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Title: Lippincott's Horn-Ashbaugh Speller - For Grades One to Eight
Author: Horn, Ernest, Ashbaugh, Ernest J.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  LIPPINCOTT'S
  HORN-ASHBAUGH
  SPELLER
  FOR GRADES ONE TO EIGHT

  BY
  ERNEST HORN, PH.D.

  PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION AND DIRECTOR
  OF THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
  THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

  AND

  ERNEST J. ASHBAUGH, PH.D.

  ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION AND CHIEF OF THE
  BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS
  THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

  PHILADELPHIA, LONDON, CHICAGO
  J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



  COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

  PRINTED BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
  AT THE WASHINGTON SQUARE PRESS
  PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.



PREFACE


It is the intention of the authors to include sufficient discussion
and directions to teachers so that this book may be taught with the
highest possible degree of efficiency. Under general directions to
teachers will be found a discussion of those points which concern all
teachers regardless of grade. In addition, preceding the word list for
each grade will be found supplementary directions to aid the teachers
in facing the problems peculiar to that grade.

Special attention is called to the elaborate provision for making the
pupil intelligent and responsible in his attack on his own spelling
problems. This result is achieved by the testing plan which discovers
to the pupil his deficiencies; by the standard scores which enable him
to compare his accomplishment with that of other children; by the
efficient method of study which is provided; and by the unusually
rigorous follow-up work given in the review lessons. The authors
therefore present this book to the pupils and teachers of the United
States as a contribution to the solution of the problem of developing
a nation of good spellers.

                                                        THE AUTHORS.

  DECEMBER, 1920.



CONTENTS


                                                        PAGE

  PREFACE                                                iii

  GENERAL DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS                     vii-xiv

  DIRECTIONS TO PUPILS                               xiv-xvi

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE I                        2
      WORD LIST, GRADE I                                 3-5

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE II                       8
      WORD LIST, GRADE II                               9-14

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE III                  16-17
      WORD LIST, GRADE III                             19-27

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE IV                      30
      WORD LIST, GRADE IV                              31-40

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE V                       42
      WORD LIST, GRADE V                               43-52

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE VI                      54
      WORD LIST, GRADE VI                              55-64

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE VII                     66
      WORD LIST, GRADE VII                             67-78

  DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS OF GRADE VIII                    80
      WORD LIST, GRADE VIII                            81-95

  DICTATION EXERCISES                                 97-105



LIPPINCOTT'S HORN-ASHBAUGH SPELLER



GENERAL DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS.


=How the Teaching of Spelling May be Improved.=--The teaching of
spelling may be improved in three ways: first, by selecting a better
list of words for the pupil to study; second, by placing before the
pupils of each grade the words that are most appropriate for them; and
third, by introducing economical procedures in learning. The first is
the problem of the course of study; the second, the problem of
grading; and the third, the problem of method.

=The Vocabulary.=--To solve the first problem one must insure that the
pupils will study all words they are likely to use in life outside the
school. One must also insure that the pupils' time will not be wasted
through their being required to learn words which they will never use.
This problem has been solved for you by the authors of the text. The
vocabulary of the lessons is taken from a compilation which Doctor
Horn has made of ten scientific investigations of the words used in
writing letters. These investigations, taken together, represent the
careful analysis of over three-quarters of a million running words of
correspondence. If you will analyze one letter, you will see what a
very great amount of work these investigations have required. It seems
very unlikely that any word commonly and frequently used should have
been overlooked in all of these investigations.

These ten studies contain all of the information which is available at
the present time concerning what words are likely to be used in
writing letters. Accordingly, there is no word in this speller which
has not been reported in one or more of these investigations. In
addition, this vocabulary has been carefully compared with all of the
other types of reading and writing vocabularies.

Among these are the studies of children's themes, such as those by
Jones, by the teachers of New Orleans, Kansas City, and Richmond,
Virginia; the various studies of adult reading vocabularies, such as
those by Eldridge and Knowles, aggregating over 140,000 running words;
the studies of the vocabulary of school readers, such as those by
Packer, Housh, and Miller, aggregating over one-half million running
words. No word has been taken from these studies which did not occur
in the investigations of the vocabulary of personal and business
letters. On the other hand, these studies showed quite clearly that
the words found as the result of the analysis of three-quarters of a
million running words of correspondence are really basic in any
writing vocabulary.

If you will examine the book, you will see that most of the lessons are
numbered with arabic numerals. These lessons contain a minimum list of
3998 words found to be used most frequently. You will notice, also, that
beginning with grade three there are in each grade supplementary
lessons, marked S-1, S-2, etc. These lessons include 580 additional
words which are somewhat less frequently used. The supplementary lessons
are distributed by grades, so that pupils who finish the minimum work
for any grade will have additional lessons to study for the remainder of
the year. However, before undertaking these supplementary lessons, the
teacher should make sure that her pupils have learned thoroughly the
minimum list which contains the important words.

=Plan of Review.=--The provision for the complete elimination of
spelling errors is particularly efficient and thoroughgoing. Not only
are those words which most commonly give difficulty arranged for, but
the method of testing insures that each pupil will eliminate his own
peculiar errors. No pains have been spared to obtain this thoroughness
without wasting the pupils' time in mere routine review.

During the week in which each lesson is taught for the first time,
each pupil is tested three times on every word in the lesson. He
spends his time in concentrated attack on the words which have given
him difficulty. One month later this lesson is given as a test, and
the words missed by each pupil re-learned by him. At the end of the
week this lesson is again given as a test.

In addition, at the beginning of each grade above the first, the words
which have been previously taught, but which according to Doctor
Ashbaugh's investigation still give difficulty, are thoroughly
reviewed. Finally, in the seventh grade, the words which are most
frequently missed by grammar grade pupils are given additional review.

It must be kept in mind that these reviews are not haphazard, nor are
they a matter of guesswork. Each review list is made up on the basis
of the most careful scientific study of persistent errors.

=Grading.=--The lessons in each grade are those which the pupils in
that grade may most profitably study. The words have been graded in
the following manner: On the basis of Doctor Horn's compilation of
correspondence vocabularies, all of the 4578 words were ranked
according to the frequency with which they are used in correspondence.
On the basis of Doctor Ashbaugh's study of the difficulty of these
words in the various grades, the words were arranged in order of ease
of spelling. With these two sources of data, the lessons are arranged
so that in general the easiest words and those most commonly and
frequently used are placed in the lower grades. In addition, on the
basis of scientific analysis of the vocabulary of first, second, and
third readers, the authors determined which words occurred most often
in these readers. The words included in the lessons for the first
three grades are not only easy and fairly common, but are found also
in popular readers of the grades in which they are placed. For
example, the word "and" was found 23,773 times in the letters analyzed
in the various investigations upon which the book is based; and it is
misspelled by but four second grade children out of a hundred. It also
occurs in every one of ten commonly used first readers. Since it is
one of the very commonest words, is easy to spell, and is found in all
first readers, it is placed in the first list in the book. In a
similar way every lesson in the first three grades has been a matter
of computation. The lessons in grades above the third have been made
in the same careful fashion, except that occurrences in readers were
not taken into consideration. It is clear that the lessons increase
gradually in difficulty in each successive grade, and that a pupil who
is forced to leave school at the end of grade six or seven will have
learned the words which he is most likely to need in writing.

=Standard Scores.=--By means of standard errors at the close of each
lesson, the pupils and teachers may compare results with those of
other grades and with those obtained in the country at large. These
standards were taken from the Ashbaugh Scale and from a supplementary
study conducted by Doctor Ashbaugh and Doctor Horn to determine the
standards for words not included in the original scale. It must be
kept in mind that these standard errors are high, being the result of
the present unfavorable conditions of the teaching of spelling in the
country at large. They are used merely for the purpose of comparison.
The ideal to keep before your class is that they should learn their
lessons so that they will not misspell a single word, but this ideal
is intensified by the use of the standard errors.

=How to Teach the Lesson.=--Four points must be kept in mind as more
important than any others:

1. The teacher must test her pupils on each lesson before they begin
to study.

2. Each pupil should study only the words which he misspelled on the
test.

3. He must be taught an economical method of study.

4. He must see clearly what progress he is making.

Detailed suggestions for teaching the lessons are given in the
paragraphs which follow. These suggestions are based upon the
investigations reviewed by Doctor Horn in the Eighteenth Yearbook of
the National Society for the Study of Education. The method has been
tried out thoroughly in public school classrooms, and has proved
uniformly successful. Teachers are urged to follow it as closely as
possible. If, however, the teacher prefers another method of study,
she may use it. The book may be used with any method.

=Getting Started Right.=--The first few lessons may well be spent in
systematizing class procedure and teaching pupils how to study a
spelling lesson. Begin by pointing out the importance of spelling.
Give cases, if possible, where people have been discredited because of
spelling errors in letters. Discuss with the class how the words in
this book were selected, how the standard errors at the close of each
lesson were secured, and how the method of study was determined. The
pupils may now be introduced to the procedure which will be used in
conducting the spelling class, and to the method of study.

=Teaching Pupils How to Work.=--Many teachers have found the following
procedure very satisfactory. Have the pupils open their books at the
first lesson for their grade. Explain to them that a great many men
have spent much time and money in finding out the best way to learn to
spell, and that the method which is to be used is based on what these
men have recommended. Have the class read the directions to pupils
given on pages xiv-xvi. After the directions have been read, have
several pupils summarize them. When you have made sure that the class
has the main points clearly in mind, the actual work of habituating
the method may be begun. The first few lessons in each term should
consist of practice in the method of study. This practice should be
continued until you are satisfied that the pupils understand
thoroughly how to go about their work. Remember that even though
teachers in the preceding grades are using the method, there may be
pupils in your grade who are new to the system, as well as some who
have forgotten how to study. From the nature of the method, it is easy
to detect any child who is not using it. Insist that the correct
method be used from the outset. As soon as the pupils have learned the
method of study, the regular work of learning the lessons may begin.

=How the Lessons Should be Taught.=--The lessons are planned to be
completed in a week. A week's work, therefore, consists of twenty new
words and twenty review words except in grade one, where the week's
work consists of ten new words and ten review words. The following
schedule is recommended.

=Monday.=--The first step in teaching a lesson is an exercise in
pronunciation. Have the pupils open their books at the advanced
lesson. Pronounce each word, enunciating the syllables very
distinctly. Each word which in your judgment is not understood by the
class should be used in a sentence. All homonyms should be so used.
Have the pupils pronounce each word after you in concert, enunciating
the syllables very distinctly. Insist on careful pronunciation on the
part of every pupil.

This exercise precedes the spelling test because of the importance of
pronunciation in the method of study, and because of the probability
that this initial attention to the correct form of the word is
desirable. Since the pupils undoubtedly learn something as a result of
this exercise, they may be expected to make somewhat better scores
than those given in the book. These scores are the results of tests
given without such a preliminary exercise in pronunciation.

After all the words have been pronounced, have the pupils close their
texts and prepare papers for a written test. This test will include
the new lesson. It may be written on any sort of paper, the words
being written in columns of twenty to correspond to the arrangement of
the words in the book. Pronounce each word once only. Pupils should
write the words without hesitation. No alterations in the first
attempt at spelling the word should be allowed.

After the words have all been dictated, have the pupils exchange
papers for the purpose of correcting. Be sure that each pupil
understands that he is marking his neighbor's paper, so that errors
which have been made may be corrected. Instruct the class to mark a
word wrong if it is misspelled, if it cannot be read, or if any change
in the first attempt at spelling has been made. Be sure that each
pupil understands that, until he is able to write a word correctly the
first time, he has not sufficiently learned it.

The words may be corrected on the basis of the teacher's oral spelling
or by the book. Each word found to be misspelled should be marked
wrong by placing after it an =X=.

When the papers have been returned to the owners, each pupil should
write the correct form of the words which he has misspelled. The words
missed on the test will constitute his task for the week.

=Tuesday.=--On Tuesday the pupils study, each working on his own
errors and using the method recommended under directions to pupils.
Pupils who made no errors on the test may be excused from this study
period, but not from the succeeding test. It frequently happens that a
pupil will spell a word correctly on one test and misspell it on a
following test.

The teacher should closely supervise the pupils' study in order to
insure that proper methods of learning are used. She may also help to
direct the work of those who, having made no errors on the preceding
test, have been allowed to undertake some other task. The class should
not be tested on this day.

=Wednesday.=--Test on the new and on the review lesson. This review
lesson should consist of a lesson taught one month before. Since the
first four lessons in each grade are made up of words taught in the
preceding grade, these may well be used for the first month as review
lessons. The words may be corrected and the errors recorded as on
Monday. Compare the number of errors made on this test with those made
on the preceding test. This comparison will show the pupil what
progress he has made. The remainder of the period may be spent in
studying the words missed on this test.

=Thursday.=--Study as on Tuesday.

=Friday.=--Test on the new and on the review lesson, correct the
papers as on Monday, and spend the rest of the period studying the
errors made on this final test. Compare the number of errors made on
this test with the number made on the first and second tests. The
comparison gives the child a measure of accomplishment for the week.
The teacher should check this day's papers in order to have an
accurate record of the status of the pupils at the close of the week's
work. Many teachers have found it helpful to keep a chart of progress
on the blackboard.

=Individual Instruction.=--It is clear from the preceding directions
that the method of learning and the class administration are intended to
insure that each pupil will learn those words which give him difficulty,
and that he will, at the same time, progress at his own rate. With the
possible exception of the fact that only the commonly used words are
taught, this is the most important provision in the book.

=The Spelling Notebook.=--It has been found to be very helpful to have
each pupil keep a notebook in which to record words missed in the
various spelling tests or in papers written in connection with other
subjects. This notebook tends to make the pupil more conscientious
with regard to his spelling. It also gives him a record of his errors
so that when he has time for review work he can utilize it properly.

