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Title: Nelson's Home Comforts - Thirteenth Edition
Author: Hooper, Mary, 1829-1904
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Nelson's Home Comforts - Thirteenth Edition" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


                 HOME COMFORTS.

               THIRTEENTH EDITION.


                 BY MARY HOOPER,


            [Illustration: Decoration]

         G. NELSON, DALE & CO., LIMITED,
                14, DOWGATE HILL.





  |                          |
  |    W. CHAPLIN & SONS,    |
  | 19 & 20, WATERLOO PLACE, |
  |       SOUTHAMPTON.       |
  |                          |
  |PLEASE SEND, S.W.R.       |

They are also Sold by Grocers, Chemists, Italian Warehousemen, etc.,
throughout the World. Should any difficulty be experienced in obtaining
them, kindly send the name and address of your Grocer, and we will at
once communicate with him.

[Illustration: TRADE MARK.]


G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.



  In packets, from 6d. to 7s. 6d.

  In 3d. packets. For use with the Gelatine.

  In graduated bottles, 8d.

  7s. 6d. each.
  Containing sufficient of the above materials for 12 quarts of Jelly.

  BOTTLED WINE JELLIES (Concentrated).
  Quarts, 2s. 6d.; Pints, 1s. 4d.; Half-pints, 9d.

  SHERRY, ETC. Quarts, 9d.; Pints, 6d.; Half-pints, 3d.

  PORT, SHERRY, ORANGE. Pints only, 9d.

  In 1s. packets.

  In Ornamental Tins, 6d.

  A most agreeable and nourishing Sweetmeat.

  FOR SOUPS, GRAVIES, ETC. In ounce packets, 4d.

  In half-pint packets, 6d.

    BEEF AND CELERY    } In pint packets,
    BEEF AND ONIONS    }    6d. each.
    MULLIGATAWNY       }
    BEEF, PEAS, AND VEGETABLES    } In quart packets,
    BEEF, LENTILS, AND VEGETABLES }     6d. each.
    PENNY PACKETS OF SOUP for charitable purposes.

  For clearing Jelly or Soup.
  In boxes containing 12 packets, 9d. per box.


G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.


How to serve them with Elegance and Economy.


_Twenty-second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d._

"Shows us how to serve up a 'little dinner,' such as a philosopher might
offer a monarch--good, varied, in good taste, and cheap. Exactly what
the young English wife wishes to know, and what the ordinary cookery
book does not teach her."--_Queen._



Being Economic and Wholesome Recipes for Plain Dinners, Breakfasts,
Luncheons, and Suppers.


_Eighth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d._

"Our already deep obligations to Miss Hooper are weightily increased by
this excellent and practical little book. The recipes for little dishes
are excellent, and so clearly worded that presumptuous man instantly
believes, on reading them, that he could descend into the kitchen and
'toss up' the little dishes without any difficulty."--_Spectator._



For Persons of Delicate Digestion, and for Children.


_Sixth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, price 2s. 6d._

"An epicure might be content with the little dishes provided by Miss
Hooper; but, at the same time, the volume fills the utmost extent of
promise held out in the title-page."--_Pall Mall Gazette._






  PREFACE                                      7
    Bottled Jellies                            7
    Tablet Jellies                             8
    Lemon Sponge                               9
    Citric Acid and Pure Essence of Lemon      9
    Pure Essence of Almonds and Vanilla        9
    Gelatine Lozenges                          9
    Jelly-Jubes                               10
    Licorice Lozenges                         10
    Albumen                                   10
    Extract of Meat                           10
    Soups                                     11
    Beef Tea                                  12
    New Zealand Mutton                        12
    Tinned Meats                              12
    Gelatine                                  13

  SOUPS                                       14

  LITTLE DISHES OF FISH                       22

  LITTLE DISHES OF MEAT                       31

  PUDDINGS                                    50

  JELLIES                                     61

  CREAMS                                      74

  CAKES                                       85

  BEVERAGES                                   93

  MACARONI, ETC.                              98

  HINTS ON HOUSEKEEPING                      105

  NEW ZEALAND FROZEN MUTTON                  119

  INDEX                                      121




In presenting our friends and the public with the thirteenth edition of
our "Home Comforts," we have the pleasure to remark that so greatly has
the book been appreciated, that the large number of FIVE HUNDRED
THOUSAND copies has been called for. The value of the Jubilee Edition
was enhanced by some new recipes; these are repeated in the present
edition, to which, also, some valuable additions have been made. Since
the introduction of our Gelatine by the late Mr. G. Nelson, more than
fifty years ago, we have considerably enlarged our list of specialities,
and we have gratefully to acknowledge the public favour accorded to us.

Among those of our preparations which have met with so much appreciation
and success, we would cite the following:

NELSON'S BOTTLED JELLIES.--It is sometimes so difficult, if not
impossible, to have a first-class jelly made in private kitchens, that
we venture to think our BOTTLED JELLIES will be highly appreciated by
all housekeepers. It is not too much to say that a ready-made jelly of
the highest quality, and of the best and purest materials, requiring
only the addition of hot water, is now, for the first time, supplied.
Careful experiments, extending over a long period of time, have been
required to bring this excellent and very useful preparation to its
present state of perfection, and it is confidently asserted that no
home-made jelly can surpass it in purity, brilliancy, or delicacy of
flavour. All that is necessary to prepare the jelly for the table is to
dissolve it by placing the bottle in hot water, and then to add the
given quantity of water to bring it to a proper consistency. It is
allowed to stand until on the point of setting, and is then put into a

are now to be had of all first-class grocers, and are put up in bottles
each containing sufficient of the concentrated preparation to make a
quart, pint, or half-pint.

NELSON'S TABLET JELLIES are recommended for general use, are guaranteed
of the purest and best materials, and are flavoured with the finest
fruit essences. The Tablet Jellies are of so moderate a price as to be
within the reach of all classes, and can be used as an every-day
addition to the family bill of fare. They are not, however, intended as
a substitute for high-class jellies, whether bottled or home-made.

The Tablet Jellies used as directed in the recipes make, in a few
minutes, creams of a most delicate kind, remarkable for smoothness of
texture and fine flavour.

added to the list.

NELSON'S LEMON SPONGE, supplied in tins, is a delicious novelty, and
will be found to surpass any that can be made at home.

trouble of putting jelly through a strainer when required for invalids,
we have introduced our Citric Acid and Essence of Lemon, and by their
use a jelly clear enough for all ordinary purposes is made in a few

LEMONADE and other beverages can be quickly made, and with less expense
than by any other method, by using Nelson's Citric Acid and Essence of
Lemon, and for these recipes are given. Delicious beverages are also
made with Nelson's Bottled Jellies, see page 93.

Essence of Lemon, will be found of superior strength and flavour, and
specially adapted for the recipes in this book.

NELSON'S GELATINE LOZENGES are not only a delicious sweetmeat, but most
useful as voice lozenges, or in cases of sore or irritable throat. The
flavour is very delicate and refreshing. Dissolved in water they make a
useful beverage, and also a jelly suitable for children and invalids.

NELSON'S JELLY-JUBES will be found most agreeable and nourishing
sweetmeats, deliciously flavoured with fruit essences. They can be used
as cough lozenges, will be found soothing for delicate throats, are
useful for travellers, and may be freely given to children.

NELSON'S LICORICE LOZENGES are not only a favourite sweetmeat, but in
cases of throat irritation and cough are found to be soothing and

NELSON'S ALBUMEN is the white of eggs carefully dried and prepared, so
that it will keep for an indefinite length of time. It is useful for any
purpose to which the white of egg is applied, and answers well for
clearing soup and jelly. When required for use, the albumen is soaked in
cold water and whisked in the usual way.

NELSON'S EXTRACT OF MEAT.--The numerous testimonials which have been
received as to the excellence of this preparation, as well as the great
and universal demand for it, have afforded the highest satisfaction to
us as the manufacturers, and have enabled us to offer it with increased
confidence to the public. It is invaluable, whether for making soup or
gravy, or for strengthening or giving flavour to many dishes; and it is
not only superior to, but far cheaper than, any similar preparation now
before the public.

Now that clear soup is so constantly required, and a thing of every-day
use, Nelson's Extract of Meat will be found a great boon. With the
addition of a little vegetable flavouring, a packet of the Extract will
make a pint of soup as good and as fine as that produced, at much labour
and expense, from fresh meat. With a judicious use of the liquor derived
from boiling fowls, rabbits, and fresh meat, an endless variety of soup
may be made, by the addition of Nelson's Extract of Meat. Some recipes
are given by which first-class soups can be prepared in a short time, at
a very small cost, and with but little trouble. It may be as well to say
that soaking for a few minutes in cold water facilitates the solution of
the Extract of Meat.

NELSON'S SOUPS are deserving of the attention of every housekeeper, for
they combine all the elements of good nourishment, have an excellent
flavour, both of meat and vegetables, are prepared by merely boiling the
contents of a packet for fifteen minutes, and are so cheap as to be
within everybody's means. Penny packets of these soups, for charitable
purposes, will be found most useful and nourishing.

Those who have to cater for a family know how often a little soup will
make up a dinner that would otherwise be insufficient; yet because of
the time and trouble required in the preparation, it is impossible to
have it. In a case like this, or when a supplementary dish is
unexpectedly required, Nelson's Soups are most useful. Although these
Soups are all that can be desired, made with water according to the
directions given with each packet, they can be utilised with great
advantage for strengthening household stock.

For instance, the liquor in which a leg of mutton has been boiled, or of
pork, if not too salt, can be at once, by using a packet or two of
Nelson's Soup, converted into a delicious and nourishing soup, and at a
cost surprisingly small. Or the bones of any joint can be made into
stock, and, after all the fat has been skimmed off, have a packet of
Nelson's Soup added, in the same manner as in the directions.

NELSON'S BEEF TEA will be found of the highest value, supplying a cup of
unequalled nourishment, combining all the constituents of fresh beef. No
other preparation now before the public contains that most important
element, albumen, in a soluble form, as well as much of the fibrin of
the meat. This Beef Tea is also generally relished by invalids, and
merely requires to be dissolved in boiling water.

NEW ZEALAND MUTTON.--For information respecting this meat, and the great
advantage as well as economy of its use, see page 119.

NELSON'S TINNED MEATS, known as the "Tomoana Brand," are prepared at the
works of NELSON BROS., LIMITED, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, from the
finest cattle of the country. Messrs. NELSON specially recommend their
"Pressed Mutton and Green Peas," "Haricot Mutton," and "Pressed Corned
Mutton." The "Stewed Kidneys" will be found of a quality superior to any
articles of the kind now in the market, while the price places them
within the reach of all classes of consumers.

NELSON'S GELATINE having now been favourably known all over the world
for more than half a century, it is unnecessary to do more than observe
that our efforts are constantly directed to supplying a perfectly pure
article, always of the same strength and quality. When Russian isinglass
was first introduced into this country, the prejudices against its use
on the part of our great-grandmothers were violent and extreme; for
those worthy ladies would not believe that some unfamiliar substance, of
the origin of which they were either ignorant or doubtful, could form an
efficient substitute for the well-known calves' feet and cow-heels, from
which they had always been in the habit of making their jellies and
blanc-manges. By degrees, however, the Gelatine made its way, and at
length superseded the old system entirely; and its popularity is
demonstrated by the fact that the works at Emscote, near Warwick, cover
nearly five acres.

       *       *       *       *       *

N.B.--It is necessary to call attention to the fact that in all the
following recipes in which Nelson's Gelatine and Specialities are used,
the quantities are calculated for _their manufactures only_, the quality
and strength of which may be relied upon for uniformity.






A pint of very good soup can be made by following the directions which
accompany each tin of Nelson's Beef and Onion Soup, viz. to soak the
contents in a pint of cold water for fifteen minutes, then place over
the fire, stir, and boil for fifteen minutes. It is delicious when
combined with a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, thus producing a quart
of nutritious and appetising soup.


Soaked in cold water for a quarter of an hour, and then boiled for
fifteen minutes, Nelson's Mulligatawny Soup is very appetising and
delicious. It should be eaten with boiled rice; and for those who like
the soup even hotter than that in the above preparation, the
accompanying rice may be curried. In either case the rice should be
boiled so that each grain should be separate and distinct from the


Pour one quart of boiling water upon the contents of a tin of Nelson's
Soup of the above title, stirring briskly. The water must be boiling. A
little seasoning of salt and pepper may be added for accustomed palates.
This soup is perfectly delicious if prepared as follows: Cut two peeled
onions into quarters, tie them in a muslin bag, and let the soup boil
for twenty minutes with them. Take out the bag before serving the soup.


The directions printed on each packet of Nelson's Beef, Pea, and
Vegetable Soup produce a satisfactory soup, but even this may be
improved by the addition of the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of
Meat and a handful of freshly-gathered peas. It is perhaps not generally
known that pea-pods, usually thrown away as useless, impart a most
delicious flavour to soup if boiled fast for two or three hours in a
large saucepan, strained, and the liquor added to the soup, stock, or
beef tea.


Soak the contents of a tin of Nelson's Beef Tea in a gill of water for
ten minutes. Add to this the third of an ounce packet of Nelson's
Gelatine, which has been soaked for two or three hours in half-a-pint of
cold water. Put the mixture in a stewpan, and stir until it reaches
boiling-point. Then put it into a mould which has been rinsed with cold
water. When thoroughly cold, this will turn out a most inviting and
extremely nutritious dish.


Boil two minced onions in a quart of the liquor in which a leg of mutton
has been boiled, skim well, and when the vegetables are tender strain
them out. Pass the soup through a napkin, boil up, skim thoroughly, and
when clear add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat,
stirring until dissolved.

Boil two ounces of vermicelli paste in a pint of water until tender.
Most shapes take about ten minutes. Take care that the water boils when
you throw in the paste, and that it continues to do so during all the
time of cooking, as that will keep the paste from sticking together.
When done, drain it in a strainer, put it in the tureen, and pour the
soup on to it.


Wash and scrape a large carrot, cut away all the yellow parts from the
middle, and slice the red outside of it an inch in length, and the
eighth of an inch thick. Take an equal quantity of turnip and three
small onions, cut in a similar manner. Put them in a stewpan with two
ounces of butter and a pinch of powdered sugar; stir over the fire until
a nice brown colour, then add a quart of water and a teaspoonful of
salt, and let all simmer together gently for two hours. When done skim
the fat off very carefully, and ten minutes before serving add the
contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a cabbage-lettuce cut
in shreds and blanched for a minute in boiling water; simmer for five
minutes and the soup will be ready. Many cooks, to save time and
trouble, use the preserved vegetables, which are to be had in great
perfection at all good Italian warehouses.


Fry a quarter of a pound of onions a light brown; mince a turnip and
carrot and a little piece of celery; boil these until tender in three
pints of the liquor in which a rabbit has been boiled, taking care to
remove all scum as it rises; strain them out, and then pass the soup
through a napkin. The soup should be clear, or nearly so, but if it is
not, put it in a stewpan, boil and skim until bright; then throw in the
contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, soaked for a few minutes;
stir until dissolved; add pepper and salt to taste.


Half roast a hare, and, having cut away the meat in long slices from the
backbone, put it aside to make an _entrée_. Fry four onions; take a
carrot, turnip, celery, a small quantity of thyme and parsley,
half-a-dozen peppercorns, a small blade of mace, some bacon-bones or a
slice of lean ham, with the body of the hare cut up into small pieces;
put all in two quarts of water with a little salt. When you have
skimmed the pot, cover close and allow it to boil gently for three
hours, then strain it; take off every particle of fat, and having
allowed the soup to boil up, add the contents of a tin of Nelson's
Extract of Meat, and thicken it with a dessertspoonful of potato-flour;
stir in two lumps of sugar, a glass of port wine, and season if


English cooks generally err in making both mulligatawny and curries too
hot. It is impossible to give the exact quantity of the powder, because
it varies so much in strength, and the cook must therefore be guided by
the quality of her material. Mulligatawny may be made cheaply, and be
delicious. The liquor in which meat or fowl has been boiled will make a
superior soup, and fish-liquor will answer well. Slice and fry brown
four onions, quarter, but do not peel, four sharp apples; boil them in
three pints of stock until tender, then rub through a sieve to a pulp.
Boil this up in the soup, skimming well; add the contents of a tin of
Nelson's Extract of Meat, and stir in two ounces of flour and the
curry-powder, mixed smooth in half-a-pint of milk. Any little pieces of
meat, fowl, game, or fish may be added as an improvement to the soup.
Just before serving taste that the soup is well-flavoured; add a little
lemon-juice or vinegar.


To a quart of the liquor in which a fresh haddock has been boiled, add
half-a-pint of water in which onions have been boiled. Stir into this,
after it has been skimmed, and whilst boiling, the contents of a tin of
Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a teaspoonful of curry-powder; let it boil
up; add the juice of half a lemon and serve.


Wash, peel, and cut into slices about half-an-inch thick two pounds of
Jerusalem artichokes. Fry them in a little butter until brown; fry also
brown half-a-pound of sliced onions. Put these to boil in two quarts of
water with two turnips, a carrot sliced, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and
one of pepper. When the vegetables are tender drain the liquor, set it
aside to cool, and remove all fat. Pass the vegetables through a fine
sieve to a nice smooth _purée_. Those who possess a Kent's "triturating
strainer" will be able to do this much more satisfactorily, both as
regards time and results, than by the old way of rubbing through a
sieve. Put the liquor on to boil, dissolve in it--according to the
strength the soup is required to be--the contents of one or two tins of
Nelson's Extract of Meat, then add the vegetable _purée_, a lump or two
of sugar, and if required, salt and pepper. Let it boil up and serve.


