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Title: 'Phiz' (Hablot Knight Browne), a Memoir.
Author: Kitton, Fred. G.
Language: English
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"PHIZ"

(H. K. BROWNE)

A Memoir.


_From PUNCH, July 22nd, 1882._

"Phiz."

HABLOT K. BROWNE, ARTIST. BORN, 1815. DIED, JULY, 1882.

    The Lamp is out that lighted up the text
      Of DICKENS, LEVER--heroes of the pen.
    _Pickwick_ and _Lorrequer_ we love, but next
      We place the man who made us see such men.
    What should we know of _Martin Chuzzlewit_,
      Stern _Mr. Dombey_, or _Uriah Heep_?
    _Tom Burke of Ours?_--Around our hearths they sit,
      Outliving their creators--all asleep!

          No sweeter gift ere fell to man than his
          Who gave us troops of friends--delightful PHIZ!

    He is not dead! There in the picture-book
      He lives with men and women that he drew;
    We take him with us to the cozy nook
      Where old companions we can love anew.
    Dear boyhood's friend! We rode with him to hounds;
      Lived with dear _Peggotty_ in after years;
    Missed in old Ireland where fun knew no bounds;
      At _Dora's_ death we felt poor _David's_ tears!

          There is no death for such a man--he is
          The spirit of an unclosed book! immortal PHIZ!

[Illustration]



"PHIZ"

(HABLOT KNIGHT BROWNE)

A Memoir.

INCLUDING

_A Selection from his Correspondence and Notes on his Principal Works._

BY

FRED. G. KITTON.

WITH A PORTRAIT, AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONDON:
W. SATCHELL & CO.,
19, TAVISTOCK STREET COVENT GARDEN.

MDCCCLXXXII.


LONDON:
G. NORMAN AND SON, PRINTERS, HART STREET,
COVENT GARDEN.



PREFACE.


Taking into consideration the ability of the Artist whose name has
become identified with the works of DICKENS, of LEVER, and of AINSWORTH;
and who has contributed in the course of the present century more
largely (perhaps with the single exception of CRUIKSHANK) to the
embellishment of popular books than any other known illustrator; it
would seem an inexcusable omission, almost amounting to neglect, if the
life and labours of the late HABLOT KNIGHT BROWNE met with no more
worthy recognition than the fleeting comments of the daily press.

Such, at least, is my opinion; and as a humble tribute to the memory of
an able and industrious draughtsman, and fertile designer, I place on
record the more generally interesting particulars of an honourable and
exemplary career.

To Mr. W. G. BROWNE and Dr. EDGAR BROWNE, sons of the deceased artist,
my best thanks are due for a kindly interest in my work, manifested more
especially by the loan of many interesting letters dashed off on various
occasions by "Phiz" in the wildest spirit of fun; and a willing consent
to their appearance in print.

I have also to acknowledge the courtesy of Messrs. H. SOTHERAN & CO.,
for permission to copy for publication a few letters written by "Phiz"
to CHARLES DICKENS, which are now published for the first time. For the
Portrait (copied from a photograph, perhaps the best of the very few now
in existence) I am indebted to the Proprietors of _The Graphic_.

And lastly, the Author desires to associate with this brochure the name
of his friend, Mr. GEORGE REDWAY, who has rendered much valuable
assistance in bringing it before the public.

FRED. G. KITTON.

25, PAULTONS SQUARE,
CHELSEA, S.W.

_August, 1882_.



LIST OF PLATES.


Portrait of "Phiz" (H. K. Browne)               FRONTISPIECE

The Departure                                To face page  8

Artist's "Fancies for Mr. Dombey"                    "    11

Sam Weller and his Father                            "    14

Tail-piece to _Barnaby Rudge_                        "    16

Dick Swiveller and the Lodger                        "    20

Death of Quilp                                       "    26

The Rioters                                          "    30

NOTE.--With the exception of the Portrait, and the "Dombey fancies," the
above engravings are printed from electro-types of the original blocks,
which were first published in _Master Humphrey's Clock_ (1840-1).



"PHIZ" (H. K. BROWNE) A MEMOIR.


"Fizz, Whizz, or something of that sort," humorous TOM HOOD would say,
when trying to recall the pseudonym that has since become so familiar by
means of the innumerable works of art to which it was appended. At the
time HABLOT[A] KNIGHT BROWNE first used this quaint _soubriquet_, it was
customary to look upon book-illustrators as second, or even third-rate
artists--mere hacks in fact; and for this reason they usually suppressed
their real names, in order to give themselves the opportunity of earning
the title of _artist_, when producing more ambitious results as
painters. Occasionally, whether by accident or design, the subject of
this memoir would affix his real name to his illustrations; and the
public were consequently under the impression that the two signatures
were those of different artists, and were even wont to remark that
"_Browne's work was better than that of 'Phiz!_'"

It is not, perhaps, generally known that the artist's first _nom de
crayon_ was "NEMO," which to some extent bears out the above statement
that a book-illustrator was considered a "nobody." Mr. BROWNE himself,
in referring to the _Pickwick Papers_, gave the following
explanation:--"I think I signed myself as 'NEMO' to my first etchings
(those of No. 4) before adopting 'Phiz' as my _soubriquet_, to
harmonize--I suppose--better with Dickens' 'Boz.'" It is only on the
earliest printed plates in some copies of the _Pickwick Papers_ that the
signature of "NEMO" can be faintly traced.

HABLOT KNIGHT BROWNE, son of William Loder Browne, a descendant from a
Norfolk family, was born on the 12th of July, 1815, at Kennington,
London. He was educated at a private school in Norfolk, and from an
early age evinced a taste for drawing, which, being recognized by his
relatives, induced them to apprentice him to FINDEN, the well-known
line-engraver. An anecdote is told of him during his apprenticeship
which will bear repetition. Finding BROWNE very painstaking and
conscientious, his master usually sent him with engraved plates to the
printer, in order that he might superintend the operation of
proof-taking. As printers usually take their own time over such matters,
the youth found that this waiting the pressman's pleasure tried his
patience too much. It therefore occurred to him that to spend the
interval in the British Museum, hard by, would be much more suited to
his tastes. On his returning with the proofs, FINDEN would praise the
boy's diligence, little thinking what trick had been practised on him.

Line-engraving, however, did not find much favour with the future
"Phiz," the process being too tedious; for FINDEN would probably occupy
some weeks to produce a small plate, which by the quicker process of
etching, could have been executed in as many hours. He accordingly
suspended operations in that quarter, and, in conjunction with a young
kindred spirit, hired a small attic, and employed his time in the more
fascinating pursuit of water-colour drawing, which he continued to
follow with remarkable assiduity until a few days before his death.

These juvenile disciples of the brush then worked hard at drawing in
colour. BROWNE paid his share of the rent in drawings, which he produced
rapidly; indeed, there was a solemn compact between the co-workers to
"do three a day"--they subsisting, meanwhile, on the simplest fare. At
this time he attended the evening class at the "Life" School in St.
Martin's Lane, and was a fellow-pupil with ETTY, the famous painter of
the "nude." It was BROWNE'S great delight to watch this talented student
at work, and he considerably neglected his own studies in consequence.

