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Title: Helps to Latin Translation at Sight
Author: Luce, Edmund
Language: English
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                    HELPS TO


                     by the
                REV. EDMUND LUCE

           With an Introductory Note
                     by the
               Headmaster of Eton

  ‘Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento;
  Hae tibi’erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem.
  Parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos.’

        VERGIL, _Aeneid_, vi. 851 3

  ‘Fecisti patriam diversis gentibus unam,
    Profuit iniustis te dominante capi.
  Dumque offers victis proprii consortia iuris,
    Urbem fecisti quod prius orbis erat.’

        RUTILIUS, i. 63-6


  All rights reserved


Whatever controversies may be astir as to the precise objects of a
classical training, it will hardly be disputed that if that teaching has
been successful the pupils will sooner or later be able to make out an
ordinary passage of ‘unseen’ Latin or Greek. It is a test to which the
purely linguistic teacher must obviously defer: while the master, who
aims at imparting knowledge of the subject-matter must acknowledge, if
his boys flounder helplessly in unprepared extracts, that they could
have learnt about ancient life better through translations.

In, addition to the value of unseen translation, as a test of teaching
it constitutes an admirable thinking exercise. But so numerous are the
various books of extracts already published that I should have seen
nothing to be gained from the appearance of a new one like the present
volume were it not, as far as I know, different in two important
respects from others. It contains six Demonstrations of _how_ sentences
are to be attacked: and further, the passages are chosen so that if a
boy works through the book he can hardly fail to gain some outline
knowledge of Roman Republican history.

As to the Demonstrations, their value will be evident if it is realised
that failure in this sort of translation means failure to analyse: to
split up, separate, distinguish the component parts of an apparently
jumbled but really ordered sentence. A beginner must learn to trust the
solvent with which we supply him; and the way to induce him to trust it
is to show it to him at work. That is what a Demonstration will do if
only the learner will give it a fair chance.

In regard to the historical teaching contained in the extracts, there
can be little doubt that the present tendency of classical teaching is
towards emphasising the subject-matter as well as the language. It is
felt that as training in political principles the reading of Greek and
Roman authors offers unique advantages, such as many English boys can
appreciate, who are deaf to the literary appeal. The choice therefore of
historical extracts in chronological order is an attempt to recognise
both the two great aims of classical teaching at once. At any rate there
is no reason to suppose that the linguistic exercise is in any way
impaired by being combined with a little history.

I should like to direct attention also to the notes given on the
extracts, and the purpose they are meant to serve. If no notes had
been given some of the passages which are important or interesting
historically would have been found too difficult for the boys for whom
they are intended. Moreover, most of the notes concern the historical
aspect of the extract to which they belong, and are part of the scheme
by which the subject-matter of the passage is emphasised. Although the
passages themselves are not strictly graduated, the help given in
translation becomes less and less as the boy goes through the book; and
it is obvious that those extracts which illustrate the later periods of
Roman History will be found more difficult than the legends and stories
which belong to an earlier age. In cases where no help at all is
desired, the Miscellaneous Passages (which are without notes) may be


  ETON: _April 1908_.


The aim of the present book is to help boys to translate at sight. Of
the many books of unseen translation in general use few exhibit
continuity of plan as regards the subject-matter, or give any help
beyond a short heading. The average boy, unequal to the task before him,
is forced to draw largely upon his own invention, and the master, in
correcting written unseens, has seldom leisure to do more than mark
mistakes--a method of correction almost useless to the boy, unless
accompanied by full and careful explanation when the written work is
given back.

Now that less time is available for Latin and Greek, new methods of
teaching them must be adopted if they are to hold their own in our
public schools. When Lord Dufferin could say, ‘I am quite determined, so
far as care and forethought can prevent it, that the ten best years of
my boy’s life shall not be spent (as mine were) in nominally learning
two dead languages without being able to translate an ordinary paragraph
from either without the aid of a dictionary;’ and Dr. Reid could write,
‘It is not too much to say that a large number of boys pass through our
schools without ever dreaming that an ancient writer could pen three
consecutive sentences with a connected meaning: chaos is felt to be
natural to ancient literature: no search is made for sense, and the
Latin or Greek book is looked upon as a more or less fortuitous
concourse of words;’ when Dr. Rouse can assert, ‘The public schoolboy at
nineteen is unable to read a simple Latin or Greek book with ease, or to
express a simple series of thoughts without atrocious blunders: he has
learnt from his classics neither accuracy nor love of beauty and
truth’--it is obvious that, for the average boy, the system of
perfunctorily prepared set-books and dashed-off unseens is a failure.
The experience of every teacher who is also an examiner, and who has had
to deal with public schoolboys, will confirm this; but during
twenty-five years’ teaching and examining of boys in almost every stage,
I have found that translation at sight, taught upon the plan of this
book, not only produces a good result, but teaches a boy how to grapple
with the bare text of a Latin author better than the habitual practice
of translating at sight without any help at all. If the average boy is
to be taught how to translate, his interest must be awakened and
sustained, and the standard of routine work made as high as possible.
The clever boys are, as a rule, well provided for; but, even for them,
the methods of this book have been found to be the shortest road to
accuracy and style in translation. Moreover by this means they have
gained a firsthand acquaintance with Latin literature and the sources of
Roman history.

It is impossible here to enter into ‘the question of the close and
striking correspondence between the history, the literature, and the
language of Rome. It was not until the history of Rome threw its mantle
over her poetry that the dignity of the poet was recognised and
acknowledged. . . . In the same way the life of the Roman people is
closely bound up with the prose records, and the phenomena of the Roman
Empire lend a human interest to all representative Roman writers.’[1]
Considerations of this kind form a sufficient justification of the
method here adopted of employing the historical records of Rome as a
basis of teaching.

In this book the Introduction (pp. 1-14) is written to teach a boy how
to arrive at the meanings of words (_Helps to Vocabulary_, pp. 1-5); how
to find out the thought of a sentence through analysis and a knowledge
of the order of words in Latin (_Helps to-Translation_, pp. 5-12); how
to reproduce in good English the exact meaning and characteristics of
his author (_Helps to Style_, pp. 13-14).

In the Demonstrations (pp. 15-58) the boy is taught to notice all
allusions that give him a clue to the sense of the passage, to grapple
with the difficulties of construction, to break up sentences, and to
distinguish between the principal and the subordinate thoughts both in
prose and verse.

The Passages have been carefully selected, and contain accounts of
nearly all the important events and illustrious men of the period of
history to which they belong. They are chronologically arranged and
divided into six periods, covering Roman history from B.C. 753 to B.C.
44, leaving the Augustan and subsequent period to be dealt with in a
second volume. The translation help given in the notes is carefully
graduated. The notes to Parts I., II., III. (marked D, pp. 60-107) are
thus intended to help younger boys to deal with passages which would in
some cases be too difficult for them; less help in translation is given
in Parts IV. and V. (marked C, pp. 108-159); while the notes to Part VI.
(marked B, pp. 160-236) are mainly concerned with historical
explanation, illustration, or allusion.

The Miscellaneous Passages (pp. 238-271), chosen for me by my
brother-in-law, Mr. A. M. Goodhart (Assistant Master at Eton College),
are added to provide occasional passages in which no help is given. It
is hoped that these, which deal with subjects of general interest, and
include a somewhat wide range of authors, may give variety to the book,
and supply more verse passages than the historical character of the rest
would admit. For the sake of variety, or to economise time, some of the
passages may be translated _viva voce_ at the discretion of the master.

The Appendices (pp. 274-363) may be referred to when a boy finds himself
in doubt about the value of a Conjunction (I.), the force of a Prefix
(II.), the meaning of a Suffix (III.), the Life and Times of his Author
(VI.), or the historical significance of a date (VII.). In Appendix V.
a Demonstration is given to show how a boy, after sufficient practice in
translation by the help of analysis, may to some extent learn to think
in Latin, and so to follow the Latin order in arriving at the thought.

The important question of what maps should accompany the book will be
best solved by providing each boy with a copy of Murray’s Small
Classical Atlas, edited by G. B. Grundy, which will be found to be
admirably adapted to the purpose. By the kindness of Mr. John Murray,
two plans (Dyrrachium and Pharsalus), not at present included in the
Atlas, have been specially drawn to illustrate passages on pp. 216 and
218, and are placed opposite the text.

As far as possible I have acknowledged my indebtedness to the Editors
whose editions of the classics have been consulted. For the historical
explanations I am under special obligation to the histories of Ihne and
Mommsen, to the ‘Life of Cicero’ by the Master of Balliol, and to the
‘Life of Caesar’ by Mr. Warde Fowler. I have also to thank Messrs.
Macmillan for allowing me to quote from Dr. Potts’ ‘Aids to Latin
Prose,’ and from Professor Postgate’s _Sermo Latinus_. For the prose
passages the best texts have been consulted, while for Livy,
Weissenborn’s text edited by Müller (1906) has been followed throughout.
As regards the verse passages, the text adopted is, wherever possible,
that of Professor Postgate’s recension of the _Corpus Poetarum
Latinorum_. For the Short Lives I have found useful ‘The Student’s
Companion to Latin Authors’ (Middleton and Mills), but I owe much more
to the works of Teuffel, Cruttwell, Sellar, Tyrrell, and Mackail.

The Head Master of Eton, besides expressing his approval of the book,
has kindly offered to write an Introductory Note. He has also given me
an exceptional opportunity of testing more than half the historical
passages by allowing them to be used in proof, until the book was ready,
for the weekly unseen translation in the three blocks of fifth form,
represented by the letters, B, C, D. The criticisms and suggestions made
by Classical Masters at Eton, who have used the passages week by week,
have been very valuable, and, in particular, my thanks are due to Mr.
Impey, Mr. Tatham, Mr. Macnaghten, Mr. Wells, and Mr. Ramsay. My thanks
are also due to the Lower Master, Mr. F. H. Rawlins, for kindly reading
the MS. of the Introduction, Demonstrations, and Appendices I.-IV., and
for giving me the benefit of his wide experience.

To my brother-in-law, Mr. A. M. Goodhart, I owe it that I undertook to
write the book; without his advice it would never have seen the light,
and he has given me most valuable help and encouragement at every stage.

As regards the choice of type and style of printing, I owe a special
debt of thanks to Mr. W. Hacklett (manager of Messrs. Spottiswoode’s
Eton branch), whose unceasing care and attention has been invaluable in
seeing the book through the press. I must also acknowledge the patience
and skill of Messrs. Spottiswoode’s London staff in carrying out the
many alterations which I have found to be inseparable from the task of
bringing each passage and its notes into the compass of a single page.

In conclusion I should like to say that it has been my aim throughout to
adhere to what is best in Roman literature, and to omit passages the
choice of which can only be justified by regarding their literary form
apart from their moral value. Latin literature contains so much that is
at once excellent in style and noble in thought that it seems a grave
mistake to exalt the one at the expense of the other.

_Maxima debetur puero reverentia._


  WINDSOR: _April 1908_.

    [Footnote 1: The late Professor Goodhart.]


  Introductory Note                                                  v
  Editor’s Preface                                                 vii
  List Of Passages For Translation                                  xv
  Index Of Authors                                               xxiii

  INTRODUCTION. HOW TO TRANSLATE AT SIGHT                         1-14

      I. Helps to VOCABULARY                                       1-5
     II. Helps to TRANSLATION                                     5-12
    III. Helps to STYLE                                          13-14

  DEMONSTRATIONS IN UNSEEN TRANSLATION                           15-58

  PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION AT SIGHT                             59-236

    (1) _Illustrating Roman History._--
      Part I.--Regal Period, B.C. 753-509                        60-66
      Part II.--Early Republic, B.C. 509-366                     67-88
      Part III.--The Conquest of Italy, B.C. 366-266            89-107
      Part IV.--Contest with Carthage, B.C. 264-202            108-146
      Part V.--Formation of Empire beyond Italy,
        in Europe and Africa, B.C. 200-133                     147-159
      Part VI.--Period of Civil Strife in Italy,
        and Foreign Wars, ending in Revolution, B.C. 133-44    160-236

    (2) _Miscellaneous Passages_                               237-271


      I. List of Important Conjunctions                        274-276
     II. List of Important Prefixes                            277-281
    III. List of Important Suffixes                            282-286
     IV. Groups of Cognate Words                               287-288
      V. How to Think in Latin                                 289-292
     VI. Short Lives of Roman Authors                          293-345
    VII. Chronological Outlines of Roman History
           and Literature                                      347-363

  INDEX                                                        365-368

  PLAN OF DYRRACHIUM                               _opposite page_ 216
  PLAN OF PHARSALUS                                    „      „    218




  16  Fierce encounter with the Germans     Caesar, _B. G._ i. 52
  24  The Music of Arion                    Ovid, _Fasti_ ii. 83
  32  A rash promise rashly believed        Livy xxv. 19
  40  Rashness justly punished              Livy xxv. 19
  48  The Happy Life                        Vergil, _Georg._ ii. 490
  54  The Tomb of Archimedes                Cicero, _Tusc._ v. 23. 64

+Part I.--The Regal Period, 753-509 B.C.+

  60  The Vision of Anchises                Vergil, _Aen._ vi. 777
  61  A. The Passing of Romulus             Livy i. 16
      B. The Mystery explained              Ovid, _Fasti_ ii. 379
  62  A. The Gate of Janus                  Livy i. 19
      B.  „    „                            Vergil, _Aen._ vii. 607
  63  The Sibylline Books                   A. Gellius i. 19
  64  A. Sextus Tarquinius at Gabii         Livy i. 54
      B. The Fall of Gabii                  Ovid, _Fasti_ ii. 543
  65  The Position of Rome                  Cicero, _de Rep._ ii. 3
  66  The Praise of Italy                   Vergil, _Georg._ ii. 136

+Part II.--The Early Republic, 509-366 B.C.+

  67  A. Horatius                           Vergil, _Aen._ viii. 646
      B.   „                                Livy ii. 10
  68  Horatius                              Livy ii. 10
  69  A. Mucius Scaevola                    Livy ii. 12
      B.    „    „                          Martial, i. 21
  70  Battle of Lake Regillus               Livy ii. 20
  71  Tribunes of the People                Livy ii. 32
  72  Coriolanus                            Livy ii. 40
  73  Destruction of the Fabii              Ovid, _Fasti_ ii. 175
  74  A. Cincinnatus                        Florus i. 11. 12
      B. ‘In the brave days of old’         Ovid, _Fasti_ iii. 729
  75  The Decemvirate. XII. Tables          Livy iii. 32, 34
  76  Verginia’s Death not in vain          Livy iii. 49
  77  Cossus wins the Spolia Opima          Livy iv. 19
  78  First Pay given to Citizen Soldiers   Livy iv. 59
  79  A. Lament over Veii                   Propertius v. 10. 27
      B. The Rise of the Alban Lake         Cicero, _de Div._ i. 44. 100
  80  The Conquest of Veii                  Livy v. 21
  81  The Battle of the Allia               Livy v. 38
  82  A. The Battle of the Allia            Livy v. 38
      B. July 18th, a Dies Nefastus         Lucan, _Phars._ vii. 407
  83  Roman Dignity and Courage             Livy v. 41
  84  A. Manlius Capitolinus and the
        Sacred Geese                        Verg. _Aen._ viii. 652
      B. The Fate of Manlius                Val. Max. vi. _de Sev._
  85  Camillus, Parens Patriae              Livy v. 49
  86  A. Migration to Veii abandoned        Livy v. 55
      B. Juno forbids Rebuilding of Troy    Horace, _Od._ iii. 3. 57
  87  First Plebeian Consul                 Livy vi. 35
  88  Origin of the Floralia                Ovid, _Fasti_ v. 237

+Part III.--The Conquest of Italy, 366-266 B.C.+

  89  Manlius and his son Torquatus         Cicero, _de Off._ iii. 112
  90  An Important Epoch                    Livy vii. 29
  91  Battle of Mt. Gaurus.
      M. Valerius Corvus                    Livy vii. 33
  92  A. Self-sacrifice of Decius Mus       Propertius, iii. 11. 63
      B. The Dream of the Consuls           Val. Max. i. _de Somn._
  93  The Battle of Mt. Vesuvius            Livy viii. 10
  94  The Dictator and his Master
        of the Horse                        Livy viii. 30
  95  The Caudine Forks                     Livy ix. 2
  96  „    „    The Yoke                    Livy ix. 5
  97  Rome repudiates the Treaty            Cicero, _de Off._ iii. 109
  98  Battle of Bovianum                    Livy ix. 44
  99  Battle of Sentinum                    Livy x. 28
 100  Aims of Pyrrhus. Battle of Heraclea   Justinus xviii. 1
 101  Fabricius the Just                    Cicero, _de Off._ iii. 86
 102  Appius the Blind                      Cicero, _de Sen._ 16, 37
 103  A. The Battle of Asculum              Florus i. 18. 9
      B. The Battle near Beneventum         Florus i. 18. 11
 104  In Praise of Pyrrhus                  Justinus xxv. 5
 105  A. Manius Curius Dentatus             Cicero, _de Sen._ 55
      B.    „      „      „                 Juvenal xi. 78
      C.    „      „      „                 Horace, _Od._ i. 12. 41
 106  In Praise of Tarentum                 Horace, _Od._ ii. 6. 9
 107  The Praise of Italy                   Vergil, _Georg._ ii. 155

+Part IV.--The Contest with Carthage, 264-202 B.C.+

 108  The Vision of Anchises                Vergil, _Aen._ vi. 836
 109  The Foundation of Carthage            Justinus, xviii. 5
 110  Aeneas views the Building
        of Carthage                         Vergil, _Aen._ i. 419
 111  Regulus, a Roman Martyr               Cicero, _de Off._ iii. 99
 112  A. Naval Victory near Mylae           (Adapted)
      B. Honour conferred on Duilius        Cicero, _de Sen._ 44
 113  Carthaginian Victory off Drepana      Cicero, _N. D._ ii. 3. 7
 114  A. Lutatius’ Victory off
           Aegates Insulae                  Nepos, _Hamilcar_ i.
      B.    „         „     „               Sil. Ital. vi. 653
 115  A. Importance of Second Punic War     Livy xxi. 1
      B. Oath of the Boy Hannibal           Livy xxi. 1
 116  ‘The paths of glory lead but
        to the grave’                       Juvenal x. 147
 117  Character of Hannibal                 Livy xxi. 4
 118  The Siege of Saguntum                 Livy xxi. 7
 119  A. The Dream of Hannibal              Cicero, _de Div._ i. 24. 49
      B. The Interpretation                 Sil. Ital. iii. 198
 120  From the Pyrenees to the Rhone        Livy xxi. 28
 121  From the Rhone to Italy               Livy xxi. 30
 122  The Descent of the Alps               Livy xxi. 36
 123  A. The Battle at the Trebia           Frontinus,
                                              _Strat._ ii. 5. 23
      B. The River bars the Retreat         Sil. Ital. iv. 570
 124  The Battle of Lake Trasimene          Livy xxii. 4
 125    „   „     „   „      „              Livy xxii. 5
 126  The Death of Flaminius                Sil. Ital. v. 644
 127  Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator           Cicero, _de Sen._ 10
 128  Fabius and his Master of the Horse    Livy xxii. 29
 129  Cannae.
        Destruction of the Roman Infantry   Livy xxii. 47
 130  Cannae.
        ‘Paulus animae magnae prodigus’     Livy xxii. 49
 131  A. Maharbal urges Hannibal to march
           on Rome                          Livy xxii. 51
      B. Scipio forbids Nobles              Frontinus,
           to abandon Italy                   _Strat._ iv. 7. 39
 132  A. Rome’s Heroes                      Horace, _Od._ i. 12. 37
      B. The Dream of Propertius            Propertius iii. 3. 1
 133  A. Capua aspires to rival Rome        Horace, _Epod._ xvi. 1
      B. Decius Magius defies Hannibal      Livy xxiii. 10
 134  A. ‘Capua became Hannibal’s Cannae’   Florus ii. 6. 21
      B. The Punishment of Rebel Capua      Livy xxvi. 16
 135  Marcellus at Nola                     Livy xxiii. 16
 136  Cicero’s Description of Syracuse      Cicero,
                                              _in Verr._ ii. 4. 117
 137  Engineering Skill of Archimedes       Livy xxiv. 34
 138  Marcellus laments over Syracuse       Livy xxv. 24
 139  The Death of Marcellus                Livy xxvii. 27
 140  Character of Scipio Africanus Maior   Livy xxvi. 19
 141  Scipio takes New Carthage             Livy xxvi. 45
 142  Nero’s March to the Metaurus          Livy xxvii. 43
 143  The Metaurus                          Horace, _Od._ iv. 4. 29
 144  Hannibal leaves Italy                 Livy xxx. 19
 145  Zama. Before the Battle               Livy xxx. 31
 146  Zama. The Order of Battle             Frontinus,
                                              _Strat._ ii. 3. 16

+Part V.--Formation of Empire beyond Italy, in Europe and Africa,
200-133 B.C.+

 147  Battle of Cynoscephalae               Livy xxxiii. 9
 148  Flamininus proclaims Freedom
        of Greece                           Livy xxxiii. 32
 149  A. Battle of Thermopylae              Frontinus, _Strat._ ii. 4.
      B. Battle of Magnesia                 Florus i. 24
 150  Deaths of Three Great Men             Livy xxxix. 51
 151  M. Porcius Cato                       Nepos, _Cato_ ii.
 152      „    „                            Horace, _Od._ ii. 15
 153  Pydna (Aemilius Paulus)               Livy xliv. 41
 154    „     „     „                       Livy xliv. 41
 155  Destruction of Carthage               Florus ii. 15. 11
 156  Destruction of Corinth                Vell. Paterc. i. 13
 157  The Lusitanian Hannibal               Florus ii. 17. 13
 158  Destruction of Numantia               Florus ii. 18. 11
 159  Rome the Invincible                   Horace, _Od._ iv. 4. 49

+Part VI.--Civil Strife in Italy, and Foreign Wars, ending in
Revolution, 133-44 B.C.+

 160  The Gracchi                           Sallust, _Iug._ 42
 161  A. On the Death of Tiberius Gracchus  Cicero, _de Off._ i. 76
      B. On Lex Frumentaria of C. Gracchus  Cicero, _Tusc._ iii. 20. 48
      C. On C. Gracchus as an Orator        Cicero, _Brutus_ 125
 162  The Betrayal of Jugurtha              Sallust, _Iug._ 113
 163  A. Arpinum. Birthplace of Cicero
           and Marius                       Juvenal viii. 237
      B. Cicero on Marius                   Cicero, _Marius_
 164  Teutones annihilated at
        Aquae Sextiae                       Florus iii. 3
 165  A. Marius’ Flight from Sulla          Lucan, _Phars._ ii. 67
      B. Marius outlived his fame           Juvenal x. 278
 166  Cicero on Civil Strife                Cicero, _in Cat._ iii. 10
 167  Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus         Vell. Paterc. ii. 13
 168  A. Outbreak of the Social War
           at Asculum                       Florus iii. 18. 3
      B. The Sabellian father’s
           advice to his sons               Juvenal xiv. 179
 169  A. Defeat and Death of Rutilius       Ovid, _Fasti_ vi. 563
      B. The Lex Plautia Papiria            Cicero, _pro Arch._ iv. 7
      C. Cicero’s first and only Campaign   Cicero, _Phil._ xii. 11. 27
      D. The Battle near Asculum            Florus iii. 18. 14
 170  Sulla’s Character and Bearing         Sallust, _Iug._ 95
 171  A. Mithridates’ Youth and
           Early Training                   Justinus xxxvii. 2
      B. His Preparations for Conquest      Justinus xxxvii. 3. 4
 172  The Battle of Chaeronea               Frontinus,
                                              _Strat._ ii. 3. 17
 173  A. Capture of Athens and the Piraeus  Vell. Paterc. ii. 23
      B. Battle of Orchomenus               Frontinus,
                                              _Strat._ ii. 8. 12
      C. Peace of Dardanus                  Vell. Paterc. ii. 23
 174  A. Battles of Sacriportus and
           the Colline Gate                 Lucan, _Phars._ ii. 134
      B.    „           „        „          Vell. Paterc. ii. 27
 175  A. Death of the Younger Marius.
           Sulla Felix                      Vell. Paterc. ii. 27
      B. The Sullan Proscriptions           Lucan, _Phars._ ii.
 176  A. Sulla appointed Dictator           Vell. Paterc. ii. 28
      B. Sulla lays down his Dictatorship   Suetonius, _Iul._ 77
      C. Death of Sulla                     Val. Max. ix. 3. 8
 177  A. Limitation of Tribune’s
           Right of Veto                    Cicero, _de Leg._ iii. 9. 22
      B. Abolition of Corn Distributions    Sallust, _Hist._,
                                              _Or. M. Lep._
      C. Judicial Functions restored
           to Senators                      Vell. Paterc. ii. 32
      D. A Sumptuary Law                    A. Gellius ii. 24. 11
 178  Speech of Lepidus against Sulla       Sallust, _Hist._,
                                              _Or. M. Lep._
 179  Sertorius and his Fawn                A. Gellius, xv. 22
 180  A. A New Hannibal                     Florus iii. 22. 2
      B. The Death of Sertorius             Vell. Paterc. ii. 30
 181  Lucullus’ Character and Early Career  Cicero, _Acad._ ii. 1
 182  A. A Soldier of Lucullus              Horace, _Ep._ ii. 2. 26
      B. The Wealth of Lucullus             Horace, _Ep._ i. 6. 40
 183  Spartacus and his Gladiators          Florus iii. 20. 3
 184  Lucullus Ponticus                     Cicero, _pro L. Man._ 20
 185  Pompeius’ Character and Career        Cicero, _pro L. Man._ 29
 186  The Man Caesar                        Suetonius, _Iul._ 45
 187  Caesar and the Pirates                Suetonius, _Iul._ 4
 188  A Roman Citizen maltreated            Cicero, _in Verr._ ii. 5. 62
 189  The Lex Gabinia                       Vell. Paterc. ii. 31
 190  Pompeius clears the Seas of Pirates   Cicero, _pro L. Man._ 34
 191  Pompeius subdues Mithridates
        and Tigranes                        Vell. Paterc. ii. 37
 192  A. Caesar Curule Aedile               Suetonius, _Iul._ 10
      B. Caesar Propraetor
           in Further Spain                 Suetonius, _Iul._ 18
 193  Cicero declaims against Catiline      Cicero, _in Cat._ i. 1
 194  The End of Catiline                   Sallust, _Cat._ 61
 195  Caesar forms First Triumvirate        Vell. Paterc. ii. 44
 196  ‘That day he overcame the Nervii’     Caesar, _B. G._ ii. 25
 197  Naval Battle with the Veneti          Caesar, _B. G._ iii. 14
 198  Caesar’s Bridge across the Rhine      Caesar, _B. G._ iv. 17
 199  Cassivellaunus                        Caesar, _B. G._ v. 19
 200  The Gallic uprising. Vercingetorix    Caesar, _B. G._ vii. 14
 201  Siege of Gergovia                     Caesar, _B. G._ vii. 50
 202  Siege of Alesia                       Caesar, _B. G._ vii. 84
 203  Cicero’s Banishment                   Vell. Paterc. ii. 45
 204  Cicero’s Return                       Cicero, _ad Att._ iv. 1
 205  In Praise of Caesar                   Cicero, _de Prov. Cons._ 33
 206  ‘Quem deus vult perdere,
        prius dementat’                     Florus iii. 11. 1
 207  Carrhae: after the Battle             Lucan, _Phars._ i. 98
         „            „                     Horace, _Od._ iii. 5. 5
         „            „                     Ovid, _Fasti_ vi. 465
 208  Cicero’s humane Administration        Cicero, _ad Att._ v. 21
 211  Caesar crosses the Rubicon            Lucan, _Phars._ i. 213
 212  Caesar’s defence before the Senate    Caesar, _B. C._ i. 32
 213  The Campaign round Lerida             Lucan, _Phars._ iv. 167
 214  A. Siege of Massilia                  Lucan, _Phars._ iii. 388
      B.   „         „                      Caesar, _B. C._ ii. 14
 215  The Death of Curio                    Lucan, _Phars._ iv. 799
 216 Dyrrachium                             Caesar, _B. C._ iii. 47
 217 Eve of Pharsalus. Pompeius’ Dream      Lucan, _Phars._ vii. 7
 218 Pompeius ill-advised at Pharsalus      Caesar, _B. C._ iii. 92
 219 A. Pharsalus and Cannae compared       Lucan, _Phars._ vii. 397
     B. Battlefields of Pharsalus
          and Philippi                      Vergil, _Georg._ i. 489
 220 How Pompeius died                      Caesar, _B. C._ iii. 103
 221 Cato’s Eulogy on Pompeius              Lucan, _Phars._ ix. 190
 222 The Grave of Pompeius                  Lucan, _Phars._ viii. 789
 223 ‘Atrox Animus Catonis’                 A. Pollio, _B. Afr._ 88
 224 A. Cato Uticensis                      Vell. Paterc. ii. 35
     B.   „     „                           Lucan, _Phars._ ii. 374
 225 Caesar dines with Cicero               Cicero, _ad Att._ xiii. 52
 226 The Death of Caesar                    Suetonius, _Iul._ 82
 227 A. In Praise of Caesar                 Cicero, _Phil._ ii. 45
     B.    „     „                          Lucan, _Phars._ i. 143
     C. Apotheosis of Caesar                Suetonius, _Iul._ 88
 230 A. Peroration of Second Philippic      Cicero, _Phil._ ii. 46
     B. On the Murder of Cicero             Martial, iii. 66
 231 A. Cicero as Orator and Poet           Juvenal x. 114
     B. Cicero as Advocate                  Catullus xlix.
 232 The Death of Cicero                    Livy, _fr._
 233 A. In Praise of Cicero                 Vell. Paterc. ii. 66
     B.     „     „                         Livy _fr._

 234 Laus Italiae                           Propertius iii. 22
 235 Laus Romae                             Claudian,
                                              _de Cons. Stil._ iii. 150
 236 ‘Quod cuncti gens una sumus’           Prudentius,
                                              _c. Symm._ ii. 583

+Miscellaneous Passages.+

 238 A. Propempticon Vergilio               Horace, _Od._ i. 3
     B.     „       „                       Horace, _Od._ i. 3
 239 A. Propempticon Maecio Celeri          Statius, _Sil._ ii. 2. 1
     B.     „          „                    Statius, _Sil._ ii. 2. 42
 240 A. Seneca                              Seneca, _Ep._ xv. 8
     B.   „                                 Seneca, _Medea_ 920
 241 A. Criticism of Poets                  Horace, _Ep._ ii. 1. 50
     B.    „         „     Terence          Caesar, _ap. Sueton._
     C. Ovid on his Contemporaries          Ovid, _Tr._ iv. 10. 41
 242 A. A Storm at Sea                      Ovid, _Tr._ i. 2. 19
     B. The Passing of Romulus              Ovid, _Fasti_ ii. 493
     C. Thunder and Hail                    Pacuvius _ap. Cic._
     D. The Argo in a Gale                  Val. Fl. _Arg._ viii. 328
 243 A. Lesbia’s Sparrow                    Catullus iii.
     B. ‘My Parrot, an obtrusive bird’      Statius, _Sil._ ii. 4
     C. The Lap-dog and its Portrait        Martial i. 109
 244  A. The Roman Satirists                Quintilian x. 1. 93
      B. A Criticism of Lucilius            Horace, _Sat._ i. 4. 1
      C. Why Juvenal wrote Satire           Juvenal i. 19
      D. Juvenal’s Subject                  Juvenal i. 81
 245  A. Virtue defined                     Lucilius, _fr._
      B. Poor men of mighty deeds           Juvenal xi. 90
      C. Persius in praise of his Tutor     Persius v. 19
 246  A. Objections to a permanent Theatre  Livy, _Epit._ 48
      B. Scenic Arrangements                Suetonius _ap. Serv._
      C. The Awnings                        Lucretius iv. 75
      D. The Law of Otho                    Livy, _Epit._ 99
      E. Usurpers of Equestrian Privileges  Horace, _Epod._ iv. 11
 247  A. The Web of Fate                    Catullus lxiv. 311
      B. The Skill of Arachne               Ovid, _Met._ vi. 19
      C. The Pastime of Circe               Vergil, _Aen._ vii. 10
 248  A. The Monster approaches Andromeda   Ovid, _Met._ iv. 671
      B. How Perseus won his Bride          Ovid, _Met._ iv. 721
 249  A. Andromeda                          Manilius, _Astr._ v. 567
      B. The Death of the Monster           Manilius, _Astr._ v. 595
 250  A. The School of Flavius              Horace, _Sat._ i. 6. 71
      B. Ovid at School                     Ovid. _Tr._ iv. 10. 15
      C. The Schoolmaster’s Life            Juvenal vii. 222
      D. Early School                       Martial xiv. 223
      E. Homogeneous Divisions              Quintilian i. 2. 23
      F. Plagosus Orbilius                  Martial ix. 68. 1
 251  A. Books                              Ovid, _Tr._ i. 1. 1
      B.   „                                Tibullus iii. 1. 9
      C.   „                                Martial i. 2
 252  A. Arethusa                           Ovid, _Met._ v. 585
      B.     „                              Ovid, _Met._ v. 614
 253  A. Hylas                              Propertius i. 20. 17
      B.   „                                Val. Fl. _Arg._ iii. 581
 254  The Portmanteau Fish                  Plautus, _Rud._ iv. 3. 58
 255  A. ‘Humani nihil a me alienum puto’   Terence, _Haut._ i. 1. 15
      B. Cicero on Terence                  Suetonius, _vit. Ter._ 34
      C. Defence of Contaminatio            Terence, _Haut._ prol. 16
 256  A. The Song of the Nightingale        Pliny, _H. N._ x. 81
      B. A Corinthian Statuette             Pliny, _Ep._ iii. 6
 257  A. Helps to Style                     Pliny, _Ep._ vii. 9
      B. Importance of Concentration        Quintilian,
                                              _Inst. Or._ x. 3. 28
 258  A. De Simonide                        Phaedrus iv. 23
      B. Mons Parturiens                    Phaedrus iv. 24
      C. Truth will out                     Phaedrus, _App._ 22
 259  A. The Golden Age                     Tibullus i. 3. 35
      B. Birthday Wishes                    Tibullus ii. 2
 260  A. On the delights of Hunting
           with a Note-book                 Pliny, _Ep._ i. 6
      B. Oenone Paridi                      Ovid, _Her._ v. 17
      C. The Hunting Party                  Vergil, _Aen._ iv. 129
 261  A. A Roman Day                        Martial iv. 8
      B. The Simple Life                    Horace, _Sat._ i. 6. 110
 262  A. In Praise of Agricola              Tacitus, _Agr._ 46
      B. Britain: its Climate and Products  Tacitus, _Agr._ 12
 263  A. Trimalchio’s Supper                Petronius 50
      B.    „           „                   Petronius 51
 264    I. Pronunciation: H                 Quintilian i. 5. 20
               „          H                 Catullus lxxxiv.
       II. A Street Cry                     Cicero, _Div._ ii. 40. 84
      III. K, Q, C                          Ter. Maurus
       IV. U                                Plautus, _Men._ 555
 265     I. Proverbial Expressions          Caesar, _B. C._ ii. 27
        II.     „          „                Cicero, _Phil._ xii. 5
       III.     „          „                Horace, _Ep._ i. 2. 40
        IV.     „          „                Juvenal ii. 83
         V.     „          „                Livy xxi. 10
        VI.     „          „                Lucretius ii. 79
       VII.     „          „                Martial i. 32
      VIII.     „          „                Plautus, _Bacch._ i. 2. 36
        IX.     „          „                Terence, _Eun._ prol. 41
         X.     „          „                Terence, _Ph._ ii. 4. 14
        XI.     „          „                Pub. Syrus
       XII.     „          „                Seneca, _de Brev. Vit._ i. 2
      XIII.     „          „                Tacitus, _Agr._ 30
       XIV.     „          „                Varro, _de Re Rust._ iii. 1
        XV.     „          „                Vergil, _Aen._ vi. 95
       XVI.     „          „                Vergil, _Aen._ i. 461
 266  A. ‘Whom the gods love die young’     Quintilian,
                                              _Inst. Or._ vi. 1. 9
      B. Servius Sulpicius to Cicero.       Cicero, _ad Fam._ iv. 5
 267  A. Catullus at his Brother’s Grave    Catullus ci.
      B. To Calvus on his Wife’s Death      Catullus xcvi.
      C. Cornelia’s Plea to her Husband     Propertius iv. 11. 1
      D. Mors Tibulii                       Ovid, _Am._ iii. 9
 268  Apophoreta                            Martial
 269       „                                Martial
 270  Epitaphs and Inscriptions.
        I. On Naevius                       Naevius
       II. On Ennius                        Ennius
      III. On Pacuvius                      Pacuvius
       IV. On Plautus                       Plautus
        V. On Tibullus                      Domitius Marsus
       VI. In tumulo hominis felicis        Ausonius, _Epit._ 36
      VII. Thermopylae                      Cicero, _Tusc._ i. 42. 101
 271  Epilogue.
      A. Horace                             Horace, _Od._ iii. 30
      B. Ovid                               Ovid, _Met._ xv. 871
      C. Martial                            Martial iv. 89


