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Title: Dress design - An Account of Costume for Artists & Dressmakers
Author: Hughes, Talbot, 1869-1942
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by equal signs is in bold face (=bold=).

      A list of corrected printer's errors and inconsistencies can
      be found at the end of the text.



The Artistic Crafts Series of Technical Handbooks
Edited by W. R. Lethaby

DRESS DESIGN


[Illustration: A Long-trained Muslin Dress. About 1800.]


DRESS DESIGN

An Account of Costume
for Artists & Dressmakers

by

TALBOT HUGHES

Illustrated by the Author from
Old Examples · Together
with 35 Pages of Half-Tone Illustrations



London
Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
Bath, Melbourne, Toronto, and New York

Reprinted 1920



GENERAL PREFACE TO THE SERIES


In issuing this volume of a series of Handbooks on the Artistic Crafts,
it will be well to state what are our general aims.

In the first place, we wish to provide trustworthy text-books of
workshop practice, from the points of view of experts who have
critically examined the methods current in the shops, and putting aside
vain survivals, are prepared to say what is good workmanship, and to set
up a standard of quality in the crafts which are more especially
associated with design. Secondly, in doing this, we hope to treat design
itself as an essential part of good workmanship. During the last century
most of the arts, save painting and sculpture of an academic kind, were
little considered, and there was a tendency to look on "design" as a
mere matter of _appearance_. Such "ornamentation" as there was was
usually obtained by following in a mechanical way a drawing provided by
an artist who often knew little of the technical processes involved in
production. With the critical attention given to the crafts by Ruskin
and Morris, it came to be seen that it was impossible to detach design
from craft in this way, and that, in the widest sense, true design is an
inseparable element of good quality, involving as it does the selection
of good and suitable material, contrivance for special purpose, expert
workmanship, proper finish and so on, far more than mere ornament, and
indeed, that ornamentation itself was rather an exuberance of fine
workmanship than a matter of merely abstract lines. Workmanship when
separated by too wide a gulf from fresh thought--that is, from
design--inevitably decays, and, on the other hand, ornamentation,
divorced from workmanship, is necessarily unreal, and quickly falls into
affectation. Proper ornamentation may be defined as a language addressed
to the eye; it is pleasant thought expressed in the speech of the tool.

In the third place, we would have this series put artistic craftsmanship
before people as furnishing reasonable occupations for those who would
gain a livelihood. Although within the bounds of academic art, the
competition, of its kind, is so acute that only a very few per cent. can
fairly hope to succeed as painters and sculptors; yet, as artistic
craftsmen, there is every probability that nearly every one who would
pass through a sufficient period of apprenticeship to workmanship and
design would reach a measure of success.

In the blending of handwork and thought in such arts as we propose to
deal with, happy careers may be found as far removed from the dreary
routine of hack labour, as from the terrible uncertainty of academic
art. It is desirable in every way that men of good education should be
brought back into the productive crafts: there are more than enough of
us "in the city," and it is probable that more consideration will be
given in this century than in the last to Design and Workmanship.

       *       *       *       *       *

The designing and making of Costume is a craft--sometimes artistic--with
which we are all more or less concerned. It is also, in its own way, one
of the living arts, that is, it is still carried forward experimentally
by experts directly attached to the "business." It has not yet been
subjected to rules of good taste formulated by Academies and
Universities; but when Inigo Jones, the great architect, was asked to
make some designs for fancy dress, he based them on the Five Orders of
Architecture, and ponderous fancies they were.

If we look for the main stem of principle on which modern Costume
develops, we seem to find it in the desire for freshness, for the clean,
the uncrushed, and the perfectly fitted and draped. Probably a modern
lady's ideal would be to wear a dress once, and then burn it.

A correlative of the ideal of freshness is the delight in perfect "cut,"
and the rapidly changing fashions are doubtless conditioned in part by
the desire for the new and unsullied. "Novelty" is a guarantee of
newness.

In such ephemeral productions it would be vain to seek for certain fine
types of excellence which were once common when dresses were not so
lightly cast aside. So it is necessary that we should understand what
the ruling principle is, for it is one which will not be set aside at
the bidding of well-meaning reformers. I will only venture to say that
it would be desirable to make the attempt to separate in some degree the
more constant elements of dress from those which are more variable. It
will seem a pity to more than outsiders that a "well-dressed" person
need wear so little which deserves to have been made by human hands, and
nothing which deserves to be preserved. Fine laces and jewels are
allowed to be antique--could not the circle of such things be a little
broadened? A properly groomed man carries about on him literally nothing
worth looking at. We might surely look for a watch-chain with some
delicacy of handiwork--something beyond mechanical reductions of iron
cables. Fine buttons might conceivably be made to go with the studs, or
be made of crystal, amethyst, and silver or gold. Women might allow of
the transfer of fine embroidered applications from one dress to another,
or make more use of clasps and the like. I am confident that when it is
pointed out, it will be felt as a shortcoming that no part of a fine
lady's dress need now be too good to throw away. Although the present
volume is cast into the form of a history, it is also intended to be a
book of suggestions; and the hope is held that modern dressmakers may
refer to it as much as, or more than, those who are interested in dress
from the historical point of view.

In any case the author's accurate knowledge of the facts, and his many
bright sketches--which are often drawn from examples in his own
remarkable collection--make the present volume an admirable handbook of
English Costume. The more technical "patterns" which are included
amongst the illustrations will be found most valuable to all who wish to
go deeper than the first glance reveals.

                                                     W. R. LETHABY.
    1913.



CONTENTS


                                                                    PAGE
    GENERAL PREFACE TO THE SERIES                                     xi

    _Preface_                                                        xiv

    LIST OF PLATES                                                 xxiii

    INTRODUCTION                                                      33

    CHAPTER I

    Prehistoric Dress--Female                                         40
    Prehistoric Dress--Male                                           41

    CHAPTER II

    The Development of Costume to the Tenth Century--Female           45
    The Development of Costume to the Tenth Century--Male             49

    CHAPTER III

    Tenth to the Fifteenth Century--Female                            57
    Tenth to the Fifteenth Century--Male                              71

    CHAPTER IV

    Fifteenth Century--Female                                         84
    Fifteenth Century--Male                                           92

    CHAPTER V

    Sixteenth Century. Character of Trimmings                        109
    Sixteenth Century. Henry VIII--Female                            113
    Sixteenth Century. Henry VIII--Male                              118
    Sixteenth Century. The Reigns of Edward VI and Mary--Female      124
    Sixteenth Century. The Reigns of Edward VI and Mary--Male        129
    Sixteenth Century. Elizabeth--Female                             133
    Sixteenth Century. Elizabeth--Male                               139

    CHAPTER VI

    The Character of Trimmings through the Seventeenth Century       142
    James I                                                          142
    Charles I                                                        143
    The Commonwealth                                                 145
    Charles II                                                       145
    James II and William and Mary                                    146
    Seventeenth Century. James I--Female                             147
    Seventeenth Century. James I--Male                               150
    Seventeenth Century. Charles I--Female                           154
    Seventeenth Century. Charles I--Male                             160
    Seventeenth Century. The Commonwealth--Male and Female           168
    Seventeenth Century. Charles II--Female                          169
    Seventeenth Century. Charles II--Male                            174
    Seventeenth Century. James II--Female                            178
    Seventeenth Century. James II--Male                              180
    Seventeenth Century. William and Mary--Female                    184
    Seventeenth Century. William and Mary--Male                      186

    CHAPTER VII

    The Character of Decoration and Trimmings of the
      Eighteenth Century                                             190
    Eighteenth Century. Anne--Female                                 193
    Eighteenth Century. Anne--Male                                   198
    Eighteenth Century. George I--Female                             201
    Eighteenth Century. George I--Male                               207
    Eighteenth Century. George II--Female                            211
    Eighteenth Century. George II--Male                              214
    Eighteenth Century. George III to 1800--Female                   217
    Eighteenth Century. George III to 1800--Male                     231

    CHAPTER VIII

    Character of Trimmings of the Nineteenth Century                 237
    Nineteenth Century. George III--Female                           241
    Nineteenth Century. George III--Male                             246
    Nineteenth Century. George IV--Female                            248
    Nineteenth Century. George IV, 1820-30--Male                     254
    Nineteenth Century. William IV--Female                           258
    Nineteenth Century. William IV--Male                             263
    Nineteenth Century. Victoria--Female                             264
    Nineteenth Century. Victoria--Male                               273

    PATTERNS OF VARIOUS REIGNS FROM ANTIQUE COSTUME                  276

    PATTERNS TO SCALE                                                283

    PATTERNS TO SCALE, DETAILED LIST                                 353

    INDEX                                                            359



LIST OF DESCRIPTIVE LINES TO THE PLATES


    FRONTISPIECE                                          _Facing Title_
      A Long-trained Muslin Dress, about 1800.

    PLATE I                                               _Facing p. 39_
      Boots and Shoes from the Fourteenth to Nineteenth Century.

    PLATE II                                                    "     42
      _A._ Elizabethan Robe in Plush, 1585-1605.
      _B._ Elizabethan Robe in Silk Brocade, 1565-85.
      _C._ Elizabethan Male Robe in Velvet Brocade, 1580-1615.
      _D._ Back-piece of Elizabethan Doublet in
             Embroidered Linen, 1580-1605.

    PLATE III                                                   "     55
      _A._ Elizabethan Jump (or Jacket), about 1600.
      _B._ Portrait of Lady in Embroidered Costume,
             between 1620 and 1640.

    PLATE IV                                                    "     58
      _C._ Youth's Jacket of Linen embroidered in Worsted, 1635-65.
      _D._ Linen Male Jacket embroidered with Gold and Silk, 1600-40.

    PLATE V                                                     "     71
      _A._ Jerkin--Period James I.
      _B._ Lady's Bodice of Slashed and Vandyked Satin, 1635-50.
      _C._ Jerkin of Embroidered Linen, 1630-60.
      _D._ Jerkin of Embroidered Linen, 1580-1635.

    PLATE VI                                                    "     74
      _A._ Collar and Cuffs set with Lace, 1600-30.
      _B._ Embroidered Leather Jerkin, 1620-1640.
      _C._ Top of Stocking, Embroidered Linen, 1625-50.

    PLATE VII                                                   "     87
      _A._ Herald's Coat, Embroidered Velvet and Silk,
             First Half Seventeenth Century.
      _B._ Lady's Bodice of Black Velvet, 1630-60.
      _C._ Black Silk Jerkin, 1640-50.

    PLATE VIII                                                  "     90
      _A._ Three Suits--Period Charles II.
      _B._   "     "       "      "
      _C._   "     "       "      "

    PLATE VIIIA                                                 "    103
      _A._ Suit of Embroidered Silk, 1610-30.
      _B._ Three Sword-hangers Embroidered in Gold, Charles II.
      _C._ Braided Suit, 1670-90.

    PLATE IX                                                    "    106
      _A._ Lady's Embroidered Silk Jacket, 1605-20.
      _B._ Lady's Bodice of Silk Brocade, 1680-1700.

    PLATE X                                                     "    119
      _A._ Black Velvet Bodice, 1600-25.
      _B._ Five Embroidered Waistcoats, between 1690 and 1800.

    PLATE XI                                                    "    122
      Sixteen Leather Boots and Shoes, between 1535 and 1850.

    PLATE XII                                                   "    135
      _A._ Lady's Outdoor Costume, 1785-95.
      _B._ Costume, Early Eighteenth Century.
      _C._ Silk Brocade Dress, 1760-80.

    PLATE XIII                                                  "    138
      _A._ Silk Coat, 1735-55.
      _B._ Brocade Silk Coat, 1745-60.
      _C._ Embroidered Cloth Coat, 1770-90.

    PLATE XIV                                                   "    151
      _A._ Embroidered Silk Dress with Pannier, 1765-80.
      _B._ Brocade Dress and Quilted Petticoat, 1750-65.

    PLATE XV                                                    "    154
      _A._ White Cloth Coat, 1775-90.
      _B._ Silk Dress, 1740-60.
      _C._ Embroidered Velvet Coat, 1753-75.

    PLATE XVI                                                   "    167
      _A._ Silk Brocade Dress, 1740-60.
      _B._ Silk Brocade Sack-back Dress, 1755-1775.
      _C._ Dress of Striped Material, 1755-85.

    PLATE XVII                                                  "    170
      _A._ Silk Suit, 1765-80.
      _B._ Quilted Dress, 1700-25.
      _C._ Silk Embroidered Suit, 1765-80.

    PLATE XVIII                                                 "    183
      _A._ Brocade Bodice, 1770-85.
      _B._ Flowered Silk Dress, 1750-70.
      _C._ Silk Brocade Bodice, 1780-95.

    PLATE XIX                                                   "    186
      _A._ Silk Brocade Dress, 1775-85.
      _B._ Embroidered Silk Jacket, 1775-90.
      _C._ Brocade Jacket, 1780-95.

    PLATE XX                                                    "    199
      _A._ Gold-embroidered Muslin Dress, 1795-1805.
      _B._ Nine Aprons, between 1690 and 1750.
      _C._ Dress of Spotted Stockinette, 1795-1808.

    PLATE XXI                                                   "    202
      Twenty-three Boots and Shoes, from 1800 to 1875.

    PLATE XXII                                                  "    215
      _A._ Linen Dress, 1795-1808.
      _B._ Silk Bodice, 1825-30.
      _C._   "     "    1818-25.

    PLATE XXIII                                                 "    218
      _A._ Muslin Dress with Tinsel Design, 1798-1810.
      _B._ Silk Dress, Period George IV.
      _C._ Satin and Gauze Dress, 1820-30.

    PLATE XXIV                                                  "    231
      _A._ Outdoor Silk Jacket, 1798-1808.
      _B._ Embroidered Muslin Bodice, 1816-1830.
      _C._ Embroidered Muslin Bodice, 1824-1825.
      _D._ Satin and Gauze Bodice, 1820-30.

    PLATE XXV                                                   "    234
      _A._ Silk Dress, 1800-10.
      _B._ Cotton Dress, 1800-10.
      _C._ Embroidered Muslin Dress, 1820-30.
      _D._ Silk Gauze Dress, 1824-30.

    PLATE XXVI                                                  "    247
      _A._ Morning Coat of Chintz, 1825-45.
      _B._ Cloth Coat, 1808-20.
      _C._ Cloth Overcoat, 1820-35.

    PLATE XXVII                                                 "    250
      Outdoor Silk Dress, 1825-35.

    PLATE XXVIII                                                "    259
      _A._ Silk Pelisse, 1820-30.
      _B._ Cotton Dress, 1830-40.
      _C._ Silk Spencer and Cape, 1818-27.

    PLATE XXIX                                                  "    263
      _A._ Embroidered Silk Gauze Dress, 1820-30.
      _B._ Gauze Dress with Appliqued Design, 1825-35.
      _C._ Printed Linen Outdoor Dress, 1827-1847.

    PLATE XXX                                                   "    266
      _A._ Printed Silk Bodice, 1840-50.
      _B._ Gathered Linen Bodice, 1837-47.
      _C._ Silk Bodice and Bertha, 1845-55.

    PLATE XXXI                                                  "    270
      _A._ Embroidered Muslin Outdoor Dress, 1855-65.
      _B._ Riding Habit, 1845-75.
      _C._ Gauze Ball Dress, 1840-55.

    PLATE XXXII                                                 "    279
      _A._ Silk Dress, 1860-70.
      _B._ Gauze Walking Dress, 1850-60.
      _C._ Silk Dress, 1848-58.

    PLATE XXXIII                                                "    282
      _A._ Silk Dress with Court Train, 1828-1838.
      _B._ Silk Afternoon Dress, 1872-78.
      _C._ Silk Coat and Skirt, 1855-56.



DRESS DESIGN


    Plates originally printed in collotype are now produced in half-tone



INTRODUCTION


The subject of Historical Costume covers such a multitude of detail that
a volume on each century could be written, with hundreds of
illustrations. Thus it is, most works on costume are expensive and
bewildering; but I hope this small practical handbook will be a useful
addition to the many beautifully illustrated works which already exist.

I have divided the matter into centuries and reigns, as far as possible,
in this small work, besides separating male and female attire, thus
simplifying reference. A special feature has also been made, of
supplying the maker or designer of dress with actual proportions and
patterns, gleaned from antique dresses, as far back as they could be
obtained; and I am much indebted to the authorities at the Victoria and
Albert Museum for the permission given me to examine and measure their
unique specimens; also to Mr. Wade, Mr. G. G. Kilburne, Mr. Duffield,
Mr. Box Kingham, Mr. Hill, Mr. Breakespeare, and others, for their
valuable assistance with interesting specimens. I have used outline
drawings in the text, as being more clear for purposes of explanation.
The dates given to the illustrations are to be taken as approximate to
the time in which the style was worn. Many of the photographs have been
arranged from my own costume collection, which has made so much of my
research simple, reliable, and pleasant. I am also happy to state that
before the final revision of this book I have heard that my collection
of historical costumes and accessories will, after a preliminary
exhibition at Messrs. Harrod's, be presented to the Victoria and Albert
Museum as a gift to the nation by the Directors of that firm. Thus the
actual dresses shown in these plates will find a permanent home in
London, and become valuable examples to students of costume. The
coiffures in the collotype plates are not to be judged as examples, for
it would have consumed far too much time to set up these figures more
perfectly, but all the bonnets, caps, and accessories given are genuine
examples.

In a book of this size, one cannot go into the designs of materials, &c.,
which is a study any earnest student would not neglect, but in this
connection I would draw attention to the comparative colour density and
proportion of designs chosen for various effects.

It has been my endeavour to arrange a greater variety of the forms which
make up the characters of each period, and also to give a wider
knowledge into the footwear, or details of the footwear, than is usual
in most costume books.

In a review of the styles I would not press any choice for building new
designs, as I believe in close individual research and selection, which
may utilise many interesting features from costume settings even in
periods which are almost scorned. I believe the purest beauty is found
in the simple forms of dress and decoration settings from the 12th to
the 15th centuries, schemed to the natural proportions of the figure.
The grace of line and movement is often aided by the short train, which
can be so happily caught up in many ways; the slight drag of the train
always keeps the front clear in outline, besides showing the movement of
the limbs. Length of fall in the material was desired, the figure
creating its own folds with every turn, but a belt was often placed
rather high under the breast. There is little reason with nature of
fine form to make dress into sections by a corset waist. A long, lithe,
complete curve in outline--much happier unbroken, except by the
girdle--is certainly the most artistically useful conception, not
breaking the rhythm (as does the harder belt), while it also induces
much beauty in lifting and arranging the drapery. The long falling
sleeve also has the same qualities, giving a greater fullness of shape,
a variety of colour (by a difference of lining), with a winglike motion,
besides softening the angle of the elbow.

I think the next garment for high esteem is the chasuble-shaped tunic
(with or without sleeves). Falling cleanly from the shoulders, it stops
at a charming length for the skirt to take up the flow of line. The
delightful effect of partly-laced or clasped sides was not missed by the
ablest designers. How refined, too, was the character of decoration of
the old period! The art of concentrating effects is seen to perfection,
retaining the breadth of shape and length unbroken. Jewelled embroidery
of fine enrichment was wrought on the borders, neck settings, square
corners, the girdle, and the clasps. The preciousness of effect was
truly appreciated by the enclosing of the face in the purity of white
lawn and zephyr-like veilings; the circlet and the long interlaced
plaits and charming nettings were all tastefully schemed. Has woman ever
looked more supreme through all the centuries of extravagant styles and
distortions? I believe not: but I have come to the conclusion that, at
whatever period of seeming insanity of style, the woman of fine taste
can overcome all obstacles by her individual choice and "set up," and
has really always looked fascinating.

There was another form of decoration at this period--the cutting of the
edges into a variety of simple or foliated shapes, giving a flutter and
enrichment to forms in a simple manner, and this, in conjunction with
the increasing richness of materials, was a valuable aid to lighten the
effects. It was probably initiated by the heraldic characteristics in
vogue.

The pricked and slashed details had much the same result in enriching
surfaces.

Later the fan sleeves of the 18th century were enhanced in a similar way
by the curved and scalloped shaping, which was used as late as the
Victorian sixties with happy effect on the polonaises.

Now, as regards the finest corset dress, the palm must be given to the
sack-back dress of the eighteenth century (not in the period of its
distortion with hoops), and a full setting showed it to greatest
advantage.

This type of design lent itself to more variety in beauty of arrangement
than any other; the looping, reefing, and tying always set gracefully in
accord with the back fall. The easy exchange of the stomacher also gave
additional chance of effect, and the beauty of the fan-shaped sleeve,
with its lace falls at the elbow, was a delightful creation. How rich
and refined this character could be, without the monstrous forms and
head-dresses which later invaded it and turned it into ornate absurdity!

When we examine the period of Charles I, we find much charming dignity
in the adaptations of earlier inventions; the collar settings were
noble, indeed perfect, in arrangement, and the bodice decoration and
proportions most interesting.

For the grace of girlhood no dresses are happier than those of the early
19th century to 1830, and the inventions in trimmings through this
period were prolific in beauty and lightness of style.

Analysis of the many fashion-plates and original dresses of this
period will well repay all interested in beautiful needlecraft and dress
design. The arrangement of frills, insertions, gathered effects, applied
forms, and tasselled or buttoned additions, will be found full of beauty
and novelty, especially in the dresses of white embroidery. Plates XXIII
and XXIV (see pp. 218-231) give some happy examples of this time.

[Illustration: Plate I.--Boots and Shoes from the 14th to the 19th
Centuries.

     1. Charles II.
     2. James II.
     3. William and Mary.
     4. George II.
     5. George III., 1770.
     6. George III., 1760.
     7. George III., 1780-1800.
     8. 1870-1880.
     9. William and Mary.
    10. 1680-1700.
    11. 1680-1702.
    12. 1750-1775.
    13. 1580-1625.
    14. 1710-1730.
    15. Henry VIII.
    16. Semi-Clog, 1780-1800.
    17. Henry VIII.
    18. 1778-1795.
    19. Late 15th Century or early 16th Century.
    20. 1500-1540.
    21. Late 14th Century to middle of 15th Century.
    22. 1530-1555.
    23. 1535-1555.]

A word on the most condemned flow of fashion during the Victorian era.
There are many dresses of real charm to be found amongst the mass of
heavy styles which must not be overlooked in studying design and style.
Even the crinoline dress, when treated with the exquisite silk gauzes,
as Fig. 3 in Plates XXXI and XXXIII (see pp. 270-282), was as alluring
as any woman could wish, and the original design of the jacket in the
latter figure, with its richly embroidered, long-skirted front cut short
at the back, arranged itself perfectly on this type of undersetting.
There was notable refinement of effect and beauty of proportion in many
dresses of the sixties, as exemplified in Fig. A, Plate XXXII (see p.
279), the waist being set rather high, and the very full skirt carried
back by the crinoline being held thus with its cross ties.



CHAPTER I


PREHISTORIC DRESS. FEMALE.

The woman's attire would have been chiefly a shortish skirt or wrap of
coarse linen, wool, or leather, gathered in front or folded at one hip;
grass cloth may also have been in use in most primitive tribes. Probably
the upper part of the body was kept bare, except for many ornaments and
necklaces, but a bodice or jacket cut in the same simple form as the
male shirt, with a heavy belt or girdle, would have been used, and
certainly a large shawl, which could be wrapped over the head and round
the figure during inclement hours. Dyed or painted patterns on the
cloths might well have been also in use, their chief designs being
stripes, circles or dots, zigzag lines, diamonds and plaid squares, rope
patterns and plaited patterns. The hair would have been loose, plaited,
or coiled on top, held by bone pins or circlets of bronze.


