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´╗┐Title: Knots, Bends, Splices - With tables of strengths of ropes, etc. and wire rigging
Author: Jutsum, Captain, 1868-1916
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Knots, Bends, Splices - With tables of strengths of ropes, etc. and wire rigging" ***

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[Illustration: Cover]



KNOTS,

BENDS, SPLICES,


WITH TABLES OF STRENGTHS OF ROPES, ETC.,

AND WIRE RIGGING.



BY CAPTAIN JUTSUM, CARDIFF.


_Revised and Enlarged._



[COPYRIGHT.



GLASGOW:

The Nautical Press,

JAMES BROWN & SON,

NAUTICAL AND ENGINEERING PUBLISHERS.

1914



INTRODUCTION.

The object of this little work is to present in a compact form and
systematic order a complete list of all the most useful and important
workings connected with Cordage, and a lucid explanation of their
various formations.

The explanations of some of the elementary knots have been gone into
with what a practical seaman of even short experience may consider
almost unnecessary minuteness, but the aim throughout has been to
render the work of value to those who approach the subject for the
first time.

To attain this end, diagrams are introduced at every stage, and if
followed closely step by step, in conjunction with the text referring
to them, the learner should have no difficulty in following their
construction.

At the same time he must remember that proficiency in what is really
skilled workmanship, amounting almost to an art, can only be gained by
much practice and perseverance, and should gladly avail himself of any
advice or help he may be able to obtain from his more experienced
ship-mates.

J. NETHERCLIFT JUTSUM.



{v}

CONTENTS.

                                                                  PAGE

The Construction of Ropes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1

Common Whipping, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3

Knots, etc., formed by a Single Rope's-end--
  Overhand Knot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
  Figure of 8  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
  Simple Clinch  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5
  Running or Inside Clinch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     6
  Outside Clinch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     7
  Buntline Hitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     7
  Bowline  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     8
  Running Bowline  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     9
  Half Hitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    10
  Round Turn and Two Half Hitches  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    11
  Clove Hitch  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    12
  Rolling Hitch  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    13
  Timber Hitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    14
  Fisherman's Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    15
  Topsail Halliard Bend  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    16
  Stun'sail Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17
  Blackwall Hitch  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17
  Midshipman's Hitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    18
  Double Blackwall Hitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    19

Knots, etc., made on the Bight of a Rope--
  A Bowline on the Bight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    20
  Marlinespike Hitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    21
  Sheepshank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    22
  Catspaw  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    22

Knots, Bends, etc., for Uniting Ropes--
  Reef Knot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    24
  Common or Sheet Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    24
  Single Carrick Bend  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    26
  Double Carrick Bend  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    27
  Diamond Knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    27

Knots formed on Ropes by their own Strands--
  Wall Knot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-33
  Double Wall Knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    33
  Crown Knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    33
  Manrope Knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    34
  Stopper Knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    34
  Single Matthew Walker  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    35
  Double Matthew Walker  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    36
  Another form of Diamond Knot (Single)  . . . . . . . . . . . .    38
  Double Diamond Knot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    39
  Shroud Knot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    40
  Spritsail Sheet Knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    41

Splices--
  Eye Splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    43
  Short Splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    44
  Cut Splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    45
  Long Splice  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    45
  Grommet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    46

Wire Splicing--
  Eye Splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    47
  Long Splice  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    48

Purchases--
  Single Whip  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    49
  Double Whip  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    49
  Runner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    50
  Gun Tackle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    50
  Handy Billy or Jigger  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    51
  Watch or Luff Tackle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    51
  Double Luff  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    52
  Three-fold Purchase  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    52
  Four-fold Purchase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    53
  Single Spanish Burton  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    53
  Double Spanish Burton (two forms)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    54
  Spanish Windlass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    55

Miscellaneous Odds and Ends--
  Palm and Needle Whipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    56
  West Country Whipping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    56
  American Whipping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    57
  To Point a Rope End  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    57
  Turk's Head  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-60
  Mousing a Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    60
  Securing Lead Line to Lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    61
  Fitting a Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    61
  Cringles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-64
  Lengthening the Rope of a Sail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    64
  Jury Knot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65-66
  Sling for a Barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-68
  Chain Knot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-69
  Double Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69-70
  Twist or Plain Knot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    71

Wire Rope Splicing, etc.--
  How to Handle Wire Rope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    72
  Set of Wire Rope Splicing Tools  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    74
  Directions for Splicing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-78
  Splicing Thimbles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-82

Tables showing the Respective Weights and  Strengths of Various
  Cordage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-86



{1}

THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROPES.

Rope, the term being used in its widest construction, is made from
almost every pliable material, but is generally composed of hemp,
manila, coir, cotton, steel, iron, or copper wire.

For the present we will confine ourselves to those having their origin
in the vegetable kingdom, and more especially to those made from hemp
and manila.

These are divided into three classes:--

(1).  +A Hawser-laid Rope+, which is composed of three strands laid up
generally right-handed (that is, the direction taken by the strands in
forming the rope runs always from left to right) (Fig. 1.)

(2).  +A Shroud-laid Rope+, also laid up right-handed, but consisting
of four strands (Fig. 2) with a heart in the centre.

(3).  +A Cable-laid Rope+, which is composed of three right-handed
hawser-laid ropes laid up together left-handed, so that it may be said
to consist of nine strands (Fig. 3), or it may be formed by three
left-handed ropes laid up right-handed (Fig. 4).

{2}

[Illustration: Fig. 1.  Fig. 2.  Fig. 3.]

In Fig. 4 we show a more complete analysis of its construction (in this
case a right-handed cable-laid rope).

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

{3}

First we see the cable _e_ formed by the three ropes _d_, _f_, and _g_;
whilst the rope _g_ is dissected to show the strands forming it, _c_,
_h_, _j_; and in the strand _h_ we see _b_, the yarn composing the
strand, and _a_ a yarn teased out to show the original fibre.

The end of a rope must always be secured in some way, or it is evident
from its construction that it will on the slightest usage become frayed
out.  The commonest method is by placing on an ordinary whipping, which
is done as follows:--First lay the end of a length of twine along the
end of the rope, and then commencing at the part furthest from the
rope's end take a half dozen or more turns around both the rope and
twine end (Fig. 5).  Then lay the twine in the form of a loop along the
rope and over the turns already taken, as in Fig. 6.  To finish off
take that portion of the loop designated _a_, and continue taking turns
tightly round the rope and part _b_ of the twine until the loop is
nearly all used up; pull through the remainder snugly by part _c_, and
cut off short when, no end of twine will be visible as in Fig. 7.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.  Fig. 6.  Fig. 7.]

{4}

Considering that we now have at our disposal a small sized rope with
the end whipped, we will at once proceed to the formation of the most
elementary knots and hitches, namely, those formed by a single rope's
end.

