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Title: Roses and Rose Growing
Author: Kingsley, Rose Georgina, 1845-
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: SINGLE HYBRID TEA.






          SOCIETY, F.R.H.S.


          WHITTAKER & CO.
          AND 64-66 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

          BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.


SOME time ago it was suggested, by certain rose-lovers and enthusiasts,
that the practical experience of an amateur, brought up from childhood
to love and cultivate roses, might be of use to other owners of small
gardens, who, like herself, tend their roses themselves. And in the hope
that this might be the case, I undertook to write this little book. My
text-book in this labour of love has been an old copy, which belonged to
my father when he settled at Eversley in 1844, of _The Rose Amateur's
Guide_, by that veteran rose-grower, the late Thomas Rivers. I am also
greatly indebted to the Rev. J. H. Pemberton's learned and admirable
work, _Roses, their History, Development, and Cultivation_, published
early this year; and to the various publications of the National Rose

As one branch, however, of the cultivation of roses is a sealed book to
me, for I am only an amateur who does not exhibit, I felt that no work
on rose-growing would be complete without a chapter which should help
those who wish to do so. And here I was indeed fortunate in obtaining
the help of so distinguished an authority as my friend and neighbour,
Rev. F. Page-Roberts, Vice-President of the National Rose Society. My
grateful thanks are due to him for the delightful chapter, the last in
the book, on "How to grow Roses for Exhibition." And I feel that to have
his name on the title-page is an honour of which I cannot be too proud.

As to the illustrations, it should be borne in mind that they are not
intended to represent exhibition roses, but merely ordinary blooms,
typical of the various kinds of garden roses. The colour prints have
been admirably carried out by Messrs. Swain and Son of Barnet, by their
new process of colour-printing. My friend, Miss Emily Jubb, has supplied
several of the original photographs of roses and of pruning, from
specimens in my own garden; and to her I offer my warm thanks. Thanks
are also due to Mr. Wm. Paul of Waltham Cross nurseries, and to Mr.
Henry Nicholson of New Barnet, for their kindness in furnishing Messrs.
Swain and Son with all the other specimen flowers for the plates. In
fact, without Mr. Nicholson's ready help in a supplying a large
proportion of the subjects from his own garden, it would have been
difficult to carry out the scheme of illustration.

If this humble record of my own practical experience, its failures, and
its successes, is the means of encouraging others in the cultivation of
roses, I can only wish them the interest, delight, and healthful
relaxation of tired body and mind, which this pursuit has afforded me
for many a long year.

                                                       ROSE G. KINGSLEY

          _Keys, Eversley,
          Nov. 6, 1908._


  CHAP.                                     PAGE
    II. PRUNING AND PROPAGATING               15
    VI. TEA ROSES                             80
   VII. HYBRID TEA ROSES                      93
  VIII. HYBRID PERPETUALS                    111
     X. ROSE PESTS                           136
        INDEX                                161


                                                   _To face page_
  ROSE REQUIRING PRUNING                                     18
  RUGOSA--ROSA ALBA                                          37
  PROVENCE--CABBAGE                                          38
  MOSS--COMMON                                               39
  CLIMBING DAMASK--MRS. O. G. ORPEN                          41
  AUSTRIAN BRIAR--AUSTRIAN COPPER                            42
  SCOTCH BRIAR--STANWELL PERPETUAL (_2 plates_)              45
  RUGOSA--CONRAD FERDINAND MEYER                             46
  AYRSHIRE--RUGA                                             52
  EVERGREEN--FÉLICITÉ ET PERPÉTUE                            53
  CLIMBING POLYANTHA--BLUSH RAMBLER (_2 plates_)             58
  WICHURAIANA--DOROTHY PERKINS                               61
        "      JERSEY BEAUTY                                 62
  NOISETTE--WILLIAM ALLEN RICHARDSON                         71
  TEA--WHITE MAMAN COCHET                                    92
  HYBRID TEA--BARDOU JOB                                     94
  SINGLE HYBRID TEA--IRISH ELEGANCE (_2 plates_)             96
    "      "     "   IRISH GLORY                             96
  HYBRID TEA--CAROLINE TESTOUT                               97
    "     "   MADAME RAVARY                                  98
    "     "   MARQUISE LITTA                                106
    "     "   MADAME PERNET DUCHER                          107
  HYBRID PERPETUAL--FRAU KARL DRUSCHKI                      114
    "        "      ULRICH BRUNNER                          115
    "        "      GUSTAVE PIGANEAU                        118
  BOURBON--SOUVENIR DE LA MALMAISON                         124
  CHINA--LAURETTE MESSIMY                                   127
  DWARF POLYANTHA--PERLE D'OR                               129


Plates facing p. 45. _For_ Stanwell Perpetual Scots Briar _read_ Scotch

Plate facing p. 53. _For_ Félicité Perpétuée _read_ Félicité et




HAPPY is the rosarian who is free to choose the spot in which to make
his rose garden--to choose the ideal position, with ideal soil, in an
ideal climate. Such fortuitous combinations are possible. But though
they do not fall to the lot of one rose-lover in a hundred, it is still
easy to find a bit of ground in which roses will flourish; for, with
proper care, there are few localities--in England at all events--where
they cannot be made to grow. At the same time, in choosing the position
of our rose garden, certain dangers must be guarded against, as far as

=Position.=--First of all I would say, avoid a draughty spot; for
nothing is so bad for roses as a draught. Even an exposed garden, if it
is quite flat and open, is preferable to a draughty one, however
picturesquely shaded it may be. The perfect position should be sheltered
from the north and east: but not closely surrounded by trees. For roses
are lovers of light and sun; and while they enjoy a little shade for a
few hours in the day, they will not flourish in stuffy, closely shadowed
places, where they cannot get enough light and air.

=Shelter.=--If some sort of shelter is absolutely imperative, there are
various ways of producing it without putting up an unsightly paling, or
building a costly wall in the garden. One of the best is a low hedge
kept closely clipped, of yew, holly, privet, or beech--the first is, of
course, slow in growth. Care, however, must be taken to plant the hedge
at such a distance from the rose beds that its roots shall not suck all
the nourishment from them. But nothing is more charming or suitable than
to give the choice and more tender roses a shelter of roses--planting
the strong-growing Wichuraianas, Ramblers and other vigorous kinds along
a screen of wooden lattice-work. This not only makes a quite sufficient
break to the wind, but forms a delightful background to the beds of
dwarf roses.

If possible, the ground should slope very gently to south and west. Flat
ground is preferable to any slope steeper than one in fifty. But some
slight fall is extremely advantageous, as it helps drainage.

=Drainage.=--This is another most important point to be considered. For
whether the soil be light or heavy, it is absolutely essential that a
rose garden should be well drained; as roses so deeply resent wet about
the roots, that they promptly show their displeasure by dying. If,
therefore, on low-lying land--and unfortunately we cannot always avoid
this--there is any suspicion of water within three feet of the surface,
broken crocks, clinkers, wood ashes, and such-like materials, must be
placed at the bottom of the beds to keep the subsoil free in times of
heavy rain and floods; and a good drain of ordinary field pipes must be
run from the beds into the nearest ditch. For let it be remembered that
if we intend to grow good roses, we must be prepared to do our very best
for them, and to spend a little time, a little money, and a good deal of
thought, on preparing the ground they are to grow in, before we dream of
planting them. Far better to begin our garden with a dozen roses well
planted in properly prepared ground, than with a hundred put in anywhere
and anyhow.

This brings us to the next point--

=The Soil=,--which is far more important than even the position of our
garden. If we are so lucky as to be able to choose the soil as well as
the position, then let us choose a rich brown loam; for that is the soil
roses revel in and need but little else to nourish them. Such a soil as
this we find in the famous rose-gardens of Essex, Hertfordshire,
Oxfordshire, and Kent. I have even seen roses growing superbly, without
manure of any kind, in an open field of this rich loam on one of the
most exposed ridges of Warwickshire. But if such natural soil cannot be
had, we must make it, as I know to my cost; for in my own garden the
ground is so poor that every rose-bed has to be made three feet deep.
And nothing in this case produces such excellent results as the top spit
of an old pasture. To get this, the turf should be pared off carefully,
and then the first nine inches of brown fibrous loam beneath taken out.
If the space thus left is filled up with other common soil, the turf can
be relaid, and no harm is done to the meadow. If, on the other hand, the
turf is not needed in the same spot, it may be stacked in a heap--grass
downward--and kept for a couple of years till it has rotted down
completely; when, mixed with manure, it makes perfect potting soil, or
the finest possible dressing for our rose beds. In the neighbourhood of
towns and villages, where building is going on, this turfy loam is often
to be had when new roads are cut out and houses run up. And it is well
worth the rosarian's while to be on the watch for such opportunities,
and secure a few loads of the top spit from the builder, to stack in the
garden against the time it is needed.

Having provided the requisite soil, we are now ready to begin work by
making the beds. The general arrangement of the garden, the shape and
size of the beds has to be determined. And here, of course, the rosarian
must be guided by his own taste. A few hints, however, from personal
experience may be helpful. As to shape, that is purely a matter of
taste. But whether they be round or square, straight or curved, in size
they should not be too large or too wide to allow of our getting easily
at their precious contents. For _at all times of the year_ roses need
constant and watchful care; and the amateur--especially if a woman,
hampered with tiresome petticoats--must have space in which to move, in
order to pick off caterpillars, cut the flowers whether alive or dead,
and see to all the various needs of the plants, such as weeding,
watering, manuring and pruning. As to width, I find five feet ample in a
small garden; as that allows of three rows of dwarf plants eighteen
inches to two feet apart; and enables me to reach those in the centre
row without injuring the others.

=Making the Beds.=--Let us therefore suppose we are about to make a
straight bed five feet wide and twelve long, in hitherto unbroken
ground, to contain seventeen roses. The first thing to do is to pare off
the turf. The top spit of some eight or nine inches below it, is sure to
be fairly good soil from the fibrous roots of the grass and clover. We
therefore dig it off a space three feet long and the whole width of the
bed, and wheel it down to the further end. The second spit in such land
as my own garden is much poorer, with a good deal of sandy marl in it.
This is taken right out and heaped at the side of the bed, to be taken
away later on. The third spit, which is now exposed, is a cold, sandy
marl, with many stones.

We have therefore a hole five feet wide, a yard in length, and two feet
deep. If the marl at the bottom does not show any sign of water, it may
be broken up with the fork, mixing in a little manure at the same time,
and we can leave it as it is. If, on the other hand, it is full of
water, some of it must be carted away, and crocks, stones, clinkers,
wood ashes, and even bits of turf, grass downwards, put in below to
drain it, as I have already said.

=Bastard Trenching.=--We then begin the regular process of bastard
trenching, digging up the fourth foot of top soil, throwing it into the
hole, mixing it with the broken marl and manure at the bottom, and then
removing the second spit as directed above. This is done along the whole
bed; and at the end we use some of the earth we wheeled down at the
beginning, to fill the hole on the marl at the bottom.

We thus have a bed five feet by twelve, but some fifteen inches below
the ground. Over the surface of this bed we now spread a coating of good
rotten manure; if we can get it from a cow yard so much the better, as
cow manure is cooler than horse droppings to the roots of the roses.
This must be thoroughly incorporated with the soil already dug in, with
a fork, not a spade, as our object is to keep the earth as friable as we
can. The bed is then filled up with nothing but the turfy loam mixed
with some of the best of the surface soil, till it rises a little above
the level of the surrounding ground; for it will be sure to sink.

But let no one imagine that this bed is ready for planting. It must be
left for at least a fortnight (a month is better) to settle, and to
mellow and sweeten; while its surface must be left quite rough to aid
the process. If there is a frost during this settling, that will do it
the greatest possible good.

Let the amateur avoid all artificial manures at first save a dusting of
basic slag (see Chap. XI); for there is no need whatever in preparing a
new rose bed to use any manure except sweet stable and cow manure. This
contains all the qualities needful for newly-planted roses. It should,
however, be so worked into the soil as not to come into actual contact
with their roots, but to lie some two or three inches below them.

I have, of course, chosen an extreme case here. Better ground only needs
to be thoroughly dug two spits deep, with manure and fibrous loam worked
in. But, even so, I always think it is advantageous to break the ground
at the bottom with a fork.


When the beds are thoroughly prepared and settled, we may begin to think
about planting them.

The ideal time for this operation is in November and December. For the
plants, lifted as soon as they have done flowering, and put in their new
quarters with as little delay as possible, have time to settle down
before any very severe weather, and suffer far less than those planted
later in the winter. But roses can be safely planted, if proper
precautions are taken in the process, as late as February and
March--open weather of course being selected for the process; and I have
indeed planted them late in April without damage: but that was of course
taking a big risk as a matter of necessity.

Whether we get our roses from British or from foreign growers, the
orders should be sent out as early as possible in September and October,
to secure the best plants and to ensure their arrival in good time.

A mild day, if possible without sun, is best for planting roses. And if
the bundles arrive in a frost it is better not to attempt to open them,
but to put them just as they are into some outbuilding in which the
frost cannot get at them, where they may safely stay for several days.

=Unpacking.=--When they arrive, the bundles must be opened most
carefully, and the packing removed gently. I have seen valuable roses
badly broken by a careless person, who has pulled them roughly out of
the package instead of quietly disentangling the shoots. If the journey
has been a long one, the plants should be well syringed at once, and the
roots plunged in a bucket of water for half-an-hour before planting.
Great care must also be taken in every case not to leave the roots of
the plants exposed to the air; for if the roots get dried up, a great
and sometimes fatal check is given to the rose. Those which cannot be
planted immediately should be laid along a trench and lightly heeled in
with soil, until they are wanted. And even those which are to be planted
immediately, should have a mat thrown over the roots as they lie beside
the bed waiting their turn, especially if the day is sunny or the wind
cold. Many of the great growers advise dipping the roots in liquid mud
mixed with a little cow manure before planting.

Each plant must now be carefully examined, and any broken shoot, or
bruised and broken root, cut off with a clean cut. For this I prefer a
sécateur to a knife, if the sécateur is a very sharp one.[1] A torn,
bruised, or broken root, if left on the plant will decay right up and do
incalculable mischief. Sometimes, in the case of one's own roses grown
from cuttings out of doors, the roots are so rampant that it is well to
shorten them before replanting; but this is not often necessary with new
stock from the growers.

The holes must now be dug ready for the reception of each plant. In
well-worked ground, such as the new bed described above, a hole eighteen
inches across and eight inches to one foot in depth, is sufficient: but
in this we must be guided by the root habit of each plant. Some have
roots of a spreading nature; others are deep rooting. And the
idiosyncrasy of each individual rose must be studied, if we wish it to
be happy. In an old bed it is well to break the ground all about the
hole with a fork; as the roots can then penetrate the surrounding soil
with ease. And I would repeat that when the hole is made ready for its
occupant, we should see that no manure is on the surface upon which the
roots will lie.

=Planting=, to be well done, needs two persons.

When all is ready, the plant, held in the left hand, is set exactly in
the centre of the hole, while with the right the roots are spread out
flat in all directions, so that none are bent or twisted or allowed to
cross, but are so arranged that the rose gets proper support on all
sides. In fact they should be regarded as the guy-ropes of a flagstaff,
intended to hold the plant firm from all points. If a root is too long
to lie at its full length in the hole, instead of trying to fit it in
against its natural inclination by turning it round the side of the
hole, a further little channel must be dug in which it can lie perfectly
flat. And great care must be taken not to injure the little white,
fibrous rootlets, which mean flowering strength for the coming season.

The collar, or point at which the dwarf rose is budded on to the briar,
should be from one to three inches below the surface of the soil when
the planting is completed. In newly made ground I prefer three inches,
as the soil always sinks a little. This is enough; for the plant should
never be _buried_, and the roots should be kept as near the surface as
possible. But if the collar is above the ground, the stock begins to
throw suckers which take all its strength, and the scion perishes.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Mode of Planting a Standard Rose.]

When the rose is properly set out and still held firmly in position, the
second planter sprinkles some fine good soil among the roots--I
generally give the plant a little gentle lifting shake at this point,
to allow the fine earth to fall into all the interstices of the roots.
He then fills up the hole gradually, pressing down the soil firmly at
first with the hand, and when all is on treading it down with the foot,
thus making the plant absolutely firm in its place before number one
lets go his hold on it.

If their roots have been thoroughly soaked and swelled before planting,
the roses need not be watered. But if the weather is dry, yet mild, it
is well to give them a good syringing when they are all in place,
especially if they have come a long journey. This, however, must be done
in the forenoon, to allow them to dry before any chance of a chill
during the night.

In the case of standards, large bushy plants, or pillar roses, a stake
should be put against them before the hole is filled with earth. This is
far the most satisfactory plan, as it avoids the chance of bruising or
breaking the roots if the stake is forced in among them after planting.
And, as I have said, the more fine fibrous roots the plant can throw,
the better the flowers it will bring.

Tarred twine, or Raffia tape, are the best materials for tying standard
and pillar roses. The twine should be given a double twist round the
stake and then tied firmly round the stem, but not too tight, so as to
allow room for the stem or branch to swell.

Under no circumstances must wire be used.

In the case of roses taken out of pots, the question of spreading the
roots is one of the utmost importance; as, if they have been long in a
pot the roots are interlaced in a perfect ball, and need most careful
handling to avoid breaking them.

When all are safely in place, the tickets must be taken off and replaced
by labels stuck in the ground beside each plant.[2] Many roses,
especially from abroad, come with labels fastened on with wire. These
should be removed without delay; for the moment the shoots begin to
swell the wire eats into them, and in the course of a few months will
either kill the shoot or break it. This is a most important matter. And
I have had sad experience in it; as owing to carelessness and hurry in
planting a number of extremely good French roses, I overlooked some of
the wired labels. Eight months later, half--and the larger half--of a
fine plant in full flower of the dwarf Polyantha, _Perle des Rouges_,
was broken off on a windy day; and on examination I found that the stem
had swelled to such a size round the corroding wire, that the weight it
was bearing of foliage, flowers, and branches had broken it clean off.
Even a label tied on with a string is injurious, from the constant
chafing of the bark as the wind blows it to and fro and tightens the

Our heavy task being now accomplished, we can await the rigours of
winter cheerfully. But let no one persuade us that the newly planted
beds would look better if raked smooth instead of being left quite
rough. A smooth rose bed means that the soil cakes hard, preventing the
rain penetrating in summer, and the frost mellowing the ground in
winter. And from early spring to late autumn the hoe should be kept
constantly at work between the plants; not merely to keep down weeds,
but to keep the surface of the ground open to the influences of rain,
sun, and the watering-pot.


[1] See pruning, p. 17.

[2] But as these are apt to get moved, whether by human hands, or by
cats and dogs, who take a diabolic pleasure in pulling them out and
knocking them over, it is well to make an exact list of the position of
each rose on paper.



OF all the many toils and anxieties that beset the path of the amateur
rosarian, I think we may safely say pruning is the chief. The rules to
be observed are few. The idiosyncrasies of each rose are many. And the
demands upon one's own judgment and initiative are constant.

Two things have to be considered before we begin the puzzling task. Are
we growing our roses for exhibition, or at all events for a very few
very perfect blooms? Or are we growing them for quantity, for mere
enjoyment, on the "cut and come again" principle, which enables one not
only to fill the house without robbing the garden, but to fill the hands
of every one who comes into the garden and looks at the masses of
blossom with longing eyes?

As I do not exhibit, the second plan is the one I have studied most
closely. For the other I must refer my readers to my friend the Rev. F.
Page-Roberts' valuable notes, on how to grow and show roses in Chapter

=When to prune.=--The old-fashioned plan of pruning all roses in the
autumn has now been, happily for their well-being, given up in England.
It was owing to this that many of the earlier varieties of Tea roses,
and even some of the Bourbons and Hybrid Perpetuals, were considered 50
years ago too "tender" to plant freely out of doors.

Pruning now begins in February, and goes on through March and April.

In February we begin to prune the _Rugosas_; _Boursaults_;
_Sempervirens_; and _Ayrshires_.

In February and early March, the _Provence_; _Moss_; _miniature
Provence_; many of the Species, such as _Alpina_, _Moschata_, and
_Bracteata_, and their hybrids.

In early March the _Gallica_; _Damask_; _Alba_; _Hybrid Chinas_; and
_Sweet Briars_. To be followed by _Hybrid Bourbons_; _Hybrid Noisettes_
and _Musks_; _Austrian_ and _Scotch Briars_; _Multifloras_; _Ramblers_;
_Wichuraianas_; _Chinas_; _Dijon Teas_; _dwarf Polyanthas_; and dwarf
and standard _Hybrid Perpetuals_ and _Hybrid Teas_.

Climbing varieties of _Noisettes_, _Teas_, _Hybrid Teas_, and _Hybrid
Perpetuals_, may be thinned out, if necessary, after flowering in
summer. But they must be pruned in March.

In April the _Teas_ and _Noisettes_, both dwarf and standard, and the
_Banksian roses_ are pruned.

=How to prune.=--This is a much-disputed subject among rose growers, and
as authorities differ widely with regard to it, some advocating hard
pruning, and others just as strongly swearing by light pruning, so do
they differ as to the instrument to be used. The pruning knife is most
generally recommended; while the sécateur, so universally in use on the
Continent, is advised merely for the cutting of dead wood. But the knife
has its disadvantages, especially in the hands of a woman. For not only
may one get an ugly cut with it: but even in a man's hands I have seen
the plant pulled about more than I like, in cutting a tough branch. I am
therefore delighted to find that so great an authority as the Rev. J. H.
Pemberton advocates the use of the sécateur for _all_ pruning, as for
many years I have used nothing else. The amount of time and strength it
saves one is infinite, to say nothing of the comfort of so handy a

There are, however, sécateurs and sécateurs--and a poor one is worse
than useless. Its blades must be as sharp as a razor, and so accurately
set that they make a perfectly clean cut right through, without pinching
the branch or tearing the bark. In choosing one, it is well to try it on
a sheet of tissue paper. If it cuts the paper like a sharp pair of
scissors, it is all right. But if it curls the paper round the blade,
instead of making a clean cut, it is to be avoided. After trying many
different makes, I have found that the _Sécateur Montreuil_, which I
have now procured for several years from MM. Vilmorin, Andrieux et Cie.,
4, Quai de la Megisserie, Paris, is far the best I can get. It costs 8
francs, and is made in three sizes.

As to hard-and-fast rules in pruning, there are but two.

[Illustration: FIG. 2_a._--Rosebush requiring light pruning--unpruned.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2_b._--Rosebush requiring light pruning--pruned.]



1. Prune weak-growing roses much harder than strong-growing roses. As
the object of pruning is to throw the sap into the young shoots which
will start from the dormant buds or "eyes," in order to make them
flower, a weak-growing rose must be pruned hard so as to concentrate all
the vigour of the plant on the few dormant buds we leave. While if we
prune a strong-growing rose very hard we only make it throw yet longer
shoots, which soon get out of all bounds, and run to wood and not to

2. Always prune to a dormant bud which points outwards. This is done to
keep the centre of the plant comparatively free, by preventing the
shoots crossing and choking each other.

In pruning we have to keep two objects ever in view. In the first place
we must prune in order to get rid of all dead wood, and weak, unripe and
useless shoots, thus enabling the young healthy wood to take their
place. And secondly we must prune so as to keep the plant in good shape
and good health, by cutting back the strong and healthy wood we leave to
a suitable length.

If the winter has been mild, we shall find many buds on the upper part
of strong shoots of last year's growth, which are already bursting into
leaf and even showing a flower bud. And it seems so brutal to destroy
these, that I know one is often tempted to leave some to take their
chance, instead of hardening one's heart and sternly cutting down to
just above the first dormant bud. But when the plants really start in
May, we pay for our tender-hearted folly by blind unhealthy shoots which
only disfigure the plant, while the real flower shoots are starting
below and cannot get up to the light and air. Or, again, the unpruned
shoot turns black and begins to die back, and we have to cut it down
much further than would have been necessary had we pruned it at the
right moment.

In pruning, however, let the amateur remember that until he has gained
considerable experience in the matter, it is far safer to prune too
lightly than to prune in excess. And I must repeat that no rules will
really help us, unless we study the special nature and idiosyncrasy of
each individual plant, exactly as we study the character of the child we
have to deal with.

With climbing summer-flowering roses very little pruning at all is
required, except slightly shortening the ends of the long rambling
shoots, cutting out all the dead wood, and cutting some of the old
flowering shoots which are worn out, down to the base.

It must be remembered that Ramblers, Noisettes, and other climbing roses
bear their flowers on the laterals of the long shoots of the former
year. While the Banksias, some of the Multifloras such as _Aglaia_, and
that beautiful rose _Fortune's Yellow_, only flower on the sub-laterals,
_i.e._ on wood three years old. If therefore these shoots are cut back
too hard the plant does not flower.

One of the finest specimens of _Crimson Rambler_ I have ever seen, was
ruined for several years by an ignorant person who carefully and
triumphantly cut out all the long shoots of the former year, which he
considered mere "sucker rods." And then he was surprised at the plant
bearing no flowers.

A certain amount of very useful minor pruning can be carried on all
through the summer, by cutting out bits of old wood when they have
flowered, if we see that they have no young shoots on which to bear a
second crop later on. For instance when the newer China roses, such as
_Laurette Messimy_, are in full bloom, we often find a bit of one of
last year's growths which has borne one or two of the earliest flowers
and now merely blocks up the young tender shoots full of buds. This is
the time to cut it out, instead of allowing it to absorb part of the
strength which should go to the new wood.

=Cutting off dead blooms.=--Though to some it may seem a small matter,
much good may also be done to our plants through the summer by the way
we remove dead flowers. Instead of merely snapping off each blossom
between thumb and finger, it is better to do a little very mild pruning,
by cutting each dead blossom off just above the second leaf below it.
This greatly promotes the autumn blooming of the plants, and keeps them
in good shape. It is a little more trouble, but amply repays us in the

The precise moment of setting to work must depend to some extent on the
weather. Of course we cannot begin in a heavy frost, as that would be
fatal to the plants. Nor can I go as far as Mr. Pemberton, who with
delightful enthusiasm advises us to choose a cold day with north-east
wind and occasional sleet showers. That is too complete a counsel of
perfection for most mortals; for however much they love their roses,
they equally dread pneumonia for themselves. But certainly a cool,
overcast day is best, as there is less chance of the wood bleeding than
in mild, soft weather.

Well prepared, therefore, sécateur in hand, and knife in pocket in case
of need, with strong gloves and old clothes, and if a woman, with a
housemaid's kneeling pad to kneel on so as to get more easily at the
dwarf plants--for pruning is tiring work in any case, and it is well to
save extra fatigue and backache--we now begin on a late February day,

=Rugosa= Roses.--These need little pruning beyond cutting out the dead
wood, and cutting back some of the old wood almost to the base, when it
will throw up fresh shoots which will bloom late. The suckers which
these roses throw up in numbers, may be cut back to three or four feet
to form a thick bush.

=Ayrshires= and =Sempervirens=.--Thin out slightly and cut out dead
wood--no further pruning is needed.

=Boursaults= need no thinning. The flowers are borne on the laterals of
last year's long shoots, which may be left six to ten feet long.

The =Species= and most of their hybrids need no pruning beyond cutting
out dead wood, and occasionally cutting the young base shoots back to
hard, well-ripened wood, when the tips are touched by frost.

=Provence= and =Moss= Roses.--Cut out old wood; thin out old shoots, and
out back the young base shoots and laterals to four or six eyes. Some of
the strong-growing moss roses may be left taller. The =Perpetual Moss=
roses are pruned as hybrid perpetuals for garden decoration.