PREHISTORIC DRESS. MALE.

We have little description or illustration to certify the actual dress
of the early inhabitants of Britain, but we can draw conclusions with
pretty certain assurance, from the knowledge of their mode of living.
From their attainments in artistic design and handiwork, it is clear
they had arrived at a very high state of savage culture before the Roman
invasion; and we have only to study the better types of savage life
still in progress, to picture how our own primitive race would be likely
to dress under the conditions of climate. The thousands of "finds,"
which accumulate evidence every year, give us a closer acquaintance with
their customs and work. The rest we must imagine from our general
knowledge of what they had to contend with in climate, forest, cave, and
floods.

These early people, it is presumed from certain discoveries, had long
known the art of coarsely weaving flax and wool, which must soon have
been in general use, from its being healthier and cleaner than the
garments of skin. And very probably a coarse linen, with simple dyes of
red, blue, yellow, and brown, was in use here when the Romans came.

The head-dress consisted of a cap of fur or wool, probably decorated
with a feather, over loose and most likely very unkempt hair falling to
the shoulders. The Gauls cut their locks from the back of the head,
often tying up the remainder in a tuft on the top; no doubt the hair was
sometimes plaited or pinned up with wood, bone, or bronze ornaments.
Bone pins, teeth, and boar tusks were carried in the ears, as well as
studs of bone or stone in the underlip, and even the cheek may have been
so decorated, as it was amongst the Esquimaux. The face and body were
painted with red and white ochre and a blue stain. The neck was adorned
with strings of teeth, stones, amber, jet, bronze, and probably beads of
glass or baked clay coloured. Amulets and tokens, armlets and bracelets
were all in use. Also the torque, a twisted rod of gold flattened or
curled together at the ends, was a mark of dignity. A wristlet of wood,
bone, or leather was worn when the bow and arrows were used. The arms
were a spear of flint or bronze and a dagger of the same, a hatchet or
heavy club, a mace studded with flint or bronze spikes, and the sling,
which would have necessitated a leather wallet to carry the stones; fish
spears and snags. Also the bolas for felling cattle seems to have been
known; in fact nearly all the usual implements appertaining to savage
life were in use.

[Illustration: Plate II.--

    (_a_) Elizabethan Robe in Plush. 1585-1605.
    (_b_) Elizabethan Robe in Silk Brocade. 1565-85.
    (_c_) Elizabethan Male Robe in Velvet Brocade. 1580-1615.
    (_d_) Back-piece of Elizabethan Doublet in Embroidered Linen.
            1580-1605.

    _Measures, see p. 281._
    _Sleeve pattern of C, see p. 300._]

The first item of male attire was of two skins fastened at the
shoulders, and from this we get the early chasuble form (which may be so
beautifully treated, even to the present time), girt with a leather
thong or strap at the waist. One skin lapped the other, and hardly
needed sewing together at the sides, while thus it was easier to throw
off; it may also have been tied up between the legs. The fur was worn
both inside and out, according to the weather; this large skin wrap
would also be worn cross-ways with the right shoulder free, and the
simple cloak of various lengths with a hole for the head to pass through
was no doubt one of the first discoveries in costume.

A loin cloth or skin may have been worn alone, caught up through the
legs and fastened at the back of the waist with a heavy belt and set
well down the hips. This would hold a number of personal necessities, in
the shape of a wallet and dagger. The legs would be wrapped with skins,
tied up or crossed by leather or sinew thongs, or with hemp or grass
rope. Skins were probably also used on the feet, gathered and tied above
the instep and round the ankle.

The enumeration of these items will give a pretty definite idea of how
the early race would appear in their more or less attired form. In
fighting, they cleared for action (as it were) and discarded all
clothing, their only protection being a shield of wicker or wood covered
with leather; it may have been studded with bronze plates or painted
with grotesque characters, as were their own bodies, in true savage
style, to strike fear into their enemies; it is even possible feather
decorations formed part of their "get up."



CHAPTER II


THE DEVELOPMENT OF COSTUME TO THE TENTH CENTURY. FEMALE.

The female head-dress consisted chiefly of flowing hair banded with a
circlet of various shapes, but a development of braiding plaits is found
very early, and the hair was probably arranged so before the Roman era.
These plaits were generally brought over the shoulder to the front, the
hair being parted in the centre, thus making an oval forehead. Various
caps began to show originality, and jewels were set in the centre of the
forehead on the little crown-like hat, which must have been most
becoming. Squares of coloured stuffs were draped over the head and
shoulders, sometimes upon white linen squares, and many ladies began to
bind the face and head, shutting out the hair, in the 8th century. The
kerchief draping is very important to study, because it was the general
mode amongst the people.

Heavy collars of ornament and strings of beads, hanging even to the
waist, are noticeable features of these centuries, also large ear-rings.

A full cloak, with a large clasp or brooch, opened in front, or was
turned to free one shoulder; there was also a long "drape" thrown round
over the opposite shoulder or brought picturesquely over the head.

The ecclesiastical form of cloak as described in the male attire was
also formed about the 6th century; its graceful line was frequently
bordered completely with a band of ornament, and it was clasped just
across the breasts.

The complete circular cloak, with a hole for the head, is seen very
early, decorated with a pinked edge, which may also be noted on some of
the short dresses of the middle classes. Aprons are no doubt of the
earliest origin. A loose tunic falling to the hips was girded rather
high up the body, as in the classic dress, and bands passing both
outside or crossing between the breasts and going over the shoulder came
from the same source; these were with, or without, short sleeves to the
elbow. A long loose robe was the chief attire to the 6th century,
belted rather high in the waist, and caught up with a girdle at the
hips; these girdles gave a great interest to the early centuries, with
the art of arranging the fullness of skirt into its hold.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

From the 6th century the dress became closer fitting, and a short bodice
is seen; the neck was cut very low, either square or round in shape, and
this style had short tight sleeves or tight sleeves to the wrist. The
later tunic of the 9th century marked the beginning of the slit-open
upper sleeve, and a greater length of the neck opening, which came to be
fastened down the front to the waist.

The early skirts (to the 6th century) were hung from the hips, and were
often attached to a heavy girdle band, the fullness was gathered mostly
at the back and front; other skirts hung from a higher belt and were
again caught up in the girdle. A =V=-shaped neck setting was worn by the
Franks, from which probably came the shaped front piece that will
interest us in the 13th century. The shoes were similar to the male
shapes described later, and the same mode of binding the stockings was
sometimes imitated.


THE DEVELOPMENT OF COSTUME TO THE TENTH CENTURY. MALE.

In taking the long period from the Roman occupation to the 10th century,
we can discover a real development of style in costume, as with the
system of vassalage a distinction of class arose. No doubt the Romans
introduced a finer tuition of weaving, needlecraft, decoration, and
dyeing; and later the various peoples coming from the Continent, when
settled under Alfred in the 9th century, produced a solid style of
barbaric splendour.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

The male hair dressing, from the rugged mass of hair, soon became well
combed and trimmed square across the neck: ear-rings may still have been
in use by some nobles till the 11th century, and chaplets were worn upon
the hair. The Saxon beard was divided into two points. Small round tight
caps of wool, fur, or velvet, and rush or straw hats of a definite shape
were in use to the 10th century. Tight caps, with lappets tied under the
chin, and hoods appear on the short capes about the 8th century, or
probably earlier. The garment was of the simplest form, cut like a
plain square loose shirt to the middle of the thigh, and this was put on
over the head. The opening to pass the head through was the first part
to receive a band of decoration. The sides were sometimes opened to the
hips and the front caught between the legs and held at the waist. A
garment opened down the front, and another wrapped across to either
shoulder is also seen. A belt girt the waist, and the tunic was pulled
loosely over it. This also carried the essential requirements in the
shape of a pouch, dagger, knife, comb, sword, &c. The neck was
ornamented with chains of bronze, gold, beads, and charms, and up to the
8th century a bronze ornamental armlet was worn, besides a wristlet.

The men of the ruling class from the 8th century were clothed in a long
garment of simple shape, falling to the ankle, richly bordered at the
hem and neck. This generally had long tight sleeves, and often over this
a shorter tunic, reaching just below the knee, sometimes sleeveless, or
with rather full sleeves tightening to the wrist.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

A plain square chasuble shape was in fashion from the 8th century,
reaching to the bottom of the calf of the leg, and richer materials
began to be used; no belt was passed round this, as it was allowed to
fall straight.

Loose breeches were worn from very early times, and a loose trouser to
the ankle, being tied there or bound crosswise from the boot sometimes
right up the thigh. The same binding was done even with the bare legs
and later hose: close-fitting short breeches and cloth hose became a
feature in the 10th century, and with the latter an ornamental
knee-piece or garter below the knee sometimes finished the strappings.

The cloak was the "grand garment," heavily banded with ornament and
fastened with a large clasp on one shoulder, or at the centre of the
breast. Long circular cloaks of varying lengths, put on over the head,
were much favoured, and when caught up at the sides on either shoulder
gave a fine draped effect.

Another cloak of ecclesiastical character, sloping in a curve from the
neck and not meeting in front, is seen on many notable figures from the
early 8th century, large clasps bridging the width low down on the
chest.

[Illustration: Plate III.--

    (_a_) Elizabethan Jump (or Jacket). About 1600.
    (_b_) Portrait of a Lady in Embroidered Costume. Between
          1620 and 1640.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--TYPES OF SHOES. British, Roman,
Norman to 13th century.]

No doubt the sandal of various forms was much used for footwear through
this period, also a simple low shoe which was held on by the
leg-strappings, as, about the 8th century, shoes are seen with loops at
the upper edge, these being attachments for the binding, and this was
no doubt a method from the prehistoric times.

There was also a soft boot reaching to the calf, laced up the front;
and, after the 8th century, a rather pointed shoe, open down the instep,
laced, tied, or gathered into a buckle about the ankle.



CHAPTER III


TENTH TO THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. FEMALE.

The head-dress of women now began to show a preference to confine the
hair with nets and to close in the face, which continued till the 15th
century. The circlet and long plait or plaits and the flowing hair
remained till the 14th century. In the 12th century we discover the hair
gathered in nets at either side of the head, covering the ears. A
low-crowned hat was bound over with a band of lawn or fine material
passing underneath the chin, otherwise the plaits were looped up under a
circlet which was also worn with the flowing hair.

A square effect was aimed at in the 13th century with tight side-plaits
bound into a shape or netted hair was strapped to the head as in Fig. 11
(see p. 65). A fall of fine material softened the hard effect, and many
ladies of quality bound the face, neck, and head in the wimple of fine
linen, sometimes gathering this to the same quaint shape of the netted
hair. I give a variety of these settings on page 65. A kerchief of linen
coming round the neck was brought up tightly round the face and
festooned on the top of the head, while another piece was pinned close
to the brows and fell loosely to the shoulders, being often held on by a
circlet as well.

This character was maintained till the early 14th century, when a style
of high peaked hats came into evidence, one shape of which became the
most imposing feature of historic costume in the 15th century. It was
still but a simple form in the middle of the 14th century, for another
shape first gained predominance. Early in this century also may be noted
a curious shape like the cap of liberty, usually with a long tail at the
back as drawn on page 59. This carried design to the eccentric forms of
the pig-tailed hood, and then the rival of the high peaked hat took its
place towards the end of the 14th century--a cushioned head-dress, which
rose and divided in a hornlike structure. It started as in Fig.
25, and I have illustrated its progress; the veil draping was a great
feature, giving plenty of scope for individual fancy. It was, as a rule,
richly decorated with gold and jewels, and the hair was completely
enclosed in a gold net and a tight-fitting cap to hold this erection.
Large drop ear-rings were much worn, and a fine chain of gems encircled
the neck or fell to the breast.

[Illustration: Plate IV.--

    (_c_) Youth's Jacket of Linen Embroidered in Worsted. 1635-65.
          _Pattern, see p. 299._
    (_d_) Linen Male Jacket Embroidered with Gold and Silk. 1600-40.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Tenth to thirteenth century.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.

    _Henry II._
    _John_
    _Henry I._
    _Richard I._]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Twelfth to fourteenth century.]

In the 10th century a long close-fitting robe was in fashion, sometimes
with a deep =V=-shaped neck opening, though usually the neck was cut to a
round form. Some sleeves were tighter with a small cuff, but usually the
outer garment had a falling sleeve with a square or round end showing
the tight undersleeve. The outer sleeve varied much in length, from the
elbow or hand dropping even to the ground; it was narrow and widened
through the 14th century, when its edge was cut into various patterns as
in Fig. 18 (see p. 79). In the 13th century we notice a long sleeve
opened at the elbow for the under sleeve to come through, which
beautiful style continued to the middle of the 17th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.

    _Norman, 12th century_
    _Saxon, 12th century_]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Fourteenth century, 1st half.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Fourteenth century, 2nd half.]

With the 10th century came the first corselet from the waist to the hip,
clasping a loose tunic with an under-dress taking a long pointed
train. The manner of tucking the tunic under the corselet when it was
worn over it, and so creating festoons, is worthy of notice as
interesting in arrangement and design.

The 13th century parti-coloured and striped dresses foreshadowed the
heraldic fashion, which must be studied for its proportion and treatment
of decorative colour-values in counterchange to get the true value of
its noble effects.

A great feature now appears in the chasuble-shaped front or setting to a
closely cut jacket. This ultimately becomes the decorative stomacher
through the later periods, and it is very interesting to note its
development.

In the 13th century this jacket was a fur construction of a long simple
form opened at the sides to the hips for the sleeves to come through; it
had a straight hem or was rounded at the front points, and a chasuble
form of it was treated as in Fig. 13 or in conjunction with a short
cape; it was chiefly a decoration of ermine. It grew into a complete
jacket, and in the 14th century it was heavily ornamented with gems; and
the simple front, from being a feature outside the jacket, was later
often enclosed at the sides. The jacket itself is beautiful in form and
proportion, and the curved band of design over the hips makes a nice
foil to the curved front. This pattern is plainly derived from the
effect of the rich girdle that was at first seen through the side
openings and few jackets are without it, the usual shaping of the neck
with most of these was square.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Nos. 1 to 7, 14th century. Nos. 8 and 9, 15th
century.]

In the first quarter of the 14th century the setting of the neck was of
a round shape, and after 1350 a raised or curved form is favoured. Later
still, and with the hornlike head-dress, a very deep =V= shape, open
almost to the belt was the mode, often being filled in with velvet. At
the same time some began to take up the fashions of a very high collar
and a round-shaped body and sleeves, as in Fig. 24 (see p. 89), with
which a wide pointed belt is seen. Some robes were opened in front up to
the height of the girdle, though many dresses were worn without girdles
after the 12th century. Decorated pockets are sometimes seen in the
later period, and an interesting hand-covering or falling cuff came with
them.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Nos. 1 to 3, 14th century. Nos. 4 to 9, 15th
century.]

The cloak as described in the 10th century still continued till the
12th, as well as the light wrap which may almost be placed with any
period, though mostly a feature of the more classic styles.

Skirts and underskirts were worn with trains. They were mostly banded
with wide borders of ornament up to the 13th century, the fullness being
often gathered to the back and front.

The chasuble-shaped overdress was worn to the middle of the 14th
century, sleeveless, and, laced or sewn tight to the figure from the arm
to the hip, or completely down the sides, generally reached just below
the knee.

The shoes were of much the same character as those of the male examples
illustrated, though they hardly reached the same extravagance in length,
owing, no doubt, to the feet of woman being hampered by her skirt; but I
suspect they even braved high wooden clogs, as we know they did the tall
chopins of the 16th century, to heighten their stature.

[Illustration: Plate V.--

    (_a_) Jerkin. Period James I.
    (_b_) Lady's Bodice of Slashed and Vandyked Satin. 1635-50.
    (_c_) Jerkin of Embroidered Linen. 1630-60.
    (_d_) Jerkin of Embroidered Linen. 1580-1635.

_Pattern measurements, see p. 293._]


TENTH TO THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. MALE.

From the 10th to the 15th century, we find costume developing rapidly
into elaborate and interesting designs. Close relations with the
Continent brought new ideas, and rich velvets and brocades interwoven
with gold enhanced the gorgeousness of attire, while the introduction of
heraldic design brought in a very picturesque element. Hats and
head-dresses began to become important features, enlarging to eccentric
shapes and proportions, only equalled in the extravagant part of the
18th century.

It may be noted that feminine fashion, as it assumes new characters and
proportions, affects the style of the male clothes in the same way, as,
when a high or pointed head-dress comes in, the male hat also increases
its size; the same with curved or angular designs, full or tight
sleeves.

The hair was worn long and rather squared in shape at the back till the
end of the 15th century. A tendency to shut in the face by close hoods
tied under the chin is remarked, and this forms a strong feature of the
13th and 14th centuries. Ear-rings were seldom worn after the 10th
century; but the neck was generally adorned with heavy chain
decorations.

Beards assumed a pointed shape in accordance with this development of
fashion, and double-pointed beards were revived between 1380 and 1386.
Hats of straw with mushroom brims and round tops came into vogue in the
11th century, covered with coloured materials and finished with a spike
or button at the top, and the crowns of these took a pointed shape in
the 14th century. The usual cap with folded brim had a loose crown, and
we find this began to lengthen and fall over to one side in the 11th
century, and continued to elongate till, in the 15th century, it often
dropped to the knee in a long thin point. In the 14th century it took a
fullness of loose folds, with serrated or foliated edges falling to the
shoulder as in Fig. 15 (see p. 73). A close helmet-shaped cap is seen in
the 12th century, with a falling point from the crown, and the 13th
century brought in the higher crowned hat, with a long peaked front,
turned up at the back. Feathers were worn at the front, back, or side of
hats, and sometimes on the front of the hoods; these increased
their dimensions in height and peak, till the straight-up high hat,
which was often brimless, came in the 15th century. The early hood or
cowl soon began to vary its design, for in the 13th century it was often
a part of, or attached to, a chasuble shape falling back and front, or
with the long front, stopping at a short cape length behind. A note of
interest in the 14th century appears, where the forehead part of the
hood is turned up, showing a coloured lining, and at times the
fashionable serrated edge surrounding the face is seen.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.

    _13th century_
    _14th century_
    _15th century_]

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Fourteenth century.]

[Illustration: Plate VI.--

    (_a_) Collar and Cuffs set with Lace. 1600-30.
    (_b_) Embroidered Leather Jerkin. 1620-40.
    (_c_) Top of Stocking. Embroidered Linen. 1625-50.]

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Twelfth to thirteenth century.]

The chasuble-shaped garment was a feature often worn over the coat until
the end of the 15th century, and was generally worn long with the
elongated fashion of the 14th century, and short with the shorter tunics
of the 15th century. They are found very wide in the 14th century, and
so fall well down over the shoulder, where they are often laced a short
distance up, creating an interesting feature. Cloaks were not so much in
favour with the heavier cowl and cape, but they were used, fastened by
brooches to either shoulder rather at the back, after the 12th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Fourteenth century.]

A very tight-fitting suit called Justacorps came into use from the
12th century, and developed a padded round-shaped body towards the end
of the 14th century; the closely-cut body was buttoned up to the throat,
or was set with a high collar for the first time. The tights came over
it, sometimes rather high up the waist, being laced to it. A long tunic
was chiefly favoured during the 10th and 11th centuries with short or
long cuffless sleeves, and a full bell-shaped falling sleeve showed a
close-fitting under one.

These tunics were chiefly open at the neck as in the earlier times,
though a slight difference to be noted is a =V=-shaped opening in the 14th
century, which is developed in the 15th century; they were also split up
the sides, even to the hips. Some were very full in shape, and were
gathered to either side as in the illustration; others had the body
closely fitted and full only in the skirt, but as a rule one finds this
latter shape only reaches just below the knee. They were often tucked
into the belt in front, showing a rich underskirt.

A girdle (besides a belt) was worn on the hips with the longer tunics,
as in Fig. 28 (see p. 94), the dagger and pouch being carried in front
on the girdle, and not the belt. A small dagger was often slung at the
back or front of the neck, as an ornament at the end of the 14th
century.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--Fourteenth century.]

Tights to the waist were worn with both long and short tunics, and
retained the crossed binding up the legs to the 13th century, in the
various designs of page 53. Parti-coloured tights came in with the 14th
century, carrying out the heraldic character of dress, and this may be
found till about 1530. A sandal shoe was much worn up to the 12th
century, with strappings to various heights up the leg, this even over
the short top-boots, but the usual shoe opened down the front of the
instep to the toe, which was rather pointed in shape, and it was curved
or square at the ankle. The illustration gives a good variety of the
prevalent forms. The stocking-boot is also another characteristic of
this earlier time, as well as the commoners' woollen gaiters, worn as in
Fig. 30, on the seated figure, which were in use to the middle of the
16th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Twelfth and thirteenth centuries.]

In the illustrations which show no shoe on the tights, it will be
understood that a sole of leather was sewn on to the under part of the
foot. This practice is even seen to-day on the Continent, where the
clog is mostly in use. A soft boot, reaching to the calf, was worn till
the 15th century, with the top folded or trimmed with fur, the latter
being generally laced down the front, even to the instep: the shape of
these only varied in the length of the pointed toes as the style
developed.

The long-pointed shoes began to increase all through the 13th century,
and in the 14th century they reached their greatest length, when the
points were often tied up to a garter just below the knee. Wooden clogs
were much used, and were often considerably raised. Iron circular
supports were also in use at the end of this time; these were the
foretaste of the eccentric chopins of the 16th century, which were more
favoured on the Continent than here. The pointed toes also were made to
curl outwards, giving a splay-footed effect, late in the 14th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--Fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.]



CHAPTER IV


FIFTEENTH CENTURY. FEMALE.

We have now arrived at the height of eccentric fashion in mediæval
head-dress. The hornlike creations, studded with jewels, and peaks of
wondrous height, both draped with fine muslins and often completely
shutting away the hair from sight, had a supporting cap which mostly
came over ears and cheeks, and a clutch is seen on the forehead, at
times concealed by a jewel. The hair was generally allowed to fall loose
under the back drape, or a long plait is sometimes seen at the back with
the first-named head-dress. The back drape setting from the brow down
the back was well conceived to balance the high spire, but it seems to
have been discarded during the reign of Edward V, and light veil falls
were worn which often came half over the face. In Henry VII's time the
extreme fashion came in the shape of a closely-fitting curved cap,
with a fall of material over the back. The ermine-trimmed jacket was
still in favour to the middle of the last-named reign, when it was worn
low down over the hips.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--Fifteenth century, 1st half.]

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--Middle of fifteenth century to sixteenth
century.]

[Illustration: Plate VII.--

    (_a_) Herald's Coat. Embroidered Velvet and Silk. 1st half 17th
          Century. Measured pattern, page 301.
    (_b_) Lady's Bodice of Black Velvet. 1630-60.
          _Measurement, see p. 297._
    (_c_) Black Silk Jerkin. 1640-60.]

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Fifteenth century, 1st half.]