Fig. 8 shows a common loop, by which most of the following knots, etc.,
are commenced.  Note exactly how the loop lies, and let us letter its
parts clearly for future reference.  The part of rope extending from 1
to 2 is known as the standing part which we will call _a_, the portion
included between 2 and 3 following round the loop by _y_ and _z_ is
termed the bight which we will call _b_, and from 3 to 4 is known as
the end _e_.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

Then starting in each case from the position shown in Fig. 8 we make
the following knots, etc:--

{5}

(1).  +An Overhand Knot+.--Place _e_ up through bight _b_, and draw
taut (Fig. 9).

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

(2).  +A Figure of Eight Knot+.--Back _e_ round behind _a_, bring over
part _z_ and dip down through bight _b_ and haul taut (Fig. 10).

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

(3).  +A Simple Clinch+ is formed by closing up the initial loop to
form a small ring and securing by a seizing--a small lashing at _d_
(Fig. 11).

{6}

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

One of the preceding knots is generally put in the end of running gear
to prevent it from coming unrove from the fair-leads or blocks.

(4).  +A Running or Inside Clinch+ is the foregoing, formed by the end
of a rope on its own standing part, and is often used for securing
buntlines to the foot of a sail (Fig. 12).

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

{7}

(5.) +An Outside Clinch+, as may be inferred from its name, is formed
in a similar manner, but the end _c_ is brought round on top, that is,
away from the bight (Fig. 13).  It is used in cases where it is
essential that the end should not be in a position to jam, but always
ready for slipping at a moment's notice, as in securing cable ends, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

(6).  +A Buntline Hitch+ (an alternative method of securing buntlines
to a sail) is commenced as in making an outside clinch, but instead of
putting on a seizing, take a longer end _c_, pass it over _y_, bring up
through bight _b_, and tuck the end again over part _y_ and through the
last loop formed, so that the end _c_ lies close to the commencement of
part _z_ (Fig. 14).

{8}

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

(7).  +A Bowline+.--Reverting to our original loop (Fig. 8), first
taking part _z_ in the right hand with _y_ in the left, throw a loop
over _c_, the end, as in Fig. 15.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

{9}

Secondly, lead _c_ round behind part _a_ and pass it down through the
last made loop, as indicated by the dotted line, and haul taut as in
Fig. 16.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

(8).  +A Running Bowline+.--Form  a loop with a long end _c_ lying
underneath the standing part _a_ (Fig. 17).

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

{10}

Now bring end _c_ over part _y_ and with it form the bowline knot on
part _z_ just as in the previous case we formed it on its own part,
when it will appear as in Fig. 18.  It is used whenever a running noose
is required.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

(9).  The formation of a half hitch (Fig. 19), and two half hitches
(Fig. 20) is sufficiently indicated by those diagrams.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

{11}

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

The commonest method of making a rope's end fast to a bollard, etc., is
by taking a round turn and two half hitches, and stopping the end back
for further security (Fig. 21).

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

{12}

(10).  +A Clove Hitch+ is really a jamming form of two half hitches,
and is principally used when a small rope has to be secured to a larger
one and the end still kept free to pass along for further purposes, as
in securing ratlines to the shrouds.  Its formation is shown in three
successive stages (Figs. 22, 23, 24).

[Illustration: Fig. 22.  Fig. 23.  Fig. 24.]

{13}

(11).  +A Rolling Hitch+ is commenced and finished like a clove hitch,
but as will be seen from the three diagrams (Figs. 25, 26, 27)
illustrating its construction, there is an intermediate round turn
between the first and last hitches.  It is principally used for
securing the tail of a handy billy or snatch block to a larger rope, or
when hanging off a rope with a stopper.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.  Fig. 26.  Fig. 27.]

{14}

Note that the round turn in (Fig. 26) is taken round both the standing
part _a_ and the larger rope.  The great value of this hitch is its
non-liability to slip in the direction _B_ (Fig. 27).  If, however,
owing to an extremely severe strain or other causes the hitch is
inclined to slip, the end _e_ should be backed round part _d_ of the
first rope, that is, twisted around it in long lays in the opposite
direction to that in which the hitch was formed, and the end secured by
a stop (Fig. 28).

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

(12).  A Timber Hitch is a useful way of securing a rope quickly to a
plank, but when there is to be a long and continuous strain, or when it
is required to keep the end of a piece of timber pointed steadily in
one direction, it should be supplemented with a half hitch (Figs. 29,
30).

{15}

[Illustration: Fig. 29.  Fig. 30.]

The timber hitch itself consists simply of a half hitch taken with a
rather long end, which is used up by twisting it back around its own
part of the hitch.  In Fig. 29 the hitch is purposely left very loose
so that its formation may be the more easily seen.

(13)  +A Fisherman's Bend+ is formed by taking two round turns around
the object to which the rope is to be secured, and then backing the end
round in the form of a half hitch under both the standing part and
second round turn.  The end may be further secured by taking a half
hitch {16} around its own part or by stopping it to it (Figs. 31, 32),
the dotted line showing the next direction the end _c_ must take.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.  Fig. 32.]

It is used when securing a hauling line to the ring of the kedge, or
for bending a rope to a bucket, etc., and is often called a bucket
hitch.

(14).  +A Topsail Halyard Bend+.--This bend is never seen in deep water
ships, but is sometimes used on board yachts.  It is commenced in a
similar manner to a fisherman's bend, but three round turns are first
taken around the spar, the end being backed around the standing part
_a_ and then led under all three turns as in Fig. 33, and then again
backed over the last two round turns and under the first, as shown in
Fig. 34.

{17}

[Illustration: Fig. 33.  Fig. 34.]

(14).  +A Stun'sail Halyard Bend+ is simply a Fisherman's bend with the
end backed again over the last round turn and under the first (Fig. 35).

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

(15).  +A Blackwall Hitch+ is a quick way of temporarily securing a
rope to a hook.  As will be seen from the illustration (Fig. 36) it
consists of a half hitch, the standing part _a_ as soon as it receives
the strain jamming {18} the end part _c_.  It holds much more firmly
than would be imagined at first sight.  By taking another round turn at
_b_ before passing the end _c_ under _a_, it will hold more securely.

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

(17).  +A Midshipman's Hitch+ is sometimes used instead of a Blackwall
hitch, and will hold better if the rope is at all greasy.  It is made
by first forming a Blackwall hitch and then taking the underneath part
and placing it over the bill of the hook (Fig. 37).

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

{19}

(18).  +A Double Blackwall Hitch+ is made by taking the bight of the
rope and placing it across the neck of the strop of the block, crossing
it behind, then placing the under part over the hook and crossing the
upper part on top of it (Fig. 38).  It holds better than either of the
two preceding hitches.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]



{20}

KNOTS, Etc., MADE ON THE BIGHT OF A ROPE, THAT IS, WITHOUT UTILISING
THE ENDS.

(1).  +A Bowline on the Bight+--Using both parts of the rope together,
commence as in making an ordinary bowline (Fig. 39).  To finish off,
open out bight _c_, and taking it in the direction indicated by the
dotted line, pass the whole knot through it and haul taut, when it will
appear as in Fig. 40.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.  Fig. 40.]