  Asinius Pollio, 223
  Aulus Gellius, 63, 177, 179
  Ausonius, 270

  Caesar, 16, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 212, 214, 216,
    218, 220, 241, 265
  Catullus, 231, 243, 247, 264, 267
  Cicero, 54, 65, 79, 89, 97, 101, 102, 105, 111, 112, 113, 119, 127,
    136, 161, 163, 166, 169, 177, 181, 184, 185, 188, 190, 193, 204,
    205, 208, 225, 227, 230, 264, 265, 266, 270
  Claudian, 235

  Domitius Marsus, 270

  Ennius, 270

  Florus, 74, 103, 134, 149, 155, 157, 158, 164, 168, 169, 180, 183, 206
  Frontinus, 123, 131, 146, 149, 172, 173

  Horace, 86, 105, 106, 132, 133, 143, 152, 159, 182, 207, 238, 241,
    244, 246, 250, 261, 265, 271

  Justinus, 100, 104, 109, 171
  Juvenal, 105, 116, 163, 165, 168, 231, 244, 246, 250, 265

  Livy, 32, 40, 61, 62, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78,
    80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 115,
    117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134,
    135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 147, 148, 150, 153,
    154, 232, 233, 246, 265
  Lucan, 82, 165, 174, 175, 207, 211, 213, 214, 215, 217, 219, 221,
    222, 224, 227
  Lucilius, 245
  Lucretius, 246, 265

  Manilius, 249
  Martial, 69, 230, 243, 250, 251, 261, 265, 268, 269, 271

  Naevius, 270
  Nepos, 114, 151

  Ovid, 24, 61, 64, 73, 74, 88, 169, 207, 241, 242, 247, 248, 250,
    251, 252, 260, 267, 271

  Pacuvius, 242, 270
  Persius, 245
  Petronius, 263
  Phaedrus, 258
  Plautus, 254, 264, 265
  Pliny the Elder, 256
  Pliny the Younger, 256, 257, 260
  Propertius, 79, 92, 132, 234, 253, 267
  Prudentius, 236
  Publilius Syrus, 265

  Quintilian, 244, 250, 257, 264, 266

  Sallust, 160, 162, 170, 177, 178, 194
  Seneca, 240, 265
  Silius Italicus, 114, 119, 123, 126
  Statius, 239, 243
  Suetonius, 176, 186, 187, 192, 226, 227, 246, 255

  Tacitus, 262, 265
  Terence, 255, 265
  Terentianus Maurus, 264
  Tibullus, 251, 259

  Valerius Flaccus, 242, 253
  Valerius Maximus, 84, 92, 176
  Varro, 265
  Velleius Paterculus, 156, 167, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 180, 189,
    191, 195, 203, 224, 233
  Vergil, 48, 60, 62, 66, 67, 84, 107, 108, 110, 219, 247, 260, 265


+1. Heading.+--The selections in this book are in most cases
intelligible apart from their context. In cases where this is not so,
you will find it a valuable exercise to endeavour to arrive at the
context for yourself. In all cases, however, you should pay attention to
the +Heading+, which will give you a useful clue to the meaning of the

+2. Author.+--When you see the author’s name, try to remember what you
know about him. For example, +Livy+, the historian of Rome and friend of
Augustus, the contemporary of Vergil and Ovid. The short Lives, pp.
293-345, will tell you the chief facts about the authors from whom the
selections are taken, and will give you a brief summary of their chief
works. Also, if you refer to Appendix VII., pp. 347-363, you will gain
some idea of the time in which the authors lived and of their

+3. Read the Passage through, carefully.+--As you read--

(1) Notice all +allusions+ and +key-words+ that may help you to the
sense of the passage.

(2) +Pay special attention to the opening sentence.+ In translating a
passage much depends on getting the first sentence right.

(3) Notice especially the connectives which introduce sentences and
clauses +marked off by commas+. In this way you will be able to
distinguish between a +Principal Sentence+ and a +Subordinate Clause+.

(For List of Conjunctions see Appendix I. pp. 274-276.)


+4. Through English Derivatives.+--English derivatives, if used in the
proper way, may give you valuable help in inferring meanings. The reason
why you must generally +not+ translate the Latin word by the derived
English word is that, as you probably know, many English derivatives
have come from Latin words which had wholly or in part lost their
earlier classical meaning, or from Latin words not found at all in
classical Latin. Yet in such cases the English word may be far from
useless. You must take care to let it suggest to you the original or
root-meaning, leaving the correct meaning of the Latin, whether the same
as the English word or not, to be determined by the context.

For example, +sē-cūr-us+ does not mean _secure_, but (like _secure_ in
Shakespeare and Milton) _care-less_.

  ‘This happy night the Frenchmen are _secure_,
  Having all day caroused and banqueted.’

        SHAKESPEARE, _Hen. VI._ Part 1. II. i. 11.

+In-crēd-ib-il-is+, on the other hand, often cannot be better translated
than by _incredible_, and +im-plācā-bilis+ by _implacable_.

Notice, too, how often in the case of verbs the +supine stem+ will
suggest to you the meaning of the Latin through some English derivative,
which the present stem conceals.

For example:--

  +pingo+  +pictum+  _picture_  suggests _to paint_.
  +caveo+  +cautum+  _caution_     „      „ _beware_.
  +colo+   +cultum+  _culture_     „      „ _till_.
  +fallo+  +falsum+  _false_       „      „ _deceive_.

+5. Through French Derivatives.+--Sometimes, when you cannot think of an
English derivative, a French word that you know will help you to the
meaning of the Latin.

For example:--

   _L._      _F._
  +pontem+  +pont+   suggests _bridge_.
  +gustum+  +goût+      „     _taste_.
  +prātum+  +pré+       „     _meadow_.
  +tālem+   +tel+       „     _such_.
  +bĭbĕre+  +boire+     „     _to drink_.

But, in order to make French derivatives a real help to you, you must
know something of the origin of the French language and of the chief
rules that govern the pronunciation (and therefore the spelling) of
French. Without going too much into detail, it may help you to remember

(1) +French+ has taken many words from +colloquial Latin+, which in the
days of Cicero was very different from classical Latin.

For example:--

  _Literary Latin._  _Popular Latin._  _French._

  +equus+            +caballus+        +cheval+    _horse_.
  +pugna+            +batalia+         +bataille+  _battle_.
  +os+               +bucca+           +bouche+    _mouth_.

(2) +Unaccented+ syllables are usually dropped.

For example:--

  +cérv-um+    +cerf+   _stag_.
  +bonitátem+  +bonté+  _goodness_.

(3) The general tendency of French is towards smoothness and

For example:--

   _L._        _F._
  +bestiam+   +bête+   _beast_.
  +fact-um+   +fait+   _deed_.
  +spiss-um+  +épais+  _thick_.
  +coll-um+   +cou+    _neck_.

In fact, bearing in mind the caution given you, it is an excellent rule
to try to think out the meaning of the Latin by the help of English and
French derivatives.

+6. Compound Words.+--When you come to a word which you cannot
translate, and in regard to which English and French derivatives do not
help you, +break up the word+, if a compound, into its simple elements
of +Prefix+, +Stem+, +Suffix+. Then from the meaning of its root or stem
and from the force of the prefix and suffix, and by the help of the
context, try to arrive at an English word to suit the sense.

In order to be able to do this you should have some knowledge of--

(1) A few simple rules for the +vowel changes of verbs in composition+.

+a+ before two consonants (except +ng+) often changes to +e+.

  _E.g._ s{a}cr-o, con-s{e}cr-o; d{a}mn-o, con-d{e}mn-o.

+a+ before one consonant and before +ng+ often changes to +i+.

  _E.g._ f{a}c-io, ef-f{i}c-io; c{ă}d-o, ac-c{i}d-o;
  t{a}ng-o, con-t{i}ng-o.
  But gr{ă}d-ior, ag-gr{ĕ}d-ior.

+a+ before +l+ and another consonant changes to +u+.

  _E.g._ s{a}lt-are, in-s{u}lt-are.

+ĕ+ changes to +ĭ+ (but not +e+ before two consonants) and +ae+ to +i+.

  _E.g._ t{e}n-ere, ob-t{i}n-ere; qu{ae}r-ere, in-qu{i}r-ere.

+au+ changes to +u+.

  _E.g._ cl{au}d-ere, in-cl{u}d-ere.

(2) +Prefixes:+--To help you to detach the prefix more readily, notice
these simple euphonic changes, all of which result in making the
pronunciation smoother and easier. Thus:--

(i.) +The last consonant of a Latin prefix is often made the same as, or
similar to, the first consonant of the stem.+

  _E.g._ {ad}-fero = affero; {ob}-pono = {op}-pono;
  {com}(={cum})-tendo = {con}-tendo.

(ii.) +The final consonant of a prefix is often dropped before two

  _E.g._ {ad}-scendo = {a}-scendo.

Notice also that the prepositional prefixes to verbs express different
ideas in different combinations.

Thus, sometimes the prefix has a somewhat +literal prepositional+ force.

  _E.g._ {per}-currere = to run +through+.

But sometimes an +intensive+ force.

  _E.g._ {per}-terrere = to +thoroughly+ frighten.

In all such cases you must be partly guided by the context.

(For List of Important Prefixes, see Appendix II. pp. 277--281.)

(3) +Suffixes+ (other than grammatical inflexions).

A knowledge of the most important suffixes will often help you to the
correct meaning of a Latin word, the root of which is familiar to you.

Thus from the √ag = _drive, move_, we have--

  by addition of +-tor+ (= _agent or doer_ of an action),
    +actor+ = _a doer_, _agent_.
   „    „     „  +-men+ (= _acts or results of acts_),
    +agmen+ = _a course_, _line of march_, &c.
   „    „     „  +-ilis+ (= _belonging to, able to_),
    +agilis+ = _easily moved_, _agile_.
   „    „     „  +-ito+ (= _forcible or repeated action_),
    +agito+ = _put in action_, _agitate_.

(For List of Important Suffixes, see Appendix III. pp. 282--286.)

(4) +Cognates+, that is, words +related in meaning+ through a common
root. You will find it very useful to make for yourself lists of cognate

Thus from the √+gna, gno+ = _know_, we have--

  +gna-rus+ = _knowing_.
  +i-gnarus+ (= +in + gnarus+) = _ignorant_.
  +nos-co+ (= +gno-sco+) = _to get a knowledge of_.
  +i-gno-sco+ = _not to know_, _pardon_.
  +no-bilis+ (= +gno-bilis+) = _that can be known_, _famous_, _noble_.
  +no-men+ (= +gno-men+) = _a name_.

To group together in this manner words of common origin and words
closely associated in meaning is one of the best ways in which you can
increase your vocabulary.

(For additional Examples of Cognates, see Appendix IV. pp. 287-8.)


You have now read the passage through carefully, and thought out the
vocabulary to the best of your ability. Begin then to translate the
opening sentence, and pay great attention to these

+7. General Rules.+--(1) Underline the +Principal Verb+, +Subject+ (if
expressed), and +Object+ (if any).

(2) If the sentence contains +only one finite verb+, all you have to do
is to group round Subject, or Verb, or Object the words and phrases that
belong to each of the three.

(3) Translate the sentence literally. Do this mentally, without writing
it down.

(4) Then write down the best translation you can.

For example:--

  +At GERMANI celeriter, consuetudine sua phalange facta, IMPETUS
  gladiorum EXCEPERUNT.+

  _But the Germans quickly formed into a phalanx, as was their custom,
  and received the attacks of the swords_ (i.e. of the Romans with
  drawn swords).

(5) If the sentence contains one or more subordinate clauses, +consider
each subordinate clause as if it were bracketed off separately+, and
then deal with each clause as if it were a principal sentence, finding
out its Subject, Verb, Object, and adding to each its enlargements. Then
return to the sentence as a whole, and group round its Subject,
Predicate, and Object the various subordinate clauses which belong to

+8. Help through Analysis.+--Very often analysis will help you to find
out the +proper relation of the subordinate clauses+ to the three parts
of the Principal Sentence. You need not always analyse on paper, but do
it +always in your mind+. You will find an example of a simple method of
analysis at the close of Demonstrations I and IV, pp. 23, 47.

When analysing, notice carefully that:--

(1) An enlargement of a Noun may be

  (a) An adjective                  +TERTIAM aciem.+
  (b) A noun in apposition          +Publius Crassus ADULESCENS.+
  (c) A dependent genitive          +impetus GLADIORUM.+
  (d) A participle or participial   +nostris LABORANTIBUS.+
  (e) An adjectival clause          +Publius Crassus QUI EQUITATUI

(2) An enlargement of a Verb may be

  (a) An adverb                     +CELERITER exceperunt.+
  (b) A prepositional phrase        +EX CONSUETUDINE SUA exceperunt.+
  (c) An ablative absolute          +PHALANGE FACTA exceperunt.+
  (d) An adverbial clause           +ID CUM ANIMADVERTISSET,
                                        Publius Crassus misit.+

+9. Help through Punctuation.+--Though only the full-stop was used by
the ancients, the punctuation marks which are now used in all printed
texts should be carefully noticed, especially in translating long and
involved sentences.

Thus in Demonstrations III and IV notice how the subordinate clauses are
for the most part enclosed in commas.

+10. Help through Scansion and Metre.+--A knowledge of this is
indispensable in translating verse. To scan the lines will help you to
determine the grammatical force of a word, and a knowledge of metre will
enable you to grasp the poet’s meaning as conveyed by the position which
he assigns to the various words, and the varying emphasis which results
from variation of metre. For example:--

(1) _A grammatical help._--You know that final +-a+ is _short_ in nom.
and voc. sing. 1st Decl., and in neut. plural, and is _long_ in abl.
sing. 1st Decl. and 2nd Imperat. 1st Conj.

Thus in Demonstration II (p. 24) you can easily determine the
grammatical form of finals in +-a+.

In Sentence IV +agnă+, in VI +cervă+, in VIII +iunctă columbă+, in IX
+Cynthiă+ are all short and nom. sing.

In Sentence V +umbrā unā+ are long and abl. sing. in agreement.

(2) _A help to the poet’s meaning._--The more you know of the principles
of scansion, the better able you will be to understand and appreciate
the skill with which a great poet varies his metre and chooses his

+11. Help through a Study of the Period in Latin.+--One great difference
between English and Latin Prose is that, while modern English is to a
great extent a language of short, detached sentences, Latin +expresses
the sense by the passage as a whole+, and holds the climax in suspense
until the delivery of the last word. ‘This mode of expression is called
a +PERIOD+ (a +circuĭtus+ or +ambĭtus verborum+), because the reader, in
order to collect together the words of the Principal Sentence, must make
a _circuit_, so to say, round the inserted clauses,’[2] ‘Latin possesses
what English does not, a mode of expression by means of which, +round
one main idea are grouped all its accessory ideas+, and there is thus
formed a single harmonious whole, called the +PERIOD+.’[3]

    [Footnote 2: Potts, _Hints_, p. 82.]

    [Footnote 3: Postgate, _Sermo Latinus_, p. 45.]

A +PERIOD+ then is a sentence containing only one main idea (the
Principal Sentence) and several Subordinate Clauses. The Periodic style
is generally used for History and Description, and is best seen in
Cicero and Livy.

The following is a good example of the PERIOD in Latin:--

  [4]+VOLSCI exiguam spem in armis, alia undique abscissa, cum
  tentassent, praeter cetera adversa loco quoque iniquo ad pugnam
  congressi, iniquiore ad fugam, cum ab omni parte caederentur,
  ad preces a certamine versi, dedito imperatore traditisque armis,
  sub iugum missi, cum singulis vestimentis ignominiae cladisque pleni

    _The +VOLSCIANS+ found that now they were severed from every
    other hope, there was but little in prolonging the conflict.
    In addition to other disadvantages they had engaged on a spot
    ill-adapted for fighting and worse for flight. Cut to pieces
    on every side they abandoned the contest and cried for quarter.
    After surrendering their commander and delivering up their arms,
    they passed under the yoke, and with one garment each +WERE SENT+
    to their homes covered with disgrace and defeat._

    [Footnote 4: Potts, _Hints_, p. 85.]

Notice here that

(1) There is only one main idea, that of _the ignominious return of the
Volscians to their homes_.

(2) The rest describes the attendant circumstances of the surrender and
of the causes that led to it.

(3) In English we should translate by at least four separate sentences.

(4) The Latin contains only forty-eight words, while the English
contains eighty-one.

Professor Postgate (‘Sermo Latinus,’ p. 45) gives the following example
of the way in which a Latin +PERIOD+ may be built up:--

  +BALBUS vir optimus, dux clārissimus et multis mihi beneficiis carus,
  rogitantibus Arvernis ut populi Romani māiestātem ostentāret
  suīque simul imperi monumentum eis relinqueret, MŪRUM laterīcium,
  vīginti pedes lātum, sexāginta altitūdine et ita in immensum
  porrectum ut vix tuis ipse oculis crēderes tantum esse, nēdum aliis
  persuāderes, non sine adverso suo rūmore ut qui principātum
  adfectaret AEDIFICAVIT.+

    _+BALBUS+, an excellent man and most distinguished commander,
    who had endeared himself to me by numerous kindnesses,
    was requested by the Arverni to make a display of the power
    and greatness of Rome, and at the same time to leave behind him
    a memorial of his own government. He accordingly +BUILT+ a +WALL+
    of bricks, twenty feet wide, sixty high, and extending to such
    a prodigious length that you could hardly trust your own eyes
    that it was so large, still less induce others to believe it.
    But he did not escape the malign rumour that he had designs
    upon the imperial crown._

Here, as in the previous example,

(1) There is only one main idea,


(2) The rest consists of--

  (a) Enlargements of +BALBUS+--+vir optimus ... carus+;
  placed, therefore, directly _after_ +BALBUS+.

  (b) Enlargements of +MURUM+--+laterīcium ... persuaderes+;
  placed, therefore, directly _after_ +MURUM+.

  (c) Enlargements of +AEDIFICAVIT+

  +rogitantibus ... relinqueret+ = the _cause_ of the building of
  the wall.

  +(murum) non sine ... adfectaret+ = the _attendant circumstances_
  of the building of the wall; placed, therefore, _before_

(3) In English we must translate by at least three separate sentences,
and, where necessary, translate participles as finite verbs, and change
dependent clauses into independent sentences.

It has been well said: ‘An English sentence does not often exhibit the
structure of the Period. It was imitated, sometimes with great skill and
beauty, by many of the earlier writers of English prose; but its effect
is better seen in poetry, as in the following passage:--

  “High on a throne of royal state, which far
  Outshone the wealth of Ormuz and of Ind,
  Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand
  Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold,
  Satan exalted sat.”’

        MILTON, _Paradise Lost_, ii. 1-5.

+12. Help through a Knowledge of the Order of Words in Latin.+--If you
study the examples already given of the Period you will see that the
+Order of Words in English+ differs very much from the +Order of Words
in Latin+.

Dr. Abbott writes as follows: ‘The main difference between English and
Latin is that in English the _meaning_ depends mainly on the _order_ of
words, and the _emphasis_ mainly on the _voice_, while in Latin the
_meaning_ depends almost entirely on the _inflexions_, and the
_emphasis_ upon the _order_.’

Thus, if we take the English sentence, _Caesar conquered the Gauls_, we
cannot invert the order of _Caesar_ and _Gauls_ without entirely
changing the meaning. In Latin, however, we may write (since each Latin
word has its own proper inflexion, serving almost as a label)

+Caesar vicit Gallos+: +Gallos Caesar vicit+: +Caesar Gallos vicit+,
without any change of meaning except that of shifting the emphasis from
one word to another.

The usual order of words in a Latin Prose Sentence may be said to be

(1) Particles, or phrases of connection (with some exceptions, _e.g._
+vero+, +autem+, +quidem+, +enim+, which stand second).

(2) Subject.

(3) Words, phrases, clauses, as enlargements of Subject.

(4) Adverbial enlargements of Predicate (though an Ablative Absolute
must generally stand first).

(5) Indirect Object (if any) and its enlargements.

(6) Direct Object (if any) and its enlargements.

(7) The Principal Verb.

To take a simple example:--

  [5]+LIVIUS, imperator fortissimus, quamquam adventus hostium
  non ubi oportuit nuntiatus est, PERICULUM illa sua in rebus dubiis
  audacia facile EVASIT.+

    _+LIVIUS+, a most excellent commander, although the enemy’s
    arrival was not reported when it should have been, easily
    +ESCAPED+ the +DANGER+ by his well-known daring in perilous

    [Footnote 5: Postgate, _Sermo Latinus_, p. 38.]

To take another example:--

  [6]+Archimedis EGO quaestor ignoratum ab Syracusanis, cum esse
  omnino negarent, saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis,

    _When I was Quaestor, +I WAS ABLE TO TRACE OUT+ the +TOMB+ of
    Archimedes, overgrown and hedged in with brambles and brushwood.
    The Syracusans knew nothing of it, and denied its existence._

    [Footnote 6: Demonstration VI. Sent. 1. p. 55.]

Notice here the following special points of order:--

(1) The two most important positions in the sentence are the beginning
and the end.

(2) Special emphasis is expressed by placing a word in an unusual or
prominent position.

E.g. here, the unusual position of +Archimedis+ and +sepulcrum+.

(3) In the middle of the sentence the arrangement is such that the words
most closely connected in meaning stand nearest together.

E.g. here, +ignoratum ... dumetis+ is all logically connected with the
object +sepulcrum+, which for the sake of emphasis is put in an unusual
position at the end of the sentence.

+13. Additional Hints.+--(1) Remember that Latin is often +concrete+
where English is +abstract+.


  +ingeniosi+ (men of genius) = _genius_.
  +eruditi+ } (learned men) = _learning_.
  +docti+   }
  +viri summo ingenio praediti, saepe invidia opprimuntur.+
    _The most exalted genius is frequently overborne by envy._
  +omnes immemorem benefici oderunt.+
    _The world regards ingratitude with hatred._

(2) The same Latin word may stand for different English words. Take, for
example, the various uses of the word +RES+ in the following passage of
Livy, xlv. 19:--

  [7]+Ut RES docuit . . . animo gestienti REBUS secundis . . .
  speculator RERUM quae a fratre agerentur . . . REM prope prolapsam
  restituit . . . aliis alia regna crevisse REBUS dicendo.+

    _As the +FACT+ showed . . . spirits running riot from +PROSPERITY+
    . . . to watch the +COURSE+ pursued by his brother . . . he restored
    what was almost a lost +CAUSE+ . . . by saying that kingdoms grow
    by various +MEANS+._

    [Footnote 7: Postgate, _Sermo Latinus_, p. 34.]

In translating +RES+, +avoid at all costs+ the word +THING+, or
+THINGS+, and let the context guide you to the appropriate English word.

(3) You may often translate a +Latin Active by an English Passive+.
Latin prefers the Active because it is more direct and vivid.

For example:--

  +Liberas aedes coniurati sumpserunt.+
    _An empty house had been occupied by the conspirators._

(4) Use great care in translating Latin +Participles+, and make clear in
your translation the relation of the participial enlargements to the
action of the main Verb.

For example:--

  concessive: +Romani, non ROGATI, auxilium offerunt.+
              _The Romans, +though they were not asked+, offer help._

       final: +Fortuna superbos interdum RUITURA levat.+
                _Fortune sometimes raises the proud, only +to dash
                them down+._

      causal: +S. Ahala Sp. Maelium regnum APPETENTEM interemit.+
                _S. Ahala killed Sp. Maelius +for aiming at+ the royal

Notice also:--

  +Pontem captum incendit+
    _He took and burned the bridge._
  +Nescio quem prope adstantem interrogavi.+
    _I questioned someone who was standing by._
  +Haec dixit moriens+
    _He said this while dying._
  +Nuntiata clades+
    _The news of the disaster._

(5) In translating, try to bring out the exact force of the +Ablative
Absolute+, by which a Latin writer shows the time or circumstances of
the action expressed by the Predicate. The Ablative Absolute is an
adverbial enlargement of the Predicate, and is not grammatically
dependent on any word in the sentence. It is, therefore, called
+absolutus+ (i.e. _freed from_ or _unconnected_). It should very seldom
be translated literally. Your best plan will be to consider carefully
what the Ablative Absolute seems to suggest about the action of the
Principal Verb.

For example:--

  +Capta Troia, Graeci domum redierunt.+
    _The Greeks returned home after the capture of Troy._

  +Regnante Romulo, Roma urbs erat parva.+
    _When Romulus was reigning, Rome was a small city._

  +Exercitu collecto in hostes contenderunt.+
    _They collected an army and marched against the enemy._

  +Nondum hieme confecta in fines Nerviorum contendit.+
    _Though the winter was not yet over, he hastened to the territory
    of the Nervii._

  +Tum salutato hostium duce, ad suos conversus, subditis equo
  calcaribus, Germanorum ordines praetervectus est, neque expectatis
  legatis, nec respondente ullo.+
    _Thereupon, after saluting the enemy’s general, he turned to his
    companions, and setting spurs to his horse, rode past the ranks
    of the Germans, without either waiting for his staff, or receiving
    an answer from anyone._


Though Style cannot perhaps be taught, it can certainly be formed and
improved. There are several ways of improving your Style. For example:--

+14. Through the Best English Literature.+--+Read good Literature+, the
best English Authors in prose and verse. You will know something,
perhaps, of Shakespeare and Scott, of Macaulay and Tennyson. Though you
may not be able to attack the complete works of any great author, you
ought not to have any difficulty in finding good books of selections
from the English Classics.

+15. Through good Translations.+--Study a few +good English Versions+ of
passages from the best Latin writers. You may often have a good version
of the passage you translate read to you in your Division after your
mistakes have been pointed out to you, and to this you should pay great
attention. You will thus learn eventually to suit your style to the
Author you are translating, while at the same time you render the
passage closely and accurately.

+16. Be Clear.+--Remember that the first characteristic of a good style
is +clearness+--that is, to say what you mean and to mean what you say.
Quintilian, the great critic, says that the aim of the translator should
be, not that the reader may understand if he will, but that he _must_
understand whether he will or not. The more you read the greatest
Authors the more you will see that, as Coleridge says, ‘there is a
reason assignable not only for every word, but for the position of every

+17. Be Simple.+--With clearness goes simplicity--that is, use no word
you do not understand, +avoid fine epithets+, and do not choose a phrase
for its sound alone, but for its sense.

+18. Avoid Paraphrase.+--You are asked to translate, not to give a mere
general idea of the sense. What you have to do is to +think out the
exact meaning+ of every word in the sentence, and to express this in as
good and correct English as you can.

+19. Pay attention to Metaphors.+--The subject of Metaphor is of great
importance in good translation. You will find that every language
possesses its own special Metaphors in addition to those which are
common to most European languages. As you become familiar with Latin
Authors you must try to +distinguish the Metaphors common+ to English
and Latin and those +belonging only+ to English or to Latin.

For example:--

(1) Metaphors +identical+ in Latin and English--

  +Progreditur res publica naturali quodam itinere et cursu.+
    _The State advances in a natural path and progress._

(2) Metaphors +differing+ in Latin and English--

  +cedant arma togae+
    _let the sword yield to the pen._
  +ardet acerrime coniuratio+
    _the conspiracy is at its height._
  +rex factus est+
    _he ascended the throne._
    _he held his peace._

+20. Careful Translation a Help to Style.+--In conclusion. Nothing will
help your style more than to +do your translations as well as you
possibly can+, and to +avoid repeating the same mistakes+. The Latins
themselves knew the value of translation as a help to style.

For example, Pliny the Younger says:--

‘As useful as anything is the practice of translating either your Greek
into Latin or your Latin into Greek. By practising this you will acquire
propriety and dignity of expression, an abundant choice of the beauties
of style, power in description, and gain in the imitation of the best
models a facility of creating such models for yourself. Besides, what
may escape you when you read, cannot escape you when you translate.’





The use of a personal mode of address in the following Demonstrations
is explained by the fact that they are written primarily for the use
of boys. It is hoped, however, that they may be found useful to masters
also, and that the fulness with which each passage is treated may supply
some helpful suggestions.


  _Fierce encounter with the Germans._

(a) Reiectis pilis cominus gladiis pugnatum est. |II| At Germani
celeriter, ex consuetudine sua, phalange facta, impetus gladiorum
exceperunt. |III| Reperti sunt complures nostri milites, qui in
phalangas insilirent, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper
vulnerarent. |IV| Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque in
fugam conversa esset, a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine suorum
nostram aciem premebant. |V| Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus
adulescens, qui equitatui praeerat, quod expeditior erat quam hi qui
inter aciem versabantur, tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio
misit. |VI| Ita proelium restitutum est. ||


_Fierce encounter with the Germans._

(b) Reiectis pilis cominus gladiis +pugnatum est+. {II} At +Germani+
celeriter, ex consuetudine sua, phalange facta, +impetus+ gladiorum
+exceperunt+. {III} +Reperti sunt+ complures nostri +milites+ [_qui
in phalangas insilirent, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper
vulnerarent_.] {IV} [_Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque
in IV fugam conversa esset,_] a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine
suorum nostram +aciem premebant+. {V} [_Id cum animadvertisset
+Publius Crassus+ adulescens,_] [_qui equitatui praeerat,_]
[_quod expeditior erat quam hi qui inter aciem versabantur,_]
tertiam +aciem+ laborantibus nostris subsidio +misit+. {VI} Ita
proelium +restitutum est+.



  CAESAR, _B. G._ i. 52. _Reiectis pilis ... restitutum est._

_Heading and Author._--This tells you enough for working purposes, even
if you do not remember the outline facts of Caesar’s campaign against
Ariovistus, the chief of the Germans, called in by the Gauls in their
domestic quarrels, who conquered and ruled them until he was himself
crushed by the Romans.

_Read through the passage carefully._--As you do this, notice all
allusions and key-words that help you to the sense of the passage,
_e.g._ +Germani+, +nostri milites+, +Publius Crassus+. The general sense
of the passage should now be so plain (_i.e._ an incident in a battle
between the Germans and the Romans) that you may begin to translate
sentence by sentence.

+I.+ +Reiectis pilis cominus gladiis pugnatum est.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Reiectis+ = +re + iacio+ = _throw back_ or _away_. The context will
tell you which is the better meaning for +re-+. Notice the force of all
prefixes in composition, whether separate or inseparable as here. For
+re-+, see pp. 280, 281.  [[Appendix II.II: Separable Particles]]

+pilis+ = the +pīlum+, the distinctively _Roman_ missile weapon.

+cominus+ = +comminus+: _i.e._ +con (= cum) + manus+ = _hand to hand._
N.B.--In composition _a_ often becomes _i_, cf. +iacio+, +re-icio+; and
cf. +e-minus+ = _at a distance_.

(ii.) _Translation._--

+PUGNATUM EST+. The only finite verb in the sentence, and the principal
one. The form shows you it is a so-called impersonal verb, and therefore
the subject must be sought from the verb itself in connection with the
context. Here, clearly, you must translate _the battle was fought_.

+cominus+ tells us _how_, i.e. _hand to hand_.

+reiectis pilis+. You will recognise this as an _ablative absolute_
phrase. But do not translate this literally _their javelins having been
thrown away_, for this is not English. Let the principal verb and the
sense generally guide you to the force of the phrase. Thus you can see
here that the Roman soldiers had no use for their javelins, and so threw
them away as a useless encumbrance. (The context tells us that the Roman
soldiers had no time to hurl their javelins against the foe.) You can
now translate the whole sentence--_(and so) the Romans threw away their
javelins and fought hand to hand with swords_.

+II.+ +At Germani celeriter, ex consuetudine sua, phalange facta,
impetus gladiorum exceperunt.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+ex consuetudine sua + = _according to their custom_. You will probably
have met with +consuetudo+, or +consuesco+, or +suesco+. Our own word
_custom_ comes from it through the French _coutume_. For this use of
+ex+ cf. +ex sententia+, +ex voluntate+.

+phalange+ = _phalanx_. If you learn Greek, you will readily think of
the famous Macedonian phalanx.

+impetus+ = _attacks_ = +in + peto+ (= _aim at_). Cf. our _impetus_,

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence contains only one finite verb, the
principal one.

+EXCEPERUNT+ = _(they) received_. _Who_ received? Clearly

+GERMANI+ = _the Germans_. Received _what_?

+IMPETUS+ = _the attacks_. +impetūs+ must be Acc. Plur.

All you now have to do is to assign to their proper places the words and
phrases that remain. Of these

  1. +celeriter+           }
  2. +ex consuetudine sua+ }
  3. +phalange facta+      }
        modify the action of +exceperunt+, telling us _when_ and _how_
        they received, and
  4. +gladiorum+
        belongs to +impetūs+.