The chief dress of this period had a =V=-shaped collar-front meeting at
the waist, mostly made in black material or fur. It was wide on the
shoulder, and seems to have been stiffened to set out; the =V= shape was
generally filled in with velvet, and a very wide band encircled the
waist; a girdle is occasionally noted. The keys' pocket and other
requisites were generally carried on the underskirt during these times.
The skirt was full and gathered to the back in a train, the gathers
often running into the bodice; a very wide border is prevalent, even to
the middle of the thigh. Tight sleeves are usual, and hanging sleeves
were worn, mostly set in a very short sleeve, which assume a puff-shape
in Henry VII's reign; long cuffs, almost covering the hand, are seen on
many sleeves.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Fifteenth century, 2nd half.]

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Fifteenth century, 2nd half.]

[Illustration: Plate VIII.--(_a_) (_b_) (_c_) Three Suits. Period
Charles II.]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--End of fifteenth century.]

Modes of opening the skirt up to the hips occasionally showed
themselves, and even the sides to the hips are seen laced. In the
earlier dress, about 1485, the neck setting of dress became very
square, and was filled with fine-drawn lawn. The square shape rises in a
curved centre before the end of this period, and a close-fitting robe
was worn with a girdle, often opened up the sides. The short upper
sleeve and full outer sleeve so much in vogue gave place to a divided
upper and lower sleeve, laced or tied with ribbon, with puffs of lawn
pulled through the openings at shoulder and elbow, and down the back of
the forearm. Slashes are now seen in most sleeves, and an Italianesque
character pervaded the fashion.

High, soft boots and shoes of a similar shape to the male description
were worn, and changed when the square-toe shoes came in.

Through this period there are many interesting details of costume to
study, while gilt tags, finishing laces, and ribbons are to be remarked
from this period.


FIFTEENTH CENTURY. MALE.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Fifteenth century.]

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--Fifteenth century, 1st half.]

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--Middle of fifteenth century.]

The chief shapes to mark in this century in male head-dress is the
increased height of the tall hats which rise to vie with the female
fashions. We still see a round hat with a rolled edge and long fall
over one side, besides shorter folds in the crown, both scalloped or
foliated at the edge, and this shape may be noted till about 1460. Some
of these hats were made without a crown, as in Fig. 28 (see p. 94); the
roll was decorated, as a rule, with jewelled studs. A top hat, something
like our present shape, appears, but more belled at the top and also a
padded, rolled brim. It was made in various rich materials, and often
decorated with jewels. The peak-fronted hat still continued to be
favoured till about 1480, its chief difference being a crown more
eccentric in height. Tall cylinder hats, with folded brims or no brim,
and other shapes are illustrated. The variety is so great through this
period that it is well to study the vagaries of fashion which I have
illustrated in sequence as far as possible; they were mostly used till
about the last quarter of this century, when the low-crowned flat hat
with turned-up brim began to secure the fashion. This was generally worn
tilted on one side and often over a scarlet skull-cap. A large bunch of
plumes came in with this hat, set up from the front, curving backwards,
and giving a very grand effect: with most of the tall hats the
feather was set at the back.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--Fifteenth century.]

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Fifteenth century, 1st half.]

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Fifteenth century, 2nd half.]

The notable change in the tunic, which was worn both very short and to
the ground, was the arrangement of folds to the back and front, gathered
to a =V= shape at the waist. The hanging sleeve began to go out of favour
after the middle of the century, but the sleeve or cuff covering the
hand was continued till the end of this century.

A sleeve, full at the shoulder, is found, and short, round, padded
sleeves came in, worn over a close-fitting sleeve. This short sleeve
became raised on the shoulder, and was cut or looped up the outer side:
a long loose outer sleeve is also seen in conjunction with these short
ones. A very short jacket is notable, of a plain square shape, with a
plain sleeve on the left arm and a hanging sleeve on the right to the
knee. The tight-fitting jerkin, laced down the front, was worn with this
as with most other coats.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--End of fifteenth century.]

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--Fifteenth century, 2nd half.]

[Illustration: Plate VIIIa--

    (_a_) Suit of Embroidered Silk. 1610-30.
    (_b_) Three Sword Hangers Embroidered in Gold. Charles II.
    (_c_) Braided Suit. 1670-90.]

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Fifteenth-century Shoes and Clogs.]

The high collar to the throat had gone out for a collar opened in front.
Very short and very long "chasubles" were worn with or without sleeves
which were gathered high and full at the shoulders. The sleeves
were now sometimes slit open at the back and held with several ties, as
linen sleeves are now shown with these.

Parti-coloured tights were not so much favoured through this period, but
a decorated thigh, or part of the thigh and knee, was a favourite method
of enrichment.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.]

A long coat came in at the later part of this time, with a deep =V=-shaped
collar meeting at the waist; it was also cut into a square shape at the
shoulders, as in Fig. 43 (see p. 119). A loose bell-shaped sleeve
usually went with this, often opened in the front of the upper arm. A
short square cape is at times seen in conjunction with this. A low
square or round neck shape came in during the last quarter of this
century, filled in with a fine gathered lawn and a tight-fitting coat
with a pleated skirt and full padded sleeves, or a tight sleeve
with a full puff or spherical upper part.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, second half of 15th century.

Nos. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, variety of shapes from 1490
to 1630.]

[Illustration: FIG. 38.

    No.
     1. 14th century.
     2. 15th century.
     3.   "    "
     4. Late 16th cent.
     5. 1580-1610.
     6.   "    "
     7. 1605-1640.
     8. 1600-1625.
     9. 1550-1600.
    10. 1610-1640.
    11. 1590-1620.
    12. 1605-1630.
    13. 1675-1695.
    14. 1670-1690.
    15. 1680-1700.
    16. 1690-1720.
    17. 1680-1700.
    18. 1700-1750.
    19. 1700-1780.
    20. 1700-1760.
    21. 1740-1780.
    22. 1745-1780.
    23. 1770-1800.
    24. 1730-1760.
    25. 1700-1780.
    26. 1830-1860.
    27. 1780-1800.
    28. 1840-1870.
    29.   "    "  ]

[Illustration: Plate IX.--

    (_a_) Lady's Embroidered Silk Jacket. 1605-30.
    (_b_) Lady's Bodice of Silk Brocade. 1680-1700.]

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--Decorated Leather, 15th and 16th centuries.

    _Comb case_
    _purse_
    _Cut leather. 15 cent._
    _Leather_
    _Pierced leather, 16 cent._
    _Bronze studs 15 or 16 cent._
    _metal studs_
    _Incised lines with metal studs 15 cent._]

Shoes and boots were still worn with very long pointed toes till about
1465, when a proclamation was issued for beaks or piked shoes not to
pass two inches, and after this time a broad round-toed shoe began to
appear. Soft high boots to the top of the thigh, with folded top, belong
to this century, as well as the fashionable boot to the calf. The sword
or dagger was carried towards the front or side, and a small dagger
across the belt at the back. The pouch or purse was also used as a
dagger support.



CHAPTER V


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. CHARACTER OF TRIMMINGS.

Before the 16th century we find the art of decoration in costume had
been confined chiefly to applied ornamental bands at the neck, waist,
and borders of skirt and cloak. They had up till this time utilised,
with great artistry of design (no doubt partly due to the heraldic
study), the patterns of the finely decorated damasks and velvets.
The counter colour effects and relative proportions, such as a
small-patterned, dull-coloured silk setting off a large full-coloured
design was ably considered, as well as the introduction of a
nicely-balanced black note or setting, which proved these designers were
highly skilled in judgment of style. They also discovered the art of
giving enrichment and lightness to the effect by means of the various
serrated edgings to the materials, which also gave a flutter to the
movement. A preference of lacing for fastening added to the charm of the
dress, but the long rows of close buttons were also a feature of the
clinging robes, the clasps and brooches, neck-chains, girdle, belt, and
wallet being further very important items of enrichment to the effect.

On coming to the 16th century we enter what may be termed the slashed
and puffed period. The sleeves of Henry VIII's reign are very rich in
design and jewel-setting, the design of the sleeve as in Fig. 40 giving
a striking effect, the angle of the top sleeve being held out by the
stiffness of the under silk one. The neck-setting and festooning of the
jewel-chains play an important part in the design on the plain velvet
corset bodices. The head-dress is one of the most remarkable, and gave a
great chance for individual arrangement in binding the back fall to set
at various angles on the shaped cap piece, combining severity with a big
loose draping which is extremely picturesque. With Edward VI commences
what may be termed the braided period of decoration. This latter came
suitably with the stiffer corsage and set up. Mary's reign was not of
attractive severity, but the over-robe with the short circular sleeve at
the shoulder and high collar was a graceful creation, and was retained
by many as late as 1630. There was little to admire in the Elizabethan
age as regards design, except the beauty of the materials and the
exquisite needlework. The proportions of the dresses were exceedingly
ugly, and the pleated farthingale an absurdity. The male dress had much
interest and often beauty of setting and decorative effect. The slashed
materials gave a broken quality to what would otherwise be a hard
effect, and it also cleverly introduced another colour change through
the suit. There will be found many examples in these illustrations of
the pricked and punctured designs on leather-work which are worth
examining for modern treatment.

Quilting and pleating were ably combined with the braiding, and we see
the clever adaptation of straw patterns sewn on (a feature of the late
16th century), which harmonised with the gold braidings or gold lace, or
resembled the same effect.

The trimmings of braid were often enriched with precious or ornamental
stones and pearls, the stomacher, waist, front band down the skirt, and
borders of most garments. The points of slashes were often held by
jewelled settings, and the long slashes were caught here and there with
the same.

Another important item was the black stitchwork on linen, sometimes
mingled with gold, so highly prized now for its beauty of design and
effect, but beginning probably in the reign of Henry VII.

Short coats of this type of the Elizabethan age are marvels of skill,
and many caps are still in existence. Fine linen ruffs and collars were
often edged with this work, as well as with gold lace.

Jackets and caps, both male and female, bearing geometrical and scroll
designs in gold, filled in with coloured needlework of flowers, birds,
or animals have happily been preserved for our admiration.

Sequins appear on work from Henry VIII's time, and were much appreciated
by the Elizabethan workers, who no doubt found the trembling glitter
added much to the gold-lace settings and delicate veilings: long
pear-shaped sequins were favoured for this. Sleeves were often separate,
and could be changed at will.


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. HENRY VIII. FEMALE.

The hair at this period was parted in the centre and gathered into a
plait at the back; it was also seen rather full and waved at the sides
of the head, and a small circlet was often carried across the brow. A
cap of velvet or gold brocade, sometimes with a padded front, curved
over the ears to the neck, keeping the shape of the head. Over this
again a velvet fall was turned back from the front or shaped as in the
illustration, reaching to the shoulder. These falls were also bound into
set-out shapes, which gave many picturesque effects.

Dress had now taken a new phase, and the set bodice became a lasting
feature. At this period the waist was rather short, and the neck,
arranged in a low square or round form, generally filled in with
gathered lawn. The upper part of the sleeve was often divided from the
bodice by ties with lawn puffs, and was made in a full circular form,
slashed or puffed and banded, with a tight-fitting sleeve on the
forearm. Another type divided the upper and lower part of the arm at the
shoulder and elbow, the forearm being effectively tied or laced, and
the under lawn sleeve pulled through; small slashings are also seen on
these. At times a bell-shaped sleeve was worn, showing a slashed or
puffed under one. Many dresses were still cut in one, and were often
high-necked; with these usually a girdle or band of drapery was worn,
and some skirts opened up the front, showing a rich underskirt.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--Sixteenth century, 2nd quarter.]

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--Period Henry VIII.]

Full skirts, heavily pleated at the waist, were worn in the earlier part
of this reign, banded in varying widths of designs to about the knee;
but a new development was in progress--a stiff, bell-shaped dress, set
on hoops over a rich underskirt which usually bore a jewelled band down
the centre, the upper one being divided in front to display this
feature. The bodice with this type becomes longer in the waist, and was
made on a stiff corset. Gloves are occasionally seen, serrated at the
cuff-end. Shoes of the slashed character and square toes were also worn
by the ladies, but many preferred a shoe with a moderately rounded toe.

The first mention of a leather umbrella is 1611, but this is a rare
instance, as they were not in use till the 18th century here, though
they are noted in continental prints during the 17th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--Sixteenth-century modes, 1st half Henry VIII.]


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. HENRY VIII. MALE.

The modes at the end of the last century now developed into a heavier
character of design. The long hair soon began to be closely cut, and a
short beard came into fashion. A flat type of hat was worn, with
serrated brim, or tabs which could be turned down at times, and others
were kept in place by a lacing cord through holes. There was also a flat
"Tam o' Shanter" shape, generally worn well tilted on one side, and
amongst the upper classes mostly adorned with feathers.

The =V=-shaped collar, or opening to the belt, was still retained on the
jerkin, and plain or pleated skirts are seen, also a square
close-fitting vest, with a low square neck, filled with gathered lawn,
or one with a high neck and short collar, on which a very small ruff
appeared for the first time, and at the wrist as well. These were now
decorated with long slashes or gathered puffs: heraldic design was still
seen on the breast, and even parti-colour was worn, but this
character was now treated more by decorating with coloured bands on the
tunics or tights.

[Illustration: Plate X.--

    (_a_) Black Velvet Bodice. 1600-25.
    (_b_) Five Embroidered Waistcoats. Between 1690 and 1800.

_Pattern, see p. 292._]

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--Period Henry VIII.]

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--Cap shapes. Period Henry VIII.]

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--Variety of shapes and slashing. Henry VIII.]

Long coats were still worn of the shape described at the end of the 15th
century, but a short surcoat was the mode, reaching just below the knee,
sleeveless, or with the various hanging sleeves of this period, the
fronts usually turned back to form a wide collar, either round or square
in shape on the shoulder, or at times falling to a deep square at the
back.

The sleeves were full in the upper part, tightening to the wrist,
sometimes open up to the elbow and laced, or they were pleated into a
full round shape at the shoulder. Puffs and slashings increased in these
designs, and by 1520 we find the sleeves mostly divided into puffed and
slashed forms, which grew to fantastic proportions.

Very short, tight breeches or trunks, with a front flap or codpiece,
were decorated to match the body design and colour schemes; they
increased in length to the knee, or just below, during this reign, and
usually finished in a serrated roll.

[Illustration: Plate XI.--16 Leather Boots and Shoes. Between 1535 and
1860.

     1. 1740-1780.
     2. 1535-1550.
     3. 1680-1700.
     4. 1645-1690.
     5. 1665-1685.
     6. 1690-1710.
     7. 1845-1860.
     8. 1790-1820.
     9. 1665-1670.
    10. 1800-1820.
    11. 1820-1840.
    12.     "
    13. 1815-1850.
    14. 1760-1780.
    15. 1650-1670.
    16. 1630-1660.]

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--Footwear, 1510-1540.]

Shoes were of the square form, some very short in front, held on by a
strap across the instep, others with fronts to the instep. The
corners were often brought out to a point on each side of the toes, and
the mode of decorating with slashing and punctures made them very
interesting. The sides of these shoes are very low, from ¾ to 1 inch,
and no heels are seen. A big, round shape was also favoured, which
increased in width till a proclamation forbade it exceeding 6 inches.
Chains were still a decorative feature round the neck, and the belt
carried a sword and pouch, or, amongst the working classes, other
necessities.


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. THE REIGNS OF EDWARD VI AND MARY.

FEMALE.

In the reign of Edward VI, which was so short, as also in that of Mary,
there was little time to form a real character. These reigns form
developing links to the Elizabethan era, so I have taken them in one
chapter.

[Illustration: FIG. 47.

FIG. 48.

FIG. 49.

Elizabethan modes.]

[Illustration: FIG. 50.--Costumes, 1554-1568.]

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--Costumes, 1568-1610.]

With Edward VI the same shaped cap is seen as that of Henry VIII, and
with Mary's accession, the head-dress is curved to the head in a like
manner, but it now became more of a hat form and took a brim curved in
on the brow; this was often worn over the little tight curved cap,
or showed the hair waved out at the sides, often netted with gold and
pearls. A fall of velvet, silk, or veiling was still retained till the
very high ruff or collar came in the Elizabethan days. A small-crowned
hat, with a brooch and feather in front, and a full gathered crown came
in before Elizabeth's time, when we see many eccentric shapes, such as
the tall hat with a feather at the side, and the witch-like hats towards
the end of her reign.

The bodice, which became longer in the first reign, still retained the
full belled oversleeve or the full puffed sleeve to the end of Mary's
reign, also the same square neck shape with curved-up front, now often
filled with silk quilted with pearls up to the neck. High-necked dresses
set with a small ruff became general in Mary's reign. We also find a
tight sleeve gathered in a circular puff at the shoulder or set in a
rolled epaulet.

The same shaped skirt of the hooped bell form (sometimes very pleated in
Mary's reign) or divided in front to show the underskirt as described
under Henry VIII, was worn.

The short square shape and the heavy round shoe is seen in Mary's
reign, but fashion then preferred a rather pointed oval shoe, well up
the instep with higher sides, decorated with characteristic slashing.
Gloves are seen in many portraits up to this period, but of a plain make
minus embroidery, and a circular fan of feathers was carried.


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. THE REIGNS OF EDWARD VI AND MARY. MALE.

With Edward VI and Mary a more refined and sober type of style set in.
The hair was now worn short and combed backwards. The flat hat of the
earlier shapes lasted to Elizabeth's reign; becoming smaller in width,
with a turned-down, curved brim and a fuller crown encircled with a gold
band or set with a feather worn at the right-hand side. A small
tight-fitting round hat with a rolled brim and a feather in front is
also of this later mode. Through these reigns a small square turned-over
collar or a very small ruff set on a high collar came into use, which
increased to a larger ruff in Mary's reign. A small ruff was also worn
at the wrist, many of these were edged with black-stitch designs. The
heavy puffed sleeves became tight and started from a small epaulet or
puffed roll; some of these had a small cuff at the wrist or a frill.
Braided designs became very elaborate on a close-fitting, padded, and
round-shaped jerkin with a short skirt, which appeared in the first
reign, and this skirt was often long enough to fasten just under the
codpiece. Short trunks at times worn half-way down the thigh were
slashed, banded, and puffed for decoration. No parti-colour was now worn
or striped effects on tights, except amongst the soldiers in the reign
of Mary. Short capes to the length of the trunks of a plain round form
sloping from the shoulders, or a square type with a high square collar
and loose sleeves, are seen; a tunic also of the earlier character with
a =V=-shaped collar and full sleeve comes into this reign, and we note the
earlier types of shoes mingling with the newer pointed oval-shaped shoe
which now continued for the remainder of this century.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.--Costumes, 1554-1580.]

[Illustration: FIG. 53.--Costumes, 1570-1605.]

In Mary's reign the round-shaped doublet began to protrude from the
breast to the waist in a round form with slightly longer skirts or small
tabs, while the trunks assumed large circular proportions and were
sometimes set on tight knee-breeches. The capes remained about the same.


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. ELIZABETH. FEMALE.

The costly splendour of attire is well known in Elizabeth's reign, which
began with the same form of hair and head-dress as with Mary, the hat
being set rather higher on the hair. The ruffs, which were imported
already starched from Holland, assumed larger proportions and
complications when the methods of starching became known in England
about 1564. Stow describes ruffs growing to a quarter of a yard deep;
these were no doubt supported by piccalilloes, though they are not
actually mentioned till after 1600, but they surely came with the
fan-shaped structures of these later days. White, red, blue or purple
colours were used in the starching, and yellow in the latter days of
this century. The introduction of this curved fanlike collar setting
became a grand and complicated feature right into the 17th century.
"Make up" became very apparent on the faces at this time, for
Bishop Hall censured the fashion in a choice sermon, saying, "Hear this,
ye plaster-faced Jezabels! God will one day wash them with fire and
brimstone."

[Illustration: FIG. 54.--Elizabethan modes.]

[Illustration: Plate XII.--

    (_a_) Lady's Outdoor Costume. 1785-95.
    (_b_) Costume. Early 18th Century.
    (_c_) Silk Brocade Dress. 1760-80.]

[Illustration: FIG. 55.

    1585-1610
    1600-1620
    1595-1605
    1605-1615
    1589-1600]

The bodices grew very long and pointed in the waist, the neck setting
being mostly treated in the same =V= shape, even open down to the waist
point was filled with a decorated stomacher, and a deep oval-shaped neck
was seen at the end of the reign. An outer opened sleeve was now
favoured, caught in front at the elbow and hanging to the knee over a
fairly tight undersleeve with a turned-back lace cuff or ruffle. With
this came the high-set fan ruff on its wooden support at the back of the
neck, and consequently a higher coiffure.

[Illustration: FIG. 56.

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1540-50, and other shoe forms worn in the reign of
Elizabeth.]

The same character of skirt continued as in the earlier reigns on hoops
at the lower part, but they became much fuller and rounder at the hips
till about 1590, when the full pleated skirt was supported on a
farthingale or hoop which was set with a gathered circle in the same
goffered design as the ruffs at the edge. These reached their extreme
dimensions at the end of this reign, when the sleeves also assumed a
full padded shape and large epaulets also came in. An overdress with a
full pleated back (like the Watteau dress) was in fashion from the
middle of this reign, and we are lucky to possess some specimens in the
Victoria and Albert Museum of which I am able to give the dimensions.
Small looking-glasses were carried, and were also inset on the round
feather fans. Perfumed gloves, elaborately embroidered, were introduced
during this reign. Silk stockings were worn by Elizabeth for the first
time in 1560, and worsted stockings were made in England in 1564.
Corsets of pierced steel are seen in France from the late 16th and 17th
century, and may have been in use here, though wood, cane, and whalebone
were the chief supports. Shoes became narrow and even pointed, while the
heel began to increase to considerable heights. The buskins of Queen
Elizabeth now at Oxford are raised to 3 inches in height by the aid of a
thick sole, and shoes A and B, Fig. 61, are also reported to have
belonged to her. Chopins for heightening the stature were in use on the
Continent, but I believe did not appear here; but very thick corked
soles and high heels were introduced for this purpose.

[Illustration:

Plate XIII.--

    (_a_) Silk Coat. 1735-55.
    (_b_) Brocade Silk Coat. 1745-60.
    (_c_) Embroidered Cloth Coat. 1770-90.

_Pattern, see p. 308._]


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. ELIZABETH. MALE.

In this reign a very neat small-pointed beard was the fashion, the hair
being brushed up as high as possible and often fulled out at the sides,
and a "chic" appearance was sought after. A stiff belled top-hat with an
egret at the right side made its first appearance with a curved brim,
also one of a tapered shape with a smallish round brim, and another very
small round hat with a curved brim, a clasp and feather being mostly
worn on the front of each. The brims of all the hats began to enlarge at
the end of the century when the very high crowned wide brimmed hat made
its appearance, sometimes with a peaked top, and beaver is first
mentioned in their make.

Large circular ruffs became all the rage besides the small turned-over
collar. The round doublet with protruding front became tighter at the
waist, the protuberance taking a punchlike pointed form curving to
almost between the legs and sloping sharply up the hips to the back.
This was set with a very short tab or tabs on padded breeches
tightening to the knee, which usually had very small trunks on the upper
part, and large, stuffed trunk hose also appeared. The stockings were
brought over these in a roll above the knee. Up to this time tights were
made of wool, worsted, fine cloth, frieze, and canvas. The slashings,
pleating, and gatherings of the period were of a much neater character,
and punched patterns and pricked materials came into use.