{21}

(2).  +A Marline-Spike Hitch+ is used for getting a purchase with a
marline-spike, capstan bar, etc., when putting on a seizing or lashing.
By Fig. 41 it will be seen to consist of the standing part picked
through a loop laid over it, so that the spike lies under the standing
part and over the sides of the loop.

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

(3).  +A Sheep Shank+ is used for shortening a rope.  Gather up the
amount desired in the form of Fig. 42.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

Then with parts _a_ and _b_ form a half hitch round the two parts of
the bight as in Fig. 43.

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

{22}

To render it still more dependable, the bight _a_ and _b_ may be seized
or toggled to the standing parts as in Figs. 44 and 45.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.  Fig. 45.]

(4).  +A Catspaw+ is formed in a rope to make a temporary loop for
hooking on the block of a tackle.  First throw back a bight as in Fig.
46.

[Illustration: Fig. 46.]

{23}

Then taking hold of _a_ and _b_ in either hand twist them up as in Fig.
47; bring together the two eyes _a_ and _b_ and hook in the tackle.

[Illustration: Fig. 47.]



{24}

KNOTS, BENDS, AND HITCHES FOR UNITING ROPES.

(1).  +A Reef Knot+.--The simplest of all knots, and is always used
when a common tie is required.  Its formation may be easily traced in
Figs. 48, 49, 50.  Having constructed the knot as far as Fig. 48, be
sure part _a_ is kept in front of part _b_ as here shown, and the end
_c_ led in according to the direction of the dotted line.

[Illustration: Fig. 48.  Fig. 49.  Fig. 50.]

(2).  +A Common Bend or Sheet Bend+.--In making a bend the ends of the
two ropes are not used simultaneously as in forming a reef knot, but an
eye or loop is first formed in the end of one of the ropes as in Fig.
51, and the other rope's end is then rove through it in various ways
according to the bend desired.

{25}

[Illustration: Fig. 51.]

To form a Sheet Bend, pass the second rope's end underneath the eye at
point _a_ and bring up through the loop, then form with it a half hitch
round _c_ and _b_ (Fig. 52).

[Illustration: Fig. 52.]

It will hold still better and is less likely to jamb if the end _c_ is
passed round again as in Fig. 53.

[Illustration: Fig. 53.]

{26}

(3).  For bending two hauling lines together use a +Carrick Bend+.
First form with hawser No. 1 a loop as in Fig. 54.

[Illustration: Fig. 54.]

Pass the second hawser under the first at _a_, bring up through the eye
_b_, back it over the cross at _c_, and bring up again towards you
through the eye _b_, and then stop the ends of each hawser to their own
respective parts (Fig. 55).

[Illustration: Fig. 55.]

{27}

(4).  _A Double Carrick Bend_ is formed in precisely a similar manner,
but a complete round turn is taken around the cross of the first hawser
at _c_, and then led up again through the eye _b_ and finished off as
before (Fig. 56).

[Illustration: Fig. 56.]

(5).  +A Diamond Knot+ formed by the two ends of a rope is really a
fancy knot.  It is often made with Hambro' line in forming lanyards for
marline-spikes, knives, etc.  It is a pretty knot and very easily made.

First lay one of the cords in a loop shaped as in Fig. 57.

{28}

Notice carefully how this loop is lettered, and then, taking up the
second cord, lay it under the loop at _a_, straight along also under
the loop at _b_, now bring it over the first cord at _c_ and under it
at _d_ and over it at _e_, then dip it under its own part now lying
between _a_ and _b_, and lead it over the first cord at _f_.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.]

The knot, still in an unfinished state, will now appear as in Fig. 58.

[Illustration: Fig. 58.]

{29}

Now lead the ends in the direction indicated by the dotted lines
(taking care beforehand that you have them sufficiently long for the
purpose), and bring them both up through the opening _a_.  Bring the
two standing parts _b_ and _c_ together, and gradually render all parts
in turn to work up the knot as tight as possible, when it will appear
as in Fig. 59.

[Illustration: Fig. 59.]



{30}

KNOTS FORMED ON ROPES BY THEIR OWN STRANDS.

Although our next series of knots are generally known as "fancy knots"
they are by no means merely ornamental, many of them playing important
parts in the standing rigging of a ship.

(1).  +To Form a Wall Knot+.--First unlay the rope so that the strands
appear as in Fig. 60.

[Illustration: Fig. 60.]

{31}

Holding the rope with the left hand, with the right lead strand _a_ in
the direction indicated by the dotted line, viz., under strand _b_ and
up between strands _b_ and _c_ (Fig. 61).

[Illustration: Fig. 61.]

Then with strand _b_ form a similar loop, enclosing strands _a_ and
_c_, and bringing the end of strand _b_ up between _a_ and _d_ (Fig.
62).

[Illustration: Fig. 62.]

{32}

Now with strand _c_ form a similar loop, enclosing strands _b_ and _a_
by leading the end of strand _c_ up through the loop _e_ in strand _a_
(Fig. 63).

[Illustration: Fig. 63.]

Finally, work all parts well taut, whip the ends of the strands
together and cut off short (Fig. 64).

[Illustration: Fig. 64.]

{33}

(2).  +A Double Wall Knot+ is formed by allowing each strand to again
follow its lead as given in a single wall knot, opening out the first
loops again with a pricker sufficiently for the purpose.  The three
strands are as before brought up in the centre and cut off short after
whipping them together.  This knot is also known as a stopper knot.

(3).  +A Crown Knot+ is formed by interlacing the strands in a similar
manner to a wall knot, but the strands are successively led _over_ each
other instead of under.  Its construction will be easily followed in
Fig. 65.

[Illustration: Fig. 65.]

Double crowning is done by following round each strand again alongside
its first lead.


Our next two knots are but combinations of the wall and crown.

{34}

(4).  +A Manrope Knot+ is made by first forming a wall and then
crowning it (Fig. 66.)

[Illustration: Fig. 66.]

Then follow round the wall again, and lastly, follow round the crown,
when the finished knot will appear as in Fig. 67.

[Illustration: Fig. 67.]

A knot formed by making a crown first and then a wall, and afterwards
following round the crown and wall again is another form of the Stopper
Knot.  It is very similar in appearance when finished to a Manrope Knot.

{35}

(5).  +A Single Matthew Walker+.--To make this knot commence similarly
to a wall, but pass the first strand _a_ under both _b_ and _c_, as in
Fig. 68.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.]

Then pass _b_ under both strands _c_ and _a_, and bring up through the
loop first formed by _a_ (Fig. 69).

[Illustration: Fig. 69.]

{36}

Similarly pass _c_ under _a_ and _b_, and bring up through the loop
first formed by _b_ (Fig. 70).

[Illustration: Fig. 70.]

