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Title: Lachesis Lapponica - A Tour in Lapland
Author: Linné, Carl von, 1707-1778
Language: English
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Note that the style of capitalised species names are retained as
they appear in the original.

       *       *       *       *       *

                 _Lachesis Lapponica_,


                   TOUR IN LAPLAND,

                 NOW FIRST PUBLISHED
                       FROM THE
                   OF THE CELEBRATED

                       LINNÆUS;

                          BY

        JAMES EDWARD SMITH, M.D. F.R.S. ETC.
          PRESIDENT OF THE LINNÆAN SOCIETY.

                    IN TWO VOLUMES.
                       VOL. II.


  "Ulterius nihil est, nisi non habitabile frigus."
                                                    OVID.


                      _LONDON_:
    PRINTED FOR WHITE AND COCHRANE, HORACE'S HEAD,
                    FLEET-STREET,
        BY RICHARD TAYLOR AND CO., SHOE-LANE.

                        1811.



JOURNEY TO LAPLAND.


In the latter part of this day, _July 15th_, I set out on my return from
the low grounds of Norway. The heat was very powerful as we began to
ascend the mountains. When we reached what had seemed to us from below
the summit of a hill, we saw just as lofty an eminence before us, and
this was the case nine or ten successive times. I had no idea of such
mountains before. The elevation of this hill cannot be taken by any
geometrical instrument, as the summit is not visible, even at some miles
distance. I believe its height must exceed a Swedish mile, but to climb
it was worse than going two miles any other way. Had we not frequently
met with such abundance of water, we should have been overcome with
fatigue. In this ascent I found the little _Astragalus_ (_alpinus_) with
a white flower, and the Little Gentian (_Gentiana nivalis_).

Our clothes, which were wet quite through with perspiration, in
consequence of the heat we had encountered in the beginning of our
journey, were now frozen stiff upon our backs by the cold. We determined
to seek for a Laplander's hut. In order to get at one, we were obliged
to descend so steep a hill, that, being unable to walk down it, I lay
down on my back and slid along, with the rapidity of an arrow from a
bow. I avoided with difficulty the large snow torrents that every now
and then came in my way, and which were sometimes within an ell of me.

On reaching this hut, I noticed some of the reindeer whose horns were
not above half an inch long, the Brom-fly (_Oestrus Tarandi_) having
bitten them while quite tender; for these insects are, in the Norwegian
alps, worse than the gnats of Swedish Lapland.

I here obtained a curious piece of information respecting the mode of
castrating the reindeer. When the animal is two years and a half old,
its owner, about a fortnight before Michaelmas, getting a person to
assist him by holding it fast by the horns, places himself betwixt its
hind legs. He then applies his teeth to the _scrotum_, so as to bruise
its contents, but not so as to break the skin, for in that case the
reindeer would die. He afterwards bruises the part still more
effectually between his fingers. The same operation is performed on both
sides, if the reindeer remains quiet long enough for the purpose at one
time. The animal is in consequence rather indisposed for a while, so
that he can hardly keep up with the rest of the herd, but he usually
recovers perfectly in a week's time. This is certainly an art, no less
curious than remarkable, and merits further consideration.

The girls here, especially when they wish to appear to advantage, divide
their hair into two braids, one above each ear, which braids are tied
together, at the hind part of the head, so as to hang down the back. A
tuft of ribands is appended to the extremity of each braid.


_July 16._

We undertook to cross the ice-mountain. Having proceeded some way on our
journey, we observed a dense cloud to the north-east. It was visible
both above and below us, and at length approached us in the form of a
thick mist, which moistened our clothes, and rendered even our hair
thoroughly wet. It so completely obliterated our horizon, that we could
neither see sun nor moon, nor the summits of the neighbouring hills. We
knew not whither to turn our steps, fearing on the one hand to fall down
a precipice and lose our lives, as actually happened, a few years ago,
to a Laplander under the same circumstances; or on the other to be
plunged into the alpine torrent, which had worn so deep a channel
through the snow, as to make any one giddy, looking upon it from above.
We could now not distinguish any thing a couple of ells before us. Our
situation was like that of an unskilful mariner at sea without a
compass, out of sight of land, and surrounded by hidden rocks on every
side. The Laplanders themselves consider the situation we were in as one
of the worst accidents that can ever befall them. We, however, though
destitute of a guide, were fortunate enough to discover the track of a
reindeer, and of some kind of carriage in which goods had probably been
lately conveyed towards Norway. This track directed us safely to one of
the Lapland moveable tents.

All the Laplanders are usually blear-eyed, so that one would think the
word _Lappi_ (Laplanders) was derived from _lippi_ (blear-eyed). The
causes of this inconvenience are various, but chiefly the following.

1. The sharp winds. In the early part of my journey, repeated exposure
to stormy weather rendered my eyes sore, so that I became unable to open
them wide, and was obliged to keep them half shut. How much more must
this be the case with those who dwell on the alps, where there is a
perpetual wind!

2. The snow, the whiteness of which, when the sun shone upon it, was
very troublesome to me. To this the alpine Laplanders are continually
exposed.

3. The fogs. This day I found myself very comfortable in my walk over
the icy mountain, till the fog, mist, or cloud, whichever it might be
called, came about me, rendering the eyes of my interpreter, as well as
my own, so weak and relaxed, that we could not open them wide without an
effort. Such must often be the case with the Laplanders.

4. Smoke. How is it possible that these people should not be blear-eyed,
when they are so continually shut up in their huts, where the smoke has
no outlet but by the hole in the roof, and consequently fills every
body's eyes as it passes!

5. The severity of the cold in this country must also contribute to the
same inconvenience.

The mountain Laplanders, or those who live in the alps, build no huts;
they have only tents made in the following manner.

[Illustration]

The first figure represents two connected beams, which compose the
frame-work of one side of the hut; and these meet at the top with two
similar ones, forming the opposite side. A solitary beam is placed on
each side, in the middle of the arch formed by these four, so that the
whole edifice has six angles. Two more slender sticks, but equally tall,
are then erected between every two angles, or main ribs, of the
building. Over the whole is spread the covering of the tent (made of
walmal cloth). The usual height of the structure is about a fathom and
half, and the breadth two fathoms. A flap of cloth is left, so as to
open and shut by way of a door, between two of the main beams.

[Illustration]

When they lie down to rest, and are fearful of being incommoded by heat,
they fix a hook through the middle of the coverlet, which raises it
perhaps an ell and a half above them, and under this canopy they repose.

[Illustration]

The women wear several things attached to their belt, as a leather bag,
_fig._ 1, containing a spoon, as well as a pipe, _fig._ 3.

_Fig._ 2. A knife in a case.

4. A thimble made of leather, which goes round the finger.

5. A pin-cushion, with a brass cover which pulls down over it like a
cap.

6. Several large brass rings.

The belt itself is ornamented with tin or silver embroidery, and
pearls.

[Illustration]

The men wear, instead of the above, a kind of bag, hanging down exactly
in front. This is divided internally into two pockets, containing their
tobacco-pipe, tinder-box, tobacco, and a spoon made of reindeer's horn,
of an oblong flattish shape.

The women often wear a similar bag, but of a smaller size.

When the reindeer are milked, as they cast their coat during the whole
course of the summer, the hair flies about very inconveniently, often
covering the milk in the pail. Some hair sticks also to the dugs of the
animal, and it is found necessary to clean and soften them before the
milking is begun. This is generally done by dipping the fingers into the
milk which may be in the pail already, and washing them therewith.
Whenever it happens that one of the reindeer strays from its master's
herd to that of a neighbour, the person to whom it comes milks it,
without any offence to the proper owner. Such an accident often happens;
for these animals love society, and the more of them there are together,
the better they thrive and enjoy themselves. They are marked at the
ears, like cows, that every person may know his own.

The furniture of these Laplanders consists of kettles and pots, made
sometimes of brass, sometimes of copper; rarely of stone, on account of
the weight. They have also hemispherical bowls, with handles, generally
made of the hard knotty excrescences of the birch. These are often large
enough to hold four or five cans, (of three quarts each,) and formed so
neatly, that any one would believe them to be turned. Into these they
pour what is to be served up at their meals. Plates they have none, but
in their stead boards, of an oblong shape, are used for meat; which,
previous to its distribution among the guests, is served up in round
pails. Closely platted baskets, or tubs, always circular, are used to
keep cheese in. There is moreover an oblong barrel, for the purpose of
holding _jumomjolk_ (_vol._ 1. _p._ 273).

Within the tent are spread on each side skins of reindeer, with the
hairy part uppermost, on which the people either sit or lie down, for
the tent is not lofty enough to allow any one to stand upright. In the
centre of the whole is the fire-place, or a square enclosure of low
stones about the ash-heap. The back part of the tent, behind the
fire-place, is entirely occupied either with brush-wood or branches of
trees, behind which, or, most commonly, before it next the fire, the
household furniture is placed. In the roof are two racks, suspended over
the reindeer skins on each side, upon which cheeses are laid to dry, and
before these, towards the entrance, hang rennet-bags, filled with milk,
preserved for winter use.

The annexed figure is a sort of plan of the floor of one of these
Lapland tents. a is the fire-place. b, b, reindeer skins, six in number,
three at the right hand, on entering the tent, and as many at the left.
c large fire-wood. d cheese-vessels. e kettle, with its lid. f, behind
the first reindeer skin, is the place of the harness. g a barrel or
cask. h a store of skins and hair of the reindeer. i the milk-strainer,
with its flat cover.

[Illustration]

The following figure represents the roof of the tent, as seen from
below. a, a, are the racks on which the cheeses are ranged. b outlet for
the smoke. c, c, rennet-bags containing milk. d plat of hair from the
reindeer's tail, to strain milk through. e the flat cover of the
milk-strainer; see i in the former figure.

[Illustration]

Such was the dwelling, and I shall now describe some of its inhabitants.
I sat myself down at the right hand of the entrance, with my legs
across. Opposite to me sat an old woman, with one leg bent, the other
straight. Her dress came no lower than her knees, but she had a belt
embroidered with silver. Her grey hair hung straight down, and she had a
wrinkled face, with blear eyes. Her countenance was altogether of the
Lapland cast. Her fingers were scraggy and withered. * * * * Next to her
sat her husband, a young man, six-and-thirty years of age, who, for the
sake of her large herds of reindeer, had already been married ten years
to this old hag. When the Laplanders sit, they either cross their legs
under them, or one knee is bent, the other straight.

As a defence against wind and snow, a sort of hood, called
_nialmiphata_, is worn over the cap. It is made of red cloth, of the
shape of a truncated cone, dilated at the bottom, and is four palms
high, three palms in circumference at the upper part, and six at the
bottom. This covers the cheeks, as well as the neck and shoulders, the
eyes and mouth only being exposed. In the back part, at bottom, is a
loop, through which goes a riband to secure the whole from being blown
off, by being tied round the body under the arms.

In winter-time the women wear breeches, made exactly like those worn by
the men, as well as boots, though the latter come no higher than the
knees. It is wonderful how they are able, in the severity of winter, to
follow the reindeer, which are never at rest, but keep feeding by night
as well as by day. They have indeed small sheds or huts, here and there,
into which they occasionally drive their reindeer, but with the greatest
difficulty.

During the night we passed over the beautiful lake of _Wirisiar_. The
weather was very cold and foggy.


_July 17._

In the morning we arrived at the abode of Mr. Kock, the under bailiff,
where I could not but admire the fairness of the bodies of these
dark-faced people, which rivalled that of any lady whatever.

Here I saw some Leming Rats, called in Lapland _Lummick_. The body of
these animals is grey; face and shoulders black; the loins blackish;
tail, as well as ears, very short. They feed on grass and reindeer-moss
(_Lichen rangiferinus_), and are not eatable. They live, for the most
part, in the alps; but in some years thousands of them come down into
the woodland countries, passing right over lakes, bogs, and marshes, by
which great numbers perish. They are by no means timid, but look out,
from their holes, at passengers, like a dog. They bring forth five or
six at a birth. Their burrows are about half a quarter (of an ell?)
deep.

Here I found the little Gentian, or Centaury, with a hyacinthine flower
in five notched segments (_Gentiana nivalis_).


_July 18._

I gathered and examined the little Catchfly, which resembles the common
one (_Lychnis Viscaria_) except in being smaller, and not at all viscid.
(_L. alpina_; see _v._ 1. _p._ 302. _n._ 46.) The root is perennial.
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, approaching to linear. Stem simple, round,
smooth, bearing two, three, or four pairs of opposite leaves. From the
uppermost pair springs one flower-stalk on each side, bearing a single
flower, between two small opposite purple leaves. A little higher up,
two other simple flower-stalks come forth in the same manner, with two
coloured leaves at their base, the stem being thus extended straight
upwards. Calyx ovate, erect, coloured, with five teeth. Petals five,
their disk cloven half way down; the crown with two teeth. Stamens 10.
Pistils 5.

After passing the alps, we grew thirsty; but the water we met with
proved less pleasant than usual, having an earthy taste, although it
flowed from plentiful stores of ice and snow. My Laplander took his
knife and cut out a lump of ice, which he sucked by way of refreshment.
I found this mode of drinking agreeable enough, the ice being very
palatable, and we both partook of it largely. He told me it was
considered very wholesome for the chest. Indeed I learned, both from the
Laplanders and my own experience, that pure water, however cold, is
never hurtful, provided it be taken in moderation.

I was desirous of having my linen washed; but the people understood my
request as little as if I had spoken Hebrew, not a single article of
their own apparel being made of linen. As their food is of animal
origin, so is their clothing, which consists either of skins, the
produce of the country, or of the woollen cloth called _walmal_, which
they purchase. In the winter they wear Lapland boots, which come up as
high as the middle of the thighs, without any stockings, only the feet
are protected with what they term _Skogras_ (_Carex sylvatica_ Fl.
Brit.), as already mentioned. Next to the body they wear a jacket of
_walmal_, and above that a _lappmudd_, or coat of reindeer skin, with
the hairy side turned inwards. In summer they turn that side outwards.
The boots used by the women do not reach higher than the knee.


_July 19._

I remarked with astonishment how greatly the reindeer are incommoded in
hot weather, insomuch that they cannot stand still a minute, no not a
moment, without changing their posture, starting, puffing and blowing
continually, and all on account of a little fly. Even though amongst a
herd of perhaps five hundred reindeer there were not above ten of these
flies, every one of the herd trembled and kept pushing its neighbour
about. The fly meanwhile was trying every means to get at them; but it
no sooner touched any part of their bodies, than they made an immediate
effort to shake it off. In one respect this season is peculiarly
propitious to the insect, as the reindeer's coat is now very thin, most
of the hair of last year's growth being fallen off. I caught one of
these insects as it was flying along with its tail protruded, which had
at its extremity a small linear orifice, perfectly white. The tail
itself consisted of four or five tubular joints, slipping into each
other, like a pocket spying-glass, which this fly, like others, has a
power of contracting at pleasure. See what I have already mentioned
(_vol._ 1. _p._ 280), concerning the spots in the reindeer skins, as
caused by this insect (_Oestrus Tarandi_).

When the Lapland children are laid into the cradle, they seldom cry,
although their hands are confined down to their sides. If they cry, it
is generally from hunger. The cradle is placed in a sloping position, so
that the child's head is half upright. The bottom of the cradle is
hollowed out of a piece of fir wood, consequently not very heavy. Over
the head of the child is a hoop forming an arch, to which a transverse
bow is fixed, the whole being covered with cloth, like the rest of the
cradle. In summer the child lies without any covering of reindeer hair,
only having under its head and body either some walmal cloth, fur, or
moss.

The Laplanders use a curious kind of box or basket, which they call
_kisa_, for keeping or carrying various articles. It is of an oval form,
with the bottom and sides made of fir, like a box, being about a foot
and half long, a foot broad, and six inches deep, with a transverse
opening in the bottom to admit a part of the saddle of the reindeer. The
contents are confined by a lacing of cords, that goes from side to side
across the top, which is otherwise open. Two such boxes, each weighing
about two pounds, are placed like panniers upon the reindeer; for that
animal cannot carry above four or five pounds weight, and the castrated
males only are used as beasts of burthen at all. A leather thong crosses
the saddle, connected with another longer one, which goes round the
chest of the animal at one part, and round its thighs, like the
breechings of a horse, at the other. A pack-saddle, made either of
reindeer skin, or of walmal cloth, with a bow of spruce fir, goes across
the back, and is connected with the leather thongs just mentioned, being
further secured by a girth under the belly. Against the sides of this
pack-saddle the above-described boxes or baskets are hung and fastened,
the transverse chink in the bottom of each being fitted to the saddle.

I observed that the Laplanders, both men and women, after borrowing a
lighted pipe, and passing it from one to another, retain a mouthful of
smoke as long as possible, that they may enjoy as much of the flavour as
they can. Old men chew tobacco.

The tendons in the legs of the reindeer serve to make thread or cord. In
each hind leg are two tendons, one before the other; in each fore leg
one behind and two or three before it. These the Laplanders lay hold of
with their mouths, split and moisten them, rubbing them from time to
time with reindeer marrow, preserved in bladders for that use, in order
to render them as supple as possible. Each string is made sharp at both
ends, and drawn through holes of various sizes in an instrument made on
purpose (of wood or metal) to render it as fine and smooth as they can.
Two such threads are then twisted together by means of the hand upon
the thigh or knee. They are generally held with the left hand, and
twisted with the right upon the left knee, proceeding downwards, the
thread being moistened from time to time with saliva.

In this part of the country the _Empetrum_ (Crow- or Crake-berry) serves
for firing. Otherwise the most common fuel is the dwarf Birch (_Betula
nana_), and the Willow with lanceolate white hairy leaves (_Salix
lapponum_), so very abundant on the Lapland alps. The dwarf birch bears
very small leaves in these elevated regions.

When the children are taken out of the cradle, which I have already
described (_vol._ 2. _p._ 23), they are dressed in a small garment of
reindeer skin. They are usually able to stand on their legs by the time
they are four months old, and turn their head and eyes about with a
degree of intelligence hardly ever seen in our children at that early
age.

I never met with any people who lead such easy happy lives as the
Laplanders. In summer they make two meals of milk in the course of the
day, and when they have gone through their allotted task of milking
their reindeer, or making cheese, they resign themselves to indolent
tranquillity, not knowing what to do next. In winter their food is
cheese, taken once or twice a day, but in the evening they eat meat. A
single reindeer supplies four persons with food for a week.

This animal has no gall-bladder, nor could I discover the insertion of
the biliary duct. The liver however is of a large size. The first
stomach is large, with a thick orifice, and lined with a fine cellular
network like that of a cow, being moreover longitudinally plaited. The
Laplanders are curious dissectors. They take out each of the stomachs
separately, with as much care as a professed anatomist.

The thread made of sinews, as above described, is never used for sewing
_walmal_, which makes their summer clothing, but only for garments
composed of fur or leather. Their shoes indeed are mended, as well as
made, with it. This last business falls to the lot of the women. The
leather is purchased.

A good ox may be bought in Norway for three rix-dollars; a female
reindeer for one rix-dollar; a castrated male for from twelve to
eighteen dollars, silver coin; and a fawn is worth from twelve to
eighteen dollars of copper money. Three reindeer, therefore, are but
equal to the value of a common ox.

I left this place in the evening, proceeding on my journey on foot, and
walking all night long, till three o'clock in the afternoon of the
following day. Thus I walked six miles at a stretch, before I arrived at
another Lapland hut.

[Illustration]

Nothing occurred particularly worth noticing by the way, except an
_Andromeda_ (_tetragona_) with quadrangular shoots, and flowers from
the bosoms of the leaves. The stem is woody, procumbent, naked,
thread-shaped, variously divided. Branches partly erect, entirely
covered with leaves, which are oblong, obtuse, somewhat rounded,
concave, keeled, sessile, disposed in an imbricated manner.
Flower-stalks solitary, from the bosoms of the leaves, erect,
thread-shaped, whitish, each bearing a drooping flower. Calyx
five-cleft, purplish, with ovate straight segments. Petal one,
half-ovate or bellshaped, exactly resembling the lily of the valley, cut
half way down into five erect acute segments. Stamens ten, very short,
with horned anthers, scarcely longer than the calyx. Pistil simple, the
length of the calyx. Pericarp roundish, with five obtuse angles, erect,
of five cells, with several seeds[1].


_July 20._

The people here use a kind of bread called _Blodbrod_ (Blood Bread),
made of small fresh fish, bruised and mixed with a little quantity of
flour. This is baked or roasted on a jack before the fire, but it is
used only in hard times.

There are no common flies, bugs, nor snakes, on these Alps.

The Laplanders however abound with lice, which in winter are allowed to
freeze, when they turn red, and are easily killed. In summer they come
forth from the clothes, if exposed to the sun, and are then destroyed
with the nails, these people having no firelock to shoot them with[2].

I was informed that in this neighbourhood the inoculated small-pox is
remarkably fatal. If the patients have but seventy or eighty pustules,
they die of it as of the plague. They fly to the mountains, when
infected, and die. The same is the case with the measles. It appears
that both these diseases are aggravated by the violent cold, whence the
patients die in so miserable a manner[3].

Swelled necks (goitres) are frequent.

Sore eyes are universal, especially in the spring, when the Laplanders
remove towards the Alps. The glittering of the snow has then a
pernicious effect on their eyes. Aged people are very often blind.

Female obstructions are rare, though sometimes met with among the better
sort of people; neither are the _catamenia_ immoderate, nor in common so
copious as with us. The Lapland women are entirely ignorant of the
_leucorrhœa_.

Of hysterics I met with but two cases. One maid-servant, twenty-four
years of age, had the complaint about once a year; another, about
thirty, was attacked with it monthly during the summer.

Epilepsy sometimes occurs. Headachs are frequent; hence the forehead is
often seen full of scars (from the application of their _toule_, or
_moxa_; see _vol._ 1. _p._ 274).

Elderly people are often hard of hearing.

The sleep of the Laplanders is commonly sound, and they are in the habit
of sleeping or waking whenever they please.

A swelling, or falling down, of the _uvula_ is not uncommon, in which
case they frequently cut off the part affected.

When children are troubled with swellings in the glands about the
throat, the usual remedy is to prick the part, and suck out the blood,
which is considered as a speedy and effectual cure. If this method be
not adopted, they suppose the blood would rise to the head, and cause
cutaneous eruptions there.

Coughs are of very rare occurrence, notwithstanding the constant
practice of drinking snow- and ice-water, even after swallowing pure
grease or fat, which perhaps may prevent its bad consequences. However
this may be, the Laplanders seldom die from catching cold. Cases of
_phthisis_, or consumption, do indeed now and then occur among them, and
pleurisies are very common, especially in spring and autumn. Lumbago, or
pain in the back, is most prevalent during the summer. For this, as I
have already mentioned, _vol._ 1. _p._ 274, actual cautery, by means of
their _toule_, or _moxa_, is often applied.

Bleeding at the nose chiefly happens among those Lapland women who are
in the service of the colonists, and who, in consequence of certain
obstructions, are subject also to œdematous swellings of the feet.

I have not heard of a single instance of jaundice.

Some elderly people are afflicted with asthma; and hoarsenesses now and
then occur in the winter and spring.

The stone and gout are entirely unknown amongst the Laplanders.

Swellings of the lower extremities are uncommon, as these people are in
the habit of swathing their legs, which renders them all slender and
well shaped. All dropsical complaints indeed are very rare, though I did
meet with one case of this kind.

Of _tenesmus_ I happened to hear of but a single instance, though the
Laplanders eat so much cheese and drink water.

Disorders in the stomach are not uncommon, which are frequently attended
with _diarrhœa_, and in some years this disease is contagious.

The specimens of minerals which I had collected in the course of my
tour were now become numerous, and consisted of the following articles.

1. An alum, as I presume, of a club shape, without any taste, seeming as
it were dissolved in fluor, from the mountains to the north of the lake
Skalk, near Kiomitis. (See _vol._ 1. _p._ 267.)

2. Native alum in its own matrix; from the same place. (_Alumen
nativum._ _Syst. Nat._ _vol._ 3. 101).

3. Native alum, rough and green, separate from its matrix; from the same
mountains.

4. Alum like the former in appearance, but not salt, perhaps a
calcareous stone; found not far from the same place.

5. Various alpine micaceous stones.

6. Marle from Lapland.

7. Quartz from Lapland.

8. Silver ore from Kiurivari.

9. Silver ore from Nasaphiel in Pithœan Lapland.

10. Sandstone containing three per cent. of iron.

11. Black slate from the alps.

12. Petrified corals from Norway.

13. Iridescent fluors from the alps.

The fish called by the Laplanders _Sijk_ (the Gwiniad, or _Salmo
Lavaretus_,) is taken in their lakes. Its head terminates in an obtuse
point. The upper jaw is the longest. Mouth without teeth. Iris of the
eye silvery, with a blackish upper edge, and a black pupil. The whole
body is silvery, blackish about the back, eleven inches long and two
deep. Head two inches long at the sides; from the snout to the dorsal
fin four inches and a half. The dorsal fin consists of thirteen rays, of
which the first is by far the largest, and the last cloven or
interrupted. The soft fat fin is in its proper place.


_July 21._

The following are the disorders or inconveniences to which the reindeer
are subject.

When the frost is so intense as to form an impenetrable crust on the
surface of the snow, so that the animal cannot break it with his feet,
to get at the Lichen on which he feeds, he is frequently starved to
death. This misfortune is as dreadful to the Laplanders as any public or
national calamity elsewhere; for, when his reindeer are killed, he must
himself either starve to death, beg for his livelihood, or turn thief.

The hoofs of the reindeer are not uncommonly affected with a swelling at
the edge where they are attached to the skin, at which part they
consequently become ulcerated, and are seldom healed. The creature thus
grows lame, and cannot keep up with the herd.

These animals are sometimes attacked with a _vertigo_, or giddiness in
the head, which causes them to run round and round continually. The
people assured me, that such of them as run according to the course of
the sun may be expected to get the better of the disorder; but those
which turn the contrary way, being supposed incurable, are immediately
killed. The recovery of the former is thought to be promoted by cutting
their ears, so as to cause a great discharge of blood.

The _Kurbma_, or ulceration caused by the Gad-fly, (see _vol._ 1. _p._
280.) takes place every spring, especially in the younger fawns. Such as
are brought forth in the summer season are free from this misfortune the
ensuing spring, but in the following one many of them lose their lives
by it. When come to their full size and strength, the consequences are
less fatal; but no reindeer is entirely exempt from the attacks of this
pernicious insect.

The fawns are of a reddish hue the first season, during which they cut
their foreteeth. In the autumn they turn blackish, and have fodder given
them. They are when young frequently afflicted with a soreness in the
mouth, so as to be unable for a while to eat.

Reindeer are subject to a disease called by the Laplanders _Pekke
Kattiata_, accompanied with ulcerations of the flesh, which however
often heal by a sloughing of the part affected. This is an epidemic
disorder. It is believed that if any of the ulcerous part, which is cast
off, be swallowed by the animal, in licking his own coat, or that of any
other of the herd labouring under this malady, it proves fatal by
corroding the viscera.

The dugs of the female often become chapped or sore, so as to bleed
whenever they are milked.

The male reindeer in his natural state is fatter than such as are
castrated, except the latter be kept without work, in which case they
become the fattest. Such as are castrated and allowed to run wild,
become considerably larger, as well as tamer, in consequence.

The rutting season lasts but a fortnight, that is, from about a week
preceding the feast of St. Matthew (Sept. 21.) to Michaelmas day, during
which period the male is savage and dangerous. Immediately afterwards he
casts his coat and horns, and not unfrequently becomes so emaciated,
that, in many instances, death is the consequence.

Towards the feast of St. Eric (May 18.) in the following year, or within
a fortnight of that period, very rarely later, the females bring forth
their young. They do not copulate the first year, and seldom before the
third, their progeny being found the better for this delay. Indeed
neither the males nor females arrive at their full growth and perfection
before they are towards three years old.

The fawn, whether male or female, is called the first year _mesk_; the
second season the male is called _orryck_, and the female _whenial_. In
the third year the latter, if she has been covered, is known by the
appellation of _watja_ or _waja_, which means a wife; if otherwise, she
goes by the name of _whenial-rotha_, the three-year old male being
called _wubbers_. In his fourth year the male is termed _koddutis_; in
the following one _kosittis_; in the sixth _machanis_, and in the
seventh _namma lappotachis_. After that period no male is kept, they all
perishing in consequence of the exhaustion above mentioned, but the
castrated ones live to a more advanced age. None of these animals
however survive beyond their twelfth or fourteenth year. When the
castrated males become very fat towards autumn, and show signs of old
age; or the females, having become barren, appear otherwise to be on the
decline, they are killed, by the knife, in the close of the year; from
an apprehension that they might otherwise perish of themselves from
infirmity, in the course of another season.

Such of the male reindeer as are destined to serve for a stock of
provision, are killed before the rutting-time, and their carcases hung
up to be exposed to the air and frost before flaying. The flesh is
smoked and a little salted, and then laid upon sledges to dry in the
sun, that it may keep through the winter till spring. About the feast of
St. Matthias (Feb. 24.) the reindeer begin to be so incommoded with the
gad-fly, that they are not in a fit condition to be slain for eating.
From that period therefore, till the milking season, the Laplanders are
obliged to live on this stock of preserved meat. At other times of the
year the females are killed for immediate use, according as they are
wanted. The blood is kept fresh in kegs, or other vessels, and serves
for food in the spring, being added to the _välling_ (see _vol._ 1. _p._
129), with a small proportion of milk and water. The blood of these
animals is thick in consistence, like that of a hog. The Laplanders
carry a portion of it along with them from place to place, in bladders
or some kind of vessels. A stock of this and all other necessaries is
collected as late as possible, before the melting of the snow, while
there still remains a track for the sledges.

A kind of blood pudding or sausage is made, in general without flour,
and with a large proportion of fat. This the Laplanders call _marfi_.

The liver of the reindeer, which is of a considerable bulk, is boiled
and eaten fresh. The lungs, being salted and moderately dried, are eaten
occasionally, or else given to the dogs. The intestines, which abound
with fat, are cut open, washed, and boiled fresh; nor are they
unpalatable. The brain and testicles are never eaten. The foot is flayed
down to the fetlock joint, beyond which the hair cannot, by scalding or
any other contrivance, be separated, without the cuticle and skin coming
along with it. Even when the feet are boiled, the hair never comes off
without the skin. Thus the animal when living is the more firmly
protected against the snow. The hoofs are thrown away as useless.

