite city, Philadelphia, furnishes the best
evidence of his wisdom as a legislator.



Benedict Spinoza.


An atheistical writer, son of a Portuguese Jew, born at Amsterdam, 1638.
He studied medicine and theology; but his religion was so loose, and his
inquiries for the reason of every thing which he was to believe, became so
offensive to the rabbies, that he was thrust out of the synagogue. In
consequence of this, he became a Christian, and was baptized; but his
conversion was insincere, and though, during his life, he did not openly
profess himself an atheist, his posthumous works plainly proved him such.
He died, of a consumption, at the Hague, February, 1677, aged forty-five.
He is the founder of a regular system of atheism, and by his hypothesis he
wished to establish that there is but one substance in nature, which is
endowed with infinite attributes, with extension and thought; that all
spirits are modifications of that substance; and that God, the necessary
and most perfect being, is the cause of all things that exist, but does
not differ from them. These monstrous doctrines, though not new, were thus
built into a regular system by this extraordinary man, who is said in
other respects to have been of a good moral character in private life,
benevolent, friendly, and charitable. His conduct was marked by no
licentiousness or irregularity; but he retired from the tumults of
Amsterdam to a more peaceful residence at the Hague, where curiosity led
princes, philosophers, and learned men, to see and to converse with this
bold assertor of atheism.



Ann Lee.


Born in the town of Manchester, in England, in 1736. Her father, John Lee,
though not in affluent circumstances, was an honest and industrious man.
Her mother was esteemed as a very pious woman. As was common with the
laboring classes of people in England at that period, their children,
instead of being sent to school, were brought up to work from early
childhood. By this means, Ann, though quite illiterate, acquired a habit
of industry, and was early distinguished for her activity, faithfulness,
neatness, and good economy in her temporal employments.

From early childhood she was the subject of religious impressions and
divine manifestations. These continued, in a greater or less degree, as
she advanced in years; so that, at times, she was strongly impressed with
a sense of the great depravity of human nature, and of the lost state of
mankind by reason of sin. But losing her mother at an early age, and
finding no person to assist her in the pursuit of a life of holiness, and
being urged by the solicitations of her relations and friends, she was
married to Abraham Stanley, by whom she had four children, who all died in
infancy. But the convictions of her youth often returned upon her with
great force, which at length brought her under excessive tribulation of
soul. In this situation, she sought earnestly for deliverance from the
bondage of sin.

While under these exercises of mind, she became acquainted with a society
of people associated under the ministration of James Wardly, who, with
Jane, his wife, had been greatly favored with divine manifestations
concerning the second appearing of Christ, which they foresaw was near at
hand. Ann readily embraced their testimony, and united herself to the
society in the month of September, 1758.

In this society, Ann found that strength and protection against the
powerful influences of evil, which, for the time being, were answerable to
her faith; and, by her faithful obedience, she by degrees attained to the
full knowledge and experience in spiritual things which they had found.
But as she still found in herself the remains of the propensities of
fallen nature, she could not rest satisfied short of full salvation; she
therefore sought earnestly, day and night, in the most fervent prayers and
cries to God, to find complete deliverance from a sinful nature, and to
know more perfectly the way of full redemption and final salvation.

After passing through many scenes of tribulation and suffering, she
received a full answer to her prayers and desires to God. She then came
forward, and, with extraordinary power and energy of spirit, testified
that she had received, through the Spirit of Christ, a full revelation of
the fallen nature of man, and of the only means of redemption, which were
comprised in his precepts and living example while on earth. The
astonishing power of God which accompanied her testimony of this
revelation to the society, was too awakening and convincing to leave a
doubt on the minds of the society of its divine authority. When,
therefore, Ann had thus manifested to the society the revelation of light
which she had received, she was received and acknowledged as their leader
and spiritual _Mother in Christ_. This was the only name of distinction by
which she was known in the society. The term _Elect Lady_ was given to her
by her enemies. Ann, with a number of her followers, visited America in
1774, and formed the first society of Shakers in this country, at
Watervliet, N. Y., where she died in 1784.



John Glass.


Scotch divine, born at Dundee, 1698, and educated at Aberdeen. Upon his
publication of a pamphlet on the inconsistency of a civil establishment
with Christianity, he was deposed from his church, near Dundee, and then
became the founder of a new sect, called the _Glassites_ in Scotland, and
_Sandemanians_ in England. As the discipline of his sect was very
rigorous, few embraced his tenets, and the name is scarce known now.



George Keith.


A Quaker, born at Aberdeen, and was well educated. He came, in 1682, to
East Jersey, where he was surveyor-general. In 1689, he taught a school in
Philadelphia. After various exertions, writing and travelling for the
propagation of the sentiments of his sect, he at first seceded, and at
length entirely deserted the society. In England, he became an
Episcopalian, and was consecrated as an Episcopal missionary, and in that
capacity officiated for a short time in New York and Boston. Returning to
England in 1706, he was a rector at Edburton, in Sussex, where he died.
His publications were numerous, but almost exclusively controversial.



Nicholas Louis, Count Zinzendorf.


The patron of the sect of the Moravians, was born at Dresden, in May,
1700. He studied at Halle and Utrecht. About the year 1721, he purchased
the lordship of Bertholdsdorf, in Lusatia. Some poor Christians, the
followers of John Huss, obtained leave, in 1722, to settle on his estate.
They soon made converts. Such was the origin of the village of Herrnhut.
Their noble patron soon after joined them.

From this period Count Zinzendorf devoted himself to the business of
instructing his fellow-men by his writings and by preaching. He travelled
through Germany, and in Denmark became acquainted with the Danish missions
in the East Indies and Greenland. About 1732, he engaged earnestly in the
promotion of missions by his Moravian brethren, whose numbers at Herrnhut
were then about five hundred. So successful were these missions, that in a
few years four thousand negroes were baptized in the West Indies, and the
converts in Greenland amounted to seven hundred and eighty-four.

In 1737, he visited London, and, in 1741, came to America, and preached at
Germantown and Bethlehem. February 11, 1742, he ordained at Oly, in
Pennsylvania, the missionaries Rauch and Buettner, and Rauch baptized
three Indians from Shekomeco, east of the Hudson, “the firstlings of the
Indians.” He soon, with his daughter, Benigna, and several brethren and
sisters, visited various tribes of Indians. At Shekomeco he established
the first Indian Moravian congregation in North America. In 1743, he
returned to Europe. He died at Herrnhut, in 1760, and his coffin was
carried to the grave by thirty-two preachers and missionaries, whom he had
reared, and some of whom had toiled in Holland, England, Ireland, North
America, and Greenland. What monarch was ever honored by a funeral like
this?



William Courtney.


Archbishop of Canterbury, the fourth son of Hugh Courtney, earl of
Devonshire, by Margaret, granddaughter of Edward I. He was educated at
Oxford, and, though possessed of abilities, owed his elevation in the
church to the consequence of his family. When twenty-eight, he was made
bishop of Hereford, and afterwards translated to London, where he summoned
before him the great Wickliffe, in St. Paul’s Cathedral, 1377. The bold
reformer was on this occasion attended by his friends John of Gaunt and
Lord Percy, who, in supporting his tenets, treated the prelate with such
asperity, that a tumult was excited among the citizens of London. Courtney
was made chancellor, 1381, and afterwards raised to the see of Canterbury.
He was a violent persecutor of the Wickliffites, and condemned their
tenets in a synod. He died at Maidstone, 1396, aged 55.



Richard Hooker.


An eminent divine of the church of England, was born in 1553, at
Heavitree, near Exeter, and, under the patronage of Bishop Jewel, was
educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he was distinguished for
his piety and exemplary conduct. An unhappy marriage, which he contracted
before he was thirty, with a scold who had neither beauty, money, nor
manners, lost him his college fellowship, and was a fertile source of
annoyance to him. In 1585, he was made master of the Temple; but, weary of
disputes with the afternoon lecturer,—a violent Presbyterian,—and longing
for rural retirement, he relinquished this preferment, and obtained the
rectory of Bishop’s Bourne, in Kent, at which he resided till his decease,
in 1600. His great work is the treatise on “Ecclesiastical Polity;” of
which Pope Clement VIII. said, “There are in it such seeds of eternity as
will continue till the last fire shall devour all learning.”



Charles Chauncey.


Second president of Harvard College, born in England, in 1589. He received
his grammar education at Westminster, and took the degree of M. D. at the
university of Cambridge. He emigrated to New England in 1638, and, after
serving for a number of years in the ministry at Scituate, was appointed,
in 1654, president of Harvard College. In this office he remained till his
death, in 1671, performing all its duties with industrious fidelity. He
was eminent as a physician, and was of opinion that there ought to be no
distinction between physic and divinity.



Roger Williams.


The founder of the Providence Plantations, born in Wales, in 1599, and was
educated at Oxford. Being a dissenter, he came to America, in the hope of
enjoying in freedom his religious opinions. He arrived at Hull, February
5, 1631, and was established at Salem, Massachusetts, as colleague with
Mr. Skelton. His peculiar notions soon subjected him to the severest
censure. He maintained that the magistrates were bound to grant toleration
to all sects of Christians, and in his actions and words avowed the
liberality of his principles. After the death of Mr. Skelton, he was sole
minister of Salem. Continuing to avow his opinions, which were considered
not only heretical, but seditious, he was summoned before the General
Court, to answer to numerous charges. He, however, refused to retract any
of his opinions, and was accordingly banished, 1635. He first repaired to
Seekonk: but, being informed that that territory was within the
jurisdiction of Plymouth, he proceeded to Mooshausic, where, with others,
in 1636, he began a plantation. The land was honestly purchased of the
Indians; and the town, in acknowledgment of the kindness of Heaven, was
called Providence. Mr. Williams’s benevolence was not confined to his
civilized brethren; he learned the language of the Indians, travelled
among them, won the entire confidence of their chiefs, and was often the
means of saving from injury the colony that had driven him from its
protection. In 1643, he was sent to England, as agent for both
settlements, and in September, 1644, returned with a patent for the
territory, with permission for the inhabitants to institute a government
for themselves. In 1651, he was again sent to England, in the capacity of
agent, and returned in 1654, when he was chosen president of the
government. Benedict Arnold succeeded him in 1657. He died in April, 1683,
aged eighty-four. Mr. Williams was consistent in his religious doctrines,
and set a bright example of that toleration which he demanded from others.
His mind was strong and well cultivated; and he read the Scriptures in the
originals. After his banishment from Massachusetts, he maintained a
correspondence with some of its principal men, and ever entertained for
them the highest affection and respect. In his writings, he evinces his
power at argument. In 1672, he held a public dispute with the most eminent
Quaker preachers, of which he has published an account. He also published
a “Key to the Indian Language,” octavo, 1643; an answer to Mr. Cotton’s
letters, concerning the power of the magistrate in matters of religion,
with other letters and discourses.



John Clarke.


A distinguished Baptist minister, and one of the first founders of Rhode
Island, was a physician in London, before he came to this country. Soon
after the first settlement of Massachusetts, he was driven from that
colony with a number of others; and March 7, 1638, they formed themselves
into a body politic, and purchased Aquetneck of the Indian sachems,
calling it the Isle of Rhodes, or Rhode Island. The settlement commenced
at Pocasset, or Portsmouth. The Indian deed is dated March 24, 1638. Mr.
Clarke was soon employed as a preacher; and, in 1644, he formed a church
at Newport, and became its pastor. This was the second Baptist church
which was established in America.

