Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Instruction book on ring spinning
Author: Lincoln, Francis L.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Instruction book on ring spinning" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Libraries.)



/$
INSTRUCTION BOOK

ON

RING SPINNING

BY

FRANCIS L. LINCOLN.



WARREN, MASS.
HERALD PRINTING COMPANY.
1885.
$/



/$
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885,
By FRANCIS L. LINCOLN,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.
$/



PREFACE.


The object of this little book is to give help and instruction to
those who are engaged in this department of mill work. It imparts that
knowledge which only years of thorough study and observation can give.
given years of study to it, in order to benefit and help those who are
interested in the Spinning department.

/$
                                      FRANCIS L. LINCOLN, Author.
$/



CONTENTS.


/$
   1. The First Thing to do when going into a strange room to take
      charge.

   2. To see that your Draughts, Twists and Travelers are right,
      etc.

   3. How to pack Yarn closely on the Bobbin.

   4. To see that your Thread Guides are

   5. About Spindles, Rings, and Steel Rolls.

   6. How Top Rolls should be kept in order to make good yarn weight
      on top rolls, etc.

   7. Bands; how they should be run, etc.

   8. What to do when you have long staple Cotton.

   9. What Twists should be in the hank roving, and why.

  10. How Roving should be when run double, and how to get it
      single.

  11. How to run colored Roving double on spinning frames.

  12. How Waste should be run through the lappers, etc.

  13. How to prove that uneven work is not made on Spinning Frames.

  14. How bunches can be made on Spinning Frames and Spoolers.

  15. How coarse threads are made.

  16. Caution to be observed in changing from one number of yarn to
      another.

  17. What to do when Cotton is poor.

  18. Why it is cheaper for the Company to wind the yarn hard on the
      bobbins and spools.

  19. If yarn is knitted, where the trouble is.

  20. How snarled yarn is made, etc.

  21. How to avoid making lap waste in spinning room.

  22. How to avoid making roving waste in spinning room.

  23. When wastes should be picked up.

  24. What the draught change gear should be, when you run colored
      work.

  25. System in doffing the frames and gauge to go by.

  26. How to get speed of cylinder and spindles.

  27. To know what pulley will drive your cylinder faster or slower.

  28. How to take up a belt or let it out, when you change pulleys.

  29. Rule for finding what number of twists to the inch for any
      number of yarn.

  30. Square Root of numbers, from 18 to 30, with twist.

  31. The rule for finding the draught for any number of yarn.

  32. The gear required to run another number on the same hank
      roving.

  33. The hank roving required to run another number of yarn with
      same draught.

  34. Rule to find the draught change gear required, when changing
      from one number to another on a frame or mule, when the
      draught and roving both have to be altered.

  35. How to find the twist gear by square root of the number.

  36. How to get twist pulley for another number of yarn.

  37. How to get the exact twist in yarn.

  38. How to get the weight on top rolls.

  39. Square Root table for the twist of yarn.
$/



INSTRUCTION BOOK.


THE FIRST THING.

1. The first thing to do when going into a strange room to take
charge, is to learn the names and dispositions of your help, and their
ability. By doing this it will save you some trouble. Do not turn off
help the first day you go into a room to take charge. Get the good
will of your help and keep them; and when they learn your ways and
know you mean just what you say, every thing will be pleasant for them
and you also.


DRAUGHTS, TWISTS AND TRAVELERS.

2. To see that your Draughts, Twists and Travelers are right for the
numbers of yarns you are spinning. Travelers govern the twist. When
the bobbins are full there is more twist in than when it first starts.
Have them heavy enough to keep the ends straight. If Travelers are
poor the work will run bad. Change them on fine work once in three or
four months, clean them every doff, and touch the ring with a little
oily waste. If Draught gears bind, spinners cannot keep their ends
up.


PACKING YARN ON BOBBINS.

3. To see that the yarn is packed closely on the bobbin. The way to
tell is to put an empty bobbin on, and run one layer of yarn upon it;
if the threads do not lay close together, run your motion slower. In
this way you get more length of yarn to the bobbin.


