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Title: Chronicles (3 of 6): Historie of England (1 of 9) - Henrie IV
Author: Holinshed, Raphael, -1580?
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber’s Note:

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If any of these characters do not display properly--in particular, if
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“a great great deale of care” and the title-page spelling PEREGRNÆ.]



  HOLINSHED’S
  CHRONICLES

  OF

  _ENGLAND_, _SCOTLAND_,

  AND

  _IRELAND_.

  IN SIX VOLUMES.

  VOL. III.

  ENGLAND.

  _LONDON_:
  PRINTED FOR J. JOHNSON; F.C. AND J. RIVINGTON; T. PAYNE; WILKIE
  AND ROBINSON; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, AND ORME;
  CADELL AND DAVIES; AND J. MAWMAN.

  1808.

  AMS PRESS INC.
  NEW YORK

  1965

  AMS PRESS INC.
  NEW YORK, N.Y. 10003
  1965

  MANUFACTURED in the U.S.A.



  [_Original Title_]

  THE
  THIRD VOLUME
  OF

  CHRONICLES,

  BEGINNING AT

  DUKE WILLIAM THE NORMAN, COMMONLIE CALLED THE CONQUEROR;

  AND

  _DESCENDING BY DEGREES OF YEERES_

  TO ALL THE

  KINGS AND QUEENES OF ENGLAND

  IN THEIR

  ORDERLIE SUCCESSIONS:

  FIRST COMPILED BY

  _RAPHAELL HOLINSHED_,

  AND BY HIM EXTENDED TO THE
  YEARE 1577.

  NOW NEWLIE RECOGNISED, AUGMENTED, AND CONTINUED
  (WITH OCCURRENCES AND ACCIDENTS OF FRESH MEMORIE)
  TO THE YEARE 1586.

  WHEREIN ALSO ARE CONTEINED MANIE MATTERS OF SINGULAR DISCOURSE
  AND RARE OBSERUATION,
  _FRUITFULL TO SUCH AS BE STUDIOUS IN ANTIQUITIES_,

  OR

  TAKE PLEASURE IN THE GROUNDS OF ANCIENT HISTORIES.

  _With a third table (peculiarlie seruing this third volume) both of
  names and matters memorable._

  HISTORIÆ PLACEANT NOSTRATES AC PEREGRNÆ.



HENRIE THE FOURTH,

Cousine Germane to Richard the Second,
latelie depriued.


When king Richard had resigned (as before is specified) the scepter and
crowne; Henrie Plantagenet borne at Bullingbroke in the countie of
Lincolne, duke of Lancaster and Hereford, earle of Derbie, Leicester,
and Lincolne, sonne to Iohn of Gant duke of Lancaster, with generall
consent both of the lords & commons, was published, proclamed, and
declared king of England and of France, and lord of Ireland, the last
daie of September, in the yeare of the world 5366, of our Lord 1399, of
the reigne of the emperour Wenceslaus the two and twentith, of Charles
the first king of France the twentith, and the tenth of Robert the third
king of Scots. After that king Richard had surrendered his title, and
dispossessed himselfe (which Chr. Okl. noteth in few words, saieing;

  ------------post breue tempus
  Exuit insigni sese diademate, sceptrum
  Henrico Lancastrensi regale relinquens)

[Sidenote: In Angl. prælijs.] [Sidenote: New officers made.] king Henrie
made certeine new officers. And first in right of his earledome of
Leicester he gaue the office of high steward of England (belonging to
the same earledome) vnto his second sonne the lord Thomas, who by his
fathers commandement exercised that office, being assisted (by reason of
his tender age) by Thomas Persie earle of Worcester. The earle of
Northumberland was made constable of England: sir Iohn Scirlie lord
chancellor, Iohn Norburie esquier lord treasurer, sir Richard Clifford
lord priuie seale. [Sidenote: The parlemēt new sūmoned.] Forsomuch as by
king Richards resignation and the admitting of a new king, all plées in
euerie court and place were ceased, and without daie discontinued, new
writs were made for summoning of the parlement vnder the name of king
Henrie the fourth, the same to be holden, as before was appointed, on
mondaie next insuing. [Sidenote: Record Turris.] Vpon the fourth day of
October, the lord Thomas second sonne to the king sat as lord high
steward of England by the kings commandement in the White-hall of the
kings palace at Westminster, and as belonged to his office, he caused
inquirie to be made what offices were to be exercised by anie maner of
persons the daie of the kings coronation, and what fées were belonging
to the same, causing proclamation to be made, that what noble man or
other that could claime anie office that daie of the solemnizing the
kings coronation, [Sidenote: Claiming of offices at the coronation.]
they should come and put in their bils cōprehending their demands.
Whervpon diuers offices & fees were claimed, as well by bils as
otherwise by spéech of mouth, in forme as here insueth.

First, the lord Henrie, the kings eldest sonne, to whome he as in right
of his duchie of Lancaster had appointed that office, claimed to beare
before the king the principall sword called Curtana, [Sidenote: Curtana.
The earle of Summerset.] and had his sute granted. Iohn erle of
Summerset, to whom the king as in right of his earledome of Lincolne,
[Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland.] had granted to be caruer the
daie of his coronation, and had it confirmed. Henrie Persie earle of
Northumberland, and high constable of England, by the kings grant
claimed that office, [Sidenote: The Ile of Man.] and obteined it to
inioy at pleasure. The same earle in right of the Ile of Man, which at
that present was granted to him, and to his heires by the king, claimed
to beare on the kings left side a naked sword, with which the king was
girded, [Sidenote: Lancaster sword.] when before his coronation he
entered as duke of Lancaster into the parts of Holdernesse, [Sidenote:
The earl of Westmerland.] which sword was called Lancasters sword. Rafe
erle of Westmerland, and earle marshall of England, by the kings grant
claimed the same office, [Sidenote: The duke of Norffolke.] and obteined
it, notwithstanding that the attornies of the duke of Norfolke,
presented to the lord steward their petition on the dukes behalfe, as
earle marshall, to exercise the same. [Sidenote: Sir Thomas Erpingham.]
Sir Thomas Erpingham knight exercised the office of lord great
Chamberleine, and gaue water to the king when he washed, both before and
after dinner, hauing for his fées, the bason, ewer, and towels, with
other things whatsoeuer belonging to his office: notwithstanding Auberie
de Veer earle of Orenford put in his petitions to haue that office as
due vnto him from his ancestors. [Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.]
Thomas Beauchampe earle of Warwike by right of inheritance, bare the
third sword before the king, and by like right was pantler at the
coronation. [Sidenote: Sir William Argentine.] Sir William Argentine
knight, by reason of the tenure of his manour of Wilmundale in the
countie of Hertford, serued the king of the first cup of drinke which he
tasted of at his dinner the daie of his coronation: the cup was of
siluer vngilt, which the same knight had for his fées: notwithstanding
the petition which Iuon Fitzwarren presented to the lord steward,
[Sidenote: Iuon Fitzwarren.] requiring that office in right of his wife
the ladie Maud, daughter and heire to sir Iohn Argentine knight.
[Sidenote: The lord Furniuall.] Sir Thomas Neuill lord Furniuall, by
reason of his manour of Ferneham, with the hamlet of Cere, which he held
by the courtesie of England after the decesse of his wife, the ladie
Ione decessed, gaue to the king a gloue for his right hand, and
susteined the kings right arme so long as he bare the scepter.

[Sidenote: The lord Graie.] The lord Reginald Graie of Ruthen, by reason
of his manour of Ashleie in Norfolke couered the tables, and had for his
fees all the tableclothes, as well those in the hall, as else-where,
when they were taken vp; notwithstanding a petition exhibited by sir
Iohn Draiton to haue had that office. [Sidenote: Great spurs.] The same
lord Graie of Ruthen, bare the kings great spurs before him in the time
of his coronation by right of inheritance, as heire to Iohn Hastings
earle of Penbroke. [Sidenote: The second sword.] Iohn erle of Summerset,
by the kings assignement bare the second sword before him at his
coronation, albeit that the said lord Graie of Ruthen by petition
exhibited before the lord steward demanded the same office, by reason of
his castell & tower of Penbroke, and of his towne of Denbigh. [Sidenote:
The earle of Arundell.] Thomas earle of Arundell cheefe butler of
England, obteined to exercise that office the daie of the coronation,
and had the fées thereto belonging granted to him, to wit, the goblet
with which the king was serued, and other things to that his office
apperteining (the vessels of wine excepted) that laie vnder the bar,
which were adiudged vnto the said lord steward, the said earle of
Arundels claime notwithstanding.

[Sidenote: The citizens of London.] The citizens of London chosen foorth
by the citie, serued in the hall, as assistants to the lord cheefe
butler, whilest the king sate at dinner, the daie of his coronation: and
when the king entered into his chamber after dinner, and called for
wine, the lord maior of London brought to him a cup of gold with wine,
and had the same cup given to him, togither with the cup that conteined
water to allay the wine. After the king had drunke, the said lord maior
and the aldermen of London had their table to dine at, [Sidenote: Thomas
Dimocke.] on the left hand of the king in the hall. Thomas Dimocke, in
right of his moother Margaret Dimocke, by reason of the tenure of his
manor of Scriuelbie, claimed to be the kings champion at his coronation,
and had his sute granted; notwithstanding a claime exhibited by Baldwin
Freuill, demanding that office by reason of his castell of Tamworth in
Warwikeshire. [Sidenote: Baldwin Freuill.] The said Dimocke had for his
fees one of the best coursers in the kings stable, with the kings saddle
and all the trappers & harnesse apperteining to the same horsse or
courser: he had likewise one of the best armors that was in the kings
armorie for his owne bodie, with all that belonged wholie therevnto.

[Sidenote: The lord Latimer.] Iohn lord Latimer, although he was vnder
age, for himselfe and the duke of Norfolke, notwithstanding that his
possessions were in the kings hands, by his atturnie sir Thomas Graie
knight, claimed and had the office of almoner for that daie, by reason
of certeine lands which sometime belonged to the lord William Beuchampe
of Bedford. They had a towell of fine linnen cloth prepared, to put in
the siluer that was appointed to be giuen in almes; and likewise they
had the distribution of the cloth that couered the pauement and floors
from the kings chamber doore, vnto the place in the church of
Westminster where the pulpit stood. [Sidenote: William le Venour.] The
residue that was spread in the church, the sexten had. William le
Venour, by reason he was tenant of the manor of Listen, claimed and
obteined to exercise the office of making wafers for the king the daie
of his coronation. [Sidenote: The barons of the cinque ports.] The
barons of the fiue ports claimed, and it was granted them, to beare a
canopie of cloth of gold ouer the K. with foure staues, & foure bels at
the foure corners, euerie staffe hauing foure of those barons to beare
it: also to dine and sit at the table next to the king on his right hand
in the hall the daie of his coronation, and for their fees to haue the
forsaid canopie of gold, with the bels and staues, notwithstanding the
abbat of Westminster claimed the same. Edmund Chambers claimed and
obteined the office of principall larderer for him and his deputies, by
reason of his manour of Skulton, otherwise called Burdellebin Skulton,
in the countie of Norfolke. Thus was euerie man appointed to exercise
such office as to him of right apperteined, or at the least was thought
requisit for the time present. On mondaie then next insuing, when the
states were assembled in parlement, order was taken, that by reason of
such preparation as was to be made for the coronation, they should sit
no more till the morow after saint Edwards daie. On the sundaie
following, being the euen of saint Edward, [Sidenote: Knights of the
Bath.] the new king lodged in the Tower, and there made fortie & six
knights of the Bath, to wit: thrée of his sonnes, the earle of Arundell,
the earle of Warwike his sonne, the earle of Stafford, two of the earle
of Deuonshires sonnes, the lord Beaumont, the lord Willoughbies brother,
the earle of Staffords brother, the lord Camois his sonne, the lord of
Maule, Thomas Beauchampe, Thomas Pelham, Iohn Luttrell, Iohn Lisleie,
William Haukeford iustice, William Brinchleie iustice, Bartholomew
Rathford, Giles Daubenie, William Butler, Iohn Ashton, Richard Sanape,
Iohn Tiptost, Richard Francis, Henrie Persie, Iohn Arundell, William
Strall, Iohn Turpington, Ailmer Saint, Edward Hastings, Iohn Greisleie,
Gerald Satill, Iohn Arden, Robert Chalons, Thomas Dimocke, Hungerford,
Gibethorpe, Newport, and diuerse other, to the number of fortie and six.

[Sidenote: The lord maior of London.] On the morow being saint Edwards
daie, and the thirteenth of October, the lord maior of London rode
towards the Tower to attend the king, with diuerse worshipfull citizens
clothed all in red, and from the Tower the king rode through the citie
to Westminster, where he was consecrated, anointed, and crowned king by
the archbishop of Canturburie with all ceremonies and roiall solemnitie
as was due and requisit. [Sidenote: The earle of March enuied the K.
preferment.] Though all other reioised at his aduancement, yet suerlie
Edmund Mortimer earle of March, which was coosine and heire to Lionell
duke of Clarence, the third begotten sonne of king Edward the third, &
Richard earle of Cambridge, sonne to Edmund duke of Yorke, which had
married Anne sister to the same Edmund, were with these dooings neither
pleased nor contented: insomuch that now the diuision once begun, the
one linage ceassed not to persecute the other, till the heires males of
both the lines were cléerlie destroied and extinguished.

At the daie of the coronation, to the end he should not séeme to take
vpon him the crowne and scepter roiall by plaine extorted power,
[Sidenote: Edmund erle of Lancaster vntrullie feined to be surnamed
Crookebacke.] and iniurious intrusion: he was aduised to make his title
as heire to Edmund (surnamed or vntrulie feined) Crookebacke, sonne to
king Henrie the third, and to saie that the said Edmund was elder
brother to king Edward the first, and for his deformitie put by from the
crowne, to whom by his mother Blanch, daughter and sole heire to Henrie
duke of Lancaster, he was next of blood, and undoubted heire. But
because not onelie his fréends, but also his priuie enimies, knew that
this was but a forged title, considering they were suerlie informed, not
onelie that the said Edmund was yoonger sonne to king Henrie the third,
but also had true knowledge, that Edmund was neither crooke backed, nor
a deformed person, but a goodlie gentleman, and a valiant capteine, and
so much fauored of his louing father, that he to preferre him in
marriage to the queene Dowager of Nauarre, hauing a great liuelihood,
gaue to him the countie palantine of Lancaster, with manie notable
honours, high segniories, and large priuileges. Therefore they aduised
him to publish it, that he challenged the realme not onelie by conquest,
but also because he by king Richard was adopted as heire, and declared
by resignation as his lawfull successor, being next heire male to him of
the blood roiall.

But to procéed to other dooings. The solemnitie of the coronation being
ended, the morow after being tuesdaie, the parlement began againe,
[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Chenie speaker of the parlement dismissed, and
William Durward admitted.] and the next daie sir Iohn Cheinie that was
speaker, excusing himselfe, by reason of his infirmitie and sicknesse,
not to be able to exercise that roome, [Sidenote: Acts repealed.] was
dismissed, and one William Durward esquier was admitted. Herewith were
the acts established in the parlement of the one & twentith yeare of
king Richards reigne repealed and made void, [Sidenote: Acts confirmed.]
and the ordinances deuised in the parlement holden the eleuenth yeare of
the same king, confirmed, and againe established for good and
profitable. ¶ On the same daie, the kings eldest sonne lord Henrie, by
assent of all the states in the parlement, was created prince of Wales,
duke of Cornwall, and earle of Chester, then being of the age of twelue
yeares.

Upon the thursdaie, the commons came and rehearsed all the errors of the
last parlement holden in the one and twentith yeare of king Richard, &
namelie in certeine fiue of them.

1 First, that where the king that now is, was readie to arraigne an
appeale against the duke of Norfolke, he dooing what perteined to his
dutie in that behalfe, was yet banished afterwards without anie
reasonable cause.

2 Secondlie, the archbishop of Canturburie, metropolitan of the realme,
was foreiudged without answer.

3 Thirdlie, the duke of Glocester was murthered, and after foreiudged.

4 Fourthlie, where the earle of Arundell alledged his charters of
pardon, the same might not be allowed.

5 Fiftlie, that all the power of that euill parlement was granted and
assigned ouer to certeine persons, and sith that such heinous errors
could not be committed (as was thought) without the assent and aduise of
them that were of the late kings councell, they made sute that they
might be put vnder arrest, and committed to safe kéeping, till order
might be further taken for them.

Thus much adoo there was in this parlement, speciallie about them that
were thought to be guiltie of the duke of Glocesters death, and of the
condemning of the other lords that were adiudged traitors in the forsaid
late parlement holden in the said one and twentith yeare of king
Richards reigne. [Sidenote: _Fabian_.] [Sidenote: Sir Iohn Bagot
discloseth secrets.] Sir Iohn Bagot knight then prisoner in the Tower,
disclosed manie secrets, vnto the which he was priuie; and being brought
on a daie to the barre, a bill was read in English which he had made,
conteining certeine euill practises of king Richard; and further what
great affection the same king bare to the duke of Aumarle, insomuch that
he heard him say, that if he should renounce the gouernement of the
kingdome, he wished to leaue it to the said duke, [Sidenote: Henrie the
fourth suspected not to be well affected towards the church before his
comming to the crowne.] as to the most able man (for wisdome and
manhood) of all other: for though he could like better of the duke of
Hereford, yet he said that he knew if he were once king, he would proue
an extreame enimie and cruell tyrant to the church.

It was further conteined in that bill, that as the same Bagot rode on a
daie behind the duke of Norfolke in the Sauoy stréet toward Westminster,
the duke asked him what he knew of the manner of the duke of Glocester
his death, and he answered that he knew nothing at all: but the people
(quoth he) do say that you have murthered him. Wherevnto the duke sware
great othes that it was vntrue, and that he had saued his life contrarie
to the will of the king, and certeine other lords, by the space of thrée
wéeks, and more; affirming withall, that he was neuer in all his
life-time more affraid of death, than he was at his comming home againe
from Calis at that time, to the kings presence, by reason he had not put
the duke to death. And then (said he) the king appointed one of his owne
seruants, and certeine other that were seruants to other lords to go
with him to see the said duke of Glocester put to death, swearing that
as he should answer afore God, it was neuer his mind that he should haue
died in the fort, but onelie for feare of the king, and sauing of his
owne life. [Sidenote: The duke of Aumarle accused.] Neverthelesse, there
was no man in the realme to whom king Richard was so much beholden, as
to the duke of Aumarle: for he was the man that to fulfill his mind, had
set him in hand with all that was doone against the said duke, and the
other lords. There was also conteined in that bill, what secret malice
king Richard had conceiued against the duke of Hereford being in exile,
whereof the same Bagot had sent intelligence vnto the duke into France,
by one Rogert Smart, who certified it to him by Piers Buckton, and
others, to the intent he should the better haue regard to himselfe.
There was also conteined in the said bill, that Bagot had heard the duke
of Aumarle say, that he had rather than twentie thousand pounds that the
duke of Hereford were dead, not for anie feare he had of him, but for
the trouble and mischéefe that he was like to procure within the realme.

[Sidenote: The duke of Aumarle his answer vnto Bagots bill.] After that
the bill had béene read and heard, the duke of Aumarle rose vp and said,
that as touching the points conteined in the bill concerning him, they
were vtterlie false and vntrue, which he would proue with his bodie, in
what manner soeuer it should be thought requisit. Therewith also the
duke of Excester rose vp, and willed Bagot that if he could say anie
thing against him to speak it openlie. Bagot answered, that for his part
he could say nothing against him: [Sidenote: Iohn Hall a yeoman.] But
there is (said he) a yeoman in Newgat one Iohn hall that can say
somewhat. “Well then (said the duke of Excester) this that I doo and
shall say is true, that the late king, the duke of Norfolke, and thou
being at Woodstoke, made me to go with you into the chappell, and there
the doore being shut, ye made me to sweare vpon the altar, to kéepe
counsell in that ye had to say to me, and then ye rehearsed that we
should neuer haue our purpose, so long as the duke of Lancaster liued, &
therefore ye purposed to haue councell at Lichfield, & there you would
arrest the duke of Lancaster, in such sort as by colour of his
disobeieng the arrest, he should be dispatched out of life. And in this
manner ye imagined his death. To the which I answered, that it were
conuenient the king should send for his councell, and if they agréed
herevnto, I would not be against it, and so I departed.” To this Bagot
made no answer.

After this, the king commanded that the lords, Berklei, and Louell, and
six knights of the lower house, should go after dinner to examine the
said Hall. This was on a thursdaie being the fiftéenth of October.
[Sidenote: Bagott and Hall brought to the barre.] On the saturdaie next
insuing, sir William Bagot and the said Iohn Hall were brought both to
the barre, and Bagot was examined of certeine points, and sent againe to
prison. The lord Fitzwater herewith rose vp, and said to the king, that
where the duke of Aumarle excuseth himselfe of the duke of Glocesters
death, [Sidenote: The lord Fitzwater appealeth the duke of Aumarle of
treason.] I say (quoth he) that he was the verie cause of his death, and
so he appealed him of treason, offering by throwing downe his hood as a
gage to proue it with his bodie. There were twentie other lords also
that threw downe their hoods, as pledges to proue the like matter
against the duke of Aumarle. The duke of Aumarle threw downe his hood to
trie it against the lord Fitzwater, as against him that lied falselie,
in that he had charged him with, by that his appeale. These gages were
deliuered to the constable and marshall of England, and the parties put
vnder arrest.

The duke of Surrie stood vp also against the lord Fitzwater, auouching
that where he had said that the appellants were causers of the duke of
Glocesters death, it was false, for they were constrained to sue the
same appeale, in like manner as the said lord Fitzwater was compelled to
giue iudgement against the duke of Glocester, and the earle of Arundell;
so that the suing of the appeale was doone by constraint, and if he said
contrarie he lied: and therewith he threw downe his hood. The lord
Fitzwater answered herevnto, that he was not present in the parlement
house, when iudgement was giuen against them, and all the lords bare
witnesse thereof. Moreouer, where it was alledged that the duke of
Aumarle should send two of his seruants to Calis, to murther the duke of
Glocester, the said duke of Aumarle said, that if the duke of Norfolke
affirme it, he lied falselie, and that he would proue with his bodie,
throwing downe an other hood which he had borowed. The same was likewise
deliuered to the constable and marshall of England, [Sidenote:
_Fabian._] and the king licenced the duke of Norfolke to returne, that
he might arraigne his appeale. After this was Iohn Hall condemned of
treason by authoritie of the parlement, for that he had confessed
himself to be one of them that put the duke of Glocester to death at
Calis, and so on the mondaie following, [Sidenote: Iohn Hall executed.]
he was drawne from the Tower to Tiburne, and there hanged, bowelled,
headed, and quartered: his head being sent to Calis there to be set vp,
where the duke was murthered.

[Sidenote: _Iohn Stow._ The request of the commons.] On Wednesdaie
following, request was made by the commons, that sith king Richard had
resigned, and was lawfullie deposed from his roiall dignitie, he might
haue iudgement decréed against him, so as the realme were not troubled
by him, and that the causes of his deposing might be published through
the realme for satisfieng of the people: which demand was granted.
[Sidenote: _Hall._ A bold bishop and a faithfull.] Wherevpon the bishop
of Carleill, a man both learned, wise, and stout of stomach, boldlie
shewed foorth his opinion concerning that demand; affirming that there
was none amongst them woorthie or meet to giue iudgement vpon so noble a
prince as king Richard was, whom they had taken for their souereigne and
liege lord, by the space of two & twentie yeares and more; “And I assure
you (said he) there is not so ranke a traitor, nor so errant a théef,
nor yet so cruell a murtherer apprehended or deteined in prison for his
offense, but he shall be brought before the iustice to heare his
iudgement; and will ye procéed to the iudgement of an anointed king,
hearing neither his answer nor excuse? I say, that the duke of Lancaster
whom ye call king, hath more trespassed to K. Richard & his realme, than
king Richard hath doone either to him, or vs: for it is manifest & well
knowne, that the duke was banished the realme by K. Richard and his
councell, and by the iudgement of his owne father, for the space of ten
yeares, for what cause ye know, and yet without licence of king Richard,
he is returned againe into the realme, and (that is woorse) hath taken
vpon him the name, title, & preheminence of king, And therfore I say,
that you haue doone manifest wrong, to procéed in anie thing against
king Richard, without calling him openlie to his answer and defense.” ¶
As soone as the bishop had ended this tale, he was attached by the earle
marshall, and committed to ward in the abbei of saint Albons.

Moreouer, where the king had granted to the earle of Westmerland the
countie of Richmond, [Sidenote: The duke of Britaine.] the duke of
Britaine pretending a right thereto by an old title, had sent his
letters ouer vnto the estates assembled in this parlement, offering to
abide such order as the law would appoint in the like case to anie of
the kings subiects. Wherevpon the commons for the more suertie of the
intercourse of merchants, besought the king that the matter might be
committed to the ordering of the councell of either of the parties, and
of his counsell, so as an end might be had therein, which request was
likewise granted. After this, the records of the last parlement were
shewed, with the appeales, & the commission made to twelue persons, to
determine things that were motioned in the same last parlement.
Héerevpon the commons praied that they might haue iustice Markham, and
maister Gascoigne a sergeant at the law ioined with them for counsell,
touching the perusing of the records, which was granted them, and day
giuen ouer till the next morrow in the White-hall, where they sat about
these matters thrée daies togither.

On the morrow following, being the éeuen of Simon and Iude the apostles,
[Sidenote: K. Richard appointed to be kept in perpetuall prison.
_Hall._] the commons required to heare the iudgement of king Richard.
Wherevpon the archbishop of Canturburie appointed to speake, declared
how that the king that now is, had granted king Richard his life; but in
such wise as he should remaine in perpetuall prison, so safelie kept,
that neither the king nor realme should be troubled with him. It was
also concluded, that if anie man went about to deliuer him, that then he
should be the first that should die for it. After this, the commons
praied that the lords and other that were of king Richards counsell,
might be put to their answers for their sundrie misdemeanors, which was
granted. On Wednesday following, being the morrow after the feast of
Simon and Iude, all the processe of the parlement holden the 21 yéere of
king Richards reigne was read openlie, [Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.]
in which it was found, how the earle of Warwike had confessed himselfe
guiltie of treason, and asked pardon and mercie for his offense: but the
earle denied that euer he acknowledged anie such thing by woord of
mouth, and that he would prooue in what manner soeuer should be to him
appointed. Therein was also the appeale found of the dukes of Aumarle,
Surrie, and Excester, the marquesse Dorset, the earles of Salisburie and
Glocester; vnto the which ech of them answered by himselfe, that they
neuer assented to that appeale of their owne frée wils, but were
compelled thereto by the king: and this they affirmed by their othes,
and offered to prooue it by what manner they should be appointed.

[Sidenote: Sir Walter Clopton.] Sir Walter Clopton said then to the
commons; If ye will take aduantage of the processe of the last
parlement, take it, and ye shall be receiued therevnto. Then rose vp the
lord Morlie, and said to the earle of Salisburie, that he was chiefe of
counsell with the duke of Glocester, and likewise with king Richard, &
so discouered the dukes counsell to the king, as a traitor to his
maister, and that he said he would with his bodie prooue against him,
throwing downe his hood as a pledge. [Sidenote: The lord Morlie appeleth
the earle of Salisburie.] The earle of Salisburie sore mooued héerewith,
told the lord Morlie, that he falslie béelied him, for he was neuer
traitor, nor false to his maister all his life time, and therewith threw
downe his gloue to wage battell against the lord Morlie. Their gages
were taken vp, and deliuered to the constable and marshall of England,
and the parties were arrested, and day to them giuen till another time.

On Mondaie following, being the morrow after All soules day, the commons
made request, that they might not be entred in the parlement rols, as
parties to the iudgement giuen in this parlement, but there as in verie
truth they were priuie to the same: for the iudgement otherwise belonged
to the king, except where anie iudgment is giuen by statute enacted for
the profit of the common-wealth, which request was granted. Diuers other
petitions were presented on the behalfe of the commons, part whereof
were granted, and to some there was none answere made at that time.
Finallie, to auoid further inconuenience, and to qualifie the minds of
the enuious, [Sidenote: Dukes and others depriued of their titles.] it
was finallie enacted, that such as were appellants in the last parlement
against the duke of Glocester and other, should in this wise following
be ordred. The dukes of Aumarle, Surrie, and Excester there present,
were iudged to loose their names of dukes, togither with the honors,
titles and dignities therevnto belonging. The marquesse Dorset being
likewise there present, was adiudged to lose his title and dignitie of
marquesse; and the earle of Glocester being also present, was in
semblable maner iudged to lose his name, title and dignitie of earle.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._] Moreouer, it was further decréed against them,
that they and euerie of them should lose and forfeit all those castels,
lordships, manors, lands, possessions, rents, seruices, liberties and
reuenues, whatsoeuer had beene giuen to them, at or since the last
parlement, belonging aforetime to any of those persons whom they had
appealed, and all other their castels, manors, lordships, lands,
possessions, rents, seruices, liberties, and reuenues whatsoeuer, which
they held of the late kings gift, the daie of the arrest of the said
duke of Glocester, or at any time after, should also remaine in the
kings disposition from thencefoorth, and all letters patents and
charters, which they or any of them had of the same names, castels,
manors, lordships, lands, possessions, and liberties, should be
surrendered vp into the chancerie, there to be cancelled. Diuerse other
things were enacted in this parlement, to the preiudice of those high
estates, to satisfie mens minds that were sore displeased with their
dooings in the late kings daies, as now it manifestlie appéered.
[Sidenote: The hatred which the cōmons had cōmitted against the
appellāts.] For after it was vnderstood that they should be no further
punished than as before is mentioned, great murmuring rose among the
people against the king, the archbishop of Canturburie, the earle of
Northumberland, and other of the councell, for sauing the liues of men
whom the commons reputed most wicked, and not worthie in anie wise to
liue. But the king thought it best, rather with courtesie to reconcile
them, than by cutting them off by death to procure the hatred of their
freends and alies, which were manie, and of no small power.