The dung of the reindeer in summer is almost as large as cow-dung, but
in winter it more resembles that of the goat.

Each individual reindeer does not bear horns of precisely the same shape
every year. The points are very liable to be deformed, in consequence of
the animal's scratching them, while in a growing state, with its feet;
they being in that state much inclined to itch, and as tender as the
flesh of a fresh fish.

These animals are afflicted with maggots called _kornmatskar_ in their
noses and gums, from which they relieve themselves in the spring by
snorting and blowing. When the insects lodge on their backs and form
pustules there, the people make a practice of squeezing them out, to
prevent the reindeer from being too much irritated by them. (This
species is the _Oestrus nasalis_, though the account here given is not
very clear; but in the first edition only of the _Fauna Suecica_ Linnæus
says, on the authority of a gentleman named Friedenreich, that "this
_Oestrus_ lodges its eggs in the frontal sinus of the reindeer in
Lapland, and is frequently cast out by them as they travel along in the
spring.")

When the skin is stripped from the carcase of the reindeer, it is
immediately spread out, and stretched as much as possible, by means of
a longitudinal pole, and a transverse stick at each end of the skin,
these sticks being pulled asunder with a strong cord. Several more
transverse twigs are placed between these two sticks, so as to extend
every part of the edges of the hide, which in this position is allowed
to dry.

The Laplanders' gloves are made of skin taken from the legs of the
animal; their hairy shoes, of that from its forehead between the horns,
such being worth two dollars, copper money; while those made from the
skin of the legs, being much thinner, are of very little or no value.

A Laplander never goes barefoot, though he has nothing to serve him for
stockings but hay (_Carex sylvatica_, _Fl. Brit._). Sometimes he buys
leather for shoes or boots from his neighbours.

The people of this country boil their meat in water only, without any
addition or seasoning, and drink the broth. _Jumomjölk_ (see _vol._ 1.
278.) kept for a whole year is delicate eating. Berries of all kinds
are boiled in it. Some persons make a practice of boiling those berries
by themselves, preserving them afterwards in small tubs, or other wooden
vessels. They boil their fish more thoroughly than their meat, over a
slow fire, drinking likewise the water in which it has been drest. The
meat is never so much boiled as to separate from the bone. Fresh fish is
sometimes roasted over the fire. Few people dry and salt it, though that
method is sometimes practised. Meat is dried by the air, sun and smoke
all together, being hung up in the chimney, or rather hole by which the
smoke escapes through the roof.

The Laplanders never eat of more than one dish at a meal.

By way of dainty, the women occasionally mix the berries of the Dwarf
Cornel (_Cornus suecica_) with _Kappi_ (see _vol._ i. _p._ 281.), which
is made of whey boiled till it grows as thick as flummery. To this they
moreover add some cream. That fruit is entirely neglected in the country
of Medelpad.

In Dalecarlia the people generally keep their cattle up in the
mountains, twelve or sixteen miles from their own dwellings, on account
of gad-flies and other stinging insects. There they have their dairies,
and make cheese. The remaining whey is boiled till two thirds are
wasted, when it becomes as thick as flummery. This is sometimes eaten
instead of butter, sometimes mixed with dough, or serves for food in
various other manners.

The wind is excessively powerful in this alpine region, so that
sometimes it is impossible to stand against it, both men and sledges
being overturned by its violence.

It blew so hard at the place where I now was, that one of the windows of
the curate's house was blown in upon the floor.

Every Laplander constantly carries a sort of pole or stick, tipped with
a ferule, and furnished with a transverse bit of wood. Whenever he is
tired, he leans his arms and nose against it to rest himself.

Such as live in the forests are dexterous marksmen, but not those who
inhabit the alps. Nevertheless, they all contrive, by means of their
wooden bows, to procure, in the course of the winter, a considerable
number of Squirrels (_Sciurus vulgaris_) in their grey or winter
clothing, for the sake of their skins.

In the winter season also they go in pursuit of their most cruel enemies
the wolves. One of these animals will sometimes kill twenty or thirty
reindeer at a time, if he comes into the enclosure where they are. The
wolf often runs away before the Laplander can get near enough to fire at
him. A bear can hardly catch a reindeer, except by coming upon it
unawares, the latter being much the most swift of foot; but if he gets
into any of the store-houses, he does a great deal of mischief, turning
every thing topsy-turvy. Bears are also very dangerous in the fissures
of rocks and mountains, where they usually conceal themselves.

The Glutton (_Mustela Gulo_) does most harm in the pantry or
store-house. He never meddles with the reindeer.

A part of the employment of the men is to make sledges, or other
machines of wood for carriage. They cut rough wood in the forests for
the boxes which they carry with them into the alps.

The duty of the women is to mend the clothes of the whole family.

Laplanders have several plays or amusements.

Children make of the dwarf birch (_Betula nana_) something like
reindeer's horns, with which they gore one another in sport. They amuse
themselves frequently by building little huts of stone.

Grown-up people play very well at tennis, but they seldom partake of
that diversion. More common amusements are blindman's buff, and drawing
gloves.

Here I think it worth while to observe, that the alpine Laplanders are
more honest, as well as more good-natured, than those who dwell in the
woodlands. Having acquired more polish from their occasional intercourse
with the inhabitants of towns, the latter have, at the same time,
learned more cunning and deceit, and are frequently very knavish. The
inhabitants of the alps dwell in villages formed of their tents, living
together, as I have already related, in great comfort and harmony. Those
who occupy the woody parts of the country live dispersed.

The Laplanders know no musical instrument except the _lur_ (a sort of
trumpet), and pipes made of the bark of the quicken tree or mountain
ash. They are not accustomed to sing at church, except those who are
reckoned among the great or learned of the community.

The inhabitants of this country are not more troubled with chilblains
than those of other places. They do not mind having their cheeks
frost-bitten. The women wear an embroidered band round the head, which
affords no protection in this respect; but the men have a loose band of
skin with the hair on, which can be pulled down occasionally over their
cap, when the cold is intolerable.

(But to proceed with a further account of the diversions of the people I
am describing).

_Spetto_, one of their games, is played, by men as well as women, in the
following manner. They prepare from thirty to fifty or sixty pieces of
wood, a hand's breadth in length, which are spread upon the extended
skin of a reindeer. One of the players takes a ball made of stone or
marble, larger than a boy's playing marble, which he throws up into the
air about an ell high. While the ball is up, he snatches away one of the
sticks, but in such a manner as not to miss catching the ball in its
fall, holding the stick in the same hand. He subsequently gathers
together, in his other hand, as many of the sticks as he has thus been
able to procure. If he fails in any respect, another person is to take
the ball, and proceed in the same manner, the former player resigning up
to him one of the sticks every time the ball is thrown, till no more
remain in his own possession. He who can take up all the sticks wins the
game.

The following rules are to be observed.

1. He who catches the ball, but not one of the sticks, must resign the
ball to another player, as well as he who has let it fall.

2. He who takes up more than one stick at a time, must return what he
has taken.

3. The adversary, that is, the last player, who could not succeed in
taking up all the sticks, is allowed to lay down as many as he pleases
of the sticks he has collected, and may arrange them according to his
fancy. It is usual to lay one upon another, in order to render the game
more difficult, the player being obliged to snatch up each separately;
which is not easy without taking two, when so situated, at once.

4. When at length one person has taken up all the sticks, his adversary
is permitted to replace the two last of them upon the skin in any manner
he chooses. He commonly separates them as widely as possible. The person
who had previously gained the whole, is then required to take up both
these sticks at one throw of the ball, and if he fails he must give up
the game. Thus the victory is often lost by means of these two last
sticks.

5. When the adversary fails of his aim, the other player is to take all
the sticks lying on the field, as well as those which, after having been
laid down by himself, were won by the other person, and the whole are to
be laid down again directly, in order to be taken up according to the
above rules. But he is no longer under any obligation himself to take up
the sticks which he has thus laid for his companion.

The game called _Tablut_ is played with a checkered board, and
twenty-five pieces, or men, in the following manner.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Fig. 1, is the king, whose station is in the central
square or royal castle, called _konokis_ by the Laplanders, to which no
other person can be admitted.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2, represents one of the eight Swedes his subjects,
who, at the commencement of the game, are stationed in the eight
squares, adjoining to the royal castle, marked 2 and 3.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3, is one of sixteen Muscovites, their adversaries,
who occupy the sixteen embroidered squares, (some of them marked 4 in
the cut,) situated four together in the middle of each side of the
field.]

The vacant squares, distinguished by letters, may be occupied by any of
the pieces in the course of the game.


LAWS.

1. Any piece may move from one square to another in a right line, as
from _a_ to _c_; but not corner-wise, or from _a_ to _e_.

2. It is not allowed to pass over the heads of any other pieces that
may be in the way, or to move, for instance, from _b_ to _m_, in case
any were stationed at _e_ or _i_.

3. If the king should stand in _b_, and no other piece in _e_, _i_, or
_m_, he may escape by that road, unless one of the Muscovites
immediately gets possession of one of the squares in question, so as to
interrupt him.

4. If the king be able to accomplish this, the contest is at an end.

5. If the king happens to be in _e_, and none of his own people or his
enemies either in _f_ or _g_, _i_ or _m_, his exit cannot be prevented.

6. Whenever the person who moves the king perceives that a passage is
free, he must call out _raichi_, and if there be two ways open,
_tuichu_.

7. It is allowable to move ever so far at once, in a right line, if the
squares in the way be vacant, as from _c_ to _n_.

8. The Swedes and the Muscovites take it by turns to move.

9. If any one man gets between two squares occupied by his enemies, he
is killed and taken off, except the king, who is not liable to this
misfortune.

10. If the king, being in his own square or castle, is encompassed on
three sides by his enemies, one of them standing in each of three of the
squares numbered 2, he may move away by the fourth. If one of his own
people happens to be in this fourth square, and one of his enemies in
number 3 next to it, the soldier thus enclosed between his king and the
enemy is killed. If four of the enemy gain possession of the four
squares marked 2, thus enclosing the king, he becomes their prisoner.

11. If the king be in 2, with an enemy in each of the adjoining squares,
_a_, _A_ and 3, he is likewise taken.

12. Whenever the king is thus taken or imprisoned, the war is over, and
the conqueror seizes all the Swedes, the conquered party resigning all
the Muscovites that he had taken.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Laplanders use the middle bark of the elm for dressing their
reindeer skins, but merely by chewing it, and rubbing their saliva on
the skins.

They also tan with birch bark, but do not suffer the skins to remain
long under the operation, which they say would render them rotten and
apt to rend, neither can they spare them very long.

White _walmal_ cloth is procured from Russia, but for want thereof they
commonly wear a light grey cloth of the same kind.

Ropes are made of roots of spruce fir in the following manner. Choosing
the most slender roots, they scrape off the bark, while fresh, with the
back of a knife, holding the roots against the thigh. Afterwards each
root is first split with the knife into three or four parts, which are
then by degrees separated into a number of very slender fibres; and
these, being wrapped round the hand like a skain of thread, are tied
together. They are then boiled in a kettle for an hour or two, with a
considerable quantity of wood ashes. While still soft from this boiling,
they are laid across the knee, and scraped three or four times over with
a knife. At last they are twisted into small ropes. Birch roots serve in
like manner to afford cordage for the Laplanders, but more rarely. The
latter are more generally used, without being split, for basket-work.
For various articles of furniture the roots of _Tall_ (Scotch Fir,
_Pinus sylvestris_) are cut into small boards. The wood of that tree
serves for inferior kinds of work, and, amongst other things, for
cheese-vats.

The Laplanders scrape with a knife the young and tender stalks of the
plant called _Jerja_, (_Sonchus alpinus_, _Sm. Plant. Ic._ _t._ 21.) and
eat them as a delicacy, like those of the great _Angelica_ (_A.
Archangelica_), which in the first year of their growth are termed
_Fatno_.

A Laplander always places himself at the further part of his hut, and
his guest is seated next to him on a skin spread on purpose. The master
of the hut is by this means enabled to reach the vessel in which water
is kept for drink, and which always stands in the upper part of the hut.

The river Hyttan flows in a perpetual stream both summer and winter. Now
if, according to the general opinion, the water of this river were
derived from exhalations of the great ocean, collected by the alps of
this country, it should cease to run when all the alpine tracts are
frozen. The stream must therefore be constantly fed by neighbouring
springs.

The names by which the Laplanders distinguish the several times of the
day or night are as follows.

Midnight is called in their language _kaskia_. The remainder of the
night before dawn, _pojela kaskia_. The morning dawn, _theleeteilyja_.
Sun-rise, _peivimorotak_. Two or three hours after sun-rise, _areiteet_.
The hour of milking the reindeer, which is about 8 or 9 o'clock,
_arrapeivi_. Noon, or dinner time, _kaskapeivi_. About 5 or 6 o'clock in
the afternoon, _eketis peivi_. Sunset, _peiveliti_. Night, _iä_.

The days of the week are named as follows.

    Sunday, _Sotno peivi_.

    Monday, _Mannutaka_.

    Tuesday, _Tistaka_.

    Wednesday, _Kaska vacku_, or middle of the week.

    Thursday, _Tourestaka_.

    Friday, _Perietaka_.

    Saturday, _Lavutaka_.

They have no names for the months, but certain weeks are distinguished
by the following appellations.

    Midsummer week, _Midtsomarvacku_.

    St. Peter's week, June 29, _Pelasmassu vacku_.

    Goose week, _Gassa vacku_.

    In the middle of the summer, _Gaskakis_.

    St. Margaret's, July 20, _Marcrit_.

    St. Olaus' mass, July 29, _Vollis_.

    (No date mentioned here.) _Vehak_.

    St. Laurence, Aug. 10, _Lauras_.

    Reindeer-fawn week, _Orryk_. When in a fawn two years old the horns
    begin to bud.

    St. Bartholomew, Aug. 24, _Barti_.

    (No date.) _Hoppmil_.

    St. Mary, Sept. 8, _Margi_.

    Holy Cross, Sept. 14, _Behawis_.

    St. Matthew, Sept. 21, _Matthus_.

    St. Michael, Sept. 29, _Michel_.

    (St. Faith, Oct. 6?) _Perkit_.

    (Middle of Oct.) _Talvi_.

[Illustration]

The annexed figure represents a Laplander's staff. It is tipped with a
blade of iron, as thick as the thumb. With this weapon he attacks the
bear and wolf in the time of deep snow. On the lower part of the shaft
is a sort of hoop, six inches in diameter, made of root of fir, and
fastened with thongs of reindeer skin, one of which passes through a
hole in the staff. At the bottom it is mounted with iron. The use of
this hoop is to prevent the staff from sinking into the snow, when used
as a walking-stick. The shaft itself, made of birch wood, is about four
feet long, and an inch and half thick.

[Illustration]

This sketch is taken from one of their snow shoes, made of wood. Its
length is six feet, from h to i; breadth, from k to g, five inches. The
hind part, i, is rather more obtuse than the other end, h, which last is
elevated about two or three inches. From h it gradually widens to f. The
part from c to d, where the foot stands, is about eight inches; its
breadth three. The under part of the shoe is convex, and furrowed
lengthwise; the upper flattish, raised about ten lines, and the edge all
round is sharp. At b is a band, made of fir root twisted, serving to tie
the shoe fast round the ancle. The general thickness of the shoe
throughout is from three to four lines.

Some people wear a pair of the same size; others have the left shoe
smaller than the right. Each is often lined or covered, about the
central part, with a piece of hairy reindeer skin, to prevent the foot
slipping about upon the shoe, and give a firmer step in walking over the
snow. This is most practised in Kimi-Lapmark, where the wild reindeer
are most abundant.

The Lapland thread is made out of the tendons of reindeer fawns half a
year old. Such thread is covered with tin foil for embroidery, its
pliability rendering it peculiarly fit for the purpose. The tendons are
dried in the sun, being hung over a stick. They are never boiled.

To show to what a high degree of perfection these people have arrived in
the art of making such thread, I brought away a sample of it, which I
believe none of our ladies could match.

Shoes and baskets made of birch bark are used both in Angermanland and
Helsingland, as well as ropes of the same material, which will not sink
in water, but these are not in general use.

The bows which serve the Laplanders for shooting squirrels are composed
of two different kinds of wood, laid parallel to each other. The
innermost is birch, the outermost of what they term _kior_, _kioern_ or
_tioern_. (This is procured from a tree of the Common Fir, _Pinus
sylvestris_, that happens to grow in a curved form, usually in marshy
places, or on the banks of rivers, and whose contracted side is hard
like box: see _vol._ i. _p._ 255; also _Fl. Lapp. n._ 346, λ.) If this
be not practised, the bows are more apt to snap. Each layer of wood is
externally convex, yet not so much as to render the bow quite
cylindrical.

When the Laplanders expect any visitors, they are particularly careful
to have plenty of _ris_ (branches of the dwarf birch) spread on the
floor, under the reindeer skins on which they sit; otherwise they would
be thought deficient in civility, and the mistress of the family would
be censured as a bad manager, when the guests returned to their own
homes.

The mode of their entertainment is as follows.

First, if the stranger arrives before their meat is set over the fire to
boil, they present him either with iced milk, or with some kind of
berries mixed with milk, or perhaps with cheese, or with _kappi_, (see
_vol._ i. _p._ 281.) Afterwards, when the meat is sufficiently cooked,
and they have taken it out of the pot, they put into the water, in which
it has been boiled, slices of cheese made of reindeer milk. This is a
testimony of hospitality, and that they are disposed to make their guest
as welcome as they can. They next serve up some of their dry or solid
preparations of milk.

The marriages of the Laplanders are conducted in the following manner.
(This subject was treated in _vol._ i. _p._ 276, like Sterne's "history
of the king of Bohemia and his seven castles," no doubt to the great
dismay of the curious reader. We ought to have warned him of its being
resumed in a subsequent part of the work, but in truth we had not then
ourselves proceeded so far in deciphering the original manuscript.)

1. In the first place the lover addresses his favourite fair-one in a
joking manner, to try whether his proposal be likely to prove acceptable
or not. Perhaps he even goes so far as to speak once or twice to her
father upon the subject. He then takes his leave, either fixing a time
for his return, or not, as it may happen.

2. The lover next takes with him such of his nearest relations as live
in the neighbourhood, who, as well as himself, all carry provisions with
them, to the hut of his mistress, he going last in the procession.

3. When the party arrive at the place of their destination, they all,
except the lover, walk in. If there happen to be any other huts near at
hand, it is usual for the damsel to retire to one of them, that she may
not be obliged to hear the conversation of the visitors. Her admirer
either remains on the outside of the door, amongst the reindeer, or goes
into some neighbouring hut. There are usually two or three spokesmen in
the party, the principal of whom is called _Sugnovivi_. When they are
all seated, the young man's father first presents some brandy to the
father of the young woman; upon which the latter asks why he treats him
with brandy? The former replies, "I am come hither with a good
intention, and I wish to God that it may prosper." He then declares his
errand. If the other party should not be favourably inclined to the
proposal, he rejects it, at the same time thanking the person who made
it. Upon this, all who are present endeavour to prevail upon him to give
his consent to the marriage. If they succeed, or in case the offer has
from the first been accepted, the friends of the lover fetch whatever
they have brought along with them, consisting of various utensils, and
silver coin, which they place on a reindeer skin, spread in the hut,
before the father and mother of the intended bride. The father or the
mother of the bridegroom then distributes the money between the young
woman and her parents. If the sum be thought too small, the latter ask
for more, and it frequently happens that much time is spent in
bargaining, before they can come to a conclusion. When the parties
concerned cannot obtain so large a sum as they think themselves entitled
to, they often reject the whole, and return the money to those who
brought it. But if, on the contrary, matters are brought to a favourable
conclusion, the parents allow their daughter to be sent for. Two of the
bridegroom's relations undertake this office. If the bride has any
confidential female friend, or a sister, they walk arm and arm together;
and in this case the mother of the bridegroom is required to make a
present of a few brass rings, or something of that kind, to this friend
or sister, who keeps lamenting the loss of her companion.

When the bride enters the hut, her father asks whether she is satisfied
with what he has done? To which she replies, that she submits herself to
the disposal of her father, who is the best judge of what is proper for
her. The mother of the bridegroom then presents the bride with the sum
allotted for her, laying it in her lap. If it proves less than she had
expected, she shows her dissatisfaction by various gestures, and signs
of refusal, in which case she may possibly obtain at least the promise
of a larger sum. All these gifts become her own property.

When such pecuniary matters are finally arranged, the father and mother
of the bridegroom present him and his bride with a cup of brandy, of
which they partake together, and then all the company shake hands. They
afterwards take off their caps, and one of the company makes an
oration, praying for God's blessing upon the new-married couple, and
returning thanks to him who "gives every man his own wife, and every
woman her own husband."

The parents of the bridegroom next partake of some brandy, and the whole
stock of that liquor which they had brought with them is fetched for the
company.

All the relations of the bridegroom then come forward with their
provisions, which generally consist of several cheeses, and a piece of
meat dried and salted. The latter is roasted before the fire, while the
company is, in the mean while, regaled with some of the solid
preparations of milk, the bride and bridegroom eating by themselves,
apart from the rest.

Two stewards are next chosen, one of them from the bride's party, the
other from that of the bridegroom. The last-mentioned party are then
required to furnish a quantity of raw meat, amounting to about a pound
and half to each person. This the stewards immediately set about
boiling, and their duty moreover is to serve it round to all present.
This meat is dressed in several separate pots, two only in each hut, if
there be any neighbours whose huts can serve to accommodate the party on
this occasion; for each Laplander has never more than one hut of his
own. The fat part of the broth is first served up in basons. Afterwards
various petticoats or blankets, of walmal cloth, are spread on the
floor, by way of a table-cloth, on which the boiled meat is placed. The
chief persons of the company then, as many as can find room, take their
places in the hut of the bride's family, sitting down round the
provision, while the children and inferiors are accommodated in the
neighbouring huts. Grace is then said. The bride and bridegroom are
placed near together, for the most part close to the door, or place of
entrance. They are always helped to the best of the provision. The
company then serve themselves, taking their meat on the points of their
knives, and dipping each morsel into some of the fat broth, in which
the whole has been boiled, before they put it into their mouths. Numbers
of people assemble from the neighbourhood, to look in upon the company
through the door; and as they expect to share in the feast, the stewards
give them two or three bits of meat, according as they respect them more
or less. What remains after every body is satisfied, is put together,
and wrapped up in the blankets or cloths, that part of it which is left
by the new-married couple being kept separate from the rest, as no other
person is allowed to partake of their share. The dinner being over, the
whole company shake hands and return thanks for their entertainment.
They always shake hands with the bride and bridegroom in the first
place, and then with the rest, saying at the same time _kusslăn_.

After taking some brandy, the whole party go to bed. The herd of
reindeer had been turned out to pasture from the time when the meat was
put into the pot. The bride and bridegroom sleep together with their
clothes on.

When the company rise in the morning, if the bridegroom's father and
their party have any thing left, they treat the others with it; for the
family of the bride have seldom any preparation made, not expecting, or
not being supposed to expect, such company, and they never keep any
brandy by them, but purchase it for every occasion. Whatever cold meat
therefore remains is brought forward, to which the bride's party indeed
add cheese, and any other preparation of milk they may have in store, as
well as any dried meat; such things being usually kept by them. With
these the party regale themselves by way of breakfast. Afterwards the
family of the bride boil some fresh meat, as a final repast for their
guests, who, after partaking of it, take their leave.

The banns are usually published once. The marriage ceremony, which is
very short, is performed after the above-mentioned company is departed.
This being over, the bridegroom either takes his wife immediately home
with him, or he goes to his own hut alone, and stays there from one to
five days, after which he returns to her residence, bringing with him
his herd of reindeer, and stays there for some time with her.

Such of the Laplanders as are rich enough to afford it, make their wives
a present of a coverlet; a petticoat made of cloth, without any gathers,
as usual among these people; a small silver beaker or cup; several
rix-dollars and silver rings; a spoon, &c.; so that many a bride costs
her husband more than a hundred dollars, copper money. To the mother he
perhaps gives a silver belt, as well as a cloth petticoat.

I have already mentioned that the Laplanders eat _Angelica_
(_sylvestris_) in a raw state. This plant, which the inhabitants of
Westbothland call _Bioernstut_, has so many names among the Laplanders,
according to the different stages of its growth, as to cause much
confusion to a stranger. The first year of its growth they term the root
_Urtas_, and the leaves _Fadno_; but the second year the plant is known
by the name of _Posco_ or _Botsk_. When the stalk is dried, or eaten
raw, they call it _Rasi_, that is, grass. They say, when any one has
eaten more of this plant than is good for him, "_Elli rasi ist purro
etnach_," the meaning of which is, "Thou hast overloaded thyself with
such a quantity of grass."

Another herb of which they are very fond is the Sowthistle with a simple
stem, known by the name of _Jerja_. (_Sonchus alpinus._ _Fl. Lapp ed._
2. 240. _Sm. Pl. Ic. t._ 21. _S. lapponicus._ _Willd. Sp. Pl._ _v._ 3.
1520.) This has a perennial root. The stem is erect, round, green,
smooth, except a few soft scattered hairs, which are most remarkable
towards the top and bottom, and is almost as tall as a man. Leaves about
twelve or fourteen, half clasping the stem, gradually smaller upwards,
nearly the shape of Dandelion, or of the common Sowthistle, one half of
each leaf, consisting of the terminal lobe, making exactly an acute
triangle, toothed at the edges; from that part downwards the leaf
contracts, but not to the main rib, and then again expands into two
narrow appendages, as it were, equal in breadth, but unequal in length,
which are crenate at their edges. From thence begins the stalk of the
leaf, which is winged and toothed, and half embraces the stem. The
leaves are thin and smooth, with a rib purple on the upper side, and the
upper ones are the least divided, as well as the bluntest. The flowers
are collected into a corymbus, somewhat like Butterbur, but more
loosely, especially in the lower part, each supported by a very short
stalk, accompanied by a very narrow oblong leaf which extends beyond the
flower. The calyx consists of several oblong, narrow, acute, imbricated
leaves, varying in number from fourteen to twenty, the outermost
gradually shortest, but the ten innermost are equal in length, and
blunter than the rest, composing two rows; the calyx altogether is
shorter than the corolla, tubular, swelling, and downy. Florets equal in
number to the leaves of the calyx. Germen short, square, crowned with
long white radiating down. Petal flat, cut away on one side,
violet-coloured, five-toothed. Stamens five, white, their apex (anther)
cylindrical, five-sided, white, marked with five blue lines. Pistil one,
forked at the top. Receptacle naked, dotted. This plant grows among
trees at the sides of mountains, along with the narrow-hooded Aconite
(_Aconitum lycoctonum_), flowering at the end of July or beginning of
August. The stem, which is milky, is eaten by the Laplanders in the same
manner as Angelica. The taste was to me very bitter, but the people of
the country do not find it so, though they confessed that it appeared
bitter to them when they first learned to eat it. As soon as the plant
shows its flowers, the stalk becomes woody, and no longer eatable.

The sinews of which the fine thread is made that, when covered with tin,
serves for embroidery, and is called _tentråd_ (tin-thread), are taken
from the feet of the reindeer, or of oxen, boiled; though sometimes the
feet of sea-fowl are chosen for this purpose. Old women and girls are
employed in preparing this thread, by drawing it through holes made in a
piece of reindeer's horn. They wind it round their hands and feet as
they form it, and smear it with fat extracted from the foot of the
animal, to make it more supple, as they proceed.

Hay is made in different modes in various parts of Sweden. In
Westbothland the fresh-cut grass is heaped together over night, that it
may get a heat. Next day it is spread out, and by this method its
quality is supposed to become richer and stronger. The same is practised
with hops in Jamtland, where the fresh-gathered hops are packed
together, as hard as possible, till they become warm; after which they
are spread out to dry. Their strength is by this means improved.

The people of Scania having mowed their grass, let it lie till dry, when
they rake it together.

The Smolanders dry it in a kind of shed.

The East Gothlanders range it in heaps, two and two together, in a long
row.

In Upland the new-mown grass is tied up in bundles, and collected into
cocks.

In Angermannia the whole year's crop is laid by upon a kind of raised
floor.

In Westbothland, after being dried in the shed, the hay is kept there
for use, being laid crosswise, and cut when wanted[4].


_July 23._

This evening I took leave of the alpine part of Lapland, and returned
by water from Hyttan towards Lulea.

The White, or Mountain, Fox (_Canis lagopus_) lives among the alps,
feeding on the Lemming Rat or Red Mouse, (_Mus Lemmus_,) as well as on
the Ptarmigan (_Tetrao Lagopus_). This White Fox is smaller than the
common kind. The Ptarmigan, which the Laplanders call _Cheruna_, feeds
on the Dwarf Birch (_Betula nana_), which for that reason is called
_Ryprys_, or Ptarmigan-bush. At night this bird lies squat upon the
snow, in the same posture as the Wood Grous (_Tetrao Urogallus_, see
_vol._ 1. 179): hence a great deal of its dung is seen in the prints it
makes in the snow. This mode of roosting renders the Ptarmigan an easy
prey to the Fox.

The Lemming or Red Mouse, see _p._ 18, (_Mus Lemmus_,) in some seasons
entirely overruns the country; devouring the corn and grass: but though
these animals thus occasionally appear by millions at a time, they
subsequently depart and disappear as unaccountably, so that nobody knows
what becomes of them. They do no mischief in the houses.

The Ermine (_Mustela Erminea_) is white in winter, red in summer. This
animal is seldom met with on the alps, but is very plentiful in the
forests. Foxes and Wolves have destroyed the chief of the Hares. The
Wolves indeed kill the Foxes.

The Shrew Mouse (_Sorex araneus_) and Common Small Mouse (_Mus
Musculus_) are found in Lapmark, but no Rats (_Mus Rattus_).