=Miniature Provence.=--Keep well pruned to within six inches of the
ground, and thin out the centre.

=Gallica= and =Damask=.--Prune lightly. The strong growers may be kept
as tall bushes or pillars. The dwarf, such as _Red Damask_, and _Rosa
Mundi_ cut back to three feet. Keep the best one- and two-year-old
shoots and laterals, and thin out old and weak wood.

=Alba.=--Grow as bushes or pillars five to six feet high, cutting out
weak wood, leaving all the laterals on which the flowers are borne,
about eight inches to one foot.

=Hybrid Chinas=, such as _Charles Lawson_, _Coupe d'Hébé_ and _Madame
Plantier_, should be grown as bushy pillars, leaving the shoots six feet
long. Shorten the laterals on old wood to three or four eyes. _Blairii
No. 2_ should hardly be touched.

=Sweet Briars.=--Cut out all weak wood and cut old and naked shoots down
to the ground. The Common Sweet Briar should be grown about four feet
high. The Penzance Briars make enormous base shoots, which may be
shortened to ten feet or less according to one's requirements, and some
of the strong laterals of last year shortened back. _Lord_ and _Lady
Penzance_, from their Austrian briar blood, are much less vigorous, and
need far less pruning, only cutting out dead wood. When the Penzance and
Common Sweet Briars are grown as hedges, the base is apt to get bare,
and some of the long shoots must be laid down to keep it clothed, while
the rest are pruned much shorter.

=Hybrid Bourbons.=--Prune the laterals lightly, and leave the best of
the base shoots.

=Hybrid Noisettes= and =Musks=.--Thin out old wood and tie in young

=Austrian Briars.=--Only cut out dead wood. _Soleil d'Or_, a hybrid,
flowers on the young wood, and the shoots may be pruned back to two

=Scotch Briars.=--No pruning is needed, except cutting out old and dead
wood and shortening back some of the numerous suckers.

=Climbing Multifloras= need little pruning. When grown as pillars or on
screens they are apt to get bare at the base. Therefore it is well to
cut some of the weaker young shoots back to two or three feet to clothe
the base, leaving the strong ones their full length. With _Crimson
Rambler_ and its class, cut out some of the old wood to make room for
the young shoots and shorten any weak laterals: but leave most of the
strong ones intact, and do not touch the long base shoots of the last

=Wichuraianas.=--Only cut out old and dead wood. I have seen a beautiful
effect produced with _Dorothy Perkins_ by cutting out _all_ the old wood
in the autumn, and training the long young shoots over wire frames
two-and-a-half feet wide, forming low arches about a yard from the
ground in the centre. The mass of flower shoots standing erect on these
frames makes a most strikingly beautiful object. The Wichuraianas also
form very lovely weeping standards on eight-feet stems. And for tall
pillars and fountain roses they are unequalled.

=Chinas.=--The old _Blush_ and _Cramoisie Supérieure_ should only be
thinned. The newer kinds, such as _Mme. Eugène Resal_, _Laurette
Messimy_, etc., may be cut back to a few eyes from the ground.

=Bourbons.=--Prune lightly, growing as bold bushes or standards; except
_Hermosa_, which may be pruned back to form a dwarf, spreading, two-feet
bush; while _Mrs. Bosanquet_ is treated like the Chinas.

=Noisettes= are of two types. The strong growers need hardly any
pruning, except _Maréchal Niel_, which must have all cankered and weak
shoots removed after it has flowered. _Lamarque_, _Fortune's Yellow_
(which must not be pruned at all), and _Jaune Desprez_ need a wall; and
_Céline Forestier_ prefers one.

The other type, such as _L'Idéal_ and _William Allen Richardson_, may be
pruned fairly close, by cutting back the laterals to a few eyes. All
Noisettes bear their flowers on the laterals; therefore these should be
preserved as much as possible.

=Dijon Teas.=--These are the climbing and vigorous _Gloire de Dijon_
and its descendants and allies, such as _Belle Lyonnaise_, _François
Crousse_, _Duchesse d'Auerstadt_, _Mme. Bérard_, etc. They are all apt
to get bare below. Therefore, while some of the strong shoots from the
base are left almost their full length, others must be cut back, some to
two or three feet, others to four or five feet, in order to keep the
whole surface of the wall, arch, or pillar clothed evenly. The laterals
may be pruned on the same plan. Old worn out wood should be occasionally
cut down to the base to make it start afresh, when the first flowering
is over.

=Banksia Roses.=--These need no pruning except in the case of a very old
plant, when a shoot that shows weakness may be cut down to the base in
April. But I have pointed out in Chapter IV that the Banksias bear their
flowers on the sub-laterals of the third year. Therefore, for three
years they must not be touched with the knife, and the shoots merely
tied in evenly over the surface of the wall.

=Dwarf Polyanthas.=--These only need to have the old flower stems cut
out in March.

=Hybrid Perpetuals= and =Hybrid Teas=, dwarf and standard.--If pruned
for garden purposes or what I call enjoyment, not for exhibition, all
dead wood and weak or unripe shoots must be cut out to the base of the
plant. The centre of the plant must be kept clear by removing shoots
which cross each other. The strong ripe shoots from the base should be
cut back to about twelve inches, and the laterals on the old wood cut
back to about four to six eyes. This is merely a general guide to the
pruning of these two kinds of roses. But the rosarian, as I have said,
will have to study the peculiarities of each individual plant, and to
adapt these instructions to its needs, leaving more shoots on the
stronger roses, and keeping them longer than on the weak-growing

=Teas= and =Noisettes=, both dwarf and standard, are pruned on exactly
the same lines as the _Hybrid Teas_ and _Hybrid Perpetuals_, but must be
pruned in April instead of March.


The three chief methods of propagating roses are by--

          1. Budding on the briar stock.
          2. Cuttings.
          3. Layering.

=Budding.=--This is the best-known method of propagating. And it is so
widely practised by amateurs and gardeners of all degree, that it is
better to get an object-lesson in the art than to depend on written
instructions. With a little practise any one with neat fingers can bud.
But great care must be taken in the operation, not to bruise the bark of
the bud or "shield" that is to be inserted in the stock.

The best stocks, whether for dwarfs or standards, are those of the wild
Dog Rose from woods and hedgerows. These should be taken up in October
and November, care being taken that each stock has fair roots, that the
roots are not torn or bruised, and that they are not dry and shrivelled
when planted. In fact, they ought to be treated with just the same care
we bestow on our new roses when we plant them out. The stocks may be at
once shortened, to about three feet for half-standards, and very strong
ones for specimen or weeping roses may be kept six and eight feet long.
But in shortening both, they must always be cut just above a bud. In the
following summer these stocks will have thrown out side-shoots; and it
is in these that the buds are to be inserted. We can tell when "the bark
will run," _i.e._ that it is ready for budding, by trying whether the
thorns break off clean when pushed by the thumb. If the thorn bends and
does not leave the bark, the wood is not ripe enough. If the thorn
sticks tight to the wood, and yet is brittle, the wood is too ripe.

Dwarf stocks are treated much in the same way, but must be planted
nearer the surface than standards; for when they are budded the earth
must be removed right down to the roots, in order to set the bud as low
as possible, as it is inserted in the stem itself, and not in the young
wood of the year.

We then choose the "scion"--a twig of the rose we wish to propagate
which has already flowered, with plump but not too large buds behind
each leaf stalk. Inserting the budding-knife about half an inch above
the lowest of these buds or "eyes," we slice down, making a little dip
inwards towards the wood as the knife passes the bud, to nearly an inch
below it, not cutting through the bark, but peeling it off the scion.
The thin slice of wood which adheres to the inside of the strip of bark
containing the bud, is now removed by inserting the knife between it and
the bark, and jerking it out sharply. Nothing should now be left in the
bark save the soft green substance of the "eye." But if this has been
dragged out with the wood, the bud is useless, and must be thrown away.
The shield of bark is then trimmed to a point below.

The stock is now made ready to receive the bud. At the point we have
chosen for inserting the bud--in standards let it be as close as
possible to the main stem--a perpendicular slit from half an inch to an
inch long is made with the budding-knife, care being taken only to cut
through the bark and not to wound the wood below. A short cross-cut is
made at the top of the slit. Then the bark is gently raised on each side
downwards from this cross-cut, with the flat handle of the knife.

Into this slit the bud is slipped by putting the pointed lower end into
the cross slit, and pushing it down as far as it will go. We then cut
off any bark at the top of the bud that overlaps the cross-cut, so that
the shield fits in perfectly, when the side flaps of bark are brought
gently over it.

With a bit of Raffia grass, well moistened in water, we now bind up the
bud; beginning from below with a double turn over one end of the Raffia,
and keeping it quite flat, exactly in the way we put on a surgical
bandage. When we come to the bud itself, the Raffia must be wound
tightly and as close to the eye as possible without actually touching
it. When the whole slit is completely and evenly covered, slip the end
of the Raffia through the last turn and pull it tight. The operation is
now complete.


Roses on their own roots are grown from cuttings, and it is a system
which suits many varieties.

=How to make a cutting.=--Cuttings are taken from well-ripened twigs
which have already flowered, or from a lateral upon the main flowering
shoot, which has ceased growing without bearing a blossom. They should
be from two to six or seven inches in length, with three to nine buds
upon them. And judgment is needed regarding these buds in choosing the
twig, as we must take one on which they are neither immature nor too
fully developed. In the case of a cutting with ten leaves we cut off the
top a quarter of an inch above the fourth leaf, and the same distance
below the tenth. The four lower leaves are then cut off close to the bud
they cover, and the three upper ones are left on. When the cutting is
planted, two-thirds of it should be in the soil.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Rose cutting with a heel, 4 leaves cut, 2 leaves

Cuttings are taken in two ways.

1. With a heel; that is a small portion of the wood of the stem from
which the twig grows.

2. Without a heel; being cut through just below a bud.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Rose cutting without a heel, 4 leaves cut, 2
leaves left.]

=Cuttings under glass.=--Cuttings of the choice kinds of Teas, Hybrid
Teas, Hybrid Perpetuals, and Chinas are raised under glass, taken from
pot plants as soon as they have flowered in the spring. The cuttings are
put in pots filled with fibrous loam and silver sand, about six in a
five-inch pot. When ready to root at the end of two or three weeks, the
pots are placed in a frame on bottom heat to start growth. The same plan
is pursued in the autumn, with cuttings taken from plants grown out of
doors; but they do not strike as rapidly as those taken from pot plants

=Cuttings in the open ground.=--This is an interesting and easy way of
getting a good stock of many kinds of hardy, strong-growing Perpetuals,
Sweet Briars, Ramblers, etc. And it may be successfully carried on from
early in August to the middle of October.

Cuttings are inserted three inches apart in rows, leaving some ten
inches between each row. They may be either set in a trench, or dibbled
into a specially prepared bed. I have tried both plans, and find the
following very successful. A bit of ground, partially but not too much
shaded, is forked up; a layer of good rotten manure laid on it; upon
this three inches of leaf mould; on this again three inches of sharp,
sandy road-scrapings--silver sand would be as good or better, but here
the gravel road-grit is handy. The bed is then stamped down as hard as
possible, until it forms a firm solid mass. The cuttings are then
inserted in rows--a hole of the right depth for each being made into the
compost with a smooth sharp-pointed stick the size of a lead pencil--a
long wooden penholder is a good dibble. Into this hole the cutting is
thrust till its base rests firmly on the bottom of the hole, and the
soil is pressed tight round the stem with the fingers. When all are in
place a thorough soaking of water is given them; and except for firming
them in when worms raise the soil about them, they must not be disturbed
until the top leaves begin to fall. We shall then see which are likely
to strike, and can pull out those whose wood has begun to shrivel, as
they are dead.

Many of these cuttings will show flower the next summer. And by
November--_i.e._ fifteen months after planting--they can be lifted and
planted out in their permanent quarters.

The other plan is to make a little trench eight inches or so deep in
good loamy soil, with a layer of silver sand at the bottom. The cuttings
are set against the sloped side of the trench, and it is then filled up
with soil and stamped in very firmly. I find this answers best for the
Penzance Sweet Briars; but personally I prefer the former plan for other

The cuttings must be well watered and carefully weeded from time to
time, and in the winter must be given slight protection by fronds of
bracken or boughs of evergreens laid lightly over them.


This is chiefly resorted to when it is wished to increase the stock
rapidly of some very choice rose. It can be carried on in summer and
early autumn.

The directions given in Mr. Rivers' Rose Amateur's Guide of 1843 are so
admirable that I quote them _in extenso_.

"About the middle of July in most seasons the shoots will be found about
eighteen inches or two feet in length; from these, two-thirds of the
leaves should be cut off, close to the shoot, beginning at the base,
with a very sharp knife; the shoot must then be brought to the ground,
so as to be able to judge in what place the hole must be made to receive
it; it may be made large enough to hold a quarter of a peck of compost;
in heavy and retentive soils this should be rotten dung and pit sand in
equal quantities, well mixed; the shoot must then be 'tongued,' _i.e._
the knife introduced just below a bud and brought upwards, so as to cut
about half way through; this must be done at the side or back of the
shoot (not by any means at the front or in the bend), so that the tongue
does not close; to make this certain a small piece of glass or thin
earthenware may be introduced to keep it open. Much nicety is required
to have the tongue at the upper part of the shoot, so as not to be in
the part which forms the bow, as it is of consequence that it should be
within two inches of the surface, so as to feel the effects of
atmospheric heat; unless this is attended to the roots will not be
emitted quickly; the tongued part must be placed in the centre of the
compost, and a moderate-sized stone put on the surface of the ground to
keep the layer in its place. The first week in November the layers may
be taken from the parent plant, and either potted as required, or
planted out where they are to remain. Those shoots not long enough in
July and August may be layered in October, when the layers are taken
from the shoots, and, if any are forgotten, February and March will be
the most favourable month for the operation: as a general rule, July is
the proper season."

[Illustration: RUGOSA.




LET us now consider those roses which, although their lovely season of
blooming is but short, shed such fragrance and delight on the gardens of
rich and poor. Our oldest favourites first--the Cabbage, sweetest of
all; the Moss; the Maiden's Blush; the Crimson Damask; the Austrian,
Scotch, and Sweet Briars; the tiny _Rose de Meaux_, so seldom seen now
in England that when we find bunches of it on every barrow in the Paris
streets, to be had for a few centimes, we fall upon it as on lost

Then the climbers, the Ayrshires, Banksias, Polyanthas and Evergreen.
And when to these we add all the novelties which Japan has bestowed upon
us in the Rugosas and the Wichuraianas, and those marvels which the
hybridists are deriving from them and introducing every year in such
numbers, we may well consider where best to make a place for these
lovely roses, so that from April till August we can rejoice in their
varied beauty.

Of the climbing roses I treat in a separate chapter. But if with regard
to the dwarf or bush roses, some may raise objections to massing them
in by themselves, because they are so soon out of flower and leave the
beds bare of bloom for the rest of the summer, the objection--a valid
one--may be overcome in two ways. First, by planting China roses among
them and an edging of the charming Dwarf Polyantha roses round them.
Secondly, by planting lilies and late-flowering perennials with them,
which will be in bloom as soon as they are over.

But to my mind, the Cabbage, Moss, Provence and Damask roses look most
thoroughly in place in the old-fashioned mixed border along the walk in
the kitchen garden, where they flower after wallflowers, daffodils and
polyanthus, with lilies and pinks, stocks and carnations, and all the
delightful and fragrant odds and ends that, somehow, make it the spot in
the whole garden to which all footsteps turn instinctively.

[Illustration: PROVENCE.



is perhaps the oldest favourite in English gardens; for it was
introduced as far back as 1596. Said to have come originally from the
Caucasus, it may well be, as its Latin and French names suggest, the
Romans' favourite "hundred-leaved-rose" mentioned by Pliny. And as it
was found in Southern France at a very early date, it became known as
the "Provence Rose." In spite of all new comers, beautiful and
attractive as they are, the "Old Cabbage Rose" holds its own to-day in
the garden of every true rose-lover, as unsurpassed in fragrance
and colour. Its pure white variety, the _Rose Unique_, discovered in a
garden in Suffolk, in 1777, is far less common and less vigorous than
the pink Cabbage rose. But if it can be induced to grow it is a very
beautiful object in the summer garden, especially as a standard on the
briar. The tiny _Rose de Meaux_ and _Spong_ are also miniature Provence
roses--and as I have said, ought to be more widely grown in English

[Illustration: MOSS.


THE MOSS ROSE, _R. Muscosa_,

originally a sport from the common Provence or Cabbage rose, was also
introduced into England from Holland in 1596; and many varieties have
since been derived from it, some of the newer ones having the additional
merit of being perpetual flowering. The best are the common _Pink Moss_,
_Comtesse Murinais_, _Celina_, _Crested_, _Gloire des Mousseuses_,
_Laneii_, _White Bath_; while there is a delightful little pink, mossed
_Rose de Meaux_. Of the perpetuals, _Blanche Moreau_, _Salet_,
_Perpetual White Moss_, and _Mme. Wm. Paul_ are all good.

The Old Double Yellow Provence, _Rosa Hemisphærica_ or _Sulphurea_ is
somewhat rare now, and only found in one or two modern catalogues or in
very old gardens.

THE FRENCH ROSE, _R. Gallica_, also called _Rose de Provins_,

as its name implies, is a native of France; but it is also found in
Italy, Switzerland and Austria. A good deal of confusion reigns on the
subject of this rose and _R. Damascena_; for varieties of both are often
misplaced in each other's classes. For instance, the common red
_Gallica_, the "Apothecary's rose," is usually called the _Red Damask_,
and its many striped varieties, especially _Rosa Mundi_, are mistaken
for the true _York and Lancaster_, which is a true Damask rose.

[Illustration: GALLICA.



_Rosa Gallica_, however, is easily distinguished from _Damascena_. Its
flowering shoots are upright, with few prickles, and rigid leaves. It
seeds very freely; and this accounts for the innumerable varieties which
were in vogue fifty or sixty years ago. It is said that one grower near
London had two thousand different sorts. It is still largely grown in
England for distilling purposes, on account of its delicious perfume;
and a field of the "Apothecary's rose" in full flower is a lovely sight
in July. But the chief centre of the industry used to be round Provins,
the old capital of La Brie, about sixty miles from Paris, on the way to
Châlons. Here vast fields were grown, the petals being used not only for
scent, but for conserves and medicinal purposes.

When well grown, namely well fed and well pruned by cutting out all the
weak wood and shortening back the strong shoots to six or seven eyes,
_Rosa gallica_ is worthy of a choice place as a decorative rose, whether
in the house or on the exhibition bench, when the almost single
flowers open and show their brilliant golden stamens. The best sorts
grown at present are _Oeillet Parfait_, _Perle des Panachées_, _Rosa
Mundi_, _Red Damask_ (the all-red form of this last), _Village Maid_,
and _Tuscany_.

[Illustration: CLIMBING DAMASK.


THE DAMASK ROSE, _R. Damascena_.

This rose was brought from Syria to Europe at the time of the Crusades.
The true _York and Lancaster_ is the best example of the old Damask
rose, and grows into a vigorous bush when well established. _Madame
Hardy_, a cross with the Cabbage rose, is an excellent pure white
variety; and in the last few years some new and admirable Damask roses,
_Lady Curzon_, _Lady Sarah Wilson_, _Lady White_, and the _Single
Crimson Damask_, have been raised by Mr. Turner; while Mr. Orpen, of
Colchester, introduced the beautiful pink climber, _Mrs. O. G. Orpen_,
in 1906.


the white rose of central Europe, introduced into England about 1597, is
now too often only to be seen in cottagers' gardens. But surely a corner
may be found for the _Maiden's Blush_, for the fine old _Blanche
Belgique_, or for _Celestial_--the roses that used to be seen in our
childhood with a sprig of Southernwood in every village boy's buttonhole
on Sunday.


[Illustration: AUSTRIAN BRIAR.


These are among the most brilliant of our early summer roses, and are
distinguished also by their singular and aromatic scent. But their
flowering season is as short as it is vivid.

The single Austrian Briars, mentioned by John Gerard in 1596, both the
Yellow, and the Copper known in France as _Capucine_, should be found,
if possible, in every garden. But both are of moderate growth; and the
Copper is often troublesome to grow, showing itself as capricious as it
is attractive. For instance, I have tried in vain for eight years to
make it flourish in my garden, while in a cottage garden by the roadside
a quarter of a mile away it flowers so profusely that during its
short-lived season of beauty the passers-by stop to gaze at its
brilliant single blossoms of satiny-yellow lined with vivid copper red.

The double yellow _Harrisonii_ was raised in America in 1830; and in
1837 Willock introduced the beautiful and fragrant _Persian Yellow_,
which grows so freely wherever it is planted.

All these Austrian briars have been utilized of late by the hybridists
with most interesting results. In 1900 the famous house of
Pernet-Ducher, of Lyons, succeeded in developing a new race of roses,
which they named _Rosa Pernetiana_, by crossing the _Persian Yellow_
with _Antoine Ducher_, a hybrid perpetual. The first of these was
_Soleil d'Or_, a large, full, flat flower, varying from gold and
orange yellow to reddish gold shaded with nasturtium red. It is
perfectly hardy, and perpetual flowering. And in 1907 they added a
further seedling, far more amazing in colour, named the _Lyon
Rose_--offspring of a cross between an unnamed seedling of _Soleil d'Or_
and the hybrid Tea _Mme. Mélanie Soupert_. This, judging by the reports
of those who have seen it, is destined to be a most valuable addition to
our gardens.

Another Pernetiana, _Les Rosati_, has been raised by Gravereaux, from a
cross between _Persian Yellow_ and a hybrid Tea. It is hardy, prolific,
and when I saw it at the end of September, 1907, in MM. Soupert et
Notting's ground, it was covered with brilliant cherry-red flowers on a
yellow base--the outside of the petals pale salmon. _Godfried Keller_, a
cross with Austrian Copper, apricot with the outside of the petals dark
yellow, semi-double and perpetual, and _Parkfeuer_, a shining scarlet
hybrid briar, are both of the same type.


_R. rubiginosa hybrida_.

These invaluable roses, the result of years of careful hybridizing of
the common Sweet Briar, _R. rubiginosa_, with various old-fashioned
roses, are amongst the greatest gifts of last century to the rosarian,
the amateur, and the cottager.



_Lady Penzance_, one of the most attractive, though less hardy and
vigorous than others, resulted from a cross with the Austrian Copper;
_Lord Penzance_ from the Austrian Yellow. This last is extraordinarily
fragrant, the scent of the leaves after rain filling the air to a
considerable distance. The rather small flowers of both these show their
parentage very clearly in colour. But for size of blossom and effect,
none of the fourteen varieties equal the bright pink and white _Flora
McIvor_, the crimson _Meg Merrilies_, and the superb dark crimson _Anne
of Geirstein_. This last is a plant of extraordinary vigour, forming in
a few years huge bushes ten feet high and nearly as many through. For a
high rose hedge or screen these hybrid sweet briars are invaluable,
while they may be also used for pillars and arches. And, with the
exception of _Lord_ and _Lady Penzance_, which are of more moderate
growth, they are easy to propagate, growing readily from cuttings,
which, if put in early in the autumn are in flower the next summer. The
foliage of the common Sweet Briar, however, remains the most fragrant of
all, with a clean, wholesome sweetness that is unsurpassed by its more
showy children, always excepting _Lord Penzance_, which, if possible,
excels it. Therefore let no one discard the old friend, and let them
plant it beside a walk, so that they may give it a friendly pinch as
they pass, to be rewarded by its delicious scent.

[Illustration: SCOTS BRIAR.


[Illustration: SCOTS BRIAR.


THE SCOTCH BRIAR, _R. spinossima_,

is a most fragrant little rose, its compact bushes forming an excellent
hedge round a rose garden, covered so closely with the sweet little
double, globular flowers that the tiny leaves are almost hidden by the
mass of blossom. They can be had in yellow, white, or many shades of
pink. But none are prettier than the common rose-pink. The yellow is a
hybrid--raised in France early in the nineteenth century.

The _Stanwell Perpetual_ is a Scotch briar, hybridized most probably
with the Damask Perpetual or some such rose, flesh-coloured and
flowering from May till the autumn.


was introduced into England in 1784. But this fact may, I imagine, be as
great a surprise to some of my readers as it was to myself, when I
discovered the statement on unimpeachable authority an hour ago. I well
remember the first plants of the common pinkish-red variety, which I
first saw in 1876. It was then considered something of a novelty; and I
recollect how we all began cultivating it in our gardens, and that we
were enraptured, as were the blackbirds and thrushes, by its large,
handsome bright scarlet fruit in the autumn.

The varieties in cultivation in those days were _alba_ the single white,
introduced in 1784 by Thunberg, a very lovely flower; and _rubra_, the
single pinkish-red (Cels. 1802). The hybridists began work upon these
some twenty years ago. Paul and Son brought out _America_ in 1895; and
the fine _Atropurpurea_ in 1900, one of the very best singles, deep
glowing crimson with brilliant golden stamens when opening at sunrise,
and turning purple later in the day. Double hybrids were also raised,
the charming white _Mme. Georges Bruant_, 1888; _Blanc double de
Coubert_, 1892; _Belle Poitevin_, 1895, rose-coloured and very fragrant;
and the handsome _Rose à parfum de l'Hay_, 1904, carmine cerise and
deliciously scented. _Fimbriata_, 1891, semi-double, white tinted blush,
the edge of the petals fringed like a dianthus, is perhaps the prettiest
of all, and is specially suited for growing as an isolated bush.

[Illustration: RUGOSA.


But of all the hybrids none can be compared to the superb _Conrad
Ferdinand Meyer_ (Müller, 1900). This last is said to be crossed with
_Gloire de Dijon_. It certainly possesses just the same rich fragrance
as that invaluable rose, while its beautiful colour, a warm tender pink,
its large size and perfect form, its more than vigorous growth, and its
persistence in blooming--I have it in flower here from the middle of May
till December--render it one of the most valuable additions to the rose
garden of the new century.

Besides these there are numbers of other varieties, as the continental
growers, such as Bruant, Cochet, Gravereaux, Schwartz, etc., have
paid considerable attention to these roses of late years. But the future
of this race is bound to be a very important one, and so far we have not
in the least realized what its effect may be.

PROVENCE ROSES, _R. Centifolia_.

          Cabbage, or Common Provence, 1596. Rosy pink.

          Crested. _Vibert_, 1827. Rosy pink, pale edges.

          Unique, or White Provence. _Grimwood_, 1777. Paper

          Sulphurea, or the Old Yellow Provence. Golden

Miniature Provence Roses.

          De Meaux, 1814. Rosy lilac.

          Spong. Blush pink.

          White de Meaux. White.

MOSS ROSES, _R. Centifolia muscosa_. (Summer flowering.)

          Baron de Wassenaer. _V. Verdier_, 1854. Light
          crimson, in clusters.

          Common. _Holland_, 1596. Pale rose.

          Comtesse de Murinais. _Vibert_, 1827. White, large
          and double.

          Crested. _Vibert_, 1827. Rosy pink, paler edges.

          Crimson Globe, _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1891. Deep

          Celina. _Hardy_, 1855. Rich crimson, shaded

          Gloire des Moussues. _Robert_, 1852. Rosy blush,
          large and full.

          Laneii. _Laffay_, 1846. Rosy crimson, tinted

          White Bath. _Salter_, 1810. Paper white, large and

          Zenobia. _Wm. Paul & Son._ Fine satin pink.


          Blanche Moreau. _Moreau Robert_, 1881. Pure white.

          James Veitch. Violet shaded.

          Mme. Edouard Ory. _Robert_, 1856. Bright carmine.