After that the foresaid iudgement was declared with protestation by sir
William Thirning iustice, [Sidenote: The earle of Salisburie his
request.] the earle of Salisburie came and made request, that he might
haue his protestation entered against the lord Morlie, which lord Morlie
rising vp from his seat, said, that so he might not haue; bicause in his
first answer he made no protestation, and therefore he was past it now.
The earle praied day of aduisement, but the lord Morlie praied that he
might lose his aduantage, sith he had not entered sufficient plee
against him. [Sidenote: Sir Mathew Gournie.] Then sir Matthew Gournie
sitting vnderneath the king said to the earle of Salisburie, that
forsomuch as at the first day in your answers, ye made no protestation
at all, none is entered of record, and so you are past that aduantage:
and therefore asked him if he would asked him if he would saie any other
thing. [Sidenote: The earle of Salisburie mainprised.] Then the earle
desired that he might put in mainprise, which was granted: and so the
earle of Kent, sir Rafe Ferrers, sir Iohn Roch, & sir Iohn Draiton
knights, mainprised the said earle bodie for bodie. For the lord Morlie
all the lords and barons offred to vndertake, and to be suerties for
him; but yet foure of them had their names entered, that is to saie,
[Sidenote: The lord Morlie mainprised.] the lords Willoughbie,
Beauchampe, Scales, and Berkelie: they had day till the fridaie after to
make their libell.

[Sidenote: The lord Fitzwater.] After this came the lord Fitzwater, and
praied to haue day and place to arreigne his appeale against the earle
of Rutland. The king said he would send for the duke of Norffolke to
returne home, and then vpon his returne he said he would proceed in that
matter. Manie statutes were established in this parlement, as well
concerning the whole bodie of the common-wealth (as by the booke thereof
imprinted may appeare) as also concerning diuerse priuate persons then
presentlie liuing, which partlie we haue touched, and partlie for doubt
to be ouer-tedious, we doo omit. [Sidenote: The archb. of Canturburie
restored to his sée.] But this among other is not to be forgotten that
the archbishop of Canturburie was not onelie restored to his former
dignitie, being remooued from it by king Richard, who had procured one
Roger Walden to be placed therein (as before ye haue heard) but also the
said Walden was established Bishop of London, wherewith he séemed well
content.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._] [Sidenote: _Hall._] Moreouer, the kings eldest
sonne Henrie alreadie created (as heire to his father, and to the
crowne) prince of Wales, duke of Cornewall, [Sidenote: The crowne
intailed.] and earle of Chester, was also intituled duke of Aquitaine:
and to auoid all titles, claimes, and ambiguities, there was an act made
for the vniting of the crowne vnto king Henrie the fourth, and to the
heires of his bodie lawfullie begotten, his foure sonnes, Henrie,
Thomas, Iohn, and Humfrie, being named, as to whom the right should
descend successiuelie by waie of intaile, in case where heires failed to
any of them. By force of this act king Henrie thought himselfe firmelie
set on a sure foundation, not néeding to feare any storme of aduerse
fortune. But yet shortlie after he was put in danger to haue béene set
besides the seat, by a conspiracie begun in the abbat of Westminsters
house, which, had it not beene hindred, it is doubtfull whether the new
king should haue inioied his roialtie, or the old king (now a prisoner)
restored to his principalitie. But God (of whome the poet saith,

  ------------humana rotat
  Instar volu’cris pulueris acti
  Turbine celeri mobilis auræ)

had purposed a disappointment of their coniuration, and therefore no
maruell though the issue of their labours were infortunat by their
flattering hope.

But now to make an end with this parlement. After that things were
concluded and granted, so as was thought to stand with the suertie of
the king, and good quiet of the realme, the king granted a free pardon
to all his subiects, those excepted that were at the murther of the duke
of Glocester, and such as had committed wilfull murther, or rape, or
were knowne to be notorious théeues. And those that were to take benefit
by this pardon, were appointed to sue foorth the charters therof,
betwixt that present and the feast of All saints next insuing,
[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._] and so was this parlement dissolued.
Immediatlie after, the king (according to an order taken in the same
parlement, to giue to vnderstand vnto all princes and countries about
him, by what title and occasion he had taken to him the kingdome) sent
ambassadors vnto them to signifie the same. [Sidenote: Ambassadors sent
to forren princes.] Into Rome were sent, Iohn Treneuant bishop of
Hereford, sir Iohn Cheinie knight, & Iohn Cheinie esquier. Into France,
master Walter Skirlow bishop of Durham, and Thomas Persie earle of
Worcester. Into Spaine, Iohn Trenour bishop of saint Asaph, and sir
William Parre knight. Into Almanie the bishop of Bangor, and two others.

[Sidenote: The castell of Warke taken by the Scots. Sir Thom. Greie.]
The Scots in time of the late parlement, taking occasion of the absence
of the northerne lords, and also by reason of great mortalitie that
afflicted the northerne people that yeare, inuaded the borders, tooke
the castell of Warke, that was assigned to the safe keeping of sir
Thomas Greie knight, who then was at the parlement, as one of the
knights of the shire, by meanes of whose absence, the enimies the sooner
(as is to be thought) obteined their desire, and so kept that castell a
certeine time, and finallie spoiled it, and ouerthrew it to the ground.
Besides all this they did manie other mischeefes in the countrie,
[Sidenote: The death of the duke of Norffolke.] to the vndooing of manie
of the kings subiects. This yeare Thomas Mowbraie duke of Norffolke died
in exile at Venice, whose death might haue béene worthilie bewailed of
all the realme, [Sidenote: The duchesse of Glocester deceasseth.] if he
had not béene consenting to the death of the duke of Glocester. The same
yeare deceassed the duchesse of Glocester, thorough sorrow (as was
thought) which she conceiued for the losse of hir sonne and heire the
lord Humfrie, who being sent for foorth of Ireland (as before ye haue
heard) was taken with the pestilence, and died by the waie.

[Sidenote: _Hall._] But now to speake of the conspiracie, which was
contriued by the abbat of Westminster as chéefe instrument thereof. Ye
shall vnderstand, [Sidenote: What mooued the abbat of Westminster to
conspire against the king.] that this abbat (as it is reported) vpon a
time heard king Henrie saie, when he was but earle of Derbie, and yoonge
of yeares, that princes had too little, and religious men too much. He
therefore doubting now, least if the king continued long in the estate,
he would remooue the great beame that then greeued his eies, and pricked
his conscience, became an instrument to search out the minds of the
nobilitie, and to bring them to an assemblie and councell, where they
might consult and commen togither, how to bring that to effect, which
they earnestlie wished and desired; that was, the destruction of king
Henrie, and the restoring of king Richard. For there were diuerse lords
that shewed themselues outwardlie to fauor king Henrie, where they
secretlie wished & sought his confusion. The abbat after he had felt the
minds of sundrie of them, called to his house on a day in the terme
time, all such lords & other persons which he either knew or thought to
be as affectioned to king Richard, so enuious to the prosperitie of king
Henrie, whose names were, Iohn Holland earle of Huntington late duke of
Excester, [Sidenote: The lords that conspired against the duke.] Thomas
Holland earle of Kent late duke of Surrie, Edward earle of Rutland late
duke of Aumarle sonne to the duke of Yorke, Iohn Montacute earle of
Salisburie, Hugh lord Spenser late earle of Glocester, Iohn the bishop
of Carleill, sir Thomas Blunt, and Maudelen a priest one of king
Richards chappell, a man as like him in stature and proportion in all
lineaments of bodie, as vnlike in birth, dignitie, and conditions.

The abbat highlie feasted these lords, his speciall freends, and when
they had well dined, they withdrew into a secret chamber, where they sat
downe in councell, and after much talke & conference had about the
bringing of their purpose to passe concerning the destruction of king
Henrie, at length by the aduise of the earle of Huntington it was
deuised, [Sidenote: A iusts deuised to be holden at Oxford.] that they
should take vpon them a solemne iusts to be enterprised betweene him and
20 on his part, & the earle of Salisburie and 20 with him at Oxford, to
the which triumph k. Henrie should be desired, & when he should be most
busilie marking the martiall pastime, he suddenlie should be slaine and
destroied, and so by that means king Richard, who as yet liued, might be
restored to libertie, and haue his former estate & dignitie. It was
further appointed, who should assemble the people, the number and
persons which should accomplish and put in execution their deuised
enterprise. Hervpon was an indenture sextipartite made, sealed with
their seales, [Sidenote: An indenture sextipartite.] and signed with
their hands, in the which each stood bound to other, to do their whole
indeuour for the accomplishing of their purposed exploit. Moreouer, they
sware on the holie euangelists to be true and secret each to other, euen
to the houre and point of death.

[Sidenote: He is desired to come and see the iusts.] When all things
were thus appointed, the earle of Huntington came to the king vnto
Windsore, earnestlie requiring him, that hé would vouchsafe to be at
Brentford on the daie appointed of their iustes, both to behold the
same, and to be the discouerer and indifferent iudge (if anie ambiguitie
should rise) of their couragious acts and dooings. The king being thus
instantlie required of his brother in law, and nothing lesse imagining
than that which was pretended, gentlie granted to fulfill his request.
Which thing obteined, all the lords of the conspiracie departed home to
their houses, as they noised it, to set armorers on worke about the
trimming of their armour against the iusts, and to prepare all other
furniture and things readie, as to such a high & solemne triumph
apperteined. The earle of Huntington came to his house and raised men on
euerie side, and prepared horsse and harness for his compassed purpose,
and when he had all things readie, he departed towards Brenford, and at
his comming thither, he found all his mates and confederates there, well
appointed for their purpose, except the earle of Rutland, by whose
follie their practised conspiracie was brought to light and disclosed to
king Henrie. For this earle of Rutland departing before from Westminster
to sée his father the duke of Yorke, as he sat at dinner, had his
counterpane of the indenture of the confederacie in his bosome.

[Sidenote: The duke of Yorke taketh the indenture from his son.] The
father espieing it, would néeds sée what it was: and though the sonne
humblie denied to shew it, the father being more earnest to sée it, by
force tooke it out of his bosome; and perceiuing the contents thereof,
in a great rage caused his horsses to be sadled out of hand, and
spitefullie reproouing his sonne of treason, for whome he was become
suertie and mainpernour for his good abearing in open parlement, he
incontinentlie mounted on horssebacke to ride towards Windsore to the
king, to declare vnto him the malicious intent of his complices. The
earle of Rutland séeing in what danger he stood, tooke his horsse and
rode another waie to Windsore in post, so that he got thither before his
father, and when he was alighted at the castell gate, [Sidenote: The
earle of Rutland vttereth the whole conspiracie to the king.] he caused
the gates to be shut, saieing that he must néeds deliuer the keies to
the king. When he came before the kings presence, he kneeled downe on
his knées, beséeching him of mercie and forgiuenesse, and declaring the
whole matter vnto him in order as euerie thing had passed, obteined
pardon. Therewith came his father, and being let in, deliuered the
indenture which he had taken from his sonne, vnto the king, who thereby
perceiuing his sonnes words to be true, changed his purpose for his
going to Brenford, and dispatched messengers foorth to signifie vnto the
earle of Northumberland his high constable, and to the earle of
Westmerland his high marshall, and to other his assured freends, of all
the doubtfull danger and perillous ieopardie.

The conspirators being at Brenford, at length perceiued by the lacke of
the earle of Rutland, that their enterprise was reuealed to the king,
and therevpon determined now openlie with speare and shield to bring
that to passe which before they couertlie attempted, [Sidenote: Magdalen
counterfeited to be king Richard.] and so they adorned Maudelen, a man
most resembling king Richard, in roiall and princelie vesture, and named
him to be king Richard, affirming that by fauour of his kéepers he was
escaped out of prison, and so they came forwards in order of warre, to
the intent to destroie king Henrie. Whilest the confederators with their
new published idoll, accompanied with a strong armie of men, [Sidenote:
The K. cometh to the tower of London.] tooke the direct waie towards
Windsore, king Henrie admonished thereof, with a few horssemen in the
night came to the Tower of London about twelue of the clocke, where in
the morning he caused the maior of the citie to apparell in armour the
best and most couragious persons of the citie, which brought to him
thrée thousand archers, and three thousand bill-men, besides them that
were appointed to kéepe and defend the citie.

[Sidenote: The lords come to Windesore.] The conspirators comming to
Windsore, entered the castell, and vnderstanding that the king was gon
from thence to London, determined with all spéed to make towards the
citie: but changing that determination as they were on their waie, they
turned to Colbroke, [Sidenote: The king goeth foorth against them.] and
there staied. King Henrie issuing out of London with twentie thousand
men, came streight to Hunslo heath, and there pitched his campe to abide
the comming of his enimies: but when they were aduertised of the kings
puissance, [Sidenote: They retire.] amazed with feare, and forthinking
their begun enterprise, as men mistrusting their owne companie, departed
from thence to Berkhamstéed, [Sidenote: They come to Circester.] and so
to Circester, & there the lords tooke their lodging. The earle of Kent,
and the earle of Salisburie in one Inne, and the earle of Huntington and
lord Spenser in an other, and all the host laie in the fields,
[Sidenote: The bailiffe of Circester setteth vpon them on their
lodgings.] wherevpon in the night season, the bailiffe of the towne with
fourescore archers set on the house, where the erle of Kent and the
other laie, which house was manfullie assaulted and stronglie defended a
great space. [Sidenote: The lords set fire on their lodgings.] The earle
of Huntington being in an other Inne with the lord Spenser, set fire on
diuerse houses in the towne, thinking that the assailants would leaue
the assault and rescue their goods, which thing they nothing regarded.
The host lieng without, hearing noise, and seeing this fire in the
towne, [Sidenote: _Hall._ _Froissard._] thought verelie that king Henrie
had béene come thither with his puissance, and therevpon fled without
measure, euerie man making shift to saue himselfe, and so that which the
lords deuised for their helpe, wrought their destruction; for if the
armie that laie without the towne had not mistaken the matter, when they
saw the houses on fire, they might easilie haue succoured their
chéefeteins in the towne, that were assailed but with a few of the
townesmen, in comparison of the great multitude that laie abroad in the
fields. But such was the ordinance of the mightie Lord of hostes, who
disposeth althings at his pleasure.

The earle of Huntington and his companie seeing the force of the
townesmen to increase, fled out on the backside, intending to repaire to
the armie which they found dispersed and gone. Then the earle seeing no
hope of comfort, fled into Essex. The other lords which were left
fighting in the towne of Circester, were wounded to death and taken, and
their heads stricken off and sent to London. Thus writeth Hall of this
conspiracie, [Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._] in following what author I know
not. But Thomas Walsingham and diuerse other séeme somewhat to dissent
from him in relation of this matter; for they write that the
conspiratours ment vpon the sudden to haue set vpon the king in the
castell of Windsore, [Sidenote: A maske.] vnder colour of a maske or
mummerie, and so to have dispatched him; and restoring king Richard vnto
the kingdome, to haue recouered their former titles of honour, with the
possessions which they had lost by iudgement of the last parlement. But
the king getting knowledge of their pretensed treasons, got him with all
spéed vnto London.

The conspirators, to wit, the earles of Kent and Salisburie, sir Rafe
Lumlie, and others, supposing that the king had not vnderstood their
malicious purpose, [Sidenote: 1400.] [Sidenote: _Harding._] the first
sundaie of the new yeare, which fell in the octaues of the Innocents,
came in the twilight of the euening into Windsore with foure hundred
armed men, where vnderstanding that the king was withdrawne upon warning
had of their purposed intention, they forthwith returned backe, and came
first vnto Sunnings, a manor place not farre from Reading, where the
quéene wife to king Richard then laie. [Sidenote: The words of the earle
of Kent.] Here setting a good countenance of the matter, the earle of
Kent declared in presence of the queenes servants that the lord Henrie
of Lancaster was fled from his presence with his children and fréends,
and had shut up himselfe & them in the Tower of London, as one afraid to
come abroad, for all the brags made heretofore of his manhood: and
therefore (saith he) my intention is (my lords) to go to Richard that
was, is, and shall be our king, who being alreadie escaped foorth of
prison, lieth now at Pomfret, with an hundred thousand men. And to cause
his spéech the better to be beléeued, he tooke awaie the kings
cognisances from them that ware the same, as the collars from their
necks, and the badges of cressants from the sleeues of the seruants of
houshold, and throwing them awaie, said that such cognisances were no
longer to be borne.

Thus hauing put the quéene in a vaine hope of that which was nothing so,
they departed from thence vnto Wallingford, and after to Abington,
intising the people by all meanes possible vnto rebellion, all the waie
as they went, and sending their agents abroad for the same purpose: at
length they came to Circester in the darke of the night, and tooke vp
their lodgings. The inhabitants of that towne suspecting the matter, and
iudging (as the truth was) these rumors which the lords spred abroad to
be but dreams, they tooke therevpon counsell togither, got them to
armor, and stopped all the entries and outgates of the Innes where these
new ghestes were lodged, insomuch that when they about midnight
secretlie attempted to haue come foorth, and gone their waies, the
townesmen with bow and arrowes were readie to slaie them, and keepe them
in. The lords perceiuing the danger, got them to their armor and
weapons, and did their best by force to breake through and repell the
townesmen. But after they had fought from midnight till three of the
clocke in the afternoone of the next daie, and perceiued they could not
preuaile, they yeelded themselues to the townesmen, [Sidenote: The lords
yéeld themselues.] beseeching them to haue their liues saued, till they
might come to the kings presence.

[Sidenote: A priest set fire on the houses of Circester.] This request
they had obteined, if a préest that was chapleine to one of them, had
not in the meane time set fire vpon certeine houses in the towne, to the
end that whiles the townesmen should busie themselues to quench the
fire, the lords might find meanes to escape. But it came nothing to
passe as he imagined, for the townesmen leauing all care to saue their
houses from the rage of the fire, were kindled more in furie towards the
lords, and so to reuenge themselves of them, they brought them foorth of
the abbei where they had them in their hands, [Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out
of _Tho. Walsin._ pag. 404.] and in the twilight of the euening, stroke
of their heads. ¶ The earle of Salisburie (saith Thomas Walsingham) who
in all his life time had béene a fauourer of the Lollards or
Wickleuists, a despiser of images, a contemner of canons, and a scorner
of the sacraments, ended his daies (as it was reported) without the
*sacrament of confession. [Sidenote *: He died vnconfessed.] These be
the words of Thom. Wals. which are set downe, to signifie that the earle
of Salisburie was a bidden ghest to blockham feast with the rest: and
(as it should séeme by his relation) the more maligned, bicause he was
somwhat estranged fro the corruption of the religion then receiued, and
leaned to a sect pursued with spitefulnesse and reuenge.

[Sidenote: The lords beheaded.] Iohn Holland earle of Huntington (as
Thomas Walsingham writeth) was not with the lords at the castell of
Windsore, but staied about London to behold the end of his businesse:
and hearing how the matter went, farre contrarie to that he wished, he
sought to flie by sea; but not able to get awaie, by reason the wind
being contrarie would not permit him, [Sidenote: _Chr. S. Alb._] he
tooke his horsse, and hauing a knight with him called sir Iohn Shellie,
he road into Essex, attempting to haue fled from thence by sea: but
still the wind was so against him, that he was continuallie driuen backe
when he was about to make saile, and so comming againe to land,
[Sidenote: The earle of Huntington taken.] he was taken one euening at
Pitwell in Essex, in a mill (that belonged to one of his trustie
fréends) as he sat there at supper, togither with the said sir Iohn
Shellie. The commons of the countrie that tooke him, brought him first
to Chelmesford, and after to Plashie, [Sidenote: He is beheaded.] where
on the daie of S. Maurie, that is the fiftéenth of Ianuarie, about sun
setting he was beheaded, in the verie place in which the duke of
Glocester was arrested by king Richard. He confessed with lamentable
repentance (as writers doo record) that diuers & manie waies he had
offended God and his prince, because that vnderstanding the purpose of
the other lords, he had not reuealed the same.

[Sidenote *: Thomas Spenser, saith _Wal._ & others.] The lord *Hugh
Spenser, otherwise called earle of Glocester, as he would haue fled into
Wales, was taken and carried to Bristow, [Sidenote: _Hall._] where
(according to the earnest desires of the commons) he was beheaded.
Maudelen fléeing into Scotland, was taken by the waie, and brought to
the Tower. Manie other that were priuie to this conspiracie, [Sidenote:
Execution.] were taken, and put to death, some at Oxford, as sir Thomas
Blunt, sir Benet Cilie knight, and Thomas Wintercell esquier; but sir
Leonard Brokas, and sir Iohn Shellie knights, Iohn Maudelen, and William
Ferbie chapleins, were drawne, hanged, and beheaded at London.
[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsing._ _Hall._] There were ninetéene in all executed
in one place and other, and the heads of the cheefe conspirators were
set on polles ouer London bridge, to the terror of others. Shortlie
after, the abbat of Westminster, [Sidenote: The abbat of Westminster
dieth suddēlie. _Thom. Wals._] in whose house the conspiracie was begun
(as is said) gooing betweene his monasterie & mansion, for thought fell
into a sudden palsie, and shortlie after, without speech, ended his
life. The bishop of Carleill was impeached, [Sidenote: The bishop of
Carleill dieth through feare, or rather thorough gréefe of mind, to sée
the wicked prosper as he tooke it. _Hall._] and condemned of the same
conspiracie; but the King of his mercifull clemencie, pardoned him of
that offense, although he died shortly after, more through feare than
force or sicknesse, as some haue written. Thus all the associats of this
vnhappie conspiracie tasted the painefull penance of their plesant
pastime.

Thus haue yee heard what writers haue recorded of this matter, with some
difference betwixt them that write, how the king should haue béene made
awaie at a iusts; and other that testifie, how it should haue béene at a
maske or mummerie: but whether they meant to haue dispatched him at a
mumming, or at a iusts, their purpose being reuealed by the earle of
Rutland, they were brought to confusion (as before yée haue heard.) And
immediatlie after, king Henrie, to rid himselfe of anie such like danger
to be attempted against him thereafter, caused king Richard to die of a
violent death, that no man should afterward faine himselfe to represent
his person, [Sidenote: The sundrie reports of K. Richar. death.] though
some haue said, he was not priuie to that wicked offense. The common
fame is, that he was euerie daie serued at the table with costlie meat,
like a king, to the intent that no creature should suspect anie thing
done contrarie to the order taken in the parlement; and when the meat
was set before him, he was forbidden once to touch it; yea, he was not
permitted so much as to smell to it, and so he died of forced famine.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Thom. Walsi._ pag. 404, 405.] ¶ But Thomas
Walsingham is so farre from imputing his death to compoulsorie famine,
that he referreth it altogether to voluntarie pining of himselfe. For
when he heard that the complots and attempts of such his fauourers, as
sought his restitution, and their owne aduancement, annihilated; and the
chéefe agents shamefullie executed; he tooke such a conceit at these
misfortunes (for so Thomas Walsingham termed them) and was so beaten out
of hart, that wilfullie he starued himselfe, and so died in Pomfret
castell on S. Valentines daie: a happie daie to him, for it was the
beginning of his ease, and the ending of his paine: so that death was to
him daintie and swéet, as the poet saith, and that verie well in bréefe,
[Sidenote: _Corn. Gall._]

  Dulce mori miseris,
  Neque est melius morte in malis rebus.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsin._ Sir Piers de Exton a murtherer of King
Richard.] One writer, which séemeth to haue great knowledge of king
Richards dooings, saith, that king Henrie, sitting on a daie at his
table, sore sighing, said, “Have I no faithfull fréend which will
deliuer me of him, whose life will be my death, and whose death will be
the preseruation of my life;” This saieng was much noted of them which
were present, and especiallie of one called sir Piers of Exton. This
knight incontinentlie departed from the court, with eight strong persons
in his companie, and came to Pomfret, commanding the esquier that was
accustomed to sew and take the assaie before king Richard, to doo so no
more, saieng; “Let him eat now, for he shall not long eat.” King Richard
sat downe to dinner, and was serued without courtesie or assaie,
wherevpon much maruelling at the sudden change, he demanded of the
esquier whie he did not his dutie; “Sir (said he) I am otherwise
commanded by sir Piers of Exton, which is newlie come from K. Henrie.”
When king Richard heard that word, he tooke the keruing knife in his
hand, and strake the esquier on the head, saieng The diuell take Henrie
of Lancaster and thée togither. And with that word, sir Piers entred the
chamber, well armed, with eight tall men likewise armed, euerie of them
hauing a bill in his hand.

King Richard perceiuing this, put the table from him, & steping to the
formost man, wrung the bill out of his hands, & so valiantlie defended
himselfe, [Sidenote: The desperat manhood of king Richard.] that he slue
foure of those that thus came to assaile him. Sir Piers being halfe
dismaied herewith, lept into the chaire where king Richard was wont to
sit, while the other foure persons fought with him, and chased him about
the chamber. And in conclusion, as king Richard trauersed his ground,
from one side of the chamber to an other, [Sidenote: K. Richard
murthered.] & comming by the chaire, where sir Piers stood, he was
felled with a stroke of a pollax which sir Piers gaue him upon the head,
and therewith rid him out of life, without giuing him respit once to
call to God for mercie of his passed offenses. It is said, that sir
Piers of Exton, after he had thus slaine him, wept right bitterlie, as
one striken with the pricke of a giltie conscience, for murthering him,
whome he had so long time obeied as king. After he was thus dead, his
bodie was imbalmed, and séered, and couered with lead, all saue the
face, to the intent that all men might sée him, and perceiue that he was
departed this life: for as the corps was conueied from Pomfret to
London, in all the townes and places where those that had the conueiance
of it did staie with it all night, they caused dirige to be soong in the
euening, and masse of requiem in the morning; and as well after the one
seruice as the other, his face discouered, was shewed to all that
courted to behold it.

[Sidenote: The dead bodie of K. Richard brought to the Tower.] Thus was
the corps first brought to the Tower, and after through the citie, to
the cathedrall church of saint Paule bare faced, where it laie thrée
daies togither, that all men might behold it. There was a solemne
obsequie doone for him, both at Paules, and after at Wesminster, at
which time, both at dirige ouernight, and in the morning at the masse of
requiem, [Sidenote: He is buried at Langlie.] the king and the citizens
of London were present. When the same was ended, the corps was commanded
to be had vnto Langlie, there to be buried in the church of the friers
preachers. The bishop of Chester, the abbats of saint Albons and
Waltham, celebrated the exequies for the buriall, none of the nobles nor
anie of the commons (to accompt of) being present: neither was there
anie to bid them to dinner after they had laid him in the ground, and
finished the funerall seruice. He was after by king Henrie the fift
remooued to Westminster, and there honorablie intoomed with quéene Anne
his wife, although the Scots vntrulie write, that he escaped out of
prison, and led a vertuous and a solitarie life in Scotland, and there
died, [Sidenote: Abr. Fl. out of Fabian pag. 378.] & is buried (as they
hold) in the blacke friers at Sterling. ¶ But Fabian and others doo as
it were point out the place of his interrement, saieng that he lieth
intoomed on the south side of saint Edwards shrine, with an epitaph
expressing partlie his proportion of bodie and partlie his properties of
mind, as after followeth in a rimed hexastichon:

  Prudens & mundus, Richardus iure secundus,
  Perfatum victus, iacet hîc sub marmore pictus,
  Verax sermone, fuit & plenus ratione,
  Corpore procerus, animo prudens vt Homerus,
  Ecclesiæ fauit, elatus suppeditauit,
  Quemuis prostrauit, regalia qui violauit.

[Sidenote: Forren princes not without cause abhorre to heare of the
shamefull murther of king Richard.] When the newes of king Richards
deposing was reported in France, king Charles and all his court
woondering, detested and abhorred such an iniurie doone to an annointed
king, to a crowned prince, and to the head of a realme: but in
especiall, Walerane earle of saint Paule, which had married king
Richards halfe sister, mooued with great disdaine towards king Henrie,
ceassed not to stirre king Charles & his councell to make warres against
the Englishmen, and he himselfe sent letters of defiance into England.
The earles sute was easilie agréed vnto, and an armie roiall appointed
with all speed, to inuade England. The armie was come downe into
Picardie, redie to be transported into England: but when it was
certeinelie knowen, that king Richard was dead, and that the enterprise
of his deliuerance (which was chéeflie meant) was frustrate and void,
the armie was dissolued. But when the certeintie of K. Richards death
was intimate to the Gascoignes, [Sidenote: How the Gascoignes tooke the
death of K. Richard.] the most part of the the wisest men of the
countrie were right pensiue: for they iudged verelie, that hereby the
English nation should be brought to dishonour, and losse of their
ancient fame and glorie, for committing so heinous an offense against
their king and souereigne lord, the memorie whereof (as they thought)
would neuer die: and cheeflie, the citizens of Burdeaux tooke the matter
verie sore at the stomach: for they bare excéeding fauour to king
Richard, because he was borne and brought vp in their citie, and
therefore more than all the residue they shewed themselves to abhorre so
heinous a déed.