Hunting the Bear is often undertaken by a single man, who, having
discovered the retreat of the animal, takes his dog along with him and
advances towards the spot. The jaws of the dog are tied round with a
cord, to prevent his barking, and the man holds the other end of this
cord in his hand. As soon as the dog smells the bear, he begins to show
signs of uneasiness, and by dragging at the cord informs his master that
the object of his pursuit is at no great distance. When the Laplander
by this means discovers on which side the bear is stationed, he advances
in such a direction that the wind may blow from the bear to him, and not
the contrary; for otherwise the animal would by the scent be aware of
his approach, though not able to see an enemy at any considerable
distance, being half blinded by the sunshine. When he has gradually
advanced to within gunshot of the bear, he fires upon him; and this is
the more easily accomplished in autumn, as the bear is then more
fearless, and is continually prowling about for berries of different
kinds, on which he feeds at that season of the year. Should the man
chance to miss his aim, the furious beast will directly turn upon him in
a rage, and the little Laplander is obliged to take to his heels with
all possible speed, leaving his knapsack behind him on the spot. The
bear coming up with this, seizes upon it, biting and tearing it into a
thousand pieces. While he is thus venting his fury, and bestowing all
his attention, upon the knapsack, the Laplander takes the opportunity
of loading his gun, and firing a second time; when he is generally sure
of hitting the mark, and the bear either falls upon the spot or runs
away.


_July 24._

In the huts of this neighbourhood I observed an instrument which I had
no where noticed before, consisting of an oblong board, placed
transversely at the end of a pole. Its use is to stir the pot while
boiling.

Directly opposite to Hyttan towards the west, and on the south of the
mountain of Wallivari, is a vein of fine iron ore, but hardly worth
working while the roads, by which it must be conveyed to Lulea, are in
so bad a state.

This night I beheld a star, for the first time since I came within the
arctic circle. Nevertheless the darkness was not considerable enough to
prevent my reading or writing whatever I pleased.

One of the Laplanders had caught a quantity of the fish called
_Sikloja_ (_Salmo Albula_) of a large size. He stuck about twenty of
them on one spit, the back of each being placed towards the belly of the
next, and they were thus roasted before the fire. These fish had
previously been dried, though not at all salted.

The glue used by the Laplanders for joining the two portions of
different woods of which their bows are made (see _p._ 66,) is prepared
from the Common Perch (_Perca fluviatilis_) in the following manner.
Some of the largest of this fish being flayed, the skins are first
dried, and afterwards soaked in a small quantity of cold water, so that
the scales can be rubbed off. Four or five of these skins being wrapped
up together in a bladder, or in a piece of birch bark, so that no water
can get at them, are set on the fire in a pot of water to boil, a stone
being laid over the pot, to keep in the heat. The skins thus prepared
make a very strong glue, insomuch that the articles joined with it will
never separate again. A bandage is tied round the bow while making, to
hold the two parts the more firmly together.

When these people undertake a short journey only, they carry no bag for
provisions, the latter being stored between their outer and inner
jackets, which are always bound with a girdle, being wide, and formed of
numerous folds, both above and below it.

The Purple Willow-herb, or _Epilobium_ (_angustifolium_?) made the
fields at this time very beautiful. The Golden-rod (_Solidago
Virgaurea_) was likewise here in blossom, though not yet upon the alps,
where it flowers later.

I have never yet seen any animal swim so light as the reindeer. During
the dogdays the herds of reindeer, belonging to the inhabitants of the
woody parts of Lapland, are very badly off for want of snow, with which
those animals refresh themselves in hot weather upon the alps. Hence
they constitute a more valuable and thriving property to the alpine
Laplanders than to any others. In the winter time, when the favourite
Lichen of the reindeer (_L. rangiferinus_) cannot be got at, their
keepers fell trees laden with filamentous Lichens, to serve them for
food; but it scarcely proves sufficient.

The rivulet near Kiomitis Trask has a very white appearance, as if milk
had been mixed with it. This the inhabitants term _kalkwatter_, or
lime-water, from the colour, not from any knowledge of its cause or
origin. This rivulet they told me came from the alps. It empties itself
into the great river near Kiomitis, and renders the water of that river
white for the space of four or five miles. I noticed a similar
phænomenon at Wirijaur.

I was amused with the mode in which these Laplanders take brandy. After
they have laid hold of the mug, they dip their forefingers into the
liquor, and rub a little on their foreheads, as well as on the middle of
their bosoms. On inquiring the reason, I was told their intention was
that the brandy might not prove hurtful either to the head or breast.

Some people here were regaling themselves with fresh fish, of the kind
lately mentioned (_Salmo Albula_), which having boiled into a mass like
pap or flummery, they were eating out of their hands.

The dress of the Laplanders is, in one particular at least, very wisely
contrived. Their thick collars effectually protect the throat and
breast, which being furnished with numerous nerves and small muscles,
and being the seat of the windpipe and of many principal veins and
arteries, are very important and susceptible parts. The neck moreover,
from its slender shape, is peculiarly exposed to cold. Hence the
protection of clothing is found very necessary to the parts in question.
For want of it our young women suffer much injury, which our youths
avoid by running into the contrary extreme of tying their neckcloths so
tight as to make themselves as red in the face as if they were half
strangled.

We Swedes are accustomed to have all our clothing made very tight. Not
only the neckcloth, but the coat, waistcoat, breeches, stockings,
sleeves, &c., must all stick close to the body, and the tighter they are
the more fashionable. The Laplanders, on the contrary, wear only two,
and those slight, bandages about them, which moreover are broad, and
therefore less injurious than a narrow bandage in any part. Those to
which I allude are the waistband and knees of their breeches, both made
sufficiently loose and easy.

To-day I gathered the following plants.--A reed-like panicled Grass,
with a very slender branched stem. (This appears to have been _Arundo
Calamagrostis_, _Fl. Lapp._ _n._ 42.)

A great aquatic _Carex_, with inflated, whitish, pendulous spikes. In
more dry situations they were upright and shorter, but in every other
particular the same. (_C. vesicaria._) A grass with a slender
dark-coloured panicle, approaching the stem. (_Agrostis rubra_, _Fl.
Lapp._ _n._ 46.)


_July 25._

The lakes in this part of the country did not afford me so many plants
as further south. Their bottoms were quite clear, and destitute of
vegetation. Their shores were no less barren. No Water-lilies
(_Nymphææ_), no Water-docks, &c., (different species of _Rumex_,) grew
about their borders, but the surface of the water itself was covered
with the Water Ranunculus (_R. aquatilis_), bearing round as well as
capillary leaves, and whitening the whole with its blossoms. I could not
but wonder to see these broad patches of white spread over the lakes,
though, when I passed up the country but a fortnight before, I had not
perceived the least appearance of even the herbage of the _Ranunculus_
that composed them. Now its branches, an ell in length, swam on the
surface. The growth of the stem must be very rapid, as it often
proceeded from a depth of three fathoms. Some of the plants thrown up on
the shore had capillary leaves, as are all those which grow under the
water. The root resembles that of the _Iris_.

I noticed also the Pondweed with leaves clasping the stem (_Potamogeton
perfoliatum_, rare in Lapland); and a very large branched floating
Water-grass, with cylindrical spikes, which I hesitate whether to
separate from the _Gramen aquaticum geniculatum spicatum_, (of Bauhin
and Rudbeck. _Alopecurus geniculatus_ of Linnæus. The grass of which he
here speaks is _n._ 38 of his _Flora Lapponica._ _A. geniculatus_ β,
_Sp. Pl._ 89.)

The annexed figure represents the Norwegian cross-bow, used for shooting
squirrels, which it will hit at the distance of twenty or thirty paces
as certainly as a gun.

It was curious to observe the dexterity with which one of the
Laplanders hit a small fly, which I had set up for a mark, at the
distance of thirty paces.

[Illustration]

The bow itself, a, a, a, made of steel, is two feet and a half long, two
inches wide in the middle, gradually sloping off to the extremities,
which are only one inch in width. Each end is rounded, with a notch,
where the cord is fixed, which, when the bow is drawn, seems in danger
of immediately slipping off, but it never does. The whole bow when at
rest makes a curve of two inches; when strongly bent it forms one of
seven.

The cord b, fixed on at the ends b, b, is made of twisted hemp, as thick
as one's finger, bound round with hempen thread, especially in the
middle, where it is to receive the bolt.

The stock c, c, made of wood ornamented with inlaid work of bone, is two
feet and a half long, and half a palm broad, being half an inch thick
towards the top, and an inch at the base. Its upper side is entirely
covered with the above-mentioned inlaying, and quite even or flat,
except towards the base or handle, where it is slightly concave.

The part marked d on the bow, and D on a larger scale annexed, is the
catch, like a pulley, which turns on an iron pin, and in the side of
which is a projection, with a rectangular notch, see _fig._ 1 and 2.
When the bow is bent, the angle at _fig._ 2 catches the cord, and is let
go by means of the apparatus represented at c, c, by the side.

As no human being is sufficiently strong to draw this bow with the hands
alone, a strap of leather is fixed round the loins, ending in two iron
hooks, which lay hold of the cord. One foot is put into the strap at the
top of the bow, h, and then, by the exertion of the body, the bow is
drawn till the cord catches the angle of the pulley D.

[Illustration]

The annexed cut represents the bolt of this Norwegian crossbow, which is
a foot and half long, an inch thick. From the extremity, which is
thicker and blunt, to the feathered part, is about a foot. The feathers,
taken from the wing of the great Grous or Cock of the wood, (_Tetrao
Urogallus_,) are stripped from the quill, and placed erect in three
longitudinal rows; and after being bound on with thread, the part by
which they are attached is smeared with pitch, to fix them the more
firmly. The whole bolt is made of birch wood. Its base is compressed,
naked and smooth, formed with a groove to receive the bow-string.

This more finished and elaborate sort of bow is principally used in
Westbothnia. The whole cost of one, with all its appurtenances, amounts
to fifteen dollars, copper money. The Laplanders therefore content
themselves with a far more rude and simple apparatus, consisting of such
a wooden bow made of birch, as I have already described, with a string
fitted to it. Or they merely cut a branch of fir in the forest, and with
any bit of cord that happens to come in their way, kill abundance of
squirrels, holding the bow with their left hand, and drawing it with
their right by means of a small cleft stick. Thus they will, as I have
witnessed, take successful aim at the _Emberiza nivalis_, or Snow
Bunting, sitting on the tops of the most lofty pines.

It is commonly reported that no clay is to be found in Lapland, but I
met with some in two different places; in each instance indeed it was at
the bottom of a lake, as at Rondijaur and Sckalka trask, the shores
being of sand though the bottom was clay.

Nets are set in the lakes in winter to catch the Sijk fish (_Salmo
Lavaretus_, or Gwiniad.) Holes are made for this purpose in the ice,
and the nets are dragged with a string. This is done from St. Andrew's
day, (Nov. 30th,) to Christmas.

The Laplanders make their sledges serve for chests, when they are not
used for their proper purpose, by constructing a sort of roof or convex
covering, with an opening in the middle, to admit whatever they choose
to store up within. This opening shuts with a moveable lid. Sledges in
this state occasionally serve for the conveyance of goods from one place
to another, the covering keeping them dry.

Caps are made of the skin of the _Colymbus arcticus_, (Black-throated
Diver,) which is very tough when properly prepared. This bird has a grey
ring round its neck, as described by Wormius.

I met with a _Carex_, bearing round capsules, full of black powder.
(Probably _Carex panicea_, whose seeds are often infected with the
_ustilago_ or smut.)


_July 26._

I shall here give a description of the _Achier_ or sledge. This is a
kind of travelling machine invented by the Laplanders, drawn along the
ground like other sledges, and made of birch wood. The back part is
upright, or nearly so, the lower part only being somewhat sloping
inwards, and its form is roundish, the height a foot, the breadth a foot
and a half. The body of the machine is like the hulk of a boat, with an
obtuse keel, and consists of five longitudinal boards on each side,
lying one over the edge of another; that which forms the keel being
about an inch thick, and lying flat like the others. Each board is not
externally plane, but convex, so that as the carriage is drawn over the
snow it leaves several tracks or lines where it goes, the board which
forms the keel only being quite flat. The boards, which are fixed at one
extremity in a circular manner to the roundish board that makes the
back, (or as it were the stern,) are collected by their points at the
other, and all bound together with a rope, for there are no nails to
fasten them. The whole carriage is six feet in length, and from the back
part to within two feet of the front its breadth is all the way about
four feet. From that spot the keel begins to curve upwards, and the
transverse dimensions are contracted gradually to a point. This sledge
is drawn by a rope that goes through a hole in the front of the keel.
The edges or sides of the machine do not curve outwards, but rather
inwards. When any covering is to be put on, which is always done in part
when any person is to travel sitting in this carriage, and entirely,
from one end to the other, when it is intended to be used for the
conveyance of goods, two or three semicircular or archlike bows are
erected, fixed by their ends within the edges of the carriage, which
serve to support a covering of seal-skin, or cloth, whose margin next
the back is loose, and so far distant from that part as to allow the
traveller to sit upright, his legs lying under the cover, while the said
margin is tied round his waist, like an apron, serving to keep the snow
out of the hollow part of the machine. The person of the traveller is
further secured by strings fixed to the edges of the carriage, which
lace around him across the top, so as to prevent his being thrown out by
any oblique or unexpected movement. Each board, which composes the body
of the sledge, is somewhat convex on the inside, but still the whole
internal surface is sufficiently smooth and even. The point in front
sometimes projects a foot beyond the hollow part[5].

It is worthy of notice that the Laplanders use no almanack, but in its
stead only a kind of instrument like the ancient runic calendar of the
Goths, composed of seven small splinters or boards. They have indeed
names to mark some periods, as already mentioned p. 62; but they do not,
like us, compute time by the month, but by the course of their various
holidays. They have also a name for every week. They are unable to tell
when an eclipse of the sun or moon is to be expected. The year begins,
by their reckoning, on the Friday before Christmas day.

The people in the part of the country where I was now travelling wear,
in summertime, either a coat of walmal cloth next the skin, or no coat
at all, only a _lappmudd_ as they call it, (or garment of
reindeer-skin,) stripped of its hair.

At sun-set we reached Purkijaur, where we in vain attempted to procure a
boat. We had no resource but to make ourselves a float or raft, on which
we committed our persons and all our property to the guidance of the
current of the river. The night proved very dark in consequence of a
thick fog, insomuch that we could not see before us to the distance of
three fathoms. After a while we found ourselves in the middle of the
stream, and it was not long before the force of the water separated the
timbers of our raft, and we were in imminent danger of our lives. At
length however, with the greatest difficulty, we reached a house
situated on an island, after a voyage of half a mile from where we
embarked[6].

At Purkijaur I hired a man to show me the manner of fishing for pearls,
for which I agreed to pay him six dollars. He made a raft of five
timbers as thick as my body, and two fathoms in length. At each end was
a staple to which the anchor was attached. This anchor was nothing more
than a stone, tied round with twigs of birch that it might not be lost,
to which he fastened a cord, about two fathoms in length, made of birch
twigs. He was likewise furnished with a pole of the same length, which
served him to steer his raft, as it floated along the strong current.
The bottom of the river is not easily seen at any great depth; but when
he could distinctly perceive it, he dropped his stone anchor, fixing the
upper end of the rope to the staple on the raft, by which it became
stationary. Whenever he wished to examine another spot, he weighed
anchor, and resigned himself to the force of the current. Where the
water was shallow, he stood upright on his raft; but where the depth was
considerable, he lay at full length, with his face downwards, looking
over the edge of the raft.

By means of a pair of wooden pincers, two fathoms in length, he laid
hold of the pearl oysters (rather muscles, _Mya margaritifera_,) and
drew them up. The part of the pincers below the joint or hinge was about
a span long, and of three fingers breadth, hollowed out at the points,
one of which was curved, the other flat. Taking the other end of these
pincers in his hands, he easily directed them to the spot where he saw
the shells lying.

The latter were generally open, so that they might readily be discerned
by the whiteness of their inside; but when the water is very much
agitated, the animals immediately close their shells, though destitute
of eyes or ears.

The form of the shell is elliptic-oblong, with a contraction, or
shallow notch as it were, about the middle of their outer margin. The
man opened them by means of a whilk shell, which he thrust with violence
between the valves, for it is impossible to effect this with the finger
only. He introduced the point of the whilk in the centre of the base, or
broader end, of the muscle, searching for the pearls chiefly towards the
other end, on the inside of the valve. If the inside of the latter be
white, the pearl is white; but if dark or reddish, the pearl is of the
same colour.

When it was first discovered that this neighbourhood produced pearls,
the river at Purkijaur was the place where the principal pearl-fishery
was established. But now it is nearly exhausted. When the discovery of
this bed of pearl muscles was first made, it is said the shells were in
such abundance that nobody could reach the bottom of them, which is far
from being the case at present.

There is no external sign about the shell, by which it is possible to
know whether it contains a pearl or not. Consequently many thousands are
destroyed to no purpose before one pearl is found. It is also a great
pity that all the muscles are killed in consequence of this examination.
Each pearl is either attached to the shell, or loose. They are found at
all seasons of the year, and are sometimes thrown out of the shell
spontaneously by its inhabitant.

I witnessed at this place what appeared to me a very extraordinary
phenomenon, a pike in whose stomach, when opened, was found a young duck
entire. The peasant who was my companion told me he had many times seen
the same thing.


_July 27._

The reindeer fed with evident avidity on the great water Horsetail
(_Equisetum fluviatile_), which the Laplanders call _Aske_, though it
was in a dry state, and though they will not eat common hay. How
unaccountably negligent are the Laplanders, not to collect in the
course of summer a stack of this plant and of the Reindeer-moss (_Lichen
rangiferinus_) for winter fodder! They would then have some provision
for the herd, when the country is covered with an impenetrable crust of
frozen snow, and not hazard the loss of all they are worth in the world.

The inhabitants of Westbothnia, to defend themselves against the bites
of gnats, besmear their skin with a mixture of tar and fish-grease, or
some other kind of fat. They keep this composition in a horn which hangs
at their side. The Laplanders however give themselves no trouble about
any such matter.

In order to add to the pungency of the tobacco which they are in the
habit of chewing, the Laplanders mix with it the root of _Angelica_.
(_A. Archangelica_ is preferred, but when that is not at hand, the
_sylvestris_ is used, as appears from the _Flora Lapponica_.)

The women wear their belts in the same manner as the men, except when
they are big with child, in which case the belt must necessarily be
placed much higher than ordinary.

This day I found the little heart-leaved _Ophrys_ (_O. cordata_)
growing, as it usually does, amongst the _Rubus Chamæmorus_, whilst I
was gathering the fruit of the latter. Also the least _Pinguicula_ (_P.
villosa_); but its leaves were withered, and the fruit was ripe, which
is heartshaped and emarginate, of two valves and one cell. The
last-mentioned plant grew among White-moss (_Sphagnum palustre._ These
specimens are still preserved in the Linnæan herbarium.)

The bird called (by the Swedes) Lappskata, Rödfogel in Westbothland,
Gvousach in Lapland, (_Corvus infaustus_, _Faun. Suec._ 32. _Lath. Ind._
159. _Lanius infaustus_, _Syst. Nat._ _v._ 1. 138,) is of a small size,
but it audaciously lays hold of any thing it can find, being so far from
timid that it flew away with part of our provisions as we sat at table.
This bird seems nearly allied to the Jay (_Corvus glandarius_).

It is only in winter the clothes of the Laplanders have any sort of
lining, except that these people generally wear, next the stomach, the
skin of a young reindeer fawn. The sleeves of their coats are not fixed
to the jacket, or body of the garment. The part which covers the
shoulder folds over the top of the sleeve, in the shape of a wedge. A
seam reaches the whole length of the jacket, from top to bottom, on each
side, the jacket becoming gradually wider, downward. It reaches as low
as the middle of the leg. The collar is for the most part blue, stitched
with white thread.

The reindeer are not slaughtered in the same manner as cattle usually
are either at Stockholm or in Smoland. The animal being secured with a
halter, the Laplander takes his spear and sticks it into the thorax
behind the shoulder, so as to pierce the heart. By this means the blood
collects in the cavity of the thorax, none of it appearing externally.
After the skin is flayed off, the blood is found coagulated in the
thorax, from whence it is extracted, and bruised into a soft mass. With
this the poorer sort of people make a kind of soup, by boiling along
with it the brains of the animal, which the rich do not eat. The
testicles are never eaten by any sort of people. The _penis_ serves to
make a thong to draw the sledges.

Such of the Laplanders as inhabit the forests go to the alps at
midsummer and return about St. Laurence's day (August 10th); and the
mountain Laplanders descend into the lower country between the first of
November and Christmas, and go back again about Lady-day.

All kinds of clothing made of skins are sewed with sinews of animals, as
before described; but those of walmal cloth, with hempen thread
purchased from the neighbouring countries.


_July 28._

To-day I found the _Pseudo-helleborine_; (possibly _Cypripedium
Calceolus_, not before mentioned in this journal.)

All the little rills and rivulets hereabouts produced a _Potamogeton_,
which I was doubtful whether to distinguish from the common kind, as it
varies excessively in appearance, but the leaves are more grassy. (_P.
gramineum_, as appears from the _Flora Lapponica_, yet nothing can be
less like the "common kind," if by the latter be meant the _natans_,
which, with the _perfoliatum_ and _gramineum_, compose the catalogue of
species in _Fl. Lapp._)

Hereabouts grew the _Juncus_ with three seeds (_capsules_) at the top of
the stem, which also I observed to be sometimes reflexed. (_J.
triglumis_; see _Fl. Lapp._ ed. 2. 90.)

Several days ago the forests had been set on fire by lightning, and the
flames raged at this time with great violence, owing to the drought of
the season. In many different places, perhaps in nine or ten that came
under my notice, the devastation extended several miles' distance. I
traversed a space three quarters of a mile in extent which was entirely
burnt, so that Flora, instead of appearing in her gay and verdant
attire, was in deep sable, a spectacle more abhorrent to my feelings
than to see her clad in the white livery of winter, for this, though it
destroys the herbage, leaves the roots in safety, which the fire does
not. The fire was nearly extinguished in most of the spots we visited,
except in ant-hills, and dry trunks of trees. After we had travelled
about half a quarter of a mile across one of these scenes of desolation,
the wind began to blow with rather more force than it had done, upon
which a sudden noise arose in the half-burnt forest, such as I can only
compare to what may be imagined among a large army attacked by an enemy.
We knew not whither to turn our steps. The smoke would not suffer us to
remain where we were, nor durst we turn back. It seemed best to hasten
forward, in hopes of speedily reaching the outskirts of the wood; but
in this we were disappointed. We ran as fast as we could, in order to
avoid being crushed by the falling trees, some of which threatened us
every minute. Sometimes the fall of a huge trunk was so sudden, that we
stood aghast, not knowing whither to turn to escape destruction, and
throwing ourselves entirely on the protection of Providence. In one
instance a large tree fell exactly between me and my guide, who walked
not more than a fathom from me, but, thanks to God! we both escaped in
safety. We were not a little rejoiced when this perilous adventure
terminated, for we had felt all the while like a couple of outlaws, in
momentary fear of surprise.

I have long ago related my sufferings from gnats in the course of my
Lapland expedition. In this place I was still more incommoded by some
very small flies, about a line in length and very narrow. Their breast
was of a blueish grey. Front of the head whitish, with black eyes.
Wings pellucid. Body greyish, oblong and narrow. A white scale was
placed on each side at the insertion of the wings. The legs were black,
with a white joint in the middle of each, the base being speckled. The
hind part of the shoulders was whitish. _Antennæ_ simple, minute,
parallel, and pointing right forward. The wings lay one over the other
so as to resemble a single one, notched at the extremity, when the
insect was at rest. Each of us was beset by a whole legion of these
flies towards sun-set. What rendered them peculiarly troublesome was
their manner of running over the face, and flying into the nose, mouth
and eyes. When they were approaching in order to inflict their bite,
they were not to be driven away by our blowing ever so hard. The
Laplanders call these insects _Mockere_, alluding to the smallness of
their head; the Swedes _Knott_. (_Culex reptans._ Linnæus mentions in
the _Fauna Suecica_ the extremely tiresome noise made by these gnats in
their approach.) They covered our linen so as to render it quite black.
It was to no purpose to attempt to drive them away. (See _v._ 1. 208.)

I visited the Laxholms, islands so called from the salmon fishery. Here
the Common Salmon (_Salmo Salar_, named _Lax_ by the Swedes,) is found
with the under jaw occasionally hooked, which variety is termed
_Kroklax_, or Hooked Salmon. I inquired whether this hooked kind was
esteemed a distinct species, or whether a difference arising from age;
to both which questions I was answered in the negative. I was shown fish
of the smallest size, which had in proportion as large a hook to the
lower jaw as the largest. Bonge has therefore fallen into an error in
his dissertation upon salmon. (_Daniel Bonge_, _Dissertatio de Salmonum
naturâ_, _corumque apud Ostrobothnienses piscatione_, _Upsal._ 1730.
4to. under the presidency of Professor Roberg, with wooden cuts.) I
inquired whether the hooked salmon were furnished with roe or with milt.
I was answered that they had always milt. On opening seven of them I
found this verified, whereas four salmon which were not hooked had all
of them roes. The hooked (or male) salmon is so called, because the
point of its lower jaw is bent inward, and has a taper form, resembling
a finger; while on the contrary the upper is furnished with a cavity to
receive that point, embracing it like a sheath, for about half its
length. The female fish has a more obtuse lower jaw, but not less
inflexed, there being only a very slight furrow in the upper one; so
that the two sexes may be distinguished from each other by these marks
from the earliest age.

Those who fish for salmon come to this place about a fortnight before
midsummer, and remain till St. Bartholomew's day, August 24th, as during
that space of time the salmon keep ascending the river. After the day
last mentioned none of the fishermen remain. Few of the fish escape
being taken, so as to return down the river. At Michaelmas the fishermen
come here again, when they catch a smaller sort of salmon.

This day I observed the harvest beginning. The corn now cutting, though
sown but a few days before midsummer, was nevertheless quite ripe. The
lent rye was not yet ripe enough to be cut, but the winter rye ripens
some time before the other corn. Thus it appears that corn (barley)
springs up and ripens at this place in the space of sixty days.

In my walks I gathered the berries of the Strawberry-leaved Bramble
(_Rubus arcticus_), which proved delicious. They have somewhat of the
flavour of Blackberries (_Rubus fruticosus_), but are more agreeable.
This fruit does not separate from its calyx like other specie of its
genus. It is a compound berry, in size and structure somewhat between
what the Smolanders call _Kodden_ (_Rubus saxatilis_), and Raspberries
(_R. idæus_). Its colour is a brownish crimson.

The (_Pedicularis_) _Sceptrum Carolinum_ is perennial, with scales, not
a fibrous tuft or beard, at the root[7]. The stem is round, not
quadrangular. Calyx five-cleft[8]. Lower lip regular, divided into three
equal segments.

_Pedicularis_ with a purple head (_Bartsia alpina._ _Linn. Sp. Pl._ 839.
_Engl. Bot. t._ 361. _Euphrasia._ _Fl. Lapp. n._ 246.) shows an affinity
to the _Crista Galli_ (_Rhinanthus_) in its calyx, which is divided into
four equal acute segments. The fruit is ovate and acute, compressed at
the point. Lower lip straight. All the other _Pediculares_, except
_Sceptrum Carolinum_, have an oblique fruit.

Here and there grew specimens of Heath (_Erica vulgaris_) with tufted
branches, looking like a pruned spruce fir, and very beautiful.

The water of the river now began to decrease, in consequence of which it
became clearer, and it was more difficult to catch any fish.

Scarcely any species of _Carex_ was to be found this season but what had
some degree of smut or _ustilago_ about its spikes, consisting of little
globular black bodies, changing to dust.


_July 29._

Tanning of leather is thus performed by the Laplanders.

The scaly cuticle of the birch being first stripped off, the bark is
then scraped from the tree and boiled fresh in water, for about as long
a time as is requisite to boil fish; being afterwards set by to cool, to
a certain degree, that it may not injure the hide by being too hot. The
latter, having previously been scalded, by dipping into luke-warm water,
is then soaked in the decoction of bark, and the vessel containing it
sunk into a hole dug in the ground, at the extremity of the hut. The
hide is taken out every day, and softened in luke-warm water, till the
hair becomes loose, when it is scraped off by such a knife as tanners
use. The skin is then replaced in the tan when cool, without any
previous drying, till the third day after the hair comes off, when it is
hung up to dry in the shade. When the leather is but half dry, they
often cut it up for shoes, which are always made by the women, without
any last. The thread used for the purpose is that made of tendons.

Some persons never scald the hide, but scrape off the hair with a knife,
soak it a little in water, and then plunge it into the tan.

Near Swartlär I noticed a mineral spring, but whatever may be its
qualities, nobody has yet made any inquiries concerning them.

The river Lulea divides into two branches, not far above the bounds of
Lapmark and Westbothnia, one of which is called the little river Lulea,
whose origin is among the mountains towards Hyttan, the other Stor
Lulea, running from the alps in Nörbattra.


_July 30._

On examining the cultivated Hop (_Humulus Lupulus_), I found the
structure of the female as follows. Calyx consisting of an universal
involucrum of four leaves, and a partial one, likewise of four ovate
leaves, containing eight florets, each of which has an ovate spatha, of
a very large size with respect to the rudiments of the fruit. Petals
none. Pistils two, horn-like. Stigmas acute. Seed-vessel none, the base
of the spatha enclosing the seed, which is solitary.

The shore of the river Lulea produced, in excessive abundance, the Water
Sedum (_Tillæa aquatica_); likewise the Aquatic Dwarf Plantain
(_Limosella aquatica_). The Spiked Water-grass, with a bent stem, here
grew above other plants, twisting its leaves round them, like a sort of
bindweed. (_Alopecurus geniculatus_ β. _Sp. Pl._ 89. See _Fl. Lapp. n._
38.)

The Water Sedum (_Tillæa aquatica_) proved no less plentiful by the
sides of the roads.

In the river I gathered an herb, which I was doubtful whether to refer
to _Stellaria_ (_Callitriche_), to _Potamogeton_, or to the _Aponogeton_
of Pontedera. (This appears to have been the latter, _Zannichellia
palustris_.)

I reached the old town of Lulea in the evening.

It rained and thundered violently during the whole night.


_July 31._

This day I had intended to prosecute my journey towards Tornea, but a
heavy rain, with tremendous thunder and lightning, confined me entirely
to the house.

The wife of the principal clergyman of Lulea, on whose accuracy I have
the greatest possible dependance, assured me that she had, at the
posthouse of Biorsiö, in the parish of Torp, in Medelpad, seen large
quantities of the Yellow Aconite (_Aconitum lycoctonum_; see vol. 1.
36), collected and boiled for the use of the table, like cabbage. This
astonished her very much, as she knew it to be used in Jemtland to
poison flies. When she expressed her apprehensions about eating of this
herb, the maid-servant laughed at her, telling her it was much too good
to be so slighted.