THREAD GUIDES.

4. To see that your thread guides are central with the bobbin below.
If a crease has been made by the thread running through it, take it
out and put in a new one.


SPINDLES.

5. To see that the spindles are in the center of the rings, and that
your rings are in good condition. A poor ring will make two-thirds
more waste than a good one, and the frame requires three times the
cleaning that it does with a good ring. Slip your finger round inside
of the ring; if it feels notchy the ring is poor. Take it out. Rings
should be looked over every time you scour. That should be every six
months. Steel rolls should be rubbed with one-twenty emery cloth once
a year, with a little oil.


TOP ROLLS.

6. See that your top rolls are kept in good condition. Look them all
over once a month if that will do, if not look them over oftener. New
rolls should always be put in the front, poorest ones in the back. New
rolls should always be calipered at each end; if they do not caliper
the same at each end of the roll, the roll should not be used, as it
would spoil the yarn, and spinners could not keep up their ends. New
rolls should be oiled when they are put in to run. Neck of front rolls
should be oiled morning and noon. All of the rolls should be oiled
once a week. The weight should be the same on all top rolls. In order
to do this your saddles must be all alike, and must not hug the neck
of the roll. Stirrups should be all of the same length and style. The
levers should be all of the same length and style; and weights should
be all of the same heft. Stirrups must clear the rolls, and use double
saddles. Shell rolls should be cleaned and oiled once a month, with
lard oil. Use vinegar with one-third water to clean top rolls. Roller
hooks should not be used on steel rolls.


CARRYING.

7. A small band carrying one spindle is better than a large band
carrying a number of spindles. It makes better yarn, and not one-third
the waste. Bands should be put on tight; and the spinner should call
the band boy soon as one comes off, to put on a new one. Bands should
all be looked over once a week, and all slack ones cut off and new
ones put on. A slack band makes soft yarn. If your frame does not run
up to speed, you will get soft yarn. A dry spindle will also make soft
yarn. Keep your spindles properly oiled.


LONG STAPLE COTTON.

8. For long staple cotton you must spread the bottom and top rolls a
little to avoid cockley yarn. Long staple cotton does not require so
much twist on spinning as short.


ROVING.

9. Too much twist in roving makes bad yarn, and spoils the top rolls
on spinning frames. The square root of the number is about the twist
for roving. It gives the Carder a chance to keep up with the spinning,
and gives the Spinner a chance to make a better quality of yarn. If
there is too much twist in the roving, you cannot draw it on spinning
frames without spreading the rolls; but then it will spoil the top
rolls. Keep your numbers even if you can. Size from every fine speeder
and average it every day, and examine the yarn every time you size, to
see if it is good. By doing so it may save you considerable trouble.


TWO-ROVING.

10. In running two-roving together, always have them of the same
hank, because if one is of one hank, and the other of another, there
will be more twist in one than in the other, and will not make as good
yarn, and will not draw as even as they would if they were of the same
twist or hank. To know what the two hanks would be single; you must
add the two hanks together, and divide that by four to get it single.


DOUBLE WORK.

11. The way to run double work on spinning frames. Have the white put
in the top, if you have double creels; and colored work in the bottom.
Piece the back roving in the top with the back roving in the bottom.
Front in with front makes the yarn more even.


WASTE.

12. Waste must be run through the lapper all by itself, not mix it
with the good cotton; and if one section of cards will run one lap a
day and keep the waste up, you may run one; if it makes two laps put
on two sections, (one lap on each section,) and the work or yarn will
be more even.


UNEVEN WORK.

13. How to prove that uneven work is not made on spinning frames. See
that your draught gears do not bind; if they do, you will have uneven
yarn. Put in new rolls in front, middle and back. See that your frame
runs up to right speed and roller belt is tight. See that the rings
and travelers are good. See that stirrups and saddles are in place.
Then if your yarn is uneven the trouble is in the carding room. Roving
bobbins should be marked for each speeder; and the spinner run each
separate on his frames. Then if you had bad work you could tell very
quick which speeder it belonged to.


BUNCHES.