Now translate the whole sentence. _But the Germans quickly formed into a
phalanx, as was their custom, and received the attacks of the swords_
(i.e. _of the Romans with drawn swords_).

+III.+ +Reperti sunt complures nostri milites, qui in phalangas
insilirent, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper vulnerarent.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+insilirent+ = +in + salio+ = _leap-on_. And cf. our _insult_. Notice
the usual phonetic change of vowel from _a_ to _i_. (English derivatives
will often help you to the meaning of a Latin word, though, for reasons
that are explained to you in the Introduction, pp. 1, 2, § 4, you must
let them lead you up to the _root-meaning_ of the Latin word rather than
to an exact translation.)

+revellerent+ = +re + vello+ = _pluck-away_. If you forget the meaning
of +vello+, the supine +vulsum+ through some English derivative--e.g.
_re-vulsion_, _con-vulsion_--will probably help you to the root-meaning.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence contains four finite verbs. As you
read it through, underline the principal verb, clearly +REPERTI SUNT+,
and bracket +qui+ to +vulnerarent+. You cannot doubt which verbs to
include in your bracket, for +qui+, which is a subordinate conjunction
as well as a relative pronoun, serves as a sure signpost. Also
+revellerent+ and +vulnerarent+ are joined by +et--et+ to +insilirent+,
so your bracket includes all from +qui+ to +vulnerarent+. The commas in
the passage will often help you to the beginning and end of a
subordinate clause. Now begin with the principal verb +REPERTI SUNT+ and
its subject +complures nostri MILITES+, _many of our soldiers were

+qui ... vulnerarent+. This subordinate clause describes, just as an
adjective does, _the character_ of these +complures nostri+, so that
+qui = tales ut+--i.e. _brave enough to leap upon the phalanxes, and
pluck away the shields (of the Germans) and wound them from above_.

+IV.+ +Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque in fugam conversa
esset, a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine suorum nostram aciem

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+ăcies+ = _line of battle_.

√+ac+ = _sharp_ (cf. +ācer+), perhaps thought of as the _edge_ of a

+cornu+ = _horn_; so, figuratively, _the wing of an army_.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence contains three finite verbs.
Underline +PREMEBANT+, clearly the principal verb, and bracket +cum+ to
+conversa esset+. Here the signpost is the subordinate conjunction
+cum+. Next find the subject of +premebant+: obviously no word from +a
dextro+ to +aciem+ can be the subject; it is implied in
+premebant+--i.e. _they_, which as context shows = +Germani+. Now find
the object = +nostram aciem+ = _our line_.

Thus you have as the backbone of the whole sentence:--

  _They (the Germans) were pressing our line._

All the rest of the sentence will now take its proper place, as in some
way modifying the action of +premebant+.


  +cum ... conversa esset+ tells us _when_       they were pressing.
  +a dextro cornu+          „    „  _where_          „        „
  +vehementer+              „    „  _how_            „        „
  +multitudine suorum+      „    „  _how or why_     „        „

N.B.--+suorum+, reflexive, must be identical with the subject of

  Now translate _{Though}{When} the enemy’s line had been routed
  and put to flight on their left wing, on their right wing, owing to
  their great numbers, they were pressing hard upon our line._

+V.+ +Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus adulescens, qui equitatui
praeerat, quod expeditior erat quam hi qui inter aciem versabantur,
tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+animadvertisset+ = +animum + ad + verto+ = _to turn the mind to, to

+adulescens+ = here like our _junior_, to distinguish him from his
father, Marcus Crassus the triumvir.

+expeditior+ = _more free_ (+ex + pes+ = _foot-free_; so +impeditus+ =
_hampered_, _hindered_).

+versabantur+--(+verso+ frequent. of +verto+) = _turn this way and
that_; so +verso-r+ dep. = _turn oneself_, _engage in_, _be_, according
to the context.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence is more involved, ‘periodic’[8] in
style. You will see on p. 23 how much help can be given by a more
detailed analysis. [[Demonstration I: Table]]

    [Footnote 8: See Introduction, pp. 7-9, § 11.]
    [[Introduction 11. Help through a Study of the Period in Latin.]]

Now, as before, bracket the subordinate clauses thus:--

  +1.+ +Id ... adulescens+
  +2.+ +qui ... praeerat+
  +3.+ +quod ... versabantur+

and then the only principal verb is +MISIT+. Underline this. Next
underline the principal subject, clearly +P. CRASSUS+, which is also the
subject of clause 1. Then, _outside the brackets_, the only possible
object is +ACIEM+: underline this.

Now analyse, as on p. 23. [[Demonstration I: Table]]

(a) Write down +CRASSUS+, +MISIT+, +ACIEM+.

(b) Place alongside these their proper enlargements.

(c) If necessary, analyse separately all subordinate clauses--_e.g._ A1,
A2, A3 in example on p. 23.

You should now be able to translate without any difficulty; only take
care to arrange the enlargements so as to make the best sense and the
best English. Thus: _When Publius Crassus the younger, who was in
command of the cavalry, had observed this, he sent the third line to the
help of our men who were hard pressed, as he was more free to act than
those who were engaged in action._

+VI.+ +Ita proelium restitutum est.+ _In this way the battle was

  _Final Hints._

Remember that +one passage mastered+ is worth a great many hurriedly
translated. So before you leave this passage notice carefully in the

I. _Vocabulary._--

(i.) Any words that are quite new to you. Look them out in the
dictionary, and notice their derivation and use; if you do not do this
you will find the same word new to you the next time you meet with it.

(ii.) _English Derivatives._--As you have seen, these will often help
you to the root-meaning of a word. Thus:--

  +reiectis+ = _reject, throw away_
  +insilirent+ = _insult, jump on_

and in the case of verbs, as these two examples show, derivatives are
most easily found from the _supine_ stem.

N.B.--This must be done very carefully, because many such English
derivatives have come from Latin words after they had wholly, or in
part, lost their classical meaning, or from Latin words not found at all
in classical Latin.

A great many other English words are derived from the Latin of this
passage--e.g. _pugnacious_, (with) _celerity_, _fact_, _except_,
_military_, _manual_, _super_-sede, _vulnerable_, _hostile_, _sinister_,
uni-_corn_, and many others.

(iii.) _Prefixes._--Notice especially the force of prepositions and
inseparable particles in composition, e.g.:--

  +re-+ in +re-iectis+, +re-vellerent+, +restitutum+.
  +in-+ in +impetus+, +insilirent+.
  +ex-+ in +exceperunt+, +expeditior+.

(iv.) _Simple Phonetic Changes in Composition_, e.g.:--

+a+ to +i+ in +insilirent+, +cominus+ (+con + manus+).

(v.) _Groups of Related Words._

Thus +acies+ √+ac+ = _sharp_, is related to +ăc-er+, sharp; +ăc-ervus+,
a heap; +ăc-utus+, sharp, &c.

+expeditior+ √+ped+ = _tread, go_, is related to +pes+, a foot;
+impedio+ = entangle; +impedimentum+ = hindrance, etc.

II. _Historical and other Allusions._--

(i.) Read a summary of Caesar’s campaign against Ariovistus.

(ii.) _Terms relating to War._--Thus notice:--

+pilum+, the distinctively _Roman_ infantry weapon, and see a good

_phalanx_; cf. the Roman +testudo+.

+tertiam aciem+--_i.e._ the line of reserves, kept for just such
emergencies. Read, if necessary, some short account of the +triplex
acies+, the usual Roman order of battle.

III. _Some Authorities._--

(i.) _Caesar_, Allen and Greenough, published by Ginn & Co. (an
admirable edition).

(ii.) Froude’s _Caesar_, p. 50.

(iii.) Mommsen’s _History of Rome_, vol. iv. p. 295.

(iv.) Napoleon’s _Caesar_, vol. ii. cap. 4, and vol. ii. p. 405.


  CAESAR, _B. G._ i. 52: ‘_Reiectis pilis ... restitutum est._’


  Kind of Sentence

A. Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus adulescens, qui equitatui
praeerat, quod expeditior rat quam hi ui inter aciem versabantur,
tertiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit.

  PRINCIPAL (complex)
      1. Publius
      2. adulescens
      3. qui ... praeerat
        1. Id cum ... adulescens (= _when_)
        2. quod ... versabantur (= _why_)
        3. laborantibus ... subsidio (= _how_)

A1. Id cum animadvertisset Publius Crassus adulescens

  _adverbial_ to +MISIT+ in +A+

A2. qui equitatui praeerat

  _adjectival_ to +CRASSUS+ in +A+
      qui (= Crassus)

A3. quod expeditior erat quam hi qui inter aciem versabantur

  _adverbial_ to +MISIT+ in +A+
        erat expeditior
        quam ... hi versabantur


  _The Music of Arion._

  (a) Quod mare non novit, quae nescit Ariona tellus?          I
        Carmine currentes ille tenebat aquas.                 II
      Saepe, sequens agnam, lupus est a voce retentus;       III
        Saepe avidum fugiens restitit agna lupum;             IV   4
      Saepe canes leporesque umbra cubuere sub una,            V
        Et stetit in saxo proxima cerva leae:                 VI
      Et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite cornix          VII
        Sedit, || et accipitri iuncta columba fuit.         VIII   8
      Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vocalis Arion,               IX
        Tamquam fraternis obstupuisse modis.                      10


  _The Music of Arion._

  (b) Quod +mare+ non +novit+, quae +nescit Ariona tellus+?    I
        Carmine currentes +ille tenebat aquas+.               II
      Saepe, sequens agnam, +lupus est+ a voce +retentus+;   III
        Saepe avidum fugiens +restitit agna+ lupum;           IV   4
      Saepe +canes leporesque+ umbra +cubuere+ sub una,        V
        Et +stetit+ in saxo proxima +cerva+ leae:             VI
      Et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite +cornix+        VII
        +Sedit+, et accipitri +iuncta columba fuit+.        VIII   8
      +Cynthia+ saepe tuis +fertur+, vocalis Arion,           IX
        Tamquam fraternis +obstupuisse+ modis.                    10



  OVID, _Fasti_ ii. 83-92 (Hallam’s Edition).

_Heading and Author._--The heading will probably suggest to you the
well-known story of Arion and the Dolphin, and the name of the author,
Ovid, will lead you to expect a beautiful version of the legend.

_Read the Passage carefully._--As you read, notice all allusions that
help you to the sense of the passage. Thus the first line (which you can
no doubt translate at once) tells of the fame of Arion, and the
succeeding lines describe the charm of his music.

_The Form of the Passage: Elegiac Verse._--Scan[9] as you read, and mark
the quantity in the verse of all finals in +-a+. You will see the value
of this, as you translate.

    [Footnote 9: See Introduction, pp. 6, 7, § 10.]
    [[Introduction 10. Help through Scansion and Metre]]

You can now begin to translate, taking one complete sentence at a time.

+I.+ +Quod mare non nōvit, quae nescit Ărīŏnă tellūs?+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--You will know all the words here, but observe
+nōvit+ = _knows_, not _knew_, for +nōvi+ means _I have become
acquainted with, I have learned_, and ∴ _I know_; and notice also the
important cognates from the √γνο-, γνω-, +-gna+, +-gno+, γι-γνώ-σκω
= _I learn to know_, cf. our _know_, _ken_, _can_, _con_--νό-ος
(_mind_), +-gna-rus+ = _know-ing_; +no-sco+ (= +gno-sco+).

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence contains no subordinates; the two
finite verbs, +nōvit+, +nescit+, are both principal.

Next, the form of the sentence, with the question-mark at the end, shows
that +mare+ must be the subject of +nōvit+, and +tellus+ of +nescit+.
(+Ărīŏnă+ cannot be nominative, for the suffix +-a+ is the usual Greek
3rd decl. Acc. Sing., where Latin has +-em+.) Also +quod+ and +quae+ are
clearly interrogative and adjectival; so translate:--

_What sea does not know, what land is ignorant of Arion?_

N.B.--Try to render this line a little more poetically.

+II.+ +Carmine currentes ille tenēbat aquās.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--You will know all these simple words.

(ii.) _Translation._--Here again there are no subordinates. The
principal verb is +tenebat+, the subject +ille+, and the object +aquas+;
so translate:--

_He used to stay the running waters by his song._

N.B.--Notice force of Imperfect in +tenebat+.

+III.+ +Saepe, sequens agnam, lupus est a voce retentus;+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--All you need notice here is the force of +re-+ in
+retentus+ = _held back_, cf. our _re_-tain.

(ii.) _Translation._--Before you translate, notice Ovid’s frequent use
of _parataxis_, _i.e._ placing one thought side by side with another
thought, _without any connective_, even although one thought is, in
sense, clearly subordinate to another. This is one of the ways in which
all great poets _heighten the effect_ of what they say, and many
examples of it are to be found in Ovid’s best elegiac verse. As you look
through this passage you will find:

  (a) Lines 1, 2, 3, 4 each form a complete sentence.

  (b) In the whole passage there is not _one_ subordinate conjunction.

  (c) The only expressed connective is the simplest link-word +et+.

The principal verb is +retentus est+, the subject +lupus+. +Sequens
agnam+ describes +lupus+, and +saepe+ and +a voce+ tell us _when_ and
_why_ the wolf _was stayed_.

_Often has the wolf in pursuit of the lamb been stayed at the sound._

(For this use of +a+ or +ab+ to express _origin_ or _source_ cf. Ovid,
_Fasti_, v. 655 [V. 709]: _Pectora traiectus Lynceo Castor_ +ab ense+.)

+IV.+ +Saepe avidum fŭgiens restitit agnă lupum.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Restitit+ = _stood still_; +re + si-st-o+, _i.e._ from √sta-,
strengthened by reduplication; cf. ἵ-στη-μι. Contrast carefully meaning
of +re-sto+, = _stand firm_ or _be left_.

(ii.) _Translation._--Again a very simple sentence. The principal verb
is +restitit+, the subject +agnă+; +fugiens avidum lupum+ enlarges the
subject +ăgna+, and +saepe+ tells us when the lamb _stood still_.

_Often has the lamb, when fleeing from the hungry wolf, stood still
(stopped short in its flight)._

N.B.--Notice the _parallelism_ in this couplet, where the parallel lines
express the same idea. This is a characteristic feature of Hebrew
poetry, e.g.:

  ‘Seek ye the Lord while He may be found:
  Call ye upon Him while He is near.’

        Is. lv. 6.

and is frequently employed by Ovid.[10]

    [Footnote 10: E.g.:
      Plena fuit vobis omni concordia vita,
        Et stetit ad finem longa tenaxque fides.
          _Amores_ ii. 6. 13-14.]

+V.+ +Saepe cănes lepŏresque umbrā cŭbuēre sub unā.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Lepŏres+ = _hares_. As this is closely connected by +-que+ with
+cănes+, you are not likely to confuse it with +lĕpor+ (+lepos+; cf.
λάμπω) = _a charm_, _grace_.

+Cubuere+ = _lay down_. Cp. +-cumbo+ in composition, and our
_recumbent_, _succumb_, and _cub_-icle.

(ii.) _Translation._--Another simple sentence about which there can be
no doubt. The metre shows that +umbrā+ must be taken with +sub unā+:--

_Often have the dogs and the hares reclined beneath the same shade._

+VI.+ +Et stetit in saxo proximă cervă leae.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Leae+ = _lioness_. +Lea+ (poetical form of +leaena+) suggests +leo+.

(ii.) _Translation._--The metre shows +proximă+ must be taken with
+cervă+. But to translate _the nearest stag (hind)_ makes nonsense,
and renders +leae+ untranslatable, while _the hind very close to the
lioness_ makes good sense.

_And the hind has stood still on the crag close beside the lioness._

+VII.+ +Et sĭne līte lŏquax cum Palladis ālite cornix sēdit.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Līte+ = _strife_. To _litigate_ = contest in law (+lit + agere+) may
help you to the root-meaning.

+Loquax+ = _talkative_, clearly connected with +lŏq-uor+, and
_loq_-uacious. +Alite+ = _a bird_, lit. _winged_; cf. +āl-a+, a _wing_.

+Cornix+ = _a crow_, probably from √καρ; cf. our _croak_, and κόραξ,
+cor-vus+, a _raven_.

+Palladis.+ You have no doubt heard of Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη, the virgin goddess
of war and of wisdom.

(ii.) _Translation._--The force of the illustration lies in the strong
contrast between the chattering, tale-bearing crow and the wise, silent
owl sacred to the goddess of wisdom. Two such opposites, under the spell
of Arion’s music, forget to quarrel, though for the time in close

_And the chattering crow has without strife sat in company with the bird
of Pallas._

+VIII.+ +Et accipitri iunctă cŏlumbă fuit.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Accipitri+ = _hawk_ (a general name for birds of prey), probably from
√πετ-, +pet-+ = _move quickly_; cf. πέτ-ομαι = _fly about_; +pĕt-o+ =
_fall upon_, _attack_, _seek_.

So +accipiter+ = +ac + pĕt-+, _swift + flying_; cf. ὠκύπτερος =

(ii.) _Translation._--The metre shows that +columbă+ and +iunctă+ must
be taken together:--

_And the dove has-been-joined-to (has consorted with) the hawk._


  +Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vōcalis Ărīōn,
    Tamquam fraternis obstŭpuisse mŏdis.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Cynthia+ = _Diana_ (_Artemis_), so called from Mt. Cynthus, in Delos,
where she and Apollo were born.

+Fertur+ = _is said_, _asserted_; cf. +fĕrunt+ = _they say_.

+Vōcalis+ = _tuneful_, clearly from same root as +vox+, +vŏc-o+, &c., of
our _vocal_. For change of quantity cf. +rex+, +rēgis+, from +rĕgo+.

+Obstŭpuisse+ = _to have been spell-bound_; +stŭp-eo+, +stŭp-idus+, and
our _stupefy_, _stupid_ will suggest the root-meaning.[11]

+Mŏdis+ = _measures_, especially of verse, or, as here, of music.

    [Footnote 11: Notice this word, which is often employed to express
    the ideas of _entránce_, _enthrall_, _strike dumb_, _amaze_.]

(ii.) _Translation._--You will remember that Apollo, the god who brings
back light and sunshine in spring, is also the god of music and of
poetry. Ovid skilfully implies that Arion’s playing was so beautiful
that even Diana, Apollo’s own sister, mistakes Arion’s playing for her

This sentence takes up a whole couplet, but is in form quite simple.
Thus +fertur+ is the incomplete predicate, and +obstupuisse saepe tuis
modis tamquam fraternis+ completes the predicate, _i.e._ tells us all
that is said of the subject +Cynthia+.

+Vōcalis Ărīon+ is clearly vocative, or nominative of address.

_O tuneful Arion, often is Cynthia said to have been spell-bound by thy
strains, as by those of her brother (Apollo)._

_Final Suggestions._

You have now learnt how to translate this passage, but you must do more
before you can master it. Thus in these simple but beautiful lines

(i.) _Vocabulary._--This is easy and familiar, but even if you know the
meaning of the words study their _cognates_--_i.e._ related words--as
pointed out to you in the vocabulary, _e.g._ under +nōvit+, p. 25,
sentence I.  [[Demonstration II.ii]]

(ii.) _English Derivatives._--Remember that often, where you cannot
think of an English derivative, some very familiar _French_ word will
help you to the root-meaning of the Latin. Thus:--

   Latin.     French.   English.
  +Carmine+  _Charme_  _Charm_ (_Song_)
  +Agnam+    _Agneau_  _Lamb_
  +Lupus+    _Loup_    _Wolf_
  +Cerva+    _Cerf_    _Stag_ (_Hind_)

and notice that where the English word, e.g. _charm_, differs in
spelling from the Latin, it is because it comes to us through a French
channel. Cf. _feat_ from Fr. _fait_ = L. _factum_.

(iii.) _Allusions and Parallel Passages._--In verse these are often
numerous and important. Poetry is naturally full of imagery, and borrows
from many sources. Thus, for ll. 1-8, compare Hor. _Od._ I. xii. 5:

  ‘Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris
      .    .    .    .
  Arte materna rapidos morantem
  Fluminum lapsus  .  .  .’

and Verg. _G._ iv. 510:

  ‘Mulcentem tigris et agentem carmine quercus.’

Shakesp. _Hen. VIII._ III. i.:

  ‘Orpheus with his lute made trees,
  And the mountain-tops that freeze,
    Bow themselves when he did sing’;

or read Tennyson’s poem ‘Amphion.’

_Lines 5, 6._--Cf. Isaiah xi. 6: ‘The wolf also shall dwell with the
lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the
young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead

(iv.) _Hints for Verses._--Ovid is the acknowledged master of elegiac
verse. Therefore, whenever you have a passage of his elegiacs to
translate, you should, if possible, learn it by heart. (The Arion story
as told by Ovid is well worth a place in any collection of _Ediscenda_.)
If you cannot do this, notice useful phrases and turns of expression,

_Line 1._--A question, instead of a bare statement, where no answer is

Cf. ‘Quod crimen dicis praeter amasse meum?’

  (Dido to Aeneas, Ov. _Her._ vii. 164.)

_Lines 3, 4._--Parataxis and repetition of idea.

_Line 9._--+Vocalis Arion+, apostrophe.

_Line 2._--Simplicity; alliteration.

(v.) _The Poem as Literature._--Ovid here depicts in language purposely
exaggerated the power of music over the hearts of men, and even over
nature, animate and inanimate. This gives point to the strong contrast
in the lines which follow, where greed dominates all the feelings.
Shakespeare refers to the love of music as a test of character:--

  ‘The man that hath no music in himself,
  Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,
  Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils.’



_A rash promise rashly believed._

Hannibali alia in his locis bene gerendae rei fortuna oblata est. |I|
M. Centenius fuit cognomine Paenula, insignis inter primipili
centuriones et magnitudine corporis et animo. |II| Is perfunctus
militia, per P. Cornelium Sullam praetorem in senatum introductus, petit
a Patribus, uti sibi quinque milia militum darentur: |III| se peritum et
hostis et regionum, brevi operae pretium facturum et, quibus artibus ad
id locorum nostri et duces et exercitus capti forent, iis adversus
inventorem usurum. |IV| Id non promissum magis stolide, quam stolide
creditum, tamquam eaedem militares et imperatoriae artes essent! |V|
Data pro quinque octo milia militum; pars dimidia cives, pars socii.
|VI| Et ipse aliquantum voluntariorum in itinere ex agris concivit, ac
prope duplicato exercitu in Lucanos pervenit, ubi Hannibal, nequiquam
secutus Claudium, substiterat. |VII|


_A rash promise rashly believed._

Hannibali alia in his locis bene gerendae rei +fortuna oblata est. {I}
M. Centenius fuit+ cognomine Paenula, insignis inter primipili
centuriones et magnitudine corporis et animo. {II} +Is+ perfunctus
militia, per P. Cornelium Sullam praetorem in senatum introductus, petit
a Patribus, [uti sibi quinque milia militum darentur]. {III} +Centenius
dixit+ _se peritum et hostis et regionum, brevi operae pretium facturum:
et, [quibus artibus ad id locorum nostri et duces et exercitus capti
forent], iis adversus inventorem usurum_. {IV} +Id+ non +promissum+
magis stolide, quam stolide +creditum+: [tamquam eaedem militares et
imperatoriae artes essent!] {V} +Data+ pro quinque octo +milia+ militum;
{VI} +pars+ dimidia cives, +pars+ socii. Et +ipse aliquantum+
voluntariorum in itinere ex agris +concivit+, ac prope duplicato
exercitu, in Lucanos +pervenit+, [ubi Hannibal, nequiquam secutus
Claudium, substiterat].



  LIVY, xxv. 19.

_Read the passage through carefully._ As you read--

(i.) Make all the use you can of your previous knowledge of History,
Geography, and Antiquities.

Thus, +Hannibali+ suggests an episode in the Second Punic War.

  +M. Centenius+ is clearly the unfortunate subject of the episode.

  +in Lucanos ... substiterat+ helps to fix the date as later than
  +Cannae+, 216 B.C.

(ii.) Observe carefully all phrases that will require special care in
translating--_e.g._ +bene gerendae rei+--+inter primipili
centuriones+--+perfunctus militia+--+operae pretium+--+ad id locorum+.

You will now have a sufficient general idea of the form and general
sense of the passage, and may begin to translate sentence by sentence.

+I.+ +Hannibali alia in his locis bene gerendae rei fortuna oblata est.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+oblata+, cf. _ob-lation_ = _an offering_ and _of-fer_.

(ii.) _Translation._--

+oblata est+ shows that the subject must be +fortuna+, with which +alia+
must agree, and +gerendae rei+ is dependent genitive. So you may at once
translate literally _Another fortune (chance) of carrying-on the matter
well in these parts was offered to Hannibal_. But you must not be
satisfied with this, for though literally correct it is neither good
History nor good English. So render: _In this district Hannibal had
another chance presented to him of achieving a success_.

Here notice especially the use of the word +res+,[12] a remarkable
example of the tendency of Roman writers to employ the ordinary and
simple vocabulary wherever possible _instead of inventing a new word_.
As a writer well says, ‘+Res+ is, so to say, a blank cheque, to be
filled up from the context to the requisite amount of meaning.’ Cf.
‘+Consilium erat quo fortuna rem daret, eo inclinare vires+,’ where
+res+ = _victory_.

    [Footnote 12: Cf. Introduction, p. 11.]  [[Introduction 13 (2)]]

+II.+ +M. Centenius fuit cognomine Paenula, insignis inter primipili
centuriones et magnitudine corporis et animo.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+primipili+ = the chief centurion of the +triarii+ (the third, veteran
line of the legion), the +primipilus+, or +primus pilus+. So Livy vii.
41, ‘+primus centurio erat, quem nunc (centurionem) primi pili

+cognomine+, _i.e._ +co-nomen+, a name _added_ to the +nomen+, a title,
epithet, _e.g._:

  +Publius+ = the distinctive +praenomen+.
  +Scipio+ = +nomen+, designating his +gens+.
  +Africanus+ = +cognomen+.

(ii.) _Translation._--The form of this sentence is quite simple. The
subject is +M. Centenius+, with which +insignis+ agrees. _There was a
certain M. Centenius, by surname Penula, distinguished among the
first-rank_ (or _chief_) _centurions_ (of the Triarii) _both for his
great bodily size and courage._

+III.+ +Is perfunctus militia, per P. Cornelium Sullam praetorem in
senatum introductus, petit a Patribus, uti sibi quinque milia militum

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+perfunctus+, cf. _function_, and notice force of +per+ = discharge

(ii.) _Translation._--The principal verb is clearly +petit+, and +is+ is
the only possible subject (= +Centenius+), with which +introductus+
agrees. There is one subordinate clause, introduced by +ut+, telling us
the object of his request.

Translate, first literally, _He having discharged completely his
military service, being introduced into the Senate by P. C. Sulla, the
Praetor, asks the Fathers that 5000 soldiers should be given him_. Now
improve this: get rid at all costs of the _having_ and _being_, which
are not English, and change the _asks_ into the past tense of narration.

_After he had completed his term of service, and had been introduced to
the Senate by P. Corn. Sulla, the Praetor, he petitioned the Fathers
that 5000 soldiers should be given him._

+IV.+ +Se peritum et hostis et regionum, brevi operae pretium facturum:
et, quibus artibus ad id locorum nostri et duces et exercitus capti
forent, iis adversus inventorem usurum.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+peritum+, cf. _ex-peri-enced_. √+par-+, +per-+, _pierce_, _go through_;
so, +ex-per-ior+, +per-iculum+, in sense of a _trial_.

+operae pretium+ = lit. ‘_what will pay for the trouble_,’ _i.e. worth
while_, _i.e._ worth the _time_ (or _labour_) spent upon it.

+artibus--ars.+ √+ar+ = _fit_, _join_ = skill in joining something,
skill in producing; so, _artist_, _artisan_, _artifice_, etc.

+ad id locorum+[13] = _to that point of time_. The ideas of _place_ and
_time_ readily interchange; so, +in loco+ = at the right _place_ or

    [Footnote 13: Cf. Sallust, _Jugurtha_, 63 _Tamen is_ +ad id
    locorum+ _talis vir_ = _Such was his character up to this time_.]

(ii.) _Translation._--The form of the sentence shows that it is
_reported speech_, and not the actual words of the speaker +Centenius+,
who is still the principal subject, and +dixit+, _understood_, the
principal verb, and +se peritum ... usurum+ the object of +dixit+. You
should now be able to translate without any difficulty, and the logical
common-sense rules for the conversion of Or. Recta into Or. Obliqua
explain the mood of the verb +capti forent+ in the subordinate clause
introduced by +quibus+.

Literally: _Centenius said that he, experienced in both the enemy and
the districts, would soon make it worth (their) while: and that he would
use against their inventor those arts by which up to that time both our
leaders and our armies had been overcome._ Notice that the long relative
clause +quibus artibus ... forent+ is in Latin placed before the
antecedent +iis+.

You will readily see that this must be improved in several points.

(a) +Use Oratio Recta+--more graphic and better suited to our idiom.

(b) _arts_. Change this to some more suitable military term--e.g.

_He was well acquainted (he said) both with the enemy and the country,
and would shortly make it worth their while, and would employ against
their originator those very tactics by which both our leaders and our
armies had up to that time been baffled._

+V.+ +Id non promissum magis stolide, quam stolide creditum: tamquam
eaedem militares et imperatoriae artes essent!+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+stolide+, cf. _stolid_ = dull, foolish.

(ii.) _Translation._--The finite copula +est+ is, as often, omitted; the
two principal verbs are +promissum (est)+ and +creditum (est)+ linked by
the comparative particles +magis--quam+, and the subject is +id+;
+tamquam--essent!+ is a subordinate clause modifying the two principal
verbs, and expressing contemptuous wonder.

Cf. ‘+tamquam clausa sit Asia, sic nihil perfertur ad nos+.’

You can now translate

Literally: _That was promised not more foolishly than it was foolishly
believed, just as if the arts of a soldier and of a general were the

Here you can make several improvements; avoid the repetition of
_foolishly_, and use a better term than _arts_, and perhaps break up the
sentence into two short ones. Thus:--

_The folly of the promise was not greater than that of the credit it
received. Just as though the qualities of a soldier and of a general
were the same!_

+VI.+ +Data pro quinque octo milia militum; pars dimidia cives, pars

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+dimidia+ √+med-+, +mid-+ = _middle_, so +dimidius+ = +dis + medius+.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence is very simple: notice that here,
too, +sunt+ and +erant+ are omitted.

_Eight thousand soldiers were given him instead of five: half were
citizens, half allies._

+VII.+ +Et ipse aliquantum voluntariorum in itinere ex agris concivit,
ac prope duplicate exercitu, in Lucanos pervenit, ubi Hannibal,
nequiquam secutus Claudium, substiterat.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+aliquantum+ = _considerable_, used in the neuter as a noun, with a
partitive genitive +voluntariorum+. Cf. use of +satis+, +parum+, etc.

+concivit+ = _raised_, lit. roused, stirred up. Cf. +ci-eo+, and our
_ex-cite_, _in-cite_.

+substiterat+ = _had halted_. +si-st-o+ is only a form of +sto+
strengthened by reduplication (cf. ἵστημι) with a causal force. Cf.
+restitit+, p. 27, sentence iv.  [[Demonstration II:iv]]

(ii.) _Translation._--The principal subject is clearly +ipse+; there are
two principal verbs, +concivit+ and +pervenit+, coupled by +ac+, and one
subordinate clause, +ubi ... substiterat+, introduced by +ubi+, and
modifying +pervenit+.

The sense is so clear that you may translate at once into good

_Moreover he himself raised a considerable number of volunteers in the
country during his march; and so, with his numbers nearly doubled, he
reached Lucania, where Hannibal, after his fruitless chase of Claudius,
had halted._

The following version was shown up by a boy of fifteen in a recent
scholarship examination:

‘Hannibal in _carrying on his successful campaign met with some
different luck in this district_. Marcus Centenius, whose cognomen was
Penula, was famous among the centurions of the first rank for his huge
limbs and great courage. This man, after having accomplished his years
of military training, on being introduced into the Senate by the Prætor
P. Cornelius Sulla, requested the Patricians to give him 5000 soldiers.
He said that he was well acquainted both with the enemy’s tactics and
the district round about, and in a short time _would convert the
engagement into a prize for the State_: moreover, he added, I will
employ the same tactics against the _enemy_ as those by which our
generals and troops have been captured in these parts. This was
_faithfully_ believed as it was _faithfully_ promised: the tactics of
the soldiers and of the commanders were so much alike! He received 8000
men instead of 5000: half of them were Roman citizens, half allies:
moreover he himself _got_ some volunteers while on the march in the
country districts and so almost doubled his army: he thus reached the
territory of the Lucani, where Hannibal after a fruitless pursuit after
Claudius, had taken up his position.’

This version is neither bad nor good. The style is, on the whole fair,
knowledge of vocabulary very fair, and the rendering generally accurate.
It will, however, be of use to you as an object lesson: so notice
carefully the following points:--

I. _Style._

_Sentence IV._--

(i.) The Oratio Obliqua of the original he renders partly as Reported
Speech and partly as Oratio Recta. This is, of course, to be avoided.
Contrast the rendering given under Sentence IV.

_Sentence III._--

(ii.) +Is perfunctus ... darentur.+ He uses too many participles.
Contrast version under Sentence III.

_Sentences VI., VII._--

(iii.) He translates +data pro quinque ... substiterat+ by one long
sentence, instead of breaking it up into two at least.

II. _Vocabulary._

_Sentence IV._--

+Se peritum ... usurum.+ He confuses +pretium+ with +praemium+, +operae+
with +rei publicae+ (?). He should have been familiar with the phrase
+operae pretium+.

+inventorem+ he renders by _enemy_; perhaps a careless mistake, as if
the word were +inimicum+ (which after all does not = +hostem+).

_Sentence V._--

+stolide+ he renders by _faithfully_. A moment’s thought given to the
English word _stolid_ should have put him on the right track.

_Sentence VII._--

+concivit+ he renders by _got_, vague and inappropriate. He fails to
bring out the root-meaning of +cieo+ = _to stir up_.

III. _Construction._

_Sentence I._--

This is very bad. _Analysis_ would at once have shown him that the
logical order of the sentence was

+Alia fortuna bene gerendae rei oblata est Hannibali in his locis+,

though he might not see that +in his locis+ must be closely connected
with +oblata est+.

_Sentence IV._--

+brevi operae pretium facturum.+ Very bad: due probably to not carefully
weighing the meaning of each word.

You will now see that a strict attention to analysis and to the
root-meanings of words really familiar would have enabled this candidate
to send up a good version.