Close-fitting high boots, generally with serrated tops and thick soles
curving into a short heel, are features of this time. The shoe had a
long front decorated with slashings (often caught with jewels), and an
oval toe which became almost pointed in the last years of this century.
A short top-boot rising to the calf was also in use, mostly with a
little fur edge at the top, and these were often pricked with patterns.

[Illustration: FIG. 57.--Elizabethan modes.]



CHAPTER VI

THE CHARACTER OF TRIMMINGS THROUGH THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.


JAMES I.

The braiding and small slashing continued of a similar character to the
end of the Elizabethan age. The slashing now began to be treated with a
larger effect and less elaboration, but pricking and punching were still
much used for enriching surfaces. An improved style of design was
evident.

The female bodice was arranged with a long stomacher, often shaped into
curved forms at the point, and this was set with jewels or embroidery,
otherwise the bodice was decorated with braiding and jewels as in
Elizabeth's reign. The full sleeves were embellished with small slashes
(making diamond squares), puffs, or pricked and punched designs. A
turned-up cuff or ruff of pointed lace finished the wrist, braided
epaulets formed a beautiful feature of the effect, and the front of the
underskirt was decorated with a jewelled band or conventional design, as
was also the border of the overskirt. Caps of an interesting curved form
beautifully embroidered in gold and coloured silks are seen, of which I
give patterns; also loose jackets of the same work were in use when not
in full dress.


CHARLES I.

Many beautifully embroidered caps, jerkins, jackets, and shirts are seen
at this period in gold and black or coloured silks. Slashings of this
reign, though in fashion, had commenced to go out; and those retained
were of a large character, mostly from the neck or shoulder to the
breast. The favoured sleeves were cut into straps to the elbow or wrist,
and were often edged with braid, either side meeting together and lining
the forearm, the body being treated in the same way. The open-fronted
sleeve was set with buttons and loops or long braided buttonholes with
frayed or knotted ends, though these were not generally fastened. The
tight undersleeve was often set with gold or silver narrow braids down
the front and back seams, and close lines of small braids horizontally
round the arm, or vertically when the outer sleeve was treated
horizontally, this gave a beautiful counterchanged effect.

Many of the ladies' caps of this time had beautiful gold scrolls, with
flowers and birds embroidered in coloured silks, also loose jackets of
the same were in use. The bodice was banded with braids or lace on the
front and seams, and the stomacher was often of fine embroidery; set
rosettes or bows were placed at the waist. Other finishing effects of
collar or sleeve, and the button and buttonhole decorations were made
important features on both male and female sleeves, and even down the
front of the outer skirt when it was not treated with lace. Red heels to
shoes began to be worn and continued to the end of the 18th century in
marked favour.


THE COMMONWEALTH.

During this short period the character and placing of braiding was the
same as in the latter part of last reign; slashing had almost completely
gone out, except for the treatment of some ladies' sleeves cut into
bands. A very sober effect was assumed in colour schemes, besides a
plainer treatment in decoration, and a deep plain collar or a small
turn-over one was chiefly worn by the men, while the hat of the Puritan
rose to an absurd height, with a wide flat brim.


CHARLES II.

This may be named the period of ribbon trimmings, though braiding was
treated in broad lines on the short jackets and sleeves, and down the
sides of the breeches. A preference is shown for gold and silver lace,
or amongst the élite purfled silk edges; the new mode being a decoration
of groups of ribbon loops placed about the suit or dress. The notable
feature with the female dress was the gathering of drapery by means of
jewelled clasps, and groups of ribbon loops were also used, as with the
male dress. The edges of the materials were sometimes cut into scalloped
or classic forms, and a very simple voluminous character was fashion's
aim.


JAMES II AND WILLIAM AND MARY.

With the later type of long-skirted coat which began in Charles II's
reign, a heavy style of braiding and buttoning came into vogue, all the
seams of the coat besides the pockets and cuffs and fronts being
braided, which fashion continued to the end of the century. Many coats
began to be embroidered in the later reign, and waistcoats became a
special feature for the display of fine needlecraft on the fronts and
pockets, while quilting or imitations of it in various needlework
designs are often seen. In the female dress a more elaborate interest
was again taken in the stomachers and the jewelled claspings, while
lengths of soft silk gathered into long puffs often edged the outer
skirts or were used in smaller trimmings, and "classical" shapings of
the edges of materials and sleeves are often seen, also heavy bands of
rich embroidery bordered the underskirt or train.


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. JAMES I. FEMALE.

We find much the same high forms of set-up head-dress continuing in
fashion as in the later years of Elizabeth's reign; but the hair began
to take a fuller shape, rather round, done up in tight frizzled curls,
with the usual decorations of jewels, pearls, or set bows of this
period. Hats with high crowns and small straight brims, with an upright
set of small plumes, gradually assumed a larger brimmed character--often
turned up on one side. The same absurd pleated hoop, with its hanging
skirt, continued for some time (worn rather short); but we also see the
longer and very full hooped-out skirt, with an overskirt opened in the
front. The stomacher front became much enlarged during this reign, many
having shaped designs at the point. Most bodices took a very deep curved
front at the neck, and large padded sleeves narrowed at the wrist still
continued, besides the high fan collar at the back of the neck, and
large ruffs were used by many. There also appeared, later in the reign,
a stiff round collar, set high in the neck, cut off straight across
the front, and the bodice took a very low square-cut neck, with a raised
curved shape at the centre of neck. The tighter sleeve was also worn
throughout this time, with the overdress and sleeve hanging almost to
the ground, which often had a very angular cuff. A little later some
sleeves began to be gathered at intervals into puffy forms. The waist
also showed signs of shortening.

[Illustration: FIG. 58.]

[Illustration: FIG. 59.--Costumes. Period, James I.]

Shoes with rounded toes and latchets holding large rosettes were chiefly
worn, and heels of various heights are seen. Chopins, still worn on the
Continent, do not seem to have appeared here.


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. JAMES I. MALE.

The hat was of the high-crowned type, perhaps higher than in the last
reign. The brim had broadened, and feathers were placed upwards
fantastically at the back and sides of crown. Brims were often fastened
up on the right side with a jewel; otherwise a band was buckled in
front. The hair was now allowed to fall longer again, and a pointed or
square-shaped beard with a brushed-up moustache was the mode. Ruffs both
large and small surrounded the neck, and a flat fan-shaped collar
was seen in the earlier years.

[Illustration: Plate XIV.--

    (_a_) Embroidered Silk Dress with Pannier. 1765-80.
    (_b_) Brocade Dress and Quilted Petticoat. 1750-65.

_Pattern of bodice, p. 322._]

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--Costumes. Period James I.]

The jerkin was close fitting and the length of the waist more normal,
with less tendency to being tightened in, and not so deep in the front
point, so as to set better over the very full trunks or breeches. The
square tabs of the jerkin increased in size, and soon formed large flaps
divided into three or four, to the centre of the back. Sleeves were
fairly tight and started from slightly larger epaulets, and were usually
set at the wrist, either with a small ruff or turned-up lawn cuff, edged
with lace.

The trunks were padded in a very full shape and were much longer, just
above the knee. Also full padded-out breeches tapering to the knee or
just above, where a large tie and bow hung at the side, and full square
breeches not tied in, are also a feature of these days, usually banded
with wide braids at ends and sides. Upright pockets were made on either
side towards the front, about two inches from the side seams. They
fastened up the front in a pleated fold, many being decorated with
punched, pricked, or slashed design of a smallish character.

[Illustration: FIG. 61.--Shapes of Shoes from 1590-1650.]

Cloaks were worn longer to the knee, retaining the same shapes and
braid decoration as in the Elizabethan period, and hanging sleeves were
still worn on them, as well as on some of the jerkins.

Shoes became fuller and rounder at the toes, mostly with thick welted
soles and short heels, or none. They were fastened with a large rosette
of gold lace or ribbon on the front, and the latchets were set back to
show an open side. The top-boots were close fitting and took squarer
toes; the spur flap being rather small. Beautifully embroidered clocks
are seen on the tights and stockings of this period.


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. CHARLES I. FEMALE.

The hair was now allowed to fall in ringlets round the back and sides,
with a few flat curls on the brow, and a bow and pearls were caught in
at the sides. Short feathers may also be noted in use. A plait was often
coiled at the back after 1630.

[Illustration: Plate XV.--

    (_a_) White Cloth Coat. 1775-90.
    (_b_) Silk Dress. 1740-60.
    (_c_) Embroidered Velvet Coat. 1755-75.]

[Illustration: FIG. 62.]

[Illustration: FIG. 63.

Collar and Bodice types. Period Charles I.]

[Illustration: FIG. 64.

Collar and Bodice types. Period Charles I to 1660.]

In the early part of this reign the ladies were wearing the long
corset-bodice, with a richly decorated stomacher which curved outwards
to set on the very full skirts; this often finished with a curved or
foliated shape at the point. Square starched collars, rounded at
the back, sometimes set up at the back of the neck or flat on the
shoulder, and ruffs were still seen round the neck with collars as well,
but they were seldom met with after 1635. A plainer, deep collar, flat,
round, or =V=-shaped at the back, coming well over the shoulders, was
caught together by a bow or ornament in front. About 1630 shorter
waisted bodices came in, with full, loose sleeves set in epaulets: the
neck shape was rounded or square. The bodices were often slashed, and
the full sleeves, cut into bands, were sometimes gathered by cross bands
from one to three times. Full plain sleeves, opened in the front seam,
were also clasped at the elbow in a like manner. Outer short sleeves
became a feature, opening in the front, showing the full under one or a
tight one; the waist became very short and its tabs larger. A waistband
fastened in the stomacher with a bow either side and bows with long gold
tags decorated the waist as in the male jerkin. The skirt decorated by a
band of ornament down the front was often tied upon the corset-bodice,
the front point being left outside. Shoes of the same shape as the male
illustrations, with very square toes, were frequent, but an oval toe,
rather pointed, is seen in many pictures, with the large lace rosettes
in front. Muffs are first noticed in these days, though they were seen
much earlier on the Continent.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.--Period 1625-1660.]


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. CHARLES I. MALE.

The hair was worn loose to the shoulders, and a small plait was
sometimes arranged on the left side, brought to the front of shoulder.
The beard was trimmed to a pointed shape, and smarter curled moustaches
were fashionable. Hats were still high in the crown, but rather lower
than with James I; the large brims were turned about in various curves,
and feathers were worn falling over the brims to the side or back.

The jerkin was high in the collar, supporting a large, square, turn-down
collar edged with pointed lace to the shoulders, or a small, plain,
turn-over collar; ruffs are very rarely seen after 1630.

[Illustration: FIG. 66.--Charles I.]

[Illustration: FIG. 67.--Period 1625-1660.]

[Illustration: FIG. 68.--Period 1625-1660.]

A rather short waist grew shorter during this reign, with much larger
tabs, or large flaps laced to the body, forming a series of bows with
long gilt tags round the waist. The body is usually decorated with
long slashes from the shoulders to the breast, or the full length, and a
long slashed opening is often seen in the back (presumably to give more
play to the sword-thrust). The sleeve is also treated in the same way to
the elbow or waist. All sleeves start from a stiff epaulet. Breeches are
both very full and fairly tight, the latter edged with a purfling of
silk or gold lace as well as the sides, the former shape tied either
above or below the knee with a large silk bow with falling ends. They
were held up by a number of hooks, fastening to a small flap with
eyelets, round the inside of the doublet (see pattern 11, p. 295), and
were buttoned down the front, the buttons being half hidden in a pleat.
The pockets were placed vertically in the front of the thigh, and were
frequently of a decorative character.

A short or long circular cloak was worn, and a coat-cloak with opened
sleeves is an interesting garment. These coverings were hung in various
ways from the shoulders by methods of tying the cords across the body.

[Illustration: FIG. 69.--Period 1625-1660.]

[Illustration: FIG. 70.--Shoe shapes. Charles I to 1700.

    NOS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 23. Charles I.
    NOS. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 25. Charles II.
    NOS. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28. James II and
         William and Mary.]

[Illustration: Plate XVI.--

    (_a_) Silk Brocade Dress. 1740-60.
    (_b_) Silk Brocade Sack-back Dress. 1755-75.
          _Pattern, see p. 334._
    (_c_) Dress of Striped Material. 1775-85.
          _Pattern, see p. 335._]

[Illustration: FIG. 71.--Boot shapes. Charles I to 1700.

    NOS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Charles I.
    NOS. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. Charles II.
    NOS. 16, 17, 18. James II and William and Mary.]

Shoes became very square at the toes, or blocked as in Fig. 70, No. 6.
The fronts were set with large rosettes of silk and silver or gold
lace, the heels varied much in height, that mostly favoured being a
large, low heel. A quaint fashion of shoe combined with a clog sole was
an interesting shape (see illustration of clogs, p. 106). Fairly tight
top-boots, coming well above the knee, were often turned down. Other
boots with large bell-tops, turned over or pushed down, were covered or
filled with a lace or bell-shaped stocking-top. A sash was worn round
the waist or across the body over the left shoulder (the length and
width of these is given in the description of patterns, p. 279). A broad
belt, or sword-hanger, came across the right shoulder. Gloves were
beautifully embroidered in gold, pearls, or coloured silks, the
gauntlets being from five to eight inches deep.


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. THE COMMONWEALTH. MALE AND FEMALE.

The same shapes apply to costume during the Commonwealth, though a
sterner effect was given by the choice of plain decoration and less
colour. A small or a large plain collar, and the disappearance of
slashings on the coat, and a longer skirt became noticeable. A very
high tapered hat, with stiff circular brim, was worn by the Puritans,
and little, close, black hoods were much favoured. A general reaction
from gay extravagance set in.


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. CHARLES II.

FEMALE.

The hair was set out from the head on combs with falling ringlets, and
several small flat ringlets were placed on the forehead. The back of the
hair was plaited into a knot, and pearl strings were interlaced, or
ribbon loops caught in at either side. Toward 1680 the hair was worn
tightly curled and fulled out into a round shape with a curl or two
falling on the front of the shoulders; small feathers or long feathers
were also worn. Hats were of a similar shape to those of the last reign,
with a stiffer and narrower curved brim; but the chief head-dress was a
large hood faced with another material, which latter was tied under the
chin; these mostly formed part of a cape also.

[Illustration: FIG. 72.--Period 1650-1685.]

[Illustration: Plate XVII.--

    (_a_) Silk Suit. 1765-80.
    (_b_) Quilted Dress. 1700-25.
    (_c_) Silk-embroidered Suit. 1765-80.]

[Illustration: FIG. 73.

    1, 2, 3, 4.--Back and Front of two Corset Bodices. Period Charles II.
    5, 6.--Two Corsets. Period Charles II.
    7, 8.--Two Bodice types. Period Charles I.]

The bodice again became much longer and of a pointed shape, but many
corset bodices took a round point, and a round neck coming well off
the shoulders became general, usually decorated with a plain wide band
of lace. Ruffs and collars were no longer seen amongst the upper
classes. Very full sleeves and large opened sleeves were tied or clasped
over full lawn ones, and at times separated from the shoulders, being
caught effectively with jewels. Groups of ribbons were placed at the
breast or point of the bodice, and the ends of sleeves or shoulders,
besides at the fronts of the outer skirt when divided, also in the
gathering of the lawn sleeves. Stomachers were not much worn, but a
drape of soft silk was caught here and there round the neck of bodice,
and large draperies were clasped to the shoulders. Loose robes and robes
shaped to the figure, opening down the front from the neck even to the
waist, with a clasp or several holding them together; these were worn
over a quilted linen corset laced in front as in the illustration, but
the bodice was often formed on a corset. Long gloves and mittens were in
use, and small muffs with ribbon loops on the front were carried.
High-heeled shoes with very long square toes were affected in imitation
of the male shoe, but most ladies now began to wear a very pointed
shoe.

[Illustration: FIG. 74.--Sleeve treatments. Period Charles II.]


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. CHARLES II.

MALE.

Long hair or wigs of long curls falling on the shoulders, a very narrow
moustache and point of beard on the chin came with this reign. Lace
collars of a smaller square or rounded shape were in use, but a fall of
lace pleated in the centre soon took its place. High-crowned hats with a
band and bow in front and a flat, waved, or curved brim, with feathers
on either side or all round, were the fashion, the crowns becoming
shorter during the reign; the fronts and sometimes the sides of the brim
are seen turned up, and so begins to form the three-cornered hat, which
remained so long a feature in history.

[Illustration: FIG. 75.--Period Charles II.]

We find with extravagant shapes a happy return of gay colours. The
high-waisted jerkins of the Charles I period were now seen without the
skirt (as very short jackets), leaving the lawn shirt to show between
this and the breeches, besides which the jackets were nearly always left
unbuttoned several inches up, some being cut away in a rounded shape and
also having short sleeves. The lower arm was covered with a full lawn
sleeve caught at two or even three distances with a loop of ribbons or
bows, and finishing with a wide lace frill; a bunch of ribbon loops was
also often seen on the right shoulder. A long circular cloak, with
turned-back fronts forming a collar in many, still retained the hanging
sleeve, and was mostly decorated with bands of heavy braid. A long
square coat also came in about 1666, buttoned right down the front, with
pockets set very low in the skirt, and large narrow cuffs opened at the
back as in Plate VIII (see p. 90).

Very full breeches were worn to just about the knee or shorter, with a
fringe of ribbon loops, and a row or several rows of the same were
arranged at the waist. A short petticoat just showed the under breeches,
many of which were turned into a doublet shape by an additional piece
looped up loosely from the knee with a silk filling; the ribbon loops at
the waist were repeated up the sides of the petticoat. Silk garters were
worn with bows on both sides of the leg, or a deep lace fall came from
the end of the breeches to the middle of the calf; a lace setting also
filled the wide top of the boots, which was worn very low, even to the
ankles. These short bell-topped boots were favoured, with high heels
and very square toes. Shoes were long and square (or duck-billed) at the
toes; and had a high narrow front to the instep, and latchets fastened
with a stiffened butterfly bow, besides, at times, a rosette lower down
on the front: red heels were in evidence. The sword-band was very wide,
and many were decorated with gold embroidery.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.--Costume types. Period Charles II.]


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. JAMES II.

FEMALE.

The hair was still worn full at the sides over a comb, as in the former
reign, with curls dropping to the shoulders, but they now began to
discard the set-out comb and the little flat curls on the forehead, the
hair being of a round shape or parted from the centre and mounted higher
and narrower on the head, in the latter part of this reign. The same
large hoods and drapes continued in use, and a high goffered head-dress
with set-out front began to appear; the same shaped bodice with round
low neck showing the shoulders, often set with a stomacher front or
jewelled in that form, and smaller decorations of ribbon loops were
still favoured. A smaller and shorter sleeve began to appear with a
turned-up cuff, and the gathered-in lawn sleeves and ruffles caught here
and there with pearls or clasps as before, besides the same light
drapery clasped about the breast front. The overskirt was now looped
back, the points being held together, giving a wide display of the
underskirt, which was heavily banded or had a jewel setting down the
front. Other train skirts, also divided in front, were bordered with
drawn silk caught at intervals into long puffs. Very small muffs were
the fashion. Shoes increased their pointed shape and rather large heels
are to be noted, but some shoes assumed a very narrow square toe; they
were either tied from small latchets with a bow, or with buckled
latchets. Longer gloves were worn, and large full cloaks with hoods or
large drapery wraps when required for outdoor wear.

[Illustration: FIG. 77.--Costume notes. Period 1670-1690.]


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. JAMES II.

MALE.

The same long wig was worn as in the last reign, but the curls were more
of a set ringlet type, and embroidered caps were worn when these were
taken off. The face was now clean shaven until the 19th century. Hats
also of the older character were retained, but the turned-up
three-cornered shape, filled with short feathers, became more settled in
fashion, and they were heavily banded with gold braid or lace on the
edge.

[Illustration: FIG. 78.--Period 1690-1700.]

A smart bow was worn crosswise over the folded lace fall at the neck.
The coat was a very long square shape to the knees, the stiff skirt
often set out over rather full breeches, which were sometimes "shorts,"
and just above the knee, the stocking being often brought up above the
knee, with a garter just below. The sleeves were short, above or below
the elbow, with a turned-up cuff, leaving the full-gathered lawn sleeve
with a lace ruffle to show at the wrist. A sash encircled the waist, and
often shut in the sword-belt, which hung from the right shoulder. The
coat had buttons from the neck to the bottom of the skirt, though the
lower buttons were seldom fastened; the sides of the skirt were opened
up about 11 inches, and also the back seam to the same height; most
seams were heavily decorated with gold, silver braid, or lace, and the
pockets were placed rather low down towards the front of the skirt, and
were sometimes set vertically.

[Illustration: Plate XVIII.--

    (_a_) Brocade Bodice. 1770-85.
    (_b_) Flowered Silk Dress. 1750-70.
    (_c_) Silk Brocade Bodice. 1780-95.]

[Illustration: FIG. 79.--Period 1688-1702.]

Long round capes were still worn, without sleeves, and a collar turned
down about 4 inches.

Shoes of a similar shape to those of the later Charles II type were in
use, but the heels became larger and the toes not so long; the top of
the front was sometimes shaped and turned down. Heavy boots to the knee,
with large curved tops, were also in favour, as in the illustration
(Fig. 71).


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. WILLIAM AND MARY. FEMALE.

The hair was now mounted high on top and the front parted with two
curls, the rest of the hair being bound on top, or a curl was arranged
on either shoulder. A goffered frill head-dress, set on a cap, rose very
high, and a long fall of lace, or lappets, came down on either side from
the cap, or was gathered in like a small hood at the back. Bare
shoulders now began to disappear, the bodice shape coming over the
shoulder to a =V= shape enclosing a stomacher, which was sometimes tabbed
or shaped at the point. Many dresses were made in one length, caught
together at the waist with a band; the fronts of these skirts were
looped back high up, creating a pannier-like fullness at the hips, and
narrow hoops came in to set out the skirts, many of which were heavily
embroidered with gold. The Watteau-back dress started in this reign; a
very early specimen, at the Victoria and Albert Museum, is most probably
of this time (Fig. 85, A). The sleeves worn to the elbow increased in
width from the shoulder, and were set with large narrow cuffs gathered
with a jewel or bow on the front of the arm. Hoods and cloaks of the
same character as described for the last reign continued, and light
sticks were carried by the ladies. Very pointed shoes were worn, with
large high heels, the top of the front flap in some being shaped into
points. Black masks were frequently used, some having long lace falls.
Rather small muffs were still the fashion, and beautifully decorated
short aprons became a feature with the dress.

[Illustration: FIG. 80.--1688-1698.]


SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. WILLIAM AND MARY. MALE.

Wigs of the same long character continued, and were parted in the centre
with a raised effect, and variously shaped caps, with turned-up fold or
brim, were worn when the wig was taken off.

The beaver or felt hat, turned up three-cornerwise, was now in general
use. It is often seen with the brims loose, or sometimes down,
especially amongst the lower classes. Both small shapes and large were
worn.

[Illustration: Plate XIX.--

    (_a_) Silk Brocade Dress. 1775-85.
    (_b_) Embroidered Silk Jacket. 1775-90.
          _Pattern, see p. 326._
    (_c_) Brocade Jacket. 1780-95.
          _Cap pattern, see p. 331._
          _Coat pattern, see p. 348._]

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--Period 1680-1690.]

Black ties across formal lace cravats, and long lawn cravats, edged with
lace, one end of which was sometimes caught up loosely through the
large buttonhole of the coat were worn. Waistcoats were left open well
down to the waist; some of these were nearly of the same length as the
coat, the skirt being often edged with deep gold fringe.