The Frenchmen hauing understanding hereof, thought with themselues that
now was the time for them to practise with the Gascoignes to reduce them
from the English obeisance, vnder their subiection. [Sidenote: The duke
of Bourbon.] Herevpon came Lewes duke of Burbon vnto Agen, and wrote to
diuerse cities and townes, on the confines of Guien, exhorting them with
large promises, and faire sugred words, to reuolt from the Englishmen,
and to become subiects to the crowne of France; but his trauell
preuailed not: for the people vnderstanding that the English yoke was
but easie in comparison to the French bondage, determined to abide
rather in their old subiection, [Sidenote: _Froissard._] than for a
displeasure irrecouerable to aduenture themselues on a new doubtfull
perill; yet it was doubted, least the cities of Burdeaux, Dar, and
Baion, would haue reuolted, if the lords of the marches about those
places had leaned to them in that purpose, for they sent their
commissioners to Agen, to treate with the duke of Burbon. But forsomuch
as the lords, Pomiers, Mucident, Duras, Landuras, Copane, Rosem, &
Langurant, were minded to continue still English, those cities durst not
without them turne to the French obeisance, for they could not haue
stirred out of their gates, but those lords would haue béene readie at
their elbowes, to haue caught them by the sléeues.

King Henrie being aduertised of the Frenchmens couert meanings, and also
of the wauering minds of the Gascoignes, sent Thomas Persie earle of
Worcester with two hundred men of armes, and four hundred archers into
Guien, to aid and assist sir Robert Knols, his lieutenant there.
[Sidenote: _Polydor._ _Froissard._] The chiefest capteines that
accompanied the earle in this iournie were these: first, his nephew sir
Hugh Hastings, sir Thomas Colleuill, sir William Lisle, Iohn de Graillie
base sonne to the capitall de Boeuf, sir William Draiton, sir Iohn
Daubreticourt: also there went with him the bishop of London and master
Richard Doall or Dolleie. [Sidenote: The earle of Worcester sent into
Gascoigne.] The earle at his arriual so wiselie intreated the noble men,
so grauelie persuaded the magistrats of the cities and townes, and so
gentlie and familiarlie vsed and treated the commons, that he not onelie
appeased their furie and malice, but brought them to louing and vniforme
obeisance, receiuing of them othes of obedience, & loiall fealtie, which
doone, he returned againe into England with great thanks.

The French king perceiuing he could not bring his purpose about,
[Sidenote: Ambassadors from the French king.] neither by inuading
England, nor by practising with the Gascoignes, sent a solemne ambassage
into England, requiring to haue his daughter the ladie Isabell, sometime
espoused to king Richard, restored to him againe. King Henrie gentlie
receiued those that were sent to him about this message, [Sidenote:
_Abr. Fl._ out of Fabian, pag. 364.] and for answer, promised to send
his commissioners vnto Calis, which should further commune and conclude
with them. ¶ This séemeth dissonant from the report of Fabian deriued
out of Gagwine. For he saith that Charles hearing of the suppression of
K. Richard, sent 2 of his houshold knights into England, requiring king
Henrie the fourth, then newlie made king, to send home his daughter
Isabell, latelie married vnto king Richard, with such dowrie as with hir
was promised. In dooing of which message king Henrie took such
displeasure, that he threw the said two knights in prison; where through
one of them (named Blanchet) died in England, and, the other called
Henrie, after great sicknesse returned into France: wherefore if Fabian
plaie not the fabler, those that were sent on the said message were not
gentlie receiued of king Henrie; vnlesse to be cast in prison and
discourteouslie dealt withall stand countable for beneuolence & gentle
interteinment. But to remit this and the like variances among writers to
such as can reconcile them, let vs returne to the storie.

It was not inough that K. Henrie was thus troubled now in the first yere
of his reigne, with ciuill sedition, and the couert practises of
Frenchmen; but that the Scots also tooke vpon them to make open warre
against him: it chanced (as in the Scotish chronicles more at large
appeareth) that George of Dunbar, [Sidenote: George earle of March
fléeth into England.] earle of the marches of Scotland, being in
displeasure with Robert king of Scots, fled into England, to Henrie
earle of Northumberland, whervpon the Scotish king depriued him of all
his dignities and possessions, and caused his goods to be confiscate,
and after wrote to the king of England, requiring him if he would haue
the truce anie longer to continue, [Sidenote: The answer of king Henrie
to the Scotish ambassadors.] either to deliuer into his possession the
earle of March and other traitors to his person, or else to banish them
out of his realmes and dominions. King Henrie discréetly answerd the
herald of Scotland, that the words of a prince ought to be kept: and his
writings and seale to be inuiolate: and considering that he had granted
a safe conduct to the earle and his companie, [Sidenote: Open warre
proclaimed by the king of Scots against England. _Thom. Wals._] he
should neither without cause reasonable breake his promise, nor yet
deface his honor. Which answer declared to the king of Scots, he
incontinentlie proclaimed open warre against the king of England, with
fire and sword. Herevpon, one sir Robert Logon, a Scotish knight, with
certeine ships well appointed for the warre, meant to haue destroied the
English fléet that was come on the coasts of Scotland, about Aberden, to
fish there: [Sidenote: Robert Logon taken prisoner.] but (as it chanced)
he met with certeine ships of Lin, that fought with him, and tooke him
prisoner, with the residue of his companie, so that he quite failed of
his purpose, and came to the losse himselfe.

[Sidenote: The Iles of Orkenie spoiled by Englishmen.] At the same time,
the Englishmen spoiled also certeine of the Iles of Orkenie. [Sidenote:
Mortalitie of people.] This summer, great death chanced in this land,
manie dieing of the pestilence, wherewith sundrie places were infected.
King Henrie perceiuing that policie oftentimes preuenteth perill,
[Sidenote: King Henrie inuadeth Scotland.] and vnderstanding the
naughtie purposes of the Scots, gathered a great armie, and entred into
Scotland, burning townes, villages, and castels, with a great part of
the townes of Edenburgh and Léeth, [Sidenote: The duke of Rothsaie.] and
besieged the castell of Edenburgh in the end of September, whereof was
capteine Dauid duke of Rothsaie, and a prince of the realme, with
Archembald earle of Dowglas, [Sidenote: The duke of Albanie.] hauing
with them manie hardie men of warre. Robert duke of Albanie, that was
appointed gouernour of the realme, because the king was sicke and not
méet to rule, sent an herald vnto king Henrie, [Sidenote: _Anno Reg._
2.] promising him battell within six daies at the furthest, if he would
so long tarrie, which king Henrie promised to doo right gladlie, and
gaue to the herald for bringing him so acceptable newes, a gowne of
silke, and a cheine of gold. But king Henrie staied six daies, and
sixtéene too, without hearing any word of the gouernors comming. Then
the winter beginning to wax cold, and foule weather still increasing,
caused the king to breake vp his siege, and so returned without battell
or skirmish offered.

[Sidenote: King Henrie returneth home. The Scots burne in
Northumberland.] In the meane time that the king was thus in Scotland,
the Scots made a rode into Northumberland, and burned diuerse townes in
Bamburroughshire. At the kings comming backe to Yorke, there were two
strangers, the one a Frenchman, [Sidenote: Iusts at Yorke.] and the
other an Italian, requiring to accomplish certeine feats of armes,
against sir Iohn Cornewall, and Ianico de Artois. [Sidenote: Sir Iohn
Cornewall marrieth the kings sister.] Their request was granted, and the
strangers were put to the worst, whereby sir Iohn Cornewall obteined the
kings fauour so farre foorth, that he married the kings sister, the
widow of Iohn Holland, earle of Huntington. Yet some said, that the
knight and the countesse were agréed aforehand, without the kings
consent. In the kings absence, [Sidenote: The welshmen rebell by the
setting on of Owen Glendouer.] whilest he was foorth of the realme in
Scotland against his enimies, the Welshmen tooke occasion to rebell
vnder the conduct of their capteine Owen Glendouer, [Sidenote: _Iohn
Stow._] [Sidenote: Owen Glendouer what he was.] dooing what mischeefe
they could deuise, vnto their English neighbours. This Owen Glendouer
was sonne to an esquier of Wales, named Griffith Vichan: he dwelled in
the parish of Conwaie, within the countie of Merioneth in North Wales,
in a place called Glindourwie, which is as much to saie in English, as
The vallie by the side of the water of Dée, by occasion whereof he was
surnamed Glindour Dew.

He was first set to studie the lawes of the realme, and became an vtter
barrester, or an apprentise of the law (as they terme him) and serued
king Richard at Flint castell, when he was taken by Henrie duke of
Lancaster, [Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._] though other haue written that he
serued this king Henrie the fourth, before he came to atteine the
crowne, in roome of an esquier, and after, by reason of variance that
rose betwixt him and the lord Reginald Greie of Ruthin, about the lands
which he claimed to be his by right of inheritance: when he saw that he
might not preuaile, [Sidenote: The ocassion that mooued him to rebell.]
finding no such fauor in his sute as he looked for, he first made warre
against the said lord Greie, wasting his lands and possessions with fire
and sword, [Sidenote: The king entreth into wales, meaning to chastise
the rebels.] cruellie killing his seruants and tenants. The king
aduertised of such rebellious exploits, enterprised by the said Owen,
and his vnrulie complices, determined to chastise them, as disturbers of
his peace, and so with an armie entered into Wales; but the Welshmen
with their capteine withdrew into the mounteines of Snowdon, so to
escape the reuenge, which the king meant towards them. The king
therefore did much hurt in the countries with fire and sword, sleing
diuerse that with weapon in hand came foorth to resist him, and so with
a great bootie of beasts and cattell he returned.

[Sidenote: The emperor of Constantinople cōmeth into Englād.] The
emperour of Constantinople comming into England to sue for aid against
the Turkes, was met by the king on Blackeheath, vpon the feast day of
saint Thomas the apostle, and brought vnto London with great honor. The
king bare all his charges, presenting him with gifts at his departure,
[Sidenote: 1401] [Sidenote: A Parlement.] meet for such an estate. After
the feast of the Epiphanie, a parlement was holden, in which an act was
made, against those that held opinions in religion, contrarie to the
receiued doctrine of the church of Rome; ordeining, that wheresoeuer any
of them were found and prooued to set foorth such doctrine, they should
be apprehended, and deliuered to the bishop their diocesane; and if they
stood stiffelie in their opinions, and would not be reformed, [Sidenote:
One burnt in Smithfield.] they should be deliuered to the secular power,
to be burnt to ashes. The first that tasted the smart of this statute,
was one William Hawtrée or Sawtrée a priest, that being apprehended was
burnt in Smithfield, in time of this parlement.

[Sidenote: Additions of the chronicles of Flanders.] About the same
time, king Henrie according to promise made (as ye have heard) vnto the
French ambassadors, sent ouer into the countrie of Guisnes, [Sidenote:
There was also the erle of Deuonshire, as _Froissard_ saith.] Edward
earle of Rutland, otherwise in king Richards daies intitled duke of
Aumarle, son to Edmund duke of Yorke, Henrie earle of Northumberland,
and his sonne the lord Henrie Persie, the lord Yuan Fitzwarren, the
bishops of Winchester and Lincolne: where the duke of Burbon, [Sidenote:
The hath _Froissard_. Commissioners met to treat of peace.] the lords
Charles d’Albert, Charles de Hangest, Iohn de Chastelmorant, the
Patriarche of Ierusalem, and the bishops of Paris and Beauuois, were
readie there to commune with them, and so they assembling togither at
sundrie times and places, the Frenchmen required to haue queene Isabell
to them restored, but the Englishmen séemed loth to depart with hir,
requiring to haue hir married to Henrie Prince of Wales, [Sidenote: The
French king troubled with a frensie.] one in bloud and age in all things
to hir equall; but the Frenchmen would in no wise condescend thereto,
without their kings consent, who at that present was not in case to
vtter his mind, being troubled with his woonted disease. The
commissioners then began treat of peace, [Sidenote: Truce for 26
yeares.] and at length renewed the truce to endure for six and twentie
yeares yet to come; wherevnto the foure yeares passed being added, made
vp the number of thirtie yeares, according to the conclusion agreed
vpon, in the life time of king Richard.

[Sidenote: _Hall._] Some authors affirme, that there was a new league
concluded, [Sidenote: The Frenchmen demand a dower for quéene Isabell.]
to continue, during the liues of both the princes. The Frenchmen diuerse
times required to haue some dower assigned foorth for queene Isabell,
but that was at all times vtterlie denied, for that the marriage betwixt
hir and king Richard was neuer consummate, by reason whereof she was not
dowable. Neuerthelesse, she was shortlie after sent home, vnder the
conduct of the earle of Worcester, associat with diuerse other noble and
honorable personages, both men and women, hauing with hir all the
iewels, ornaments, [Sidenote: Additions of the chron. of Flanders.] and
plate which she brought into England, with a great surplusage besides
giuen to hir by the king. She was deliuered betwixt Bullongne and Calis,
to Valeran earle of saint Paule, [Sidenote: She is deliuered home.] the
French kings lieutenant in Picardie, who being accompanied with the
bishop of Chartres, the lord de Hugueuile, the ladie of Monpensier
sister to the erle of March, the ladie of Lucenburgh sister to the said
earle of saint Paule, & diuerse other ladies and gentlewomen, which
receiued hir with great ioy and gladnesse, and taking leaue of the
English lords and ladies, they conueied hir to the dukes of Burgognie
and Burbon, [Sidenote: She is conueied to Paris.] that attended for hir,
not far off, upon a hill, with a great number of people. They first
conueied hir to Bullogne, & after to Abuile, from whence the duke of
Orleance conueied hir to Paris, vnto the presence of the king hir
father, [Sidenote: Hir second marriage.] and the queene hir mother: she
was after giuen in marriage vnto Charles, sonne to Lewes duke of
Orleance. [Sidenote: _Anno Reg._ 3. Owen Glendouer.] About the same
time, Owen Glendouer and his Welshmen did much hurt to the kings
subiects. One night as the king was going to bed, [Sidenote: The danger
of the king to haue béene destroied.] he was in danger to haue beene
destroied; for some naughtie traitorous persons had conueied into his
bed a certeine iron made with smiths craft, like a caltrop, with three
long prickes, sharp and small, standing vpright, it such sort, that when
he had laid him downe, & that the weight of his bodie should come vpon
the bed, he should have beene thrust in with those pricks, and
peraduenture slaine: but as God would, the king not thinking of any such
thing, chanced yet to féele and perceiue the instrument before he laid
him downe, and so escaped the danger. ¶ Howbeit he was not so soone
deliuered from feare; for he might well haue his life in suspicion, &
prouide for the preseruation of the same; sith perils of death crept
into his secret chamber, and laie lurking in the bed of downe where his
bodie was to be reposed and to take rest. Oh what a suspected state
therefore is that of a king holding his regiment with the hatred of his
people, the hart grudgings of his courtiers, and the peremtorie
practises of both togither? Could he confidentlie compose or setle
himselfe to sleepe for feare of strangling? Durst he boldly eat and
drinke without dread of poisoning? Might he aduenture to shew himselfe
in great méetings or solemne assemblies without mistrust of mischeefe
against his person intended? What pleasure or what felicitie could he
take in his princelie pompe, which he knew by manifest and fearfull
experience, to be enuied and maligned to the verie death? The state of
such a king is noted by the poet in Dionysius, as in a mirror,
[Sidenote: _Hor. lib. ca. 3, Ode. 1._] concerning whom it is said,

  Districtus ensis cui super impia
  Ceruice pendet, non Siculæ dapes
  Dulcem elaborabunt saporem,
  Non auium cytharæq. cantus.

[Sidenote: 1402.] [Sidenote: The earle of Warwike depareth this life. A
blasing starre.] This yeare, the eight day of April deceassed the lord
Thomas Beauchampe earle of Warwike. In the moneth of March appeared a
blasing starre, first betwéene the east part of the firmament and the
North, flashing foorth fire and flames round about it, and lastlie
shooting foorth fierie beams towards the north, foreshewing (as was
thought) the great effusion of bloud that followed, about the parts of
Wales and Northumberland. For much about the same time, Owen Glendouer
(with his Welshmen) fought with the lord Greie of Ruthen, comming foorth
to defend his possessions, which the same Owen wasted and destroied: and
as the fortune of that daies worke fell out, [Sidenote: The lord Greie
of Ruthen taken in fight by Owē Glendouer] the lord Greie was taken
prisoner, and manie of his men were slaine. This hap lifted the Welshmen
into high pride, and increased meruelouslie their wicked and
presumptuous attempts.

About Whitsuntide a conspiracie was deuised by certeine persons, that
wished the kings death, [Sidenote: A brute was spred abroad that king
Richard was liuing.] mainteining and bruting abroad, that king Richard
was aliue, and therefore exhorted men to stand with him, [Sidenote: A
priest takē.] for shortlie he would come to light, and reward such as
tooke his part with iust recompense. Herewith, there was a priest taken
at Ware, or (as some books haue) at Warwike, who had a kalendar or roll,
in which a great number of Names were written, more than were in any
wise guiltie of the fact, as afterwards appeared by the same priests
confession. For being examined, whether he knew such persons as he had
so inrolled, & were there present before him, he said he neuer knew them
at all; and being demanded wherefore he had then so recorded their
names, he answered, because he thought they would gladlie doo what
mischief they could against king Henrie, vpon any occasion offered in
reuenge of the iniuries doone to king Richard, by whom they had beene
aduanced, and princelie preferred. When therefore there appeared no more
credit in the man, [Sidenote: He is executed.] he was condemned, drawen,
hanged, and quartered, and diuerse that had beene apprehended about that
matter, were released, and set at libertie. [Sidenote: The prior of
Laund apprehended.] Shortlie after, the prior of Laund (who for his euil
gouernment had béene depriued of his state and dignitie) was likewise
executed, not for attempting any thing of himselfe, but onlie for that
he confessed, that he knew euil counsell and concealed it. His name was
Walter Baldocke, a canon sometime in Dunstable, and by king Richard
promoted to the priorship of Laund.

[Sidenote: Greie friers apprehended.] Also the same time, certeine greie
friers were apprehended for treason which they had deuised to bring to
passe, and one of them, whose name was Richard Frisebie, being asked
what he would doo if king Richard had béene aliue, and present with
them, answered stoutlie, that he would fight against any man in his
quarrell; euen to death. [Sidenote: A greie frier hanged in his habit.]
Herevpon, he was condemned, drawen, and hanged in his friers wéed, to
the great confusion of his brethren; but they made earnest instance to
haue his bodie taken downe, and buried with diriges and exequies, and
had their sute granted. [Sidenote: Sir Roger Claringdon.] Sir Roger of
Claringdon knight was also put to death about this conspiracie, with two
of his seruants, the one an esquier, the other a yeoman. He was base
sonne (as was reported) vnto Edward, eldest sonne to king Edward the
third, [Sidenote: The diuell appeareth in likenesse of a greie frier.]
surnamed the blacke prince. On Corpus Christi daie at euensong time, the
diuell (as was thought) appeared in a towne of Essex called Danburie,
entring into the church in likenesse of a greie frier, behauing himselfe
verie outragiouslie, plaieng his parts like a diuell indéed, so that the
parishioners were put in a maruellous great fright.

At the same instant, there chanced such a tempest of wind, thunder, and
lightning, that the highest part of the roofe of that church was blowen
downe, and the chancell was all to shaken, rent, and torne in péeces.
[Sidenote: Eight friers executed.] Within a small while after, eight of
those greie friers that had practised treason against the king were
brought to open iudgement, and conuicted were drawen and headed at
London; and two other suffered at Leicester, all which persons had
published king Richard to be aliue. Owen Glendouer, according to his
accustomed manner, robbing and spoiling within the English borders,
caused all the forces of the shire of Hereford to assemble togither
against them, vnder the conduct of Edmund Mortimer earle of March. But
cōming to trie the matter by battell, [Sidenote: The earle of March
taken prisoner in batell by Owen Glendouer.] whether by treason or
otherwise, so it fortuned, that the English power was discomfited, the
earle taken prisoner, and aboue a thousand of his people slaine in the
place. The shamefull villanie vsed by the Welshwomen towards the dead
carcasses, was such, as honest eares would be ashamed to heare, and
continent toongs to speake thereof. The dead bodies might not be buried,
without great summes of monie giuen for libertie to conueie them awaie.

[Sidenote: The suspicion of K. Henrie grounded vpō a guiltie
conscience.] The king was not hastie to purchase the deliuerance of the
earle March, bicause his title to the crowne was well inough knowen, and
therefore suffered him to remaine in miserable prison, wishing both the
said earle, and all other of his linage out of this life, with God and
his saincts in heauen, so they had beene out of the waie, for then all
had béene well inough as he thought. But to let these things passe,
[Sidenote: The kings daughter maried into Germanie.] the king this yeare
sent his eldest daughter Blanch, accōpanied with the earle of Summerset,
the bishop of Worcester, the lord Clifford, and others, into Almanie,
which brought hir to Colin, and there with great triumph she was married
to William duke of Bauier, sonne and heire to Lewes the emperour. About
mid of August, the king to chastise the presumptuous attempts of the
Welshmen, went with a great power of men into Wales, to pursue the
capteine of the Welsh rebell Owen Glendouer, but in effect he lost his
labor; for Owen conueied himselfe out of the waie, into his knowen
lurking places, and (as was thought) through art magike, [Sidenote:
Intemperat weather.] he caused such foule weather of winds, tempest,
raine, snow, and haile to be raised, for the annoiance of the kings
armie, that the like had not beene heard of; in such sort, that the king
was constreined to returne home, hauing caused his people yet to spoile
and burne first a great part of the countrie. [Sidenote: The deceasse of
the duke of Yorke.] The same time, the lord Edmund of Langlie duke of
Yorke departed this life, and was buried at Langlie with his brethren.
[Sidenote: Scots ouerthrowen.] The Scots vnder the leding of Patrike
Hepborne, of the Hales the yoonger, entring into England, were
ouerthrowen at Nesbit, in the marches, as in the Scotish chronicle ye
may find more at large. This battell was fought the two and twentith of
Iune, in this yeare of our Lord 1402.

Archembald earle Dowglas sore displeased in his mind for this ouerthrow,
procured a commission to inuade England, and that to his cost,
[Sidenote: Scots vanquished at Homildon.] as ye may likewise read in the
Scotish histories. For at a place called Homildon, they were so
fiercelie assailed by the Englishmen, vnder the leading of the lord
Persie; surnamed Henrie Hotspur, and George earle of March, that with
violence of the English shot they were quite vanquished and put to
flight, on the Rood daie in haruest, with a great slaughter made by the
Englishmen. We know that the Scotish writers note this battell to haue
chanced in the yeare 1403. But we following Tho. Walsingham in this
place, and other English writers, for the accompt of times, [Sidenote:
The number slaine.] haue thought good to place it in this yeare 1402, as
in the same writers we find it. There were slaine of men of estimation,
sir Iohn Swinton, sir Adam Gordon, sir Iohn Leuiston, sir Alexander
Ramsie of Dalehousie, [Sidenote: Prisoners taken.] and three and twentie
knights, besides ten thousand of the commons: and of prisoners among
other were these, Mordacke earle of Fife, son to the gouernour
Archembald earle Dowglas, which in the fight lost one of his eies,
Thomas erle of Murrey, Robert earle of Angus, and (as some writers haue)
the earles of Atholl & Menteith, with fiue hundred other of meaner
degrées. After this, the lord Persie, [Sidenote: The castell of
Cocklawes besieged by the lord Persie.] hauing bestowed the prisoners in
suer kéeping, entered Tiuidale, wasting and destroieng the whole
countrie, and then besieged the castell of Cocklawes, whereof was
capteine one sir Iohn Grenlow, who compounded with the Englishmen, that
if the castell were not succoured within three moneths, then he would
deliuer it into their hands.

The first two moneths passed, and no likelihood of rescue appeared; but
yer the third moneth was expired, the Englishmen being sent for to go
with the king into Wales, raised their siege and departed, leauing the
noble men prisoners with the earle of Northumberland, and with his sonne
the lord Persie, [Sidenote: The professors of wicklifs doctrine.] to
keepe them to the kings vse. In this meane while, such as misliked with
the doctrine and ceremonies then vsed in the church, ceassed not to
vtter their consciences, though in secret, to those in whome they had
affiance. But as in the like cases it commonlie hapneth, they were
bewraied by some that were thought chieflie to fauour their cause, as by
sir Lewes Clifford knight, who hauing leaned to the doctrine a long
time, did now (as Thomas Walsingham writeth) disclose all that he knew
vnto the archbishop of Canturburie, to shew himselfe as it were to haue
erred rather of simplenesse and ignorance, than of frowardnesse or
stubborn malice. The names of such as taught the articles and
conclusions mainteined by those which then they called Lollards or
heretikes, [Sidenote: Sir Lewes Clifford bewraieth his fellowes.] the
said sir Lewes Clifford gaue in writing to the said archbishop. Edmund
Mortimer earle of March, prisoner with Owen Glendouer, [Sidenote: The
earle of March marieth the daughter of Owen Glendouer.] whether for
irksomnesse of cruell captiuitie, or feare of death, or for what other
cause, it is vncerteine, agréed to take part with Owen, against the king
of England, and tooke to wife the daughter of the said Owen.

Strange wonders happened (as men reported) at the natiuitie of this man,
for the same night he was borne, all his fathers horsses in the stable
were found to stand in bloud vp to the bellies. [Sidenote: _Anno Reg._
4. A parlement.] The morow after the feast of saint Michaell, a
parlement began at Westminster, which continued the space of seauen
weekes, in the same was a tenth and a halfe granted by the cleargie, and
a fiftéenth by the communaltie. Moreouer, the commons in this parlement
besought the king to haue the person of George earle of March a
Scotishman, [Sidenote: George earle of March recommended to the king by
parlement.] recommended to his maiestie, for that the same earle shewed
himselfe faithfull to the king & his realme. ¶ There was also a statute
made, [Sidenote: 1403.] [Sidenote: Ambassadors.] that the friers beggers
should not receiue any into their order, vnder the age of fourteene
yeares. In this fourth yeare of king Henries reigne, ambassadors were
sent ouer into Britaine, to bring from thence the duches of Britaine,
the ladie Iane de Nauarre, the widow of Iohn de Montford, late duke of
Britaine, surnamed the conqueror, with whom by procurators the king had
contracted matrimonie. In the beginning of Februarie, those that were
sent returned with hir in safetie, but not without tasting the bitter
stormes of the wind and weather, that tossed them sore to and fro,
before they could get to land. The king met hir at Winchester, where the
seuenth of Februarie, the marriage was solemnized betwixt them.

Whilest these things were thus in dooing in England, Waleran earl of
saint Paule, bearing still a deadlie and malicious hatred toward king
Henrie, [Sidenote: The earle of saint Paule in the Ile of Wight.] hauing
assembled sixtéene or seuentéene hundred men of warre, imbarked them at
Harflew, and taking the sea, landed in the Ile of Wight, in the which he
burned two villages, and foure simple cotages, and for a triumph of so
noble an act, made foure knignts. But when he heard that the people of
the Ile were assembled and approched to fight with him, he hasted to his
ships and returned home: wherewith the noble men of his companie were
displeased, considering his prouision to be great and his gaine small.
[Sidenote: The earle of Cleremont in Gascoigne.] In the same verie
season, Iohn earle of Cleremont sonne to the duke of Bourbon, wan in
Gascoigne out of the Englishmens possession, the castels of saint Peter,
saint Marie, and the New castell; and the lord de la Bret wan the
castell of Carlassin, which was no small losse to the English nation.

Henrie earle of Northumberland, with his brother Thomas earle of
Worcester, and his sonne the lord Henrie Persie, surnamed Hotspur, which
were to king Henrie in the beginning of his reigne, both faithfull
freends, and earnest aiders, began now to enuie his wealth and
felicitie; and especiallie they were gréeved, bicause the king demanded
of the earle and his sonne such Scotish prisoners as were taken at
Homeldon and Nesbit: for of all the captiues which were taken in the
conflicts foughten in those two places, there was deliuered to the kings
possession onlie Mordake earle of Fife, the duke of Albanies sonne,
though the king did diuers and sundrie times require deliuerance of the
residue, and that with great threatnings: wherewith the Persies being
sore offended, for that they claimed them as their owne proper
prisoners, and their peculiar preies, by the counsell of the lord Thomas
Persie earle of Worcester, whose studie was euer (as some write) to
procure malice, and set things in a broile, [Sidenote: The request of
the Persies.] came to the king vnto Windsore (vpon a purpose to prooue
him) and there required of him, that either by ransome or otherwise, he
would cause to be deliuered out of prison Edmund Mortimer earle of
March, their cousine germane, whome (as they reported) Owen Glendouer
kept in filthie prison, shakled with irons, onelie for that he tooke his
part, and was to him faithfull and true.

The king began not a little to muse at this request, and not without
cause: for in déed it touched him somewhat neere, sith this Edmund was
sonne to Roger earle of March, sonne to the ladie Philip, daughter of
Lionell duke of Clarence, the third sonne of king Edward the third;
which Edmund at king Richards going into Ireland, was proclamed heire
apparant to the crowne and realme, whose aunt called Elianor, the lord
Henrie Persie had married; and therefore king Henrie could not well
heare, that anie man should be in earnest about the aduancement of that
linage. The king when he had studied on the matter made answer that the
earle of March was not taken prisoner for his cause, nor in his seruice,
but willinglie suffered himselfe to be taken, bicause he would not
withstand the attempts of Owen Glendouer and his complices, and
therefore he would neither ransome him, nor reléeue him.

The Persies with this answer and fraudulent excuse were not a little
fumed, [Sidenote: The saieng of the L. Persie.] insomuch that Henrie
Hotspur said openlie: Behold, the heire of the relme is robbed of his
right, and yet the robber with his owne will not redeeme him. So in this
furie the Persies departed, minding nothing more than to depose king
Henrie from the high type of his roialtie, and to place in his seat
their cousine Edmund earle of March, whom they did not onlie deliuer out
of captiuitie, [Sidenote: The conspiracies of the Persies with Owen
Glendouer.] but also (to the high displeasure of king Henrie) entered in
league with the foresaid Owen Glendouer. Héerewith, they by their
deputies in the house of the archdeacon of Bangor, [Sidenote: An
indenture tripartite.] diuided the realme amongst them, causing a
tripartite indenture to be made and sealed with their seales, by the
couenants whereof, [Sidenote: A diuision of that which they had not.]
all England from Seuerne and Trent, south and eastward, was assigned to
the earle of March: all Wales, & the lands beyond Seuerne westward, were
appointed to Owen Glendouer: and all the remnant from Trent northward,
to the lord Persie.