_Rashness justly punished._

Haud dubia res est, quippe inter Hannibalem ducem et centurionem;
exercitusque, alterum vincendo veteranum, alterum novum totum, magna ex
parte etiam tumultuarium et semiermem. |I| Ut conspecta inter se agmina
sunt, et neutra pars detrectavit pugnam, extemplo instructae acies. |II|
Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas, concitata et,
donec dux stetisset, Romana acie. |III| Postquam is non pro vetere fama
solum, sed etiam metu futuri dedecoris, si sua temeritate contractae
cladi superesset, obiectans se hostium telis cecidit, fusa extemplo est
Romana acies. |IV| Sed adeo ne fugae quidem iter patuit omnibus viis ab
equite insessis, ut ex tanta multitudine vix mille evaserint, ceteri
passim alii alia peste absumpti sint. |V|


_Rashness justly punished._

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The braces around the “Postquam...” clause are in the original.]

+Haud dubia res est+, [quippe inter Hannibalem ducem et centurionem;
exercitusque, alterum vincendo veteranum, alterum novum totum, magna ex
parte etiam tumultuarium et semiermem.] {I} [Ut conspecta inter se
agmina sunt, et neutra pars detrectavit pugnam], extemplo +instructae
acies+. {II} +Pugnatum+ tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas,
concitata et, [donec dux stetisset], Romana acie. {III} {Postquam is non
pro vetere fama solum, sed etiam metu futuri dedecoris, [si sua
temeritate contractae cladi superesset], obiectans se hostium telis
cecidit}, +fusa+ extemplo +est Romana acies+. {IV} Sed adeo ne fugae
quidem +iter patuit+ omnibus viis ab equite insessis, [ut ex tanta
multitudine vix mille evaserint, ceteri passim alii alia peste absumpti
sint]. {V}



  LIVY, xxv. 19.

_Read through the Passage carefully._--The context will be familiar to
you, as this piece is a continuation of Demonstration III; but, none
the less, read the passage through very carefully. Notice, for example,
the use of +quippe+, the various uses and meanings of +ut+, +alterum ...
alterum+, +alii alia+.

You can now begin to translate.

+I.+ +Haud dubia res est, quippe inter Hannibalem ducem et centurionem;
exercitusque, alterum vincendo veteranum, alterum novum totum, magna ex
parte etiam tumultuarium et semiermem.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+quippe+ = +qui + pe+. +pe+ = a form of +que+ (cf. +nempe = nam-pe+ =
indeed) = _since of course_.

+alterum+ (comparative of +al-ius+), cf. +alter+, _alternate_, _either_,

In distributive clauses, +alter--alter+ = _the one_, _the other_.

+tumultuarium+ (cf. +tumultus+), used of troops brought _hurriedly_
together; so, _disorderly_.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence is quite simple, consisting of one
main statement, +Haud dubia res est+, and an explanatory subordinate
statement of fact introduced by +quippe+. Notice that the influence of
+inter+ extends over the whole of the subordinate clause.

_Literally:_ ‘The affair was not doubtful, since, of course, it was
between Hannibal as general and a centurion, and between armies, the one
grown old in victory, the other wholly new, and for the most part also
hurriedly raised and half-armed.’

There are several points in which this rendering must be improved.

(a) _Affair_ for +res+ is too vague. You will remember what was said
about +res+ in Sentence I. of Part I. pp. 33, 34.

(b) You must try to express more strongly the contrast in generalship
between Hannibal and a mere centurion. Thus:--

‘_The +result+ was not doubtful, considering that the contest was
between a general such as Hannibal and a (mere) centurion; and between
two armies, the one grown old in victory, the other consisting entirely
of raw recruits, and for the most part undrilled and half-armed._’

+II.+ +Ut conspecta inter se agmina sunt, et neutra pars detrectavit
pugnam, extemplo instructae acies.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+neuter+ = ne + uter (+uter = eu-ter+ or +quo-ter-us+ = comparative in
form of +quis+), _neither of two_.

+detrectavit+ = _declined_ (+de + traho+, draw-off).

+extemplo+ = _immediately_. +Ex + templum+ (dimin. +tempulum+).

+templum+ √+tem+ = cut; cf. τέμνω = prop. a _section_. So

  (a) a _space marked_ out, a consecrated place, a _temple_.

  (b) a _portion of time_; cf. _extempore_.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence again is quite simple (in form very
similar to Sentence I.), consisting of one main statement, +extemplo
instructae acies+, and an introductory subordinate statement of _time_
introduced by +ut+ = _when_.

_‘When the armies came in sight of each other, and neither side declined
battle, the ranks were at once drawn up in fighting order.’_

[14]+III.+ +Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas,
concitata et, donec dux stetisset, Romana acie.+

    [Footnote 14: Weissenborn and Müller read:--Pugnatum tamen, ut in
    nulla pari re, _diu_: duas amplius horas con_stitit pugna spe
    con_citante, donec dux stetit, Romana_m_ acie_m_.]

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+concitata+ = _stirred-up_, _roused_. +con + ci-eo+; cf. _+ex-cite+_,
_+incite+_, +cĭ-tus+ = _put in motion_, _swift_, &c.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence is not quite so simple and needs
care. Notice--

(a) +Pugnatum (est).+ The Impersonal Pass. serves as the principal
subject and predicate.

(b) +ut in nulla pari re.+ +ut+ is here not a _conjunction_ but a
relative _adverb_ of manner, referring the assertion +pugnatum duas
amplius horas+ to the particular circumstance--_i.e._ of a battle fought
under very unequal conditions. This use of +ut+ = _considering_ occurs
frequently--_e.g._ +consultissimus vir ut in illa quisquam esse aetate
poterat+ (Livy). Cf. also p. 124, l. 19.  [[Selection C17, “ut in re

(c) +concitata Romana acie+ is clearly ablative absolute. To make quite
sure that you understand the logical connection of the thought conveyed
by this sentence, you may consult the detailed analysis on page 47.

_In spite of its being such an unequal match, the battle was maintained
for more than two hours; the Roman army (as well as [+et+] the enemy’s)
being roused (to great exertions) so long as their leader survived._

+IV.+ +Postquam is non pro vetere fama solum, sed etiam metu futuri
dedecoris, si sua temeritate contractae cladi superesset, obiectans se
hostium telis cecidit, fusa extemplo est Romana acies.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+dedecoris+ = of _dis-grace_, for +de+ in composition = separation, and
so _removal_ of the fundamental idea. Cf. _un-_, _dis-_, _e.g._
+dis-par+ = _un_-equal.

+contractae+ = _brought on_, _caused_. +con + traho+ = _bring about_,

(ii.) _Translation._--The meaning of this sentence should be quite plain
to you if you notice carefully that

(a) the principal verb is +fusa est+, and the principal subject +Romana
acies+, and

(b) that +Postquam ... cecidit+ is a subordinate clause of _time_
modifying the action of the principal verb +fusa est+.

It would perhaps be well to translate at first literally:--

_After that he, not only out of regard for_ (+pro+) _his old fame, but
also from fear of future disgrace, if he should survive a disaster
brought about by his own rashness, exposing himself to the weapons of
the enemy fell, the Roman army was at once routed._

You will see that this rendering, though verbally correct, is not
English, and must be considerably altered before it can be called a good
translation. Thus:--

(a) _It is too long._ You can remedy this by taking +postquam ...
cecidit+ as one complete sentence, and +fusa ... acies+ as another.

(b) _Exposing himself._ Better _exposed himself to ... and_. Notice here
the strictly accurate use of the Pres. participle in Latin.

(c) ‘+future+’ may be omitted, as tautological[15] in English. Cf. our
inexact idiom ‘_he promised to come_’ (Lat. ‘_that he would come_’).

    [Footnote 15: _i.e._ needless repetition (ταὐτὸ λέγειν = to say
    the same thing).]

_At last, both for the sake of his old renown and from the fear of
disgrace should he survive a disaster brought on by his own rashness, he
threw himself among the enemy’s darts and was slain. The Roman army was
routed in a moment._ --Church and B.

+V.+ +Sed adeo ne fugae quidem iter patuit omnibus viis ab equite
insessis, ut ex tanta multitudine vix mille evaserint, ceteri passim
alii alia peste absumpti sint.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+pătuit+ = _was open_. Cf. +păte-facio+ = _to make open_; +păt-ulus+ =
_open_, _spread out_; +păt-era+ = _a broad, flat dish_. English,

+insessis+ = _occupied_; +in + sed-eo+ = _sit upon_--so, _occupy_.

+passim+ = _hither and thither_, _far and wide_, formed from +passus+
(+pando+), _expand_.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence resembles in form Sentence IV., with
one principal verb +patuit+, and a principal subject +iter+, and a
subordinate clause of _result_, +ut ... absumpti sint+, modifying the
action of the principal verb +patuit+. You may conveniently break up
this sentence into two, by beginning a new sentence with +Ceteri+.

_So completely closed against them was every chance of escape, all the
roads being beset by cavalry, that out of so numerous a host hardly a
thousand escaped. The rest perished as they fled, some by one death and
some by another._

Before laying aside these two passages, you should pay attention to the
following points:--

(i.) _Vocabulary._--Besides carefully noticing _new_ words, try to form
groups of _cognates_ (i.e. _related words_). One of the best ways to
enlarge your vocabulary is to group together _words of common origin_,
and to add to each, where you can, derivative and cognate English words.
To take a few examples from this passage:--

   Word.                  Meaning.                  English
  +ALIUS+              = _another_ (of many).
    +ali-enus+         = _that belong to another_   alien, alienate.
    +ali-quot+         = _some, several_            aliquot (parts).
    +al-ter+           = _other of two_             alter, alternate.
    +ali-bi+           = _elsewhere_                alibi.

  +SENATUS+            = _the Council               Senate.
                             of the Elders_
    +sen-ex+           = _old_
    +sen-ior+          = _older_                    senior, sire, sir.
    +sen-ile+          = _belonging to old people_  sen-ile.
    +sen-ectus+        = _old age_.

  +ITER+ = (+i-tiner+) = _a going_                  itin-erant.
    +amb-it-io+        = _a going round,            ambition.
    +comes+            = _a comrade_.               a Count
      (+cum + eo+)                                  (Fr. Comte).
    +in-it-ium+        = _a going in, a beginning_  initial.
    +sed-it-io+        = _a going apart, sedition_  sedition.

(ii.) _Useful Phrases for Latin Prose._--You should try gradually to put
together your own phrase-book. You will find this much more useful to
you than any ready-made collection. A good and simple plan is to have a
special note-book for this purpose. Mark in the text as you read useful
phrases, and in your note-book write the Latin on the right-hand page
and a good idiomatic rendering on the left. For example, from this
passage you might collect the following:--


  _A chance of achieving a success._
    +fortuna bene gerendae rei.+
  _After completing his term of service._
    +perfunctus militia.+
  _Would make it worth their while._
    +operae pretium facturum.+
  _Up to that time._
    +ad id locorum.+
  _The result was not doubtful._
    +haud dubia res est.+
  _Though the fight was so unequal._
    +ut in nulla pari re.+
  _Some by one death and some by another._
    +alii alia peste.+

(iii.) +HANNIBAL.+--Read some good short estimate of Hannibal as a
patriot, statesman, and soldier--such as may be found in Mommsen’s or
Ihne’s _History of Rome_. If you have time, you will find much to
interest you in the _Hannibal_ (‘Heroes of the Nations’) by O’Connor



  Kind of Sentence

_Sentence III._

Pugnatum tamen, ut in nulla pari re, duas amplius horas; concitata et,
donec dux stetisset, Romana acie.

      +(THE BATTLE)+
        +PUGNATUM (EST)+
        1. duas amplius horas (_time_)
        2. ut in nulla pari re (_manner_)
        3. concitata ... Romana acie (_manner_)

_Sentence IV._

A. Postquam is non pro vetere fama solum, sed etiam metu futuri
dedecoris, si sua temeritate contractae cladi superesset, obiectans se
hostium telis cecidit, fusa extemplo est Romana acies.

        +FUSA EST+
        1. extemplo (_time_)
        2. Postquam is ... cecidit (_time_)

A1. Postquam is ... cecidit

  _adv._ to +FUSA EST+ in A
      non pro vetere ... +OBIECTANS+ telis

A2. si sua ... superesset

  _adv._ to +OBIECTANS+ in A1
          sua temeritate contractae


_The Happy Life._

  (a) Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,           I
  Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum
  Subiecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari! ||
  Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestes,            II
  Panaque, Silvanumque senem, Nymphasque sorores! ||       5
  Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum             III
  Flexit et infidos agitans discordia fratres,
  Aut coniurato descendens Dacus ab Histro,
  Non res Romanae, perituraque regna; || neque ille       IV
  Aut doluit miserans inopem aut invidit habenti. ||      10


_The Happy Life._

  (b) +Felix+, (qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,        I
  Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum
  Subiecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari!)
  +Fortunatus+ et +ille+, (deos qui novit agrestes,       II
  Panaque, Silvanumque senem, Nymphasque sorores!)         5
  +Illum+ non populi +fasces+, non +purpura+ regum       III
  +Flexit+ et infidos agitans +discordia+ fratres,
  Aut coniurato descendens +Dacus+ ab Histro,
  Non +res Romanae, perituraque regna+; neque ille        IV
  Aut +doluit+ miserans inopem aut +invidit habenti+.     10



  VERGIL, _Georg._ ii. 490-499.

_Read the Passage carefully._--Notice as you read the many allusions and
key-words in the passage, _e.g._ +Acherontis+, +Pana+, +Silvanum+,
+Nymphas+, +Dacus ab Istro+, +res Romanae+, +rerum causas+, and +populi
fasces+. These, taken in connection with the main predicates +felix+,
+fortunatus+, +non flexit+, +neque doluit+, +aut invidit+, will readily
suggest to you the main thought of the passage:--

_Happy is Nature’s bard who knows and fears not: happy he too who knows
the gods of the country. He is not distressed by ambition, nor wars, nor
pain, nor envy._


  +Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,
  Atque metus omnes et inexorabile fatum
  Subiecit pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari!+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+inexorabile+ = _relentless_; lit. _that cannot be moved by entreaty_.
+in+ (_not_) + +ex+ (_easily_) + +orabilis+ (_entreated_).

For +oro+ cf. +ōs+ = _mouth_; +orator+ = _speaker_; +oratio+ = _speech_.

+fatum+ = _fate_, _i.e._ of _death_, as the common lot of all men, the
decree of nature.

+fatum+ = _that which is said_, espec. prophetically. √+fa+, φα. Cf.
+for+ (+fā-ri+), _speak_; +fā-ma+, _report_; +fā-bula+, _a story_;
+in-fans+, _that cannot speak_; +fā-cundus+, _eloquent_.

+strepitum+ = _roar_; lit. a wild, confused noise, din of any kind; cf.

+Acherontis+ = _Acheron_ = (a) a river in the Lower World; (b) the Lower
World itself. Perh. +Acheron+ = ὁ ἄχεα ῥέων = the stream of woe; cf.
Κωκυτός = _Cocytus_, river of _wailing_.

(ii.) _Translation._-- You cannot be in doubt about the principal
subject and predicate. +Felix+ is the only word outside the subordinate
clause from +qui ... avari+. The sense, too, of these lines is clear, so
you may translate at once; but you must take special care to use
dignified and appropriate language:--

_Happy the man who has availed to know the causes of things, and so
trampled under foot all fears and fate’s relentless decree, and the roar
of insatiate Acheron._


  +Fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestes,
  Panaque, Silvanumque senem, Nymphasque sorores!+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+agrestes+ = _of the country_; cf. +ager+ (ἀγρός), +agrarius+,
_agrarian_; +peragro+ (+per + ager+), _travel over_. Perhaps to be
traced to the same root as +ag-o+ = _drive_, +ager+ and ἀγρός being so
named +a pecore agendo+ (cf. Germ. +trift+ = _pasturage_, +treiben+ =

+Silvanum+ = _Silvanus_ = Latin god of fields and woods (+silva+),

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence closely resembles in form Sentence
I, +Ille Fortunatus+ being the principal subject and predicate.

_He too is blest who knows the gods of the country, Pan, and old
Silvanus, and the sisterhood of the Nymphs._


  +Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum
  Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres;
  Aut coniurato descendens Dacus ab Histro,
  Non res Romanae, perituraque regna;+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+fasces+ = _fasces_, i.e. _honours_; +populi+, i.e. _conferred by the

  +fascis+ = a _bundle_, espec. of wood.

  +fasces+ = _the lictors’ rods_ (_rods_ + _axe_ in certain cases)
  carried before the highest magistrates, as an emblem of authority.

+purpura+, _i.e._ the _purple_ robe worn by kings and magistrates.

Cf. [16]‘+Purpura Pompeium summi velabit honoris.+’

        OV. _Ex Ponto_ IV. iv. 25.

    [Footnote 16: ‘The purple (the insignia) of the highest office
    shall clothe Pompeius.’]

+agitans+ = _driving_, i.e. _moving_, _impelling_.

+discordia+ = _discord_. Notice force of +dis-+ = separation, negation;
cf. +dis-crimen+, +dis-par+.

+coniurato+ = _united by oath_, _sworn confederate_.

+Dacus+, the Dacians, akin to the Thracians, N. of Danube, conquered by
Trajan. Cf. modern _Roumanians_.

+Histro+ = the Lower Danube.

(ii.) _Translation._--You will see there is only one principal verb,
+flexit+ (or +flexerunt+), with several principal subjects, +fasces+,
+purpura+, +discordia+, +res Romanae+, +perituraque regna+, and no
subordinate clauses. You may therefore translate at once:--

(a) _Him fasces of the people or purple of kings sway not, not maddening
discord among treacherous brethren, nor the Dacians swarming down from
the leagued Danube, not the Roman State, or realms destined to decay;_


(b) _He is not (1) moved by honours that the people confer, or the
purple of empire, or civil feuds, that make (2) brothers swerve from
brothers’ duty; or the Dacian coming down from the Hister, his sworn (2)
ally; no, nor by the great Roman State and the death-throes of subject

N.B.--(b) is superior to (a) in--

(1) the use of Passive for Active;

(2) the predicative use of +agitans+, +infidos+, +coniurato+.


                                +neque ille
  Aut doluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--You will probably know the meanings of the words in
this sentence. Thus the meaning of--

  +doluit+   is suggested by +dolor+.
  +miserans+     „     „     +miser+. Cf. _miser-able_.
  +inopem+       „     „     +in + ops+. Cf. _op-ulent_.
  +invidit+      „     „     +invidia+. Cf. _envy_.

(ii.) _Translation._--You have here two principal verbs, +doluit+,
+invidit+, joined by +aut+, and a principal subject +ille+.

Notice that +inopem+ must be the object of the participle +miserans+,
and that +habenti+ is used as a noun.

_He never felt the pang of pity for the poor, or of envy for the rich._

Copy of a rendering shown up by a boy of fifteen in a recent scholarship

‘Happy is the man who _is able_ to discern the reason of things, and
_controls_ under his feet all changes and inexorable destiny, and the
_groaning_ of greedy Acheron! |I| Blessed also is he who knows the
rustic gods, Pan and old Silvanus, and those sisters, the nymphs! |II|
He is not moved by _the people’s axes_, nor by the regal purple, nor by
discord that rouses brothers to _distrust_ each other. He is not moved
by _Dacus_, coming down from the _sacred_ Danube, nor by _the
affairs_ of Rome, and the realms about to perish. |III| He neither
_grieves for nor pities the helpless_, nor does he envy the rich.’ |IV|

The above version is fair, but notice the following points:--

_Sentence I._--

_is able ... and controls_. The connection in thought is not shown: ‘He
is happy because he _knows_ and ∴ fears not.’

_groaning_--_i.e._ +gemitum+; +strepitum+ = _roar_, _din_.

_Sentence III._--

_by the people’s axes_. This suggests quite a wrong idea; contrast the
version, ‘by the honours that the people confer.’

_sacred_. This is quite wrong. +con-iurato+ = _allied by oath_.

_the affairs of Rome_. A very weak, and inadequate rendering.

_Sentence IV._--

_grieves for nor pities_. This quite obscures the point. Vergil says
that a country life, with its absence of poverty, so commonly met with
in a town, saves a man from the necessity of feeling a pang of pity for
the poor.

Before you put aside this passage, try to avail yourself of some of the
following suggestions. Thus:--

I. _For the Poet Vergil_[17] (70 B.C.-19 B.C.).--The chief facts of his
life and the subject of his great poems are clearly and shortly given in
the _Student’s Companion to Latin Authors_ (a useful and convenient book
of reference).

    [Footnote 17: See Short Lives, p. 343.]  [[Appendix VI]]

II. _For the Georgics, Poems on Husbandry._ (The passage for translation
is taken from _Georgic II._ lines 490-499.) See--

    (i.) _Student’s Companion to Latin Authors_, pp. 157-8.
   (ii.) Nettleship’s _Vergil_, pp. 37-45.
  (iii.) Sellar’s _Vergil_, pp. 174-198.

Notice especially the _political purpose_ of the _Georgics_--to help the
policy of Augustus, which aimed at checking the depopulation of the
country districts. Compare the alarming migration from the country to
the towns in England at the present day.

III. _Relation of Lucretius to the Georgics._

   (i.) Sellar’s _Vergil_, pp. 199-243.

  (ii.) Munro’s _Lucretius_, Notes on Book i. line 78, and Book iii.
        line 449.

Notice in this connection the opening lines of the passage, +Felix qui
potuit ... Acherontis avari+, which may be summarised as follows: ‘Happy
he who knows the laws of Nature, and has therefore ceased to fear
natural phenomena and has learnt to despise the fabled terrors of
Hades.’ Munro says: ‘I feel that by his +Felix qui+ Vergil does mean a
poet-philosopher, who can only be Lucretius.’

Cf. also _Lucretius_, iii. 1-30. His address to Epicurus.

For the thought, cf. Wordsworth’s _Happy Warrior_--

  ‘He therefore does not stoop, nor lie in wait
  For wealth, or honours, or for worldly state.’


_The Tomb of Archimedes._

(a) Archimedis ego quaestor ignoratum ab Syracusanis, cum esse omnino
negarent, saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis, indagavi
sepulcrum. |II| Tenebam enim quosdam senariolos, quos in eius monumento
esse inscriptos acceperam: qui declarabant in summo sepulcro sphaeram
esse positam cum cylindro. |III| Ego autem, cum omnia collustrarem
oculis--est enim ad portas Agragantinas magna frequentia
sepulcrorum--animadverti columellam non multum e dumis eminentem, in qua
inerat sphaerae figura et cylindri. |IV| Atque ego statim
Syracusanis--erant autem principes mecum--dixi me illud ipsum arbitrari
esse quod quaererem. |V| Immissi cum falcibus multi purgarunt locum.
|VI| Quo cum patefactus esset aditus, accessimus: |VII| apparebat in
sepulcro epigramma, exesis posterioribus partibus versiculorum,
dimidiatis fere. ||


_The Tomb of Archimedes._

(b) {I} Archimedis +ego quaestor+ ignoratum ab Syracusanis, [cum esse
omnino negarent,] saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis,
+indagavi sepulcrum+. {II} +Tenebam+ enim quosdam +senariolos+, [quos in
eius monumento esse inscriptos acceperam]: [qui declarabant in summo
sepulcro sphaeram esse positam cum cylindro.] {III} +Ego+ autem, [cum
omnia collustrarem oculis]--est enim ad portas Agragantinas magna
frequentia sepulcrorum--+animadverti columellam+ non multum e dumis
eminentem, [in qua inerat sphaerae figura et cylindri]. {IV} Atque +ego+
statim Syracusanis--erant autem principes mecum--+dixi+ me illud ipsum
arbitrari esse [quod quaererem]. {V} +Immissi+ cum falcibus multi
+purgarunt locum+. {VI} [Quo cum patefactus esset aditus], +accessimus+:
{VII} +apparebat+ in sepulcro +epigramma+, exesis posterioribus partibus
versiculorum, dimidiatis fere.



  CICERO, _Tusc._ v. 23. 64.

_Read the Passage through carefully._--As you read you will notice many
allusions and key-words, _e.g._ +Archimedes+, +ego quaestor+,
+Syracusanis+, +sepulcrum+, etc. These, taken in connection with the
heading and the author, will suggest to you the main subject of the
passage--the finding of the Tomb of Archimedes by Cicero.

+I.+ +Archimedis ego quaestor ignoratum ab Syracusanis, cum esse omnino
negarent, saeptum undique et vestitum vepribus et dumetis, indagavi

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+Quaestor+ (contr. from +quaesītor+--+quaero+), i.e. _investigator_,
originally two main functions:--

(a) The preparation of evidence in public prosecutions (this about 240
B.C. transferred to the Tribunes).

(b) Treasurers of State. Of these the +Quaestores urbani+ stayed at
Rome, while the +Quaestores provinciales+ or +militares+ acted as
financial assistants to the _Consuls_ or _Praetors_ for the provinces.

+saeptum+ = _hedged in_; +saepes+ = _a hedge_, _fence_.

+vepribus+ = _with bramble-bushes_.

+dumetis+ = _with brushwood_.

+indagavi+ = _I traced out_. A metaphor from hunting. Cf.

  ‘Dum trepidant alae, saltusque indagine cingunt.’

        Verg. _Aen._ iv. 121.

‘While the scouts (beaters) are all busy, and are encircling the coverts
with nets.’

(ii.) _Translation._--The form of the sentence is quite simple. The
principal verb is +indagavi+, with subject +ego quaestor+, and object
+sepulcrum+. From +ignoratum ... dumetis+ describes +sepulcrum+, and the
subordinate clause +cum ... negarent+ emphasises +ignoratum a
Syracusanis+. You may now translate

(a) literally: _I, when Quaestor, traced out the tomb of Archimedes, not
known of by the Syracusans, for they said it was not there at all,
hedged in on all sides and covered with brambles and brushwood._

(b) A better rendering: _When I was Quaestor I was able to trace the
tomb of Archimedes, overgrown and hedged in with brambles and brushwood.
The Syracusans knew nothing of it, and entirely denied its existence._

Notice here the improvement made by breaking up the one long sentence
into two.

+II.+ +Tenebam enim quosdam senariolos, quos in eius monumento esse
inscriptos acceperam: qui declarabant in summo sepulcro sphaeram esse
positam cum cylindro.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+senariolos+ = _some lines_, _i.e._ of poetry--dimin. of +senarius+
(+seni+) = _consisting of six each_, especially of the _iambic senarii_.

+sphaeram+ = _a sphere_, _globe_--σφαῖρα.

+cylindro+ = _a cylinder_, κύλινδρος.

(ii.) _Translation._--The only principal verb is clearly +tenebam+ (with
subject contained in the verb), and the principal object +senariolos+
(sc. +versus+). From +quos ... cylindro+ we have two subordinate
adjectival clauses enlarging +senariolos+.

_The fact is, I remembered some iambic lines which I had been told were
inscribed on his monument, and which set forth that his tomb was
surmounted by a sphere and a cylinder._

+III.+ +Ego autem, cum omnia collustrarem oculis--est enim ad portas
Agragantinas magna frequentia sepulcrorum--animadverti columellam non
multum e dumis eminentem, in qua inerat sphaerae figura et cylindri.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+collustrarem+ = _I was surveying on all sides_; +con (cum) + lustro+.

  +lustro+, perhaps akin to +luc-eo+, +lu-men+;
  so, +il-lustris+ = _lighted up_, _illustrious_.

+frequentia+ = _a large number_; cf. +frequens+, √φρακ, +farc+; cf.
φράγ-μα = _a fence_, +farc-io+ = _pack close together_; so,
+con-fer-tus+ = _crowded_, +freq-uens+ = _repeated_, _frequent_.

+columellam+ = _a small column_, dimin. of +columen+, √cel; cf.
+cel-sus+ = _lofty_; cf. +ex-cello+, +col-umen+ (= +cul-men+) = _the
summit_; cf. _culminate_.

(ii.) _Translation._--This sentence is apparently not quite so simple,
but if you carefully bracket the subordinate clauses you will see that
the only principal verb is +animadverti+, with subject +ego+ and object
+columellam+. Notice next that--

(a) +cum ... oculis+ modifies the principal verb +animadverti+ and is an
adverbial clause of _time_.

(b) The parenthetical clause +est enim ... sepulcrorum+ explains

(c) +in qua ... cylindri+ is an adjectival clause enlarging

You may now translate into your best English, following closely the
thought and the order of the Latin:--

_Well, as I was surveying the whole place (there is a large number of
tombs at[18] the Agrigentine gate) I perceived a small column just
showing above the undergrowth, on which appeared the figure of a sphere
and a cylinder._

    [Footnote 18: Var. lect. +ad portas Achradinas+.]

+IV.+ +Atque ego statim Syracusanis--erant autem principes mecum--dixi
me illud ipsum arbitrari esse, quod quaererem.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--The words of this sentence present no difficulty.

(ii.) _Translation._--With the practice you have now had, you may
translate at once; but notice carefully that--

(a) the parenthetical clause +erant ... mecum+ enlarges +Syracusanis+;

(b) +quod quaererem+ describes +illud ipsum+.

_So I immediately said to the Syracusans who were with me (some people
of importance) that I thought that was the very thing I was looking

+V.+ +Immissi cum falcibus multi purgarunt locum.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+falcibus+ = _with bill-hooks_; +falx+ perh. akin to +flect-o+ = _bend_,
from its shape. Cf. _falcon_ (from its _hooked_ claws).

+purgarunt+ = _cleared_; +purgo+, contr. from +pur-igo+ = +purum + ago+
= _purge_. Cf. +pur-us+.

(ii.) _Translation._--

_Some men sent in with bill-hooks cleared out the space._

+VI.+ +Quo cum patefactus esset aditus, accessimus.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+patefactus+ = _laid open_: +pateo + facio+. Cf. _patent_.

(ii.) _Translation._--

_As soon as the way was open, we went up to it._

+VII.+ +Apparebat in sepulcro epigramma, exesis posterioribus partibus
versiculorum, dimidiatis fere.+

(i.) _Vocabulary._--

+epigramma+ = _inscription_. Cf. _epi-gram_.

+exesis+ = lit. ‘_eaten out_’; +ex + edo+. Cf. _ed-ible_.

+dimidiatis+ = _halved_ = +dis + medius+, i.e. _divided into halves_.

(ii.) _Translation._--_There was the inscription on the tomb: the latter
part of each line was gone, nearly half the verse._

_Note._--Notice here the rendering of the Lat. abl. absol., an idiom
foreign to our language except for example in the so-called nom. absol.
of Milton. Cf. Introduction, p. 12 (5).  [[Introduction 13 (5)]]

Cicero adds the following reflection:--‘_Ita nobilissima Graeciae
civitas, quondam vero etiam doctissima, sui civis unius acutissimi
monumentum ignorasset, nisi ab hoimine Arpinate didicisset._’

_Thus it was that one of the most renowned of Greek cities, and in
ancient times one of the most enlightened, would have remained ignorant
of the monument of the greatest genius it ever produced, if it had not
learnt it from a man born at Arpinum._[19]

    [Footnote 19: Also the birthplace of Marius. Cf. p. 163.]
    [[Selection B4]]

_Some Suggestions and Authorities._

Before you leave this passage, try to notice some of the following
points, and if possible consult _some_ of these authorities:--

(i.) Read (_e.g._ in Church and Brodribb’s translation) Livy’s account
of the siege of Syracuse by Marcellus, 214-212 B.C., Book xxiv. cap. 34;
Book xxv. caps. 23-31.

(ii.) Freeman’s _History of Sicily_. Notice especially the admirable
plan of Syracuse illustrating the siege by Nicias.

Or _Sicily_--‘Story of the Nations’ Series.

(iii.) _Some good Life of Archimedes._ The _Encyclopaedia Britannica_
supplies a good short life and refers to Cicero’s finding the Tomb of
Archimedes, and to the still extant work of Archimedes on the Sphere and
the Cylinder.

(iv.) For _Cicero’s Quaestorship in Sicily_, 75 B.C., consult some Life
of Cicero, _e.g._ Forsyth’s, pp. 38-58, where reference is made to this

(v.) For the _Tusculanae Disputationes_ (conversations between Cicero
and a friend at his Tusculan villa, the subject of which is the chief
essentials of happiness) consult the admirable introduction to the
edition by T. W. Dougan, Camb. Press.




REGAL PERIOD, 753-509 B.C.


_The Vision of Anchises.--The Kings that are to be._

  Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet
  Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater
  Educet. Viden’ ut geminae stant vertice cristae,
  Et pater ipse suo superum iam signat honore?       780
  En huius, nate, auspiciis illa incluta Roma
  Imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo,
  Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces,
  Felix prole virum.
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Quis procul ille autem ramis insignis olivae
  Sacra ferens? Nosco crines incanaque menta
  Regis Romani; primam qui legibus urbem             810
  Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra
  Missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit,
  Otia qui rumpet patriae residesque movebit
  Tullus in arma viros et iam desueta triumphis
  Agmina. Quem iuxta sequitur iactantior Ancus,      815
  Nunc quoque iam nimium gaudens popularibus auris.
  Vis et Tarquinios reges animamque superbam
  Ultoris Bruti fascesque videre receptos?

        VERGIL, _Aen._ vi. 777-784, 808-818.

  777. +Avo+ = _grandsire_, i.e. Numitor, the father of the Vestal
  Rhea or Ilia. +Mavortius+ = child of Mavors, old and poetic name for
  778. +Assaraci+: King of Phrygia and grandfather of Anchises.
  779. +geminae cristae.+ The double-crested helm, a distinction of
  780. +superum+ = _for the world above_, i.e. as a god. Acc. Sing.
  808. +ille+ = Numa Pompilius (716-673 B.C.), a native of Cures
  (811) in Sabine country, whom the Romans regarded as the founder
  (+fundabit+, 811) of their religious and legal institutions.
  813. +qui+ = Tullus Hostilius (673-640 B.C.), a man of war,
  destroyed Alba.
  +resides+ = _sluggish_, _lazy_ (_re + sedeo_).
  815. +Ancus Martius+ (640-616 B.C.), conqueror of the Latins.
  817. +Tarquinios reges+ = (i.) Tarquinius Priscus (616-578 B.C.) of
  Tarquinii in Etruria; (ii.) Tarquinius Superbus (534-509 B.C.),
  expelled by Brutus. Vergil omits Servius Tullius (578-534 B.C.).
  817-818. +animamque ... receptos.+ Brutus, nephew of T. Superbus,
  roused Rome to expel the Tarquins and found the Republic: and thus
  the +fasces+ (the sign of power) were _recovered_ (+receptos+) by
  the people. --Sidgwick.]


ROMULUS, 753-716 B.C.

A. _The Passing of Romulus._

His immortalibus editis operibus cum ad exercitum recensendum contionem
in campo ad Caprae paludem haberet, subito coorta tempestas cum magno
fragore tonitribusque tam denso regem operuit nimbo, ut conspectum eius
contioni abstulerit; nec {5} deinde in terris Romulus fuit. Romana
pubes, sedato tandem pavore, postquam ex tam turbido die serena et
tranquilla lux rediit, ubi vacuam sedem regiam vidit, etsi satis
credebat patribus, qui proxumi steterant, sublimem raptum procella,
tamen velut {10} orbitatis metu icta maestum aliquamdiu silentium
obtinuit. Deinde a paucis initio facto deum deo natum, regem parentemque
urbis Romanae salvere universi Romulum iubent; pacem precibus exposcunt,
uti volens propitius suam semper sospitet progeniem. {15}

        LIVY, i. 16.