=The Problem of Interest.=--Teachers who have used the method which is
here recommended have been unanimous in reporting not only that the
pupils learned more rapidly, but also that they worked with greater
enthusiasm. This increased interest is secured without any use of soft
pedagogy. It comes from several sources. First, the pupils know that
the words in the book are those most commonly needed in writing.
Second, the pupils quickly see the advantage of centering their
efforts on words which they have actually missed. Third, by means of
standard scores they are enabled to compare their spelling ability
with that of children in other parts of the country. Fourth, they can
see what they are accomplishing. Fifth, these provisions make possible
the joy which comes from doing vigorously and thoroughly a clean-cut
task that needs to be done. These are the interests which appeal to
sensible men and women in life outside the school, and they have
proved sufficient for children. Many attempts have been made to
substitute devices for these wholesome and fundamental interests. Such
attempts not only fail in their purpose, but actually distract the
child's mind from the work he has to do. Sugar-coating inevitably
destroys the child's appetite for healthy vigorous work.



DIRECTIONS TO PUPILS


=Why These Words Should be Studied.=--One of the ways by which people
judge the writer of a letter is by the presence or absence of spelling
errors. Often a young man or young woman has failed to obtain a
desirable position because of spelling errors in a letter of
application. Even in the ordinary friendly letter, spelling errors
make a bad impression. The words which you are to learn from this
spelling book are the words which people most frequently use in
writing letters. Thousands of letters were read, and each word found
was recorded. This book, therefore, contains the words most commonly
used in writing, and does not contain any word which has not been
found in letters.

=How to Learn the Words.=--The first step in the study of each lesson
will be an exercise in pronunciation. Your teacher will pronounce each
word for you. Look at your book closely, noticing each syllable as she
pronounces it. When the teacher asks you to pronounce the word after
her, look at each syllable closely as _you_ pronounce it.

The second step in learning the lesson is the test. Write each word as
plainly as you can and without hesitation. The purpose of this test
is to see whether or not there are any words in the lesson which you
cannot spell. The words which you cannot spell will be your work in
spelling for the week.

If your teacher asks you to exchange papers for the purpose of
correcting them, be sure to do your work very carefully. If you fail to
mark a word wrong that has been misspelled, the pupil whose paper you
marked will not be able to know that the word should be studied, and so
will suffer an injury. On the other hand, it will be very confusing if
you mark a word wrong which is really correct. Mark any word wrong that
you cannot easily read; also any word if a letter has been written over
or a change made. Remember that the purpose of the test is to find out
which words need to be studied. The grades of the pupil whose papers you
correct are not affected in any way by your marking.

=The Meaning of "The Standard Number of Errors."=--The words in this
book have been given to a great many children in each grade in a number
of cities. In that way it was possible to find out the number of errors
which children of each grade ordinarily make. If you will compare the
number of errors which you make on the test with the number of errors at
the bottom of your lesson, you will be able to see how your spelling
compares with that of pupils in other parts of the country.

=How to Learn to Spell a Word.=--A great many men have spent much time
and money in finding out for you the best way to learn to spell. The
directions which follow are based on what these men have discovered.

1. The first thing to do in learning to spell a word is to pronounce
it correctly. Pronounce the word, saying each syllable very
distinctly, and looking closely at each syllable as you say it.

2. With closed eyes try to see the word in your book, syllable by
syllable, as you pronounce it in a whisper. In pronouncing the words,
be sure to say each syllable distinctly. After saying the word, keep
trying to recall how the word looked in your book, and at the same
time say the letters. Spell by syllables.

3. Open your eyes, and look at the word to see whether or not you had
it right.

4. Look at the word again, saying the syllables very distinctly. If
you did not have the word right on your first trial, say the letters
this time as you look sharply at the syllables.

5. Try again with closed eyes to see the word as you spell the
syllables in a whisper.

6. Look again at your book to see if you had the word right. Keep
trying until you can spell each syllable correctly with closed eyes.

7. When you feel sure that you have learned the word, write it without
looking at your book, and then compare your attempt with the book to
see whether or not you wrote it correctly.

8. Now write the word three times, covering each trial with your hand
before you write the word the next time, so that you cannot copy. If
all of these trials are right, you may say that you have learned the
word for the present. If you make a single mistake, begin with the
first direction and go through each step again.

9. Study each word by this method. Take special pains to attend closely
to each step in the method. Hard and careful work is what counts.

=Take Pains with Your Spelling in all Writing.=--Take pride in having
your compositions and letters free from spelling errors. When you are
in the slightest doubt as to how to spell a word, look it up in the
dictionary before you write it. When you have found the word in the
dictionary, learn it by the method by which you study your regular
spelling lessons. In a similar way, if you do make a mistake in
spelling in your compositions, learn the word which you misspelled by
this same method.

=Reviews.=--Whenever you have a few minutes after having prepared some
lesson, turn back to the errors which you have made on previous
spelling tests and spend some time going over the words which you
missed on those tests. Occasionally when you are at home, you will
find it interesting to have your mother or father or some friend test
you over all the words you have missed during the year. You should not
be satisfied until you can spell every word correctly.

=Notebook.=--Keep a spelling notebook. Whether your teacher requires
it or not, you will find it very much worth while to keep a spelling
notebook. In this you should record all words missed on any test or in
compositions which you write. If you find that you are frequently
missing a word, write it in a special list and review it frequently.



FIRST GRADE DIRECTIONS TO FIRST GRADE TEACHERS


The words in the lessons for first grade children are few in number and
relatively easy. You will notice that most of them are phonetic. Each
word has been found to be used in correspondence and in a majority of
first grade readers. This list is therefore particularly appropriate for
first grade children and may be easily learned by them. The authors
recommend that this work be begun in the second half year.

=Directions for Teaching.=--Read again the general directions on pages
vii to xvi, inclusive. In general the method used in grade one is the
same as that used in later grades. There are, however, certain
important differences. You will notice, for example, that first grade
lessons contain ten instead of twenty words. You will need also to
give more attention for the first two or three weeks to initiating
correct habits of study. Remember that teachers above grade one will
build upon habits which you initiate.

The words in the first grade list are very simple, so that there
should be no difficulty in learning to spell them. Neither should the
children have any difficulty in understanding any of the one hundred
fifty words.

=Directions for Schools in Which the Pupils do Not Write in Grade
One.=--The pupils in such schools should be taught to study according to
the first six directions given under How to Learn to Spell a Word, page
xv. The tests in these cases will have to be oral tests. Otherwise,
the methods recommended in the general directions may be used.


  1          2          3          4

  is         be         but        that

  and        can        dear       to-day

  are        dog        did        up

  day        good       do         was

  he         my         go         an

  in         see        his        as

  it         she        little     big

  me         you        look       come

  all        book       not        for

  at         boy        out        get

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )

  II.  1     II.  1     II.  2     II.  2

  III. 0     III. 1     III. 1     III. 1


  5          6          7          8

  hand       old        way        gold

  have       on         will       hat

  if         one        your       her

  into       over       away       home

  land       run        by         how

  last       say        cannot     ice

  let        tell       doing      looking

  like       the        down       love

  man        this       eat        of

  may        tree       give       play

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )

  II.  2     II.  2     II.  3     II.  3

  III. 1     III. 1     III. 1     III. 1


  9          10         11         12

  so         us         bee        far

  ten        when       call       fat

  thank      wind       cane       five

  them       with       cat        from

  then       after      coat       gave

  thing      am         cold       girl

  think      apple      corn       going

  three      baby       cow        green

  time       bed        each       had

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )

  II.  3     II.  3     II.  4     II.  4

  III. 1     III. 2     III. 2     III. 2


  13         14         15         16

  hard       must       school     all

  has        night      send       be

  hen        no         six        see

  just       or         snow       not

  live       pig        sun        may

  made       playing    they       for

  make       put        top        in

  milk       red        what       do

  mother     ring       wood       so

  much       sat        ran        no

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )

  II.  4     II.  4     II.  4     II.  1

  III. 2     III. 2     III. 2     III. 1



SECOND GRADE DIRECTIONS TO SECOND GRADE TEACHERS


The second grade list of words contains 340 new words in addition to
the review lessons, which include 80 of the most difficult first grade
words, and 60 of the homonyms which give the most trouble. The new
words are all words frequently used, are words which second grade
children can learn easily and, for the most part, are frequently found
in the second readers most commonly used. You will find that the
method outlined below will enable you to teach these words so that
your classes will make very nearly a perfect score on them.

=Directions for Teaching.=--Read again the directions for teaching as
given on pages vii to xvi. You will find it advisable to take some
time at the beginning of the term to teach pupils how to study. You
will still find it necessary to correct the papers yourself. You may
follow the same schedule as that outlined in the general directions.
Watch particularly for improper methods of study.

Second grade pupils should write their tests without hesitation and
with fair speed. Explain to the pupils with great care that letters
which are not made plainly will be counted wrong.

Remember that the lessons are arranged by weeks rather than by days.
The work for each week consists of one advance column and one review
column. The review column in each case is the fourth column preceding
the advance work. That is, it is made up of a week's work one month
old. For example, column 5 contains 20 new words to be learned in one
week. During the same week, column 1 should be reviewed. The lesson
for the first week consists of column 1, which is the advance lesson,
and of column R 1, which is the review.


  R-1        R-2        R-3        R-4

  dear       sat        top        make

  fat        bee        playing    milk

  cow        baby       came       her

  get        has        pig        apple

  some       home       give       with

  we         looking    had        when

  way        love       from       down

  run        red        far        six

  gold       like       call       send

  cat        going      ice        school

  cold       corn       thank      live

  or         box        put        gave

  them       am         fast       snow

  girl       then       by         what

  this       eat        made       mother

  three      thing      night      after

  ring       much       one        just

  cannot     time       bed        hard

  wind       over       sun        wood

  hat        they       must       five

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )

  II.  5     II.  6     II.  7     II.  8

  III. 3     III. 3     III. 3     III. 4


  1          2          3          4

  ask        forget     ear        year

  back       fun        days       ago

  best       grass      sing       door

  bill       happy      doll       got

  black      hay        hope       May

  blow       hill       grow       bad

  bring      him        boys       ball

  butter     hot        fly        bank

  cake       inside     hands      bell

  cap        its        pink       end

  child      joy        dry        foot

  cup        keep       times      free

  cut        kind       string     king

  ever       kiss       bread      letter

  face       late       needs      most

  farm       lay        rise       same

  feet       left       skin       ship

  fill       light      cry        till

  fish       low        story      yet

  food       meat       tall       about

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )

  II.  8     II.  8     II.  7     II.  6

  III. 4     III. 4     III. 3     III. 3


  5          6          7          8

  more       said       very       beside

  morning    sand       wall       better

  Mr.        sent       want       bird

  name       side       war        blue

  never      sister     week       brother

  nine       small      well       calling

  now        stand      west       mild

  off        standing   where      care

  once       state      why        city

  papa       stay       win        cook

  part       sweet      wish       cover

  pen        take       work       cream

  place      telling    yes        dark

  poor       there      afternoon  deep

  rain       to         any        dinner

  read       told       around     drive

  rest       took       barn       drop

  rich       town       bear       dust

  ride       two        became     east

  room       under      become     even

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )
  II.  8     II.  8     II.  9     II. 10
  III. 4     III. 4     III. 5     III. 5


  9          10         11         12

  eye        large      pick       sold

  fall       life       pine       son

  fell       lived      plan       song

  felt       lives      river      soon

  find       long       road       spring

  fine       longer     rock       step

  flat       looked     rose       stop

  found      mine       sad        store

  four       Miss       saw        such

  gate       mud        saying     summer

  glad       myself     seed       supper

  gone       near       seen       table

  gray       now        sell       thin

  head       nice       set        thinking

  hear       noon       sheep      to-night

  help       oh         shop       too

  here       older      show       trust

  hold       open       sleep      upon

  house      our        slow       walk

  hunt       outside    soft       water

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )
  II. 10     II. 10     II. 10     II. 10
  III. 5     III. 5     III. 5     III. 5


  13         14         15         16

  went       bright     fellow     market

  were       bringing   fire       master

  while      buy        first      meal

  who        children   flower     meet

  wide       clear      frost      met

  wife       clock      gather     might

  window     close      given      mind

  winter     coming     glass      move

  without    cool       ground     nap

  air        could      hang       neck

  alive      dance      held       next

  also       die        horse      north

  asleep     done       June       nothing

  ate        pale       know       other

  been       dress      lady       pass

  behind     every      leave      goats

  bid        fair       leg        right

  bit        farmer     lift       round

  boat       father     loved      rush

  both       feed       many       seven

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )
  II. 12     II. 12     II. 12     II. 12
  III. 6     III. 7     III. 7     III. 7


  17         18         19         20

  shall      to         seen       oh

  short      way        him        wood

  shut       we         hay        blue

  sick       dear       rain       hear

  sit        some       can't      fair

  something  ring       here       might

  sound      ball       there      new

  south      bee        son        buy

  start      May        too        know

  stick      bad        bear       meet

  still      red        two        right

  stood      one        low        road

  street     by         sell       die

  taken      made       ate        done

  taking     sun        very       flower

  teach      feet       read       air

  then       Miss       our        be

  these      do         four       bread

  true       sent       gray       needs

  try        week       meat       not

Standard Number of Errors

  I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )     I. ( )
  II. 12     II.  6     II.  9     II. 12
  III. 7     III. 3     III. 5     III. 7



THIRD GRADE DIRECTIONS TO THIRD GRADE TEACHERS


The advance lessons, numbered 1 to 28 inclusive, contain a minimum
list of 528 new words. The supplementary list contains 80 words, which
although easy to spell are not so frequently used in writing letters
as are the words of the minimum list. This supplementary list is meant
for those schools which because of the long school term or for other
reasons, finish the minimum list before the end of the term or year.
The lessons marked R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, are made up of the eighty words
taught in preceding grades, but which still give considerable
difficulty to third grade children. They should be thoroughly mastered.

=Directions for Teacher.=--For the first few lessons direct your
attention to systematizing class procedure and to teaching pupils how
to study effectively. Read carefully again the suggestions on pages
vii to xvi.

Pupils in the third grade should be able to make their own corrections
so that time may now be saved by having the pupils exchange papers
during the first two tests. The teacher should continue to correct the
papers written on the final test. The following suggestions will be
helpful in getting the coöperation of pupils. After the papers have
been exchanged say, "In writing, it is important not only that you
know how to spell, but also that you make your letters so that the
person who reads your paper can tell easily what you have written.
This is the reason that I have asked you to exchange papers. Many
people write so that certain letters cannot be told from other
letters. This is true of z, g, and y; o and a; t and l; n and u; h and
k. When you correct papers and cannot tell which of two letters the
writer intended, mark the word wrong. Also mark it wrong if a letter
has been written over or a change made. Words should be learned so
that they will be written correctly without hesitation the first time.
Any word which has not been learned so that it may be written
correctly the first time should be studied again.