In 1649, he was an assistant and treasurer of Rhode Island colony. In
1651, he went to visit one of his brethren at Lynn, near Boston, and he
preached on Sunday, July 20; but, before he had completed the services of
the forenoon, he was seized, with his friends, by an officer of the
government. In the afternoon, he was compelled to attend the parish
meeting, at the close of which he spoke a few words. He was tried before
the Court of Assistants, and fined twenty pounds; in case of failure in
the payment of which sum he was to be whipped. In passing the sentence,
Judge Endicott observed, “You secretly insinuate things into those who are
weak, which you cannot maintain before our ministers; you may try and
dispute with them.” Mr. Clarke accordingly wrote from prison, proposing a
dispute upon the principles which he professed. He represented his
principles to be, that Jesus Christ had the sole right of prescribing any
laws respecting the worship of God which it was necessary to obey; that
baptism, or dipping in water, was an ordinance to be administered only to
those who gave some evidence of repentance towards God and faith in Jesus
Christ; that such visible believers only constituted the church; that each
of them had a right to speak in the congregation, according as the Lord
had given him talents, either to make inquiries for his own instruction,
or to prophesy for the edification of others, and that at all times and in
all places they ought to reprove folly and open their lips to justify
wisdom; and that no servant of Jesus Christ had any authority to restrain
any fellow-servant in his worship, where injury was not offered to others.
No dispute, however, occurred, and Mr. Clarke, his friends paying his fine
without his consent, was soon released from prison, and directed to leave
the colony. His companion Obadiah Holmes shared a severer fate; for, on
declining to pay his fine of thirty pounds, which his friends offered to
do for him, he was publicly whipped in Boston.

Mr. Clarke died at Newport, April 20, 1676, aged about 66 years, resigning
his soul to his merciful Redeemer, through faith in whose name he enjoyed
the hope of a resurrection to eternal life.

His life was so pure, that he was never accused of any vice, to leave a
blot on his memory. His noble sentiments respecting religious toleration
did not, indeed, accord with the sentiments of the age in which he lived,
and exposed him to trouble; but at the present time they are almost
universally embraced. His exertions to promote the civil prosperity of
Rhode Island must endear his name to those who are now enjoying the fruits
of his labors. He possessed the singular honor of contributing much
towards establishing the first government upon the earth, which gave equal
liberty, civil and religious, to all men living under it.



Ann Hutchinson.


A woman who occasioned much difficulty in New England, soon after its
first settlement, came from Lincolnshire to Boston, 1635, and was the wife
of one of the representatives of Boston. The members of Mr. Cotton’s
church used to meet every week to repeat his sermons, and discourse on
doctrines. She set up meetings for women, and soon had a numerous
audience. After repeating the sermons of Mr. Cotton, she added reflections
of her own; she advocated her own sentiments, and warped the discourses of
her minister to coincide with them. She soon threw the whole colony into a
flame. The progress of her sentiments occasioned the synod of 1637, the
first synod in America. This convention of ministers condemned eighty-two
erroneous opinions, then propagated in the country. Mrs. Hutchinson, after
this sentence of her opinions, was herself called before the court in
November of the same year, and, being convicted of traducing the
ministers, and advancing errors, was banished the colony. She went with
her husband to Rhode Island. In the year 1642, after her husband’s death,
she removed into the Dutch country beyond New Haven; and the next year,
she, her son Francis, and most of her family of sixteen persons, were
killed by the Indians.



Michael Molinos.


Founder of the ancient sect of Quietists, was a Spaniard, of a rich and
honorable family. He entered into priest’s orders young, but would accept
no preferment in the church. He possessed great talents, and was ardently
pious, without any of the austerities of the Romish religious orders. He
went to Rome, where, in 1675, he published his “Spiritual Guide,” which
gave him universal reputation. The Jesuits and Dominicans, envious at his
success, charged him with heresy, and at last succeeded in getting him
condemned by the Inquisition. He died of torment in their dungeons, a few
years after.



John Wesley.


The great founder of Methodism was born at Epworth, in England, in 1703.
In 1714, he was placed at the Charter House; and two years after he was
elected to Christ Church, Oxford. In 1725, he was ordained deacon, and the
next year became fellow and tutor of Lincoln College.

Wesley’s character, says his biographer, is itself a study. He equalled
Luther in energy and courage, and Melancthon in learning and prudence. All
the excellences of both the Wittemberg reformers were combined, if not
transcended, in his individual character.

He possessed, in an eminent degree, the power of comprehending at once the
general outlines and the details of plans, the aggregate and the
integrants. It is this power which forms the philosophical genius in
science; it is indispensable to the successful commander and the great
statesman. It is illustrated in the whole economical system of Methodism—a
system which, while it fixes itself to the smallest localities with the
utmost detail and tenacity, is sufficiently general in its provisions to
reach the ends of the world, and still maintain its unity of spirit and
discipline.

No man knew better than Wesley the importance of small things. His whole
financial system was based on weekly penny collections. It was a rule of
his preachers never to omit a single preaching appointment, except when
the “risk of limb or life” required. He was the first to apply extensively
the plan of tract distribution. He wrote, printed, and scattered over the
kingdom, placards on almost every topic of morals and religion. In
addition to the usual means of grace, he introduced the band meeting, the
class meeting, the prayer meeting, the love feast, and the watch night.
Not content with his itinerant laborers, he called into use the less
available powers of his people by establishing the new departments of
local preachers, exhorters, and leaders. It was, in fine, by gathering
together fragments, by combining minutiæ, that he formed that stupendous
system of spiritual means which is rapidly evangelizing the world.

It was not only in the theoretical construction of plans that he excelled;
he was, if possible, still more distinguished by practical energy. The
variety and number of his labors would be absolutely incredible with less
authentic evidence than that which corroborates them. He was perpetually
travelling and preaching, studying and writing, translating and abridging,
superintending his societies, and applying his great plans. He travelled
usually _five thousand_ miles a year, preaching twice and thrice a day,
commencing at five o’clock in the morning. In the midst of all this
travelling and preaching, he carried with him the meditative and studious
habits of the philosopher. No department of human inquiry was omitted by
him. “History, poetry, and philosophy,” said he, “I read on horseback.”

Like Luther, he knew the importance of the press; he kept it teeming with
his publications. His itinerant preachers were good agents for their
circulation. “Carry them with you through every round,” he would say;
“exert yourselves in this; be not ashamed, be not weary, leave no stone
unturned.” His works, including abridgments and translations, amounted to
about two hundred volumes. These comprise treatises on almost every
subject of divinity, poetry, music, history,—natural, moral, metaphysical,
and political philosophy. He wrote, as he preached, _ad populum_; and his
works have given to his people, especially in Great Britain, an elevated
tone of intelligence as well as of piety. He may, indeed, be considered
the leader in those exertions which are now being made for the popular
diffusion of knowledge.

Differing from the usual character of men who are given to various
exertions and many plans, he was accurate and profound. He was an adept in
classical literature and the use of the classical tongues; his writings
are adorned with their finest passages. He was familiar with a number of
modern languages; his own style is one of the best examples of strength
and perspicuity among English writers. He was ready on every subject of
learning and general literature. As a logician, he was considered by his
enemies, as well as his friends, to be unrivalled.

He was but little addicted to those exhilarations and contrarieties of
frame which characterize imaginative minds. His temperament was warm, but
not fiery. His intellect never appears inflamed, but was a glowing, serene
radiance. His immense labors were accomplished, not by the impulses of
restless enthusiasm, but by the cool calculations of his plans, and the
steady self-possession with which he pursued them. “Though always in
haste,” he said, “I am never in a hurry.” He was as economical with his
time as a miser could be with his gold; rising at four o’clock in the
morning, and allotting to every hour its appropriate work. “Leisure and I
have taken leave of each other,” said he. And yet such was the happy
arrangement of his employments, that, amidst a multiplicity that would
distract an ordinary man, he declares that “there are few persons who
spend so many hours secluded from all company as myself.” “The wonder of
his character,” said Robert Hall, “is the self-control by which he
preserved himself calm, while he kept all in excitement around him. He was
the last man to be infected by fanaticism. His writings abound in
statements of preternatural circumstances; but it must be remembered that
his faults in these respects were those of his age, while his virtues were
peculiarly his own.”

Though of a feeble constitution, the regularity of his habits, sustained
through a life of great exertions and vicissitudes, produced a vigor and
equanimity which are seldom the accompaniments of a laborious mind or of a
distracted life. “I do not remember,” he says, “to have felt lowness of
spirits one quarter of an hour since I was born.” “Ten thousand cares are
no more weight to my mind than ten thousand hairs are to my head.” “I have
never lost a night’s sleep in my life.” “His face was remarkably fine, his
complexion fresh to the last week of his life, and his eye quick, keen,
and active.” He ceased not his labors till death. After the eightieth year
of his age, he visited Holland twice. At the end of his eighty-second, he
says, “I am never tired (such is the goodness of God) either with writing,
preaching, or travelling.” He preached under trees which he had planted
himself, at Kingswood. He outlived most of his first disciples and
preachers, and stood up, mighty in intellect and labors, among the second
and third generations of his people. In his later years persecution had
subsided; he was every where received as a patriarch, and sometimes
excited, by his arrival in towns and cities, an interest “such as the
presence of the king himself would produce.” He attracted the largest
assemblies, perhaps, which were ever congregated for religious
instruction, being estimated sometimes at more than _thirty thousand_!
Great intellectually, morally, and physically, he at length died, in the
eighty-eighth year of his age and sixty-fifth of his ministry,
unquestionably one of the most extraordinary men of any age.

Nearly one hundred and forty thousand members, upward of five hundred
itinerant, and more than one thousand local preachers, were connected with
him when he died.



George Whitefield.


One of the founders of the sect of the Methodists, born at Gloucester,
where his mother kept the Bell inn, 1714. From the Crypt school of his
native town, he entered as servitor at Pembroke College, Oxford, and was
ordained at the proper age by Benson, bishop of Gloucester. Enthusiasm and
the love of singularity now influenced his conduct, and in his eagerness
to obtain popularity, he preached not only in prisons, but in the open
fields, and by a strong persuasive eloquence, multitudes regarded him as a
man of superior sanctity. In 1738, he went to America, to increase the
number of his converts; but, after laboring for some time as the friend
and the associate of the Wesleys, he at last was engaged with them in a
serious dispute, which produced a separation. While he zealously asserted
the doctrine of absolute election and final perseverance, agreeably to the
notions of Calvin, his opponents regarded his opinion as unsupported by
Scripture, and therefore inadmissible; and in consequence of this arose
the two sects of the Calvinistic and the Arminian Methodists. Secure in
the good opinion of a great number of adherents, and in the patronage of
Lady Huntingdon, to whom he was chaplain, he continued his labors, and
built two Tabernacles in the city and in Tottenham Court Road for the
commodious reception of his followers. He died at Newburyport,
Massachusetts, while on a visit to his churches in America, and had the
satisfaction to know that his adherents were numerous on both continents.