           "   Louis Lévêque. _Leveque_, 1904. Colour of
          _Captain Christy_.

           "   Moreau. _Moreau-Robert_, 1873. Vermilion red.

          Mrs. William Paul. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1870. Very
          bright rose.

          Perpetual White Moss. Blooming in clusters.

          Salet. _Lacharme_, 1854. Bright rose, blush edges,

          Venus. _Welter_, 1905. Fiery red, one of the best.

THE FRENCH ROSE, also called "ROSE DE PROVINS," _R. Gallica_.

          Belle des Jardins. _Guillot_, 1873. Bright purple,
          striped white.

          Dométile Becard. Flesh, striped rose.

          Oeillet Parfait. Pure white, broad stripes, rosy

          Perle des Panachées. _Vibert_, 1845. White,
          striped lilac.

          Rosa Mundi. Red, striped white.

          Old Red, the "Apothecary's Rose," often called
          "Red Damask."

          Tuscany. Deep claret red.

          Village Maid. White, striped rose or purple.

THE DAMASK ROSE, _R. Damascena_.

          Kazanlik. Silver rose.

          La Ville de Bruxelles. Light rose, blush margin.

          Lady Curzon. _Turner_, 1902. Large, single pink.

          Lady Sarah Wilson. _Turner_, 1902. Semi-double,
          creamy blush.

          Lady White. _Turner_, 1902. Semi-double, white
          tinted pink.

          Leda, or painted Damask. Blush, edged lake.

          Madame Hardy. _Hardy_, 1832. White.

            "    Zoetmans. Creamy white.

          Mrs. O. G. Orpen. _Orpen_, 1906. Climbing, large
          single, in trusses, rosy pink.

          Single Crimson Damask. _Turner_, 1901.

          York and Lancaster (true). Red and white, in


          Blanche Belgique. White.

          Celestial. Flesh colour, tinted delicate pink.

          Felicité. Rosy flesh, margin blush.

          Mme. Audot. Glossy flesh.

           "   Legras. Creamy white.

          Maiden's Blush. _Kew_, 1797. Soft blush.


          Austrian Copper, or Capucine. _J. Gerard_, 1596.
          Single, petals lined copper-red.

          Austrian Yellow. _J. Gerard_, 1596.

          Harrisonii. _Harrison_, 1830. Golden yellow.

          Persian Yellow. _Willock_, 1838. Deep golden


          Gottfried Keller. _Dr. Müller_, 1902. Semi-double,
          apricot with golden yellow centre.

          Parkfeuer. Single, vivid scarlet.

          Soleil d'Or. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1900. Orange yellow,
          gold and nasturtium red, large, double.

          The Lyon Rose. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1907. Coral-red
          tinted chrome yellow, new and distinct, double.

          Les Rosati. _Gravereaux_, 1907. Bright carmine,
          yellow base.

These three last are perpetual-flowering, and known as Pernetiana roses.

SWEET BRIARS, _R. rubiginosa_.

          Common Sweet briar. Pale pink.

          Double Scarlet. Bright rosy red.

          Hebe's Lip. White, with picotee edge of purple.

          Janet's Pride. White, shaded and tipped with


          Amy Robsart. Deep rose.

          Anne of Geirstein. Deep crimson rose.

          Catherine Seyton. Rosy-pink, bright golden

          Flora McIvor. Blush rose, white centre.

          Lady Penzance. Soft copper, base of petals bright

          Lord Penzance. Fawn, passing to emerald yellow.

          Lucy Bertram. Rich crimson, pure white centre.

          Meg Merrilies. Deep brilliant crimson.

SCOTCH BRIAR ROSES, _R. spinossima_.

Shades of pink, rose, crimson, white, yellow.

          Pimpinellifolia. Blush.

          Stanwell Perpetual. Semi-double rosy blush.


          America. _Paul & Son_, 1895. Crimson lake.

          Atropurpurea. _Paul & Son_, 1899. Deep crimson,
          turning maroon.

          Belle Poitevin. _Bruant_, 1896. Rose, double, very

          [A]Blanc double de Coubert. _Cochet-Cochet_, 1894.
          Double white.

          Calocarpa. _Bruant_, 1896. Rose, single, fine
          tinted autumn foliage.

          [A]Conrad F. Meyer. _Froebel_, 1900. Clear silvery
          rose, double, large, very fragrant.

          [A]Delicata. _Cooling_, 1898. Soft rose, double.

          Madame C. F. Worth. _Schwartz_, 1890. Rosy
          carmine, semi-double.

          [A]Madame Georges Bruant. _Bruant_, 1888. Clear
          white, nearly double.

          Madame Henri Gravereaux. _Gravereaux_, 1905.
          White, salmon centre.

          Mrs. Anthony Waterer. _Waterer_, 1898. Deep
          crimson, semi-double, large clusters.

          [A]Nova Zembla. _Mees_, 1907. White sport from
          _Conrad Meyer_, fine.

          Repens Alba. _Paul & Son_, 1903. Weeping form of

          [A]Rose à parfum de l'Hay. _Gravereaux_, 1904.
          Carmine cerise, double, fine.

          Rugosa alba. _Thunberg_, 1784. Single, pure white.

          Rugosa rubra. _Cels_, 1802. Pinkish red.

          Rugosa rubra, fl. pl. _Regel._ Purple red. [A]
          Rose Apples. _Paul & Son_, 1896. Pale carmine
          rose, large clusters.


[A] Perpetual flowering.



MANY are the races to which our summer gardens owe an almost endless
variety of climbing roses; and each season adds to the bewildering
number. The older types are the Ayrshire, the Evergreen, the Banksia,
the Boursault, the Prairie rose, the Multiflora. And twenty-one years
ago, the Wichuraiana from Japan was introduced, adding a totally new
source from whence to derive precious and beautiful hybrids.

[Illustration: AYRSHIRE.



originated without doubt from the trailing white rose of our hedges and
woodlands, _Rosa arvensis_. In the early years of last century many
popular varieties were developed which are still welcome in our gardens,
such as _Alice Gray_, _Dundee Rambler_, _Ruga_, _Queen of the Belgians_,
_Splendens_ or _Myrrh-scented_. And in 1835, the charming little double
white rose, _Bennett's Seedling_ or _Thoresbyana_, was discovered among
some briars by Lord Manvers' gardener at Thoresby.

[Illustration: EVERGREEN.



The parent of the Evergreen roses of our gardens was the climbing wild
rose of Italy, _Rosa Sempervirens_. And the best known, and perhaps the
most valuable of these, is the white _Félicité et Perpétue_, named after
the saints and martyrs Felicitas and Perpetua. This rose and several
other varieties were raised in 1827 by Monsieur Jacques, the
head-gardener at the royal gardens of Neuilly. They bloom in large
clusters of small, very full, double flowers. _Myrianthes renoncule_,
_Leopoldine d'Orleans_, and _Banksiæflora_ are white; _Princesse Marie_
and _Flora_ are pink, as is _Williams' Evergreen_. As all these keep
their dark shining foliage until nearly the end of the winter, they are
very valuable on screens and arches.


This persistent foliage is one of the great merits of the large white
Banksian _Fortunei_, called in French catalogues _Banks de Chine_--a
hybrid with the beautiful _Rosa Sinica_. Its handsome green leaves, as I
write in mid-February, are as thick outside my window in spite of twenty
degrees of frost a few weeks back, as they were in the autumn. It will
throw shoots of immense length each year: clothing a wall summer and
winter with its rich green foliage. It is much hardier than the Yellow
and White Banksians. The flowers, large, full, white, and
sweet-scented, grow singly, not in clusters, and are borne like those
of the Yellow and White Banksians on the sub-laterals--_i.e._ the little
flowering stems on the laterals of last year. This habit of growth is
the reason of so many failures in getting the Banksian roses to flower.
An old plant of the Yellow Banksian on the rectory at Strathfieldsaye
had never been known to flower when the Rev. F. Page-Roberts came there.
He, of course, discovered that it had been pruned hard in the usual way.
And after proper attention for two years, it was last year a mass of
bloom, to the surprise of all who saw it.[3]

The White Banksian was introduced by Mr. William Kerr in 1807, and named
after Lady Banks. The yellow was discovered by Dr. Abel, in 1824,
growing on the walls of Nankin. They are both natives of China: but
require a warm position on a wall in most parts of England. The finest
specimen I have ever seen was a very old plant of the yellow, growing
some years ago inside the courtyard at Chillon. It was one of the most
beautiful objects possible in summer, the grim walls being closely
covered with a sheet of the delicate little blossoms.


mentioned above, also known as the "_Cherokee Rose_," is a single white
with yellow stamens, from China. It is a very beautiful species; but
requires, like the Banksians, the shelter of a wall. _Sinica anemone_
(Schmidt, 1895), silvery-pink shaded rose, is very vigorous, and more
hardy, one of the best single climbing roses. This latter rose must not
be confused with _Anemonæflora_--a cross between _Banksia_ and
_Multiflora_--with small double white anemone-like flowers.


are hardy, vigorous climbers, flowering in large clusters. They were
raised from the single red Alpine rose. This, by the way, might be more
generally cultivated for its own sake; its smooth red stems and handsome
reddish foliage, which turns a fine colour in autumn, and its single
deep pink flowers with long green bracts, succeeded by small brilliant
hips, make it a charming object both in summer and autumn. M. Boursault,
a famous Parisian rose amateur, gave his name to the group, the first
variety, a double red, being called after him. _Amadis_, or _Crimson_,
is one of the oldest, a deep crimson purple; while _Inermis Morletti_,
an improved _Inermis_, was introduced in 1883 by Morlet.


was the parent of several useful climbers raised by Feast, of Baltimore,
and introduced into England in 1803. Of these _Belle of Baltimore_ and
_Queen of the Prairies_ are the best, flowering late in the summer.


appear to be very little known in England. But they are well worth
growing, especially in cold and exposed places, as they are thoroughly
frost-proof. The blossoms are large, very full, and mostly flat in form.
_Decoration de Geschwind_, rich purple-pink with white edges, is a
handsome and effective flower. So are _Gilda_, wine colour, shaded with
violet, and _Château Luegg_, deep carmine pink. To what family they are
allied I do not know. They were raised by Geschwind about 1886. I got
them from M. Bernaix of Lyons, and am greatly pleased with them.


This very beautiful class of summer-flowering climbing or pillar roses,
is too often neglected in these days. They are the result of crosses
between the Gallica, Centifolia, and Damask roses, and the China,
Noisette and Bourbon. For size, form and colour, many of these roses are
still unexcelled. And one regrets they are not more generally grown.

Whether the seed parent is the perpetual China, Bourbon, or Noisette,
and the pollen parent the French or Provençe rose, or _vice versâ_, the
result is that, though it grows vigorously, the hybrid does not flower
in the autumn--with the one exception, the beautiful _Gloire de
Rosamènes_. One of the grandest of this class is _Blairii No. 2_ (Blair
1845), blush with rose centre, a very vigorous climber: but it should be
remembered that if pruned it will not flower. This is also the case with
the fine crimson _Brennus_ or _Brutus_. _Coupe d'Hébé_ and _Chenédolé_
are both good roses; while _Charles Lawson_ for a brilliant crimson
pillar rose, and the pure white _Madame Plantier_ for bush or pillar,
are not easily surpassed, as their flowers are borne in immense
quantities. That very brilliant and effective single rose, _Paul's
Carmine Pillar_, is also a hybrid; but its exact parentage is not known.
Messrs. Paul & Son, of Cheshunt, write to me: "We believe it to be, as
far as we can recollect, a hybrid with Boursault blood." This would
explain its coming into flower so early.


and their hybrids, commonly known as "Rambler roses," have developed of
late years in such amazing numbers, that it is a work of some difficulty
to keep pace with the new varieties which appear each season. The
original Multiflora, known also as _Polyantha simplex_, was introduced
from Japan in 1781 by Thunberg. It is a very vigorous climber with large
bunches of small, single white flowers. From this type rose, which seeds
very freely, numbers of hybrids were raised in Italy early in the
nineteenth century, by crossings with other richly coloured roses. One
of the earliest of these hybrids which still remains is _Laure Davoust_,
with small and very double flowers--pink changing to blush. _Grevillia_
or the _Seven Sisters_ is another, its flowers changing from crimson to
purplish rose, and then to pale rose. This produces a most quaint
effect, as we have flowers of three colours on the plant at once. _De la
Grifferaie_, 1845, is also deep rose, changing to blush.



It was, however, in 1893 that an extraordinary impulse was given to the
culture of these roses, by the introduction of _Turner's Crimson
Rambler_. Two roses which are now classed among the "Ramblers" preceded
it by a few years; Allard's _Daniel Lacombe_, 1886, and the beautiful
_Claire Jacquier_, 1888, raised by Bernaix of Lyons. But the advent of
_Crimson Rambler_ is really the starting point of that enthusiasm which
has reigned ever since 1893 for the Rambler roses, and which has happily
brought many of the old varieties mentioned above into favour once more.
As many versions of the advent of this rose are extant, I wrote to Mr.
Charles Turner to ask him its true history, and in his kind reply of
February 17, 1908, he says, "The rose was brought from Japan with other
plants by an engineer on board a trading vessel for a gentleman living
near Edinburgh. It was grown there for some time, and eventually came
into our possession."



This rose is so well known that, like good wine, it needs no bush of
praise or description. And it was quickly followed by other Multifloras
of varying types. In 1896 came Lambert's trio _Euphrosyne_, the
so-called Pink rambler, _Thalia_, the White rambler, and _Aglaia_, the
Yellow rambler; succeeded in 1897 by his _Hélène_, pale rose with
yellowish white centre. In 1898 Dawson brought out the _Dawson rose_,
with clusters of semi-double soft-rose flowers. In 1899 came two notable
additions--Paul & Son's _Psyche_; and Schmidt's _Leuchstern_--one of the
most beautiful of the race. The latter grower's invaluable _Rubin_;
Veitch's _Electra_; Paul & Son's _Lion_ followed in 1900; and their
_Wallflower_ in 1901.

In 1903, Wm. Paul & Son brought out _Waltham Rambler_; B. R. Cant, the
exquisite _Blush Rambler_; and Walsh of Philadelphia the _Philadelphia
Rambler_. In 1904 came Lambert's _Gruss an Zabern_ and _Trier_. In 1905
Cutbush's _Mrs. F. W. Flight_, considered by some the Queen of ramblers.
And in 1906 Weigand's _Taunusblümchen_; and Soupert et Notting's
beautiful _Stella_. Last year a rich feast was provided for those who
delight in Ramblers, with Soupert et Notting's fine new _Bar-le-Duc_,
offspring of their famous tea rose _Souv. de Pierre Notting_ and
_Crimson Rambler_; Schmidt's _Tausendschön_, a cross between _Crimson
Rambler_ and a tea-polyantha; and Wm. Paul & Son's _Kathleen_, a single
flower, rich carmine-rose with a white eye. And this year Soupert et
Notting are sending out their new _Bordeaux_, a seedling from _Crimson
Rambler_ and the dwarf Polyantha _Blanche Rebatel_.

[Illustration: WICHURIANA.


Meanwhile, in 1887, the parents of a new race of climbing roses had been
brought to Europe. The Wichuraiana (Species) was introduced from Japan
by Crépin, in 1887. Its small white single flowers with their quaint hay
scent, borne late in the summer, its glossy evergreen leaves, and its
vigorous creeping habit--for it will cover a large space on a bank in
twelve months--proclaimed a new and valuable species. And in America,
Manda was quick to see its value as the parent of a new race, by
crossing it with tea roses. Ten years later, in 1897, he brought out
_Manda's Triumph_; in 1899, the charming _Gardenia_, _Jersey Beauty_,
_May Queen_, _Pink Roamer_, _South Orange Perfection_, _Universal
Favourite_; and in 1900, _Evergreen Gem_, one of the very best. The next
year Jackson and Perkins introduced the incomparable _Dorothy Perkins_.
And Walsh, another American grower, followed in 1902 with _Débutante_,
and in 1905 with _Hiawatha_ and _Lady Gay_.

Meanwhile in France, M. Barbier had been devoting himself to these
charming hybrids; and began his long list of beautiful varieties in 1900
with _Albéric Barbier_, _René André_, and the single _Wichuraiana
rubra_; to be followed by numbers of others.

One of the charms of these roses, and they have many, is that they are
to all intents and purposes evergreen. Another is, that although they
are not perpetual, _i.e._ flowering twice in the season, the hybrids
often take after their parent the type Wichuraiana, whose flowering
season is very late--last autumn I gathered a few flowers from it the
third week in December. Therefore, many of them come into bloom just as
the Multifloras are going over, thus prolonging the season of summer
climbing roses till the end of August.

For every purpose they are of use. They may be planted to cover an
unsightly bit of bank, or to climb over a stump, to wreath themselves
into the branches of a tree, or to form a dense covering of shining
leaves and innumerable flowers on fence or trellis or screen. They are
even more charming on pillars and arches, when the full beauty of their
blossoms can be seen from all sides; for while many have a pendant
habit, the main flower heads, of _Dorothy Perkins_ for instance, are
carried erect above the pink foam of the laterals that clothe the
graceful hanging shoots below.

A Wichuraiana hybrid--for choice the dainty _rubra_, _Dorothy Perkins_
or _Hiawatha_--grown as a tall, weeping standard seven feet high, is an
object of such beauty that if once seen it cannot be forgotten. Or these
charming roses may be trained round a large balloon, in the same fashion
as the _Crimson Rambler_ in the Royal Gardens at Windsor, figured in
"The Garden," December 30, 1905.

[Illustration: WICHURIANA.


Planted on a terraced slope the Wichuraianas are most effective. In one
instance, _Gardenia_, _Evergreen Gem_, _Albéric Barbier_ and others were
planted along a steep grass bank below a terrace walk. A flat shelf four
feet wide had been cut half way down the bank, and there the roses were
put in some ten or twelve feet apart. By the next summer they had joined
hands; and whether from below, or looking down on them from the terrace
above, the huge wreath with masses of flowers among the glossy foliage
made a most exquisite display.

In fact there is no limit to the uses to which this delightful family
may be put. And we may believe that there is no limit either to its
future developments in the hands of the hybridists, whose patient
research will, I have no doubt, give us before many years are over,
perpetual flowering, evergreen Wichuraianas of every hue.

AYRSHIRE ROSES, _R. Arvensis_.

          Alice Gray. White edged pink.

          Bennett's Seedling or Thoresbyana. _Bennett_,
          1835. Double White.

          Dundee Rambler. White, semi-double.

          Queen of the Belgians. Creamy white, large,

          Ruga. Pale flesh, large, double.

          Repens flore pleno. White, very abundant bloomer.

          Splendens, or myrrh-scented. Flesh colour, large,

EVERGREEN ROSES, _R. Sempervirens_.

          Banksiæflora. White, centre pale yellow.

          Felicité et Perpétue. _Jacques_, 1827. Creamy
          white, full.

          Flora. Rosy flesh, full.

          Leopoldine d'Orleans. _Jacques._ White, tipped

          Myrianthes renoncule. Blush edged rose.

          Princesse Marie. _Jacques._ Clear pink.

          Williams' Evergreen. _Williams_, 1855. Yellowish
          white, pink centre.


          Alba. _Kerr_, 1807. Small double white.

          Lutea. _Royal Horticultural Soc._, 1824. Small
          double yellow.

          Fortunei. (Hybrid) white, large double flowers.

SINICA ROSES, _R. Sinica_ or _Lævigata_.

          Sinica (Species). The Cherokee rose. Single white,
          yellow stamens.

          Sinica Anemone. _F. Schmidt_, 1895. Single,
          silvery pink, shaded rose.


          Amadis. Deep purple crimson.

          Blush or Boursault Florida. Blush, large

          Elegans. Vivid crimson.

          Gracilis. 1796. Bright, rosy red.

          Inermis or Boursault pleine. Bright red.

          Inermis Morletti. _Morlet_, 1883. Light, rosy


          Belle of Baltimore. _Feast_, 1803. White, shaded

          Queen of the Prairies. _Feast_, 1803. Pink, very

HYBRID MUSK, Summer flowering.

          Madame d'Arblay. Flesh, changing to white.

          The Garland. Blush, changing to white.


          Aurelia Liffa. Scarlet crimson.

          Château Leugg. Deep carmine pink.

          Decoration de Geschwind. Deep violet red, white

          Gilda. Dark wine colour, shaded violet.

          Mercédès. Carmine, lilac, pink.

          Meteor. Carmine red, bright shading.

          Souvenir de Brood. Flat shape, full, purple or


          Acidalie. _Rousseau_, 1838. White.

          Blairii, No. 2. _Blair_, 1845. Blush pink, rose

          Brennus or Brutus. Deep carmine.

          Charles Lawson. _Lawson_, 1853. Very bright

          Chenédolé. Light vivid crimson.

          Coupe d'Hébé. _Laffay_, 1840. Vivid rose, shaded.

          Fulgens. Bright crimson.

          Madame Plantier. Pure white, very fine.

          Paul Ricaut. _Portemer_, 1845. Brilliant carmine.

          Paul's Carmine Pillar. _Paul & Son_, 1896. Large
          single carmine.


          Aglaia. _Lambert_, 1896. Trusses of canary yellow.

          Bar le Duc. _Soupert et Notting_, 1907. Clear
          brick-red, reverse of petals bright copper.

          Blush Rambler. _B. R. Cant_, 1903. Large clusters
          of soft blush flowers.

          Bordeaux. _Soupert et Notting_, 1908. Claret
          colour, very fine.

          Claire Jacquier. _Bernaix_, 1888. Nankeen yellow.

          Crimson Rambler. _Turner_, 1893. Bright crimson.

          Crimson Rambler ne plus ultra. _Weigand_, 1905.
          Bright, deep crimson.

          Daniel Lacombe. _Allard_, 1886. Chamois yellow,
          turning to white.

          Electra. _Veitch_, 1900. Lemon, shaded orange and

          Euphrosyne. _Lambert_, 1896. Pinkish rose, small
          double flowers.

          Frau Lina Strassheim. _Strassheim_, 1907. Salmon
          red and flesh, very large clusters.

          Goldfinch. _Paul & Son_, 1907. Deep golden buds,
          opening pale yellow, shaded violet and white.

          Gruss an Zabern. _Lambert_, 1904. Large trusses,
          snow white.

          Hélène. _Lambert_, 1897. Pale mauve with yellow

          Kathleen. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1907. Single, soft
          carmine-rose, white eye.

          Leuchstern. _Schmidt_, 1899. Bright rose, large
          white eye.

          Mrs. F. W. Flight. _Cutbush_, 1905. Bright pink.

          Philadelphia Rambler. _Walsh_, 1903. Much like
          Crimson Rambler; said to be mildew proof.

          Psyche. _Paul & Son_, 1899. Pale rosy pink, salmon
          yellow base.

          Queen Alexandra. _Veitch_, 1901. Rich rose colour.

          Rubin. _Schmidt_, 1900. Deep crimson, fine reddish

          Stella. _Soupert et Notting._ Vivid carmine,
          stamens forming a golden star on white centre.

          Tausendschön. _Schmidt_, 1906. Pink turning to
          bright rose, sweet-scented.

          Taunusblümchen. _Weigand_, 1906. Pink fragrant
          flowers like Crimson Rambler.

          Thalia. _Lambert_, 1896. Small double white
          flowers in cluster.

          Thalia. Perpetual flowering, pure white.

          The Dawson Rose. _Dawson_, 1898. Pale rose.

          The Lion. _Paul & Son_, 1900. Single flowers,
          vivid crimson.

          Trier. _Lambert_, 1904. Creamy white.

          Wallflower. _Paul & Son_, 1901. Light crimson

          Waltham Bride. _Wm. Paul & Son._ Pure white.

          Waltham Rambler. _Wm. Paul & Son._ Single, rosy
          pink, pale centre.


          Albéric Barbier. _Barbier_, 1901. Creamy white,
          canary centre, tea scent.

          Auguste Barbier. _Barbier_, 1901. Violet lilac,
          white centre.

          Débutante. _Walsh_, 1902. Large clusters, soft
          pink, very fragrant.

          Dorothy Perkins. _Jackson & Perkins_, 1901. Bright
          rose pink, large clusters.

          Edmond Proust. _Barbier_, 1903. Pink, centre
          shaded carmine.

          Elisa Robichon. _Barbier_, 1903. Salmon buff, base
          of petals yellow.

          Evangeline. _Walsh_, 1906. Large single flowers,
          white, tipped pink.

          Evergreen Gem. _Manda_, 1900. Buff changing to
          white, double.

          François Foucard. _Barbier_, 1902. Yellow, turning
          creamy white.

          Gardenia. _Manda_, 1899. Bright yellow in bud,
          changing to cream.

          Hiawatha. _Walsh_, 1905. Single, bright crimson,
          white eye.

          Jersey Beauty. _Manda_, 1899. Single, pale yellow,
          bright yellow stamens.

          Lady Gay. _Walsh_, 1905. Deep rose pink, large

          Lady Godiva. _Paul & Son_, 1907. Pale flesh pink,
          sport from Dorothy Perkins.

          Manda's Triumph. _Manda_, 1897. Pure white,

          May Queen. _Manda_, 1899. Coral red, large

          Minnehaha. _Walsh_, 1907. Satin pink, double,
          large clusters.

          Paradise. _Walsh_, 1907. Single, pink and white.

          Paul Transon. _Barbier_, 1902. Large panicles,
          double rose, tea rose scent.

          Pink Pearl. Buds deep pink, changing to pearly

          Pink Roamer. _Manda_, 1899. Bright rose, white
          eye, semi-double.

          René André. _Barbier_, 1901. Creamy white, yellow
          centre, tea scented.

          Rubra. _Barbier_, 1900. Single, bright red, white

          Ruby Queen. Brilliant carmine, large clusters,

          South Orange Perfection. _Manda_, 1899. Clear

          The Farquhar. _Farquhar_, 1904. Pale rose turning

          Universal Favorite. _Manda_, 1899. Porcelain rose.


[3] See pruning, p. 26.



WHILE many of the beautiful roses enumerated in the last chapter are
indispensable in our gardens for covering pillars, arches, screens,
walls, fences and pergolas, an end comes all too soon to their flowering
season. And when it comes we feel the need of other climbers to carry on
the succession of blossom until the frosts cut all off. A pergola, for
instance, planted with nothing but summer flowering roses, is but a
sorry sight in August and September. While if we have been wise, and
have made a judicious mixture of these and perpetual roses, it remains a
delight till November.

For vigorous climbers of this second section none excel

THE NOISETTE ROSE, _R. Noisettiana_.

This invaluable race was originated by M. Philippe Noisette in America,
by fertilizing the Musk rose, _R. Moschata_, with the Common Blush
China, _R. Indica_ (not the Blush Tea rose, _R. Indica Odorata_). In
1817 he sent the "_Blush Noisette_" to his brother M. Louis Noisette, a
well-known nurseryman in Paris. And its advent was hailed with
enthusiasm by all rose-lovers in France; for it was recognized as a new
break in climbing roses. In this, and in many of the seedlings which
were raised from it, the influence of its Musk rose parent was very
strong, the flowers being borne in large clusters, and fragrant with its
delicious musky scent. But as time went on, crossings with Tea roses
somewhat changed one of the early characteristics of the Noisette, and
it approached more closely to the Tea rose--bearing flowers
singly--instead of in the large clusters characteristic of the Musk

_Aimée Vibert_ (Vibert, 1828) is one of those early Noisettes which
holds its own everywhere. But how seldom do we see that most vigorous
and most fragrant of all, _Jaune Desprez_ (Desprez, 1828). Grown against
a west wall here, it covered a space some 20 × 20 feet in three years,
throwing laterals, five feet and more long every summer; and from the
ends of these in late autumn the great heads of bloom hang down, filling
the whole air with fragrance; in one cluster alone I have counted
seventy-two blossoms, soft sulphur, salmon, and red. This variety, and
the beautiful white _Lamarque_ (Maréchal, 1830), both need the shelter
of a wall in a warm, dry position.