"Remember that the purpose of this test is to find out which words need
further study. It does not affect your grades. You will do the pupil
whose paper you have a favor by marking his errors so that he may
correct them. Mark each error by placing after it a cross--so (x)."

Pupils should keep a special list of words which they have missed in
their compositions. These words should be studied by the same method
used in studying the regular spelling lesson. Such words will not be
taken up, however, in the regular lessons.

Remember that the lessons are arranged by weeks rather than by days.
The work for each week consists of one advance column and one review
column. The review column in each case is the fourth column preceding
the advance work. That is, it is made up of a week's work one month
old. For example, column 5 contains 20 new words to be learned in one
week. During the same week, column 1 should be reviewed. The lesson
for the first week consists of column 1, which is the advance lesson,
and of column R 1, which is the review.


  R-1        R-2        R-3        R-4

  dark       meal       also       five

  fair       market     held       shed

  feed       leave      nap        leg

  June       gather     sound      might

  sit        air        these      frost

  nothing    alive      lift       shall

  nor        street     hope       white

  saying     stick      buy        looked

  step       something  neck       taken

  drop       took       next       loved

  dress      master     short      than

  road       glass      such       hang

  ground     both       right      pass

  given      been       move       asleep

  other      behind     mind       fellow

  bit        bright     met        small

  beside     lady       done       farmer

  became     walk       seven      know

  gray       try        fire       bringing

  water      thinking   rush       taking

Standard Number of Errors

  II.  6     II.  7     II.  7     II.  8
  III. 3     III. 3     III. 3     III. 4
  IV.  1     IV.  1     IV.  1     IV.  2


  1          2          3          4

  tone       banks      toy        bay

  blush      yours      age        cent

  cramp      tan        being      grade

  goods      bag        lot        Monday

  tub        line       pay        pie

  blot       dine       seeing     pin

  cards      guns       along      stove

  cars       map        aside      trip

  cave       bind       band       bat

  chase      girls      belong     blank

  darn       save       game       car

  hook       kinds      hall       card

  keg        bath       lake       date

  lip        lap        lost       hog

  yell       lock       mad        kid

  pave       weeks      March      landing

  peck       fool       nut        mail

  plants     salt       oil        mark

  sole       near-by    silk       net

  split      plans      singing    park

Standard Number of Errors

  II.  4     II.  8     II.  8     II.  9
  III. 2     III. 4     III. 4     III. 5
  IV.  1     IV.  2     IV.  1     IV.  2


  5          6          7          8

  horn       sport      page       rent

  looks      Sunday     paper      spell

  dig        tent       plate      post

  gives      working    price      thanking

  pant       able       spent      train

  mouse      arm        walking    add

  shore      art        willing    bean

  tall       bake       within     bet

  bless      born       yard       bunch

  fond       faster     added      cane

  showing    finding    asking     cash

  mat        forgot     below      cattle

  pipe       form       blame      clay

  books      grand      camp       colder

  tender     helping    cast       cooking

  steam      hit        Christmas  cord

  roar       ill        class      farming

  star       kill       clean      list

  tool       mill       cost       lunch

  bone       note       danger     paying

Standard Number of Errors

  II.  9     II. 10     II. 11     II. 11
  III. 5     III. 5     III. 6     III. 6
  IV.  2     IV. 2      IV. 3      IV. 3


  9          10         11         12

  ink        drum       lump       rice

  inch       egg        mate       rug

  print      feeding    mouth      slip

  brand      finger     number     smart

  tenth      fit        order      spelling

  tip        forgive    ours       stamp

  plow       Friday     pole       test

  wake       fur        porch      washing

  whenever   glee       race       wishing

  wild       goat       rate       belt

  fort       grant      reading    grape

  peach      heat       real       eve

  sin        holding    report     glove

  wool       hour       saved      job

  sum        however    seat       lace

  rail       hunting    shot       law

  sack       July       sink       mend

  rank       kindly     sort       ranch

  brick      larger     spot       roll

  write      luck       stone      self

Standard Number of Errors

  II. 11     II. 12     II. 12     II. 12
  III. 7     III. 7     III. 7     III. 8
  IV.  3     IV. 3      IV.  3     IV.  4


  13         14         15         16

  wash       rather     teacher    birthday

  wet        full       tie        bite

  slide      strong     whatever   block

  stock      hug        across     body

  swell      strange    again      dig

  trade      draw       ahead      boxes

  wheel      lines      alone      broke

  word       candy      always     brought

  drew       sail       another    called

  shows      drink      apart      case

  blood      goes       April      catch

  lots       comes      asked      chair

  grapes     pile       aunt       check

  forms      dare       badly      church

  mix        means      basket     cloth

  rub        shake      beat       clothing

  sake       swing      because    club

  maid       hide       beg        coal

  sweep      desk       begin      contest

  fry        wants      bench      corner

Standard Number of Errors

  II. 13     II. 13     II. 13     II. 13
  III. 8     III. 8     III. 8     III. 8
  IV.  4     IV.  4     IV.  4     IV.  4


  17         18         19         20

  count      garden     killed     own

  cross      gift       later      pack

  darling    grandma    least      pain

  dead       great      less       party

  deal       soda       lie        passing

  dearly     hair       lovely     past

  December   half       making     picking

  deed       happen     matter     please

  died       harder     mean       plum

  early      hardly     miss       pocket

  eighth     having     money      point

  enter      hearing    nearly     pound

  evening    apples     shame      pure

  fear       herself    need       queen

  fight      high       nobody     rabbit

  file       himself    none       reach

  floor      hole       nor        riding

  flour      hundred    nose       rolling

  forest     indeed     oats       roof

  forth      jump       only       row

Standard Number of Errors

  II. 13     II. 13     II. 13     II. 13
  III. 8     III. 8     III. 8     III. 8
  IV.  4     IV.  4     IV.  4     IV.  4


  21         22         23         24

  safe       alike      those      hour

  seem       white      thought    mail

  sending    pork       thus       write

  shade      yellow     tiny       flour

  shape      yourself   twenty     eight

  shoe       shoot      warm       weak

  sight      spite      washed     sole

  silver     swim       weak       ours

  sir        things     which      past

  sorry      gay        wonder     their

  space      grave      erect      beat

  spend      golden     worked     pain

  spending   sharp      world      flower

  spoke      smell      woven      hall

  storm      smile      yesterday  maid

  sunshine   stir       above      sum

  talk       boy        act        real

  talking    drawn      almost     ate

  teeth      blanket    anything   cent

  their      feather    before     need

Standard Number of Errors

  II. 13     II. 13     II. 14     II. 13
  III. 8     III. 9     III. 9     III. 8
  IV.  4     IV.  4     IV.  4     IV.  4


  25         26         27         28

  feast      fix        quilt      sent

  men        figs       rag        fur

  moon       kept       rid        real

  mile       lamp       sauce      sail

  plant      pan        speech     roll

  bags       soul       spoon      sour

  beans      spoil      steak      stain

  dish       truth      straw      boy

  lead       wed        vines      died

  hogs       roots      worms      forth

  crutch     bare       ants       great

  prune      fought     bark       mid

  smoke      blight     bend       bus

  spray      led        bills      dirt

  tea        comb       breath     hair

  thanks     farms      fields     choose

  sea        eggs       bud        lie

  laugh      lawn       lend       seem

  knee       miles      hills      taste

  pears      pail       key        skip

Standard Number of Errors

  II. 12     II.  15    II.  15    II.  15
  III. 7     III. 10    III. 10    III. 10
  IV.  3     IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   5


  S-1        S-2        S-3        S-4

  cab        pet        asks       trick

  cape       heal       bald       mumps

  bug        heel       pails      takes

  dull       hens       blind      bedtime

  fold       grin       crack      pants

  poem       pour       bush       hilly

  gun        pray       bull       flight

  kick       hose       cords      houses

  scratch    pond       cuff       postman

  mop        twin       dusty      hoarse

  nail       make       dwell      hopes

  pint       rode       drag       knife

  ties       loaf       drown      greet

  push       loop       desk       lamps

  rope       root       plush      makes

  split      scar       sadly      gloves

  mob        tuck       scalp      gentle

  nod        moth       roses      glance

  pad        oars       glue       manly

  rob        weed       grab       shelf

Standard Number of Errors

  II.  15    II.  15    II.  15    II.  15
  III. 10    III. 10    III. 10    III. 10
  IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   5



FOURTH GRADE DIRECTIONS TO FOURTH GRADE TEACHERS


The advanced lessons numbered 1 to 32 inclusive contain 620 new words.
The supplementary list containing 80 new words is meant for schools
which because of the long term or for other reasons, finish the
minimum list of words before the end of the year. The lessons marked
R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4, are made up of the 80 words in the third grade
list which are most commonly misspelled by fourth grade children.
These 80 words should be thoroughly mastered. There are also reviewed
20 homonyms which commonly are confused by children of this grade.

=Directions for Teaching.=--Read the preface and study with particular
care the suggestions given on pages vii to xvi. It would be well also
to read the suggestions to first, second and third grade teachers. You
will need to supervise the correction of papers by pupils very closely.

Remember that the lessons are arranged by weeks rather than by days.
The work for each week consists of one advance column and one review
column. The review column in each case is the fourth column preceding
the advance work. That is, it is made up of a week's work one month
old. For example, column 5 contains 20 new words to be learned in one
week. During the same week, column 1 should be reviewed. The lesson
for the first week consists of column 1, which is the advance lesson,
and of column R 1, which is the review.


  R-1        R-2        R-3        R-4

  ranch      herself    check      pound

  movement   rabbit     file       roof

  badly      shame      garden     sending

  before     those      himself    shade

  lie        lovely     lace       silver

  nor        need       miss       spoke

  past       rolling    only       stock

  beg        seem       tiny       trade

  corner     beg        which      begin

  cast       bench      across     darling

  least      bite       act        deed

  slide      drew       beat       feeding

  fear       flour      belt       fit

  gift       forth      called     goat

  indeed     happen     cloth      soda

  roll       killed     club       jump

  almost     none       hundred    mend

  anything   their      list       pack

  enter      woven      matter     queen

  spend      brick      nearly     rank

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 12    III. 10    III. 10    III. 6
  IV.   6    IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.  3
  V.    2    V.    2    V.    2    V.   1


  1          2          3          4

  Jan.       October    brush      kitten

  Nov.       oven       burn       leader

  banker     printed    carpet     lover

  delay      soil       cleaning   liver

  Feb.       remove     counting   lumber

  goldfish   snowed     dandy      mailed

  overcoat   snowing    depend     enroll

  Sat.       stage      dollar     nation

  worker     tank       dresser    office

  officers   teaching   fence      outfit

  overlook   Tuesday    fifty      paint

  backing    yearly     football   banking

  covering   dislike    friend     stated

  Dec.       scratch    garment    proper

  fishing    agree      handed     sixty

  grove      Aug.       heating    rained

  handy      belonging  homesick   recall

  longest    board      inches     recover

  maker      boss       January    remark

  Oct.       bother     kinder     renter

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 6     III. 7     III. 8     III. 8
  IV.  3     IV.  4     IV.  4     IV.  4
  V.   1     V.   1     V.   2     V.   2


  5          6             7          8

  reader     sample        fork       know

  adding     sickness      ham        speak

  size       railroad      rule       blew

  rust       post card     Mrs.       wheat

  likely     some one      pair       third

  skate      speaker       use        easy

  soap       starting      quick      earth

  press      staying       wear       twice

  tire       unable        sure       music

  ten        wanting       trunk      moved

  wire       leaving       turn       wagon

  zone       driver        news       visit

  neat       marking       fail       wanted

  witch      display       grain      thick

  best       straight      few        watch

  cedar      anyone        lead       sugar

  term       rushed        march      does

  draft      largely       used       worth

  per        understanding wise       would

  inclosed   alley         crop       young

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 8     III. 8        III. 10    III. 10
  IV.  4     IV.  4        IV.   5    IV.   5
  V.   2     V.   2        V.    2    V.    2


  9          10         11         12

  simple     heard      granted    should

  carry      patch      seventh    sirs

  learned    chop       raining    export

  Sept.      heap       raised     suffer

  shortly    stunt      rubber     paid

  invited    front      sofa       ends

  cared      velvet     dressed    hoops

  lone       dearest    goose      tear

  drill      render     death      rates

  drug       thread     protest    grandpa

  fruit      brain      cleaner    tooth

  tile       ocean      trace      clip

  dream      rented     chart      beach

  leaves     ford       dozen      giving

  pride      lame       packing    charge

  renew      tend       month      opens

  grown      sixth      wedding    steamer

  partly     temple     cheer      event

  pencil     handle     damp       soup

  eighty     folder     removed    couch

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 10    III. 10    III. 10    III. 10
  IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   5
  V.    2    V.    2    V.    2    V.    2


  13         14         15         16

  started    battle     gladly     classes

  bought     island     team       filling

  branch     sooner     content    match

  thankful   lesson     pillow     closed

  change     mamma      travel     seventy

  country    mighty     booklet    track

  printing   moment     center     behalf

  feeling    strongest  newspaper  calf

  harvest    oldest     prevent    cotton

  somewhere  unless     treat      grew

  finish     trying     former     inspect

  welcome    o'clock    mostly     postage

  ready      opening    range      pump

  township   walked     awhile     coast

  everyone   people     growing    holder

  bathroom   person     keeping    western

  weather    picture    bottle     army

  together   getting    provide    leather

  everything good-night bushel     merry

  understand September  quart      noise

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 10    III. 10    III. 10    III. 11
  IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   5
  V.    2    V.    2    V.    2    V.    2


  17         18         19         20

  station    member     company    income

  brown      wrote      return     bankers

  funny      agent      answer     bookcase

  twelve     sometime   pleased    reports

  coffee     between    remain     teapot

  filled     follow     enough     undress

  noted      uncle      amount     waken

  plain      build      doctor     pancake

  mailing    county     meeting    papers

  otherwise  payment    fact       plaster

  somewhat   whole      chance     defeat

  itself     building   learn      inclose

  pull       study      November   mess

  kindness   vote       present    pulse

  bleed      heavy      pretty     rake

  hate       trusting   since      slice

  labor      Thursday   through    toast

  reached    chicken    busy       frozen

  largest    selling    guess      bloom

  scout      ticket     waited     climb

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 11    III. 11    III. 11    III. 11
  IV.   5    IV.   5    IV.   6    IV.   6
  V.    2    V.    2    V.    3    V.    3