At Newburyport, the Hon. WILLIAM BARTLETT has erected an elegant marble
monument, on which is the following inscription:—


    “This Cenotaph is erected, with affectionate veneration, to the
    memory of the Rev. GEORGE WHITEFIELD, born at Gloucester, England,
    December 16, 1714; educated at Oxford University; ordained 1736.
    In a ministry of thirty-four years, he crossed the Atlantic
    thirteen times, and preached more than eighteen thousand sermons.
    As a soldier of the cross, humble, devoted, ardent, he put on the
    whole armor of God; preferring the honor of Christ to his own
    interest, repose, reputation, and life. As a Christian orator, his
    deep piety, disinterested zeal, and vivid imagination, gave
    unexampled energy to his look, utterance, and action. Bold,
    fervent, pungent, and popular in his eloquence, no other
    uninspired man ever preached to so large assemblies, or enforced
    the simple truths of the gospel by motives so persuasive and
    awful, and with an influence so powerful on the hearts of his
    hearers. He died of asthma, September 30, 1770, suddenly
    exchanging his life of unparalleled labors for his eternal rest.”


During Mr. Whitefield’s visit to Philadelphia, he preached often in the
evening from the gallery of the court-house in Market Street. So loud was
his voice at that time, that it was distinctly heard on the Jersey shore,
and so distinct was his speech, that every word he said was understood at
Market Street wharf, a distance of upwards of four hundred feet from the
court-house. All the intermediate space was crowded with his hearers. Mr.
Whitefield was truly remarkable for his uncommon eloquence and fervent
zeal. His eloquence was indeed very great, and of the truest kind. He was
utterly devoid of all affectation; the importance of his subject, and the
regard due to his hearers, engrossed all his concern. Every accent of his
voice spoke to the ear, every feature of his face, every motion of his
hands, and every gesture, spoke to the eye; so that the most dissipated
and thoughtless found their attention arrested, and the dullest and most
ignorant could not but understand. He appeared to be devoid of the spirit
of sectarianism; his only object seemed to be to “preach Christ and him
crucified.”

The following anecdote respecting his manner of preaching will serve to
illustrate this part of his character. One day, while preaching from the
balcony of the court-house, in Philadelphia, he cried out, “Father
Abraham, who have you got in heaven; any _Episcopalians_?” “No!” “Any
_Presbyterians_?” “No!” “Any _Baptists_?” “No!” “Have you any _Methodists_
there?” “No!” “Have you any _Independents_ or _Seceders_?” “No! No!” “Why,
who have you, then?” “We don’t know those names here; all that are here
are _Christians_—believers in Christ—men who have overcome by the blood of
the Lamb, and the word of his testimony!” “O, is this the case? then God
help me—God help us all—to forget party names, and to become Christians in
deed and in truth.”



Selina Huntingdon.


Countess, second daughter of Washington, earl Ferrers, born 1707, and
married Lord Huntingdon, by whom she had four sons and three daughters.
From habits of gayety and scenes of dissipation, she became all at once,
after a serious illness, grave, reserved, and melancholy. Her thoughts
were wholly absorbed by religion, and she employed the ample resources
which she possessed in disseminating her principles by the popular arts of
Whitefield, Romaine, and others. Not only her house in Park Street was
thrown open for the frequent assembling of these pious reformers, but
chapels were built in various parts of the kingdom, and a college erected
in Wales for the education of young persons in the future labors of the
ministry. After many acts of extensive charity, and with the best
intentions, this enthusiastic lady died in 1791.



Robert Sandeman.


The founder of the sect called _Sandemanians_, born at Perth, in Scotland,
about the year 1718, and was educated at St. Andrews. Instead of entering
into the church, for which he was intended, he became a linen
manufacturer, and afterwards turned preacher. He came to America in
October, 1764, and from Boston he went to Danbury, Connecticut. In that
town he gathered a church the following year. He afterwards established
several societies in New England. Individuals are still found who adhere
to his peculiarities, and are known by the name of his sect. He wrote an
answer to Hervey’s “Theron and Aspasio,” said to be a work of talent, but
exhibiting great asperity.

The following is copied from the monument of Mr. Sandeman, in the
burying-ground at Danbury:—


    “Here lies, until the resurrection, the body of ROBERT SANDEMAN, a
    native of Perth, North Britain, who, in the face of continual
    opposition from all sorts of men, long boldly contended for the
    ancient faith, that the bare word of Jesus Christ, without a deed
    or thought on the part of man, is sufficient to present the chief
    of sinners spotless before God. To declare this blessed truth, as
    testified in the holy Scriptures, he left his country, he left his
    friends, and, after much patient suffering, finished his labors at
    Danbury, April 2, 1771, Æ. 53 years.

    Deigned Christ to come so nigh to us,
      As not to count it shame
    To call us brethren, should we blush
      At aught that bears his name?
    Nay, let us boast in his reproach,
      And glory in his cross;
    When he appears, one smile from him
      Would far o’erpay our loss.”



Samuel Hopkins.


An American divine, who, in his sermons and tracts, has made several
additions to the sentiments first advanced by the celebrated Jonathan
Edwards, late president of New Jersey College. Dr. Hopkins was born at
Waterbury, in Connecticut, 1721, and graduated at Yale College, in 1741.
Soon after, he engaged in theological studies, at Northampton,
Massachusetts, under the superintendence of Jonathan Edwards, and, in
1743, was ordained at Housatonic, now Great Barrington, Massachusetts,
where he continued till he removed to Newport, Rhode Island, in
consequence of the diminution of his congregation, and his want of
support. When he had resided some time in this place, the people became
dissatisfied with his sentiments, and resolved, at a meeting, to intimate
to him their disinclination to his continuance among them. On the ensuing
Sabbath, he preached his farewell discourse, which was so interesting and
impressive that they besought him to remain, which he did till his death,
in 1803. He was a pious and zealous man, of considerable talents, and
almost incredible powers of application. He is said to have been sometimes
engaged during eighteen hours in his studies. His doctrinal views are
contained in his “System of Divinity,” published in a second edition at
Boston, in 1811, in two volumes, octavo.



Jonathan Mayhew.


A divine of Boston, was born in Martha’s Vineyard, in 1720 and educated at
Harvard College. In 1747, he was ordained pastor of the West Church, in
Boston, and continued in this station the remainder of his life. He
possessed a mind of great acuteness and energy, and in his principles was
a determined republican. He had no little influence in producing the
American revolution. His sermons and controversial tracts obtained for him
a high reputation; and many of them were republished several times in
England. He died in 1766.



Samuel Seabury.


First bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States, was
born in 1728, and graduated at Yale College in 1751. After finishing his
classical education, he went to Scotland with the view of studying
medicine; but soon, having turned his attention to theology, he altered
his purpose and took orders in London, 1753. Returning to America, he
officiated, first at Brunswick, New Jersey, then at Jamaica, Long Island,
next at West Chester, New York, and lastly at New London, Connecticut,
where he remained, as rector of the parish in that city, during the
remainder of his life. As much as he was esteemed by his parishioners, his
influence was extended among his brethren throughout the state.
Consequently, when the Episcopal church was organized in that diocese, he
was elected bishop. He went immediately to England, in order to obtain
consecration; but, meeting with some unexpected obstacles, he repaired to
Scotland. Here he was able to accomplish the object of his mission. He was
consecrated at Aberdeen, November 14, 1784. As soon as he was able to
reach home, he resumed his duties as parish minister at New London, in
connection with his episcopal functions for the diocese. Bishop Seabury
had a vigorous and well-cultivated mind, and acquired a reputation
corresponding with his high station. Three volumes of his sermons have
been published.

The following is the inscription on Bishop Seabury’s monument at New
London, Connecticut:—


    “Here lyeth the body of SAMUEL SEABURY, D. D., Bishop of
    Connecticut and Rhode Island, who departed from this transitory
    scene February 25th, Anno Domini 1796, in the 68th year of his
    age, and the 12th of his episcopal consecration.

    “Ingenious without pride, learned without pedantry, good without
    severity, he was duly qualified to discharge the duties of the
    Christian and the Bishop. In the pulpit he enforced religion; in
    his conduct he exemplified it. The poor he assisted with his
    charity; the ignorant he blessed with his instruction. The friend
    of men, he ever designed their good; the enemy of vice, he ever
    opposed it. Christian, dost thou aspire to happiness? Seabury has
    shown the way that leads to it.”



Richard Clarke.


A clergyman of the Episcopal church, who maintained for many years a high
reputation in South Carolina. He was a native of England, and soon after
his arrival in Charleston was appointed rector of St. Philip’s Church in
that city. Here he was greatly admired as a popular preacher, and highly
respected as an exemplary, amiable, benevolent, and liberal man. He
returned to England in 1759, and was soon afterwards appointed a stated
preacher in one of the principal churches in London. In this station, his
eloquence and piety attracted a large share of public attention. His
publications, chiefly on theological subjects, were numerous, amounting to
six or seven octavo volumes. He lived to a late period in the eighteenth
century, universally beloved and respected.



Joseph Priestly.


An English philosopher and dissenting divine, born at Fieldheald,
Yorkshire, 1733. He was educated at Daventry, under Dr. Ashworth, for the
ministry among the dissenters, and at the proper age he took care of a
congregation at Needham Market, Suffolk, and afterwards at Nantwich,
Cheshire. He became, in 1761, professor of belles lettres in the
Warrington Academy, and after seven years’ residence there he removed to
Leeds, and two years after accepted the office of librarian and
philosophical companion to the earl of Shelburne. In this retreat, the
philosopher devoted himself laboriously to metaphysical and theological
studies, and published various works; and when, at last, he separated from
his noble patron, he retired with an annual pension of one hundred and
fifty pounds, to settle at Birmingham, as pastor to a Unitarian
congregation, in 1780. While here usefully employed in advancing the cause
of philosophy, and too often engaged in theological disputes, he became
the victim of popular fury; and the conduct of some of his neighbors in
celebrating the anniversary of the French revolution, in 1791, with more
intemperance than became Englishmen and loyal subjects, excited a dreadful
riot. Not only the meeting-houses were destroyed on this melancholy
occasion, but, among others, Dr. Priestley’s house, library, manuscripts,
and philosophical apparatus, were totally consumed; and, though he
recovered a compensation by suing the county, he quitted this scene of
prejudice and unpopularity. After residing some time at London and
Hackney, where he preached to the congregation over which his friend Price
once presided, he determined to quit his native country, and seek a more
peaceful retreat in America, where some of his family were already
settled. He left England in 1794, and fixed his residence at
Northumberland, in Pennsylvania, where he died in 1804. His writings were
very numerous, and he long attracted the public notice, not only by
discoveries in philosophy, but by the boldness of his theological
opinions. Had he confined his studies merely to philosophical pursuits,
his name would have descended to posterity with greater lustre; but he who
attempts innovations in government and religion, for singularity, and to
excite popular prejudices, must be little entitled to the applauses of the
world.



James Purves.


A learned Arian preacher, born at a little village of Berwickshire, in
1734. His father was only a keeper of cattle, and intended James for the
same profession. He, meanwhile, having obtained the loan of some books on
mathematics, made himself master of geometry and trigonometry, and
afterwards taught these sciences, with other branches of mathematics, and
assisted some public authors in compiling mathematical works, which have
been well received. He joined a party of the ancient Cameronians, and in
1769, at one of their general meetings, was called to be a pastor among
them. To qualify himself for this office, he studied the Greek and Hebrew
languages, and compiled a Hebrew grammar, which is still in manuscript.
These acquisitions led him into the study of the Arian controversy, when
finally he adopted the opinions of Arius, and afterwards became preacher
to a small Arian congregation in Edinburgh, where he also kept a school
and a book-shop, for many years before he died.



John Jebb.