(6).  +A Double Matthew Walker+ will be easily learnt if you notice the
difference between a single Matthew Walker and a Wall Knot.

In the Wall Knot you will have noticed that each strand is simply
interlaced with the strand immediately on its right coming up through
the loop formed by this second strand.

In the single Matthew Walker each strand interlaces the two strands to
its right, coming up through the loop of the third strand.

{37}

Another evolution in the same order brings us to the double Matthew
Walker.  It is formed, as will be seen by carefully following diagram
71, by making each strand contain in its own loop, the other two
strands, and _its own_ end, that is, each strand leads up through its
own bight after interlacing the other two.

[Illustration: Fig. 71.  Fig. 72.]

When worked taut and finished off, it will appear as in Fig. 72.

{38}

(7).  +A Single Diamond Knot+.--This is another method of forming the
knot shown in Fig. 59, which in that case was formed by the two ends of
the same rope.

To form it on a rope by its own strands, unlay the rope to the place
where it is desired to form the knot, and as after the knot is made the
strands will have to be laid up again, try to preserve the original lay
in the strands as much as possible.  Now bring each of the three
strands down alongside the standing part of the rope, thus forming
three bights, and hold them thus with the left hand.  Take the first
strand _a_ (Fig. 73) and, putting it over the next, _b_, bring it up
through the bight of the third strand _c_.

[Illustration: Fig. 73.]

{39}

Take the end of the second strand over the third and up the bight of
the first.  The last strand is brought through over the first and up
through the bight of the second.  Haul taut, and lay the rope up again.
Fig. 74 shows the loops in their places with the ends through them
before they are hauled taut.  Fig. 75 gives the knot finished.

[Illustration: Fig. 74.  Fig. 75.]

For a double diamond we first make a single diamond, the ends are then
made to follow the lead of the single knot through two single bights,
the ends coming out on top of the knot.  The last strand passes through
two double bights.  The ends are then hauled taut and laid up as before
(Fig. 76).

{40}

[Illustration: Fig. 76.]

(8).  +A Shroud Knot+ is a method of joining two ropes.  Each is unlaid
the necessary length, and they are then brought close together.  A Wall
Knot is formed on each rope with the strands of the other (Fig. 77).

The completed knot is shown in Fig. 78, but to make a neat job the ends
should be marled and served as in Fig. 79.

[Illustration: Fig. 77.  Fig. 78.  Fig. 79.]

{41}

(9).  +A Spritsail Sheet Knot+.--Unlay both ends of the rope and bring
the two standing parts of the rope together as in Fig. 80.

[Illustration: Fig. 80.]

Grasping both parts of the rope at _a_, with the six strands form a
Wall Knot, that is, by passing 1 under 2, 2 under 3, 3 under 4, 4 under
5, 5 under 6, and 6 under the loop formed by 1.

This would appear too confusing if shown in a diagram, but the knot is
very easily made in practice.

Now lay any opposite two of the strands across the top {42} in an
_opposite direction_, and crown by passing the other four, each in
turn, alternately over and under these two.

Each of the six strands will then come out leading in a downward
direction alongside the strands forming the first walling.

Now follow round the walling again, when the strands will come through
in an upward direction, each alongside a strand of the first crowning.

Follow through the crowning once more, and cut off the ends short, when
a handsome and useful Stopper Knot will result, as shown in Fig. 81.

[Illustration: Fig. 81.]



{43}

SPLICES.

(1).  +An Eye Splice+ is formed by unlaying the end of a rope for a
short distance, and then, after closing up the end, to form an eye of
the desired size.  Lay the three strands upon the standing part, now
tuck the middle strand through the strand of the standing part of the
rope next to it (against the lay of the rope), then pass the strand on
the left over the strand under which No. 1 strand is tucked, and tuck
it under the next, and lastly, put the remaining strand through the
third strand on the other side of the rope (Fig. 82.)

[Illustration: Fig. 82.]

{44}

Now tuck each strand again alternately over a strand and under a strand
of the rope, and then taper off by halving the strands before tucking
the third time, and again halve them before the fourth tuck.

If the strands are tucked with the lay of the rope it is termed a
Sailmaker's Splice.

(2).  +A Short Splice+ is used to join two ropes when it is not
required to pass through a block.  Unlay the two ropes the required
distance, and clutch them together as in Fig. 83, that is, so that the
strands of one rope go alternately between the strands of the other.

[Illustration: Fig. 83.]

Then tuck the strands of rope a into the rope _b_ in a similar manner
to that described in an eye splice, and similarly tuck the strands of
_b_ into _a_ (Figs. 84 and 85).

[Illustration: Fig. 84.  Fig. 85.]

{45}

(3).  +A Cut Splice+ is made by laying two ropes in the position
indicated in Fig. 86.

[Illustration: Fig. 86.]

Leaving the ropes between _a a_ to form an oblong loop, tuck the
strands of one rope into the other as done in the eye splice.  Splices
are often wormed, parcelled, and served.  Fig. 87 shows the cut splice
after this treatment.

A log-line splice is a cut splice, but instead of allowing the loop to
appear, the two lines are twisted together.

[Illustration: Fig. 87.]

(4).  +A Long Splice+ is one of the most useful of splices, as it
permits the rope to run through a block just the same as an unspliced
rope.

Unlay the ends of two ropes to a distance about four times the length
used in a short splice, and then clutch them together as if about to
commence a short splice.  Now unlay one strand for a considerable
distance and fill {46} up the gap thus caused by twisting in the strand
opposite to it of the other rope.  Then do the same with two more
strands.  Let the remaining two strands stay as they were first placed.
The ropes will now appear as in Fig. 88.

[Illustration: Fig. 88.]

To finish off, tuck the ends as in a short splice, but _with_ the lay
of the rope, that is, so that the tuck will continually take place
around the same strand, and taper off gradually by reducing the yarns
in the strand.

(5).  +To Make a Grommet+, cut a strand about three and a half times
the length of the grommet required.  Unlay the rope carefully and keep
the turns of the strand in.  Close up the strand in the form of a ring
(Fig. 89), and then pass the ends round and round in their original lay
until all the intervals are filled up (Fig. 90), and then finish off
the two ends as in a long splice (Fig. 91).

[Illustration: Fig. 89.  Fig. 90.  Fig. 91.]



{47}

WIRE SPLICING.

In splicing wire, great care should be taken to prevent kinks getting
in the rope or strands.

With steel wire, always before working it, put a stop on at the place
to which you intend to unlay, and also put a good whipping of twine at
the end of each strand.

Steel wire is six-stranded right-handed, and has a heart of hemp.
Flexible wire has a heart of hemp in each strand.

Crucible wire is made in the same manner, except that the strands are
wire throughout.

Crucible wire is used for standing rigging and flexible wire for
purchases, etc.

In splicing wire all tucks are made with the lay of the rope.

In making an eye splice the rope is handled better if hung up in a
convenient position so that when standing up the eye will be at about
the level of the chest of the person working.