  21         22         23         24

  expert     fade       saving     gallon

  poorly     knock      thousand   stair

  tax        whip       value      excuse

  turkey     causes     request    iron

  understood storage    afraid     exchange

  zero       sudden     suit       demand

  absent     noisy      hotel      hurry

  moving     enclosed   idea       sale

  named      ugly       program    figure

  rack       windy      among      inform

  retail     impress    fully      returned

  sock       orders     August     wonderful

  chapter    prison     cause      nicely

  dread      replied    vacation   auto

  household  charges    serve      valued

  leaf       cracker    thirty     wished

  cloudy     cupboard   intend     kitchen

  dispose    dishes     anyway     sheet

  farther    distant    everybody  duty

  packed     eleven     hurt       plenty

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 11    III. 12    III. 12    III. 12
  IV.   7    IV.   7    IV.   7    IV.   7
  V.    3    V.    3    V.    3    V.    3


  25         26         27         28

  rip        cheek      respect    fancy

  steel      delight    voter      located

  chill      awake      single     talked

  joined     repair     anywhere   dealing

  kisses     living     fresh      lower

  knowing    power      higher     bonnet

  reported   smaller    officer    spread

  retain     nature     raw        running

  treated    changed    title      branches

  French     contain    improve    broken

  jar        monthly    deliver    greater

  learning   gain       liberty    provided

  seal       court      proud      afterward

  lamb       kindest    failed     anyhow

  snap       offering   chain      elect

  strongly   meantime   cleaned    gown

  froze      wrong      dated      greeting

  junk       grind      produce    honest

  ordering   share      bugs       lung

  circus     extent     locate     remind

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 12    III. 12    III. 12    III. 12
  IV.   7    IV.   7    IV.   7    IV.   7
  V.    3    V.    3    V.    3    V.    3


  29         30         31         32

  owe        male       gem        plain

  worm       most       tail       per

  earn       melt       task       board

  yoke       mode       tape       size

  pearl      mood       lack       haul

  offer      rural      thrown     tax

  years      pear       through    wrote

  heart      peas       toe        build

  often      mouse      legal      whole

  shirt      pests      tore       cast

  hoped      sales      trim       stair

  firms      scold      mental     sale

  bail       seek       urged      beet

  marry      shell      vest       pair

  rainy      sneeze     booster    wear

  silly      path       wipe       knew

  fudge      jelly      yield      blew

  broad      staid      manual     would

  shine      stoves     boost      lone

  equal      stuck      walnut     grown

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 12    III. 13    III. 15    III. 11
  IV.   7    IV.   8    IV.   9    IV.   5
  V.    3    V.    4    V.    5    V.    2


  S-1        S-2        S-3        S-4

  shirts     tempt      ages       jolly

  muddy      boy's      alarm      layer

  skim       charm      amuse      breast

  sky        faith      bitter     mince

  slap       yards      blanks     legging

  slick      bead       brine      dean

  stack      grate      cabin      oyster

  stands     socks      pages      pantry

  steep      dates      Co.        parade

  sting      yarn       drift      player

  stool      wring      dies       wave

  stoop      limp       empty      polish

  strip      states     escape     puzzle

  stump      stretch    floss      rules

  tack       bruise     strap      saucer

  tag        wreck      frank      scream

  tease      peep       haul       screen

  tune       peak       heaven     stag

  ways       sketch     lard       steal

  words      tact       lean       eighth

Standard Number of Errors

  III. 10    III. 13    III. 15    III. 15
  IV.   5    IV.   8    IV.   9    IV.  10
  V.    2    V.    4    V.    5    V.    5



FIFTH GRADE DIRECTIONS TO FIFTH GRADE TEACHERS


The minimum lessons for this grade are numbered from 1 to 32, and
contain 620 new words of the minimum list. The lessons marked R-1,
R-2, R-3, R-4, are made up of words from the fourth grade lessons
which are most frequently misspelled by fifth grade children. In
addition to these eighty review words, there is one review lesson
containing homonyms. There are also two supplementary lessons made up
of words which are new but which are not so commonly used as those in
the minimum list. As in preceding grades, these supplementary lessons
are introduced in order to afford additional work for classes which
finish the regular lessons before the end of the year. There are also
two lessons containing names of the months, days of the week, and
certain abbreviations.

=Directions for Teaching.=--Read carefully the suggestions on pages vii
to xvi. Read also the suggestions to teachers of the first four
grades. See to it that your pupils attack their lessons in an
aggressive manner. The pupils in grade five do considerable work in
written composition, so it will be well to watch very closely the
errors made in such work. Have the pupils learn all words misspelled
in their written work, using the same method as in their regular
spelling lessons.

Remember that the lessons are arranged by weeks rather than by days.
The work for each week consists of one advance column and one review
column. The review column in each case is the fourth column preceding
the advance work. That is, it is made up of a week's work one month
old. For example, column 5 contains 20 new words to be learned in one
week. During the same week, column 1 should be reviewed. The lesson
for the first week consists of column 1, which is the advance lesson,
and of column R 1, which is the review.


  R-1        R-2        R-3        R-4

  running    joined     wrong      broad

  legal      tax        anyway     cleaned

  mental     chapter    greater    eighty

  process    dread      hurt       everybody

  booster    farther    junk       froze

  rural      fully      o'clock    fruit

  manual     idea       ordering   granted

  straight   inspect    anyhow     kindest

  enroll     jar        blew       lamb

  mamma      kitchen    chain      leaf

  rainy      knowing    enclosed   liberty

  owe        dealing    circus     living

  French     expert     gallon     Mrs.

  largely    frozen     greeting   neat

  cedar      guess      opening    ocean

  together   moment     noisy      officer

  term       reached    retail     pencil

  busy       remind     worm       pretty

  gain       serve      afterward  program

  intend     valued     among      provided

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 13     IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 7
  V.   8     V.  4      V.  4      V.  3
  VI.  5     VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2


  1           2          3          4

  acting      charming   copy       shed

  Bible       chum       wait       birth

  closer      clever     edge       speed

  crib        colt       won        odd

  depending   drilling   brace      mass

  glasses     earning    beef       youth

  grandfather flesh      enjoy      fuel

  maple       formed     joke       worse

  overlooked  globe      favor      hare

  painted     hardware   until      loud

  pending     joyful     peace      jaw

  planted     lighting   reply      main

  posted      likewise   frame      wage

  printer     loaded     rough      tread

  renting     lucky      family     score

  stranger    painter    slipper    scale

  tested      reaching   wishes     cure

  trained     respond    united     rye

  whereby     red        nerve      graze

  candle      sash       caused     creep

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 5       IV. 7      IV. 7      IV. 8
  V.  2       V.  3      V.  3      V.  4
  VI. 1       VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2


  5          6          7          8

  scare      sore       diner      sewing

  fifth      gas        burst      steady

  hers       says       listen     dirty

  ease       whom       powder     ivory

  scrap      union      pitcher    turned

  dose       women      voice      eager

  throw      stuff      linen      bridge

  tried      crazy      built      freeze

  checks     tired      fixed      narrow

  hasten     force      penny      refuse

  chore      habit      liked      strike

  notes      piano      taught     insist

  scrub      cough      rapid      seemed

  seems      nurse      finest     caught

  Ave.       raise      dairy      valley

  finds      ought      loyal      comply

  bulbs      extra      devil      weary

  grit       appear     organ      reduce

  dodge      fourth     await      showed

  weekly     button     blessed    angry

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 8
  V.  4      V.  4      V.  4      V.  4
  VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2


  9          10         11         12

  admire     needed     placing    eighteen

  bundle     bottom     reaches    northern

  runner     figured    somebody   thirteen

  sentence   comfort    movement   amounting

  shadow     throat     informed   withdraw

  insure     stating    handsome   including

  friendly   surface    inviting   industry

  papered    foolish    contained  breaking

  circle     carried    English    post-office

  gaining    message    helpful    homestead

  cooler     central    improved   workmanship

  Easter     helped     changing   housekeeping

  boiler     active     checking   handled

  elbow      shoulder   intended   inclosing

  enlarge    closing    visited    returning

  formal     opened     dealings   settlement

  regain     played     stamped    nevertheless

  bracelet   covered    watching   language

  amounts    damage     anybody    hereafter

  charged    quickly    pavement   production

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 8
  V.  4      V.  4      V.  4      V.  4
  VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2


  13         14         15         16

  picnic     directed   detail     perfect

  taxes      fitting    action     capital

  raising    flavor     ladies     misplaced

  repeat     products   latter     writing

  cheaper    disposed   manage     subject

  decline    recovered  parlor     furnish

  lowest     discovered degree     instead

  cutting    checked    useful     advance

  stopped    needle     reason     handling

  proven     cheerful   season     daughter

  latest     eleventh   writer     chairman

  setting    deeply     second     requested

  conduct    feeder     record     mountain

  dancing    German     notice     potatoes

  devoted    prevented  direct     answered

  studies    suffering  cousin     contract

  hence      crowded    enjoyed    treatment

  skating    coasting   explain    delightful

  drafts     divide     married    delivered

  clearly    shower     highest    answering

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 8
  V.  4      V.  4      V.  4      V.  4
  VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2


  17         18         19         20

  sew        ordered    though     import

  deer       factory    during     changes

  join       middle     enclose    builder

  daily      lonesome   address    mistake

  prize      placed     perhaps    baseball

  began      breakfast  providing  suitable

  public     postal     ashamed    relations

  color      beaten     cottage    appoint

  field      extend     already    department

  cheap      awaiting   express    nearer

  prove      package    Saturday   months

  chest      history    greatest   expect

  waist      obtain     delighted  preach

  kept       square     shipment   proved

  known      finished   painting   cheese

  judge      fifteen    pleasure   sleepy

  settle     waiting    trouble    frankly

  woman      invite     several    prices

  dealer     orange     training   poultry

  health     require    slippery   writer's

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 8      IV. 10
  V.  4      V.  4      V.  4      V.   5
  VI. 2      VI. 2      VI. 2      VI.  3


  21         22         23         24

  buyer      begun      length     ribbon

  proof      buggy      normal     adjust

  spare      sleet      barrel     notion

  apply      topic      begged     quoted

  bluff      chose      submit     unpaid

  waste      admit      borrow     employ

  coach      slept      barley     winner

  honor      upper      weight     famous

  claim      credit     bigger     gained

  ample      attend     collar     recess

  lodge      supply     gotten     served

  blaze      result     object     namely

  level      secure     sleeve     sorrow

  aware      couple     debate     misses

  filing     advice     animal     voting

  shock      dainty     cities     agreed

  owned      profit     beauty     offers

  actor      regret     lonely     artist

  worst      permit     beyond     factor

  acted      buying     loving     recite

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 10     IV. 10     IV. 10     IV. 10
  V.   5     V.   5     V.   5     V.   5
  VI.  3     VI.  3     VI.  3     VI.  3


  25         26         27         28

  points     truly      bond       lbs.

  roast      account    sign       bulk

  soak       feel       fee        Tues.

  thumb      quite      quit       germ

  warn       regard     view       solo

  bathe      suppose    aid        local

  blouse     advise     loss       skirt

  cloud      to-morrow  diet       worry

  friends    desire     fund       pupil

  gorge      further    text       quiet

  plait      enclosing  aim        break

  stew       question   base       owner

  strain     acre       grip       fever

  stroll     balance    duet       owing

  wealth     else       film       shown

  guard      hoping     gravy      crowd

  juice      except     limb       model

  kegs       statement  lazy       touch

  lease      minute     bowl       weigh

  stitch     oblige     knot       clerk

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 9      IV. 10     IV. 10     IV. 10
  V.  5      V.   5     V.   5     V.   5
  VI. 3      VI.  3     VI.  3     VI.  3


  29         30         31         32

  saddle     husband    deserve    Sunday

  fitted     parties    illness    Monday

  insert     putting    neglect    Tuesday

  backed     invoice    reduced    Wednesday

  baking     obliged    sitting    Thursday

  struck     evident    stories    Friday

  forward    product    excited    Saturday

  against    matters    letting    January

  written    climate    breathe    February

  machine    primary    needing    March

  careful    delayed    offices    April

  student    fashion    captain    May

  greatly    rapidly    percent    June

  quarter    noticed    blossom    July

  correct    plainly    fullest    August

  lecture    elected    renewed    September

  holiday    butcher    serving    October

  include    example    silence    November

  pattern    reserve    uniform    December

  measure    soldier    although   Christmas

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 10     IV. 10     IV. 10     IV. 5
  V.   5     V.   5     V.   5     V.  2
  VI.  3     VI.  3     VI.  3     VI. 1


  33         34         S-1        S-2

  Sun.       feet       fireman    acres

  Mon.       needed     solve      argue

  Tues.      main       stable     border

  Wed.       weigh      starve     mason

  Thurs.     weight     stiff      acid

  Fri.       freeze     stingy     China

  Sat.       grip       switch     civil

  Jan.       birth      tablet     harm

  Feb.       won        undo       false

  Aug.       sewing     unpack     acute

  Sept.      base       verse      deny

  Oct.       break      grocer     shove

  Nov.       prize      whisper    envy

  Dec.       peace      clothes    feat

  Co.        waste      drawing    tool

  Dr.        shown      happens    attic

  Mr.        waist      pretend    voted

  Mrs.       fourth     groom      muddy

  St.        capital    olive      shave

  Ave.       wait       launch     veal

Standard Number of Errors

  IV. 5      IV. 9      IV. 9      IV. 9
  V.  2      V.  6      V.  6      V.  6
  VI. 1      VI. 3      VI. 3      VI. 3



SIXTH GRADE DIRECTIONS TO SIXTH GRADE TEACHERS


The advance lessons numbered 1 to 32 inclusive contain 640 new words.
The supplementary list containing 80 new words is meant for schools
which, because of the long term or for other reasons, finish the
minimum list of words before the end of the year. The lessons marked
R-l, R-2, R-3, R-4, are made up of 80 words in the fifth grade list
which are most commonly misspelled by sixth grade children.