Bishop of Limerick, born September 27, 1775, and died December 9, 1833,
aged 58. He was educated at the university of Dublin, where he gained a
high reputation as a scholar. He was greatly esteemed as a man of a most
amiable and gentle spirit; had the reputation of an accomplished orator
and a learned and able theologian; and as a clergyman and a bishop he was
truly exemplary. His original publications are not numerous, but are of
high merit.



John Gaspar Christian Lavater.


A celebrated writer, born at Zurich, 1741. He was pastor of the church of
St Peter’s at Zurich, and as a minister he acquired great reputation both
by his eloquent discourses and his exemplary life. He was wounded by a
French soldier when Zurich was taken by storm under Massena in 1799, and
died there in consequence of it, 12th January, 1801. He acquired deserved
celebrity as a physiognomist, and his writings on the subject, possessing
great merit, ingenious remarks, and truly original ideas, have been
translated into all the languages of Europe. His Christian piety was of
the highest order.



John Tillotson.


An eminent prelate, was born in 1630, at Sowerby, in Yorkshire, and was
educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge. In 1691, after fruitless attempts to
avoid the honor, he accepted, with unfeigned reluctance, the see of
Canterbury, which was become vacant by the deprivation of Sancroft. This
promotion, however, he did not long survive, as his decease took place in
1694.

In his domestic relations, friendships, and the whole commerce of
business, he was easy and humble, frank and open, tender-hearted and
bountiful, to such an extent, that, while he was in a private station, he
laid aside two tenths of his income for charitable uses. He despised
wealth but as it furnished him for charity, in which he was judicious as
well as liberal. His affability and candor, as well as abilities in his
profession, made him frequently consulted in points relating both to
practice and opinion. His love for the real philosophy of nature, and his
conviction that the study of it is the most solid support of religion,
induced him, not many years after the establishment of the Royal Society,
to desire to be admitted into that assembly of the greatest men of the
age; into which he was accordingly elected on the 25th of January, 1672.
His kindness towards the dissenters was attended with the consequence
intended by him, of reconciling many of them to the communion of the
established church, and almost all of them to a greater esteem of it than
they had before entertained.

He died poor, the copy-right of his Posthumous Sermons (which, however,
sold for two thousand five hundred guineas) being all that his family
inherited. His works form three folio volumes.



Isaac Newton.


A most celebrated English philosopher and mathematician, and one of the
greatest geniuses that ever appeared in the world, descended from an
ancient family in Lincolnshire, where he was born in the year 1642. His
powers of mind were wonderfully comprehensive and penetrating. Fontenelle
says of him, “that in learning mathematics, he did not study Euclid, who
seemed to him too plain and simple, and unworthy of taking up his time. He
understood him almost before he read him: a cast of his eye on the
contents of the theorems of that great mathematician, seemed to be
sufficient to make him master of them.” Several of his works mark a
profundity of thought and reflection that has astonished the most learned
men. He was highly esteemed by the university of Cambridge, and was twice
chosen to represent that place in parliament. He was also greatly favored
by Queen Anne, and by George I. The princess of Wales, afterwards queen
consort of England, who had a turn for philosophical inquiries, used
frequently to propose questions to him. This princess had a great regard
for him, and often declared that she thought herself happy to live at the
same time as he did, and to have the pleasure and advantage of his
conversation.

This eminent philosopher was remarkable for being of a very meek
disposition and a great lover of peace. He would rather have chosen to
remain in obscurity, than to have the serenity of his days disturbed by
those storms and disputes, which genius and learning often draw upon those
who are eminent for them. We find him reflecting on the controversy
respecting his optic lectures (in which he had been almost unavoidably
engaged) in the following terms:—“I blamed my own imprudence, for parting
with so real a blessing as my quiet, to run after a shadow.”

The amiable quality of modesty stands very conspicuous in the character of
this great man’s mind and manners. He never spoke, either of himself or
others, in such a manner as to give the most malicious censurers the least
occasion even to suspect him of vanity. He was candid and affable; and he
did not assume any airs of superiority over those with whom he associated.
He never thought either his merit or his reputation sufficient to excuse
him from any of the common offices of social life. Though he was firmly
attached to the church of England, he was averse to the persecution of the
Nonconformists. He judged of men by their conduct; and the true
schismatics, in his opinion, were the vicious and the wicked. This
liberality of sentiment did not spring from the want of religion; for he
was thoroughly persuaded of the truth of revelation; and amidst the great
variety of books which he had constantly before him, that which he loved
the best, and studied with the greatest application, was the Bible. He
was, indeed, a truly pious man; and his discoveries concerning the frame
and system of the universe, were applied by him to demonstrate the being
of a God, and to illustrate his power and wisdom. He also wrote an
excellent discourse, to prove that the remarkable prophecy of Daniel’s
weeks was an express prediction of the coming of the Messiah, and that it
was fulfilled in Jesus Christ.

The testimony of the pious and learned Dr. Doddridge to the most
interesting part of this great man’s character, cannot be omitted on the
present occasion. “According to the best information,” says he, “whether
public or private, I could ever obtain, his firm faith in the divine
revelation discovered itself in the most genuine fruits of substantial
virtue and piety, and consequently gives us the justest reason to conclude
that he is now rejoicing in the happy effects of it, infinitely more than
in all the applause which his philosophical works have procured him,
though they have commanded a fame lasting as the world.”

He departed this life in the eighty-fifth year of his age, and, in his
principles and conduct through life, has left a strong and comfortable
evidence that the highest intellectual powers harmonize with religion and
virtue, and that there is nothing in Christianity but what will abide the
scrutiny of the soundest and most enlarged understanding.

How great and satisfactory a confirmation is it to the sincere, humble
Christian, and what an insurmountable barrier does it present to the
infidel, to perceive, in the list of Christian believers, the exalted and
venerable name of Newton! a man who must be acknowledged to be an ornament
of human nature, when we consider the wide compass of his abilities, the
great extent of his learning and knowledge, and the piety, integrity, and
beneficence, of his life. This eminent character firmly adhered to the
belief of Christianity, after the most diligent and exact researches into
the life of its Founder, the authenticity of its records, the completion
of its prophecies, the sublimity of its doctrines, the purity of its
precepts, and the arguments of its adversaries.



Charles V.


Emperor of Germany, king of Spain, and lord of the Netherlands, born at
Ghent, in the year 1500.

He is said to have fought sixty battles, in most of which he was
victorious, to have obtained six triumphs, conquered four kingdoms, and to
have added eight principalities to his dominions—an almost unparalleled
instance of worldly prosperity and the greatness of human glory.

But all these fruits of his ambition, and all the honors which attended
him, could not yield true and solid satisfaction. Reflecting on the evils
and miseries which he had occasioned, and convinced of the emptiness of
earthly magnificence, he became disgusted with the splendor that
surrounded him, and thought it his duty to withdraw from it, and spend the
rest of his days in religious retirement. Accordingly, he voluntarily
resigned all his dominions to his brother and son; and, after taking an
affectionate and last farewell of the latter, and a numerous retinue of
princes and nobility who respectfully attended him, he repaired to his
chosen retreat, which was situated in Spain, in a vale of no great extent,
watered by a small brook, and surrounded with rising grounds covered with
lofty trees.

A deep sense of his frail condition and great imperfections appears to
have impressed his mind in this extraordinary resolution, and through the
remainder of his life. As soon as he landed in Spain, he fell prostrate on
the ground, and considering himself now as dead to the world, he kissed
the earth, and said, “Naked came I out of my mother’s womb, and naked I
now return to thee, thou common mother of mankind!”

In this humble retreat, he spent his time in religious exercises and
innocent employments, and buried here, in solitude and silence, his
grandeur and his ambition, together with all those vast projects, which,
for near half a century, had alarmed and agitated Europe, and filled every
kingdom in it, by turns, with the terror of his arms, and the dread of
being subjected to his power. Far from taking any part in the political
transactions of the world, he restrained his curiosity even from any
inquiry concerning them, and seemed to view the busy scene he had
abandoned with an elevation and indifference of mind which arose from his
thorough experience of its vanity, as well as from the pleasing reflection
of having disengaged himself from its cares and temptations.

Here he enjoyed more complete contentment than all his grandeur had ever
yielded him; as a full proof of which he has left this short but
comprehensive testimony:—“I have tasted more satisfaction in my solitude,
in one day, than in all the triumphs of my former reign. The sincere
study, profession, and practice, of the Christian religion have in them
such joys and sweetness as are seldom found in courts and grandeur.”



Francis Bacon.


Baron of Verulam, viscount St. Albans, and lord high chancellor of
England, born in the year 1561. He was one of the most remarkable men of
whom any age or country can boast; and his writings furnish incontestable
proofs that his knowledge, wisdom, and benevolence, were very
extraordinary. Lord Bacon died in 1626.

That this illustrious character was deeply influenced by a truly humble
and religious spirit, is manifest from the following prayer, which was
found amongst his papers, in his own hand-writing:—


    “Most gracious Lord God, my merciful Father; my creator, my
    Redeemer, my Comforter! thou soundest and searchest the depths and
    secrets of all hearts; thou acknowledgest the upright; thou
    judgest the hypocrite; vanity and crooked ways cannot be hid from
    thee.

    “Remember, O Lord, how thy servant has walked before thee;
    remember what I have first sought, and what has been principal in
    my intentions. I have loved thy assemblies; I have mourned for the
    divisions of thy church; I have delighted in the brightness of thy
    sanctuary; I have ever prayed unto thee, that the vine which thy
    right hand hath planted in this nation, might have the former and
    the latter rain, and that it might stretch its branches to the
    seas and to the floods. The state and bread of the poor and
    oppressed have been precious in my eyes; I have hated all cruelty
    and hardness of heart; I have, though a despised weed, endeavored
    to procure the good of all men. If any have been my enemies, I
    thought not of them, neither has the sun gone down upon my
    displeasure; but I have been as a dove, free from superfluity of
    maliciousness. Thy creatures have been my books, but thy
    Scriptures much more so. I have sought thee in the courts, the
    fields, and the gardens; but I have found thee in thy temples.

    “O Lord, my strength! I have, from my youth, met with thee in all
    my ways; in thy fatherly compassions, in thy merciful
    chastisements, and in thy most visible providences. As thy favors
    have increased upon me, so have thy corrections; as my worldly
    blessings were exalted, so secret darts from thee have pierced me;
    and when I have ascended before men, I have descended in
    humiliation before thee. And now, when I have been thinking most
    of peace and honor, thy hand is heavy upon me, and has humbled me
    according to thy former loving-kindness, keeping me still in thy
    fatherly school, not as a bastard, but as a child. Just are thy
    judgments upon me for my sins, which are more in number than the
    sands of the sea, but which have no proportion to thy mercies.
    Besides my innumerable sins, I confess before thee, that I am a
    debtor to thee for the gracious talent of thy gifts and graces;
    which I have neither put into a napkin nor placed, as I ought,
    with exchangers, where it might have made best profit; but I have
    misspent it in things for which I was least fit: so I may truly
    say, my soul hath been a stranger in the course of my pilgrimage.
    Be merciful unto me, O Lord, for my Savior’s sake, and receive me
    into thy bosom, or guide me into thy ways.”



Matthew Hale.


Lord chief justice of England, born in Gloucestershire, in the year 1609,
and, by the care of a wise and religious father, had great attention paid
to his education.