This soup is so often required for invalids, as well as for the table,
that an easy and comparatively inexpensive method of preparing it cannot
fail to be acceptable. Nelson's Beef Tea or Extract of Meat will be used
instead of fresh beef, and Bellis's Sun-dried Turtle instead of live
turtle. If convenient it is desirable to soak the dried turtle all
night, but it can be used without doing so. Put it on to boil in the
water in which it was soaked, in the proportion of one quart with a
teaspoonful of salt to a quarter of a pound of the turtle. Add two or
three onions peeled and quartered, a small bit of mace and sliced
lemon-peel, and simmer gently for four or five hours, or until the
turtle is tender enough to divide easily with a spoon. Stock of any kind
may be used instead of water, and as the liquid boils away more should
be added, to keep the original quantity. Herbs for the proper flavouring
of the Turtle Soup are supplied by Bellis; these should be put in about
an hour before the turtle is finished, and be tied in muslin. When done
take out the turtle and divide it into neat little pieces; strain the
liquor in which it was cooked, and having boiled it up, stir in the
contents of two tins of Nelson's Extract of Meat, previously soaked for
a few minutes. Mix smooth in a gill of cold water a teaspoonful of
French potato-flour and of Vienna flour, stir into the soup, and when it
has thickened put in the turtle meat; let it get hot through, add a
wine-glassful of sherry, a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, and salt and
pepper to taste, and serve at once. It is necessary to have "Bellis's
Sun-dried Turtle," imported by T. K. Bellis, Jeffrey's Square, St. Mary
Axe, London (sold in boxes), for this soup, because it is warranted
properly prepared. An inferior article, got up by negroes from turtle
found dead, is frequently sold at a low price; but it is unnecessary to
say it is not good or wholesome.


This, like real turtle soup, can be made of Nelson's Extract of Meat and
Bellis's Mock Turtle Meat. Boil the contents of a tin of this meat in
water or stock, salted and flavoured with vegetables and turtle herbs,
until tender. Finish with Nelson's Extract of Meat, and as directed for
turtle soup.


For roast meat, merely dissolve, after a little soaking, a tin of
Nelson's Extract of Meat in a pint of boiling water. For poultry or
game, fry two onions a light brown, mince a little carrot and turnip,
put in half a teaspoonful of herbs, tied in muslin, and boil until
tender, in a pint of water. Strain out the herbs, let the liquor boil
up, stir in the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and if
the gravy is required to be slightly thickened, add a small teaspoonful
of potato-flour mixed smooth in cold water. For cutlets or other dishes
requiring sharp sauce, make exactly as above, and just before serving
add a little of any good piquant sauce, or pickles minced finely.


Soak in a small jar the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat in
rather less than a gill of cold water. Set the jar over the fire in a
saucepan with boiling water, and let the extract simmer until dissolved.
This is useful for strengthening soups and gravies, and for glazing ham,
tongues, and other things.



The recipes we are now giving are suitable for dinner, supper, or
breakfast dishes, and will be found especially useful for the latter
meal, as there is nothing more desirable for breakfast than fish. We are
constantly told that it is not possible to have fresh fish for
breakfast, because it cannot be kept all night in the home larder. But
we must insist that there is no greater difficulty in keeping fish than
meat. Indeed, there is perhaps less difficulty, because fish can be left
lying in vinegar, if necessary, whereas in the case of meat it cannot
always be done.

We will suppose that it is necessary to use strict economy. It is as
well to proceed on that supposition, because people can always be lavish
in their expenditure, whereas it is not so easy to provide for the
household at once well and economically. In many neighbourhoods fish is
sold much cheaper late in the day than in the morning, and in this case
the housekeeper who can buy overnight for the use of the next day has a
great advantage. Suppose you get the tail of a cod weighing three
pounds, as you frequently may, at a very small price in the evening, and
use a part of it stuffed and baked for supper, you can have a dish of
cutlets of the remainder for breakfast which will be very acceptable. We
do not mean a dish of the cold remains, but of a portion of the fish
kept uncooked, as it easily may be, as we have before said, by dipping
it in vinegar. Or, you get mackerel. Nothing is better than this fish
treated according to the recipe we give. Even so delicate a fish as
whiting may, by a little management with vinegar, be kept perfectly well
from one day to the other. Skinned whiting has very little flavour, and
although when skilfully cooked in the usual way it is useful by way of
change, the nourishment is much impaired by the removal of the skin. The
same remark applies to soles. By frying fish unskinned you get a dish of
a different character to that of skinned fish, and one of which the
appetite does not so soon tire.


Soles weighing from three-quarters of a pound to a pound are the most
suitable size for frying whole. If it is desired to have the fish juicy
and with their full flavour, do not have them skinned. The black side of
the soles will not of course look so well, or be so crisp, as the white
side, but this is of little consequence compared to the nourishment
sacrificed in removing the skin. Have the soles scraped, wipe them, put
a tablespoonful of vinegar in a dish, pass the fish through it, and let
them lie an hour or more, if necessary all night, as the flavour is thus
improved. Run a knife along the backbone, which prevents it looking red
when cut. When ready to crumb the fish, lay them in a cloth and
thoroughly dry them. Beat up the yolk of an egg with a very little of
the white, which will be sufficient to egg a pair of soles; pass the
fish through the egg on both sides, hold it up to drain; have ready on a
plate a quarter of a pound of very fine dry crumbs, mixed with two
ounces of flour, a teaspoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of
pepper. Draw the fish over the crumbs, first on one side, then on the
other, and lay it gently on a dish, black side downwards, whilst you
prepare another. Some people succeed better in crumbing fish by sifting
the crumbs on to it through a very fine strainer after it is egged. When
the fish are ready put them, black side downwards, into the frying-pan
with plenty of fat, hot enough to brown a piece of bread
instantaneously, move the pan about gently, and when the soles have been
fried four minutes, put a strong cooking-fork into them near the head,
turn the white side downwards, and fry three minutes longer. Seven
minutes will be sufficient to fry a sole weighing three-quarters of a
pound, and a pair of this weight is sufficient for a party of six
persons. When the sole is done put the fork into the fish close to the
head, hold it up and let all the fat drain away, lay it on a sheet of
cap paper, and cover over with another sheet. Being thus quite freed
from grease, of a rich golden brown, crisp, and with an even surface,
lay the fish on the dish for serving, which should have on it either a
fish-paper or a napkin neatly folded. A well-fried sole is best eaten
without any sauce, but in deference to the national usage, butter sauce,
or melted butter, may be served with it.


It is better for the cook to fillet the soles, for there is often much
waste when it is done by the fishmonger. Having skinned the fish, with a
sharp knife make an incision down the spine-bone from the head to the
tail, and then along the fins; press the knife between the flesh and
the bone, bearing rather hard against the latter, and the fillets will
then be readily removed. These can now be dressed in a variety of ways;
perhaps the most delicate for breakfast is the following:


Having dried the fillets, divide them into neat pieces two or three
inches long; dip them in the beaten yolk of egg, and then in seasoned
bread-crumbs. Make a little butter hot in the frying-pan, put in the
fillets and cook them slowly until brown on one side, then turn and
finish on the other.


These may either be rolled in one piece or divided into several, as in
the foregoing recipe. In either case egg and crumb them thoroughly,
place them in the wire-basket as you do them, which immerse in fat hot
enough to crisp bread instantly. When done, put the fillets on paper to
absorb any grease clinging to them, and serve as hot as possible. All
kinds of flat fish can be filleted and cooked by these recipes, and will
usually be found more economical than serving the fish whole. It is also
economical to fillet the tail-end of cod, salmon, and turbot, and either
fry or _sauté_, as may be preferred.


Thin and fillet a pair of soles, each weighing about a pound. Roll the
fillets, secure them with thread, which remove before serving; put them
in a stewpan with two ounces of sweet butter, cover closely, and allow
them to cook at a slow heat for twenty minutes or until tender, taking
care to keep them from getting brown. Prepare a sauce by boiling a
quarter of a pound of veal cutlet and the bones of the fish in
half-a-pint of water. When reduced to a gill, strain and take off all
fat from the sauce, thicken either with fine flour or "Rizine," put it
into the stewpan with the fish, and allow it to stand for a quarter of
an hour without boiling. Mince or cut in small pieces either the meat of
a small fresh lobster, or half a flat tin of the best brand of preserved
lobster. Make this hot by putting it in a jam pot standing in a saucepan
of boiling water. Take up the fish, carefully pour the sauce round, and
place on the top of each fillet some of the lobster.


Small whiting answer well for this purpose. Tie them round, the tail to
the mouth, dip them in dissolved butter, lightly sprinkle with pepper
and salt, strew them with pale raspings, put them in a baking-dish with
a little butter, and bake in a quick oven for a quarter of an hour.


A cheap and excellent dish is made by filleting the tail of cod, egging
and crumbing the pieces and frying them. Get about a pound and a half of
the tail of a fine cod; with a sharp knife divide the flesh from the
bone lengthways, cut it into neat pieces as nearly of a size as you can,
and flatten with a knife. Dip in egg, then in crumbs mixed with a little
flour, pepper, and salt. It is best to fry the cutlets in the
wire-basket in plenty of fat, but if this is not convenient they can be
done in the frying-pan; in any case, they should be done quickly, so
that they may get crisp.


Take care the fish is well cleaned, without being split. Two or three
hours before cooking, lightly sprinkle with salt and pepper; when ready
to cook, wipe and flour the herrings. Have ready in the frying-pan as
much fat at the proper temperature as will cover the herrings. Cook
quickly at first, then moderate the heat slightly, and fry for ten to
twelve minutes, when they should be crisp and brown. When done, lay them
on a dish before the fire, in order that all fat and the fish-oil may
drain from them; with this precaution, fried herrings will be found more
digestible than otherwise they would be.


Choose the herrings with soft roes. Having scraped and washed them, cut
off the heads, split open, take out the roes, and cleanse the fish. Hold
one in the left hand, and, with thumb and finger of the right, press the
backbone to loosen it, then lay flat on the board and draw out the bone;
it will come out whole, leaving none behind. Dissolve a little fresh
butter, pass the inner side of the fish through it, sprinkle pepper and
salt lightly over, then roll it up tightly with the fin and tail
outwards, roll it in flour and sprinkle a little pepper and salt, then
put a small game skewer to keep the herring in shape. Have ready a good
quantity of boiling fat; it is best to do the herrings in a wire-basket,
and fry them quickly for ten minutes. Take them up and set them on a
plate before the fire, in order that all the fat may drain from them.
Pass the roes through flour mixed with a sufficient quantity of pepper
and salt, fry them brown, and garnish the fish with them and crisp
parsley. A difficulty is often felt in introducing herrings at dinner on
account of the number of small bones in them, but this is obviated by
the above method of dressing, as with care not one bone should be left


Procure a fine large fresh haddock and two smaller, of which to make
forcemeat. Take off the head and open the large fish. Carefully press
the meat from the backbone, which must be removed without breaking the
skin; trim away the rough parts and small bones at the sides. Cover the
inside of the fish with a layer of forcemeat, and at intervals place
lengthways a few fillets of anchovies, between which sprinkle a little
lobster coral which has been passed through a wire sieve; fold the
haddock into its original form, and sew it up with a needle and strong
thread. Dip a cloth in hot water, wring it as dry as possible, butter
sufficient space to cover the fish, then fold it up, tie each end, and
put a small safety pin in the middle to keep it firm. Braise the
galantine for an hour in stock made from the bones of the fish. Let it
stay in the liquor until cold, when take it up and draw out the sewing
thread. Reduce and strain the liquor, mix with cream and aspic jelly, or
Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved in the proportion of half-an-ounce to a
pint. When this sauce is on the point of setting, coat the galantine
with it, sprinkle with little passed lobster coral, dish in a bed of
shred salad, tastefully interspersed with beetroot cut in dice and
dipped in oil and vinegar.

To make the forcemeat, pound the fillets of the small haddocks till
fine, then work in about half its quantity of bread panada, an ounce of
butter, and the fillets of two anchovies; season with salt and pepper,
mix in one egg and a yolk, pass through a wire sieve, and work into it a
gill of cream.


Aspic jelly, or meat jelly, may be made very good, and at a moderate
cost, by boiling lean beef or veal in water with a little vegetable and
spice. To make it according to the standard recipes is so expensive and
tedious that few persons care to attempt it. The following directions
will enable a cook to make an excellent and clear aspic.

Cut two pounds of lean beefsteak or veal cutlet into dice, put it on in
two quarts of cold water, and as soon as it boils, take off the scum as
it rises. Let it simmer gently for half-an-hour; then add four onions, a
turnip, carrot, small bundle of sweet herbs, blade of mace, half-a-dozen
white peppercorns, and when it has again boiled for an hour strain it
through a napkin. Let it stand until cold, remove all the fat, boil it
up, and to a quart of the liquor put an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine,
previously soaked in cold water. Add salt and a pinch of cayenne pepper,
and when the jelly is cool stir in the whites and shells of two eggs
well beaten. Let the jelly boil briskly for two minutes, let it stand
off the fire for a few minutes, then strain through a jelly-bag and use
as directed. Take the fillets of a pair of large thick soles, cut them
into neat square pieces, leaving the trimmings for other dishes, and lay
them in vinegar with a little salt for an hour. As they must be kept
very white the best French vinegar should be used. Boil the fillets
gently in salted water, with a little vinegar, till done; take them up
and dry them on a cloth. Have ready some picked parsley and hard-boiled
eggs cut in quarters; arrange these neatly at the bottom of a plain
mould so as to form a pretty pattern. Pour in very gently enough jelly
to cover the first layer, let it stand until beginning to set, then put
another layer of fish, eggs, and parsley, then more jelly, and so on
until the mould is full. When done set the mould on ice, or allow it to
stand some hours in a cold place to get well set. Turn it out, ornament
with parsley, beetroot, and cut lemon.


Clean and boil the eels in water highly seasoned with pepper and salt,
an onion, bay-leaf, a clove, and a little vinegar. When the eels are
done enough, slip out the bones and cut them up into pieces about two
inches long. Take the liquor in which the fish is boiled, strain it, let
it boil in the stewpan without the lid, skimming it until it becomes
clear. Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine to each
half-pint of the fish gravy, and boil together for a minute, let it then
stand until cool. Arrange the pieces of eel tastefully in a plain mould
with small sprigs of curled parsley and slices of hard-boiled eggs, and,
if you like, a fillet or two of anchovies cut up into dice. When all the
fish is thus arranged in the mould, pour the jelly in very gently, a
tablespoonful at a time, in order not to disturb the solid material. Let
the mould stand in cold water for seven or eight hours, when it can be
turned out. Ornament with parsley, lemon, and beetroot.



In this chapter a number of useful and inexpensive dishes are given,
which will serve either as breakfast dishes, _entrées_, or for invalids,
and which may, in the hands of an intelligent cook, serve as models for
many others. As will be seen, it is not so much a question of expense to
provide these little tasty dishes as of management. In all the following
recipes for little dishes of mutton, it will be found a great advantage
to use New Zealand Meat.

A good cook will never be embarrassed by having too much cold meat on
hand, because she will be able by her skill so to vary the dishes that
the appetites of those for whom she caters will never tire of it. Even a
small piece of the loin of mutton may be served in half-a-dozen
different ways, and be relished by those who are tired of the
mutton-chop or the plain roast.


Taken from the neck, mutton cutlets are expensive, but those from the
loin will be found not only convenient, but to answer well at a smaller

First remove the under-cut or fillet from about two pounds of the best
end of a loin of mutton, cut off the flap, which will be useful for
stewing, and it is especially good eaten cold, and then remove the meat
from the bones in one piece, which divide with the fillet into cutlets
about half-an-inch thick. Egg them over and dip them in well-seasoned
bread-crumbs, fry them until a nice brown, and serve with gravy made
from the bones and an onion.

This way of cooking the loin is much more economical than in chops,
because with them the bones and flap are wasted, whereas in cutlets all
is used up.

To stew the flap, put it in a stewpan, the fat downwards, sprinkle
pepper and salt, and slice an onion or two over, and set it to fry
gently in its own fat for an hour. Take up the meat, and put half-a-pint
of cold water to the fat, which, when it has risen in a solid cake, take
off, mix a little flour with the gravy which will be found beneath the
fat, add pepper, salt, and some cooked potatoes cut in slices. Cut the
meat into neat squares; let it simmer gently in the gravy with the
potatoes for an hour.


Remove the fillet from a fine loin of mutton, trim away every particle
of skin, fat, and gristle. Flatten the fillet with a cutlet-bat, and cut
it lengthways into slices as thin as possible; divide these into neat
pieces about three inches long. Sprinkle each with pepper, salt, and
finely-chopped parsley, roll them up tightly, then dip in beaten egg,
and afterwards in finely-sifted bread-crumbs mixed with an equal
quantity of flour and highly seasoned with pepper and salt. As each
roulade is thus prepared place it on a game-skewer, three or four on
each skewer. Dissolve an ounce of butter in a small frying-pan, and
cook the roulades in it.


Cut neat thin slices from a leg of either roasted or boiled mutton, dip
them in yolk of egg and in fine dry bread-crumbs to which a little
flour, pepper, and salt have been added. Heat enough butter in a small
frying-pan to just cover the bottom, put in the slices of mutton and
cook them very slowly, first on one side then on the other, until they
are brown. Garnish the dish on which the mutton is served with some
fried potatoes or potato chips.


Put a little butter or bacon fat in the frying-pan, sprinkle pepper and
salt over slices of cold mutton, and let them get hot very slowly. The
mutton must be frequently turned, and never allowed to fry. When turned
in the pan for the last time sprinkle a little chopped parsley on the
upper side; remove the slices carefully on to a hot dish, pour the fat
in the pan over, and serve.


Cut up the mutton, being careful to free it from all sinew and skin;
chop or pound it with half its weight of cooked bacon until it is as
fine as desired. Season with a little pepper, salt, and allspice, put it
into a jar, which set in a saucepan of water over the fire until the
meat is hot through. When taken up stir occasionally until cool, then
press it into little pots, and pour clarified butter or mutton fat over
the top. If liked, a little essence of anchovy may be added to the


Mince a quarter of a pound of underdone mutton, taking care to have it
free from skin and fat. Mix with it a tablespoonful of rich gravy--that
which is found under a cake of dripping from a joint is particularly
suitable for this purpose--add a few drops of essence of anchovy, a
pinch of cayenne pepper, and a small teaspoonful of minced parsley. If
necessary add salt.