  2-3. +ad Caprae paludem+ = _near the Goat’s pool_.
  4. +operuit+ = _enveloped_ (+ob + pario+ = _get for_, _put upon_,
  _cover_), cf. opposite +a-per-io+ = _get from_, _uncover_.
  5. +abstulerit+ = _auferret_. The event is regarded simply as past,
  without reference to other past events.
  5-6. +nec deinde ... fuit+, cf. ‘Quirinus | Martis equis Acheronta
  fugit.’ Hor. _Od._ iii. 3. 15.
  7. +sēdato+ = _settled_, _calmed_. +Sēd-o+ = _cause to sit_, cf.
  +sēd-es+, and our _seat_, _settle_.
  11. +orbitatis+ = _of orphanhood_; cf. +orb-us+ = _bereaved_, and
  our _orphan_.
  15. +volens propitius+, an ellipse of _et_, cf. _optimus maximus_.
  +sospitet+ = _he may keep safe_, _preserve_, cf. +sospes+ = _safe_.]

B. _The Mystery explained._

  Pulcher et humano maior trabeaque decorus
    Romulus in media visus adesse via,
  Et dixisse simul: ‘Prohibe lugere Quirites,
    Nec violent lacrimis numina nostra suis.           4
  Tura ferant placentque novum pia turba Quirinum,
    Et patrias artes militiamque colant.’

        OVID, _Fasti_, ii. 379-384. H.  [II. 503-508]

  1-6. Romulus appears as a god to Proculus Julius, an honourable
  man, bidding him tell his people not to mourn for him, but to
  worship him as Quirinus, and practise valour and all warlike
  1. +trabea+ = _in the (striped) robe of state_.
  3-5. +Quirites+ (cf. +Quirinus+ = the deified Romulus) = lit.
  _spearmen_. Connected with _Cures_ and _curis_ (Sabine word for a
  _spear_), used of Roman _citizens_ as opposed to Roman _soldiers_.]



_The Gate of Janus, open in war but shut in peace._

A. Qui regno ita potitus urbem novam, conditam vi et armis, iure eam
legibusque ac moribus de integro condere parat. Quibus cum inter bella
adsuescere videret non posse, quippe efferari militia animos, mitigandum
ferocem populum armorum {5} desuetudine ratus Ianum ad infimum Argiletum
indicem pacis bellique fecit, apertus ut in armis esse civitatem,
clausus pacatos circa omnes populos significaret.

        LIVY, i. 19.

  1. +Qui+ = Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome.
  4-5. +quippe ... animos+ = _since_ (he thought that) _men’s tempers
  were made savage_ (brutalised) _by warfare_. +efferari+ = orat. obl.
  part of Numa’s thoughts.
  6. +desuetudine+ = _by disuse_, i.e. by a cessation from the use of.
  Cf. _de-docēre_ = _unteach_.
  +Ianum ... Argiletum+ = (a temple of) Janus at the foot of the
  Argiletum, a slope to the N.E. of the Forum. (Prob. = the clayey
  ground, from _argilla_ = white clay.)
  8. +clausus.+ It was closed for a short time, circ. 238 B.C., and
  again by Augustus 29-25 B.C.]


  Sunt geminae Belli portae, sic nomine dicunt,
  Religione sacrae et saevi formidine Martis:
  Centum aerei claudunt vectes aeternaque ferri
  Robora, nec custos absistit limine Ianus.          610
  Has, ubi certa sedet patribus sententia pugnae,
  Ipse Quirinali trabea cinctuque Gabino
  Insignis reserat stridentia limina Consul;
  Ipse vocat pugnas; sequitur tum cetera pubes,
  Aereaque adsensu conspirant cornua rauco.

        VERGIL, _Aen._ vii. 607-615.

  609. +vectes+ = _bolts or bars_, prob. from √veh = carry. Cf.
  612. +Quir. trabea+ = _in the state robe of Romulus_, i.e. the
  striped robe of state, purple, with white stripes across.
  +cinctu Gabino+ = _with the Gabine girdle_, formed by girding the
  toga tight round the body by one of its loose ends.
  613. +reserat+ = _un-bars_. For _sĕro_ = _join_, cf. our _series_.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Ovid, _F._ i. 115-132. Cf. Hor. _Od._ iv. 15. 9.
Verg. _Aen._ i. 293-4.

+Numa Pompilius.+ ‘The name of Numa is significant, and denotes an
organiser or _lawgiver_. (For _Numa_ cf. +numerus+, +nummus+, νόμος.)
As Romulus was the founder of the State and of political and military
order, so the legend regards Numa as the founder of the national
religion.’ --Ihne.



_The Purchase of the Sibylline Books._

In antiquis annalibus memoria super libris Sibyllinis haec prodita est.
Anus hospita atque incognita ad Tarquinium Superbum regem adiit, novem
libros ferens, quos esse dicebat divina oracula: eos velle venundare.
Tarquinius pretium percontatus {5} est: mulier nimium immensum poposcit.
Rex, quasi anus aetate desiperet, derisit. Tum illa foculum coram eo cum
igne apposuit, et tres libros ex novem deussit; et, ecquid reliquos sex
eodem pretio emere vellet, regem interrogavit. Sed enim {10} Tarquinius
id multo risit magis dixitque anum iam procul dubio delirare. Mulier
ibidem statim tres libros alios exussit; atque id ipsum denuo placide
interrogavit, an tres reliquos eodem pretio emat. Tarquinius ore iam
serio, atque attentiore animo fit; eam {15} constantiam confidentiamque
non insuper habendam intelligit: libros tres reliquos mercatur nihilo
minore pretio, quam quod erat petitum pro omnibus. . . . Libri tres in
sacrarium conditi Sibyllini appellati. Ad eos, quasi ad oraculum,
quindecimviri {20} adeunt, cum dii immortales publice consulendi sunt.

        AULUS GELLIUS (fl. 143 A.D.), i. 19.

  1, 2. +libris Sibyllinis+, i.e. a collection of prophecies uttered by
  the legendary prophetess who lived at Cumae, near Naples.
  5. +venundare+ = _to sell_. Cf. _ven-eo_ (= _venum + eo_), _ven-do_,
  and our _vendor_.
  12. +delirare+ = _to be out of her mind_. Lit. to make a crooked
  furrow in ploughing; _de + lira_ (a furrow).
  19. +sacrarium+ = _the place for the keeping of holy things_, i.e.
  the Capitol. The original Sibylline Books were burnt in the fire on
  the Capitol, 82 B.C., but a fresh collection was made by Augustus,
  and deposited in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine.
  20. +quindecimviri+ (_sacris faciundis_), i.e. a college of priests
  who had charge of the Sibylline Books.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Verg. _Aen._ vi., espec. ll. 42-101, for the
Cumaean Sibyl.

+The Sibylline Books.+ ‘There existed also Etruscan +libri fatales+
(_Books of Fate_), and these, together with the Sibylline Books, were
kept in the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter. Nothing seemed more natural
than to suppose that Tarquin, who built that temple, purchased also the
sacred books of the Sibyl.’ --Ihne.



A. _Sextus Tarquinius at Gabii._

Inde in consilia publica adhiberi. . . . Ita cum sensim ad rebellandum
primores Gabinorum incitaret, ipse cum promptissimis iuvenum praedatum
atque in expeditiones iret, et dictis factisque omnibus ad fallendum
instructis vana accresceret fides, dux ad {5} ultimum belli legitur. Ibi
cum inscia multitudine, quid ageretur, proelia parva inter Romam
Gabiosque fierent, quibus plerumque Gabina res superior esset, tum
certatim summi infimique Gabinorum Sex. Tarquinium dono deum sibi missum
ducem credere. {10} Apud milites vero obeundo pericula ac labores
pariter, praedam munifice largiendo tanta caritate esse, ut non pater
Tarquinius potentior Bomae quam filius Gabiis esset.

        LIVY, i. 54.

  1. +Inde+, i.e. after the tale he told of his father’s cruelty had
  gained credit with the men of Gabii.
  +adhiberi+ = _he was admitted_. Historic Infin.
  2. +ad rebellandum+ = _to renew the war_.
  4-5. +ad fallendum instructis+ = _were framed to deceive_.
  8. +Gabina res+ = _the cause of Gabii_. For +res+ cf. p. 11 (2).
      [[Introduction 13 (2)]]
  11. +obeundo pariter+ = _by facing alike ..._]

B. _The Sequel: the Fall of Gabii._

  Iamque potens misso genitorem appellat amico,
    Perdendi Gabios quod sibi monstret iter.
  Hortus odoratis suberat cultissimus herbis,
    Sectus humum rivo lene sonantis aquae.             4
  Illic Tarquinius mandata latentia nati
    Accipit, et virga lilia summa metit.
  Nuntius ut rediit, decussaque lilia dixit,
    Filius ‘Agnosco iussa parentis’ ait.               8
  Nec mora: principibus caesis ex urbe Gabina,
    Traduntur ducibus moenia nuda suis.

        OVID, _Fasti_, ii. 543-552. H.  [II. 701-710]

  1. +genitorem appellat ...+ = _he calls on his father (to tell
  him)_ ...
  6. +virga+ = _with a switch_.
  +summa+ = _the tallest_.
  10. +ducibus suis+, abl., after _nuda_ = _deprived of_.]

+Reference.+ Hor. _Ep._ ii. 1. 23-27. Horace refers to the treaty made
by Tarquinius with Gabii.

+Historic Parallel.+ Compare the extraordinary self-sacrifice of
Zōpy̆rus, which enabled him to betray Babylon to his master Darius.
Herod, iii. 153-158.


_The Position of Rome, the future Mistress of the World._

Urbi autem locum Romulus incredibili opportunitate delegit. Neque enim
ad mare admovit--quod ei fuit illa manu copiisque facillimum, ut in
agrum Rutulorum Aboriginumve procederet, aut in ostio Tiberino, quem in
locum multis post annis rex {5} Ancus coloniam deduxit, urbem ipse
conderet,--sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse
opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus eis quae ad spem diuturnitatis
conderentur atque imperi. Itaque urbem perennis amnis et aequabilis et
{10} in mare late influentis posuit in ripa, quo posset urbs et accipere
ex mari, quo egeret, et reddere, quo redundaret: ut mihi iam tum
divinasse ille videatur, hanc urbem sedem aliquando et domum summo esse
imperio praebituram: nam hanc rerum tantam {15} potentiam non ferme
facilius alia in parte Italiae posita urbs tenere potuisset. Urbis autem
ipsius is est tractus ductusque muri cum Romuli tum etiam reliquorum
regum sapientia definitus ex omni parte arduis praeruptisque montibus.
Locumque delegit {20} et fontibus abundantem et in regione pestilenti

        CICERO, _De Rep._ ii. 3. 5, 6 (selected).

  3-6. +quod ei fuit ...+ = lit. which he might very easily have done
  with that band (of men) and those forces, so that ...
  4. +Rutulorum.+ S. of Rome. Turnus their King. Capital, Ardea.
  6. +coloniam+, i.e. Ostia, the harbour of Rome and chief naval
  7-8. +non esse opportunissimos+, e.g. as exposed to sudden attacks,
  and likely to contain a too large foreign element.
  12-13. +quo redundaret+ = _its own superabundance_.
  17-18. +is tractus ductusque+ = _the plan and direction_.
  19. +definitus+ = _bounded_.
  20. +arduis praeruptisque montibus.+ ‘The amphitheatre of seven
  hills which encloses the meadows (afterwards the Campus Martius) in
  the bend of the Tiber, varying from 120 to 180 feet above the
  stream, offered heights sufficiently elevated and abrupt for
  fortification, yet without difficulties for the builder or

N.B.--In this passage be careful to translate Cicero’s long, periodic
sentences by two or more separate sentences in English.

+The Position of Rome.+ ‘There was no place better fitted for an
emporium of the Tiber and sea traffic, and for a maritime frontier
fortress than Rome. It combined the advantages of a strong position and
of immediate vicinity to the river.’ Mommsen.



_‘Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus.’_

  Sed neque Medorum silvae ditissima terra,
  Nec pulcher Ganges atque auro turbidus Hermus
  Laudibus Italiae certent, non Bactra, neque Indi
  Totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis harenis.
  Haec loca non tauri spirantes naribus ignem        140
  Invertere satis immanis dentibus hydri,
  Nec galeis densisque virum seges horruit hastis;
  Sed gravidae fruges et Bacchi Massicus umor
  Implevere; tenent oleae armentaque laeta.
  Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus infert;      145
  Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxima taurus
  Victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro,
  Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos.
  Hic ver assiduum atque alienis mensibus aestas;
  Bis gravidae pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbor.      150
  At rabidae tigres absunt et saeva leonum
  Semina, nec miseros fallunt aconita legentes,
  Nec rapit immensos orbis per humum, neque tanto
  Squameus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis.

        VERGIL, _Georg._ ii, 136-154.

  136. +silvae ditissima+ = _most rich in forests_. --Sidgwick.
  137. +Hermus+, auriferous river of Lydia, cf. the R. Pactolus.
  138. +Bactra+, modern Balk, N. of Afghanistan.
  139. +Panchaia+, i.e. Arabia, the Eldorado of the Old World.
  141. +satis ... hydri+ = _where the enormous dragon’s teeth were
  sown_. +hydri+ (ὕδρος), lit. _a water-snake_.
  143. +Massicus umor+ = _Massic juice_, i.e. of Mt. Massicus in N.W.
  Campania, famous for its wine, espec. the Falernian.
  144. +implevere+ (sc. +haec loca+) = _fill it all_.
  146. +Clitumne.+ R. of Umbria, famous for its white cattle.[20]
  146-148. White cattle were required for the sacrifices of the
  149. +alienis mensibus+ = _in months not her own_, i.e. in months
  properly belonging to winter.
  150. +bis gravidae pecudes+ = _twice the cattle give increase_,
  151, 152. +saeva leonum semina+ = _the fierce lion-brood_.
  +aconita+, a deadly poison--_monkshood_.
  153, 154. +neque--anguis+ = _nor with so_ +vast+ _a sweep gather
  himself into a coil_, i.e. the snakes in Italy are not so large as

+R. Clitumnus.+ Compare Pliny’s beautiful letter (viii. 8) describing
its source.

    [Footnote 20: Cf. the Chillingham ‘Wild Cattle.’]




  ‘_How well Horatius kept the Bridge
    In the brave days of old._’


  Nec non Tarquinium eiectum Porsenna iubebat
  Accipere, ingentique urbem obsidione premebat;
  Aeneadae in ferrum pro libertate ruebant.
  Illum indignanti similem, similemque minanti
  Aspiceres, pontem auderet quia vellere Cocles,     650
  Et fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptis.

        VERGIL, _Aen._ viii. 646-651.

_Venus brings Aeneas his new armour: he gazes at the shield whereon were
wrought scenes of the story of Rome to be._

  646. +Porsenna.+
    ‘Lars Porsena of Clusium
    By the nine gods he swore
    That the great house of Tarquin
    Should suffer wrong no more.’ --Macaulay.
  648. +in ferrum ruebant+ = _were flinging themselves on the sword_.
  651. +Cloelia+, a Roman hostage, who escaped by swimming the Tiber.]

B. Pons sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuisset,
Horatius Cocles. . . . Qui positus forte in statione pontis, cum captum
repentino impetu Ianiculum atque inde citatos decurrere hostes vidisset,
{10} trepidamque turbam suorum arma ordinesque relinquere, reprehensans
singulos, obsistens obtestansque deum et hominum fidem testabatur
nequiquam deserto praesidio eos fugere; si transitum pontem a tergo
reliquissent, iam plus hostium in Palatio {15} Capitolioque quam in
Ianiculo fore. Itaque monere, praedicere, ut pontem ferro, igni,
quacunque vi possint, interrumpant; se impetum hostium, quantum corpore
uno posset obsisti, excepturum. Vadit inde in primum aditum pontis,
insignisque inter {20} conspecta cedentium pugnae terga, obversis
cominus ad ineundum proelium armis, ipso miraculo audaciae obstupefecit

        LIVY, ii. 10.

  7. +Pons sublicius+ = _the pile-bridge_, built by Ancus Marcius to
  connect Rome proper with the Janiculum-hill, or ridge.
  8. +Cocles+ = _the one-eyed_, from loss of an eye in battle.
  10. +citatos+ = _at full speed_. Adj. use of participle; cf. _citato
  11. +trepidamque turbam+ = _panic-stricken and in disorder_.
  12. +reprehensans+ = _seizing them by the arm one after another_.
  14-15. +si transitum ... reliquissent+ = _if they left the bridge
  free for the enemy to cross by_. +transitum+ = noun, in appos. to
  21-22. +obversis armis+ = _as he faced about_.]



  ‘_How well Horatius kept the Bridge
    In the brave days of old._’

Duos tamen cum eo pudor tenuit, Sp. Larcium ac T. Herminium, ambos
claros genere factisque. Cum his primam periculi procellam et quod
tumultuosissimum pugnae erat, parumper sustinuit; deinde eos quoque
ipsos, exigua parte pontis relicta, revocantibus, {5} qui rescindebant,
cedere in tutum coegit. Circumferens inde truces minaciter oculos ad
proceres Etruscorum nunc singulos provocare, nunc increpare omnes:
servitia regum superborum, suae libertatis immemores alienam oppugnatum
venire. {10} Cunctati aliquamdiu sunt, dum alius alium, ut proelium
incipiant, circumspectant. Pudor deinde commovit aciem, et clamore
sublato undique in unum hostem tela coniciunt. Quae cum in obiecto
cuncta scuto haesissent, neque ille minus obstinatus ingenti {15} pontem
obtineret gradu, iam impetu conabantur detrudere virum, cum simul fragor
rupti pontis, simul clamor Romanorum alacritate perfecti operis
sublatus, pavore subito impetum sustinuit. Tum Cocles ‘Tiberine pater,’
inquit, ‘te sancte precor, haec arma {20} et hunc militem propitio
flumine accipias.’ Ita sic armatus in Tiberim desiluit, multisque
superincidentibus telis incolumis ad suos tranavit, rem ausus plus famae
habituram ad posteros quam fidei.

        LIVY, ii. 10.

  7. +ad proceres+ = _on the chiefs_. For _prŏcer_ cf. _procērus_ =
  8-9. +provocare ... increpare.+ Historic Infinitives = Indic.
  9. +servitia+ = _the slaves_ = _servos_. Abstract for concrete,
  freq. in Livy. Cf. Hor. _Od._ ii. 8. 18. (_servitus = servi._)
  14. +obiecto+ = _presented_, i.e. to the enemy.
  15-16. +ingenti gradu+ = _with mighty (heroic) stand_. Cf. ‘firm as
  a rock.’
  18. +alacritate perfecti operis+ = _from joy at the completion of
  the work_.
  24. +plus famae ... fidei+ = _destined to win more fame than credit
  with posterity_.
    ‘Oh Tiber! father Tiber!
      To whom the Romans pray,
    A Roman’s life, a Roman’s arms,
      Take thou in charge this day!’
    So he spake, and speaking sheathed
      The good sword by his side,
    And with his harness on his back,
      Plunged headlong in the tide. --Macaulay.]



_How C. Mucius lost his Hand, but won a Name._

A. Obsidio erat nihilo minus et frumenti cum summa caritate inopia,
sedendoque expugnaturum se urbem spem Porsena habebat, cum C. Mucius,
adulescens nobilis, ... primo sua sponte penetrare in hostium castra
constituit; dein metuens, ne, si consulum {5} iniussu et ignaris omnibus
iret, forte deprehensus a custodibus Romanis retraheretur ut transfuga,
fortuna tum urbis crimen affirmante, senatum adit. ‘Transire Tiberim,’
inquit, ‘patres, et intrare, si possim, castra hostium volo, non praedo
nec populationum {10} in vicem ultor; maius, si di iuvant, in animo est
facinus.’ Approbant patres; abdito intra vestem ferro proficiscitur. Ubi
eo venit, in confertissima turba prope regium tribunal constitit.

        LIVY, ii. 12.

  1. +cum summa caritate+ = _involving_ (+cum+) _a very high price_.
  2. +sedendo+ = _by sitting down before_, of a besieging army.
  3. +Mucius.+ From this incident surnamed Scaevola = _the
  left-handed_. After his time, a frequent surname in the Gens Mucia.
  7-8. +fortunā ... affirmante+ = (_a charge which_) _the present
  condition of the city would confirm_ (_substantiate_).
  10-11. +non praedo ... ultor+ = _not to plunder nor to retaliate on_
  (lit. ‘an avenger in turn on’) _our plunderers_.]


  Cum peteret regem decepta satellite dextra
    Ingessit sacris se peritura focis.
  Sed tam saeva pius miracula non tulit hostis
    Et raptum flammis iussit abire virum.
  Urere quam potuit contempto Mucius igne,         5
    Hanc spectare manum Porsena non potuit.
  Maior deceptae fama est et gloria dextrae:
    Si non errasset, fecerat illa minus.

        MARTIAL, _Ep._ I. xxi.

  1. +sătellite+ = _the attendant_, i.e. the scribe or secretary of
  2. +ingessit+ = _thrust into_ (_in_ + _gero_).
  3. +tam saeva miracula+ = _such a miracle of stern fortitude_. --S.
  +pius+ = _feeling_, as opposed to _unnatural_.
  7-8. i.e. to have killed Porsena would have been less glorious
  than to display such heroism. --Stephenson.]

+Porsena.+ Livy tells us that Mucius, in gratitude for the magnanimity
of Porsena, revealed to him that 300 Roman youths had sworn to attempt
the same deed that he had undertaken. Whereupon Porsena feared to
distress the Romans any longer, and made peace with them.



_The Dictator and his Master of the Horse._

Ibi alia inter proceres coorta pugna. Imperator Latinus, ubi cohortem
exulum a dictatore Romano prope circumventam vidit, ex subsidiariis
manipulos aliquot in primam aciem secum rapit. Hos agmine venientes T.
Herminius legatus conspicatus, interque {5} eos insignem veste armisque
Mamilium noscitans, tanto vi maiore, quam paulo ante magister equitum,
cum hostium duce proelium iniit, ut et uno ictu transfixum per latus
occiderit Mamilium, et ipse inter spoliandum corpus hostis veruto
percussus, {10} cum victor in castra esset relatus, inter primam
curationem exspiraverit. Tum ad equites dictator advolat obtestans, ut
fesso iam pedite descendant ex equis et pugnam capessant. Dicto paruere;
desiliunt ex equis, provolant in primum, et pro antesignanis {15} parmas
obiciunt. Recipit extemplo animum pedestris acies, postquam iuventutis
proceres aequato genere pugnae secum partem periculi sustinentes vidit.
Tum demum impulsi Latini, perculsaque inclinavit acies. {20}

        LIVY, ii. 20.

  1. +inter proceres.+ The Battle of Lake Regillus was, in the main,
  a Homeric battle of single combats between the opposing chiefs.
  1-2. +Imperator Latinus+, i.e. Mamilius of Tusculum, son-in-law of
  5. +T. Herminius+, one of ‘the dauntless Three,’ who kept the
  7. +magister equitum+, i.e. T. Aebutius. The Master of the Horse,
  the second in command, was nominated by the Dictator.
  10. +veruto+ = _with a javelin_, cf. _veru_ = _a spit_.
  11-12. +inter primam curationem+ = _at the first attempt to dress
  his wound_. --Rawlins.
  13. +dictator+, i.e. Aulus Postumius. The Dictator (_magister
  populi_ = _master of the army_) was appointed by one of the two
  Consuls (= _colleagues_) in a time of national danger to avoid the
  possible want of unity between the two consuls in time of war.
  15. +in primum = in primam aciem.+
  +antesignanis+, i.e. the first line fighting _in front of the
  17. +iuventutis proceres+ = _the young noblemen_, i.e. the cavalry
  are not only the younger men (in Livy often = +iuvenes+) but also

+Reference.+ Macaulay, _The Battle of Lake Regillus_.



_The Fable of the Belly and the Members. Tribunes of the People._

Pavor ingens in urbe, metuque mutuo suspensa erant omnia. . . . Placuit
igitur oratorem ad plebem mitti Menenium Agrippam, facundum virum et,
quod inde oriundus erat, plebi carum. Is intromissus in castra prisco
illo dicendi et horrido modo nihil {5} aliud quam hoc narrasse fertur:
Tempore, quo in homine non, ut nunc, omnia in unum consentientia, sed
singulis membris suum cuique consilium, suus sermo fuerit, indignatas
reliquas partes sua cura, suo labore ac ministerio ventri omnia quaeri,
ventrem in {10} medio quietum nihil aliud quam datis voluptatibus frui;
conspirasse inde, ne manus ad os cibum ferrent, nec os acciperet datum,
nec dentes conficerent. Hac ira dum ventrem fame domare vellent, ipsa
una membra totumque corpus ad extremam tabem {15} venisse. Inde
apparuisse ventris quoque haud segne ministerium esse, nec magis ali
quam alere eum, reddentem in omnes corporis partes hunc, quo vivimus
vigemusque, divisum pariter in venas, maturum confecto cibo sanguinem.
Comparando hinc, quam {20} intestina corporis seditio similis esset irae
plebis in patres, flexisse mentes hominum. Agi deinde de concordia
coeptum concessumque in condiciones, ut plebi sui magistratus essent
sacrosancti, quibus auxili latio adversus consules esset, neve cui
patrum capere {25} eum magistratum liceret. Ita tribuni plebei creati
duo, C. Licinius et L. Albinus.

        LIVY, ii. 32, 33.

  1-2. +Pavor ingens ... omnia.+ One of the Roman armies (mainly
  recruited from Plebeians) refused to obey orders, entrenched itself
  on Mons Sacer, and threatened to secede from Rome altogether.
  2. +oratorem+ (i.e. _legatum_) = _spokesman_, charged with a
  _verbal_ message.
  4. +inde+, i.e. from the Plebs.
  10-11. +ventrem ... quietum+ = _whereas the belly resting calmly in
  their midst_. --Rawlins.
  13. +conficerent+ = _grind_, and so aid digestion. Cf. +confecto+
  l. 20.
  19-20. +maturum confecto cibo+ = _brought to perfection only when
  the food is digested_. --R.
  24. +sacrosancti+ = _consecrated and inviolable_.
  24-25. +quibus ... esset+, i.e. as official protectors of the Plebs,
  by their right of veto on the official actions of all other

+For the Fable+, cf. Seneca _de Ira_ ii. 31, and 1 Corinthians, xii.



_Veturia and her son Coriolanus._

Coriolanus prope ut amens consternatus ab sede sua cum ferret matri
obviae complexum, mulier in iram ex precibus versa ‘Sine, priusquam
complexum accipio, sciam’ inquit, ‘ad hostem an ad filium venerim,
captiva mater-ne in castris tuis sim. In {5} hoc me longa vita et
infelix senecta traxit, ut exulem te, deinde hostem viderem? Potuisti
populari hanc terram, quae te genuit atque aluit? Non tibi, quamvis
infesto animo et minaci perveneras, ingredienti fines ira cecidit? Non,
cum in conspectu {10} Roma fuit, succurrit: Intra illa moenia domus ac
penates mei sunt, mater, coniunx liberique? Ergo ego nisi peperissem,
Roma non oppugnaretur; nisi filium haberem, libera in libera patria
mortua essem.’ ... Uxor deinde ac liberi amplexi, fletusque ab {15} omni
turba mulierum ortus et conploratio sui patriaeque fregere tandem virum.
Complexus inde suos dimittit; ipse retro ab urbe castra movit. Abductis
deinde legionibus ex agro Romano invidia rei oppressum perisse tradunt
alii alio leto. {20}

        LIVY, ii. 40.

  1. +Coriolanus.+ Gaius Marcius received the cognomen of Coriolanus
  for his bravery at the capture of the Volscian town of Corioli (S.E.
  of Rome). After this, in a time of famine at Rome, C. advised that
  the corn obtained elsewhere should not be distributed, unless the
  Plebeians would give up their Tribunes. For this he was impeached
  and went into voluntary exile among the Volsci.
  +consternatus+ = _in strong emotion_--lit. ‘stretched on the
  7. +potuisti+ = _had you the heart to_--question indicated by _tone_
  of the voice.
  10-11. +non ... succurrit+ = _did it not occur to you_?
  19-20. +invidia rei oppressum+ = _overwhelmed by the unpopularity of
  his action_.
  20. +alii alio leto+, e.g. i. by a voluntary death; ii. put to death
  by the Volscians; iii. lived to old age in exile.]

+References.+ Cic. _Brutus_ x. (compared to Themistocles). Plutarch,

‘The germ from which the whole legend sprang is the story of the filial
love of Coriolanus, and of the great authority exercised in olden times
by Roman matrons over their sons and husbands.’ Ihne.

Shakespeare, _Coriolanus_, V. iii.


WAR WITH VEII, 483-474 B.C.

_The Destruction of the Fabii at the Cremera, 477 B.C._

  Campus erat, campi claudebant ultima colles
    Silvaque montanas occulere apta feras.
  In medio paucos armentaque rara relinquunt,
    Cetera virgultis abdita turba latet.               4
  Ecce velut torrens undis pluvialibus auctus
    Aut nive, quae Zephyro victa tepente fluit,
  Per sata perque vias fertur, nec, ut ante solebat,
    Riparum clausas margine finit aquas:               8
  Sic Fabii vallem latis discursibus implent,
    Quodque vident sternunt, nec metus alter inest.
  Quo ruitis, generosa domus? male creditis hosti:
    Simplex nobilitas, perfida tela cave.             12
  Fraude perit virtus. In apertos undique campos
    Prosiliunt hostes, et latus omne tenent.
  Quid faciant panci contra tot millia fortes?
    Quidve, quod in misero tempore restet, adest?     16
  Sicut aper longe silvis Laurentibus actus
    Fulmineo celeres dissipat ore canes,
  Mox tamen ipse perit: sic non moriuntur inulti
    Vulneraque alterna dantque feruntque manu.        20
  Una dies Fabios ad bellum miserat omnes;
    Ad bellum missos perdidit una dies.

        OVID, _Fasti_, ii. 175-196, H.  [II. 215-236]

+Context.+ To protect their territory from the constant raids of the
Veientines, the noble house of the Fabii offered to undertake the war
themselves. The consul Kaeso Fabius marched out of the city at the head
of his clan, followed by the blessings and good wishes of the admiring
people. He erected a fortified camp near the R. Cremera (a tributary of
the Tiber), and from this spot plundered Veientine territory.

  1. +campus.+ ‘Ovid here paints from fancy: there are, however, deep
  hollows admirably calculated to conceal an ambushed foe.’ --Ramsay.
  9. +discursibus+ = _runnings to and fro_, of soldiers dispersing to
  10. +metus alter+ = _fear of a second enemy_, i.e. of one in ambush.
  17. +silvis Laurentibus.+ Laurentum on the coast of Latium between
  Ostia and Ardea. Wild boars are still found in the swampy thickets.
  18. +Fulmineo ore+ = _with flashing tusk_. --Hallam.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Livy, ii. 48, 49.

‘The story probably came from the Chronicles of the Fabian Clan, perhaps
through _Fabius_ Pictor, the first Roman annalist.’ Rawlins, Cf. Ihne,
vol. i. cap. vi.



A. _Cincinnatus called from the Plough._

Sed Aequos praecipue Quinctius Cincinnatus domuit, ille dictator ab
aratro, qui obsessa et paene iam capta L. Minuci consulis castra egregia
victoria recuperavit. Medium erat tempus forte sementis, cum patricium
virum innixum aratro suo lictor in {5} ipso opere deprehendit. Inde in
aciem profectus, ne quid a rustici operis imitatione cessaret, more
pecudum victos sub iugum misit. Sic expeditione finita redit ad boves
rursus triumphalis agricola. Intra quindecim dies coeptum peractumque
bellum, {10} prorsus ut festinasse, dictator ad relictum opus videretur.

        FLORUS, I. xi. 12-15.

  1. +Aequos+, mountaineers (closely allied to the Sabines) who lived
  in the mountains forming the E. boundary of Latium.
  +Cincinnatus.+ ‘The true type of primeval virtue, abstinence, and
  patriotism.’ --Ihne.
  2-4. +qui ... recuperavit.+ The Aequian general, Gracchus Cloelius,
  had defeated the consul, L. Minucius, and blockaded him in his camp
  on Mt. Algidus, the E. spur of the Alban range. Cincinnatus makes a
  wonderful night march from Rome of 20 miles, blockades in turn the
  investing Aequian force, and compels an unconditional surrender.
  4. +sementis+ = _of the seed-time_. Formed from _semen_, cf.

B. ‘_In the brave days of old._’

  Restat, ut inveniam, quare toga libera detur
    Lucifero pueris, candide Bacche, tuo.              2
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  An quia, cum colerent prisci studiosius agros,
    Et patrio faceret rure senator opus,               4
  Et caperet fasces a curvo consul aratro,
    Nec crimen duras esset habere manus,
  Rusticus ad ludos populus veniebat in urbem:
    Sed dis, non studiis, ille dabatur honor.          8

        OVID, _Fasti_, iii. 729-742, H.  [III. 771-784]

  1. +toga libera+ (or +virilis+), the man’s dress of unornamented
  white wool. _Lībera_ (_līber_), _free_ from the restraints of
  2. +lucifero+ = lit. _morning-star_. Here poet. for +die+.
  5. +consul+, e.g. Cincinnatus, who was called to be _Dictator_.
  8. +sed ... honor+, i.e. in ‘the good old days’ worship, not
  amusement, was the chief object of the visit to Rome.
  3-8. Ovid says one reason why the _toga libera_ was assumed at
  the Liberalia (the Feast of Bacchus--the vintage, festival) was
  because it was the most crowded festival of the year.]

+References.+ Livy, iii. 26-28. Ihne, vol. i. cap. v.



Iam redierant legati cum Atticis legibus. Eo intentius instabant
tribuni, ut tandem scribendarum legum initium fieret. Placet creari
decemviros sine provocatione, et ne quis eo anno alius magistratus esset
... Tum legibus condendis opera dabatur; {5} ingentique hominum
expectatione propositis decem tabulis populum ad contionem advocaverunt
et, quod bonum, faustum felixque rei publicae, ipsis liberisque eorum
esset, ire et legere leges propositas iussere. Se, quantum decem hominum
ingeniis provideri {10} potuerit, omnibus, summis infimisque, iura
aequasse; plus pollere multorum ingenia consiliaque. Versarent in animis
secum unamquamque rem, agitarent deinde sermonibus atque in medium, quid
in quaque re plus minusve esset, conferrent. . . . Cum ad {15} rumores
hominum de unoquoque legum capite editos satis correctae viderentur,
centuriatis comitiis decem tabularum leges perlatae sunt, qui nunc
quoque in hoc immenso aliarum super alias acervatarum legum cumulo, fons
omnis publici privatique {20} est iuris.