In his youth, he was fond of company, and fell into many levities and
extravagances. But this propensity and conduct were corrected by a
circumstance that made a considerable impression on his mind during the
rest of his life. Being one day in company with other young men, one of
the party, through excess of wine, fell down, apparently dead, at their
feet. Young Hale was so affected on this occasion, that he immediately
retired to another room, and, shutting the door, fell on his knees, and
prayed earnestly to God that his friend might be restored to life, and
that he himself might be pardoned for having given countenance to so much
excess. At the same time, he made a solemn vow that he would never again
keep company in that manner, nor “drink a health” while he lived. His
friend recovered, and Hale religiously observed his vow. After this event,
there was an entire change in his disposition; he forsook all dissipated
company, and was careful to divide his time between the duties of religion
and the studies of his profession.

He became remarkable for his solid and grave deportment, his inflexible
regard to justice, and a religious tenderness of spirit, which appear to
have accompanied him through life. His retired meditations on religious
subjects manifest a pious and humble frame of mind, and a solemnity well
adapted to excite kindred emotions in the breast of the reader.

“True religion,” says he, “teaches the soul a high veneration for Almighty
God, a sincere and upright walking, as in the presence of the invisible,
all-seeing God. It makes a man truly love, honor, and obey him, and
therefore careful to know what his will is. It renders the heart highly
thankful to him, as his Creator, Redeemer, and Benefactor. It makes a man
entirely depend on him, seek him for guidance, direction, and protection,
and submit to his will with patience and resignation of soul. It gives the
law, not only to his words and actions, but to his very thoughts and
purposes; so that he dares not entertain any which are unbecoming the
presence of that God by whom all our thoughts are legible. It crushes all
pride and haughtiness, both in a man’s heart and carriage, and gives him
an humble state of mind before God and men. It regulates the passions, and
brings them into due moderation. It gives a man a right estimate of this
present world, and sets his heart and hopes above it; so that he never
loves it more than it deserves. It makes the wealth and the glory of this
world,—high places and great preferments,—of but little consequence to
him; so that he is neither covetous, nor ambitious, nor over-solicitous,
concerning the advantages of them. It makes him value the love of God and
the peace of his own conscience above all the wealth and honor in the
world, and to be very diligent in preserving them. He performs all his
duties to God with sincerity and humility; and, whilst he lives on earth,
his conversation, his hope, his treasures, are in heaven; and he endeavors
to walk suitably to such a hope.”

“They who truly fear God, have a secret guidance from a higher wisdom than
what is barely human, namely, the Spirit of truth and goodness; which does
really, though secretly, prevent and direct them. Any man that sincerely
and truly fears Almighty God, and calls and relies upon him for his
direction, has it as really as a son has the counsel and direction of his
father; and though the voice be not audible, nor discernible by sense, yet
it is equally as real as if a man heard a voice, saying, ‘This is the way;
walk in it.’ ”

“Though this secret direction of Almighty God is principally seen in
matters relating to the good of the soul, yet, even in the concerns of
this life, a good man fearing God, and begging his direction, will very
often, if not at all times, find it. I can call my own experience to
witness, that even in the temporal affairs of my whole life, I have never
been disappointed of the best direction, when I have, in humility and
sincerity, implored it.

“The observance of the secret admonition of this Spirit of God in the
heart, is an effectual means to cleanse and sanctify us; and the more it
is attended to, the more it will be conversant with our souls, for our
instruction. In the midst of difficulties, it will be our counsellor; in
the midst of temptations, it will be our strength, and grace sufficient
for us; in the midst of troubles, it will be our light and our comforter.”

Chief Justice Hale died on the twenty-fifth of December, 1676.



Princess Elizabeth.


Princess of the Rhine, born in the year 1620. She was the eldest daughter
of Frederick V., elector palatine and king of Bohemia, by Anne, daughter
of James I., king of England. This excellent princess possessed only a
small territory; but she governed it with great judgment and attention to
the happiness of her subjects. She made it a rule to hear, one day in the
week, all such causes as were brought before her. On these occasions, her
wisdom, justice, and moderation, were very conspicuous. She frequently
remitted forfeitures, in cases where the parties were poor, or in any
respect worthy of favor. It was remarkable that she often introduced
religious considerations as motives to persuade the contending parties to
harmony and peace. She was greatly beloved and respected by her subjects,
and also by many persons of learning and virtue not resident in her
dominions; for she patronized men of this character, whatever might be
their country or religious profession.

In the year 1677, the famous William Penn paid her a visit, and was
treated by her with great respect. The following account of her is taken
from his works:—


    “The meekness and humility of the princess appeared to me
    extraordinary: she did not consider the quality, but the merit, of
    the people she entertained. Did she hear of a retired man, seeking
    after the knowledge of a better world, she was sure to set him
    down in the catalogue of her charity, if he wanted it. I have
    casually seen, I believe, fifty tokens of her benevolence, sealed
    and directed to the several poor subjects of her bounty, whose
    distance prevented them from being personally known to her. Thus,
    though she kept no sumptuous table in her own court, she spread
    the tables of the poor in their solitary cells; breaking bread to
    virtuous pilgrims, according to their wants and her ability.

    “She was abstemious in her living, and in apparel void of all vain
    ornaments. I must needs say, that her mind had a noble prospect:
    her eye was to a better and more lasting inheritance, than can be
    found below. This made her not overrate the honors of her station,
    or the learning of the schools, of which she was an excellent
    judge. Being once at Hamburgh, a religious person, whom she went
    to see for religion’s sake, remarked to her, that ‘it was too
    great an honor for him, that a visitant of her quality, who was
    allied to so many great kings and princes of this world, should
    come under his roof:’ to whom she humbly replied, ‘If they were
    religious, as well as great, it would be an honor indeed; but if
    you knew what that greatness was, as well as I do, you would value
    it less.’

    “After a religious meeting which we had in her chamber, she was
    much affected, and said, ‘It is a hard thing to be faithful to
    what one knows. O, the way is strait! I am afraid I am not weighty
    enough in my spirit to walk in it.’

    “She once withdrew, on purpose to give her servants, who were
    religiously disposed, the liberty of discoursing with us that they
    might the more freely put what questions of conscience they
    desired to be satisfied in. Sometimes she suffered both them and
    the poorest persons of her town to sit by her in her own chamber,
    where we had two meetings. I cannot forget her last words, when I
    took my leave of her:—‘Let me desire you to remember me, though I
    live at so great a distance, and you should never see me more. I
    thank you for this good time. Be assured that, though my condition
    subjects me to divers temptations, yet my soul has strong desires
    after the best things.’

    “She lived till the age of sixty years, and then departed at her
    house in Herwerden, in the year 1680, as much lamented as she had
    been beloved by her people. To her real worth I do, with a
    religious gratitude, dedicate this memorial.”



Robert Boyle.


An eminent philosopher, and a truly good man, was the son of Richard, earl
of Cork, and was born at Lismore, in Ireland, in the year 1627. At Eton
School, where he was educated, he soon discovered a force of understanding
which promised great things, and a disposition to improve it to the
utmost. During his education, and before he was ten years old, he was much
afflicted with an ague, which considerably depressed his spirits; and, to
divert his attention, he was persuaded to read Amadis de Gaul, and other
romantic books. But this kind of reading, he says in his memoirs, produced
such restlessness in him, that he was obliged to apply himself to
mathematical studies, in order to fix and settle the volatility of his
fancy. He died in the sixty-fifth year of his age.

He was a man of great learning, and his stock of knowledge was immense.
The celebrated Dr. Boerhaave has passed the following eulogium upon
him:—“Boyle was the ornament of his age and country. Which of his writings
shall I commend? All of them. To him we owe the secrets of fire, air,
water, animals, vegetables, fossils; so that from his works may be deduced
the whole system of natural knowledge.”

He was treated with particular kindness and respect by Charles II., as
well as by the two great ministers Southampton and Clarendon. By the
latter he was solicited to enter into orders; for his distinguished
learning and unblemished reputation induced Lord Clarendon to think that
so very respectable a personage would do great honor to the clergy. Boyle
considered the proposal with due attention. He reflected that, in his
present situation of life, whatever he wrote with respect to religion,
would have greater weight, as coming from a layman; for he well knew that
the irreligious fortified themselves against all that the clergy could
offer, by supposing and saying that it was their trade, and that they were
paid for it. He considered, likewise, that, in point of fortune and
character, he needed no accessions; and, indeed, his desire for these was
always very limited. But Bishop Burnet, to whom Boyle had communicated
memorandums concerning his life, tells us that what had the greatest
weight in determining his judgment, was, “the not feeling within himself
any motion or tendency of mind which he could safely esteem a call from
the Holy Spirit, and so not venturing to take holy orders, lest he should
be found to have lied unto it.”

Bishop Burnet, who was Boyle’s particular friend, and who, during an
acquaintance of twenty-nine years, had spent many happy hours in
conversation with him, gives a full account of his genuine piety and
virtue, and of his zeal for the Christian religion. “This zeal,” he says,
“was unmixed with narrow notions, or a bigoted heat in favor of a
particular sect; it was that spirit which is the ornament of a true
Christian.” Burnet mentions, as a proof of this, his noble foundation for
lectures in defence of the gospel, against infidels of all sorts; the
effects of which have been very conspicuous, in the many volumes of
excellent discourses, which have been published in consequence of that
laudable and pious design.

The great object of his philosophical pursuits was to promote the cause of
religion, and to discountenance atheism and infidelity. His intimate
friend Bishop Burnet makes the following observations on this point:—“It
appeared to those who conversed with him on his inquiries into nature,
that his main design (on which as he had his own eye constantly fixed, so
he took care to put others often in mind of it) was to raise in himself
and others more exalted sentiments of the greatness and glory, the wisdom
and goodness, of God. This design was so deeply impressed on his mind,
that he concludes the article of his will, which relates to the Royal
Society, in these words:—‘I wish them a happy success in their attempts to
discover the true nature of the works of God; and I pray that they, and
all searchers into physical truths, may cordially refer their attainments
to the glory of the great Author of nature, and to the comfort of
mankind.’ ”

On another occasion, the same person speaks of him thus—“He had the most
profound veneration for the great God of heaven and earth that I ever
observed in any man. The very name of God was never mentioned by him
without a pause and observable stop in his discourse.” So brightly did the
example of this great and good man shine, through his whole course, that
Bishop Burnet, on reviewing it, in a moment of pious exultation thus
expressed himself:—“I might challenge the whole tribe of libertines to
come and view the usefulness, as well as the excellence, of the Christian
religion, in a life that was entirely dedicated to it.”



John Locke.


A very celebrated philosopher, and one of the greatest men that England
ever produced, born in the year 1632. He was well educated; and, applying
himself with vigor to his studies, his mind became enlarged, and stored
with much useful knowledge. He went abroad as secretary to the English
ambassador at several of the German courts, and afterwards had the offer
of being made envoy at the court of the emperor, or of any other that he
chose; but he declined the proposal, on account of the infirm state of his
health. He was a commissioner of trade and plantations, in which station
he very honorably distinguished himself. Notwithstanding his public
employments, he found leisure to write much for the benefit of mankind.
His “Essay on Human Understanding,” his “Discourses on Government,” and
his “Letters on Toleration,” are justly held in the highest esteem.

This enlightened man and profound reasoner was most firmly attached to the
Christian religion. His zeal to promote it appeared, first, in his middle
age, by publishing a discourse to demonstrate the reasonableness of
believing Jesus to be the promised Messiah; and, afterwards, in the latter
part of his life, by a Commentary on several of the Epistles of the
apostle Paul. The sacred Scriptures are every where mentioned by him with
the greatest reverence; and he exhorts Christians “to betake themselves in
earnest to the study of the way to salvation, in those holy writings,
wherein God has revealed it from heaven, and proposed it to the world;
seeking our religion where we are sure it is in truth to be found,
comparing spiritual things with spiritual.”