The coats were of much the same character as in the time of James II,
with buttons all down the front, but now it was the mode to button coats
just at the waist, allowing the waistcoat to be shown. The sleeves were
generally longer, to the middle of the forearm, and the turned-back
cuffs became very large and deep, often towards the end of the reign
taking a curved shape. The seams, fronts, and pockets were frequently
braided as before. A long square waistcoat of rich brocade or
embroidered material, about four inches shorter than the coat, was worn;
some of these had tight sleeves, which came to the wrist beneath the
outer coat-sleeve; otherwise a gathered lawn sleeve with ruffle was
worn.

Shoes and boots were practically the same as in the previous reign, with
larger high heels and a high square front, with latchets buckled or
stiffly tied, and very square toes. Top-boots of the same heavy
character continued as in Plate II (see p. 42). Stockings continued to
be worn frequently above the knee outside the breeches, with a garter
beneath, and beautifully embroidered clocks to the calf. Muffs were
carried by many men, and the gauntlets of gloves had a very angular
shape. Patches and make-up were used by the dandies, and the sword was
now carried through the side pleats on a waist-belt sometimes worn
outside the waistcoat.



CHAPTER VII

THE CHARACTER OF DECORATION AND TRIMMINGS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.


In the early part to the middle of this century the trimmings were
chiefly of gold or silver lace, real lace, and purfled silk, mostly of
the same material as the dress: a bow was often worn on the breast, and
also in the front of the sleeve cuff. Purfled or ruched trimming
generally ran down the front of the dress from the neck to the hem of
the skirt in the Second Georgian dress, and gathered borders or
decorations of curved forms were in use. The skirts usually had only one
flounce till the reign of George III, when the trimmings became more
elaborate, and gauze and imitation flowers were festooned upon the
skirts, with ribbons and tassels and padded designs standing out in
strong relief; some charming gimp trimmings are also seen.

The lace ruffles of a fan shape which finished the earlier sleeves till
about 1745 were sometimes of lace, interwoven with gold, silver, and
coloured silk needlework, and this was no doubt the forerunner of the
use of the more solid material itself. The setting of the sleeve finish
is interesting to note all through this period, for it was beautifully
treated in balancing the effect of the dress. The square cuff with the
deep lace fall was big in style, and the later closely-fitted elbow
piece, richly gathered, was happily conceived, but no finer setting
could have been applied to the sack-back dress than the large fan or
double fan with its lace fall. The edges of the early fan-finished
sleeves were of curved and scalloped forms, the latter shaping often
being seen in the later sleeves.

With George III we notice designs in straw work, decorations of
imitation flowers in ribbon-work and various materials, and much taste
in the choice of colour schemes, while the tassels of this period were
delightful creations. The designs of stuffs at the early part of the
century were generally of fine strong colour blends, but in the middle
period there was much questionable taste displayed in the heavy massing
of patterns, but this soon improved with the striped character crossed
by running flowers which was quite ideal in type for costume keeping,
grace, and lightness, with a beautiful interchange of colour.

The quilted silk and satin petticoats are a special feature to note in
these times; many simple and effective designs were in use, and they
added much glitter to the scheme. Aprons were also beautiful examples of
needlework, and were worn with the best of dresses to the middle of the
century; the earlier ones generally had a scalloped edging, and many had
pockets; gold lace edging or fringe was often used in the time of George
II, and they were all finely decorated with needlework in gold, silver,
or coloured silks. The white aprons were also of consummate needlecraft,
and hanging pockets worn at the sides were also a decorated feature, but
these only showed when the dress was worn tucked up. The later style of
dress became much simpler, consisting chiefly of gathered flounce
settings, fichus, and large mob caps; these were often daintily
embroidered with tambour work and large bow and sash settings, making
delightful costumes.

Bags, muffs, gloves, and shoes were all chosen for the display of
needlecraft, while artists and jewellers used all their skill on the
fans, patch-boxes, and étuis, and even the dress materials were often
painted by hand, while many painted Chinese silks were also utilised.


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. ANNE. FEMALE.

The hair was dressed in a simple manner, with two curls parted from the
centre of the forehead, and curved inwards on the brow. A loose ringlet
or two were brought on to the left shoulder, the rest being gathered
into a back-knot. Feathers or flowers were arranged on top, generally
with a pair of lace lappets falling to the back; these also adorned the
cap, which still bore the front goffered frills set out as in the last
reign, but these were diminished in size and were mostly of one row. We
note probably the last stage of this style appearing in a print of
Hogarth's, dated 1740.

[Illustration: FIG. 82.--Bodice types. Period 1690-1720.]

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--Costume type. 1695-1710.]

Hoods and capes or cloaks, and long black fichus or wraps, were the
chief coverings, as the head-dress did not allow of hats being worn, but
with the small frilled caps a little straw hat, or a low-crowned felt
with a largish brim, are seen, and a small lace frill round the neck
began to appear. Bodices with a low curved neck often had a short skirt
or shaped pieces, as well as a shaped short sleeve over a gathered lawn
one, while many wore long sleeves to the wrist, and a waistbelt is
sometimes noted. There was also the sleeve spreading in width to the
elbow, with a turned-up square cuff. The front of the bodice may be
remarked with bands fastening across, and this became a feature in many
dresses later in this century, otherwise it set closely over the
shoulders to a =V= shape at the waist, and was filled with a stomacher of
fine needlework, bows, or the ends of the lawn fichu laced or caught in
by a big bow. A full, loose gown, with the fullness pleated to back and
front, came in, the front being held by a bow and the back allowed to
fall loose or crossed with a large bow at the back of waist, as in the
museum specimen, Fig. 85. This became the more elaborate sack-back
dress.

[Illustration: FIG. 84.--Period 1700-1725.]

The skirts began to be set out in a bell form, and trains were in much
favour; the overskirts were parted in front, and many looped up to the
back in a similar manner to the last reign. Small aprons of fine
embroidery were worn with the best of dresses, and embroidered pockets
are seen when the skirts were thrown back. Petticoats of fine quilting
became much appreciated, and tall sticks were carried by ladies. Pointed
shoes with high heels and latchets tied or buckled, the top of the
fronts being mostly cut into four points, or they had a square finish.


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. ANNE. MALE.

The wigs of the full ringlet style were still the fashion, but a simpler
character is noticeable, the hair being combed back off the forehead and
allowed to fall in looser waves. But many began to set a mode of smaller
"coiffure," with their own hair caught in curls by a bow at the back,
and curls over each ear. Powder came into use with the smart set, and a
big bow and bag to finish the back of wig appeared, giving a smarter
appearance to the white hair.

[Illustration: Plate XX.--

    (_a_) Gold-embroidered Muslin Dress. 1795-1805.
    (_b_) Nine Aprons. Between 1690 and 1850.
    (_c_) Dress of Spotted Stockinette. 1795-1808.]

[Illustration: FIG. 85.--Bodice types. 1700-1725.]

The hat, sometimes of white felt, was the same three-cornered type,
edged with feathers and banded with broad gold braids or silver lace.
The neckwear was a bind of lawn, with a long fall finished with lace.

The coat remained long to the knees, but took a greater fullness in the
side pleats of the skirt. Large buttons and buttonholes, 3 inches long,
are seen, with the same on the cuff, which was worn very large, often 9
inches broad, and mostly of a curved outline, and of another coloured
brocade; a tight undersleeve is also seen with these. The coat was
sometimes heavily decorated with needlework or braids of gold down the
front, pockets, seams, and cuffs. The pocket was wide and set higher in
the skirt, and the back opening of coat was decorated by several
horizontal braids to the two side pleats.

A long, full-skirted waistcoat, of rich materials or needlework, was at
times braided and fringed at the skirt with gold, the pockets covered
with a large flap, and five buttons fastened it or were placed as
decorations just below it. The front buttons were often reduced to four
at the waist, as it was still fashionable to show the lawn shirt.

Breeches were of the same cut as in the former reign, with five or six
side buttons at the knee, and stockings with embroidered clocks were
worn rolled over outside the breeches as before.

Shoes were square at the toes and not quite so long, while the heels
were still rather heavy, and red was the mode. They had a high square
top at the front instep, and buckles fastened the latchets. Muffs were
often carried by the dandies, and walking-sticks, with tassel and loop,
were slung on the arm; besides a sword, which, passing through the side
pleats and out at the back, helped to set out the coat, which was often
stiffened in the skirts. Gloves, with short gauntlets very angular or
curved in shape, were trimmed with gold fringe; the backs were also
richly embroidered with gold or silver.


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE I. FEMALE.

[Illustration: FIG. 86.--1725-1750.]

[Illustration: Plate XXI.--23 Boots and Shoes. From 1800-75.

      1. 1800-1820.
      2.     "
      3. 1810-1828.
      5. 1820-1830.
      8.     "
      9. 1820-1830.
     10.     "
     13. 1830-1855.
     16.     "
    16A.     "
      7. 1850-1865.
     14.     "
     15.     "
      4.     "
      6.     "
     17.     "
     12.     "
     21. 1860-1875.
     11.     "
     18.     "
     20.     "
     19.     "
     22.     "     ]

[Illustration: FIG. 87.--Period 1725-1750.]

[Illustration: FIG. 88.--Modes, 1750-1770.]

[Illustration: FIG. 89.--Various Styles in Cut Back of Bodice.]

The hair was very simply gathered from the forehead and taken up to a
knot of curls at the back. Occasionally a group of curls was allowed to
fall behind, or a curl was arranged to fall on one shoulder, and
waved curls of the Queen Anne type were still seen on many people. Caps,
with long dropping points in front, sometimes tied under the chin or
with long lappets at the back, were the chief favourites, also a small
frilled cap. Shallow-crowned straw hats with various widths of brim;
hoods and capes, both short and long, are seen, besides light silks
draped from the hair to the waist, feathers, flowers, and ribbons being
worn in the head-dress. Richly embroidered aprons were worn with the
finest dresses.

The sack-back dress was very full, and started right across the
shoulders in two double box-pleats, which were kept trim by being sewn
flat for two to four inches down. Sleeves to the elbow were rather full,
and gathered at the shoulders, with a square cuff often decorated with a
bow in front, and a fan of lace, sometimes in several rows, fell from
beneath. Sleeves finishing in a shaped edge are occasionally seen. The
skirts were made for the very round hoop setting, and were gathered in
flat pleats on either hip. A wide pleat or two came from the shoulders
down the front sometimes as a continuation of the sack-back. These
pleats, meeting at the waist, formed a =V= shape, which was filled by an
embroidered stomacher, or made of the same material, crossed by bands,
bows, or rows of lace. The flat front pleat was occasionally
embroidered, and gradually widened to the bottom of the skirt. Very
pointed toes to the shoes, and high heels, with tied or buckled
latchets, are seen, the tops of the front often being shaped into four
points.


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE I. MALE.

Long, full wigs are still seen amongst older men, but several new shapes
appear as illustrated (Fig. 90), and the black bow and bag became very
large; a black ribbon attached to it, with a bow in front, came round
the neck. We also see the ends of the wig made into a long, tight
pigtail. Hats were of the same three-cornered shape, rather fuller in
size, and the feathered edging was still favoured. A hat of the type of
Fig. 105 was also worn; and the loose cap with a tassel was put on when
the wig was removed (see Fig. 104).

[Illustration: FIG. 90.--Wig types, 1st half 18th century.]

[Illustration: FIG. 91.--List of Dated Shoes and Boots.

    No.
     1. 1700-1750.
     2. 1700-1780.
     3. 1700-1780.
     4. 1700-1750.
     5. 1700-1760.
     6. 1720-1780.
     7. 1690-1720.
     8. 1700-1750.
     9. 1700-1740.
    10. 1740-1760.
    11. 1702-1720.
    12. 1730-1750.
    13. 1760-1800.
    14. 1730-1760.
    15. 1740-1770.
    16. 1770-1780.
    17. 1740-1780.
    18. 1786-1796.
    19. 1774-1784.
    20. 1775-1790.
    21. Sole of shoe No. 22.
    22. 1776-1800.
    23. 1780-1790.]

The neck had the same lawn bind with a long lace ruffle, and the coat
the same full cut as in the last reign, and the large rounded cuff
was still in favour, but many varieties of size were now worn. A
vertical pocket is seen occasionally on cloth coats, also a cape and
turned-down collar are noted, while several appear with a very small
upright collar. Buttons were still worn on some coats, right down the
front; but on many coats the buttons stopped level with the pocket.

A short-skirted coat came in amongst the dandies towards the end of the
reign, and was stiffened out on the skirts; these mostly had a tighter
sleeve and cuff. The same decorations continued in use. Waistcoats were
much the same, and were cut to the length of the coats, or about four
inches shorter; they were buttoned higher, the lace often falling
outside.

Breeches were the same in cut, fastened with six buttons and a buckle at
the side of the knee. The stockings, usually decorated with clocks, were
still worn rolled outside the knee amongst smart people. The stiff high
boots or gaiters generally had a full curved piece at the top, and short
gaiters to the calf are also to be noticed.

The shoes were square-toed or of a roundish form, with a short or
rather high square front, and heels of various heights. Patches and
make-up were used by the fops, and swords and sticks carried, the latter
being very high, to 46 inches.


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE II. FEMALE.

The hair was treated in much the same manner as with George I up to the
end of this reign--gathered back from the forehead to a bunch of curls
at the back. The small hats and caps, often worn together, continued of
the same character; the dresses also remained similar in cut. The
sack-back dress was supreme in the fifties, when it was set with
panniers, together with the hoops, but the latter were not so much worn
towards the end of this reign, except for the "grand dress." Quilted
petticoats were much worn, but flounces are not a feature on the skirts
till the latter part of this period. The simpler dress was of various
lengths, and was at times worn quite short up to 1740. The corset bodice
was still in use, with lawn sleeves: square cuffs and lace ruffles held
the lead throughout this time, but the fan-shaped sleeve finish to
the elbow, in the same material as the dress, began to appear about
1750, generally with a waved or scalloped edge. Pointed toes and
high-heeled shoes continued, with either tied or buckled latchets, and
long gloves and mittens were in use.

[Illustration: FIG. 92.--Three hoops and four pannier forms.

    Types 1725-1760.
          1750-1780.
          1740-1770.
          1700.
          1720-50.
          1735-65.
          1780-90.]

[Illustration: FIG. 93.

_Quilted designs on Petticoats, 18th century._]


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE II. MALE.

Wigs with double points at the back, short curled or of long pigtailed
shapes, some with side curls, others curled all round the front, were
worn. Large bows and bags, or no bows, finished the back hair, and the
bow to the front of the neck was in use from the early part of this
reign. Long coats, as in the last reign, and short coats with stiffened
skirts were used; many with braided seams and fronts, also a braided
opening at the back. Large round cuffs and big square ones, caped coats,
and coats with turn-down collars were all in the mode, and the
"maccaroni" fashions started about 1760, with absurdities in small hats,
clubbed wigs, and very short coats. High sticks and crook sticks, canes
and swords continued in use.

[Illustration: Plate XXII.--

    (_a_) Linen Dress. 1795-1808.
          _Pattern of Bodice, see p. 316._
    (_b_) Silk Bodice. 1825-30.
    (_c_) Silk Bodice. 1818-25.]

[Illustration: FIG. 94.--Wig types, second half 18th century.

    1740-1765.
    1765-1795.]

The pocket flaps were of a curved form, with a rounded centre still,
and many of the shoes had a high square front, high heels, and square
toes: according to the caricature prints of Boitard, the fashionable
hats were smaller in 1730, and much larger ten years later; very full
skirts at the former date, and smaller and less stiffened at the latter.
Stockings were often still worn outside the knee. Shoes reached an
extreme high square front at the latter date, and gloves with curved or
square cuffs are to be noted.

[Illustration: FIG. 95.--First Half Eighteenth Century.]


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE III TO 1800. FEMALE.

This long reign, like that of Queen Victoria, embraces several changes
of style. Up till about 1785 white powder was still used for the hair,
reaching its fullest extravagance in the middle of the seventies, set
with pearls, bandeaus, caps, lace, flowers and feathers, and about 1776
the top was widened considerably. The front hair, gathered from the
forehead, was pressed in a forward curve over a high pad, with one to
three curls at the sides and one at the shoulders, the back hair being
arranged in a loose loop, curled on the top and set with a large bow at
the back; a small round hat with very small low crown (usually decorated
with flowers and silks gathered into puffs, or ribbons and small
feathers) was tilted right on the front. About 1780 large mob caps with
a big bow on the front came in, and were generally worn together with
the tall-crowned hat or the large-brimmed hat in favour at this time. A
cape with smallish hood worn in the earlier reigns was supplanted about
1777 by the calash, a huge hood set out with whalebone which came
to cover the full head-dresses. The heavier caped or hooded cloak,
sometimes with side opening for the arms, and usually trimmed with fur,
still remained in use to 1800.

[Illustration: FIG. 96.--Costume notes, 1770-1780.]

[Illustration: Plate XXIII.--

    (_a_) Muslin Dress with Tinsel Design. 1798-1810.
    (_b_) Silk Dress. Period George IV.
    (_c_) Satin and Gauze Dress. 1820-30.]

[Illustration: FIG. 97.--Head Dress. Period 1780-1795.]

[Illustration: FIG. 98.--Hats and Caps during period 1780-1795.]

[Illustration: FIG. 99.--Hats during period 1790-1800.]

The bodice retained the same shape as in the former reign, rather longer
in the points back and front, with a large fan finish to the sleeve,
double or single; this became supplanted by a much-gathered elbow-piece,
sometimes eight inches deep, gathered in four rows. Small drawn gathers
started round the waist of the skirt, for the side panniers and hoops
were being less worn, except for the "smart gown," but bunching,
reefing, and looping took their place in effect, and quilted petticoats
remained while this character of dress lasted. The later sack-back dress
was sewn tighter to the body, and usually started in a narrower set at
the back, while the full pleat from the shoulder down the front went
out, and the neck was more displayed by lower bodice fronts, which
continued to be set with bows, jewels, lace, or embroidery. Sack-back
jackets were often worn in the seventies; when the sack began to
disappear, it took the form of overlapped seams on the bodice. The
decorated side pockets are noted in prints showing tuck-up dresses to
1775. The jacket bodice of the same form described in the preceding
reign was perhaps more in evidence till 1780, not so long in the skirt
as in the earlier reigns, but after this date it took a longer skirt,
which was often pleated at the back, with a very low neck and short
waist.

[Illustration: FIG. 100.--Period 1780-1795.]

About 1780 we find a change of style appearing in a shorter waist, with
less pointed setting, having often a rounded point or square tabs, and
even a shaped finish to the corset front, which was sometimes used like
a waistcoat effect under the cut-away dresses seen after 1770 (see Fig.
99, p. 221). A general tendency to imitate male attire is apparent, and
the front of the bodice was set with lapels and straps buttoned across
(though I have noted this latter character in the early part of this
century), and long coats with this character were much worn, with two or
three capes. The sleeves are sometimes set over a tight undersleeve, in
fact the longer sleeve to the wrist became fashionable. With this change
a short gathered skirt is seen on some bodices, and the full gathered
skirt was bunched out at the back on a bustle, of which I give an
illustration (p. 212), the low neck being filled with a large lawn
fichu; a wide belt was generally worn, or a wide sash and bow at the
back or side is seen with the lighter dresses, these being simple in
style, just gathered at the waist, with short full sleeves set with a
frill, and another frill was also arranged round the neck.

[Illustration: FIG. 101.]

About 1790 the mode again began to change to a classic style, still
higher in the waist, with a short tight sleeve, at times puffed in the
upper part, or an outer and under sleeve, as per illustration A, Plate
XXII (see p. 215). The fronts of this type of bodice were mostly
buttoned or pinned up to the shoulders over a tight underfront, the
skirt opening about 18 inches at the sides, thus saving a fastening at
the back. I have illustrated some very interestingly cut jackets of this
period from my collection, as A, Plate XXIV (see p. 231); the sleeves
were very long and were ruckled on the arm, as likewise were the long
gloves or mittens of this time. A long scarf or drape was carried with
this style, and a round helmet-like hat in straw or a turban was
adopted. High sticks were still carried by ladies till the nineties,
and umbrellas or parasols; the former came into vogue about 1770, the
latter about six years later. Muffs of beautifully embroidered silk and
satin were set with purfled trimmings, gold and silver lace, or bows and
ribbons; otherwise they were of furs or feathers. They remained rather
small up to 1780, when a very large shape set in, which continued till
the end of the reign; the quantity of beautiful fans of this century
must be so well known as to need no description. The highest artistry
was concentrated on them.

[Illustration: FIG. 102.--Period 1790-1800.]

[Illustration: FIG. 103.--Costume notes, 1790-1800.]

[Illustration: FIG. 104.--Lounge Caps worn during removal of Wig.]

Shoes at the beginning of this reign were set on very high spindle
heels; the toe-front became rounded, the instep-front a pointed shape,
and wide latchets were buckled till about 1785, but fashion discarded
them earlier; for about 1780 the shoes became very small at the heel,
and pointed again at the toe. When the latchets went out, the pointed
instep remained for a time, but a low round front appeared, and the heel
practically vanished just before 1800. These later shoes were decorated
on the front by needlework or incised leather openwork underlaid with
another colour. The soles at this time were extremely quaint in
shape, and the shoes were tied sandal fashion up the ankle.

[Illustration: Plate XXIV.--

    (_a_) Outdoor Silk Jacket. 1798-1808.
    (_b_) Embroidered Muslin Bodice. 1816-30.
    (_c_) Embroidered Muslin Bodice. 1824-25.
    (_d_) Satin and Gauze Bodice. 1820-30.]


EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE III TO 1800. MALE.

The wigs, which were rather high in the front of the crown in the
earlier part, began to cast off the most eccentric forms, and became
just curled, rather full at the sides, and tied with a bow at the back:
dull pink powder became a favoured hue from about 1780; most people
began to return to their own hair, and one might see many without long
hair in the nineties. The last type of dressing the hair in imitation of
the wig form was a long, tightly braided pigtail at the back, with one
or even two side curls over the ear, and side whiskers were allowed to
fill up to them; thus when the short hair set the fashion, side whiskers
came in.

Hats were still worn of the three-cornered shape, but the favourites
became a front cockade hat and a hat with a rounded crown and rather
wide brim, sometimes turned up on one side; a short type of top-hat was
also often seen, and later became the fashion. The same lawn and lace
cravat developed into more of a plain white stock, with a frilled
shirt-front.

The coat was worn much tighter in the arms and was smartly cut, with the
fronts running away into a narrow tailed skirt. The pockets often began
to take a plain square form, with or without buttons; the buttons on the
front of the coat stopped at the waist--many cuffs are seen without
them; and the side pleats, set more to the back, were pressed and
narrower. Both the plain and turn-over collars were set up high in the
neck, large cut-steel buttons were introduced in the early seventies,
and many fancy china buttons, besides the gilt silver and paste ones
were in use. A new type of coat made its appearance with a high
turn-over collar and large lapels, and a sudden cut-in of the coat-front
high in the waist, giving a very long-tailed effect to the skirt. A cuff
shape with these was mostly made in one with the sleeve and buttoned at
the side towards the back, and when the cuff was additional, it seldom
had buttons, as formerly.