        LIVY, iii. 32, 34.

  1. +cum Atticis legibus+, i.e. with a copy of the Laws of Solon (the
  great Athenian Lawgiver, 594 B.C.).
  1-3. +Eo intentius ... fieret+, because up to this time the
  knowledge of law and its interpretation was confined to the
  Patricians (cf. the Scribes of the N.T.). This could only be
  remedied by writng the laws down and making them public.
  3-4. +sine provocatione+ = _without appeal_. Lit. ‘challenging.’
  4-5. +ne quis ... esset.+ The Decemvirs were to supersede
  temporarily both Consuls and Tribunes.
  14-15. +quid ... conferrent+ = ‘_Should point out in the interest of
  all_ (lit. should contribute to the public good) _any faults of
  excess or defect in the several articles_.’ --Stephenson.
  15-17. +ad rumores hominum+ = _in accordance with_ (+ad+) _public
  17. +centuriatis comitiis.+ Servius Tullius divided the people into
  five classes, according to the value of their property. The people
  (Patricians and Plebeians alike) voted by centuries; but as 98
  centuries (and ∴ 98 votes) were allotted to the richest class and
  only 95 to the other four classes, the influence of wealth was
  decisive in the elections.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Cic. _De Republica_ ii. 33-37, and _De Legibus_
ii. 23.

+The Twelve Tables.+ ‘They were essentially only a written embodiment of
the existing public and private law.’ --Mommsen. Cf. Magna Carta.



_The Death of Verginia not in vain._

Concitatur multitudo partim atrocitate sceleris, partim spe per
occasionem repetendae libertatis. In contionem Appius escendit;
sequuntur Horatius Valeriusque. Eos contio audit; decemviro obstrepitur.
Iam pro imperio Valerius discedere a privato {5} lictores iubebat, cum
fractis animis Appius vitae metuens in domum se propinquam foro insciis
adversariis capite obvoluto recipit. M. Duillius deinde tribunus plebis
plebem rogavit plebesque scivit, qui plebem sine tribunis reliquisset
quique magistratum {10} sine provocatione creasset, tergo ac capite
puniretur. Haec omnia ut invitis, ita non adversantibus patriciis
transacta, quia nondum in quemquam unum saeviebatur. Fundata deinde et
potestate tribunicia et plebis libertate tum tribuni aggredi singulos
tutum {15} maturumque iam rati accusatorem primum Verginium et Appium
reum deligunt. Spe incisa, priusquam prodicta dies adesset, Appius
mortem sibi conscivit. M. Claudius assertor Verginiae, die dicta
damnatus ipso remittente Verginio ultimam poenam {20} dimissus Tibur
exulatum abiit; manesque Verginiae, mortuae quam vivae felicioris, per
tot domos ad petendas poenas vagati nullo relicto sonte tandem

        LIVY, iii. 49, 55, 56, 58 (sel.)

+Context+. Verginius, seeing no way of saving his daughter from disgrace
and dishonour at the hands of Appius Claudius, killed her before the
judgment-seat of the tyrant and before the eyes of the people.

  2. +per occasionem+ = _by such a favourable opportunity_. --Rawlins.
  3. +In contionem+ = _to the rostra_ (the platform for speakers).
  3-4. +Horatius Valeriusque.+ The first Consuls after the abolition
  of the Decemvirate in 449 B.C.
  5. +pro imperio+, i.e. usurping the authority of a magistrate.
  9. +plebesque scivit+ (scisco) = _and the people approved_ (i.e.
  voted for) it.
  11. +provocatione+ = _right of appeal_.
  18. +prodicta+ = _adjourned_, from the first hearing. --R.
  19. +assertor V.+ = _who claimed V. as his slave_.]

+Results of the Secession+. ‘The Valerian Laws, by the second of which
it was ordained that in criminal trials, when the life of a citizen was
at stake, the sentence of the Consul should be subject to an appeal to
the people. This Valerian Law of Appeal was the Roman Habeas Corpus
Act.’ --Ihne.



_Cossus wins the Spolia Opima, 437 B.C._

Erat tum inter equites tribunus militum A. Cornelius Cossus, eximia
pulchritudine corporis, animo ac viribus par memorque generis, quod
amplissimum acceptum maius auctiusque reliquit posteris. Is cum ad
impetum Tolumni, quacumque se intendisset, {5} trepidantes Romanas
videret turmas insignemque eum regio habitu volitantem tota acie
cognosset, ‘Hicine est’ inquit ‘ruptor foederis humani violatorque
gentium iuris? Iam ego hanc mactatam victimam, si modo sancti quicquam
in terris esse di {10} volunt, legatorum manibus dabo.’ Calcaribus
subditis infesta cuspide in unum fertur hostem; quem cum ictum equo
deiecisset, confestim et ipse hasta innixus se in pedes excepit.
Adsurgentem ibi regem umbone resupinat repetitumque saepius cuspide {15}
ad terram affixit. Tum exsangui detracta spolia, caputque abscisum
victor spiculo gerens terrore caesi regis hostes perfudit. Ita equitum
quoque fusa acies, quae una fecerat anceps certamen. Dictator legionibus
fugatis instat et ad castra compulsos {20} caedit.

        LIVY, iv. 19.

  3. +par+ = _equally distinguished by_, equal, that is, to his
  beauty. --S.
  5. +Tolumni+ = Lars Tolumnius, King of the Veientos, in alliance
  with Fidenae (about 5 miles N.E. of Rome).]
  +quacumque se intendisset+ = _wherever he directed his charge._
  8-11. +Hicine ... manibus dabo.+ Fidenae had frequently been
  colonised by Rome, and had as frequently revolted. When the Romans
  sent four ambassadors to Fidenae to demand satisfaction for this
  last revolt, the people of Fidenae murdered them. Tolumnius is
  associated with their crime.
  12. +infesta cuspide+ = _with couched lance._
  13-14. +hasta ... excepit+ = _with the help of his spear leapt to
  the ground_. Lit. ‘resting on his spear caught himself on his feet.’
  15. +umbone resupinat+ = _he throws him back with the boss of his
  +repetitum+ = _piercing him again and again_. --S.
  19. +Dictator+ = Mamercus Aemilius, a man of energy and ability.]

The +spolia opima+ (_spoils of honour_) were the arms taken on the field
of battle by the victorious from the vanquished general. They were won
on only three occasions:--

i. by +Romulus+, ii. by +Cossus+, iii. by +Marcellus+ (the Conqueror of
Syracuse), who in his first consulship, 222 B.C., slew with his own hand
Viridomarus, King of the Insubrian Gauls. Cf. Prop. V. x.


THE WAR WITH VEII, 405-396 B.C. (1)

_First Pay given to Citizen Soldiers, 406 B.C._

Additum deinde omnium maxime tempestivo principum in multitudinem
munere, ut ante mentionem ullam plebis tribunorumve decerneret senatus,
ut stipendium miles de publico acciperet, cum ante id tempus de suo
quisque functus eo munere esset. {5} Nihil acceptum umquam a plebe tanto
gaudio traditur. Concursum itaque ad curiam esse prensatasque exeuntium
manus et patres vere appellatos, effectum esse fatentibus, ut nemo pro
tam munifica patria, donec quicquam virium superesset, corpori {10} aut
sanguini suo parceret. Cum commoditas iuvaret, rem familiarem saltem
acquiescere eo tempore, quo corpus addictum atque operatum rei publicae
esset, tum quod ultro sibi oblatum esset, non a tribunis plebis
agitatum, non suis sermonibus efflagitatum, {15} id efficiebat multiplex
gaudium cumulatioremque gratiam rei. . . . Et lege perlata de indicendo
Veientibus bello exercitum magna ex parte voluntarium novi tribuni
militum consulari potestate Veios duxere. {20}

        LIVY, iv. 59, 60.

  1. +tempestivo+ = _seasonable_ (_timely_), in view of the coming
  struggle with Veii, and the necessity for winter campaigns.
  2. +munere.+ Livy tells us (cap. 60) that the Senate did _not_
  provide the pay as a present, but simply paid punctually their
  proper share of the _war-tax (tributum) in accordance with their
  assessment (cum senatus summa fide ex censu contulisset)_.
  4. +de publico+ = _out of the Public Treasury_.
  9. +fatentibus+ = _while men admitted_. --R.
  11-12. +Cum ... acquiescere+ = _While the comfortable thought_
  (_commoditas_ = lit. _advantage_) _pleased them_ (namely) _that
  their private property at least was undisturbed_-- i.e. that they
  paid no war-tax while they were in the field. --Rawlins.
  12-13. +quo corpus ... esset+ = _when they were impressed (devoted
  to) and actively employed in the public service_. --S. +addictus+,
  properly of an insolvent debtor made over to his creditor = a
  16-17. +id ... gratiam rei+ in apposition to +quod ...
  19. +tribuni ... potestate.+ Military tribunes with consular power
  instead of Consuls were elected occasionally from 444 to 367 B.C.
  20. +Veios.+ The capture of Veii by Camillus (396 B.C.), in
  consequence of the introduction of military pay, was enormously
  important to Rome.]

+Reference.+ Ihne, _Hist._ vol. i. pp. 243-4.


THE WAR WITH VEII, 405-396 B.C. (2)

A. _Lament over Veii._

  Heu, Veii veteres, et vos tum regna fuistis,
    Et vestro posita est aurea sella foro:
  Nunc intra muros pastoris bucina lenti
    Cantat, et in vestris ossibus arva metunt.        30

        PROPERTIUS, IV. (V.) x. 27-30.

  27. +Veii+ (Isola Farnese) on R. Cremera, about 12 miles N.W. of
  28. +aurea sella+, i.e. the official seat of the King. Cf. the Sella
  Curulis at Rome, introduced from Etruria.
  29. +bucina+ = _horn_.
  30. +et ... metunt+ = _and reapers gather the harvests from fields_
  (+metunt arva+) _enriched by the bones of your buried heroes_ (+in
  ossibus vestris+).]

B. _The Rise of the Alban Lake._

Quid, quod in annalibus habemus, Veienti {5} bello, cum lacus Albanus
praeter modum crevisset, Veientem quemdam ad nos hominem nobilem
profugisse, eumque dixisse, ex fatis, quae Veientes scripta haberent,
Veios capi non posse, dum lacus is redundaret: et, si lacus emissus
lapsu et cursu suo ad {10} mare profluxisset, perniciosum populo Romano:
sin autem ita esset eductus, ut ad mare pervenire non posset, tum
salutare nostris fore? Ex quo illa admirabilis a maioribus Albanae aquae
facta deductio est. Cum autem Veientes bello fessi legatos ad {15}
senatum misissent, tum ex his quidam dixisse dicitur, non omnia illum
transfugam ausum esse senatu dicere: in iisdem enim fatis scriptum
Veientes habere, ‘Fore ut brevi a Gallis Roma caperetur:’ quod quidem
sexennio post Veios captos esse factum {20} videmus.

        CICERO, _de Divinatione_, I. xliv. 100.

  5. +in annalibus+, e.g. in Livy, v. 15.
  6. +crevisset+, perh. partly due to the excessive snows of the
  preceding winter, 397 B.C.
  7. +profugisse.+ Livy says he was treacherously made prisoner.
  8-9. +ex fatis ... haberent+, i.e. the Etruscan +Libri fatales+,
  _Books of fate_, cf. the +Libri Sibyllini+ = the Roman Books of
  10. +lapsu et cursu suo+ = _in its natural course and stream_.
  14. +deductio+ = _draining_ (lit. _a leading off_). The tunnel then
  cut still carries off the superfluous waters of the lake.
  20. +sexennio post+ = _six years after_, i.e. 390 B.C. For the 10
  years’ siege of Veii, cf. the Trojan War.]

+Reference.+ Plutarch, _Camillus_, iii.-v. Livy, v. 15.


THE WAR WITH VEII, 405-396 B.C. (3)

_The Conquest of Veii._

Veientes ignari se iam a suis vatibus, iam ab externis oraculis
proditos, iam in partem praedae suae vocatos deos, alios votis ex urbe
sua evocatos hostium templa novasque sedes spectare, seque ultimum illum
diem agere, nihil minus timentes {5} quam subrutis cuniculo moenibus
arcem iam plenam hostium esse, in muros pro se quisque armati discurrunt
mirantes, quidnam id esset, quod, cum tot per dies nemo se ab
stationibus Romanus movisset, tum velut repentino icti furore improvidi
currerent ad {10} muros. . . . Cuniculus delectis militibus eo tempore
plenus in aedem Iunonis, quae in Veientana arce erat, armatos repente
edidit, et pars aversos in muris invadunt hostes, pars claustra portarum
revellunt, pars, cum ex tectis saxa tegulaeque a mulieribus ac {15}
servitiis iacerentur, inferunt ignes. Clamor omnia variis terrentium ac
paventium vocibus mixto mulierum ac puerorum ploratu complet. Momento
temporis deiectis ex muro undique armatis patefactisque portis cum alii
agmine irruerent, alii {20} desertos scanderent muros, urbs hostibus
impletur; omnibus locis pugnatur; deinde multa iam edita caede senescit
pugna, et dictator praecones edicere iubet, ut ab inermi abstineatur.

        LIVY, V. 21.

  1. +a suis vatibus+, i.e. by the captured Etruscan soothsayer
  1-2. +ab externis oraculis+, i.e. by the Delphic Oracle.
  2-3. +iam in partem ... (alios) deos.+ Camillus had vowed to give to
  Apollo the tenth part of the spoils of Veii.
  3-4. +alios ... spectare+, i.e. Juno. ‘It was a Roman practice to
  invite the patron deity of a place or country to leave it, and to
  promise a more honourable worship at Rome.’ --Whibley.
  5-6. +subrutis cunīculo+ = _undermined_. Camillus had a tunnel
  (_cuniculum--rabbit-burrow_, cf. _cony_) cut from the Roman camp
  under the wall to the Temple of Juno on the citadel of Veii.
  7. +discurrunt+ = _run every man to his post_, cf. _ad arma
  15. +tēgulae+ = _tiles_, _roof-tiles_ (_tĕgo_).
  23. +senescit+ = _abates_, lit. _grows old_, _becomes exhausted_.]

+Results of the War.+ ‘By the Conquest of Veii, Rome’s territory,
wealth, and population were largely increased. Rome was now emerging
from the position of a federal capital of the Latins to become the
mistress of a large country, when she was suddenly and unexpectedly
overtaken by a disaster (+the Invasion of the Gauls+) which threatened
not only her growth but her life.’ --Ihne.



_The Battle of the Allia._

Ibi tribuni militum non loco castris ante capto, non praemunito vallo,
quo receptus esset, non deorum saltem, si non hominum, memores, nec
auspicato nec litato instruunt aciem diductam in cornua, ne circumveniri
multitudine hostium possent; {5} nec tamen aequari frontes poterant, cum
extenuando infirmam et vix cohaerentem mediam aciem haberent. Paulum
erat ab dextera editi loci, quem subsidiariis repleri placuit; eaque res
ut initium pavoris ac fugae, sic una salus fugientibus fuit. Nam
Brennus, regulus {10} Gallorum, in paucitate hostium artem maxime
timens, ratus ad id captum superiorem locum, ut, ubi Galli cum acie
legionum recta fronte concurrissent, subsidia in aversos transversosque
impetum darent, ad subsidiarios signa convertit, si eos loco depulisset,
{15} haud dubius facilem in aequo campi tantum superanti multitudine
victoriam fore; adeo non fortuna modo sed ratio etiam cum barbaris
stabat. In altera acie nihil simile Romanis, non apud duces, non apud
milites erat. Pavor fugaque occupaverat animos et {20} tanta omnium
oblivio, ut multo maior pars Veios, in hostium urbem, cum Tiberis
arceret, quam recto itinere Romam ad coniuges ac liberos fugerent.

        LIVY, V. 38.

  4. +nec litato+ = _without obtaining favourable omens_
  (= καλλιερεῖν).
  4-5. +diductam in cornua+ = _extended (drawn out) towards the
  6-7. +cum ... haberent+ = _though they made_, concessive
  8. +Paulum ... editi loci+ = lit. _a little piece of rising ground_.
  10. +Brennus+ = lit. _King of the army_. Cf. the Saxon _Heretoga_.
  13. +recta fronte+ = _front to front_. --Whibley.
  14. +in aversos transversosque+ = _on their rear and flank_.
  16-17. +superanti multitudine+ = i. _(the victory) would be (easy)
  to him superior_ (+superanti+) _in point of numbers_, or ii. abl, of
  cause--_as he was so much superior in numbers_.
  21-22. +Veios, in hostium urbem.+ An exaggeration as Veii was in
  22. +cum T. arceret+ = _though the Tiber stood in their way_.]

+The Invasion of the Gauls.+ ‘The most advanced tribe of the Gauls were
the Senones who had settled on the Adriatic to the E. of Central
Etruria. While the Romans reduced S. Etruria to a state of subjection,
these Gauls suddenly crossed the Apennines, threatened Clusium, and then
marched on Rome. +Thus for the first time the Gallic race was brought to
the knowledge of the civilised world.+ The two armies met on July 18 at
the small R. Allia, only 15 miles from Rome.’ --Ihne.



A. _The Battle of the Allia_ (cont.)

Parumper subsidiarios tutatus est locus; in reliqua acie simul est
clamor proximis ab latere, ultimis ab tergo auditus, ignotum hostem
prius paene quam viderent, non modo non temptato certamine sed ne
clamore quidem reddito integri intactique {5} fugerunt; nec ulla caedes
pugnantium fuit; terga caesa suomet ipsorum certamine in turba
impedientium fugam. Circa ripam Tiberis, quo armis abiectis totum
sinistrum cornu refugit, magna strages facta est, multosque imperitos
nandi aut invalidos, {10} graves loricis aliisque tegminibus, hausere
gurgites. Maxima tamen pars incolumis Veios perfugit, unde non modo
praesidii quicquam, sed ne nuntius quidem cladis Romam est missus. Ab
dextro cornu, quod procul a flumine et magis sub monte steterat, {15}
Romam omnes petiere et ne clausis quidem portis urbis in arcem

        LIVY, v. 38.

  2-3. +simul (= simul ac) ... auditus+ = _as soon as the shout was
  heard, by those nearest on the flank, by the most distant in the
  ‘+Proximi+ denotes the Romans on the right wing, who were the first
  to be attacked; the Gauls after routing them pressed on to the rear
  of the Romans and attacked the centre and left wing (+ultimi+) from
  behind.’ --Whibley.
  7-8. +suomet ... fugam+ = _as they hindered their own flight by
  their struggling with one another in the crush_.]
  11. +graves+ = _weighed down with_, equivalent to a pass. partic.
  +hausere gurgites+ = _the currents sucked down_. --W
  15. +sub monte+, i.e. the Colles Crustumini, which run parallel to
  the South bank of the Tiber.]

B. _July 18th, a Dies Nefastus._

                  Pharsalia tanti
  Causa mali. Cedant feralia nomina Cannae,
  Et damnata diu Romanis Allia fastis.

        LUCAN, _Phars._ vii. 407-9.

  407. +Pharsalia+, Battle of, 48 B.C. Caesar signally defeated
  408. +feralia+ = _fatal_ (= +funesta+).
  409. +fastis+, i.e. _Fasti consulares_, the registers of the higher
  magistrates. Cf. the Saxon Chronicle.]

+The Battle.+ ‘The defeat of the Allia was never forgotten by the
Romans. The panic (due to the strange appearance of the barbarians and
their unwonted method of fighting) which alone had caused the defeat,
struck so deep into their minds that for centuries afterwards the name
and the sight of Gauls inspired them with terror.’ --Ihne.



_Roman Dignity and Courage._

Romae interim satis iam omnibus ut in tali re ad tuendam arcem
compositis turba seniorum domos regressi adventum hostium obstinato ad
mortem animo exspectabant. Qui eorum curules gesserant magistratus, ut
in fortunae pristinae honorumque ac {5} virtutis insignibus morerentur,
quae augustissima vestis est tensas ducentibus triumphantibusve, ea
vestiti medio aedium eburneis sellis sedere. Galli autem ingressi
postero die urbem patente Collina porta in forum perveniunt; ubi eos
plebis aedificiis {10} obseratis, patentibus atriis principum, maior
prope cunctatio tenebat aperta quam clausa invadendi; adeo haud secus
quam venerabundi intuebantur in aedium vestibulis sedentes viros,
praeter ornatum habitumque humano augustiorem maiestate etiam, {15} quam
vultus gravitasque oris prae se ferebat, simillimos dis. Ad eos velut ad
simulacra versi cum starent, M. Papirius, unus ex eis, dicitur Gallo
barbam suam, ut tum omnibus promissa erat, permulcenti scipione eburneo
in caput incusso iram {20} movisse, atque ab eo initium caedis ortum,
ceteros in sedibus suis trucidatos; post principum caedem nulli deinde
mortalium parci, diripi tecta, exhaustis inici ignes.

        LIVY, v. 41 (sel.)

  1. +ut in tali re+ = _considering the circumstances_.
  3. +obstinato ad+ = _firmly resolved on_... --Rawlins.
  4-5. +curules magistratus+ = _curule magistracies_, i.e. of
  Dictator, Censor, Consul, Praetor, Curule Aedile, who possessed the
  right of using _sellae curules_ (_the ivory chairs of State_),
  originally an emblem of kingly power.
  5-6. +in fortunae ... insignibus+ = _in the emblems of their old
  rank_ (+fortunae+) _and office_ (+honorum+) _and prowess_
  (+virtutis+ i.e. prizes for valour; e.g. _phalerae_ = _bosses_,
  _coronae_ = _crowns_).
  7. +tensas+ = _state cars_ in which the statues of the gods were
  drawn in solemn procession to the Circensian games.
  11. +obseratis+ = _shut up_, lit. _barred_, +ob + sera+, cf.
  _sĕro_ = join.
  14. +vestibulis+ = _entrance-courts_, only found in large houses.
  14-15. +praeter ornatum habitumque+ = _not only in their garb and
  bearing_. --Whibley.
  19. +ut tum ... erat+ = _worn long_ (+promissa+) _as was then the
  custom with all_, or _worn long in accordance with the fashion of
  the time_. --R.
  20. +scipione eburneo+ = _the ivory staff_, one of the _insignia_ of
  the _triumphator_.
  23. +exhaustis+ (sc. _aedibus_) = _when completely pillaged_.]

+Reference.+ Plutarch, _Camillus_, xxi. xxii.



A. _Manlius Capitolinus and the Sacred Geese._

  In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis
  Stabat pro templo et Capitolia celsa tenebat,
  Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo.
  Atque his auratis volitans argenteus anser         655
  Porticibus Gallos in limine adesse canebat;
  Galli per dumos aderant, arcemque tenebant,
  Defensi tenebris et dono noctis opacae;
  Aurea caesaries ollis, atque aurea vestis;
  Virgatis lucent sagulis; tum lactea colla         660
  Auro innectuntur; duo quisque Alpina coruscant
  Gaesa manu, scutis protecti corpora longis.

        VERGIL, _Aen._ viii. 652-662.

+Context.+ Venus brings Aeneas his new armour: he gazes at the shield
whereon were wrought scenes of the story of Rome to be.

  652. +in summo+ (sc. +clipeo+), _on the top of the shield_, as held
  in position.
  654. +Romuleoque ... culmo+ = lit. _and the palace was stiff freshly
  covered_ (+recens+) _with the thatch of Romulus_.
  655-656. +auratis ... porticibus+ = _the gilded colonnades_ of the
  Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus of Vergil’s day, restored 69 B.C.
  660. +virgatis sagulis+ = _with striped cloaks_--+virgatus+ = with
  bands or bars like shoots (_virgae_)--an effect produced by
  inlaying. C.
  661-662. +Alpina gaesa+ = _Alpine_ (i.e. _native_) _javelins_.]

B. _The Fate of Manlius, 384 B.C._

M. Manlius, unde Gallos depulerat, inde ipse praecipitatus est, quia
fortiter defensam libertatem nefarie opprimere conatus fuerat. Cuius
iustae ultionis nimirum haec praefatio fuit: ‘Manlius eras {15} mihi,
cum praecipites agebas Senones; postquam imitari coepisti, unus factus
es ex Senonibus.’ Huius supplicio aeternae memoriae nota inserta est:
propter illum enim lege sanciri placuit ne quis patricius in arce aut
Capitolio habitaret, quia domum eo loco {20} habuerat, ubi nunc aedem
Monetae videmus.

        VALERIUS MAXIMUS, vi. _De Severitate_.

  13-14. +quia ... fuerat.+ Manlius in reality fell a victim to his
  sympathies with the Plebeians. Cf. the fate of Sp. Cassius 485 B.C.
  18. +nota+ = _a mark (brand) of infamy_.
  20-21. +quia ... habuerat.+ His house on the Capitol was razed to
  the ground.
  21. +aedem Monetae+, a surname of Juno, in whose temple on the Arx
  money was coined. Cf. our Mint.]

‘Thus ended the life of Manlius, the deliverer of Rome, the humane
friend of an oppressed people, condemned by this very people to die the
death of a traitor.’ --Ihne.



_Camillus, Parens Patriae._

Sed diique et homines prohibuere redemptos vivere Romanos. Nam forte
quadam, priusquam infanda merces perficeretur, per altercationem nondum
omni auro appenso dictator intervenit auferrique aurum de medio et
Gallos submoveri iubet. Cum {5} illi renitentes pactos dicerent sese,
negat eam pactionem ratam esse, quae, postquam ipse dictator creatus
esset, iniussu suo ab inferioris iuris magistratu facta esset,
denuntiatque Gallis, ut se ad proelium expediant ... Instruit deinde
aciem, ut {10} loci natura patiebatur, in semirutae solo urbis et natura
inaequali, et omnia, quae arte belli secunda suis eligi praepararive
poterant, providit. Galli nova re trepidi arma capiunt, iraque magis
quam consilio in Romanos incurrunt. Primo concursu haud {15} maiore
momento fusi Galli sunt, quam ad Alliam vicerant. Iustiore altero deinde
proelio ad octavum lapidem Gabina via, quo se ex fuga contulerant,
eiusdem ductu auspicioque Camilli vincuntur. Ibi caedes omnia obtinuit;
castra capiuntur, et ne {20} nuntius quidem cladis relictus. Dictator
recuperata ex hostibus patria triumphans in urbem redit, interque iocos
militares, quos inconditos iaciunt, Romulus ac parens patriae
conditorque alter urbis haud vanis laudibus appellabatur. {25}

        LIVY, v. 49 (sel.)

+Context.+ The Romans on the Capitol, despairing of outside help, agreed
with Brennus that Rome should be redeemed by a ransom of 1000 pounds of
gold. _Nondum omnni auro appenso_, Camillus appeared at the head of his

  3. +per altercationem+ = _owing to the dispute_. When the Consular
  Tribune Sulpicius complained that the Gauls used unjust weights,
  Brennus in derision threw his sword into the scale and said _Vae
  13-14. +nova re+ = _at the change in their fortunes_. --Whibley.
  15-16. +haud maiore momento+ = _with no greater difficulty
  17. +Iustiore altero proelio+ = _in a second and more regular
  engagement_. -- W.
  23. +incondītos+ = _rough_, _unpolished_.
    ‘The Gaul shall come against thee
      From the land of snow and night:
    Thou shalt give his fair-haired armies
      To the raven and the kite.’ --Macaulay.]



A. _The Migration to Veii abandoned._

Movisse eos Camillus cum alia oratione tum ea, quae ad religiones
pertinebat, maxime dicitur; sed rem dubiam decrevit vox opportune missa,
quod, cum senatus post paulo de his rebus in curia Hostilia haberetur,
cohortesque ex praesidiis revertentes forte {5} agmine forum transirent,
centurio in comitio exclamavit: ‘Signifer, statue signum; hic manebimus
optime.’ Qua voce audita et senatus accipere se omen ex curia egressus
conclamavit, et plebs circumfusa approbavit. Antiquata deinde lege
promiscue {10} urbs aedificari coepta.

        LIVY, v. 55.

  1. +cum alia tum+ = _especially_
  +ea+ = _ea parte orationis_.
  3. +vox opportune missa+ = _a phrase seasonably let fall_.
  10. +Antiquata deinde lege+ (= _rogatione_) = _the proposed law was
  then rejected_, +antiquare+ = _to leave in its former state_.]

B. _Juno forbids the Rebuilding of Troy._

  ‘Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus
  Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii
    Rebusque fidentes avitae
      Tecta velint reparare Troiae.       60
  ‘Troiae renascens alite lugubri
  Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur,
    Ducente victrices catervas
      Coniuge me Iovis et sorore.’        64

        HORACE, _Odes_, III. iii. 57-64.

  58. +hac lege+ = _on this condition_, i.e. that Rome should always
  be the capital.
  +nimium pii+ = _too dutiful_ to their mother-city Troy.
  58-60. +ne ... reparare Troiae.+ There was a rumour, even in
  Caesar’s time (v. Suet. _Iul. Caes._ 79) that he meant to migrate to
  Alexandria or Ilium. Horace, prob. with the sanction of Augustus,
  sets himself to discourage it. Cf. the Speech of Camillus, Livy, v.
  61-62. +Troiae ... iterabitur+ = the _fortunes of Troy, if with evil
  omen it is called to life again_ (+renascens+), _shall be repeated
  in an overthrow as sad as before_. --Wickham.]

‘The Burning of Rome by the Gauls involved the destruction of all the
existing records, and great loss of property. Yet in spite of all the
damage done, the Romans set to work to establish the state anew, to
rebuild the City, and to reassert their commanding position among their
allies and neighbours.’ --Ihne.

+The Speech of Camillus.+ Its object was to show the growth of Rome
under the guidance of Providence. Cf. the purpose of the _Aeneid_.


THE LICINIAN LAWS, 376-366 B.C. (1)

_First Plebeian Consul, 366 B.C._

Occasio videbatur rerum novandarum propter ingentem vim aeris alieni,
cuius levamen mali plebes nisi suis in summo imperio locatis, nullum
speraret: accingendum ad eam cogitationem esse; conando agendoque iam eo
gradum fecisse plebeios, unde, {5} si porro annitantur, pervenire ad
summa et patribus aequari tam honore quam virtute possent. In praesentia
tribunes plebis fieri placuit, quo in magistratu sibimet ipsi viam ad
ceteros honores aperirent. Creatique tribuni C. Licinius et L. Sextius
promulgavere {10} leges omnes adversus opes patriciorum et pro commodis
plebis, unam de aere alieno, ut deducto eo de capite, quod usuris
pernumeratum esset, id, quod superesset, triennio aequis pensionibus
persolveretur; alteram de modo agrorum, ne quis plus quingenta {15}
iugera agri possideret; tertiam, ne tribunorum militum comitia fierent,
consulumque utique alter ex plebe crearetur; cuncta ingentia et quae
sine certamine maximo obtineri non possent. . . . Ita ab diutina ira
tandem in concordiam redacti sunt ordines. {20}

        LIVY, vi. 35.

  1. +Occasio.+ This, so Livy tells us, was the jealousy between the
  Fabian sisters, the one married to the patrician Sulpicius, the
  other to the plebeian Licinius Stolo.
  1-2. +propter ... alieni.+ The old Roman law of debt was very harsh
  and severe.
  3. +in summo imperio+, i.e. the Consulate.
  4. +accingendum ... esse+ = _they must brace themselves to the
  execution of that idea_. --R. +accingendum+, reflexive here.
  5. +iam eo+, i.e. to the office of Consular Tribune, created 444 B.C.
  6. +si porro annitantur+ = _if they +now+ make a further effort_.
  This use of Pres. Subj. in Or. Obl. frequent in Livy.
  7. +tam honore quam virtute+ = _in official rank as (they were
  already) in merit_. --Rawlins.
  12-14. +ut deducto ... persolveretur+ = ‘_after deducting from the
  amount of the loan_ (+capite+ = _principal_) _what had been paid in
  interest, the balance should be paid in three equal instalments_.’
  --Cluer and Matheson.
  15. +de modo agrorum+ = _relating to the limitation of
  16-17. +tribunorum militum+ (sc. _cum consulari potestate_) created
  444 B.C., but no plebeian obtained that honour till 400 B.C., and
  only two after that date.
  17. +utique+ = _one at any rate_.]

+Result.+ ‘The principle was established that Patricians and Plebeians
were both citizens of the State, and equally eligible to the honours and
dignities of the Republic.’ --Ihne.


THE LICINIAN LAWS, 376-366 B.C. (2)

_The Origin of the Floralia, 238 B.C._

  ‘Dic, dea,’ respondi, ‘ludorum quae sit origo.’
    Vix bene desieram; rettulit illa mihi:
  ‘Cetera luxuriae nondum instrumenta vigebant:
    Aut pecus, aut latam dives habebat humum;          4
  Hinc etiam locuples, hinc ipsa pecunia dicta est.
    Sed iam de vetito quisque parabat opes.
  Venerat in morem populi depascere saltus;
    Idque diu licuit, poenaque nulla fuit.             8
  Vindice servabat nullo sua publica vulgus;
    Iamque in privato pascere inertis erat.
  Plebis ad aediles perducta licentia talis
    Publicios: animus defuit ante viris.              12
  Rem populus recipit: multam subiere nocentes:
    Vindicibus laudi publica cura fuit.
  Multa data est ex parte mihi, magnoque favore
    Victores ludos instituere novos.                  16
  Parte locant Clivum, qui tunc erat ardua rupes:
    Utile nunc iter est. Publiciumque vocant.’

        OVID, _Fasti_, v. 237-254, H.  [V. 277-294]

  2. +illa+, i.e. _Flora_, the Roman goddess of Flowers and Spring.
  3. +luxuriae instrumenta+ = _appliance of luxury_.
  5. +locuples+ (_locus + plenus_) = _rich in lands_.
  +pecunia+ from +pecus+, _cattle_ being in olden time the chief form
  of wealth and the chief medium of exchange. For +pecus+, cf. _fee_,
  _fief_, _feudal_.
  7. +Venerat ... saltus+ = _it had grown into a custom to feed
  (cattle) on the public forest-pastures_. (Cf. the ager publicus.)
  9. +sua publica+ = _their common property_, i.e. their interest in
  the public land.
  +vulgus+ here = _the commons_, not the _plebs_ as opposed to the
  10. +inertis erat+ = _it was the mark of a man wanting in spirit_.
  12. +Publicios.+ L. and M. Publicius Malleolus,[21] plebeian
  aediles, B.C. 241.
  +animus ... viris+, i.e. information had before been given but no
  aedile dared to act upon it.
  13. +recipit+ = _takes up the charge at the Comitia_.
  +multam+ = _a fine_. Cf. to mulct = to fine.
  14. +publica cura+ = _their public spirit_. --H.
  15. +multa ... mihi+, i.e. a new Temple was built to Flora near the
  Circus Maximus.
  +ludos novos+ = _the Floralia_.
  16. +Parte locant+ (sc. _muniendum_) +Clivum+ = _with the (other)
  part they contract for (the making of) the Clivus_, a sloping road,
  called the Clivus Publicius, which led up to the Aventine.]