At the age of seventeen, or thereabouts, he succeeded in gaining a medal
offered for competition by the Society of Arts for the best
representation of an historical subject; and was again fortunate in
obtaining a prize, from the same Society, for a large etching of "John
Gilpin." Mr. GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA, himself an artist of no small
ability, remembers to have seen, in a shop-window in Wardour Street, a
certain print by a young man named HABLOT BROWNE, representing the
involuntary flight of John Gilpin, scattering the pigs and poultry in
his never-to-be-forgotten ride.

[Illustration]

By the time he had attained his twentieth year he had acquired
considerable facility with the pencil. CHARLES DICKENS, but three years
his senior, and with whom the name of "Phiz" is inseparably connected,
had just then made a wonderful reputation by his "Sketches," which first
appeared, at intervals, during 1834-5, and were afterwards published in
book form, illustrated by the renowned GEORGE CRUIKSHANK.

In 1836, there appeared in print a pamphlet of some forty or fifty
pages, entitled _Sunday under Three Heads--As it is; as Sabbath Bills
would make it; as it might be made_; "By Timothy Sparks; illustrated by
H. K. B.;" and dedicated to the Bishop of London. The author was CHARLES
DICKENS, whose satire was levelled at Sir Andrew Agnew and the extreme
Sabbatarian party, and had immediate reference to a bill "for the better
observance of the Sabbath," which the House of Commons had recently
thrown out by a small majority. The illustrations in this little work
were drawn by HABLOT BROWNE, and are very choice examples of
wood-engraving of the school that existed half a century ago. Its
original price was one shilling, but having become very scarce, it is
now worth more than its weight in gold.

These early productions of BROWNE'S pencil at once introduced him to
public notice, and DICKENS showed his appreciation of their excellence
by selecting him as the illustrator of the _Pickwick Papers_, which
appeared during the early part of that year. It is well known to the
readers of Forster's _Life of Dickens_, that the idea of "Pickwick" was
suggested to the author by ROBERT SEYMOUR, whose tastes induced him to
etch a few plates of sporting subjects to which DICKENS was to supply
the text. Thus commenced that immortal work known as _The Posthumous
Papers of the Pickwick Club_. SEYMOUR produced seven illustrations, when
he committed suicide, which obliged the publishers to make arrangements
with another artist. R. W. BUSS[B] succeeded SEYMOUR, and etched two
plates, which DICKENS, who had by this time assumed the control of the
work, thought so unsatisfactory (as indeed they were), that he declined
his further services. Here a fresh opening was created, and WILLIAM
MAKEPEACE THACKERAY competed with HABLOT KNIGHT BROWNE for the post;
both submitting to DICKENS' inspection some specimens of their work.

The choice fell upon "Phiz," the artist whose ability has so admirably
proved the wisdom of the selection; and THACKERAY thereupon determined
to adopt another profession, with what happy results let _Esmond_
testify. Who could say whether _Vanity Fair_ would ever have been
written had this mighty penman been chosen to succeed BUSS? It is
curious to note THACKERAY'S great anxiety to become an artist; he even
went abroad to study, but SALA tells us that "Mr. THACKERAY drew,
perhaps, rather worse than he had done before beginning his continental
studies, although at that time he actually supplied a series of etchings
to illustrate DOUGLAS JERROLD'S _Men of Character_, which were prodigies
of badness."

When "Phiz" had been selected as the illustrator of the _Pickwick
Papers_, his generous rival was the first to tell him the good news, and
offer his congratulations.

"Phiz" may now be said to have fairly commenced his career as a
book-illustrator. His sense of humour corresponded so exactly with that
of DICKENS, that a mere suggestion enabled him to vividly represent the
scenes described by the author. It has been remarked (and truly) that in
many cases the plates do not correspond with the text; but this can be
accounted for. DICKENS, then an enthusiastic young author, and somewhat
impetuous in his demands for drawings, would arrive unexpectedly at
BROWNE'S studio, hurriedly read a few pages of manuscript, and
exclaiming, "Now, I want you to illustrate that," would take an abrupt
departure, carrying the manuscript off with him. As soon as the artist
could collect his faculties, he would try to recall the scene so hastily
described, and endeavour to put it on paper. DICKENS himself, in his
preface to the _Pickwick Papers_, gives a similar explanation, viz.--"It
is due to the gentleman, whose designs accompany the letterpress, to
state that the interval has been so short between the production of each
number in manuscript and its appearance in print, that the greater
portion of the illustrations have been executed by the artist from the
author's verbal description of what he intended to write." It is
therefore not surprising that a few errors, in such details as the
number of boys in a procession,[C] or the dress of an individual, should
occur.

[Illustration]

Of DICKENS' Novels, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ contains, perhaps, our etcher's
most vigorous productions, but the small woodcut illustrations in
_Master Humphrey's Clock_ are very praiseworthy, and without doubt
conduced greatly to the popularity of the book.

The illustrations in the _Pickwick Papers_ are on the whole inferior to
many which "Phiz" subsequently executed. But an exception must be made
in favour of the artist's realization of the character of Sam Weller,
than which, even SEYMOUR'S happy invention of Mr. Pickwick did not more
effectually ensure the popularity of DICKENS' comic epic and give it a
"deathless date."

The extraordinary demand for copies of the _Pickwick Papers_
necessitated a re-etching of the copper-plates, which, owing to friction
caused by the printer's hand, had become very much worn. This
reproduction will account for any slight difference in the details of
the illustrations; for the repetition of subjects once etched, was a
task by no means congenial to the artist; and this no doubt induced him
to say, some years afterwards, in a letter to one of his sons, "O! I'm
a' weary, I'm a' weary of this illustrating business."

Artists frequently experience great difficulty in realizing, to the
author's satisfaction, the description of scenes and characters. An
illustration is here given showing BROWNE'S various "fancies for Mr.
Dombey," all of which failed to please DICKENS, who also expressed his
disapprobation of this artist's treatment of another subject in _Dombey
and Son_. "I am really distressed," writes he, "by the illustration of
Mrs. Pipchin and Paul. It is so frightfully and wildly wide of the mark.
Good Heaven! in the commonest and most literal construction of the text,
it is all wrong. She is described as an old lady, and Paul's 'miniature
arm-chair' is mentioned more than once. He ought to be sitting in a
little arm-chair down in the corner of the fire-place, staring up at
her. I can't say what pain and vexation it is to be so utterly
misrepresented. I would cheerfully have given a hundred pounds to have
kept this illustration out of the book. He never could have got that
idea of Mrs. Pipchin if he had attended to the text. Indeed, I think he
does better without the text; for then the notion is made easy to him in
short description, and he can't help taking it in."

As the tale proceeded, the artist more than compensated for his
unsuccessful rendering of this incident; and with "Micawber," in _David
Copperfield_, he obtained the author's entire approbation, who says,
"Browne has sketched an uncommonly characteristic and capital Mr.
Micawber for the next number." Again, with reference to an illustration
in _Bleak House_, "Browne has done Skimpole, and helped to make him
singularly unlike the great original."[D]

Of the private life of "Phiz" little is known. His extreme nervousness
and dislike to publicity was often misconstrued as pride; and DICKENS
even had considerable difficulty in occasionally persuading him to meet
a few friends and spend a pleasant evening. When he did accept such
invitations, he invariably tried to seclude himself in a corner of the
room, or behind a curtain. His desire for a quiet, unobtrusive life,
induced him to pass most of his time in country retirement, all business
matters in town being transacted by an intimate friend.[E] Authors or
publishers wishing to have a personal interview with "Phiz" were
compelled to visit him at his residence, a few miles from town, and many
were the _contretemps_ on dark nights as they crossed a bleak moor to
reach their destination. His sons looked forward to the time when
visitors were expected, in order to hear the stories of wild adventure
which generally befell them, and to laugh at their discomfiture.