[Sidenote: A vaine prophesie.] This was doone (as some haue said)
through a foolish credit giuen to a vaine prophesie, as though king
Henrie was the moldwarpe, cursed of Gods owne mouth, and they three were
the dragon, the lion, and the woolfe, which should diuide this realme
betwéene them. Such is the deuiation (saith Hall) and not diuination of
those blind and fantasticall dreames of the Welsh prophesiers. King
Henrie not knowing of this new confederacie, and nothing lesse minding
than that which after happened, gathered a great armie to go againe into
Wales, [Sidenote: The Persies raise their powers.] whereof the earle of
Northumberland and his sonne were aduertised by the earle of Worcester,
and with all diligence raised all the power they could make, [Sidenote:
They craue aid of Scots.] and sent to the Scots which before were taken
prisoners at Homeldon, for aid of men, promising to the earle of Dowglas
the towne of Berwike, and a part of Northumberland, and to other Scotish
lords great lordships and seigniories, if they obteined the upper hand.
The Scots in hope of gaine, and desirous to be reuenged of their old
greefes, came to the earle with a great companie well appointed.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Yorke of counsell with the Persies in
conspiracie.] The Persies to make their part séeme good, deuised
certeine articles, by the aduise of Richard Scroope, archbishop of
Yorke, brother to the lord Scroope, whome king Henrie had caused to be
beheaded at Bristow. [Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._] These articles being
shewed to diuerse noblemen, and other states of the realme, mooued them
to fauour their purpose, in so much that manie of them did not onelie
promise to the Persies aid and succour by words, but also by their
writings and seales confirmed the same. Howbeit when the matter came to
triall, the most part of the confederates abandoned them, and at the
daie of the conflict left them alone. Thus after that the conspirators
had discouered themselues, the lord Henrie Persie desirous to procéed in
the enterprise, vpon trust to be assisted by Owen Glendouer, [Sidenote:
The earle of Worchester gouernour to the prince slippeth from him.] the
earle of March, & other, assembled an armie of men of armes and archers
foorth of Cheshire and Wales. [Sidenote: _Hall._] Incontinentlie his
vncle Thomas Persie earle of Worcester, that had the gouernement of the
prince of Wales, who as then laie at London in secret manner, conueied
himselfe out of the princes house, and comming to Stafford (where he met
his nephue) they increased their power by all waies and meanes they
could deuise. The earle of Northumberland himselfe was not with them,
but being sicke, had promised vpon his amendement to repaire vnto them
(as some write) with all conuenient spéed.

[Sidenote: The pretense of the Persies, as they published it abroad.]
These noble men, to make their conspiracie to séem excusable, besides
the articles aboue mentioned, sent letters abroad, wherein was
conteined, that their gathering of an armie tended to none other end,
but onlie for the safegard of their owne persons, and to put some better
gouernment in the commonwealth. For whereas taxes and tallages were
dailie leuied, vnder pretense to be imploied in defence of the realme,
the same were vainlie wasted, and vnprofitablie consumed: and where
through the slanderous reports of their enimies, the king had taken a
greeuous displeasure with them, they durst not appeare personallie in
the kings presence, vntill the prelats and barons of the realme had
obteined of the king licence for them to come and purge themselues
before him, by lawfull triall of their péeres, whose iudgement (as they
pretended) they would in no wise refuse. Manie that saw and heard these
letters, did commend their diligence, and highlie praised their assured
fidelitie and trustinesse towards the commonwealth.

But the king vnderstanding their cloaked drift, deuised (by what meanes
he might) to quiet and appease the commons, [Sidenote: The kings answer
to the Persies libell.] and deface their contriued forgeries; and
therefore he wrote an answer to their libels, that he maruelled much,
sith the earle of Northumberland, and the lord Henrie Persie his sonne,
had receiued the most part of the summes of monie granted to him by the
cleargie and communaltie, for defence of the marches, as he could
euidentlie prooue what should mooue them to complaine and raise such
manifest slanders. And whereas he vnderstood, that the earles of
Northumberland and Worcester, and the lord Persie had by their letters
signified to their freends abroad, that by reason of the slanderous
reports of their enimies, they durst not appeare in his presence,
without the mediation of the prelats and nobles of the realme, so as
they required pledges, whereby they might safelie come afore him, to
declare and alledge what they had to saie in proofe of their innocencie,
he protested by letters sent foorth vnder his seale, that they might
safelie come and go, without all danger, or anie manner of indamagement
to be offered to their persons.

But this could not satisfie those men, but that resolued to go forwards
with their enterprise, they marched towards Shrewsburie, vpon hope to be
aided (as men thought) by Owen Glendouer, and his Welshmen, [Sidenote:
Poore K. Richard is still aliue with thē that wish K. Henries
ouerthrow.] publishing abroad throughout the countries on each side,
that king Richard was aliue, whome if they wished to sée, they willed
them to repaire in armour vnto the castell of Chester, where (without
all doubt) he was at that present, and redie to come forward. This tale
being raised, though it were most vntrue, yet it bred variable motions
in mens minds, causing them to wauer, so as they knew not to which part
they should sticke; and verelie, diuers were well affected towards king
Richard, speciallie such as had tasted of his princelie bountifulnes, of
which there was no small number. And to speake a truth, no maruell it
was, if manie enuied the prosperous state of king Henrie, sith it was
euident inough to the world, that he had with wrong vsurped the crowne,
and not onelie violentlie deposed king Richard, but also cruellie
procured his death; for the which vndoubtedlie, both he and his
posteritie tasted such troubles, as put them still in danger of their
states, till their direct succeeding line was quite rooted out by the
contrarie faction, as in Henrie the sixt and Edward the fourth it may
appeare.

But now to returne where we left. King Henrie aduertised of the
proceedings of the Persies, foorthwith gathered about him such power as
he might make, and being earnestlie called vpon by the Scot, the earle
of March, to make hast and giue battell to his enimies, before their
power by delaieng of time should still too much increase, [Sidenote: The
kings spéedie diligence.] he passed forward with such spéed, that he was
in sight of his enimies, lieng in campe néere to Shrewesburie, before
they were in doubt of anie such thing, for the Persies thought that he
would have staid at Burton vpon Trent, till his councell had come
thither to him to giue their aduise what he were best to doo. But herein
the enimie was deceived of his expectation, sith the king had great
regard of expedition and making speed for the safetie of his own person,
wherevnto the earle of March incited him, considering that in delaie is
danger, & losse in lingering, as the poet in the like case saith:

  Tolle moras, nocuit semper differre paratis,
  Dum trepidant nullo firmatæ robore partes.

[Sidenote: The Persies troubled with the kings sudden comming.] By
reason of the kings sudden cōming in this sort, they staied from
assaulting the towne of Shrewesburie, [Sidenote: The lord Persie
exhorteth his complices to stick to their tackle.] which enterprise they
were readie at that instant to haue taken in hand, and foorth with the
lord Persie (as a capteine of high courage) began to exhort the
capteines and souldiers to prepare themselues to battell, sith the
matter was growen to that point, that by no meanes it could be auoided,
so that (said he) this daie shall either bring vs all to aduancement &
honor, or else if it shall chance vs to be ouercome, shall deliuer vs
from the kings spitefull malice and cruell disdaine: for plaieng the men
(as we ought to doo) better it is to die in battell for the
commonwealths cause, than through cowardlike feare to prolong life,
which after shall be taken from vs, by sentence of the enimie.

[Sidenote: The number of the Persies armie.] Herevpon, the whole armie
being in number about fourtéene thousand chosen men, promised to stand
with him so long as life lasted. There were with the Persies as
chiefteines of this armie, the earle of Dowglas a Scotish man, the baron
of Kinderton, sir Hugh Browne, and sir Richard Vernon knights, with
diuerse other stout and right valiant capteins. [Sidenote: The Persies
sent their articles to the king.] Now when the two armies were incamped,
the one against the other, the earle of Worcester and the lord Persie
with their complices sent the articles (whereof I spake before) by
Thomas Caiton, and Thomas Saluain esquiers to king Henrie, [Sidenote:
King Henrie charged with periurie.] vnder their hands and seales, which
articles in effect charged him with manifest periurie, in that
(contrarie to his oth receiued vpon the euangelists at Doncaster, when
he first entred the realme after his exile) he had taken vpon him the
crowne and roiall dignitie, imprisoned king Richard, caused him to
resigne his title, and finallie to be murthered. Diuerse other matters
they laid to his charge, as leuieng of taxes and tallages, contrarie to
his promise, infringing of lawes & customes of the realme, and suffering
the earle of March to remaine in prison, [Sidenote: Procurers &
protectors of the commonwealth.] without trauelling to haue him
deliuered. All which things they as procurers & protectors of the
common-wealth, tooke vpon them to prooue against him, as they protested
vnto the whole world.

[Sidenote: The kings answer to the messengers that brought the
articles.] King Henrie after he had read their articles, with the
defiance which they annexed to the same, answered the esquiers, that he
was readie with dint of sword and fierce battell to prooue their
quarrell false, and nothing else than a forged matter, not doubting, but
that God would aid and assist him in his righteous cause, against the
disloiall and false forsworne traitors. The next daie in the morning
earlie, being the euen of Marie Magdalene, they set their battels in
order on both sides, and now whilest the warriors looked when the token
of battell should be giuen, the abbat of Shrewesburie, [Sidenote: The
king offereth to pardon his aduersaries.] and one of the clearks of the
priuie seale, were sent from the king vnto the Persies, to offer them
pardon, if they would come to any reasonable agréement. By their
persuasions, the lord Henrie Persie began to giue eare vnto the kings
offers, & so sent with them his vncle the earle of Worcester, to declare
vnto the king the causes of those troubles, and to require some
effectuall reformation in the same.

It was reported for a truth, that now when the king had condescended
vnto all that was resonable at his hands to be required, [Sidenote: The
earle of worchesters double dealing in wrong reporting the kings words.]
and seemed to humble himselfe more than was meet for his estate, the
earle of Worcester (vpon his returne to his nephue) made relation cleane
contrarie to that the king had said, in such sort that he set his
nephues hart more in displeasure towards the king, than euer it was
before, driuing him by that meanes to fight whether he would or not:
then suddenlie blew the trumpets, the kings part crieng S. George vpon
them, the aduersaries cried Esperance Persie, and so the two armies
furiouslie ioined. The archers on both sides shot for the best game,
laieng on such load with arrowes, that manie died, and were driuen downe
that neuer rose againe.

[Sidenote: _Hall._ The Scots.] The Scots (as some write) which had the
fore ward on the Persies side, intending to be reuenged of their old
displeasures doone to them by the English nation, set so fiercelie on
the kings fore ward, led by the earle of Stafford, that they made the
same draw backe, and had almost broken their aduersaries arraie. The
Welshmen also which before had laine lurking in the woods, mounteines,
and marishes, hearing of this battell toward, [Sidenote: The welshmen
comme to aid the Persies.] came to the aid of the Persies, and refreshed
the wearied people with new succours. The king perceiuing that his men
were thus put to distresse, what with the violent impression of the
Scots, and the tempestuous stormes of arrowes, that his aduersaries
discharged fréely against him and his people, it was no need to will him
to stirre: for suddenlie with his fresh battell, he approached and
relieued his men; so that the battell began more fierce than before.
Here the lord Henrie Persie, and the earle Dowglas, a right stout and
hardie capteine, not regarding the shot of the kings battell, nor the
close order of the ranks, pressing forward togither bent their whole
forces towards the kings person, [Sidenote: The earle of March. _Tho.
Walsin._] comming vpon him with speares and swords so fiercelie, that
the earle of March the Scot, perceiuing their purpose, withdrew the king
from that side of the field (as some write) for his great benefit and
safegard (as it appeared) for they gaue such a violent onset vpon them
that stood about the kings standard, that slaieing his standard-bearer
sir Walter Blunt, and ouerthrowing the standard, they made slaughter of
all those that stood about it, as the earle of Stafford, that daie made
by the king constable of the realme, and diuerse other.

[Sidenote: _Hall._] [Sidenote: The valiance of the yoong prince.] The
prince that daie holpe his father like a lustie yoong gentleman: for
although he was hurt in the face with an arrow, so that diuerse noble
men that were about him, would haue conueied him foorth of the field,
yet he would not suffer them so to doo, least his departure from amongst
his men might happilie haue striken some feare into their harts: and so
without regard of his hurt, he continued with his men, [Sidenote: A sore
battell & well mainteined.] & neuer ceassed, either to fight where the
battell was most hot, or to incourage his men where it séemed most néed.
This battell lasted thrée long houres, with indifferent fortune on both
parts, till at length, the king crieng saint George victorie, brake the
arraie of his enimies, and aduentured so farre, [Sidenote: The valiant
dooings of the earle Dowglas.] that (as some write) the earle Dowglas
strake him downe, & at that instant slue sir Walter Blunt, and thrée
other, apparelled in the kings sute and clothing, saieng: I maruell to
sée so many kings thus suddenlie arise one in the necke of an other. The
king in deed was raised, [Sidenote: The high manhood of the king.] & did
that daie manie a noble feat of armes, for as it is written, he slue
that daie with his owne hands six and thirtie persons of his enimies.
The other on his part incouraged by his doings, [Sidenote: The lord
Persie slaine.] fought valiantlie, and slue the lord Persie, called sir
Henrie Hotspurre. To conclude, the kings enimies were vanquished, and
put to flight, in which flight, the earle of Dowglas, for hast, falling
from the crag of an hie mounteine, [Sidenote: The earle Dowglas taken
prisoner.] brake one of his cullions, and was taken, and for his
valiantnesse, of the king frankelie and freelie deliuered.

[Sidenote: The earle of Worcester taken.] There was also taken the earle
of Worcester, the procuror and setter foorth of all this mischéefe, sir
Richard Vernon, and the baron of Kinderton, [Sidenote: Knights slaine on
the kings part.] with diuerse other. There were slaine vpon the kings
part, beside the earle of Stafford, to the number of ten knights, sir
Hugh Shorlie, sir Iohn Clifton, sir Iohn Cokaine, sir Nicholas Gausell,
sir Walter Blunt, sir Iohn Caluerleie, sir Iohn Massie of Podington, sir
Hugh Mortimer, and sir Robert Gausell, all the which receiued the same
morning the order of knighthood: sir Thomas Wendesleie was wounded to
death, and so passed out of this life shortlie after. There died in all
vpon the kings side sixteene hundred, and foure thousand were
gréeuouslie wounded. On the contrarie side were slaine, besides the lord
Persie, the most part of the knights and esquiers of the countie of
Chester, [Sidenote: The slaughter of Cheshire men at this battell.] to
the number of two hundred, besides yeomen and footmen, in all there died
of those that fought on the Persies side, about fiue thousand. This
battell was fought on Marie Magdalene euen, being saturdaie. [Sidenote:
The earle of Worcester and others beheaded.] Vpon the mondaie folowing,
the earle of Worcester, the baron of Kinderton, and sir Richard Vernon
knights, were condemned and beheaded. The earles head was sent to
London, there to be set on the bridge.

The earle of Northumberland was now marching forward with great power,
which he had got thither, either to aid his sonne and brother (as was
thought) or at least towards the king, [Sidenote: The earle of
westmerland raiseth a power against the earle of Northumberland.] to
procure a peace: but the earle of Westmerland, and sir Robert Waterton
knight, had got an armie on foot, and meant to meet him. The earle of
Northumberland, taking neither of them to be his freend, turned
suddenlie back, and withdrew himselfe into Warkewoorth castell.
[Sidenote: The king goeth to Yorke.] The king hauing set a staie in
things about Shrewesburie, went straight to Yorke, from whence he wrote
to the earle of Northumberland, willing him to dismisse his companies
that he had with him, [Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland commeth to
the king.] and to come vnto him in peaceable wise. The earle vpon
receipt of the kings letters came vnto him the morow after saint
Laurence daie, hauing but a few of his seruants to attend him, and so
excused himselfe, that the king (bicause the earle had Berwike in his
possession, and further, had his castels of Alnewike, Warkewoorth, and
other, fortified with Scots) dissembled the matter, gaue him faire
words, and suffered him (as saith Hall) to depart home, although by
other it should séeme, that he was committed for a time to safe
custodie.

The king returning foorth of Yorkeshire, determined to go into
Northwales, [Sidenote: The welshmen molest the English subiects.] to
chastise the presumptuous dooings of the vnrulie Welshmen, who (after
his comming from Shrewesburie, and the marches there) had doone much
harme to the English subiects. But now where the king wanted monie to
furnish that enterprise, and to wage his souldiers, there were some that
counselled him to be bold with the bishops, and supplie his want with
their surplusage. But as it fortuned, the archbishop of Canturburie was
there present, who in the name of all the rest boldlie made answer,
[Sidenote: It was spoken like a prelat.] that none of his prouince
should be spoiled by anie of those naughtie disposed persons; but that
first with hard stripes they should vnderstand the price of their rash
enterprise. But the king neuerthelesse so vsed the matter with the
bishops for their good wils, [Sidenote: A tenth leuied of the cleargie.]
that the archbishop at length to pleasure him, calling the cleargie
togither, got a grant of a tenth, towards the kings necessarie charges.

The Britaines vnder the conduct of the lord of Cassils, spoiled and
burnt the towne of Plimmouth, and returned without receiuing anie
damage, but immediatlie therevpon, the westerne men manning foorth a
fléet, [Sidenote: William Wilford.] vnder the gouernement of one William
Wilford esquier, [Sidenote: Ships taken.] made saile ouer to the coasts
of Britaine, where they tooke aboue fortie ships laden with oile, sope,
and Rochell wine, to the quantitie of a thousand tunne, or much
thereabouts. In returning homewards, they burnt fortie other vessels,
and landing at Pennarch, they burnt townes and villages six leagues
within the countrie, togither with the towne of saint Matthew, and all
the buildings there, thrée leagues round about the same towns.
[Sidenote: _Anno Reg._ 5. A parlement at Couentrie.] About the feast of
All saints, a parlement began at Couentrie, and continued there till
saint Andrewes tide: but at length, bicause vittels waxed déere,
[Sidenote: Adiorned to London.] and lodging was streict, it was adiorned
from thence vnto London, there to begin againe in the octaues of the
Epiphanie. [Sidenote: A pardon.] The same time, a pardon was granted and
proclamed, for all such as had taken part with the Persies against the
king, and likewise for other offenders, those excepted that had
consented to betraie Calis, [Sidenote: Frenchmen inuade the Ile of
Wight.] whom the king sent thither to suffer for their offences. A
little before Christmas the Frenchmen meant to haue robbed and spoiled
the Ile of Wight, but when a thousand of them were set on land, and had
got togither a great bootie of cattell; suddenlie there came vpon them
such number of people that they were constrained to withdraw to their
ships, leauing their preie behind them, [Sidenote: They are repelled.]
and no small number of their men to paie for their shot, so that they
wan little by that iournie, returning home with shame and dishonor.

[Sidenote: 1404.] [Sidenote: The parlement beginneth againe.] [Sidenote:
The earle of Northumberland restored.] This yeare in the parlement
holden at London (beginning the morow after the feast of saint Hilarie,
and continuing twelue wéeks) the earl of Northumberland was restored
vnto his former dignities, [Sidenote: The Ile of Man.] lands and goods,
the Ile of Man onlie excepted, which by reason of the forfeiture made by
the earle of Salisburie, the king had first giuen vnto him, and now
depriued him thereof, where all his other lands, possessions, and
liuings were wholie to him and his heires restored. [Sidenote: A
subsidie.] By authoritie of the same parlement a subsidie was also
granted to the king, of euerie knights fée twentie shillings, whether
the same were holden of him by menaltie, or otherwise. Moreouer, euerie
man and woman that might dispend in lands the value of twentie shillings
& so vpward, aboue the reprises, whether the same lands belonged to the
laie fee, or to the church, paied for euerie pound twelue pence: and
those that were valued to be woorth in goods twentie pounds and vpwards,
[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Tho. Walsin._ _Hypod._ pag. 164.] paid
also after the rate of lands, that is, twelue pence for euerie pound. ¶
This séemeth to be that subsidie which Thomas Walsingham calleth a sore
surcharging subsidie, or an vnaccustomed tax: the forme and maner wherof
(saith he) I had here interlaced, but that the verie granters and
authors thereof had rather that the posteritie should be vtterlie
ignorant thereof, and neuer heare of it; sithens it was granted vpon
this condition, that hereafter it should not be drawne into example;
neither might the euidences thereof be kept in the kings treasurie, nor
in the excheker; but the records thereof presentlie (after the iust
accounts giuen vp) burned; neither should writs or commissions be sent
abroad against the collectors or inquirers hereof for their better
inquest.

[Sidenote: The Frenchmens demand of the Ile of Wight.] The Frenchmen
about the same time came before the Ile of Wight with a great nauie, and
sent certeine of their men to the shore, to demand in name of king
Richard, and of his wife quéene Isabell, [Sidenote: The answer of the
Ilandmen.] a tribute or speciall subsidie in monie, of the inhabitants
of that Ile; who answered, that king Richard was dead, and queene
Isabell sometime his wife had béene sent home to hir parents and
countrie, without condition of anie dowrie or tribute: wherefore, they
answered reasonablie, that none they would giue: but if the Frenchmen
had desire to fight, they willed them to come on land, and there should
be none to resist them; and after they were on land, they promised to
giue them respit for six houres space to refresh themselues, and that
time being once expired, they should not faile to haue battell. When the
Frenchmen heard of this stout answer made by the Ilandmen, they had no
lust to approch néere to the land, but returned without further attempt.

[Sidenote: The duke of Orleance his challenge.] About this season, the
duke of Orleance, brother to the French king, a man of no lesse pride
than hautinesse of courage, wrote letters to king Henrie, aduertising
him, that for the loue he bare to the noble feats of chiualrie, he could
imagine nothing either more honorable or cōmendable to them both, than
to meet in the field each part with an hundred knights and esquiers, all
being gentlemen, both of name and armes, armed at all points, and
furnished with speares, axes, swords, and daggers, and there to fight
and combat to the yeelding; and euerie person, to whome God should send
victorie, to haue his prisoner, & him to ransome at his pleasure,
offering himselfe with his companie to come to his citie of Angulesme,
so that the king would come to the lands of Burdeaux, and there defend
this challenge.

[Sidenote: The answer of king Henrie.] The king of England grauelie
answered herevnto, that he maruelled why the duke vnder colour of dooing
déeds of armes for a vaine-glorie, would now séeke to breake the peace
betwixt the realmes of England and France, he being sworne to mainteine
same peace sith he might further vnderstand, that no king annointed, of
verie dutie, was bound to answer anie challenge, but to his péere of
equall state and dignitie: and further declared, that when opportunitie
serued, he would passe the sea, and come into his countrie of Gascoigne,
with such companie as he thought conuenient, and then might the duke set
forward with his band, for the accomplishment of his couragious desire,
promising him in the word of a prince, not thence to depart, till the
duke either by fulfilling his owne desire in manner aforesaid, or by
singular combat betwéene them two onelie, for auoiding of more effusion
of Christian bloud, should thinke himselfe fullie satisfied. To this and
much more conteined in the kings answer, the duke replied, and the king
againe reioined, not without tawnts and checks vnfitting for their
estates. The duke of Orleance offended highlie (as he might séeme)
furnished against the king of England with an armie of six thousand men,
entered into Guien, [Sidenote: The duke of Orleance besiegeth Vergi in
Guien.] and besieged the towne of Vergi, whereof was capteine sir Robert
Antlfield, a right hardie and valiant knight, hauing with him onelie
thrée hundred Englishmen, which defended the fortresse so manfullie,
that the duke (after he had laine three moneths) and lost manie of his
men, without honour or spoile returned into France.

After this, the admerall of Britaine highlie incouraged, for that the
last yeere he had taken certeine English ships laden with wines,
accompanied with the lord du Chastell, a valiant baron of Britaine, and
twelue hundred men of armes, sailed foorth with thirtie ships from S.
Malos, and came before the towne of Dartmouth, and would haue landed;
[Sidenote: The lord du Chastell slaine.] but by the puissance of the
townesmen and aid of the countrie, they were repelled, in the which
conflict, the lord du Chastell, and two of his brethren, with foure
hundred other were slaine, and aboue two hundred taken prisoners and put
to their ransoms, [Sidenote: Owen Glendouer wasted the English marches.]
amongst whom the lord of Baqueuille the marshall of Britaine was one.
All this summer, Owen Glendouer and his adherents, robbed, burned, and
destroied the countries adioining néere to the places where he hanted,
and one while by sleight & guileful policie, an other while by open
force, he tooke and slue manie Englishmen, brake downe certeine castels
which he wan, and some he fortified and kept for his owne defense. Iohn
Trenor bishop of Assaph, considering with himselfe how things prospered
vnder the hands of this Owen, fled to him, and tooke his part against
the king. About the same time, [Sidenote: Crueltie of the Britains &
Flemings.] the Britaines and the Flemings tooke certeine ships of ours
laden with merchandize, and slue all the mariners, or else hanged them.

[Sidenote: The countes of Oxford.] Also, the old countesse of Oxford,
mother to Robert Veere late duke of Ireland, that died at Louaine,
caused certeine of hir seruants, and other such as she durst trust, to
publish and brute abroad, [Sidenote: K. Richard once againe aliue.]
thorough all the parts of Essex, that king Richard was aliue, and that
he would shortlie come to light, and claime his former estate, honor,
and dignitie. She procured a great number of harts to be made of siluer
and gold, such as king Richard was woont to giue unto his knights,
esquiers, & fréends, to weare as cognizances, to the end that in
bestowing them in king Richards name, she might the sooner allure men to
further hir lewd practises: and where the fame went abroad, that king
Richard was in Scotland with a great power of Frenchmen and Scots,
readie to come to recouer his realme, manie gaue the more light credit
vnto this brute thus set foorth by the said countesse.

[Sidenote: Serlo one of K. Richard’s chamber.] The persuasions also of
one Serlo, that in times past was one of king Richards chamber, greatlie
increased this errour, for the same Serlo, hearing in France (whither he
was fled) that his maister king Richard was in Scotland aliue, conueied
himselfe thither, to vnderstand the truth of that matter, and finding
there one indeed that greatlie resembled him in all lineaments of bodie,
but yet was not the man himselfe (as he well perceiued) vpon malice that
he bare to king Henrie, aduertised by letters sent vnto diuerse of king
Richards freends, that he was aliue indéed, and shortlie would come to
shew himselfe openlie to the world, when he had once made his waie
readie to recouer his kingdome, to the confusion of his enimies, and
comfort of his fréends. These forged inuentions caused manie to beleeue
the brute raised by the countesse of Oxford, for the which they came in
trouble, were apprehended and committed to prison. The countesse hir
selfe was shut vp in close prison, [Sidenote: The countesse of Oxford
committed to prison.] and all hir goods were confiscat, and hir
secretarie drawen and hanged, that had spred abroad this fained report,
in going vp and downe the countrie, blowing into mens eares that king
Richard was aliue, [Sidenote: Hir secretary executed.] & affirming that
he had spoken with him in such a place and in such a place, apparelled
in this raiment and that raiment, with such like circumstances.

[Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland cōmeth to the king.] About the
feast of saint Iohn Baptist, at the kings commandement, the earle of
Northumberland came to Pomfret, and brought with him his nephues, and
his nephues sonnes, whereby he cleared himselfe of a great deale of
suspicion, manie doubting before his comming that he had given euill
counsell to the yoong men, whereby to mooue them to rebellion,
[Sidenote: Sir William Clifford bringeth Serlo to the king.] and to
withstand the king. Sir William Clifford also came with the earle, and
brought the foresaid Serlo with him, whom he had apprehended vpon his
comming to him at Berwike, in hope to haue found succour at his hands;
in consideration whereof the king pardoned the said sir William Clifford
of his disobedience shewed, in keeping the castell of Berwike against
him, in which dooing he had committed manifest treason.

[Sidenote: Serlo examined for the duke of Glocesters death.] This Serlo
being knowen to be the man that had béene the chiefe murtherer of the
duke of Glocester, when he was made awaie at Calis, was diligentlie
examined who were helpers with him in the execution thereof, and after
what sort they made him awaie: Serlo knowing there was no waie with him
but death, would not vtter any other, but confessed for his owne part,
he was worthie for that wicked déed to die ten thousand deaths, and
shewed such outward appearance of repentance, that manie sore lamented
his case, and promised to hire priests to sing masses, (as the manner
was) for his soule, of their owne costs and charges. [Sidenote: He is
drawen through euery goode towne.] He was condemned to die at Pomfret,
and was drawen from thence through euerie good towne, [Sidenote: He is
executed at Lōdon.] through which those that had the conueiance of him
passed with him till they came to London, where he was executed,
confessing euerie thing to be true concerning his wicked pretense, as
before is recited: and further, that when he perceiued how their
counterfeit practise would come to light and be openlie reuealed, he
meant to haue returned into France, but wanting monie, he thought to
have béene relieued with some portion at the hand of the said sir
William Clifford, and this caused him to come vnto Berwike, to shew him
his necessitie, who to make his owne peace, did apprehend him, and
present him to the king, as before ye haue heard.