    [Footnote 21: For Malleolus, cf. Charles Martel of France, ‘The
    Hammer’ circ. 689-741 A.D.]




_Manlius and his son Torquatus._

L. Manlio, cum dictator fuisset, M. Pomponius tribunus plebis diem
dixit, quod is paucos sibi dies ad dictaturam gerendam addidisset;
criminabatur etiam, quod Titum filium, qui postea est Torquatus
appellatus, ab hominibus relegasset et ruri habitare {5} iussisset. Quod
cum audivisset adulescens filius negotium exhiberi patri, accurrisse
Romam et cum prima luce Pomponii domum venisse dicitur. Cui cum esset
nuntiatum, qui illum iratum allaturum ad se aliquid contra patrem
arbitraretur, surrexit e {10} lectulo remotisque arbitris ad se
adulescentem iussit venire. At ille, ut ingressus est, confestim gladium
destrinxit iuravitque se illum statim interfecturum, nisi ius iurandum
sibi dedisset se patrem missum esse facturum. Iuravit hoc terrore
coactus Pomponius; {15} rem ad populum detulit, docuit cur sibi causa
desistere necesse esset, Manlium missum fecit. Tantum temporibus illis
ius iurandum valebat. Atque hic T. Manlius is est, qui ad Anienem Galli,
quem ab eo provocatus occiderat, torque detracto cognomen {20} invenit,
cuius tertio consulatu Latini ad Veserim fusi et fugati.

        CICERO, _de Officiis_, iii. § 112.

  1. +L. Manlio+, i.e. L. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus, appointed
  Dictator 363 B.C. ‘to drive in a nail (_clavi figendi causa_) on the
  right side of the Temple of Jupiter, to mark the number of the year,
  because written documents were rare in those times.’
  2. +diem dixit+ = _named a day (for his trial before the Comitia)_.
  4-6. +quod Titum filium ... iussisset.+ Livy, vii. 4, says ‘And for
  what offence? Because he was a little slow of speech and not ready
  with his tongue.’
  4. +Torquatus+, Dictator 353 and 349 B.C., and three times Consul.
  6. +negotium exhiberi patri+ = lit. _that trouble was being brought
  upon his father_, i.e. _that his father was in trouble_.
  9-10. +qui arbitraretur+ = _inasmuch as he thought_. Adject. causal
  clause. --Holden.
  11. +remotis arbitris+ = _when he had put out of the room all
  witnesses_. --H. +arbiter+[22] = (ar = ad + bito = eo) = spectator,
  14-15. +missum facturum+ = _would set at liberty_.
  19. +ad Anienem Galli.+ On this, their second invasion, the Gauls
  advanced as far as the Anio. Livy tells us that after the death of
  their champion the Gauls fled under cover of night.
  21-22. +cuius ... fugati+, i.e. the great battle of Vesuvius fought
  340 B.C. by the Veseris, a R. in Campania near Mount Vesuvius, which
  established for ever the supremacy of Rome over Latium.]

    [Footnote 22: Cf. _arbiter pugnae_, _bibendi_, Horace.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Livy, vii. 4, 5, 9, 10.


FIRST SAMNITE WAR, 343-341 B.C. (1)

_An Important Epoch in Roman History._

Maiora iam hinc bella et viribus hostium et longinquitate vel regionum
vel temporum, quibus bellatum est, dicentur. Namque eo anno adversus
Samnites, gentem opibus armisque validam, mota arma; Samnitium bellum
ancipiti Marte gestum {5} Pyrrhus hostis, Pyrrhum Poeni secuti. Quanta
rerum moles! quoties in extrema periculoram ventum, ut in hanc
magnitudinem, quae vix sustinetur, erigi imperium posset! Belli autem
causa cum Samnitibus Romanis, cum societate amicitiaque iuncti essent,
{10} extrinsecus venit, non orta inter ipsos est. Samnites Sidicinis
iniusta arma, quia viribus plus poterant, cum intulissent, coacti inopes
ad opulentiorum auxilium confugere Campanis sese coniungunt. Campani
magis nomen ad praesidium sociorum quam {15} vires cum attulissent,
fluentes luxu ab duratis usu armorum in Sidicino pulsi agro, in se
deinde molem omnem belli verterunt. Namque Samnites, omissis Sidicinis
ipsam arcem finitimorum Campanos adorti, unde aeque facilis victoria,
praedae atque gloriae {20} plus esset, Tifata, imminentes Capuae colles,
cum praesidio firmo occupassent, descendunt inde quadrato agmine in
planitiem, quae Capuam Tifataque interiacet. Ibi rursus acie dimicatum;
adversoque proelio Campani intra moenia compulsi, cum robore iuventutis
{25} suae acciso nulla propinqua spes esset, coacti sunt ab Romanis
petere auxilium.

        LIVY, vii. 29.

  1. +iam hinc+, i.e. 343-266 B.C.
  2. +longinquitate ... temporum+ = _the distance of the theatre of
  war_ (+regionum+) _and the length of the campaign_
  6-7. +quanta rerum moles+ = _What stupendous exertions!_--R.
  8. +in hanc magnitudinem+, i.e. in the reign of Augustus.
  10. +cum societate+, i.e. from 354 B.C.
  12. +Sidicinis+, a Sabellian people N.W. of Campania, on the Samnite
  16. +fluentes (luxu)+ = _enervated_ (lit. _relaxed_) by luxury.
  21. +Tifāta+ (neut. Plur.), a mountain range N.E. of Capua.
  22-23. +quadrato agmine+ = _in regular order of battle_, so that the
  whole army formed a parallelogram.]

+The Cause of the War.+ ‘The interference of Rome was a breach of the
Treaty with the Samnites. Livy admits this, but asserts that Capua had
formally surrendered to Rome, and as a subject state claimed her
protection. The story is confessedly false, for Capua remained, what it
had always been, an independent town.’ --R.


FIRST SAMNITE WAR, 343-341 B.C. (2)

_Battle of Mt. Gaurus. M. Valerius Corvus._

Non alias militi familiarior dux fuit, omnia inter infimos militum haud
gravate munia obeundo. In ludo praeterea militari, cum velocitatis
viriumque inter se aequales certamina ineunt, comiter facilis; vincere
ac vinci vultu eodem, nec quemquam aspernari {5} parem, qui se offerret;
factis benignus pro re, dictis haud minus libertatis alienae quam suae
dignitatis memor, et, quo nihil popularius est, quibus artibus petierat
magistratus, iisdem gerebat. Itaque universus exercitus incredibili
alacritate adhortationem {10} prosecutus ducis castris egreditur. . . .
Primus omnium consul invadit hostem et, cum quo forte contulit gradum,
obtruncat. Hoc spectaculo accensi dextra laevaque ante se quisque
memorandum proelium ciet; stant obnixi Samnites, quamquam {15} plura
accipiunt quam inferunt vulnera. Aliquamdiu iam pugnatum erat, atrox
caedes circa signa Samnitium, fuga ab nulladum parte erat; adeo morte
sola vinci destinaverant animis. Itaque Romani, cum et fluere iam
lassitudine vires sentirent et diei {20} haud multum superesse, accensi
ira concitant se in hostem. Tum primum referri pedem atque inclinari rem
in fugam apparuit; tum capi, occidi Samnis; nec superfuissent multi, ni
nox victoriam magis quam proelium diremisset. {25}

        LIVY, vii. 33.

  1. +familiarior+ = _on better terms with_. --Cluer and Matheson.
  2. +haud gravate+ = _without reluctance_ (_ungrudgingly_). Compare
  Sallust’s description of Marius and Sulla.
  4. +aequales+ = _competitors_, lit. _well-matched_.
  +comiter facilis+ = _he was courteously good-natured_.
  6-7. +pro re+ = _to suit the occasion_.
  9. +artibus iisdem+ = _in the same spirit_. --Weissenborn.
  11. +prosecutus+ = _welcoming_, lit. _attending_.
  12-13. +cum ... gradum+ = _with whom he happened to engage_. Cf.
  _collato pede_ = _fighting foot to foot_.
  15. +stant obnixi+ = _stand their ground firmly_. +obnixus+
  (+ob + nitor+, _strive + against_), _resolute_.
  23. +Samnis+, nom. sing.
  +capi+, +occidi+, Historic Infinitives.
  25. +diremisset+ = _had broken off_. _dirimo_ (_dis + emo_) = _take

+The Battle of Mt. Gaurus.+ The battle was fought on the volcanic range
of mountains between Cumae and Neapolis. The Consul in command, M.
Valerius, obtained the surname of Corvus (Raven), because when serving
as a military Tribune under Camillus in 349 B.C., he defeated the Gallic
champion by the aid of a raven. See next page, A. l. 4.  [[line 66]]


THE LATIN WAR, 340-338 B.C. (1)

_Self-Sacrifice of Decius Mus, 340 B.C._

A. _Rome’s Empire safe in the keeping of Augustus._

  Curtius expletis statuit monimenta lacunis;
    At Decius misso proelia rupit equo;               64
  Coclitis abscissos testatur semita pontes:
    Est cui cognomen corvus habere dedit.
  Haec di condiderunt, haec di quoque moenia servant:
    Vix timeat, salvo Caesare, Roma Iovem.            68

        PROPERTIUS, III. (IV.) xi. (x.) 63-68.

  63. +Curtius ... lacunis+, in allusion to the spot called _Lacus
  Curtius_ (marked by a circular pavement) in the Forum which served
  as a memorial (_monimenta_) of his heroic sacrifice. Livy, vii. 6.
  +lacuna+ (cf. _lacus_) = _a hole_, _pool_, _chasm_.
  65. +semita+ (_sed + meo_ = _go + aside_) = _a path_, _road_.
  Cocles, apparently, gave his name to the street running up from the
  bridge which he ‘kept so well.’ --Ramsay.
  66. +cui+, i.e. M. Valerius Corvus, the hero of Mt. Gaurus. See
  p. 91.  [[previous selection]]
  67-68. i.e. _with Caesar_ (_Augustus_) _safe_, Rome has none to
  fear, nay, scarce Jove himself. Flattery can go no further than

B. _The Dream of the Consuls on the Eve of Battle._

Illud etiam somnium et magnae admirationis et clari exitus, quod eadem
nocte duo consules P. Decius Mus et T. Manlius Torquatus Latino bello
gravi ac periculoso non procul a Vesuvi montis radicibus {10} positis
castris viderunt. Utrique enim quaedam per quietem species praedixit ex
altera acie imperatorem, ex altera exercitum dis Manibus matrique Terrae
deberi; utrius autem dux copias hostium superque eas sese ipsum
devovisset, victricem abituram. Id {15} luce proxima consulibus
sacrificio vel expiaturis, si posset averti, vel, si certum deorum etiam
monitu visum foret, exsecuturis, hostiarum exta somnio congruerunt,
convenitque inter eos, cuius cornu prius laborare coepisset, ut is
capite suo fata patriae lueret. {20} Quae neutro reformidante Decium

        VALERIUS MAXIMUS, i. _De Somniis_.

  13. +Dis Manibus+ = _the deified souls of the dead_, usually looked
  upon as beneficent spirits.
  15. +victricem+, sc. _aciem_.
  17. +deorum etiam monitu+ = _by the warning of the gods also_, i.e.
  by the auspices as well as by the dream.
  19-20. +cuius cornu ... coepisset.+ The left wing led by Decius was
  repulsed by the Latins, and Decius accordingly devoted himself to

+Parallel Passage.+ Livy, viii. 6. 9.


THE LATIN WAR, 340-338 B.C. (2)

_The Battle of Mt. Vesuvius, 340 B.C._

Procedente deinde certamine cum aliis partibus multitudo superaret
Latinorum, Manlius consul audito eventu collegae paulisper addubitavit,
an consurgendi iam triariis tempus esset; deinde melius ratus integros
eos ad ultimum discrimen servari, {5} Accensos ab novissima acie ante
signa procedere iubet. Qui ubi subiere, extemplo Latini, tamquam idem
adversarii fecissent, triarios suos excitaverunt; qui aliquamdiu pugna
atroci cum et semet ipsi fatigassent et hastas aut praefregissent aut
hebetassent, {10} pellerent vi tamen hostem, debellatum iam rati
perventumque ad extremam aciem, tum consul triariis ‘Consurgite nunc’
inquit ‘integri adversus fessos, memores patriae parentumque et coniugum
ac liberorum, memores consulis pro vestra victoria {15} morte
occubantis.’ Ubi triarii consurrexerunt, integri, refulgentibus armis,
nova ex improviso exorta acies, receptis in intervalla ordinum
antepilanis, clamore sublato principia Latinorum perturbant hastisque
ora fodientes primo robore virorum caeso per alios manipulos {20} velut
inermes prope intacti evasere tantaque caede perrupere cuneos, ut vix
quartam partem relinquerent hostium.

        LIVY, viii. 10.

  3-4. +an consurgendi ... esset.+ Livy says ‘The Triarii were posted
  crouching by the standards, their left leg extended forwards,
  holding their shields resting on their shoulders, and their spears
  fixed in the ground with the points erect, so that their line
  bristled as if enclosed by a rampart.’
  6. +Accensos.+ The _Accensi_ (_ad + censeo_), originally
  supernumeraries to take the place of those who fell in battle, =
  _levis armatura_.
  +ante signa+, i.e. of the Hastati and Principes.
  8. +excitaverunt+ = _surgere iusserunt_. --Weissenborn.
  10. +hebetassent+ = _had blunted_.
  18. +antepilanis+ = _prop._ both the Hastati and Principes who were
  drawn up before the Pilani or Triarii who formed the third line.
  19. +principia+ = _the front line_, now the Triarii of the Latins.
  22. +cuneos+ = _columns_ (lit. _wedges_), i.e. a body of soldiers
  drawn up in the shape of a wedge. Livy uses it of the phalanx.]

+The Cause of the War.+ The war was almost a civil one. The dispute was
chiefly about a right to share in the privileges of the full Roman
citizenship (espec. the right to vote and to hold office).

+Result of the War.+ Rome broke up the Latin Confederation by making
separate treaties with the Latin towns, and by prohibiting commercial
intercourse between them.


SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (1)

_The Dictator and his Master of the Horse._

Ea fortuna pugnae fuit, ut nihil relictum sit, quo, si adfuisset
Dictator, res melius geri potuerit; non dux militi, non miles duci
defuit. Eques etiam, auctore L. Cominio tribuno militum, qui aliquotiens
impetu capto perrumpere non poterat hostium agmen, {5} detraxit frenos
equis atque ita concitatos calcaribus permisit, ut sustinere eos nulla
vis posset; per arma, per viros late stragem dedere; secutus pedes
impetum equitum turbatis hostibus intulit signa. Viginti milia hostium
caesa eo die traduntur. Magister equitum, {10} ut ex tanta caede, multis
potitus spoliis congesta in ingentem acervum hostilia arma subdito igne
concremavit, seu votum id deorum cuiquam fuit, seu credere libet Fabio
auctori eo factum, ne suae gloriae fructum Dictator caperet nomenque ibi
scriberet aut {15} spolia in triumpho ferret. Litterae quoque de re
prospere gesta ad senatum, non ad Dictatorem missae argumentum fuere
minima cum eo communicantis laudes. Ita certe Dictator id factum
accepit, ut laetis aliis victoria parta prae se ferret iram
tristitiamque. {20}

        LIVY, viii, 30.

  2. +Dictator+ = L. Papirius Cursor, noted for the strictness of his
  military discipline. At this time he had gone to Rome to take the
  auspices anew (_ad auspicium repetendum_) and had given strict
  orders to his Master of the Horse, Q. Fabius Rullianus, to avoid all
  collision with the enemy during his absence.
  7. +permisit+ = _gave them their heads_. Cf. _immittere habenas_.
  9. +turbatis ... signa+ = _attacked the enemy_ (dative) _when in
  11. +spoliis+, i.e. the _arms_ taken from the fallen.
  13-14. +seu credere ... factum+ = lit. _or whether one prefer to
  credit the authority of Fabius that it was done on this account_
  (+eo+) ... +Fabius Pictor+, the earliest Roman historian, wrote in
  Greek and served in the 2nd Punic War.
  15. +ibi+ (sc. _hostilia arma_) = _on them_. These, set up as a
  trophy with the victor’s name inscribed, would have been borne in
  the triumphal procession.
  19. +Ita certe ... accepit+ = _so_ (+ita+) _no doubt the Dictator
  interpreted his_ (Fabius’) _action_.]

+The Cause of the War.+ The actual _casus belli_ was a dispute between
Rome and the Samnites for the possession of Palaeopolis (= _old city_)
near Neapolis (= _new city_). Cf. the First Punic War, 241 B.C., due to
the struggle for the possession of Messana, and the war with Pyrrhus,
281 B.C., for the possession of Tarentum.

+Historic Parallel.+ Fabius Cunctator and Minucius. --Livy, xxii. 24-30.


SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (2)

_The Caudine Forks, 321 B.C._

Duae ad Luceriam ferebant viae, altera praeter oram superi maris, patens
apertaque, sed quanto tutior, tanto fere longior, altera per Furculas
Caudinas, brevior; sed ita natus locus est. Saltus duo alti, angusti
silvosique sunt, montibus circa perpetuis {5} inter se iuncti. Iacet
inter eos satis patens, clausus in medio, campus herbidus aquosusque,
per quem medium iter est; sed antequam venias ad eum, intrandae primae
angustiae sunt, et aut eadem, qua te insinuaveris, retro via repetenda,
aut, si ire {10} porro pergas, per alium saltum, artiorem
impeditioremque, evadendum. In eum campum via alia per cavam rupem
Romani demisso agmine cum ad alias angustias protinus pergerent, saeptas
deiectu arborum saxorumque ingentium obiacente mole {15} invenere. Cum
fraus hostilis apparuisset, praesidium etiam in summo saltu conspicitur.
Citati inde retro, qua venerant, pergunt repetere viam; eam quoque
clausam sua obice armisque inveniunt. Sistunt inde gradum sine ullius
imperio, intuentesque alii alios {20} diu immobiles silent.

        LIVY, ix. 2.

  1. +ad Luceriam+ = _in the direction of Luceria_, a town in Apulia
  on the borders of Samnium, and now threatened by the Samnites.
  1-2. +praeter ... maris+ = _along the coast of the upper sea_, i.e.
  the Adriatic. Taking this route, they would go N. of Samnium,
  through the Peligni, and S. through the Frentani into Apulia.
  3. +fere+ = _just_.
  3-4. +Furculas Caudinas+, two _fork-shaped_ defiles near Caudium,
  the capital of the Caudine Samnites, between Beneventum and Capua on
  what was afterwards the _Via Appia_.
  5-6. +montibus ... iuncti+ = _united by a continuous ring_
  (+perpetuis circa+) _of mountains_.
  10. +insinuaveris+ = lit. _have wound your way_.
  11-12. +artiorem impeditioremque+ = _more narrow and more difficult_
  (i.e. _steeper_).
  13. +per cavam rupem+ = _through an overhanging rocky defile_.
  +demisso agmine+ = _with their troops led down_ (the descent).
  14. +protinus+ = _straightforward_.
  14-15. +deiectu ... mole+ = lit. ‘_a barrier lying in the way
  (formed) by the throwing down of trees and large pieces of rock_.’
  +mole+ = an _abattis_ (a _knocking down_, _felling_).--Rawlins.
  16. +cum fraus ...+ = _no sooner had ... when ..._
  17. +citati+ = _hurriedly_ (in hot haste). Partic. used adverbially.
  19. +sua obice+ = _with a barrier of its own_ (i.e. specially


SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (3)

_The Caudine Forks. The Yoke._

Alii alios intueri, contemplari arma mox tradenda et inermes futuras
dextras obnoxiaque corpora hosti; proponere sibimet ipsi ante oculos
iugum hostile et ludibria victoris et vultus superbos et per armatos
inermium iter, inde foedi agminis miserabilem viam {5} per sociorum
urbes, reditum in patriam ad parentes, quo saepe ipsi maioresque eorum
triumphantes venissent: se solos sine vulnere, sine ferro, sine acie
victos: sibi non stringere licuisse gladios, non manum cum hoste
conferre; sibi nequicquam animos datos. {10} Haec frementibus hora
fatalis ignominiae advenit, omnia tristiora experiundo factura, quam
quae praeceperant animis. Iam primum cum singulis vestimentis inermes
extra vallum exire iussi, et primi traditi obsides atque in custodiam
abducti. Primi {15} consules prope seminudi sub iugum missi; tum ut
quisque gradu proximus erat, ita ignominiae obiectus; tum deinceps
singulae legiones. Ita traducti sub iugum et, quod paene gravius erat,
per hostium oculos, cum e saltu evasissent, etsi velut ab inferis {20}
extracti tum primum lucem aspicere visi sunt, tamen ipsa lux ita deforme
intuentibus agmen omni morte tristior fuit.

        LIVY, ix. 5, 6.

  1-10. +intueri; contemplari ...+ = _There they are looking one on
  another_. . . . By a string of infinitives the picture of a series
  of actions is put before the reader without the actions being
  thought of singly. --Lee Warner.
  2. +obnoxia+ = _at the mercy of_ ...--Rawlins.
  6. +per sociorum urbes+, e.g. _Capua_.
  11. +fatalis ignominiae+ = _destined for their disgrace_.
  12. +experiundo+ = _by experience_; +praeceperant+ = _they had
  16. +seminudi+ = _with only their tunics on_.
  17. +gradu+ = _in rank_.
  18. +traducti+, ‘always used in this sense of _disgraceful_
  exhibition or parade.’ --Stephenson.
  22-23. +ipsa lux ... fuit+ = _the very light was to them as they
  gazed on so hideous a line of march more gloomy than any form of

+The Caudine Forks.+ Other writers state that the Romans were entrapped
only after a severe defeat.

‘By the side of those names (the Allia and Cannae) there was yet a third
in the list of evil days--the name of the Caudine Pass.’ --Ihne. Cf.
p. 82, B.  [[Selection D23 B]]

+Historic Parallels.+ Livy’s account of Trasimene. The Kyber Pass, 1842.
The Capitulation of Metz, 1870.


SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (4)

_Rome repudiates the Treaty._

At vero T. Veturius et Sp. Postumius, cum iterum consules assent, quia,
cum male pugnatum apud Caudium esset, legionibus nostris sub iugum
missis pacem cum Samnitibus fecerant, dediti sunt eis; iniussu enim
populi senatusque fecerant. Eodemque {5} tempore Ti. Numicius, Q.
Maelius, qui tum tribuni plebis erant, quod eorum auctoritate pax erat
facta, dediti sunt, ut pax Samnitium repudiaretur. Atque huius
deditionis ipse Postumius, qui dedebatur, suasor et auctor fuit. Quod
idem multis annis post {10} C. Mancinus, qui ut Numantinis, quibuscum
sine senatus auctoritate foedus fecerat, dederetur, rogationem suasit
eam, quam L. Furius, Sex. Atilius ex senatus consulto ferebant: qua
accepta est hostibus deditus. Honestius hic quam Q. Pompeius, quo, {15}
cum in eadem causa esset, deprecante accepta lex non est. Hic ea, quae
videbatur utilitas, plus valuit quam honestas, apud superiores
utilitatis species falsa ab honestatis auctoritate superata est.

        CICERO, _De Officiis_, iii. 109.

  4. +pacem ... fecerant+, i.e. _a military convention_, by which Rome
  and Samnium were to acknowledge each other as free peoples with
  equal rights and privileges, and Rome was to give up her conquests
  and colonies on Samnite territory.
  5. +iniussu ... senatusque.+ ‘The Senate considered it in the light
  of a _sponsio_, a convention made on personal responsibility, rather
  than a _pactio_ or _foedus_, a public treaty.’ --Holden.
  6. +tribuni plebis+, prob. only tribunes-elect (= _designati_), for
  the tribunes could not leave Rome even for one night.
  11. +C. Mancinus+ commanded against Numantia in Spain, 137 B.C.
  15. +Q. Pompeius+ commanded against Numantia, 140 B.C.
  16. +cum in eadem causa esset+ = _though he was in the same case_,
  as Mancinus, i.e. had made a degrading peace with the Numantines.
  15-17. +quo ... deprecante ... non est+ = _through his begging to be
  let off, the law_ (i.e. for delivering him up to the enemy) _was not
  17. +Hic+ = _in this case_, i.e. that of Pompeius.
  18. +apud superiores+, i.e. Veturius, Postumius, and Mancinus.
  18-19. +utilitatis species falsa+ = _the false semblance of

+The Repudiation of the Treaty.+ ‘It is clear that Postumius and his
brother officers could not bind the Roman Senate and people by the
promise they had made in Caudium; but it is equally clear that they were
bound by their promise to do what was in their power to cause the treaty
to be ratified.’ --Ihne.


SECOND SAMNITE WAR, 326-304 B.C. (5)

_Battle of Bovianum, 305 B.C. Peace made, 304 B.C._

Eodem anno in campum Stellatem agri Campani Samnitium incursiones
factae. Itaque ambo consules in Samnium missi cum diversas regiones,
Tifernum Postumius, Bovianum Minucius petisset, Postumii prius ductu ad
Tifernum pugnatum. Alii {5} haud dubie Samnites victos ac viginti milia
hominum capta tradunt, alii Marte aequo discessum, et Postumium, metum
simulantem, nocturno itinere clam in montes copias abduxisse, hostes
secutos duo milia inde locis munitis et ipsos consedisse. Consul ut {10}
stativa tuta copiosaque petisse videretur, postquam et munimentis castra
firmavit et omni apparatu rerum utilium instruxit, relicto firmo
praesidio de vigilia tertia, qua[23] proxime potest, expeditas legiones
ad collegam, et ipsum adversus alios sedentem, ducit. {15} Ibi auctore
Postumio Minucius cum hostibus signa confert, et, cum anceps proelium in
multum diei processisset, tum Postumius integris legionibus defessam iam
aciem hostium improviso invadit. Itaque cum lassitudo ac vulnera fugam
quoque praepedissent, {20} occidione occisi hostes, signa unum et
viginti capta.

        LIVY, ix. 44.

    [Footnote 23: qua _duci_ proxime potest. --W. and M.]

  1. +In campum Stellatem.+ Stellas, a part of the Campanian plain, N.
  of Mt. Tifata (E. of Capua).
  4. +Tifernum+, E. of Bovianum on the R. Tifernus.
  +Postumius ... Minucius+, Consuls 305 B.C.
  +Bovianum+, in Samnium, W. of Luceria (in Apulia).
  11. +stativa tuta+ = _safe quarters_. Cf. _stativa castra_ = _a
  stationary camp_.
  15. +et ipsum ... sedentem+ = _also lying encamped_ (+sedentem+) _in
  the face of another army_. --Stephenson.
  20. +praepedissent+ = _hampered_, lit. _to entangle the feet_
  (_prae_ + _pes_).
  21. +occidione occisi.+ This has the force of _a superlative by the
  repetition_, a common idiom in Oriental[24] languages. --S.]

    [Footnote 24: E.g. in Hebrew, Delivering I will deliver = I will
    surely deliver.]

+Results of the Second Samnite War.+ Roman influence became supreme in
Campania and Apulia, and the Samnites were confined to their own
mountains. In 304 B.C. the Romans renewed their ancient Treaty with the
Samnites (as Livy tells us) by which they were left in possession of
their independence.

+Why the Romans conquered.+ (1) Their conduct of the war was more
systematic. (2) By their plan of fortified colonies (e.g. Cales,
Fregellae, Luceria) they retained their hold on the conquered territory.
(3) The diplomatic skill of the Senate secured the friendship of the
neighbours of the Samnites (e.g. the Apulians and Lucanians).



_Battle of Sentinum, 295 B.C. ‘Novum pugnae genus.’_

Ferocior Decius et aetate et vigore animi quantumcunque virium habuit
certamine primo effudit. Et quia lentior videbatur pedestris pugna,
equitatum in pugnam concitat et ipse fortissimae iuvenum turmae immixtus
orat proceres iuventutis, in hostem {5} ut secum impetum faciant:
duplicem illorum gloriam fore, si ab laevo cornu et ab equite victoria
incipiat. Bis avertere Gallicum equitatum; iterum longius evectos et iam
inter media peditum agmina proelium cientes novum pugnae conterruit
genus: essedis {10} carrisque superstans armatus hostis ingenti sonitu
equorum rotarumque advenit et insolitos eius tumultus Romanorum
conterruit eqnos. Ita victorem equitatum velut lymphaticus pavor
dissipat; sternit inde ruentes equos virosque improvida fuga, {15}
turbata hinc etiam signa legionum multique impetu equorum ac vehiculorum
raptorum per agmen obtriti antesignani; et insecuta, simul territos
hostes vidit, Gallica acies nullum spatium respirandi recipiendique se
dedit. {20}

        LIVY, x. 28.

  1. +Decius.+ P. Decius Mus, Consul with Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus,
  commanded the left wing at the Battle of Sentinum, where he was
  opposed to the Gauls, and when his troops began to give way before
  the Gaulish chariots (+essedae+) he, like his father at the Battle
  of Vesuvius, 340 B.C., devoted[25] himself with the hostile army ‘to
  the gods of earth and of the grave.’
  5. +proceres iuventutis+ = _the flower of the young men_.
  8. +avertere+ (= +se avertere+) = _to retire_ (lit. _turn away_).
  10. +essedis+ = _war-chariots_, on two wheels, open in front, but
  closed behind, and drawn by two horses; used also by the Britons.
  14. +lymphaticus+ = _mad_, _frenzied_.
  16. +turbata ... signa legionum+ = _the ranks of the legions were
  thrown into disorder_. +Signa+ is frequently used of military
  movement, as the most noticeable feature in an army.]

    [Footnote 25: Cf. pp. 92, 93.]

+The Cause of the Third Samnite War.+ The democratic party among the
Lucanians made overtures to the Samnites. The Romans peremptorily
ordered the Samnites not to interfere in Lucania, an arrogant command
which the Samnites declined to obey, and war broke out anew.

+Results of the War.+ After an obstinate struggle peace was concluded in
290 B.C., the Samnites retaining their independence.



_The Aims of Pyrrhus. Battle of Heraclea, 280 B.C._

Pyrrhus rex Epiri cum iterata Tarentinorum legatione additis Samnitium
et Lucanorum precibus, fatigaretur, non tam supplicum precibus quam spe
invadendi Italiae imperii inductus venturum se cum exercitu pollicetur.
In quam rem inclinatum semel {5} animum praecipitem agere coeperant
exempla maiorum, ne aut inferior patruo suo Alexandro videretur, quo
defensore idem Tarentini adversus Bruttios usi fuerant, aut minores
animos magno Alexandro habuisse, qui tam longa a domo militia Orientem
subegerat. {10} Igitur relicto custode regni Ptolemaeo filio annos xv
nato exercitum in portu Tarentino exponit. Cuius audito adventu consul
Romanus Valerius Laevinus festinans, ut prius cum eo congrederetur, quam
auxilia sociorum convenirent, exercitum in {15} aciem educit. Nec rex,
tametsi numero militum inferior esset, certamini moram fecit. Sed
Romanos vincentes iam inusitata ante elephantorum forma stupere primo,
mox cedere proelio coegit, victoresque iam nova Macedonum repente
monstra vicerunt. {20} Nec hostibus incruenta victoria fuit. Nam et
Pyrrhus ipse graviter vulneratus est, et magna pars militum eius caesa,
maioremque gloriam eius victoriae quam laetitiam habuit.

        JUSTINUS, xviii. 1.

  1. +iterata legatione+ = _by a second embassy_.
  3. +fatigaretur+ = _was importuned_.
  3-4. +non tam ... inductus.+ Pyrrhus aimed at founding a western
  Grecian Empire in Italy and Sicily.
  7-9. +patruo suo Alexandro ... fuerant.+ Alexander of Epirus had
  almost succeeded in uniting the whole of Magna Graecia (332-326
  B.C.) when he was cut off by the hand of an assassin.
  9. +magno Alexandro.+ Pyrrhus was acknowledged to be the first
  general of the school of Alexander, and Hannibal (so Plutarch tells
  us) considered him the greatest military genius.
  18. +inusitata ante ... forma+ = _the unfamiliar appearance of_.
  22-23. +magna pars militum.+ Pyrrhus is said to have lost 4000 men,
  ‘a serious matter to him in a foreign country, where he could not
  easily replace the loss of his tried old warriors.’ --Ihne.]

+Cause of the War.+ By 282 B.C. Rome had taken possession of Magna
Graecia, with the exception of Tarentum. In 282 B.C. (in defiance of the
treaty of 301 B.C.) a Roman fleet appeared before the Harbour of
Tarentum. A naval battle ensued in which the Tarentines were victorious,
and the war began.



_Fabricius the Just. Honesty before Expediency._

Cum rex Pyrrhus populo Romano bellum ultro intulisset, cumque de imperio
certamen esset cum rege generoso ac potenti, perfuga ab eo venit in
castra Fabricii eique est pollicitus, si praemium sibi proposuisset, se,
ut clam venisset, sic clam in Pyrrhi {5} castra rediturum et eum veneno
necaturum. Hunc Fabricius reducendum curavit ad Pyrrhum idque eius
factum laudatum a senatu est. Atqui, si speciem utilitatis opinionemque
quaerimus, magnum illud bellum perfuga unus et gravem adversarium imperi
{10} sustulisset, sed magnum dedecus et flagitium, quicum laudis
certamen fuisset, eum non virtute sed scelere superatum. Utrum igitur
utilius vel Fabricio, qui talis in hac urbe qualis Aristides Athenis
fuit, vel senatui nostro, qui numquam utilitatem a dignitate {15}
seiunxit, armis cum hoste certare an venenis? Si gloriae causa imperium
expetendum est, scelus absit, in quo non potest esse gloria: sin ipsae
opes expetuntur quoquo modo, non poterunt utiles esse cum infamia. {20}

        CICERO, _De Officiis_, iii. 86, 87.