14. How bunches can be made on spinning frames. By piecing on roving
and leaving the end to run through double. By piecing up ends and not
twisting on smoothly. By wiping out the roving rack and the waste
catching on the roving and running through the rolls. By wiping off
thread-boards, waste catching on to the ends and spinning. By rolls
not being kept clean and oiled. By spinners not being careful enough
when they clean their rolls. By spinners brushing and cleaning their
frames. By brushing down over head. By spinners not keeping their
clearers clean. The carder should be just as particular about making
his roving as the spinner is about making his yarn; then there will be
good work all through. A dry front roll will make bunches on spinning
frames, and will do the same on speeders. Sweepers should not blow
their waste under the frames. Bunches can be made on spoolers by
thread guides not being wide enough for the threads to pass through.
A bunch will collect and stop the spool. Spooler tenders lift it over
on to the spool.


COARSE THREADS.

15. How coarse threads are made. First, by coarse roving; second by
spinners letting two roving run through the guide; third, by one end
catching on to another and running on to the bobbin; fourth, sometimes
where there is two ends on one boss, one end will break and catch onto
the other and spin. If the trouble is in the spinning, you untwist the
thread and you will find two threads instead of one. If not two
threads, the trouble is in the carding room.


CHANGING NUMBERS.

16. When you change from one number to another see that the motion
runs right to pack the yarn closely on the bobbin; then have your
travelers just heavy enough to keep the ends straight. By running a
heavy traveler you pack the yarn harder on the bobbin. I do not
believe in running a traveler heavy enough to pull down the ends, but
heavy enough to keep the ends straight.


POOR COTTON.

17. When cotton is poor you may need a little more twist in the yarn;
sometimes when cotton is poor, the warp spinning will run bad. In this
case you may run your warp one number heavier and mule filling one
number lighter. Waste work requires more twist than good cotton.


ECONOMY OF HEAVY TRAVELERS.

18. It is cheaper for the company to run heavy travelers, and wind the
yarn hard on the bobbins and spools. You get more length of yarn and a
better quality. Will not cost so much for spooling.


KNITTED YARN.

19. If the yarn is knitted the trouble is in the carding room, as you
cannot make knitted yarn on spinning frames.


SNARLED YARN.

20. How snarled yarn is made. By spinners not finding the end and
breaking a thread on the bobbin to piece up by. By having the taper
shorter on top of the bobbin than on the bottom, so when the doffers
take the full bobbins off, the thread pulls over the top and snarls.
To avoid the above, lower the arm where it is attached to the frame,
(the arm that the heart rider is attached to). About one-quarter of an
inch will be enough. You want the taper longer at the top than at the
bottom.


LAP WASTE.

21. How to avoid making lap waste in spinning room. By keeping
spinners where their work is, and by not giving spinners any more work
than they can keep up. By having good doffers and good starters. If
doffers and starters are not good they will make more waste than their
wages will come to. Doffers should wind the thread four times around
the bobbin. Starters should not wind on to bobbins when there is yarn
on to piece up by.


ROVING WASTE.

22. How to avoid making roving waste in spinning room. By letting it
all run through the rolls into yarn. All bad roving should be sent
back into the carding room, where it belongs, every day.


PICKING UP WASTES.

23. All wastes should be picked up, looked over, weighed and carried
off where it belongs, every day. You will find it much better than the
old way. Not so apt to accumulate.


COLORED WORK.

24. Colored work always runs heavy. You want one tooth less draught
change gear than your hank roving figures for. But put in the same
twist.


DOFFING.

25. System in doffing the frames. To save making waste and trouble in
the room, doff every other row right through, then go back and doff
the remaining rows through. In doffing this way the spinners can tend
more sides and not make so much waste, as any spinner knows, or ought
to know. Frames run better when half full than on an empty bobbin. One
frame stopped at a time to doff, is all that ought to be permitted.
From three to four minutes is long enough time to doff any frame with
four doffers. The first frame should be filled to a gauge astride the
bobbin. Do not go by the clock, as the yarn is sometimes heavy. This
gauge is the best guide I ever had in doffing.