[Illustration: NOISETTE.


That singularly beautiful rose _Fortune's Yellow_ or _Beauty of
Glazenwood_ (Fortune, 1845), which is classed among the Noisettes,
though it has nothing but its beauty in common with them--for it is not
perpetual, and its foliage is quite different from theirs--also requires
a very dry, warm situation, when, _if it is never pruned_, it will
flower abundantly. I have a plant on a very dry border at the S.W.
corner of my house, which has scrambled up to the eaves and is now
making efforts to reach the chimneys. The reason that this rose so often
fails to bear blossoms is, that being an untidy grower it is pruned. And
any one who has once tried to do so should be glad to know that pruning
is as fatal to the rose as to the unhappy pruner, for it is armed with
the most cruel prickles, like small fish-hooks, of any member of the
rose tribe. The flowers, like those of the Banksia roses, being borne on
the small twigs growing from the laterals of the second year, any
pruning which destroys these destroys all chance of blossom. And this
rule holds good with most of the Noisettes.

_Ophirie_ (Goubault, 1841), with its rather small nankeen and copper-red
flowers and glossy leaves, is also glad of a little shelter. While the
delightful _Céline Forestier_ (Trouillard, 1842) will flourish in almost
any situation, though it prefers a wall.

Later on, the influence of crossings between the Noisette and the pure
Tea instead of the China rose, is very evident in such superb roses as
_Maréchal Niel_, _L'Idéal_, _Wassily Chludoff_--an admirable rose, by
the way--the invaluable _Rêve d'Or_, which seldom bears a cluster of
more than three flowers, and others. But though that universal
favourite, _William Allen Richardson_, is, alas! scentless, its habit
has more in common with the Noisettes. _Rêve d'Or_ is one of the most
useful and hardy of the race, a rampant grower, with buff yellow
blossoms borne in immense numbers both in summer and autumn, while its
rich red shoots and reddish-green foliage make it a beautiful object
before and after it blooms. It strongly resents any pruning beyond
shortening its vigorous summer shoots.

Among the Hybrid Noisettes--_i.e._ those crossed with the Hybrid
perpetual--_Boule de Neige_, a dwarf, and _Madame Alfred Carrière_, a
rampant climber, are the best. The latter is certainly one of the best
white climbing roses we have, its white blossoms, which some liken to
the porcelain roses manufactured abroad, are borne singly on the stalks,
and last long in water, while it is never out of flower from June to

THE MUSK ROSE, _R. Moschata_,

seed parent of the Noisette, is perhaps more widely spread than any
other rose over the face of the earth. From Madeira through Africa and
Persia to Far Cathay it blooms, and sheds its delicious musky scent in
the evening air. That it has been prized in the West for centuries we
know--for Shakespeare's Titania promises the ass to "stick Musk roses in
thy sleek smooth head." Hakluyt says that "Of later times was procured
out of Italy the Muske rose plant." And Bacon declares that while the
white double Violet is the sweetest of all, "next to that is the Musk

The original Musk rose bearing large bunches of single white flowers, is
now seldom seen except in very old gardens where it attains a great
size. Mr. Rivers, in the _Amateur's Rose Guide_, 1843, says that
"Olivier who travelled in the first six years of the French Republic,
mentions a rose tree at Ispahan, called the 'Chinese Rose Tree,' fifteen
feet high, formed by the union of several stems, each four or five
inches in diameter. Seeds from this tree were sent to Paris, and
produced the common Musk Rose." But wherever it can be found it should
be cherished for the sake of its scent, which is strongest in the
evening, especially after rain, filling the whole air with its

_Himalayica_ is a fine single white form of Moschata; and so is _Nivea_,
a large single variety from Nepaul, white, tinged with pink. Of the
double and semi-double hybrids, the _Fringed Musk_, a very old favourite
still in cultivation, _Rivers' Musk_, pink, shaded buff, and the
charming _Princesse de Nassau_, straw colour and very sweet, are all
good roses, coming into flower very late in the season, and lasting on
through the autumn. For pillars they are excellent subjects.

_Madame d'Arblay_ and _The Garland_ are hybrids of the Musk rose, which
only bloom in summer.


is sometimes classed with the Musk roses: but this is an error, as it is
a distinct species, and is also only summer flowering. With its double
variety, it is a beautiful rose for pillar, arch, or pergola; the white
flowers are very sweet and borne in clusters. But it should be planted
where it can get plenty of sun to ripen the wood.

THE MACARTNEY ROSE, _R. bracteata_,

was brought from China in 1795 by Lord Macartney. The handsome shiny
evergreen foliage and large solitary white flowers with a mass of golden
stamens, make it a beautiful object. It does best, as do its hybrids, on
a wall in a warm dry position: but it will not flower until it is
thoroughly established. _Maria Leonida_ is a hybrid of the early
nineteenth century, very beautiful when its very full white flowers,
slightly flushed in the centre with pink, open properly. But they need
plenty of sun and a sheltered position to do so in perfection. _Rosa
Lucida_ and _Lucida plena_ are two rose-coloured hybrids with handsome
reddish foliage.

With the Noisettes, Musk, and Macartney roses, we have only touched the
fringe of autumn flowering climbers. And three most important classes
remain to be noticed. These are--


Among the Hybrid Perpetuals there are several line climbing roses, as
well as climbing sports of well-known dwarfs, which are valuable to this
class. While roses of specially vigorous growth, but not usually counted
as climbers, such as _Magna Charta_, _Margaret Dickson_, _Pierre
Notting_, and others, make admirable pillars.

But it is among the Tea and Hybrid Tea roses that we find our richest
harvest of autumn flowering climbers. Some of these are pure climbers,
such as the noble _Gloire de Dijon_ and its descendants; and _Cheshunt
Hybrid_, _Reine Marie Henriette_, _Reine Olga de Wurtemberg_, _Belle
Lyonnaise_, etc. Many of these and others do grandly as tall standards,
making fine heads covered with bloom. And many more can be grown as
isolated bush roses, planted out singly with plenty of space round them.
_Gruss an Teplitz_, _Gustave Régis_, _Mme. Jules Gravereaux_, the
exquisite _Lady Waterlow_, and Cooling's _Apple Blossom_, are specially
suited to this form of growth.

In the following lists of these three groups of roses, I have, for
convenience sake, placed Teas and Hybrid Teas together.

NOISETTE ROSES, _R. Noisettiana_.

          Aimée Vibert. _Vibert_, 1828. White, climbing;
          there is also a dwarf form.

          Alister Stella Gray. _Gray_, 1895. Pale yellow,
          orange centre.

          Bouquet d'Or. _Ducher_, 1873. Pale yellow, centre

          Céline Forestier. _Trouillard_, 1842. Pale yellow.

          Cloth of Gold. _Coquereau_, 1843. Golden yellow,
          sulphur edges.

          Crépuscule. _Dubreuil_, 1905. Rich copper yellow
          and nasturtium red.

          Fellenberg. _Fellenberg_, 1857. Rosy crimson,
          suitable for a dwarf wall, or pillar.

          Fortune's Yellow. _Fortune_, 1845. Orange yellow,
          shaded metallic red, summer flowering.

          Jaune Desprez. _Desprez_, about 1825. Buff, pink,
          sulphur and red, variable.

          Lamarque. _Maréchal_, 1830. White, shaded lemon.

          L'Idéal. _Nabonnand_, 1887. Metallic red, tinted

          Madame Carnot. _Moreau-Robert_, 1890. Golden
          yellow, coppery centre.

          Madame Caroline Kuster. _Pernet_, 1873. Pale

          Madame Pierre Cochet. _Cochet_, 1892. Deep orange
          yellow, dwarf wall.

          Maréchal Niel. _Pradel_, 1864. Deep golden yellow.

          Marie Thérèse Dubourg. _Godard_, 1889. Coppery
          golden yellow.

          Ophirie. _Goubault_, 1841. Nankeen and copper.

          Rêve d'Or. _Ducher_, 1870. Coppery buff yellow.

          Solfaterre. _Boyeau_, 1843. Fine sulphur yellow.

          Souv. de Prince C. d'Arenberg. _Soupert et
          Notting_, 1897. Canary yellow.

          Triomphe de Rennes. _Eug. Verdier_, 1857. Canary

          Wasily Chludoff. Coppery red, tinted yellow.

          William Allen Richardson. _Ducher_, 1878. Fine
          orange yellow.


          Ards Rover. _Alex. Dickson_, 1896. Deep crimson.

          Brightness of Cheshunt. _Paul & Son_, 1882. Brick

          Climbing Bessie Johnson. _Paul & Son_, 1899.
          White, tinged pink.

             "    Captain Hayward. _Paul & Son_, 1906.

             "    Charles Lefébvre.

             "    Eugénie Verdier. _Paul & Son._

             "    Frau Carl Druschki. Lawrenson, 1906.

             "    Glory of Cheshunt. _Paul & Son._

             "    Hippolyte Jamain. _Paul & Son_, 1887.

             "    Jules Margottin.

             "    Pride of Waltham. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1887.

             "    Suzanne Marie Rodocanachi. _Paul & Son._

             "    Victor Verdier. _Paul & Son_, 1872.

          Gloire de Margottin. _Margottin_, 1888. Bright
          cherry red.

          Glory of Waltham. Wm. _Paul & Son._ Crimson, very

          Madame Edmée Cocteau. Colour of Captain Christy.

          Maréchal Vaillant. Purplish red.

          Paul's Single White. _Paul & Son._ Pure white,

          Princess Louise Victoria. _Knight_, 1872. Carmine
          shading to peach.

          NOTE.--Where no colours are indicated, the
          climbing sports are exactly like the dwarf roses
          of the same name.


Pink and Rose.

          Apple Blossom. _Cooling_, 1906. Colour of apple
          blossoms, pillar or bush.

          Climbing Captain Christy. _Ducher_, 1881. Even
          finer than the dwarf.

             "    Belle Siebrecht (syn. Mrs. W. J. Grant). _Wm.
          Paul & Son_, 1899.

             "    Caroline Testout. _Chauvry_, 1902.

             "    La France. _P. Henderson_, 1893.

             "    Mme. de Watteville. _Fauque-Laurent_, 1902.

          Dawn. _Paul & Son_, 1898. Large semi-double, rosy

          England's Glory. _Wood_, 1902. Flesh with pink

          Lady Waterlow. _Nabonnand_, 1902. Clear salmon
          pink, large petals edged crimson.

          Madame Charles Monnier. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1902.
          Rosy flesh, shaded salmon.

          Madame Jules Gravereaux. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1901. Buff, shaded peach.

          Madame Marie Lavalley. _Nabonnand_, 1880. Bright
          rose, reflexed white.

          Papillon. _Nabonnand_, 1882. Pink and white,
          shaded copper.

          Pink Rover. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1890. Pale pink,
          very fragrant.

          Princess May. _Wm. Paul & Son._ Soft opaque pink.

TEA AND HYBRID TEA CLIMBING ROSES. Salmon, orange, yellow.

          Billiard et Barré. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1899, golden

          Bouquet d'Or. _Ducher_, 1872. Yellow, coppery

          Climbing Perle des Jardins. _J. Henderson_, 1891.

          Comte de Torres. _A. Schwartz_, 1906. Salmon
          white, pink centre.

          Duchesse d'Auerstadt. _Bernaix_, 1887. Pure yellow
          bud, shaded nankeen.

          E. Veyrat Hermanos. _Bernaix_, 1895. Apricot,
          reflexed deep red.

          Germaine Trochon. Salmon flesh, centre nankeen

          Gloire de Dijon. _Jacotot_, 1853. Buff or salmon
          yellow, centre orange.

          Gustave Régis. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1890. Nankeen
          yellow, pillar or bush.

          Henriette de Beauveau. _Lacharme_, 1887. Clear

          Kaiserin Friedrich. _Drogemuller_, 1890. Bright

          Le Soleil. _Dubreuil_, 1892. Chrome and canary.

          Mme. Auguste Choutet. Yellow or deep orange.

          Mme. Barthélemy Levet. _Levet père_, 1880. Canary

          Mme. Bérard. _Levet_, 1872. Fawn, touched red.

          Mme. Chauvry. _Bonnaire_, 1887. Nankeen yellow.

          Mme. Eugéne Verdier. _Levet_, 1882. Deep chamois

          Mme. Hector Leuillot. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1904.
          Golden yellow, tinted carmine.

          Mme. Moreau. _Moreau_, 1890. Coppery yellow,
          deeper centre, reverse apricot.

          Maréchal Niel. See Noisette roses.

          Souv. de L. Viennot. _Bernaix_, 1897. Jonquil
          yellow, shaded china rose.

White and Lemon.

          Belle Lyonnaise. _Levet_, 1869. Canary yellow and

          Climbing Devoniensis. _Pavitt_, 1858.

          Climbing Kaiserin Augusta Victoria. _Alex.
          Dickson_, 1897.

          Climbing Niphetos. _Keynes & Co._ 1889.

          (These three last roses need a very warm wall, and
          are best under glass.)

          Gloire des Blanches. _Vigneron_, 1905. Pure white.

          Mme. Jules Siegfried. Creamy white shaded flesh.

          Valentine Altermann. Pure white, semi-double.


          Ards Pillar. _Alex. Dickson_, 1902. Rich velvety

          Cheshunt Hybrid. _Paul & Son_, 1873. Cherry red.

          Climbing Meteor.

          Climbing Papa Gontier. _Goubault_, 1903.

          Climbing Souv. de Wootton.

          Dr. Rouges. _Vve. Schwartz_, 1894. Red, yellowish
          centre, irregular form.

          François Crousse. _Guillot_, 1900. Fiery crimson

          Gruss an Teplitz. _Geschwind_, 1897. Brightest
          scarlet crimson.

          Lina Schmidt-Michel, 1906. Bright lake rose.

          Longworth Rambler. Liabaud, 1880. Light crimson,


          Monsieur Désir. _Pernet père_, 1889. Crimson.

          Morgenroth. _P. Lambert_, 1903. Bright crimson,
          white centre, single.

          Noella Nabonnand. _Nabonnand_, 1900. Velvety

          Progress. Bright carmine, semi-double.

          Reine Marie Henriette. _Levet_, 1873. Deep cherry

          Reine Olga de Wurtemburg. _Nabonnand_, 1881. Vivid
          red. Semi-double.

          Souv. de Madame Métral. _Bernaix_, 1888. Cherry

          Waltham Climbers. 1. 2. 3. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1885.
          Shades of crimson; 1, brightest, 3, darkest.


TEA ROSES, _R. Indica odorata_.

THE popular fallacy which universally prevailed forty to fifty years ago
with regard to the extreme delicacy of Tea roses, has happily been
exploded by the experience of later years. It was then supposed that no
Tea rose could possibly stand the English winter if planted out of
doors. And so firmly was this belief fixed in the minds of all amateurs,
that if they were so reckless (in their own eyes) as to plant a Tea rose
anywhere except in a greenhouse, the careful treatment they bestowed on
the unfortunate specimen went far to prove the rule. For not only was it
pruned in the autumn: but so coddled and smothered up in straw and
matting that it could not breathe; and as every bud was made doubly
tender by this means, when at last it saw the light again it was pretty
sure to die of absolute anæmia. The older gardeners of the fifties would
look in amaze on our glorious beds of Tea roses, flowering in some cases
up to Christmas, and beginning again as happily as ever the next June.
While to us of the present day, a rose garden without Tea roses would be
no garden at all.

It is not that the modern Tea rose is hardier than its ancestors; for
some of the old ones, such as _Souvenir d'un Ami_, grow as cheerfully in
the garden as a Hybrid Perpetual. But experience has shown that Tea
roses, with a very few exceptions, may be safely grown in the open
ground, if a few simple precautions are observed in their treatment.

The first of these is, of course, that no pruning should be done till

The second, that a few fronds of bracken should be drawn through the
branches. This in most cases will be found quite sufficient to ward off
frost. But as an extra precaution in the event of very severe weather,
the earth may be drawn up some four or five inches round the stems, so
that if by chance a hard frost should cut the upper part of the shoots,
the base may still be kept alive. Great care, however, must be exercised
in uncovering the plants, the protecting material being removed
gradually, so that growth may not be unduly forced on--only to be cut by
the first cold wind--or, on the other hand, that the plant may not
receive a shock by sudden and complete exposure.

Standard Tea roses may be protected by straw tied lightly round the
heads, care being taken not to break the shoots by tying them in too

The history of the Tea rose in Europe began just 100 years ago. The
original "Blush tea-scented rose," _R. Indica odorata_, was brought from
China in 1810. In 1824, the "Yellow China or Tea rose" was introduced
from China by Mr. Parkes. And the French growers at once began to raise
seedlings from these fruitful parents; for both in France and Italy the
Yellow Tea rose seeded freely, which was not the case in England. By
about 1830 the reputation of the Tea rose was firmly established; and in
the next twenty years many varieties were raised: but mainly in France,
though the finest of all, _Devoniensis_, was raised by Mr. Foster of
Plymouth in 1838. The real culture of the Tea rose by English growers,
however, did not assume much importance until a far later period.

Some few of these early Tea roses still hold their own among the host of
their brilliant successors--_Bougère_, 1832; _Adam_, 1833; _Le
Pactole_--now extremely difficult to procure; _Devoniensis_, 1838;
_Safrano_, 1839; _Mme. Willermoz_, 1843; _Niphetos_, 1844; _Souv. d'un
Ami_, 1846; _Mme. Bravy_, 1846. But of some dozen or more others in Mr.
Rivers' list of 1843, not a trace remains.

In 1853 a great development took place, when Jacotot introduced an
absolutely new type into the race with his _Gloire de Dijon_. This rose
is so distinct, with its strong constitution, vigorous growth, and large
foliage, that one cannot but imagine some other strain, such as the
Noisette, must have helped in fertilizing the seed parent of _Gloire de

Since that notable date, the raising of new Tea roses in England, France
and Luxembourg, has developed in an extraordinary manner. And in the
last few years Germany and America have added many fine novelties to the
bewildering list. Among the chief growers in England who have devoted
themselves in the last fifty years to the production of Tea roses, we
find Messrs. Wm. Paul & Son, of Waltham Cross; Ben Cant, of Colchester;
Paul, of Cheshunt; Prince, of Oxford; Frank Cant, of Colchester; Alex.
Dickson, of Newtownards; Piper, Bennett, etc.

In France, Luxembourg and Germany, the famous houses of Pernet-Ducher,
Nabonnand, Bernaix, Bonnaire, Cochet, Chatenay, Guillot, Verdier, Levet,
Chauvry, Dubreuil, Godard, Mari, Lacharme, Lévêque, Soupert et Notting,
Lambert, Schwartz, etc., are now household words among rose lovers.

The influence of the old Yellow Tea is to be found among a large
proportion of these lovely roses, in the golden and sulphur base which
adds such richness to the endless shades of pink, crimson, copper and
white. But a pure yellow Tea rose is still a rarity. And its production
is the goal towards which many of the greatest rose-growers are still

What we all desire is a Tea rose for bedding of as pure a yellow as the
dear old _Persian Briar_, or _Maréchal Niel_, and one that will stand,
as that glorious rose does, the hot rays of the sun without changing
colour. For, charming as many of the so-called Yellow Tea roses are when
they are in bud, the open flower quickly turns white in the sun.

To this object, as I have said, some of the greatest rose-growers have
been devoting their energies for years; while others are striving as
eagerly and with far greater success, after the development of deep
crimson and scarlet Tea roses. And though they may not yet have attained
the absolute perfection they were seeking, both sets of experiments have
resulted of late in some truly magnificent roses, of various rich shades
undreamt of even twenty years ago.

In the following lists the roses will be found grouped in colour, as
this may be useful to amateurs who are unacquainted with some of the
names. Many of those mentioned, while they are not included in the
National Rose Society's list, are still well worthy of cultivation in
our gardens; and others, hardly known in England as yet, have proved
most valuable in my own Hampshire collection and perfectly hardy.

Among roses that are little known in English gardens are _Baronne de
Hoffmann_, a vigorous grower, vivid copper-red, with yellow base; and
the invaluable _M. Tillier_, which I first saw in the Paris Exhibition
of 1900. I have grown it largely since, and every one is attracted by
the bushes, set thickly with medium-sized imbricated flowers of carmine
and brick-red, borne on upright stems in such numbers that they make a
brilliant mark in the garden from a distance. It is perfectly hardy, and
I have gathered good blooms at Christmas. _Amabilis_ is a useful china
pink rose for decorative purposes, either in the garden or to cut for
the house; it is strong and hardy. So is _Marquise de Querhoent_, a
strong grower, of vivid coppery salmon and china red. Ducher's _Coquette
de Lyon_ is another admirable bedding rose, which is not much grown in
England. The flowers which cover the plant are full, well-shaped, of
medium size, a pale canary yellow, and last long in water.

I would also call attention to other roses which, though well known to
collectors and exhibitors, might be more generally cultivated by the
ordinary amateur.

These are the delightful _G. Nabonnand_, _Duchesse Marie Salviati_,
_Mrs. B. R. Cant_--an admirable rose--_Madame Constant Soupert_, a new
and most brilliant variety; _Souvenir de Pierre Notting_--best on a
standard, but excellent in every way; _General Schablikine_, absolutely
invaluable, as it is covered with bloom from June to November; _Innocent
Pirola_, one of the best creamy whites; _Peace_, a newer and very
beautiful rose, pale lemon, carrying its fine flowers singly on strong
erect stalks; and the older _Souv. de S. A. Prince_, a pure white sport
from _Souv. d'un Ami_.

The climbing Tea roses will be found in another chapter.


          Archiduchesse Marie Immaculata. _Soupert et
          Notting_, 1887. Brick red.

          Adam. _Adam_, 1833. Rose, shaded salmon.

          Baronne H. de Loew. _Nabonnand_, 1889. Tender
          rose, yellow centre.

          Boadicea. _W. Paul & Son_, 1901. Pale peach,
          tinted rose.

          Bridesmaid. _May_, 1893. Clear pink.

          Catherine Mermet. _J. B. Guillot fils_, 1869.
          Light rosy flesh.

          Cecile-Charles. _Schwartz_, 1907. Pale rosy
          salmon, edged carmine, fragrant.

          Comtesse de Breteuil. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1893.
          Salmon rose, peach centre.

          Comtesse de Nadaillac. _Guillot_, 1871. Peach,
          shaded apricot, salmon base; an exhibitor's rose.

          Dr. Grill. _Bonnaire_, 1886. Clear rose, centre

          Duchesse Maria Salviati. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1890. Rosy flesh, shaded chrome, fragrant.

          Ernest Metz. _Guillot_, 1889. Soft carmine-rose,
          reverse of petals deeper.

          Ethel Brownlow. _Alex. Dickson_, 1887. Bright
          salmon-pink, yellow base.

          Franciska Kruger. _Nabonnand_, 1879. Copper,
          shaded peach.

          G. Nabonnand. _Nabonnand_, 1889. Pale flesh,
          shaded yellow.

          Homère. _Robert_, 1859. Rose-edged, salmon centre.

          Jean Ducher. _Ducher_, 1874. Salmon yellow, shaded

          Lena. _Alex. Dickson_, 1906. Glowing apricot.

          Madame Antoine Mari. _Mari_, 1902. Rose, washed
          with white.

          Madame Cusin. _Guillot_, 1881. Rose, lighter

          Madame Georges Durrschmidt. _Peletier_, 1895.
          China rose, cerise centre, fragrant.

          Madame Lambard. _Lacharme_, 1877. Bright rose.

          Madame Jules Gravereaux. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1901. Chamois yellow, rosy peach centre.

          Madame Philémon Cochet. Clear rose, shaded salmon.

          Maman Cochet. _Cochet_, 1893. Carmine, shaded

          Mathilde Liégeard. _Nabonnand_, 1907. Pearly rose,
          touched carmine.

          Mrs. B. R. Cant. _B. R. Cant_, 1901. Deep rose
          outer petals, inner petals silvery rose.

          Mrs. Edward Mawley. _Alex. Dickson_, 1899. Bright
          carmine, shaded salmon.

          Morning Glow. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1902. Rosy
          crimson, suffused orange and fawn.

          Nellie Johnstone. _Paul & Son_, 1906. Pure rose

          Paul Nabonnand. _Nabonnand_, 1878. Hydrangea pink.

          Rainbow. _Sievers_, 1891. Sport from Papa Gontier,
          pink, striped crimson.

          Rose d'Evian. _Bernaix_, 1895. China rose outside,
          lined carmine.

          Souvenir d'un Ami. _Defougère_, 1846. Salmon-rose.

          Souvenir de Paul Neyron. _Levet_, 1872. Salmon,
          edged rose.

          Souvenir de William Robinson. _Bernaix_, 1900.
          Fawn, shaded pink and yellow.

          Sunrise. _Piper_, 1899. Outer petals carmine,
          shading to pale fawn and salmon within.


          Alexandra. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1901. Copper yellow,
          streaked with orange.

          Anna Olivier. _Ducher_, 1872. Buff, flushed pink.

          Antoine Devert. _Gonod_, 1881. Clear straw colour.

          Belle Lyonnaise. _Levet_, 1869. Deep lemon,

          Billiard et Barré. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1899. Deep
          golden yellow.

          Blumenschmidt, _J. C. Schmidt_, 1907. Bright lemon
          yellow, edged pink.

          Comtesse Alexandra Kinsky. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1905. White, centre apricot yellow.

          Comtesse de Frigneuse. _Guillot_, 1886. Fine
          canary yellow.

          Georges Schwartz. _Schwartz_, 1900. Deep canary

          Goldquelle. _Lambert_, 1899. Clear golden yellow.

          Harry Kirk. _Alex. Dickson_, 1907. Deep sulphur

          Hugo Roller. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1907. Lemon yellow,
          edged crimson.

          J. F. Giraud. _Ketter_, 1907. Golden yellow,
          centre saffron.

          Jean Pernet. _Pernet_, 1869. Clear yellow.

          Lady Mary Corry. _Alex. Dickson_, 1900. Deep
          golden yellow.

          Lena. _Alex. Dickson_, 1906. Glowing apricot,
          edged primrose.

          Madame Barthélemy Levet. _Levet père_, 1880.
          Canary yellow, climbing.

          Madame Chauvry. _Bonnaire_, 1887. Nankeen yellow.

          Madame Chedanne Guinoisseau. _Levêque_, 1880.
          Clear bright yellow.

          Madame C. P. Strassheim. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1898. Yellowish-white in summer, turning sulphur
          and buff in autumn.

          Madame Constant Soupert. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1906. Dark golden-yellow, strongly-tinted

          Madame Edmond Sablayrolles. _Bonnaire_, 1907.
          Clear yellow, orange centre.

          Madame Falcot. _Guillot_, 1858. Deep apricot

          Madame Pol Varin-Bernier. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1907. Melon-yellow shaded; a "yellow Richmond."

          Mrs. Dudley Cross. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1907. Pale
          chamois yellow, with touches of rose and crimson
          in autumn.

          Perle de Lyon. _Ducher_, 1873. Deep yellow.

          Perle des Jardins. _Levet_, 1874. Deep

          Perle des Jaunes. _Reymond_, 1904. Deep orange
          yellow, tinted salmon.

          Rose Gubert. _Nabonnand_, 1907. Tender bright
          yellow, deep centre.

          Safrano. _Beauregard_, 1839. Bright apricot.