Line four patty-pans with puff paste, divide the mutton into equal
portions and put it into the pans, cover each with a lid of paste, and
bake in a quick oven for half-an-hour.


Having carefully washed the brain, boil it very fast, in order to harden
it, in well-seasoned gravy. When it is done, take it out of the gravy
and set it aside until cold. Cut it either in slices or in halves, dip
each piece in egg, then in bread-crumbs well seasoned with dried and
sifted parsley, pepper, and salt, fry them in a little butter until
brown. The gravy having become cold, take off the fat, and boil it in a
stewpan without a lid until it is reduced to a small quantity; pour it
round the brain, and serve.


Carefully wash an ox brain, and boil it for a quarter of an hour in
well-seasoned stock. When the brain is cold, cut it into slices as thin
as possible, dip each of them in batter, drop them as you do them into a
stewpan half-full of fat at a temperature of 430°, or that which will
brown instantly a piece of bread dipped into it. To make the batter, mix
two large tablespoonfuls of fine flour with four of cold water, stir in
a tablespoonful of dissolved butter or of fine oil, the yolk of an egg,
and a pinch of salt and pepper; when ready to use, beat the white of the
egg to a strong froth, and mix with it. Do not fry more than two
fritters at once; as you take them up, throw them on paper to absorb any
grease clinging to them, serve on a napkin or ornamental dish-paper. If
this recipe is closely followed, the fritters will be light, crisp,
delicate morsels, melting in the mouth, and form besides a very pretty
dish. Garnish with fried parsley; take care the parsley is thoroughly
dry, put it into a small frying-basket, and immerse it for an instant in
the fat in which the fritters are to be cooked. Turn it out on paper,
dry, and serve.


Let the butcher break up a marrow-bone. Take out the marrow in as large
pieces as possible, and put them into a stewpan with a little boiling
water, rather highly salted. When the marrow has boiled for a minute,
drain the water away through a fine strainer. Have ready a slice of
lightly-toasted bread, place the marrow on it, and put it into a Dutch
oven before the fire for five minutes, or until it is done. Sprinkle
over it a little pepper and salt, and a small teaspoonful of parsley,
chopped fine. The toast must be served very hot.


Cut the white part of a cold boiled chicken, and as many similar pieces
of cold ham, into neat rounds, not larger than a florin. Run a little
aspic jelly into a fancy border mould, allow it to set, and arrange a
decoration of boiled carrot and white savoury custard cut crescent
shape, dipping each piece in melted aspic. Pour in a very little more
jelly, and when it is set place the chicken and ham round alternately,
with a sprig of chervil, or small salad, here and there. Put in a very
small quantity of aspic to keep this in place, then, when nearly set,
sufficient to cover it. Arrange another layer, this time first of ham
then of chicken, fix them in the same way, and fill up the mould with
aspic jelly. When the dish is turned out fill the centre with cold green
peas, nicely seasoned, and garnish round with chopped aspic and little
stars of savoury custard. To make this, soak a quarter of an ounce of
Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of milk, dissolve it over the fire, and stir
in a gill of thick cream, season to taste with cayenne pepper and salt,
and, if liked, a little grate of nutmeg. Pour the custard on to a large
dish, and when cold cut it into the required shapes.


Cut six or seven cutlets, about half-an-inch thick, from a neck of veal,
braise them in half-a-pint of good white stock with an onion, a small
bunch of herbs, a bacon bone, and two or three peppercorns, until they
are done. Let the cutlets get cool in the liquor, then drain them.
Strain the liquor and make a white sauce with it; add a tablespoonful of
thick cream and a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved in
a gill of milk; season with salt and cayenne pepper, stirring
occasionally until quite cold. Dip the cutlets in, smoothly coating one
side, and before the sauce sets decorate them with very narrow strips of
truffle in the form of a star. Cut as many pieces of cooked tongue or
ham as there are cutlets, dish them alternately in a circle on a border
of aspic, fill the centre with a salad composed of all kinds of cold
cooked vegetables, cut with a pea-shaped cutter and seasoned with oil,
vinegar, pepper, and salt. Garnish with aspic jelly cut lozenge shape
and sprigs of chervil.


Like many other articles of diet, kidneys within the last ten years have
been doubled in price, and are so scarce as to be regarded as luxuries.
The method of cooking them generally in use is extravagant, and renders
them tasteless and indigestible. Kidneys should never be cooked
rapidly, and those persons who cannot eat them slightly underdone should
forego them. One kidney dressed as directed in the following recipe will
go as far as two cooked in the ordinary manner--an instance, if one were
needed, of the economy of well-prepared food.

Choose fine large kidneys, skin them and cut each the round way into
thin slices: each kidney should yield from ten to twelve slices. Have
ready a tablespoonful of flour highly seasoned with pepper and salt and
well mixed together; dip each piece of kidney in it. Cut some neat thin
squares of streaked bacon, fry them _very slowly_ in a little butter;
when done, put them on the dish for serving, and keep hot whilst you
_sauté_ the kidneys, which put into the fat the bacon was cooked in. In
about a minute the gravy will begin to rise on the upper side, then turn
the kidneys and let them finish cooking slowly; when they are done, as
they will be in three to four minutes, the gravy will again begin to
rise on the side which is uppermost. Put the kidneys on the dish with
the bacon, and pour over them a spoonful or two of plain beef gravy, or
water thickened with a little flour, boiled and mixed with the fat and
gravy from the kidneys in the frying-pan. If there is too much fat in
the pan, pour it away before boiling up the gravy. Serve the kidneys on
a hot-water dish.


(_Tomoana Brand._)

Dry a half-tin of champignons in a cloth, or, if convenient, prepare a
similar quantity of fresh button mushrooms; add to these a few pieces
of dried mushrooms, previously soaked for ten minutes in tepid water,
put them into a stewpan with a slice of butter, and stir constantly for
six minutes, then add two or three kidneys cut in small neat pieces, in
the shape of dice is best, and continue stirring until the kidneys are
hot through, taking care to do them slowly; at the last moment season
with pepper and salt, and serve very hot. Garnish the dish with fried
sippets of bread.


(_Tomoana Brand._)

Take the kidneys out of the gravy, and cut them into six slices. Mix a
small teaspoonful of curry powder with three teaspoonfuls of fine flour
and a small pinch of salt. Dip each slice in this mixture, and when all
are done put them in the frying-pan with a little butter, and let them
get slowly hot through. When done, put the kidneys in the centre of a
hot dish, and pour round them a sauce made as follows: Boil up the gravy
of the kidneys, and stir into it sufficient minced piccalilli pickles to
make it quite thick, add a teaspoonful of flour to a tablespoonful of
the piccalilli vinegar, stir into the sauce, and when all has boiled up
together, pour it round the kidneys.


These are quite an epicure's dish, and care must be taken to cook them
slowly. Having skinned the kidneys (they must not be split or cut) dip
them for a moment in boiling fat, place them on the gridiron over a
slow fire, turning them every minute. They will take ten to fifteen
minutes to cook, and will be done as soon as the gravy begins to run.
Place them on a hot dish rubbed over with butter, salt and pepper them
rather highly. It must be understood that kidneys thus cooked ought to
have the gravy in them, and that when they are cut at table it should
run from them freely and in abundance.


A really proper fry should consist not only of sweetbreads and liver,
but of the heart, melt, brains, frill, and kidneys, each of which
requires a different treatment. It is quite as easy to cook a fry
properly as to flour and fry it hard and over-brown, as is too
frequently done. Trim the sweetbreads neatly, and simmer them for a
quarter of an hour in good white stock with an onion. When they are done
take them up and put the brains in the gravy, allowing them to boil as
fast as possible in order to harden them; let them get cold, then cut
into slices, egg and bread-crumb them, and fry with the sweetbread in a
little butter. After the brains are taken out of the gravy, put the
slices of heart and melt in, and let them stew slowly until tender. When
they are ready, flour them, and fry with the liver and frill until
brown. Lastly, put the kidneys, cut in slices, into the pan, and very
gently fry for about a minute. Shake a little flour onto the pan, stir
it about until it begins to brown; then pour on to it the gravy, in
which the sweetbreads, etc., were stewed, see it is nicely seasoned,
and pour round the fry, which should be neatly arranged in the centre of
the dish. Garnish with fried parsley.


These make an admirable breakfast dish, and can be partly prepared
over-night. Trim and wash the sweetbreads, put them into a saucepan with
sufficient well-flavoured stock to cover them, a minced onion and a
sprig of lemon-thyme; boil gently for fifteen minutes, or a little
longer if necessary. Take them up, drain, dip in egg and finely-sifted
bread-crumbs mixed with a little flour, pepper, and salt. Fry very
carefully, so as not to make it brown or hard, some small slices of
bacon, keep warm whilst you fry the sweetbreads in the fat which has run
from it, adding, if required, a little piece of butter or lard. For a
breakfast dish, the sweetbreads should be served without gravy, but if
for an _entrée_ the liquor in which they were stewed, with slight
additions and a little thickening, can be poured round them in the dish.
Calves' sweetbreads are prepared in the same manner as the above, and
can either be fried, finished in a Dutch oven, or served white, with
parsley and butter, or white sauce.


For this dish a piece of the fillet about three inches thick will be
required, and weighing from two to three pounds. It should be cut from
one side of the leg, without bone; but sometimes butchers object to
give it, as cutting in this manner interferes with cutlets. In such a
case a piece must be chosen near the knuckle, and the bone be taken out
before cooking. For a larger party, a thick slice of the fillet,
weighing about four pounds, will be found advantageous.

With a piece of tape tie the veal into a round shape, flour, and put it
into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, fry until it becomes brown
on all sides. Then put half a pint of good gravy, nicely seasoned with
pepper and salt, cover the stewpan closely, and set it on the stove to
cook very slowly for at least four hours. When done, the veal will be
exquisitely tender, full of flavour, but not the least ragged. Take the
meat up, and keep hot whilst the gravy is reduced, by boiling without
the lid of the saucepan, to a rich glaze, which pour over the meat and


This is a brown fricassée of chicken, and is an excellent dish. No doubt
the reason it is so seldom given is that, although easy enough to do, it
requires care and attention in finishing it. Many of the best cooks, in
the preparation of chickens for fricassée, cut them up before cooking,
but we prefer to boil them whole, and afterwards to divide them, as the
flesh thus is less apt to shrink and get dry. The chicken can be slowly
boiled in plain water, with salt and onions, or, as is much better, in
white broth of any kind. When the chicken is tender cut it up; take the
back, and the skin, pinions of the wings, and pieces which do not seem
nice enough for a superior dish, and boil them in a quart of the liquor
in which it was boiled. Add mushroom trimmings, onions, and a sprig of
thyme; boil down to one-half, then strain, take off all fat, and stir
over the fire with the yolk of two eggs and an ounce of fine flour until
thickened. Dip each piece of chicken in some of this sauce, and when
they are cold pass them through fine bread-crumbs, then in the yolk of
egg, and crumb again. Fry carefully in hot fat. Dish the chicken with a
border of fried parsley, and the remainder of the gravy poured round the
dish. This dish is generally prepared by French cooks by frying the
chicken in oil, and seasoning with garlic; but unless the taste of the
guests is well known, it is safer to follow the above recipe.


Put any of the meat of the breast or of the wings without bone into a
frying-pan with a little fresh butter or bacon fat. Cook them very
slowly, turning repeatedly; if the meat has not been previously cooked
it will take ten minutes, and five minutes if a _réchauffé_. Sprinkle
with pepper, and serve with mushrooms or broiled bacon. The legs of
cooked chickens are excellent _sautés_, but they should be boned before
they are put into the pan.


Put some cold potatoes chopped into the frying-pan with a little fat,
stir them about for five minutes, then add to them an equal quantity of
cold meat, cut into neat little squares, season nicely with pepper and
salt, fry gently, stirring all the time, until thoroughly hot through.


Fry a minced onion in butter until lightly browned, cut up the flesh of
two cooked chicken legs, or any other tender meat, into dice, mix this
with the onions, and stir them together over the fire until the meat is
hot through; sprinkle over it about a small teaspoonful of curry-powder,
and salt to taste. Having thoroughly mixed the meat with the
curry-powder, pour over it a tablespoonful of milk or cream, and stir
over the fire until the moisture has dried up. Celery salt may be used
instead of plain salt, and some persons add a few drops of lemon-juice
when the curry is finished.


Croquettes of all kinds, fish, game, poultry or any delicate meats, can
be successfully made on the following model: Whatever material is used
must be finely minced or pounded. Care is required in making the sauce,
if it is too thin it is difficult to mould the croquettes, and ice will
be required to set it. Croquettes of game without any flavouring, except
a little salt and cayenne, are generally acceptable as a breakfast dish.
Preserved lobster makes very good croquettes for an _entrée_, and small
scraps of any kind can thus be made into a very good dish. Put one ounce
of fine flour into a stewpan with half a gill of cold water, stir this
over a slow fire very rapidly until it forms a paste, then add one ounce
of butter, and stir until well incorporated. Mix in a small teaspoonful
of essence of shrimps or anchovies, with a pinch of salt and pepper.
Take the stewpan off the fire, and stir the yolk of an egg briskly into
the sauce; thoroughly mix it with half-a-pound of pounded fish or meat,
spread it out on a plate until it is cool. Flour your hands, take a
small piece of the croquette mixture, roll into a ball or into the shape
of a cork, then pass it through very finely-sifted and dried
bread-crumbs. Repeat the process until all the mixture is used; put the
croquettes as you do them into a wire frying-basket, which shake very
gently, when all are placed in it, in order to free them from
superfluous crumbs. Have ready a stewpan half-full of boiling fat, dip
the basket in, gently moving it about, and taking care the croquettes
are covered with fat. In about a minute they will become a delicate
brown, and will then be done. Turn them on a paper to absorb any
superfluous fat, serve them on a napkin or ornamental dish paper. No
more croquettes than will lie on the bottom of the basket without
touching each other should be fried at once.


Mix very fine any kind of cold meat or chicken, taking care to have it
free from skin and gristle, add to it a quarter of its weight of sifted
bread-crumbs, a few drops of essence of anchovy, a little parsley,
pepper and salt, and sufficient egg to moisten the whole. Flour your
hands, roll the meat into little cakes about the size of a half-crown
piece, then flatten the cakes with the back of a spoon, dip them in egg
and fine bread-crumbs, and fry them in a little butter until lightly
browned on the outside. Put them on a hot dish and garnish with boiled
Italian paste.


Take a pound of meat, fat and lean, from the chump end of a fine
fore-loin of pork, cut it into neat dice, mix a tablespoonful of water
with it, and season with a large teaspoonful of salt and a small one of
black pepper. To make the crust, boil a quarter of a pound of lard or
clarified dripping in a gill and a half of water, and pour it hot on to
one pound of flour, to which a good pinch of salt has been added. Mix
into a stiff paste, pinch off enough of it to make the lid, and keep it
hot. Flour your board and work the paste into a ball, then with the
knuckles of your right hand press a hole in the centre, and mould the
paste into a round or oval shape, taking care to keep it a proper
thickness. Having put in the meat, join the lid to the pie, which raise
lightly with both hands so as to keep it a good high shape, cut round
the edge with a sharp knife, and make the trimmings into leaves to
ornament the lid; and having placed these on, with a rose in the centre,
put the pie on a floured baking-sheet and brush it over with yolk of

The crust of the pie should be cool and set before putting it into the
oven, which should be a moderate heat. When the gravy boils out the pie
is done. An hour and a half will bake a pie of this size. Make a little
gravy with the bones and trimmings of the pork, and to half-a-pint of it
add a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, and nicely season with
pepper and salt. When the pie is cold remove the rose from the top, make
a little hole, insert a small funnel, and pour in as much gravy as the
pie will hold. Replace the rose on the top, and put the pie on a dish
with a cut paper.

If preferred, the pie can be made in a tin mould; but the crust is nicer
raised by the hand. A great point to observe is to begin moulding the
crust whilst it is hot, and to get it finished as quickly as possible.


Prepare the crust as for a pork pie. Cut a pound of veal cutlet and a
quarter of a pound of ham into dice, season with a teaspoonful of salt
and another of black pepper, put the meat into the crust, and finish as
for pork pie. Add a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine--previously
soaked in cold water, and then dissolved--to a teacupful of gravy made
from the veal trimmings.


When a pig is cut up in the country, sausages are usually made of the
trimmings; but when the meat has to be bought, the chump-end of a
fore-loin will be found to answer best. The fine well-fed meat of a
full-grown pig, known in London as "hog-meat," is every way preferable
to that called "dairy-fed pork." The fat should be nearly in equal
proportion to the lean, but of course this matter must be arranged to
suit the taste of those who will eat the sausages. If young pork is
used, remove the skin as thinly as you can--it is useful for various
purposes--and then with a sharp knife cut all the flesh from the bones,
take away all sinew and gristle, and cut the fat and lean into strips.
Some mincing-machines require the meat longer than others; for Kent's
Combination, cut it into pieces about an inch long and half-an-inch
thick. To each pound of meat put half a gill of gravy made from the
bones, or water will do; then mix equally with it two ounces of
bread-crumbs, a large teaspoonful of salt, a small one of black pepper,
dried sage, and a pinch of allspice. This seasoning should be well mixed
with the bread, as the meat will then be flavoured properly throughout
the mass. Arrange the skin on the filler, tie it at the end, put the
meat, a little at a time, into the hopper, turn the handle of the
machine briskly, and take care the skin is only lightly filled. When the
sausages are made, tie the skin at the other end, pinch them into shape,
and then loop them by passing one through another, giving a twist to
each as you do them. Sausage-skins, especially if preserved, should be
well soaked before using, or they may make the sausages too salt. It is
a good plan to put the skin on the water-tap and allow the water to run
through it, as thus it will be well washed on the inside. Fifteen to
twenty minutes should be allowed for frying sausages, and when done they
should be nicely browned. A little butter or lard is best for frying,
and some pieces of light bread may be fried in it when the sausages are
done, and placed round the dish by way of garnish. Cooks cannot do
better than remember Dr. Kitchener's directions for frying sausages.
After saying, "They are best when quite fresh made," he adds: "put a bit
of butter or dripping into a clean frying-pan; as soon as it is melted,
before it gets hot, put in the sausages, and shake the pan for a minute,
and keep turning them. Be careful not to break or prick them in so
doing. Fry them over a very slow fire till they are nicely browned on
all sides. The secret of frying sausages is to let them get hot very
gradually; they then will not break if they are not stale. The common
practice to prevent them bursting is to prick them with a fork, but this
lets the gravy out."