"Phiz" had been from his boyhood accustomed to horses, and frequently
hunted with the Surrey hounds. To this circumstance is due the extreme
facility with which he delineated the horse in action in the hunting
field and elsewhere. At one time he contributed sketches to _The
Sporting Gazette_. This industrious artist was never known to take a
lengthened holiday, but occasionally spent a few days at the seaside,
where, no doubt, his pencil was fully employed. A letter, written while
staying at Margate, to his son Mr. Walter G. Browne (whom, for some
unknown reason he styled "Doctor"), shows his innate sense of humour.

     _Tuesday, June 19_, 6A, CRESCENT PLACE, MARGATE.

     MY DEAR DR.,

     "I haave [Transcriber's note: haave has two macrons over the
     a's to denote a very long a is the correct pronunciation]
     my W. C. White:[F]--but I have no white _collars_--and
     as I am swelling it about without a necktie--mine having
     mysteriously disappeared, left behind in a bath
     probably--perhaps it would be coming it too strong
     to appear without collars also, and it is hardly warm enough
     for it either. Your P.O. is from the Miscellany--to H. K.
     Browne--from Mr. Barrett--Xtian name unknown--and no matter.
     Any blocks that come, forward on. Send me a * * * * * *
     before I return. I did some very good shades myself--of
     myself--unconsciously--yesterday evening. The baths run
     along one side of the High Street, flush with the
     pavement--and I found when I had nearly finished my toilet
     that the gas-burner was so ingeniously placed, that it was
     impossible for any bather to avoid casting gigantic studies
     of the nude upon the window blind.--This sort of thing.--"

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *

[Here follow several other sketches of the bather in various attitudes].

His appreciation of fun is thus referred to by DICKENS in a letter to
Mrs. Dickens, dating from the Lion Hotel, Shrewsbury. "Thursday, Nov.
1st, 1838.--We were at the play last night. It was a bespeak--'The Love
Chase,' a ballet (with a phenomenon!), divers songs, and 'A Roland for
an Oliver.' It is a good theatre, but the actors are very funny. Browne
laughed with such indecent heartiness at one point of the entertainment,
that an old gentleman in the next box suffered the most violent
indignation."

In 1837, "Phiz" accompanied DICKENS to Flanders, for a ten days' summer
holiday; and in 1838 they went to Yorkshire, a journey which resulted in
the production of _Nicholas Nickleby_.

The following year he made one of a party of four, and visited, with
DICKENS, MACREADY and FORSTER, nearly all the London prisons. These
joint tours of Author and Artist could not fail to assist the
realization of the scenes they intended to depict.

It is an interesting fact in connection with the career of "Phiz," that
he would never agree to draw from the living model,--all his
representations of moving crowds, and the various types of humanity,
which his etchings exhibit, being drawn from recollection. He would
sometimes make a few jottings in pencil--mere memoranda--when anything
struck him as being worthy of reproduction, but beyond that he depended
on his excellent memory. For example, he would go to Epsom on the Derby
Day without taking a pencil even, and, on returning home, would draw to
the life exact portraits of any conspicuous or eccentric character he
had seen on the course.

As previously stated, BROWNE was extremely fond of water-colour drawing,
and executed some thousands during his life; not unfrequently a day's
work would be represented by three or four of these productions. They
were not caricatures, as one might suppose, but rural scenes _à la
Watteau_, and allegorical subjects. This fact controverts the statement
made in a daily paper, that "unfortunately, without a text to
illustrate, 'Phiz' never had half-a-dozen ideas in his head" (!). For
many years he was a constant contributor of pictures--figure subjects of
a humorous and dramatic character--to the Exhibitions of the British
Institution, and of the Society of British Artists. Among his more
ambitious efforts was a cartoon of considerable dimensions, representing
"A Foraging Party of Cæsar's Forces surprised by the Britons," which
appeared as No. 65 at the Westminster Hall Exhibition of 1843. This,
notwithstanding the "scratchy" manner of its execution, displayed
remarkable skill and abundant energy of design. At the same gathering
another cartoon was attributed to him, of which the energy bordered on
caricature; it was named, "Henry II defied by a Welsh Mountaineer."

[Illustration]

At one time "Phiz" received an extraordinary commission to reproduce in
water-colour all his illustrations to the Novels of DICKENS. The Artist
reminded his patron of the magnitude of the undertaking, but the request
was persisted in, and the work duly executed.

His love of bracing air induced him to pay frequent visits to the
seaside; but on one occasion he lodged in a house not remarkable for its
odoriferous nature; and, in order to produce a current of fresh air in
his bed-room, he opened door and window, and slept in the draught caused
thereby. For many years before his death, he suffered from incipient
paralysis, the result, no doubt, of this incautious act, and to which
may be attributed his disappearance from the art world some fifteen
years ago.

"Phiz," notwithstanding his crippled condition, still worked hard with
admirable perseverance, though his difficulties were increased by an
injury to his thumb, which compelled him to hold his pencil between the
middle and fore fingers. His friends endeavoured to persuade him to draw
his pictures on a larger scale, in order that they might be photographed
to the required dimensions, but, with one or two exceptions, he refused
to act on this suggestion. He gradually lost that facility which
characterized his work, and latterly yielded to proposals to illustrate
boys' literature of a rather low class.

The time is past, no doubt, which encouraged the method of
book-illustration adopted by "Phiz." It has given place to
wood-engraving, and multifarious phototypic processes, that, perhaps,
are commercially preferable, but from an artistic standpoint much
inferior. We must, however, except the wonderful results some
wood-engravers have produced from time to time, which etchers, even,
cannot hope to excel.

Dr. Edgar Browne describes his father's indifference to the value of his
work, or the time and labour bestowed upon it:--"He never understood the
art of husbanding or developing his powers,--he never set to work to
learn any technical process; when he had a little leisure from
'illustration' work, he used to start a picture 'to get his hand
in'--generally taking some unimportant or trivial subject for this
purpose. His facility of hand both in large and minute work was
something marvellous. At one time, he produced a very remarkable series
of sketches in chalk made during a tour in Ireland. They are scattered
now, but are as fine as anything he did, and are certainly the best
records of a people who have practically vanished. He was astonishingly
careless about his work. Hundreds of original designs were thrown into
the waste-paper basket; apart from their local interest similar sketches
have found willing purchasers of late years."

Like many other artists whose pecuniary reward had not been commensurate
with their ability,[G] he became the recipient of a pension. The kind
instrumentality of a few Royal Academicians obtained for him an annual
grant which had been previously enjoyed by the late GEORGE CRUIKSHANK.

On the 8th of July, 1882, the death occurred of the famous "Phiz." At
the quiet village of Hove, near Brighton, where the last few years of
his life were spent, he succumbed in his sixty-seventh year to infirmity
rather than old age. Almost forgotten as a man, his productions have
remained in our memories, and will continue to do so as long as the
works of DICKENS and LEVER are read and appreciated. His remains were
interred at the extra-mural Cemetery, Brighton. The funeral was private,
the only mourners present being the four sons of the deceased, Dr.
Ambler, Mr. George Halse,[H] and Mr. Robert Harrison.