A long tapering steel marline-spike is required, and after placing it
under a strand do not withdraw it until the tuck is made and all the
slack of the strand drawn through.

{48}

There are several methods in vogue for tucking the strand, but the
following is as good as any:--Tuck the first strand under two strands
and all the rest under one strand respectively.  Tuck whole again, and
this time each strand under one strand, then halve the strands and tuck
again.

To make a neat splice do not haul the part of the rope that has not
been unlaid too close to the neck of the splice, and in tucking the
strands never take a short nip but take long lays.

In unlaying for a long splice, always unlay two strands simultaneously,
to keep the rope in its original lay.  For a fair-sized rope unlay
about 9 ft. of each end.

Proceed as in rope splicing, and after the three pairs of strands are
in their places, single them, and continue to unlay and lay-in until
the six meeting places of the strands are equi-distant.

To finish off the ends properly can only be learnt by observation and
actual practice.  By using two marline-spikes, the hempen heart is
removed and the ends of the wire strands forced into the place it
occupied, making a very neat job when finished.

Wire splices should be parcelled with oily canvas and served with
Hambro' line.



{49}

PURCHASES.

(1) +Single Whip+.--A rope rove through a single block fixed in any
position.  No power is gained (Fig. 92).

[Illustration: Fig. 92.]

(2).  +Double Whip+.--A rope rove through two single blocks--upper
block a tail block, lower one a movable hook block.  Power
gained--double (Fig. 93).

[Illustration: Fig. 93.]

{50}

(3). +A Runner+ adds an additional power to the purchase it is used
with (Fig. 94).

[Illustration: Fig. 94.]

(4).  +Gun Tackle+.--single blocks.  Power gained--twice or thrice,
according to which is the movable block (Fig. 95).

[Illustration: Fig. 95.]

{51}

(5).  +Handy Billy or Jigger+.--A small tackle for general use; a
double block with a tail and single block with hook (Fig. 96).

[Illustration: Fig. 96.]

(6).  +Watch Tackle or Luff Tackle+.--Double hook block and single hook
block (Fig. 97).

[Illustration: Fig. 97.]

{52}

(7).  +Double Luff+.--Two double blocks (Fig. 98).

[Illustration: Fig. 98.]

(8).  +Three-Fold Purchase+.--Two three-fold blocks.  Power gained--six
or seven times (Fig. 99).

[Illustration: Fig. 99.]

{53}

(9).  +Four-Fold Purchase+.--Two four-fold blocks.  Power gained--eight
or nine times (Fig. 100).

[Illustration: Fig. 100.]

(10).  +A Single Spanish Burton+.--Two single blocks and a hook.  Power
gained--three times (Fig. 101).

[Illustration: Fig. 101.]

{54}

[Illustration: Fig. 102.]

(11).  +A Double Spanish Burton+.--There are two forms of this
purchase--Fig. 102, by using three single blocks; Fig.  103, by using
one double block and two single blocks.  Power gained--five times.

[Illustration: Fig. 103.]

{55}

(12).  +A Spanish Windlass+.--To rig a Spanish Windlass take a good
strand well greased in the centre.  Place the strand over the two parts
of the rope that are to be hove together, and bringing the ends of the
strand up again, place a bolt close to the strand.  Take the ends of
the strand and lay them up with their own parts so as to form two eyes.
Take a round turn with this round the bolt, put a marline-spike through
each eye and heave around (Fig. 104).

[Illustration: Fig. 104.]



{56}

MISCELLANEOUS ODDS AND ENDS.

(1).  +A Palm and Needle Whipping+ is a more permanent way of securing
a rope's end from fraying than the common whipping put on by hand.
First, place the needle under one of the strands and draw nearly the
whole length of twine through.  Take a considerable number of turns
round the rope with the twine, drawing each well taut in turn, and
finish up by following round with the needle between each strand,
forming a series of frappings, and cut off the end of the twine short
(Fig. 105).

[Illustration: Fig. 105.]

(2).  +A West Country Whipping+ is formed by middling the twine around
the part of the rope to be marked and half knotting it at every half
turn, so that each half knot will be on opposite sides.  When a
sufficient number of turns are passed, finish it off with a reef knot.

{57}

(3).  +An American Whipping+ is sometimes used for the ends of hawsers.
It is commenced in the same way as a common whipping, but finished off
by having both ends out in the middle of the whipping and forming a
reef knot.  This is done by leaving the first end out when you commence
to pass the turns on the bight over the last end.

(4).  +To Point a Rope End+.--First put a stop on at twice and a half
the circumference of the rope from the end, which will leave about the
length for pointing, unlay the rope to the stop and then unlay the
strands.  Split a number of the outside yarns and make a nettle out of
each yarn.  (A nettle is made by laying up the yarns with the finger
and thumb left-handed.)  When the nettles are made stop them back on
the standing part of the rope; then form the point with the rest of the
yarns by scraping them down to a proper size with a knife, and marl
them down together with twine; divide the nettles, taking every other
one up and every other one down.  Pass three turns with a piece of
twine--which is called the warp--very taut round the part where the
nettles separate, taking a hitch with the last turn.  Continue to
repeat this process by placing every alternate nettle up and down,
passing the warp or "filling," taking a hitch each time, until the {58}
point is to its required length.  It is generally finished off by
working a small Flemish eye in the end (Figs. 106 and 107).

[Illustration: Fig. 106.  Fig. 107.]

(5).  +Turk's Head+.--The Turk's Head is one of the most common of the
ornamental knots used at sea, and is formed from an ordinary clove
hitch (Fig. 108) made sufficiently slack to allow for the working of
the other parts.

[Illustration: Fig. 108.]

Having formed the clove hitch, pass _b_ over _c_ and tuck _a_ under and
up through the bight formed by _c_ as in Fig. 109.  It will then be
found that there is another twist in {60} the parts _b_ and _c_, tuck
_a_ under _e_ and over _b_.  Then go on as in Fig. 109, and put _b_
over _c_ again and tuck _a_ as before.  The number of crossings
required depends principally on the size of the material on which the
Turk's Head is formed.  To finish off as in Fig. 110, the part _a_ is
made to follow _d_ (Fig 108) round for three times.

[Illustration: Fig. 109.]

[Illustration: Fig. 110.]

(6).  +Mousing a Hook+.--All hooks in running gear should be moused as
in Fig. 111.

[Illustration: Fig. 111.]

{61}

(7).  +Securing Lead Line to Lead+.--The lead is fitted with a good
wire grommet parcelled over.  The lead line should have a long eye
spliced in it, and is secured by passing the eye through the grommet
and over the lead (Fig. 112).

[Illustration: Fig. 112.]

(8).  +Fitting a Flag+.--A toggle should be secured at the head of the
hoist by an eye splice; a length of rope equal to the width of the flag
left below the hoist, as this is the distance the flags should be
apart, and then a running eye splice made so as to be rapidly attached
to the next flag.