Hares are always hunted in this part of the country, and the dogs are
trained not to bark. If they offend in this respect they are sure of a
beating.


_August 1._

I found some Truffles (_Lycoperdon Tuber_) between Heden and Swartlä.

Near the road grew _Glaux_ (_maritima_), as well as the Narrow-leaved
Sea Plantain (_Plantago maritima_), and Small-leaved _Angelica_ (_A.
sylvestris_). On a bank I observed _Triticum maritimum_. (This last is
thought by Dr. Afzelius to be _Elymus arenarius_. See _Fl. Lapp. ed._ 2
_n._ 34.)

Here various plants, which I had found blossoming at Umœa, were now
laden with fruit, as the _Mesomora_ (_Cornus suecica_), _Vaccinia_
(Whortle-berries), _Chamæmorus_ (_Rubus Chamæmorus_, Cloud-berry), and
_Chamærubus_ (_R. saxatilis_, Stone Bramble), all which vied with each
other in the profusion of their berries. But little Ling (_Erica_) was
to be seen.

The hills are but trifling. Rising grounds, which had partly been burnt,
were covered with Spruce firs, and even with Reindeer-moss (_Lichen
rangiferinus_).

Towards evening I arrived at Tornea. The weather was fine.

Near Grotnäs, situated opposite to the church of Calix, is a ferry to
convey passengers to this church, adjoining to which the inhabitants of
Lulea and Tornea keep a fair.

The river produces abundance of Flote-grass, which at this time bore its
spikes or heads of flowers. I had long been acquainted with the plant,
it being very abundant in this country as well as in Smoland, and had
wondered what species it could be; especially as I never heard of any
botanist who had met with the fructification. It is a _Sparganium_,
whose leaves are very long, reaching a fathom or two, according to the
depth of the water, and floating on its surface. They are convex at
their back, except in the lower part, which is flat on both sides. (This
plant named _Flotagræs_, or Flote-grass, in Linnæus's native country of
Smoland, is the _Sparganium_ _n._ 345* of _Fl. Lapp._, in the second
edition of which work I have called it _S. natans_, on his own authority
in the _Flora Suecica_ and _Species Plantarum_; but in _English Botany,_
_v._ 4. 273, and _Fl. Brit._ 962, this error is corrected, so far at
least as concerns the original Lapland specimen, which is unquestionably
_S. simplex_, _Engl. Bot._ _v._ 11. _t._ 745, a species he did not, in
his works, distinguish from our common _S. ramosum_, _t._ 744. I am now
persuaded he confounded this _simplex_ with the _natans_ in his Lapland
tour, as well as in his herbarium, where the original specimens of the
two are pinned together.)


_August._ 2

They dry their corn upon drying sheds as is practised in Smoland. The
cross piece is turned towards the south, but the method here differs
from that of the Smolanders in one respect. The latter place one sheaf
on the top of another, but the inhabitants of Westbothnia lay the
sheaves cross-wise, in an alternate order, each thinking their own
method the best for procuring the most complete ventilation. In this
country fifteen sheaves are lodged under each shed, without supporters;
but in Smoland twelve only, ten of which are in the main pile and two at
the sides. The Smolanders therefore are able to reach high enough to
place their uppermost sheaves by hand, but the inhabitants of
Westbothnia find it necessary to be provided with what they term a
_Skyllkrok_, or Rick-hook, consisting of a round pole, with a
transverse projecting piece of wood, (like a direction-post in England,
as appears by the sketch in the manuscript,) by means of which each
sheaf is lifted up.

On a heath very near the river Sangis I noticed some earth of a red
colour. The dry part of the forest which had been burnt down, produced
Reindeer-moss (_Lichen rangiferinus_) in such abundance, that the whole
face of the ground was covered with it.

The evening was fine when I reached Zangis (or Sangis), where I took
leave of my native tongue.


_August 3._

At sun-rise the marshes were all white with hoar frost. In the preceding
night winter had paid his first visit, and slept in the lap of the
lovely Flora. I did not observe that she had suffered from her rude
visitor, except with regard to the _Dracontium_ (_Calla palustris_), the
leaves of which assumed a pallid aspect. The plants latest in bloom at
this place, are _Erica_ (_vulgaris_), the Red-flowered Persicaria
(_Polygonum Persicaria_), and _Hieracium præmorsum_ (_Leontodon
autumnale_, _Sp. Pl._ 1123. _Hedypnois autumnalis_, _Fl. Brit._ 826.
_Engl. Bot. t._ 830.)

On leaving Sangis, I left my mother-tongue behind me. At Saris I met
with native Finlanders only, whose language was unintelligible to me.

Here grew the _Masarooth_ (_Selinum palustre_) with a proliferous umbel.

The mouse-traps used here are made like those for catching squirrels;
which I have already described.

Between Zeivis (perhaps Saris) and Tornea are three ferries to pass. In
my way I noticed a new species of _Stellaria_ (_Callitriche_), of a
small size, not leafy at the top, erect, not creeping like the _S.
minor_; (see _Fl. Lapp. n._ 2. _var._ γ.) It had the appearance of
_Potamogeton graminifolium_ (_gramineum_). (What particular state or
appearance of the _Callitriche_ this might be, does not appear, nor is
it mentioned in _Fl. Lapp._)

I reached Tornea by three o'clock.



TORNEA.


_August 4._

A reindeer may be driven in a carriage twelve (Swedish) miles in a day,
or, at the utmost, fifteen; but the animal is generally killed
immediately afterwards with the Laplanders' spears, and eaten.

The Laplanders are perhaps so called from the (Swedish) word _lappa_, to
sew or patch together, because their garments usually answer to that
description.

The degree of cold is certainly greater on the alps than in less
elevated regions; for instance, it is colder in Jamtland than at Tornea,
though the former lies about one hundred miles further south. Thus it
appears that the cause of the severity of the cold does not depend so
much on the approach towards the pole, as on the elevation of the
ground, which ought to be carefully observed. Hence the plants of the
north of Lapland are such only as are capable of resisting the most
severe and long-continued cold, and hence snow lies on the alps of
Italy.

Alpine plants are, for the most part, perennial, except the Little Blue
Centaury (_Gentiana nivalis_), and perhaps the Single-flowered _Lychnis_
(_apetala_). I wish botanists would endeavour to discover and make known
any new kinds of pulse or grain, especially such as are of a hardy
constitution, and not likely to suffer from the severity of winter. Some
are perhaps to be found among the grasses. It is necessary to ascertain
what degree of northern latitude they would bear, and whether they are
capable of growing within the frigid zone. It is worthy of inquiry in
what respects the Alps, properly so called (of Switzerland,) agree with
ours of Lapland, as well as how far, and by what means, they are
susceptible of culture. The descriptions that have been given of them
may be consulted. The Greenland alps would also be worth examining, to
see how far these different countries agree in their native plants, in
varieties of situation, and in plenty of soil, compared with the
proportion of rocks or large stones. Do they all agree in the diminutive
stature of their plants?

The tranquil existence of the Laplanders answers to Ovid's description
of the golden age, and to the pastoral state as depicted by Virgil. It
recalls the remembrance of the patriarchal life, and the poetical
descriptions of the Elysian fields.

So many Finlanders crowded about me, that I scarcely knew what to do.
They were all blear-eyed to such a degree as to be nearly blind. Many of
them were perfectly deprived of sight, and ninety-nine out of a hundred
that were so had their eyes shut. It seems in vain to prescribe any
remedy for this evil, so long as its cause is every where so prevalent.
This consists in their smoky dwellings. If I had the management of
these Finlanders, I would tie them up to the wall and give them fifteen
pair of lashes apiece till they made chimneys to their huts, especially
as they have such plenty of fire-wood. This improvement in the comfort
of their dwellings might surely be accomplished by the authority of the
chief magistrate, for I have not been able to learn any sufficient
reason for their adherence to their old way of building. If people
thirty or forty years of age are thus afflicted, what must become of
them by the time they are seventy?

The Finlander's scythe is represented in the annexed figure.

[Illustration]

The handle is rather above two feet in length, straight for about the
space of a foot from the part where the blade is bound on. Afterwards it
is slightly curved outwards, and then again, towards the apex, in some
degree inwards so as to make a straight line with the base. The top is
thicker than any other part. The blade of the scythe is, like that used
in our country, about a foot and a half long, and an inch and half
broad, very slightly curved. Its back is, like that of our scythes,
thickened on one side. The mower takes hold of the top with his left
hand, so that the back of the scythe is uppermost, but grasps with his
right the part where the above-described curvature ends, so as to be
able to give the edge a turn upwards. As he moves forward, he mows first
on the right, and then on the left, only turning his hands, and not
lifting the scythe, but merely presenting each side of its blade
alternately to the ground.

On the south-west side of the town, across a small bay, lies a mineral
spring. The water is not ill-tasted. Indeed this is one of the best
mineral waters I have met with in the north; but it lies very low,
appearing to derive its origin from a stream that runs above, so that
its water comes out soiled, as it were, from the earth, and is covered
with scum.


_August 5._

Every body at Tornea was continually talking to me of a distemper to
which their horned cattle are subject, and which kills many of them in
the course of the winter, but especially in the spring, when they lose
from fifty to a hundred head of cattle almost every year. On walking to
examine the meadow into which they are first turned out to grass, I
found it a bog or marsh, where the Water Hemlock, _Cicuta aquatica_,
(_C. virosa_, _Sp. Pl._ 366. _Fl. Lapp. n._ 103. _Engl. Bot. t._ 479.)
grew in abundance, and had evidently been cropped plentifully by the
animals in feeding. It seemed probable therefore that they eat it most
in the spring, when first turned into this pasture; whence it proves so
much more extensively fatal than in summer, when perhaps they only pick
up a plant here and there. It grows in all the moist meadows which are
mown for hay; consequently the cattle take it likewise in their winter
food, and therefore perish, more or less, during that time of the year.
We learn from Wepfer's experiments, who gave it to various kinds of
animals, what violent symptoms it occasions. See his book. Nothing
appeared to me so interesting, during my visit to Tornea, as to examine
into the cause and remedy of this evil. If my ideas be right, the whole
might be prevented by employing a woman for a month to eradicate all the
_Cicuta_; by which this town, small as it is, might save above two
hundred silver dollars. I was informed that the cattle dying from this
cause become so infectious, that they cannot be flayed without great
danger. The persons employed in that business have their hands greatly
swelled by touching the carcase, and several have lost their lives in
consequence. The plant in question, therefore, agrees in qualities with
the _Œnanthe_, as it does likewise in place of growth and outward
appearance, especially in the _pinnæ_ of its leaves.[9]

The meadows hereabouts, among the thickets towards the shore of the bay,
afforded me the following plants.

1. _Veronica_ (_maritima_), with an erect stem, branched in the upper
part, and bearing numerous spikes. Lower leaves acute, cordate-oblong,
sharply serrated, the upper ones lanceolate, serrated, two, three, or
four together, opposite on the stalk. Corolla tubular, divided two
thirds of its length into two lips, of which the upper is the broadest,
ovate, obtuse, and nearly erect; the lower three-cleft, the middle
segment narrowest, but all of equal length. Stamens two, very long,
awlshaped, situated at the separation of the two lips. Hence the flower
is of the personate kind. Pistil reflexed. Capsule heartshaped, narrow
at the upper edge. The flowers are numerous in each spike.

2. Selleri, (_Apium graveolens_[10],) unless I am much mistaken. The
petals are white, spreading, and acute. The partial umbels are broad.
The general one has very rarely one or two (leaves of an involucrum?).

3. _Galium parisiense_ (_uliginosum_), with a square, furrowed,
procumbent stem. The leaves are lanceolate, broader towards the
extremity, acute, armed with little prickles as well as the stem. The
flower is not tubular, nor the seeds prickly. The latter are white, as
is also the flower. Four leaves grow together in the lower part of the
stem, but in the upper part six. Under the little umbels of flowers are
either four or two.

4. _Galium album_ (_boreale_). Stem square, erect, branched, especially
in the upper part. Leaves four together, sessile, rather broader towards
their base, three-nerved, slightly reflexed at the margin. There are two
leaves to each of the lesser umbels. Seeds two, roundish, joined into a
didymous shape, downy. Flower not tubular.

5. _Cruciata_, if I am not mistaken. (_Galium palustre_, that is,
_Cruciata palustris alba_ of Tournefort.) Leaves four, ovate-oblong,
bluntish, narrower towards their base. Flower, I believe, not tubular.
See what I gathered in the woody parts of Lulean Lapland. (This was the
same species, as appears by the _Fl. Lapp._)

6. _Clymenum parisiense_ (_Lathyrus palustris_). Stem triangular, two of
its angles ending in wings, or having a dilated compressed border. There
are two little oblong pointed angular leaflets at the insertion of the
leaves, which latter are pinnated, ending in a tendril, and composed of
two or three pair of nearly lanceolate _pinnæ_. The flowers are
violet-coloured, three or four on each common stalk.

7. _Angelica tenuifolia_ (_sylvestris_), which I would define _A.
umbellulis globosis_. The general umbel, though often naked, is commonly
furnished with one, two, or as far as five, very slender leaves; each
partial one has often as many as eight. It is curious that when the
plant blooms vigorously, none of the stalks of the umbel can be seen,
but the flowers form a complete ball, like the Double Guelder-rose
(_Sambucus Opulus_, _flore pleno_,) or the Globe Thistle (_Echinops
Sphærocephalus_). The petals are lanceolate and spreading. Stem
striated, or slightly furrowed.

8. _Cicuta aquatica_ of Wepfer (_C. virosa_ above mentioned). I am
disposed to refer this plant to _Œnanthe_, on account of its external
aspect, which is wonderfully like the last-mentioned genus. I must
examine whether their flowers agree. The footstalks are hollow,
inflated, and erect. _Pinnæ_ three, rarely four, pair, of a narrow
lanceolate shape. Those on the stem have from three to seven serratures
each, but the radical ones have more, all distinct; and sometimes the
lowermost serrature, at the lower edge, grows out into a sort of
spurious _pinnula_. The top of the stem bears from one to three umbels;
the general umbel being naked, or rarely furnished with a solitary
leaflet[11]. The partial ones have seven short, narrow, acute leaflets.
The tips of the petals are inflexed.

9. (_Pedicularis_) _Sceptrum Carolinum_. Its capsules are rose-coloured,
its flowers yellowish white tipped with flesh-colour, and obtuse. The
capsules are about equal to the interstices of the spike, which all
together is about four inches long.


_August 6._

The day of the holy sabbath, and therefore a day of recreation for both
mind and body. I saw in the church (of Tornea) a memorial of King
Charles the XIth's own observation of the sun on the 14th of June, 1694.
The sun was visible on that night till very near twelve, when a small
cloud hid it from the sight. It was however above the horizon[12]. In
winter the sun does not rise above the horizon, but at the solstice it
becomes visible. Could it be seen from the pole?

The young women in Finland have much more swelling bosoms than those of
Lapland; the latter accord best with the description of the poet,

  "_Quales cruda viro puella servat._"
                              (_Mart._ lib. 8. ep. 63.)


_August 7._

The town of Tornea stands on a small island, inhabited close to the
shore on the south-west side. I call it an island, because it is bounded
on the north by a swamp; on the south-east by the great river of Tornea;
on the west and south-west by an arm of the sea, like a large river in
appearance, but so shallow that no vessel can approach within a mile of
the town on that side. This arm of the sea was formerly the _king's
road_, (a channel obliged to be kept open,) but now it is almost dry in
summer time, on the north side, towards the swamp.

I ascended the steeple from whence his majesty king Charles the Eleventh
saw the sun at midnight on the 14th of June, 1694.


_August 8._

Nothing worth notice occurred.


_August 9._

Leaving Tornea, I proceeded to Kimi, where is a large salmon fishery,
for which this place is remarkable, as Liminge is for its meadows, and
Storlionis for its cornfields, but the last yield the greatest profit.


_August 10._

I stayed at the house of the principal clergyman in Kimi till the 11th.
This day I gathered a sort of Pink, _Caryophyllus_, with reflexed petals
of a purplish colour, divided into many segments almost to their base.
The claws, not contracted at the summit, bear on the upper side, at the
bend, a tuft of dull-coloured hairs. (This was the beautiful and
fragrant _Dianthus superbus._) Also a _Salix_ with appendages at the
base of its leaves. (What species this was, does not appear.) At the
shore of the great river grew _Alsine repens_, _foliis gramineis_,
(_Stellaria uliginosa_, _Fl. Brit._ 476. _Engl. Bot. t._ 1074.)

Lying-in women at this place are accustomed to drink brandy seasoned
with pepper, partly for the sake of its intoxicating quality, by way of
a narcotic, and partly to bring on the labour pains. The clergyman's
wife told me an infallible method, as she said, to prevent the pains
which often follow childbirth. When the woman's first child is born, and
the umbilical cord divided, a spoonful of the blood is given her to
swallow. This is to be practised at every succeeding labour, and I was
assured that each would be rendered more easy, without any after pains.

In East Bothnia, as well as in Medelpad, it is customary to have the
dairy superintended by a superior female servant, called the _fäbodar_,
who receives for each cow one pound of butter and one of cheese, besides
a pound of _mesosmör_. (See _v._ 1. 197.)

To obtain a greater quantity of butter, the milk is set by, either in a
cellar or in a double-walled house, to be kept as cold as possible, for
at least two days, or so long as that it will not stick to the finger.
The milk will not turn sour, but will become very thin and blue, while
the cream collects on the top, of considerable thickness and in great
perfection. The cream being taken off, and put into the churn, often
proves so rich, that after it has been churned but a short time, if the
churn be laid on one side nothing will run out. It is no small labour to
churn such cream.

Of the remaining milk cheese is made, being warmed before it is
coagulated. If the milk has begun to turn sour, it will not do for this
purpose. Such thin milk as this is not very fit for eating, but the whey
which separates from it in the making of cheese, is by some people made
into _syra_. (See _v._ 1. 243. _n._ 11.) This is done merely by putting
it, when cool, into a vessel or cask, when, if set by for a considerable
time, it will become extremely tough. Most usually however it is boiled,
and then kept for two or three days, when, some new milk being added, it
is boiled up again to the consistence of flummery, and then set by in
some kind of vessel. If it remains for a long while without being
touched, it grows hard, and becomes _mesosmör_. (_v._ 1. 243. _n._ 12.)
The blue milk above mentioned may be boiled like fresh milk, and does
not readily turn sour.

_Gos-mjölk_, or rather _Gäs-mjölk_, (from the Swedish verb _gäsa_, to
work or ferment,) is made as follows. The butter-milk is set by in a tub
till it begins to ferment, when about a third or fourth part of the
quantity of fresh milk is added, the whole being allowed to work once
more. A serum by this time is formed at the bottom, which is drawn off
by means of a cock or tap, in the bottom of the tub, and used
immediately for food. A similar portion of fresh milk is then put to the
remainder, when more whey is, in due time, deposited. This practice is
repeated from time to time for the space of a fortnight, at the end of
which the milk in the tub becomes of a thick consistence, and is
excellent eating.

_Servet-mjölk_ (Napkin Milk) is made by taking a quantity of sour milk
just beginning to ferment, when bubbles, like hydatids as it were, are
formed between the cream and the milk. This is cut across in various
directions, and the thicker substance taken off and hung up in a napkin,
that the liquid part may drain away. What remains in the napkin acquires
a firm consistence, and is eaten along with fresh sweet cream.



EAST BOTHLAND.


_August 11._

I departed from the house of the chief clergyman of Kimi, whose name is
Forbus or Forbers, and that of his wife Christian.

Here I observed the _Lumme_ of Wormius, (_Colymbus arcticus_; see _v._
1. 27.) Its outermost toes were largest, and most naked; the next, or
middlemost, smaller; the thumb, or inner most, very small.

A skin of a squirrel, that had been caught in winter, was white towards
the end of the rump, as were also the outermost toes, and the ears.

In my journey this day I met with the _Stratiotes_ (_aloides_), and the
_Butomus_ (_umbellatus_); as well as the _Mesomora_ (_Cornus suecica_),
the spotted _Palma Christi_ (_Orchis maculata_), and the _Gnidium_.
(This last could be no other than the Mezereon, _Daphne Mezereum_,
formerly called _Coccognidium_.)

I found also the Ladies' Slipper (_Cypripedium Calceolus_), but it was
almost out of flower.

The calyx consists of four long, coloured, lanceolate leaves, two of
which, the upper and lower, are longer and broader than the two lateral
ones. Petals two, the uppermost inversely ovate, reflexed, bearing the
anthers. Is it the pistil? The lowermost inflated, obtuse, about an inch
long. Anthers two. Fruit below the flower, of one cell, oval, with three
principal and three smaller angles, splitting laterally into three
valves, having a central column between them. The seeds adhere
longitudinally to the middle of the placenta (or receptacle). The herb
has the aspect of _Veratrum_.


_August 12._

The forests hereabouts are composed of Birch and Spruce fir mixed with
Pine (_Pinus sylvestris_), and a little Juniper (_Juniperus communis_).
The herbaceous plants grow luxuriantly in these woods, and attain a
remarkable height. Berries of the Wild Vine (_Rubus saxatilis_), the
_Vaccinium_ (Whortleberry), _Mesomora_ (_Cornus suecica_), _Empetrum_
(Crow or Crake-berry), and (_Rubus_) _Chamæmorus_, are here in
abundance. The (_Pedicularis_) _Sceptrum Carolinum_ presents itself
every where in the highway.

The pales, with which the fields are fenced off, are placed horizontally
against upright posts.

The houses, or rather smoke-huts, are called _Pyrter_ in this part of
the country. In these there is no proper fire-place, but the whole is an
oven, as it were, consisting of the four walls of the house, with a
flat cieling. In the latter is a hole by way of chimney, but not
partially covered by any kind of lid, or trap-door, as in Norway, (see
_vol._ 1. 357,) so that when the fire, made on a hearth under this
opening, is very smoky, it might be entirely opened to let out the
smoke. There is indeed a sort of wooden window in the roof, but it is
rarely opened. The people think themselves the warmer because the smoke
can escape by the door only, and are persuaded that they should be
frozen to death if they had a chimney; which opinion seems to me
altogether absurd. Would it not be better to have chimneys, with a
moderate degree of warmth, than a heat like that of a bagnio, with blind
and sore eyes, and a black sooty house? They lie on the floor in the
midst of this smoke, and that is their only bed. Notwithstanding their
opinion, I cannot help thinking that full as much cold air enters by the
door, as there could by a chimney. They are so anxious to keep
themselves warm, that they do not venture to have any windows, only
shutters in their stead; indeed they seem to be as fond of darkness as
owls. I peeped into one of these houses through a shutter, and within
was perfect darkness. Nevertheless there were several children and other
persons in the dwelling. I could distinguish nothing but what seemed to
me a pair of glaring fiery eyes, like the devil, in a sort of large jug.
On looking more attentively, I perceived that the object before me was
actually a jug or pot, in which I had already remarked that they were
accustomed to carry lighted embers, when wanted, to their neighbours.

I am sure the peasants of Smoland often make a fire sufficient to roast
them alive, though their houses are furnished with chimneys, and their
fires are made, as at this place, with small pieces of wood. To say the
truth, few persons can be of opinion that such excessive heat, in the
winter of this very severe climate, can be wholesome.

I have already mentioned that the inhabitants of these smoky dwellings
have no beds, but actually sleep on the floor. In the summer season,
however, they generally sleep in their barns. Round the inside of the
above-described hut or cottage, are ranged various tubs or wooden
vessels. In one corner, opposite to the spot where the fire is made,
stands a table.

As it would be impossible to bear a fire in these dwellings during the
heats of summer, their owners have another building which serves them
for a kitchen. This is almost of the shape of the Laplanders' huts, but
double their width and height, consisting of cloven beams or posts, such
as are used for the fences of the fields, only not covered in, like the
dwellings of the Laplanders. In the centre, where all the posts meet at
the top, the pot is suspended over the fire. Here they boil their
provisions, distil brandy, &c.

The stage-houses[13] are constructed like those seen at some posthouses
in our part of the country, having the centre of the roof raised on
longitudinal timbers. They are lofty, but narrow. The wooden walls curve
outwards towards the top.

This year the crops of corn proved very bad in this neighbourhood, so
that the inhabitants were obliged to chop their chaff, with the upper
part of the straw, as fine as possible, of which, when ground, they made
bread. Others preferred the bark of Pine-trees (_Pinus sylvestris_) for
this purpose. The fields of rye, sown in the autumn, were at this time
quite green. The winter rye, sown last year, was not yet cut. The
sheaves are not laid upon any stage, or under any cover, but are placed
ten together in a heap, standing nearly upright, the uppermost sheaf
being laid across, so as to shelter the others. They are afterwards
carried into the kilns, which at this place have exactly the appearance
of bagnios, with ovens built of boulder stones.

The fastenings of the doors are quite different here from those used in
Smoland, which are fixed into the floor, and capable of being raised or
depressed at pleasure. The fastening here is a kind of long button upon
the door, on the side where the hinges are fixed, which being turned
horizontally over the door-post, prevents the opening of the door.

By the road side grew an _Amanita_ (Agaric) with a stalk two inches
high, and as thick as a goose-quill. Its head was hemispherical; pale
above; concave beneath, with loose gills. (Probably _Agaricus n._ 499.
_Fl. Lapp. ed._ 2. 373. _Fl. Suec. n._ 1217. _ed._ 2. 446.)

[Illustration]

The scythes used in this country nearly resemble those of the
Norwegians, but differ in this respect, that the upper projection from
the handle stands out horizontally, see figure e, b, while the lower, c,
is perpendicular, and the top, a, which rests against the arm, is
flattened. The mower is therefore obliged to take hold of the foremost
projection, with his left hand, under the main handle. The advantage
of this is, that he is able to move forward in a nearly upright posture.
The Norwegian however walks still more erect in mowing. The proportions
of this Kimi scythe are as follows: From a to b one foot and a half; b
to c two palms and a half; c to d two feet; the breadth at b two inches
in a right line. The length of the projection b is three inches; and of
c the same. The blade is like our Smoland ones, but stands at an acute
angle with the handle.

The harrow consists of four or five links, in each of which are twelve
joints. These have alternately one and two projecting pieces each. (See
the figure annexed to the scythe just described, _p._ 159)

In the stage-houses (see _p._ 156,) boilers are fixed in the walls, for
boiling horse-dung, which is given as food to the cattle; as well as to
heat water for pouring on reindeer moss (_Lichen rangiferinus_), which
is also used for the same purpose; but such diet gives a loathsome taste
to their milk. In the roof of these houses hams and salmon are
smoke-dried.

During the winter the people are obliged to work in their miserable
cabins or _Pyrter_, when they open their shutters; but nevertheless find
themselves sufficiently warm.

The annexed cut represents a sort of plough, used at Kimi.

[Illustration]

    a, the base, is three palms long and one broad.

    b, b, handles, each a palm in length.

    c, d, shafts, six feet long, and of a round figure.

    e, e, chains by which the shafts are attached to the collar or yoke.
    The distance betwixt e and e is three feet.

    f, f, a straight or flat cross bandage.

    g, m, the base of the plough-share, three feet in length, and two
    palms and a half broad.

    h, h, points of the share, five palms long; distant at their base
    one foot three inches, at their extremities two feet.

    i, i, a chain of long links, fastened to a ring that embraces the
    base of each point of the share, into which chain, at k, is
    introduced the handle l; this acts so as to bring the points
    together rather than to separate them.

It must be observed that the inner edge of these points is turned
downward, so that when the handle or _spatula_ l is put in at k, and is
laid upon one of them, the earth is thrown on one side, and this is done
alternately with the two points. The part m is slightly curved, as well
as the points proceeding from it. When it is intended to make a deep
trench, as in cutting through turf in the marshes, l is laid parallel to
m, while the rings at f, f, as well as at i, i, prevent the plough-share
from going too far downward.

No kind of plough is used at Tornea, all the ground being turned over
with the spade. The same is the case at Kimi, except in the fields where
rye is sown, and these are ploughed with the plough just described.

It is a common custom at Kimi to furnish out a table with five or six
plates, and as many spoons, napkins, &c., though only one or two persons
are expected to dinner. There is at the post-house a free table (or
ordinary).

In the land belonging to the clergyman of Kimi, I found the (_Lythrum_)
_Salicaria_ with a very unusual aspect, having alternate leaves, and a
solitary flower in the bosom of each. (The original specimens in the
Linnæan herbarium have two or more flowers to the upper leaves.)

My intention was to have extended my journey into the province of East
Bothnia; but on applying at the post-house, I could neither procure a
horse, nor any thing to eat, for the inhabitants either could not, or
would not, understand me. I therefore took leave of them the same day I
arrived, and turned my steps backward.

The Finlanders in East Bothland are dressed very much like the
Laplanders, and therefore agree with them in general appearance. Their
dress is the same with respect to their cap, their light-grey jacket,
their breeches reaching down to the feet, their half-boots, their belt
into which they stick their knife, and the use of hooks and eyes upon
their clothes instead of buttons. But they differ in not having a high
collar, and in wearing a shirt and neckcloth, as well as in having their
coat open before. They stick nothing into their girdle but a knife,
though some people carry a key at the end of it. Their breeches are tied
round the knees.

At church I observed some men with a girdle of black list, just as it
was rent from the cloth, wound two or three times round the waist, which
formed a contrast with their grey jackets. The women however dress in
articles purchased from other countries, and make quite a different
appearance from the Lapland females.

East Bothnia, being a low country, abounds in marshes, bogs, and fens.
The grass is tall; but still there is such a deficiency of hay, that
they buy up horse-dung at Tornea, and boil it, as I have said, in the
boilers built up in some of their houses; in which also they boil water
to pour over the reindeer moss.

The bread used by the inhabitants of this country in the present season
of scarcity was made principally of chaff cut fine and ground.

The winter rye, sown but this day se'n-night, had already sprung up, and
made the fields quite green.

I returned back to Tornea in the evening.


_August 13._

This being a fast day, I heard a sermon in the Finnish tongue, preached
at the church of Tornea. A lawful wife was churched, after her lying-in;
which ceremony was performed in the choir, near the elevated part. The
women in general had either naturally white hair, or hair that had once
been brown, now turned grey. Very few had it red. They wear their hair
rather straight.

The physiognomy of both men and women is phlegmatic and stupid; the body
clumsy, the complexion bad, and the features destitute of all delicacy
of form or expression.