=Directions for Teaching.=--Read the preface and study with particular
care the suggestions given on pages vii to xvi. It would be well also
to read the suggestions given to teachers of the first five grades.
Give particular attention to the correction of all written work.

Remember that the lessons are arranged by weeks rather than by days.
The work for each week consists of one advance column and one review
column. The review column in each case is the fourth column preceding
the advance work. That is, it is made up of a week's work one month
old. For example, column 5 contains 20 new words to be learned in one
week. During the same week, column 1 should be reviewed. The lesson
for the first week consists of column 1, which is the advance lesson,
and of column R 1, which is the review.


  R-1          R-2        R-3              R-4

  fund         pattern    buying           advise

  habit        caught     fee              collar

  owing        writing    invoice          fever

  parties      buyer      oblige           quarter

  proof        couple     opened           to-morrow

  pupil        forward    rough            its

  quiet        gotten     scrap            hoping

  sigh         voting     aid              measure

  until        minute     crazy            owing

  barrel       needed     enclosing        level

  clerk        question   greatly          obliged

  color        sew        grip             putting

  dealer       throw      loss             regard

  handling     although   ought            touch

  husband      ample      picnic           truly

  model        quite      profit           weigh

  parlor       breakfast  shown            loving

  placing      delayed    break            crowd

  though       feel       explain          further

  account      fourth     shock            waste

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   5       V.   6     V.   7           V.   8
  VI.  3       VI.  4     VI.  4           VI.  5
  VII. 1       VII. 2     VII. 2           VII. 3


  1            2          3                4

  delivery     entering   improving        accept

  election     dreadful   performed        herewith

  continue     dwelling   crippled         attack

  property     boarding   requesting       barrels

  prospect     following  increasing       cactus

  shipping     gentleman  investment       destroy

  standard     perfectly  throughout       pepper

  enjoying     Wednesday  explained        errand

  properly     directory  addresses        flowers

  visiting     intention  regulation       grower

  relation     happened   containing       nicer

  promised     reduction  furnishing       fabric

  headache     attending  forwarding       lemon

  required     countries  friendship       olives

  gasoline     obtained   yourselves       peaches

  nineteen     enjoyment  deportment       places

  southern     expressed  Thanksgiving Day mitten

  frighten     presented  headquarter      regards

  fourteen     extending  relationship     sandy

  outlined     traveling  collections      cooky

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   5       V.   5     V.   5           V.   5
  VI.  3       VI.  3     VI.  3           VI.  3
  VII. 1       VII. 1     VII. 1           VII. 2


  5            6          7                8

  polite       million    problem          wired

  foggy        total      included         exact

  samples      duties     private          humor

  secured      payable    expected         issue

  sections     cigar      advising         moral

  severe       final      furnished        bury

  melons       polls      foundation       royal

  twelfth      carrier    geography        sunny

  escort       worthy     companion        curly

  buttons      pastor     location         appeal

  cabbage      modern     directly         common

  canon        watched    progress         assist

  consent      feature    refreshment      entire

  insects      collect    extended         notify

  jealous      jury       conversation     period

  laundry      refused    promotion        burner

  listed       ideal      adventure        caller

  pickle       burden     expecting        concert

  publish      fortune    protected        carbon

  hinges       female     concluded        memory

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   5       V.   5     V.   5           V.   6
  VI.  3       VI.  3     VI.  3           VI.  4
  VII. 2       VII. 2     VII. 2           VII. 2


  9            10         11               12

  chilly       personal   encourage        loam

  presume      reliable   factories        dirt

  regular      absolute   inspector        berth

  special      approved   neglected        due

  advised      attended   ourselves        piece

  arrived      commerce   president        loan

  certain      consider   reception        firm

  connect      honestly   situation        lose

  justify      increase   instruction      ache

  liberal      interest   collection       whose

  musical      moderate   composition      fault

  natural      prepared   connecting       passed

  quality      suffered   connection       taste

  baggage      charging   consideration    loose

  bidding      resulting  construction     lime

  educate      appointed  correction       wrap

  happily      corrected  difference       terms

  seasons      correctly  instructed       ditch

  credits      dangerous  particular       loans

  instruct     direction  departments      pity

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   6       V.   6     V.   6           V.   7
  VI.  4       VI.  4     VI.  4           VI.  4
  VII. 2       VII. 2     VII. 2           VII. 2


  13           14         15               16

  queer        important  debating         entirely

  growth       prepare    gentlemen        automobile

  tight        inquire    believe          effort

  fare         item       attention        section

  chief        lately     information      maybe

  forced       beautiful  service          arrange

  group        according  future           prompt

  booth        depot      remember         addressed

  ninth        forty      condition        recently

  smooth       hospital   replying         promptly

  guide        offered    interested       carefully

  calm         hello      either           allow

  scarce       channel    advantage        district

  debts        favorable  different        promise

  strict       February   general          instant

  crew         curtain    therefore        surprise

  fern         mentioned  regarding        mention

  bass         using      arrive           education

  billed       stayed     success          complete

  braid        fairly     forenoon         neighbor

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   7       V.   7     V.   7           V.   7
  VI.  4       VI.  4     VI.  4           VI.  4
  VII. 2       VII. 2     VII. 2           VII. 2


  17           18         19               20

  alter        chapel     desired          tanning

  reset        closet     domestic         weighed

  gross        seldom     prepaid          hurried

  trial        parent     furnace          minister

  knows        refund     dentist          supplied

  limit        cement     entitle          division

  idle         custom     popular          conclude

  towel        poetry     average          preacher

  human        apiece     settled          visitors

  amply        hereby     bedroom          complain

  berry        seller     entered          constant

  ankle        utmost     failure          current

  ruin         approve    healthy          rendered

  abroad       boarder    sixteen          director

  manner       brokers    expects          shopping

  retire       harmony    sweater          produced

  tickle       sleeper    leading          creamery

  govern       justice    ironing          exciting

  potato       observe    wearing          blooming

  garage       outlook    receive          cherries

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   7       V.   7     V.   7           V.   7
  VI.  4       VI.  4     VI.  4           VI.  4
  VII. 2       VII. 2     VII. 2           VII. 2


  21           22         23               24

  remained     vacant     cases            assure

  mountains    elope      aloud            easily

  neighbors    insult     simply           recent

  wondering    deem       cellar           effect

  publisher    width      method           volume

  agreeable    facts      tongue           system

  machinery    hymn       sleigh           social

  oversight    ideas      height           spirit

  directors    remit      select           avenue

  preparing    avoid      toward           author

  addressing   rifle      violin           prayer

  durable      drama      camera           excess

  convention   adopt      wander           liquid

  pertaining   bacon      occurs           search

  considering  satin      fasten           hungry

  reputation   motor      enable           others

  permission   avail      secret           league

  blackberries arise      relief           surely

  explaining   apron      parcel           highly

  remembering  sweat      likely           compare

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   7       V.   8     V.   8           V.   8
  VI.  4       VI.  5     VI.  5           VI.  5
  VII. 2       VII. 2     VII. 2           VII. 2


  25           26         27               28

  engine       propose    citizen          adjusted

  safely       efforts    capable          soreness

  poison       thunder    applied          umbrella

  desert       useless    courage          landlady

  decent       possible   grammar          freshman

  corset       cashier    prevail          position

  gloomy       manager    expired          national

  tomato       decided    affairs          circular

  relating     absence    portion          purchase

  theater      support    squeeze          relative

  earnest      proceed    reunion          graduate

  biggest      concern    journey          supplies

  consist      neither    disturb          telegram

  closely      limited    fearful          discounts

  grocery      ability    gallery          commence

  adopted      assured    instance         indicate

  colored      attempt    addition         attached

  tickled      favored    advanced         maintain

  shipper      federal    attain           arranged

  cabinet      funeral    confined         hesitate

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   8       V.   8     V.   8           V.   8
  VI.  5       VI.  5     VI.  5           VI.  5
  VII. 2       VII. 2     VII. 2           VII. 2


  29           30         31               32

  calves       attacked   invest           New York

  choice       backward   lettuce          Chicago

  clothe       commands   shipments        Philadelphia

  stalk        carriage   mileage          Cleveland

  debt         catarrh    questions        Detroit

  doubt        combine    muslin           St. Louis

  ghost        composed   nearest          Boston

  guest        compared   chickens         Baltimore

  laid         condemned  occurred         Pittsburg

  missed       consult    onions           Los Angeles

  priced       culture    oppose           Buffalo

  tract        details    eastern          Milwaukee

  route        dismiss    pamphlets        Minneapolis

  shipped      materials  partner          Newark

  signed       fiction    persons          New Orleans

  slight       goodness   persuade         San Francisco

  style        forever    procure          Seattle

  canned       careless   purple           Washington

  course       granite    quarrel          Cincinnati

  ere          sprinkle   scarcely         Portland

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   8       V.   9     V.   9           V.   ( )
  VI.  5       VI.  6     VI.  6           VI.  ( )
  VII. 2       VII. 3     VII. 3           VII. ( )


  S-1          S-2        S-3              S-4

  accent       quinine    kodak            affect

  members      railway    angel            ashore

  counter      remains    burial           lemonade

  affords      sailor     ceiling          attempts

  bearing      session    offend           basement

  Europe       solely     paragraph        behave

  confine      subjects   proceeds         blister

  garnet       suburb     quartet          bloomers

  griddle      tackle     reasons          camping

  hammer       tartar     diameter         caved

  humble       wherein    sandwich         copied

  induce       homely     suite            driving

  judging      combined   surround         dropped

  ignore       relate     suspect          dizzy

  mixture      ditches    tour             dollars

  outcome      forage     traveler         darkness

  packers      grapevines housekeeper      daytime

  precious     lying      wholly           fallen

  pronounce    major      vinegar          farmers

  proposed     injury     carload          finely

Standard Number of Errors

  V.   9       V.  11     V.  11           V.   8
  VI.  6       VI.  8     VI.  8           VI.  5
  VII. 3       VII. 5     VII. 5           VII. 2



SEVENTH GRADE DIRECTIONS TO SEVENTH GRADE TEACHERS


The minimum lessons for this grade are numbered from 1 to 30 inclusive
and contain 600 new words. The supplementary lessons contain 60 new
words which are not so commonly used as those in the minimum lessons.
As in preceding grades, these supplementary lessons are introduced in
order to afford additional work for classes which finish the regular
lessons before the end of the year. The lessons marked R-l, R-2, R-3,
R-4, are made up of words from the sixth grade lessons which are most
frequently misspelled by seventh grade children.

=Directions for Teaching.=--Read carefully the suggestions on pages
vii to xvi. Read also the suggestions to teachers in the first six
grades. As in grades four, five and six, the spelling errors found in
pupils' compositions should be rigorously corrected.

Remember that the lessons are arranged by weeks rather than by days.
The work for each week consists of one advance column and one review
column. The review column in each case is the fourth column preceding
the advance work. That is, it is made up of a week's work one month
old. For example, column 5 contains 20 new words to be learned in one
week. During the same week, column 1 should be reviewed. The lesson
for the first week consists of column 1, which is the advance lesson,
and of column R 1, which is the review.


  R-1            R-2            R-3            R-4

  decided        easily         interested     lose

  either         instant        likely         clothe

  extended       neither        delivery       missed

  favored        mention        doubt          Dr.

  hospital       remit          fern           shipped

  relative       replying       item           strict

  piece          perfectly      loose          choice

  queer          purchase       mentioned      maintain

  system         surprise       passed         February

  telegram       absence        spirit         maybe

  Wednesday      circular       supplies       using

  ache           graduate       support        ability

  believe        instance       toward         nineteen

  consist        manager        accept         choose

  favorable      receive        addressed      moral

  growth         particular     attempt        regarding

  indicate       supplied       assured        stayed

  lately         tight          biggest        course

  limited        cashier        cellar         forenoon

  minister       fabric         concern        hello

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   5        VI.   5        VI.   7        VI.   8
  VII.  3        VII.  3        VII.  4        VII.  5
  VIII. 2        VIII. 2        VIII. 2        VIII. 3


  1              2              3

  slightly       forgotten      extensive

  appeared       represent      quotation

  assembly       complaint      seventeen

  selected       youngster      effective

  struggle       nightgown      interests

  supposed       certainly      patent

  enrolled       satisfied      comfortable

  procured       increased      instructive

  followed       selection      improvement

  restless       accomplish     considered

  internal       doubtless      importance

  accounts       entertain      reasonable

  contents       advertise      interesting

  distance       forwarded      republican

  describe       justified      themselves

  overalls       published      represented

  presents       treasurer      circulation

  gathered       connected      subscriber

  availing       difficult      appointment

  gratitude      described      expression

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   5        VI.   5        VI.   5
  VII.  3        VII.  3        VII.  3
  VIII. 2        VIII. 2        VIII. 2


  4              5              6

  attraction     bride          whether

  adjustment     awful          anxious

  federation     usual          realize

  introduction   Prof.          patient

  remembered     refer          banquet

  introduced     gland          exactly

  graduation     decide         nervous

  manufacture    error          suggest

  connections    madam          expense

  educational    salary         society

  frightened     broker         article

  quotations     copies         library

  approached     policy         thereto

  entertainment  really         junior

  stockholders   actual         opinion

  considerable   design         inasmuch

  publication    college        arrival

  satisfaction   affair         deposit

  transportation pardon         salesman

  international  purpose        securing

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   5        VI.   7        VI.   7
  VII.  3        VII.  4        VII.  4
  VIII. 2        VIII. 2        VIII. 2


  7              8              9

  favors         exercise       balances

  pudding        material       contemplate

  uneasy         medicine       handkerchief

  accuse         knowledge      neighborhood

  discuss        splendid       installed

  occur          valuable       surprised

  entry          establish      dependent

  cartoon        purchased      distribute

  studied        argument       apartment

  figuring       lovingly       services

  motion         carrying       depositors

  Bro.           accident       establishing

  therein        bicycle        conditions

  attach         customer       observation

  writers        received       passenger

  awaken         situated       requirements

  stylish        arriving       destroyed

  matron         earliest       possibly

  drawer         happiness      underwear

  porter         continued      conclusion

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   7        VI.   7        VI.   7
  VII.  4        VII.  4        VII.  4
  VIII. 2        VIII. 2        VIII. 2