[Sidenote: _Anno Reg._ 6.] King Henrie wanting monie in the feast of
saint Faith the virgine, assembled at Couentrie his high court of
parlement, in the which, the lord Stephan Scroope of Masham, and the
lord Henrie Fitz Hugh obteined first to haue places of barons.
[Sidenote: The leymens parlement.] Moreouer, it is to be noted, that
this was called The laie mans parlement, bicause the shiriffes were
appointed to haue a speciall regard, that none should be chosen knights
for the counties, nor burgesses for the cities and townes, that had any
skill in the lawes of the land. This was doone, and when they came
togither to talke of the weightie affaires of the realme, speciallie how
the king might be relieued with monie, to beare such charges as he was
knowen to be at, as well in defending the realme from the Scots and
Welshmen at home, as from the Britains, [Sidenote: Strife betwixt the
laitie and spiritualtie.] Flemings, and Frenchmen abroad, it was thought
most expedient, that the spiritualtie should be depriued of their
temporall possessions, to the reliefe of the kings necessitie. Herevpon
rose great altercation betwixt the cleargie and the laitie; the knights
affirming, that they had oftentimes serued the king, not onelie with
their goods, but also with their persons in great dangers and
ieopardies, [Sidenote: The archbishop of Canterburie answereth for his
brethren.] whilest the spiritualtie sat at home, and holp the king
nothing at all. Thomas Arundell, archbishop of Canturburie stoutlie
answered herevnto, that the cleargie had alwaie giuen to the king as
much as the laitie had doone, considering they had oftener giuen their
tenths to him than the laitie their fiftéens: also, that more of their
tenants went foorth into the kings warres, than the tenants of them of
the laie fée: beside this, they praied day and night for the kings good
successe against his enimies.

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Cheinie speaker of the parlement.] When the speaker
named sir Iohn Cheinie, in replieng by plaine speach, séemed little to
esteeme such praiers of the church, the archbishop was set in a great
chafe, and with sharpe words declaring what he thought must needs
follow, both of the king and kingdome, when praiers and suffrages of
churchmen came to be so little set by, he grew to such impatiencie, that
he flatlie told the speaker, [Sidenote: The archb. chafeth.] that
although he séemed little to estéeme of the religion of the cleargie, he
would not haue him to thinke, that he should take awaie the possessions
of the church, [Sidenote: He spake like a lord.] without finding such as
would seeke to withstand him, for if (said he) the archbishop of
Canturburie maie liue, thou shalt haue hot taking awaie any manner of
thing that is his. After this, when the archbishop perceiued that the
king winked at these matters, he rose from his place and comming before
the king, knéeled downe, and besought him to consider, how through the
fauour and grace of the almightie God, he had atteined to the kingdome,
and therefore he ought to remember his first purpose and intent, which
was, to saue vnto euerie man his right, so far as in him laie.

He willed him likewise to haue in consideration the oth which he
willinglie had receiued, that is, that he should aduance the honor of
the church, and the ministers thereof cherish and mainteine. Also, to
haue in mind the danger and dishonour that redounded to such as brake
their othes: so that he besought him to permit and suffer the church to
inioy the priuileges and liberties, which in time of his predecessors it
had inioied, requesting him to stand in awe of that king, by whom all
kings did reigne; and to feare the censures and condemnation that those
incurred, which tooke and bereft from the church any good or right
belonging to it, who most certeinelie (said he) are accursed. [Sidenote:
The kings answer to the archbishop.] When the archbishop had vsed this,
or the like speach, the king commanded him to go to his seat againe,
assuring him, that his intent and purpose was to leaue the church in as
good state, or better, than he found it.

The archbishop herewith turning to the knights and burgesses of the
parlement, said vnto them; “You, and such other as you be, haue giuen
counsell vnto the king and his predecessors, to confiscate and take into
their hands the goods and possessions of the celles, which the Frenchmen
and Normans possessed here in England, and affirmed that by the same he
and they should heape vp great riches, and indéed those goods and
possessions (as is to be prooued) were worth manie thousands of gold;
and yet it is most true, that the king at this day is not halfe one
marke of siluer the richer thereby, for you haue begged and gotten them
out of his hands, and haue appropriated the same vnto your selves, so
that we may coniecture verie well, that you request to haue our
temporalties, not to aduance the kings profit, but to satisfie your owne
greedie covetousnesse, for vndoubtedlie if the king (as God forbid he
should) did accomplish your wicked purposes and minds, he should not be
one farthing the richer the yeare next after: and trulie, sooner will I
suffer this head of mine to be cut off from my shoulders, than that the
church should lose the least right that apperteineth to it.”

The knights said little, but yet they procéeded in their sute to haue
their purpose forward, which the archbishop perceiuing (as an other
Argus, hauing his eie on each side, to marke what was doone) laboured so
to disappoint their dooings, that he wan the favour of certeine of the
temporall lords to assist him, who constantlie auouched by their
consents, that the church should neuer be spoiled of the temporalties,
and herein they acquited the archbishop and prelats, one pleasure for an
other, which they had doone for them before, when the commons in this
parlement required, that all such lands and reuenues as sometime
belonged to the crowne, and had béene giuen awaie, either by the king,
or by his predecessors king Edward, and king Richard, should be againe
restored to the kings vse; vnto which request, the archbishop and other
the prelats would in no wise consent: [Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of
_Thom. Walsi._ _Hypod._ pag. 167.] thus by the stout diligence of the
archbishop Arundell that petition of the commons, touching the spiritual
temporalties, came to none effect. [Yea the knights themselues, who
verie instantlie had stood in this error, acknowledging their
maliciousness & guiltinesse herein, besought the archbishop of
Canturburie to pardon them; and gaue thanks that by his couragiousnesse
the church in this so troublesome a time reuiued, calling to mind the
saieing of an ethnike, by way of application, to the said archbishops
his praise:

  -------sub principe duro
  Temporibúsq; malis ausus es esse bonus.]

[Sidenote: Two fiftéens granted.] Two fiftéens were granted by the
commons, with condition, that the same should be paid vnto the hands of
the lord Furniuall, who should sée that monie imploied for maintenance
of the kings warres. Moreouer, [Sidenote: Letters patents reuoked.] at
the importunate sute of the commons, the letters patents that had béene
made to diuerse persons of annuities to them granted by king Edward and
king Richard, [Sidenote: A tenth and a halfe granted by the cleargie.]
were called in and made void, not without some note of dishonor to the
king. The cleargie granted to the king a tenth and a halfe,
notwithstanding that the halfe of one tenth latelie granted was yet
behind, and appointed to be paid vpon saint Martins daie now next
comming. About this season, great losse happened in Kent, by breaking in
of waters, [Sidenote: Ouerflowing of the sea.] that ouerflowed the sea
banks, as well in the archbishop of Canturburies grounds, as other mens,
whereby much cattell was drowned. Neither did England alone bewaile her
losses by such breakings in of the sea, but also Zealand, Flanders, &
Holland tasted of the like damage.

[Sidenote: The death of Williā Wickham.] William Wickham bishop of
Winchester, being a man of great age, deceassed this yeare, leauing
behind him a perpetuall memorie of his name, for the notable monuments
which he erected, in building two colleges, one at Winchester for
grammarians, and the other at Oxenford called the new college,
purchasing lands and reuenues for the maintenance of students there, to
the great commoditie of the commonwealth: for from thence, as out of a
good nursserie, haue come foorth diuerse men in all ages excellentlie
learned in all sciences. ¶ And héere I haue not thought it impertinent
to speake somewhat of this worthie prelat (considering that by him so
great a benefit hath returned to the commonwealth) according to such
notes as I haue séene collected by that painfull traueller in search of
antiquities Iohn Leland, who saith, that as some haue supposed, the said
Wickham, otherwise called Perot, was base sonne to one Perot, the
towne-clerke of Wickham in Hampshire, of which place he tooke his
surname, and that one maister Wodall a gentleman, dwelling in the said
towne, brought him vp at schoole, where he learned his grammar, and to
write verie faire, in so much that the constable of Winchester castell,
a great ruler in those daies in Hampshire, got him of maister Wodall,
and reteined him to be his secretaire, with whome he continued, till
king Edward the third, comming to Winchester, conceiued some good liking
of the yoong man, and tooke him to his seruice, and withall
vnderstanding that he was minded to be a churchman, he first made him
parson and deane of saint Martins in London, then archdeacon of
Buckingham.

But for so much as his seruice was right acceptable to the king, as he
that with great dexteritie could handle such affaires of the state, or
other matters of charge as were committed to his hands, the king still
kept him about his person, as one of his chéefe chapleins of houshold,
and imploied him in sundrie offices, as occasions serued: and first he
made him surueior of his works and buildings, namelie at Windsore, in
reparing of that castell, and also at Quinburrough, where, by the kings
appointment, a strong fortresse was raised, for defence of the realme on
that side. [Sidenote: He was also at one time treasurer of England (as
_Leland_ gathereth.)] After this, he was aduanced to the kéeping of the
priuie seale, made ouerséer of the wards and forrests, also treasuror of
the kings reuenues in France, and at length was made bishop of
Winchester. Yet the Blacke prince did not greatlie fauour him, wherevpon
Wickham procured to kéepe him occupied in warres beyond the seas. But at
length Iohn duke of Lancaster, and Alice Perers king Edwards concubine,
conceiuing some great displeasure against him, found meane to procure
the king to banish him the realme, and then he remained in Normandie and
Picardie for the space of seauen yeares, or thereabout, and might not be
restored so long as king Edward liued. But after his deceasse, about the
second yeare of king Richard the seconds reigne, he was restored home,
and purchased a general pardon for all matters past that might be
surmized against him, or laid to his charge.

Afterwards he bare himselfe so uprightlie in that dangerous time, when
such misliking and priuie enuie reigned betwixt the king and his nobles,
that both parts séemed to like of him, insomuch that when the king made
him lord chancellor, there was not anie that greatlie repined thereat;
and verelie in that the king made choise of him before others to occupie
that place, it argueth there was not so euill a disposition in the king,
nor lacke of discretion in order of gouernment, as writers seeme to
charge him with. But where other could not so well beare iniuries at
others hands as happilie Wickham could, the fire of dissention cheeflie
kindled thereof. For if the duke of Ireland, and the earle of Suffolke,
with those of that faction could haue refrained to shew their
displeasures, when the duke of Glocester and other his complices pinched
at them (for that they saw the king haue them in more estimation than
they wished) matters might haue béene qualified peraduenture with lesse
adoo, and without danger to haue insued to either part. But howsoeuer it
went with them, it may doubtlesse be easilie coniectured, that Wickham
was a man of singular wisedome, and politike forecast, that could from
meane degrée in such wise clime aloft, and afterwards passe through the
chances and changes of variable fortune, kéeping himselfe euer so in
state, that he grew at length to be able to furnish the chargeable
expenses of two such notable foundations which he left behind him, to
make his name immortall. But leauing the consideration hereof to others,
I will returne to the purpose from whence I haue thus far stepped.

[Sidenote: 1405.] [Sidenote: The earle of Marches sonnés. _Thom.
Walsin._] In this sixt yeare, the fridaie after saint Valentines daie,
the earle of March his sonnes earlie in the morning were taken foorth of
Windsore castell, and conueied awaie, it was not knowne whither at the
first, but such search and inquirie was made for them that shortlie
after they were heard of, and brought backe againe. The smith that
counterfeited the keies, by the which they that conueied them thence got
into the chamber where they were lodged, [Sidenote: The ladie Spenser
cōmitted to ward.] had first his hands cut off, and after his head
striken from his shoulders. The ladie Spenser, sister to the duke of
Yorke and widow of the lord Thomas Spenser, executed at Bristow (as
before yee haue heard) being apprehended and committed to close prison,
[Sidenote: She accuseth hir brother the duke of Yorke.] accused hir
brother the duke of Yorke, as chéefe authour in stealing awaie the said
earle of March his sonnes. And further, that the said duke ment to haue
broken into the manor of Eltham the last Christmasse, by scaling the
wals in the night season, the king being there the same time, to the
intent to haue murthered him. For to prooue hir accusation true she
offered that if there were anie knight, or esquier, that would take vpon
him to fight in hir quarrell, if he were ouercome, she would be content
to be burnt for it.

[Sidenote: Williā Maidstone esquier offred to fight in his ladies
quarrell.] One of hir esquiers named William Maidstone, hearing what
answer his ladie and mistresse propounded, cast downe his hood, and
proffered in hir cause the combat. The duke likewise cast downe his
hood, readie by battell to cleare his innocencie. But yet the kings
sonne lord Thomas of Lancaster arrested him, and put him vnder safe
kéeping in the Tower, till it were further knowne what order should be
taken with him, [Sidenote: The earle marshall accused.] and in the meane
time were all his goods confiscate. The same time was Thomas Mowbraie
earle marshall accused, as priuie to the purpose of the duke of Yorke,
touching the withdrawing of the earle of March his children, who
confessed indéed that he knew of the dukes purpose: but yet in no wise
gaue his consent therevnto, and therefore besought the king to be good
and gratious lord vnto him for concealing the matter, and so he obteined
pardon of that offense.

The king had assembled at the same time the most part of the nobilitie
at London, to consult with them for diuerse weightie matters, concerning
the state of the common-wealth, and about some aid of monie which he
required: [Sidenote: The k. wanteth monie & can get none of the lords.]
but the lords shewed themselues not willing to satisfie his request. He
therefore caused the spirituall lords as well as the temporall, to méet
at S. Albons in the Lent season, about the same matter; but yet obteined
not his purpose, by reason the barons were sore against him, and so at
length on Palme sundaie they went their waie, each man to his home,
hauing gratified the king in nothing concerning his demand. In the meane
time, to wit the fiftéenth of March at a place in Wales called Huske, in
a conflict fought betwixt the Welshmen and certeine of the princes
companie, the sonne of Owen Glendouer was taken, and fiftéene hundred
Welshmen taken and slaine. Also in Maie about the feast daie of S.
Dunstane, was the chancellor of the said Owen taken prisoner, and a
great number of other taken and slaine. The prisoners were brought vp to
London, where the chancellor was commited to safe keeping in the Tower.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Thom. Wals._ _Hypod._ pag. 159.] ¶ This
was a shrewd discomfiture to the Welsh by the English, on whome sinister
lot lowred, at such time as more than a thousand of them were slaine in
a hot skirmish; and such shamefull villanie executed vpon the carcasses
of the dead men by the Welshwomen; [Sidenote: _Iust. lib. 1. Herod. lib.
1. Val. Max. lib. 8. cap. 7._] as the like (I doo belieue) hath neuer or
sildome beene practised. For though it was a cruell déed of Tomyris
quéene of the Massagets in Scythia, against whome when Cyrus the great
king of Persia came, and had slaine hir sonne, she by hir policie
trained him into such streicts, that she slue him and all his host; and
causing a great vessel to be filled with the bloud of Cyrus and other
Persians, did cast his head thereinto, saieng; Bloud thou hast thirsted
and now drinke thereof thy fill: againe, though it was a cruell déed of
Fuluia the wife of Marcus Antonius (at whose commandement Popilius cut
off the head and hands of that golden mouthed orator Tullie, which
afterwards were nailed vp ouer the place of common plées at Rome) to
hold in her hands the toong of that father of eloquence cut out of his
head after the same was parted from his shoulders, and to pricke it all
ouer with pins and néedels: yet neither the crueltie of Tomyris nor yet
of Fuluia is comparable to this of the Welshwomen; which is worthie to
be recorded to the shame of a sex pretending the title of weake vessels,
and yet raging with such force of fiercenesse and barbarisme. For the
dead bodies of the Englishmen, being aboue a thousand lieng vpon the
ground imbrued in their owne bloud, was a sight (a man would thinke)
greeuous to looke vpon, and so farre from exciting and stirring vp
affections of crueltie; that it should rather haue mooued the beholders
to commiseration and mercie: yet did the women of Wales cut off their
priuities, and put one part thereof into the mouthes of euerie dead man,
in such sort that the cullions hoong downe to their chins; and not so
contented, they did cut off their noses and thrust them into their
tailes as they laie on the ground mangled and defaced. This was a verie
ignominious déed, and a woorsse not committed among the barbarous: which
though it make the reader to read it, and the hearer to heare it,
ashamed: yet bicause it was a thing doone in open sight, and left
testified in historie; I see little reason whie it should not be
imparted in our mother toong to the knowledge of our owne countrimen, as
well as vnto strangers in a language vnknowne. And thus much by waie of
notifieng the inhumanitie and detestable demeanour of those Welshwomen,
after the conflict betwéene the English and the Welsh, whereof
desultorie mention is made before pag. 520, where Edmund Mortimer earle
of March was taken prisoner.

Valeran earle of S. Paule, by the assent of the French king, assembled
fiue hundred men of armes, fiue hundred Genowaies with crossebowes,
[Sidenote: The castell of Marke besieged about the middest of Maie as
_Iac. Meir._ saith. Sir Philip Hall.] and a thousand Flemings on foot,
with the which he laid siege to the castell of Marke, thrée leagues from
Calis, vpon the fiftéenth daie of Iulie. Capteine of the castell as then
for the king of England was one sir Philip Hall, hauing with him foure
score archers, and four and twentie other soldiers, which defended the
place so manfullie, that the earle retired into the towne, and there
lodged, fortifieng it for feare of rescue that might come from Calis.
The next daie he gaue an other assault to the castell, and tooke the
vtter court, wherin was found a great number of horsses, kine, and other
cattell. The next daie there issued foorth of Calis two hundred men of
armes, two hundred archers, and three hundred footmen, with ten or
twelue wagons laden with vittels and artillerie, conducted by sir
Richard Aston knight, lieutenant of the English pale for the earle of
Summerset, capteine generall of those marches.

The Frenchmen aduertised that the Englishmen were comming to remooue the
siege, issued not foorth of their lodgings, but kept them within their
closure. Neuerthelesse, the Englishmen shot so sharpelie and closelie
togither, that the Flemings and footmen began to flie: the men of armes
fearing the slaughter of their horsses, ran awaie with a light gallop.
The Genowaies which had spent the most part of their shot at the
assaults made to the castell, shewed small resistance, [Sidenote: The
earle of S. Paule put to flight. _Ia. Meir._] and so all the number of
the French part were slaine and put to flight. The earle of S. Paule and
diuerse other escaped awaie, and by S. Omers got to Therouenne, or (as
others saie) to saint Omers. But there were taken to the number of thrée
or foure score, and amongst other the lord de Dampier seneshall of
Ponthien, monsieur de Weriners, monsieur de Vineles, monsieur de
Noielles, monsieur Iohn de Hangests capteine of Bullongne, the lord de
Rambures, monsieur Lionell Darreis capteine of Graueling, monsieur Peter
Rasser capteine of Arde, also Combernard capteine of Tirouan, Boid
Chanon capteine of Montoire, Iohn Chanon capteine of Lisle, Stenebecke
capteine of Ralingham, the bastard of Burneuill capteine of Burburgh.
There were slaine about 60, and among them as cheefe sir Robert
Berengueuill, the lord of Quercus, Morell de Saucuses, the lord Courbet
de Rempeupret, and others.

The Englishmen had the spoile of the earls campe, and being returned to
Calis, within fiue daies after there issued foorth about fiue hundred
men meaning to haue woone the towne of Arde with a sudden assault,
[Sidenote: Arde assaulted by Englishmen.] which they gaue to it in the
night time. But sir Manfrid de Bois, and the lord Rigine, did so
valiantlie defend it, that the Englishmen with losse of fortie of their
men were constreined to returne vnto Calis, after they had burnt the
dead bodies in an old house, for that the enimies should not perceiue
what losse the Englishmen had susteined. After this, the French king, to
auoid perils, laid in garison at Bullongne, and in other places, the
marques of Pount, sonne to the duke of Bar, the earle of Dampnie,
[Sidenote: The marques du Pount.] and sir Iohn Harpadan a knight of
great renowne and estimation. The duke of Burgognie likewise sent a
number of soldiers vnto Graueling, vnder the leading of one Iohn
Vandenwall, and to other fortresses alongst the coast he sent new
supplies, for doubt of the Englishmens inuasions.

[Sidenote: An armie sent to Calis and to the sea.] The king of England
in deed hearing of the preparation made for warre by the Frenchmen,
leuied foure thousand men which he sent vnto Calis, and to the sea, of
the which 3000 were vnder the conduct of the kings sonne. [Sidenote:
_Chr. Fland._ _Ia. Meir._ The English men besieged the castell of
Sluis.] The lord Thomas of Lancaster, and the earle of Kent, the two and
twentith daie of Maie (as some write) came vpon the coast of Flanders,
and entring the hauen of Sluis, burnt foure great ships which they found
there lieng at anchor. On the fift daie after their comming into that
hauen they went on land, thinking to haue fought with the duke of
Burgognie. But as other write, after they had besieged the castell that
stood in the mouth of the hauen, and loosing thrée score of their men,
amongst which they name one to beare the title of earle of Penbroke
(whom they buried for the time in the church of Mude) fiue daies after
their comming thither they determined to depart from thence, perceiuing
the castell would not easilie be woone, but first they spoiled the
countrie about them, and burnt Heis fléet, otherwise called Condekirke,
and diuerse other places thereabout.

This doone, they tooke vp the bodie of him whom the Flemish writers call
the earle of Penbroke, and got them againe to the sea, for that they
were aduertised how the duke of Burgognie meant to besiege Calis.
Wherevpon raising their siege thus from Sluis castell, they returned
vnto the defense of the towne of Calis, so much desired of the French
nation. As they returned homewards, they met with three caricks of
Genoa, of the which one hauing the wind with hir, meant to haue
ouerthrowne the ship wherein the lord Thomas of Lancaster was aboord:
but by the good foresight of the master of the ship that ruled the
sterne, suddenlie turning the same, the violent swaie of that huge
vessell comming so vpon them, was auoided; but yet the caricke stroke
off the nose of the English ship, and brused hir on the side. Then began
the fight verie cruell, till the earle of Kent came to the rescue:
[Sidenote: A great fight by sea.] and so finallie after a great conflict
and bloudie battell betwixt the caricks and English ships, [Sidenote:
Thre caricks are taken.] the victorie remained with the Englishmen,
[Sidenote: Townes in Normandie burnt.] who taking the caricks, turned
their sailes towards Normandie, where they arriued and burnt the townes
of Hoggue, Mountburge, Berflie, saint Petronils and other, to the number
of thirtie six, passing foorth into the countrie without resistance, the
space of thirtie miles, spoiling all that came in their waie. This
doone, they returned, and brought the caricks into the chamber at Rie,
where one of them by misfortune of fire perished, to the losse & no
gaine of either of the parties.

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie prepareth to besiege Calis.] Iohn duke
of Burgognie hauing obteined licence to besiege Calis, prepared an armie
of six thousand men of armes, fiftéene hundred crosbowes, & twelue
thousand footmen, the which being assembled, and all necessarie
prouision readie at saint Omers, he was by the French king
countermanded, and not suffered to proceed anie further in that weightie
enterprise. [Sidenote: The chéefe root of the malice betwixt the dukes
of Burgognie & Orleance.] And this was thought to be partlie the cause
of the malice that he conceiued against the duke of Orleance, supposing
that through him (enuieng his glorie) he was thus disappointed of his
purpose. Whilest such dooings were in hand betwixt the English and
French, as the besieging of Marke castell by the earle of saint Paule,
and the sending foorth of the English fléet, vnder the gouernance of the
lord Thomas of Lancaster, and the earle of Kent, the king was minded to
haue gone into Wales against the Welsh rebels, that vnder their
chéefteine Owen Glendouer, ceassed not to doo much mischéefe still
against the English subiects.

But at the same time, to his further disquieting, [Sidenote: A new
cōspiracie against king Henrie by the earle of Northumberland & others.]
there was a conspiracie put in practise against him at home by the earle
of Northumberland, who had conspired with Richard Scroope archbishop of
Yorke. Thomas Mowbraie earle marshall sonne to Thomas duke of Norfolke,
who for the quarrell betwixt him and king Henrie had béene banished (as
ye haue heard) the lords Hastings, Fauconbridge, Berdolfe, and diuerse
others. It was appointed that they should meet altogither with their
whole power, vpon Yorkeswold, at a daie assigned, and that the earle of
Northumberland should be cheefteine, promising to bring with him a great
number of Scots. The archbishop accompanied with the earle marshall,
deuised certeine articles of such matters, as it was supposed that not
onelie the commonaltie of the Realme, but also the nobilitie found
themselues gréeued with: which articles they shewed first vnto such of
their adherents as were néere about them, & after sent them abroad to
their fréends further off, assuring them that for redresse of such
oppressions, they would shed the last drop of blood in their bodies, if
néed were.

[Sidenote: The archbishop of yorke one of the chéefe conspirators.] The
archbishop not meaning to staie after he saw himselfe accompanied with a
great number of men, that came flocking to Yorke to take his part in
this quarrell, foorthwith discouered his enterprise, causing the
articles aforesaid to be set vp in the publike stréets of the citie of
Yorke, and vpon the gates of the monasteries, that ech man might
vnderstand the cause that mooued him to rise in armes against the king,
the reforming whereof did not yet apperteine vnto him. Herevpon knights,
esquiers, gentlemen, yeomen, and other of the commons, as well of the
citie, townes and countries about, being allured either for desire of
change, or else for desire to see a reformation in such things as were
mentioned in the articles, [Sidenote: The archbishop in armor.]
assembled togither in great numbers; and the archbishop comming foorth
amongst them clad in armor, incouraged, exhorted, and (by all meanes he
could) pricked them foorth to take the enterprise in hand, and manfullie
to continue in their begun purpose, promising forgiuenesse of sinnes to
all them, whose hap it was to die in the quarrell: and thus not onelie
all the citizens of Yorke, but all other in the countries about, that
were able to beare weapon, came to the archbishop, and the earle
marshall. [Sidenote: The estimation which men had of the archbishop of
Yorke.] In déed the respect that men had to the archbishop, caused them
to like the better of the cause, since the grauitie of his age, his
integritie of life, and incomparable learning, with the reuerend aspect
of his amiable personage, mooued all men to haue him in no small
estimation.

The king aduertised of these matters, meaning to preuent them, left his
iournie into Wales, and marched with all spéed towards the north parts.
[Sidenote: The earl of westmerland and the lord Iohn of Lancaster the
kings sonne prepare themselues to resist the kings enimies.] Also Rafe
Neuill earle of Westmerland, that was not farre off, togither with the
lord Iohn of Lancaster the kings sonne, being informed of this
rebellious attempt, assembled togither such power as they might make,
and together with those which were appointed to attend on the said lord
Iohn to defend the borders against the Scots, as the lord Henrie
Fitzhugh, the lord Rafe Eeuers, the lord Robert Umfreuill, & others,
[Sidenote: The forest of Galtree.] made forward against the rebels, and
comming into a plaine within the forrest of Galtree, caused their
standards to be pitched downe in like sort as the archbishop had pitched
his, ouer against them, being farre stronger in number of people than
the other, for (as some write) there were of the rebels at the least
twentie thousand men.

[Sidenote: The subtill policie of the earle of westmerland.] When the
earle of Westmerland perceiued the force of the aduersaries, and that
they laie still and attempted not to come forward vpon him, he subtillie
deuised how to quaile their purpose, and foorthwith dispatched
messengers vnto the archbishop to vnderstand the cause as it were of
that great assemblie, [Sidenote: The archbishops protestation why he had
on him armes.] and for what cause (contrarie to the kings peace) they
came so in amour. The archbishop answered, that he tooke nothing in hand
against the kings peace, but that whatsoeuer he did, tended rather to
aduance the peace and quiet of the common-wealth, than otherwise; and
where he and his companie were in armes, it was for feare of the king,
to whom he could haue no free accesse, by reason of such a multitude of
flatterers as were about him; and therefore he mainteined that his
purpose to be good & profitable, as well for the king himselfe, as for
the realme, if men were willing to vnderstand a truth: & herewith he
shewed foorth a scroll, in which the articles were written wherof before
ye haue heard.

The messengers returning to the earle of Westmerland, shewed him what
they had heard & brought from the archbishop. When he had read the
articles, he shewed in word and countenance outwardly that he liked of
the archbishops holie and vertuous intent and purpose, promising that he
and his would prosecute the same in assisting the archbishop, who
reioising hereat, gaue credit to the earle, and persuaded the earle
marshall (against his will as it were) to go with him to a place
appointed for them to commune togither. Here when they were met with
like number on either part, the articles were read ouer, and without
anie more adoo, the earle of Westmerland and those that were with him
agréed to doo their best, to see that a reformation might be had,
according to the same.

[Sidenote: The earle of westmerlāds politike dealing.] The earle of
Westmerland vsing more policie then the rest: “Well (said he) then our
trauell is come to the wished end: and where our people haue beene long
in armour, let them depart home to their woonted trades and occupations:
in the meane time let vs drinke togither in signe of agreement, that the
people on both sides maie sée it, and know that it is true, that we be
light at a point.” They had no sooner shaken hands togither, but that a
knight was sent streight waies from the archbishop, to bring word to the
people that there was peace concluded, commanding ech man to laie aside
his armes, and to resort home to their houses. The people beholding such
tokens of peace, as shaking of hands, and drinking togither of the lords
in louing manner, they being alreadie wearied with the vnaccustomed
trauell of warre, brake vp their field and returned homewards: but in
the meane time, whilest the people of the archbishops side withdrew
awaie, the number of the contrarie part increased, according to order
giuen by the earle of Westmerland; [Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke
and the earle marshall arrested. _Exton._] and yet the archbishop
perceiued not that he was deceiued, vntill the earle of Westmerland
arrested both him and the earle marshall with diuerse other. Thus saith
Walsingham.