The boundary between West Bothnia and East Bothnia is not formed by the
river of Kimi, but by another smaller stream, not far distant, on the
left.

They catch _Sijk_ (_Salmo Lavaretus_) in a curious manner at this place.
These fish, like the common salmon, swim against the stream, and for
that reason are to be caught only near large falls of the river, which
they are unable to ascend. The fisherman, being furnished with a net
fixed at the end of a long pole, strips himself naked up to the waist,
and walks into the middle of the strongest cascade. To prevent accidents
from the force of the water, a rope is often tied round his waist, the
other end of which is held fast by a friend on shore. Thus they catch
the fish below the fall.

Seals are taken by various means, being either shot with fire-arms, or
caught in a net. The latter, three or four fathoms high, is made of
hempen cord, as thick as a goose-quill, each mesh being two spans wide.
This net is kept upright in the water by means of oblong floats of wood,
and has no stones at the bottom. Four or five such nets are frequently
tied to the ends of each other, and a large stone is attached to the
last, bound about with willow or osier, which serves to keep the nets
steady. These are set in places where the seals are known to hide
themselves, for those animals do the fishermen great damage, not only by
devouring fish, but by tearing the fishing nets, from the destruction of
which the haunts of the seals are discovered. When a seal comes in the
way of the above-described nets, he either thrusts his head between the
meshes, getting more and more entangled the more he pushes forward, or,
as often happens, he is caught by the foot.

On a sand-hill near the church at Tornea, grew, in great abundance,
_Gramen spicâ triticeâ maritimum_, (_Triticum radice repente_, _foliis
rigidis_; _Fl. Lapp. n._ 34, which, in the second edition of that work,
p. 23, I have, by the persuasion of my intelligent friend Dr. Afzelius,
referred to _Elymus arenarius_, and what Linnæus here says, confirms
this determination.) Its blue leaves looked quite different from all
others, and very handsome. I picked some seeds from the spikes, which
were as large as grains of rye. Hence I was induced to consider whether
this plant might not serve as a kind of corn, to be cultivated on such
dry and blowing sands, provided the proper method of managing it could
be discovered, which surely would not be a very difficult task. The
advantage of this would be that, by such means, many sandy tracts, where
nothing else will grow, might be turned to advantage; and the perennial
roots, which no other corn has, would of course save the trouble of
sowing it annually. Perhaps even these roots themselves might, in hard
times, serve for food.

The tall Finlander Daniel Cajanus, at Stockholm, born in this part of
East Bothland, was the son of a clergyman. At his birth he was no bigger
than the generality of children, and his health was very indifferent,
particularly with regard to his chest, till the age of twelve or fifteen
years.

I was informed that the inhabitants of this neighbourhood often hear
thunder in the alps during winter.

In the alps of Tornea cold is brought by a south wind, and mild weather
comes from the north, because of the sea.

The Laplanders consult several natural objects by way of compass as they
travel.

1. Large Pine-trees, which bear more copious branches on their southern
side than towards the north.

2. Ant-hills, the south sides of which bear grass, the northern
whortle-berries.

3. Aspen trees, whose bark is rough on the north side, smooth on the
opposite part.

4. Old withered Pines are clothed, on the north side, with the black
_Usnea_, or filamentous _Lichen_ (_L. jubatus_).

By such marks as these they are able to find their way through pathless
forests. Have we any guides so certain?

When these people kill any wild reindeer with fire-arms in summer, they
lodge the carcase in a cold cellar, and cut it up as they want it for
provision.

I observed a curious kind of lime-stone burnt at Kimi, Tornea, and other
places round the neighbouring sea-coast.


_August 14._

A very rainy day. A silver ore from Hjortot has been assayed by the
Mineral Board, and found to contain forty _per cent._ lead, but only
three or four of silver.


_August 15._

Near the ferry at Tornea I picked up the Fresh-water Sponge, _Spongia
lacustris_ of Newton, (_S. lacustris_; _Syst. Nat. v._ 1. 1299. Linnæus
here refers to Mr. Newton, the friend of Ray, who found the Sponge in
question in the Norwich river, where it still exists. It is however
denominated in Ray's _Synopsis_, _S. ramosa fluviatilis_, not
_lacustris_. Linnæus quoted from memory.)


_August 16._

In dissecting the flower of _Artemisia_ (_vulgaris_), I was struck with
its very curious conformation. (This alludes to the want of a limb to
the corolla of the female or marginal florets. See _Fl. Lapp. ed._ 2.
244.)


_August 17._

I went by sea from Tornea to Calix. The wind proved contrary. The
islands abounded with Whortle-berries, and with the fruit of _Rubus
saxatilis_. On one called Korsholm I met with a sort of _Behen_. Can it
be the same with that which grows in cornfields? Their different parts
are tolerably alike. This grew among the pebbles of the beach. Its calyx
is oblong. Leaves narrow. Stem erect. Fruit of one cell. In other
respects it resembles _Behen_. (This was _Cucubalus_ (_Behen_) variety
the third, or γ, _Fl. Lapp. n._ 180. _ed._ 2. 149. _Silene maritima_,
_Fl. Brit._ 468. _Engl. Bot. t._ 957. We have found it remain for many
years unchanged in a garden, propagating itself by seed, though Linnæus
reports that the third year he could not distinguish his from our common
_Silene inflata_, his _Cucubalus Behen_.)


ŒCONOMICAL REMARKS CONCERNING THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF TORNEA.

The soil is various, sometimes clay, sometimes sand. The corn-fields are
sown every other year, and lie fallow the intermediate seasons, half of
each field lying fallow, while the other half is cultivated. The former
is ploughed during the whole summer, to prevent the growth of grass or
weeds, which might exhaust it. Barley is sown in these open fields only.
Rye is cultivated on land that has recently been cleared of its wood by
burning, but not in any great quantities. Turnips and Rye are sown
together in one crop, and not, as usual in other places, Turnips one
year and Rye the other. Rye bread is reserved to treat visitors. Barley
bread is of three different qualities; 1. made of the unmixed barley; 2.
of a mixture of barley and chaff; 3. of chaff without any addition,
except now and then a handfull or two of barley. This last is their
_Spis-bröd_, or household-bread.

The plough is of the same construction as that used in Westbothland.

Almost every person, except such as are very poor, catches as many of
the small kind of Herrings, called _Strœmming_ (_Clupea Harengus_ β,
_Membras_ of old authors,) as are necessary for the support of his
family. Those who are not otherwise employed in spring and autumn, catch
them for sale afterwards to such as have not time to take any for
themselves. These fish begin to spawn about the 18th of May, and
continue till about the 16th of June. After the latter period they go
into the small inlets among the rocks, and are taken by means of large
nets till St. Peter's day, June 29th. This is called the large
Strœmming fishery. From St. Peter's day till St. Bartholomew's (Aug.
24th), or even later, they are taken likewise with nets in their usual
haunts. These fish are found with milt as well as roe throughout the
summer.

One barrel of sour Strœmming is as valuable as two of the salted
sort, the former being greatly preferred. A peasant whose family
consists of a dozen people, takes half a barrel of salt Strœmming for
his whole supply, and this is used to make a kind of soup when boiled
with turnips; but he takes a barrel and three quarters of sour
Strœmming, which is eaten without any preparation, like smoked and
salted meat. If the director of the family is a good œconomist, he
will never allow it to be boiled or roasted. They let the fish which is
to make sour Strœmming lie for three or four hours only before they
take out the entrails, after which it is washed in a small coarse sieve,
till most of the blood is removed. It is then salted, in the proportion
of thirty pounds of ordinary salt to each barrel of fish. The fish
destined to make salt Strœmming must be much more carefully washed,
for if the least drop of blood remains it will turn sour. Every barrel
of this requires a quarter of a barrel of salt which is disposed in
layers, alternately with layers of fish. Each layer of fish and salt are
rubbed together with the hands, till a sort of scum rises on the top.

Another way of preparing salt Strœmming is to make so strong a brine
that the entire fish, thrown into the tub, will not sink. They put in
only so many of the fish as can readily be stirred about in the brine.
If the tub be so full that the brine does not entirely cover the
Strœmming, more is added, and the whole is suffered to remain for
some days. The fish is afterwards gutted in the following manner. A
person puts ten or twelve of them on the thumb of his left hand, in such
a manner that the back of each fish is turned towards the palm. He then
very dexterously loosens the gills with his right hand, pinching out the
gills and intestines at once; which is performed with great quickness.
The fish are then put into a rope basket, and salted as before. When
they have remained thus for a couple of days, they are put into other
baskets, in order that the brine may drain away, and finally are packed
up in new kegs for keeping, without any further salting. A hole is bored
in each tub, just above the lowermost hoop, to draw off the brine, which
is always collecting from the fish, and if permitted to remain, will
cause the whole to turn sour; but the same method is not practised for
the sour Strœmming. This last is in its greatest perfection about St.
James's day (July 25th).

These people have three meals a day in summer, besides breakfast, and
the sour Strœmming always makes a part of their dinner, as well as of
the preceding refreshment. The fish, after being repeatedly squeezed, is
laid between two slices of bread, and so eaten. After it they take some
sour preparation of milk, without cream. Sometimes indeed they eat a bit
of cheese, or bread and butter; but they never eat meat after the sour
Strœmming. Their vegetable food consists of cabbage, pease, or
turnips, the first being generally eaten on Sundays. Pease are eaten
once a week, except when the cabbage is deficient, and then they supply
its place. Turnips and salt Strœmming are generally eaten in a
morning, in the following manner. When the turnips are boiled nearly
enough, the fish is put to them, but not before, lest it should be
broken to pieces. To this some flour is added; and they drink sour milk
after it. Their supper always consists of flummery, made of barley-meal.
Before they first go out in a morning they eat either bread and butter,
or bread and cheese, but they prefer the former. The mixed bread (made
of corn and chaff) is their ordinary portion; good bread, made entirely
of corn, they seldom or ever taste. It is reserved for visitors, or for
very extraordinary occasions. Their mixed or household bread, being
baked in cakes as thin as paper, is eaten by laying four or five such
cakes together upon each other. They are never unprovided with ale in
their cellars, to treat visitors, though their ordinary drink is table
beer. In summer time they always drink _Syra_, (see vol. i. p. 243.)

The peasants themselves eat but very little of their own mutton, and
chiefly the shoulder and brisket. The rest they sell; scarcely any is
kept in the house but the above parts, with the marrow-bones, which
they break to get at the marrow. The heads and feet of sheep, goats, and
hogs, are salted and dried, being, when wanted, boiled with pease, and
not ill-tasted. The legs of sheep, cut off at the knee, are often boiled
fresh; the fat which floats on the top being collected and preserved in
a horn or pot, as very useful to grease small ropes, and wheels. The
legs and feet thus boiled are afterwards thrown away, not eaten. The
head and feet of a calf are usually pickled.

For fire-wood these people use birch-wood. They burn no candles in their
houses. They go to smoke themselves with the Finlanders in their huts.

The hay is mown here in the same manner as in Upland, and the corn is
managed in the same way as in Smoland. When the season is dry, they
prefer drying the corn in heaps in the open air, as before described;
but in wet weather they have recourse to sheds. The hay is spread out
till dry, and afterwards carried, without being made into cocks.

They raise as many hops as are wanted for each family, and have perhaps
a few pounds over, for sale.

Their pales are high, made of pine-wood, and placed sloping.

The milk is set in the cellar, in deep tubs made of alder wood, by which
they obtain a great proportion of cream, even two fingers' thick. This
cream is stirred up with the milk, warmed, and then coagulated, for
making cheese. Another mode is with butter-milk, to which they add a
sixth part of fresh milk, that has stood one day and been skimmed. This
mixture, being first warmed, is then coagulated. The cheese thus made is
preferred to the former, and often eaten in preference to butter.

Between Midsummer and St. James's day (July 25th), the whey is
collected, after the cheese is made; which, after boiling for some
hours, is set by to cool. When cold, it is barrelled up for winter use.
Poor people and old women beg or buy it, a small bottle-full at a time.
To one pot of sour milk they add a fourth part of _Syra_; and these
together have the taste of what they term _Filbunke_, which is sour milk
with the cream on, just beginning to ferment, and of which they make
_Servet-mjölk_; (see p. 150.)

Thick milk (perhaps _Mesosmör_, see vol. i. p. 243,) is often kept in
barrels till winter, as is the meal made of fir-bark, when both serve
for winter provision.

_Syra_ is so very sour as not to be eatable by itself. When they have no
milk to dilute it with, they add an equal quantity of water to the
_Syra_, and mix the whole with flummery, which mixture they prefer to
small beer.

Butter is now and then made of goat's milk; but it is very strong, and
quite as white as that made of the milk of the rein-deer.


_August 18._

On islands near the shore I saw a _Salix_ with leaves like the
cultivated olive. It is a shrub three feet high, but growing in a
spreading manner. Stem grey, with roundish dusky solitary buds, of a
very large size, in proportion to the plant. Leaves gradually larger
(upwards?), oblong-lanceolate, bluntish, on scarcely perceptible
footstalks, furnished with an obtuse longitudinal rib beneath, but no
veins. Their upper surface is green, sprinkled all over with minute
white dots; very slightly channelled, and paler, along the nerve. (This
appears to have been _S. rosmarinifolia_.)


_August 19._

At the fair of Calix I obtained some information concerning the commerce
of this country, which is very different from that of almost every place
in the world besides, insomuch that I am unable to determine which party
makes his market of the other. The townsman thinks it is himself who
cheats the peasant, but I verily believe he is the party who is cheated.

1. The general plan of traffic here is bartering one article for
another.

2. The merchant generally carries his goods home to the peasant's
residence in the country, at whatever distance it may be, or else
conveys them to the fair, from whence the purchaser is to fetch them.

3. When a townsman sets up trade as a merchant, his principal aim is to
get as many country-people to connect themselves with him as possible,
who are to supply him with their produce. These are termed
_Gield-bonder_, or creditors.

4. The advantage the peasants have in thus confiding to the merchant the
whole of their goods, is, that the latter pays their taxes for them to
the collector, which must be done either in ready money, or bills of
exchange.

5. When the merchant receives the goods from the countryman, no price is
fixed upon them between the parties; but when the former returns from
Stockholm, he sets down in his accompt-book nearly the sum for which he
has disposed of the articles there. In this the peasant trusts to the
honour of the merchant, and is paid accordingly.

6. These prices are not communicated to the countryman immediately, nor
does he know the price of the salt, tobacco, corn, and other articles,
with which the merchant supplies him in return, till they settle
accompts; which does not take place till the end of every year, or
perhaps not so frequently.

7. As long as a peasant keeps to one merchant, he is allowed credit, and
obtains advances of any money for which he may have occasion, even
although the goods delivered do not amount to the interest of the sum
lent, which is sometimes equal to 1000 dollars. But if he carries any of
his goods to another merchant, he must immediately pay what he owes to
his original correspondent, or suffer a sequestration of his property.

8. The countryman never brings his own goods to market, unless he
happens to be going that way, in which case he usually takes them with
him, but otherwise it is expected the merchant should fetch them.

9. When the towns of this part of the country were first built, each had
certain parishes appropriated to it, and these were called the trading
district of each town, in which no person who did not belong to the town
had a right to trade. These exclusive privileges were subsequently
annulled by royal authority, and free markets were established, where
strangers as well as the neighbouring inhabitants were equally permitted
to trade. This open trade has not however taken place at Calix, partly
because the peasants are situated at so great a distance from one
another, and partly because the merchants in the town conceive that such
a plan would ruin them, they being in that case obliged to buy and sell
for ready money.

10. Here are no free markets, properly speaking, but only _Upbördsmoten_
(periodical meetings of the collectors of the revenues with the
peasants). At these times the townsmen and the peasants meet together at
the place of rendezvous, as at Calix every year on the 19th of August,
and at Tornea in the depth of winter.

The inconveniences of the above plan of trade are,

1. The merchant lays considerable sums fast, with which he might
otherwise extend his commerce.

2. He has the trouble of carrying his goods to the house of the peasant,
where-ever it may be, up the country, and of bringing what he takes in
exchange from the place of rendezvous to his own house in town.

3. The consequence of such a plan is, that many a merchant has
outstanding debts to the amount of 100,000 dollars, the greater part of
which he may never get paid.

The inconveniences to the countryman are,

1. He runs in debt more than he can ever pay.

2. The merchant has the advantage of fixing what price he chooses on his
goods.

3. He is not allowed to take any measures for his own profit.

       *       *       *       *       *

The collar of the shirts, worn by the inhabitants of Finland and East
Bothland in this neighbourhood, resembles ours, their sleeves being more
like those of a woman's shift.

Young women here commonly wear the bosom open, and have nothing over
their shift, which is gathered round the waist like a petticoat.

The country of East Bothland is chiefly inhabited about the sea-coast,
and on the banks of rivers.

An Aurora borealis was seen in the night of the 18th of August, and had
been visible for a week past, so early does it begin here.

The rowers of the boat in which I pursued my progress had blisters on
their hands caused by pulling at the oars. Their specific was the ladle
with which they had just been stirring the pot where fish was boiling.
This they applied, hot as it was, to the part affected, and the blisters
disappeared.

What is here called _Taim_ is a sort of salmon, two spans in length at
most, the tail scarcely cloven, the mouth not hooked, but otherwise like
the common kind. (This is probably the _Salmo salar_ in a young state;
and may perhaps be the _Laxunge_, or _Salmo minor_, _vulgari similis_,
Artedi Spec. 50, not 80, mentioned in _Fauna Suecica_, ed. 2. 122,
though Linnæus has no allusion there to the _Taim_.)

As soon as the corn is carried from the field, it is usual to thrash it
slightly, that whatever is loose may come away, and not be lost in the
barn, as also that the coarser part may be separated from the finer.

The flail is about a yard long, and rather thick.

The roofs in this part of the country are made of the bark of
birch-trees, not covered over with any turf, but held fast by round
poles, as thick as one's arm, whose upper extremities, alternately
longer and shorter, reach to the ridge, and being bored through, are
fastened to it, in such a manner that their ends project about a span
each way beyond the ridge, crossing each other. Being thicker at their
lower ends, they lie almost close together. Within this there is often a
false roof, like a cieling, covered over with birch-bark and earth; but
this is only when the house is wished to be very warm.

At the residence of the Governor of the Province at Calix, I saw three
swans, which, having been taken when young, were as tame as domestic
geese, to which these birds are so much alike in every respect, that I
can have no doubt of their belonging to one genus. Their bill is flat,
and black at the extremity, as well as the margins, convex and somewhat
angular in the middle, so far at least that the swelling part terminates
in an angle. The middle is fleshy, where the oblong nostrils are
situated; the base flat or quadrangular, with two sinuses pointing
upwards, and pale-coloured. The margin is toothed just like the _Concha
Veneris_ (_Cypræa_).

A carriage called _Stotting_ is used here, for bringing home wood for
fuel in winter, over the ice and snow. It is made of birch-wood, and
resembles a sledge.

The length of this machine from a to b is three feet and a half, the
breadth of each beam four inches and a half; their thickness two inches,
except in the middle, at d, where it is three inches and a half, though
in all the other parts of equal dimensions. The transverse bar, c, is
one foot and a half long, three inches and a half broad, and is elevated
four inches above the longitudinal pieces. e, e, are two slender
triangular pieces, two feet in length, and two inches in thickness. f,
f, are about one palm and a half each in length and breadth. h is curved
upwards about two palms and a half out of the straight line. g is two
feet long between the main beams, three inches and a half broad, but
scarcely one in thickness.

[Illustration]

The sledges, or beams, a, b, differ from the common ones in being
broader, and in the elevation or thickness of each at d. The transverse
beam c, on which the load is laid, is bored through at each end, to
receive the supporting pieces. The slender bars e, e, which may be
termed clavicles, are broadest in the fore part, where they also are
bored through, and fastened with pegs, serving to give stability to the
cross beam c. Two of these carriages are tied together, one behind the
other, through the hole in the cross beam, at k. The loop, i, is made of
birchen twigs.

At Calix I found the _Hippuris_ (_vulgaris_) with forked branches;
_Pentaphylloides facie fragariæ_, (_Potentilla rupestris_?); and _Eruca
foliis sinapeos_. (What this was does not appear.)

I noticed lime-stone in the cliff at Calix and Tornea.

[Illustration]

The scythe which serves at Cronby in East Bothland, for mowing barley,
is made exactly like the common one of the Finlanders, with the foremost
handle underneath, but, that nothing may be wasted or lost, the machine
b c is fixed to the scythe, b being stuck into the hole at a, and
fastened with a pin through it at the other side. A cord is tied from
the other end c to the handle d, before the scythe is used. The lower,
or shortest, bar of this appendage scarcely extends beyond the extremity
of the scythe at f. Its position is regulated by a cord, according to
the inclination of the blade f g.

The length of the main handle of the scythe, e f, is two ells.


_August 31._

I collected and described various species of _Fungi_.

(Here follow descriptions or characters of several species of
_Agaricus_, _Boletus_ and _Hydnum_, given more correctly in the _Flora
Lapponica_.)


_September 3._

I stood sponsor to the son of the Burgomaster Geyer Svanberg, who was
born the preceding night, or rather between one and two in the morning.
He was named Geyer.

Mr. Svanberg told me the (_Cotyledon_) _Umbilicus Veneris_ grew on a hill
called _Karvick_, near Wallivari to the north. (This probably was not
confirmed, as the plant does not occur in _Flo. Suecica_.)


_September 4._

I went to Biorknas, in order to be instructed in the art of assaying.


_September 9._

I examined the fish called in West Bothland _Natting_, (_Petromyzon
fluviatilis._) Its upper jaw is acutely notched, resembling two teeth.
The lower has seven small teeth, of which the two outermost are
largest. Mouth in the under side of the head, gaping, oval, rather
compressed. There are seven openings in a row behind the eyes, gradually
larger as they recede from thence. The fins have no visible rays, but
merely streaks, yet they are not adipose, or fat, fins. There is a
prominent orifice on the top of the head. The _pericardium_ is
cartilaginous. The fish is a span long. Its hind fin triangular.

These (lampreys) are caught at this time of the year, when the nights
grow dark, in hollow timbers of a conical shape, resembling the wicker
baskets used for catching eels. The entrance is made smooth and even.
These timbers are laid, at the depth of two ells, in the river, and kept
down with stones, the opening being turned to meet the current.

Some such traps are made of willow-twigs not bigger than goose-quills,
platted close together into the same shape, and are two ells in length.

I was told that the Laplanders are accustomed to preserve blood of the
reindeer in rennet-bags through the winter till spring, when they boil
it with water, and drink it.

Tar is obtained in the following manner. A cavity, of an inversely
conical shape, is dug in a hill, and then lined with hewn timbers, nine
ells in length each, so as to form a sort of funnel. This again is lined
with bark of pine-trees, so as to prevent the tar draining away into the
ground between the timbers. At the bottom is another funnel or vessel of
wood to receive the tar, which runs from thence into a trough, closed on
all sides, except a hole where the point of the said funnel is inserted,
and another at the extremity, closed with a moveable plug, from which
the tar is received into vessels and taken away. Roots of fir, cut to
pieces, are placed upright in the large funnel above, so as to leave a
convexity over the bottom, and the whole being covered with turf is set
on fire, against the wind. Care is taken, by varying the admission of
air, to prevent its burning too fast, or unequally; and by this means
they procure both tar and charcoal.


_September 14._

I took my leave of Biorknas. The weather was cold and rainy. Such of the
forest trees as are of a deciduous nature had now assumed a pallid hue,
in consequence of the cold nights; but the evergreens, with their
needle-shaped leaves, standing among them, seemed to defy the cold, and
were rendered conspicuous by their dark-green colour. The high wind
scattered the withered leaves over my path. How useful are the usual
storms of autumn to disperse ripe seeds, and plant colonies far from the
parent trees! The hills appeared sandy; and such places as had been
burnt were now perfectly white with Reindeer Moss, (_Lichen
rangiferinus_,) which grew so close together, as hardly to leave any
room for the Ling. It ornamented the sides of the roads like the
Iceland Moss, (_Lichen islandicus._)

Some part of the road consisted of a reddish-brown earth, such as I had
observed in the early part of my journey near Umœa. I was told that it
was excellent for red paint. At length I reached Zingis, and in the
evening arrived at Tornea, entirely wet through.


_September 15._

I observed how they manage their corn at this season. They have no barns
to lay it into, but it is placed between poles, all the ears directed to
one side, in stacks two or three ells long, and very high. If the corn
be not quite dry, it is first spread abroad. Afterwards it is dried in a
kiln, and thrashed on a floor. How liable must it be to take fire, and
how much must unavoidably be spilt in consequence of such management!

I received 100 dollars, of copper-money, from the chief clergyman.

I learned here that Tansy (_Tanacetum vulgare_) and Mugwort (_Artemisia
vulgaris_) are used to make a fomentation or bath, wonderfully useful
for women in labour, who are accustomed to sit over the steam of these
herbs. I had observed the people at every house drying Tansy, but could
meet with nobody who would inform me to what use it was destined.


_September 16._

This day I again left Tornea for Kimi. There are six ferries between
these two places, over the river Kokama, which passes near Kimi. Two
miles from hence are the boundaries of East and West Bothnia. Lime-stone
attracted my notice all the way along the road to Norbotn; it was yellow
on the outside, whitish within.


_September 17._

I departed from the posthouse of Kimi. The weather was unfavourable, for
it rained all day long. I took up my lodging in the evening at the
posthouse of Jö. This part of the country lies very low, abounding with
marshes and numerous small rivulets, but few hills. There is plenty of
grass. The buildings are bad. The forests consist chiefly of Birch,
intermixed with the _acifoliæ_ (slender-leaved evergreens). Of these
last the Juniper was remarkable for its abundance and large size, so as
to be almost arborescent. The Birch and the dwarf Willows had now become
pale, but the _Sorbus_ (Mountain ash, _Pyrus aucuparia_, _Fl. Brit._)
had assumed a red hue, as well as all the mosses. (_Pedicularis_)
_Sceptrum Carolinum_ appeared every where by the roadside. _Thalictrum_
(_flavum_) and _Scutellaria_ (_galericulata_) were less frequent, but
Golden-rod (_Solidago Virga aurea_), _Trollius_ (_europæus_), (_Spiræa_)
_Ulmaria_, and _Epilobium_ (_palustre_?) were plentiful, as was the
sweet _Milium_ (_effusum_), with the _Gramen ramosum_ (probably _Aira
cæspitosa_.)

The inhabitants were in their smoky huts, with their eyes full of smoke,
and the tears running from them. Nevertheless they seemed more studious
of warmth than careful of their eyesight.

The same sort of plough is used here as at Kimi.

I had frequent views of the sea through the woods on the right hand.
Wherever the waves had thrown up sand-hills grew a pea with a triangular
stem, a white creeping perennial root, and thick leaves alternately
pinnate, (_Pisum maritimum_).

Near Jö I noticed a pit-fall designed to catch wolves. This was dug in a
hill, at no great distance from the house. Around it within were eleven
pales or stakes, placed upright and close together. In the centre stood
a pole, which, as well as the pales, was on a level with the surface of
the ground. The pole supported a wheel, over which were laid boards, so
as entirely to cover it, in such a manner that if the wolf, when caught,
should be able to climb up as high as the wheel, he might not get any
further.

The peasants of this upper part of East Bothnia, children of darkness in
their houses, are no less so in their slovenly appearance, chiefly owing
to their uncombed hair. Their breeches reach as low as the feet, and are
white, and they wear a sort of short cloak, sewed together in
front.--Their disposition is quarrelsome. Their habitations are infected
with a smell of sour fish, like sour Strœmming, for they are kept very
dirty. These people speak no other language than the Finlandish.

Here and there by the road I had this day travelled, I noticed the Sea
Wheat-grass, (_Elymus arenarius._ See _Fl. Lapp. ed._ 2. _n._ 34.)


_September 18._

I travelled from Jö to Ulaborg. The rye was bound into sheaves, ten of
which were piled up together in a heap, the ears at the top of each
being brought close together, and another sheath being placed, in an
inverted position, upon them, the whole was sheltered from wet. The
barley was not set upright, but laid on one side, in such a manner that
the ears were all turned inward, and the straw stood outward all round.
On the top of each little stack thus formed, a reversed sheath was put,
as a kind of covering.

[Illustration]

The villages consisted of the same kind of smoky huts I have already
described.

(The annexed cut seems to be a representation of one of these dwellings,
at which Linnæus was so indignant.)

[Illustration]

Near the ferry of Haukipudas, stones are collected from the shore,
which, though nothing but concretions of sand and small pebbles, are so
firm as to serve for the construction of ovens. At one spot, where the
river had excavated the sandy bank, it was evident that the cement,
which combines these particles together, is no other than a rust of
iron. The stones in general hereabouts are very fine-grained, and break
easily. They have all the appearance of containing a portion of iron.
Some were more rugged and rusty than the rest.

A kind of boats used here to navigate rapid and dangerous parts of the
rivers, are made of thin planks of spruce fir, and are four or five
fathoms long, and about one broad in their middle. The sides are five or
six quarters of an ell deep; the extremities compressed. The middle of
the boat is nearly semicylindrical, the keel being raised up, or
hollowed as it were by the dilatation of the sides, in which all the
importance and peculiarity of the contrivance consists, for without this
the vessel would be much more easily overset in rapid and shelvy places.
Some of these boats have no prominent keel at all; others are furnished
with a slight one, chiefly in their forepart, which is a little the
highest, in order to bear the better any shocks from striking against
stones; so that if this part be able to pass, the rest of the vessel may
go in safety.

One sort of nets used for catching Sijk-fish, (_Salmo Lavaretus_, or
Gwiniad, before mentioned) are five spans high, and of a considerable
length, the meshes very small. There are loop-holes at the top, large
enough to admit two fingers, bordered with birch bark, whose edges are
sewn together. (See 1, 2, 3, 4 in the figure.) The stones (5, 6, 7) at
the bottom are but small, covered with birch bark. The nets are set near
the sandy shore.

[Illustration]

Another kind of net, used for catching the same fish, is placed in the
strongest part of a current or water-fall. It resembles a receiving net,
except being not so deep. The length is three ells, breadth two, and
depth one. This is fixed very steadily, by means of poles, in the middle
of the very strongest and most confined current, against the stream, so
that when the fish attempts to pass upwards, by the narrow passages on
each side the net, he finds it impracticable, and is thrown back by the
force of the water, generally into the net, out of which he can never
escape, but is taken out at leisure.