We give this pudding first because it affords an opportunity for giving
hints on making milk puddings generally, and because, properly made,
there is no more delicious pudding than this. It is besides most useful
and nutritious, not only for the dinner of healthy people, but for
children and invalids. But few cooks, however, make it properly; as a
rule too many eggs are used, to which the milk is added cold, and the
pudding is baked in a quick oven. The consequence is that the pudding
curdles and comes to table swimming in whey; or, even if this does not
happen, the custard is full of holes and is tough.

In the first place, milk for all puddings with eggs should be poured on
to the eggs boiling hot; in the next, the baking must be very slowly
done, if possible, as directed in the recipe; the dish containing the
pudding to be placed in another half-full of water. This, of course,
prevents the baking proceeding too rapidly, and also prevents the
pudding acquiring a sort of burned greasy flavour, which is injurious
for invalids. Lastly, too many eggs should not be used; the quantity
given, two to the pint of milk, is in all cases quite sufficient, and
will make a fine rich custard.

We never knew a pudding curdle, even with London milk a day old, if all
these directions were observed; but it is almost needless to say, that
the pudding made with new rich milk is much finer than one of inferior

Boil a pint and a half of milk with two ounces of lump sugar, or rather
more if a sweet pudding is liked, and pour it boiling hot on three eggs
lightly beaten--that is, just sufficiently so to mix whites and yolks.
Flavour the custard with nutmeg, grated lemon-peel, or anything which
may be preferred and pour it into a tart-dish. Place this dish in
another three-parts full of boiling water, and bake slowly for forty
minutes, or until the custard is firm. There is no need to butter the
dish if the pudding is baked as directed.


This is a delicious pudding, and to insure its success great care and
exactness are required. In the first place, to avoid failure it is
necessary that the butter, flour, sugar, and milk, should be stirred
long enough over a moderate fire to make a stiff paste, because if this
is thin the eggs will separate, and the pudding when done resemble a
batter with froth on the top.

Before beginning to make the pudding, prepare a pint tin by buttering it
inside and fastening round it with string on the outside a buttered band
of writing-paper, which will stand two inches above the tin and prevent
the pudding running over as it rises. Melt an ounce of butter in a
stewpan, add one ounce of sifted sugar, stir in an ounce and a half of
Vienna flour, mix well together, add a gill of milk, and stir over the
fire with a wooden spoon until it boils and is thick. Take the stewpan
off the fire, beat up the yolks of three eggs with half a teaspoonful of
extract of vanilla, and stir a little at a time into the paste, to
insure both being thoroughly mixed together. Put a small pinch of salt
to the whites of four eggs, whip them as stiff as possible, and stir
lightly into the pudding, which pour immediately into the prepared
mould. Have ready a saucepan with enough boiling water to reach a little
way up the tin, which is best placed on a trivet, so that the water
cannot touch the paper band. Let the pudding steam very gently for
twenty minutes, or until it is firm in the middle, and will turn out.

For sauce, boil two tablespoonfuls of apricot jam in a gill of water,
with two ounces of lump sugar, stir in a wine-glassful of sherry, add a
few drops of Nelson's Vanilla Flavouring, pour over the pudding and


Put the yolks of two eggs into a basin with an ounce of sifted sugar and
a few drops of Nelson's Vanilla Essence; beat the yolks and sugar
together for six minutes, or until the mixture becomes thick. Then whip
the whites very stiff, so that they will turn out of the basin like a
jelly. Mix the yolks and whites lightly together, have ready an ounce of
butter dissolved in the omelet-pan, pour in the eggs, hold this pan over
a slow fire for two minutes, then put the frying-pan into a quick oven
and bake until the omelet has risen; four minutes ought to be
sufficient to finish the omelet in the oven; when done, slide it on to a
warm dish, double it, sift sugar over, and serve instantly.


Cover the bottom of a tart-dish with sponge-cakes, pour over a little
brandy and sherry; put in a moderate oven until hot, then pour on the
cakes an egg whip made of two packets of Nelson's Albumen, beaten to a
strong froth with a little sugar. Bake for a quarter of an hour in a
slow oven.


Butter very thickly a pint pudding-basin, and cover it neatly with
stoned muscatel raisins, the outer side of them being kept to the basin.
Lightly fill up the basin with alternate layers of sponge-cake and
ratafias, and when ready to steam the pudding, pour by degrees over the
cake a custard made of half-a-pint of boiling milk, an egg, three lumps
of sugar, a tablespoonful of brandy, and a little lemon flavouring.
Cover the basin with a paper cap and steam or boil gently for
three-quarters of an hour. Great care should be taken not to boil
puddings of this class fast, as it renders them tough and flavourless.


Mix a tablespoonful of fine flour with a gill of cold water, put it into
a gill of boiling water, and, having stirred over the fire until it is
thick, add the yolk of an egg. Continue stirring for five minutes, and
sweeten with two ounces of castor sugar. Mix a wine-glass of brandy with
two tablespoonfuls of sherry, stir it into the sauce, and pour it round
the pudding. If liked, a grate of nutmeg may be added to the sauce, and,
if required to be rich, an ounce of butter may be stirred in before the


Butter a pint-and-a-half tart-dish, lay in it a layer of light bread,
cut thin, on this sprinkle a portion of two ounces of shred suet, and of
one ounce of lemon candied-peel, chopped very fine. Fill the dish
lightly with layers of bread, sprinkling over each a little of the suet
and peel.

Boil a pint of milk with two ounces of sugar, pour it on two eggs,
beaten for a minute, and add it to the pudding just before putting it
into the oven; a little of Nelson's Essence of Lemon or Almonds may be
added to the custard. Bake the pudding in a very slow oven for an hour.


Dissolve, but do not oil, an ounce of butter, mix in a quarter of a
pound of sifted sugar, stir over the fire for a few minutes, add an egg
well beaten, and half a teaspoonful of Nelson's Vanilla Extract, or as
much as will give a good flavour to the paste, which continue stirring
until it gets thick.

Spread four slices of rusk with the vanilla paste, put them in a
buttered tart-dish. Boil half-a-pint of new milk, pour it on to an egg
well beaten, then add it to the rusk, and put the pudding to bake in a
slow oven for an hour. Turn out when done, and sift sugar over the
pudding. If a superior pudding is desired, boil a tablespoonful of
apricot jam in a teacupful of plain sugar syrup, add a little vanilla
flavouring, and pour over the pudding at the moment of serving.


Pour a pint of boiling milk on two ounces of Rizine, stir over the fire
for ten minutes, add half an ounce of butter, the yolks of two eggs, an
ounce of castor sugar, and six drops of Nelson's Essence of Almonds. Put
the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake in a moderate oven for a
quarter of an hour. When taken from the oven, spread over it a thin
layer of apricot jam, and on this the whites of the eggs beaten to a
strong froth, with half an ounce of castor sugar. Return the pudding to
a slow oven for about four minutes, in order to set the meringue.


Soak half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water
until it is soft, when add the grated peel of half a lemon, the juice of
two lemons, the beaten yolks of three eggs, and six ounces of lump sugar
dissolved in half-a-pint of boiling water. Stir the mixture over the
fire until it thickens, taking care that it does not boil. Have ready
the whites of the eggs well whisked, stir all together, pour into a
fancy mould, which put into a cold place until the pudding is set.


Half-a-pound of bread-crumbs, a pint of new milk, two ounces of butter,
the yolks of four eggs, and a little Nelson's Essence of Lemon. Boil the
bread-crumbs and milk together, then add the sugar, butter, and eggs;
when these are well mixed, bake in a tart-dish until a light brown. Then
put a layer of strawberry jam, and on the top of this the whites of the
eggs beaten to a stiff froth, with a little sifted sugar. Smooth over
the meringue with a knife dipped in boiling water, and bake for ten
minutes in a slow oven.


Boil half-a-pound of light stale bread in a pint of new milk. Stir
continually until it becomes a thick paste; then add an ounce of butter,
a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, and two large teaspoonfuls of
Schweitzer's Cocoatina, with a little Nelson's Essence of Vanilla. Take
the pudding off the fire, and mix in, first, the yolks of three eggs,
then the whites beaten to a strong froth. Put into a buttered tart-dish
and bake in a moderate oven for three-quarters of an hour.


Choose a large nut, with the milk in it, grate it finely, mix it with an
equal weight of finely-sifted sugar, half its weight of butter, the
yolks of four eggs, and the milk of the nut. Let the butter be beaten to
a cream, and when all the other ingredients are mixed with it, add the
whites of the eggs, whisked to a strong froth. Line a tart-dish with
puff-paste, put in the pudding mixture and bake slowly for an hour.
Butter a sheet of paper and cover the top of the pudding, as it should
not get brown.


Stew raspberries and currants with sugar and water, taking care to have
plenty of juice. Cut the crumb of a stale tin-loaf in slices about
half-an-inch thick and put in a pie-dish, leaving room for the bread to
swell, with alternate layers of fruit, until the dish is full. Then put
in as much of the juice as you can without causing the bread to rise.
When it is soaked up put in the rest of the juice, cover with a plate,
and let the pudding stand until the next day. When required for use turn
out and pour over it a good custard or cream. The excellence of this
pudding depends on there being plenty of syrup to soak the bread
thoroughly. This is useful when pastry is objected to.


Shred a quarter of a pound of suet, mix it with half a pound of flour,
one small teaspoonful each of baking-powder and carbonate of soda, then
add four tablespoonfuls of strawberry or raspberry jam, and stir well
with a gill of milk. Boil for four hours in a high mould, and serve with
wine or fruit sauce. The latter is made by stirring jam into thin butter


Cut slices of very light bread half-an-inch thick, with a round
paste-cutter, divide them into neat shapes all alike in size. Throw them
into boiling fat and fry quickly of a rich golden brown, dry them on
paper, place on a dish, and pour over orange or lemon syrup, or any kind
of preserve made hot. Honey or golden syrup may be used for those who
like them.


Boil two ounces of rice in a pint of milk until quite tender. When done,
mix with it a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine soaked in a
tablespoonful of water. Line the inside of a plain mould with the rice,
and when it is set fill it up with half-a-pint of cream, whipped very
stiff and mixed with some nice preserve, stewed fruit, or marmalade.
After standing some hours turn out the pudding, and pour over it a
delicate syrup made of the same fruit as that put inside the rice.


Dry a quarter of a pound of fine flour, mix with two ounces of sifted
loaf-sugar, and add it by degrees to two ounces of butter beaten to a
cream; then work in three well-beaten eggs, flavour with Nelson's
Essence of Lemon. Line patty-pans with short crust, put in the above
mixture, and bake in a quick oven.


Make six moderate-sized apples into sauce, sweeten with powdered
loaf-sugar, stir in two ounces of butter, and when cold, mix with two
well-beaten eggs. Butter a tart-dish, and strew the bottom and sides
thickly with bread-crumbs, then put in the apple-sauce, and cover with
bread-crumbs to the depth of a quarter of an inch, put a little
dissolved butter on the top, and bake for an hour in a good oven. When
done, turn it out, and sift sugar over it.


Bake a dozen good cooking apples, scrape out the pulp, boil this with
half-a-pound of sugar to a pound of pulp, until it becomes stiff. It
must be stirred all the time it is boiling. When done, place the compote
in the centre of the dish, piling it up high. Have ready some triangular
pieces of fried bread, arrange some like a crown on the top, the
remainder at the bottom of the compote. Have ready warmed half a pot of
apricot marmalade mixed with a little plain sugar-syrup, and pour it
over the compote, taking care that each piece of bread is well covered.


Bake good sharp apples; when done, remove the pulp and rub it through a
sieve, sweeten and flavour with Nelson's Essence of Lemon; when cold add
to it a custard made of eggs and milk, or milk or cream sweetened will
be very good. Keep the fool quite thick. Serve with rusks or sponge
finger biscuits.


Beat up two packets of Nelson's Albumen with six small teaspoonfuls of
water, and stir them into half-a-pound of stiff apple-sauce flavoured
with Nelson's Essence of Lemon. Put the meringue on a bright tin or
silver dish, pile it up high in a rocky shape, and bake in a quick oven
for ten minutes.


Put four large pears cut in halves into a stewpan with a pint of claret,
Burgundy, or water, and eight ounces of sugar, simmer them until
perfectly tender. Take out the pears and let the syrup boil down to
half; flavour it with vanilla. Have ready a teacupful of rice, nicely
boiled in milk and sweetened, spread it on a dish, lay the pears on it,
pour the syrup over, and serve. This is best eaten cold.


Wash the fruit in warm water, put it on to boil in cold water in which
lump sugar has been dissolved. To a pound of prunes put half-a-pound of
sugar, a pint of water, with the thin rind and juice of a lemon. Let
them simmer for an hour, or until so tender that they will mash when
pressed. Strain the fruit and set it aside. Boil the syrup until it
becomes very thick and is on the point of returning to sugar, then pour
it over the prunes, turn them about so that they become thoroughly
coated, taking care not to break them, let them lie for twelve hours,
then pile up on a glass dish for dessert.



It is within the memory of many persons that jelly was only to be made
from calves' feet by a slow, difficult, and expensive process. There is,
indeed, a story told of the wife of a lawyer, early in this century,
having appropriated some valuable parchment deeds to make jelly, when
she could not procure calves' feet. But the secret that it could be so
made was carefully guarded by the possessors of it, and it was not until
the introduction of Nelson's Gelatine that people were brought to
believe that jelly could be made other than in the old-fashioned way.
Even now there is a lingering superstition that there is more
nourishment in jelly made of calves' feet than that made from Gelatine.
The fact is, however, that Gelatine is equally nutritious from whatever
source it is procured. Foreign Gelatine, as is well known, does
sometimes contain substances which, if not absolutely deleterious, are
certainly undesirable; but Messrs. Nelson warrant their Gelatine of
equal purity with that derived from calves' feet.

It is unnecessary to enlarge on the economy both in time and money of
using Gelatine, or the more certain result obtained from it. If the
recipe given for making "a quart of jelly" is closely followed, a most
excellent and brilliant jelly will be produced. Many cooks get worried
about their jelly-bags, and are much divided in opinion as to the best
kind to use. It is not a point of great consequence whether a felt or
close flannel is selected. We incline to the latter, which must be of
good quality, and if the material is not thick it should be used double.

When put away otherwise than perfectly clean and dry, or when stored in
a damp place, flannel bags are sure to acquire a strong mouldy flavour,
which is communicated to all jelly afterwards strained through them.

The great matter, therefore, to observe in respect of the jelly-bag, is
that it be put away in a proper condition, that is, perfectly free from
all stiffness and from any smell whatever.

As soon as the bag is done with, turn it inside out, throw it into a pan
of boiling water, stir it about with a spoon until it is cleansed. Then,
have another pan of boiling water, and again treat the bag in the same
manner. Add as much cold water as will enable you to wring the bag out
dry, or it can be wrung out in a cloth. This done, finally rinse in hot
water, wring, and, if possible, dry the bag in the open air. See that it
is perfectly free from smell; if not, wash in very hot water again. Wrap
the bag in several folds of clean paper and keep it in a dry place.

A thing to be observed is that, if the jelly is allowed to come very
slowly to boiling-point it will be more effectually cleared, as the
impurities of the sugar and the thicker portions of the lemons thus rise
more surely with the egg than if this part of the process is too rapidly
carried out. In straining, if the jelly is well made, it is best to
pour all into the bag at one time, doing it slowly, so as not to break
up the scum more than necessary. Should the jelly not be perfectly
bright on a first straining, it should be kept hot, and slowly poured
again through the bag. The contents of the bag should not be disturbed,
nor should the slightest pressure be applied, as this is certain to
cloud the jelly. If brandy is used, it should be put in after the jelly
is strained, as by boiling both the spirit and flavour of it are lost.

UNTIL IT IS ON THE POINT OF SETTING. If attention is paid to this there
will never be any difficulty in getting jelly to turn out of a mould,
and putting it into hot water or using hot cloths will be unnecessary. A
mould should be used as cold as possible, because then when the jelly
comes into contact with it, it is at once set and cannot stick. Any kind
of mould may be used. If the direction to put the jelly in _when just
setting_ is followed, it will turn out as well from an earthenware as
from a copper mould.

It should be unnecessary to say that the utmost cleanliness is
imperative to insure the perfection of jelly. So delicate a substance
not only contracts any disagreeable flavour, but is rendered cloudy by
the least touch of any greasy spoon, or by a stewpan which has not been
properly cleansed.


There are a few points connected with the use of Gelatine for culinary
purposes which cannot be too strongly impressed upon housekeepers and

1. Gelatine should always be soaked in cold water till it is thoroughly
saturated--say, till it is so soft that it will tear with the
fingers--whether this is specified in the recipe or not.

2. Nelson's Gelatine being cut very fine will soak in about an hour, but
whenever possible it is desirable to give it a longer time. When
convenient, it is a good plan to put Gelatine to soak over-night. It
will then dissolve in liquid below boiling-point.