As admirers of his artistic ability we place this Memoir as a wreath
upon his grave.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]


CORRESPONDENCE.

The following letters were addressed by the artist-humorist to his son,
Mr. Walter Gr. Browne:--


      BLENHEIM CRESCENT, _Sept., Saturday, 3 o'clk._ P.M., A.D.
     _1867_.

     _My Dear Dr._,

     I have nearly bursted my heart out, and proved, that my soul
     or soles (I have two) is'nt--or an't--immortal,--by wearing
     on 'em out running to and fro after yr.
     _Balmorals_--Bootless errands! The wretched slave (of awl)
     has but just brought them! I bristle with wrath! and could
     welt him!--but--no--I won't--he may want his calf's skin
     whole, to mend his own _Bad-morals_!!

            *       *       *       *       *

     I rush! I fly! to the Gt. W. R. Station!----!!!!

     [Illustration]

     I sink--breathless into the arms of the astounded
     clerk--point to the boots----

     _My-mouth_ faintly whispers "_Wey-mouth_ in his pen-adorned
     _Ear_!!" and--and--"Bless me! where am _I_?"--and, and--I
     wish--you may get 'em!

            *       *       *       *       *

     If you visit Portland again, make a note of any
     peculiarities of spot--convict dress, &c.--as I have a
     touching bit of horse-y sentiment (!) connected therewith,
     which will do for _Spg. Gazette_.--I should think you ought
     to find painty bits--within walking distance--say--right or
     left ten miles?

            *       *       *       *       *

     Yrs. affecty.,

     DAD.

     _Sunday._

     Really, my dear Walter, I thought you _did_ know better than
     to disturb my devotional frame of mind on this blessed
     Sabbath morn by forwarding me such a thoroughly worldly and
     evil-thought-producing thing as a wretched milliner's
     bill!!!--The wretch must wait--he gorged £5 not long before
     I left home.--The greediness of some men!!

     The Pic. Gall. circular I return--as you may like to enquire
     about it--the doz. others, "cheap bacon"--"patent teeth and
     everlasting gums," &c., &c., &c., &c., &c. I shall manure
     the grounds of Colyton with ----.

     I think you might get some background material for coast
     scenes down here.

     Yr. affec. Dad,

     H. K. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


     69, BLENHEIM CRESCENT, NOTTING-HILL, _Saturday_.

     MY DEAR DOCTOR,

     I send the Tenpounder, may it reach you in safety!

     The Commander has returned. I sent you a paper containing
     the important news, which, however, may _not_ have reached
     you, although I don't think it contained any remarks upon
     the "Hemperors personal appearance," &c., &c., &c.

     Tom is in the bosom of the family for a few days.--His Pipe
     is tuned differently now to what it used to was, for he now
     declareth that St. John's is "a jolly school!" He seems to
     get on very well indeed, and has brought home what Dr. Lowe
     calls a "well-earned prize."

     He laments daily over the supposed loss of 4_d_ invested in
     a letter to you--from school--as it was directed, he
     says,--21, Rue _Mussel wine_--I express doubts of its having
     reached you--and he groans aloud over the Bull's eyes it
     _would_ have bought!----

     I am (at _present_) _on_ a Sporting Paper--supported by some
     high and mighty Turf Nobs, but, I fear, like everything I
     have to do with, now-a-days, it will collapse--for--some of
     the Proprietors of the Paper are also Shareholders, &c.,
     &c., in the Graphotype Co., so they want to work the two
     together.--I hate the process--it takes quite four times as
     long as wood--and I cannot draw and express myself with a
     nasty little finiking brush, and the result when printed
     seems to alternate between something all as black as my
     hat--or as hazy and faint as a worn-out plate.--If on wood,
     I should like it well enough--as it is--it spoils 4 days a
     week--leaving little time for anything else. O! I'm a'weary,
     I'm a'weary! of this illustration business.----

     Tom is just off to the R.A., as it is not likely I shall go
     much before it's close. I will get him to write you a
     critical description of all the wonderful works in Turps,
     Varnish, and "Hile."

     Yr. affectionate Dad,

     H. K. B.

     _Monday Morning, 25 m. 40 s. p. 11_ A.M.

     MY DEAR WALTER,

     There is a man playing "Home, sweet home" upon the key
     bugle--it is too much for me--my heart yearneth--I feel I
     must write just a line or two--especially as it is raining
     hard--and I don't exactly know what to be at.

            *       *       *       *       *

     Splendid effects yesterday evening--sun-set, twilight,
     crescent moon--stormy clouds,--tide out--reflections--dark
     fishing-craft--very good--quite the thing for you.

     There are no people here at present--decidedly nothing
     Belgravian--chiefly masculines--from the Saturday to the
     Monday sort--it striketh me--a few I think have strayed here
     from Southend--I saw this sort of thing [_see page 29_] on
     the Grand Promenade--which looks like it.----

     There was a great wind yesterday--Boreas had been taking
     concentrated essence of ginger--It fairly took me off my
     legs once as I was walking along the cliffs to Broadstairs,
     luckily for me it blew _off_ the sea--and I was brought up
     short by some railings in this wise--[_see page 22_]
     _otherwise_ I should (_no doubt_) have been carried across a
     5 acre field of _Cloveria Trifolia Browniensis_.--I am glad
     to say I was also of service to humanity yesterday--I heard
     the shrill shrieks of a child and a woman's cry for help
     behind me--I turned--and saw there was not a moment to lose,
     the wind had caught a poor child--'s hat (and woman's too)
     and bore it rapidly to the edge of the cliff--with my usual
     agility I bounded over the rails fencing the cliff--and
     saved--yes, saved the child--'s--'at!--another puff and it
     would have been in the deep, deep sea--the blue, the fresh,
     &c.--Stout mama thanked me politely, and turning to her
     husband (who, of course, had come up too late to be of any
     use--those husbands _always_ do)--she remarked "That the
     vind had blown both her and her child's 'at hoff and if
     she'd know'd it--she wouldn't have brought the young-un
     hout."

     I dare say humanity is amusing here when the place is
     full--there seems a good deal of "os" exercise--and
     basket-carriage driving on Sundays--which is good to
     behold--this gentleman [_see page 25_] was driving with
     supreme self-content--having one rein all snug and tight
     under his pony's tail--luckily the beast did not seem to
     have any kick in him--so _perhaps_ he got safe back to
     Margate.

            *       *       *       *       *

     Yr. affec. Dad,

     H. K. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration]

     _29th Sept. 1868._

     MY DEAR DOCTOR,

     I have sent you a couple of canvasses--if you put little
     Clara's head on one of them, you will immortalize her and
     yourself too.

     Also therewith you will find a Surplice, and if you will
     only "hold forth," next Sunday, in the Grande Place of
     Colyton--I will guarantee to say that the simplicity of yr.
     vestment and the flowing eloquence of yr. tongue will draw
     out--(as irresistibly as the Piper did the children) the
     congregations of the "High" Church and the Conventicles
     which will--one and all--rush forth for to see and to hear,
     and admiringly surround you!--If windy, you might take this
     for yr. text--"What went ye forth for to see?--" A reed
     shaken by the wind? &c., &c.