[Illustration]

Near Ulaborg is a mineral spring, not yet made any use of. The taste of
the water seemed good. This spring is situated close to the town, on a
small island, where there is a sawing-mill.

In the church I noticed the monument of Messenius, with his effigy made
to the life. He is actually buried here[14]. This church is one of the
longest I ever saw built of wood, but its height is not correspondent.
The arms of the town are displayed on the pulpit. Ulaborg is almost as
large as Lund.


_September 19._

After attending divine service I left this place. Sledges in use here
are constructed with a cross board to rest the feet against. (a, seems
to be a bandage or belt, to keep the traveller from being suddenly
jolted out of this vehicle, and b is the part to rest the back or head
against; but there are no references in the manuscript to these letters
of the sketch.)

[Illustration]

I now came in sight of the extensive meadows of Limingo, more spacious
than all the meadow-ground of Tornea and Rödbeck together. (Tuneld says
in his Geography, that the meadows of Limingo, and cornfields of the
neighbouring parish of Storkyrro, are famous to a proverb for their
great extent.) At first the land seemed a perfect marsh, filled with
Horsetail (_Equisetum fluviatile_), and especially with Reed, _Arundo_
(_Phragmites_), which last grew in such abundance as to resemble a
forest. The Water Hemlock, _Cicutaria aquatica_, _Cicuta virosa_; (see
p. 136), was very plentiful by the road-side. This led me to inquire
whether the cattle ever fed there? I was answered by the peasants in the
affirmative, with a question in my turn, whether I could give them any
advice on the subject, for they had lost a great many; adding similar
particulars to what I had heard at Tornea.

Red Currants (_Ribes rubrum_) grew all the way by the road, as well as
_Lenticula_ (_Lemna_ or Duck-weed), and the _Lichenoides_ of which
powder is made was observable on the trees. (_Lichen prunastri_, said to
have been used for hair-powder.)

The meadow of Limingo is two miles in length. The best part of the
land, near the village of that name, was now occupied by the horned
cattle. The land here is more elevated and less marshy, though somewhat
impaired by tumps (of _Carex cæspitosa_). If but a third part of it were
cultivated, according to the Scanian mode of husbandry, it would be of
more value than the whole is at present. I was told that the whole marsh
might be laid dry, by cutting a channel down to the seashore; but it was
feared that the land might in consequence become covered with White Moss
(_Sphagnum palustre_), which would render it altogether unprofitable.

About a thousand hay-cocks were now before me on the meadow, but none of
them consisting of more than a horse could draw. They never here use
more than a single horse or ox at a time for draught. Each of these
cocks was raised from the ground on a kind of scaffold, supported by
several cross poles. Some of the Water Iris (_Iris Pseud'acorus_) was
mixed with the hay.

The milk-strainers are made of straw, and not very clean.


_September 20._

Brabestad, not far distant, is a small town, though twice the size of
Tornea, standing on a peninsula by the sea.

In the hospital of Cronby are many maniacs, whose insanity is said to
have arisen from jealousy of the conduct of their wives. One of them,
whose wife was a very old woman, took this fancy, supposing her to
intrigue with several other men. Possibly in these cases impotence, or
perhaps some fantastic concupiscence, may have been a cause of the
derangement.

About this neighbourhood it is the custom to administer to women in
labour a very nauseous medicine, which is called _Hittatran_, or Casual
Train-oil; so termed because it is obtained from the carcases of such
seals as, having been killed early in the spring, have been left among
the broken ice till they are by chance cast upon the shore. They are
consequently putrid, and the oil is so offensive, that few persons,
except such as are in great extremity, or not very nice, can be brought
to take it. In general Castor is here considered as a sheet-anchor in
such cases, as being found by long experience very effectual in bringing
on the labour-pains. Others take saffron infused in wine. For
after-pains they swallow, as at Kimi, a few drops of blood from the
umbilical cord, not only in the woman's first lying-in, but every
subsequent one.

Some Finlanders, as I was told, have a method by which they pretend to
catch bears, with a sort of magic. This is done by procuring some of the
bear's dung, fresh and warm if possible, and mixing it with that of one
of their own cows. The consequence is said to be, that the bear will be
attracted by sympathy to come after the cow; an effect certainly not
more wonderful than many sympathies upon record.

There is a fish in the lakes near Pyhejorki which is called _Muicu_.
Bishop Terserus, a Dalecarlian, bishop of Abo, says that he has seen at
this place a fish named _Muicu_, which is no other than the _Blikta_,
taken in the lake of Silian in his native country. How true this may be
I know not, but I saw plainly that this _Muicu_ is the _Small Sijk_
(_Salmo Albula_), such as is found in Smoland.

The following figure represents a plough used here, drawn by an ox. The
share, a, is of iron, a span long. The part b is four spans high; c is
four spans long; d and e, three spans each; f, g, four spans. The ends
of the shafts are connected by a curved piece of wood, which keeps them
from the shoulders of the animal, and supports them.

[Illustration]


_September 21._

Being the feast of St. Matthew the apostle, I went to church at Gambla
Carleby. Here is an introductory school, to prepare children for that at
Cronby.

I passed on to Jacobstadt, which has a remarkably good harbour. Ships
are able to load and unload close to the quay.


_September 22._

Leaving Jacobstadt, I arrived at the town of New Carleby, which is
nearly as big as Wexiö. Every one of the streets is laid with timbers,
placed cross-wise, instead of stones, like a bridge, which has a
handsome appearance. The harbour of this place is near the river, a
quarter of a mile from the town. Vessels when laden indeed can scarcely
come within half a mile. On the shore lay vast piles of wood, destined
to be conveyed to Stockholm for fuel.

The country-people have, in every one of their mills, an instrument made
of six or seven blades or hatchets, serving to cut chaff into small
pieces in a trough, in order to grind it afterwards with their barley.

_Rotkäl_ (_Brassica oleracea_ κ, Sp. Pl. 932, _Napo brassica_, or
Stalk-cabbage) is dried for winter use; when it is boiled, and given
with the liquor to the cattle.

The women at this place wear a hood, or neckcloth, as they call it, of
grey walmal cloth, but only in bad weather. It is tied with a black
ribband in the fore part. When they ride on horseback, they carry the
whip slung at their back.

[Illustration]

To stir up the pot, when boiling, they use a stick with several
projecting bits of wood at the bottom, (not unlike a chocolate-mill,)
which is rolled between their hands.

In the evening of this day I arrived at Wasa.


_September 23._

I went to church at Wasa, and visited also the palace, situated on the
south-west side of the city, the school, and other public buildings.
This is a handsome little town enough. It is the residence of the
governor.

Not far from the town, and indeed close to the walls, is a reputed
copper-mine, the working of which was discontinued, after an excavation
had been made to the depth of five or six fathoms. The ore has a
glittering micaceous appearance, and gives a stain like black lead. The
sand about it is a loose talc, as if spontaneously decomposed. I do not
indeed believe that it contains any copper or other metal; which seems
to have been the opinion of those who so soon gave over the pursuit.

The rustics here trust to three doctors, Beaver's-gall, Bear's-gall, and
Pallavinus. (By a chemical sign annexed, it appears that Linnæus here
meant brandy, but the word itself is not explained.)

This day being Sunday, I saw the girls all going bare-headed to church.
They each, however, carried an oblong-oval hat, supported by broad
coloured ribbands, the ends of which hung down.


_September 24._

In my way from New Carleby to this place (the day before yesterday) I
had observed a kind of plough in use, different from any I had before
seen. This was almost always drawn by a horse, seldom by an ox. The
latter, when used, had the same harness as the horse, but without a
girth. Over its back indeed passes a band like a saddle-girth, which is
kept upon the neck of the animal to prevent the harness sliding
forward; but for horses they use no such thing. See the figure.

[Illustration]

The shoes worn at this place in some measure resemble half-boots. The
soles are of untanned leather, with the hair upon it; the upper leathers
made of tanned seal-skin, and tied round the ankle with strings. (A
representation of one of these shoes accompanies the last figure.)

_Hypericum_ (_perforatum_), _Scrophularia_ (_nodosa_), _Bidens_
(_cernua_?) occurred to me here, for the first time in all my journey.
The three species of _Ribes_ (_rubrum_, _alpinum_ and _nigrum_,) were in
prodigious abundance.


_September 25._

At sun-rise I took my departure from Wasa. The pines in the forest were
stripped of their bark, so that vast tracts were covered with nothing
but such naked trees. No more was left on each trunk, to the height of
three ells or three and a half, than a small strip of bark, about the
breadth of four fingers, generally on the north side, to prevent its
being ... (here is a word not to be decyphered). The trees are left
standing for six or seven years afterwards, and are then cut down close
to the roots, being also headed a little above the naked part. The
heads or branches either serve for firing, or, as often happens, are
left to rot on the ground.

Three miles below Wasa I recognised the Climbing Nightshade (_Solanum
Dulcamara_). In the town itself I had noticed (_Leonurus_) _Cardiaca_,
and Henbane (_Hyoscyamus niger_). Near the shore grew _Salix oleæfolia_
with its berries, _(Hippophaë rhamnoides_). It is known by the name of
_Finnbær_ or _Surbær_, (Finn-berries, or Sour berries). The fruit is
situated below the leaves, as in the Alder. The footstalks are two lines
long. Berries bluntly oval, of a tawny orange-colour, three or four
lines long, smooth, sour, having a watery pulp mixed with ochraceous
matter. Seed solitary, roundish-oblong, slightly compressed, obtuse,
attached by its lower edge to a membrane which enfolds it. When this
cover is removed, the seed itself appears brown and polished, having a
longitudinal groove at each side. The fishermen eat these berries
bruised, by way of sauce to their fresh fish, but I thought them rather
too acid.


_September 26._

I passed Christina (Christinestadt), but before coming to that place,
noticed at Nerpis a very extensive tract of land, which had formerly
been a fine meadow, the soil being extremely good. But at present it was
so entirely overrun with tumps (originally perhaps formed of _Carex
cæspitosa_) that it produced little or nothing. These tumps were crowded
almost over one another, and were overgrown by _Polytrichum_
(Hair-moss), which had come to its full stature, and rendered most of
them nearly black. There was scarcely room for the cattle to make their
way to any food between the tumps.

In the passages of all the houses hung nets, used for catching bears.
These are made of ropes of Lindenbast, (the inner bark of the lime-tree,
_Tilia europæa_,) full as thick as a bridle or rein. The meshes when
stretched are each three quarters of an ell wide. The height of the net
is equal to the stature of a man. Such nets, supported by poles, are set
up in a line of one hundred fathoms in extent, the lower side close to
the ground. The bear is driven into them by the people hunting him on
all sides.


_September 27._

This day I observed a mode of brewing in a kneading trough, which stood
on a table, and its end being made so as to slide up and down, the wort
is easily poured out.

Below the town of Christina, I first found the _Lathyrus viciæformis_
(_L. palustris_), and Water Cresses, (_Sisymbrium Nasturtium_); also
_Campanula persicifolia_ and (_Sedum_) _Telephium_.


_September 28._

I was glad when I had done with the very bad road which extends from
the Lappfierd near Christina, to Hwisbofiahl, towards Biorreborg; a
highway it cannot be called, for it is exactly like the road between the
town of Umoea and Granoen. (See _v._ 1. 141.)

Near Sastmola I first recognised the _Acer_ (_platanoides_) and _Filix
fœmina ramosa_ (_Aspidium Filix-fœmina_?)

The road from Hwisbofiahl to Giolbohl lies along the coast. The grass
here was remarkably tall, and full of all sorts of plants; as the _Ribes
insipidum_ (_alpinum_), called by the inhabitants _Degbaer_, in the
greatest abundance. (_Viburnum_) _Opulus_ and (_Lonicera_) _Xylosteum_
here first re-appeared after my long absence.

N. B. The shrub which Mr. Hojer informs us grows on this island, with
blackish-brown berries, may perhaps be the _Xylosteum_, as the colour of
the leaves seemed to agree very well. (Were it not for the above
indication of the colour of the berries, it might, from the _Flora
Suecica_, be suspected that Linnæus had, in these two paragraphs,
written by mistake _Xylosteum_ for _Periclymenum_.)

The alpine Stone Bramble, _Rubus saxatilis_, was extremely plentiful;
and the Cultivated Hop (_Humulus Lupulus_), growing wild, afforded me
great pleasure, as I contemplated its ingenious manner of curling round
the Aspen trees (_Populus tremula_). Here also (_Anemone_) _Hepatica_,
and the _Cracca_ with toothed wings (_stipulæ_) and striated flowers,
(_Vicia sylvatica_,) as well as the _Orobus vernus_, once more greeted
me. The grass with a dense spike-like panicle, whose stems serve for
cleaning the inside of tobacco-pipes, (_Agrostis arundinacea_,) grows
copiously in this part of the country; and reached higher than my head.
The marshes abound with _Iris_ (_Pseud-acorus_) and with _Cyperus_
(probably _Scirpus maritimus_).

The greater part of the road I had travelled hitherto from Kimi lay so
near the shore, that, even in the woody parts of it, the sea was
frequently visible through the forests.


_September 29._

I travelled the whole of Michaelmas-day.

When a Finlander has fired at a bear, he immediately runs to one side,
for the animal, if not killed, is sure to run directly forward, towards
the smoke; by which means the man escapes out of his reach.

The peasants who reside near the cliffs or rising ground judge by the
crows (_Corvus Cornix_), of the approach of bad weather; for these birds
seek the marshy country in the evening, before it comes on.

Ulvila churchyard seemed to abound with sculls. I reckoned forty of them
in one heap. This churchyard is built round, after the old fashion.

On entering one of the stove-huts of the inhabitants here, it was so
hot, that I thought my nose would have been burnt off. Nevertheless, the
people within seemed comfortable enough, and the boys, clad in skins,
were running up and down the couch. The stove is constructed like that
of a bagnio in Smoland, but upon it is piled a great heap of flat
stones, to the height of a man. The old women sit in these huts half
naked.

Between Hyfoeda and Taftnen is a river almost navigable. In some parts,
as I was told, it is nine fathoms deep, and in one place is a ferry
across this river. Half a mile from hence southward, close to the road,
between two small bridges which are near each other, I noticed a
sand-hill of very fine sand, in differently-coloured strata, some white,
others reddish-purple.

In the evening I arrived at the town of Abo, which is as large as
Orebro, and well built. It has often been ruined by the enemy, and often
burnt down by accidental fires, which, if not occasioned otherwise,
might easily happen from the stoves of the huts. I remarked that these
stoves were less lofty than some I had seen, and that several stones lay
loosely piled on one another above the opening, which serve to retain
the heat.


_September 30._

The Finnish liquor called _Lura_ is prepared like other beer, except not
being boiled, instead of which red-hot stones are thrown into it. Hence
its purgative quality from the iron.

Here I saw a flying squirrel (_Sciurus volans_) from Tavasthia.

The long black rat, with a white lower lip, catches birds, both on trees
and in the water. He holds fast by his claws, and bites with his four
prominent teeth. The Finlanders call this animal _Mink_. (This seems to
be _Viverra Lutreola_, Faun. Suec. ed. 2. 5.)

A quarter of a mile from the city is a mineral spring, of which Tillands
has taken notice. (See _v._ 1. 43, _note_.) It is older than that of
Medevi (near Vadstena). The current is so strong that one of the
burghers of the city has built a mill, to which the water is led, but it
does not always go. Near the town a mine has lately been opened,
containing iron here and there, with small quantities of pyrites. The
mountain itself is a black mica, immediately adjoining to the city.

The library here is miserable. There are two colleges close together.


_October 5._

I departed from Abo. The corn-fields of Finland are beautiful, and
resemble those of East Gothland in their wide extent and level surface.

There are regular ferry boats at stated times to take passengers to the
isle of Aland.


_October 6._

I arrived at the place, near Brandoen, where I was to go on board the
ferry-boat. The shore is a red rock. Passed over to the island of Aland,
the whole of which consists of the same kind of red rock. The palace of
Castelholm, at present falling fast into ruins, is built of this sort of
stone.

The women use for dyeing a sort of rock _Lichenoides_, of a brown
stercoraceous colour, (perhaps _Lichen stygius_, or _omphalodes_,) which
they boil in water with alum. But Walmal cloth, and stockings, are dyed
without alum. Some add a little Arnotto (_Bixa Orelana_).

Shoes like short half-boots are worn here made of seal-skin.


_October 7._

In the evening of this day I passed over the plain of Aland. There were
abundance of Finn-berries (_Hippophaë rhamnoides_) by the road.


_October 8._

I sailed over the sea of Aland.


_October 9._

Near Esbro an iron mine has lately been opened. About the church are
sundry sepulchral monuments. I noticed on the small surrounding hills,
as well as at Musangen, very fine and lofty plants of juniper
resembling cypresses, the branches erect and close, assuming a conical
or pyramidal figure.


_October 10._

About one o'clock in the afternoon I arrived safe at Upsal.

To the Maker and Preserver of all things be praise, honour and glory for
ever!

       *       *       *       *       *

Some observations relative to the Seal, _Phoca vitulina_.

There are two kinds (or varieties) of this animal. The _Gră Siăl_ (Grey
Seal) is the largest, of a grey colour, lighter, and slightly clouded on
the back. The _Wikare Siăl_ (Creek Seal) is smaller, black on the back,
and very cloudy or wavy at the sides. Otherwise there is no difference
between them.

The whelp at its birth is perfectly white, being covered with white hair
about an inch long, which it loses in four or five weeks, and becomes
quite black. At the same period it acquires more activity and shyness
than at first. The upper fore teeth are six, very small, resembling
those of a dog. The eye-teeth slightly enlarged at their outer edge, as
in the dog, and furnished with a little notch at their base. Grinders
six. Whiskers remarkably large. There are two nipples a little below the
navel, which the female has a power of drawing in, so as to leave holes
large enough to admit the finger. She lets them out at pleasure to her
young one.

The seal lies on its back while sleeping, either on the ice or on rocks.
They couple soon after the feast of St. Matthew, September 21; and the
grey seal brings forth its young in January, the creek seal in February.
The male runs round and round the female many times, with a yelping
noise, being very careful not to be observed.

When the female has young, the male is very savage, and continually
attends to protect her. She brings forth but one at a birth, which at
first is dull and stupid, easily caught. If thrown into the water,
however, he exerts himself with some activity, and returns to the shore,
not having as yet acquired any shyness. But by the time all his first
coat of white hair is fallen off, he begins to be timid. The growth of
the young seals is very rapid.

The seal, when out of the water, can hardly distinguish objects at half
a quarter of a mile's distance at the utmost. But in foggy and dull
weather he sees better than in sunshine. He never remains in the water
during moon-light nights. His hearing is acute though he has no external
ears, and his scent is also very quick. He can remain under water for
nearly half a quarter of an hour; but by that time he must, at the peril
of his life, come to the surface to breathe, which he often does within
a fathom of the shore, and he afterwards spouts out water.

Nets for catching seals are set right out into the sea, from some
promontory, to the distance of twenty fathoms. These are examined every
morning, to see what is caught. They are chiefly set from St.
Bartholomew (August 24), when the moon is in her wane, till over St.
Matthew's day, September 21.

Grey seals are hunted in winter till Lady-day. They lie upon the ice,
often in great numbers, close to a hole which they have made in it. When
they come out of the water by this opening upon the surface of the ice,
the water they bring with them freezes about its margin, so that in time
the edges become elevated, and it looks like a well. If it should freeze
over, they travel to the south-west, till they can get at water, always
proceeding straight forward, even though they meet with mountains in
their way; and they return in the same direct line back again. The
hunters go with large poles, carefully approaching the creek seal till
they get near enough to fire at him before he is aware. The grey seal
is taken with a sort of hook or harpoon.

The seals are able to penetrate through the ice from beneath, lying on
their backs under water, be it ever so thick, but cannot make their way
into it from above.

END OF THE TOUR.



APPENDIX.

N^o I.



A BRIEF NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY TO LAPLAND,

    Undertaken with a View to Natural History, in the Year 1732, at the
    Expense of the Royal Academy (of Upsal); by CHARLES LINNÆUS, Student
    of Physic and of Natural History, as drawn up by Himself to lay
    before the said Academy.


The Royal Academy of Sciences having, last Spring, permitted my humble
memorial to be laid before them, respecting the project of a journey to
Lapland, with a view to the improvement of natural history, and having
honoured the same with their approbation, appointing me to undertake
the expedition. I feel it my duty, after having accomplished my journey,
most respectfully to present to the Academy a narrative thereof.

For the sake of brevity and clearness I shall divide my subject into
three parts.

1st, A journal of my tour.

2d, The expenses incurred.

3d, The advantages likely to accrue.



I. THE JOURNAL.


_May 12, 1732._

Having received my instructions from the Royal Academy of Sciences, with
a passport from the Government, and having prepared every thing
necessary for my journey, I set out immediately at eleven o'clock, from
this place (Upsal), carrying with me nothing but what was absolutely
necessary, in order that I might not be detained or interrupted, in case
of not being able always to procure a horse, but might occasionally
pursue my way on foot. As the summer seemed to be fast advancing, I
thought it not advisable to lose time by the way, nor to stray far from
the road, in the early part of the tour, but only to observe attentively
what readily presented itself, that I might reach Lapland with all
possible dispatch.


_May 13._

By eleven o'clock I arrived at Gefle, where I was obliged to stay all
that day, for it was evening before I received from the governor of the
province (of Gestrickland) the requisite passport, which was accompanied
by orders to all the public officers in his district to give me all
requisite assistance to penetrate, if possible, into Asila Lapmark.


_May 14._

Owing to the above delay, and my attending morning service the next day
at Gefle church, I could not quit that place till one o'clock.
Proceeding without stopping to Hudwickswald, I there merely spoke a few
words to Mr. Broman the clergyman, and pursued my way to Knorby Knylen,
the highest mountain in Medelpad, from whence I went to Sundswall, and
further. In my way I examined a cave formed by nature in a very hard
rocky mountain, formerly a retreat for thieves and highwaymen.

I was so unfortunate, in my journey through Medelpad, as not to meet
with a single horse that did not tumble with me several times, in
consequence of which I was at one time so severely hurt as to be
scarcely able to remount. Having already collected together a number of
stones and minerals, which were no less burthensome than unnecessary to
carry along with me further, I rode to Hernosand, where I left these
incumbrances. I did not, however, stay there above two hours.


_May 20._

At length I reached the famous mountain of Skula in Angermanland, at the
very top of which is a large grotto, so neatly formed by nature that
art could scarcely have excelled it. This grotto was represented to me
as quite inaccessible, and it was said that not more than two or three
persons had ever been there; nor was it without great difficulty that I
prevailed on two men to accompany me, every body deeming the project
impracticable. As we climbed up towards it, we sometimes crept forwards,
sometimes slid back again. Now we mounted a considerable way by catching
hold of branches and roots of trees, and then, meeting with steep
inaccessible rocks, were obliged to turn back. After following one of my
guides for about two hours, I thought the other seemed to make more
progress; which induced me to go after the latter. I was scarcely got
two ells out of my former path, than the man whose track I had left
loosened a large stone with his foot, which fell on the very spot I had
quitted, with such violence, that I was surrounded by fire and smoke,
and should certainly, but for the protecting hand of Providence, have
been crushed to pieces. We reached the grotto at length, after much
labour and trouble, and descended the mountain with much greater
facility. Laying hold of the tops of spruce firs which grew close to the
rocks, we slid down upon them, dragging them after us down the
precipices.


_May 23._

I at length, after twelve days journey, reached Umoea.

It had originally been my design to go to Asila Lapmark, in order to
observe what plants are able to endure the very hard winters of that
region, but I was obliged to change my plan. The summer would not have
been long enough, nor my stock of money sufficient to enable me to reach
that most northern part of the country, where the severity of the
climate is augmented by the cold north wind and the vast snowy
mountains. I applied, therefore, to baron Grundell, governor of Umoea,
for a passport to the nearer parts of Lapland, which was immediately
granted. This gentleman showed the greatest readiness to befriend me,
and appeared to take much interest in the success of my undertaking. He
gave such orders as might cause the public officers in Lapland to lay no
obstacles in my way, but rather to assist me by every means in their
power. He himself gave me much curious information, and showed me his
own garden, that I might observe what plants would stand the winter
here: concluding by expressing, in the most flattering terms, his
approbation of my appointment.


_May 25._

The following morning I set out on my way towards Lapmark. Leaving the
highway, I came to one of the most unpleasant roads I ever travelled. It
was covered with stones, betwixt which were thick entangled roots of
trees, and among them were deep holes full of water. The whole ground
was a marsh, which the frost was at this time just about quitting. Large
pine-trees, that had been blown down in the course of the stormy winter,
frequently crossed my path; and the more flexible birches, weighed down
by the snow, interrupted my course on all sides. I frequently came to
such steep heathy places that my horse could scarcely climb or descend
them, and in the bottoms between them were marshy tracts, with rivulets
destitute of bridges, so that my beast slipped down several times; and
as I passed the streams, the water reached up to my saddle. I then
regretted, what I had in the former part of my journey so much detested,
travelling on the high-way on these stumbling horses, and would rather
have descended the steepest hill in Angermannia than have chosen the
present road, for at every step the horse took, I thought he would have
fallen.

In the evening of


_May 28,_

however, I arrived at Genom, the last village in Westbothland, seven
miles from the great road which leads westward from Umoea. Not having
reposed since I left the place last mentioned, I slept here all night.


_May 29._

The next morning I proceeded in a boat up the river of Umoea as far as
Lycksele church, which is the first in Umoean Lapmark, and situated five
miles distant from Grano. This was Whitsun-eve.


_May 30._

Being Whitsunday, I determined to stay here. Indeed Mr. Gran the
minister of the place[15] (Pastor Gran in the original) wished me to
wait till the next Sabbath-day, as he did not think it advisable for me
to proceed, so as to come suddenly among the Laplanders, before he had
made my design known from the pulpit. He was apprehensive that I might
meet with the same accident as his own wife had done, who coming
unexpectedly upon these people, had a fire-lock presented to her breast.
Notwithstanding this, the rise of the water in the river, in consequence
of the advancing summer among the Alps, was so rapid, that I was on that
account induced to hasten my departure, after having engaged one of the
colonists to accompany me by water to the nearest habitation of some one
of the native Laplanders.


_May 31._

The divine service of this day being over, I left Lycksele, taking with
me only three loaves of bread, and some rein-deer tongues, by way of
provision. I presumed that I should procure among the Laplanders flesh
of the rein-deer, cheese, milk, fish, fowl, &c. Nor, indeed, could I
well take any thing more at present; for, whenever we came at any shoals
or falls in the river, it was necessary for my companion to take our
boat on his head, over mountains and valleys, so that I had not only my
own luggage to carry at such times, but his likewise.


_June 1._

Having by morning come within the territories of the nearest Laplander,
we left our boat on the shore of the river, and went in search of this
man through the wild forests, where we saw no more traces of roads or
enclosures than if the country were entirely uninhabited. We met,
however, with several deserted huts, where he had at one time or other
resided.

Being exceedingly tired with this walk, I was glad to repose myself here
in the desert, while my Finland conductor went in search of my future
guide. Nor was I without considerable fears that this man, when he had
met with the Laplander, might not be able to find me again. However,
about noon he returned, accompanied by a Laplander, who took charge of
me, inviting me home to his hut, where he treated me with fish, and
fresh water.

I was afterwards conducted from one Laplander to another, till I came to
a part of the river, about twenty-five miles above Lycksele. I shall not
dwell on the inconveniences I was obliged to undergo every time we had
to seek for any of the Laplanders, while I was quite destitute of
provisions. These poor people themselves had, at this season, nothing
but fish to eat, as they had not yet begun to slaughter their reindeer,
nor to go a fowling; neither had they, as yet, milked any of their
reindeer.


_June 2._

On coming to the place just mentioned, we found it impracticable to
proceed by water, the river being so rapid, and so much impeded by
falls, that we were obliged to undertake a walk of a few miles further,
which I was told would bring us to a more navigable stream. After
walking for some time, a fen or marsh lay before us, seemingly half a
mile broad, which we had to cross. At every step the water was above our
knees, and the ice was at the bottom. Where the frost was quite gone, we
often sunk still deeper. When we had traversed this marsh, we sought in
vain for any human creature, and were therefore under the necessity, a
little further on, of crossing another bog, still worse than the former,
and a mile in extent. I know not what I would not rather have undertaken
than to pass this place, especially as the elements were all adverse,
for it blowed and rained violently.


_June 3._

By four o'clock this morning, having conquered all our difficulties, we
still could not meet with any Laplander. I was so fatigued that I could
proceed no further without some repose. We therefore made a fire; and
having dried my clothes, I lay down by the side of it, in hopes of
taking a little rest. But in this I had no success. The fire scorched me
on one side, while the cold north wind pinched me on the other; and the
gnats so stung my hands, face, and legs, that it was impossible to
sleep. Thus I remained in expectation of my Lapland conductor, who had
set out in search of another, till two o'clock in the afternoon. I could
not help thinking how miserably I might have to end my days here, in
case he should think proper to desert me entirely. At length, however,
he returned, bringing with him a little black-looking woman, whose hair
hung loose about her shoulders, with a red cap upon her head. I scarcely
think that any poet could have described a fury so hideous as this
woman. She addressed me in Swedish to the following effect. "Oh, thou
poor man! what misfortune can have brought thee into my country? Seest
thou what miserable living we have? I have never yet seen any stranger
here in summer. Whence dost thou come, and whither dost thou intend to
go?" Having tasted nothing for four days past but a little fresh fish,
without any bread, I asked her, seeing a small kettle in her hand, what
she could give me to eat. She immediately set about boiling a pike which
she had brought with her; but when I was going to taste it, I observed
heaps of vermin between the gills, which made me loathe it altogether,
and rather continue to fast, though my strength suffered much. This
woman informed me there was no boat to be had on the next river, and
that I had only to return the way I came; which words were like a stroke
of thunder to me. I know not any thing I would less willingly have
undertaken than to traverse again these Stygian marshes, which were now
not to be avoided. However, this good woman conducted us to a side path,
whereby we avoided about half a mile of the way we had come. In
traversing the forest, we arrived at a shed, supported by four posts,
and covered with a roof. Here hung some clothes, and a small rein-deer
cheese, which last I immediately wished to obtain. But the woman
refused, saying she should want it herself for the next holiday. My
hunger was such, that I could not lose sight of this cheese, and I was
induced to offer her any thing she was pleased to ask for it, telling
her I verily believed I should hardly survive another day if I had it
not. At length she complied, and the cheese proved afterwards of the
most signal service to me. We then took leave of our female companion,
and began to measure back our steps. I was thus obliged to return by the
course of the river, having, with the thoughtlessness of youth,
undertaken more than it was possible to perform.