But others write somwhat otherwise of this matter, affirming that the
earle of Westmerland in deed, and the lord Rafe Eeuers, procured the
archbishop & the earle marshall, to come to a communication with them,
vpon a ground iust in the midwaie betwixt both the armies, where the
earle of Westmerland in talke declared to them how perilous an
enterprise they had taken in hand, so to raise the people, and to mooue
warre against the king, aduising them therefore to submit themselues
without further delaie vnto the kings mercie, and his sonne the lord
Iohn, who was present there in the field with banners spred, redie to
trie the matter by dint of sword if they refused this counsell: and
therefore he willed them to remember themselues well: & if they would
not yeeld and craue the kings pardon, he had them doo their best to
defend themselues.

Herevpon as well the archbishop as the earle marshall submitted
themselues vnto the king, and to his sonne the lord Iohn that was there
present, and returned not to their armie. Wherevpon their troops scaled
and fled their waies: but being pursued, manie were taken, manie slaine,
and manie spoiled of that that they had about them, & so permitted to go
their waies. Howsoeuer the matter was handled, true it is that the
archbishop, and the earle marshall were brought to Pomfret to the king,
who in this meane while was aduanced thither with his power, [Sidenote:
The archbishop of Yorke, the earle marshall, & others put to death.] and
from thence he went to Yorke, whither the prisoners were also brought,
and there beheaded the morrow after Whitsundaie in a place without the
citie, that is to vnderstand, the archbishop himselfe, the earle
marshall, sir Iohn Lampleie, and sir Robert Plumpton. [Sidenote: _Abr.
Fl._ out of _Thom. Walsin._ _Hypod._ pag. 168.] ¶ Vnto all which persons
though indemnitie were promised, yet was the same to none of them at
anie hand performed. By the issue hereof, I meane the death of the
foresaid, but speciallie of the archbishop, the prophesie of a sickelie
canon of Bridlington in Yorkshire fell out to be true, who darklie
inough foretold this matter, [Sidenote *: _Archiepiscopus_.] & the
infortunate euent thereof in these words hereafter following, saieng:

  Pacem tractabunt, sed fraudem subter arabunt,
  Pro nulla marca, saluabitur ille* hierarcha.

[Sidenote: The archbishop reputed a martyr.] The archbishop suffered
death verie constantlie, insomuch as the common people tooke it he died
a martyr, affirming that certeine miracles were wrought as well in the
field where he was executed, as also in the place where he was buried:
and immediatlie vpon such bruits, both men and women began to worship
his dead carcasse, whom they loued so much, when he was aliue, till they
were forbidden by the kings fréends, and for feare gaue ouer to visit
the place of his sepulture. The earle marshalls bodie by the kings leaue
was buried in the cathedrall church, manie lamenting his destinie; but
his head was set on a pole aloft on the wals for a certeine space, till
by the kings permission [after the same had suffered manie a hot sunnie
daie, and manie a wet shower of raine] it was taken downe and buried
togither with the bodie.

After the king, accordinglie as séemed to him good, had ransomed and
punished by gréeuous fines the citizens of Yorke (which had borne armour
on their archbishops side against him) he departed frō Yorke with an
armie of thirtie and seuen thousand fighting men, [Sidenote: The lords
executed.] furnished with all prouision necessarie, marching northwards
against the earle of Northumberland. At his cōming to Durham, the lord
Hastings, the lord Fauconbridge, sir Iohn Colleuill of the Dale, and sir
Iohn Griffith, being conuicted of the conspiracie, were there beheaded.
The earle of Northumberland, hearing that his counsell was bewraied, and
his confederats brought to confusion, through too much hast of the
archbishop of Yorke, with thrée hundred horsse got him to Berwike. The
king comming forward quickelie, wan the castell of Warkewoorth.
[Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland.] Wherevpon the earle of
Northumberland, not thinking himselfe in suertie at Berwike, fled with
the lord Berdolfe into Scotland, where they were receiued of Dauid lord
Fleming.

The king comming to Berwike, commanded them that kept the castell
against him to render it into his hands, and when they flatlie denied so
to doo, [Sidenote: Berwike castell yéelded to the king.] he caused a
péece of artillerie to be planted against one of the towers, and at the
first shot ouerthrowing part thereof, they within were put in such
feare, that they simplie yéelded themselues without any maner of
condition, wholie to remaine at the kings pleasure. [Sidenote: The sonne
of the lord Greistoke and others put to death. _Exton._] Herevpon the
chiefest of them, to wit, sir Willian Greistoke, sonne to Rafe baron of
Greistoke, sir Henrie Beinton, and Iohn Blenkinsop, with foure or fiue
other were put to death, and diuerse other were kept in prison. Some
write that the earle of Northumberland at his entring into Scotland,
deliuered the towne of Berwike vnto the Scots, who hearing of king
Henries approch, and despairing to defend the towne against him, set
fire on it and departed. There was not one house that was left vnburnt,
except the friers and the church.

After that the king had disposed things in such conuenient order as
stood with his pleasure at Berwike, [Sidenote: The castell of Alnewike
yéelded to the king.] he came backe, and had the castell of Alnewike
deliuered vnto him, with all other the castels that belonged to the erle
of Northumberland in the north parts, as Prodhow, Langlie, [Sidenote:
The K. passeth into wales.] Cockermouth, Aluham, and Newstéed. Thus
hauing quieted the north parts, he tooke his iournie directlie into
Wales, where he found fortune nothing fauourable vnto him, for all his
attempts had euill successe, [Sidenote: He looseth his cariages.] in
somuch that losing fiftie of his cariages through abundance of raine and
waters, [Sidenote: He returneth.] he returned; and comming to Worcester,
he sent for the archbishop of Canturburie, and other bishops, declaring
to them the misfortune that had chanced to him, in consideration whereof
he requested them to helpe him with some portion of monie, towards the
maintenance of his warres, for the taming of the presumptuous and
vnquiet Welshmen.

[Sidenote: _Hall._ The marshall Mōtmerācie sent to aid Owen Glendouer.]
In the meane time, the French king had appointed one of the marshals of
France called Montmerancie, and the master of his crosbowes, with twelue
thousand men to saile into Wales to aid Owen Glendouer. They tooke
shipping at Brest, and hauing the wind prosperous, landed at Milford
hauen, with an hundred and fourtie ships, as Thomas Walsingham saith;
though Enguerant de Monstrellet maketh mention but of an hundred and
twentie. The most part of their horsses were lost by the waie for lacke
of fresh water. The lord Berkleie, and Henrie Paie, espieng their
aduantage, burnt fiftéene of those French ships, as they laie at road
there in the hauen of Milford: and shortlie after the same lord
Berkleie, and sir Thomas Swinborne, with the said Henrie Paie, tooke
other fourtéene ships, as they came that waie with prouision of vittels
and munition foorth of France to the aid of the other.

In the meane while the marshall Montmerancie, with his armie, [Sidenote:
Carmarden woone by the French.] besieged the towne of Carmarden, and wan
it by composition, granting to the men of warre that kept it against
him, licence to depart whither they would, & to take with them all their
mooueable goods: the castell of Penbroke they assaulted not, estéeming
it to be so well manned, [Sidenote: Hereford west manfullie defended.]
that they shuld but lose their labour in attempting it. Notwithstanding
they besieged the towne of Hereford west, which neuerthelesse was so
well defended by the earle of Arundell and his power, that they lost
more than they wan, [Sidenote: _Enguerant de Monstrellet_ saith they
burnt the townes but could not win the castell.] and so they departed
towards the towne of Denbigh, where they found Owen Glendouer abiding
for their comming, with ten thousand of his Welshmen. Here were the
Frenchmen ioifullie receiued of the Welsh rebels, [Sidenote: The suburbs
of worcester burnt.] and so when all things were prepared, they passed
by Glamorganshire towards Worcester, and there burnt the suburbes: but
hearing of the kings approch, they suddenlie returned towards Wales.

The king with a great puissance followed, and found them imbattelled on
a high mounteine, where there was a great vallie betwixt both the
armies, so that either armie might plainelie perceiue the other, and
either host looked to be assailed of his aduersarie, & therefore sought
to take the aduantage of ground. Thus they continued for the space of
eight daies from morning till night, readie to abide, but not to giue
battell. There were manie skirmishes, [Sidenote: French lords slaine.]
and diuerse proper feats of armes wrought in that meane while, in the
which the French lost manie of their nobles and gentlemen, as the lord
Patroullars de Tries, brother to the marshall of France, the lord
Matelonne or Martelonne, the lord de la Valle, and the bastard of
Bourbon, with other, to the number (as some haue written) of fiue
hundred. But Enguerant de Monstrellet affirmeth, that vpon their returne
into France, there wanted not aboue thréescore persons of all their
companies.

After they had laine thus one against another the space of eight daies
(as before is said) vittels began to faile, so that they were inforced
to dislodge. The French and Welshmen withdrew into Wales, and though the
Englishmen followed, yet impeached with the desart grounds and barren
countrie, thorough which they must passe, as our felles and craggie
mounteins, from hill to dale, from marish to wood, from naught to
woorsse (as Hall saith) without vittels or succour, the king was of
force constrained to retire with his armie, and returne againe to
Worcester, in which returne the enimies tooke certeine cariages of his
laden with vittels. [Sidenote: The Frenchmen returne home. _Anno Reg._
7.] The Frenchmen after the armies were thus withdrawne, returned into
Britaine, making small brags of their painefull iournie.

This yeare at London, the earle of Arundell maried the bastard daughter
of the king of Portingale, the king of England and the quéene with their
presence honoring the solemnitie of that feast, which was kept with all
sumptuous roialtie, the morrow after saint Katharins daie. ¶ And on the
daie of the Conception of our ladie, the ladie Philip king Henries
daughter was proclamed quéene of Denmarke, Norwaie, and Sweden, in
presence of such ambassadors, as the last summer came hither from the
king of those countries, to demand hir in marriage for him, [Sidenote:
_Abr. Fl._ out of _Thom. Walsin._ Roiston burned.] and had so trauelled
in the matter, that finallie they obteined it. ¶ On the daie of the
translation of saint Martine, the towne of Roiston was on fire.
[Sidenote: 1406.] [Sidenote: A parlement.] This yeare the first of March
a parlement began, which continued almost all this yeare: for after that
in the lower house they had denied a long time to grant to any subsidie:
yet at length, a little before Christmasse, [Sidenote: A fiftéenth
grāted by the temporaltie.] in the eight yeare of his reigne they
granted a fifteenth to the losse and great damage of the communaltie,
for through lingering of time, the expenses of knights and burgesses
grew almost in value to the summe that was demanded.

[Sidenote: A new kind of subsidie granted by the cleargie.] Moreouer, by
the clergie a new kind of subsidie was granted, to the king, to be
leuied of stipendarie priests and friers mendicants, and other such
religious men as soong for the dead, celebrating (as they termed it)
anniuersaries: euerie of them gaue halfe a marke, in reliefe of other of
the cleargie that had still borne the burthen for them before. Whervpon
now they murmured and grudged sore, for that they were thus charged at
that present. The same time the earle of Northumberland, and the lord
Bardolfe, warned by the lord Dauid Fleming, that there was a conspiracie
practised to deliuer them into the king of Englands hands, [Sidenote:
The lord Fleming lost his life for giuing knowledge to the earle of
Northumberland of that which was meant against him.] fled into Wales to
Owen Glendouer. This cost the lord Fleming his life: for after it was
knowne that he had disclosed to the earle of Northumberland what was
meant against him, and that the earle therevpon was shifted awaie,
certeine of the Scots slue the said lord Fleming.

Wherevpon no small grudge rose betwixt those that so slue him, and the
said lord Flemings friends. For this and other matters, [Sidenote:
Dissention amōg the Scotish nobilitie.] such dissention sproong vp
amongst the Scotish nobilitie, that one durst not trust another, so that
they were glad to sue for a truce betwixt England and them, which was
granted to indure for one yeare, as in some books we find recorded. This
truce being obteined, Robert king of Scotland (vpon considerations,
[Sidenote: Eleuen years saith _Harding_.] as in the Scotish historie ye
may read more at large) sent his eldest son Iames intituled prince of
Scotland (a child not past nine yeares of age) to be conueied into
France, [Sidenote: The prince of Scotland staid here in England.] vnder
the conduct of the earle of Orkenie, and a bishop, in hope that he might
there both remaine in safetie, and also learne the French toong.

But it fortuned, that as they sailed neare to the English coast about
Flambrough head in Holdernesse, their ship was taken and staied by
certeine mariners of Claie (a towne in Norffolke) that were abroad the
same time; and so he and all his companie being apprehended the thirtith
of March, was conueied to Windsore, where though he had letters from his
father, which he presented to the king, conteining a request in his
sonnes behalfe for fauour to be shewed towards him, if by chance he
landed within any of his dominions: yet was he deteined, and as well he
himselfe as the earle of Orkenie was committed to safe keeping in the
Tower of London, but the bishop got away and escaped (as some write) by
what means I know not. By the Scotish writers we find that this chanced
in the yeare 1404, that is two yeares before the time noted in diuerse
English writers, as Thomas Walsingham and other. But Harding saith it
was in the ninth yeare of king Henries reigne, to wit, in the yeare
1408.

But whensoeuer it chanced, it is to be thought, that there was no truce
at that present betweene the two realmes, but that the warre was rather
open, [Sidenote: _Hall._] sith diuerse English rebels still remained in
Scotland, and were there succored to the high displeasure of king
Henrie. ¶ By authoritie of the parlement that all this time continued,
[Sidenote: Robert Halome archb. of Yorke.] the Britons that serued the
quéene, with two of hir daughters were banished the realme. Robert
Halome chancellor of Oxford, as then being in the popes court at Rome,
was created archbishop of Yorke. ¶ Moreouer the same time, the pope gaue
vnto Thomas Langlie the bishoprike of Durham, which by the death of
Walter Skirlow was then void. In the summer of this yeare, the ladie
Philip the kings yoonger daughter was sent ouer to hir affianced
husband, [Sidenote: The king and the quéene brought hir to Lin where she
took shipping.] [Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._] Erike king of Denmarke,
Norwaie, and Sweden, being conueied thither with great pompe, and there
married to the said king, where she tasted (according to the common
spéech vsed in praieng for the successe of such as match togither in
mariage) both ioy and some sorrow among. There attended hir thither
Henrie Bowet bishop of Bath, and the lord Richard brother to the duke of
Yorke.

There was a iusts held at London, betwixt the earle of Kent and the erle
of Marre a Scotishman; also sir Iohn Cornewall, and the lord Beaumont,
[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8.] [Sidenote: The duke of Yorke restored to
libertie.] against other two Scotish knights, whereof the honor remained
with the Englishmen. In the parlement which yet continued, the duke of
Yorke was restored to his former libertie, estate and dignitie,
[Sidenote: The earle of Kent in fauor with the king.] where manie
supposed that he had beene dead long before that time in prison. Edmund
Holland earle of Kent was in such fauour with king Henrie, that he not
onelie aduanced him to high offices and great honors, [Sidenote: He
marrieth a daughter of Barnabo lord of Millane.] but also to his great
costs and charges obteined for him the ladie Lucie, eldest daughter, and
one of the heirs of the lord Barnabo of Millane, which Barnabo paied to
him 100000 ducates, in the church of S. Marie Oueries in Southwarke, by
the hands of Don Alfonso de Cainuola, vpon the day of the solemnization
of the marriage, which was the foure and twentith of Ianuarie.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Thom. Walsi._ _Hypod._ pag. 161.] ¶ In
this yeare Roger of Walden departed this life; who hauing béene tossed
vp and downe with sundrie changes of fortune, tried in a short time how
inconstant, vncerteine variable, wandering, vnstable, and flitting she
is; which when she is thought firmelie to stand, she slipperinglie
falleth; and with a dissembling looke counterfaiteth false ioies.
[Sidenote: Roger of waldens variable fortune.] For by the meanes of hir
changeablenesse, the said Roger of a poore fellow, grew vp to be high
lord treasuror of the realme, and shortlie after archbishop of
Canturburie; but by what right, the world knoweth; considering that the
lord Thomas Arundell was then liuing. Anon after he was deposed from his
dignitie, and lead the life of an ordinarie priuat man a long time;
within a while after againe he was promoted and made bishop of London,
which sée he had not possessed a full yeare, but was depriued, and
Nicholas Hobwith succeeded in his roome. So that hereby men are taught
not to be proud of their preferment, nor to reckon of them as of
perpetuities, sithens they may be as soone dispossessed as possessed of
them; and for that all estates & degrées depend vpon Gods power and
prouidence, whereof the poet diuinelie saieth, [Sidenote: _Ouid. lib. de
Pont._ 4.]

  Ludit in humanis diuina potentia rebus,
    Et certam præsens vix habet hora fidem.

[Sidenote: An addition of _Francis Thin._] In this yeare the seuenth of
Maie was Thomas Langlie consecrated bishop of Durham after the decease
of Walter Skirlow. In which place he continued one and thirtie yeares.
He among other his beneficiall déeds beautified the church of Durham for
euer with a chanterie of two chapleines. Besides which for the increase
of learning (wherwith himselfe was greatlie furnished) he built two
schooles, the one for grammar to instruct youth, whereby in following
time they might be made more able to benefit themselues and serue their
countrie: and the other of musicke, wherein children might be made apt
to serue God and the church, both which schooles he erected in a parcell
of ground cōmonlie called The plaie gréene. To which buildings (for he
was one that delighted much therein, and like vnto the philosopher
Anaxagoras supposed that there was not any more earthlie felicitie, than
to erect sumptuous palaces, wherby after their death the memorie of the
founders might haue continuance) he added manie sumptuous parts of the
palace of Durham. In the towne whereof he did also from the ground (of
most statelie stone) erect a new gaole with the gate-house to the same,
in that place where of old it remained, and then by iniurie of time
fallen downe and consumed. This man inioied the sée of Durham almost the
whole time of thrée kings, that is; about six yeares and six moneths in
the time of Henrie the fourth, nine yeares and fiue moneths in the time
of Henrie the fift, and fifteene yeares in the time of Henrie the sixt;
during the gouernment of all which princes, he was all his life time
highlie estéemed and reuerenced for his singular wisedome, and for the
great authoritie he bare in publike, betwéene whome and the maior of
Newcastell arose great contention, about a bridge called Tinebridge in
the towne of Gateshed or Goteshed, in Latine called Caput capræ. But in
the yeare of our redemption 1416, and of Henrie the fift, the fourth,
and of his bishoprike, the eleuenth, this bishop had the recouerie
thereof, as appeareth by the letter of atturnie of the said bishop, made
to diuerse to take possession of the same.


The letter of atturnie wherby the bishop authorised diuerse to take
possession of Tinebridge.

THOMAS Dei gratiâ episcopus Dunelmensis omnibus ad quos præsentes
litteræ peruenerint salutem. Sciatis quòd assignauimus & deputauimus
dilectos & fideles nostros Radulphum de Ewrie cheualier senescallum
nostrū Dunelmiæ, Williamum Chanceler cancellarium, infra comitatum &
libertatem Dunelmiæ, ac Williamum Claxton vicecomitem nostrum Dunelmiæ
coniunctim & diuisim, ad plenam & pacificam seisinam, de duabus partibus
medietatis cuiusdam pontis vocati Tinebridge, in villa nostra de
Gatesheued, infra comitatum & libertatem Dunelmiæ existentis. Quæ quidem
duæ partes medietatis prædictæ, continent & faciuut tertiam partem
eiusdem pontis vsque austrum, in prædicta villa de Gatesheued. Super
quas duas partes nuper maior & communitas villæ Noui castri super Tinam,
quandam turrim de nouo ædificare cæperūt, & quas quidem duas partes cum
franchesiis, iurisdictionibus, & iuribus regalibus super easdem duas
partes medietatis prædictæ, nuper in curia domini regis versus maiorem &
communitatem dictæ villæ Noui castri recuperauimus nobis & successoribus
nostris episcopis Dunelmiæ, & in iure ecclesiæ nostræ sancti Cuthberti
Dunelmiæ possidendas de vicecomite Westmerlandiæ, prætextu eiusdē breuis
dicti domini regis sibi directi nomine nostro recipiendas; & turrim
prædictā ad opus nostrum saluò & securè custodiēdam. Ratum & gratum
habiturus quicquid idē Radulphus, Williamus & Willielmus nomine nostro
fecerint in præmissis. In cuius rei testimonium has litteras nostras
fierifecimus patentes. Datum Dunelmiæ per manus Williami Cancellarii
nostri 26 Octobris, anno pontificatus nostri vndecimo.

According wherevnto in the said yeare, possession was deliuered in the
presence of these persons, whose names I thinke not vnmeet for their
posterities cause to be remembred, being persons of good credit and of
antiquitie, that is to saie, Iohn Lomelie, Rafe Ewraie, Robert Hilton,
William Fulthrop, William Tempest, Thomas Suerties, Robert *Cogniers,
[Sidenote *: Coniers.] William Claxton shiriffe of Durham, Robert de
✝Egle, [Sidenote ✝: Ogle.] Iohn Bertram, Iohn Widerington, and Iohn
Middleton knights of Northumberland, Christopher Morslie, Will.
Osmunderlaw knights of Westmerland; and also in the presence of these
esquiers, Robert Hilton, Robert Ewrie, William Bowes, Iohn Coniers,
William Lampton the elder, Iohn de Morden, William Lampton the yoonger,
Hugh Burunghell, Iohn Britlie, William Bellingham, Robert Belthis,
Henrie Talboies; Thomas Garbois, Iohn de Hutton, William Hutton, Thomas
Cooke of Fisburn, and fiue others. This bishop also procured certeine
liberties from the pope in the church of Durham, by vertue of which
grant they which were excommunicate (and might not inioy the priuilege
of any sacraments, in other places throughout the bishoprike) should yet
baptise their children in a font of that church, in an especiall place
appointed therefore, and also receiue the other sacraments there to be
administred vnto them. He died the eight and twentith of Nouember in the
yeare of our redemption 1437, and was buried in the church of Durham in
the chanterie which he had before erected. Before whose death at his
manour of Holdon he builded all the west gates there of goodlie stone
and lime, with the chambers thereto belonging on which he placed his
armes.

[Sidenote: 1407.] [Sidenote: The duke of Orleance besiegeth townes in
Gascoigne.] The duke of Orleance hauing leuied a mightie armie, had
besieged the townes of Burge and Blaie in Gascoigne, meaning with force
to win the same; but so it fortuned, that for the space of eight wéekes
togither, there passed not one daie without tempest of raine, snow, and
haile, mixed with winds and lightnings, which killed as well men as
cattell, by reason whereof he lost (as was reported) six thousand men,
so that he was constreined to breake vp his camps from before both those
townes, and to get him awaie with dishonor, for all his brags and boasts
made at his first comming thither. [Sidenote: Henrie Paie a valiant
seaman.] The same time, Henrie Paie and certeine other persons of the
fiue ports, with fiftéene ships, tooke an hundred and twentie prises,
which laie at anchor in and about the coast of Britaine, laden with
iron, salt, oile, & Rochell wines.

In this season also billes were set vp in diuerse places of London,
[Sidenote: K. Richard still aliue as was feigned.] and on the doore of
Paules church, in which was conteined that king Richard being aliue and
in health, would come shortlie with great magnificence & power to
recouer againe his kingdome: but the contriuer of this deuise was
quicklie found out, apprehended, and punished according to his demerits.
¶ The citie of London this yeare in the summer was so infected with
pestilent mortalitie, that the king durst not repaire thither, nor come
neere to it. Whervpon he being at the castell of Leeds in Kent, and
departing from thence, tooke ship at Quinburgh in the Ile of Shepie, to
saile ouer vnto Lée in Essex, and so to go to Plaschie, there to passe
the time till the mortalitie was ceassed.

As he was vpon the sea, [Sidenote: The king in danger to be taken by
French pirats.] certeine French pirats which laie lurking at the Thames
mouth to watch for some preie, got knowledge by some meanes (as was
supposed) of kings passage, and therevpon as he was in the middest of
his course, they entred among his fléet, and tooke foure vessels next to
the kings ship, [Sidenote: Sir Thomas Rampston taken.] and in one of the
same vessels sir Thomas Rampston the kings vicechamberlaine, with all
his chamber stuffe and apparell. They followed the king so néere, that
if his ship had not béene swift, [Sidenote: The king escaped through
swiftnesse of his ship.] he had landed sooner in France than in Essex:
but such was his good hap, that he escaped and arriued at his appointed
port. The lord Camois, [Sidenote: The lord Camois put in blame.] that
was commanded with certeine ships of warre to waft the king ouer
(whether the wind turned so that he could not kéepe his direct course,
or that his ship was but a slug) ran so far in the kings displeasure,
that he was attached & indited, for that (as was surmized against him)
he had practised with the Frenchmen, that the king might by them haue
béene taken in his passage.

Yee haue heard that the pope by vertue of his prouision had giuen the
archbishoprike of Yorke vnto maister Robert Halom; but the king was so
offended therewith, that the said Robert might in no wise inioy that
benefice, [Sidenote: Henrie Bowet archbishop of Yorke.] and so at
length, to satisfie the kings pleasure, maister Henrie Bowet was
translated from Bath vnto Yorke, and maister Robert Halom was made
bishop of Salisburie then void by remoouing of Henrie Chichellie to S.
Dauids. [Sidenote: Abirusewith.] The lord Henrie prince of Wales this
yeare in the summer season besieged the castell of Abirusewith, and
constreined them within to compound with him vnder certeine conditions
for truce; [Sidenote: Owen Glendouer.] but the prince was no sooner from
thence departed, but that Owen Glendouer by subtill craft entered the
castell, put out the kéepers, and charging them with treason for
concluding an agréement without his consent, placed other in that
fortresse to defend it to his vse.

About the feast of the Assumption of our ladie, [Sidenote: Sir Robert
Knols departeth this life. _Bermondsey._] that ancient warriour and
worthie knight sir Robert Knols departed this life: he was (as before
yée haue heard) borne of meane parentage, but growen into such
estimation for his valiant prowesse, as he was thought méet to haue the
leading of whole armies, and the rule and gouernment of large prouinces.
For not long before his deceasse, he being gouernour of Aquitaine,
[Sidenote: S. Albons.] incumbred with age, resigned his office vnto sir
Thomas Belfort, a right valiant capteine, and therewith returned into
England, where he died at a manour place of his in Norffolke, & from
thence brought to London in a litter, [Sidenote: He was buried in the
white friers.] with great pompe and much torch light, was buried in the
church of White friers in Fleetstreet by the ladie Constance his wife,
where was doone for him a solemne obsequie, with a great feast, and
liberall dole to the poore.

Besides the diuerse noble exploits, and famous warlike enterprises
atchiued by this valiant sonne of Mars, [Sidenote: He built Rochester
bridge commonlie called Knols bridge.] he (to continue the perpetuall
memorie of his name) builded the bridge of Rochester, ouer the riuer of
Medwaie with a chappell at the end thereof; he repared also the bodie of
the church of the White friers where he was buried, which church was
first founded by the ancestour of the lord Greie of Codner. [Sidenote:
_Thom. Wals._] He also founded a college of secular priests at Pomfret,
and did manie other things in his life right commendable. Sir Thomas
Rampston constable of the tower was drowned, in comming from the court
as he would haue shut the bridge, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.] the streame
being so big, that it ouerturned his barge. This yeare the twentith of
October began a parlement holden at Glocester, [Sidenote: _Thom Wals._ A
subsidie.] but remooued to London as should appeare in Nouember; for (as
we find) in that moneth this yéere 1407, and ninth of this kings reign,
a subsidie was granted by authoritie of a parlement then assembled at
London, to be leuied through the whole realme.

[Sidenote: The lord Camois arreigned & acquited.] The lord Camois was
arreigned the last of October, before Edmund earle of Kent that daie
high steward of England, and by his péeres acquit of the offense,
whereof he had beene indicted (as before yee haue heard) and so
dismissed at the barre, was restored againe both to his goods, lands,
and offices. ¶ This yeare the winter was excéeding sharpe through frost
and snow that continued & couered the ground by all the moneths of
December, Ianuarie, Februarie, and March, insomuch that thrushes,
blackbirds, and manie thousand birds of the like smaller size, perished
with verie cold and hunger.

[Sidenote: 1408.] The earle of Northumberland, and the lord Bardolfe,
after they had béene in Wales in France and Flanders, to purchase aid
against king Henrie, were returned backe into Scotland, and had remained
there now for the space of a whole yeare: and as their euill fortune
would, whilest the king held a councell of the nobilitie at London,
[Sidenote: The earle of Northumb. & the lord Bardolfe returne into
Englād.] the said earle of Northumberland and lord Bardolfe, in a
dismall houre, with a great power of Scots returned into England,
recouering diuerse of the earls castels and seigniories, for the people
in great numbers resorted vnto them. Héerevpon incouraged with hope of
good successe, they entred into Yorkeshire, & there began to destroie
the countrie. At their cōming to Threske, they published a proclamation,
signifieng that they were come in comfort of the English nation, as to
reléeue the common-wealth, willing all such as loued the libertie of
their countrie, to repaire vnto them, with their armor on their backes,
and in defensible wise to assist them.

The king aduertised hereof, caused a great armie to be assembled, and
came forward with the same towards his enimies: but yer the king came to
Notingham, [Sidenote: The shiriffe of Yorkeshire.] sir Thomas, or (as
other copies haue) Rafe Rokesbie shiriffe of Yorkeshire, assembled the
forces of the countrie to resist the earle and his power, comming to
Grimbaut brigs, beside Knaresborough, there to stop them the passage;
but they returning aside, got to Weatherbie, and so to Tadcaster, and
finallie came forward vnto Bramham more, [Sidenote: His hardie corage to
fight.] neere to Haizelwood, where they chose their ground méet to fight
vpon. The shiriffe was as readie to giue battell as the earle to receiue
it, and so with a standard of S. George spred, set fiercelie vpon the
earle, who vnder a standard of his owne armes incountered his
aduersaries with great manhood. There was a sore incounter and cruell
conflict betwixt the parties but in the end the victorie fell to the
shiriffe. [Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland slaine.] The lord
Bardolfe was taken, but sore wounded, so that he shortlie after died of
the hurts. ¶ As for the earle of Northumberland, he was slaine outright:
so that now the prophesie was fulfilled, which gaue an inkling of this
his heauie hap long before; namelie, [Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Tho.
Walsin._ Hypod._ pag. 172]

  Stirps Persitina periet confusa ruina.