In a letter written the year before his death, to one who asked this
question, “What is the shortest and surest way for a young man to attain
the true knowledge of the Christian religion?” he says, “Let him study the
holy Scriptures, especially the New Testament: therein are contained the
words of eternal life. It has God for its author; salvation for its end;
and truth, without any mixture of error, for its matter.” This advice was
conformable to his own practice. “For fourteen or fifteen years, he
applied himself in an especial manner to the study of the Scriptures, and
employed the last years of his life hardly in any thing else. He was never
weary of admiring the great views of that sacred book, and the just
relation of all its parts: he every day made discoveries in it that gave
him fresh cause of admiration.”

The consolation which he derived from divine revelation is forcibly
expressed in these words:—“I gratefully receive and rejoice in the light
of revelation, which has set me at rest in many things, the manner whereof
my poor reason can by no means make out to me.”

After he had diligently employed a great part of his life in a variety of
occupations, he chose a pleasing retirement for the remainder of his days.
This leisure appears to have been productive of solid improvement, by
enabling him to look calmly over the scenes of past life; to form a proper
estimate of its enjoyments, and to dedicate himself more fully to the
cause of piety and virtue.

About two months before his death, in 1704, he wrote a letter to his
friend Anthony Collins, and left this direction upon it:—“To be delivered
to him after my decease.” It concludes with the following remarkable
words:—


    “May you live long and happy, in the enjoyment of health, freedom,
    content, and all those blessings which Providence has bestowed on
    you, and to which your virtue entitles you. You loved me living,
    and will preserve my memory when I am dead. All the use to be made
    of it is, that this life is a scene of vanity, which soon passes
    away, and affords no solid satisfaction, but in the consciousness
    of doing well, and in the hopes of another life. This is what I
    can say upon experience; and what you will find to be true, when
    you come to make up the account. Adieu!”



Joseph Addison.


A celebrated English writer, born at Milston, in Wiltshire, in the year
1672. About the age of fifteen, he was entered at Queen’s College, Oxford,
where, by his fine parts and great application, he made a surprising
proficiency in classical learning. Before he left the university, he was
warmly solicited to enter into orders; and he once resolved to do so; but
his great modesty, and an uncommonly delicate sense of the importance of
the sacred function, made him afterwards alter his resolution. He was
highly respected by many of the greatest and the most learned of his
contemporaries. He travelled into Italy, where he made many useful
observations, and prepared materials for some of his literary works. On
his return to England, he was chosen one of the lords commissioners for
trade. In 1709, he was appointed secretary to the lord lieutenant of
Ireland, and, in 1717, was advanced to the high office of secretary of
state. He died in 1729.

His writings have been of great use to the world, and his “Evidences of
the Christian Religion” not the least so. Dr. Johnson, in delineating his
character as a writer, gives the following amiable picture of him:—“He
employed wit on the side of virtue and religion. He not only made the
proper use of wit himself, but taught it to others; and, from his time, it
has been generally subservient to the cause of reason and truth. He has
dissipated the prejudice that had long connected cheerfulness with vice,
and easiness of manners with laxity of principles. He has restored virtue
to its dignity, and taught innocence not to be ashamed. This is an
elevation of literary character above all Greek, above all Roman fame. As
a teacher of wisdom, he may be confidently followed. His religion has
nothing in it enthusiastic or superstitious; he appears neither weakly
credulous nor wantonly skeptical; his morality is neither dangerously lax
nor impracticably rigid. All the enchantment of fancy, and all the cogency
of argument, are employed to recommend to the reader his real interest—the
care of pleasing the Author of his being.”

Of his integrity in discharging the duties of his office, there is a
striking proof recorded. When he was secretary in Ireland, he had
materially promoted the interest of an individual, who offered him, in
return, a bank note of three hundred pounds, and a diamond ring of the
same value. These he strenuously refused to accept, and wrote to the
person as follows:—“And now, sir, believe me, when I assure you I never
did, nor ever will, on any pretence whatsoever, take more than the stated
and customary fees of my office. I might keep the contrary practice
concealed from the world, were I capable of it, but I could not from
myself; and I hope I shall always fear the reproaches of my own heart more
than those of all mankind.”

A mind conscious of its own uprightness, and humbly trusting in the
goodness of God, has the best ground to look forward with complacency
towards another life. The following lines of Addison are sweetly
expressive of the peace and pleasure which he enjoyed in contemplating his
future existence:—“The prospect of a future state is the secret comfort
and refreshment of my soul. It is that which makes nature look cheerful
about me; it doubles all my pleasures, and supports me under all my
afflictions. I can look at disappointments and misfortunes, pain and
sickness, death itself, with indifference, so long as I keep in view the
pleasures of eternity, and the state of being in which there will be no
fears nor apprehensions, pains nor sorrows.”



Isaac Watts.


A learned and eminent dissenting minister, born at Southampton, in the
year 1674, of parents who were distinguished by their piety and virtue. He
died in 1748. He possessed an uncommon genius, of which he gave early
proofs. He received a very liberal education, which was rendered highly
beneficial to him by his own unwearied efforts to improve himself. After
the most serious deliberation, he determined to devote his life to the
ministry, of the importance of which office he had a deep and awful sense.
He labored very diligently to promote the instruction and happiness of the
people under his care, to whom, by his Christian conduct and amiable
disposition, he greatly endeared himself.

Soon after he had undertaken the pastoral office, his health sustained a
severe shock by a painful and dangerous illness, from which he recovered
very slowly. But, in the year 1712, he was afflicted with a violent fever,
that entirely broke his constitution, and left such weakness upon his
nerves, as continued with him, in some measure, to his dying day. For four
years he was wholly prevented from discharging the public offices of his
station. Though this long interval of sickness was, no doubt, very trying
to his active mind, yet it proved ultimately a blessing to him; for it
drew upon him the particular notice of Sir Thomas Abney, a very pious and
worthy man, who, from motives of friendship, invited him into his family,
in which he continued to the end of his life, and, for the long space of
thirty-six years, was treated with uniform kindness, attention, and
respect.

This excellent man was, by his natural temper, quick of resentment; but,
by his established and habitual practice, he was gentle, modest, and
inoffensive. His tenderness appeared in his attention to children and to
the poor. To the poor, while he lived in the family of his friend, he
allowed the third part of his annual revenue; and for children, he
condescended to lay aside the scholar, the philosopher, and the wit, to
write little poems of devotion, and systems of instruction, adapted to
their wants and capacities, from the dawn of reason, through its
gradations of advance in the morning of life. Few men have left behind
them such purity of character, or such monuments of laborious piety. He
has provided instruction for all ages, from those who are lisping their
first lessons, to the enlightened readers of Malebranche and Locke. His
“Improvement of the Mind” is a work in the highest degree useful and
pleasing. Whatever he took in hand was, by his incessant solicitude for
souls, converted to theology. As piety predominated in his mind, it is
diffused over his works. Under his direction, it may be truly said that
philosophy is subservient to evangelical instruction: it is difficult to
read a page without learning, or at least wishing to be better.

The virtue of this good man eminently appeared in the happy state of his
mind under great pains and weakness of body, and in the improvement which
he derived from them. Of those seasons of affliction, he says, with a
truly elevated mind and thankful heart, “I am not afraid to let the world
know that, amidst the sinkings of life and nature, Christianity and the
gospel were my support. Amidst all the violence of my distemper, and the
tiresome months of it, I thank God I never lost sight of reason or
religion, though sometimes I had much difficulty to preserve the machine
of animal nature in such order as regularly to exercise either the man or
the Christian.”

The sweet peace of conscience he enjoyed under these trying circumstances,
and the rational and Christian foundation of his hope and trust in the
divine goodness, are beautifully and justly expressed by him, in the
following lines:—


    “Yet, gracious God, amid these storms of nature,
    Thine eyes behold a sweet and sacred calm
    Reign through the realms of conscience; all within
    Lies peaceful, all composed. ’Tis wondrous grace
    Keeps off thy terrors from this humble bosom;
    Though stained with sins and follies, yet serene
    In penitential peace and cheerful hope,
    Sprinkled and guarded with atoning blood,
    Thy vital smiles, amidst this desolation,
    Like heavenly sunbeams hid behind the clouds,
    Break out in happy moments, with bright radiance
    Cleaving the gloom; the fair, celestial light,
    Softens and gilds the horrors of the storm,
    And richest cordials to the heart conveys.”



Philip Doddridge.


Born in London, in the year 1702. His parents, who were persons of great
worth, brought him up in an early knowledge of religion; but he had the
misfortune to lose them before he was fourteen years old. This
circumstance excited in his mind very serious reflections, which, however,
were not wholly of a gloomy nature; for he expressed a devout, and even a
cheerful trust in the protection of the God of mercies, the universal
Parent of mankind.

He diligently improved his time, and was anxious to be daily advancing in
knowledge, piety, virtue, and usefulness. He possessed strong powers of
mind, and, by unwearied application, acquired a large fund of sound and
elegant learning. His publications, which are chiefly on religious
subjects, have been eminently useful to the world. By his literary
acquisitions, his amiable disposition, and his desire to imbue the young
mind with knowledge and virtue, he was qualified, in a peculiar manner, to
become the instructor of youth; and for many years he superintended a very
respectable academy. As the pastor of a congregation, he manifested a
sincere and zealous regard for the happiness of the people under his care,
by whom he was greatly honored and beloved.

He possessed many virtues; but the prime and leading feature of his soul
was devotion. He was very solicitous to preserve and cultivate an habitual
sense of the Supreme Being, to maintain and increase the ardor of religion
in his heart, and to prepare himself, by devout exercises, for the
important labors of his station. Nor was it to his secret retirements that
his piety was limited; it was manifested in every part of the day, and
appeared in his usual intercourse with men. In the little vacancies of
time which occur to the busiest of mankind, he was frequently lifting up
his soul to God. When he lectured on philosophy, history, anatomy, or
other subjects not immediately theological, he would endeavor to graft
some religious instructions upon them, that he might raise the minds of
his pupils to devotion, as well as to knowledge; and, in his visits to his
people, the Christian friend and minister were united.

The piety of Dr. Doddridge was accompanied with the warmest benevolence to
his fellow-creatures. No one could more strongly feel that the love of God
was to be united with love to man. Nor was this a principle that rested in
kind wishes and pathetic feelings for the happiness of others, but it was
manifested in the most active exertions for their welfare. No scheme of
doing good was ever suggested to him into which he did not enter with
ardor. But the generosity of his mind was most displayed when any plans of
propagating religion, and of spreading the gospel among those who were
strangers to it, were proposed. In every thing of this kind he was always
ready to take the lead, and was ardent in endeavoring to inspire his
friends with the same spirit.

He was of a weak and delicate bodily constitution; and a severe cold which
he caught about the forty-eighth year of his age, brought on a consumption
of the lungs. The nearer he approached to his dissolution, the more
plainly was observed his continual improvement in a spiritual and heavenly
temper. Indeed, he seemed to have risen above the world, and to be daily
breathing after immortality. This disposition of his mind was ardently
expressed in several of his letters, and is manifest from his will, which
was made at this time, and is prefaced in the following language:—“Whereas
it is customary, on these occasions, to begin with commending the soul
into the hands of God, through Christ, I do it; not in mere form, but with
sincerity and joy; esteeming it my greatest happiness, that I am taught
and encouraged to do it, by that glorious gospel, which, having most
assuredly believed, I have spent my life in preaching to others; and which
I esteem an infinitely greater treasure than all my little worldly store,
or possessions ten thousand times greater than mine.”