A greatcoat with one, two, or three capes was a picturesque garment, and
a leather-covered bottle was often carried when riding a distance, of
which I have an example in my collection.

[Illustration: FIG. 105.]

Waistcoats, which had become much shorter, were now giving place to a
type with a straight-across front and turned-back lapels at the neck;
these large lapels were mostly worn outside over the coat lapel. The
waistcoats were often double-breasted with an embroidered design down
the front between the double row of buttons, and the straight pockets of
these had no flaps; they shortened at the waist in character with the
lapelled coat, but were worn lower than the cut-in shape of the coat,
showing about 3 inches when the coat was fastened. Breeches became very
tight, and trousers begin to appear after 1790. Striped stockings and
suits were much in favour. Top-boots with rather long brown tops were
worn, or high boots with a curved top, with a gold tassel set in front,
were seen. The shoes with latchets and buckles had a low front on the
instep, and from about 1780 took a rather pointed oval toe shape; the
heels were mostly worn shorter. Swords were not so much in use except on
great occasions, but sword-sticks were carried, and heavy club-sticks
were fashionable before 1800. Patches were little used after the
seventies, but the snuff-box was still indispensable. The double long
purse with central rings and tassels at the ends was carried, of knitted
silk or of leather, the former with steel beads and coloured silks
worked together after 1780: small bag purses were also in use, usually
set in gilt mounts and made in the same methods with a tassel below.

[Illustration: Plate XXV.--

    (_a_) Silk Dress. 1800-10.
    (_b_) Cotton Dress. 1800-10.
    (_c_) Embroidered Muslin Dress. 1820-30 (_Pattern, see p._ 339).
    (_d_) Silk Gauze Dress. 1824-30.]

[Illustration: FIG. 106.]



CHAPTER VIII

CHARACTER OF TRIMMINGS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.


During the later part of the 18th century, a great deal of tinsel drawn
work was done on fine muslin, and became beautifully treated in delicate
design on the hem and down the front of many of the high-waisted dresses
as in Fig. A, Plate XXIII (see p. 218). Later on towards the twenties we
see a great deal of effective coarse work in heavy gold tinsel, and at
the same time to the forties a number of dresses were ably enriched with
fine gold thread.

The white embroidery in the earlier trimmings of this period, of which I
give examples in Plate XXIV (see p. 231), was remarkable for its wealth
of fancy; the chief beauty of these dresses was the delightful treatment
of gathered effects, and with the reign of George IV we note the
gradual return of the longer pointed bodice, with the growth of very
full sleeves, also the increase in the size and fuller set-out of the
skirts over the stiff flounced drill petticoats. The =V=-shaped Bertha
setting to neck and shoulders began to establish itself, and became a
great feature through the thirties and forties; the first signs of it
appear about 1814. Varieties of materials were used to great advantage
in designing, and drawn tulle trimmings were happily introduced to
soften hard shapes and colours. The shoulder fullness also began to be
neatly drawn in and held by straps, which gave a charming character to
many bodices.

From 1816 choice work in piped shapes, often of flower forms decorated
with pearls or beads, was set on fine net, as seen in Plates XXIII and
XXIX (see pp. 218, 263). The attraction to the thirties was the happy
effects gained by the bow and flower looping on the flounces, and these
ripened in fancy and variety through the forties. Braiding was adopted
in the thirties with a rather charming treatment of tassels down the
front of the dress; the polonaises of this time were also effective and
simple, caught here and there with posies of flowers, and we find this
fashion again revived in the sixties.

With the reign of George IV we notice an increasing choice of strong
coloured effects, which culminated in the mid-Victorian era in raw
colour and violent shot silks, velvets, and heavy fringes, but one may
see that many of these dresses of bright pure tone looked exceedingly
refined and were quite stately. A remarkable dress is Fig. A, Plate
XXXII (see p. 279), which is of very strong bright blue; its only
enrichment being a curved line of folded silk. All these dresses from
1800 were delightfully embellished with embroidered fichus, light
scarves of frail gauze, crêpe, or Norwich silk, and in the Victorian
times capes and =V=-shaped shawls; fascinating lace ruffles and tuck-in
fronts to the bodice necks, of frills and bands of embroidery, broke the
severity or bareness of many dresses. An endless variety of fascinating
caps and lace head-lappets was pinned or caught into the hair at the
wearer's fancy; besides the bows, flowers, and jewels (especially
pearls) which have always played an important part in the coiffure from
early times, the chatelaines and bags, fobs, fans, and lace or silk
handkerchiefs all give the artist a note of extra colour when desired.
The cruel period of taste really came with the seventies, though one can
trace many quaint and interesting cuts in the bodices and skirts of this
time; but the "grand dress" of complicated drapings, heavily fringed or
braided, was a "set piece" which, let us hope, will never appear again.

The long stocking-purse which began to appear in the late 17th century
was up to 1820 sometimes carried tucked through the belt; it was set
with a pair of metal rings and tassels of steel or gilt beads. Small and
large circular and bag-shaped purses were also in use; all these were
made in coloured silk threads enriched with steel, gilt, or coloured
beads, the latter shapes being set in chased metal mounts, the circular
ones generally having a fringe and the bag shape a small tassel or heavy
drop. These shapes can also be seen in coloured leathers with a leather
tassel, besides the plain money-bag with a draw-string.


NINETEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE III. FEMALE.

The hair up to 1808 was gathered into a knot of curls at the back of the
head, rather high up, with a small curl at the sides in front of the
ear. Later the knot was set more on the top, and the side curls were
made more of a feature, several being arranged at the sides. Numerous
varieties of large and small brimmed hats, bonnets, and turbans are
seen, and several masculine top-hats and cockade hats may be noted late
in this reign. The usual feather decorations and large ribbons or
flowers were in use, and a handkerchief was sometimes bound over the top
of the straw hat and tied under the chin.

[Illustration: FIG. 107.--Costume notes, 1811-1812.]

[Illustration: FIG. 108.--Costume notes, 1814-1816.]

The classic high-waisted dress continued till 1808, and was often
beautifully decorated with white embroidery and gold or tinsel, as in A,
Plates XX and XXIII (see pp. 199, 218), and the frontispiece is a lovely
white example. There were several interesting drapings, one being a cord
hanging from the back of the shoulder to loop up the train of the dress,
as in A, Plate XXII (see p. 215). The simple tunic shapes are better
described by the illustrations: more originality was essayed in
design after the last-mentioned date. A high Vandyked lace collar and
fan setting to the shoulders appeared, and many interesting dresses of a
plain cut, mostly in velvet and silks, were worn about 1810-12. A
gathered sleeve drawn tight at intervals was often seen up to 1816, when
embroidered ruffles and frills decorated most of the necks and skirts,
and a braided type of character, rather military in effect with
beautifully piped edgings, came in from about 1817. Spencer bodices were
an additional interest at this period, and a short puff sleeve was
generally banded or caught with bows; these being often worn over a
fairly loose long sleeve gathered by a wristband. Dresses were worn
shorter from about 1810. Charming lace and embroidered fichus crossed
the shoulders, and long scarf-capes were thrown round the neck and were
often tied round behind, as in the 18th century; long capes with points
and tassels in front fell to the knees, and a simple pelisse with cape
became a pleasing feature. Bags were always carried, of which there is a
variety of shapes in the plates; long gloves or mittens were generally
worn. Parasols of a flat shape, or others with round or pagoda shaped
tops are seen, many being edged with a deep fringe. Long purses were
often tucked through the waistband.

[Illustration: FIG. 109.]

The pointed shoe, tied sandal fashion up the leg, and with no heel,
remained through this reign, but a round-toed low shoe, tied on in the
same manner, began to supersede it about 1810.


NINETEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE III. MALE.

Wigs had practically gone out, except for a few of the latter type of
the 18th century amongst elderly people. The hair was now worn short,
and left rather full on the front, with short side-whiskers. Plain black
or white stocks tied with a front bow, and a starched or unstarched
collar with a frilled or gathered shirt-front were in use. A tie-pin or
stud was also seen in the centre of the stock or frilling.

The same hats as in the latter part of the 18th century continued for a
time, but the top-hat had established its favour, and assumed various
shapes throughout this reign.

[Illustration: Plate XXVI.--

    (_a_) Morning Coat of Chintz. 1825-45.
          _Pattern, see p. 313._
    (_b_) Cloth Coat. 1808-20.
          _Pattern, see p. 307._
    (_c_) Cloth Overcoat. 1820-35.
          _Pattern similar to p. 311._]

The coats were set with very high turn-over collars and a wide-shaped
lapel, and the lapel of the waistcoat was still brought outside. As
these lapels on the coats became smaller and changed into a roll collar,
they were cut into points at the breast, as seen in the illustrations.

The front of the coat cut away in a short square, rather high in the
waist, which thus formed a long-tailed skirt; the fronts were made
double-breasted, and were often fastened high up the lapel. The
hip-pleats had gone round more to the back into a closely pressed fold,
about three inches from the back-opening. Sleeves were gathered rather
full in the shoulders, becoming very tight on the forearm, and were
finished in a cuff, or buttoned cuff-shape. We also see that a short
square coat without tails was worn over the longer one. Overcoats (or
long-skirted coats) with a cape or capes, up to four, were worn all
through this reign, both double and single breasted, sometimes with
turn-up cuffs; but this mode was not frequently used, as a sewn-on cuff
or cuff made in the sleeve was now worn, and began to take a curved
shape well over the hand, with three buttons to fasten it on the outer
sides.

Short double-breasted waistcoats continued much the same, but a
round-shaped lapel appeared on many.

Very tight-fitting breeches were worn of the same 18th-century cut, and
trousers began to gain favour; a fob of seals, &c., was always worn,
coming from under the waistcoat.

Soft high boots with turn-down tops, and boots with longish brown tops
set low on the leg. The top-boot with the pointed or oval-shaped front
and tassel still held sway, and an oval-toed low shoe with or without
small latchets was in use.


NINETEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE IV. FEMALE.

The hair at this period was worn in plaits or curls gathered on top, and
during the latter years was arranged into stiff loops set with a high
comb; a group of curls was drawn to the sides of the face, the hair
being mostly parted from the centre. Plumes were much used for
head-dresses, and caps with gathered puffs and pointed frills. A
high-crowned straw poke bonnet, tilted upwards, was still in form; but
the prevailing mode was a silk bonnet, with the brim curved in at the
front, the sides being drawn together under the chin with a bow. The
prevailing decoration was a group of feathers thrown forward or ribbon
loops, and after this a large round hat, with a full gathered crown,
arrived about 1827, or straw shapes, such as Fig. A, Plate XXVIII (see
p. 259).

[Illustration: FIG. 110.]

Dresses gradually assumed a longer waist, and a short pointed bodice
made its appearance here and there from about 1822, when short stays
began to return, and pointed belt corselets were frequent, though the
waistband or sash was chiefly used. Short puffed sleeves of charming
character and workmanship were sometimes set in a gauze sleeve, as in
Fig. C, Plate XXIII (see p. 218). Spencers and pelisses had long sleeves
coming from these short ones; they were rather full, and were caught at
the wrist with a band. The upper sleeve gradually disappeared as the
full-topped sleeves began to develop in size, about 1824; this fullness
was often broken up into gathered parts, a tight cuff-piece usually
finished at the wrist. The high set-up collars and neck-frills gave way
to the flat capes about 1827, though the small ruffs were worn round the
top of the high-necked capes to 1830. The gathered shoulder began
about 1823, and soon became a marked feature; pointed or scalloped
frills and trimmings came into favour from 1825, Fig. B, Plate XXIII
(see p. 218), and about 1827 the sloped appearance in the bodice began
to be noticed as the sleeves were set lower. The shoulders in ball
dresses were shown, and a gathered Bertha of silk or lace was arranged
round the neck of bodice, Fig. D, Plate XXIV (see p. 231), or this form
was made in the pattern as in Fig. C, Plate XXII (see p. 215). The
=V=-shaped piece from the centre of waist or breast began to spread over
the shoulders, where it was opened, as in Fig. B, Plate XXII (see p.
215). This =V= shape was often open down to the waist, where it was filled
in with a centre-piece of embroidery. Skirts were gradually set out
fuller, with stiff-flounced petticoats; they had various simple or
richly decorated borders and fronts, or several small flounces, or one
deep one often with the edges cut into divers shapes.

[Illustration: Plate XXVII.--Outdoor Silk Dress. 1825-35.]

[Illustration: FIG. 111.]

I have striven to give good examples of the marked styles in the various
dated illustrations, as well as the court train to dress, Fig. A, Plate
XXXIII (see p. 282), which also comes into this time.

Shoes were rather round at the toes till near the end of the reign, when
they took a square shape; a tiny rosette or bow was placed at the front
of instep, and they were held by narrow ribbons, crossed and tied round
the ankle. Boots lacing at the inside, with seam down the front, often
had a toe-cap as in Fig. 5, Plate XXI (see p. 202); no heels were worn.

Light gauze scarves were usually carried, and very small fans besides
the larger feather ones. Bags or sachets of the forms illustrated were
painted or embroidered in ribbonwork, chenille, tulle, and coloured
silks.

A few specimens of parasols are also given, and gloves and mittens were
of the same character as in the latter part of the last reign.

The patterns given of some of the dresses shown in the plates will be
useful as to the measurements of the increase in skirt-width and
sleeves; one may also note the very pointed set-out of the breast,
sometimes made with two gores, which only occurs in this reign. Muffs
were usually of a large size, and a bow with long ends was often worn on
the front.


NINETEENTH CENTURY. GEORGE IV. 1820-30. MALE.

The mode in beaver hats was most varied; high straight crowns with small
brims, others tapering at the top with larger curled brims, or crowns
enlarging at the top with almost straight small brims; a top-hat of
straw is shown on page 309. A short-crowned hat was also worn. The hair
was combed towards the front at either side, and the face shaven, with
the exception of short side-whiskers.

A very high stock of black satin or linen surrounded the throat, with or
without the points of collar showing, and a frilled shirt, often stiffly
goffered.

Coats were very tight-fitting and mostly double-breasted, with long
swallow-tailed skirts, or long full skirts; the waist was rather short,
and the effect of coat-front round-breasted with a high turned-over
collar finished in large lapels, which were often treated with velvets.
The favourite colours for overcoats were greys, buffs, greens, and
blues, and the edges were neatly finished with fine cord. The sleeves,
rather full in the shoulder, became tight on the lower arm, coming to
a curved shape well over the hand, and buttoned up the side. The pockets
were frequently set at an angle, as in illustration, and a short round
cape, or two, was seen on many overcoats. A short type of coat is seen
about 1827, with a single roll collar.

[Illustration: FIG. 112.--Period 1820-1840.]

Waistcoats mostly had a round-shaped lapel, and were often
double-breasted and very shaped at the waist, which was set fairly high;
a long opening allowed the frilled shirt-front full display. There were
also waistcoats having no lapels, no pockets, or no cover-flap; the
points of front were very small, being buttoned to the end, or, with the
double-breasted shape, they were straight across.

Breeches were not so much worn as trousers of cloth, nankeen, drill, and
fine white corduroy; these were usually fastened under the boots with a
strap, others were looser and often worn short, well above the ankle. A
very full type in the upper part peg-tops, was in fashion about 1820-25
amongst the dandies, and for evening dress, very close-fitting breeches
to the knee, or just above the ankle, the latter being opened and
buttoned up to the calf. Pince-nez were favoured, with a heavy black
ribbon, generally worn tucked in the lapels of the waistcoat; and a fob
of gold seals, &c., hung from the braces, below waistcoat pocket.

[Illustration: FIG. 113.--1830-1840.]

Shoes and short Wellington boots were chiefly worn, the former being low
in the heel and very short in the tongue, which was almost covered by
small latchets, either buckled or tied, the shape of the toe being
rather round. The Hessian boots with curved front and tassel at the top
were still worn.


NINETEENTH CENTURY. WILLIAM IV. FEMALE.

The hair still retained the high loops on top and the bunch of curls at
the sides, poised by a back comb and set with flowers or feathers; there
was also a great variety of fancy capes with pointed frills, some with
long tie ends, and these are seen with most dresses, and were worn in
conjunction with the hats. The favourite hat was a big, flat, circular
form, generally tilted at one side, and decorated with bows, flowers,
and feathers; a flat tam-o'-shanter shape was often worn with the
riding-dress, sometimes with a large peak-shape in front, and straps
under the chin. The large poke-bonnet also kept the front as flat and
round as possible, with a high crown tilted upward in order to set over
the hair loops.

[Illustration: Plate XXVIII.--

    (_a_) Silk Pelisse. 1820-30.
    (_b_) Cotton Dress. 1830-40. (_Pattern, see p._ 343).
    (_c_) Silk Spencer and Cape. 1818-27 (_Pattern, see p._ 324).]

[Illustration: FIG. 114.--1828-1836.]

The bodice began with a very pointed front and very low neck off the
shoulders, tuck-ins of fine embroidery, and capes or _fichus_ of the
same, covered the shoulders, often three deep. The pointed bodice only
lasted for a few years, when the waistband again became the favourite.
The sleeves were very large at the shoulders, diminishing at the wrist,
but soon took a big round form, sometimes tightly pleated into quarters
before 1835. We then get the huge sleeve gathered at the wrist, and
often falling below it; this again tightened on the forearm, and we note
a tendency to tighter sleeves coming in before 1837, neatly gathered
well down the shoulder. The evening-dress sleeve was a large puff, set
out by stiffening to a flat wide effect. Very wide epaulet collars were
seen on most dresses, meeting in a =V= shape at the waist, with a filling
of lace in the front, and many bodices were elaborately gathered, and
some of the sleeves were also gathered into puffs all down the arm.

[Illustration: FIG. 115.--1830-1840.]

The skirts were set out very full over stiff flounced petticoats, and
were worn rather short; as a rule they were trimmed with one or two
flounces, which were handsomely decorated, and a short polonaise is
occasionally seen. There were many interesting trimmings of gauze,
flowers, and bows; while silk-flowered gauze over dresses made some
charming effects.

Heavy mantles and capes or pelisses began to be braided, and rather
strong colours were in general taste.

The hand-bags were of a curved form and generally bore heavy tassels.
Very small fans and round fans were attractive, and bouquet-holders of
gilt, with pearl handles, became the thing to carry.

Shoes were of the low sandal type, fastened by crossed elastic, with
very square toes, and a tiny rosette or bow on the front; boots to the
ankle were now in fashion, mostly lacing at the inside, and having a
long toe-cap, sometimes with a small rosette at the top of this or a
tassel at front of the top of the boot.

[Illustration: Plate XXIX.--

    (_a_) Embroidered Silk Gauze Dress. 1820-30.
    (_b_) Gauze Dress with Appliqued Design. 1825-35.
    (_c_) Printed Linen Outdoor Dress. 1827-47 (_Pattern, see p. 342_).]


NINETEENTH CENTURY. WILLIAM IV. MALE.

The hair was worn rather full in curls at the sides or on top, parted at
the left side, besides being occasionally parted at the centre. Side
whiskers, curved forward, still continued, and a short trimmed beard was
now worn round under the chin by many, moustaches also made their first
appearance at the end of this reign. Top-hats were high and straight,
but many still adhered to the tapered crown and larger brim.

The same plain stocks of black satin continued, with or without a front
bow, and a soft pleated or frilled shirt-front.

The coats were similar to the last reign: the chief differences being an
increase in the length of the waist, wider tails, and large lapels of a
similar cut: velvet collars and cuffs were much worn, and the waist was
still made tight. A coat with a square skirt as in Fig. 116 is seen for
the first time, and the swallow-tailed coat was worn not quite so long.
A lower opening to the waistcoat was generally seen in evening attire,
which sometimes had but four small buttons, while more of the
single-breasted type were in use, with and without lapels.

Very tight trousers to the ankle buttoned up to the calf continued, or
plain trousers were held by straps under the boot; twill, corduroy, or
nankeen were both strapped or free at the ankle and rather short.
Knee-breeches were still worn by many for evening dress, and long
Italian capes with overcapes and high turn-over collars were
fashionable, besides the very full-skirted greatcoat.

Boots and shoes were square at the toes and rather long and narrow, the
shoes having a bow or buckle. Short Wellington boots continued much in
use, also spats.

Fobs of gold seals, &c., were worn, and eye-glasses attached to a black
ribbon is a noticeable feature.


NINETEENTH CENTURY. VICTORIA. FEMALE.

The hair was parted in the centre and tightened in a top setting of
plaits, with side curls over the ears. This mode was retained by many
till the fifties, but the top plaits began to be set lower at the back,
and the same flat parted hair was brought in a curved shape to the
front of the ears, often in a small plait, allowing the ear to show, or
in a plaited knot at either side; about 1850 it was waved, parted, and
simply curved from the forehead over the ears in a fuller manner,
sometimes being turned under to increase the side fullness, while the
back hair was arranged lower down the neck. In the sixties the hair was
waved and caught behind in ringlets or was bunched into the hideous
chignons, which are seen till about 1880.

[Illustration: FIG. 116.--1840-1860.]

The variety of caps and hats is too alarming to deal with, and baffles
comprehensible description, so it is best for the student to dip into
the hundreds of illustrations through this period in the _Ladies'
Magazine_, _Punch_, the _Illustrated London News_, or the _Ladies'
Treasury_ for the later styles.

The straw bonnet with a straighter poke front was favoured till 1850,
when the front became considerably reduced in size and fitted closely
round the face. The larger brimmed bonnets had a little frill by the
ears, and the tight-brimmed bonnet often had the frill all round with a
flower also tucked in effectively to the wearer's taste, and we see this
favoured till the seventies. In the fifties a large flat Leghorn hat
with a small crown was in evidence, the brim dipping back and front,
decorated with feathers or bows, and a three-cornered French hat with
feathers set in the brim came in with revival of the 18th-century style
about 1860. A small bowler hat and a very small "pork-pie" hat appears
in the late sixties, and a tiny-shaped bonnet of a curved form during
the seventies.

[Illustration: Plate XXX.--

    (_a_) Printed Silk Bodice. 1840-50.
          (_Pattern, see p. 320._)
    (_b_) Gathered Linen Bodice. 1837-47.
    (_c_) Silk Bodice and Bertha. 1845-55.]

[Illustration: FIG. 117.--1845-1855.]

At the beginning of this long reign we find the pointed bodice with a
normal length of waist has really come to stay, though many dresses
retain the waistband till the fifties, and there is such a confusion of
styles at that time, it is difficult to arrange a sequence. From the
18th century fashions became more complicated in the greater variety of
design, each overlapping the other, and several distinct forms of
character come and go during this long reign. I do not envy the person
who undertakes the chronology of our present period.