     There must have been a splendid _Sea on_ at _Sea-ton_, these
     last few days,--_tons_ of _sea_, eh? As "I took my walk
     abroad" this morning--I saw the Serpentine in all its
     grandeur--and observed several vessels in distress--some
     clipper yachts on their beam ends--the waves were
     prodigious--great rollers--two especially--one a six horse
     fellow--t'other a steamer--crunching and grinding--levelling
     and sweeping all before them!

     Have you seen the Doge of Colyton yet? or any of the Dog-es?

     By all means cultivate the acquaintance of the Doge's
     kinswoman. Miss P---- (pray give my love to
     her)--fac-similed on the stage or in a novel, she would be a
     "tremendous hit."

     I hope you are not belying the _good_ character I have given
     of you to the boys--and are doing Elephant, Tiger, and
     Rhinoceros[I] to their perfect satisfaction--though,
     considering yr. predecessor--it will test your utmost
     powers, not to be a wretched failure, possibly--much the
     same sort of thing--as your attempting to sing a comic song
     immediately after the Great Vance!!! Good Night,

     Yr. affectionate Dad,

     H. K. B.


The following notes have been selected from the unpublished
correspondence of "Phiz" with CHARLES DICKENS:--

     MY DEAR DICKENS,

     I have just got one boot on, intending to come round to you,
     but you have done me out of a capital excuse to myself for
     idling away this fine morning.--I quite forgot to answer
     your note, and Mr. Macrone's book has not been very vividly
     present to my memory for some time past. I think by the
     beginning of next (week) or the middle (_certain_) I shall
     have done the plates, but in the scraps of copy that I have
     I can see but _one good_ subject, so if you know of another
     pray send it me. I should like "Malcolm" again, if you can
     spare him.

     Believe me,

     Yours very truly,

     HABLOT K. BROWNE.

     Charles Dickens, Esq.


     _Sunday, Sept._

     MY DEAR DICKENS,

     Can you conveniently send me the subject or subjects for
     next week by Thursday or Friday? as I wish, if practicable,
     to start for Brussels by the Sunday's boat--a word in reply
     will oblige,

     Yours truly,

     HABLOT K. BROWNE.

     Charles Dickens, Esq.


     P.S.--Upon second thoughts I send you the enclosed
     epistle--(if you read it, you will find out why)--the
     writer thereof is "Harry Lorrequer," alias "Charles
     O'Malley"--to whose house I am going.

     H. K. B.


     P.S. Second--A fortnight's furlough would suit me better
     than a week, if it could be managed, as I should like to
     return by Holland.

     MY DEAR DICKENS,

     I am sorry I cannot have a touch at battledore with you
     to-day, being already booked for this evening--but I will
     give you a call to-morrow _after church_, and take my chance
     of finding you at home.

     Yours very sincerely,

     HABLOT K. BROWNE.

     Charles Dickens, Esq.

     33, HOWLAND STREET.

     MY DEAR DICKENS,

     I shall be most happy to remember not to forget the 10th
     April, and, let me express a _dis_interested wish, that
     having completed and established one "Shop"[J] in an
     "extensive line of business," you will go on increasing and
     multiplying such like establishments in number and
     prosperity till you become a Dick Whittington of a merchant,
     with pockets distended to most Brobdignag dimensions.

     Believe me,

     Yours very truly,

     HABLOT K. BROWNE.

     Charles Dickens, Esq.

     I return you the Riots with many thanks.


[Illustration]

     _Sunday Morning._

     MY DEAR DICKENS,

     Will you give me some notion of the sort of design you wish
     for the frontispiece to second vol. of _Clock_?[K]
     Cattermole being put _hors de combat_--Chapman with a
     careworn face (if you can picture that) brings me the block
     at the eleventh hour, and requires it finished by Wednesday.
     Now as I have two others to complete in the
     meantime--something nice and _light_ would be best adapted
     to my _palette_, and prevent an excess of perspiration in
     the relays of wood-cutters. You shall have the others to
     criticise on Tuesday.

     Yours very truly,

     HABLOT K. BROWNE.


     Charles Dickens, Esq.

     How are Mrs. Dickens and the "Infant?"

FOOTNOTES:

[A] Pronounced _Hab-lo_, after a Monsieur Hablot, a captain in the
French army, and a friend of the family.

[B] It was Buss who illustrated Mrs. Trollope's Serial Story, _The Widow
Married_, which was published in _The New Monthly Magazine_, 1840.

[C] See _Dombey and Son_, Vol. I, p. 113--"Doctor Blimber's Young
Gentlemen."

[D] Leigh Hunt.

[E] Mr. R. Young, who also undertook the precarious task of "biting in"
his plates.

[F] Water-colour white.

[G] Publishers frequently availed themselves of his facile pencil, and
would instruct him to furnish illustrations for books already in the
press, for which he was often inadequately paid.

[H] The Sculptor, and an old coadjutor on _Once a Week_. He is also the
author of _A Salad of Stray Leaves_ now in the press, which contains a
frontispiece by "Phiz," the last design from his pencil. This he
executed under some difficulties, for owing to an attack of rheumatism
in his hands, the design--teeming with fancy--had to be made on a large
scale, and afterwards reduced by the process of photography.

[I] A favourite game with the children.

[J] _The Old Curiosity Shop._

[K] _Master Humphrey's Clock._



A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS ILLUSTRATED BY "PHIZ."

To enumerate all the works illustrated by "Phiz" would be a next to
impossible task, for "their name is legion." No artist was so popular or
so prolific as a book-illustrator, with the exception, perhaps, of
George Cruikshank. It may fairly be questioned whether the works of
Charles Dickens, with which the name of "Phiz" is most intimately
associated in our minds, would have achieved such notoriety without the
aid of the etching needle so ably wielded. Mr. John Hollingshead, in his
essay on Dickens, says:--

"The greater the value of a book as a literary production, the more will
the circle of its influence usually be narrowed. The very shape, aspect,
and garments of the ideal creatures who move through its pages, even
when drawn by the pen of the first master of fiction in the land, will
be faint and confused to the blunter perception of the general reader,
unless aided by the attendant pencil of the illustrative artist. For the
sharp, clear images of Mr. Pickwick, with the spectacles, gaiters, and
low crowned hat--of Sam Weller, with the striped waistcoat and the
artful leer--of Mr. Winkle, with the sporting costume and the foolish
expression--more persons are indebted to the caricaturist, than to the
faultless descriptive passages of the great creative mind that called
the amusing puppets into existence."

It was not the fame of Dickens only that was enhanced by "Phiz," for the
numerous illustrations in the works of Charles Lever, Harrison
Ainsworth, the brothers Mayhew, and a host of minor novelists were
executed by his unwearied hand. It was Dickens, however, who introduced
him to public notice, in a pamphlet, now very scarce, entitled _Sunday
under Three Heads_, embellished with four delicately executed engravings
drawn by "H. K. B."