For this earle was the stocke and maine root of all that were left aliue
called by the name of Persie; and of manie more by diuerse slaughters
dispatched. For whose misfortune the people were not a little sorrie,
making report of the gentlemans valiantnesse, renowne, and honour, and
applieng vnto him certeine lamentable verses out of Lucane, saieng;

  Sed nos nec sanguis, nec tantùm vulnera nostri
  Affecere senis; quantum gestata per vrbem
  Ora ducis, quæ transfixo deformia pilo
  Vidimus.

For his head, full of siluer horie heares, being put vpon a stake, was
openlie carried through London and set vpon the bridge of the same
citie: in like maner was the lord Bardolfes. The bishop of Bangor was
taken and pardoned by the king, for that when he was apprehended, he had
no armor on his backe. This battell was fought the ninteenth day of
Februarie. ¶ The king to purge the North parts of all rebellion, and to
take order for the punishment of those that were accused to haue
succoured and assisted the earle of Northumberland, went to Yorke, where
when manie were condemned, and diuerse put to great fines, and the
countrie brought to quietnesse, [Sidenote: The abbat of Hails hanged.]
he caused the abbat of Hailes to be hanged, who had béene in armour
against him with the foresaid earle.

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent sent to the sea.] In the beginning of
March, the king sent Edmund Holland earle of Kent with an armie of men
imbarked in certeine ships of warre vnto the sea, bicause he had
knowledge that diuerse rouers were wafting about the coasts of this
land, and did much hurt. When the earle had serched the coasts, and
could meet with no enimie abrode, he was aduertised by espials, that the
pirats hearing of his comming to sea were withdrawne into Britaine:
wherefore the said earle intending to be reuenged on them, whome he
sought, directed his course thither, and finding that they had laid vp
their ships in the hauens, so as he could not fight with them by sea, he
lanched out his boates, [Sidenote: Briake in Britaine assaulted by the
Englishmen.] and with his fierce souldiers tooke land, and manfullie
assaulted the towne of Briake standing by the sea side. They within
stoutlie defended themselues, dooing their best to repell the
Englishmen, with throwing darts, [Sidenote: The earle of Kent woūded to
death.] casting stones, and shooting quarels; in which conflict the
earle receiued a wound in his head, so that he died thereof within fiue
daies after.

[Sidenote: Briake taken by force.] The Englishmen not dismaied with his
death, but the more desirous to obteine their purpose, continued their
assaults, till by fine force they entered the towne, set it on fire, and
slue all that made resistance; and after for want of a generall to
command what should be doone, they being pestered with preies and
prisoners, returned into England. ¶ The countesse of Kent that was
daughter (as yée haue heard) to Bernabo viscont lord of Millaine, hauing
no issue by hir husband, was now mooued by the king after hir husbands
death, to marrie with his bastard brother the earle of Dorset, a man
verie aged and euill visaged; [Sidenote: The countes of Kent maketh hir
owne choise of hir second husband.] wherevpon she misliking him, meant
rather to satisfie hir owne fancie, and therefore chose for hir husband
Henrie Mortimer, a goodlie yoong bacheller, by whome she had issue a
daughter named Anne, married to sir Iohn Awbemond.

This yeare, the next daie after the feast daie of Marie Magdalen,
[Sidenote: A disputation betwixt diuines of Oxford & Cambridge for their
obediēce to the pope.] in a councell holden at London by the cleargie,
the doctors of the vniuersities of Cambridge and Oxenford being there,
with the rest assembled, debated the matter, whether they ought to
withdraw from the pope, paiments of monie, and their accustomed
obedience, considering that contrarie to his word and promise so
solemnlie made, and with an oth confirmed, he withdrewe himselfe from
the place where he (according to couenants) should haue béene present,
to aduance an agréement and concord in the church. ¶ Vpon the euen of
the Natiuitie of our ladie, there chanced such flouds through abundance
of raine, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.] [Sidenote: The cardinal of Burges
cōmeth into England in disfauor of pope Gregorie.] as the like had not
béene séene afore by anie man then liuing. Also about the feast of All
saints, the cardinal of Burges came into England, to informe the king
and the cleargie of the inconstant dealing of pope Gregorie, in like
maner as he had informed the French king and the Frenchmen, to the end
that he might persuade both these kings which were accounted the chéefe
in christendome, to put vnto their helping hands, that the same pope
Gregorie might be induced to obserue and performe that oth, which he had
receiued, so as by the roiall authoritie of those two kings, concord
might be had in the church. The French king (as this cardinall alleged)
following the aduise of the learned men of the vniuersities of Paris,
Bologna, Orleans, Tholouse, and Montpellier, [Sidenote: The resolutiō of
the French king concerning the two popes.] to auoid the danger of
fauouring schisme, determined to obeie neither the one nor the other
that contended for the papasie, vntill peace and concord might be
restored in Christes church. The king vnderstanding the purpose of the
cardinall, shewed him what courtesie might be deuised, offering to beare
his charges, so long as it pleased him to remaine in England, and
promising him to consider aduisedlie of the matter.

[Sidenote: 1409.] [Sidenote: A cōuocation at S. Paules in London.] This
yeare after the Epiphanie the archbishop of Canturburie called the
cleargie of the prouince of Canturburie to a conuocation in Paules
church at London, [Sidenote: Ambassaders appointed to go to the councell
at Pisa.] to choose sufficient persons that might go vnto the generall
councell, appointed to be kept at Pisa: herevpon were chosen Robert
Halom bishop of Salisburie, Henrie Chichleie bishop of saint Dauid, &
Thomas Chillingden prior of Christes church in Canturburie. The king
before this had sent ambassadors vnto pope Gregorie, [Sidenote: The
contents of the kings letters to the pope.] and also to the cardinals;
to wit, sir Iohn Coluill knight, and maister Nicholas Rixton clearke,
with letters, signifieng the gréefe he had conceiued for the
inconuenience that fell in the christian common-wealth thorough the
schisme; and withall putting the pope in remembrance what mischéefe and
destruction of people had chanced by the same schisme. These and the
like matters, to vtter what desire he had to haue a vnitie in the
church, he declared frankelie in his letters directed to the pope, so as
it might appear to the world, how soberlie and modestlie he sought to
induce the pope to procure peace & concord in the church. [Sidenote:
_Abr. Fl._ out of _Thom. Wals._ _Hypod._ pag. 159.] ¶ Certeine
collections of which letters (as I find them in Thomas Walsingham) I
haue here set downe in commendation of this king so excellentlie minded.


An extract of the kings letter to pope Gregorie.

MOST holie father, if the seat apostolicall would vouchsafe by
prouidence to consider, how great dangers haue inuaded the whole world
vnder the pretext of schisme, and speciallie the slaughter of christian
people, which is of aboue two hundred thousand (as it is auouched) by
the outrage of warres and battell sproong vp in sundrie parts of the
world; & now latelie to the number of thirtie thousand (by meanes of the
dissention about the bishoprike of Leods betweene two, one contending
vnder the authoritie of true pope, and the other vnder the title of
antipape) slaine in a foughten field, whereof we make report with
greefe; trulie the said seat would be pensiue in spirit, and with due
sorow troubled in mind; yea at the motion of a good conscience, it would
rather giue ouer the honour of that apostolicall seat, than suffer such
detestable deeds further to be committed, vnder the cloke of
dissimulation, taking example of the true and naturall mother, which
pleading before king Salomon, chose rather to part with hir owne child,
than to see him cut in sunder. And although by that new creation of nine
cardinals, against your oth (that we maie vse the words of others) made
by you, wherof a vehement cause of woondering is risen, it maie in some
sort be supposed (as it is likelie) that your intent respecteth not anie
end of schisme; yet farre be it alwaies from the world, that your
circumspect seat should be charged by anie person with so great
inconstancie of mind, whereby the last errour might be counted woorsse
than the first, &c.


An extract of the said kings letter to the cardinals.

We being desirous to shew how great zeale we had, & haue, that peace
might be granted & given to the church by the consent of the states of
our realme, haue sent ouer our letters to our lord the pope, according
to the tenure of a copie inclosed within these presents effectuallie to
be executed. Wherefore we doo earnestlie beseech the reuerend college of
you; that if happilie the said Gregorie be present at the generall
councell holden at Pisa, about the yeelding vp of the papasie, according
to the promise and oth by him manie a time made, to fulfill your and our
desires, as we wish and beare our selues in hand he will doo; that you
will so order things concerning his estate, that thereby God maie
cheeflie be pleased, and as well Gregorie himselfe, as we, who
deseruedlie doo tender his honour and commoditie with all our harts,
maie be beholden to giue you and euerie of you manifold thanks.

[Sidenote: Wicklifs doctrine mainteined by the learned.] This yeare
certeine learned men in Oxford and other places, publikelie in their
sermons mainteined and set foorth the opinions and conclusions of
Wickliffe. This troubled the bishops and other of the clergie sore,
insomuch that in their conuocation house, the six and twentith of Iune,
by a speciall mandat of the lord chancellor in presence of the
procurators, regents, and others, as Richard Courtneie, Richard Talbot,
[Sidenote: Sentēce pronounced against Wicklifs books.] Nicholas Zouch,
Walter Midford, & such like in great multitude: sentence was pronounced
by Iohn Wels, doctor of the canon law against the books of Iohn
Wickliffe doctor of diuinitie, intituled De sermone in monte,
Triologorum de simonia, De perfectione statuum, De ordine Christiano, De
gradibus cleri ecclesiæ: and to these was added the third treatise,
which he compiled of logike or sophistrie. These books and the
conclusions in the same conteined, the chancellor of the vniuersitie of
Oxford by common consent and assent of the regents and non regents of
the same vniuersitie, reproued, disanulled and condemned, inhibiting on
paine of the great cursse and depriuation of all degrées scholasticall,
that none from thencefoorth should affirme, teach, or preach by anie
manner of meanes or waies, the same hereticall books (as they tearmed
them) conteining anie the like opinions as he taught and set foorth in
the same books.

[Sidenote: _Fabian_. Iusts in Smithfield.] This yeare about Midsummer,
were roiall iusts holden at London in Smithfield betwixt the seneschall
of Heinault, and certeine Henewers challengers, [Sidenote: Owen
Glendouer endeth his life in great miserie.] and the earle of Summerset,
and certeine Englishmen defendants. The Welsh rebell Owen Glendouer made
an end of his wretched life in this tenth yeare of king Henrie his
reigne, being driuen now in his latter time (as we find recorded) to
such miserie, that in manner despairing of all comfort, he fled into
desert places and solitarie caves, where being destitute of all releefe
and succour, dreading to shew his face to anie creature, and finallie
lacking meat to susteine nature, [Sidenote: An. Reg. 11.] [Sidenote:
Officers made.] for méere hunger and lacke of food, miserablie pined
awaie and died. [Sidenote: 1410] [Sidenote: A parlement.] This yeare
Thomas Beaufort earle of Surrie was made chancellor, and Henrie Scroope
lord treasuror. A parlement began this yeare in the quindene of saint
Hilarie, in which the commons of the lower house exhibited a bill to the
king and lords of the vpper house, conteining effect as followeth.


A supplication to the king.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._ _Fabian._] To the most excellent lord our k.
and to all the nobles in this present parlement assembled, your
faithfull commons doo humblie signifie, that our souereigne lord the
king might haue of the temporall possessions, lands & reuenues which are
lewdlie spent, consumed and wasted by the bishops, abbats, and priors,
within this realme, so much in value as would suffice to find and
susteine one hundred and fiftie earles, one thousand & fiue hundred
knights, six thousand and two hundred esquiers, and one hundred
hospitals more than now be.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._] The king (as some write) vpon aduised
consideration hereof had, misliked of the motion, & therevpon commanded
that from thencefoorth they should not presume to studie about anie such
matters. An other thing the commons sued to haue granted vnto them, but
could not obteine: which was, that clearks conuicted should not from
thence foorth be deliuered to the bishops prison. Moreouer they demanded
to haue the statute either reuoked or qualified, which had béene
established by authoritie of parlement, in the second yeare of this
kings reigne, against such as were reputed to be heretiks, or Lollards.
By force whereof it was prouided, that wheresoeuer such manner of
persons should be found and knowne to preach or teach their erronious
doctrine, [Sidenote: King Henrie a fauorer of the clergie.] they should
be attached with the kings writ, and brought to the next goale: but the
king séemed so highlie to fauour the cleargie, that the commons were
answered plainelie, they should not come by their purpose, but rather
that the said statute should be made more rigorous and sharpe for the
punishment of such persons.

[Sidenote: Iohn Badbie burnt.] [Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._] During this
parlement one Iohn Badbie a tailor, or (as some write) a smith, being
conuict of heresie, was brought into Smithfield, and there in a tun or
pipe burnt to death, in pitifull manner. [Sidenote: The prince being
present at the execution offereth him pardon.] The kings eldest sonne
the lord Henrie prince of Wales being present, offered him his pardon,
first before the fire was kindled, if he would haue recanted his
opinions; and after when the fire was kindled, hearing him make a roring
noise verie pitifullie, the prince caused the fire to be plucked backe,
and exhorting him being with pitifull paine almost dead, to remember
himselfe, and renounce his opinions, promising him not onelie life, but
also thrée pence a daie so long as he liued to be paid out of the kings
coffers: [Sidenote: Notable constancie of Badbie.] but he hauing
recouered his spirits againe, refused the princes offer, choosing
eftsoones to tast the fire, and so to die, than to forsake his opinions.
Wherevpon the prince commanded, that he should be put into the tun
againe, from thencefoorth not to haue anie fauour or pardon at all, and
so it was doone, and the fire put to him againe, and he consumed to
ashes.

[Sidenote: The kings demand in parlement.] The king demanded in this
parlement, that it might be granted to him, to haue euerie yeare in
which he held no parlement a tenth of the cleargie, [Sidenote: A long
parlement.] and a fifteenth of the laitie; but the estates would not
agrée therevnto, by reason whereof, [Sidenote: A fiftéenth granted.] the
parlement continued till almost the middle of Maie. At length they
granted to giue him a fiftéenth, [Sidenote: Earle of Surrie deceasseth.]
not without murmuring and grudging of the commonaltie. About this season
died the lord Thomas Beauford earle of Surrie. The eleuenth of April or
therabouts, the towne of saint Omers was burnt by casuall fire togither
with the abbeie, [Sidenote: Preparation made to win Calis. _Thom.
Walsi._] in which towne was such strange and maruellous prouision of
engines, and all manner of furniture and preparation for the winning of
Calis, as the like had neuer béene séene nor heard of. Some write, that
they of Calis standing in doubt of such purueiance, & great preparation
deuised to annoie them, procured a yoong man to kindle a fire, whereby
all that dreadfull prouision was consumed to ashes, and so they within
Calis deliuered of a great great deale of care and feare which they had
thereof.

¶ But Tho. Walsingham maketh a full & complet declaration, both
concerning the dukes deuise, & also of the Calesians deliuerance from
the danger of the same; which because it perfecteth the report of this
present matter, [Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Thom. Wals._ _Hypod._ pag.
175.] I haue thought good to set downe word for word as I find it in his
Hypodigme. About the ninth of April (saith he) the towne of saint
Andomaire was burned with the abbeie, wherein was hidden and laid vp the
execrable prouision of the duke of Burgognie, who had vowed either to
destroie the towne of Calis, [Sidenote: The engines of the duke of
Burgognie against Calis that shot out barrels of poison.] or else to
subdue it to the will and pleasure of the French. There a great manie
engines to this daie no where seene, there an excéeding sort of vessels
conteining poison in them were kept in store, which he had aforehand
prouided to cast out to the destruction of the said towne. For he had
gathered togither serpents, scorpions, todes, and other kinds of
venemous things, which he had closed and shut vp in little barrels, that
when the flesh or substance of those noisome creatures was rotten, and
dissolued into filthie matter, he might laie siege to Calis, and cast
the said barrels let out of engines into the towne; which with the
violence of the throw being dasht in péeces, might choke them that were
within, poison the harnessed men touched therewith, & with their
scattered venem infect all the stréets, lanes, & passages of the towne.
In the meane time, a certeine yoong man allured with couetousnesse of
gold, or lead with affection and loue towards the kings towne, asked of
the gouernours what reward he should deserue, that would discharge and
set frée the towne from so great a feare, and would burne all the
prouision which they suspected. Herevpon they leuied a summe of that
yellow metall (namelie gold) wherewith the yoong man contented, went his
waie, and with fire readie made for the purpose, did not onelie burne
the said venemous matter and infected stuffe, but also togither with the
monasterie almost the whole towne.

[Sidenote: Sir Robert Umfreuill viceadmerall.] [Sidenote: _Harding._]
[Sidenote: His exploit in Scotland.] Moreouer this yeare sir Robert
Umfreuill vice-admeral of England, annoied the countries on the sea
coasts of Scotland: for comming into the Forth with ten ships of warre,
and lieng there fourtéene daies togither, he landed euerie daie on the
one side of the riuer or the other, taking preies, spoiles & prisoners;
notwithstanding the duke of Albanie, and the earle Dowglas were readie
there, with a great power to resist him: he burnt the galliot of
Scotland (being a ship of great account) with manie other vessels lieng
the same time at the Blackenesh ouer against Lieth. At his returne from
thence, he brought with him fourtéene good ships, and manie other great
prises of cloathes, both woollen, and linnen, pitch, tarre, woad,
flower, meale, wheat and rie, [Sidenote: His surname Robert Mendmarket.]
which being sold abroad, the markets were well holpen thereby, so that
his surname of Robert Mendmarket séemed verie well to agrée with his
qualities, which name he got by this occasion.

About foure years before this, he burnt the towne of Peples on the
market daie, causing his men to meat the cloathes which they got there
with their bowes, [Sidenote: By what occasion he came by that surname.]
& so to sell them awaie, wherevpon the Scots named him Robert
Mendmarket. Shortlie after his returne from the sea now in this eleuenth
yeare of king Henries reigne, he made a road into Scotland by land,
[Sidenote: The earle of Angus Umfreuill cōmonlie called erle of Kime.]
hauing with him his nephue yoong Gilbert Umfreuill earle of Angus
(commonlie called earle of Kime) being then but fourtéene yeares of age,
and this was the first time that the said earle spread his banner. They
burnt at that time Iedwoorth, and the most part of Tiuidale. [Sidenote:
1411.] [Sidenote: An. Reg. 12.] [Sidenote: A great death by the flix.]
This yeare there died of the bloudie flix in the citie of Burdeaux
fourtéene thousand persons, and so sore raged that disease in Gascoigne
and Guien, that there wanted people to dresse their vines, and presse
their grapes. [Sidenote: John Prendergest and William Long.] Iohn
Prendergest knight, & William Long scowred the seas, as no pirat durst
appeare, but that merchants & passengers might passe to & fro in
safetie. But yet through disdaine of some that enuied their good
successe, the same Prendergest and Long were accused of robberies which
they should practise, in spoling such ships as they met with, of diuerse
things against the owners wils. Prendergest was driuen to take
sanctuarie at Westminster, and could not be suffered to lodge in anie
mans house for feare of the kings displeasure, commanding, that none
should receiue him, and so was constreined to set vp a tent within the
porch of saint Peters church there, and to haue his seruants to watch
nightlie about him for doubt to be murthered of his aduersaries: but his
associat William Long laie still at the sea, till the lord admerall
hauing prepared certeine vessels went to the sea himselfe in person to
fetch him: but yet he could not catch him vntill he had promised him
pardon, [Sidenote: Long committed to the Tower.] and vndertaken vpon his
fidelitie that he should haue no harme: but notwithstanding all
promises, [Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie not suffred to visit
the vniuersitie of Oxenford.] vpon his comming in he was shut vp fast in
the Tower, and so for a time remained in durance. The archbishop of
Canturburie minding in this season to visit the vniuersitie of Oxenford,
could not be suffered, in consideration of priuileges which they
pretended to haue.

[Sidenote: 1412.] The realme of France in this meane while was
disquieted, [Sidenote: France disquieted with two factions.] with the
two factions of Burgognie and Orleance, in most miserable wise, as in
the French histories it maie further appeare. Neither could the king,
being a lunatike person, and féeble of braine, take any full order for
reforming of such mischéefs, so that the whole state of the kingdome was
maruellouslie brought in decaie: [Sidenote: The duke of Orleance
murthered.] neither tooke those troubles end by the death of the duke of
Orleance (murthered at length through the practise of the duke of
Burgognie) but rather more perilouslie increased. For the yoong duke of
Orleance Charles, sonne to duke Lewes thus murthered, alied himselfe
with the dukes of Berrie and Burbon, and with the earles of Alanson &
Arminacke, whereby he was so stronglie banded against the duke of
Burgognie, whome he defied as his mortall fo and enimie, that the duke
of Burgognie fearing the sequele of the matter, thought good (because
there was a motion of mariage betwixt the prince of Wales & his
daughter) to require aid of king Henrie, who foreséeing that this ciuill
discord in France (as it after hapned) might turne his realme to honor
and profit, sent to the duke of Burgognie, [Sidenote: The earles of
Arundell and Angus with others sent to aid the duke of Burgognie.]
Thomas earle of Arundell, Gilbert Umfreuill earle of Angus (commonlie
called the earle of Kime) sir Robert Umfreuill, vncle to the same
Gilbert, sir Iohn Oldcastell lord Cobham, sir Iohn Greie, and William
Porter, with twelue hundred archers.

They tooke shipping at Douer, & landed at Sluis, from whence with
speedie iournies in the latter end of this twelfth yeare of king Henries
reigne they came to Arras, where they found the duke of Burgognie, of
whom they were ioifullie receiued, & from thence he appointed them to go
vnto Peron, where he assembled a power also of his owne subiects, and
remoouing from thence, he marched through the countrie, by Roie,
Bretueill, Beauois, and Gisors, till he came with his armie vnto
Pontois, where he remained about the space of thrée wéeks. [Sidenote:
An. Reg. 13.] From Pontois the two and twentith of October, the duke of
Burgognie marched towards Paris, and passing the riuer of Saine at Pont
Meulene, he staid not till he came to Paris, into the which he entred
the 23 of October, late in the euening. The duke of Orleance laie at the
same time at saint Denis, with the more part of his armie, & the residue
kept the towne of S. Clou, where a bridge laie ouer the riuer of Saine.
On the 9 of Nouember, [Sidenote: Saint Clou taken by the helpe of the
Englishmen.] with hard & sharpe fight the Englishmen gat the towne of
saint Clou, with the bridge, slue & drowned nine hundred souldiors that
were set there to defend that passage, besides 400 that were taken
prisoners. They tooke also aboue 12 hundred horsses, which they found in
the towne, with great riches, whereof the men of warre made their
profit.

[Sidenote: Sir Manserd de Bos put to death.] Among other prisoners, sir
Manserd de Bos a valiant capteine was taken, and shortlie after put to
death, as diuerse other were which the Burgognians bought of the
Englishmen that had taken them prisoners. The tower that stood at the
end of the bridge could not be woon. [Sidenote: _Harding._] At an other
bickering also, it chanced that the Englishmen, vnder the leading of the
earle of Angus or Kime, had the vpper hand, and tooke manie prisoners,
whom the duke of Burgognie would that they should haue béene likewise
put to death as traitors to their countrie, but the said earle of Angus
answered for himselfe, and the residue of the Englishmen, that they
would rather die all in the place, than suffer their prisoners to be
vsed otherwise than as men of war ought to be, that is, to haue their
liues saued, and to be ransomed according as the law of armes required,
and by that meanes they were preserued. The duke of Burgognie hauing the
world at will (for the duke of Orleance immediatlie after the losse of
saint Clou, departing from saint Denis, got him into the high countries)
sent home the Englishmen with hartie thanks, and great rewards.

[Sidenote: _Recor. Turris._ Creations of noblemen.] This yeare, the king
created his brother Thomas Beauford earle of Dorset; [Sidenote: _Hall._]
and his sonne the lord Thomas of Lancaster, that was lord steward of
England, and earle of Aubemarle, he created duke of Clarence. Iohn duke
of Burgognie, [Sidenote: The Orleantiall factiō sueth to the K. of
England for aid.] hauing now the gouernance both of the French king and
his relme, so persecuted the duke of Orleance and his complices, that
finallie they for their last refuge required aid of king Henrie, sending
ouer vnto him certeine persons as their lawfull procurators (of the
which one was called Albert Aubemont, a man of great wit, learning, &
audacitie) to offer in name of the confederates vnto the said king
Henrie and to his sonnes, certeine conditions, [Sidenote: The
confederates of the Orleantiall faction.] which were made and concluded
the yeare of our lord 1412, the eight of Maie. The names of the chiefe
confederats were these, Iohn duke of Berrie and earle of Poictou,
Charles duke of Orleance, and Valois erle of Blois, and Beaumont lord of
Coucie and Ach, Iohn duke of Bourbon, and Auuergne earle of Clearmont
forest, and Lisle lord of Beaulieu, and Casteau Chinon, Iohn duke of
Alanson, Barnard earle of Arminacke, and others. The effect of the
articles which these confederats were agréed vpon touching their offer
to the king of England, were as followeth.


The articles of couenants which they offered to the king of England.

1 First, they offered their bodies, finances, and lands, to serue the
king of England, his heires, and successors, in all iust causes and
actions, sauing alwaies their allegiance, knowing that he would not
further inquire of them.

2 Secondlie, they offered their sonnes and daughters, néeces and
nephues, and all other their kinsfolks to be bestowed in marriages
accordingly to the pleasure of the king of England.

3 Thirdlie, they offered their castels, townes, treasures, & all their
other goods, to serue the forsaid king.

4 Fourthlie, they offered their fréends, alies, and well-willers to
serue him, being the most part of all the nobles of France, churchmen,
clearkes, and honest citizens, as it should well appeare.

5 Fiftlie, they offered to put him in possession of the duchie of Guien,
which they were readie to protest to belong vnto the king of England, in
like and semblable wise, in libertie and franchises, as any other king
of England his predecessor had held and inioied the same.

6 Sixtlie, that they would be readie to recognise the lands which they
possessed within that duchie, to hold the same of the king of England,
as of the verie true duke of Guien, promising all seruices and homages
after the best maner that might be.

7 Seuenthlie, they promised to deliuer vnto the king, as much as laie in
them, all townes and castels appertaining to the roialtie and seigniorie
of the king of England, which are in number twentie townes and castels:
and as to the regard of other townes & fortresses which were not in
their hands, they would to the vttermost of their powers, helpe the king
of England and his heires to win them out of his aduersaries hands.

8 Eightlie, that the duke of Berrie, as vassall to the king of England;
and likewise the duke of Orleance his subiect and vassall, should hold
of him by homage and fealtie, the lands and seigniories hereafter
following, that is to saie; the duke of Berrie to hold onelie the
countie of Ponthieu during his life, and the duke of Orleance to hold
the countie of Angulesme during his life, and the countie of Perigourt
for euer, and the earle of Arminacke to hold foure castels vpon certeine
suerties and conditions, as by indenture should be appointed. For the
which offers, couenants and agreements, they requested of the king of
England to condescend vnto these conditions insuing.


The conditions which they requested of the king of England.

1 First, that the king of England, as duke of Guien should defend and
succor them as he ought to doo, against all men, as their verie lord and
souereigne, and speciallie vntill they had executed iustice fullie vpon
the duke of Burgognie, for the crime which he committed vpon the person
of the duke of Orleance.

2 Secondlie, that he should assist them against the said duke of
Burgognie and his fautors; to recouer againe their goods, which by
occasion of the said duke and his fréends they had lost and béene
depriued of.

3 Thirdlie, that he should likewise aid them in all iust quarels, for
recouering of damages doone to their fréends, vassals and subiects.

4 Fourthlie, to helpe and assist them for the concluding and
establishing of a firme peace betwixt both the realmes, so far as was
possible. ¶ And further they besought the king of England to send vnto
them eight thousand men, to aid them against the duke of Burgognie and
his complices, which dailie procured the French king to make war vpon
them séeking by all waies & meanes how to destroie them.

The king of England louinglie interteined the messengers, and vpon
consideration had of their offers, as well for that he detested the
shamefull murther of the duke of Orleance (which remained vnpunished by
support of such as mainteined the duke of Burgognie, who (as it
appeared) would keepe promise no longer than serued his owne turne) as
also for that the same offers seemed to make greatlie both for his honor
and profit, thought that by the office of a king he was bound in dutie
to succour them that cried for iustice, and could not haue it; and
namelie sith in right they were his subiects and vassals, [Sidenote: The
king of England taketh vpō him to defend the Orleantiall faction.] he
ought to defend them in maintenance of his superioritie and seigniorie.
Herevpon as duke of Guien, he tooke vpon him to succor and defend them
against all men, as their verie lord and souereigne, and so sending
awaie the messengers, promised to send them aid verie shortlie.

This feat was not so secretlie wrought, but that it was knowne
streightwaies in France. [Sidenote: The earle of saint Paule assaulteth
the castell of Guisnes.] Wherefore the French kings councell sent the
earle of saint Paule downe into Picardie, with fiftéene hundred
horssemen, and a great number of footmen, who approching to Guisnes,
attempted to assault the castell, but was repelled and beaten backe,
[Sidenote: His fortune against Englishmen.] so that he retired to the
towne of saint Quintines, as one that neuer wan gaine at the Englishmens
hands, but euer departed from them with losse and dishonor. In this
meane season the French king being led by the duke of Burgognie, pursued
them that tooke part with the duke of Orleance, commonlie called
Arminacks, and after the winning of diuerse townes he besieged the citie
of Burges in Berrie, comming before it vpon saturdaie the eleuenth of
Iune, with a right huge armie. Within this citie were the dukes of
Berrie and Burbon, the earle of Auxerre, the lord Dalbret, the
archbishops of Sens and Burges, the bishops of Paris and Chartres,
hauing with them fifteene hundred armed men, and foure hundred archers
and arcubalisters.