          Souvenir de Pierre Notting. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1903. Apricot-yellow, blended copper-yellow.

          Souvenir de Stella Gray. _Alex. Dickson_, 1907.
          Deep orange, veined yellow, apricot, and crimson.

          Sulphurea. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1902. Sulphur yellow.

          Sunset. _Henderson_, 1884. Deep apricot.


          Albert Durand. _Schwartz_, 1906. Coppery carmine,
          shaded flesh.

          Amabilis. China red.

          Bardou Job. _Nabonnand_, 1887. Glowing crimson.

          Baronne de Hoffmann, _Nabonnand_, 1887. Copper and

          Baronne Henriette Snoy. _Bernaix_, 1898. Petals
          carnation inside, outside carmine pink.

          Beauté Inconstante. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1893.
          Coppery-red, shaded carmine and yellow.

          Betty Berkeley. _Bernaix_, 1904. Bright red,
          shading to crimson.

          Christine de Nouë. _Guillot fils_, 1891. Deep
          purple red, shaded pink.

          Corallina. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1900. Deep rose.

          Empress Alexandra of Russia. _Wm. Paul & Son_,
          1898. Lake, shaded orange and crimson.

          François Dubreuil. _Dubreuil_, 1895. Deep crimson.

          Frau Dr. Thelka Schlegelmilch. _Welter_, 1902.
          Bright red, shaded velvet crimson.

          Freiherr von Marschall. _Lambert_, 1903. Dark

          General Schablikine. _Nabonnand_, 1879.

          Lady Roberts. _Frank Cant_, 1902. Rich apricot,
          copper-red base.

          L'Idéal. _Nabonnand_, 1887. Yellow and metallic

          Ma Capucine. _Levet_, 1871. Bronzy yellow, shaded

          Monsieur Désir. _Pernet père_, 1889. Crimson.

          Monsieur Tillier. _Bernaix_, 1892. Carmine and

          Mrs. Reynolds Hole. _Nabonnand_, 1900. Dark purple
          pink, centre crimson.

          Papa Gontier. _Nabonnand_, 1883. Rosy crimson.

          Princesse de Sagan. _Dubreuil_, 1887. Deep cherry
          red, shaded maroon.

          Salmonea. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1902. Bright crimson
          with light salmon centre.

          Souvenir de Catherine Guillot. _Guillot_, 1896.
          Coppery carmine, and orange.

          Souvenir J. B. Guillot. _Guillot_, 1897.
          Nasturtium-red, shaded to crimson and rose.

          Souvenir Thérèse Levet. _Levet_, 1882. Brownish


          Caroline Kuster. _Pernet_, 1872. Pale yellow.

          Château des Bergeries. _Lédechaux_, 1886. Very
          pale canary yellow, centre darker.

          Comtesse Eva de Starhemberg. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1891. Cream, centre ochre.

          Comtesse de Saxe. _Soupert et Notting_, 1905.
          Porcelain white.

          Coquette de Lyon. _Pernet Ducher_, 1872. Pale
          canary yellow.

          Devoniensis. _Foster_, 1838. White, touched lemon.

          Enchantress. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1896. Creamy white.

          Étoile de Lyon. _Guillot_, 1881. Deep lemon.

          Grand Duchess Olga. _Lévêque_, 1897. Creamy white.

          Golden Gate. _Dingee & Conard_, 1892. Creamy
          white, yellow base.

          Hon. Edith Gifford. _Guillot_, 1882. White, centre

          Innocent Pirola. _Ducher_, 1878. Creamy white,
          shaded yellow.

          Isabella Sprunt. _Verchaffelt_, 1866. Pale

          Ivory. _America Rose Co._, 1902. Ivory-white sport
          from Golden Gate.

          Le Pactole. Sulphur yellow, pointed buds.

          Madame Bravy. _Guillot_, 1846. White, centre
          tinted pink.

          Madame Carnot. _Pernet_, 1894. Yellowish white on
          deep yellow ground.

          Madame Hoste. _Guillot_, 1887. Primrose yellow.

          Madame de Watteville. _Guillot_, 1883. Salmon
          white, petals edged bright rose.

          Marie Van Houtte. _Ducher_, 1871. Canary yellow,
          petals tipped rose.

          Marquis de Moustier. _Dubreuil_, 1906. Ivory,
          reflexed pearly white.

          Medea. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1891. Lemon yellow,
          canary centre.

          Mrs. Miles Kennedy. _Alex. Dickson_, 1906. Silvery
          white, shaded buff, pink centre.

          Muriel Grahame. _Alex. Dickson_, 1898. Pale cream,
          flushed rose.

          Niphetos. _Bougère_, 1844. Pure white.

          Peace. _Piper_, 1902. Pale lemon.

[Illustration: TEA.


          Reine Natalie de Serbie. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1886. Creamy flesh.

          Rubens. _Robert_, 1859. White, delicately tinted

          Souvenir d'Élise Vardon. _Marest_, 1854. Creamy

          Souvenir de Gabrielle Drevet. _Guillot_, 1865.
          Salmon white.

          Souvenir de S. A. Prince. _Prince_, 1889. Pure
          white sport from Souv. d'un Ami.

          The Bride. _May_, 1885. White sport from Catherine

          White Maman Cochet. _Cook_, 1898. White sport from
          Maman Cochet.


HYBRID TEA-ROSES, _R. indica odorata hybrida_

OF all gracious gifts that the patient science of hybridists has
bestowed on rose-lovers, the development of the Hybrid Tea is perhaps
the greatest. For here we have a rose with the substance and vigorous
constitution of the Hybrid Perpetual, one of its parents, and the varied
and delicate colours of its other parent, the Tea rose. Whether for the
garden, to keep it brilliant with blossom from early summer to latest
autumn, or to deck the exhibition bench with largest and most lovely
blooms, the Hybrid Tea stands unrivalled. And yet in 1867 there was but
one solitary specimen of the race in existence, and that one was not
recognized as being the forerunner of a new family, or distinct in any
way, except in its beauty. For the noble rose _La France_, which M.
Guillot sent out in that year, was classed then, and for many years
after, as a Hybrid Perpetual.

It was not until 1873 that Messrs. Paul & Son, of Cheshunt, sent out the
first so-called Hybrid Tea, the _Cheshunt Hybrid_. Though in the same
year Lacharme introduced that priceless rose _Captain Christy_: but
this, like _La France_, was for many years classed with the Hybrid

[Illustration: HYBRID TEA.


Other new roses of this new race followed slowly--very slowly--till
1890. I have just gone carefully through the catalogues of the chief
English and foreign rose-growers; and find that in 1889 only twenty-four
Hybrid Teas were known. There were some truly admirable roses among
them. _Camoëns_ came in 1881. _Lady Mary Fitzwilliam_, one of the most
valuable, 1882. Delightful _Papa Gontier_, 1883. _Grace Darling_ and
_Gloire Lyonnaise_, 1884--the latter a rose which is not as generally
cultivated as it should be; for grown as a bush it is the perfection of
an autumn rose. _Viscountess Folkestone_, 1886. _Bardou Job_, 1887--a
slightly capricious rose in some places: but so beautiful with its great
semi-double flowers of scarlet-crimson flaked with velvety-black, that
one bears with its little ways patiently, rejoicing when it condescends
to respond to one's care. In 1888 came Bennett's _The Meteor_. In 1889
_Augustine Guinoisseau_, invaluable for massing. And either that year or
the next, the gorgeous and thorny _Marquise de Salisbury_.

But the real development of the race began in 1890. And since then each
year has seen one superb rose after another produced in such numbers,
that it is as difficult to keep count of them as to determine which of
the magnificent novelties should be picked out for special mention.

It must be noted that there has been rather too great a tendency to
raise enormous roses of slightly pale colouring, and among them many are
merely fit for exhibition and of little use to the amateur for garden
purposes. But of late these faint shades have been successfully fought
against; and while size has been preserved the colours are growing
deeper and richer each year. So that we are surely drawing nearer the
not impossible day when we may get Hybrid Tea roses as brilliant a red
or yellow as _Duke of Edinburgh_ or _Maréchal Niel_, as large as _Frau
Karl Druschki_, and as fragrant, let us hope, as _La France_. As it is,
it is difficult to imagine anything much more vivid than the orange,
deep salmon-pink, copper-red, and rosy-apricot of some of the novelties
of 1906-7-8. Among them may be noted Messrs. Alex. Dickson & Son's
_Dorothy Page-Roberts_, _Souvenir de Stella Gray_; Messrs. Wm. Paul's
_Warrior_; MM. Soupert et Notting's magnificent _Mme. Segond Weber_,
_Mme. J. W. Budde_, _Marichu Zayas_; M. Pernet-Ducher's _Mme. Maurice de
Luze_, and _Mrs. Aaron Ward_.

These roses, as I have said, are the result of crossings between the
Hybrid Perpetual and the Tea rose. And if we think for a moment how
these two families came into existence, we shall see what a curious and
interesting blending of many different strains has been needed to
develop this beautiful and valuable race. But the end has not come yet
to what may be accomplished. And there can be no doubt that many
remarkable developments in the history of rose-growing still lie before
us and succeeding generations, when the results of fresh experiments
with the Wichuraiana, the Rugosa, and other roses are made known.

[Illustration: SINGLE HYBRID TEA.


[Illustration: SINGLE HYBRID TEA.


One most interesting and valuable development of the race has already
been made, and must not be passed over in silence. I mean the single
Irish roses of Messrs. Alex. Dickson & Sons, which form a little class
to themselves. These roses are most attractive, as they are densely
covered through the whole season with flowers of varied and vivid
colours, pure white, coral pink, brilliant crimson, bronzy-scarlet,
old-gold and rose, saffron and rose. And when we add to these beautiful
shades their fragrance, their handsome glossy foliage, their bushy
growth, and their vigorous hardy constitution, it is not surprising that
since their first appearance in 1900 they have rushed into favour, and
received many cards of commendation from the N. R. S.

With such a wealth of fine varieties to choose from, it is a little
difficult to make a selection of the very best. But the surest guide is
the judges' verdict at recent shows for exhibition roses and those of
the decorative class, as shown in the admirable analysis drawn up by Mr.
Edward Mawley, the distinguished honorary secretary of the National Rose
Society. To this analysis I have added a few of my own favourites, and
some of the very newest roses which have hardly yet found their place in
English shows.

[Illustration: HYBRID TEA.


PINK AND ROSE HYBRID TEAS.--I rejoice to see that my own selection
almost heads the list--the beautiful _Caroline Testout_; for this is a
rose suited to every purpose, whether for exhibition, massing in the
garden, or growing as a noble standard. _Mrs. W. J. Grant_ (_syn._ Belle
Siebrecht) stands next; followed by _La France_, _Lady Ashtown_,
_Killarney_--but let this be grown quite by itself, as it is one of the
worst roses for mildew--_Gustave Grünerwald_, a rose I have not yet
grown, but one of the most satisfactory; _Countess of Caledon_, _Mrs.
Theodore Roosevelt_, _Gladys Harkness_, _William Shean_, _Mme. Abel
Chatenay_, _Mme. Jules Grolez_, one of the most useful of rose colour,
_Papa Lambert_, _Robert Scott_. Others of the newest pink roses are
_Celia_, _Gabrielle Pierrette_, _Hon. Ina Bingham_, _H. Armytage Moore_,
_Maria Girard_.

Among crimsons the best are the well known and beautiful _Liberty_,
_Marquise de Salisbury_, _Hugh Dickson_, _J. B. Clark_, _Richmond_, _C.
J. Grahame_, _Reine Olga de Wurtemburg_, _Étoile de France_, _Lady
Rossmore_, _Triumph_, _Gruss an Teplitz_, _Morgenrot_, _Bardou Job_,
_The Dandy_, _Warrior_, and two grand novelties, the American rose
_General Mac Arthur_, and _John Laing Paul_, little known as yet, but
certain to be widely grown, as is _Écarlate_, said to be an even better
rose than _Liberty_ and _Richmond_.

[Illustration: HYBRID TEA.


In those remarkable shades of apricot, salmon, coppery-pink and carmine,
upon a yellow or orange base, the choice is very considerable. And
although it is as yet almost unknown in England, having only been sent
out this spring (1908), I venture to predict a leading position in the
near future for MM. Soupert et Notting's grand salmon-pink novelty,
_Mme. Segond Weber_, which, for shape, size, colour and delicious
fragrance is perhaps the finest rose I know. _Betty_ is one of those
vivid modern roses whose colour, coppery-rose shaded gold, is as hard to
describe as it is beautiful. While _Dorothy Page-Roberts_, _Souv. de
Stella Gray_, _Marquise de Sinéty_, _Mme. Maurice de Luze_, _Edu Meyer_,
_Countess Annesley_, _Mrs. Harvey Thomas_, and _Souv. de Maria Zozaya_,
are all remarkable for their strong and brilliant colouring.

Among the yellow shades from palest lemon to deep orange, the choice is
not so great; but there are many good roses to choose from, beginning
with the two novelties, of 1907--Pernet-Ducher's great Indian yellow
rose, _Mrs. Aaron Ward_, which promises well, and Alex. Dickson & Son's
brilliant yellow _Harry Kirk_. Of older roses few are better than the
noble _Madame Ravary_, _Ferdinand Batel_, the delightful _Gustave
Regis_, _Gloire Lyonnaise_, _Duchess of Portland_, and _Kaiserin Augusta
Victoria_. _Mrs. Peter Blair_, 1906, is one of the most effective
yellows for the garden; and I cannot speak too highly of that little
known but very beautiful rose _Peace_, raised by Piper in 1903, its pale
lemon yellow flowers borne on long upright stalks are invaluable for
cutting throughout the whole season.

White and blush hybrid Teas are many. And the famous _Bessie Brown_,
_Alice Grahame_, _Mildred Grant_, _Florence Pemberton_, _Alice Lindsell_
and _White Lady_ are to be seen at every show: but they are all
exhibition roses except _Florence Pemberton_.

_Augustine Guinoisseau_, however, is as good a white garden rose as
heart can desire; so is _Lady Quartus Ewart_; and as _Kaiserin Augusta
Victoria_ and _Peace_ are so faintly lemon as to be nearly white, there
is no difficulty in making a bed of white Hybrid Teas.



          Aimée Cochet. _Soupert et Notting_, 1902. Flesh,
          with rosy peach centre.

          Angel Peluffo. _Soupert et Notting_, 1905.
          Interior of petals rosy flesh, centre rose.

          Baronin Armgard von Biel. _Welter_, 1906. Satin
          pink; a brighter La France.

          Belle Siebrecht. (See Mrs. W. J. Grant.)

          Camoëns. _Schwartz_, 1882. Bright rich China rose.

          Captain Christy. _Lacharme_, 1873. Flesh colour,
          deeper pink centre.

          Caroline Testout. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1890. Bright
          clear rose.

          Celia. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1906. Bright satin pink,
          darker centre.

          Countess of Caledon. _Alex. Dickson_, 1897.
          Carmine rose.

          Denmark. _Ziener Lassen_, 1890. Colour of La

          David Harum. _E. G. Hill & Co._, 1904. Rose peach

          Daisy. _Alex. Dickson_, 1898. Rosy pink, suffused
          silvery pink.

          Duchess of Albany. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1888. Fine
          deep pink.

          England's Glory. _J. Wood & Son_, 1902. Flesh,
          satin pink centre.

          Farbenkönigen. _Hinner_, 1901. Imperial pink.

          Frau Peter Lambert. _Walter_, 1902. Rose, marbled

          Gladys Harkness. _Alex. Dickson_, 1900. Deep
          salmon pink, silvery reverse.

          Gustave Grünerwald. _P. Lambert_, 1903. Carmine

          H. Armytage Moore. _Hugh Dickson_, 1907. Petals
          rosy pink outside, silvery inside.

          Hélène Welter. _Guillot_, 1903. Brilliant rose.

          Hon. Ina Bingham. _Alex. Dickson_, 1905. Pure

          Johanna Sebus. _Dr. Müller_, 1900. Rosy cerise.

          John Ruskin. _Alex. Dickson_, 1902. Rosy carmine.

          Killarney. _Alex. Dickson_, 1898. Flesh, suffused
          shell pink.

          Königin Carola. _Turke_, 1904. Rose pink.

          Lady Ashtown. _Alex. Dickson_, 1904. Deep pink.

          Lady Moyra Beauclerk. _Alex. Dickson_, 1901.
          Madder rose, with silvery reflexes.

          Lady Mary Fitzwilliam. _Bennett_, 1882. Rosy

          Lady Helen Vincent. _Alex. Dickson_, 1907. Shell
          pink, base peach yellow.

          Lady Wenlock. _Bernaix_, 1905. Pink, shaded fawn.

          La France. _Guillot_, 1867. Bright rose pink.

          La Tosca. _Vve. Schwartz_, 1901. Silvery pink,
          deeper centre.

          Laure Watinne. _Soupert et Notting_, 1902. Bright

          Lina Schmidt-Michel. _Lambert_, 1905. Madder pink,
          reverse of petals carmine.

          Lohengrin. _Schmidt_, 1903. Silvery pink, deeper

          Mme. Abel Chatenay. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1895. Carmine
          rose, shaded salmon.

          Mme. Edmée Metz. _Soupert et Notting_, 1901. Rosy
          carmine, shaded salmon.

          Mme. Jules Grolez. _Guillot_, 1897. Beautiful
          China rose.

          Mme. Eugéne Jombart. _Schwartz_, 1905. Pale pink,
          centre carmine.

          Mme. Leonie Moissy. _Vilin_, 1907. Pale rosy
          salmon, deeper centre.

          Marichu Zayas. _Soupert et Notting_, 1907.
          Strawberry and cream, shaded rose.

          Maimie. _Alex. Dickson_, 1901. Rose carmine,
          yellow base.

          Marianne Pfitzer. _Jacobs_, 1903. Rosy flesh,
          tinted red.

          Max Hesdorffer. _Jacobs_, 1903. Deep rose,
          bordered silvery rose.

          Monsieur Paul Lédé. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1903.
          Cinnamon pink, passing lighter.

          Mrs. E. G. Hill. _Soupert et Notting_, 1906. Coral
          red, white centre.

          Mrs. G. W. Kershaw. _Alex. Dickson_, 1906. Deep
          rose pink.

          Mrs. W. J. Grant (_syn._ Belle Siebrecht). _Alex.
          Dickson_, 1895. Imperial pink.

          Nance Christy. _B. R. Cant_, 1906. Delicate salmon
          pink, semi-double.

          Olympiada. _Soupert et Notting_, 1904. Satiny

          Papa Lambert. _P. Lambert_, 1899. Rose pink,
          deeper centre.

          Princesse Charles de Ligne. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1903. Silvery pink, carmine centre.

          Reine Carola de Saxe. _Gamon_, 1903. Flesh pink.

          Robert Scott. _Robert Scott & Son_, 1901. Clear
          rosy pink, shading to flesh on outer petals.

          Rosel Klemm. _Hinner_, 1905. Rose, with silvery

          Shandon. _Alex. Dickson_, 1899. Bright rose.

          Sheila. _Alex. Dickson_, 1895. Bright rose.

          Souvenir de Maria de Zayas. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1906. Vivid carmine, with deeper shading.

          Souvenir de Maria Zozaya. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1904. Petals coral red outside, silvery rose

          William Askew. _Guillot_, 1902. Bright pink,
          shaded delicate pink.

          William Notting. _Soupert et Notting_, 1904.
          Salmon pink, reverse of petals coral.

          William Shean. _Alex. Dickson_, 1906. Pure pink,
          veined ochre; a grand rose.


          Antoine Rivoire. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1896. Rosy flesh
          on yellow ground.

          Betty. _Alex. Dickson & Sons_, 1905. Coppery rose,
          shaded yellow.

          Countess Annesley. _Alex. Dickson_, 1905. Rosy
          salmon, suffused old gold.

          Dean Hole. _Alex. Dickson_, 1904. Silvery carmine,
          shaded salmon.

          Dr. J. Campbell Hall. _Alex. Dickson_, 1904. Coral
          rose, suffused white.

          Dorothy Page-Roberts. _Alex. Dickson_, 1907.
          Coppery pink.

          Earl of Warwick. _Paul & Son_, 1904. Salmon pink,
          shaded vermilion.

          Edu Meyer. _Lambert_, 1904. Copper red and yellow,
          with orange shading.

          Elizabeth Barnes. _Alex. Dickson_, 1907. Salmon
          rose, fawn centre, outside of petals deep rose.

          Frau Burgermeister Kirchstein. _Jacob_, 1907.
          Carmine, shaded salmon.

          Frau Ernst Borsig. _P. Lambert_, 1907. Rosy
          yellowish carmine.

          Frau Otto Evertz. _N. Welter_, 1907. Salmon pink
          and yellow.

          Friedrich Schröder. _Hinner_, 1904. Rose, suffused

          Herman Rane. _Lambert_, 1905. Varying from salmon
          rose to yellowish red.

          Herzog Friedrich von Anhalt. _Welter_, 1907.
          Salmon carmine, centre copper red.

          Jeanne Bariaz. _Pierre Guillot_, 1907. Pale
          salmon, centre vivid salmon on yellow.

          Joseph Hill. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1904. Pink, shaded
          salmon copper.

          Kathleen. _Alex. Dickson_, 1895. Coral-pink
          suffused rose, yellow base.

          Mme. Cadeau-Ramey. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1897. Rosy
          flesh, shaded yellow, carmine edges.

          Mme. Eugène Boullet. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1898.
          Yellow, shaded carmine.

          Mme. Léon Pain. _Guillot_, 1904. Silvery salmon,
          centre orange, petals outside salmon pink.

          Mme. Mélanie Soupert. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1906.
          Salmon yellow, suffused carmine.

          Mme. Paul Olivier. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1903. Deep
          salmon yellow, shaded rosy carmine.

          Mme. Segond Weber. _Soupert et Notting_, 1908.
          Rich salmon pink, very fine and distinct.

          Marguerite Poiret. _Soupert et Notting_, 1902.
          Bright china rose, yellow reflexes.

          Marquise de Sinéty. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1906. Orange
          yellow, shaded fiery red.

          Monsieur Joseph Hill. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1903.
          Salmon pink, shaded yellow.

          Mrs. Harvey Thomas. _Bernaix_, 1906. Carmine,
          shaded copper red and yellow.

          Mrs. John Bateman. _Alex. Dickson_, 1905. Deep
          china rose, yellow base.

          Peggy. _Alex. Dickson_, 1905. Claret, smeared
          saffron yellow and primrose, semi-double.

          Pierre Wattinne. _Soupert et Notting_, 1902.
          Cerise, shaded yellow and salmon.

          Pribislav. _O. Jacobs_, 1902. Orange carmine,
          pencilled scarlet.

          Prince de Bulgarie. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1902. Deep
          rosy flesh, shaded salmon.

          Professor Fritz Rober. _Welter_, 1906. Salmon,
          shaded yellow and rose.

          Renée Wilmart-Urban. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1907. Salmon
          flesh, bordered carmine.

          Rosalind Orr-English. _E. G. Hill & Co._, 1905.
          Bright salmon pink.

          Senateur Belle. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1903. Salmon
          pink, yellow centre.

          Senateur Saint Romme. _Schwartz_, 1905. Rosy
          salmon, shaded yellow.


          Avoca. _Alex. Dickson_, 1907. Crimson scarlet.

          Anne Marie Soupert. _Soupert et Notting_, 1904.
          Reddish carmine.

          Baldwin. _Lambert_, 1898. Pure carmine.

          Baron Lade. _Welter_, 1904. Bright carmine.

          Charles. J. Grahame. _Alex. Dickson_, 1905. Very
          bright scarlet crimson.

          Cherry Ripe. _Paul & Son_, 1905. Light cherry

          Comtesse Icy Hardegg. _Soupert et Notting_, 1908.
          Deep red.

          Crimson Crown. _Alex. Dickson_, 1905. Glowing dark
          crimson, flowers in clusters.

          Écarlate. _Boytard_, 1907. Scarlet crimson,
          brighter than Liberty.

          Étoile de France. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1905. Velvety
          crimson, centre cerise.

          Exquisite. _Paul & Son_, 1899. Bright crimson,
          shaded magenta.

          General MacArthur. _Hill_, 1905. Bright crimson.

          George Laing Paul. _Soupert et Notting_, 1904.
          Reddish crimson.

          Grossherzog von Oldenburg. _Welter_, 1904. Dark
          poppy, red.

          Gruss an Sangerhausen. _Dr. Müller_, 1905.
          Brilliant scarlet, centre crimson.

          Herzogin Victoria Adelheid. _Welter_, 1906. Clear
          brilliant red.

          J. B. Clark. _Hugh Dickson_, 1905. Deep scarlet,
          heavily shaded black crimson.

          Lady Battersea. _Paul & Son_, 1901. Fine cherry

          Lady Rossmore. _Dr. Campbell Hall_, 1906. Reddish
          crimson, claret shading.

          Liberty. _Alex. Dickson_, 1900. Brilliant velvety

          Ma Tulipe. _Bonnaire_, 1900. Deep crimson.

          Mme. J. W. Budde. _Soupert et Notting_, 1907.
          Brilliant carmine.

          Marquise de Salisbury. _Pernet père_, 1889. Bright
          velvety red.

          Marquise Litta. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1894. Carmine
          rose, vermilion centre.

          Mrs. A. M. Kirker. _Hugh Dickson_, 1906. Bright

          Reine Marguerite d'Italie. _Soupert et Notting_,
          1905. Shining carmine, centre vermilion.

          Rev. David R. Williamson. _Alex. Dickson_, 1904.
          Dark crimson, shaded maroon.

          Richmond. _Hill & Co._, 1905. Pure red scarlet.

          Rosomane E. P. Roussel. _Guillot_, 1907. Brilliant

          Sarah Bernhardt. _Dubreuil_, 1907. Scarlet

          Stadtrat F. Kahler. _Geduldig_, 1907. Brilliant
          fiery red.

          The Dandy. _Paul & Son_, 1905. Glowing maroon
          crimson, miniature flowers.

          Triumph. _J. G. Hill & Co._, 1907. Deep carmine
          and crimson.

          Warrior. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1906. Buds blood red,
          opening vivid scarlet crimson.

[Illustration: HYBRID TEA.



          Amateur Teyssier. _Gamon_, 1900. Dark saffron
          yellow, changing to white.

          Auguste van der Heede. _Welter_, 1901. Saffron

          Duchess of Portland. _Alex. Dickson_, 1901. Pale
          sulphur yellow, with an occasional tinge of Eau de

          Ferdinand Batel. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1897. Varying
          from pale rosy flesh on yellow nankeen, to yellow
          nankeen orange.

          Franz Deegen. _Hinner_, 1901. Pale yellow, centre
          golden yellow.

[Illustration: HYBRID TEA.


          Friedrich Harms. _Welter_, 1901. Pale yellow, with
          deep yellow centre.

          Gloire Lyonnaise. _Guillot_, 1884. Very pale

          Goldelse. _Hinner_, 1902. Pale yellow, with deeper
          yellow centre.

          Grossherzogin Alexandra. _Jacobs-Welter_, 1906.
          Clear golden yellow.

          Gustave Regis. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1891. Canary
          yellow, with orange centre.

          Gustave Sobry. _Welter_, 1902. Golden yellow,
          passing to clear yellow.

          Harry Kirk. _Alex. Dickson_, 1907. Deep sulphur
          yellow, lighter edges.

          Hofgarten-director Græbener. _P. Lambert_, 1900.
          Rosy yellow and coppery yellow.

          Instituteur Sirday. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1906. Deep
          golden yellow.

          Jakobs Perle. _Jakobs_, 1904. Canary yellow.