At the commencement in 1837 the huge sleeves gathered at the wrist were
still in evidence, especially as a gauze oversleeve to evening attire,
and they continued thus to the fifties, but very large sleeves were
really dying out and the usual reaction was setting in; the
full-shouldered sleeve had turned a somersault and was neatly gathered
tight from the shoulder to the elbow, the fullness falling on the
forearm, and this was gathered into a tight setting or wristband. The
=V=-shaped front to the bodice was kept in many dresses by a collar or two
tapering from the shoulders to the waist, the fullness of the breast
often being tightly gathered at the shoulders, besides a few inches in
the front point of the bodice. A very plain tight-fitting sleeve became
fashionable, and on most of these we find a small upper sleeve or a
double one as shown in A, Plate XXX (see p. 266); this was sometimes
opened at the outer side. These sleeves continued till about 1852. In
1853 a bell-shaped sleeve is noticed in ordinary dress, and this
continued in various sizes till 1875, reaching its fuller shape about
1864. These types of sleeves were usually worn over a tight one or a
full lawn sleeve gathered at the wrist; most bodices with this sleeve
were closely fitted and high in the neck, the waist often being cut into
small tabs. We also notice for a few years in the early fifties the
deeper part of the bell curved to the front of the arm, giving a very
ugly appearance. A close-fitting jacket also came into evidence till
about 1865 with tight sleeves and cuffs, sometimes with a little
turn-down collar and a longer skirt as in Fig. C, Plate XXXIII (see p.
282). This particularly fine embroidered specimen, in imitation of the
18th-century style, is interestingly cut away short at the back to allow
for better setting on the crinoline. There is another type of sleeve
seen about 1848, of a plain, full, square cut; these became varied in
shape, being opened up the side and generally trimmed with wide braids.
This clumsy character is seen up to 1878, the later ones being fuller in
cut. Zouave jackets were occasionally worn in the forties and later in
the early sixties, when the wide corselet belt was again favoured.
Skirts at the beginning of the reign were fully set out on drill
petticoats, stiff flounces, and even whalebone, so it was hardly "a
great effect" when the crinoline appeared about 1855, though a furious
attack was made against it at first; this undersetting developed to its
fullest extent between 1857 and 1864, and many dresses in the early
sixties were also worn short, showing the high boots of this period.
At first the crinoline was slightly held back from the front by ties,
and again in the sixties it was often kept with a straight front, the
fullness being held to the back, till the appearance of the bustle
brought in another shape. The skirts were now pulled in tight to the
front of the figure and bunched up at the back, with a train or shaped
flounced pieces overlapping each other caught up under the bustle, as in
Fig. B, Plate XXXIII (see p. 282).

[Illustration: Plate XXXI.--

    (_a_) Embroidered Muslin Outdoor Dress, 1855-65.
    (_b_) Riding Habit. 1845-75.
    (_c_) Gauze Ball Dress. 1840-55.]

[Illustration: FIG. 118.--Dress improvers, 1865-1875.]

Mantles of a cumbersome type and shot-silk capes with long pointed
fronts were worn, often heavily fringed, the former also being mostly
decorated with braided designs. Large Paisley shawls were much used all
through this reign, besides the cape and hood with its fine tassels
which became very fashionable in the sixties.

Gloves and mittens are seen both long and short, the latter often
beautifully embroidered on the back in the French style. Hand-bags were
often carried, of which examples are given in the plates of a variety of
shapes; the favourite materials for their make were velvets and silks
decorated with bullion, sequins, braids, needlework, and beads, and
these bags were richly set in gilt, silver, or steel mounts.

Parasols were still heavily fringed, and were of the usual shapes. A
very small one was carried in the carriages, and are even seen on the
ladies' driving whips.

Shoes continued in the same heelless sandal character to the sixties for
evening wear, but from the forties most outdoor shoes had a heel and
large rosettes. With the seventies came round toes with a low round
front and bow, and high shaped heels came to stay till the present day.
Boots of white satin, kid, or coloured silks were chiefly worn till the
seventies, reaching just above the ankle, laced up the inner side, but
many wore elastic sides from the fifties; the toes of these were rather
square, and a toe-cap and front seam was made in many of this type. In
the forties a tight rosette was sometimes placed low down towards the
toes, and later, a huge bow was sewn on the front. High boots buttoned
towards the side and very much shaped, with pointed round toes and high
heels were sometimes laced and finished with a pair of tassels. Spats
were always fashionable through this period.


NINETEENTH CENTURY. VICTORIA. MALE.

The same modes of doing the hair remained till the sixties, parted at
one side and worn rather long and waved, with the side whiskers or beard
all round the chin. The side whiskers were allowed to grow long between
fifty-five and seventy, and full beards also became fashionable, while
the hair was parted in the centre from front to back and flattened on
the forehead.

The favourite top-hat still reigned supreme, many of which retained the
tapered top and large curled brim till about 1855, and a bell shape was
frequently seen in the fifties, but the real straight chimney shape was
seen throughout till the eighties, with a rather narrow brim, and often
of white or fawn-coloured cloth. The bowler hat increased in
appreciation, being of a short type, with smallish brim. A short flat
felt hat, with rather straight brim, also came into favour from the
fifties; little round caps and caps with ear-flaps, for travelling, &c.,
were also in general use.

The frock-coat kept the rather tight sleeves and tight waist, and full
square skirt, with back pockets, also a deep lapel, sometimes with a
velvet collar, and small cuffs; a breast-pocket was often placed on the
left side, and in the fifties the type of morning coat with rounded-off
fronts at the skirt appeared, also a small collar and lapel. Square-cut
jackets and tweed suits similar to our present shapes, but heavier in
cut and with braided edges, were much in use. Velvet or fur-trimmed
overcoats, and heavy travelling-coats, also capes and Inverness capes,
were all in vogue.

Waistcoats became buttoned higher in the neck, and the stock-collar was
supplanted in the sixties by a turn-down collar, and small tie or loose
bow; many still affected the black stock and pointed collar to the
seventies, when a high round collar began to appear.

Coloured and fancy waistcoats were much worn till the eighties, and
evening dress was similar to the present cut, with slight differences in
the length of lapels and waistcoat front.

The trousers were made with the front flap till they were buttoned down
the front about 1845, and side pockets became general. Braids may be
noted down the sides in the fifties, and are seen now and then all
through the reign, while large plaids and stripes were highly esteemed.

Short Wellington boots were chiefly preferred up to the sixties, and
trouser-straps and spats were fashionable all through the reign. The
heavier lace-up boot came in during the fifties, and a very shaped type
of fashion appeared in the sixties.

Having now completed the general survey of Costume, the following pages
are given up to the cut and measurements of various antique garments.



PATTERNS OF VARIOUS REIGNS FROM ANTIQUE COSTUME

WITH NOTES AND MEASUREMENTS


I have striven to gather as many representative patterns of dress types
and accessories as possible, and also give many measurements from the
various examples, when I have been unable to obtain a complete pattern.
The character of cut and proportion is the essential point in the study
of dress design, and the intimate knowledge of periods. When seeing a
collection of patterns, one is astonished at the great variety in cut
used to arrive at the different bodice types. Several patterns of single
pieces are given, as it aids one to find the fellow-part; for example,
the photo of a back given in Fig. C, Plate III (see p. 55), will go with
the front cut on page 290; even though these two pieces did not belong
to the same body, the cut is seen from which to design the missing
part. Often a small piece is wanting for the top of the shoulder, which
can easily be supplied to fill the sleeve measurement. The types of
trimmings in the different centuries will soon be acquired by a careful
student, and the proportions of patterns will be valued for gaining the
character. I believe with this collection one could get the true effects
of any style of dress seen in the period prints. The drawings are mostly
scaled for the half, and the measurement, in inches, will be found by
dots on the top of the collotypes, and by a marked line on the pattern
pages.

One must note, with the 18th-century dress, the sleeve cuffs can be
changed, so I give, on page 300, a full-size measurement of the
elbow-cuff seen in Fig. A, Plate XVI (see p. 167), and a deeper one of
this style is seen on Fig. C, Plate XII (see p. 135), gathered seven
times at the elbow. The plain square type was pleated in the front as
given on page 300, and a variety of this character is shown on Fig. B,
Plate XV (see p. 154). Though many patterns may be found remarkable in
proportions, an allowance is often to be made for the undersetting, as
well as for the thick, straight corsets worn to the end of the 18th
century.

I give several specimens of quilting on petticoats of the 18th century,
which will probably be found useful to artists; the measurement is also
given of their circumference, which attained similar proportions to
those set on the Victorian crinolines, going 3 to 4 yards round: four
18th century ones measured 100, 114, 116, 120 inches, and they are often
1 inch longer at the sides, to allow for setting over the panniers; a
pattern is given on pages 213 and 332. The embroidered pockets on page
300 were worn in pairs at the sides on the petticoats, and only showed
when the dress was looped up. The extra lawn sleeves, given on page 287,
show how precious the superfine linen was held, with its superb gathered
work, lace ruffles, and often fine embroidery; these pieces could be
looked after with special care in the laundry, and could be tacked,
pinned, or buttoned on when required.

The 16th and 17th century collars were mostly attached to the chemise or
shirt, as is seen in many of the old prints. On page 289 I give examples
of shape of the various stomachers, which will be found useful for
getting the characteristic proportions. The scarves worn round the body
of the 17th century cavaliers were from 2 feet 3 inches wide to 3 feet 6
inches, and from 8 feet 6 inches to 7 feet in length.

[Illustration: Plate XXXII.--

    (_a_) Silk Dress. 1860-70.
          _Pattern, see p. 346._
    (_b_) Gauze Walking Dress. 1850-60.
    (_c_) Silk Dress. 1848-58.
          _Pattern, see p. 344._]

The stocking top, Fig. C, Plate VI (see p. 74), is probably of similar
proportions to the woollen one in the Victoria and Albert Museum, on
which the bell-top circumference is 36 inches, and the full length of
stocking 38 inches. On page 285 a cap of three pieces is given; their
real design is at present unknown, but I trust the Museum authorities
may soon discover their placing, for many of these pieces are in
existence, and this set in my collection is impressed with a beautiful
pattern. The bodice, Fig A, Plate X (see p. 119), should have been set
on a stiff-fronted corset to give it the straight style, as it is
charmingly proportioned and clean in outline. I have also measured a
short circular cloak of the early 17th century, which is 34 inches in
diameter, with a square collar 10 inches deep; and another cape of the
late 16th century, 40 inches in diameter. On page 290 will be found the
smaller tabs which are placed round the jerkin, with a deep front point,
as in Fig. A, Plate VIII_a_ (see p. 103); the collar of this type often
rises 2¾ inches in the front to 3 inches at the back, in order to
carry the stiff ruff or deep turned-down collar. Tabs of the smallest
dimensions, in the earlier Elizabeth and James character, generally have
six pieces from front to the middle of the back, which are from 2 to 3
inches deep. The epaulets are made in small stiff tabs, caught together
in two places only, and so have plenty of give in the shoulder
movements; they run to 2¼ inches at the widest part, and do not
continue right under the arm. Fig. D, Plate V (see p. 71), has the
middle seam of the back open from the waist to within 2 inches of the
collar, which is noticeable on many of the later Charles I coats. Long
aprons are conspicuous through the 17th century, and one measured was 42
inches wide, gathered to 15 inches at the waist; they were decorated
with three bands of embroidered insertion down the front, with a 3-inch
plain border, edged with small lace; this is typical in character of
design, as is also the same style of linen cape seen on a figure, page
159. A similar one, lent by Sir Robert Filmer, is at the Victoria and
Albert Museum; also a cap, of which I give a pattern, A, page 285. The
smaller type of embroidered aprons of the late 17th and 18th centuries
measure 40 inches wide, 19½ inches deep, with the centre dipping to
17¾ inches; another shape is 26 inches wide, 18 inches in centre, and
13½ inches on sides. The bodice, with deep skirt, Fig. B, Plate XVIII
(see p. 183), is a type seen all through the 18th century, both longer
and shorter in the skirt. The pattern of the 17th-century breeches is
interesting as regards the cut, the upper part being kept plain,
otherwise the gathered fullness would have disturbed the set of the
jerkin tabs; the band of these breeches has six hooks either side to
back, which fasten to eyes on an under flap sewn on body of jerkin. The
epaulet on this pattern is only a ¾-inch piece, braided with two
narrow braids, and the bows on tabs are of ribbon, 1½ inches wide.

The three patterns of capes given on pages 349, 350 will be found
useful, as they are simple and very typical of the Victorian times, long
shawls being otherwise much used. The fullness of the Elizabethan
overdress seen on B, Plate II (see p. 42), is 66 inches to the back
seam, and the Fig. C, on the same plate, is 47 inches. The "jump," or
jacket, Fig. A, Plate III (see p. 55), is 100 inches round, the fullness
of the sleeve 13 inches, and the length of back 32 inches. An over-tunic
of the early 17th century is interesting to examine, though it is a
specimen of German costume.

[Illustration: Plate XXXIII.--

    (_a_) Silk Dress with Court Train. 1828-38.
    (_b_) Silk Afternoon Dress. 1872-78.
    (_c_) Silk Coat and Skirt. 1855-65.
          _Pattern, see p. 320._]



PATTERNS TO SCALE

_For Detailed List, see page 353._


[Illustration: PATTERN 1.

_Made in satin on wood_

_Piccadilloes 1580-1630_

_Side view open_

_Gather to a ring at mark_

_Gather to a ring at mark_

_A pair belonging above_

_3 Caps 16-17th c._

_12 in. ties_

_1600-1650 17th c._

_Others measure_ 16×14 14×9 13×9

_Cap 16-17th c._

_Cap of pierced embroidery, late 17th & early 18th cent._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 2.

_17th c. Stock, Chas. II._

_18th c._

_Stiff gorget for carrying Collar_

_Stock_

_Cap, embroidered, 1st half 18th c._

_Collar and caps, 17 century_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 3.

_Ruff, 1590-1610_

_24 in. round_

_15 round_

_20 in. round_

_18 century_

14

_1st half of 17th c._

10

_Caps and Extra Sleeves of Fine Linen 17 century_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 4.

_Embroidered linen jacket, front and sleeve, 16th
century_

_Embroidered linen bodice Front, Chas. I._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 5.

_Elizabethan jerkin of punched leather._

_Gold embroidered stomacher, about 1600-30_

1660-1689

1690-1730

1680-1730]

[Illustration: PATTERN 6.

_Set of tabs for male jerkin, 17 cent._

_Back_

_Front_

_Side_

_Pattern type from worked pieces Elizabethan reign 1570-1605_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 7.

_Circular Cape, 17 cent._

_Collar_

_Join top and gather at dots._

_Cap, 1580-1630._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 8.

_Bodice_

_Fig. 1 Plate 10_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 9.

_Corset, 1620-60_

_Cut of bodice, Fig. B, Plate 5_

_Corset, 1665-85_

_Corset, 1685-1705_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 10.

_26 buttons_

_Sleeve seam_

_Start epaulette_

_Finish_

_Scale_

_Collar_

_Similar type to Fig. C, Plate 7_

_Jerkin of white quilted satin_

_See page opposite for Breeches of same, 1620-1640. Victoria and Albert
Museum, Kensington._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 11.

_Breeches, 1615-60_

_ties_

_pocket_

_pocket_

_Fulled_

_Hooks to fasten to jerkin_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 12.

_sleeve_

_35 buttons_

_Neck Band_

_Buttons ¾ in._

_Open_

_12 buttons_

_Full cape coat, V. & A. Museum, about 1640-68_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 13.

_Back of bodice, Fig. B, Plate 7._

_13½ Front to back of epaulette_

_Male cap, early 18 century_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 14.

_2 collars, time Chas. II._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 15.

_Jacket. Fig. C, Plate 4_

_Top sleeve_

_Open to mark_

_Open_

_Open_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 16.

_Sleeve cuffs, 18 cent._

_Early type_

_Late type_

_1690-1750, 2 pockets_

_Hanging sleeve of Fig. C, Plate 2_

_Open_

_Embroidered bodice fronts, early 18 century_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 17.

_Quilted linen corsage, 1660-1715_

_Open_

_Herald's coat, Fig. A, Plate 7. Victoria & Albert Museum_

_Open_

_Open_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 18.

_Front of embroidered linen sleeved waistcoat, 1690-1720_

_Victoria and Albert Museum_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 19.

_Inner vest_

_Sleeve waistcoat, early 18th cent._

_Sleeve to lace on_

_Open to mark_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 20.

_Breeches, 1660-1720_

_Button_

_Pleat_

_Pocket_

_Open for pocket_

_Fullness_

_Open_

_Pocket_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 21.

_Breeches, 18th century_

_Waist_

_Gather_

_Open_

_Top_

_Knee strap_

_Waist_

_Loose flap_

_Pocket_

_Pocket_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 22.

_Fly knee_

_Breeches, 18th century_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 23.

_Coat, Fig. B, Plate 26_

_Dart_

_Open to waist_

_Collar_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 24.

_Coat, Fig. B, Plate 13_

_Joined under pleat_

_Pocket_

_Pocket_

_Small pocket_

_open_

_caught_

_open_

_Open_

_Side tab_

_Corderoy trousers 1815._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 25.

_Fig. A, Plate 15 Coat, 1775-90_

_Cuff_

_Band to draw up_

_Open_

_Double_

_Under collar_

_Turnover collar_

_Pocket_

_Pleat_

_Open_

_Open_

_15 in. tie_

_Leather Breeches, 1800-30_

_Straw hat, 1816-30_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 26.

_Join_

_Fold_

_Under collar_

_Turnover collar_

_Pleat_

_Open to waist_

_Coat, 1784-94 Directoire type See_ FIG. 106]

[Illustration: PATTERN 27.

_Collar_

_Breast pocket, left only_

_Coat, 1830-1845 Similar type to Fig. C, Plate 26._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 28.

_Pocket_

_Slightly gather_

_Pocket_

_Top_

_Foot strap_

_Strap inside_

_Open_

_Foot Strap_

_Buff linen trousers, 1810-1840_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 29.

_Turnover collar_

_Collar tab_

_Pocket flap_

_Pocket_

_Pleat_

_Joined on waistcoat inside_

_Open to mark_

_Coat, Fig. A, Plate 26_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 30.

_Bodice, 1816-22_

_Trimming stretched to curl over_

_Sleeve straps_

_Collar_

_Waist_

_Gathered in strap_

_Piped straps and seams_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 31.

_Bell sleeved Bodice, 1848-58_

_Trimmed narrow velvet braid_

_Open_

_Open_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 32.

_Bodice of linen dress, Fig A, Plate 22_

_Buttons for front_

_Cord for looping train, 90 inches_

_Outside sleeve_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 33.

_Bodice, 1860-70_

_Bodice, 1850-60 type_

_Sleeve for net covering_

_Gathered sleeve_

_Bodice, 1816-25_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 34.

_Jacket bodice, Fig. A, Plate 24_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 35.

_Bodice, 1845-55 similar type Fig. A, Plate 30_

_Epaulette_

_Band round waist_

_Front_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 36.

_Sleeveless overjacket, early 18 century embroidered_

_Wrist strap_

_Tie on_

_Gather_

_Gather_

_Strap_

_Gather_

_Spencer, 1827-37, piped trimming_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 37.

_Bodice, 1812-18_

_Top_

_Silk to line_

_Under lining_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 38.

_Corset pattern, 18 century_

_Bodice of Fig. A, Plate 14_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 39.

_Similar type of Bodice to Fig. B, Plate 14. Bodice with
type of pleated back, 1720-50_

_Box pleats_

_Pleated back_

_Lining for front_

_Lining for back_

_Laced_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 40.

_Tab gathered in centre trimming on epaulette_

_Cape_

_Epaulette band_

_Waist band_

_Collar_

_Pattern, Fig. C, Plate 28_

_Thickly kilted skirt to bodice, 26 ins._

_Bodice, Fig. A, Plate 18_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 41.

_Zouave jacket, late 18 century_

_Gather_

_Bodice, 1818-28_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 42.

_Silk jacket, Fig. B, Plate 19_

_Gathered_

_Pleat_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 43.

_Bodice, Fig. C, Plate 18_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 44.

_Bodice, Fig. A, Plate 30_

_Wrist_

_Bertha_

_Gather_

_Gather_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 45.

_Cased_

_Pleat_

_Pleats_

_Open_

_Open_

_Open to mark_

_Pocket_

_Coat, Fig. C, Plate 33_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 46.

_Waist_

_S. lining_

_Puff sleeve_

_Gather_

_Gather_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 47.

_Dress, 1805-1818_

_Pleated_

_Pleat_

_Apron front_

_Gathered_

_Mob Cap, 1780-1800_

_Gathered in band_

_Trimmed double lace frill round front_

_Width of insertion_

_Cap with comb, 1790-1800_

_Puff comb_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 48.

_Pleated_

_Pleated_

_Pleated_

_Side plaquet_

_Quilted petticoat, 1740-70_

_Waist band_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 49.

_Pleats_

_Pleat to notch_

_Made in lining_

_Petticoat, Fig. B, Plate 16_

_Top_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 50.

_Dress, Fig. B, Plate 16_

_Pleat_

_Under corset_

_Lining back_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 51.

_Dress, Fig. C, Plate 16_

_Neck_

_Lining_

_Box pleats_

_Small pleats_

_S pleats_

_Small pleats_

_S. pleats_

_Pleat_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 52.

_Pleat_

_Pleat_

_Pleat_

_Pleat_

_Pleat_

_Pleat_

_White linen dress, 1795-1805_

_Front_

_Sleeve_

_Gather_

_Button_

_Outside sleeve_

_Caught up thus_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 53.

_Gathered_

_Open to mark_

_Gathered_

_Striped cotton dress, 1805-15_

_Gathered_

_Collar_

_Front_

_Wrist_

_3 sleeve frills_

_Open_

_Gather_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 54.

_Pattern of under robe, 1818-30_

_Gathered_

_Gathered_

_Waist_

_Sleeve_

_S. placquets_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 55.

_Waist band_

_Neck band_

_Gathered_

_Cuff_

_Top_

_Gathered_

_Pattern of Fig C, Plate 25_]

[Illustration: _Muslin dress, 1822-32_

_Cuff_

_Yoke_

PATTERN 56.]

[Illustration: PATTERN 57.

_Gather_

_Gather_

_Satin dress, 1837-45_

_Gather_

_Gather_

_Top_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 58.

_Top gathered to a Fold round sleeve_

_Gathered_

_Dress, Fig. C, Plate 29_

_Gathered_

_Gathered_

_Gather_

_Cape_

_Gathered_

_Gathered_

_Waist_

_Waist_

_Gather_

_Gather_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 59.

_Dress, Fig. B, Plate 28_

_Gathered_

_Gathered_

_Gathered_

_Gathered_

_Band front of waist_

_Waist_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 60.

_Gather_

_Gather_

_Dress, Fig. C, Plate 32._

_Trimming over shoulder_

_Top_

_Gather_

_Gather_

_Tight pleats_

_Waist_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 61.

_Lady's coat, 1856-70_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 62.

_Blue silk dress, 1860-70_

_Fig. A, Plate 32_

_Scale 6 inches_

_Gather_

_Gather_

_Pleat_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 63.

_Reefed polonaise, pinked edge, 1860-70_

_Scale inches_

_Gather_

_Plain_

_Gather_

_Plain_

_Pleat_

_Gather_

_Puff sleeve lining_

_Reefed up_

_Ties_

_Puff sleeve_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 64.

_Lady's jacket, Fig. C, Plate 19_

_Gathered_

_Pleated_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 65.

_Fullness for arm_

_An interesting cape of shot silk, 1840-50_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 66.

_Cut in one_

_Front_

_Cape collar_

_2 pieces_

_Black velvet cape, 1830-40_

_Victorian cape, 1860-75_

_Same cut from 40 ins._]

[Illustration: PATTERN 67.

_Sleeve, 16 century_

_Collar_

_Cut of Doublet and slashed sleeve, 1620-40_

_Sleeve, 1620-40._

_Epaulette_

_Cut of boy's stays, coat, vest, 1700-60_]

[Illustration: PATTERN 68.