When jelly has to be cleared with white of egg do not boil it longer
than necessary. Two minutes is quite sufficient to set the egg and
clarify the jelly.

Use as little Gelatine as possible; that is to say, never use more than
will suffice to make a jelly strong enough to retain its form when
turned out of the mould. The prejudice against Gelatine which existed in
former years was doubtless caused by persons unacquainted with its
qualities using too large a quantity, and producing a jelly hard, tough,
and unpalatable, which compared very unfavourably with the delicate
jellies they had been accustomed to make from calves' feet, the delicacy
of which arose from the simple fact that the Gelatine derived from
calves' feet is so weak that it is almost impossible to make the jellies
too strong.

Persons accustomed to use Gelatine will know that its "setting" power is
very much affected by the temperature. In the recipes contained in the
following pages the quantity of Gelatine named is that which experience
has shown to be best suited to the average temperature of this country.
In hot weather and foreign climates a little more Gelatine should be


Soak one ounce of Nelson's Opaque Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water
for two or three hours, and then add the same quantity of boiling water;
stir until dissolved, and add the juice and peel of two lemons, with
wine and sugar sufficient to make the whole quantity one quart; have
ready the white and shell of an egg, well beaten together, or a packet
of Nelson's Albumen, and stir these briskly into the jelly; boil for two
minutes without stirring it; remove from the fire, allow it to stand two
minutes, and strain through a close flannel bag. Let it be on the point
of setting before putting into the mould.


For general family use it is not necessary to clear jelly through the
bag, and a quart of excellent jelly can be made as follows: Soak one
ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water for two or three
hours, then add a 3d. packet of Nelson's Citric Acid and three-quarters
of a pound of loaf sugar; pour on half-a-pint of boiling water and
half-a-pint of sherry, orange or other wine (cold), and add one-twelfth
part of a bottle of Nelson's Essence of Lemon; stir for a few minutes
before pouring into the moulds.

The effect of citric acid in the above quantity is to make the jelly
clearer. When this is not of consequence, a third of a packet can be
used, and six ounces of sugar. Wine can be omitted if desired, and water
substituted for it. Ginger-beer makes an excellent jelly for those who
do not wish for wine, and hedozone is also very good.


This is an elegant sweetmeat, and with clear jelly and care in moulding,
can be made by inexperienced persons, particularly if Nelson's Bottled
Jelly is used. If the jelly is home-made the recipe for making a "quart
of jelly" will be followed. When the jelly is on the point of setting,
put sufficient into a cold mould to cover the bottom of it. Then place
in the centre, according to taste, any fine fruit you choose, a few
grapes, cherries, strawberries, currants, anything you like, provided it
is not too heavy to break the jelly. Put in another layer of jelly, and
when it is set enough, a little more fruit, then fill up your mould with
jelly, and let it stand for some hours.


Soak one ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water
for twenty minutes, then add the same quantity of boiling water. Stir
until dissolved, and add the juice and peel of two lemons, with wine and
sugar sufficient to make the whole quantity one quart. Have ready the
white and shell of an egg, well beaten together, and stir these briskly
into the jelly; then boil for two minutes without stirring, and remove
it from the fire; allow it to stand two minutes, then strain it through
a close flannel bag. Divide the jelly in two equal parts, leaving one
pint of a yellow colour, and adding a few drops of prepared cochineal to
colour the remainder a bright red. Put a small quantity of red jelly
into a mould previously soaked in cold water. Let this set, then pour in
a small quantity of the pale jelly, and repeat this until the mould is
full, taking care that each layer is perfectly firm before pouring in
the other. Put it in a cool place, and the next day turn it out. Or, the
mould may be partly filled with the yellow jelly, and when this is
thoroughly set, fill up with the red.

Ribbon jelly and jelly of two colours can be made in any pretty fancy
mould (there are many to be had for the purpose); of course one colour
must always be perfectly firm before the other is put in, or the effect
would be spoilt by the two colours running into each other. Ribbon jelly
can be made with two kinds of Nelson's Bottled Jelly. The Sherry will be
used for the pale, and Cherry or Port Wine jelly for the red colour.
Thus an elegant jelly will be made in a few minutes.


Take one ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine, soak for twenty minutes in
half-a-pint of cold water, then dissolve. Add three-quarters of a pound
of sugar, a pot of red-currant jelly, and a bottle of good ordinary
claret, and stir over the fire till the sugar is dissolved. Beat the
whites and shells of three eggs, stir them briskly into the preparation,
boil for two minutes longer, take it off the fire, and when it has stood
for two minutes pass it through the bag. This should be a beautiful red
jelly, and perfectly clear.


Soak an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint of water for an hour
or more, dissolve it in a pint-and-a-half of boiling water with
half-a-pound of sugar. Clear it with white of egg, and run through a
jelly-bag as directed for making "a quart of brilliant jelly." This
done, stir in a tablespoonful, or rather more if liked, of Allen and
Hanbury's Café Vierge, which is a very fine essence of coffee. Or,
instead of dissolving the Gelatine in water, use strong coffee.


Make half-a-pint of cocoa from the nibs, taking care to have it clear.
Soak half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint of water; add a
quarter of a pound of sugar, dissolve, and clear the jelly with the
whites and shells of two eggs in the usual way. Flavour with Nelson's
Essence of Vanilla after the jelly has been through the bag.

When a clear jelly is not required, the cocoa can be made of
Schweitzer's Cocoatina, double the quantity required for a beverage
being used. Mix this with half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine and flavour
with vanilla.


Cut a small round from the stalk end of each orange, and scoop out the
inside. Throw the skins into cold water for an hour to harden them,
drain, and when quite dry inside, half fill with pink jelly. Put in a
cool place, and when the jelly is firm, fill up with pale jelly or
blanc-mange; set aside again, and cut into quarters before serving.
Arrange with a sprig of myrtle between each quarter. Use lemons instead
of oranges if preferred.


Boil half-a-pound of lump sugar in a gill of water until melted. Stir in
half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine previously soaked in a gill of cold
water; when it is dissolved beat a little, and let it stand until cold.
Rub four lumps of sugar on the peel of two fine oranges, so as to get
the full and delicate flavour; add this sugar with the juice of a lemon
and sufficient orange juice strained to make half-a-pint to the above.
Beat well together, and when on the point of setting, add the fruit of
two oranges prepared as follows: Peel the oranges, cut away all the
white you can without drawing the juice, divide the orange in quarters,
take out seeds and all pith, and cut the quarters into three or four
pieces. Mix these with the jelly, which at once put into a mould,
allowing it to stand a few hours before turning out.


Take one pound of apples, peel them with a sharp knife, cut them in two,
take out the core, and cut the fruit into small pieces. Place the apples
in a stewpan, with three ounces of lump sugar, half-a-pint of water, a
small teaspoonful of Nelson's Citric Acid, and six drops of Nelson's
Essence of Lemon. Put the stewpan on the fire, and boil the apples till
they are quite tender, stirring occasionally to prevent the fruit
sticking to the bottom of the pan; or the apples can be steamed in a
potato-steamer, afterwards adding lemon-juice and sugar. Soak an ounce
of Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of cold water, dissolve it, and when the
apples are cooked to a pulp, place a hair sieve over a basin and rub the
apples through with a wooden spoon; stir the melted Gelatine into the
apples, taking care that it is quite smoothly dissolved. If liked,
colour part of the apples by stirring in half a spoonful of cochineal

Rinse a pint-and-a-half mould in boiling water, and then in cold water;
ornament the bottom of the mould with pistachio nuts cut in small
pieces, or preserved cherries, according to taste. When on the point of
setting put the apples into the mould, and if any part of the apples are
coloured, fill the mould alternately with layers of coloured and plain
apples. Stand the mould aside in a cool place to set the apples, then
turn out the jelly carefully on a dish, and send to table with cream
whipped to a stiff froth.


To an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine add one pint of cold water, let it
stand for twenty minutes, then dissolve it over the fire, add the rind
of two lemons thinly pared, three-quarters of a pound of lump sugar,
and the juice of three lemons; boil all together two minutes, strain it
and let it remain till nearly cold, then add the whites of two eggs well
beaten, and whisk ten minutes, when it will become the consistence of
sponge. Put it lightly into a glass dish immediately, leaving it in
appearance as rocky as possible.

This favourite sweetmeat is also most easily and successfully made with
Nelson's Lemon Sponge. Dissolve the contents of a tin in half-a-pint of
boiling water, let it stand until it is on the point of setting, then
whip it until very white and thick.

If any difficulty is experienced in getting the Lemon Sponge out of the
tin, set it in a saucepan of boiling water for fifteen minutes. In cold
weather also, should the sponge be slow in dissolving, put it in a
stewpan with the boiling water and stir until dissolved; but do not boil
it. It is waste of time to begin whipping until the sponge is on the
point of setting. A gill of sherry may be added if liked, when the
whipping of the sponge is nearly completed. Put the sponge into a mould
rinsed with cold water. It will be ready for use in two or three hours.
A very pretty effect is produced by ornamenting this snow-white sponge
with preserved barberries, or cherries, and a little angelica cut into
pieces to represent leaves.


Put one ounce each of sago, ground rice, pearl barley, and Nelson's
Gelatine--previously soaked in cold water--into a saucepan, with two
quarts of water; boil gently till the liquid is reduced one-half. Strain
and set aside till wanted. A few spoonfuls of this jelly may be
dissolved in broth, tea, or milk. It is nourishing and easily digested.


To an ounce and a half of Nelson's Patent Gelatine add a pint of cold
water; let it steep, then pour it into a saucepan, with the rinds of
three lemons or oranges; stir till the Gelatine is dissolved; beat the
yolk of three eggs with a pint of good raisin or white wine, add the
juice of the fruit, and three-quarters of a pound of lump sugar. Mix the
whole well together, boil one minute, strain through muslin, stir
occasionally till cold; then pour into moulds.


Were it not for the trouble of making Aspic Jelly, it would be more
generally used than it is, for it gives not only elegance but value to a
number of cold dishes. We have now the means of making this with the
greatest ease, rapidity, and cheapness. Soak an ounce of Nelson's
Gelatine in a pint of cold water, dissolve it in a pint of boiling
water, add a large teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of French
vinegar, and the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat dissolved
in a gill of boiling water. Wash the shell of an egg before breaking it,
beat up white and shell to a strong froth, and stir into the aspic. Let
it come slowly to the boil, and when it has boiled two minutes, let it
stand for another two minutes, then strain through a flannel bag kept
for the purpose. If a stiff aspic is required, use rather less water.


The very stout flannel called double-mill, used for ironing blankets, is
a good material for a jelly-bag. Take care that the seam of the bag be
stitched twice, to secure the jelly against unequal filtration. The bag
may, of course, be made any size, but one of twelve or fourteen inches
deep, and seven or eight across the mouth, will be sufficient for
ordinary use. The most convenient way of using the bag is to tie it upon
a hoop the exact size of the outside of its mouth, and to do this tape
should be sewn round it at equal distances.

If there is no jelly-bag in a house, a good substitute may be made thus:
Take a clean cloth folded over corner-ways, and sew it up one side,
making it in the shape of a jelly-bag. Place two chairs back to back,
then take the sewn-up cloth and hang it between the two chairs by
pinning it open to the top bar of each chair. Place a basin underneath
the bag. Here is another substitute: Turn a kitchen stool upside down,
and tie a fine diaper broth napkin, previously rinsed in hot water, to
the four legs, place a basin underneath and strain through the napkin.



The careful housekeeper of modern times has been accustomed to class
creams among the luxuries which can only be given on special occasions,
both because they take so much time and trouble to make, and because the
materials are expensive. It is, nevertheless, possible to have excellent
creams made on a simple plan and at a moderate cost. Cream of a superior
kind is now everywhere to be had in jars, condensed milk answers well,
and by the use of Nelson's Gelatine, and any flavouring or syrup,
excellent creams can be made. Our readers will find that the method of
the following recipes is simple, the cost moderate, and the result
satisfactory. A hint which, if acted on, will save time and trouble, may
be given to inexperienced persons intending to make creams similar to
Lemon Cream, which is light and frothy. Do not add the lemon-juice until
the mixture of cream and lemon-juice is nearly cold, and do not commence
whipping until it is on the point of setting.

Delicious and inexpensive creams can be made by dissolving any of
Nelson's Tablet Jellies in half the quantity of water given in the
directions for making the jelly, and adding cream, either plain or
whipped, in the same way as directed for Orange Cream and Cherry


Soak an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in half-a-pint of milk, dissolve it
in a pint of boiling milk with a quarter of a pound of lump sugar. When
nearly cold, add a gill of lemon-juice and whisk the cream until it is
light and sponge-like. Then stir in a gill of whipped cream, put into a
mould, and let it stand for two or three hours.

Or, dissolve a pint tablet of Nelson's Lemon Tablet Jelly in half-a-pint
of hot water. When cool, add to it half-a-pint of cream, and whisk
together until on the point of setting, when mould it.


Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in a gill of
cold water, in a pint of hot milk. When it is so nearly cold as to be on
the point of setting, add half-a-pint of strawberry syrup, and
sufficient rose colouring to make it a delicate pink; whisk the cream
until it is light and frothy, stir in lightly a gill of whipped cream,
then mould it.

A good syrup can be made for this cream by putting half-a-pound of
strawberry and half-a-pound of raspberry jam into half-a-pint of boiling
water, and, after having well stirred it, rubbing it through a fine
sieve. The syrup should not be too sweet, and the addition of the juice
of one or two lemons, or a little citric acid, will be an advantage.

Creams, which have cochineal colouring in them, should not be put into
tin moulds, as this metal turns them of a mauve shade. Breton's Rose
Colouring is recommended, because it is prepared from vegetables, and is
free from acid.


Dissolve a pint tablet of Nelson's Orange Tablet Jelly in half-a-pint of
hot water. When cool, mix with it half-a-pint of cream or milk, and whip
together until the cream is on the point of setting.


This will be found useful when cream is not to be had. Put the thin peel
of two lemons into half-a-pint of boiling water, and when it has stood a
little, dissolve half-a-pound of loaf sugar in it. When nearly cold, add
three eggs, the yolks and whites well beaten together, and the juice of
the lemons. Strain this into a stewpan, and stir until it is well
thickened. After taking from the fire, stir occasionally until cold,
then mix into it a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine soaked and
dissolved in half a gill of water, also nearly cold.


Drain the juice from a tin of preserved apricots, add to it an equal
quantity of water; make a syrup by boiling with this half-a-pound of
lump sugar until it begins to thicken; then put in the apricots and
simmer them gently for ten minutes. Drain away the syrup, and put both
it and the fruit aside separately for use as directed.

Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked, in a quart of
boiling milk lightly sweetened, and, when at the point of setting, put a
teacupful of it gently into a mould, then a layer of the apricots; wait
a minute or two before putting in another cup of cream, then fill up the
mould with alternate layers of fruit and cream. Let the cream stand some
hours before turning out, and when it is on its dish pour round it the
syrup of apricots.


Drain the syrup from a tin of pineapple, boil it down to half. Cut the
best part of the pineapple into neat little squares, pound the
remainder, which press through a strainer. Make a custard with
half-a-pint of milk and three yolks of eggs. Measure the quantity of
syrup and fruit juice, and dissolve Nelson's Gelatine in the proportion
of half-an-ounce to a pint of it and custard together. Mix the gelatine
with the custard, then put in the pieces of pineapple, and when it is
cold the syrup, the juice, and two tablespoonfuls of whipped cream. Have
ready a little of Nelson's Bottled Cherry or Port Wine Jelly melted in a
fancy mould, which turn round so that it adheres to the sides, and when
the first quantity is set, put in a little more. As the cream is on the
point of setting, put it into the mould and allow it to stand until
firm. When turned out, ornament the cream with the remainder of the
bottled jelly lightly chopped.


Make a custard of three eggs and a pint-and-a-half of milk sweetened,
when it is ready dissolve in it an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine,
previously soaked in half-a-pint of milk. When made, the quantity of
custard should be fully a pint-and-a-half, otherwise the cream may be
too stiff. When the cream is cool, put a little into a mould, previously
ornamented with glacé cherries and little pieces of angelica to
represent leaves. The fruit is all the better if soaked in a little
brandy, as are the cakes, but milk can be used for these last. Put a
portion of two ounces of sponge-cakes and one ounce of ratafias on the
first layer of cream, keeping it well in the centre, and then fill up
the mould with alternate layers of cakes and cream. When turned out, a
little liqueur or any kind of syrup can be poured round the cream.


Strain the juice from a bottle of raspberries and currants on to
three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, boil up, then simmer for
half-an-hour. Mix the fruit and a large tablespoonful of raspberry jam
with the syrup, and rub it through a hair sieve. Dissolve Nelson's
Gelatine, in the proportion of half-an-ounce to a pint of the fruit, in
a little water, stir well together. When cold put it into a border
mould, and as soon as it is firm turn out and fill the centre with a
cream, which make with half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine and three
gills of milk, sweetened and flavoured with Nelson's Essence of Vanilla.
Whisk until cool, when stir in a gill of whipped cream.


Dissolve half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in
half-a-pint of cold milk, in half-a-pint of sweetened boiling milk or
cream. Dissolve a pint bottle of Cherry Jelly as directed. When the last
is on the point of setting put a layer into a mould, then a layer of the
cream, each of these about an inch deep, and fill up the mould in this
way. This quantity of material will make two handsome moulds, suitable
for a supper party.


To an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine add half-a-pint of new milk, let it
soak for twenty minutes, boil two or three laurel leaves in a pint of
cream and half-a-pint of milk; when boiling pour over the soaked
gelatine, stir it till it dissolves, add four or five ounces of lump
sugar and a little brandy if approved; strain it through muslin, stir
occasionally till it thickens, and then put it into moulds.