(9).  +To Stick a Cringle+.--First unlay a single strand from {62} the
size of rope your cringle is required to be, whip both ends, reeve the
strand through the left hand eyelet hole in the sail, having one end
longer than the other--nearly a third--keeping the roping of the sail
towards you.  If a thimble is to be put in the cringle, lay up the
parts of the strand together, counting three lays; commence with the
short end of the strand towards you, then reeve the long strand from
you through the right hand eyelet hole, taking it through the cringle,
and it will be in the right position to lay up in the vacant space left
in the cringle; when done, the one end will hang down inside the right
hand eyelet hole and the other end outside the left hand one; the ends
are then hitched by being rove through their respective eyelet holes
and passed over the leech rope and under their own part, one hitch
being towards you and the other from you; then take the ends down under
one strand on the right and two on the left of cringle nearest to it;
then tuck the ends under the first two strands nearest the hitch,
heaving them well in place; the cringle is then fidded out, and the
thimble is put in on the fore part of the sail.  The ends of the strand
are then tucked back, left-handed, under one strand, again under two,
right-handed, as in the first place, heaving them taut in place {63} at
each tuck, the ends are then whipped with two of their own yarns and
cut off.  If a large cringle is needed, count an extra number of
lays--5, 7, etc., always an odd number.

(10).  +To Finish a Cringle off on the Crown+.--Commence as before, but
after laying up the strand, instead of forming a hitch with each end,
the ends are rove through their respective eyelet holes and tucked back
under two strands of the cringles and again laid up as far as the
crown, forming a four-stranded cringle, and finished off by tucking the
ends under two strands and crossing them under the crown of the cringle
and cut close off.

[Illustration: Fig. 113.  Fig. 114.]

{64}

In working a cringle in a piece of rope the only difference is there
are no eyelet holes, therefore the strand is tucked under two strands
of the rope it is to be worked in.

(11).  +To Lengthen a Rope of a Sail with a Single Strand+.--Say it is
necessary to give a sail one cloth more spread, it would then be
necessary to lengthen the head and foot rope.  Supposing the width of
cloth to be 2 feet and the size of the rope 3 in.  After ripping the
rope off four cloths, first of all cut the strand at the distance 2 ft.
6 in. from each other as in Fig. 115.

[Illustration: Fig. 115.]

Cut one of the strands at _a_ and unlay it to _c_, then cut one of the
strands remaining at _c_ and unlay it to _b_, laying the strand _a_ up
again as far as _b_; then cut the only remaining strand at _b_, which
will be the centre, when your rope will be in two parts.  By following
the plan the wrong strand cannot possibly be cut.  The rope will now
appear as in Fig. 116.

[Illustration: Fig. 116.]

{65}

Now marry the long end _a_ to the end _b_, then lay up the long strand
_c_ in the lays of the strand _a_, and marry it to the other strand _b_
as in Fig. 117.

[Illustration: Fig. 117.]

Take a strand about 10 ft. in length of the same size rope and marry
one end to the short strand _a_ as shown above, then fill up the space
left from _a_ to _c_ by laying in the new strand, and marry the other
end to the short strand _c_.  You will then have four splices to finish
off as ordinary long splices (Fig. 118).

[Illustration: Fig. 118.]

(11).  +Jury Knot+.  The jury knot is useful when a jury mast has to be
rigged, as the loops form a means of attaching the necessary supports
to the mast.  The centre _k_ (Fig. 120) is slipped over the masthead,
and the weight brought on the stays tightens it and holds it in its
position on the mast.

{66}

It is formed by three ordinary half-hitches, each placed behind the
other and with the loop of the last laid over the first, as in Fig. 119.

[Illustration: Fig. 119.]

Having done this, keep the hitches together with the right hand, and
with the left take _a_ and dip it under _b_ and pull _c_ through _a_
and _b_.  Then, holding the knot with the left hand, place _f_ over
_e_, and pull _d_ between _e_ and _f_.  Take _g_ in the teeth and pull
on the parts _g_, _f_, and _a_.  The ends _h_ and _z_ may be either
knotted or spliced.

{67}

[Illustration: Fig. 120.]

(13).  +Sling for a Barrel+.--The following method of slinging a barrel
is adopted when it is desired to hoist it up end on.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.]

Pass the bight _a_ of the rope under the lower end of the barrel and
bring the two parts up, and with them {68} form an overhand knot _b_,
which is opened out so as to fit over the end of the barrel.

The bight _a_ is placed under the cask, and the overhand knot _b_ is
slipped over the head, and the two ends are brought up and knotted as
in Fig. 122.

[Illustration: Fig. 122.]

(14).  +Chain Knot+.--An easy and ornamental way of shortening a rope
is that known as the chain knot.

To form it proceed as though you are going to make an ordinary overhand
knot, but instead of working with both ends use the end and a bight as
in Fig. 123.

{69}

This will form the loop _a_, Fig. 123, through which pass a bight of
_b_ and continue in this way until all the slack rope is used up, and
it can be finished off by running the end through the last loop (Fig.
124).

[Illustration: Fig. 123.  Fig. 124.]

(15).  +Double Chain+.--The Double Chain is a little more intricate
than the chain knot, and is formed by taking a turn round the standing
part and thus forming a loop {70} _c_, through which the end _a_ is
passed, thus forming the loop _b_ (Fig. 125).

[Illustration: Fig. 125.]

The end _a_ is brought back and dipped down through _b_ and this is
continued as long as required, finishing off by running the end through
the last bight and hauling it taut (Fig. 126).

[Illustration: Fig. 126.]

{71}

(16).  +Twist Or Plait Knot+.--Another method of shortening a small
handy rope is known as the twist or plait knot.

Arrange the rope in such a manner that the amount to be taken up forms
a bight as in Fig. 127.

[Illustration:  Fig. 127.  Fig. 128.]

Then by taking _a_ over _b_ and _c_ over _b_, and so on, taking the
outside one on each side alternately over the middle one, the plait is
formed.  To keep the plait clear, the end has to be continually dipped
through the first bight made (Fig. 128).



{72}

HOW TO HANDLE WIRE ROPE, ETC.

+The following article by a Wire Specialist will be read with
interest+:--

When uncoiling Wire Rope it is important that no kinks are allowed to
form, as once a kink is made no amount of strain can take it out, and
the rope is unsafe to work.  If possible a turn-table should be
employed (an old cart wheel mounted on a spindle makes an excellent
one); the rope will then lead off perfectly straight without kinks.
(See Fig. 129.)

[Illustration: Fig. 129.  Fig. 130.]

If a turn-table is not available the rope may be rolled along the
ground as shown in Fig. 130.

{73}

In no case must the rope be laid on the ground and the end taken over
(as in Fig. 131), or kinks will result, and the rope will be completely
spoiled.

[Illustration: Fig. 131.]