It was his succession to Seymour as the illustrator of the _Pickwick
Papers_, that really excited public interest in the youthful artist, who
created, pictorially, the second hero in the work, the inimitable Samuel
Weller. Those who are familiar with the original edition of the
_Pickwick Papers_ will remember with some amusement, the artist's
introduction of the indefatigable "Boots," as represented in the yard of
the "White Hart" Inn, Borough. The identical Inn exists at the present
day. "Mr. Pickwick in the Pound" is another amusing plate, where the
laughing, jeering crowd of spectators crowned by a jubilant and juvenile
chimney sweeper, the braying of a jackass in the ears of the astonished
hero, who sits somewhat uncomfortably in a wheelbarrow, are incidents so
cleverly depicted as to excite unqualified admiration. "Mr. Pickwick
Slides" is another truly artistic production. The delicate execution of
the extreme distance where is seen a manor house of the olden time
nestling amongst the trees, and a farmyard hard by, leaves nothing to be
desired. Mr. Sala somewhat harshly criticises the illustrations in this
work, which, he says, "were exceedingly humorous, but vilely drawn. The
amazing success of his author seems, however, to have spurred the artist
to sedulous study, and to have conduced in a remarkable degree towards
the development of his faculties. A surprising improvement was visible
in the frontispieces to the completed volumes[L] of _Pickwick_."
Undoubtedly faults exist, but to characterize the illustrations as
"vile," seems too severe a term, for after all, the exaggerated types of
face, form, and feature, do but harmonize with the somewhat exaggerated
descriptions of them by the author. This defect, if such it can be
called, was remedied considerably in his later productions.

[Illustration]

In 1837, "Phiz" accompanied Dickens into Yorkshire, there to gather
material for _Nicholas Nickleby_, a work which exposes the tyranny
practised by some schoolmasters on their helpless pupils. In this book,
published in 1839, is presented to us the despicable "Squeers," which
type of brute in human form was so successfully realized by both Author
and Artist, that the indignation of innumerable Yorkshire pedagogues was
raised to threats of legal proceedings, for traducing their characters,
one of them actually stating that "he remembered being waited on last
January twelvemonth by two gentlemen, one of whom held him in
conversation while the other took his likeness." The most familiar
representation of "Squeers" is seen in the second plate, where he stands
sharpening his pen, and is timorously approached by the stout father of
two wizen-faced boys who are about to become his pupils. The face of the
schoolmaster, in which are combined hypocrisy and cruelty, and the
expression of sympathy for the new comers exhibited by the boy on the
trunk, are worthy of the closest inspection. The effect of the school
treatment at Dotheboy's Hall is visible in the illustration where "The
Internal Economy" is depicted. Here we see the starveling lads during
and after the "internal" application of superabundant doses of brimstone
and treacle, administered by Squeers' worthy partner. The eighth plate
happily depicts the wild excitement of the pupils when "Nicholas
astonishes Mr. Squeers and family" by making a furious attack on the
former with the cane; as well as "The breaking-up at Dotheboy's Hall,"
where the boys revenge themselves on their former tormentors. There are
two more etchings in this volume especially remarkable as artistic
productions, viz., "Mr. and Mrs. Mantalini in Ralph Nickleby's Office,"
where the expression of an intent listener on the face of Ralph, and of
horror on that of Mantalini, is capitally rendered; and the plate
entitled "The Recognition," which shows poor Smike in the act of rising
from a couch of sickness as he recognizes "Broker," who had conveyed him
as a child to school.

_Master Humphrey's Clock_, written in 1840-1, includes the stories of
the _Old Curiosity Shop_ and _Barnaby Rudge_ which have been happily
termed "two unequalled twin fictions upon one stem." The illustrations
were drawn on wood by H. K. Browne and George Cattermole, and the former
created, pictorially, Little Nell, Mrs. Jarley, Quilp, Dick Swiveller,
the Marchioness, Sally Brass, and her brother Sampson. "Phiz" revelled
in wild fun in the vignettes relating to the devilries of Mr. Daniel
Quilp and the humours of Codlin and Short, and of Mrs. Jarley's waxwork
show. His "Marchioness" was a distinct comic creation; but in the weird
waterscape, showing the corpse of Quilp washed ashore, he sketched a
vista of riparian scenery which, in its desolate breadth and loneliness,
has not since, perhaps, been equalled, save in the amazing suggestive
Thames etchings of Mr. James Whistler. To be sure, Hablot Browne was
stimulated to excellence during the continuance of the _Old Curiosity
Shop_ by the friendly rivalry of the famous water-colour painter, George
Cattermole, who drew the charming vignettes of the quaint old cottages
and school-house and church of the village where "Little Nell" died. In
_Barnaby Rudge_, however, Hablot Browne had things graphic his own way,
and again towards the close he manifested genuine tragic power. His
"Barnaby with the Raven" is lovely in its picturesque grace.[M] When the
first cheap series of this work was published, plates by H. K. Browne
were issued, which are now so scarce, that they are often catalogued at
eight or ten times their original price.

Two years after the visit of Dickens to America in 1842, _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ was published, the illustrations to which excel in vigour
all the previous efforts of "Phiz." Here we are brought face to face, in
a pictorial sense, with the hypocrite, Mr. Pecksniff, the _abstemious_
Mrs. Gamp and her bosom friend, Betsy Prig, simple Tom Pinch and his
charming sister, Ruth. The frontispiece is a most ambitious work, but
none the less successful, for "Phiz" has represented, in the space of a
few square inches, all the leading events, humorous and pathetic,
described in the novel. In the illustration where Mark Tapley is seen
starting from his native village for London, "Phiz" exhibits his sense
of the picturesque in the old gables and dormers of the cottages which
form the background. The plate, "Mr. Pecksniff on his Mission," is full
of interest, and gives us an insight into the character of Kingsgate
Street, Holborn, at that time. The female neighbours of Mrs. Gamp, the
midwife, flock round Pecksniff, commiserating with him on his supposed
domestic cares, and advising him to "knock at the winder, Sir; knock at
the winder. Lord bless you, don't lose no more time than you can
help--knock at the winder!"

[Illustration]

But the etching in _Chuzzlewit_ which most strikes the reader as a
ludicrous conception, is that where "Mrs. Gamp propoges a toast." Here
he has admirably illustrated the text, wherein is described, with other
details of a droll character, how some rusty gowns and other articles of
that lady's wardrobe depended from the bed-posts; and "these had so
adapted themselves by long usage to her figure, that more than one
impatient husband, coming in precipitately, at about the time of
twilight, had been for an instant stricken dumb by the supposed
discovery that Mrs. Gamp had hanged herself." In the background of the
picture are represented these indispensable articles of dress, while at
the table sit, in friendly chat, Mrs. Gamp and Betsy.

"Betsy," said Mrs. Gamp, filling her own glass and passing the tea-pot,
"I will now propoge a toast. My frequent pardner, Betsy Prig!"

"Which, altering the name to Sairah Gamp; I drink," said Mrs. Prig,
"with love and tenderness."

In 1846, _Dombey and Son_ commenced, with forty illustrations by "Phiz."
The frontispiece is similar in design to that of _Chuzzlewit_,
introducing the principal characters and events in the novel. The
austere and pompous (not to say selfish) Mr. Dombey, whom "Phiz" had
great difficulty in realizing to the author's satisfaction,[N] is
introduced in many of the plates, although the artist has somewhat
failed in preserving the same type of face throughout. He has succeeded
better with the genial Captain Cuttle. Little Paul, as he sits in his
diminutive arm-chair, contrasts most favourably in his childish
innocence, with the grim Mrs. Pipchin, whose Ogress-like character is
strongly marked. The scene in which Mr. Dombey introduces his daughter
Florence to Mrs. Skewton, is one of the most successful in the book, and
contains the _best_ type of Dombey. Here also, the face of Florence is
truly pretty, and the artist has well portrayed the handsome but
vindictive Edith denouncing Carker for his treachery. A very effective
etching entitled, "On the Dark Road," represents the flight of the
enraged and disappointed libertine. The horses are being urged on their
mad career by the whip and spurs of a postilion, under the dark sky with
a glimmer of light in the horizon caused by the rising sun. The artist
at this time essayed a process of working on plates over which a
half-tint had been previously laid by means of a ruling-machine, and in
which the "high-lights" were afterwards "stopped out," and the "whites"
"burnished out." He frequently availed himself of these ready means of
producing effect. Full-length portraits of the principal characters in
_Dombey_, which were issued as additional plates by "Phiz," are now very
scarce.