A short time before his death, he had been induced to try the mild air of
the south; but change of climate did not produce the desired effect, and
Dr. Doddridge continued gradually to weaken, till death put a period to
his afflictions. In his last hours, he preserved the same calmness, vigor,
and joy of mind, which he had felt and expressed through the whole of his
illness. The only pain he had in the thought of dying, was the fear of
that grief and distress which his wife would suffer from his removal. To
his children, his congregation, and his friends in general, he desired to
be remembered in the most affectionate manner; nor did he, in the
effusions of his pious benevolence, forget the family where he lodged, or
his own servant. Many devout sentiments and aspirations were uttered by
him; but the heart of his wife was too much affected with his approaching
change to be able to recollect them distinctly. Though he died in a
foreign land, and, in a certain sense, among strangers, his decease was
embalmed with many tears. His age was 49 years.



John Murray.


A distinguished preacher of Universalism in the United States, born in
Alton, county of Hampshire, England, on the 10th of December, 1741.

When he had attained his eleventh year, the family removed to Ireland, in
the vicinity of Cork. While here, he was converted to Methodism, and
gained the attention of John Wesley, by whom he was appointed a
class-leader. He was very earnest and devout in his religious exercises,
and was regarded by his brethren as a valuable accession to their church.
About this time his father died, and he shortly after left Ireland for
England. He took up his residence in London, and was gradually led into
gay society. The secret monitor, however, frequently reproached him, and
finally brought him back again to the services of the sanctuary, and
quickened the flame of religious devotion. At this time his prejudices
against Universalism were very strong; his soul “kindled with indignation”
against them. But, shortly after his marriage to a very amiable young lady
of London, he was induced to visit Mr. Relly’s chapel, the preacher of
universal salvation; and, notwithstanding he had been so filled with wrath
against Mr. Relly, that, as he subsequently said, he thought it would have
been doing both God and man service to kill him, yet he was moved to
tenderness by his preaching and subsequently became an attendant on his
ministry. Rich were the consolations enjoyed by him and his amiable wife
in their new faith. But great sorrows awaited him; she sickened and died;
and the death-scene is described by himself, in his autobiography, with
thrilling effect. He would gladly have accompanied her to the
spirit-world. He was now alone; he felt himself a solitary being; he had
no taste for the joys of life; his mind dwelt only on death and eternity;
he was unfitted for society; and in this state of mind, Providence seems
to have directed his thoughts to America. He resolved to embark; and, in
the month of September, 1770, he landed upon the shores of New Jersey.
Here he became at once acquainted with a philanthropic landholder, by the
name of Thomas Potter, who, in the belief that God would send him a
preacher, had erected a meeting-house, and who insisted that Murray was
the man whom God had sent. In this house Murray commenced his labors as a
preacher; and from this time, he is to be contemplated as the public
advocate of Universalism, on the system of Relly. He soon visited the city
of New York, and various other cities and towns in the Middle States,
preaching the gospel whithersoever he went. His first visit to Boston was
made in October, 1773, and his second in September, 1774. It was during
this second visit that he was stoned in the pulpit of Rev. Mr. Croswell,
in School Street. About this time he visited Gloucester, Massachusetts,
which was afterwards his residence for many years. In 1775, he was
appointed by General Washington chaplain to the Rhode Island troops, in
the army then lying around Boston. He soon, however, returned to his
charge in Gloucester, where he remained, making frequent visits to
different parts of the United States, until October, 1793, when he was
ordained pastor of the First Universalist Society in Boston, which had
purchased the house of worship formerly occupied by the society of Dr.
Samuel Mather. His labors were not confined to this society, however; in
one respect he was a minister at large; he continued his itinerant habits,
more or less, until October, 1809, when he was stricken with the palsy. He
lived nearly six years after this affliction, and expired on the third day
of September, 1815. He was buried in the Granary burying-ground, where his
remains were suffered to lie unhonored until 1837, when they were removed
to Mount Auburn, and a monument was erected to his memory. The monument is
a beautiful fluted column, surmounted by an urn. It is encircled by a
belt, or tablet, on which two inscriptions are placed; on one side—


    “JOHN MURRAY, Preacher of the Gospel; born in Alton, England,
    December 10, 1741; died in Boston, September 3, 1815; reëntombed
    beneath this stone, June 8, 1837.”


On the opposite side—


    “Erected at the recommendation of the United States General
    Convention of Universalists.”



Elhanan Winchester.


A distinguished advocate of Universalism, born in Brookline,
Massachusetts, September 30, 1751. In his nineteenth year, he was
converted, under the preaching of the Baptists; and it was by his labors
that the present Baptist society in Newton was originally gathered. In the
autumn of 1774, he made a journey to the Southern States. Early in 1778,
he first saw Siegvolk’s “Everlasting Gospel,” a work which originally
appeared in Holland, but which had been translated and published by the
Mennonites of Pennsylvania. It made a very deep impression upon his mind.
In 1779, he came back to New England, his convictions of the truth of
Universalism increasing upon him daily. He set out on his return to South
Carolina in the autumn of 1780, and arrived at Philadelphia on the 7th of
October. Here he intended to remain but a few days; but God evidently had
a great work for him to do in this place. Even his enemies acknowledged
that his “manner of preaching was popular, his address very fascinating,
and his appearance dignified and commanding.” The Baptist church in that
city invited him to tarry and preach to them, and he at length consented.
About this time he read “Stonehouse on Universal Restitution,” which
served to confirm him greatly in his belief of that doctrine.
Notwithstanding his great popularity, a discontent began to show itself in
certain members of the church. He foresaw that a storm was rising, and he
determined to prepare for it; not (to use his words) “by denying what I
had said, but by more fully examining, and determining for myself, whether
the sentiment was according to Scripture, or not. If I found it was not, I
was determined to retract; but if it was, to hold it fast, let the
consequences be what they might.” Such was his truly Christian resolution.
He avowed his belief in the final happiness of all men.

A majority of the church were in his favor; but, being a man of remarkably
peaceful disposition, he did not urge them to press their claims to the
meeting-house; but they retired to the hall of the university, where they
held their meetings for about four years, until they purchased a place for
themselves. During the rest of his life, he is to be viewed as the public
advocate of universal restitution. There were several eminent men who
adhered to him, and among others, Dr. Redman, and the celebrated Dr.
Benjamin Rush, who remained his correspondent when he was in Europe. Added
to all his other troubles, his domestic afflictions were very great. At
the age of thirty-two, he had buried four wives. The fifth was a desperate
fury, who gave him great trouble as long as he lived. After preaching
about six years in Philadelphia, he was seized with an irresistible
impulse to visit England. No persuasions could divert him from the
purpose; and in September, 1787, he arrived, almost penniless, and a total
stranger, in the great metropolis of the British empire. He preached in
different parts of London, and, by his fervid eloquence and earnest
defence of the restoration, he soon gathered a congregation, who took for
him the chapel in Parliament Court, in which he held his meetings until
his departure for America. He spent six years and a half in this country,
laboring assiduously to bring men to the knowledge of the truth; and a
deep and wide impression was made by his labors. In consequence of the ill
treatment he experienced from his wife, he was obliged to leave her; and
he quitted England privately, and came home, filling the friends whom he
had left behind with amazement, being ignorant at first what had befallen
him. He arrived in Boston in July, 1794. Various were the speculations in
this country in regard to his return. But he commenced at once his labors
as a preacher, travelling in several of the states,—visited his former
friends in Philadelphia, where he was joined by his wife, who had come
home to America, and whom he freely forgave. It became evident, about this
time, that his health was greatly impaired; and an increasing asthma
foretold a fatal termination. He came to Hartford, Connecticut, in
October, 1796, and raised a congregation, to which he preached until he
could preach no more. In April, 1797, he delivered a sermon, under a
strong presentiment that it was his last, from St. Paul’s farewell address
to the elders of the Ephesian church. He never entered the desk again. He
contemplated his death with serenity and joy. On the morning of his
decease, he commenced singing the hymn with several of his
friends,—“Farewell, my friends in Christ below,” but his voice soon
faltered, and the torpor of death fell on him. His friends became
disconcerted, and ceased to sing; but he revived a little, and encouraged
them to go on, joining in the first line of each verse, until his voice
was actually “lost in death.” This was on the 18th of April, 1797, in the
47th year of his age. His funeral sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Strong,
of Hartford, who bore a frank testimony to Mr. Winchester’s excellent
character, and his final constancy in the doctrine he had preached.

The following is the inscription on the stone erected to his memory:—


    “The General Convention of the Universal Churches, in Memory of
    their dear departed Brother, the REV. ELHANAN WINCHESTER, erected
    this Monumental Stone.

    He died April 18th, 1797, aged 46 years.

    Twas thine to preach, with animated zeal,
      The glories of the resurrection morn,
    When sin, death, hell, the power of Christ shall feel,
      And light, life, immortality, be born.”



Saint Genevieve.


Born at Nanterre, about five miles from Paris, in the year 423, about the
time of Pharamond, the first king of France. St. Germain, bishop of
Auxerre, observing in her, when yet very young, a particular disposition
to sanctity, advised her to take a vow of perpetual virginity, which she
accordingly did in the presence of the bishop of Paris. After the death of
her parents, she went to Paris. The city was about to be deserted, when
Attila, with his Huns, broke into France; but Genevieve assured the
inhabitants of complete security, if they would seek it by fervent
prayers. Attila took his course from Champaigne to Orleans, returned
thence into Champaigne, without touching Paris, and was defeated in 451.
By this event, Genevieve’s reputation was established. In a time of
famine, she went along the River Seine, from city to city, and soon
returned with twelve large vessels loaded with grain, which she
distributed gratuitously among the sufferers. This increased her
authority, and she was highly honored by Merovæus and Chilperic. Nothing,
however, contributed more to her reputation for sanctity, than the
circumstance, that, from her fifteenth to her fiftieth year, she ate
nothing but barley-bread, except that she took some beans every two or
three weeks, and, after her fiftieth year, some fish and milk. In 460, she
built a church over the graves of St. Dionysius Rusticus and Eleutherius,
near the village of Chasteville, where Dagobert afterwards founded the
abbey of St. Denys. She died in 499 or 501, and her body was placed in the
subterraneous chapel which St. Denys had consecrated to the apostles Paul
and Peter. Clovis, by her request, built a church over it, which was
afterwards called by her name, as was also the abbey that was founded
there. Another church, consecrated to this saint, was built adjoining to
the church of Notre Dame. Her relics are preserved in the former. The
church celebrates the third of January, the day on which she died, in
honor of her.



Gilbert Burnet.


Bishop of Salisbury, was born at Edinburgh, in the year 1643. He was
carefully educated by his father; and, having a strong constitution and a
prodigious memory, he applied himself closely to study, and acquired a
great portion of learning and knowledge, which he seemed to have ready for
all occasions. He travelled through France, Italy, and Holland, where he
formed connections with many of the greatest persons of his time, by whom
he was much respected for his talents and virtues. At Amsterdam, he became
acquainted with the leading men of the different persuasions tolerated in
the United Provinces—Calvinists, Arminians, Lutherans, Anabaptists,
Brownists, Roman Catholics, and Unitarians; amongst each of which, he used
frequently to declare, he met with men of such unfeigned piety and virtue,
that he became strongly fixed in a principle of universal charity, and an
invincible abhorrence of all severities on account of religious opinions.