We continued our voyage down the river, being carried with great
velocity by the current, the whole of the next day. At length coming to
an island, the Laplander failed in his attempt to weather it, and the
boat, striking against a rock, was dashed to pieces. We both found
ourselves in the water; but the depth being inconsiderable, we soon
landed on the island. My conductor lost not only his boat, but a hatchet
and pike. I lost two stuffed birds, one of them a large Heron (_Ardea
cinerea_?) which was black with a white breast; the other a Red-bird, or
_Gvousach_, as the Laplanders call it, (_Corvus_, or _Lanius infaustus_,
see _v._ 2. 109.) It was with great difficulty we got from this island
to the shore. The sun shone warm; and after having wrung the water out
of our clothes, we walked on for about a mile, along the bank of the
river, amongst thickets and bogs, till we came in sight of a colonist,
who was fishing for pike. He gave me some provision, and conducted me to
Grano, where I only stopped to rest one night, and on the evening of the
8th of June arrived at Umoea.


_June 12._

Early this morning I set out by land towards Pithoea, where I arrived
after two days journey, for the night was as pleasant for travelling as
the day. Here I met with kind entertainment from Mr. Solander, the
principal clergyman of the place.


_June 19._

I went out to sea in a boat for some miles, to explore the neighbouring
coast and islands, and returned at length to the new town. Here however
I made no long stay, but proceeded in one day from thence to Lulea. I
was anxious to lose as little time as possible, being very desirous of
reaching the alps of Lulean Lapland time enough to see the sun above the
horizon at midnight, which is seen to greater advantage there than at
Tornea.


_June 25._

Taking leave of the town, I embarked on the river of Lulea, which I
continued to navigate upwards for several successive days and nights,
having good accommodation both as to food and boat. The boats here are
excellent, far unlike those in the district of Umoean Lapland, which
are, in a manner, only sewed together, so that a foot set on one of
their sides is sufficient to stave them; and if the passengers are not
careful how they sit down, the boat is overset. After three days and
three nights, we reached Quickjock, situated close to the alps. Here I
received from the famous wife of the curate Mr. Grot provisions
sufficient to last me for eight days.


_July 6._

After several days' travelling, on the evening of July 6th I ascended
_Wallavari_, the first mountain of the alps on this side, which is
indeed of a very considerable height. My companion was a Laplander, who
served me both as servant and interpreter. In the latter capacity his
assistance was highly requisite, few persons being to be met with on
these alps who are acquainted with the Swedish language; nor was I
willing to trust myself alone among these wild people, who were ignorant
for what purpose I came. I had already suffered much in the Lapland part
of Umoea for want of knowing the language. Nor was my companion wanted
less to assist me in carrying what was necessary, for I had sufficient
incumbrances of my own, without being the bearer of our provisions into
the bargain.

On my first ascending these wild alps, I felt as if in a new world. Here
were no forests to be seen, nothing but mountains upon mountains, larger
and larger as I advanced, all covered with snow. No road, no tracks, nor
any signs of inhabitants were visible. The verdure of summer seemed to
shun this frozen region, retiring into the deep valleys between the
mountains. I saw very few birds, except some Ptarmigans, which the
Laplanders call _Cheruna_ (_Tetrao Lagopus_), running with their young
along the vales. The delightful season of spring, whose cheering
influence on man and all living nature I had so lately experienced in
the beginning of my journey, seemed an alien here. The declining sun
never disappeared sufficiently to allow any cooling shade, and by
climbing to the more elevated parts of these lofty mountains, I could
see it at midnight above the horizon. When I cast my eyes over the grass
and herbage, there were few objects I had seen before, so that all
nature was alike strange to me. I sat down to collect and describe these
vegetable rarities, while the time passed unperceived away, and my
interpreter was obliged to remind me that we had still five or six miles
to go to the nearest Laplander, and that if we had a mind for any
rein-deer meat, we ought to bestir ourselves quickly. We proceeded
therefore up and down the snowy hills, sometimes passing along their
precipitous sides, which was the most difficult travelling of all, and
for many a long way we walked over heaps of stones. About the evening
of the following day we reached the nearest spot where any Laplander was
at that time settled. The man we met with gave me a very good reception,
and furnished me with a couple of rein-deer skins to sleep between.
Immediately after my arrival, the herd, consisting of seven or eight
hundred head of rein-deer, came home. These were milked, and some of the
milk was boiled for my entertainment, but it proved rather too rich for
my stomach. My host furnished me with his own spoon, which he carried in
his tobacco-bag. On my expressing a wish, through my interpreter, to
have the spoon washed, my Lapland friend immediately complied, taking a
mouthful of water, and spitting it over the spoon.

After having satisfied my hunger, and refreshed myself with sleep, I
steered my course directly South-west, towards the alps of Pithoea,
proceeding from thence to the lofty icy mountains, or main ridge of the
country. A walk of scarcely above four or five miles further brought me
to the western edge of this ridge, for I was desirous of examining that
side of the mountains, to see how it agreed with the eastern part. I had
no sooner arrived at the icy mountains than a storm overtook me,
accompanied by a shower of thin pieces of ice, which soon formed an icy
crust over my own clothes and those of my conductor. The severity of the
cold obliged me to borrow the gloves and _lappmudd_ (coat of rein-deer
skin) from the man who accompanied me. But the weather proved more
favourable as soon as we had crossed the summit of the ridge. From hence
the verdant appearance of Norway, lying far beneath us, was very
delightful. The whole country was perfectly green, and, notwithstanding
its vast extent, looked like a garden in miniature, for the tallest
trees appeared not above a span high. As we began to descend the alps,
it seemed as if we should soon arrive at the lower country, but our
calculations were very inadequate to what we found its actual distance.
At length, however, we reached the plains of which we had enjoyed so
stupendous a prospect. Nothing could be more delightful to my feelings
than this transition, from all the severity of winter, to the warmth and
beauty of summer. The verdant herbage, the sweet-scented clover, the
tall grass reaching up to my arms, the grateful flavour of the wild
fruits, and the fine weather which welcomed me to the foot of the alps,
seemed to refresh me both in mind and body.

Here I found myself close to the sea coast. I took up my abode at the
house of a ship-master, with whom I made an agreement to be taken in a
boat, the following day, along the coast. I much wished to approach the
celebrated whirlpool, called the _Maelstrom_, but I could find nobody
willing to venture near it.

We set sail the next morning according to appointment, but the wind
proved contrary, and the boat-men were, after a while, exhausted with
rowing. Meantime I amused myself in examining various petrifactions,
zoophytes, and submarine plants of the _Fucus_ tribe, which occupied
every part of the coast. In the evening I arrived at the house of Mr.
Rask, the pastor of Torfjorden, who gave me a kind reception.

Next day we proceeded further on our voyage; but the contrary wind
exhausted our patience, and we veered about, soon reaching the place
from whence we had first set out, the wind being directly in our favour
for that purpose.

On the following morning I climbed one of the neighbouring mountains,
with the intention of measuring its height. While I was reposing in
perfect tranquillity on the side of the hill, busied only in loosening a
stone which I wanted to examine, I heard the report of a gun at a small
distance below. I was however too far off to receive any hurt, so,
thanks to Providence, I escaped, but my alarm may be easily imagined.
Perceiving the man who had fired the gun, I pursued him to a
considerable distance, in order to prevent his charging his piece a
second time, and I determined never to go there again without some
protection. I inquired who it could be that had made this unprovoked
attack, but I found it impossible to gain any information on the
subject.

On the 15th of July[16] we set out on our return, and that whole day was
employed in climbing the mountains again, to our no small fatigue and
exhaustion, the ground we had to pass over being so extremely steep as
well as lofty. When we reached the cold snowy mountains, indeed, we had
sufficient opportunity to cool ourselves.

From hence we turned our course towards the alps of Tornea, which were
described to me as about forty miles distant. What I endured in the
course of this journey is hardly to be described. How many weary steps
was I obliged to set to climb the precipices that came in my way, and
how excessive were my perspiration and fatigue! Nor were these the worst
evils we had to encounter before we reached Caituma. Sometimes we were
enveloped with clouds, so that we could not see before us; sometimes
rivers impeded our progress, and obliged us either to choose a very
circuitous path, or to wade naked through the cold snow water. This
fresh snow water however proved a most welcome and salutary refreshment,
for without it we should never have been able to encounter the excessive
heat of the weather. Water was our only drink during this journey, but
it never proved so refreshing as when we sucked it out of the melting
snow. Having nearly reached the Lapland village of Caituma, the
inhabitants of which seemed perfectly wild, running away from their
huts as soon as they perceived us approaching, from a considerable
distance, I began to be tired of advancing further up into this
inhospitable country. We had not at this time tasted bread for several
days, the stock we had brought with us being entirely exhausted. The
rich milk of the reindeer was too luscious to be eaten without bread,
and the ordinary or second-rate cheese occasioned such a degree of
costiveness as I could no longer endure. I determined therefore to
return towards Quickjock, which was forty miles from this spot. In the
course of my journey thither, walking rather carelessly over the snow,
without noticing a hole which the water had made, I fell through the icy
crust into the deep snow. The interpreter and guide were totally unable
to assist me, the cavity in which I lay being very steep, and so
hollowed out by the water that it surrounded me like a wall. It was not
in their power to reach me without a rope, which they luckily were able
to procure to drag me out of the hole. I had received a blow on my thigh
in the fall, the effects of which I felt for a month afterwards. One of
my guides had met with a similar accident but a week before.

At length we arrived at Quickjock, after having been four weeks without
tasting bread. Those who have not experienced the want of this essential
support of life, can scarcely imagine how hard it is to be deprived of
it so long, even with a superfluity of all other kinds of food. I
remained four days at Quickjock to recruit my strength, and afterwards
descended the river again to Lulea. There being no boat to be had north
of Purkijaur, we were obliged to construct a raft for ourselves. Our
voyage was very perilous, for the wind and current both combined to
overset us, so that it was not without the greatest exertion we saved
ourselves, and it being night, nobody heard our cries for assistance.

The next day I was conducted to the river of Calatz, to see the manner
of fishing for pearls, and on the 30th of July arrived at Lulea.

Here I rested for a day or two, then proceeded to Tornea, and from
thence to Kimi, and some way up the river of that name. Afterwards I
entered East Bothland; but not understanding the Finnish language, I
found it inconvenient to proceed, and preferred returning four miles
back again. I made several excursions to an adjacent island. At the town
of Calix I became acquainted with the judge of a neighbouring district,
and we accompanied each other to Tornea, from whence I proceeded in a
boat to Kengis, Jonesvando, and within four miles of Juckesceni; but as
the frost was beginning to set in very hard, it being late in autumn,
and there being nothing, as far as I could discover, very remarkable to
see, I descended the river again in the same boat, and had a quick
passage back. Having noted down the Finnish names for such articles as
I should be most likely to want at the inns, I ventured once more to
enter East Bothland, in order to pursue my journey that way homeward. I
considered that in a new country there is always something new to be
seen, and that to travel the same road I had come, would probably afford
but little entertainment or instruction. I had still less inclination,
at this advanced season of the year, to encounter the hazard of a sea
voyage. Several merchants who wanted to sail from Tornea to Stockholm,
had long been waiting for a fair wind.

I therefore pursued my way along the coast through East Bothland and
Finland, visiting Ulea, Brakestad, Old and New Carleby, Wasa, Christina,
Biorreborg and Abo, remaining four days at the place last mentioned. I
then went by the post yacht to Aland, crossed the sea of Aland, and on
the 10th of October reached Upsal.

The whole extent of my journey amounts to 633 Swedish miles (about 3798
English miles) as appears by my itinerary subjoined.

                                           Miles.
  From Upsal to Umoea                          60
  Umoea to Lycksele                            12
  Lycksele to the upper part of Lapmark        25
  From thence again to Umoea                   37
  From Umoea to Pithoea                        22
  Pithoea to Longoen                            3
  Back again to Pithoea                         3
  From thence to Lulea                          5
  Lulea to Quickjock                           33
  Quickjock to the alps of Pithoea             25
  From thence to the Norway coast              10
  Excursion by sea, and back again,            14
  From Norway to Caitum                        40
  From Caitum to Quickjock                     40
  Quickjock to Tornea                          47
  Tornea to Kimi                                5
  From hence to Maxaniemi                       5
  Maxaniemi to Calix                            9
  Calix to Kengis                              32
  Kengis to Jonesvando                         40
  Jonesvando to Tornea                         26
  Tornea to Abo                               100
  Abo to Upsal                                 40
                                            -----
                                              633

(The account of the expenses of this journey, and observations on the
advantages to be derived from it, both promised in the beginning of this
"brief narrative," are not found in the manuscript.)



APPENDIX.

N^o II.


The following extract, from Dr. Wahlenberg's "Observations made with a
view to determine the height of the Lapland Alps," p. 45, &c., was
translated from the Swedish by the late Mr. Dryander, who kindly
communicated it to the editor, expressing a wish that it might accompany
the present publication. To fulfil this desire is now become a duty. It
is with a melancholy satisfaction I here subjoin the last communication
I ever received from this excellent and learned pupil of Linnæus, to the
work of his master. Many remarks from him have assisted me in the course
of this undertaking, and if I could have submitted the whole to his
inspection before it went to press, many inaccuracies, which a
foreigner could scarcely avoid, might have been corrected by a native
Swede, a man too so supremely accurate, and so conversant with every
part of the subject. But this the various and unremitting employments of
my deceased friend rendered impracticable, and I could only take
advantage of what he had it in his power to bestow, in casual
conversations, or in answer to the questions I was now and then obliged
to ask him, such as he was ever ready, on all occasions, to satisfy,
because, to use his own words, he knew they were "likely to be of use."

The following remarks of Dr. Wahlenberg display a singular acuteness of
observation. They are a complete picture, drawn by a masterly hand, not
only to the adept in Natural History, but to every one who has the least
taste for beholding the face of Nature, under its most striking and
unusual aspects. The able author is, as yet, but slightly known to
English readers, even in the more technical part of his science. What
we are now to lay before them gives a promise of his taking a high rank
amongst writers of a superior and more generally interesting class, one
of those in short who touch upon no subject without enriching it.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dr. Wahlenberg's remarks are divided into eight sections, each of which
describes a separate line of elevation.

1. On approaching the Lapland Alps (_Fjäll_), we first arrive at the
line where the Spruce Fir, _Pinus Abies_, ceases to grow. This tree had
previously assumed an unusual appearance; that of a tall slender pole,
covered from the ground with short, drooping, dark branches; a gloomy
object in these desolate forests! The _Rubus arcticus_ had already,
before we arrived at this point, ceased to bring its fruit to maturity.
With the Spruce we lose the _Rosa cinnamomea_, _Convallaria bifolia_,
&c.; and the borders of the lakes are stripped of their ornaments of
_Arundo Phragmites_, _Lysimachia thyrsiflora_, _Galium boreale_, and
_Carex globularis_. Here is the true station of _Tussilago nivea_
(Willd. Sp. Pl. v. 3. 1970.) The last beaver-houses are seen in the
rivulets, and no Pike nor Perch is to be found in the lakes higher up.
The boundary of the Spruce Fir is 3200 feet below the line of perpetual
snow, and the mean temperature is about 3° of Celsius's thermometer
(37-1/2 of Fahrenheit).

2. Scotch Firs (_Pinus sylvestris_) are still found, but not near so
tall as in the lower country. Their stems here are low, and their
branches widely extended. Here are seen the last of _Ledum palustre_,
_Salix pentandra_, _Veronica serpyllifolia_, &c. The bogs have already a
very steril appearance. Near the utmost boundary of the Scotch Fir grows
_Phaca alpina_. Higher up are hardly any Bears to be met with, and the
berries of _Vaccinium Myrtillus_ (the Bilberry) do not ripen well.
_Salmo Lavaretus_ (the Gwiniad), and _S. Thymallus_ (the Grayling),
soon after disappear from the lakes. The upper limit of this zone, when
the Scotch Firs cease, is 2800 feet below the line of perpetual snow,
and the mean temperature about 2,°5 of Celsius (36-1/2 of Fahrenheit.) A
little below this point, or about 3000 feet before we come to perpetual
snow, Barley ceases to ripen; but small farms, the occupiers of which
live by grazing and fishing, are met with as far as 400 feet higher, for
instance, Naimaka in Enontekis, and so far also potatoes and turnips
grow large enough to be worth cultivating.

3. Beyond this the dwarf and stunted forests consist only of Birch. Its
short thick stem, and stiff, widely spreading, knotty branches, seem
prepared to resist the strong winds from the alps. Its lively light
green hue is delightful to the eye, but evinces a weakness of
vegetation. These Birch forests soon become so low, that they may be
entirely commanded from the smallest eminence. Their uppermost boundary,
where the tallest of the trees are not equal to the height of a man, is
2000 feet below the line of perpetual snow. This zone is therefore much
wider than the preceding. Long before its termination _Alnus incana_,
_Prunus Padus_, and _Populus tremula_, were no more to be seen. A little
before the Birch ceases, we miss the _Sorbus Aucuparia_ (_Pyrus
Aucuparia_, Fl. Brit.) which for some time had not presented us with any
fruit; the _Rubus arcticus_ already likewise barren; _Erica vulgaris_,
_Aconitum lycoctonum_, &c. Where the Birch forest becomes thinner, the
reflection of the heat from the sides of the mountains is the strongest.
Here in many spots we find the vegetation of _Sonchus alpinus_,
_Struthiopteris_, and _Aconitum lycoctonum_ remarkably luxuriant. The
drier spots now become covered with _Lichen rangiferinus_. _Tussilago
frigida_ and _Pedicularis Sceptrum-Carolinum_ have their place to the
utmost boundary of the Birch. Thus far only Charr (_Salmo alpinus_) is
found in the lakes, and higher up all fishing ceases.

4. All mountains above this limit are called _Fjäll_ (Alps). Near
rivulets and on the margins of bogs only, is found a little brush-wood,
consisting of _Salix glauca_, whose grey hue affords but little ornament
to the landscape. The lower country is covered with the dark-looking
_Betula nana_, which still retains its upright posture. A few Juniper
bushes, and some plants of _Salix hastata_, are found scattered about.
Every hill is covered with _Arbutus alpina_, variegated with _Andromeda
cærulea_ and _Trientalis europæa_. The more boggy ground is decorated
with _Andromeda polifolia_ in its greatest beauty, and _Pedicularis
lapponica_. On the sides of the mountains, where the reflected heat has
the greatest power, grow _Veronica alpina_, _Viola biflora_, _Pteris
crispa_, and _Angelica Archangelica_. This zone extends within 1400 feet
of the line of perpetual snow. The Glutton (_Mustela Gulo_) goes no
higher than this. The berries of _Rubus Chamæmorus_ still ripen here,
but not at a greater degree of elevation.

5. Now no more brushwood is to be seen. The white _Salix lanata_ is not
above two feet high, even about the rivulets, and _Salix myrsinites_ is
of still more humble growth. _Betula nana_ occupies the drier
situations, but creeps entirely upon the ground. The hills are clothed
with the rather brown than green _Azalea procumbens_ and _Azalea
lapponica_, which give this zone its most peculiar feature. Verdant
spots between the precipices, where the sun has the greatest power,
produce _Lychnis apetala_, _Erigeron uniflorum_, _Astragalus
leontinus_[17] and _montanus_, with _Ophrys alpina_. In boggy places
_Aira alpina_, _Carex ustulata_, and _Vaccinium uliginosum_ are
observable. The only berries however which ripen at this degree of
elevation, are those of _Empetrum nigrum_; but these are twice as large
as what grow in the woodlands, and better flavoured. The upper boundary
of this zone is 800 feet below the line of perpetual snow. The
Laplanders scarcely ever fix their tents higher up, as the pasture for
their reindeer ceases a very little way above this point. The mean
temperature is about +1° of Celsius (34 of Fahrenheit).

6. Next come the snowy alps, where are patches of snow that never melt.
The bare places between still produce a few dark shrubby plants, such as
_Empetrum nigrum_, but destitute of berries, _Andromeda tetragona_ and
_hypnoides_, as well as _Diapensia lapponica_. Green precipices exposed
to the sun are decorated with the vivid azure tints of _Gentiana
tenella_ and _nivalis_, and _Campanula uniflora_, accompanied by the
yellow _Draba alpina_. Colder and marshy situations, where there is no
reflected heat, produce _Pedicularis hirsuta_ and _flammea_, with _Dryas
octopetala_. This zone extends to 200 feet below the limits of
perpetual and almost uninterrupted snow.

7. Beyond it perpetual snow begins to cover the greatest part of the
ground, and we soon arrive at a point where only a few dark spots are
here and there to be seen. This takes place on the Alps of Quickjock at
the elevation of 4100 feet above the sea; but nearer the highest ridge,
and particularly on the Norway side of that ridge, at 3100 feet. Some
few plants, with succulent leaves, are thinly scattered over the spongy
brown surface of the ground, where the reflected heat is strongest,
quite up to the line of uninterrupted snow. These are _Saxifraga
stellaris_, _rivularis_ and _oppositifolia_, _Ranunculus nivalis_ and
_glacialis_, _Rumex digynus_, _Juncus curvatus_[18] and _Silene
acaulis_. The mean temperature at the boundary of perpetual snow is
+0,°4 of Celsius, (32-3/4 of Fahrenheit).

8. Above the line of perpetual snow, the cold is occasionally so much
diminished, that a few plants of _Ranunculus glacialis_, and other
similar ones, may now and then be found, in the clefts of some dark rock
rising through the snow. This happens even to the height of 500 feet
above that line. Further up the snow is very rarely moistened. Yet some
umbilicated Lichens (_Gyrophoræ_), &c., still occur in the crevices of
perpendicular rocks, even to the height of 2000 feet above the line of
perpetual snow. These are the utmost limits of all vegetation, where the
mean temperature seems to be +1,°1 of Celsius (30 of Fahrenheit). The
Snow Bunting, _Emberiza nivalis_, is the only living being that visits
this elevated spot.



INDEX.


  Abo, ii. 230.
  _Acer platanoides_, ii. 227.
  Aconite, yellow, i. 36.
  _Aconitum lycoctonum_, i. 36, 47, 138, 278. ii. 79, 123, 277.
  Adam and Eve, i. 28.
  _Adoxa moschatellina_, i. 37.
  _Agaricus_, i. 151, 152, 177. ii. 158.
  _Agrostis arundinacea_, ii. 228.
  ---- _rubra_, ii. 91.
  Agues, i. 29, 180.
  _Aira alpina_, ii. 279.
  Aland, ii. 233.
  _Alca Torda_, i. 64, 65.
  Alder, hoary-leaved, i. 48, 51. ii. 277.
  _Alnus incana_, ii. 277.
  _Alopecurus geniculatus_, ii. 92.
  Alps, Lapland, i. 283-322. ii. 1-81, 257.
  ---- Dr. Wahlenberg's observations to determine their height, ii. 272.
  _Amanita_, ii. 158.
  Amusements of the Laplanders, ii. 50-58.
  _Anas arctica_, i. 65.
  _Andromeda cærulea_, i. 272. ii. 278.
  ---- _hypnoides_, i. 320. ii. 280.
  ---- _polifolia_, i. 23, 188, 189.
  ---- _tetragona_, ii. 28, 29, 280.
  _Anemone Hepatica_, i. 11, 32. ii. 228.
  ---- _ranunculoides_, i. 11.
  ---- _vernalis_, i. 15.
  _Angelica Archangelica_, i. 171. ii. 60, 108, 278.
  ---- _sylvestris_, i. 171, 316. ii. 76.
  Angermanland, i. 48.
  Animals of the alps, ii. 82, 83.
  _Anthericum calyculatum_, i. 257.
  _Apis terrestris_, i. 159.
  Apple-trees, i. 61.
  _Arabis thaliana_, i. 33.
  _Aranea palustris_, }
  ---- _riparia_,     } i. 258.
  _Arbutus alpina_, ii. 278.
  ---- _Uva ursi_, i. 7, 23, 250.
  _Ardea cinerea_, ii. 255.
  _Arena Glarea_, i. 7, 16, 32, 82, 123, 166.
  ---- _mobilis_, i. 16.
  _Artemisia vulgaris_, ii. 201.
  _Arum_, i. 200.
  _Arundo Calamagrostis_, ii. 90.
  ---- _Phragmites_, ii. 275.
  Ash, i. 68.
  Aspen, i. 77, 179.
  _Aspidium Filix-fœmina_, ii. 227.
  _Asplenium Trichomanes_, i. 55.
  _Astragalus alpinus_, i. 160, 256, 366. ii. 2.
  ---- _leontinus_, ii. 279.
  ---- _montanus_, ii. 279.
  _Azalea lapponica_, i. 299. ii. 279.
  ---- _procumbens_, i. 285. ii. 279.


  B.

  _Bannisteria._ See _Diapensia_.
  Bark of the aspen-tree used as food for cattle, i. 77.
  ---- pine-tree eaten by the peasants, i. 169.
  ---- willow used for tanning, i. 80.
  ---- birch used for tanning, i. 249.
  Barley, i. 57, 67, 73.
  _Bartramia fontana_, i. 181-184.
  ---- _pomiformis_, i. 13, 38.
  _Bartsia alpina_, ii. 119.
  Bears, ii. 215, 275.
  Beaver, i. 88-91.
  Beech, i. 68.
  _Betula alba_, i. 48.
  ---- _incana_, i. 48. ii. 277.
  ---- _nana_, i. 19, 68, 126, 139, 186. ii. 26, 50, 278, 279.
  _Bicornes_, i. 22.
  Bilberry, i. 25, 35, 208.
  Birch, common, i. 20, 34, 49, 56, 80, 100, 115, 202. ii. 276.
  ---- dwarf, i, 19, 126, 139.
  Bird-traps, i. 179.
  _Bixa Orelana_, ii. 233.
  Blindness, peculiar case of, i. 217.
  Boat, Lapland, i. 98.
  Bog-moss, i. 139, 165, 167.
  _Boletus igniarius_, used as a pincushion, i. 85.
  ---- _suaveolens_, employed as a perfume, i. 151.
  Bothland, East, ii. 151-166, 201-232.
  Bramble, strawberry-leaved, i. 51, 58, 201.
  Brandy, i. 28, 122, 157. ii. 147.
  _Brassica oleracea_, ii. 219.
  Bream, i. 27.
  _Bryum bimum_, i. 185.
  ---- _pomiforme_, i. 13.
  Buck-bean, i. 86, 200.
  Buck-wheat, i. 166.
  Buntings, snow, i. 71. ii. 282.
  Burnet, i. 220.
  Butter, i. 110.
  _Byssus_, i. 84, 156.
  ---- _cryptarum_, i. 47, 55.
  ---- _flos aquæ_, i. 4.
  ---- _Jolithus_, i. 26.
  ---- red, i. 26.


  C.

  _Calla palustris_, i. 200, 245, 350.
  _Callitriche autumnalis_, i. 62.
  ---- _verna_, i. 62.
  _Caltha palustris_, i. 5, 68.
  _Cameraria_, i. 176.
  _Campaniformes_, i. 10.
  _Campanula persicifolia_, ii. 226.
  ---- _serpyllifolia_, i. 20, 37.
  ---- _uniflora_, ii. 280.
  _Canis Vulpes_, i. 71.
  Caper, Swedish, i. 5.
  _Carex_, i. 5, 167.
  ---- _cæspitosa_, ii. 225.
  ---- _globularis_, ii. 275.
  ---- _panicea_, ii. 98.
  ---- _sylvatica_, i. 276. ii. 21, 46.
  ---- _ustulata_, ii. 279.
  Castor, i. 88, 276. ii. 215.
  Cataract of Elf-Carleby, i. 12.
  Cavern at Skula-berget, i. 52.
  Chaff, eaten by the peasants, i. 169.
  _Chamædaphne_, i. 188.
  Character of the Laplanders, i. 131, 363.
  _Charadrius Hiaticula_, i. 93, 323.
  Charr, i. 128. ii. 277.
  Cheese of the Laplanders, i. 102, 197.
  Cherries, i. 62.
  _Chrysomela graminis_, i. 48.
  ---- _lapponica_, i. 77.
  _Chrysosplenium alternifolium_, i. 9.
  Church tyranny, i. 157.
  Church at Lulea, i. 239.
  _Cicindela sylvatica_, i. 175.
  _Cicuta virosa_, i. 246. ii. 136, 143.
  Cinnabar, imperfect, i. 62.
  Cinque-foil, purple, i. 158.
  Clay, i. 31, 73.
  Cloud-berry, i. 152, 203.
  Club-moss, i. 20.
  _Coccinella trifasciata_, i. 179.
  Cock of the wood, i. 78, 93.
  _Colymbus arcticus_, i. 27, 176. ii. 98, 151.
  ---- _auritus_, i. 118.
  _Comarum palustre_, i. 158.
  _Confervæ_, i. 336.
  _Convallaria bifolia_, i. 58. ii. 274.
  Cookery, i. 248;
     performed by the men, i. 132.
  _Coralloides_, i. 8, 84.
  _Corallorrhiza_, i. 223, 245. ii. 47.
  Corals, petrified, i. 30.
  _Cornus suecica_, i. 177, 189.
  _Corvus Cornix_, ii. 229.
  ---- _glandarius_, ii. 110.
  ---- _infaustus_, ii. 109, 255.
  _Cos molaris_, i. 30.
  Costmary, i. 220.
  Cotton-Rush, i. 68.
  Cradles, different kinds of, i. 190.
  Crake-berries, i. 138, 152. ii. 26.
  Cranberries, i. 208.
  Cranes, i. 94.
  Cross-bills, i. 70.
  Cuckoo, i. 12, 23, 62.
  _Cuculus canorus_, i. 23, 319.
  _Culex pipiens_, i. 159.
  ---- _pulicaris_, i. 238, 251.
  ---- _reptans_, i. 209, 251. ii. 115.
  _Cypræa_, ii. 191.
  _Cyprinus Aphya_, i. 102.
  ---- _Brama_, i. 27.
  _Cypripedium Calceolus_, ii. 112.


  D.