_David Copperfield_ (1850), with forty illustrations, was the next
venture, but was not so much an artistic as a literary success. A
favourite character in it of course, is Micawber, a kindly caricature of
the Author's father, the realization of whom, by Browne, obtained the
hearty approval of Dickens.

The most characteristic and, perhaps, most successful work of "Phiz" is
to be seen in the illustrations to _Bleak House_. A view of the "House"
itself forms the subject of the frontispiece. "The Ghost's Walk," the
"Drawing-room at Chesney Wold," "Tom All-alone's," and the gateway
leading to the burial ground where Lady Dedlock has fallen lifeless, are
instances where the artist has obtained some fine effects by the
"ruled-plate" process. A writer in _The Daily Telegraph_, of July 11th,
1882, speaks somewhat disparagingly of these illustrations, but _The
Academy_ of a few days later, in the following remarks, thus demurs to
his criticism:--

"In the _Bleak House_ illustrations hardly anything is wrong; there is
no shortcoming. Not only is the comic side, the even fussily comic, such
as 'the young man of the name of Guppy,' understood and rendered well,
but the dignified beauty of old country-house architecture, or the
architecture of the chambers of our inns-of-court is conveyed in brief
touches; and there is apparent everywhere that element of terrible
suggestiveness which made not only the art of Hablot Browne, but the art
of Charles Dickens himself, in this story of _Bleak House_, recall the
imaginative purpose of the art of Méryon. What can be more impressive in
connection with the story--nay, even independently of the story--than
the illustration of Mr. Tulkinghorn's chambers in gloom; than the
illustration of the staircase at Dedlock's own house, with the placard
of the reward for the discovery of the murderer; than that of Tom All
Alone's; the dark, foul darkness of the burial ground shown under scanty
lamplight, and the special spot where lay the man who 'wos very good to
me--he wos!'? And then again, 'the Ghost's Walk,' and once more the
burial ground, with the woman's body--Lady Dedlock's--now close against
its gate. Of course it would be possible to find fault with these
things, but they have nothing of the vice of tameness--they deliver
their message effectually. It is not their business to be faultless; it
is their business to impress."

[Illustration]

A very successful rendering of character in _Bleak House_ is that of
Harold Skimpole, whose prototype was Leigh Hunt, an intimate friend of
the Novelist, who, by his unintentional disregard for the feelings of
Hunt in caricaturing his peculiarities, nearly severed that friendship.
Again, there is intense humour in the illustration facetiously styled,
"In re Guppy, extraordinary proceeding." The love-sick Guppy is seen in
a kneeling posture, while declaring to Miss Summerson the burning
passion that consumes him. The expression on the face of the young lady
shows that she is more amused than flattered by his preference.

In _Little Dorrit_ (1855-7) the experience gained by both Author and
Artist during their tour of the London prisons, stood them in good
stead, for here the Marshalsea is fully described, the type of a
debtor's jail. The first illustration represents the interior of a
French prison, in which are incarcerated Monsieur Rigaud and Signor John
Baptist. The effect of deep gloom in the cell is produced by the
"ruled-plate" method, and is quite Rembrandt-like. In contrast with
this, the illustration of "The Ferry," is a delightful country aspect,
with trees and winding river; and another plate entitled "Floating
away," an evening scene, the moon rising behind the trees, is quite
romantic. The old house in the last picture but one--"Damocles,"--again
shows Browne's appreciation of the picturesque architecture of bygone
times, in the effect of light from the setting sun as it falls upon the
house front, throwing into relief the quaint old carvings of door and
window.

The last work illustrated by "Phiz" for Dickens was _The Tale of Two
Cities_ (1859), containing sixteen etchings full of vigour, as the
character of the story justifies.

For some reason, at this time, a rupture was caused between author and
artist,[O] which resulted in the engagement of Mr. Marcus Stone and Mr.
Luke Fildes as illustrators of _Our Mutual Friend_ and _Edwin Drood_.
These accomplished painters avoided the old system of caricature, the
old, forced humour; but it is certain that their designs are less
intimately associated with the persons in the stories they illustrated
than those of "Phiz" with the earlier and more popular works of Dickens.

Having devoted the larger portion of the space at our disposal to a
description of the most famous productions of Browne's pencil, which are
prominent in the original editions of the Novels of Charles Dickens, we
can but briefly enumerate the plates he etched for Lever, Ainsworth, and
others.

[Illustration]

In Charles Lever's _Harry Lorrequer_ (1839) and _Charles O'Malley_
(1841), the uproarious mirth and jollity of Irish military life is well
portrayed by the needle of the artist. "The last night in Trinity" in
the latter work, is an example of this, wherein is seen the worthy
Doctor perched on a table, surrounded by a batch of Irish dragoons, and
being elevated by an explosion of combustibles. The horses in the
illustrations are admirably drawn.

In _Jack Hinton_ (1842) the artist shows remarkable force in depicting
the death of Shaun, and has well realized the humour of "Corney's Combat
with the Cossack."

_Tom Burke of Ours_ (1844) contains forty-four illustrations by "Phiz,"
many of which represent the scenes connected with the battles of
Austerlitz, &c., during the reign of the great Napoleon. Most especially
noticeable is the scene in a court of justice, with "Darby in the
Chair;" the face of that hero with an expression apparently abashed, but
really full of roguishness, as he gazes at the counsel, is one of the
most successful of Browne's efforts.

_The O'Donoghue_ (1845), has twenty-six illustrations, most of which are
well conceived. The falling body of a man in the frontispiece is a
remarkable drawing. The girlish figure of Kate O'Donoghue, as she bends
over the form of her heart-broken brother Herbert, is well depicted.

_St. Patrick's Eve_ (1845), with four etchings and several woodcuts. The
most remarkable of the former is "The Cholera Hut."

_The Knight of Gwynne_ (1847), with forty illustrations.

_Roland Cashel_ (1850), with forty illustrations.

_The Daltons_ (1852), with forty-eight illustrations.

_The Dodd Family Abroad_ (1854), with forty illustrations. The shrewd
simplicity of Kenny Dodd is well delineated.

_The Martins of Cro' Martin_ (1856), with forty illustrations.

_Davenport Dunn_ (1859), with forty-four illustrations.

_One of Them_ (1861), with thirty illustrations.

_Barrington_ (1863), with twenty-six illustrations.

_Luttrell of Arran_ (1865), with thirty-two illustrations.

The following works of W. Harrison Ainsworth contain etchings and
woodcuts by "Phiz:"--

_Revelations of London_, published about 1845, but never completed, has
an illustration which represents a tumble-down house in Vauxhall Road,
which is almost Rembrandt-like in its power. The artist was about thirty
years of age when he executed this.