SPEED OF CYLINDER.

26. How to get speed of cylinder. See what main line runs; then get
diameter of counter pulley that carries the cylinder below. The pulley
above is called a driver. Then multiply the speed of main line by
diameter of counter pulley that carries the cylinder, and divide that
by the diameter of the pulley that is on the cylinder, which is called
the driven. Then to get speed of spindles, get diameter of cylinder,
and multiply the speed of cylinder by diameter of cylinder, and
divide that by the diameter of the whorl.


SPEEDING PULLEYS.

27. To know what pulley will drive your cylinder faster or slower.
Multiply the speed you would like to have it run, by diameter of
pulley overhead, that carries the cylinder, and divide that by the
speed you are now running. Will give you pulley required.


TAKING UP BELTS.

28. To know how to take up a belt, when you change pulleys. If your
belt is tight enough with the pulley you now have on, for every inch
that your pulley is smaller than you now have on, take out one inch
and three-quarters of belting. If larger, right the reverse.


TWISTS.

29. To know what number of twists to the inch, for any number of yarn.
On warp, multiply the square root of the number by 5. Frame filling by
4, and mule filling by 3-¼. For every ten numbers below thirty take
away two twist to the inch. For every ten numbers above thirty, add
two.


SQUARE ROOT.

30. Square Root of numbers from 18 to 30.--These twists are within a
fraction.

/$
  +---------+---------+---------------+----------------+
  | NUMBERS | SQ ROOT | Warp Twist    | Filling Twist  |
  +---------+---------+---------------+----------------+
  |    13   |  3.605  | 15   per inch | 11-½ per inch. |
  |    14   |  3.741  | 15-½  "   "   | 12    "   "    |
  |    18   |  4.242  | 19    "   "   | 15    "   "    |
  |    19   |  4.359  | 19-½  "   "   | 15    "   "    |
  |    20   |  4.472  | 20-½  "   "   | 15-½  "   "    |
  |    21   |  4.582  | 21    "   "   | 16    "   "    |
  |    22   |  4.690  | 21-½  "   "   | 16-½  "   "    |
  |    23   |  4.796  | 22    "   "   | 17    "   "    |
  |    24   |  4.899  | 22-½  "   "   |                |
  |    25   |  5.000  | 24    "   "   | 19    "   "    |
  |    26   |  5.099  | 24-½  "   "   |                |
  |    27   |  5.196  | 25    "   "   | 19-¾  "   "    |
  |    28   |  5.291  | 25-½  "   "   | 21    "   "    |
  |    29   |  5.385  | 26    "   "   |                |
  |    30   |  5.477  | 27-½  "   "   | 22    "   "    |
  +---------+---------+---------------+----------------+
$/


DRAUGHT FOR YARN.

31. To know the draught for any number of yarn. Write the number you
are spinning or want to spin, add two ciphers to it; divide that by
the hank roving that you are spinning from, to get draught. Example;
hank roving 225, No. yarn 18. Add two ciphers, (1800); divided by 225
gives 8 draught.


GEAR REQUIRED.

32. This is the way I was taught to figure draughts of different
numbers of yarn. If you want to run another number with the same hank
roving, multiply the smallest draught change gear by the number you
are spinning, and divide that by the number you want to spin, and that
will give you the gear required.


ROVING REQUIRED.

33. If you want to spin another number with same draught, write your
number that you want to spin (as above) and divide that by the
draught. That will give you hank roving required.


TO FIND DRAUGHT CHANGE GEAR.

34. Rule to find the draught change gear required. When you change
from one number to another on a frame or mule, when the draught and
roving both have to be changed, multiply the number of the yarn being
spun by the hank roving desired, and that product by the number of
teeth in the draught change gear; using that for a dividend. Then
multiply the number of the yarn desired by the hank roving, using that
for a divisor; that product divided will tell the draught change gear
that is required.


TWIST GEAR.

35. The way I was taught to find the twist gear by square root of the
number of yarn. Multiply the twist gear in use by the square root of
the number being spun, and divide that product by the square root of
the number you want to spin. That will give you the twist gear
required.