  10             11             12

  fierce         territory      orchard

  freight        character      suggesting

  haste          prefer         acquaint

  hauled         description    approach

  heir           operation      biscuit

  niece          commercial     canoe

  strength       democrat       bungalow

  quote          finally        consumption

  source         available      cultivate

  brief          accordance     interview

  choir          confidence     review

  coarse         develop        ruffle

  meant          etc.           trolley

  mere           fortunate      engage

  sense          satisfy        ferry

  herein         receiving      thereafter

  type           entitled       prospects

  based          generally      Pres.

  urge           expensive      transactions

  grippe         previous       altitude

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   8        VI.   8        VI.   8
  VII.  5        VII.  5        VII.  5
  VIII. 3        VIII. 3        VIII. 3


  13             14             15

  evidently      qualities      signature

  instructor     substitute     ordinary

  literary       compelled      relieve

  applicant      formerly       influence

  impose         honorable      government

  thereof        instrument     investigation

  enrollment     politics       series

  genuine        choosing       afford

  believing      electrical     favorably

  constitution   transit        attorney

  disposal       authorized     journal

  extreme        contemplated   institute

  lining         estimated      candidate

  personality    identify       merchandise

  prosperous     letters        distribution

  tatting        mercantile     similar

  blizzard       worrying       exhibit

  cushion        disgusted      considerably

  equally        realizing      renewal

  gradually      admission      succeed

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   8        VI.   8        VI.   9
  VII.  5        VII.  5        VII.  6
  VIII. 3        VIII. 3        VIII. 4


  16             17             18

  strictly       barely         assistant

  studying       engineering    industrial

  elsewhere      orchestra      sirup

  lading         crocheting     arrangements

  impression     illustrated    inquiry

  announce       succeeded      auction

  development    exclusively    appreciated

  explanation    supervisor     principal

  sincere        civics         usually

  stationary     criticize      circumstances

  confer         attitude       variety

  jobber         congratulate   presence

  transact       electricity    practical

  decision       existing       assistance

  moisture       prosperity     equipment

  administration talent         registration

  employee       appearance     duplicate

  excitement     inquiries      particularly

  acceptance     planned        absolutely

  organize       athletics      basis

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   9        VI.  10        VI.  10
  VII.  6        VII.  7        VII.  7
  VIII. 4        VIII. 4        VIII. 4


  19             20             21

  business       practice       safety

  pleasant       beginning      unusual

  appreciate     experience     surplus

  necessary      acknowledge    typhoid

  probably       benefit        coupon

  receipt        subscription   disagreeable

  sincerely      awfully        heretofore

  opportunity    secretary      welfare

  inst.          successful     assurance

  proposition    premium        auditor

  foreign        magazine       exceptional

  institution    association    assignment

  examination    certificate    confirm

  university     commission     possession

  imagine        excellent      attendance

  additional     literature     demonstration

  alfalfa        annual         assume

  terrible       organization   correspond

  separate       remittance     goodbye

  envelope       arrangement    consequently

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  10        VI.  10        VI.  10
  VII.  7        VII.  7        VII.  7
  VIII. 4        VIII. 4        VIII. 5


  22             23             24

  privilege      readily        recommend

  guarantee      vicinity       definite

  rheumatism     corporation    correspondence

  guaranteed     crochet        courtesy

  schedule       assigned       judgment

  data           ninety         courteous

  Latin          sympathy       thoroughly

  majority       disease        Chautauqua

  suggested      planning       efficiency

  control        advisable      approval

  established    original       senior

  Christian      merely         furniture

  operating      practically    regularly

  patron         science        contemplating

  religious      advertisement  difficulty

  altogether     semester       issued

  bargain        quantity       profession

  engineer       response       allowed

  responsible    capacity       examine

  situated       catalogue      glorious

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  11        VI.  11        VI.  12
  VII.  8        VII.  8        VII.  9
  VIII. 5        VIII. 5        VIII. 6


  25             26             27

  certified      associated     custard

  dismissal      timothy        double

  develops       accomplished   resign

  estimate       tendency       panel

  heavily        confirming     pamphlet

  horrible       congratulation familiar

  obligate       illustrating   sermon

  traffic        meter          hustle

  trifle         reliability    janitor

  exceed         resource       occupy

  finance        examiner       warehouse

  overdo         demonstrated   envelop

  residence      carnival       preside

  camphor        conservatory   scholar

  discussion     consultation   museum

  galvanized     enormous       methods

  interrupt      legislation    patience

  intimate       maturity       fundamental

  luncheon       nickel         accredited

  mattress       manufacturing  continuous

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  11        VI.  11        VI.  12
  VII.  8        VII.  8        VII.  8
  VIII. 5        VIII. 5        VIII. 5


  28             29             30

  adapted        buried         rhubarb

  almonds        marked         initials

  analyze        foliage        confidential

  capitol        heading        irrigate

  faculty        locally        mutually

  formula        luxury         engaged

  mutual         medium         Vice Pres.

  nursery        quietly        circulars

  quoting        rabbits        exercised

  salad          razor          childhood

  scenery        refers         vegetable

  tobacco        reverse        packages

  towards        shining        terribly

  opera          solid          desirable

  urgent         survey         determine

  via            turkeys        shortage

  visitor        visits         rainfall

  widow          vomit          wherever

  accompany      wasted         fertilizers

  apricot        confess        adequate

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  10        VI.   9        VI.  10
  VII.  7        VII.  6        VII.  7
  VIII. 4        VIII. 3        VIII. 4


  S-1            S-2            S-3

  items          willow         muscle

  honey          gospel         guilty

  stormy         wisdom         soldiers

  stupid         naughty        handles

  negro          slowly         hearty

  tailor         expand         helper

  sire           arises         somehow

  rally          sewed          raisin

  toilet         murder         jewels

  tower          miner          napkin

  unload         holy           dessert

  upset          vigor          lessons

  utter          lawyer         marble

  vice           crown          scatter

  vessel         vague          millers

  wages          votes          minded

  warmly         yacht          roomer

  repay          cable          earlier

  mercy          create         remarks

  whistle        ladder         kindle

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   7        VI.   7        VI.   7
  VII.  4        VII.  4        VII.  4
  VIII. 2        VIII. 2        VIII. 2



EIGHTH GRADE DIRECTIONS TO EIGHTH GRADE TEACHERS


The minimum lessons for this grade are numbered from 1 to 25
inclusive, and contain 500 new words. There are in addition 240
supplementary words which are new, but which are not so frequently
used as those in the minimum list. The four lessons marked R-1, R-2,
R-3, R-4, are made up of those words in the preceding grades which are
most frequently missed by eighth grade students. The lesson marked
"Special Review," contains the hardest words, of the two thousand most
frequently used in correspondence.

In addition, there are four letters which should be given as dictation
exercises. These letters contain a large number of words which are
very likely to be misspelled, as shown by their frequency of use in
correspondence and the percentage of error of eighth grade pupils who
attempt to spell them.

Remember that the lessons are arranged by weeks rather than by days.
The work for each week consists of one advance column and one review
column. The review column in each case is the fourth column preceding
the advance work. That is, it is made up of a week's work one month
old. For example, column 5 contains 20 new words to be learned in one
week. During the same week, column 1 should be reviewed. The lesson
for the first week consists of column 1, which is the advance lesson,
and of column R 1, which is the review.


  R-1            R-2             R-3

  Chautauqua     planning        separate

  schedule       remittance      advisable

  guaranteed     probably        awfully

  rheumatism     sincerely       disease

  privilege      arrangement     sense

  efficiency     considerably    familiar

  inst.          capacity        merely

  judgment       corporation     presence

  recommend      usually         receiving

  thoroughly     choir           similar

  correspondence inquiry         variety

  courteous      renewal         crochet

  semester       alfalfa         imagine

  practically    basis           organization

  opportunity    benefit         successful

  literature     catalogue       sympathy

  absolutely     excellent       appreciated

  receipt        necessary       assigned

  definite       quantity        assistant

  guarantee      response        pleasant

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  15        VI.  13         VI.  12
  VII. 12        VII.  9         VII.  8
  VIII. 9        VIII. 6         VIII. 5


  R-4            1               2

  relieve        convince        reference

  surprised      transfer        companies

  appreciate     independent     discourage

  assistance     investigate     insurance

  candidate      wholesale       inclined

  certificate    democratic      organized

  distribution   employer        ambition

  magazine       exception       attractive

  principal      confident       credited

  readily        advertised      notified

  registration   constantly      operated

  commission     manufacturer    worried

  equipment      sanitary        automatic

  exhibit        submitted       accord

  nervous        liable          frequently

  practical      evidence        management

  regularly      concerning      generous

  succeed        assuring        involved

  uneasy         positive        misunderstanding

  duplicate      superior        representation

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  10        VI.   7         VI.   7
  VII.  7        VII.  4         VII.  4
  VIII. 4        VIII. 2         VIII. 2


  3              4               5

  invitation     contrary        abstract

  celebrate      entertaining    employed

  discontinued   examined        register

  respectfully   profitable      resident

  obligation     registered      vision

  occupied       reservation     favorite

  application    universal       nephew

  accordingly    requirement     regardless

  collecting     deliveries      satisfactory

  convinced      desiring        serious

  destination    conference      Hallowe'en

  agriculture    strawberries    pneumonia

  fashionable    advancement     appendicitis

  combination    decrease        ingredients

  resigned       deserved        phosphorus

  membership     triumph         telephone

  supervision    graduating      temperature

  clause         hustling        possibilities

  activity       numerous        temptation

  impossible     raiser          constructed

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   7        VI.   7         VI.  10
  VII.  4        VII.  4         VII.  7
  VIII. 2        VIII. 2         VIII. 4


  6              7               8

  Pullman        librarian       superintendent

  cistern        agricultural    occasion

  customers      announcement    representative

  sight-seeing   completely      possibility

  warrant        ballot          all right

  acknowledged   coöperative     especially

  electric       cordial         committee

  borrowers      inferior        immediately

  circumstance   preliminary     analysis

  opposite       disappointed    bulletin

  edition        physical        mortgage

  excursion      exceptionally   referred

  patronage      annually        referring

  professor      exhausted       convenience

  restaurant     responsibility  allotment

  commencement   algebra         installment

  chaperon       executive       advertising

  thesis         permanent       administrator

  possess        soliciting      straightened

  physician      alumni          epidemic

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  12        VI.  12         VI.  13
  VII.  8        VII.  9         VII. 10
  VIII. 5        VIII. 6         VIII. 7


  9              10              11

  vary           specially       ambitions

  duly           extremely       appreciation

  leisure        calendar        communication

  acquire        originally      commissioner

  agency         official        exhibition

  immense        candidacy       mechanical

  hastily        extension       specification

  various        naturally       consequence

  unlock         cordially       disappoint

  solicit        customary       remembrance

  medical        campaign        authority

  license        financial       appreciating

  client         associate       interfere

  Sabbath        acquainted      sufficient

  injure         personally      coöperating

  stomach        immediate       relieved

  notary         esteemed        coöperation

  surgery        executed        anticipate

  losing         postscript      preparation

  council        convenient      satisfactorily

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  15        VI.  13         VI.  13
  VII. 10        VII. 10         VII. 10
  VIII. 6        VIII. 7         VIII. 7


  12             13              14

  individual     bonus           patronize

  actually       unusually       probably

  merit          disappointment  reverend

  fertilize      X-ray           manufactured

  necessity      canvass         typewriter

  community      enthusiasm      enclosure

  bureau         accompanying    illustrate

  grateful       tuberculosis    preserve

  correspondent  politician      opportune

  quantities     anticipating    appetite

  thorough       characteristic  bronchitis

  compliment     anniversary     discussed

  geometry       zephyr          privileged

  regretting     peculiarities   courtesies

  equipped       assortment      desirous

  prior          illustration    promenade

  efficient      inducement      strenuous

  affectionately label           kimono

  lieutenant     practicing      ultimo

  fraternally    amendment       aggravate

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  14        VI.  14         VI.  15
  VII. 10        VII. 11         VII. 12
  VIII. 7        VIII. 8         VIII. 8


  15             16              17

  principle      articles        decomposed

  professional   bachelor        developing

  circuit        benefits        embroidery

  acquaintance   infected        employment

  scientific     minimum         enjoyable

  inconvenience  miserable       immensely

  enthusiastic   objection       experiment

  recd.          opinions        facilities

  assessment     sidewalk        gardening

  materially     stopping        inventory

  recommendation tomatoes        irrigation

  supplement     treasure        mentioning

  confirmation   vineyard        memorandum

  occasionally   advantages      measuring

  apparatus      asparagus       officials

  essential      carpenter       operations

  unnecessary    casseroles      previously

  accommodate    catalogues      proportion

  affidavit      comfortably     specimens

  definitely     temporary       spineless

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  15        VI.  12         VI.  12
  VII. 13        VII.  8         VII.  8
  VIII. 9        VIII. 5         VIII. 5


  18             19              20

  cafeteria      accommodation   nowadays

  squirrels      accommodations  steadily

  straighten     acknowledging   butter-fat

  substantial    acknowledgment  contented

  suggestion     advantageous    conveyance

  twenty-five    anticipation    scholarship

  undertake      communications  coöperate

  communicate    financially     cucumbers

  complement     incidentally    everywhere

  continually    kindergarten    impatient

  conveniently   manufacturers   inquiring

  unpleasant     preliminaries   missionary

  unfortunate    solicitation    organizing

  institutions   undoubtedly     positively

  progressive    beautifully     sometimes

  prospective    presentation    separately

  publications   remittances     sediments

  gymnasium      unfortunately   rosebushes

  memorandums    unexpected      rheumatic

  uncomfortable  vice president  correspondents

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  12        VI.  13         VI.  12
  VII.  8        VII. 10         VII.  9
  VIII. 5        VIII. 7         VIII. 6


  21                          22

  Ala.    (Alabama)           Md.     (Maryland)

  Alaska                      Mass.   (Massachusetts)

  Ariz.   (Arizona)           Mich.   (Michigan)

  Ark.    (Arkansas)          Minn.   (Minnesota)

  Cal.    (California)        Miss.   (Mississippi)

  Colo.   (Colorado)          Mo.     (Missouri)

  Conn.   (Connecticut)       Mont.   (Montana)

  Del.    (Delaware)          Nebr.   (Nebraska)