_Old St. Paul's_ (1847), contains only two plates by "Phiz," but _The
Spendthrift_ (1857), _Mervyn Clitheroe_, and _Crichton_ were wholly
illustrated by him.

FOOTNOTES:

[L] The _Pickwick Papers_ were issued in one volume, and with _one_
frontispiece.

[M] _The Daily Telegraph_, July 11th, 1882.

[N] See illustration facing page 11.

[O] If the following statement, made in the _Frankfurt Zeitung_, can be
credited, any feeling of enmity that existed between them had long since
died out:--"Just after the death of Charles Dickens, 'Phiz' was
considerably affected by the mere mention of the name of that
illustrious novelist, which seemed to stir up in his breast feelings of
regret at losing such a friend."


SOME MISCELLANEOUS WORKS ILLUSTRATED BY "PHIZ."

_A Paper: of Tobacco, &c., by Joseph Fume_ (1839). With six plates by
"Phiz." _Fiddle Faddle's Sentimental Tour, in search of the Amusing,
Picturesque, and Agreeable_ (1845). _The Union Magazine._ Vol. I (1846).
Containing three plates by "Phiz." _The Illuminated Magazine._ Conducted
by Douglas Jerrold (1843-5), with woodcut illustrations by Leech, "Phiz"
(H. K. Browne), and others. _Fanny, the little Milliner, or the Rich and
the Poor_ (1846), illustrated by "Phiz" and Onwhyn. _Wits and Beaux of
Society. Sketches of Cantabs, by John Smith (of Smith Hall), Gent._
(1850). _The Cambridge Freshman._ With woodcut illustrations. _Paved
with Gold, or Romance and Reality of the London Streets_, by Augustus
Mayhew (1858). _A Medical, Moral, and Christian Dissection of
Teetotalism by Democritus_ (1846). _New Sporting Magazine_ (1839). _The
Pottleton Legacy_, by Albert Smith. _Christmas Day, and how it was spent
by four persons in the house of Fograss, Fograss, Mowton, and Snorton,
bankers_, by C. Le Ros (1854). _Home Pictures_ (Durtin & Co., 1856). A
series of seven charming and characteristic plates. _Dame Perkins and
her Grey Mare, or the Mount for Market_, by L. Meadows (1866). With
coloured illustrations. _H. B.'s Schoolboy Days._ _Illustrations of the
Five Senses._ _Adventures of Sir Guy de Guy_, by George Halse. _The
Baddington Peerage_, by G. A. Sala (published in _The Illustrated
Times_). In addition to these may be added an illustrated edition of
Byron's works, the "Abbotsford" edition of Sir Walter Scott's Novels,
besides numerous cuts in _The Sporting Gazette_, _The Illustrated
Times_, the early volumes of _Once a Week_, and the Comic Papers.

[Illustration: (SOME SIGNATURES ADOPTED BY H. K. BROWNE.)]


BELCARO: being Essays on Sundry Æsthetical Questions.

By VERNON LEE, author of the "Studies of the Eighteenth Century in
Italy." 8vo. price 8_s._

"There is much in this thoroughly original and delightful book which
reminds us of the essays of the eighteenth century.... It is rare indeed
to find so much thought conveyed in so easy a style--to find a writer
who not only has so much that is fresh to say, but has so fresh a way of
saying it.... This way of conveying ideas is very fascinating.... From
first to last there is a continuous and delightful stimulation of
thought. The book will lead to conversation, dreaming, speculation, and
all kinds of pleasant and healthy mental exercise; and it is
interspersed with such perfect little sketches of scenery, and passages
of so much eloquence, that it is a literary treat to read
it."--_Academy._

"Clever and expressive, subtle and brilliant.... We could say a good
deal more about this book as the product of a remarkably acute critical
mind; it would bear to be read a second time, and would be found to
repay the trouble."--_Athenæum._

"Splendid essays on art.... We do not know why the writing reminds us of
George Sand, but it does.... Vernon Lee writes prose harmonies which are
finely composed."--_Vanity Fair._


THE SEALS AND ARMORIAL INSIGNIA OF THE UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGES OF
CAMBRIDGE.

Part I. Post 4to., 3_s._ Relating to the University. Contains
Chromo-lithograph and _eight engravings_ of Seals.

_Imp. 16mo., elegant cover, gilt. Price 3s (Postage 4d)._


TUSCAN FAIRY TALES. Taken down from the Mouths of the People. With
sixteen illustrations, engraved by EDMUND EVANS.

CONTENTS:--The Little Convent of Cats; The Fairies' Sieve; The Three
Golden Apples; The Woman of Paste; The Beautiful Glutton; The King of
Portugal's Cowherd; The Three Cauliflowers; The Siren; The Glass Coffin;
Leonbruno.

"Sumptuously printed and prettily bound."--_Athenæum._

"A thoroughly delightful book. The comparative mythologist and the child
will alike find something to gratify their very different
tastes."--_Westminster Review._

"The work will delight the little ones as well as interest the student.
The book is charmingly got up and illustrated."--_London Review._

_New Poems. Crown 8vo. Ten fine Plates, cloth, price 6s._


GODS, SAINTS, AND MEN. By EUGENE LEE-HAMILTON.

"Readers will find him, as before, a Browning without his
obscurity."--_Graphic._

"Quaint, mediæval legends and traditions, most of which have a strong
savour of the supernatural, in strong, tuneful and artistic
verse."--_Scotsman._

_Crown 8vo., price 1s, cloth 2s._


ON THE ART OF GARDENING: A plea for English Gardens of the future, with
practical hints for planting them By MRS. J. FRANCIS FOSTER.

"In this pleasant and original little book the authoress not only enters
a vigorous protest against the bedding-out system and the so-called
'natural' style of gardening, but gives very good practical advice for
gardens of a different sort."--_Gardener's Chronicle._

"This little book proceeds from a true lover of flowers and
will be welcome to all who take an interest in their care and
culture."--_Civilian._

"A pleasant and unpretending little volume."--_Saturday Review._


LONDON: W. SATCHELL & Co., 19, TAVISTOCK ST., COVENT GARDEN


_Price 2s. 6d._,

THE BOOK OF ODDITIES, AND PUNISHMENTS IN THE OLDEN TIME.

BY WILLIAM ANDREWS, F.R.H.S.

With numerous Illustrations BY GEORGE CRUIKSHANK, CROWQUILL, CUTHBERT
BEDE, AND OTHERS.

     CONTENTS:--Revivals after Execution--A Human
     Pincushion--Female Jockeys--A Blind Road-maker--Odd
     Showers--Singular Funerals--Whimsical Wills--Curious
     Epitaphs--People and Steeple
     Rhymes--Dog-Whippers--Sluggard-Wakers--Playing at Cards for
     a Town, &c. &c.

"A capitally-written book, containing a vast amount of curious and
out-of-the-way information. Mr. Andrews is never for a moment dull, but
gives forth his antiquarian gossip with all the enthusiasm and point of
a practised _raconteur_. _He tells us all about the ducking-stool, the
brank, the pillory, the stocks, the drunkard's cloak, the whipping-post,
riding the stang, and other forms of punishment._ The book is copiously
illustrated and well indexed, and cannot fail to be popular."--_Sunday
Times._

LONDON: W. SATCHELL AND CO., 19, TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.





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