  _Daphne_, i. 23.
  _Dermestes murinus_, i. 206.
  _Diapensia lapponica_, i. 285. ii. 280.
  _Dillenia_. See _Azalea_.
  Diseases of the Laplanders, ii. 32-35.
  ---- of cattle, i. 245.
  Diver, black-throated, i. 27.
  _Draba alpina_, ii. 280.
  ---- _verna_, i. 5.
  Dress, travelling, of Linnæus, i. 1.
  ---- of the Laplanders, i. 132, 137, 326-335. ii. 10, 110, 144-150.
  _Dryas octopetala_, ii. 280.
  Ducks, wild, i. 93, 118.
  Dyeing wool and leather, method of, i. 170.
  _Dytiscus natator_, i. 100.


  E.

  East Bothland, ii. 151-166. 201-232.
  Elf-Carleby, i. 15.
  Elm, common, i. 22, 68.
  _Elymus arenarius_, ii. 204.
  _Emberiza Hortulanus_, i. 71.
  ---- _nivalis_, i. 71. ii. 97, 282.
  _Empetrum nigrum_, i. 138, 139, 152. ii. 26, 280.
  _Empis borealis_, i. 87, 179.
  _Ephemera_, i. 73, 177.
  _Epilobium augustifolium_, ii. 87.
  ---- _palustre_ β, i. 283.
  _Equisetum hyemale_, i. 121.
  _Erica vulgaris_, i. 7, 22, 25, 35, 49. ii. 119, 277.
  _Erigeron uniflorum_, ii. 279.
  _Eriophorum alpinum_, i, 177, 254.
  ---- _polystachion_, i. 68.
  ---- _vaginatum_, i. 68.
  _Erysimum Barbarea_, i. 255, 267. β, i. 72.


  F.

  Festivals, i. 114, 157.
  Finch, mountain, i. 23, 29.
  Fir, common, i. 25, 49, 82, 202.
  ---- spruce, i. 49, 70, 85, 187, 202.
  Fisheries, i. 128, 163.
  Flax, i. 200.
  Flesh-fly, i. 159.
  Food of the Laplanders, i. 154.
  Foxes, i. 71, 250.
  Fowls, the Laplanders' method of drying, i. 79.
  _Fringilla Montifringilla_, i. 23, 29.
  Frogs, imagined to live in a woman's stomach, i. 111.
  Frog-spittle, i. 214.
  _Fucus_, i. 336. ii. 263.
  _Fumaria bulbosa minima_, i. 37.
  Furniture of the mountain Laplanders, ii. 12.


  G.

  Gaddewick, ferry of, mineral spring at, i. 231.
  Gad-fly, i. 215.
  _Gadus virens_, i. 341.
  Gale, sweet, i. 19.
  _Galium boreale_, ii. 275.
  _Gentiana nivalis_, ii. 280.
  ---- _tenella_, ii. 280.
  _Geranium sylvaticum_, i. 283.
  Gestrickland, i. 17. ii. 241.
  _Glires_, i. 89.
  Glirr, i. 102.
  Gnats, i. 87, 159, 208, 238.
  Goosander, i. 94-96.
  Granite, i. 9, 30, 35.
  Grayling, i. 61.
  Grebe, little-eared, i. 118.
  Grous, black, i. 23.
  Grous, wood, i. 179.
  Grotto in the mountain of Scula, ii. 242.
  Grundell, Baron, i. 70. ii. 245.
  _Gryllus domesticus_, i. 254.
  Gulls, i. 75.
  Gwiniad, small, i. 161.
  _Gyrophoræ_, ii. 282.


  H.

  Hair-moss, great, i. 171, 191.
  Half-boots of the West Bothlanders, i. 74.
  Hare, i. 89.
  Harness, rein-deer, i. 104.
  Harr, i. 61.
  Hazle, i. 62, 68.
  Heart's ease, i. 41.
  Heath, i. 7, 22, 49, 56.
  _Hedera Helix_, i. 21.
  Helsingland, i. 25.
  _Hepatica_, i. 11.
  _Hieracium Pilosella_, i. 5.
  _Hippophaë rhamnoides_, ii. 224, 233.
  Hobgoblins, supposed to inhabit the mountains, i. 221.
  Hops, i. 36, 62.
  Horns of the reindeer, i. 135.
  Horsetail, naked, i. 121.
  Househould œconomy of the Laplanders, i. 167-172, 190, 197-199,
    340. ii. 5-18, 23-26, 47-50.
  Humble-bee, i. 159.
  _Humulus Lupulus_, ii. 122, 228.
  Hunting the bear, ii. 83-85.
  Huts of the Laplanders, i. 124, 155.
  _Hyoscyamus niger_, ii. 224.
  _Hypnum parietinum_, i. 8.


  I.

  Implements of husbandry, i. 65.
  Insects at Bumoen, i. 200.
  ---- Lulea, i. 233.
  ---- Pithoea, i. 216.
  ---- Umoen, i. 192-194.
  _Iris Pseudacorus_, ii. 228.
  Ivy, i. 21.
  Itinerary of Linnæus, ii. 270.


  J.

  Jarf, i. 71.
  _Juncellus aquaticus_, i. 122.
  _Juncus campestris_, i. 5.
  ---- _curvatus_, ii. 281.
  ---- _trifidus_, i. 279.
  ---- _triglumis_, ii. 112.
  Juniper, i. 83, 137, 156.
  _Jussiea._ See _Sibbaldia_.


  K.

  Kettle, method of boiling, i. 198.
  Kids, i. 10.
  Kimi, ii. 146-151.
  Korssraff, i. 71.
  Kowall, i. 111.


  L.

  Lady-bird, i. 179.
  _Lapis molaris_, i. 30.
  Lapland Alps, i. 283-322. ii. 1-81, 257.
  ---- Dr. Wahlenberg's Observations to determine the height of, ii. 272.
  Lapland minerals, ii. 35-37.
  ---- Norwegian, i. 322-335.
  Laplanders' amusements, ii. 50-58.
  ---- character, i. 132.
  ---- dress, i. 132, 133, 137, 326-335. ii. 110, 144-150.
  ---- diseases, ii. 32-35.
  ---- food, i. 154.
  ---- substitute for tobacco and snuff, i. 86.
  ---- household œconomy, i. 167-172, 190, 197-199, 340, 341. ii. 5-18,
    23-26, 47-50.
  ---- huts, i. 125-127, 155.
  ---- marriages, ii. 67-76.
  ---- shop, i. 119, 120.
  ---- weapons, i. 137.
  Lark, i. 6.
  _Larus canus_, i. 75, 319.
  _Lathyrus palustris_, ii. 226.
  _Ledum palustre_, i. 23, 246. ii. 275.
  _Leontodon Taraxacum_, i. 5.
  _Leonurus Cardiaca_, ii. 224.
  _Lepas Balanoides_, i. 336.
  ---- _Balanus_, i. 336.
  _Lernea asellina_, i. 341.
  _Libellula forcipata_, i. 190.
  ---- _Virgo_, i. 190.
  _Lichen arcticus_, i. 31.
  ---- _byssoides_, i. 84.
  ---- _caninus_, i. 31.
  ---- _cocciferus_, i. 84.
  ---- _ericetorum_, i. 156.
  ---- _islandicus_, i. 24. ii. 200.
  ---- _jubatus_, ii. 171.
  ---- _nivalis_, i. 4, 85.
  ---- _omphalodes_, ii. 233.
  ---- _rangiferinus_, i. 84, 161, 318. ii. 18, 88, 108, 128, 199, 277.
  ---- _stygius_, ii. 233.
  ---- _uncialis_, i. 82, 84.
  ---- _velleus_, i. 213.
  Lichens, filamentous, i. 83, 161.
  _Ligusticum Levisticum_, i. 73.
  Lime-tree, i. 68.
  Ling, i. 25, 35, 36, 82, 124, 139.
  _Linnæa borealis_, i. 21, 37, 203, 229.
  _Lithospermum arvense_, i. 5.
  _Lonicera Xylosteum_, ii. 227.
  _Loxia curvirostra_, i. 70.
  _Ludus Helmontii_, i. 8.
  Lulea, i. 228-255.
  Lulean Lapland, i. 256-283. ii. 81-130.
  Lumme, i. 27, 176.
  _Lychnis alpina_, ii. 19.
  ---- _apetala_, ii. 279.
  ---- _dioica_, i. 33.
  ---- _Viscaria_, ii. 19.
  Lycksele Lapland, i. 96-194.
  ---- parsonage, church, and school, i. 111. ii. 242.
  _Lycopodium alpinum_, }
  ---- _clavatum_,     } i. 20.
  ---- _complanatum_,  }
  ---- _Selago_,       }
  _Lycopsis arvensis_, i. 253.
  _Lysimachia thyrsiflora_, ii. 275.
  _Lythrum Salicaria_, ii. 164.


  M.

  Manners of the Laplanders, i. 131.
  Maple, i. 68.
  Marriages of the Laplanders, i. 113, 131, 248. ii. 67-76.
  Meal-berry, i. 250.
  Medelpad, i. 35.
  _Medusa aurita_, i. 338.
  _Medusa capillata_, i. 336.
  ---- _cruciata_, i. 338.
  _Melampyrum pratense_,  } i. 110, 111.
  ---- _sylvaticum_,      }
  _Menyanthes trifoliata_, i. 86, 200, 352.
  _Mergus Merganser_, i. 94-96.
  _Mesomora_, i. 177, 189.
  _Mica_, i. 26, 247.
  Mice, i. 89.
  _Michelia._ See _Azalea lapponica_.
  Milk, i. 59, 242-244, 273, 317.
  ---- preparations of, i. 196, 242. ii. 181.
  Minerals, ii. 35-37.
  Mining, i. 195, 196.
  Missne, i. 86.
  Money-wort, i. 229.
  _Montia fontana_, i. 176.
  Mosses, their fructification, i. 181-186.
  Motacilla flava, i. 71.
  Mountain of Skula, i. 52. ii. 244.
  _Mures_, i. 89.
  _Mus Lemmus_, i. 102, 162, 303.
  _Musca carnaria_, i. 159.
  _Muscus lichenoides_, i. 213.
  ---- _tectorius_, i. 85.
  _Mustela Gulo_, i. 71. ii. 50, 279.
  _Mya arenaria_, i. 237.
  ---- _margaritifera_, ii. 105.
  _Myosotis scorpioides_, i. 5.
  _Myrica Gale_, i. 19, 208.


  N.

  _Nardus stricta_, i. 236.
  _Narthecium ossifragum_, i. 257.
  Norway, i. 335-366.
  Norwegian Lapland, i. 322-335.
  _Nostoc_, i. 263.
  _Nux vomica_, i. 112.


  O.

  Oak, i. 68.
  Ochre, i. 62, 63.
  Œconomy of the Torneans, ii. 173-182.
  _Œstrus nasalis_, ii. 45.
  ---- _Tarandi_, i. 293. ii. 2, 23.
  _Oniscus aquaticus_, i. 206.
  _Ophrys alpina_, ii. 279.
  ---- _cordata_, ii. 109.
  Orchis, palmated, i. 178.
  Ore, silver, i. 246.
  _Orobus vernus_, ii. 228.
  Ortolans, i. 71.
  Owls, i. 93, 204.
  Owl, eagle, i. 39, 41, 210.
  _Oxalis Acetosella_, i. 11, 58, 68.


  P.

  _Paris quadrifolia_, i. 138.
  _Pedicularis_, i. 252, 266, 366. ii. 277.
  ---- _flammea_, i. 296. ii. 280.
  ---- _hirsuta_, ii. 280.
  _Pedicularis lapponica_, ii. 278.
  _Perca fluviatilis_, ii. 86.
  Persecution, a singular instance of, i. 364.
  _Pes pelicani_, i. 336.
  _Petromyzon fluviatilis_, ii. 196.
  _Phaca alpina_, ii. 275.
  _Phoca vitulina_, ii. 234.
  _Phrygania bicaudata_, i. 74.
  _Pica lapponum_, i. 175.
  Pikes, i. 115, 128, 162.
  Pines, i. 81, 124, 131, 140.
  _Pinguicula_, i. 197, 208, 254. ii. 109.
  ---- _villosa_, i. 255.
  _Pinus Abies_, i. 25, 49, 70, 187. ii. 274, 275.
  ---- _nodosa_, i. 214.
  ---- _plicata_, i. 7.
  ---- _sylvestris_, i. 25, 49. ii. 60, 66, 157, 275, 276.
  Pipsten, i. 30.
  _Pisum maritimum_, ii. 203.
  Pithoea, i. 194-228. ii. 256.
  Plants at Calix, ii. 193, 195, 196.
  ---- Flaskesele, i. 116, 117.
  ---- Gräno, i. 174.
  ---- Jö, ii. 202.
  ---- Jockmock, i. 265, 266.
  ---- Kimi, ii. 147, 151-153.
  ---- Kiomitis, i. 269-272.
  ---- Koskesvari, i. 258-260.
  ---- Limingo, ii. 212, 213.
  ---- Lulea, i. 230, 234, 247. ii. 122, 125.
  ---- Sastmola, ii. 227.
  ---- Skargarden, i. 220, 221.
  ---- Torfiolme, i. 345.
  ---- Tornea, ii. 125, 131, 136-144, 169, 172.
  ---- Umoea, i. 181-186.
  ---- Upland, i. 325.
  ---- Wallavari, i. 283-291, 293-303.
  ---- Wasa, ii. 223.
  ---- Zangis, ii. 128-130.
  Plants and birds near Lycksele, i. 98-100.
  Plants and fishes near Pithoea, i. 222-228.
  Plovers, ringed, i. 93.
  _Polygonum Fagopyrum_, i. 166.
  ---- _viviparum_, i. 282.
  _Polypodium_, i. 55.
  _Polytrichum_, i. 85, 191. ii. 225.
  ---- _commune_, i. 124, 171.
  _Populus tremula_, i. 77, ii. 277.
  _Potamogeton gramineum_, ii. 112.
  ---- perfoliatum, ii. 92.
  Potatoes, i. 62.
  _Poterium Sanguisorba_, i. 220.
  _Primula_, i. 5, 277.
  _Prunus Padus_, ii. 277.
  Ptarmigan, i. 35, 150.
  _Pteris crispa_, ii. 278.
  _Pyrolæ_, i. 17.
  _Pyrus Aucuparia_, ii. 277.


  Q.

  Quicksand, i. 63.


  R.

  _Ranunculus acris_, i. 203.
  ---- _aquatilis_, ii. 91.
  ---- _glacialis_, ii. 281, 282.
  ---- _lapponicus_, i. 156, 252.
  ---- _nivalis_, ii. 281.
  Redwing, i. 6, 23, 121.
  Reindeer, i. 68, 79, 103-110, 113, 127, 135, 161, 280, 307-314. ii. 22,
    37-46, 107, 110.
  ---- method of castrating, ii. 3.
  _Ribes alpinum_, ii. 227.
  ---- _rubrum_, i. 257.
  _Rosa cinnamomea_, ii. 274.
  Rocking children, various modes of, i. 190.
  _Rubus arcticus_, i. 33, 52, 58, 186, 201. ii. 118, 274.
  ---- _Chamæmorus_, i. 152, 203, 281. ii. 109, 279.
  ---- _fruticosus_, ii. 118.
  ---- _idæus_, ii. 118.
  ---- _saxatilis_, ii. 118, 228.
  Ruffs and Reeves, i. 71.
  _Rumex Acetosa_, i. 102, 153, 315, 366.
  ---- digynus, i. 253, 256, 366. ii. 281.
  Rye, i. 56, 57, 67.


  S.

  _Salix caprea_, i. 5.
  ---- _glauca_, ii. 278.
  ---- _hastata_, ii. 278.
  ---- _Helix_, i. 17.
  ---- _lanata_, i. 77. ii. 279.
  ---- _Lapponum_, ii. 26.
  _Salix myrsinites_, ii. 279.
  ---- _pentandra_, ii. 275.
  ---- _phylicifolia_, i. 242.
  ---- _rosmarinifolia_, ii. 183.
  Sallow-tree, i. 55.
  _Salmo Albula_, i. 161. ii. 86, 89, 216.
  ---- _alpinus_, i. 127, 305-307. ii. 277.
  ---- _Lavaretus_, i. 160. ii. 37, 97, 167, 275.
  ---- _Salar_, ii. 116, 189.
  ---- _Thymallus_, i. 61. ii. 275.
  Salmon fishery, i. 13, 206, 344. ii. 117.
  Sandpipers, i. 93.
  _Satyrium viride_, i. 178.
  _Saxifraga_, i. 10. ii. 280.
  _Saxum fornacum_, i. 30.
  _Scarabæus_, i. 206.
  _Sceptrum Carolinum_, i. 252, 266, 278. ii. 119, 277.
  _Scheuchzeria palustris_, i. 257.
  _Schœnus Mariscus_, i. 150.
  _Scirpus cæspitosus_, i. 122, 150.
  ---- _maritimus_, ii. 228.
  _Sciurus volans_, ii. 231.
  ---- _vulgaris_, ii. 49.
  _Scolopax Gallinago_, i. 19.
  Seals, remarks on, ii. 234.
  _Sedum Telephium_, ii. 226.
  _Serratula alpina_, i. 259.
  Shop, Laplander's, i. 119.
  _Sibbaldia procumbens_, i. 284.
  _Silene acaulis_, ii. 281.
  _Sisymbrium Nasturtium_, ii. 226.
  Skelleftea, i. 203.
  Skula, mountain, ii. 242.
  Sledge, i. 104.
  _Solanum Dulcamara_, ii. 224.
  _Solidago Virgaurea_, ii. 87.
  _Sonchus alpinus_, ii. 60, 77-79, 277.
  _Sorbus_, ii. 277.
  _Spergula arvensis_, i. 353.
  _Sphagnum_, i. 37, 139, 156, 165.
  ---- _palustre_, ii. 109.
  _Sphinx Filipendulæ_, i. 321.
  Spiders, i. 23.
  Springs, mineral, i. 63, 69, 241, 281. ii. 231.
  Squirrels, i. 89, 176.
  _Stellaria minima_, i. 238.
  ---- _nemorum_, i. 279.
  _Strix Bubo_, i. 39, 210-213.
  ---- _Ulula_, i. 205.
  Struthiopteris, ii. 277.
  Superstition of the Laplanders, i. 364.
  Summer, beauty of, in Lapland, i. 244.
  Swallows, i. 71.
  _Swammerdamia_, i. 237.
  Swans, i. 94.


  T.

  Talc, i. 42.
  _Talcum Ollaris_, i. 356.
  _Tanacetum Balsamita_, i. 220.
  _Tanacetum vulgare_, ii. 201.
  Tanning, i. 80, 249. ii. 120, 121.
  _Taxus baccata_, i. 11.
  Tents of the mountain Laplanders, ii. 7.
  _Tetrao Lagopus_, i. 35, 150, 291, 318. ii. 258.
  ---- _Tetrix_, i. 23.
  ---- _Urogallus_, i. 78, 177, 179. ii. 96.
  _Thalictrum alpinum_, i. 277.
  ---- _flavum_, i. 138.
  _Thlaspi arvense_, i. 5.
  _Tilia europæa_, ii. 225.
  _Tipula juniperi_, i. 21.
  ---- _rivosa_, i. 186.
  Toad, story of one, said to be hatched in a man's stomach, i. 112.
  Tobacco, i. 62, 86.
  _Tofieldia palustris_, i. 257, 265, 366.
  Tordmule, i. 64.
  _Tormentilla officinalis_, i. 155.
  Tornea, ii. 130-146, 166-201.
  ---- œconomical remarks concerning the neighbourhood of, ii. 173-182.
  Traps for catching the wood grous, i. 180.
  ---- salmon, i. 206.
  Trefoil, water, i. 86.
  _Tremella juniperina_, i. 175.
  _Trientalis_, i. 282. ii. 278.
  _Tringa hypoleucos,_ i. 117.
  ---- _pugnax_, i. 71.
  _Tringæ_, i. 93.
  _Turdus iliacus_, i. 6, 23, 121, 176.
  _Tussilago frigida_, ii. 277.
  ---- _nivea_, ii. 275.


  V.

  _Vaccinium Myrtillus_, i. 23, 25, 35, 49, 124, 208. ii. 275.
  ---- _Oxycoccos_, i. 208.
  ---- _uliginosum_, ii. 279.
  ---- _Vitis Idæa_, i. 23, 124, 137, 258.
  _Veronica alpina_, ii. 278.
  ---- _serpyllifolia_, ii. 275.
  _Viburnum Opulus_, ii. 227.
  _Vicia sylvatica_, ii. 228.
  _Viola biflora_, i. 138, 279. ii. 278.
  ---- _canina_, i. 42.
  ---- _lactea_, i. 42.
  ---- _lutea_, i. 41.
  ---- _odorata_, i. 5.
  ---- _palustris_, i. 20, 45.
  ---- _tricolor_, i. 5, 41.
  Violet, aquatic, i. 42.
  ---- marsh, i. 20, 45.
  ---- yellow, i. 138.
  _Viverra Lutreola_, ii. 231.


  U.
  _Ulvæ_, i. 336.
  Umoea, i. 69, 178.
  Upland, i. 2.
  Upsal, i. 3. ii. 234.


  W.

  Wagtail, water, i. 62.
  Wahlenberg, Dr., his Observations made to determine the height of the
    Lapland Alps, ii. 272.
  Wallavari mountain, ii. 257.
  Wasp, i. 159.
  Weapons, i. 137.
  Well, mineral, i. 241.
  West Bothland, i. 67.
  Whortle-berries, i. 7, 56, 85, 124, 137.
  Willows, i. 61, 68, 80, 138, 249.
  Winter-green, i. 17.
  Wood-sorrel, i. 11, 58, 68.


  X.

  _Xyphias Gladius_, i. 335.


  Y.
  Yellow-hammer, i. 71.
  Yew, i. 11.

THE END.



ERRATA.

Vol i. p 134, line 11, read _set in_.

206, line 3 from the bottom, for _Dean_ read _principal clergyman_.

246, line 16, read _some of the Nasaphiel silver ore_.

       *       *       *       *       *

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FOOTNOTES:

[1] The discovery of the plant in question is related in the _Flora
Lapponica_ in so interesting a manner, that we cannot refrain from
translating the passage. See the second edition, p. 135.

"I met with this plant but once, and that throughout a journey of four
hours, over the celebrated mountain of Wallivari in the district of
Lulea, towards a tract of country which lies about half way between the
northern and western part, where it grew in great abundance.

"Whilst I was walking quickly along, in a profuse perspiration, facing
the cold wind, at midnight; if I may call it night when the sun was
shining without setting at all; still anxiously inquiring of my
interpreter how near we were to a Lapland dwelling, which I had for two
hours been expecting, though I knew not its precise situation; casting
my eager eyes around me in all directions, I perceived as it were the
shadow of this plant, but did not stop to examine it, taking it for the
_Empetrum_. But after going a few steps further, an idea of its being
something I was unacquainted with came across my mind, and I turned
back; when I should again have taken it for the _Empetrum_, had not its
greater height caused me to consider it with more attention. I know not
what it is that so deceives the sight in our Alps during the night, as
to render objects far less distinct than in the middle of the day,
though the sun shines equally bright. The sun being near the horizon,
spreads its rays in such a horizontal direction, that a hat can scarcely
protect our eyes: besides, the shadows of plants are so infinitely
extended, and so confounded with each other, from the tremulous
agitation caused by the blustering wind, that objects very different in
themselves are scarcely to be distinguished from each other. Having
gathered one of these plants, I looked about and found several more in
the neighbourhood, all on the north side, where they grew in plenty; but
I never met with the same in any other place afterwards. As at this time
they had lost their flowers, and were ripening seed, it was not till
after I had sought for a very long time that I met with a single flower,
which was white, shaped like a lily of the valley, but with five sharper
divisions."

[2] This strange passage is presumed to allude to a little gun, four or
five inches long, still shown in the arsenal at Stockholm, with which
vulgar report says the famous Queen Christina used to kill fleas.

[3] It is not impossible that Linnæus might be misled here by the
prejudices of his time, or by those of the people from whom he obtained
his account.

[4] The whole of this account of the hay consists, in the manuscript, of
such concise, disjointed, and obscure notes, that we are by no means
certain of having preserved the exact sense.

[5] La Motraye, after describing the Lapland sledge, observes that "it
is attached by a single trace or thong, passing under the belly of the
reindeer, and fixed to a leather collar which goes round the animal's
neck. A long cord made of twisted fir bark, tied to his horns, serves,
when pulled in a straight line, to stop his course, or, when drawn
toward either side, to turn him in that direction. When this cord is
made to strike him gently, by a vertical motion, on the back, it urges
him to greater speed. The overturn of the sledge, where the road is
uneven, is prevented by a stick, which serves, like the oar or paddle of
a boat, to guide its course."

[6] Linnæus records this misfortune in his _Flora Lapponica_, at n. 42,
see ed. 2. p. 27, where, in speaking of _Arundo Calamagrostis_, he says
he "presumes the synonyms are rightly applied, though he had no
opportunity of comparing his plant with books and descriptions, having
lost the specimen, with various other natural productions, by being cast
away as he was descending one of the great rivers of Lapland." The
synonym of Morison at least, which he has thus by memory applied, proves
to be erroneous.

[7] This account does not agree with the description in the _Flora
Lapponica_, but is the most correct.

[8] This also is correct.

[9] A few further remarks on the above subject, printed in the _Flora
Lapponica_, may be acceptable to the English reader.

"This disease made no regular progress, nor was it communicated by
infection from one animal to another. The cows are driven all together
in the spring to feed in a meadow, near the town, to the southwest, on
the other side of a creek of the river, in which I was informed the
greatest mortality happened. The symptoms differ in different cases; but
all the cattle, feeding indiscriminately, are seized with a swelling of
the abdomen, attended with convulsions, and die with horrid bellowing,
in the space of a few days. No person dares venture to flay the recent
carcases, it having been found by experience that not only the hands,
but even the face, in consequence of the warm steams from the body,
became inflamed and gangrenous, and that death finally ensued.

"I was asked whether this disease was a kind of plague; whether the
meadow in question produced any venomous spiders; or whether the
yellow-coloured water was poisonous.

"That it was no plague appeared from its not being contagious, and from
the spring being its most fatal season. I saw no spiders here, except
what are common throughout all Sweden; nor was the yellow sediment of
the water any thing more than a common innocent ochre of iron.

"I had scarcely landed from the boat in which I was taken to this
meadow, than the _Cicuta_ presented itself before me, and explained the
cause of all this destruction. It is most abundant in the meadow where
the cattle are first seized with the distemper, especially near the
shore. The slightest observation teaches us that brute animals
distinguish, by natural instinct, such plants as are wholesome to them,
from such as are poisonous. The cattle therefore do not eat this Hemlock
in summer or autumn; whence few of them perish at those seasons, and
such only as devour the herb in question incautiously, or from an
inordinate appetite. But when they are first turned out in the spring,
partly from their eagerness for fresh herbage, partly from their long
fasting and starvation, they seize with avidity whatever comes within
their reach. The herbage is then but short, and insufficient to satisfy
them; probably also it is in general more succulent, immersed under
water, and scarcely perceptibly scented; so that they are unable to
distinguish the wholesome from the pernicious kinds. I remarked every
where that the radical leaves only were cropped, no others; which
confirmed what I have asserted. In a neighbouring meadow I saw this same
plant cut with the hay for winter food; so that it is no wonder if in
that state some, even of the more cautious cattle, are destroyed by it."
_Fl. Lapp. ed._ 2. 76.

[10] This plant is not mentioned in the _Flora Lapponica_, and the
account annexed seems to belong to _Ligusticum scoticum_, n. 107 of that
work, with which it well agrees.

[11] Linnæus in this description denominates these leaflets, whether of
the general or partial involucrum, _radii_, a term he always
subsequently used for the stalks of the umbels.

[12] King Charles the Eleventh, on his visit to Tornea in 1694, was
accompanied by Count G. Douglas the Lord Lieutenant, Count Piper
Counsellor of Chancery, J. Hoghusen Counsellor of the Board of War, and
some other learned men, and in the night between the 13th and 14th of
June saw, from the belfry of the church, the midnight sun, at that time
visible there to a person placed on such an elevation. The year
following, Professors Bilberg and Spole were sent to Tornea to repeat
these observations. The royal visit to Tornea was commemorated by a
medal struck on the occasion, having on one side the bust of the king;
on the reverse, a representation of the sun half above the horizon, with
this motto, _Soli inocciduo Sol obvius alter_; and beneath, _Iter Regis
ad Botniam Occidentalem_, _Mense Junio_ 1694.

[13] _Stegerhusen._ I have not been able to make out the precise meaning
of this word.

[14] John Messenius, famous for his learning and his misfortunes, was
professor of law and politics at Upsal, in the reign of the great
Gustavus Adolphus, who had a high esteem for him, and who exerted all
his wisdom, and even his power, to allay the envy and hatred of some of
the colleagues of this able man, especially of John Rudbeck, a malignant
though learned theologian. The king in vain endeavoured to pacify
Rudbeck by preferment, while he removed Messenius to Stockholm, and made
him a member of the new council established there. The latter was
formally accused of being a secret partisan of the deposed catholic king
Sigismond, and was condemned to a perpetual prison, where he composed a
great work entitled _Scandia illustrata_, published at Stockholm between
the years 1700 and 1714. Messenius died in 1636. His son Arnold might be
justified for detesting those who had persecuted his illustrious father,
but not for the folly of expressing his feelings in satirical
publications against people in power. For this he paid with his life on
the scaffold in 1648, and his own son, aged about 17, suffered with him.

[15] In the Journal, vol. i. 101, Linnæus speaks of Mr. Oladron as the
curate of Lycksele, and his wife.

[16] The manuscript says July 1st, but this does not agree with the
original journal, which therefore I have followed. See the first page of
this volume.

[17] _Jacq. Ic. Rar. t. 154. Willd. Sp. Pl. v. 3. 1287._

[18] We know not what species the author intends by this name.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

Non-standard spellings have been retained as printed. These are listed
as suspect typographical errors as follows:

page 59: suspect typo "skain" for "skein" ( ... being wrapped round the
hand like a skain of thread ...)

page 73: suspect typo "basons" for "basins" (The fat part of the broth
is first served up in basons.)

Changes to typographical errors in the text are as follows:

page 182: changed "Servet-mjolk" to "Servet-mjölk".

page 198 changed "close" to "closed" ( ... a trough, closed on all
sides, ...)

Page 296 added "i." (parsonage, church, and school, i. 111. ii.
242.)





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