  D. C.   (District of        Nev.    (Nevada)

             Columbia)        N. H.   (New Hampshire)

  Fla.    (Florida)           N. J.   (New Jersey)

  Ga.     (Georgia)           N. Mex. (New Mexico)

  Hawaii                      N. Y.   (New York)

  Idaho                       N. C.   (North Carolina)

  Ill.    (Illinois)          N. Dak. (North Dakota)

  Ind.    (Indiana)           Ohio

  Iowa                        Okla.   (Oklahoma)

  Kans.   (Kansas)            Oregon

  Ky.     (Kentucky)          Pa.     (Pennsylvania)

  La.     (Louisiana)         R. I.   (Rhode Island)

  Me.     (Maine)

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   ( )                   VI.   ( )
  VII.  ( )                   VII.  ( )
  VIII. ( )                   VIII. ( )


  23                          24

  S. C.   (South Carolina)    A. M.   (Forenoon)

  S. Dak. (South Dakota)      Agt.    (Agent)

  Tenn.   (Tennessee)         Assn.   (association)

  Tex.    (Texas)             A1.     (First class)

  Utah

  Vt.     (Vermont)           bbl.    (barrel)

  Va.     (Virginia)          bbls.   (barrels)

  Wash.   (Washington)        bldg.   (building)

  W. Va.  (West Virginia)     bu.     (bushel)

  Wis.    (Wisconsin)         Capt.   (Captain)

  Wyo.    (Wyoming)           C.O.D.  (Collect on

  Cuba                                   Delivery)

  Philippine Islands          ¢; ct.  (cent)

  Porto Rico                  cr.     (credit)

  Co.     (Company or         cwt.    (hundredweight)

             County)          doz.    (dozen)

  Messrs. (Gentlemen)         gal.    (gallon)

  R.F.D.  (Rural Free         ft.     (foot or feet)

             Delivery)        F.O.B.  (Free on Board)

                              Hon.    (Honorable)

  acct.   (account)           i.e.    (that is)

  Dr.     (Doctor or debtor)  N. B.   (take notice)

  Treas.  (Treasurer)

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   ( )                   VI.   ( )
  VII.  ( )                   VII.  ( )
  VIII. ( )                   VIII. ( )


  25                          Special Review

  Jour.   (Journal)           Chautauqua

  in.     (inch or inches)    fraternally

  mdse.   (merchandise)       schedule

  ass't   (assistant)         guaranteed

  Jr.     (Junior)            privilege

  Mdlle.  (Mademoiselle)      affectionately

  mfg.    (manufacturing)     guarantee

  oz.     (ounces)            rheumatism

  sec'y   (secretary)         judgment

  pkg.    (package)           efficiency

  pr.     (pair)              recommend

  pd.     (paid)              referred

  P. M.   (afternoon)         disappoint

  mgr.    (manager)           immediately

  P. S.   (postscript)        referring

  pub.    (publisher)         equipped

  qt.     (quart)             grateful

  St.     (Saint or street)   bulletin

  Supt.   (superintendent)    all right

  viz.    (namely)            mortgage

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   ( )                   VI.   (16)
  VII.  ( )                   VII.  (13)
  VIII. ( )                   VIII. (10)


  S-1            S-2             S-3

  descend        postpone        resources

  necktie        political       respectable

  swallow        elaborate       sentiment

  nonsense       exporting       seriously

  oatmeal        kidney          suddenly

  wireless       locations       tablespoon

  afloat         memorial        telegraph

  tiresome       muscular        preparatory

  horseback      negotiate       commencing

  housework      peculiar        warranted

  wealthy        unlikely        occupant

  scarlet        purposes        performance

  whiskers       readiness       physiology

  scissors       recognize       bacteria

  scramble       remaining       beginner

  scribble       resemble        beneficial

  sweetness      military        proportions

  heaviest       blossoms        intentions

  slippers       coloring        accustomed

  accepted       chemical        opposition

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   9        VI.   9         VI.  12
  VII.  6        VII.  6         VII.  8
  VIII. 3        VIII. 3         VIII. 5


  S-4            S-5             S-6

  attempting     expressing      machines

  economize      expressions     honored

  carelessness   suggestions     endorsed

  stenographer   likelihood      occasional

  decoration     manufactures    epistle

  particulars    maintained      misspell

  grandmother    maintaining     innocent

  extravagance   occasions       inferred

  firecracker    notwithstanding matured

  exposition     remitting       proffer

  partially      sentiments      invested

  pleasantly     specialty       logic

  congenial      unsettled       audited

  carnation      beforehand      academy

  gophers        misunderstand   formally

  whatsoever     alteration      importing

  demonstrate    apologies       masonic

  disposition    appreciates     mutilate

  embroider      contribution    shelving

  prescription   developments    socialist

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  12        VI.  12         VI.  12
  VII.  8        VII.  8         VII.  8
  VIII. 5        VIII. 5         VIII. 5


  S-7             S-8            S-9

  tenement       accorded        comment

  thereabouts    activities      descriptive

  transacted     adjustable      declamation

  indigestion    affectionate    deducted

  interruption   undershirt      economical

  facilitate     appropriate     encouragement

  facility       approximately   endeavor

  fraternity     cemetery        endeavoring

  inaugurate     commodities     expectation

  mathematics    comparatively   faculties

  reciprocate    critical        feasible

  tabernacle     introduce       financing

  thermometer    dreadfully      hysterics

  vivisection    dividend        ignoramus

  affiliated     purchases       inability

  appreciative   directories     industrious

  indefinitely   disaster        pocketbook

  probability    dictionary      representatives

  informal       depositing      instructions

  dressmaker     depository      sufficiently

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.  13        VI.  12         VI.  12
  VII. 10        VII.  8         VII.  9
  VIII. 7        VIII. 5         VIII. 6


  S-10           S-11            S-12

  detain         alcohol         exceedingly

  deprive        charity         insignificant

  exhaust        comedy          wonderfully

  whoever        imitate         measurement

  expire         invalid         sacrifice

  faithful       lovable         sarcastic

  frequent       operate         satisfying

  happiest       opium           selecting

  disgust        remodel         temperance

  apology        taxicab         thoughtfulness

  homelike       allowing        marriage

  hopeful        borrowing       unanswered

  intrude        chocolate       undertaking

  lantern        promises        willingly

  liquor         conductor       population

  output         congress        advisability

  outrage        decorate        agreement

  physic         deposits        celebration

  becoming       developed       comparison

  discount       discover        emergency

Standard Number of Errors

  VI.   9        VI.  10         VI.  12
  VII.  6        VII.  7         VII.  9
  VIII. 3        VIII. 4         VIII. 6



USE OF THE CONTRACTION


One of the first things to learn in writing letters is that the form
and style of the letter must be suited to the message which the letter
contains, and to the relationship which exists between the person who
sends the letter and the one who is to receive it. The style of
business letters must be clear, direct, and dignified. With certain
exceptions, as in sales letters, such letters are usually made very
impersonal. On the other hand, personal letters are quite properly
regarded by many as a sort of conversation in writing. In writing to
friends or to relatives one usually desires to be informal. One of the
ways of achieving this informality is through the use of colloquial
English and contractions. In the past, many teachers of English have
cautioned students against the use of contractions in letters; but an
examination of the correspondence of writers whose letters are
regarded as models shows that most of these authors use contractions
very freely. If you will read the letters of Henry Adams, Stevenson,
Gray, Henry James, Lamb, Carroll, Walpole, Keats, Emily Dickinson,
Thackeray, Dickens, and others, you will see that in writing to
friends and members of their families they wrote much as they would
have chatted with those to whom the letters were addressed.

In general, then, contractions are to be used only in informal or
friendly correspondence. In letters to strangers and in most business
correspondence they should be avoided. Perhaps the best guide to the
proper use of contractions is to be found in the models of writers who
are famous for their personal letters.

     can't "You can't be too careful." (Lamb)

     don't "... for, O, I don't know how long." (Stevenson)

     doesn't "He doesn't agree with them all ..." (Stevenson)

     won't "This sort of thing won't do." (H. James)

     it's "... It's a glorious afternoon ..." (E. Dickinson)

     I'm "I'm three parts through Burns; ..." (Stevenson)

     I'll "I'll try to improve it ..." (Stevenson)

     haven't "... I haven't yet had time to give ..." (H. James)

     you'll "You'll never guess; ..." (Carroll)

     isn't "It isn't like gold ..." (E. Dickinson)

     I've "So I've been idle." (Stevenson)

     we'll "We'll finish an education sometime ..." (E. Dickinson)

     wouldn't "... but Stephen wouldn't allow it ..." (Stevenson)

     didn't "... I didn't see him." (Fitzgerald)

     I'd "Another shot and I'd have gone to kingdom come." (Stevenson)

     you'd "... and I beg you'd believe me ..." (Gray)

     hadn't "... if you hadn't seen her ..." (H. James)

     hasn't "This ought to have made me gay, but it hasn't." (Stevenson)

     couldn't "If it were easy to write a play, I couldn't ... think
     of it." (H. James)

     wasn't "Wasn't it curious?" (Carroll)



DICTATION EXERCISES


The following letters contain a large number of words which occur with
relatively high frequency in correspondence, and are quite likely to
be misspelled by persons of eighth grade education. They should be
dictated in short phrases of three to five words without repetition,
pausing after each dictated phrase for the children to write. The rate
should be such, however, that the dictation and writing will be
completed in the time designated in the note preceding each letter. On
the average this will be about one and one-half lines per minute. A
little practice will enable the teacher to dictate at this rate
without difficulty.

Pupils should be able to write these letters at the given speed
without hesitation or error of spelling before they have completed the
work of this grade.


LETTER NO. 1

This letter should be dictated in three sections. The first exercise
extends to the end of the first paragraph, including the heading and
salutation, and should be written in 8 minutes. The second exercise
includes the second and third paragraphs and should be written in 9
minutes. The third exercise completes the letter and should be written
in 6-1/2 minutes.

                                                   Des Moines, Iowa,
                                                     June 2, 1920.

    DEAR MAMMA,

I suppose you feel that I have been very slow about writing, but I
haven't had a minute for either letter writing or pleasure the past
few days. I took my last test this forenoon--the terrible and much
dreaded literature examination. It lasted from ten o'clock until noon,
and though it was different from what I had expected I think I got
along all right. I probably won't get an excellent grade, for I just
had to make a guess at one answer I didn't know, but you can't imagine
how happy I am to be all through. Tomorrow will be the last day of
school and our superintendent is going to let us celebrate with a
class party.

Aunt Lucy wants me to stay with her another month, but I am coming
home Saturday, for I know I'll be eager to get back to the farm just
as soon as we have good weather again. Last Sunday I accepted Edith's
invitation to spend the day with her. She lives about thirty miles
from Des Moines, and I enjoyed the drive over the country roads. I'm
sure I'll never lose my love for the farm.

I must tell you, too, about Edith's brother, a lieutenant, who got his
commission at the same time John did. He is personally acquainted with
John's captain and knew several other men in that company. I was very
much interested in his account of his army experiences.

I appreciated the check you enclosed in your last letter, for I needed
some money for my new dress. I never realized before this year how much
it costs to clothe a girl. I wish you were here to advise me what kind
of material to get. I miss your judgment when I try to go shopping
alone. Aunt Lucy's voile dress has given her a great deal of service,
and so I think I'll decide on that material for my best summer dress.

Remember me to the boys when you write, and give my love to
Grandmother. I do hope her rheumatism is better.

    Affectionately,

                                                              HELEN.


LETTER NO. 2

This letter should be dictated in two sections. The first exercise
extends to the end of the first paragraph, including the heading and
salutation, and should be written in 12 minutes. The second exercise
completes the letter and should be written in 7 minutes.

                                                   October 18, 1920.

    Iowa Land and Loan Company,
    706-712 Commerce Building,
    Des Moines, Iowa.

    GENTLEMEN,

We take this occasion to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the
17th inst., and sincerely appreciate the interest which you have shown
in our association. We must find a permanent location for our
Chautauqua, and believe that we have found lots which will be
satisfactory, especially since they are in a really pleasant locality,
convenient to the college. Since it will be necessary to investigate
this business opportunity immediately, we are referring the matter to
a committee and we feel the analysis of the situation will be
complete. The committee to which this matter is referred will probably
recommend giving a mortgage but quite certainly will receive advice on
this point from representative citizens. The money to carry on the
investigation is in the First National Bank, the certificate of
deposit being in the hands of the treasurer of the association.

If possible the members of the association would like to issue the
bulletin which contains the course by the beginning of the season,
whether the matter of permanent grounds is thoroughly investigated, or
not. Experience has taught us, too, that the bulletins are received
with more enthusiasm at an early date.

The truly awful accident of last year in which two people were killed
when the tent fell will have its influence on our present campaign for
a permanent building.

Kindly give this matter your attention at your earliest convenience.

    Respectfully yours,

                                                        HENRY JONES.


LETTER NO. 3

This letter should be dictated in two sections. The first exercise
extends to the end of the second paragraph and should be written in 7
minutes. The second exercise completes the letter and should be
written in 9 minutes.

                                             Minneapolis, Minnesota,
                                                 March 26, 1920.

    DEAR FATHER,

You can see from the article which I enclose that we did not
disappoint our principal, even though it has been impossible to
practice during the past week. Under the circumstances it doesn't seem
possible that we could have won, but maybe our success was due to
having no practice before the game. Some of the teams seemed rather
over-trained.

The coach changed me to right forward, although, as you know, I
usually play at guard. I suppose there was a doubt in his mind as to
whether I could guard the tall forwards on some of the teams.

Our team never played together better. We didn't have so great a
variety of plays as some of the other teams, but relied almost
entirely upon our short passing game. What I liked especially was that
there wasn't a single poor official. One of the officials was the man
who spoke last fall on our community health program.

I suppose the team will reach home Saturday night. I am sure that we
ought not to stay here later than Saturday noon. The teams were
entertained at the various fraternity houses and the men have been
very much crowded to make room for us. We certainly appreciate the
good treatment we have received from these men and from everyone.

    Affectionately, your son,

                                                              HARRY.


LETTER NO. 4

This letter should be dictated in three sections. The first exercise
extends to the end of the second paragraph, including the heading and
the salutation, and should be written in 9 minutes. The second
exercise includes the rest of the letter and should be written in 12
minutes. Not more than one exercise should be given in one day.