_Male Robe 1600-25_

_Black felt Puritan hat, 1640-60_

_V. and A. Museum_

_Black velvet hat, 1600-20_]



DETAILED LIST OF SCALED PATTERNS


    Pattern 1, page 285:--
      Piccadillo, 1580-1630.
      Three caps, 16-17 century.
      Cap of three pieces, 16-17 c.
      Triangular cap, 16-17 c.
      Long cap, 17 c.
      Cap, late 17 c., early 18 c.

    Pattern 2, page 286:--
      4 collars, 17 c.
      Gorget of linen, 17 c.
      2 stocks, 17 and 18 c.
      3 male caps and 1 female, 17 and 18 c.

    Pattern 3, page 287:--
      Ruff, 17 c.
      4 extra linen sleeves, 17 and one 18 c.
      2 caps, female, 17 c.

    Pattern 4, page 288:--
      Front of linen jacket, 16 c.
      Front of linen bodice, Charles I.

    Pattern 5, page 289:--
      Elizabethan jerkin.
      4 stomachers, 17 and 18 c.

    Pattern 6, page 290:--
      Set of tabs for male jerkin, 17 c.
      Pattern type, sleeve and bodice front, 1570-1605.

    Pattern 7, page 291:--
      Circular cape, 17 c.
      Cap, female, 1580-1630.

    Pattern 8, page 292:--
      Bodice, Fig. 1, Plate X, James I.

    Pattern 9, page 293:--
      3 corsets and bodice of, Fig. 2, Plate V, 17 c.

    Pattern 10, page 294:--
      Jerkin of white quilted satin, 17 c.

    Pattern 11, page 295:--
      Breeches of same suit.

    Pattern 12, page 296:--
      Cape-coat, 17 c.

    Pattern 13, page 297:--
      Back of bodice, Plate VII, 17 c.
      Shaped cap, male, 17 and 18 c.

    Pattern 14, page 298:--
      2 collars, Charles II.

    Pattern 15, page 299:--
      Jacket, Fig. _C_, Plate IV, 17 c.

    Pattern 16, page 300:--
      2 sleeve-cuffs, 18 c.
      2 embroidered pockets, 17 and 18 c.
      Hanging sleeve, Fig. _C_, Plate II, 16-17 c.
      Embroidered bodice fronts, 17-18 c.

    Pattern 17, page 301:--
      Quilted linen corsage, 1660-1715.
      Herald's coat, Fig. _A_, Plate VII, 16-17 c.

    Pattern 18, page 302:--
      Sleeved waistcoat, 1690-1720.

    Pattern 19, page 303:--
      Sleeved waistcoat and vest, early 18 c.

    Pattern 20, page 304:--
      Breeches, 1660-1720.

    Pattern 21, page 305:--
      Breeches, 18 c.

    Pattern 22, page 306:--
      Breeches, 18 c.

    Pattern 23, page 307:--
      Coat, Fig. _B_, Plate XXVI, 19 c.

    Pattern 24, page 308:--
      Coat, Fig. _B_, Plate XIII, 18 c.
      Corderoy trousers, from 1815.

    Pattern 25, page 309:--
      Coat, late 18 c., Fig. _A_, Plate XV.
      Leather breeches, late 18-19 c.
      Straw hat, 1816-30.

    Pattern 26, page 310:--
      Coat, 1784-94.

    Pattern 27, page 311:--
      Coat, 1830-45.

    Pattern 28, page 312:--
      Buff linen trousers, 1810-40.

    Pattern 29, page 313:--
      Morning coat, Fig. _A_, Plate XXVI, 19 c.

    Pattern 30, page 314:--
      Bodice, 1816-22.

    Pattern 31, page 315:--
      Bell-sleeved bodice, 1848-58.

    Pattern 32, page 316:--
      Bodice of linen dress, Fig. _A_, Plate XXII, about 1800.

    Pattern 33, page 317:--
      Bodice, 1860-70.
      Bodice, 1850-60.
      Bodice, 1816-25.

    Pattern 34, page 318:--
      Jacket bodice, Fig. _A_, Plate XXIV, about 1800.

    Pattern 35, page 319:--
      Bodice, similar type, Fig. _A_, Plate XXX, 1845-55.

    Pattern 36, page 320:--
      Sleeveless over jacket, early 18 c.
      Spencer, 1827-37.

    Pattern 37, page 321:--
      Bodice, 1812-18.

    Pattern 38, page 322:--
      Corset pattern, 18 c.
      Bodice of Fig. _A_, Plate XIV, 18 c.

    Pattern 39, page 323:--
      Bodice with type of pleated sack back, 1720-50.

    Pattern 40, page 324:--
      Bodice, Fig. _C_, Plate XXVIII, 19 c.
      Bodice, Fig. _A_, Plate XVIII, 18 c.

    Pattern 41, page 325:--
      Zouave jacket, late 18 c.
      Bodice, 1818-28.

    Pattern 42, page 326:--
      Silk jacket, Fig. _B_, Plate XIX, 18 c.

    Pattern 43, page 327:--
      Bodice, Fig. _C_, Plate XVIII, 18 c.

    Pattern 44, page 328:--
      Bodice, Fig. _A_, Plate XXX, 19 c.

    Pattern 45, page 329:--
      Lady's coat, Fig. _C_, Plate XXXIII.

    Pattern 46, Page 330:--
      Polonaise dress, 1835-45.

    Pattern 47, page 331:--
      Dress, 1805-18.
      Mob cap, 1780-1800.
      Cap with comb top, 1790-1800.

    Pattern 48, page 332:--
      Quilted petticoat, 18 c.

    Pattern 49, page 333:--
      Petticoat, Fig. _B_, Plate XVI, 18 c.

    Pattern 50, page 334:--
      Dress, Fig. _B_, Plate XVI.

    Pattern 51, page 335:--
      Dress, Fig. _C_, Plate XVI.

    Pattern 52, page 336:--
      White linen dress, 1795-1800.

    Pattern 53, page 337:--
      Striped cotton dress, 1805-15.

    Pattern 54, page 338:--
      Pattern of under robe, 1818-30.

    Pattern 55, page 339:--
      Dress, Fig. _C_, Plate XXV.

    Pattern 56, page 340:--
      Muslin dress, 1822-32.

    Pattern 57, page 341:--
      Satin dress, 1837-47.

    Pattern 58, page 342:--
      Dress, Fig. _C_, Plate XXIX.

    Pattern 59, page 343:--
      Dress, Fig. _B_, Plate XXVIII.

    Pattern 60, page 344:--
      Dress, Fig. _C_, Plate XXXII.

    Pattern 61, page 345:--
      Lady's coat, 1856-70.

    Pattern 62, page 346:--
      Silk dress, Fig. _A_, Plate XXXII, 1860-70.

    Pattern 63, page 347:--
      Reefed polonaise, 1860-70.

    Pattern 64, page 348:--
      Lady's jacket, Fig. _C_, Plate XIX, 18 c.

    Pattern 65, page 349:--
      Cape, 1840-50.

    Pattern 66, page 350:--
      Cape, 1860-75.
      Cape, 1830-40.

    Pattern 67, page 351:--
      Upper sleeve and collar, 16 c.
      Bodice with slashed sleeve, 1620-40.
      Boy's stays, coat, and vest, 1700-60.

    Pattern 68, page 352:--
      Male robe, 1600-25.
      Puritan hat, 1640-60.
      Black velvet hat, 1600-20.



INDEX


    Aprons--
      17 century, 186, 280
      18 c., 192, 198, 206


    Bags, 193, 262, 272

    Bertha, 238, 252

    Bouquet Holder, 262

    Breeches--
      Mediæval, 54
      16 c., 122, 132
      17 c., 152, 164, 281
      19 c., 248, 256, 264

    Bustle, 226


    Calash, 217

    Capes--
      16 c., 132, 279
      17 c., 184
      19 c., 244, 262, 264, 274, 281

    Chain Ornaments--
      to 15 c., 62, 72
      16 c., 110, 124

    Cloaks--
      to 15 c., 54, 70
      17 c., 152, 164, 176, 180, 279
      18 c., 222

    Collars--
      16 c., 112, 128, 129, 139, 278
      17 c., 145, 158, 160, 172, 174
      19 c., 244, 246

    Corsets--
      to 15 c., 62, 66
      16 c., 110, 116, 138
      17 c., 158, 169, 172
      18 c., 211, 278
      19 c., 250

    Crinolines, 270, 278


    Decorative Styles--
      Black-stitch work, 122, 129
      Braided, 110, 111, 132, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 182, 188, 200,
               238, 244, 272
      Button, 110, 143, 144, 146, 182, 210
      Laced, 70, 88, 92, 110, 116
      Piped, 238, 244
      Pleated, 111, 140
      Pricked, 111, 140, 142, 152
      Punched, 111, 140, 142, 152
      Puffed, 88, 92, 110, 116, 118, 122, 129, 142, 146, 150, 180, 260
      Purfled, 145, 164, 190
      Ribbon, 145, 172, 176, 178, 191, 253
      Serrated or shaped edging, 71, 96, 110, 146, 191, 214, 252
      Slashing, 92, 111, 112, 113, 116, 118, 122, 140, 142, 145, 152,
                158, 164
      Straw-work, 111, 191
      Tassel, 238
      Tinsel, 237
      Tulle, 238

    Doublets, 132, 139

    Dress--
      Prehistoric, female, 40;
        male, 41
      to 10 c., female, 45, 46, 48;
        male, 52, 54
      10 to 15 c., female, 62, 66, 68, 70;
        male, 76, 78, 80
      15 c., female, 84, 88, 92;
        male, 92, 100, 104, 108
      16 c., 278, 279, 281.
        Henry VIII, female, 113, 116;
          male, 118, 122.
        Ed. VI and Mary, female, 124, 128;
          male, 129, 132.
        Eliz., female, 133, 136, 138;
          male, 139, 281
      17 c., James I, female, 147, 150;
          male, 152, 154.
        Chas. I, female, 158;
          male, 160, 164, 168.
        Commonwealth, female and male, 168, 169.
        Chas. II, female, 169, 172;
          male, 174, 176.
        James II, female, 178, 180;
          male, 182.
        William and Mary, female, 184, 185;
          male, 186, 188.
        Anne,  female,  196;
          male, 200.
        George I, female, 206;
          male, 210
      18 c.,  George II, female, 221;
          male, 214.
        George III to 1800, female, 217, 222, 224, 226, 230;
          male, 232, 234
      19 c., George III (_continued_), female, 244, 247;
          male, 247.
        George IV, female, 250;
          male, 254.
        William IV, female, 260;
          male, 263.
        Victorian, female, 268;
          male, 274.
      Note also page 39

    Drill petticoat, 238


    Ear-rings, 62-72

    Epaulets--
      16 c., 128, 129, 136
      17 c., 143, 152, 280, 281
      19 c., 250


    Fans--
      16 c., 129, 138
      18 c., 193, 230
      19 c., 240, 253, 262

    Farthingale, 111, 136

    Foot-wear--
      to the end of 14 c., 44, 48, 56, 70, 80, 82, 92
      15 c., 108
      16 c., Henry VIII, 16, 122;
        Ed. VI and Mary, 128, 132;
        Elizabeth, 138, 140
      17 c., James I, 150, 154;
        Chas. I, 158, 164;
        Commonwealth, 168;
        Chas, II, 172, 176;
        James II, 180, 184;
        William and Mary, 186, 188 18 c., 193;
        Anne, 198, 201;
        George I, 207, 210;
        George II, 214, 216;
        George III to 1800, 230, 234
      19 c., George III, 246, 248;
        George IV, 253, 258;
        William IV, 262, 264;
        Victoria, 272, 275

    Girdles--
      to 15 c., 68, 78, 92
      16 c., 116

    Gloves--
      16 c., 116, 129, 138
      17 c., 168, 172
      18 c., 193, 201, 214, 226

    Head-dress--
      Prehistoric, female, 40;
        male, 42
      to 10 c., female, 45;
        male, 49
      10 to 15 c., female, 57;
        male, 71
      15 c., female, 84;
        male, 92
      16 c., Henry VIII, female, 113;
          male, 118.
        Ed. VI and Mary, female, 124;
          male, 129.
        Eliz., female, 133;
          male, 138
      17 c., James I, female, 147;
          male, 150.
        Chas. I, female, 154;
          male, 160.
        Commonwealth, 168.
        Chas. II, female, 169;
          male, 174.
        James II, female, 178;
          male, 180.
        William and Mary, female, 184;
          male, 186
        18 c., Anne, female, 193;
          male, 198.
        George I, female, 201;
          male, 207.
        George II, female, 211;
          male, 214.
        George III, female, 217, 241;
          male, 231, 246.
        George IV, female, 248;
          male, 254.
        William IV, female, 258;
          male, 263.
        Victoria, female, 264;
          male, 273

    Heraldic fashion, 66, 71, 109, 132

    Hoop skirts--
      16 c., 116, 128, 136
      17 c., 147, 185
      18 c., 222


    Jackets--
      to 15 c., 66, 68, 88, 100
      16 c., 112, 182
      17 c., 143
      18 c., 224, 226
      19 c., 270


    Lapets, 184, 193, 206, 239


    Maccaroni fashion, 214

    Mantles, 262, 271

    Masks, 186

    Muffs, 160, 172, 180, 186, 189, 193, 201, 230, 253


    Neck-wear, 174, 182, 186, 200, 207, 232, 246, 250, 254, 263, 275


    Overcoats, 232, 254, 274


    Panniers, 211, 222

    Parasols, 230, 234, 244, 272

    Patterns scaled, 276

    Pelisses, 244, 250, 262

    Plates (collotypes), frontispiece, 39, 42, 55, 58, 71, 74, 87, 90,
                         103, 106, 119, 122, 135, 138, 151, 154, 167,
                         170, 183, 186, 199, 202, 215, 218, 231, 234,
                         247, 250, 259, 263, 266, 270, 279, 282

    Pockets, 192, 224

    Polonaise, 238, 262

    Purses, 236, 240, 246


    Quilting, 111, 128, 146, 172, 192, 198, 211, 222, 278


    Ruffs, 112, 118, 128, 129, 133, 136, 139, 143, 147, 158, 160, 172,
           250, 280


    Sack-back (or Watteau) dress, 136, 185, 191, 196, 206, 211, 222

    Sashes, 168, 182, 279

    Sequins, 112

    Shawls, 272

    Spats, 273

    Spencers, 244, 250

    Sticks, 181, 188, 201, 211, 214, 226, 234

    Stockings, 138, 140, 154, 168, 182, 184, 189, 201, 210, 216, 234, 270

    Stomachers, 66, 112, 136, 142, 144, 146, 147, 154, 158, 172, 178,
                184, 196, 207, 278



    Printed by SPOTTISWOODE, BALLANTYNE & CO. LTD.
    Colchester, London & Eton, England

       *       *       *       *       *



DRESSMAKING


    SIMPLE DRESSMAKING. By ETHEL R. HAMBRIDGE, _Art Teachers'
    Certificate, etc._ In foolscap 4to, cloth, 200 pp., with 750 plates
    and black-and-white diagrams. 7_s._ 6_d._ net.

This book deals exhaustively with the various stitches and fastenings
used in Dressmaking and their applications, Pressing, Making-up
Processes, Taking Measurements, Cutting-out; and also contains some
notes on Fitting.

Simplicity and completeness have been the dual purpose of the Author,
and her systematic treatment of the subject, aided by her remarkable
gift of lucid explanation, and her unique practical experience, has
produced a valuable contribution to the literature of Domestic Science.


    DRESS CUTTING AND MAKING. For the Classroom, Workroom, and Home. By
    EMILY WALLBANK, _Head of the Needlework and Dressmaking Department,
    National Training School of Cookery_, and MARIAN WALLBANK. In
    foolscap 4to, cloth, 271 pp., with 265 diagrams and illustrations.
    6_s._ net.

The object of this work will be realized in some degree if it helps the
practical reader so to mobilize her knowledge of underlying causes that
she is able to produce any desired effect in the cut and fashion of a
garment.


    SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LIMITED
    1 AMEN CORNER, LONDON, E.C. 4.



EMBROIDERY

    AN EMBROIDERY PATTERN BOOK. By MARY E. WARING. With a Foreword by
    Professor W. R. Lethaby, _Royal College of Art_. In cloth gilt, 170
    pp., 2 coloured plates, with 84 full-page black-and-white diagrams.
    8_s._ 6_d._ net.

"Designing of this sort is no mystery that requires 'genius'; it is of
the same kind as planting a garden border.... Most embroideresses, who
will begin by adapting the elements given in this Pattern Book, and gain
interest and confidence in so doing, will go forward insensibly to
varying the elements themselves, and to taking flowers and animals
direct from Nature. This ... is the work of a highly competent designer
of embroidery, and I heartily recommend it."--W. R. LETHABY in the
Foreword.

    EMBROIDERY & DESIGN. By JOAN H. DREW. In foolscap 4to, cloth, about
    115 pp., with 82 black-and-white illustrations and designs. 5_s._
    net.

The writer endeavours to arouse in her readers a desire for better
designs, and greater individuality and thought in the home embroidery of
to-day. The difference between decorative and undecorative work is
clearly explained with the aid of many illustrations, and these are of
the right size for tracing and working.


SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LIMITED



ART

    THE ART OF PAINTING IN PASTEL. By J. LITTLEJOHNS, R.B.A., and L.
    RICHMOND, R.A. With a frontispiece and foreword by FRANK BRANGWYN,
    R.A. With 40 beautiful full-page coloured plates and 15 other
    illustrations. In demy 4to, cloth gilt. 15_s._ net.

Extract from _The Connoisseur_:

"The beautiful volume may quicken public interest in the method. The 40
plates in colour afford a fine series of examples of the resources of
the medium and the best methods of exploiting them."


    DRAWING AND DESIGN. A School Course in Composition. By SAMUEL CLEGG,
    _Headmaster of the County Secondary School, Long Eaton, Derbyshire_,
    with a foreword by WILLIAM ROTHENSTEIN, _Professor of Civic Art,
    Sheffield University_. 10 in. by 7½ in. 12_s._ 6_d._ net.

A feature of the book is the inclusion of plates printed by scholars
from wood-blocks of their own making and designing. It also contains
good sections on lettering and pen and ink drawing, as well as on pencil
work, colour work, etc.


SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LIMITED



FROM THE ARTISTIC CRAFTS SERIES

    HAND-LOOM WEAVING. By LUTHER HOOPER. 125 Drawings by the Author and
    NOEL ROOKE. Coloured and collotype reproduction. Small Crown 8vo,
    368 pp. 8_s._ 6_d._ net.

Extract from _The Morning Post_:

"... Every phase and process in weaving is described with so clear and
careful an exactitude, that, helped as the text is by the Author's
sketches and diagrams, the reader should have no difficulty in
conquering with its aid the rudiments of the craft."


    EMBROIDERY & TAPESTRY WEAVING. By Mrs. A. H. CHRISTIE. _Fourth
    Edition._ 178 diagrams and illustrations by the Author, 16 pp. of
    collotype reproductions. Small Crown 8vo, 320 pp. 10_s._ 6_d._ net.

Extract from The _Pall Mall Gazette_:

"Mrs. Christie has performed her task to admiration, ... and her lucid
explanations of various kinds of stitches ... should be of value to all
workers at embroidery or tapestry weaving and to novices anxious to
learn."


SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LIMITED



FROM THE ARTISTIC CRAFTS SERIES

MANUSCRIPT WRITING & LETTERING. By AN EDUCATIONAL EXPERT. Showing the
historical development and practical application to modern handwriting
of several manuscript styles derived from ancient Roman letters. Fully
illustrated. Foolscap 4to. 6_s._ net.

    Extract from _The Times_:

    "This book supplies and supplies generously a need which has become
    urgent.... For purposes purely practical, no teacher of plain
    handwriting need know more than this book tells him; nor should be
    content to know less."


HERALDRY FOR CRAFTSMEN AND DESIGNERS. By W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Litt.D.,
D.C.L. Small Crown 8vo, 496 pp., 300 diagrams and designs, 24 collotype
reproductions, and 8 coloured plates, 10_s._ 6_d._ net.

    Extract from _The Athenæum_:

    "A series which includes three such books as Mr. Douglas Cockerell's
    'Bookbinding,' Mr. Edward Johnston's 'Writing,' and this ranks
    almost as a national possession.... No artist can see this book
    without wanting to buy it, if it were only for the beauty of the
    objects selected for illustration."

SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LIMITED



FROM THE ARTISTIC CRAFTS SERIES


WRITING AND ILLUMINATING & LETTERING. By EDWARD JOHNSTON. _Tenth
Edition._ 227 illustrations and diagrams by the Author and NOEL ROOKE, 8
pp. of examples in red and black, 24 pp. of collotype reproductions, 512
pp. Small Crown 8vo. 8_s._ 6_d._ net.

    Extract from _The Athenæum_:

    "... This book belongs to that extremely rare class in which every
    line bears the impress of complete mastery of the subject. We
    congratulate Mr. Johnston on having produced a work at once original
    and complete."


BOOKBINDING AND THE CARE OF BOOKS. By DOUGLAS COCKERELL. _Fourth
Edition._ 122 drawings by NOEL ROOKE, 8 pages collotype reproductions.
Small Crown 8vo, 352 pp. 7_s._ 6_d._ net.

    Extract from _The Times_:

    "... A capital proof of the reasoned thoroughness in workmanship,
    which is the first article in the creed of those who ... are
    attempting to carry into practice the industrial teaching of Ruskin
    and William Morris."

SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LIMITED



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

The following printer's errors were corrected in the text:

   PLATE XI                                                    "    122
     Sixteen Leather Boots and Shoes, between 1535 and 1850.
       Original had "1630" instead of "1535"

   PLATE XXI                                                   "    202
     Twenty-three Boots and Shoes, from 1800 to 1875.
       Original had "Twenty-two"

  _C._ Braided Suit, 1670-90.
    Original had "1695-90"

  _C._ Dress of Spotted, 1795-1808.
    Original had "Stockingette"

  _A._ Morning Coat of Chintz, 1825-45.
    Original had "Chintze"

  The bodice, Fig A, Plate X (see p. 119),
    Original had "see p. 292"

  _Sleeve_
    Original had "Sleev"

  PATTERN 53.
    Original had "PATTEEN"

  Pattern 55, page 339:--
    Dress, Fig. _C_, Plate XXV.
      Original had "G"

  Pattern 58, page 342:--
    Dress, Fig. _C_, Plate XXIX.
      Original had "G"

The following inconsistencies are retained as printed:

  Plate VII, c. Black Silk Jerkin.
    Illustration caption has 1640-60,
    list of illustrations has 1640-50.

  Plate IX, a. Lady's Embroidered Silk Jacket.
    Illustration caption has 1605-30,
    list of illustrations has 1605-20.

  Plate XV, c. Embroidered Velvet Coat.
    Illustration caption has 1755-75,
    list of illustrations has 1753-75.

  Plate XX, b. Nine Aprons.
    Illustration caption has 1850,
    list of illustrations has 1750.

  The scarves worn round the body
  of the 17th century cavaliers were from 2 feet 3 inches wide to 3 feet 6
  inches, and from 8 feet 6 inches to 7 feet in length.
    Second range is inconsistent as printed.

  Plate XXXIII, c. Silk Coat and Skirt.
    Illustration caption has 1855-65,
    list of illustrations has 1855-56.





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