The life of Wire Rope depends principally upon the diameter of drums,
sheaves, and pulleys; and too much importance cannot be given to the
size of the latter.  Wherever possible the size of the pulleys should
be not less than 700 times the diameter of the largest wire in the
rope, and never less than 300 times.  The diameters of drums, sheaves,
and pulleys should increase with the working load when the factor of
safety is less than 5 to 1.

The load should not be lifted with a jerk, as the strain may equal
three or four times the proper load, and a sound rope may easily be
broken.

Examine ropes frequently.  A new rope is cheaper than the risk of
killing or maiming employees.

{74}

One-fifth of the ultimate strength of the rope should be considered a
fair working load.

In shafts and elevators where human life is constantly raised and
lowered, the working load should not be more than one-tenth of the
ultimate breaking strength of the rope.

To increase the amount of work done, it is better to increase the
working load than the speed of the rope.  Experience has shown that the
wear of the rope increases with the speed.

Wire Rope should be greased when running or idle.  Rust destroys as
effectively as hard work.

Galvanized Wire Rope should never be used for running rope.  One day's
use will wear off the coating of zinc, and the rope will soon begin to
rust.

Great care should be taken that the grooves of drums and sheaves are
perfectly smooth, ample in diameter, and conformed to the surface of
the rope.  They should also be in perfect line with the rope, so that
the latter may not chafe on the sides of the grooves.


+Set of Wire Rope Splicing Tools+.

To produce the best work, the splicer should have at his disposal a set
of tools similar to those in the accompanying illustration.

The Tool set consists of--1 Tucker for Small Strands Splicing; 1 Marlin
Spike, Round; 1 Marlin Spike, Flatted; 1 Pair Special Steel Wire
Cutters; 1 Serving Mallet.  All of best Cast Steel, Hand Forged.

{75}

[Illustration: Fig 132.]

These Sets may be had at prices varying from 15/6 to 46/-.

{76}

+Directions for Splicing+.

TO MAKE AN ENDLESS SPLICE.--Clamps are applied to the rope sufficiently
far back from the ends to allow plenty of room for the splice, and the
men to operate in.  The two ends are then drawn together by means of
blocks and tackle, until they overlap each other for a space of twenty
to thirty feet, according to the size of the rope.  At a point from
each end midway of the lap, the rope must be bound with a good serving
of No. 18 or No. 20 annealed wire.  The serving at the extreme ends is
then cut off, the strands untwisted to the new serving, and the hemp
cores also cut off so as to abut when the open bunches of strands are
brought together, and the opposite strands interlaced regularly with
each other, presenting the appearance as near as can be shown (Fig.
133).

[Illustration: Fig. 133.]

After these are all correctly interlaced, pull the ropes tightly
together, so that the cores abut against one another.  Next take {77}
strand No. 1, and as it is being unlaid, follow it up with strand A,
which must be laid into its place tightly until within five feet from
the end.  Strand No. 1 is then cut off, leaving it five feet long, same
length as A strand.  The remaining strands are treated the same way,
three alternate strands being laid towards the right hand and three to
the left.  The strands being now all laid in their places, the ends are
cut off, as with the first strands, to five feet.  The appearance of
splice will now be the same as in Fig. 134.

[Illustration: Fig. 134.]

The next thing is to tuck in the ends, and this is where the skill
comes in.  Before doing this, _care should be observed to see that the
spliced portion of the rope is perfectly limp, or free of tension,
otherwise this operation cannot be well performed_.  The core is then
cut and pulled out on the side corresponding with the end to be tucked
in for a distance equal to the length of the end which is to replace
it.  It is desirable, especially if the rope is composed of small
wires, to tie the ends of the strands with soft twine or threads of
jute yarn in order to keep the wires well bunched.  A marlin spike is
then passed over +1+ and under two of the strands, when the core is cut
off at the proper point, and by moving the spike along the rope
spirally with the strands, the loose end +1+ is passed into the core
space and the spike withdrawn.  {78} Then pull out the core on the
other side, pass the marlin spike over A and under two strands as
before, cut off the core, and tuck in the end A in precisely the same
manner, after which the rope is twisted back again as tightly as
possible, and the clamps or other appliances that may be used are
removed to the next pair of projecting ends.  Any slight inequality in
the symmetrical shape of the rope may be taken out by pounding with a
wooden mallet.  Some prefer to tuck in first all the ends projecting in
one direction, and then the ends projecting the other way; it is
immaterial in what order they are tucked in.

If these directions are implicitly followed, the spliced portion of the
rope will be of uniform diameter with other portions, and will present
a smooth and even appearance throughout.  After running a day or two,
the locality of the splice cannot be readily detected, and the rope
will be quite as strong in this portion as any other.


+Splicing Thimbles+.

UNDER AND OVER STYLE--Ordinary type of Wire Rope.  Serve the rope with
wire or tarred yarn to suit the circumference of the thimble, bend
round thimble and tie securely in place with temporary lashing till
splice is finished (as in Fig. 135).  Open out the strands (as in Fig.
136), taking care to keep the loose end of the rope to the left hand
(see Fig. 136).  Now insert marlin spike, lifting two strands (as shown
in Fig. 137), and tuck away towards the right hand (that is inserting
the strand at the point, and over the spike) strand No. 1, pulling the
strand well home.  Next {80} insert marlin spike through next strand to
the left, only lifting one strand, the point of the spike coming out at
the same place as before.  Tuck away strand No. 2 as before.

[Illustration: Fig. 135.  Fig. 136.  Fig. 137.  Fig. 138.]

The next tuck is the locking tuck.  Insert marlin spike in next strand,
and, missing No. 3, tuck away strand No. 4 from the point of the spike
towards the right hand.  Now, without taking out the spike, tuck away
strand No. 3 behind the spike towards the left hand (as shown in Fig.
138).  Now insert spike in next strand, and tuck away strand No. 5
behind and over the spike.  No. 6 likewise.  Pull all the loose strands
well down.

[Illustration: Fig. 139.  Fig. 140.]

This completes the first series of tucks, and the splice will, if made
properly, be as Fig. 139.  Now, starting with strand No. 1 and taking
each strand in rotation, tuck away under one strand and over the next
strand till all the strands have been tucked four times.  If {81} it is
intended to taper the splice, the strands may at this point be split,
and half of the wires being tucked away as before, the other half cut
close to the splice.  Fig. 127 [Transcriber's note: 140?] shows the
finished splice ready for serving over.

[Illustration: Fig. 141.]

{82}

It will be noticed that this style of splice possesses a plaited
appearance, and the more strain applied to the rope, the tighter the
splice will grip, and there is no fear of the splice drawing owing to
rotation of the rope.

LIVERPOOL OR SPIRAL STYLE (See Fig. 141).--Hawsers, or any ropes not
hanging free and liable to spin, may be spliced in this style, in which
the strands, instead of being interlocked together, are merely tucked
round and round one particular strand in the rope.  Each loose strand
is of course tucked round a different strand in the rope.  This is
sometimes called the "Liverpool" style (See Fig. 141).

[Illustration: Fig. 141.]