                                                 Newark, New Jersey,
                                                  December 3, 1920.

    Mr. Frank A. Hardy, Managing Editor,
    National Insurance Journal,
    Boston, Massachusetts.

    MY DEAR MR. HARDY,

I am glad to make an immediate reply to your inquiry of December 1,
regarding Miss Henry's qualifications.

It is now eight years since Miss Henry first took a position with us.
She began as mail clerk, working up rapidly through the ranks, until she
became private secretary to Mr. Baldwin, President of the Central
Insurance Company, in which capacity she has served for four years,
becoming an important part of the institution. We have found her always
courteous, thoroughly efficient in her work, and absolutely reliable.

She is well equipped for a position on an insurance publication because
of her magazine writing, which she has been doing in connection with a
course in journalism at the university this year. She has been most
successful in this work and hopes to find time to do more of it during
the summer term if her schedule will permit. It was only because of her
great desire to continue her education that we were willing to accept
her resignation, and we knew that this year's work at the university
would mean a broader field for her in the future.

I am enclosing a record of Miss Henry's work, on the usual form kept
for each employee, showing the approximate progress she made during
her eight years with us and her increased value to the company, and I
am also sending under separate cover Miss Henry's photograph, as you
suggested.

Hoping I may hear from you further if there is any additional
information you require, I am

    Very sincerely yours,

                                                         JOHN SMITH.



SUPPLEMENT WHICH CONTAINS CERTAIN RULES AND DEFINITIONS OFTEN TAUGHT
AS A PART OF THE COURSE OF STUDY IN SPELLING


As a part of the course of study in spelling, there is occasionally
found a provision for word study and for teaching certain rules and
definitions. The following supplement is added as a guide in schools
which make such a requirement. Ordinarily such topics as derivation of
words, root prefixes, suffixes, homonyms, antonyms, synonyms, and
hyphens are taught, either as a part of composition or as a part of
dictionary exercises.

The value of teaching spelling rules is still somewhat a matter of
controversy, although the weight of experimental evidence seems to
indicate that children do not profit from a study of the rules in
spelling, as much as they profit from the same amount of time spent in
the direct study of the important words covered by these rules.
However, since some city and state courses of study require the
teaching of the rules, it seems advisable to put the more important
rules in this supplement.

An effort has been made to state these rules in the simplest manner
possible, within the limits of accuracy. Great care has been taken,
also, to tabulate, for each rule, the words frequently used in
correspondence, which are exceptions.

The teacher should understand clearly that it is not the intention of
the authors to have these rules take the place of the direct teaching
of any word. Rather they are to be regarded as supplementary
exercises. It is doubtful whether much attention should be given to
rules before grade seven.


DERIVATION OF WORDS

Often one word is built up from several words or syllables. The most
important part of such a built-up word is called the root, or base.
This root or base had an original meaning which is usually clear,
especially in purely English words, as in-side, happi-ness, etc. Many
built-up or derivative words are from other languages. A few examples
may help to illustrate:

     1. international--Latin inter (between) plus nation (nation) plus
     al (pertaining to)--between nations, pertaining to intercourse
     between nations.

     The root is "nation."

     2. extraordinary--Latin extra (on the outside, out of) plus
     ordinarius (ordinary)--out of the ordinary, unusual.

     The root is "ordinar."

     3. provide--Latin pro (before) plus vid (to look or see)--to look
     before or ahead, to look out for in advance.

     The root is "vid."

     4. convention--Latin con (together) plus ven (to come) plus tion
     (act of)--act of coming together--meeting.

     The root is "ven."

     Many roots or bases are taken directly from the English:

     1. out-come--act of coming out--that which comes out of something
     else--result.

     2. in-side--inner side or surface.

     3. cheer-ful--full of cheer.

     4. happi-ness--state of being happy.

In studying these words, you may have noticed that something besides
the root or base is needed to make the meaning clear. The other two
parts which help to make up words are called prefixes and suffixes.
These will be taken up separately.


PREFIXES

A prefix is a word or syllable placed before another word, and so
completely joined to it that it changes the meaning of the basic word.

     NOTE TO TEACHER:--Have the pupils select in the lessons of your
     grade, words which have similar prefixes.

As you can see in the list below, the final consonant of a prefix has
often been changed to make the pronunciation easier, but does not
disappear when added to the stem. Thus, ad-cord became ac-cord,
ad-fect became af-fect, etc.

          =Prefix=            |      =Definition=      | =Illustration=
                              |                        |
  ab (abs, a)                 |from, away              |abandon
                              |                        |
  ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, |                        |
    ar, as, at)               |to                      |accommodate
                              |                        |
  ante                        |before                  |antecedent
                              |                        |
  circum                      |about, around           |circumstance
                              |                        |
  com (co, col, con, cor)     |with, together          |compare, concert
                              |                        |
  de                          |from, down, away        |desert, debate
                              |                        |
  dis (dif, de)               |apart, not              |disobey
                              |                        |
  ex (e, ef)                  |out, out of, away from, |
                              |  off, beyond           |expect
                              |                        |
  extra                       |out of                  |extraordinary
                              |                        |
  in (ill, im, ir)            |in, into, not, without  |inside
                              |                        |
  inter                       |among, between, mutually|interurban
                              |                        |
  non                         |not                     |nonsense
                              |                        |
  per                         |through, by, for        |perhaps
                              |                        |
  post                        |behind, after           |postpone
                              |                        |
  pre                         |before                  |prevent
                              |                        |
  pro                         |forward, before, instead|provide
                              |                        |
  re                          |back, again, against    |return
                              |                        |
  se                          |aside, apart, without   |separate
                              |                        |
  sub (suc, suf, sug, sup,    |                        |
    sur)                      |under, below, near      |subject, succeed
                              |                        |
  super                       |over, above, beyond     |superintendent
                              |                        |
  trans (tran, tra)           |across, over, beyond,   |
                              |  through               |transfer, travel


SUFFIXES

A suffix is a syllable or word which is added to the end of another
word to change the meaning of the basic word.

     NOTE TO TEACHER:--As the suffix is often closely connected with
     the root of the word, not much stress will be laid on learning
     suffixes by themselves. A few of the more common ones will be
     noted.

  =Suffix=|     =Definition=       |  =Illustration=
          |                        |
     ful  |with or full of         |cheerful
          |                        |
     less |without                 |careless, doubtless
          |                        |
     ness |state of being          |happiness
          |                        |
     ly   |like or like in manner  |happily
          |                        |
     ment |act, state, a thing that|development
          |                        |
     some |act of being            |lonesome


HOMONYMS

A homonym is a word pronounced exactly like another, but differing
from it in meaning. A few homonyms are spelled in the same way, as
"weed," a garment, and "weed," a plant. Only a small group of the more
common type will be given here.

     NOTE TO TEACHER:--It has been deemed advisable to omit giving an
     extensive list of homonyms here. You may refer the pupils to the
     lists of homonyms which occur in the regular spelling lessons of
     the first five grades. For example, the following lists are among
     those which contain homonyms:--16 in grade I; 18, 19, 20, in
     grade II; 12 words in 28 of grade III; 32 in grade IV; etc.

    =Word= |         =Definition=           |       =Sentence=
           |                                |
  1. flour |a fine meal of ground wheat     |
           |  or other grain                |Mother uses flour in baking
           |                                |  bread.
           |                                |
     flower|a blossom                       |The rose is a beautiful
           |                                |  flower.
           |                                |
  2. no    |not, not any                    |I have no work to do.
           |                                |
     know  |to understand                   |Do you know your lesson?
           |                                |
  3. son   |a male child; the male offspring|
           |  of a parent, father or mother |John is my son.
           |                                |
     sun   |the heavenly body which produces|The sun rises in the east.
           |  the light of day              |


SYNONYMS

Synonyms are words that have almost the same meaning. If you were to
look up the simple words "cut" and "ask" you would find the following
synonyms:

For "cut"--carve, lance, bite, dissect, snip, saw, slice, slit, slash,
etc.

For "ask"--beg, crave, entreat, beseech, implore, move, plead,
solicit, etc. No two of these synonyms mean exactly the same thing,
but they express different shades of the same meaning.

Practice Exercises: Find as many synonyms as you can for the following
words:

  best
  decide
  effort
  deceive
  imagine
  dark
  time
  form
  pleasure
  public

Any lesson in the book may be used for an exercise in discovering
synonyms.


ANTONYMS

Words of opposite meaning are called antonyms. For example,
black--white; big--little; and open--closed, are so named.

Practice Exercises: Try to think of antonyms for the following words:

  cold
  come
  dull
  inside
  fat
  front
  good
  high
  in
  large
  up
  long
  new
  poor
  slow
  spring
  sweet
  tall
  wet
  winter


THE HYPHEN

Authorities differ in regard to the use of the hyphen. However, there
are two rules which always hold good: (1). The hyphen is used to
separate compound adjectives; (2). The hyphen is used to show, at the
end of a line, that a word has been divided. (Such a word must be
divided between syllables.) In other cases, when you cannot decide
whether or not to use a hyphen, consult the dictionary used in your
school. It is much less frequently used than formerly.


RULES FOR SPELLING

=I. Formation of Possessives=

1. The following list is made up of words in the singular number. To
form the possessive, add an apostrophe and "s."

  horse's head
  man's coat
  girl's dress
  boy's shoes
  soldier's uniform
  child's laugh
  sheep's wool
  sister's hat

2. The following list is made up of plural nouns that do not end in
"s." To form the possessive, add an apostrophe and "s."

  children's clothes
  men's shirts
  women's praise
  gentlemen's plans

3. The following list is made up of plural nouns ending in "s."

To form the possessive, add only an apostrophe.

  miles' walk
  girls' clothing
  years' word
  pupils' attention

=II. Treatment of the final consonant before a suffix=

1. The following list contains words of one syllable. Notice that each
word ends in a consonant, and that in every word there is a single
short vowel preceding it. In all such words, the final consonant is
doubled before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.

  big--bigg (er) (est)
  drop--dropp(ed) (ing)
  stop--stopp(ed) (ing)
  plan--plann(ed) (ing)
  begin--beginn(er) (ing)

2. The following list contains verbs of more than one syllable. Each
verb is accented on the last syllable, and ends in a single consonant
preceded by a single short vowel. In such verbs, the final consonant
is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel.

  beginn(ing)
  referr(ed) (ing)
  occurr(ed)
  forgott(en)
  remitt(ance)

=III. Adding suffixes to words ending in "e"=

1. A word ending in silent "e" drops the "e" before a vowel, as:

  come--coming
  hope--hoping
  serve--serving
  appreciate--appreciating
  vote--voting

2. When a suffix beginning with a consonant is added to a word ending
in "e," the "e" is kept.

  announce--announce-ment
  hope--hope-ful
  late--late-ly
  care--care-less
  lone--lone-some

3. "E" is retained to keep the soft sound of "c" and "g" before "a"
and "o" as in notice--notice-able, and advantage--advantage-ous.

=Exceptions:=

Of the words commonly used in writing letters the following exceptions
are to be made:

a. When a suffix beginning with a consonant is added to a word ending
in "e":

(1) Only three words drop "e" before adding "ment": judgment,
acknowledgment, argument.

(2) Only one word drops "e" before adding "ful": awful.

(3) Only three words drop "e" before adding "ly":

  true--truly
  due--duly
  whole--wholly

b. When the last syllable of a word ends in "le," "ly" does not make a
new syllable, as: probable---probably, possible--possibly,
simple--simply.

(When "ly" is added to words ending in "l," both "l's" are retained,
as: practical--practically, careful--carefully.)

=IV. Treatment of the final "y"=

1. To form the plural of a noun ending in "y" preceded by a consonant,
change the "y" to "i" and add "es."

  lady--ladies
  quantity--quantities
  quality--qualities

2. When a verb ends in "y" preceded by a consonant, change the "y" to
"i" and add "es" to form the third person singular of the verb. To
form the past tense of the verb, change the "y" to "i" and add "ed."

  fry--fries
  cry--cries
  bury--buried
  carry--carried

3. When a word ends in "y" preceded by a vowel, form the plural by
adding "s."

  turkey--turkeys
  chimney--chimneys
  valley--valleys

4. When "y" is preceded by a consonant, change it to "i" before a
suffix which does not begin with "i," as in business, readily,
happiness, etc.

Retain "y" in such words as: hurrying, crying, flying, etc.

=V. Treatment and use of the apostrophe=

1. Put the apostrophe in the place of the absent letter or letters:
aren't, don't, didn't, can't, I'll, etc.

2. Possessives of personal pronouns have no apostrophe, as: its, hers,
ours, yours, etc.

=VI. Irregular Plurals=

Some words ending in "f" or "fe" form their plurals by changing the
"f" or "fe" to "v" and adding "es."

  half--halves
  knife--knives
  life--lives
  leaf--leaves
  calf--calves
  wife--wives

=VII. Confusion of "ei" and "ie"=

     NOTE TO TEACHER:--Experimental evidence does not seem to show
     that this rule is very effective, but if it is taught, the
     following presentation is recommended.

Whenever "i" and "e" occur together in one syllable, and are
pronounced as "[=e]" or "[)e]," it is always "i" before "e" except
after "c" (see). When sounded like "[=a]" it is always "e" before "i."
Some have used the following jingle to help fix the rule:

  "i" before "e"
  Except after "c"
  Or when sounded like "a"
  As in neighbor or weigh.

Four of the words most commonly used in writing letters are exceptions
to these rules: neither, leisure, foreign, height.



Transcriber's Note:


     * Text enclosed between equal signs was in bold face in the
     original (=bold=).

     * Punctuation errors have been corrected.

     * All misprinted reference pages throughout the book have been
     corrected (vii-xvi).

     * Pg 17 Added missing "opening quotation" before "Remember" in "Remember
     that the purpose of this test ..."

     * Pg 97 Removed ")" after "I didn't see him.")" and added "("
     before "Fitzgerald".

     * Pg 97 Corrected spelling of "kindom" to "kingdom" in "... gone
     to kindom come"

     * Pg 103 Corrected spelling of "expecially" to "especially" in
     "... expecially since they are in ..."

     * Pg 109 Corrected spelling of "occassionally" to "occasionally"
     in "... there is occassionally found ..."





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use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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