Soak an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine twenty minutes in three-quarters of a
pint of water, add the juice and peel of two large lemons, a quarter of
a pint of sherry, five or six ounces of lump sugar; boil the above two
minutes, then pour upon it a pint of warm cream, stir it quickly till it
boils, then strain and stir till it thickens, and pour it into moulds.


Line a plain mould at the bottom and sides with sponge finger-biscuits,
fill it with strawberry cream, or cream made as directed in the several
recipes. If the weather is warm it will be necessary to place the
Charlotte on ice for an hour or two, but in the winter it will turn out
without this. The biscuits for a Charlotte Russe should be made quite
straight, and in arranging them in the mould they should lap slightly
one over the other.


Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in half-a-pint
of cold milk, in a pint-and-a-half of boiling milk; when it is nearly
cold stir into it an ounce of rice, well boiled or baked; flavour the
pudding to taste, and when on the point of setting put it into a mould
and let it stand for two or three hours; serve plain or with stewed


Dissolve a pint tablet of Nelson's Cherry Tablet Jelly in half-a-pint of
hot water. When cool, mix with it half-a-pint of cream or milk, and whip
together until the cream is on the point of setting.


Soak three-quarters of an ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine in
half-a-pint of sherry or raisin wine, then dissolve it over the fire,
stirring all the time; rub the rinds of two lemons with six ounces of
lump sugar, add this, with the juice, to the hot solution, which is then
to be poured gently into a pint of cream; stir the whole until quite
cold, and then put into moulds.

This can be made with a pint of boiling milk, in which an ounce of
Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in half-a-pint of cold milk, has
been dissolved, and flavoured and sweetened.


Take three-quarters of an ounce of Nelson's Patent Gelatine and steep it
in half-a-pint of cold water; boil the rind of a lemon, pared thinly, in
a pint of cream; add the juice of the lemon and three tablespoonfuls of
raspberry or strawberry syrup to the soaked Gelatine; then pour the hot
cream upon the above ingredients, gently stirring the while. Sweeten to
taste, and add a drop or two of prepared cochineal. Whisk till the
mixture is thick, then pour into moulds.


Boil two ounces of macaroni, in water slightly salted, until tender,
when drain; cut it into tiny rings, and put it into a stewpan with
half-a-pint of milk or cream, keeping it hot on the stove without
boiling for half-an-hour. Soak and dissolve half-an-ounce of Nelson's
Gelatine in half-a-pint of milk, and when this and the macaroni are
cold, stir together, add two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, with salt
and cayenne pepper to taste. Stir occasionally until the cream is on the
point of setting, when mould it. Should the cream be absorbed by the
macaroni, more must be added to bring the whole quantity of liquid to
one pint. If preferred, rice well boiled or baked in milk, or vermicelli
paste, can be substituted for the macaroni.


Dissolve an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in
half-a-pint of cold milk, in a pint-and-a-half of boiling milk with two
ounces of sugar; stir in sufficient strong Essence of Coffee to flavour
it, and when on the point of setting put it into a mould.


Boil a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar in a pint of milk. Dissolve in
it an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in half-a-pint of
cold milk, and stir into it three teaspoonfuls of Schweitzer's
Cocoatina, dissolved in half-a-pint of boiling milk. Beat until on the
point of setting, and put the cream into a mould. A few drops of
Nelson's Essence of Vanilla can be added with advantage.


Peel four or five oranges, carefully take out the divisions which put on
a hair sieve in a cool place to drain all night. Melt a little Nelson's
Bottled Orange Jelly, pour it into a saucer and dip in each piece of
orange, which arrange in a close circle round the bottom of a small
pudding-basin. Keep the thick part of the orange downwards in the first
row, in the next put them the reverse way. Continue thus until the basin
is covered. Pour in a little of the melted jelly, then of cream, made by
mixing a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine soaked and dissolved
in a gill of milk, into a gill of rich cream, sweetened. Fill up the
basin with alternate layers of jelly and cream, allowing each of these
to set before the other is put in, making the jelly layers last. The
Chartreuse will turn out easily if the jelly is gently pressed from the
basin all round. Garnish with two colours of Nelson's Bottled Jelly
lightly chopped.


Preserved green figs are used for this cream--those of Fernando
Rodrigues are excellent. Place the figs in a plain mould, and pour in
gently, when on the point of setting, a cream made with a pint of cream
and half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, and lightly sweetened. When the
cream is turned out of the mould, pour round it the syrup in which the
figs were preserved.


Although this is properly a jelly, when well made it eats so rich that
it is usually called cream. It is chiefly used in cases of illness, when
it is desirable to administer champagne in the form of jelly. Soak
half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of cold water, dissolve it
in a stewpan with one or two ounces of sugar, according as the jelly is
required sweet or otherwise. When cool, add three gills of champagne and
two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, whip until it is beginning to set and
is light and frothy; put into a mould, and it will be ready for use in
two hours, if put in a cold place.


Rub the zest of the peel of two oranges on to a quarter of a pound of
lump sugar, which boil with half-a-gill of water to a thick syrup. Beat
the juice of three large oranges with two whole eggs, and having
whisked them slightly, add the syrup and Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved,
in the proportion of half-an-ounce to a pint of liquid. Whisk the
mixture over a saucepan of hot water until it is warm, then place the
basin in another with cold water and continue whisking until it is
beginning to set, when put it into a fancy mould.


Put a layer of strawberry jam at the bottom of a trifle dish. Dissolve a
half-pint tablet of Nelson's Raspberry Jelly, and when it is set break
it up and strew it over the jam. Upon this lay sponge finger biscuits
and ratafia cakes, and pour over just enough new milk to make them soft.
Make a thick custard, flavoured with Nelson's Essence of Vanilla, and
spread it over the cakes. Finally place on the top a handsome quantity
of cream, whisked with a little powdered sugar and flavoured with


To half-a-pint of cream put a tablespoonful of fine sifted sugar, add
sufficient of any of Nelson's Essences to give it a delicate flavour.
With a whisk or wire spoon, raise a froth on the cream, remove this as
soon as it rises, put it on a fine hair, or, still better, lawn sieve;
repeat this process until the cream is used up. Should the cream get
thick in the whisking, add a very little cold water. Put the sieve
containing the whisked cream in a basin and let it stand for some hours,
which will allow it to become more solid and fit for such purposes as
filling meringues.



The proper beating of the whites of the eggs is an important matter in
cake-making. There are a number of machines for this purpose, which are
in turn eagerly adopted by inexperienced persons; but for private use
not one of them is comparable to hand-beating. When once the knack of
beating eggs is acquired but little labour is needed to bring them to
the right consistency; indeed, the most successful result is that which
is the most rapidly attained. The whites of eggs for beating should be
fresh, and should be carefully separated from the yolks by passing and
repassing them in the two halves of the shell. It is best to beat the
whites immediately they are broken, but if this is not possible, they
must be kept in a cool place until wanted. If ice is at hand, it will be
found advantageous to keep the eggs in it. In well-furnished kitchens a
copper beating-bowl is provided; it should not be tinned, as contact
with this metal will blacken the eggs; for this reason, the whisk, if of
iron wire, should not be new. An earthenware bowl with circular bottom,
and sufficiently large to admit of a good stroke in beating, answers the
purpose perfectly well. A pinch of salt may be added to the whites, and
if an inexperienced beater finds them assume a granulated appearance, a
little lemon-juice will remedy it.

Begin by beating gently, increasing the pace as the egg thickens. As it
is the air mixing with the albumen of the eggs which causes them to
froth, it is necessary to beat them in a well-ventilated and cool place,
so that they may absorb as much air as possible.

If these simple and important conditions are observed, the whites of a
dozen eggs may be beaten to the strongest point, without fatigue to the
operator, in five minutes. When the whites are properly beaten they
should turn out of the bowl in one mass, and, after standing a little
while, will not show signs of returning to their original state.

In order more easily to make cakes and biscuits into the composition of
which almonds and cocoa-nut enter largely, manufacturers supply both of
these pounded or desiccated. It is, however, preferable to prepare the
former fresh, and much time and trouble may be saved in passing almonds
through Kent's Combination Mincer, 199, High Holborn, instead of
laboriously pounding them in a mortar. The result is, besides, more
satisfactory, the paste being smoother than it can otherwise be made in
domestic practice.

Cakes of the description for which we now give recipes cannot be made
well unless the materials are properly prepared and thoroughly beaten.
It is clear that if eggs are not beaten to such a consistency that they
will bear the weight of the other ingredients, the result must be a
heavy cake.

Currants for cakes, after they have been washed and picked, should be
scalded, in order to swell them and make them more tender.

Put the currants into a basin, pour boiling water over them, cover the
basin with a plate; after they have stood a minute, drain away the water
and throw the fruit on a cloth to absorb the moisture. Put the currants
on a dish or plate in a very cool oven, turning occasionally until
thoroughly dry; dust a little flour over them, and they will be ready
for use.

Castor sugar for cakes works more easily when it is fine. For superior
cakes raw sugar will not answer.


One pound fresh butter, one pound Vienna flour, six eggs (or seven, if
small), one pound castor sugar, quarter of a pound almonds cut small,
half-a-pound of currants or sultanas, three ounces of candied peel, a
few drops of essence of ratafia.

The butter to be beaten to a cream. If it is hard warm the pan. Add the
sugar gradually; next the eggs, which must previously be well beaten up;
then sift in the flour; and, last of all, put in fruit, almonds, and

This cake takes about half-an-hour to mix, as all the ingredients must
be well beaten together with an iron spoon from left to right. Bake in
small tins, for about forty minutes, in a moderate oven.


Half-a-pound of fresh butter, three eggs, one pound of Vienna flour, one
pound of castor sugar, a quarter of a pound of almonds cut small,
half-a-pound of currants, three ounces of candied peel, a few drops of
essence of ratafia.

Beat the butter to a cream, from left to right, and mix in the sugar
gradually. Beat the eggs up, and mix them with half-a-pint of new milk;
stir into the butter; then add the flour; and, last of all, the fruit.


Beat half-a-pound of finely sifted sugar with the yolks of four eggs
until you have a thick batter, stir in lightly six ounces of fine dry
sifted flour, then the whites of the eggs beaten to a very strong froth.
Have ready a tin which has been lightly buttered, and then covered with
as much sifted sugar as will adhere to it. Pour in the cake mixture,
taking care the tin is not more than half full, and bake for


Half-a-pound of loaf sugar, rub some of the lumps on the peel of two
lemons, so as to get all the flavour from them; dissolve the sugar in
half a gill of boiling water; add the juice of the lemons, or one of
them if a large size, and beat with the yolks of four eggs until very
white and thick; stir in a quarter of a pound of fine flour, beat the
whites of the eggs to a strong froth, and mix as thoroughly but as
lightly as possible; butter and sift sugar over a mould, nearly fill it
with cake mixture, and bake at dark yellow paper heat for thirty


Beat up a packet of Nelson's Albumen with three teaspoonfuls of cold
water to a strong froth, mix in half-a-pound of finely-sifted sugar and
two ounces each of pounded sweet and bitter almonds. Flour a
baking-sheet, and lay on it sheets of wafer-paper, which can be bought
at the confectioner's, and drop on to them at equal distances, a small
piece of the paste. Bake in a moderate oven for ten minutes, or until
the macaroons are crisp and of a golden colour. When done cut round the
wafer-paper with a knife, and put the cakes on a sieve to dry.

In following recipes for this class of cake some judgment is required in
the choice of the sugar, and the result will vary greatly according as
this is of the right sort, or otherwise. A little more or less sugar may
be required, and only practice can make perfect in this matter. As a
general direction, it may be given that the sugar must be of the finest
quality, and be very finely sifted, but not flour-like.


Beat up a packet of Nelson's Albumen with three teaspoonfuls of cold
water to a strong froth, mix with it a quarter of a pound of finely
sifted sugar, and two ounces of Edwards' Desiccated Cokernut. Put sheets
of wafer-paper on a baking-tin, drop small pieces of the cake mixture on
to it, keeping them in a rocky shape. Bake in a moderate oven for ten
minutes, or until crisp.


Whisk a packet of Nelson's Albumen with three teaspoonfuls of cold water
to the strongest possible froth, mix in half-a-pound of finely sifted
sugar, two teaspoonfuls of Schweitzer's Cocoatina, and six drops of
Nelson's Essence of Vanilla; sift paper thickly with sugar, and drop
small teaspoonfuls of the mixture at equal distances on it, allowing
space for the cakes to spread a little. Bake for ten minutes in a
moderate oven.


Boil half-a-pound of loaf sugar in a gill of water until it is beginning
to return again to sugar, when cool add a packet of Nelson's Albumen
whisked to a strong froth with three teaspoonfuls of water, and stir in
a quarter of a pound of Edwards' Desiccated Cokernut. Spread the
mixture, not more than an inch thick, in a greased pudding-tin, and
place in a cool oven to dry. When done cut in neat squares, and keep in
tins in a cool, dry place.


No icing can be successfully done unless the sugar is of the finest
kind, perfectly white, and so finely sifted as hardly to be
distinguished by the eye from potato-flour. Such sugar can now generally
be procured of the best grocers at a moderate price. The process of
sifting the sugar at home is somewhat slow and troublesome, but by so
doing a perfectly pure article is secured. After being crushed the sugar
should be passed through sieves of varying fineness, and, finally,
through one made for the purpose, or failing this, very fine muslin will
answer. When the sugar has been sifted at home, and it is certain there
is no admixture of any kind with it, a small quantity of "fécule de
pommes de terre" (potato-flour) may be added; it reduces sweetness, and
does not interfere with the result of the process. If the sugar is not
sifted very fine a much longer time will be required to make the icing,
and in the end it will not look so smooth as it ought to do.
Confectioners use pyroligneous acid instead of lemon-juice, and there is
no objection to it in small quantities. To make the icing, beat up a
packet of Nelson's Albumen dissolved with three teaspoonfuls of cold
water, work in by degrees one pound of fine icing sugar, adding a
teaspoonful of lemon-juice or a few drops of pyroligneous acid, which
will assist in keeping the icing white, or a slight tinge of stone-blue
will have the same effect. If potato-flour is used, mix it thoroughly
with the sugar before adding it to the white of egg. A little more or
less sugar may be required, as the result is in great measure determined
by the method of the operator; and when the paste is perfectly smooth,
and will spread without running, it is fit for use. For icing large
cakes confectioners use a stand which has a revolving board, so that
cakes can conveniently be turned about; failing this, an ordinary board
or inverted plate can be made to answer. As soon as the icing is spread
on the cake it must be dried in an oven with the door open. It is
sometimes found sufficient to keep the cake in a hot room for some
hours. If too great heat is used the icing will crack.


Blanch one pound of sweet and two ounces of bitter almonds, pound them
in a mortar, adding a little rose-water as you go on, to prevent oiling;
and when all the almonds are reduced to a perfectly smooth paste, mix
them with an equal weight of icing sugar. Moisten the paste with a
packet of Nelson's Albumen dissolved in three teaspoonfuls of cold
water, and spread it evenly on the cake, allowing it to become dry and
firm before spreading the icing over it. This paste can be used for
making several kinds of cakes and sweetmeats, and without the Albumen
can be kept in bottles for some time. Almond paste can be made from
bitter almonds which have been infused in spirit to make an extract for
flavouring, and in this case no sweet almonds will be required.



Among the most useful preparations which have ever been introduced to
the public for the immediate production of delicious beverages, are
NELSON'S BOTTLED JELLIES. These beverages are highly approved for
ordinary use at luncheon and dinner, as well as for afternoon and
evening entertainments, and have a special value for invalids, as they
contain nourishment and are at the same time very refreshing. When
required for use, dissolve a bottle of the jelly, and mix with it five
times its bulk of water, the beverage can then be used either hot or
cold; if in standing it should be slightly thickened it will only be
necessary briskly to stir it with a spoon. Lemon, orange, and cherry
jelly, with the addition of water as directed, will be found superior to
any other beverage of the kind, and specially excellent for children's

The following "cups" are delicious made with the jelly as directed.

CLARET CUP, made merely with seltzer water, claret, and PORT WINE JELLY,
will be found superior to the ordinary preparation. A little sugar may
be added if desired. To a bottle of claret and a pint of seltzer-water
use a half-pint bottle of PORT WINE JELLY, stir briskly until well
mixed, put in a sprig of balm and borage, three thick slices of
cucumber; place the vessel containing the claret cup covered over on
ice for an hour; strain out the herbs before serving.

BADMINTON CUP is made with Burgundy, in the same way as the above, with
the addition of a bottle of ORANGE JELLY.

CHAMPAGNE CUP requires equal quantities of the wine and seltzer-water,
with a bottle of ORANGE JELLY.

CIDER CUP is made with a pint and a half of cider, a bottle of
soda-water, and a bottle of either ORANGE, LEMON, or SHERRY JELLY.

CHERRY CUP.--Half-a-pint of claret, a quart of soda-water, and a
half-pint bottle of CHERRY JELLY.


Dissolve a bottle of Port Wine Jelly and add to it four times its bulk
of boiling water with a little nutmeg, and, if liked, a crushed clove.


Half-a-teaspoonful of Nelson's Citric Acid dissolved in a quart of
water, with a sliced lemon and sweetened with sugar, forms a good
lemonade, and is a cooling and refreshing drink. A small pinch of the
Citric Acid dissolved in a tumbler of water with a little sugar and a
pinch of bicarbonate of potash, makes an effervescing draught. These
acidulated drinks are exceedingly useful for allaying thirst; and as
refrigerants in feverish and inflammatory complaints they are


Dissolve three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar and the contents of a
threepenny packet of Nelson's Citric Acid in a quart of boiling water;
then add two quarts of fresh cold water and one-twelfth part of a bottle
of Nelson's Essence of Lemon. The above quantity of sugar may be
increased or decreased according to taste.