          Kaiserin Augusta Victoria. _Lambert & Reiter_,
          1891. Beautiful primrose.

          Le Progrès. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1904. Nankeen yellow,
          lighter when fully expanded.

          Madame Jenny Guillemot. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1905.
          Deep saffron yellow.

          Madame Pernet-Ducher. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1892.
          Canary yellow.

          Madame Philippe Rivoire. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1905.
          Apricot yellow, with lighter centre.

          Madame Ravary. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1900. Beautiful
          orange yellow.

          Mrs. David M'Kee. _Alex. Dickson_, 1904. Creamy

          Mrs. Peter Blair. _Alex. Dickson_, 1906. Lemon
          chrome, with golden yellow centre.

          Peace. _Piper_, 1903. Pale lemon yellow.


          Admiral Dewey. _Dingee & Conard_, 1899. Light

          Alice Grahame. _Alex. Dickson_, 1903. Ivory white,
          tinted salmon.

          Alice Lindsell. _Alex. Dickson_, 1902. Creamy
          white, with pink centre.

          Augustine Guinoisseau. _Guinoisseau_, 1889. White,
          slightly tinted with flesh.

          Bessie Brown. _Alex. Dickson_, 1899. Creamy white.

          Comte de Torres. _Schwartz_, 1906. Salmon white,
          with yellow salmon centre.

          Direcktor W. Cordes. _P. Lambert_, 1904. Creamy
          white, with yellowish centre.

          Edelstein. _Welter_, 1904. Pure white.

          Edmund Deshayes. _Bernaix_, 1902. Creamy white,
          with flesh centre.

          Ellen Willmot. _Bernaix_, 1899. Pale flesh white.

          Florence Pemberton. _Alex. Dickson_, 1903. Creamy
          white, suffused pink.

          Frau Lilla Rautenstrauch. _P. Lambert_, 1903.
          Silvery white, tinted rose.

          Gardenia. _Soupert et Notting_, 1899. White,
          suffused pale blush.

          Grace Darling. _Bennett_, 1884. Creamy white,
          shaded peach.

          Hélène Guillot. _J. B. Guillot_, 1902. Pure white
          to salmon white, tinted carmine.

          Irene. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1904. Silvery white,
          sometimes faintly touched with pink.

          Lady Clanmorris. _Alex. Dickson_, 1900. Creamy
          white, delicate salmon centre.

          Lady Quartus Ewart. _Hugh Dickson_, 1904. Paper

          Ligne-Arenberg. _Soupert et Notting_, 1903. Creamy
          white, pink edge.

          L'Innocence. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1898. Pure white.

          Madame Joseph Combet. _J. Bonnaire_, 1894. Creamy

          Madame Maria Capalet. _Schwartz_, 1905. Rosy
          white, tinted salmon, centre rosy yellowish

          Mdlle. Pauline Bersez. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1900.
          Creamy white, with yellow centre.

          Mdlle. Alice Furon. White, shaded lemon.

          Marjorie. _Alex. Dickson_, 1895. White, suffused
          with salmon pink.

          Marguerite Guillot. _P. Guillet_, 1903. Pure

          Marie Girard. _Buatois_, 1899. White, shaded
          salmon yellow.

          Marquise Jeanne de la Chataigneraye. _Soupert et
          Notting_, 1902. Silvery white, centre yellow.

          Mildred Grant. _Alex. Dickson_, 1901. Silvery
          white, edge of petals shaded and bordered with

          Mrs. Conway Jones. _Alex. Dickson_, 1904. Creamy
          white, flushed salmon pink.

          Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt. _Hill & Co._, 1903.
          Creamy white, centre rose.

          Pharisäer. _W. Hinner_, 1903. Rosy white, shaded

          Pie X. _Soupert et Notting_, 1906. Creamy white,
          suffused pale rose.

          Robert Baessler. _Hinner_, 1904. White, edge of
          petals tinted rose.

          Rosomane Gravereux. _Soupert et Notting_, 1899.
          White, with tinge of pink.

          Souv. de Madame Eugénie Verdier. _Pernet-Ducher_,
          1895. Electric white, shaded saffron yellow.

          White Lady. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1890. Creamy white.

          Yvonne Vacherot. _Soupert et Notting_, 1906.
          Porcelain white, suffused pink.


Alex. Dickson & Sons.

          Irish Beauty, 1900. Pure white, bright golden

          Irish Brightness, 1903. Vivid crimson, shading to
          pink base.

          Irish Elegance, 1905.[4] Buds bronzy
          orange-scarlet, opening to apricot, a very
          beautiful rose.

          Irish Engineer, 1904. Bright scarlet, large

          Irish Glory, 1900. Petals silvery marbled pink,
          flamed outside with crimson.

          Irish Harmony, 1904. Variable, saffron-yellow
          veined claret.

          Irish Modesty, 1900. Coral pink, ecru base to

          Irish Pride, 1903. Ecru, suffused old rose and

          Irish Star, 1903. Rose du Barri, with lemon star


[4] See Illustration.



MR. THOMAS RIVERS, that father of scientific rose culture in England,
gives a most interesting account in his famous book, _The Rose Amateur's
Guide_, 1840, of the origin of the Hybrid Perpetual rose.

"_The Crimson Perpetual_, _Rose du Roi_, or _Lee's Crimson
Perpetual_,[5] ... was raised from seed, in 1812, in the gardens of the
Palace of St. Cloud, then under the direction of Le Comte Lelieur, and
named by him Rose du Roi.... It is asserted it was raised from the _Rosa
Portlandica_, a semi-double bright-coloured rose, much like the rose
known in this country as the _Scarlet Four-seasons_ or _Rosa Pæstana_.

"Every gentleman's garden ought to have a large bed of Crimson Perpetual
Roses, to furnish bouquets during August, September, and October; their
fragrance is so delightful, their colour so rich, and their form so

What would that great pioneer say to our Crimson Perpetuals of to-day?

But though this rose was the first, and probably the parent of many of
the earlier Hybrid Perpetuals, the true development of this glorious
race took place by other means. The Hybrid Chinas,[6] such as _Blairii
No. 2_, _Chenédolé_, _Brennus_, and many others, now, as I have said,
most unjustly neglected, were the offspring of the China rose, _R.
Indica_, crossed with the Provence and other hardy summer flowering
roses. These were not perpetual, with the notable exception of _Gloire
de Rosamènes_. But several of them bore seed freely. These fertile
varieties were again crossed with different kinds of China and Bourbon
roses. And their seed produced the new race of strong, hardy roses, the
Hybrid Perpetuals, flowering through the whole summer and autumn.

Of those early parents of this fine race but very few are known now.
_Gloire de Rosamènes_ (Vibert, 1823) is still in cultivation. But in
vain I search English and French catalogues for those marked by my
father in 1844 in Mr. Rivers' book. Where is _Mme. Laffay_, 1839, with
its fine foliage and rosy-crimson, highly fragrant flowers; or
_Fulgorie_; or _Rivers_, with its large red flowers "produced in
clusters of great beauty"; or _La Reine_, 1843; or _William Jesse_?
Probably they still exist as "old and nameless roses" in my own and many
other gardens. Yet one would like to give them back the names and
honourable places they possessed in one's childhood, and compare them
with their splendid descendants. In fragrance they would certainly hold
their own; for the fragrance of their Damask grandparent was stronger in
them than in too many of the modern Hybrid Perpetuals.

The great development in the race began in the fifties, and was at its
height in the sixties and seventies: but for the last fifteen years and
more the tide has turned in favour of the Hybrid Teas; and comparatively
few new Hybrid Perpetuals are raised each year. In 1853, Margottin gave
the enchanted rose-world _Jules Margottin_, parent of many most
excellent roses. And in the same year the delightful _General
Jacqueminot_ was raised by Roussel, and became the parent of many of our
finest deep reds. Then in 1859 came Lacharme's famous _Victor Verdier_,
a rose still in favour, and one to which the class owes, perhaps, more
than any other as a parent. And in 1861 came _Charles Lefebvre_; also
raised by Lacharme.

From that date new and magnificent roses were sent out in numbers every
year by the well-known French and Continental houses of Lacharme,
Verdier, Pernet, Gautreau, Liabaud, Guillot, Postans, Levet, Margottin,
Rambaud, Levêque, Jamain, Schwartz, Soupert et Notting. And in England
by Messrs. Wm. Paul & Son, B. R. Cant & Sons, Bennett, Laxton, Paul &
Son, Cocker, Alex. Dickson & Sons, Turner, Hugh Dickson, Cooling,
Harkness, Ward, etc. While, in 1901, Lambert produced that grandest of
white roses, _Frau Karl Druschki_.

[Illustration: HYBRID PERPETUAL.


The pure pinks, and the rich crimsons and scarlets of the Hybrid
Perpetuals are of surpassing beauty. And though there is a craze just
now for Hybrid Teas, the Hybrid Perpetual must for ever hold its own in
the garden on its own lines. For it will flourish where the more tender
race would die; and its magnificent size, colour, strong growth, and
rich foliage, must always render it indispensable for decoration and as
a cut flower.

As with the Teas and Hybrid Teas, these roses create their finest effect
in the garden when grouped together in beds of one colour. And if we
wish to specialize yet further in the matter of colours, they may be
graduated from dark to light, or light to dark, with admirable success.
A magnificent bed may be filled with such crimsons, scarlets, and cherry
reds as the following, beginning with dark and medium crimsons, _A. K.
Williams_, _Duke of Edinburgh_, _Duke of Wellington_, _Dr. Andry_,
_Charles Lefebvre_, _Countess of Oxford_, _Fisher Holmes_, _Louis Van
Houtte_, _Mrs. Harry Turner_, _Victor Hugo_; and the lighter crimsons,
_Alfred Colomb_, _Beauty of Waltham_, _Captain Hayward_, _Duchess of
Bedford_, _Duke of Teck_, _Dupuy Jamain_, _General Jacgueminot_, _Gloire
de Margottin_, _Hugh Dickson_, _Marie Baumann_, _Senateur Vaisse_,
_Star of Waltham_, _Ulrich Brunner_.

[Illustration: HYBRID PERPETUAL.


Other yet darker crimson roses, with maroon or purple shading, are _Abel
Carrière_, _Black Prince_, _Prince Camille de Rohan_, _Xavier Olibo_.

For a very effective rose-pink and carmine bed we may use _François
Michelon_, _Helen Keller_, _John Hopper_, _Jules Margottin_, _Magna
Charta_, _Marquise de Castellane_, _Suzanne Marie Rodocanachi_, _Victor

An pure pink bed is most attractive, when filled with such lovely roses
as _Baroness Rothschild_, _Mdlle. Eugénie Verdier_, _Mrs. Sharman
Crawford_, _Mrs. John Laing_, _Pride of Waltham_. And although _Captain
Christy_ is now, wisely, called a Hybrid Tea, it has so much the habit
of the Hybrid Perpetuals, that it really goes better in a bed with them
than among the more delicate-foliaged Teas.

For a white and pale blush bed we have the pure white _Boule de Neige_,
_Coquette des Blanches_ (both Dwarf Hybrid Noisettes), _Frau Karl
Druschki_, and _Marchioness of Londonderry_, which is very beautiful
when it does well, though this is not always the case.

And for white with a faint blush, _Margaret Dickson_ and _Merveille de
Lyon_, though these are sadly given to mildew. But for sheer effect and
mass of bloom, a bed of _Frau Karl Druschki_ is unequalled. If the long
shoots are pegged down every bud upon them will throw a flower-shoot,
producing a sheet of blossom throughout the whole season.

Another very effective arrangement may be made by gradating a broad
border from a white centre, through clear pinks on either side to bright
scarlets, and ending at each extremity with deepest crimsons. This I
have seen carried out successfully with a central group of _Frau Karl
Druschki_, flanked on either side by the clear pinks of _Mrs. Sharman
Crawford_ and _Mrs. John Laing_, and beyond them, right and left,
_General Jacqueminot_, _François Michelon_, _Prince Camille de Rohan_,
_Fisher Holmes_, _Duke of Edinburgh_, _Mrs. Harry Turner_, _Dr. Andry_,
_Duke of Wellington_, _Victor Hugo_, _Captain Hayward_, _Duke of Teck_,
_Horace Vernet_.

As standards many of the Hybrid Perpetuals make grand heads, their
sturdy constitution being particularly suitable to this form of growth.

Among the best for this purpose are, _Captain Hayward_, _Charles
Lefebvre_, _Clio_, _Dr. Andry_, _Duke of Edinburgh_, _Dupuy Jamain_,
_Ferdinand de Lesseps_, _Fisher Holmes_, _Frau Karl Druschki_, _General
Jacqueminot_, _Gloire de Margottin_, _Heinrich Schultheis_, _Hugh
Dickson_, _Mme. Gabriel Luizet_, _Mme. Victor Verdier_, _Margaret
Dickson_, _Marie Baumann_, _Mrs. Cocker_, _Mrs. John Laing_, _Mrs. R. G.
Sharman Crawford_, _Paul Jamain_, _Pride of Waltham_, _Prince Arthur_,
_Prince Camille de Rohan_, _Senateur Vaisse_, _Suzanne Marie
Rodocanachi_, _Ulrich Brunner_.

Besides those dwarfs I have enumerated as particularly good for massing
in colour, many other excellent roses for general use will be found in
the following lists.



          Abel Carrière. _E. Verdier_, 1875. Purple crimson,
          fiery red centre.

          Alfred Colomb. _Lacharme_, 1865. Bright carmine

          Alfred K. Williams. _Schwartz_, 1877. Bright
          carmine red; an exhibitor's rose.

          Baron de Bonstetten. _Liabaud_, 1871. Blackish

          Ben Cant. _B. R. Cant & Sons_, 1902. Deep crimson.

          Beauty of Waltham. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1862. Rosy

          Black Prince. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1866. Deep
          blackish crimson.

          Camille Bernadin. _Gautreau_, 1865. Light crimson,
          paler edges.

          Captain Hayward. _Bennett_, 1893. Scarlet crimson,
          sweet scented.

          Charles Darwin. _Laxton_, 1879. Brownish crimson.

          Charles Lefebvre. _Lacharme_, 1861. Brilliant
          velvety crimson.

          Commandant Félix Faure. _Boutigny_, 1902. Crimson,
          flushed lake.

          Comte de Raimbaud. _Roland_, 1867. Clear crimson.

          Comtesse de Ludre. _V. Verdier_, 1880. Light

[Illustration: HYBRID PERPETUAL.


          Countess of Oxford. _Guillot_, 1869. Bright
          carmine red.

          Dr. Andry. _E. Verdier_, 1864. Deep carmine red.

          Dr. Sewell. _Turner_, 1879. Maroon crimson,
          reflexes bright red.

          Duchess of Bedford. _Postans_, 1879. Velvety
          crimson, suffused scarlet.

          Duke of Connaught. _Paul & Son_, 1876. Bright
          velvety crimson.

          Duke of Edinburgh. _Paul & Son_, 1868. Scarlet

          Duke of Teck. _Paul & Son_, 1880. Bright crimson

          Duke of Wellington. _Granger_, 1864. Velvet red,
          shaded crimson.

          Dupuy Jamain. _Jamain_, 1868. Very bright cerise.

          Earl of Dufferin. _Alex. Dickson_, 1887. Rich
          velvety crimson.

          Éclair. _Lacharme_, 1883. Vivid fiery red.

          Étienne Levet. _Levet_, 1871. Carmine red.

          E. Y. Teas. _E. Verdier_, 1874. Very bright red.

          Fisher Holmes. _E. Verdier_, 1865. Shaded crimson

          General Jacqueminot. _Roussel_, 1853. Brilliant
          scarlet crimson; a noble old rose.

          Gustave Piganeau. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1889. Brilliant
          shaded carmine; chiefly an exhibitor's rose.

          Horace Vernet. _Guillot_, 1866. Crimson scarlet,
          dark shading.

          Hugh Dickson. _Hugh Dickson_, 1904. Crimson,
          shaded scarlet.

          Hugh Watson. _Alex. Dickson_, 1904. Crimson,
          shaded carmine.

          J. B. Clark. _Hugh Dickson_, 1905. Deep scarlet,
          shaded plum.

          Jean Soupert. _Lacharme_, 1876. Deep velvety

          Jules Margottin. _Margottin_, 1853. Bright cherry

          Lady Helen Stewart. _Alex. Dickson_, 1887. Bright
          crimson, shaded scarlet.

          Le Havre. _Eude_, 1871. Vermilion red.

          Louis Ricard. _Boutigny_, 1902. Velvet crimson,
          shaded vermilion and black.

          Louis Van Houtte. _Lacharme_, 1869. Deep crimson,
          shaded maroon.

          Madame Crapelet. _Fontaine_, 1859. Beautiful light

          Madame Victor Verdier. _E. Verdier_, 1863. Bright
          cherry red; still one of the best.

          Maharajah. _B. R. Cant & Sons_, 1904. Large single
          flowers, deep velvet crimson; a very fine pillar

          Marie Baumann. _Baumann_, 1863. Soft carmine red.

          Marie Rady. _Fontaine_, 1865. Brilliant red.

          Maurice Bernadin (_syn._ Exposition de Brie).
          _Granger_, 1861. Shaded crimson.

          M. H. Walsh. _Alex. Dickson_, 1905. Velvety
          crimson, suffused scarlet.

          Oberhofgartener A. Singer. _P. Lambert_, 1904.
          Pure carmine, darker centre.

          Prince Arthur. _B. R. Cant_, 1875. Rich deep

          Prince Camille de Rohan. _E. Verdier_, 1861.
          Crimson maroon.

          Reynolds Hole. _Paul & Son_, 1873. Maroon, shaded
          crimson; an exhibitor's rose.

          Ruhm der Gartenwelt. _Jacobs_, 1904. Dark pure

          Senateur Vaisse. _Guillot_, 1859. Fine dazzling
          red; one of the best still.

          Sir Rowland Hill. _Mack_, 1888. Rich port wine,
          shaded maroon.

          Star of Waltham. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1875. Deep

          T. B. Haywood. _Paul & Son_, 1895. Crimson
          scarlet, dark shading.

          Tom Wood. _Alex. Dickson_, 1896. Cherry red.

          Ulrich Brunner. _Levet_, 1881. Bright cherry red;
          fragrant, excellent.

          Urania. _Walsh_, 1906. Cherry crimson.

          Victor Hugo. _Schwartz_, 1884. Dazzling crimson.

          Xavier Olibo. _Lacharme_, 1864. Velvety black,
          shaded amaranth.


          American Beauty. _Bancroft_, 1886. Deep rose;
          needs fine weather.

          Annie Laxton. _Laxton_, 1872. Clear rose, flushed

          Countess of Rosebery. _Postans_, 1879. Deep salmon

          David R. Williamson. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1905. Soft
          rich carmine rose.

          Duchesse de Morny. _E. Verdier_, 1863. Delicate
          bright rose.

          François Michelon. _Levet_, 1871. Deep rose,
          reverse of petals silver.

          Heinrich Schultheis. _Bennett_, 1882. Delicate
          pinkish rose.

          Helen Keller. _Alex. Dickson_, 1895. Rose cerise.

          John Hopper. _Ward_, 1862. Bright rose, reverse
          pale lilac.

          Madame Eugène Verdier. _E. Verdier_, 1878. Bright
          silvery rose.

          Magna Charta. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1876. Bright

          Marie Finger. _Rambaud_, 1873. Light salmon rose,
          deeper centre.

          Marie Verdier. _E. Verdier_, 1877. Pure rose.

          Marquise de Castellane. _Pernet_, 1869. Bright
          clear rose.

          Suzanne Marie Rodocanachi. _Lévêque_, 1883.
          Glowing rose; one of the best.

          Ulster. _Alex. Dickson_, 1899. Salmon pink.


          Baroness Rothschild. _Pernet_, 1867. Light pink.

          Clio. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1894. Pale flesh, deeper

          Dr. William Gordon. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1905.
          Brilliant satin pink.

          Her Majesty. _Bennett_, 1885. Pale rose pink.

          Jeannie Dickson. _Alex. Dickson_, 1890. Rosy pink,
          edged silvery pink.

          Lady Overtown. _H. Dickson_, 1906. Pale salmon
          pink, centre silvery pink.

          Laurence Allen. _Cooling_, 1896. Clear soft pink,
          lighter shading.

          Madame Gabriel Luizet. _Liabaud_, 1877. Light
          silvery pink.

          Marchioness of Downshire. _Alex. Dickson_, 1894.
          Beautiful satin pink.

          Mrs. Cocker. _Cocker_, 1899. Soft pink.

          Mrs. John Laing. _Bennett_, 1887. Soft pink; one
          of the best.

          Mrs. R. G. Sharman Crawford. _Alex. Dickson_,
          1894. Clear rosy pink; one of the best.

          Mrs. Rumsey. _Rumsey_, 1897. Rosy pink.

          Pride of Waltham. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1881. Delicate
          flesh, shaded bright rose pink.

          Rosslyn. _Alex. Dickson_, 1900. Delicate rosy


          Bertha Giemen. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1899. Creamy
          white sport from Marchioness of Dufferin.

          Boule de Neige (Noisette). _Lacharme_, 1867. Pure

          Frau Karl Druschki. _Lambert_, 1900. Snow white.

          Mabel Morrison. _Broughton_, 1878. Pure white, not
          much substance.

          Mademoiselle Renée Denis. _Chedane_, 1907. White,
          shaded rose.

          Marchioness of Londonderry. _Alex. Dickson_, 1893.
          Ivory white.

          Margaret Dickson. _Alex. Dickson_, 1891. White,
          pale flesh centre.

          Merveille de Lyon. _Pernet_, 1882. White, centre
          slightly rosy peach.

          Perfection des Blanches. _Schwartz_, 1873. Pure

          White Baroness. _Paul & Son_, 1883. Pure white.


[5] This rose, which belongs to the group of Damask Perpetual roses, _R.
Damascena_, is still cultivated under the same name. Messrs. Wm. Paul &
Son say "this was formerly a favourite group of autumnal roses."

[6] See p. 57.



BESIDES the three great races of perpetual flowering Roses, the Teas,
Hybrid Teas, and Hybrid Perpetuals, on which the chief interest of the
modern rose-world is centred at the present time, there are other
perpetual flowering roses, which are of great importance both for their
value in the past and their beauty in the present. For although the
modern hybrids have somewhat obscured the fame of their ancestors, many
of them owe their origin to the Bourbon and China roses, which, in the
early years of the nineteenth century, before the advent of Hybrid
Perpetuals, were almost the only autumn flowering roses on which to

THE BOURBON ROSE, _R. Bourboniana_.

According to that invaluable book,[7] to which I owe an untold debt of
gratitude since first I began to study rose-growing seriously--the
original Bourbon, "a beautiful semi-double rose, with brilliant
rose-coloured flowers, prominent buds, and nearly evergreen foliage,"
was discovered in the Isle of Bourbon.

[Illustration: BOURBON.


It appears that the land there was--probably is still--enclosed by
"hedges made of two rows of roses, one row of the common China Rose, the
other of the Red Four Seasons, the Perpetual Damask." In planting one of
these hedges, a proprietor found a rose quite different in appearance to
the rest of his young plants, and transferred it to his garden. Here it
flowered, and proved to be a new type, evidently a seedling from the two
sorts, which were the only ones known in the island. "M. Bréon arrived
at Bourbon in 1817, as botanical traveller for the Government of France,
and curator of the Botanical and Naturalization Garden there. He
propagated this rose very largely; and sent plants and seeds of it in
1822 to Monsieur Jacques, gardener at the Château de Neuilly, near
Paris, who distributed it among the rose cultivators of France. M. Bréon
named it 'Rose de l'Isle Bourbon,' and is convinced that it is a hybrid
from one of the above roses, and a native of the island."

The true Bourbon roses are thoroughly perpetual, with rose, blush, or
white flowers, smooth solid stems, and dark, almost evergreen, foliage.
One has only to mention the well-known and well-beloved _Souvenir de la
Malmaison_ to recall the type. _Gloire de Rosamènes_[8] is a hybrid, as
I have said: but _Hermosa_, or _Armosa_ (1840), and the charming
_Mrs. Bosanquet_ (1832), often classed among the China roses, are pure
Bourbons, and so are _Mme. Isaac Pereire_, _Mrs. Paul_ (1891), _Queen of
the Bourbons_, _Boule de Neige_, _Setina_ a climbing form of _Hermosa_,
and _Zephirine Drouhin_ (1873), a good climbing rose. _Hermosa_, which
is constantly mistaken for a very full, globular pink China, is an
excellent rose for massing in the garden, as it is in continuous bloom
from spring till late autumn, the dwarf, bushy plants being covered with
flowers. The charming hybrid Tea rose, _Camoëns_, which resembles it in
habit, but is a rather larger flower of a rich China pink, may also be
used in the same way. A group of small beds arranged in a simple
geometrical pattern, and planted with either or both these roses, is an
extremely pretty feature in the garden. _Hermosa_ has been for years
largely used in this way on the Continent and in England; for instance,
20,000 have been planted in the Sandringham gardens alone. But I was
told last year in Luxembourg, that in Holland, where it is most popular,
_Camoëns_ is almost superseding it; one Dutch lady who had a large
portion of her garden planted with nothing but _Hermosa_, is now using
hundreds of _Camoëns_ in the same way, as it is equally generous in
bloom, richer in colour, and as neat and strong in growth.

[Illustration: CHINA.


THE CHINA ROSE, _R. Indica_.

THE CRIMSON CHINA ROSE, _R. Semperflorens_.

These old favourites were introduced into England in the eighteenth
century. The _Old Blush Monthly_ came first, in 1718; and in 1789 the
_Old Crimson_ (_R. Semperflorens_), a much less vigorous plant, arrived.
It is not surprising that both should have found instant popularity; for
roses which in warm situations are practically in flower the whole year
through, must indeed have been precious adjuncts to the gardens of those
days. In England they were popularly known as "Monthly roses"; while in
France they are known as _Rosiers du Bengal_.


though it has many newer rivals, is one of those which has never gone
out of favour, and justly so; for what can be more pure and lovely than
it is when well grown. Either as a bedder, or a bush in the herbaceous
border, or, still more, when grown as a dwarf hedge, its fresh
loveliness is a never-ending delight. Indeed, one wonders why it is not
more generally used in England in this last manner; for both in the
South of France and Switzerland, hedges of the pink Monthly rose are
common, and of exceeding beauty. _Cramoisie Supérieure_ (1834), a form
of the Crimson China, should be grown in masses, as its weak and
straggling growth is unsuited to the above purposes. But many of the
newer varieties are admirable in whatever way they are used. _Laurette
Messimy_ (1887), rose, shaded yellow, and _Madame Eugène Resal_ (1895),
copper and bright China-rose, are two of the very best of these, and are
brilliantly effective as bedding roses. So are the rosy-apricot _Queen
Mab_ (1906), and the yellow-apricot and orange _Arethusa_ (1903).
_Comtesse du Cayla_ (1902) is a fine carmine crimson, with orange on the
outer petals, varying to orange-yellow shaded carmine. _Cora_ is a
pretty clear yellow, often tinted carmine, a rose of a charming habit.
_Le Vesuve_ bears some flowers rich crimson and some rosy pink. _Ducher_
(1869) is the best white; _Frau Syndica Roeloffs_, yellow, shaded
coppery-red and peach; _Nabonnand_, a large flower, velvety purple-red,
shaded coppery-yellow. _Souvenir d'Aimée Terrel des Chênes_ is a small,
beautiful, and well-shaped flower, coppery-pink, shaded carmine, the
pointed buds being golden yellow. _Climbing Cramoisie Supérieure_ and
_Field Marshal_ are both deep crimson climbers, but the last does best
under a glass or in a warm position out of doors.