There were with the king at this siege, his sonne the duke of Aquitane,
otherwise called the Dolphin, the dukes of Burgognie and Bar, and a
great number of other earles, lords, knights, and gentlemen; so that the
citie was besieged euen till within the Faux burges of that side towards
Dun le Roie. The siege continued, till at length through mediation of
Philibert de Lignac, lord great maister of the Rhodes, and the marshall
of Sauoie, that were both in the kings campe, trauelling betwixt the
parties, there were appointed commissioners on both sides to treat for
peace, to wit the master of the crosbowes, and the seneshall of Heinalt,
and certeine other for the king; and the archbishop of Burges,
[Sidenote: A peace concluded betwixt the two factions of Burgognie &
Orleance.] with the lord of Gaucourt & others for the Orlientiall side.
These cōming togither on a fridaie, the fifteenth of Iulie in the
Dolphins tent, vsed the matter with such discretion, that they concluded
a peace, & so on the wednesdaie next following, the campe brake vp, &
the king returned.

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales accused to his father.] Whilest these
things were a dooing in France, the lord Henrie prince of Wales,
[Sidenote: _Iohn Stow._] eldest sonne to king Henrie, got knowledge that
certeine of his fathers seruants were busie to giue informations against
him whereby discord might arise betwixt him and his father: for they put
into the kings head, not onelie what euill rule (according to the course
of youth) the prince kept to the offense of manie: but also what great
resort of people came to his house, [Sidenote: The suspicious gelousie
of the king toward his son.] so that the court was nothing furnished
with such a traine as dailie followed the prince. These tales brought no
small suspicion into the kings head, least his sonne would presume to
vsurpe the crowne, he being yet aliue, through which suspicious
gelousie, it was perceiued that he fauoured not his sonne, as in times
past he had doone.

The Prince sore offended with such persons, as by slanderous reports,
sought not onelie to spot his good name abrode in the realme, but to
sowe discord also betwixt him and his father, wrote his letters into
euerie part of the realme, to reprooue all such slanderous deuises of
those that sought his discredit. And to cleare himselfe the better, that
the world might vnderstand what wrong he had to be slandered in such
wise: [Sidenote: The prince goeth to the court with a great traine.]
about the feast of Peter and Paule, to wit, the nine and twentith daie
of Iune, he came to the court with such a number of noble men and other
his freends that wished him well, [Sidenote: His strange apparell.] as
the like traine had béene sildome seene repairing to the court at any
one time in those daies. He was apparelled in a gowne of blew satten,
full of small oilet holes, at euerie hole the néedle hanging by a silke
thred with which it was sewed. About his arme he ware an hounds collar
set full of S S of gold, and the tirets likewise being of the same
metall.

The court was then at Westminster, where he being entred into the hall,
not one of his companie durst once aduance himselfe further than the
fire in the same hall, notwithstanding they were earnestlie requested by
the lords to come higher: but they regarding what they had in
commandement of the prince, would not presume to doo in any thing
contrarie there vnto. He himself onelie accompanied with those of the
kings house, was streight admitted to the presence of the king his
father, who being at that time gréeuouslie diseased, [Sidenote: The
prince cōmeth to the kings presēce.] yet caused himselfe in his chaire
to be borne into his priuie chamber, where in the presence of thrée or
foure persons, in whome he had most confidence, he commanded the prince
to shew what he had to saie concerning the cause of his comming.

[Sidenote: His words to his father.] The prince knéeling downe before
his father said: “Most redoubted and souereigne lord and father, I am at
this time come to your presence as your liege man, and as your naturall
sonne, in all things to be at your commandement. And where I vnderstand
you haue in suspicion my demeanour against your grace, you know verie
well, that if I knew any man within this realme, of whome you should
stand in feare, my duetie were to punish that person, thereby to remooue
that greefe from your heart. Then how much more ought I to suffer death,
to ease your grace of that gréefe which you haue of me, being your
naturall sonne and liege man: and to that end I haue this daie made my
selfe readie by confession and receiuing of the sacrament. And therefore
I beseech you most redoubted lord and deare father, for the honour of
God, to ease your heart of all such suspicion as you haue of me, and to
dispatch me héere before your knees, with this same dagger” [and withall
he deliuered vnto the king his dagger, in all humble reuerence; adding
further, that his life was not so deare to him, that he wished to liue
one daie with his displeasure] “and therefore in thus ridding me out of
life, and your selfe from all suspicion, here in presence of these
lords, and before God at the daie of the generall iudgement, I
faithfullie protest clearlie to forgiue you.”

[Sidenote: The kings wordes to the prince his son.] The king mooued
herewith, cast from him the dagger, and imbracing the prince kissed him,
and with shedding teares confessed, that in déed he had him partlie in
suspicion, though now (as he perceiued) not with iust cause, and
therefore from thencefoorth no misreport should cause him to haue him in
mistrust, and this he promised of his honour. So by his great wisedome
was the wrongfull suspicion which his father had conceiued against him
remooued, and he restored to his fauour. [Sidenote: _Exton._] And
further, where he could not but gréeuouslie complaine of them that had
slandered him so greatlie, to the defacing not onelie of his honor,
[Sidenote: The princes request to haue his accusors to answer their
wrōgful slanders.] but also putting him in danger of his life, he
humblie besought the king that they might answer their vniust
accusation; and in case they were found to haue forged such matters vpon
a malicious purpose, that then they might suffer some punishment for
their faults, though not to the full of that they had deserued. The king
séeming to grant his resonable desire, yet told him that he must tarrie
a parlement, that such offenders might be punished by iudgement of their
péeres: and so for that time he was dismissed, with great loue and
signes of fatherlie affection.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Angl. præliis._] ¶ Thus were the father
and the sonne reconciled, betwixt whom the said pick-thanks had sowne
diuision, insomuch that the sonne vpon a vehement conceit of vnkindnesse
sproong in the father, was in the waie to be worne out of fauour. Which
was the more likelie to come to passe, by their informations that
priuilie charged him with riot and other vnciuill demeanor vnséemelie
for a prince. Indeed he was youthfullie giuen, growne to audacitie, and
had chosen him companions agréeable to his age; with whome he spent the
time in such recreations, exercises, and delights as he fansied. But yet
(it should séeme by the report of some writers) that his behauiour was
not offensiue or at least tending to the damage of anie bodie; sith he
had a care to auoid dooing of wrong, and to tender his affections within
the tract of vertue, whereby he opened vnto himselfe a redie passage of
good liking among the prudent sort, and was beloued of such as could
discerne his disposition, which was in no degree so excessiue, as that
he deserued in such vehement maner to be suspected. In whose dispraise I
find little, but to his praise verie much, parcell whereof I will
deliuer by the waie as a metyard whereby the residue may be measured.
The late poet that versified the warres of the valorous Englishmen,
speaking of the issue of Henrie the fourth saith of this prince (among
other things) as followeth: [Sidenote: _In Angl. præliis_, _sub. Hen._
4.]

  --------procero qui natu maximus hæres
  Corpore, progressus cùm pubertatis ad annos
  Esset, res gessit multas iuueniliter audax,
  Asciscens comites quo spar sibi iunxerat ætas,
  Nil tamen iniustè commisit, nil tamen vnquam
  Extra virtutis normam, sapientibus æquè
  Ac aliis charus.

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Prendergest restored to the kings fauour is sent to
sea.] About the same time, Iohn Prendergest knight, being restored to
the kings fauour, with thirtie ships scowred the seas, tooke good prises
of wine and vitels, which reléeued the commons greatlie. Amongst other
enterprises, he landed vpon the sudden at Craal on the faire day, tooke
the towne, and robbed the faire, so as they that were come thither to
sell their wares, had quicke vtterance and slow paiment. King Henrie
vnderstanding that the French king by setting on of the duke of
Burgognie in pursuing contrarie faction, [Sidenote: The duke of Clarence
sent to aid the duke of Orleance.] had besieged the citie of Burges (as
before yée haue heard) determined with all spéed to aid the duke of
Orleance, & so about the feast of the Assumption of our ladie, he sent
ouer an armie of eight hundred men of armes, and nine thousand archers,
vnder the leading of his second sonne the duke of Clarence accompanied
with Edward duke of Yorke, Thomas earle of Dorset and diuerse other
noble men and worthie capteins. They landed in the Baie de la Hogue
saint Wast, in the countrie of Constantine. The Englishmen swarmed like
bées round about the countrie, robbing and spoiling the same.

[Sidenote: _Enguerant._] Shortlie after their departure from the place
where they landed, there came to them six hundred armed men of
Gascoignes that were inrolled at Burdeaux. When newes thereof came to
the French court, being then at Auxerre, [Sidenote: The earle of Alanson
and Richmond sent to the duke of Clarence.] incontinentlie the earles of
Alanson and Richmond were dispatched to go vnto the English campe,
bicause they had euer béene partakers with the duke of Orleance, to giue
them thanks for their paines, and to aduertise them of the peace that
had beene latelie concluded betwixt the parties, and therefore to take
order with them, that they might be satisfied, so as they should not
spoile & waste the countrie, [Sidenote: The duke of Clarence marcheth
toward Guien.] as they had begun. But whereas the Englishmen were
gréedie to haue, and the duke of Orleance was not rich to paie, they
marched on towards Guien in good order, and what by sacking of townes,
and ransoming of rich prisoners, they got great treasure, and manie good
preies and booties.

[Sidenote: _Enguerant._] Being passed the riuer of Loire they spoiled
the towne of Beaulieu, [Sidenote: The lord of Rambures.] and with fire
and sword wasted the countries of Touraine and Maine. [Sidenote: The
earles of Kent & Warwike sent ouer to Calis.] The lord de Rambures
appointed to resist such violence, was easilie vanquished. Moreouer, to
the aid of the duke of Orleance, the king of England sent ouer to Calis
the earls of Kent and Warwike, with two thousand fighting men, which
spoiled and wasted the countrie of Bullennois, burnt the towne of Samer
de Bois, and tooke with assault the fortresse of Russalt, [Sidenote:
_Fabian._ Coine changed.] and diuerse other. This yeare, the king abased
the coines of his gold and siluer, causing the same to be currant in
this realme, at such value as the other was valued before, where indéed
the noble was woorsse by foure pence than the former, [Sidenote: _Abr.
Fl._ out of _Fabian_, pag. 388. Thrée floods without ebbing betwéen.]
and so likewise of the siluer, the coines whereof he appointed to be
currant after the same rate. ¶ In this yeare, and vpon the twelfth day
of October, were thrée flouds in the Thames, the one following vpon the
other, & no ebbing betweene: which thing no man then liuing could
remember the like to be seene.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _R. Grafton_, pag. 433, 434, in folio.] ¶
In this kings time, and in the eighth yeare of his reigne (as Richard
Grafton hath recorded) a worthie citizen of London named Richard
Whitington, mercer and alderman, was elected maior of the said citie,
and bare that office three times. This man so bestowed his goods and
substance, that he hath well deserued to be registred in chronicles.
First he erected one house or church in London to be a house of praier,
[Sidenote: Whitington college erected.] and named the same after his
owne name, Whitington college, remaining at this daie. In the said
church, besides certeine preests and clearks, he placed a number of
poore aged men and women, [Sidenote: Charitie.] builded for them houses
and lodgings, and allowed them wood coles, cloth, and wéekelie
[Sidenote: Newgate builded.] monie to their great reléefe and comfort.
This man also at his owne cost builded the gate of London called Newgate
in the yéere of our Lord 1422, which before was a most ouglie and
lothsome prison. [Sidenote: S. Bartholomews hospital.] He also builded
more than the halfe of S. Bartholomews hospitall in west Smithfield. He
builded likewise the beautifull librarie in the graie friers in London
now called Christs hospitall, standing in the north part of the cloister
thereof, where in the wall his armes be grauen in stone. He also builded
for the ease of the maior of London, his brethren, and the worshipfull
citizens, on the solemne daies of their assemblie, [Sidenote: Guildhall
chapell.] a chapell adioining to the Guildhall; to the intent that
before they entered into anie of their worldlie affaires, they should
begin with praier and inuocation to God for his assistance: at the end
ioining to the south part of the said chapell, he builded for the citie
a librarie of stone, for the custodie of their records and other bookes.
[Sidenote: Guildhall inlarged.] He also builded a great part of the east
end of Guildhall; and did manie other good déeds worthie of imitation.
By a writing of this mans owne hand, which he willed to be fixed as a
schedule to his last will and testament, it appeareth what a pitifull
and relenting heart he had at other mens miseries, and did not onelie
wish but also did what he could procure for their releefe. In so much
that he charged and commanded his executors, as they would answer before
God at the daie of the resurrection of all flesh, that if they found
anie debtor of his, whome if in conscience they thought not to be well
worth three times as much as they owght him, and also out of other mens
debt, and well able to paie, that then they should neuer demand it; for
he clearelie forgaue it: and that they should put no man in sute for
anie debt due to him: A worthie memoriall of a notable minded gentleman.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 14.] Yée haue heard how the duke of Clarence and his
armie did much hurt in the realme of France, [Sidenote: The Duke of
Orleance cōmeth to the English armie.] in places as he passed: wherevpon
at length, the duke of Orleance being earnestlie called vpon to dispatch
the Englishmen out of France, according to an article comprised in the
conclusion of the peace, he came to the duke of Clarence, rendering to
him and his armie a thousand gramersies, and disbursed to them as much
monie as he or his fréends might easilie spare; and for the rest being
two hundred and nine thousand frankes remaining vnpaid, he deliuered in
gage his second brother, Iohn duke of Angolesme, which was grandfather
to king Francis the first, that reigned in our daies, sir Marcell de
Burges, and sir Iohn de Samoures, sir Archembald Viliers, and diuerse
other, which earle continued long in England, as after shall appeare.
When this agreement was thus made betwixt the dukes of Orleance and
Clarence, the English armie with rich preies, booties and prisoners came
to Burdéaux, [Sidenote: The lord of Helie marshall of France.] making
warre on the frontiers of France, to their great game. In this meane
while, the lord of Helie, one of the marshals of France, [Sidenote: Sir
Iohn Blunt.] with an armie of foure thousand men, besieged a certeine
fortresse in Guien, which an English knight, one sir Iohn Blunt kept,
who with thrée hundred men that came to his aid, discomfited, chased,
and ouerthrew the French power, tooke prisoners twelue men of name, and
other gentlemen to the number of six score, and amongst other, the said
marshall, who was sent ouer into England, and put in the castell of
Wissebet, from whence he escaped, and got ouer into France, where
seruing the duke of Orleance at the battell of Agincort he was slaine
among other.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._] In this fourtéenth and last yeare of king Henries
reigne, [Sidenote: The K. meant to haue made a iournie against the
Infidels.] a councell was holden in the white friers in London, at the
which, among other things, order was taken for ships and gallies to be
builded and made readie, and all other things necessarie to be prouided
for a voiage which he meant to make into the holie land, there to
recouer the citie of Ierusalem from the Infidels. For it gréeued him to
consider the great malice of christian princes, that were bent vpon a
mischéefous purpose to destroie one another, to the perill of their owne
soules, rather than to make war against the enimies of the christian
faith, [Sidenote: The king is vexed with sicknesse.] as in conscience
(it séemed to him) they were bound. He held his Christmas this yeare at
Eltham, being sore vexed with sicknesse, so that it was thought
sometime, that he had beene dead; notwithstanding it pleased God that he
somwhat recouered his strength againe, and so passed that Christmasse
with as much ioy as he might.

[Sidenote: 1413.] The morrow after Candlemas daie began a parlement,
which he had called at London, [Sidenote: A parlement.] but he departed
this life before the same parlement was ended: for now that his
prouisions were readie, and that he was furnished with sufficient
treasure, soldiers, capteins, vittels, munitions, tall ships, strong
gallies, and all things necessarie for such a roiall iournie as he
pretended to take into the holie land, he was eftsoons taken with a sore
sicknesse, [Sidenote: The k. sick of an apoplexie. _Hall._] which was
not a leprosie, striken by the hand of God (saith maister Hall) as
foolish friers imagined; but a verie apoplexie, of the which he
languished till his appointed houre, and had none other gréefe nor
maladie; so that what man ordeineth, God altereth at his good will and
pleasure, not giuing place more to the prince, than to the poorest
creature liuing, when he séeth his time to dispose of him this waie or
that, as to his omnipotent power and diuine prouidence seemeth
expedient. [Sidenote: _Hall._] During this his last sicknesse, he caused
his crowne (as some write) to be set on a pillow at his beds head, and
suddenlie his pangs so sore troubled him, that he laie as though all his
vitall spirits had beene from him departed. Such as were about him,
thinking verelie that he had béene departed, couered his face with a
linnen cloth.

[Sidenote: The prince taketh awaie the crowne before his father was
dead.] The prince his sonne being hereof aduertised, entered into the
chamber, tooke the crowne, and departed. The father being suddenlie
reuiued out of that trance, quicklie perceiued the lacke of his crowne;
and hauing knowledge that the prince his sonne had taken it awaie,
[Sidenote: He is blamed of the king.] caused him to come before his
presence, requiring of him what he meant so to misuse himselfe.
[Sidenote: His answer.] The prince with a good audacitie answered;
[Sidenote: A guiltie conscience in extremitie of sicknesse pincheth
sore.] “Sir, to mine and all mens iudgements you seemed dead in this
world, wherefore I as your next heire apparant tooke that as mine owne,
and not as yours.” Well faire sonne (said the king with a great sigh)
what right I had to it, God knoweth. Well (said the prince) if you die
king, I will haue the garland, and trust to kéepe it with the sword
against all mine enimies as you haue doone. [Sidenote: The death of
Henrie the fourth.] Then said the king, “I commit all to God, and
remember you to doo well.” With that he turned himselfe in his bed, and
shortlie after departed to God in a chamber of the abbats of Westminster
called Ierusalem, the twentith daie of March, in the yeare 1413, and in
the yeare of his age 46, when he had reigned thirteene yeares, fiue
moneths and od daies, in great perplexitie and little pleasure [or
fourtéene yeares, as some haue noted, who name not the disease whereof
he died, but refer it to sicknesse absolutelie, whereby his time of
departure did approach and fetch him out of the world: as Ch. Okl.
saith, whose words may serue as a funerall epigramme in memoriall of the
said king Henrie:

  Henricus quartus his septem rexerat annos
  Ànglorum gentem summa cum laude & amore,
  Iàmq; senescenti fatalis terminus æui
  Ingruerat, morbus fatalem accerserat horam.]

[Sidenote: _Ab. Fl._ out of _Angl. præl._ _sub. Hen._ 4] [Sidenote:
_Fabian._] We find, that he was taken with his last sickenesse, while he
was making his praiers at saint Edwards shrine, there as it were to take
his leaue, and so to procéed foorth on his iournie: he was so suddenlie
and greeuouslie taken, that such as were about him, feared least he
would haue died presentlie, wherfore to reléeue him (if it were
possible) they bare him into a chamber that was next at hand, belonging
to the abbat of Westminster, where they laid him on a pallet before the
fire, and vsed all remedies to reuiue him. At length, he recouered his
spéech, and vnderstanding and perceiuing himselfe in a strange place
which he knew not, he willed to know if the chamber had anie particular
name, wherevnto answer was made, that it was called Ierusalem. Then said
the king; “Lauds be giuen to the father of heauen, for now I know that I
shall die heere in this chamber, according to the prophesie of me
declared, that I should depart this life in Ierusalem.”

Whether this was true that so he spake, as one that gaue too much credit
to foolish prophesies & vaine tales, or whether it was fained, as in
such cases it commonlie happeneth, we leaue it to the aduised reader to
iudge. [Sidenote: He is buried at Canturburie.] His bodie with all
funerall pompe was conueied vnto Canturburie, [Sidenote: His issue.] and
there solemnlie buried, leauing behind him by the ladie Marie daughter
to the lord Humfrie Bohun earle of Hereford and Northampton, Henrie
prince of Wales, Thomas duke of Clarence, Iohn duke of Bedford, Humfrie
duke of Glocester, Blanch duchesse of Bauier, and Philip quéene of
Denmarke: by his last wife Iane, he had no children. [Sidenote: His
stature.] This king was of a meane stature, well proportioned, and
formallie compact, quicke and liuelie, and of a stout courage. In his
latter daies he shewed himselfe so gentle, that he gat more loue amongst
the nobles and people of this realme, than he had purchased malice and
euill will in the beginning.

But yet to speake a truth, by his proceedings, after he had atteined to
the crowne, what with such taxes, tallages, subsidies, and exactions as
he was constreined to charge the people with; and what by punishing such
as mooued with disdeine to see him vsurpe the crowne (contrarie to the
oth taken at his entring into this land, vpon his returne from exile)
did at sundrie times rebell against him, he wan himselfe more hatred,
than in all his life time (if it had beene longer by manie yeares than
it was) had beene possible for him to haue weeded out & remooued. And
yet doubtlesse, woorthie were his subiects to tast of that bitter cup,
sithens they were so readie to ioine and clappe hands with him, for the
deposing of their rightfull and naturall prince king Richard, whose
chéefe fault rested onlie in that, that he was too bountifull to his
fréends, and too mercifull to his foes; speciallie if he had not béene
drawne by others, to séeke reuenge of those that abused his good and
courteous nature. ¶ But now to returne to the matter present. The duke
of Clarence immediatlie vpon knowlege had of his father king Henrie the
fourth his death, returned out of Guien into England, with the earle of
Angolesme, and other prisoners.

Now will we rehearse what writers of our English nation liued in the
daies of this king. That renowmed poet Geffrie Chaucer is woorthilie
named as principall, a man so exquisitlie learned in all sciences, that
his match was not lightlie found any where in those daies; and for
reducing our English toong to a perfect conformitie, [Sidenote: _Iohn
Stow_.] he hath excelled therein all other; he departed this life about
the yeare of our Lord 1402, as Bale gathereth: but by other it
appeareth, that he deceassed the fiue and twentith of October in the
yeare 1400, and lieth buried at Westminster, in the south part of the
great church there, as by a monument erected by Nicholas Brigham it doth
appeare. Iohn Gower descended of that worthie familie of the Gowers of
Stitenham in Yorkeshire (as Leland noteth) studied not onelie the common
lawes of this realme, but also other kinds of literature, and great
knowledge in the same, namelie in poeticall inuentions, applieng his
indeuor with Chaucer, to garnish the English toong, in bringing it from
a rude vnperfectnesse, vnto a more apt elegancie: for whereas before
those daies, the learned vsed to write onelie in Latine or French, and
not in English, our toong remained verie barren, rude, and vnperfect;
but now by the diligent industrie of Chaucer and Gower, it was within a
while greatlie amended, so as it grew not onelie verie rich and
plentifull in words, but also so proper and apt to expresse that which
the mind conceiued, as anie other vsuall language. Gower departed this
life shortlie after the deceasse of his déere and louing freend Chaucer;
to wit, in the yeare 1402, being then come to great age, and blind for a
certeine time before his death. He was buried in the church of saint
Marie Oueries in Southwarke.

Moreouer, Hugh Legat borne in Hertfordshire, and a monke of saint
Albons, wrote scholies vpon Architrenius of Iohn Hanuill, and also vpon
Boetius De consolatione; Roger Alington, chancellor of the vniuersitie
of Oxford, a great sophister, & an enimie to the doctrine of Wickliffe;
Iohn Botrell, a logician; Nicholas Gorham, borne in a village of the
same name in Hertfordshire, a Dominike frier, first proceeded master of
art in Oxenford, and after going to Paris, became the French kings
confessor, and therefore hath béene of some taken to be a Frenchman;
Iohn Lilleshull, so called of a monasterie in the west parties of this
realme whereof he was gouernour; Walter Disse, so called of a towne in
Norfolke where he was borne, first a Carmelite frier professed in
Norwich, and after going to Cambridge, he there procéeded doctor, he was
also confessor to the duke of Lancaster, and to his wife the duchesse
Constance, & a great setter foorth of pope Urbans cause against the
other popes that were by him and those of his faction named the
antipapes; Thomas Maldon, so called of the towne of that name in Essex
where he was borne: Iohn Edo, descended out of Wales by linage, and
borne in Herefordshire, a Franciscane frier.

Adde to the forenamed, Nicholas Fakingham, borne in Norfolke, a greie
frier, procéeded doctor in Oxenford, a great diuine, and an excellent
philosopher, prouinciall of his order here in England; Laurence
Holbecke, a monke of Ramsie, well séene in the Hebrue toong, and wrote
thereof a dictionarie; Iohn Colton, archbishop of Ardmach; Iohn Marrie,
so called of a village in Yorkeshire where he was borne, a Carmelite of
Doncaster; Richard Chefer borne in Norfolke, a diuine, and an Augustine
frier in Norwich; Iohn Lathburie, a Franciscane frier of Reading;
Nicholas Poutz; Richard Scroope brother to William Scroope, lord
treasurer of England, studied in Cambridge, and proceeded there doctor
of both the lawes, became an aduocat in the court of Rome, and
afterwards was aduanced to the gouernement of the see of Couentrie and
Lichfield, and at length was remooued from thence, and made archbishop
of Yorke, he wrote an inuectiue against king Henrie, and at length lost
his head, as before ye haue heard; Iohn Wrotham, a Carmelite frier of
London, and after made warden of an house of his order in Calis.

Furthermore, Iohn Colbie, a Carmelite frier of Norwich; William Thorpe a
northerne man borne, and student in Oxenford, an excellent diuine,
[Sidenote: Acts and moments of _Iohn Fox._] and an earnest follower of
that famous clearke Iohn Wickliffe, a notable preacher of the word,
expressing his doctrine no lesse in trade of life, than in speech, he
was at length apprehended by commandement of the archbishop of
Canturburie Thomas Arundell, and committed to prison in Saltwood
castell, where at length he died; Stephen Patrington, borne in
Yorkeshire, a frier Carmelite, prouinciall of his order through England,
of which brood there were at that season 1500 within this land, he was
bishop of saint Dauids, and confessor to king Henrie the fift, about the
fift yeare of whose reigne he deceassed; Robert Mascall, a Carmelite
frier of Ludlow, confessor also to the said K. who made him bishop of
Hereford; Reginald Langham, a frier minor of Norwich: Actonus
Dommicanus; Thomas Palmer, warden of the Blacke friers within the citie
of London; Boston of Burie, a monke of the abbeie of Burie in Suffolke,
wrote a catalog of all the writers of the church, and other treatises.

Moreouer, Thomas Peuerell, a frier Carmelite, borne in Suffolke, he was
aduanced to the sée of Ossorie in Ireland by Richard the second, and
after by pope Boniface the ninth remooued to Landaffe in Wales, and from
thence called by Henrie the fourth, with consent of pope Gregorie the
twelfe, to gouerne the sée of Worcester, and so continued bishop of that
citie, vntill he ended his life in the yeare of our Lord 1418, which was
about the sixt yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the fift; Iohn
Purueie, an excellent diuine, procéeded master of art in Oxenford,
[Sidenote: Sée maister _Fox_, in his booke of Acts, and monuments.] he
was apprehended for such doctrine as he taught, contrarie to the
ordinances of the church of Rome, and was at length compelled by Thomas
Arundell, archbishop of Canturburie, to recant at Paules crosse seuen
speciall articles, he wrote diuerse treatises, & was the second time
committed to prison in king Henrie the fift his daies, by Henrie
Chichleie, that succeeded Arundell in gouernement of the church of
Canturburie; William Holme, a greie frier (and a good physician for
curing diseases of the bodie, whatsoeuer his physicke was for the soule)
he liued vntill Henrie the fift his daies, and deceassed about the
fourth yeare of his reigne; Nicholas Baiard, a blacke frier, a doctor of
diuinitie professed at Oxenford; Thomas Rudburne, archdeacon of
Sudburie, and bishop of saint Dauids in Wales, succéeding after Stephan
Patrington, he wrote a chronicle, and certeine epistles (as Iohn Bale
noteth.)

Finallie and to conclude, Nicholas Riston, who being sore greeued in
mind, as diuerse other in those daies, to consider what inconuenience
redounded to the church, by reason of the strife and bralling among the
prelats for the acknowleging of a lawfull pope, two or thrée still
contending for that dignitie, wrote a booke, intituled De tollendo
schismate; Iohn Walter, an excellent mathematician, being first brought
vp of a scholer in the college of Winchester, and after studied at
Oxenford; Thomas of Newmarket, taking that surname of the towne in
Cambridgeshire where he was borne, he for his worthinesse (as was
thought) was made bishop of Careleill, well séene both in other
sciences, and also in diuinitie; William Auger a Franciscane frier, of
an house of that order in Bridgewater; Peter Russell a graie frier, and
of his order the prouinciall héere in England; Iohn Langton, a
Carmelite; Robert Wantham a moonke of Cernelie in Dorsetshire, wrote a
booke in verse, of the originall and signification of words; William
Norton, a Franciscane frier of Couentrie; Hugh Sueth, a blacke frier,
and a great preacher; Richard Folsham a moonke of Norwich; Robert
Wimbeldon, a singular diuine, and an excellent preacher, [Sidenote: Acts
and monuments.] as appeareth by the sermon which he made vpon this text,
Redde rationem villicationis tuæ.

Thus farre Henrie Plantagenet sonne to Iohn of Gaunt duke of Lancaster.





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