Crush an ounce of whole ginger, pour over it a quart of boiling water,
cover the vessel, and let the infusion stand until cold. (The Extract of
Ginger may be used in place of this infusion). Strain through flannel;
add a teaspoonful of Nelson's Citric Acid, six drops of Nelson's Lemon
Flavouring, and a quarter of a pound of lump sugar; stir until
dissolved, and the Gingerade will be ready.


An Extract of Ginger made as follows is most useful for family purposes,
and can be substituted for the infusion in Gingerade. Crush half-a-pound
of fine whole ginger in the mortar, or cut into small pieces. Put into a
bottle with half-a-pint of unsweetened gin, let it stand for a month,
shaking it occasionally, then drain it off into another bottle, allowing
it to stand until it has become clear, when it will be fit for use.


Boil a pound of fine loaf sugar in a pint-and-a-half of water. Remove
all scum as it rises, and continue boiling gently until the syrup begins
to thicken and assumes a golden tinge, then add a pint of strained
lemon-juice or a packet of Nelson's Citric Acid dissolved in water, and
allow both to boil together for half-an-hour. Pour the syrup into a jug,
to each pint add one-twelfth part of a bottle of Nelson's Essence of
Lemon, and when cold bottle and cork well.

The juice of Seville oranges may be made into a syrup in the same way as
that of lemons, or lemon and orange juice may be used in equal
quantities. These syrups are useful for making summer drinks, and for
invalids as lemonade or orangeade.


A very agreeable and useful beverage is made by dissolving a quarter of
an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a pint of milk. A spoonful of cream
can, if preferred, be used with a bottle of soda-water. For invalids,
this beverage can be used instead of tea or coffee, and may be
preferable in many cases on account of the nourishment it contains; it
will also be found an excellent substitute, taken hot, for wine-whey, or
posset, as a remedy for a cold. For summer use, Milk Beverage is
delicious, and may be flavoured with raspberry or strawberry syrup. If
on standing it should thicken, it will only be necessary briskly to beat
it up with a spoon.


This acid exists in the juice of many fruits, such as the orange,
currant, and quince, but especially in that of the lemon. It is chiefly
made from the concentrated juice of lemons, imported from Sicily and
Southern Italy, and which, after undergoing certain methods of
preparation, yields the crystals termed Citric Acid. These crystals may
be used for all the purposes for which lemon-juice is employed. In the
manufacture of the Citric Acid now offered to the public by Messrs. G.
Nelson, Dale, and Co., only the pure juice of the lemon is used.


This well-known essence is extracted from the little cells visible in
the rind of lemons, by submitting raspings of the fruit to pressure. The
greater portion of the oil of lemons sold in England is imported from
Portugal, Italy, and France. It is very frequently adulterated with oil
of turpentine. In order to present the public with a perfectly pure
commodity, G. Nelson, Dale, and Co. import their Essence of Lemon direct
from Sicily, and from a manufacturer in whom they have the fullest

Nelson's Essence of Lemon is sold in graduated bottles, eightpence each,
each bottle containing sufficient for twelve quarts of jelly.



We now give recipes for a few useful little dishes, chiefly of macaroni,
which can be had at such a price as to bring it within the reach of all
classes. English-made macaroni can be bought at fourpence, and even
less, the pound, and the finest Italian at sixpence. The Naples, or
pipe-macaroni, is the most useful for families, and the Genoa, or
twisted, for high-class dishes. The English taste is in favour of
macaroni boiled soft, and in order to make it so, many cooks soak it.
But this is not correct, and it is not at all necessary to soak
macaroni. If kept boiling in sufficient water, the macaroni requires no
attention--ebullition prevents it sticking to the saucepan.

Although we give several ways of finishing macaroni, it is excellent
when merely boiled in water with salt, as in the first recipe, eaten as
an accompaniment to meat, or with stewed fruit.


Throw a quarter of a pound of macaroni broken into pieces an inch long,
into three pints of boiling water, with a large pinch of salt. The
saucepan should be large, or the water will rise over when the macaroni
boils fast, which it should do for twenty or twenty-five minutes. When
done, strain the macaroni through a colander, put it back into the
saucepan with an ounce of fresh butter, a small pinch of white pepper
and of salt, if necessary, and shake it over the fire for a minute or
two. Take the saucepan off the fire, and stir into the macaroni two
ounces or more, if liked, of grated Parmesan cheese. Serve immediately
with crisp dry toast, cut in neat pieces. If not convenient to use
Parmesan, a mild dry English or American cheese will answer very well.
Some cooks prefer, when the macaroni is boiled, to put a fourth part of
it on to a hot dish, then to strew over it a fourth part of the grated
cheese, and so on till all of both are used, cheese, of course, covering
the top.


Boil and drain the macaroni, mix with a quarter of a pound an ounce of
butter, and two ounces of grated cheese; pepper or cayenne pepper and
salt to taste. Put the macaroni in a dish and strew over it sufficient
grated cheese to cover it up, run a little dissolved butter over the
top, and put it in the oven till it is a bright-yellow colour; serve


Boil two ounces of streaky bacon, cut it into dice or mince it, stir it
into a quarter of a pound of macaroni boiled as for macaroni cheese: if
liked, add a few drops of vinegar, pepper, and salt, and serve very


Boil the macaroni as above, mix with it two or three onions sliced and
fried a delicate brown, add a few spoonfuls of gravy, stir over the fire
for a few minutes and serve.


Throw a quarter of a pound of macaroni into three pints of boiling water
with a teaspoonful of salt, and let it boil for twenty minutes. Drain in
a colander, then put it into a stewpan with half a tin of Nelson's
Extract of Meat dissolved in half-a-pint of water, and stir over the
fire for five minutes. Take it off the fire and stir in one ounce of
grated cheese, pepper and salt to taste.


Prepare the macaroni as in the above recipe, put it into a stewpan with
a small piece of butter and a teacupful of tomato sauce, or a small
bottle of conserve of tomatoes, and stir briskly over the fire for five


Boil the macaroni as for the other dishes, but with only a pinch of
salt, until tender, when drained put into a stewpan with a gill of milk
to each two ounces, and two ounces of sifted lump sugar. Any flavouring
may be used, but perhaps there is nothing better than grated lemon-peel,
and for those who like it, powdered cinnamon or grated nutmeg. Stir over
the fire until all the milk is absorbed; a little cream is, of course,
an improvement. For those who do not like milk, the juice of a lemon, or
a little sherry, may be substituted, and for a superior dish vanilla can
be used for flavouring.


Put four tablespoonfuls of beer into a small saucepan, shred into it a
quarter of a pound of good new cheese, and stir briskly over the fire
until all is dissolved and is on the point of boiling, then take it off
instantly, for, if the cheese is allowed to boil, it will become tough.
Have ready slices of toasted bread, spread the cheese on it, and serve
as quickly as possible.


Take the crumb of a French roll, cut it into rounds a quarter of an inch
thick, put them into a wire frying-basket, immerse in hot fat, and crisp
the bread instantly. Throw it on to paper, dry, and sprinkle over each
piece a thick layer of grated Parmesan cheese, pepper, and salt. Put the
canapés in a Dutch oven before a clear fire, just to melt the cheese,
and serve immediately they are done.


Boil a quarter of a pound of Patna rice in water with salt; drain it,
toss it up in a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, and a pinch of
cayenne pepper. Put a quarter of the rice on a hot dish, strew over it
equally an ounce of grated Parmesan cheese, then put another portion of
rice and cheese until all is used. Serve immediately.


Take a cupful of finely-sifted bread-crumbs, moisten them with a little
cold milk, cream, or gravy, and season nicely with pepper and salt. Put
a thin layer of the moistened crumbs on a lightly-buttered dish, cut two
hard eggs into slices, and dip each piece in very thick well-seasoned
white sauce, or Nelson's Extract of Meat dissolved in a little water, so
as to glaze the eggs. Having arranged the slices of egg neatly on the
layer of moistened bread-crumbs, cover them with another layer of it,
and on the top strew thickly some pale gold-coloured raspings. Bake in a
moderate oven for ten minutes. If potatoes are liked, they make a nice
substitute for bread-crumbs. Take some mashed potatoes, add to them a
spoonful of cream or gravy, and proceed as with bread-crumbs. Serve
gravy made of Nelson's Extract of Meat with this dish.


Melt a small piece of butter the size of a nut in a stewpan, break into
it two eggs, with a spoonful of milk or gravy, and pepper and salt, stir
round quickly until the eggs begin to thicken, keep the yolks whole as
long as you can. When finished, pour on to a buttered toast, to which
has been added a little essence of anchovy or anchovy paste, and serve.


Dissolve two ounces of butter in a stewpan, mix in the yolks of two eggs
lightly beaten, the juice of a lemon, and a pinch of pepper and salt,
stir this over the fire until thickened. Have ready half-a-pint of plain
butter sauce, and mix all gradually together, with a small tin of
champignons, or about the same quantity of fresh mushrooms chopped and
stewed gently for ten minutes in a little broth or milk. Stir them with
the liquor in which they have stewed into the sauce, and let them stand
for a few minutes, then spread the mixture on to neat slices of toasted
bread. The sauce must be a good thickness, so that it will not run off
the toast, and care must be taken in the first process not to oil the
butter or make the sauce lumpy.


As rice is so often badly cooked, we make no apology for giving the
black man's celebrated recipe. Although he does not recommend a little
salt in the water, we think that a small quantity should always be used,
even when the rice has to be served as a sweet dish. "Wash him well,
much wash in cold water, rice flour, make him stick. Water boil all
ready, very fast. Shove him in; rice can't burn, water shake him too
much. Boil quarter of an hour or little more. Rub one rice in thumb and
finger; if all rub away him quite done. Put rice in colander, hot water
run away. Pour cup of cold water on him, put back in saucepan, keep him
covered near the fire, then rice all ready. Eat him up."


Peel the onion or turnip, put it on the board, cut it first one way in
slices, not quite through, lest it should fall to pieces, then cut it in
slices the other way, which will produce long cubes. Finally turn the
onion on its side and cut through, when it will fall into dice-like
pieces. The inconvenience and sometimes positive pain caused to the eyes
by mincing or chopping the onions on a board is thus obviated, and a
large quantity can be quickly prepared in the above way.



How many people are crying, "How can we save? Where can we retrench?
Shall the lot fall on the house-furnishing, or the garden, or the
toilet, or the breakfast or the dinner table? Shall we do with one
servant less, move into a cheaper neighbourhood, or into a smaller
house? No, we cannot make any such great changes in our way of life.
There are the boys and girls growing up; we must keep up appearances for
their sakes. We remember the old proverb that, 'however bad it may be to
be poor, it is much worse to look poor.'" Yet, although, for many
reasons, it is often most difficult to retrench on a large scale, there
are people who find it easier, for instance, to put down the carriage
than to see that the small outgoings of housekeeping are more duly
regulated. It is seldom, indeed, that a wife can assist her husband save
by lightening his expenses by her prudence and economy. Too many
husbands, nowadays, can vouch for the truth of the old saying, "A woman
can throw out with a spoon faster than a man can throw in with a
shovel." The prosperity of a middle-class home depends very much on what
is saved, and the reason that this branch of a woman's business is so
neglected is that it is very difficult and very troublesome.

"Take care of your pence and the pounds will take care of themselves,"
is a maxim that was much in use when we were young. Nowadays it is more
fashionable to speak of this kind of thing as "penny wise and pound
foolish." Looking to the outgoings of pence is voted slow work, and it
is thought fine to show a languid indifference to small savings. "Such a
fuss over a pennyworth of this or that, it's not worth while." Yes, but
it is not that particular pennyworth which is alone in question, there
is the principle involved--the great principle of thrift--which must
underlie all good government. The heads of households little think of
what evils they perpetuate when they shut their eyes to wasteful
practices, because it is easier to bear the cost than to prevent waste.

The young servant trained under one careless how she uses, or rather
misuses, that which is entrusted to her, carries in her turn the
wasteful habits she has learned into another household, and trains
others in a contempt for thrifty ways, until the knowledge of how to do
things at once well and economically is entirely lost.

We often hear it urged that it is bad for the mind of a lady to be
harassed by the petty details of small savings, and that if she can
afford to let things go easily she should not be so harassed. But under
no circumstances must any mistress of a household permit habitual waste
in such matters. When the establishment is so large as to be to a great
extent removed from the immediate supervision of the mistress, all she
can do is to keep a careful watch over every item of expenditure, and
by every means in her power to let her servants feel that it is to their
interest as well as to her own to keep within due bounds. A good cook is
always a good manager. She makes many a meal of what an inferior cook
would waste. The housekeeper should therefore insist on having good
cooking at a reasonable cost, and never keep a cook who does not make
the most of everything. In a large household a mistress cannot look
after the sifting of cinders, but she can check her coal bills, and by
observation find out in what department the waste is going on. It may
not be possible to pay periodical visits to the gas-meter to see if the
tap is turned on to the full when such force is not necessary, but she
can from quarter to quarter compare notes, or have fixed, where it is
easy for her to get at it, one of the gas-regulators now in use. And
thus, by the exercise of judicious control and supervision, the guiding
mind of the mistress will make itself felt in every department of the
household without any undue worry to herself. The mistress of a small
household who has things more under her immediate control, and whose
income, no less than her sense of moral obligation, obliges her to look
carefully after the outgoings, need not be told what a trial it is to be
constantly on the watch to prevent waste. Probably she is compelled to
leave a certain quantity of stores for general use; indeed, we doubt
very much if there is anything saved by the daily giving out of ounces
and spoonfuls of groceries, for if a servant is disposed to be
wasteful, she will be equally so with the small as the larger quantity.

What perpetual worry is caused by seeing how soap is left in the water
until it is so soft as to have lost half its value! How many pence go in
most households in that way every week, we wonder!

The scrubbing-brush also is left in water with the soap. A fairly good
brush costs at least two shillings, and as one so treated only lasts
half the proper time you may safely calculate that a shilling is soon
wasted in that way. Brushes of all sorts are, as a rule, most carelessly
used, and left about anyhow instead of being hung up. How much loss
there is in a year in the careless use of knives and plate! Whenever
possible both of these get into the hands of the cook. Her own tools
from neglect or misuse have become blunt or worse, and she takes the
best blade and the plated or silver spoon whenever she has a chance.

The plate gets thrown in a heap into an earthenware bowl to be bruised
and scratched. The knives are either put insufficiently wiped through
the cleaner, which is thus spoiled and made fit rather to dirty than
clean knives, or they are left lying in hot water to have the handles
loosened and discoloured.

Probably jars, tin boxes, and canisters are provided in sufficient
quantity to put away and keep stores properly. But for all that, as it
would seem in a most ingenious manner, loss and waste are contrived. Raw
sugar is kept in the paper until it rots through it. Macaroni, rice, and
such things are left a prey to mice or insects. The vinegar and sauce
bottles stand without the corks. Delicate things, which soon lose their
fine aroma, as tea, coffee, and spices, are kept in uncovered canisters:
the lid is first left off, then mislaid. The treacle jar stands open for
stray fingers and flies to disport themselves therein. Capers are put
away uncovered with vinegar, and when next wanted are found to be
mouldy. Perhaps the juice of a lemon has been used; the peel, instead of
being preserved, is thrown away, or left lying about till valueless.
Herbs, which should have been at once dried and sifted, are hid away in
some corner to become flavourless and dirty, and so on with every kind
of store and provision.

It is impossible to calculate how many pennies are lost daily, in a
large number of houses, by the absolute waste of pieces of bread left to
mould or thrown out because trouble to utilise them cannot be taken.
Whoever thinks anything of the small quantities of good beer left in the
jug; it is so much easier to throw it away than put it in a bottle? Or
who will be at the trouble of boiling up that "drop" of milk, which,
nevertheless, cost a penny, and would make, or help to make, a small
pudding for the next day? Then, again, how many bits of fat and suet are
lost because it is too much trouble to melt down the first, and preserve
the other by very simple and effectual means?

Butter in summer is allowed to remain melting in the paper in which it
is sent in, or perhaps it is put on a plate, to which some pennyworths
of the costly stuff will stick and be lost. One would think it would be
as easy at once to put it into cold salted water, if better means of
cooling could not be used.

If we pause here, it is not because we have exhausted the list of things
most woefully wasted, mainly from want of thought, but because we have
not space to enumerate more of them. We can only add that the importance
of small household savings cannot well be overrated, both because of the
principle involved and because of the substantial sum they represent
together. There is no need in any household for even a penny a day to be
wasted; and yet if we look closely into things, how much money value is
lost daily in some one or other of the ways we have mentioned. In the
course of the year, the daily pennies mount up to many pounds, and we
are sure that it is much safer once in a way lavishly to spend the
shillings than to be habitually careless of the outgoings of the pence.

Although it is not necessary that the mistress of a household who can
afford to keep servants should herself do the cooking, or spend much
time in her kitchen, it is absolutely necessary that she should
understand the best methods, and know how everything should be done.

Many people will say that it is unbecoming for women to be _gourmands_;
we agree with them, and that it is equally unbecoming for men to be so.
But to be a _gourmet_ is another thing; and we ought not to lose sight
of the fact that food eaten with real enjoyment and the satisfaction
which accompanies a well-prepared meal, is greatly enhanced in value.
Professor C. Voit has clearly pointed out, in his experiments and
researches into diet, the great value of palatable food as nourishment,
and how indispensable is a certain variety in our meals. "We think," he
says, "we are only tickling the palate, and that it is nothing to the
stomach and digestive organs whether food is agreeable to the palate or
not, since they will digest it, if it is digestible at all. But it is
not so indifferent after all, for the nerves of the tongue are connected
with other nerves and with nerve-centres, so that the pleasure of the
palate, or some pleasure, at any rate, even if it is only imagination,
which can only originate in the central organ--the brain--often has an
active effect on other organs. This is a matter of daily experience.
Without the secretion of gastric juice the assimilation of nourishment
would be impossible. If, therefore, some provocatives induce and
increase certain sensations and useful processes, they are of essential
value to health, and it is no bad economy to spend something on them."