{83}

TABLES

+Showing Weights, etc., of Various Cordage+.

  KINDS.                         LENGTH.           WEIGHT.

  Reefing twine,                 24 skeins         8 to 9 lbs.
  Sewing twine,                  24   "            8 to 9 lbs.
  Marline,                       12   "            4 lbs.
  Log lines,                     25 fathoms        1 to 3 lbs.
  Samson lines,                  30   "            3/4 lb.
  Samson lines,                  30   "            1 lb.
  Samson lines,                  30   "            1 1/4 lbs.
  Samson lines,                  30   "            1 1/2 lbs.
  Fishing lines,                 25   "            1/4 lb.
  Fishing lines,                 25   "            1/2 lb.
  Fishing lines,                 25   "            3/4 lb.
  Fishing lines,                 25   "            1 lb.
  Hambro'-lines (6 threads),     23   "            1 1/2 lbs.
  Hambro'-lines (9 threads),     23   "            2 1/4 lbs.
  Hambro'-lines (12 threads),    23   "            3 lbs.
  Hand lead lines,               20   "            4 lbs.
  Deep sea lines,               120   "           28 lbs.
  Deep sea lines,               120   "           32 lbs.
  Deep sea lines,               120   "           34 lbs.
  Deep sea lines,               120   "           36 lbs.



{84}

STRENGTH OF ROPES.


                              Working    Breaking    Ordinary
  Hemp.    Iron.     Steel.    Load.      Strain.     Chain.
                               Cwts.       Tons.

  2 3/4    1                     6           2         5/16
           1 1/2     1           9           3
  3 3/4    1 5/8                12           4
           1 3/4     1 1/2      15           5
  4 1/2    1 7/8                18           6
           2         1 5/8      21           7
  5 1/2    2 1/8     1 3/4      24           8         9/16
           2 1/4                27           9
  6        2 3/8     1 7/8      30          10
  6 1/2    2 5/8     2          36          12
           2 3/4     2 1/8      37          13
  7        2 7/8     2 1/4      42          14        11/16
  7 1/2    3 1/8     2 3/8      48          16
  8        3 3/8     2 1/2      54          18
           3 1/2     2 5/8      60          20
  8 1/2    3 5/8     2 3/4      66          22
  9 1/2    3 7/8     3 1/4      78          26        15/16
  10       4                    84          28        1
           4 1/4     3 3/8      90          30
  11       4 3/8                96          32
           4 1/2     3 1/2     108          36
  12       4 5/8     3 3/4     120          40



{85}

[Transcriber's note: in the source book, the following two tables were
a single table.  It has been split into two due to space limitations.]



+TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND BREAKING STRAINS+.

  Circum-
  ference             White                       Tarred
  of Rope.         Manila Rope.                 Hemp Rope.                 Coir Rope.

            Weight                         Weight                     Weight
            for 120        Breaking        for 120     Breaking       for 120       Breaking
            Fathoms.        Strain.        Fathoms.    Strain.        Fathoms.      Strain.



  Ins.     Ct.  Qr.  Lb.  Tns.  Cwts.  Ct.  Qr.  Lb.  Tns.  Cwts.  Ct.  Qr.  Lb.  Tns.  Cwts.

  1             --              --          --            --            --             --
  1 1/4         --              --          --            --            --             --
  1 1/2         --              --          --            --            --             --
  1 3/4         --              --          --            --            --             --

  2         0    3    4     1     6     1    0    0    0     19     0    2    4    0      6
  2 1/4     0    3   26     1    13     1    0   27    1      2     0    2   19    0      8
  2 1/2     1    0   20     2     0     1    2    4    1      7     0    3    9    0     10
  2 3/4     1    1   25     2     9     1    3   11    1     13     1    0    0    0     12

  3         1    3    2     2    18     2    0   22    2      2     1    0   22    0     14
  3 1/4     2    0    7     3     8     2    2   10    2      7     1    1   17    0     16
  3 1/2     2    1   12     3    19     3    0    2    2     17     1    2   15    0     19
  3 3/4     2    2   21     4    11     3    1   21    3      7     1    3   14    1      2

  4         3    0    6     5     3     4    0    0    3     17     2    0   16    1      5
  4 1/4     3    2    0     5    17     4    2    0    4      4     2    1   18    1      8
  4 1/2     3    3   20     6    11     4    3   24    4     10     2    2   20    1     12

  5         4    2   24     8     2     6    0   15    5     10     3    1    8    2      0
  5 1/2     5    3   16     9    16     7    1   15    6     10     4    0    0    2      8

  6         7    0    8    11    13     8    3    4    8      9     4    3    4    2     18
  6 1/2     8    1    0    13    14    10    1   12    9      9     5    2   12    3      6

  7         9    1   20    15    18    12    0    8    11     9     6    2    4    3     18

  8        12    0   24    20    14    16    0    0    15     9     8    2    8    5      0



                                     Galvanised            Galvanised
  Circum-      Galvanised            Patent Steel          Patent Steel
  ference      Rigging               Flexible              Extra Flexible
  of Rope.     Wire Rope.            Wire Rope.            Wire Rope.

            Weight                Weight                Weight
            per       Breaking    per       Breaking    per        Breaking
            Fathom.   Strain      Fathom.   Strain      Fathom.    Strain

            Lbs.      Tons.       Lbs.      Tons.       Lbs.       Tons.

  1          1.2       1 3/4        .76      1 3/4       .88        2 1/2
  1 1/4      1.6       3           1.12      2 7/8      1.36        4
  1 1/2      2.2       4           1.44      4          2.00        7
  1 3/4      3.0       5 1/2       2.00      5 1/2      2.72        9

  2          3.8       7           2.40      7          3.48       11
  2 1/4      4.6       9           3.12      9 1/2      4.44       13 1/2
  2 1/2      5.8      11           4.00     12 1/2      5.44       17 1/2
  2 3/4      6.8      13           4.64     15 1/2      6.72       22 1/2

  3          8.0      16           5.48     18          8.00       25 1/2
  3 1/4      9.2      19           6.80     22          9.48       30
  3 1/2     11.2      22           7.80     26         11.00       36
  3 3/4     12.4      26           9.00     29         12.44       40

  4         14.4      30          10.00     33         14.24       44
  4 1/4     17.0      34          11.20     35         16.00       49
  4 1/2     18.4      38          12.80     39         18.00       50

  5          --       --           --       --          --         --
  5 1/2      --       --           --       --          --         --

  6          --       --           --       --          --         --
  6 1/2      --       --           --       --          --         --

  7          --       --           --       --          --         --

  8          --       --           --       --          --         --



{86}

+Strength of Short Round-Linked Chain+.

  INCHES.      MEAN BREAKING STRAIN.         TEST.
                      Tons.

  1 1/4                44                    18.8
  1                    29                    12.0
    7/8                23                     9.1
    3/4                17                     6.8
    5/8                12                     4.6
    1/2                 7 1/2                 3.0





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