TWIST PULLEY.

36. To get the twist pulley for another number of yarn. See what twist
the pulley gives that you have on, and multiply the twist that you
have in, by the pulley that is on, and divide that product by the
twist you would like to put in to get the pulley required.


TWIST OF YARN.

37. To know how to get the exact twist in yarn. Have your roll belt
tight, and band also. Count the revolutions of the spindle to the
rollers once. Divide that by the circumference of the roll, which is
3-14/100 inches. Example. Say 86 turns to the rolls once. (3-14/100)
86.00 turns, (27-38/100) twists to the inch.


WEIGHT ON TOP ROLLS.

38. To know the weight on top rolls. You must measure the distance
from where the stirrup is attached to the lever to where the wire is
attached that holds the weight; then multiply the distance by whatever
the weight weighs, and divide that product by the exact distance from
where the lever is attached to the set screw, to where the stirrup is
attached.


SQUARE ROOT TABLE FOR THE TWIST OF YARNS.

39

/$
  +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
  | No. of | Square | No. of | Square | No. of | Square |
  | Yarn   | Root   | Yarn   | Root   | Yarn   | Root   |
  +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
  |   1    | 1.000  |  31    | 5.567  |  61    | 7.810  |
  |   2    | 1.414  |  32    | 5.656  |  62    | 7.874  |
  |   3    | 1.732  |  33    | 5.744  |  63    | 7.937  |
  |   4    | 2.000  |  34    | 5.830  |  64    | 8.000  |
  |   5    | 2.236  |  35    | 5.916  |  65    | 8.062  |
  |   6    | 2.449  |  36    | 6.000  |  66    | 8.124  |
  |   7    | 2.645  |  37    | 6.082  |  67    | 8.185  |
  |   8    | 2.828  |  38    | 6.164  |  68    | 8.246  |
  |   9    | 3.000  |  39    | 6.244  |  69    | 8.306  |
  |  10    | 3.162  |  40    | 6.324  |  70    | 8.366  |
  |  11    | 3.316  |  41    | 6.403  |  71    | 8.426  |
  |  12    | 3.464  |  42    | 6.480  |  72    | 8.485  |
  |  13    | 3.605  |  43    | 6.557  |  73    | 8.544  |
  |  14    | 3.741  |  44    | 6.633  |  74    | 8.602  |
  |  15    | 3.872  |  45    | 6.708  |  75    | 8.660  |
  |  16    | 4.000  |  46    | 6.782  |  76    | 8.717  |
  |  17    | 4.123  |  47    | 6.855  |  77    | 8.774  |
  |  18    | 4.242  |  48    | 6.928  |  78    | 8.831  |
  |  19    | 4.358  |  49    | 7.000  |  79    | 8.888  |
  |  20    | 4.472  |  50    | 7.071  |  80    | 8.944  |
  |  21    | 4.582  |  51    | 7.141  |  81    | 9.000  |
  |  22    | 4.690  |  52    | 7.211  |  82    | 9.055  |
  |  23    | 4.795  |  53    | 7.280  |  83    | 9.110  |
  |  24    | 4.898  |  54    | 7.348  |  84    | 9.165  |
  |  25    | 5.000  |  55    | 7.416  |  85    | 9.219  |
  |  26    | 5.099  |  56    | 7.483  |  86    | 9.273  |
  |  27    | 5.196  |  57    | 7.549  |  87    | 9.327  |
  |  28    | 5.291  |  58    | 7.615  |  88    | 9.380  |
  |  29    | 5.385  |  59    | 7.681  |  89    | 9.433  |
  |  30    | 5.477  |  60    | 7.745  |  90    | 9.486  |
  +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
$/


==> If any Spinner purchasing this book has trouble with his work, he
will receive aid from me (if in my power) by stating all particulars.

All orders for this book should be addressed to Francis L. Lincoln,
P.O. Box 35, Warren, Mass.

PRICE ONE DOLLAR.

       *       *       *       *       *





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Instruction book on ring spinning" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home