It is surely somewhat singular that Englishwomen, who have excelled in
almost every other craft, should be remarkable for their want of skill
in cookery. They have not been dismayed by any difficulties in
literature, art, or science, and yet how few are there among us who can
make a dish of porridge like a Scotchwoman, or an omelette like a
Frenchwoman! The fact would seem to be, that educated women having
disdained to occupy themselves either theoretically or practically with
cookery, those whose legitimate business it has been have become
indifferent also. The whole aim of the modern British cook seems to be
to save herself trouble, and she will give as much time and thought to
finding out ways of doing things in a slovenly manner as would go to
doing them properly.

No doubt cooks have often so much work of other kinds to do that they
cannot give the necessary time to cooking. In a case of this kind, the
mistress should herself give such help as she can, and bring up her
daughters to help in the kitchen. People in middle-class life often
expect the cook to do all the kitchen work, and frequently some of the
house work. Of course, in small families, this is quite possible to be
done, and it is always best for servants, as for other people, to be
fully employed. But in large families it is impossible the cooking can
be properly done, when the cook is harassed by so many other
occupations. Thus, because it takes less time and attention than cooking
smaller dishes, huge pieces of meat are roasted or boiled daily, and the
leg-of-mutton style of dietary is perpetuated--declared to be the most
economical, and, in short, the best for all the world.

Probably it is because bread and butter can be bought ready made, and
involve no trouble, that they are held to be the chief necessaries of
life in every English household. Some children almost live, if they do
not thrive, on bread and butter. Thoughtless housekeepers think they
have done their duty when they have seen that a sufficient supply of
these articles has been sent in from the shops. When we insist that
everyone should have home-baked bread, at once we shall be met with the
"penny-wise" suggestion that home-baked bread costs more than baker's,
because, being so nice, people eat more of it. Good bread, we need not
say, is far more nourishing than that which is made from inferior
materials or adulterated even with non-injurious substances for wheaten
flour. Then all the other difficulties come to the fore: cook spoils the
bakings, the oven is not suitable, and so on. To all these we answer: A
good housekeeper, one who looks beyond the sum total of her weekly
bills, who thinks no trouble too great to provide such food as will
maintain the health of her family, will have home-baked bread.

There are other points in domestic management which do not receive the
attention they deserve. Of these we may cite the use of labour-saving
machines and of gas for cooking.

How often do we hear it said: "I always have such and such a thing done
in that way, because it was my mother's way!"

This may be very nice and very natural, but it is nevertheless a
sentimental reason. What should we think of a person who insisted on
riding pillion, because her mother rode pillion? Yet, this really is
pretty much the same thing as we see every day, when ladies are so
wedded to old ways that they persist in employing the rough-and-ready
implements of domestic use, the pattern whereof has been handed down
from the Ark, instead of modern and scientific inventions which save
both time and trouble. In no other department of the national life have
the people been so slow to adopt simple machinery as in that of the

It is alleged, in the first place, that labour-saving machines are
expensive; in the next place, that servants do not understand them, and
that they are always getting out of order.

As to the first objection, we would say that as these machines--we speak
only, of course, of really good machines--are made, not only with the
object of saving labour, but material, the original cost of them is in a
short time repaid. As regards the second objection, it seems
incomprehensible that servants should not use with care and
thoughtfulness machines, which not only save time and trouble, but
greatly help in making their work perfect.

There is no doubt that by the more general adoption of machinery
household work would be much lightened, and that if there were a demand
for it, enterprise would be much stimulated, and many more useful helps
would be produced. As it is, manufacturers hesitate to bring out new
inventions at a great expense, when there is a doubt of securing the
appreciation of the public.

Only the other day we were inquiring for a little machine we had seen
years ago, and were told by the maker that, "like many other useful
things, it had been shelved by the public, and ultimately lost."

Let us take the case of making bread at home. By the use of a little
simple dough-mixing machine, supplied by Kent, 199, High Holborn, the
operation is easy, quick, cleanly, and certain. We have had one of these
in use for more than ten years, and during that time have never had a
bad batch of bread. Not only in this machine do we make ten to eleven
pounds of dough in five minutes, but the kneading is most perfectly
done, and there is the great advantage of securing perfect cleanliness,
the hands not being used at all in the process. Yet we do not suppose
that any number of the people who have admired the bread have set up the
machine. It cannot be the cost of the machine, as it is inconsiderable,
which prevents its more general use, since in households where expense
is not an object the primitive process is still in vogue.

Many people imagine that washing machines are only needed in large
families where all the washing is got up at home. But, if ever so small
or only an occasional wash is done, there is no exaggerating the comfort
and advantage of a machine which washes, wrings, and mangles. So far
from injuring linen, machines of the best kind wear it far less than
rough hand labour, and with reasonable care it will be found that
delicate fabrics are not split in the wringing by a good machine, as
they so frequently are by the hand.

Then there is the case of the knife-cleaning machine. There are families
who, instead of using one, employ a boy to ruin their knives by rubbing
them on a board with Bath brick. They do so, they will tell you,
"because machines wear out the knives." The slightest acquaintance with
the mechanism of a good knife-cleaning machine should suffice to show
that the brushes cannot wear out the knives, whereas the action of the
board and brick is the most destructive that can be imagined. The
objection of undue wear being disposed of, we are told that the machines
soon get out of order, and are a constant expense. Of course, with
careless usage anything will come to grief, but the fact remains that
Kent, the leading manufacturer of knife-cleaners, has published a
certificate from a lady who has had in constant use, for thirty years,
one of his machines, which during that time has required no repairs. As
to knives, we know of some which have been cleaned daily for twenty-five
years in a machine, and are very little the worse for wear.

Dressmakers tell us that, but for the sewing machine, an elaborate style
of trimming ladies' dresses would be impossible. We know that many
inexpensive delicacies, which it is not practicable to have now because
of the time and trouble they require, could easily be managed by the use
of little articles of domestic machinery. For instance, take potted
meat. There is the excellent Combination Mincer, also Kent's, by which
this is rapidly and perfectly done, and which enables cooks to use up
many scraps of material in a most acceptable way, and without the labour
of the pestle and mortar. This machine, however, is but little known. It
costs but a sovereign, is useful for all mincing purposes, and makes
the best sausages in the world.

To make sausages properly, a machine must have an adjustment of the
cutters by which the sinews of the meat and bits of skin are retained on
them, as nothing is so unpleasant as to find these when eating the
sausages. Thus it will be seen how necessary it is, in setting up
machinery which should last a lifetime, to have the best inventions in
the market. Not very long ago, a friend asked our opinion on the merits
of the different makers of knife-cleaning machines. We explained to her
the mechanism of the best of them, pointed out the superior workmanship,
and that she should not grudge the money to have one which would do its
work properly and be durable. Probably under the impression that "in the
multitude of counsellors there is wisdom," our friend made further
inquiries, and ended by buying a much-advertised machine which, she was
assured, was better and cheaper than that of Kent, the original
patentee. When she had the machine home, and calculated, together with
the cost of carriage, her own expenses in going to London to choose it,
she found that she had saved exactly eighteenpence, and then that her
bargain would not clean the knives!

The prejudices which for a long time existed against cooking by gas have
gradually cleared away now that improved stoves have been introduced,
and the public have experience of its many advantages. There are yet
some difficulties to be met in bringing gas into more general use, one
of which, the high price charged for it, is beyond the control of the
housekeeper, and another, that of teaching servants to be economical and
careful in its use. When this last can be overcome, even with the first
named drawback, gas will not be found more expensive than coal. The cost
of wood, of sweeping the chimney, and the extra wear and tear occasioned
by the soot, smoke, and dust of a coal fire, must be calculated in
addition to the fuel itself.

It will be seen, when we say that the entire cooking for a small family
having late dinners, bread baked, and much water heated, is done for
something under £2 a quarter, that gas as a fuel is not so great an
extravagance after all. The stove used has the oven lined with a
non-conducting substance, which has the advantage of keeping the heat
within instead of sending it into the kitchen, as stoves made only of
iron plates are apt to do. We have but space to add that the benefit to
health, the cleanliness, the saving of time, labour, and temper, to say
nothing of the superiority of cooking done by gas in such a stove as has
been described, can only be fully appreciated by those who, like the
writer, have had twenty years' experience of all these advantages.



The high price at which meat has stood for some years has made it
necessary for the working classes to restrict themselves to a scanty
allowance of animal food, and this often of poor quality. The difficulty
of providing joints of meat for their families has, indeed, also been
felt severely by people who are comparatively well-to-do. Under these
circumstances capitalists have thought it worth a considerable
investment of money to discover some means of bringing the cheap and
magnificent supplies of New Zealand into the English market. After many
failures, success has at length crowned the enterprise, and nothing can
exceed the perfection in which New Zealand mutton is now placed on the
English market. It is universally admitted that the meat, both as
respects its nutritive value and its flavour, is unsurpassed, while the
price is very moderate. The same remarks apply to New Zealand lamb. It
commences to arrive in January, and is in the height of its season when
our English lamb is a luxury which can only be enjoyed by the few.

Nelson Brothers, Limited, stand foremost among the importers of this
invaluable food supply. The mutton and lamb selected by them is of the
highest quality, and their system of refrigeration is perfect. In summer
these New Zealand meats have a great advantage over the home supply, as
although in keeping they may lose colour, they remain good and sweet
much longer than English-killed meat.

The Company have large refrigerating stores under Cannon Street Station
capable of holding some 70,000 sheep, and have recently erected stores
of _treble that capacity_ at Nelson's Wharf, Commercial Road, Lambeth,
wherein the latest improvements both as regards construction and
refrigerating machinery have been adopted, in order to facilitate the
development of the frozen meat trade.

NELSON BROTHERS have also Branch Offices at--


If any of our readers are anxious to try the meat, and are unable to
procure it, a postcard to the Head Office, 15, Dowgate Hill, London,
E.C., or to any of the Branch Offices, will at once put them in the way
of carrying out their desire.

As it occasionally happens that from want of some little precaution New
Zealand meat does not come to table in its best condition, we offer the
following hints for the treatment of it:

Frozen mutton, like that which is freshly killed, requires to be hung a
certain time--this is most essential to remember, otherwise the meat
eats hard and tough--and it is important to observe, both when hanging
and roasting, that it is so placed that the juice shall not run out of
the cut end. Hind-quarters, haunches, and legs should be hung with the
knuckle end downwards; loins and saddles by the flaps, thus giving them
a horizontal position. The meat in winter should be kept in the kitchen
some time before cooking, and after being exposed for a few minutes to a
rapid heat in order to seal up and keep the gravy in the joint, it
should be cooked rather slowly, thus taking a little more time than is
usually given to English meat.





  "   "   as a solid, 15

  Badminton Cup, 94
  Champagne Cup, 94
  Cherry Cup, 94
  Cider Cup, 94
  Citric Acid, 97
  Claret Cup, 93
  Ginger, an Extract of, for family use, 95
  Gingerade, 95
  Lemon, Essence of, 97
    "    Syrup, 96
  Lemonade, 94
    "    (a new recipe), 95
  Milk, 96
  Port Wine, Mulled, 94


  Almond Paste, 92
  Chocolate, 90
  Cocoa-nut, 89
    "      Rock, 90
  Macaroons, 89
  Pound, 87
    "   Plain, 87
  Savoy Sponge, 88
    "     "   Lemon, 88
  Sugar Icing, 90


  Apricot, 76
  Champagne, 83
  Charlotte Russe, 79
  Cheese and Macaroni, 81
  Cherry, 80
  Chocolate, 82
  Coffee, 81
  Fig, 83
  Fruit, 78
  Italian, 81
  Lemon, 75
    "  Imitation, 76
  Mandarin, 78
  Orange, 76
    "   Mousse, 83
  Oranges, Chartreuse of, 82
  Palace, 77
  Pineapple, 77
  Strawberry, 75
      "     Trifle, 84
  Syllabub, Solid, 79
  Velvet, 80
  Whipped, 84

  Almonds, 9
  Lemon, 9
  Vanilla, 9


  Cod Cutlets, 26
  Eels, Collared, 30
  Fish, Galantine of, 28
  Herrings, Fried, 27
     "      Rolled, 27
  Sole, Filleted, 24
   "    Fillets of, en Aspic, 29
   "        "       Fried, 25
   "        "       Sautés, 25
   "        "  with Lobster, 25
   "    Fried, 23
  Whiting, Baked, 26


   "    How to use, 64


  Calf's Foot, 8
  Cherry, 8
  Lemon, 8
  Orange, 8
  Port, 8
  Sherry, 8


  Jelly, Apple, 69
    "    Aspic, 72
    "    Brilliant, 65
    "    Claret, 67
    "    Cocoa, 68
    "    Coffee, 68
    "    Economical, 65
    "    Orange Fruit, 69
    "    Oranges filled with, 69
    "    Ribbon, 66
    "    Strengthening, 71
    "    with Fruit, 66
  Jelly-bag, how to make a, 73



  Gelatine, 9
  Licorice, 10

  Canapés au Parmesan, 101
  Cheese, Boiled, 101
  Eggs, Scalloped, 102
  Macaroni Cheese, 99
    "      Stewed, 100
    "      Sweet, 100
    "      with Bacon, 99
    "        " Cheese, 98
    "        " Onions, 100
    "        " Tomatoes, 100
  Mushrooms with Cream Sauce, 103
  Rice, to Boil (a black man's recipe), 103
  Rice with Parmesan Cheese, 101
  Scotch Woodcock, 102
  Vegetables, to Mince, 104

  Brain Fritters, 35
  Chicken, Brown Fricassée of, 42
  Chicken Sauté, 43
    "     in Aspic Jelly, 36
  Croquettes, 44
  Curry, Dry, 44
  Kidneys, Broiled, 39
    "      Sautés, 37
    "      with Mushrooms, 38
    "      with Piccalilli, 39
  Lamb's Fry, 40
    "    Sweetbreads, 41
  Marrow Toast, 35
  Meat Cakes à l'Italienne, 45
  Mutton, Cold, Potted, 33
    "     Collops, 33
    "     Cutlets, 31
    "     Pies, 34
    "     Roulades of, 32
    "     Sauté, 33
  Ox Brain, 34
  Pork Pie, Raised, 46
  Potato Hash, 43
  Sausages, Pork, 47
  Veal à la Casserole, 41
  Veal and Ham Pie, 47
  Veal Cutlets in White Sauce, 37


  Apple Fool, 59
    "   Meringue, 60
  Baden-Baden, 80
  Brandy Sauce, 53
  Cabinet, 53
  Capital, The, 57
  Cheesecake, Welsh, 58
  Chocolate, 56
  Cocoa-nut, 56
  Compote of Apples with Fried Bread, 59
  Compote of Prunes, 60
  Custard, 50
  Duchess of Fife's, 58
  Fritters, Italian, 58
  Jubilee, 55
  Natal, 55
  Omelet, Friar's, 58
    "     Soufflé, 52
  Pears, Stewed, with Rice, 60
  Queen's, 56
  Raspberry and Currant, 57
  Soufflé, 51
  Sponge Soufflé, 53
  Vanilla Rusk, 54
  Warwickshire, 54

SOUPS, 11, 14
  Artichoke, Brown, 19
  Beef and Onion, 14
  Beef, Lentil, and Vegetable, 15
  Beef, Pea, and Vegetable, 15
  Glaze, 21
  Gravy, 21
  Hare, 17
  Julienne, 16
  Mulligatawny, 18
        "      Nelson's, 14
        "      Thin, 18
  Rabbit, Brown; Clear, 17
  Turtle, 19
    "    Mock, 21
  Vermicelli, Clear, 16


[Illustration: TRADE MARK.]



[Illustration: By Royal Letters Patent.]

For First Class Jellies





See Recipe, Page 65.




_Orange, Lemon, Calf's Foot, Cherry, Raspberry, Vanilla, Apricot, Pear,
Apple, Black Currant, Pine Apple, Noyeau, etc._

Quarts, 9d.; Pints, 6d.; Half-Pints, 3d.



_Port, Sherry, Orange._

Pints only, 9d.

These new Jellies are perfectly pure and wholesome, and the flavours
excellent, while their exceeding cheapness brings them within the reach
of all classes.


G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.

[Illustration: By Royal Letters Patent.]



These Soups are already thoroughly cooked and seasoned, and can be
prepared for the table in a few minutes.






In Pint Packets, 6d. each.




In Quart Packets, 6d. each.


Penny Packets of Soup for charitable purposes.







In Ounce Packets, 4d. each, and 1 lb. Tins, 5s. each.


One packet is sufficient for a Pint of Strong Soup.


G. NELSON, DALE, & CO., Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.

[Illustration: By Royal Letters Patent.]








Will be sent, CARRIAGE PAID, to any address in the United Kingdom, by


14, Dowgate Hill, London, E.C.


May also be obtained through any Grocer at the same price.


_N.B.--A Copy of "Home Comforts" will be sent, gratis, on receipt of
Penny Postage Stamp._


G. NELSON, DALE, & CO, Ltd., 14, Dowgate Hill, London.

[Transcriber's Note:

Minor punctuation errors have been corrected without note.

The title page, originally following three pages of advertisements, has
been moved to the beginning of the book.

The following corrections and changes were also made:

*p. 12: fibrine to fibrin (the fibrin of the meat)

*p. 17: entrée italicized to match other instances

*p. 33: liitle to little (Season with a little pepper)

*p. 122, Index: em-dash added to end of JELLIES, NELSON'S BOTTLED to
match similar entries

*p. 124, Index: Compôte to Compote to match body of text (Compote of
Apples with Fried Bread, Compote of Prunes)

Inconsistencies in hyphenation (e.g. sugar-syrup vs. sugar syrup,
overnight vs. over-night) and variant spellings (e.g. omelette vs.
omelet) have not been corrected.]

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