       *       *       *       *       *

We now come to a quite modern class of perpetual flowering roses, which
is as yet too little known, except among those ardent rose-growers who
keep closely in touch with the marvels of modern hybridization. And this
special race is indeed one of its most extraordinary results. For


are derived from the summer flowering, climbing _Multiflora_, and in
them we get a first cousin of, say, _Crimson Rambler_, so dwarf as to
make a charming two-feet high edging to an ordinary rose-bed, and so
thoroughly perpetual, that from May to December it is thickly covered
with its hundreds of miniature flowers in clusters. How these tiny
roses, which remind one of the "Fairy Rose" of long-ago nursery days,
came into being is not exactly known. But they were evidently the result
of crossings with the Tea rose strain. M. J. B. Guillot developed the
first, _Ma Paquerrette_, pure white, flowering in large bunches, in
1875. In 1879, Rambaux followed with the charming _Anna Maria de
Montravel_, one of the best known of the class. The next year Ducher
brought out the lovely _Cecile Brunner_, blush, shaded pink, and the
race was fully recognized. Since then nearly every year has seen fresh
varieties; and the charming little plants are growing in favour.

[Illustration: DWARF POLYANTHA.


These roses may be roughly divided into two classes: one showing the
Polyantha blood very strongly; the other the Tea blood.

In the first, the flowers, whether double or single, are borne in dense
upright clusters, after the manner of the true _Multiflora_. Some of the
best of these are _Gloire des Polyantha_; _Schneewittchen_; the fine
_Mme. N. Levavasseur_, really a miniature _Crimson Rambler_; the even
more attractive _Mrs. W. H. Cutbush_, a bright pink _Crimson Rambler_;
and the exquisite little _Baby Dorothy_, which has created such a
sensation as a pot plant since it was shown in the spring of 1907. These
are all admirably fitted for planting in masses. In the famous
Pépinière, or Public Gardens of Nancy, beds of _Madame N. Levavasseur_
last autumn (1907) were remarkably effective. In one the ground was
thickly covered among the plants with a very dwarf grey-blue Ageratum;
and the effect of the erect crimson clusters of the rose over the soft
grey flowers was most striking; while another bed of the same rose was
edged with a dwarf bronze-foliaged fibrous Begonia. Even more charming
was a whole bed of _Mrs. W. H. Cutbush_, which I saw in MM. Soupert et
Notting's garden at Luxembourg, the rich rosy colour being much finer.

In the other class the Tea blood is shown as strongly; the flowers are
borne singly, or at most in heads of four or five, on smooth and
delicate yet firm little stalks; while the foliage is that of a
miniature Tea rose. These as to the actual blossoms are perhaps even
more attractive. For what can be prettier than a perfectly formed flower
the size of a Fairy rose--and sweetly scented too--such as those of
_Étoile d'Or_, lemon shaded with sulphur; or _Perle d'Or_, nankeen
yellow with orange centre; or _Eugénie Lamesch_, coppery pink; or the
beautiful _Cecile Brunner_, its well-shaped flowers blush with a deeper
pink centre?

In one or two we get an example of the double strain. For the velvety
crimson flowers of _Perle des Rouges_ are borne in clusters, though in
substance and foliage the plant appears to take after the Tea rose.

But I deprecate the tendency which I see among some varieties, to
produce much larger flowers such as those of _Clothilde Soupert_ and
_Georges Pernet_. This quite alters the character of the pretty little
plants; giving us a rose that is neither one thing or another, neither a
fine bedding rose or a miniature edging rose.

BOURBON ROSES, _R. Bourboniana_.

          Baron Gonella. _Guillot père_, 1839. Violet rose.

          Baronne de Maynard. One of the best white roses.

          Catherine Guillot. _Guillot fils_, 1861. Purple

          Comtesse de Barbantane. _Guillot père_, 1859.
          Flesh colour.

          Gloire de Rosamènes. _Vibert_, 1825. Scarlet
          crimson, semi-double.

          Hermosa (Armosa). _Marcheseau_, 1840. Deep pink.
          J. B. M. Camm. Pale salmon pink.

          Kronprinsessin Victoria. _L. Späth_, 1888. Milky
          white outside, sulphur-yellow centre.

          Lorna Doone. _Wm. Paul & Son._ Magenta carmine,
          shaded scarlet.

          Madame Isaac Pereire. _Margottin_, 1880. Rosy

          Madame Pierre Oger. _Oger_, 1879. Cream white,
          shaded and edged lilac.

          Marie Paré. _Pavie_, 1880. Flesh colour, deeper

          Mrs. Allen Chandler. _Chandler_, 1904. Pure white
          sport from Mrs. Paul.

          Mrs. Bosanquet. _Laffay_, 1832. Salmon white.

          Mrs. Paul. _Paul & Son_, 1852. Pinkish white; a
          fine rose.

          Paxton. _Laffay_, 1852. Fiery rose.

          Philémon Cochet. _Cochet_, 1896. Bright rose.

          Queen of the Bourbons. _Mauger_, 1852. Salmon

          Queen of Bedders. _Nobbe_, 1878. Deep crimson.

          Reine Victoria. _Schwartz_, 1878. Bright rose,
          perfect form.

          Setina. _Henderson_, 1879. Pink, a climbing

          Souv. de la Malmaison. _Beluze_, 1843. Tender
          flesh white.

          Souv. de la Malmaison rose. _Verschaffelt_, 1862.
          Fine rose colour.

          Zephirine Drouhin. _Bizot_, 1873. Bright silvery


_R. Semperflorens._

          Abbé Cretin. _Mille-Toussaint_, 1906. Light rose,
          shaded salmon.

          Alexina. _Beluze_, 1854. Almost pure white.

          Alice Hamilton. _Nabonnand_, 1904. Bright velvety
          crimson reflexed madder.

          Antoinette Cuillerat. _Buatois_, 1898. Electric
          white on copper base.

          Arethusa. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1903. Yellow, tinted

          Aurore. _Schwartz_, 1897. Creamy yellow, tinted
          salmon rose.

          Baronne Piston de St. Cyr. Pale flesh, distinct
          and attractive.

          Bébé Fleuri. _Dubreuil_, 1907. Varying from China
          rose to currant red.

          Cardinal. _Welter_, 1904. Dark red, centre yellow.

          Common (old Blush Monthly). _Parsons_, 1796. Pale

          Comtesse du Cayla. _Guillot_, 1902.
          Coppery-carmine, shaded orange and yellow.

          Cora. _Vve. Schwartz_, 1899. Clear yellow, tinted

          Cramoisi Supérieur. _Coquereau_, 1832. Velvety
          crimson, large clusters.

          Cramoisi Supérieur. A climbing sport.

          Crimson China (Sanguinea). _Evans_, 1810. Dark

          Ducher. _Ducher_, 1869. Pure white.

          Duke of York. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1894. Variable
          from white to red.

          Eugène de Beauharnais. _Fellemberg_, 1838.

          Fabvier. _Laffay._ Scarlet crimson, finest of its

          Field Marshall. _Wm. Paul & Son._ Blood crimson,
          shaded amaranth.

          Frau Syndica Roeloffs. _Lambert_, 1900. Bright
          yellow, shaded copper red.

          Irene Watts. _P. Guillot_, 1896. White, tinted
          salmon pink.

          Jean Bach Sisley. _Dubreuil_, 1899. Silvery rose,
          outer petals salmon-rose, veined carmine.

          Le Vesuve. _Sprunt_, 1858. Bright red and pink.

          Madame Eugène Resal. _Guillot_, 1894. Nasturtium
          red or bright red, on yellow base.

          Madame H. Montefiore. _Bernaix_, 1900. Salmon
          yellow, shaded apricot and carmine.

          Madame Laure Dupont. _Schwartz_, 1907. Vivid
          carmine, reflexed silver rose.

          Madame Laurette Messimy. _Guillot fils_, 1887.
          China rose, shaded yellow.

          Martha. _P. Lambert_, 1906. Copper red, flowers in
          large corymbs.

          Queen Mab. _Wm. Paul & Son_, 1896. Rosy apricot,
          shaded orange and rose.

          Red Pet. _Paul & Son_, 1888. Miniature rose, deep

          Souv. d'Aimée Terrel des Chênes. _Schwartz_, 1897.
          Coppery rose, shaded carmine.

          Unermüdliche. _Lambert_, 1904. Crimson, shaded
          red, always in bloom.


          Aennchen Mueller. _J. C. Schmidt_, 1907. Large
          clusters, brilliant rose.

          Amélie-Suzanne Morin. _Soupert et Notting_, 1899.
          White, yellow centre.

          Anne-Marie de Montravel. _Rambaux_, 1879. Pure
          white, immense cluster.

          Aschenbrodel. _Lambert_, 1903. Peach, centre

          Bébé Leroux. _Soupert et Notting_, 1901. White,
          centre canary yellow.

          Blanche Rebatel. _Bernaix_, 1889. Bright carmine,
          reverse white.

          Canarienvogel. _Welter_, 1904. Golden yellow,
          flaked orange and rose.

          Cecile Brunner. _Ducher_, 1881. Bright rose,
          yellowish centre.

          Clara Pfitzer. _Soupert et Notting_, 1889. Light

          Clotilde Soupert. _Soupert et Notting_, 1890.
          Pearly white, rose centre, rather large flowers.

          Dr. Ricaud. _Corboeuf-Marsault_, 1907. Rosy
          salmon, copper base.

          Étoile de Mai. _Gamon_, 1893. Nankeen yellow,
          rather large.

          Étoile d'Or. _Dubreuil_, 1889. Citron yellow,
          shaded sulphur.

          Eugénie Lamesch. _Lambert_, 1900. Orange yellow,
          passing to clear yellow, shaded rose.

          Filius Strassheim. _Soupert et Netting_, 1893.
          Rosy cream, orange base.

          Georges Pernet. _Pernet-Ducher_, 1888. Rather
          large, bright rose, shaded yellow.

          Gloire des Polyanthas. _Guillot fils_, 1887.
          Bright rose, white centre.

          Golden Fairy. _Bennett_, 1889. Clear buff, yellow
          and white.

          Hermine Madele. _Soupert et Notting_, 1888. Cream,
          reflexed yellow.

          Katherine Ziemet. _Lambert_, 1901. Pure white,
          very fragrant.

          Kleiner Alfred. _Lambert_, 1904. Ground colour
          red, suffused ochre yellow.

          Le Bourguignon. _Buatois_, 1901. Electric madder

          Leonie Lamesch. _Lambert_, 1900. Bright copper
          red, golden centre.

          Liliput. _Paul & Son_, 1897. Cerise carmine,
          flushed crimson.

          Little Dot. _Bennett_, 1889. Soft pink, flaked
          deeper on outside petals.

          Madame E. A. Nolte. _Bernaix_, 1892. Buff yellow,
          passing to rosy white.

          Madame N. Levavasseur. _Levavasseur_, 1904. Bright
          carmine red; the dwarf Crimson Rambler.

          Madame Zelia Bourgeois. _Vilin_, 1907. Small
          double white flowers.

          Ma Fillette. _Soupert et Notting_, 1898. Peach
          rose, yellow ground.

          Ma Petite Andrée. _Chauvry_, 1899. Deep carmine

          Marie Pavié. _Alégatière_, 1889. White, rose
          centre, large.

          Martha. _Lambert_, 1906. Strawberry pink, coppery

          Maxime Buatois. Copper yellow, changing to carmine

          Mignonette. _Guillot_, 1881. Soft rose, changing
          to white.

          Mosella. _Lambert & Reiter_, I 896. Yellowish
          white, centre rose.

          Mrs. W. H. Cutbush. _Levavasseur_, 1907. A pink
          Mme. N. Levavasseur.

          Pâquerette. _Guillot fils_, 1875. Pure white;
          flowers in immense panicles.

          Perle d'Or. _Dubreuil_, 1883. Nankeen yellow,
          orange centre.

          Perle des Rouges. _Dubreuil_, 1896. Velvety
          crimson, reflexes bright cerise.

          Petit Constant. _Soupert et Notting_, 1900. Deep
          nasturtium red.

          Petite Léonie. _Soupert et Notting_, 1893. Rosy
          white, carmine centre.

          Philipine Lambert. _Lambert_, 1903. Silvery pink,
          centre deep flesh.

          Primula. _Soupert et Notting_, 1901. Bright China
          rose, centre snow white.

          Rosalind. _Paul & Son_, 1907. Bright pink, with
          deeper buds.

          Rosel Dach. 1907. Bright cherry rose.

          Schneewittchen. _Lambert_, 1901. Creamy white,
          passing to snow white.

          Schneekopf. _Lambert_, 1903. Snow white, in large


[7] Rivers' _Rose Amateur's Guide_.

[8] See p. 57.



THE enemies of the rose are many. They are of two classes; the insect
foes, and diseases caused by Fungi. And their prevention and destruction
are tasks, as every rose-grower knows only too well, which call for
ceaseless vigilance and constant work, more especially in the early
months of the season. For if remedies are applied in good time, the
pests of both kinds give comparatively little trouble after May and June
until the early autumn, when a fresh crop of both appears.

No such powerful weapon has ever before been put in the hand of the
rose-grower, as the remarkable handbook on the _Enemies of the Rose_,
published this spring (1908) by the National Rose Society. For here the
veriest tyro can recognize the diseases which puzzle him and the insects
which drive him to despair in all stages of their mischievous existence,
figured in exquisitely drawn and coloured plates; while in the terse and
admirable letter-press he is told how to combat their destructive ways.
This little book can be obtained by non-members of the Society for
2_s._ 6_d._, through any member; and it ought to find a place on the
shelf of every rose lover.

=Mildew=, of all Fungoid diseases, is the worst we have to contend with.
Some roses, such as the lovely _H. T. Killarney_, the _Crimson Rambler_,
the _H. P. Margaret Dickson_, and others, are specially subject to this
pest; and unless measures are taken against it when the very first sign
appears, it quickly spreads to other roses. Two seasons ago a plant of
_Margaret Dickson_ had it badly in my garden, and infected its
neighbour, _Frau Karl Druschki_, to an alarming extent.

This odious disease, though more or less always present in the garden,
appears generally in marked strength twice in the season--first in
spring, when the foliage is just fully developed, and secondly after the
midsummer shoots are grown.

It must be attacked early before it gets any hold, in fact, before it
actually shows, if we have reason to suspect its presence. _Flowers of
Sulphur_ is the most usual and effective preventive. It is blown over
the plants with bellows made specially for the purpose. Floating like a
fine cloud all over the garden it settles on every part of the plant.
The early morning before the dew is gone is the time to apply it, as the
evaporation of the dew has some subtle effect on the sulphur which
greatly increases its efficacy. Rev. F. Page-Roberts strongly
recommends _Black Sulphur_ instead of the ordinary yellow, used with one
of the "Ideal" Powder Bellows, made by W. Wood & Son, Wood Green.

Another preventive, which is advised in the National Rose Society's
handbook as extremely efficacious, is syringing with _Potassium
Sulphide_, _Liver of Sulphur_--half an ounce to a gallon of water. The
handbook advises adding a tablespoonful of liquid glue, or the whites of
two eggs to every gallon of water, as this causes the solution to adhere
better to the foliage. If thoroughly and carefully applied with a very
fine syringe, such as the Abol Syringe, using the bend attached to get
at the under-side of the leaves where the fungus first appears, this
wash acts rapidly upon the pests.

_Mo-Effic_, a new preparation, has been highly recommended in the last
two years. I have not tested it myself. But Mr. Mawley considers it most

=Black Spot= is another troublesome pest. It attacks the foliage alone,
and not only spoils the appearance of the leaves, but so injures them
that they fall off prematurely. The disease can be best checked by
spraying with the _Liver of Sulphur_ wash, beginning early in the spring
and going on at intervals.

=Rose Rust= and =Rose Leaf Scorch= may also be combated with _Liver of
Sulphur_ wash.

But in all these three last diseases, it is a matter of the greatest
importance to collect the badly diseased leaves on the plant, and
especially to pick up every one lying on the ground, and to see that
they are burnt at once and not thrown on the rubbish heap, where they
will only infect the soil.

=Sooty Mould=, the unsightly black stuff which often covers the foliage,
is a parasitic fungus not upon the leaf itself but upon the "honey dew"
deposited by Green Fly. If therefore the honey dew is kept off by
destroying the Aphides which secrete it, _Sooty Mould_ will not appear.


=Green Fly=, or =Rose Aphis=, is alas! too well known in every garden to
need much description. But the reason why it is so difficult sometimes
to get rid of this pest is not so commonly known. The Aphides breathe
through pores at the sides of their bodies. And in order to kill them,
some substance must be used which will close these pores. Therefore
syringing with water or any clear liquid is absolutely useless; for if a
few Green Fly are knocked off one shoot they will only settle on some
other. We often hear people say after a thunderstorm, "This will clean
the roses and wash off the Green Fly nicely." Far from it. They only
increase the faster; while the caterpillars rejoice, and flaunt
themselves openly on every bush. Then in despair some one uses paraffin
or some violently caustic wash for spraying the Green Fly, and destroys
his roses thereby.

Nature has mercifully provided some enemies to prey on the Green
Fly--and these help in some small degree to keep the pest down. The
chief of these is the Ladybird, which both in its adult and in its
larval state devours them ceaselessly. The pretty green Lace-wing Fly or
Aphis Lion is also useful, as its larvæ are provided with "large
sickle-shaped jaws for picking the Green Fly off the plants."

The Hover Fly--which looks like a small, slim two-winged bee or
wasp--lays its eggs in the thick of a mass of Green Fly, and its green
and grey leech-like maggots feed upon them. And the Ichneumon and
Chalcid Flies lay their eggs in the bodies of the Aphides and their
maggots feed on them from within.

But all these are of comparatively little help to the unhappy rosarian,
who must therefore devise unnatural means to clear his plants.

As far as I know, with the exception of an Aphis brush--a useful
invention, but one which needs very gentle handling--there are only two
safe remedies for this universal plague. The usual one is a wash of
soft-soap and quassia, in these proportions--

          Best soft-soap   1 lb.
          Quassia chips    2½ lb.
          Water           25 gallons.

Even this wash, excellent as it is, will sometimes fail to get rid of
the scourge in a bad year. But I have found "Abol, White's Superior," a
never-failing remedy. It is also much easier to use, as one only has to
mix it with cold water according to the directions on each can, and it
is ready in a minute.

If either of these remedies are used the moment the Green Fly appears,
and the dose repeated a couple of days later in order to kill any that
may have escaped the first spraying, we have very little more trouble
until the second crop of Green Fly appears in September. It is well to
syringe the plants thoroughly with pure water a few days after the
second dose of either of these washes, as this knocks off the dead
Aphides, and leaves the foliage clean and sweet.

Although paraffin in various forms is often recommended, let me urge
upon my readers that it is a most dangerous substance to use upon the
rose--a naturally delicate plant--as any remedy of a caustic nature is
sure to do it far more harm than good.

Tobacco wash is recommended by the Continental rose-growers for Aphis, 1
part of tobacco-juice to 15 parts of water. If a little soft-soap is
added it makes a better wash. This is also a good wash for

=Cuckoo Spit= or =Frog-Fly=.--This frothy substance if washed off will
be found to contain a yellow creature, often closely wedged into the
angle of leaf and shoot, or at the base of a flower bud. This is a
"nymph" or young Frog-Fly--a most destructive insect--and unless removed
it will so quickly suck the sap of the leaf and bud that it dies and
falls off.

To get rid of them requires patience. We must either hand-pick the
roses--or if we spray with the tobacco wash it is necessary to syringe
the plant with plain water first, using some force, to wash off the
white froth--and then spray with the tobacco wash to kill the "nymph."

This leads us to the more active and the worst of all the pests we have
to fight against.


which either in their adult form or as maggots and caterpillars prey
upon the rose.

Four Beetles are among the enemies of the rose. The beautiful green
=Rose Beetle= or =Rose Chafer= does harm in both stages. As a grub it
feeds underground on the roots; and as a beetle eats the foliage and the
petals and anthers of the flowers. I find it is particularly fond of the
delicate blossoms of the _Yellow Persian Briar_.

The =Cock Chafer= also eats the foliage, and its large white grubs
devour the roots of the roses to such an extent that they often kill the
plant. As the grubs remain for three years in the ground the damage they
can do is incalculable; and they attack other plants besides roses.
Among the roots of a herbaceous Spiræa I lifted this last winter, I
caught forty of these grubs, and found they had so honey-combed the
roots that the plant had to be burnt.

The =Summer Chafer= and =Garden Chafer= also attack roses.

Where these four chafers are prevalent there is no cure but
hand-picking. The beetles must be collected off the bushes; and the
grubs carefully picked out of the roots, if we have reason to think they
are present from the rose appearing unhealthy. Or they may be tempted
out of the soil by placing grass turves upside down close to the plants,
when they can be picked out and killed with a little boiling water.

The =Rose Leaf-cutting Bee= spoils the foliage by cutting semi-circular
pieces out of the leaves to line its nest. A few years ago I found that
a fine young plant of _Tea Rambler_ was so relished by this bee that
hardly a leaf was left intact. There is no cure but to watch the bee
going into her nest and there to destroy it after dusk.

       *       *       *       *       *

Of all pests that the rose-grower has to fight against


are the very worst. For there is no real remedy against their endless
and varied depredations save hand-picking; or as some one has tersely
put it, "just a little gentle washing with non-caustic substances, and
just a lot of finger-and-thumb work." This is tedious, and often
disgusting; but it is the only way.

These loathsome pests are the larvæ of certain flies and many kinds of

=Sawflies=, the little black and shiny flies which infest the roses in
May and June, are a terrible pest, as the eggs they lay on the leaves
turn quickly into small, green larvæ. There are several kinds of
sawflies, and their destructive methods vary. The Leaf-rolling Sawfly,
whose larvæ roll the rose-leaves like paper spills, has become a serious
pest among garden roses of late years, and if these rolls are carefully
unfolded the little green maggot will be found in one of them. It must
be caught with care, as it is very lively, and if allowed to fall to the
ground will remain there, and produce a fresh brood in the next year.

The =Rose Slugworm= is much more common, and most destructive, eating
the upper surface of the leaves and leaving the lower to shrivel up. It
has two broods in the year.

The =Rose Emphytus= is another of the sawflies, and one of the worst.
Its larva eats the whole leaf away, beginning at the mid rib, and also
works its way into a cell in the branches till the next spring, thus
killing the tender growths above. This is the green caterpillar which we
find coiled up on the under-side of the rose-leaves, or in early morning
and late evening curled round the base of a rose-bud, working its way
through the calyx into the heart of the flower. It is far easier to
catch, as it is somewhat sluggish in movement, clean and hard in
substance--and therefore less disgusting to touch than others that
squash in one's fingers. The best remedies for these pests are: first,
prevention, by spraying with hellebore wash, which I have found most
useful. Second, by careful hand-picking when the larvæ appear. And
third, by removing the surface soil in which the cocoons are buried, and
all dead wood, during the winter.

Hellebore wash is made in the following proportion--

          1 oz. fresh-ground hellebore powder.
          2 oz. flour.
          3 gallons of water.

Mix the hellebore and flour with a little water till dissolved; then
stir into the rest of the water and apply with a fine Abol Syringe.

=Caterpillars= of many moths are among the most deadly foes of the rose.
Some eat the foliage--such as the Buff Tip and Vapourer Moths; others
tunnel into the leaves. But the worst of all are the Tortrix Moths or
Rose Maggots, whose repulsive grubs eat the unopened blossoms and spin
the delicate young leaves together, destroying the whole top of the new
shoots. There are many varieties of Tortrix, which are all quite small
moths, and their caterpillars or "Maggots" are the most unpleasant and
destructive of all we have to deal with. The worst of all are the Red
and the Brown Rose Maggots. These creatures are dirty red or brown, with
black heads; they are soft, and grow very fat, and when full grown are
half an inch long. They spin the leaves together at the top of the
tender young flowering shoots, often bending the top down; and not only
eat the leaves in the midst of this filthy fortress, but eat their way
into the buds and destroy them.

Other Tortrix Moths have green and yellow-green maggots. The worst is
the Green Rose Maggot--bluish-green with a black head. It also spins the
leaves together, and grows nearly as large as the brown. It is extremely
active, and very soft and slimy.

These all turn to pupæ among the leaves instead of in the soil; and any
left in the foliage must be picked out and burnt. If we wait until the
shoots and buds are eaten and the foliage spoilt--nay, till often the
whole of our early flowers are ruined--the only remedy is to pinch the
leaves which conceal the maggot, if we have courage to do so, or to
hand-pick every one we see. But happily a way exists of preventing these
loathsome pests from destroying our roses. And this is to spray the
plants from the middle of April to early in May with _arsenate of
lead_.[9] This should be done twice, and will prevent many other
caterpillars from feeding on the foliage.

=The Vapourer Moth=, the little golden brown moth with a tiny white
crescent on each wing, is unfortunately common everywhere, in town as
well as country; and its caterpillars are as destructive as they are
beautiful. These caterpillars are found in great masses upon the
hawthorn and fruit trees, and attack the rose as well. They are
handsome, hairy creatures, spotted thickly with bright pink-red
tubercles, with four erect tufts of yellow hairs on the back, and five
longer tufts of darker hairs, two pointing forwards, one backwards over
the tail, and two at the sides.

If there are too many to be hand-picked the bushes must be sprayed with
_arsenate of lead_.

=The Buff Tip Moth= does most harm in the autumn, when its caterpillars,
yellow and green, with longitudinal black lines divided by yellow bands,
appear in colonies, feeding upon the surface of the leaves. They should
be picked off at once, before they grow large, as they reach a length of
two inches when full grown, and disperse, feeding singly. If very
plentiful, spraying with _arsenate of lead_ will destroy them.

=The Winter Moth=, which is such a serious pest among fruit trees, also
attacks roses. The caterpillar is hatched very early, in the end of
March and beginning of April. It is a "Looper," greyish at first and
turning green later, and nearly an inch long when full grown.

The grease bands we use on fruit trees to catch the wingless female as
she creeps up in the autumn to lay her eggs on the bark, would be
difficult to use for rose-bushes. The only plan therefore is to spray
very early in the season with _arsenate of lead_ wash.[10]

Another "Looper" found early on the roses is that of the =Mottled Umber
Moth=. It is brown with yellowish sides, looks almost like a twig, and
is over an inch long. It must be hand-picked.

The =Dagger Moth's= caterpillar--a long, grey-black creature with a
yellow line along the back, a large black hump on the shoulder and a
small one at the tail, is most destructive when it appears in late
summer and early autumn. It is generally found singly; but one specimen
will strip a whole shoot of leaves, leaving only the mid rib.
Hand-picking is the only remedy.

These are the chief of the pests which we have to fight against. And if
we desire to keep our roses in health and beauty we must remember that
prevention is better than cure, and begin our treatment in good time,
before the many enemies of the rose get too firm a hold.



For Aphis or Green Fly.

          1. _Abol._ _White's Superior_-instructions with
          each can.

          2. _Soft soap and Quassia Wash._

          Best soft soap  1 lb.
          Quassia chips   2½ lb.
          Water          25 gallons.

Dissolve the soap in boiling (soft) water. Boil the chips or simmer for
twelve hours, adding water from time to time to cover them. Strain off
the liquid, mix it with the dissolved soap, stirring them together
thoroughly, then add the water.

          3. _Tobacco Wash_--also useful for Cuckoo Spit,
          Thrips and Leaf-Hoppers.

          1 part tobacco juice.
          15 parts water.
          Add a little dissolved soft soap.

          4. _Hellebore Wash_ for Sawflies.