The following sentiments, which he solemnly uttered towards the conclusion
of his days, are very expressive of the nature and power of true religion,
and of its influence upon his own mind:—

“I recommend,” he observes, “to all sorts of men, in the most serious
manner, the study and practice of religion, as that which is the most
important of all things, and which is both the light of the world, and the
salt of the earth.

“Nothing so opens our faculties, and composes and directs the whole man,
as an inward sense of God; of his authority over us; of the laws he has
set us; of his eye ever upon us; of his hearing our prayers, assisting our
endeavors, watching over our concerns; of his being to judge, and reward
or punish, us in another state, according to what we have done in this.
Nothing will give us such a detestation of sin, and such a sense of the
goodness of God, and of our obligations to holiness, as a right
understanding and firm belief of the Christian religion.

“By living according to the rules of religion, a man becomes the wisest,
the best, and the happiest creature that he is capable of being. Honest
industry, the employing of time well, a constant sobriety, an undefiled
purity and chastity, with continued serenity, are the best preservatives,
too, of life and health; so that, take a man as an individual, religion is
his guard, his perfection, his beauty, and his glory. This will make him a
light in the world, shining brightly, and enlightening many round about
him.

“Thus religion, if truly received and sincerely adhered to, would prove
the greatest of all blessings to a nation. But by religion I understand
something more than receiving particular doctrines, though ever so true,
or professing them, and engaging to support them, even with zeal and
eagerness. What signify the best doctrines, if men do not live suitably to
them; if they have not a due influence upon their thoughts and their
lives? Men of bad lives, with sound opinions, are self-condemned, and lie
under a highly-aggravated guilt.

“By religion I do not mean an outward compliance with forms and customs,
in going to church, to prayers, to sermons, and to sacraments, with an
external show of devotion; or, which is more, with some inward forced good
thoughts, in which many satisfy themselves, while these have no visible
effect on their lives, nor any inward force to control and rectify their
appetites, passions, and secret designs. These customary performances, how
good and useful soever when understood and rightly directed, are of little
value when men rest on them, and think, because they do them, they have
acquitted themselves of their duty, though they still continue proud,
covetous, full of deceit, envy, and malice. Even secret prayers, the most
effectual means, are designed for a higher end; which is, to possess our
minds with such a constant and present sense of divine truths, as may make
these live in us, and govern us, and draw down such assistance, as to
exalt and sanctify our natures.

“So that, by religion, I mean such a sense of divine truth as enters into
a man, and becomes the spring of a new nature within him; reforming his
thoughts and designs; purifying his heart; sanctifying and governing his
whole deportment, his words as well as his actions; convincing him that it
is not enough not to be scandalously vicious, or to be innocent in his
conversation, but that he must be entirely, uniformly, and constantly,
pure and virtuous, animated with zeal to be still better and better, more
eminently good and exemplary.

“This is true religion, which is the perfection of human nature, and the
joy and delight of every one that feels it active and strong within him.
It is true, this is not arrived at all at once, and it will have an
unhappy alloy, hanging long even about a good man; but, as those ill
mixtures are the perpetual grief of his soul, so that it is his chief care
to watch over and to mortify them, he will be in a continual progress,
still gaining ground upon himself; and as he attains to a degree of
purity, he will find a noble flame of life and joy growing up in him. Of
this I write with a greater concern and emotion, because I have felt it to
be the true, and, indeed, the only joy which runs through a man’s heart
and life. It is this which has been, for many years, my greatest support.
I rejoice daily in it. I feel from it the earnest of that supreme joy
which I want and long for; and I am sure there is nothing else which can
afford any true and complete happiness.”

This eminent scholar, Christian, and divine, departed this life on the
seventeenth of March, 1714.



THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS.


Name.          Place.         Denom.     Open.   Prof.   Stud.   Total.
Bangor         Bangor,        Cong.       1816       3      43      139
Theol.         Me.
Seminary
New Hampt.     N.             Baptist     1828       2      36       75
Theo. Inst.    Hampt.,
               N. H.
Gilmanton      Gilmanton      Cong.       1835       3      26       21
Theol. Sem.    do.
Theological    Andover,       Cong.       1808       5     142      785
Seminary.      Mass.
Divinity       Cambridge,     Cong.       1816       2      27      191
Sch. Harv.     do.            Unit.
Univ.
Theological    Newton,        Baptist     1825       3      33      137
Institution    do.
Theol. Dep.    N. Haven,      Cong.       1822       3      61      245
Yale College   Ct.
Theol. Inst.   E.             Cong.       1834       3      29       37
of Conn.       Windsor,
               do.
Theol. Inst.   New York,      Prot.       1817       5      74      186
Epis. Church   N. Y.          Epis.
New York       do. do.        Presbyt.    1836       4     129
Theol. Sem.
Theol. Sem.    Auburn,        Presbyt.    1821       4      71      344
of Auburn      do.
Hamilton       Hamilton,      Baptist     1820       4      27      124
Lit. and Th.   do.
Inst.
Hartwick       Hartwick,      Lutheran    1816       2       3
Seminary       do.
Theol. Sem.    Newburgh,      Ass.        1836       3      11
As. Ref. Ch.   do.            Ref. Ch.
Th. Sem.       N. Br’wick     Dutch       1784       3      36      179
Dutch Ref.     N. J.          Ref.
Ch.
Theol. Sem.    Princeton,     Presbyt.    1812       5     113      714
Pr. Ch. U.     do.
S.
Sem. Luth.     Gettysburg,    Evang.      1826       3      26      130
Ch. U.         Pa.            L.
States
German         York, do.      G. Ref.     1825       2      20
Reformed                      Ch.
West. Theol.   Alleghany      Presbyt.    1828       2      31      175
Seminary       T. do.
Theological    Canonsburg,    Asso.                  2      22       47
School         do.            Ch.
Theological    Pittsburg,     Asso.       1828       1      19
Seminary       do.            Ref.
Mercersburg    Mercersburg,
Theol. Sem.    do.
Epis. Theol.   Fairfax Co.,   Prot.       1822       4      43      126
School of      Va.            Epis.
Va.
Union Theol.   Pr. Ed. Co.,   Presbyt.    1824       3      20      175
Seminary       do.
Virginia       Richmond,      Baptist     1832       3      67
Baptist        do.
Seminary
Southern       Columbia, S.   Presbyt.    1831       3      18       62
Theol.         C.
Seminary
Theological    Lexington,     Lutheran    1835       2      10       20
Seminary       do.
Furman         High Hills,    Baptist                2      30       30
Theol.         do.
Seminary
Lit. and       Eaton, Ga.     Baptist     1834              10
Theol.
Seminary
South-West.    Maryville,     Presbyt.    1821       2      24       90
Theol. Sem.    Ten.
Lane           Cincinnati,    Presbyt.    1829       3      61       43
Seminary       Ohio.
Theol. Dep,    Gambier, do.   Prot.       1828       3      10
Ken. College                  Epis.
Theol. Dep.    Hudson, do.    Presbyt.               3      14        6
Wes. Res.
Col.
Theological    Columbus,      Lutheran
School         do.
Granville      Granville,     Baptist     1832       2       8
Theol. Dep.    do.
Oberlin        Oberlin, do.   Presbyt.    1834       4      58
Theol. Dep.
Indiana        S. Hanover,    Presbyt.               2      10
Theol.         In.
Seminary
Alton Theol.   Upper Alton,   Baptist     1835
Seminary       Il.
Carlinville    Carlinville,   Presbyt.    1838
Theol. Sem.    do.
Theol. Dep.    N. Palmyra,    Presbyt.               1
Marion Col.    Mo.

For a notice of the Roman Catholic seminaries, see page 325.

Progress Of Christianity.

M. LAFFON DE LADEBAT, of France, computes the number of Christians, in
each century, since the Christian era, as follows:—

1st century       500,000
2d              2,000,000
3d              5,000,000
4th            10,000,000
5th            15,000,000
6th            30,000,000
7th            25,000,000
8th            30,000,000
9th            40,000,000
10th           50,000,000
11th           60,000,000
12th           70,000,000
13th           75,000,000
14th           80,000,000
15th          100,000,000
16th          125,000,000
17th          155,000,000
18th          200,000,000

Since the commencement of the nineteenth century, the number of Christians
has increased, with great rapidity, in all parts of the world.



FOOTNOTES


    1 The 21st of the former Articles is omitted, because it is partly of
      a local and civil nature, and is provided for, as to the remaining
      parts of it, in other Articles.

    2 “As far as it respects civil affairs, we believe it the duty of
      Christians, and especially all Christian ministers, to be subject to
      the supreme authority of the country where they may reside, and to
      use all laudable means to enjoin obedience to the powers that be;
      and therefore it is expected that all our preachers and people, who
      may be under the British or any other government, will behave
      themselves as peaceable and orderly subjects.”

    3 “The question is, not whether God, all things considered, has
      purposed the existence of sin rather than to prevent it; but for
      what _reason_ has he purposed it? Some affirm this _reason_ to be,
      _that sin is the necessary means of the greatest good_. Now, what I
      claim, and all that I claim, is, that _no one can prove this to be
      the reason_ why God has purposed the existence of sin, and that some
      other may be _the true reason_, without affirming what the true
      reason is.”

    4 The Exode did not begin until Terah’s death; then Abraham left
      Haran, and the Exode began, as is clearly proved by Acts 7:4.

    5 Exode in Egypt from Abraham to wilderness state.

    6 Joshua was a young man when he came out of Egypt, (Exod. 33:11;)
      could not have been more than 45 years old then; 85 when he entered
      Canaan, and 110 when he died, leaves 25 years.

    7 Judges begin. See Judges 2:7-15.

    8 This ends the Judges,—448 years. Acts 13:20; also, chap. 8.

    9 Samuel could not have been more than 38 when Eli died. Then, Israel
      was lamenting the loss of the ark more than 20 years. Samuel judged
      Israel some years after, and became old, and his sons judged Israel.
      He must have been 62 or 63 when Saul was made king.

   10 See 2 Kings, chapters 14 and 15.

   11 See Ferguson’s Astronomy; also, Prideaux’s Connection.

   12 See BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

   13 17 churches, 16 ministers, and 2236 members, in this state, are
      included in the New York Association.

   14 9 churches, 7 ministers, and 526 members, in this state, are
      included in the Mississippi Association.

   15 Archbishop Cranmer was the first in this succession, at and after
      the Reformation; and Bishop White was the connecting link between
      the English and American successions.

   16 The reader will perceive some difference in the dates, and also in
      the spelling between this list and the list of Bishops, p. 315. This
      difference arises from the following of different authorities in the
      chronology and spelling by the compilers of the two lists. It will
      be seen that they agree in the order of succession, with one or two
      exceptions. The fourth and fifth names in _this_ list are generally
      considered as the same individual, and the best authorities place
      him before Clement. The other apparent differences in the succession
      are caused by the inserting in _this_ list of the names of all who
      were in the see of Rome at any time; while in the other, those who
      were not lawful bishops of Rome are omitted.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Book of Religions - Comprising the Views, Creeds, Sentiments, or Opinions, of All the Principal Religious Sects in the World, Particularly of All Christian Denominations in Europe and America, to Which are Added Church and Missionary Statistics, Together With Biographical Sketches" ***

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