          Fresh-ground hellebore  1 oz.
          Flour                   2 oz.
          Water                   3 gallons.

Mix the flour and hellebore powder with a little water. Then add the
rest of the water. It must be kept stirred, and used with a fine spray.
_Hellebore is poison._

          5. _Arsenate of Lead_ for Caterpillars.

This is a poisonous wash, but the only one that can be used without
hurting the roses. It is made with the paste known as _Swift's Arsenate
Paste_, mixed with water.

          6. _Flowers of Sulphur_ blown over the plants for

_Liver of Sulphur Wash_ for Mildew and other fungi, and for Red Spider.

          Liver of sulphur   1 oz.
          Water             10 gallons.

Powdered hellebore may be dusted over the bushes for Sawflies, but the
hellebore wash is best.

All these washes can be used with the Abol Syringe. And in large gardens
Vermorel's Knapsack Sprayer is almost indispensable, as it does equally
well for roses and fruit trees.


[9] p. 149.

[10] p. 149.



(_By the_ REV. F. PAGE-ROBERTS, _Vice-President National Rose Society_,

IN writing this chapter my purpose is to tell, in a few clear words, the
way to grow fine roses, whether they be for exhibition or for private
delight; for the method and culture are identical, if the blooms are to
be worth looking at.

First, then, as to situation and soil. If possible, choose a position
for the beds sheltered from strong winds, yet not near large trees, or
hedges; for the roots will enter the beds and rob them of moisture and
nutriment. Buildings and walls are the best shelters.

Make the beds, if possible, in the highest part of the garden, and not
the lowest; roses like an open situation, though they need shelter from
strong winds, and shade, if possible, from the midday sun. In writing
these notes I do not wish to say anything that will discourage any one
from trying to grow exhibition roses; for they can be grown, more or
less well, in almost any situation, and any soil. Those who can choose
both are to be envied.

Then as to soil; some varieties, the H. Ps., will only give the finest
blooms in heavy loam; the H. Teas in a less heavy; and the Teas, the
most beautiful, though perhaps not so popular as the dark H. Ps., in
quite light sandy soil. So the grower must decide according to his
situation and soil what varieties to grow, remembering that the Teas are
liable to suffer from severe frost.

I make my beds three feet deep and three feet wide,[11] allowing for two
rows of roses, and a grass path about thirty inches wide between the
beds, grass being more sightly than gravel, and pleasanter to walk on.
The beds, if the soil is heavy, will be all the better for being raised
a little above the level of the paths; the roots do not like stagnant
water. The beds should be prepared in the autumn, a few weeks before the
end of October, that the soil may settle. The manure should be below the
roots, not touching them; the roots will find it, and it is better for
them to go down, than to come to the surface and suffer if the season be
dry. A good sprinkling of bone meal spread over the top soil before
planting (with a dusting of basic slag, three to four ounces per square
yard) will be all that is necessary at this time. Covering the beds with
manure in the winter is not recommended; and digging, or even turning it
in, in the spring, is not advisable, however carefully it is done, as
some of the roots must suffer, and, besides, manure does not protect the
roots. The beds should never be disturbed more than the depth that a hoe
will do it. The beds for H. Ts. and Teas should be prepared in the same
way. Beds wide enough for two rows are more easily managed than wider
ones, there being no need to tread on the soil when attending to the
plants, and they can be more easily hoed.

When selecting varieties, consult an expert, or better still, if you are
not a subscriber to the N. R. S. (and this all rosarians should be), get
a copy of the N. R. S. official catalogue of Roses, which can be
obtained by non-members through a member, price 2_s._ 6_d._ This will
give you all the information desired. A list of good roses for
exhibition is given at the end of this chapter. It is advisable to order
the plants early, as nurserymen execute orders in the order in which
they are received, and planting should be done during the end of October
and November; if not done then it must be deferred till February or

The distance of plants from each other depends a good deal upon the
varieties. Strong growers should be planted wider apart than small
growers; one foot apart is about the usual distance in the rows.

There are some varieties like _A. K. Williams_, _Mrs. W. J. Grant_, and
_Horace Vernet_, that do not transplant well. These ought to be budded,
and not moved, if possible. Dwarf-rooted stocks can be bought of the
nurserymen at a small cost; and the Standard stocks, the best for Tea
roses, can be usually got in the neighbouring hedges.

=Pruning.=[12]--The object of pruning is to give increased vigour to the
plant, and to keep it within bounds; to make, if possible, a new plant
each year, a new top to the old roots. And to do this, severe pruning is
absolutely necessary. The harder the pruning, the stronger the growth.
Each variety should be pruned according to its growth. If very vigorous,
they require less cutting back than those of moderate, or weakly growth.

H. Ps. will be pruned harder than either H. Ts. or Teas; the latter, on
account of frost, will sometimes do with little pruning beyond cutting
out all dead and weakly shoots, and shortening slightly the long
straggling ones. In all cases do not allow the centre of the plant to be
crowded. The H. Ps. as a rule, may be cut down to two or three eyes,
leaving the very vigorous shoots of some kinds even five or six eyes;
but all weak shoots must be cut down to the base of the plant. This
pruning should be done in March, leaving the Teas till April. If in
pruning the pith be found to be dark in colour, the shoot must be cut
back. Sometimes it will be necessary to cut it quite away, if no
light-coloured pith can be seen. Then a certain amount of pruning or
thinning of the shoots is necessary in the spring, after the roses have
started growing; three to six shoots only, according to the variety,
should be left. A thinning again in autumn, of the shoots that have done
their work, will give the later shoots a better chance of ripening.

=Manuring.=--Farmyard dung is the best of all fertilisers, and this
should be used, as has been pointed out,[13] when the beds are being
made, so that there is plenty of good nutriment below the roots. Nitrate
of soda and Guano, both soluble, may be sprinkled on the surface
alternately once a week after the plants have begun to grow, and hoed
in. Manure put on for a mulch in winter does little or no good. The very
best and only mulch, winter and summer, is a loose soil surface; and for
this the hoe must be kept at work, especially after rain or watering. A
good liquid manure is made by putting a barrowful of fresh cow manure
into a large barrel, _a big wine pipe_ is the thing; add soft water to
thin it, put in a bag of soot, and fill up with rain-water. After
settling, this will be ready for use. Liquid manure must not be given
when the soil is dry, but only after rain or a good watering. Soot
dusted over the beds is beneficial, and may also destroy a certain
amount of Mildew. The drainage from the farmyard should not be allowed
to waste, as is so often the case; but if well diluted it makes a good
liquid manure. Do not apply the fertiliser close to the stem, but
distribute over the whole ground. Remember when giving liquid manure the
same rule holds good, "Strong meat for men, milk for babes."

Strong growing varieties will stand more than weak ones, and no liquid
manure should be given to newly planted trees. A dressing of Basic Slag
in the autumn is recommended.

=Pests.=[14]--These are many, and the remedies are few and simple.
Caterpillars, large and small, must be hunted for daily and killed with
finger and thumb from April to July, however unpleasant the process may
be, or the most promising buds will be spoiled. For destroying Aphis,
which are very troublesome some years, a solution made by boiling
Quassia chips in water, and adding soft soap when cooling, is often
used; though "finger and thumb" drawn gently up the stem when the insect
is first seen, puts an end to those on the shoot; and finger and thumb
is even recommended for destroying Mildew on its first appearance,
though this cannot be done when there is a bad attack.

Nothing in my experience equals Flowers of Sulphur for Mildew, when
distributed by an "Ideal" powder bellows. This should be done quite
early in the morning, when there is a promise of a hot, sunny day. If
the wind is not too strong, the Sulphur will float through the plants
like a cloud of smoke, searching into every part. This should be
repeated once a week, and even before there is a sign of Mildew on the
leaves, prevention being better than cure. But I know no remedy that
will quite destroy it.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Exhibiting.=--If the grower wishes to exhibit his flowers, he should
follow the instructions here given; and I would also advise the reading
of the late Rev. A. Foster Melliar's book on exhibiting, and the Rev. J.
H. Pemberton's--both most excellent books--which enter more fully into
particulars than space allows me to do.

The number of shoots having been reduced,[15] it will soon be time to
gradually take away all the buds, except the centre bud and one other.
This also must be taken away, as soon as the centre bud looks healthy
and free from damage. Very strong growers, like _Florence Pemberton_,
and those varieties having a great number of petals, will do better if
the buds are not much thinned, or they will be coarse.

The N.R.S. definition of a good rose is: "The highest type of bloom is
one which has form, size, brightness, substance, and good foliage, and
which is at the time of judging in the most perfect phase of its
possible beauty."

It will be necessary in the case of Hybrid Perpetuals to select the bud,
which should be about three-quarters open, two days before the show
(four or even five days for Teas), and to tie up, not tightly, the
centre of the flower with Berlin wool, leaving the outer petals free,
taking care that it is not wet with rain, or even dew. Bend the shoot
down, if possible, and cover with a shade; some clean litter spread
under dwarfs on the ground will keep the flower from being splashed by
heavy rains. Teas are improved if covered with a cone of butter paper,
as well as the shade; and some may be cut two days before the show, and
if put in a dry, dark cellar, will remain in good condition. _Maréchal
Niel_ will improve in colour by being kept in the dark. The best time
for cutting H. Ps. is from four to seven o'clock the evening before the
show; they will lose a little in colour, but will stand longer than if
cut before six o'clock on the morning of the show. Use garden scissors
in preference to a knife. When getting the blooms, cut the stem five or
six inches long, and remove the lower leaves, which only fill up the
tube and do no good to the flower, and do not add to its appearance in
the box. A receptacle with water should be taken round when cutting, and
the flowers put in immediately and never allowed to become dry (the
water must not be cold). The name should be attached at once.

The regulation size of the N. R. S. for rose boxes is "4 inches high in
front and 18 inches wide, and of the following lengths (all outside
measurements). For 24 blooms, 3 ft. 6 ins. long; for 18 blooms, 2 ft. 9
ins. long; for 12 blooms, 2 ft. long; for 9 blooms, 1 ft. 6 ins. long;
for 6 blooms, 1 ft. long; for 8 trebles, 3 ft. 6 ins. long; for 6
trebles, 2 ft. 9 ins. long; for 4 trebles, 2 ft. long." The lid should
have a depth of 9 inches to allow room for the blooms. Boxes are
supplied at a moderate price by John Pinches, 3 Crown Buildings, Crown
Street, Camberwell, who also supplies tubes, wire holders, and shades;
they can also be obtained from horticultural firms. The tray of the box
should be covered with moss. When the roses are all arranged for the
night, give a little air by putting a prop under the lid, and leave the
box in a cool place. When the boxes are placed on the show tables, lift
the lids sufficiently high to get at the flowers. Each tube should be
lifted and the rose raised, taking care that the stem is in the water.
All damaged outer petals must be removed, and the flower if full with
substance in it, may have the wool removed. Assist the opening of the
blooms with a camel's hair brush. A gentle puff with the mouth at the
centre will loosen tightly packed petals. Care must be taken when
"dressing" a bloom, not to alter its character; for this, according to
N. R. S., "shall count as a bad bloom." The ties must not be removed
from the thin ones (those with few petals) until the last minute, when
it is time to remove the lids. It will be necessary to take a few extra
blooms in different stages of growth, to replace any in the box that
have expanded; for a rose showing an eye gains no point. Care must be
taken that there are no duplicates, but all distinct according to
"schedule." Once exhibit at an important show, and many lessons will be
learnt which can only be learnt there and then.


_Hybrid Perpetuals._

          Alfred Colomb
          A. K. Williams
          Bob Davison
          Captain Hayward
          Charles Lefebvre
          Commandant Felix Faure
          Comte Raimbaud
          Dr. Andry
          Duke of Wellington
          Dupuy Jemain
          Fisher Holmes
          François Michelon
          Frau Karl Druschki
          Helen Keller
          Horace Vernet
          Hugh Dickson
          Hugh Watson
          Marie Baumann
          Mrs. Cocker
          Mrs. John Laing
          Mrs. Sharman Crawford
          Prince Arthur
          Suzanne Marie Rodocanachi
          Ulrich Brunner
          Victor Hugo

_Hybrid Teas._

          Bessie Brown
          Caroline Testout
          C. J. Grahame
          Countess of Derby
          Countess of Gosford
          Dean Hole
          Earl of Warwick
          Florence Pemberton
          George Laing Paul
          J. B. Clarke
          Kaiserin Augusta Victoria
          La France
          Lady Ashtown
          Lady Helen Vincent
          Lady Moyra Beauclerk
          Mme. Melanie Soupert
          Marquise Litta
          Mildred Grant
          Mrs. G. W. Kershaw
          Mrs. John Bateman
          Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt
          Mrs. W. J. Grant
          Perle von Godesberg
          Princesse Marie Mertchersky
          Queen of Spain
          William Shean
          Yvonne Vacherot


          Anna Olivier
          Auguste Comte
          Catherine Mermet
          Comtesse de Nadaillac
          Ernest Metz
          Innocent Pirola
          Mme. Constant Soupert
          Mme. Cusin
          Mme. de Watteville
          Mme. Hoste
          Mme. Jules Gravereaux
          Maman Cochet
          Maréchal Niel
          Mrs. Edward Mawley
          Mrs. Myles Kennedy
          Muriel Grahame
          Souv. d'Elise Vardon
          Souv. de Pierre Notting
          Souv. de S. A. Prince
          Souv. d'un Ami
          The Bride
          White Maman Cochet


[11] See Chapter I, "Making the Beds."

[12] See Chapter II.

[13] See Chapter I, and above, p. 152.

[14] See Chapter X.

[15] See above.



    Abol syringe, 138, 148.

    Abol, White's Superior, 141, 148.

      _See_ Green Fly.

    Aphis Lion, 140.

    Arsenate of lead, 146-9.


    Beds, depth, 6, 152.
    -- size of, 5, 152.

    Bee, leaf cutting, 143.

    Beetles, 142-3.

    Black spot, 138.

    Black sulphur, 138.

    Budding, 27-30.


    Caterpillars, 143-8, 156.

    Chalcid fly, 140.

    Cock chafer, 142.

    Cuckoo spit, 141-2.

    Cuttings, 30-34.
    -- under glass, 32.
    -- open ground, 33-4.

    Cutting dead blooms, 21.


    Drainage, 2-3, 152.

    Draughts, danger of, 1-2.


    "Enemies of the Rose," 136.

    Exhibiting, 157.
    -- arranging at the show, 159.
    -- cutting the blooms, 158.
    -- disbudding, 157.
    -- rose boxes, 158-9.
    -- rose tubes, 159.
    -- shading, 158.

    Exhibiting, selecting the bud, 157.
    -- thinning the shoots, 154.
    -- tying the blooms, 157.

    Exhibition roses--
    -- -- beds for, 151-2.
    -- -- distance of plants, 153.
    -- -- manures, 152, 155.
    -- -- pruning, 154.
    -- -- selecting varieties, 153.
    -- -- soil, 152.


    Flowers of sulphur, 137, 150, 156.

    Frog fly.
      _See_ Cuckoo spit.

    Fungi, 136-9.


    Green fly, 139-41.
    -- -- remedies for, 148-9, 156.


    Heeling in roses, 9.

    Hellebore wash, 145, 149.

    Hoeing, importance of, 14, 155.

    Hover fly, 140.


    Ichneumon fly, 140.

    "Ideal" powder bellows, 138, 156.


    Labels, 13.

    Ladybirds, 140.

    Layering, 34-6.

    Liver of sulphur, 138, 150.


    -- Basic slag, 7, 156.

    Manures, farm yard, 6-7, 155.
    -- Guano, 155.
    -- liquid, 155-6.
    -- Nitrate of soda, 155.

    Mildew, 137-141, 155-6.
    -- remedies for, 137-8, 150, 156.

    Mo-Effic, 138.


    National Rose Society, 136, 153, 157-8-9.

    Noisette, Philippe, 68.


    Paraffin, danger of, 140-1.

    Planting, 10-14.
    -- dates for, 7, 153.
    -- depth, 9-10.

    Potassium sulphide.
      _See_ Liver of Sulphur.

    Position, 1, 151.

    Propagating, 27.

    Provins, 40.

    Pruning, 14-27.
    -- Banksia roses, 26, 54.
    -- dates for, 16.
    -- directions for, 22-7.
    -- for exhibition, 154.
    -- Fortune's Yellow, 26.
    -- Noisettes, 20.
    -- object of, 19, 154.
    -- Ramblers, 20.


    Raffia, 12, 30.

    Rivers, Mr. Thomas, 111.
    -- Amateur's Rose Guide, 35-6, 72, 82, 112, 123.

    Rose, Apothecary's, 40.
    -- Blush tea-scented, 81.
    -- Camoëns, 125.
    -- Caroline Testout, 97.
    -- Cherokee, 54, 63.
    -- Conrad F. Meyer, 46.
    -- Crimson Perpetual, 111.
    -- Crimson Rambler, 58.
    -- de Meaux, 23, 37, 39.
    -- de Provins, 39.
    -- Devoniensis, 82.
    -- Fortune's Yellow, 20, 69-70.
    -- Frau Karl Druschki, 114.
    -- General Schablikine, 85.
    -- Gloire de Dijon, 82.
    -- -- -- Rosamènes, 112, 124.
    -- Jaune Desprez, 69.
    -- La France, 93.
    -- Lyon, 43.
    -- Mme. Constant Soupert, 85.
    -- Mme. Segond Weber, 95, 98.
    -- M. Tillier, 84.
    -- Peace, 85, 99.
    -- Perpetual Damask, 124.
    -- Rêve d'Or, 71.
    -- Souv. d'un Ami, 81.
    -- Yellow China, 81.

    Rose-chafer, 143.
    -- Leaf scorch, 138.
    -- Pests, 136-50, 156.
    -- -- remedies for, 148-150, 156.
    -- roots, care of, 8-9.
    -- -- and manure, 7, 10, 152.

    -- arrangements in colour, 114-16.
    -- Alba, 41, 48.
    -- Austrian briars, 42, 49.
    -- Autumn flowing climbers, 68-79.
    -- Ayrshire, 52, 62.
    -- Banksian, 53-4, 63.
    -- Bourbon, 123, 130.
    -- Boursault, 55, 63.
    -- Brunonis, 73.
    -- Cabbage or Provence, 38, 47.
    -- China, 126, 131.
    -- Damask, 41, 48.
    -- Dwarf Polyantha, 128, 133.
    -- Evergreen, 53, 63.
    -- French or Gallica, 39-40, 48.
    -- Hungarian, 56, 64.
    -- Hybrid China, 56-7, 64, 112.
    -- Hybrid Perpetual, 111-122.
    -- -- -- climbing, 74, 76.
    -- Hybrid Tea, 92-110.
    -- -- -- climbing, 76-9.
    -- Irish single, 90, 110.
    -- Macartney, 73.
    -- Moss, 39, 47-8.
    -- Multiflora or Rambler, 57-9, 65-6.
    -- Musk, 71-3.
    -- Noisette, 68-71, 74-5.
    -- Pernetiana, 42-3, 50.
    -- Prairie, 55, 64.
    -- Rugosa or Ramanas, 45-7, 50-1.
    -- Scotch briar, 45, 50.
    -- Sinica, 54, 63.
    -- Summer-flowering dwarf, 36-51.
    -- -- climbing, 52-67.
    -- Sweet briar, 44, 50.
    -- -- -- Penzance, 43-4, 50.
    -- Tea, 80-92.
    -- -- climbing, 70-9.
    -- Wichuraiana, 60-2, 66-7.


    Sawflies, 144-5.

    Sécateurs, 9, 17.

    Shades for rose blooms, 159.

    Shelter, 2, 151.

    Size of beds, 5, 152.

    Soil, 3-5, 152.

    Soot, use of, 155.

    Sooty mould, 139.

    Standards, 116, 154.
    -- budding, 28.
    -- planting, 12.


    Tarred twine, 12.

    Trenching, 6.


    Unpacking new roses, 8.


    -- Abol, White's Superior, 148.
    -- Arsenate of lead, 146-9.
    -- Hellebore, 145, 149.
    -- Liver of sulphur, 138, 150.
    -- Soft soap and Quassia, 140, 149, 156.
    -- Tobacco, 141-2, 149.

    Wire, danger of, 12-13.

          BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.


_The Nurseries_,



   12 Best Selected Standard H.P. Roses for       =15/-=
  100  "      "     Dwarf     "     "    "        =60/-=
   12  "      "       "       "     "    "         =9/-=
   12  "      "     Climbing Roses       "        =10/-=
   12  "      "  Standard Tea & H.T. Roses        =21/-=
   12  "      "     Dwarf     "     "    "        =12/-=

       *       *       *       *       *

   10 Selected Pyramid Plums, best Dessert for        =15/-=
   10    "        "      "      "  Kitchen  "         =15/-=
   10    "        "    Pears, best vars.    "         =15/-=
   10    "        "    Apples   "  Dessert  "         =15/-=
   10    "        "      "      "  Kitchen  "         =15/-=
  Standard Fruit Trees from            =18/-= to =30/-= doz.
  Grape Vines, from                    =5/-= to =15/-= each.
  Dwarf-trained Plums, Pears, Apples and Cherries
                                        =2/6= to =3/6= each.
       "      Peaches, Nectarines, and Apricots,
                                                 =5/-= each.
  Gooseberries and Currants              =4/-= to =6/-= doz.
  Specimen Trees, Conifers, &c. from   =2/6= to =42/-= each.
  100 Flowering Shrubs in Variety for                 =40/-=
  Rhododendrons, from                             =18/-= doz.

          Forest Trees, Evergreen Shrubs, all sizes and
          prices. Climbers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

          All our Trees are well grown and very hardy.

       *       *       *       *       *

          _=Write for Catalogue "L," free on Application.=_

       *       *       *       *       *

  _=Established 130 Years.=_

  Telephone: 18 Berkhamsted. Telegrams: "Lane, Berkhamsted."



which destroys Moss, Daisies, Plantains, and other disfiguring weeds on
lawns and greens, at the same time so promoting the growth of the finer
grasses that spaces previously occupied by weeds are quickly covered by
a sward of fine close-growing grass which will preserve its good colour
under conditions of continuous use and drought. It may be applied during
dry weather at almost any season of the year.

=THE EFFECT= of an application is apparent within a few hours. The weeds
blacken and die, but the grass soon recovers its colour.

=QUANTITY REQUIRED= 28 lbs. will dress from 100 to 150 square yards,
according to the number and variety of weeds.

=PRICES.= CARRIAGE PAID. Packages free; sample tin =1/3=; 7 lbs., =2/-=;
14 lbs., =3/6=; 28 lbs., =6/-=; 56 lbs., =11/-=; 1 cwt., =20/-=; 5 cwt.,
=90/-=; 10 cwt., =170/-=; 20 cwt., =£16-10-0=.



The use of which dispenses with hoeing and weeding, and keeps the
surface bright and firm. It does not burn, stain or smell offensively.
Used in every County during the last fifteen years by Municipal Bodies,
surveyors, estate agents, etc.

=LIQUID WEED KILLER.= One gall. makes 51 galls. sufficient for 160 to
200 square yards. PRICES (carriage paid) Drums and Casks Free: ½-gall.
=2/3=; 1 gall. =3/6=; 5 galls. =15/-=; 10 galls. =26/-=; 20 galls.
=50/-=; 40 galls. =90/-=;

=POWDER WEED KILLER.= Packed in air-tight tins. Mixes readily in cold
water without heat or fumes. Equal in effectiveness to the liquid.
Convenient to store and handle, it will keep for an indefinite period.
Measure to make small quantities enclosed with each order.

=PRICES= Carriage Paid Tins Free. =No. 1 Tin= makes 25 galls. to dress
80 to 100 yards, =2/-=; 2 tins =3/6=; 12 tins =20/-=. =No. 2 Tin= makes
100 galls. to dress 320 to 400 square yards, =6/6=; 2 tins =12/6=; 5
tins =28/-=; 10 tins =55/-=; 20 tins =100/-=.



It is a dry non-poisonous powder which should be freely dug into the
soil to destroy wireworm and other larvæ, while for Ants, Slugs, and
Woodlice, a light sprinkling on the surface is sufficient. When making
up potting soil, manure or leaf mould, an occasional sprinkling will
increase the manurial value and also destroy the worms and other
insects. By use of '=ALPHOL=', ground which previously teemed with
insect life will grow splendid crops.


=QUANTITY REQUIRED= On medium and heavy land 28 lbs. will dress 250
square yards, or 5 cwt. will dress an acre; on light sandy land, 25%
more will be required; for compost and manure heaps 7 to 14 lbs. to each

=PRICES.= CARRIAGE PAID. 7 lbs. =2/-=; 14 lbs. =3/-=; 28 lbs =5/-=; 56
lbs. =8/6=; 1 cwt. =15/-=; 5 cwt. =75/-=; 10 cwt. =£7=; 20 cwt.
=£13-10.= (Sample Tin =1/3= post free)


  THE BOUNDARY CHEMICAL Co Ltd., Cranmer St., Liverpool.


Indispensable to all lovers of a garden are our Rose and BULB
CATALOGUES, containing 100 unpublished Illustrations.

FULL CULTURAL DIRECTIONS sent free on application by


          =The Largest Rose Growers and Bulb Importers of
          the Continent. Orders from £1 sent free of

Our products are Stronger, Hardier and Cheaper than anywhere else.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Artistic Garden Trellis, Arches, Pergolas, Arbours, and similar goods
for training Climbing Roses.=


          =WALTERS & Co.,
          16 Water Lane,
          Great Tower Street,
          LONDON, E.C.=



  One of the most complete Collections on the Globe.
  First-class Plants Unsurpassed.
  Export trade all over the world.
  Raisers of famous Novelties.
  All best New Roses of British, American and Continental raisers.


  LUXEMBOURG, Grand Duchy.

  Rose Growers by Royal Appointment. Established Half a Century.

  Illustrated Catalogue Gratis
  and Post Free on application.

All Strong and Home-grown Plants.



Collection "C" Garden Roses.

The Finest selection of =25 Garden Roses= possible in dwarf plants for
=15s.= (with Acme Labels, =17s. 6d.=), carriage and packing free for
cash with order. Full details on application

Send for Catalogue No. 28, giving full details, and is also a full
descriptive list of Roses, Fruits, Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, and Plants,
post free on application to--

          Messrs. H. MERRYWEATHER & SONS, Ltd.
          Garden Specialists,


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Text uses: Eugène Verdier; Eugénie
Verdier, and Eugéne Verdier. This was retained. Unless a large majority
was noticed, accents, except where noted, were left as in the original.

Page 40, Illustration caption, "Apothecaries'" changed to "Apothecary's"
to match text (Apothecary's Rose)

Page 51, "rosy" changed to "Rosy" (1890. Rosy carmine)

Page 53, Illustration caption, "ÉLICITÉ" changed to "FÉLICITÉ"

Page 56, "he" changed to "the" (the Prairies)

Page 57, "Hebé" changed to "Hébé" (_Coupe d'Hébé_ and)

Page 62, "dou le" changed to "double" (white, large, double)

Page 66, "Debutante" changed to "Débutante" (Débutante. _Walsh_)

Page 77, "Barre" changed to "Barré" (Billiard and Barré)

Page 78, "perè" changed to "père" (_Levet père_, 1880)

Page 88, "Lady Mary Corry" was moved above "Lena" to maintain
alphabetical order of list.

Page 94, "Camöens" changed to "Camoëns" (them. _Camoëns_)

Page 97, "Grunerwald" changed to "Grünerwald" (Gustave Grünerwald)

Page 124, "Chateau" changed to "Château" (Château de Neuilly, near)

Page 164, "SUFFOK" changed to "SUFFOLK" (BUNGAY, SUFFOLK)

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