  1-2. +bellum ultro intulisset+ = _had begun an aggressive_ (+ultro+)
  +ultro+ = lit. _to a place beyond_, hence = _beyond expectation_,
  2. +de imperio+ = _uter imperaret_. --Holden.
  3. +perfuga+ = _a deserter_. Aulus Gellius says the traitor was
  Nicias, a friend of Pyrrhus; Florus and Eutropius, a physician of
  8. +atqui+ = _and yet_, a more emphatic +at+.
  8-9. +speciem utilitatis opinionemque+ (sc. +utilitatis+) = _the
  semblance and (popular) opinion of expediency_. --H.
  11-13. +sed magnum ... superatum+ = _but it would have been a
  lasting disgrace and scandal for a general, with whom the struggle
  lay for glory, to have been overcome by an act of wickedness and not
  by valour_. --H.
  14. +Aristides Athenis.+ Aristides the Just. ‘Sans Peur et sans
  19. +quoquo modo+ = _in any way_. Cf. _quacumque ratione_. --H.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Eutropius ii. 7. 8. 14: _Tum Pyrrhus admiratus eum
dixisse fertur: ‘Ille est Fabricius, qui difficilius ab honestate quam
sol a cursu suo averti potest.’_

+Fabricius+, like Cincinnatus and M’. Curius Dentatus, is the
representative of the purity and honesty of the good old times.



_Appius the Blind, 280 B.C._

Ad Appi Claudi senectutem accedebat etiam ut caecus esset; tamen is, cum
sententia senatus inclinaret ad pacem cum Pyrrho foedusque faciendum,
non dubitavit dicere illa, quae versibus persecutus est Ennius: {5}

  _Quo vobis mentes, rectae quae stare solebant
  Antehac, dementis sese flexere viai?_

ceteraque gravissime, notum enim vobis carmen est, et tamen ipsius Appi
exstat oratio. Atque haec ille egit septemdecim annis post alterum
consulatum, {10} cum inter duos consulatus anni decem interfuissent
censorque ante superiorem consulatum fuisset, ex quo intelligitur Pyrrhi
bello grandem sane fuisse. . . . Quattuor robustos filios, quinque
filias, tantam domum, tantas clientelas Appius regebat et caecus {15} et
senex; intentum enim animum tamquam arcum habebat nec languescens
succumbebat senectuti. Tenebat non modo auctoritatem, sed etiam imperium
in suos: metuebant servi, verebantur liberi, carum omnes habebant;
vigebat in illo animus {20} patrius et disciplina.

        CICERO, _De Senectute_, §§ 16, 37.

  1. +Appi Claudi.+ This was the Appius Claudius whose Censorship, 312
  B.C., was famous for his great public works, the +Via Appia+, the
  great South road of Rome, and the +Aqua Appia+, an aqueduct which
  brought water to Rome a distance of eight miles; and also for his
  measure (corresponding to a Parliamentary Reform Bill) admitting
  freedmen as full citizens by enrolling them in Tribes.
  2-9. +tamen is ... exstat oratio.+ When the Senate was about to
  yield to the persuasive eloquence of Cineas, the envoy of Pyrrhus,
  he had himself led into the Senate-house to make the speech which
  turned the scale against the invader.
  4. +versibus persecutus est+ = _has followed out in the lines_.
  J. S. R.
  7. +viai+ (= _viae_ old genit.) = i. _quo viae_, cf. _ubi terrarum_,
  or ii. _sese flexere viae_, a Greek genitive.
  9-10. +haec ille egit+ = _he made this speech_.
  14-15. +tantam ... clientelas+ = _a large household_, _a large
  number of dependents_; +clientelas = clientes+.
  16. +intentum+ (_in + tendo_) = _on the stretch_. Cf. opposite
  19-21. +metuebant ... disciplina+ = _his slaves feared him, his
  children stood in awe of him, yet all held him dear; in him
  ancestral spirit and principles_ (+disciplina+) _were strong_.
  --J. S. Reid.]

+The Speech of Appius Claudius.+ For the substance of the Speech,
_see_ Plutarch, _Pyrrhus_, xi.



A. _The Battle of Asculum, 279 B.C._

In Apulia deinde apud Asculum melius dimicatum est Curio Fabricioque
consulibus. Iam quippe terror[26] beluarum exoleverat, et Gaius Numicius
quartae legionis hastatus unius proboscide abscisa mori posse beluas
ostenderat. Itaque in ipsas pila congesta sunt {5} et in turres vibratae
faces tota hostium agmina ardentibus ruinis operuerunt. Nec alius cladi
finis fuit quam nox dirimeret, postremusque fugientium rex ipse a
satellitibus umero saucius in armis suis referretur. {10}

    [Footnote 26: Cf. p. 100, ll. 17-20.]
    [[Selection D41: “inusitata ... elephantorum forma”]

  1. +Asculum+, a town in Apulia on the borders of Samnium, between
  Beneventum and Canusium.
  3. +exoleverat+ = _had grown less_ (lit. _had grown out of use_).
  6. +in turres vibratae faces+ = _firebrands hurled against their
  8. +dirimeret+ = _separated_ (the combatants).]

B. _The Battle near Beneventum, 275 B.C._

Lucaniae suprema pugna sub Arusinis, quos vocant, campis ducibus isdem
quibus superius; sed tum tota victoria. Exitum, quem datura virtus fuit,
casus dedit. Nam provectis in primam aciem rursus elephantis unum ex his
pullum adacti in caput teli {15} gravis ictus avertit; qui cum per
stragem suorum recurrens stridore quereretur, mater agnovit et quasi
vindicaret exsiluit, tum omnia circa quasi hostilia gravi mole
permiscuit. Ac sic eaedem ferae, quae primam victoriam abstulerunt,
secundam parem {20} fecerunt, tertiam sine controversia tradiderunt.

        FLORUS, I. xviii. 9-13.

  11-12. +Lucaniae ... campis.+ The Battle was fought near Beneventum
  (orig. +Male-+_ventum_, perhaps from _male + ventus_ on account of
  its unwholesome air) in Samnium on the Via Appia, E. of Capua.
  15-16. +unum ex his ... avertit+ = _the heavy stroke of a weapon
  driven home_ (+adacti+) _into the head of a young elephant_
  (+pullum+) _made it turn aside_.
  19. +gravi mole+ = _with her unwieldy bulk_.]

+The Battle of Asculum.+ It is clear that Pyrrhus was again victorious,
but the Romans were able to retire into their fortified camp, and so
lost fewer men than at Heraclea.

+The Battle of Beneventum.+ Pyrrhus, in his attempt to storm the
entrenched camp of Curius Dentatus, was obliged to fight on unfavourable
ground. The result was a total defeat, and no choice was left him but to
give up the unequal contest.



_Death of Pyrrhus, 272 B.C._

_In praise of a great General._

Repulsus ab Spartanis Pyrrhus Argos petit: ibi, dum Antigonum in urbe
clausum expugnare conatur, inter confertissimos violentissime dimicans,
saxo de muris ictus occiditur. Caput eius Antigono refertur, qui
victoria mitius usus filium eius Helenum {5} cum Epirotis sibi deditum
in regnum remisit, eique insepulti patris ossa in patriam referenda

Satis constans inter omnes auctores fama est, nullum nec eius nec
superioris aetatis regem comparandum Pyrrho fuisse, raroque non inter
reges {10} tantum, verum etiam inter illustres viros, aut vitae
sanctioris aut iustitiae probatioris visum fuisse: scientiam certe rei
militaris in illo viro tantam fuisse, ut cum adversus Lysimachum,
Demetrium, Antigonum, tantos reges, bella gesserit, invictus {15} semper
fuerit: Illyriorum quoque, Siculorum Romanorumque et Carthaginiensium
bellis numquam inferior, plerumque etiam victor exstiterit; qui patriam
certe suam angustam ignobilemque fama rerum gestarum et claritate
nominis sui toto orbe {20} illustrem reddiderit.

        JUSTINUS, xxv. 5.

  1-4. +Repulsus ab Spartanis ... occiditur.+ At the invitation of
  Cleonymus, who had been excluded from the throne of Sparta, Pyrrhus
  undertook and failed in a desperate attack on the city. He then
  turned against Argos, to wrest it from Antigonus Gonatas of
  Macedonia, and was hit _by a tile thrown from a roof by a
  woman_.[27] As he lay helpless on the ground he was recognised and
  8. +Satis constans fama+ = _a tolerably unanimous opinion_.
  12. +iustitiae probatioris+ = _of more eminent_ (lit. _tested_)
  14. +Lysimachum+, one of Alexander’s generals. About 286 B.C. King
  of Macedonia and Asia Minor.
  +Demetrium+, surnamed _Poliorcetes_ (_stormer of cities_), son of
  Antigonus, King of Asia (one of Alexander’s generals).
  16-17. +Siculorum bellis.+ During the years 280-276 B.C. Pyrrhus
  made himself master of all Sicily with the exception of the
  Carthaginian stronghold of Lilybaeum.]

    [Footnote 27: Cf. the death of Abimelech before Thebez, Judges
    ix. 53.]

+Character of Pyrrhus.+ ‘He was not only one of the ablest generals and
princes, but amiable also as a man, and worthy of our sympathy and
respect.’ --Ihne.

+Why he failed.+ ‘From lack of accurate information he wholly
underestimated the power of Rome. Here was the great error in his
calculation, an error for which he can hardly be held responsible.’

+Reference.+ Plutarch, _Pyrrhus_.



_Manius Curius Dentatus, an old-time Roman._

A. Possum persequi permulta oblectamenta rerum rusticarum, sed ea ipsa
quae dixi sentio fuisse longiora. Ignoscetis autem, nam et studio rerum
rusticarum provectus sum, et senectus est natura loquacior, ne ab
omnibus eam vitiis videar vindicare. {5} Ergo in hac vita M’. Curius,
cum de Samnitibus, de Sabinis, de Pyrrho triumphavisset, consumpsit
extremum tempus aetatis; cuius quidem ego villam contemplans, abest enim
non longe a me, admirari satis non possum vel hominis ipsius
continentiam {10} vel temporum disciplinam. Curio ad focum sedenti
magnum auri pondus Samnites cum attulissent, repudiati sunt: non enim
aurum habere praeclarum sibi videri dixit, sed eis qui haberent aurum

        CICERO, _De Senectute_, §§ 55-56.

+Context.+ The speaker is Cato the Censor, 184 B.C., the founder of
Latin Prose, whose manual of Agriculture, +de Re Rustica+, is still

  1. +Possum persequi+ = _I might follow out_.
  +oblectamenta+ = _amusements_ (cf. _de-lecto_, _delight_).
  4. +provectus sum+ = _I have been carried away_. --J. S. Reid.
  8. +extremum tempus aetatis+ = _the closing season of his life_.
  9. +a me+ (= +a mea villa+) = _from my country-house_.
  11. +disciplinam+ = _morals_ (lit. _teaching_).
  11-13. After the close of the war Curius had become +patronus+ of
  the Samnites, and they were bringing the customary offering of
  +clientes+.--J. S. R.]


  Curius parvo quae legerat horto
  Ipse focis brevibus ponebat holuscula.

        JUVENAL, xi. 78-79.

  78-79. Plutarch, _Cato_ 2, tells the story. Curius was one of
    ‘Men so poor | who could do mighty things.’ --Duff.
  79. +holuscula+ (dimin. of +hŏlus+) = _small herbs or vegetables_.]


  Hunc et incomptis Curium capillis
  Utilem bello tulit et Camillum
  Saeva paupertas et avitus apto
      Cum lare fundus.                    44

        HORACE, _Odes_, I. xii. 41-44.

  41. +Hunc+ = Fabricius.
  43. +paupertas+ = _frugality_, not _poverty_ (= _egestas_).
  43-44. +apto cum lare+ = _with its cottage home to match_ (+apto+).
    ‘Hurrah! for Manius Curius
      The bravest son of Rome,
    Thrice in utmost need sent forth,
      Thrice drawn in triumph home.’ --Macaulay.]



_In Praise of Tarentum._

  Unde si Parcae prohibent iniquae,
  Dulce pellītis ovibus Galaesi
  Flumen et regnata petam Laconi
      Rura Phalantho.                 12
  Ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes
  Angulus ridēt, ubi non Hymetto
  Mella decedunt viridique certat
      Baca Venafro,                   16
  Ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet
  Iuppiter brumas et amicus Aulon
  Fertili Baccho minimum Falernis
      Invidet uvis.                   20
  Ille te mecum locus et beatae
  Postulant arces, ibi tu calentem
  Debita sparges lacrima favillam
      Vatis amici.                    24

        HORACE, _Odes_, II. vi. 9-end.

+Subject.+ ‘Septimius, my dear friend who would accompany me to the ends
of the earth, let me spend the close of my life at Tibur (Tivoli), or if
not there, then at Tarentum. Let us go there together, and live there
till I die.’ --Wickham.

  9. +unde+ = _from this place_, i.e. from Tibur.
  10. +dulce pellitis ovibus+ = _dear to the skin-clad_ (+pellitis+)
  _sheep_, so clad to keep their fleeces clean. --Gow.
  10-11. +Galaesi flumen+, flows into the Gulf of Tarentum, near the
  12. +Phalantho+, an exile from Sparta, founded Tarentum, 708 B.C.
  13, 21, 22. +Ille+ (13) ... +ille+ (21) ... +ibi+ (22) = _Tarentum_,
  emphatic guiding words. Cf. +te mecum+ (21) ... +tu amici+ (22, 24)
  = _Septimius and Horace_.
  14-15. +ubi non ... decedunt+ = _where the honey does not give way to
  (is not inferior to) that of Hymettus_.
  15-16. +viridi Venafro+ = _with the green (olive-groves of) Venafrum_
  (N. of Campania).
  16. +Baca+ = _the olive_, the noblest of berries. --Gow.
  18. +Aulon+ = (_the grapes of_) _Aulon_, a hill and valley near
  19. +Fertili+ = _who makes the vines fertile_.
  22-24. +ibi tu ... vatis amici.+
          ‘There when life shall end,
    Your tear shall dew my yet warm pyre,
      Your bard and friend.’ --Conington.]

+Reference.+ Polybius, x. 1. In 272 B.C. Milo with his garrison of
Epirots marched out of Tarentum with all the honours of war.

+Rome now ruled supreme over the whole of Italy from Ariminum in the
North to the Sicilian Straits.+



  ‘_Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus,
  Magna virum._’

  Adde tot egregias urbes operumque laborem,             155
  Tot congesta manu praeruptis oppida saxis,
  Fluminaque antiquos subterlabentia muros.
  An mare, quod supra, memorem, quodque alluit infra?
  Anne lacus tantos? Te, Lari maxime, teque,
  Fluctibus et fremitu adsurgens Benace marino?          160
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Haec eadem argenti rivos aerisque metalla              165
  Ostendit venis atque auro plurima fluxit.
  Haec genus acre virum, Marsos pubemque Sabellam,
  Adsuetumque malo Ligurem, Volscosque verutos
  Extulit: haec Decios, Marios, magnosque Camillos,
  Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maxime Caesar,           170
  Qui nunc extremis Asiae iam victor in oris
  Imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum.
  Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus,
  Magna virum: tibi res antiquae laudis et artis
  Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontes,             175
  Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida carmen.

        VERGIL, _Georg._ ii. 155-176.

  158. +mare quod supra alluit+ = the _mare superum_ = the Adriatic.
  +mare quod infra alluit+ = the _mare inferum_ = the Tuscan or
  Tyrrhenian (Τυρῥηνός = Tuscan) sea.
  159. +Lari+ = Lake Larius (= _Como_), N. of Milan.
  160. +Benace+ = Lake Benacus (= _Garda_), W. of Verona.
  +fremitu marino+ = _with roar as of the sea_.
  168. +adsuetum malo+ = _trained in hardship_. --Mackail.
  +Volscosque verutos+ = _and the Volscian spearmen (light infantry)_.
  +verutos+ = armed with the _verutum_ (or _veru_ = lit. a _spit_), a
  170. +Scipiadas+, Greek patronymic form = Lat. _Scīpĭōnēs_.
  +maxime Caesar+ = Augustus.
  172-173. After Actium, 31 B.C., Augustus spent more than a year in
  reducing and settling the East (+imbellem Indum+) whose forces had
  been wielded by Antony. --Sidgwick.
  173. +Saturnia tellus+, in allusion to Saturn’s reign in Latium in
  the age of gold.
  174-175. +tibi res ... fontes+ = _for thee I enter on themes of
  ancient glory and skill_ (i.e. in agriculture) _and dare to unseal_
  (+recludere+) _the sacred springs_; +res laudis+, the theme of the
  _Aeneid_, +res artis+, of the _Georgics_.
  176. +Ascraeum carmen+ = _the song of Ascra_, i.e. the _Georgics_,
  because Hesiod (author of _Works and Days_ to which Vergil is much
  indebted) was born at Ascra, near Helicon, in Boeotia. --S.]



_The Vision of Anchises.--Rome’s Heroes._

  ‘Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho
  Victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis.
  Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas,
  Ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli,
  Ultus avos Troiae, templa et temerata Minervae.            840
  Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat?
  Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli,
  Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem
  Fabricium, vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem?
  Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii? Tu Maximus ille es,             845
  Unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem.’
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  ‘Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis              855
  Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes!
  Hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu,
  Sistet, eques sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,
  Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.’

        VERGIL, _Aen._ vi. 836-846, 855-859.

  836. +Ille+ = L. Mummius Achaicus, destroyed Corinth, 146 B.C.
  838. +Ille+ = L. Aemilius Paullus, crushed Perseus (= +Aeaciden+
  l. 839) at Pydna, 168 B.C.
  841. +Cosse+ = Cornelius Cossus, won Spolia Opima a second time,
  428 B.C.
  842. +Gracchi genus+, e.g. (i.) Tib. Sempronius Gracchus, twice
  Consul 215, 212 B.C., in 2nd Punic War; (ii.) T. S. G. distinguished
  in Spain; (iii.) the two great Tribunes, Tiberius and Gaius.
  843. +Scipiadas+ = (i.) Scipio Africanus Maior, victor at Zama, 202
  B.C.; (ii.) Scipio Africanus Minor, destroyed Carthage, 146 B.C.
  844. +Fabricium+, Consul 282 and 278 B.C. in war with Pyrrhus. Proof
  against bribes.
  +Serrane+ = Regulus, victor at Ecnomus, 256 B.C., a prisoner, 255
  B.C. True to his word.
  845. +Maximus+ = Q. Fabius M. Cunctator, Dictator after Cannae. The
  Shield of Rome.
  846. From the Annals of Ennius (239-169 B.C.), often quoted.
  855. +Marcellus+, five times Consul. Took Syracuse 212 B.C. The
  Sword of Rome.
  857. +magno ... tumultu+ = _when a great upheaving shakes it_.
  +Tumultus+ (as Cic. tells us) is specially used of a rising in Italy
  or in Gaul, as it was close to Italy. (Elsewhere = _bellum_.)
  858. +Sistet, ... sternet.+ Notice the antithesis and alliteration

+The Vision of Anchises+ is the imperishable record of the national
life, where the poet ‘sums up in lines like bars of gold the hero-roll
of the Eternal City.’ --Myers.



_The Foundation of Carthage, 878 B.C._

Pygmalion, cognita sororis fuga, cum impio bello fugientem persequi
pararet, aegre precibus matris deorumque minis victus quievit. . . .
Itaque Elissa delata in Africae sinum incolas eius loci adventu
peregrinorum mutuarumque rerum commercio {5} gaudentes in amicitiam
sollicitat. Dein empto loco, qui corio bovis tegi posset, in quo fessos
longa navigatione socios, quoad proficisceretur, reficere posset, corium
in tenuissimas partes secari iubet atque ita maius loci spatium, quam
petierat, occupat: unde {10} postea ei loco Byrsae nomen fuit.
Confluentibus deinde vicinis locorum, qui spe lucri multa hospitibus
venalia inferebant, sedesque ibi statuentibus ex frequentia hominum
velut instar civitatis effectum. est. . . . Itaque consentientibus
omnibus Carthago {15} conditur, statuto annuo vectigali pro solo urbis.
In primis fundamentis caput bubulum inventum est, quod auspicium
fructuosae quidem, sed laboriosae perpetuoque servae urbis fuit; propter
quod in alium locum urbs translata. Ibi quoque equi caput repertum, {20}
bellicosum potentemque populum futurum significans, urbi auspicatam
sedem dedit. Tunc ad opinionem novae urbis concurrentibus gentibus brevi
et populus et civitas magna facta.

        JUSTINUS, xviii. 5.

  1. +Pygmalion+, King of Tyre, murdered Sychaeus, husband of Elissa
  4. +sinum+ = Gulf of Tunis. (See Murray’s Classical Atlas.)
  5. +peregrinorum+ = _of strangers_. +per + ager+. Cf. _pilgrim_.
  Fr. _pèlerin_.
  +mutuarum rerum commercio+ = _barter_.
  11. +Byrsae+, i.e., later, the Citadel quarter, as if from βύρσα =
  a _hide_, prob. corrupted from Phoen. _Bozra_ (= a _fort_). So
  _Carthage_ = _Kirjath (city)_; cp. _Kirjath-Arba_ (Hebron), and
  _Hannibal_ (= Hanniel) = _the grace of Baal_.
  14. +velut instar c.+ = _as if the semblance of a state_; cf.
  ‘instar montis equus,’ Verg. --Post.
  17. +bubulum+ = _of an ox_, adj. from _bos_.
  22. +auspicatam+ = _auspicious_, in active sense.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Verg. _Aen._ i. 336-368, 418-438, and _Aen._ iv.

+References.+ Bosworth Smith, _Carthage and the Carthaginians_. --Ihne,
_Hist. of Rome_, vol. ii. pp. 3-21.



_Aeneas views the Building of Carthage, circ. 878 B.C._

  Iamque ascendebant collem, qui plurimus urbi
  Imminet adversasque aspectat desuper arces.        420
  Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam,
  Miratur portas strepitumque et strata viarum.
  Instant ardentes Tyrii pars ducere muros
  Molirique arcem et manibus subvolvere saxa,
  Pars optare locum tecto et concludere sulco;       425
  Iura magistratusque legunt sanctumque senatum;
  Hic portus alii effodiunt; hinc lata theatris
  Fundamenta locant alii, immanesque columnas
  Rupibus excidunt, scaenis decora alta futuris.
  Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura           430
  Exercet sub sole labor, cum gentis adultos
  Educunt fetus, aut cum līquentia mella
  Stipant et dulci distendunt nectare cellas,
  Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto
  Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent:          435
  Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella.
  ‘O fortunati, quorum iam moenia surgunt!’
  Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis.

        VERGIL, _Aen._ i. 419-438.

  419. +plurimus+ = _in huge mass_, with the predicate +imminet+.
  421. +magalia+ = _huts_, a Carthaginian (Phoenician) word. Cf.
  422. +strata viarum+ = _stratas vias_ = _the paved roads_.
  423, 424, 425. +ducere ... moliri ... subvolvere ... optare ...
  concludere+, dependent on the idea of _eagerness_ or _striving_ in
  426. Vergil is thinking, as often, of Roman institutions, and not of
  what was appropriate to heroic times. Cf. _Aen._ i. 507-8.
  430-436. This simile is a reproduction of _Georg._ iv. 162-169. Cf.
  Milton, _Par. Lost_, i. 768:
                                ‘As bees
    In springtime, when the sun with Taurus rides,
    Pour forth their populous youth about the hive.’
  432. +līquentia+ = _liquid_, from +līquor+, dep. Elsewhere Vergil
  uses +lĭquens+ from +lĭqueo+.
  433. +Stipant+ = _pack_, the notion of _pushing_ and _tightness_
  being given in the very sound of the heavy overhanging spondees in
  this line. --S.
  435. +Ignavum ... arcent+ = _drive the drones, a slothful herd, from
  the enclosure_. Notice the order. --Page.
  437. ‘The want of a city is the key-note of the _Aeneid_.’



_A Roman Martyr. Country before Expediency._

M. Atilius Regulus, cum consul iterum in Africa ex insidiis captus esset
duce Xanthippo Lacedaemonio, iuratus missus est ad senatum, ut, nisi
redditi essent Poenis captivi nobiles quidam, rediret ipse Carthaginem.
Is cum Romam venisset, utilitatis {5} speciem videbat, sed eam, ut res
declarat, falsam iudicavit: quae erat talis: manere in patria, esse
domui suae cum uxore, cum liberis, quam calamitatem accepisset in bello,
communem fortunae bellicae iudicantem tenere consularis dignitatis {10}
gradum. . . . Itaque quid fecit? In senatum venit, mandata exposuit,
sententiam ne diceret recusavit: quam diu iure iurando hostium
teneretur, non esse se senatorem. . . . Cuius cum valuisset auctoritas,
captivi retenti sunt, ipse Carthaginem {15} rediit neque eum caritas
patriae retinuit nec suorum, . . . ‘At stulte, qui non modo non
censuerit captivos remittendos, verum etiam dissuaserit.’ Quo modo
stulte? etiamne, si reipublicae conducebat? potest autem, quod inutile
reipublicae sit, id cuiquam {20} civi utile esse?

        CICERO, _De Officiis_, iii. 99, 100.

  1. +consul.+ Regulus was Consul 261 and 256 B.C., and Proconsul in
  Africa 255 B.C., when he was defeated and taken prisoner by
  6. +speciem+ = the _specious (plausible) appearance (semblance)_.
  12, 13. +sententiam ... recusavit+ = _declined to give his own
  opinion on the case_.
  13. +iure iurando+ (sc. _dato_) = _by the oath sworn to his
  17. ‘+At stulte+’ (sc. _fecit_) = ‘_But, it may he said, he acted
  like a fool._’
  19. +etiamne+ (sc. _stulte fecit_) = _What, how did he act like a
  fool, if_ ...--Holden.]
  20, 21. +potest autem ... utile esse.+ Cf. Ὅ τῇ πόλει οὐκ ἔστι
  βλαβερὸν οὐδὲ τὸν πολίτην βλάπτει = that which is not harmful
  (βλαβερόν = +inutile+) to the State is not harmful to the citizen.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Polybius, i. 31-36 (he makes no mention of the
embassy of Regulus); Pliny, _Ep._ vii. 2 (interesting letter on the
death of Regulus); and espec. Hor. _Od._ III. v. 13-end.

  ‘With counsel thus, ne’er else aread [_advised_],
    He nerved the Fathers’ weak intent,
  And, girt by friends that mourn’d him, sped
    Into illustrious banishment.’ --C.



A. _First Roman Naval Victory near Mylae, 260 B.C._

C. Duilius, primo Punico bello a Romanis dux contra Carthaginienses
missus, cum videret eos multum mari valere, classem magis validam quam
decoram aedificavit, et manus ferreas, quas corvos vocabant, instituit.
His, quas ante pugnam hostes {5} valde deriserant, in pugna ipsa ad
Liparas insulas commissa naves hostium comprehendit, easque partim
cepit, partim demersit. Dux classis Punicae Carthaginem fugit, et ex
senatu quaesivit quid faceret. Omnibus ut pugnaret succlamantibus: {10}
‘Feci,’ inquit, ‘et victus sum.’ Sic poenam crucis effugit, nam hac
poena dux, re male gesta, apud Poenos afficiebatur. Duilius autem victor
primum triumphum maritimum Romae egit, et ad memoriam victoriae columna
rostrata in foro posita est. {15}

        (_Adapted_) Cf. FLORUS, I. xviii. 7-10.

  4. +corvos+ = _crows_ (the κόρακες of Polybius), boarding-bridges.
  A broad movable ladder, fastened to the foremast, and held in
  position by a rope. When the rope was let go, the iron hook at the
  upper end of the ladder penetrated the deck of an enemy’s ship.
  6. +ad Liparas insulas+ = Aeoliae Insulae (Lipari Islands), N.E. of
  Sicily. Mylae was on a promontory S.E. of these Islands.
  8. +Dux+, i.e. Hannibal, the defender of Agrigentum 262 B.C.]

B. _Unique honour conferred on Duilius._

C. Duilium, qui Poenos classe primus devicerat, redeuntem a cena senem
saepe videbam puer; delectabatur cereo funali et tibicine, quae sibi
nullo exemplo privatus sumpserat: tantum licentiae dabat gloria. {20}

        CICERO, _De Senectute_, xiii. § 44.

  18. +cereo funali+,[28] i.e. _torchlight_.
  +nullo exemplo+ = _without any precedent_.
  18-19. +sibi ... sumpserat.+ Cicero is wrong: more probably the
  honour was conferred on Duilius by a vote of the Comitia Tributa.
  19. +dabat+ = _excused_; lit. _granted_, _allowed_. -- J. S. Reid.]

    [Footnote 28: The +funale+ was a torch composed of twigs twisted
    into a rope (+funis+) and dipped in pitch or oil. --J. S. R.]

+References.+ Polybius, i. 22, for a description of the _corvi_,
κόρακες. Sir Andrew Barton (Percy’s _Reliques_). Lord Howard says:--

  ‘Were twenty shippes, and he but one,
    I swear by kirke and bower and hall,
  He would overcome them every one
    If once his beames they do down fall.’



_Carthaginian Victory off Drepana, 249 B.C._

_Rashness of Claudius._

Praedictiones vero et praesensiones rerum futurarum quid aliud declarant
nisi hominibus ea ostendi, monstrari, portendi, praedici? Ex quo illa
ostenta, monstra, portenta, prodigia dicuntur. Quod si ea ficta credimus
licentia fabularum, Mopsum, Tiresiam, {5} Amphiaraum, Calchantem,
Helenum, quos tamen augures ne ipsae quidem fabulae adscivissent, si res
omnino repudiaret, ne domesticis quidem exemplis docti numen deorum
conprobabimus? Nihil nos P. Claudi bello Punico primo temeritas movebit,
qui {10} etiam per iocum deos irridens, cum cavea literati pulli non
pascerentur, mergi eos in aquam iussit, ut biberent, quoniam esse
nollent? Qui risus, classe devicta, multas ipsi lacrimas, magnam populo
Romano cladem attulit. Quid? Collega eius Iunius {15} eodem bello nonne
tempestate classem amisit, cum auspiciis non paruisset? Itaque Claudius
a populo condemnatus est, Iunius necem sibi ipse conscivit.

        CICERO, _De Nat. Deorum_, II. 3. 7-8.

  3. +ostenta ... dicuntur+ = _are called in Latin_ ‘_ostenta_,’
  ‘_monstra_,’ etc. --Walford.
  4. +prodigium+ for _prodicium_ = _pro_ + √_dic-_ δεικ- = _point
  5. +Mopsum+, etc. = _all those stories about Mopsus_, _etc._, in
  apposition to +ea+: poetical construction.
  +Mopsum+, the prophet who accompanied the Argonauts.
  +Tiresiam+, the blind prophet of Thebes.
  6. +Amphiaraum+, the seer of Argos. One of the Seven against Thebes.
  +Helenus+, son of Priam. A seer of the _Iliad_ and the _Aeneid_.
  10. +P. Claudi temeritas.+ P. Cl. Pulcher (son of Appius Claudius,
  the blind Censor) defeated by Adherbal off Drepana (N.W. corner of
  Sicily, between Eryx and Lilybaeum).
  15. +Iunius.+ L. J. Pullus, consul 249 B.C. His fleet was destroyed
  by a storm off Pachynus (C. Passaro) the same year.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Florus ii. 2 says that ‘Claudius was overthrown, not
by the enemy, but by the gods themselves, whose auspices he had

+The Defeat off Drepana.+ ‘The reason of the defeat lay in the
superiority of the Carthaginian admiral and seamen, and the inexperience
of Claudius and of his crews, consisting mainly of landsmen who knew
nothing of the sea. This disaster and the destruction of the fleet of
Junius crowned the series of misfortunes which befell the Romans in the
year 249 B.C., the most dismal time of the whole war.’ --Ihne.



_Victory of Lutatius off the Aegates Insulae, 241 B.C._

_Peace with Carthage._

A. Interim Carthaginienses classe apud insulas Aegates a C. Lutatio,
consule Romanorum, superati statuerunt belli facere finem, eamque rem
arbitrio permiserunt Hamilcaris. Ille, etsi flagrabat bellandi
cupiditate, tamen paci serviendum putavit, quod {5} patriam, exhaustam
sumptibus, diutius calamitates belli ferre non posse intellegebat, sed
ita, ut statim mente agitaret, si paulum modo res essent refectae,
bellum renovare Romanosque armis persequi, donicum aut virtute vicissent
aut victi manus dedissent. {10}

        CORN. NEPOS, _Hamilcar_, i.

  1. +apud insulas Aegates+, the Goat Islands, off the W. Coast of
  Sicily, between Drepana and Lilybaeum (Marsala).
  3. +statuerunt belli facere finem.+ This victory led to the close of
  the First Punic War.
  5. +paci serviendum+ = _to devote himself to (obtaining) peace_.
  9. +donicum+ (= _donec_), lit. ‘_at the time of day when ----_’
  10. +virtute vicissent+ = _they (the Romans) should have conquered
  by (superior) prowess_.]


  Hic dum stagnosi spectat templumque domosque
  Literni ductor, varia splendentia cernit
  Pictura belli patribus monumenta prioris           655
  Exhausti: nam porticibus signata manebant,
  Quis inerat longus rerum et spectabilis ordo.
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Addiderant geminas medio consurgere fluctu
  Aegates: lacerae circum fragmenta videres          685
  Classis et effusos fluitare in gurgite Poenos.
  Possessor pelagi pronaque Lutatius aura
  Captivas puppes ad litora victor agebat.

        SILIUS ITALICUS, vi. 653-657, 684-688.

  653-654. +stagnosi Literni.+ Town and River on the coast of
  Campania, N. of Cumae. The River flows through a marsh = Literna
  654. +ductor+ = Hannibal.
  654-657. Silius (who closely imitates Vergil) makes Hannibal view
  the sculptured memorials of the First Punic War, just as Aeneas sees
  carved the tale of Troy. Verg. _Aen._ i. 445-493.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Polybius, i. caps. 59-63.

+Terms of Peace.+ Carthage engaged to evacuate Sicily; not to make war
upon Hiero of Syracuse; to give up all Roman prisoners without ransom,
and to pay 2200 talents in twenty years.

+Sicily the first Roman Province.+



A. _Great Importance of the Second Punic War._

In parte operis mei licet mihi praefari bellum maxime omnium memorabile,
quae unquam gesta sint, me scripturum, quod Hannibale duce
Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere. Nam neque validiores opibus
ullae inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt {5} arma, neque his ipsis
tantum unquam virium aut roboris fuit, et haud ignotas belli artes inter
sese, sed expertas primo Punico conferebant bello, et adeo varia fortuna
belli ancepsque Mars fuit, ut propius periculum fuerint, qui vicerunt.
Odiis etiam prope {10} maioribus certarunt quam viribus, Romanis
indignantibus quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma, Poenis, quod
superbe avareque crederent imperitatum victis esse.

  3. +Hannibale duce.+ Polybius called the war of which Hannibal was
  the life and soul the ‘Hannibalian War.’
  6. +his ipsis+, sc. _Romanis Poenisque_, with _validiores_.
  6-7. +virium aut roboris+ = _offensive or defensive strength_. --R.
  8. +expertas+ = _tested_, in a passive sense.
  9. +ut propius ... vicerunt+, e.g. after Cannae, 216 B.C.
  12. +ultro inferrent arma+ = _should presume to attack_. --Dimsdale.
  13. +Poenis+, sc. _indignantibus_.
  +superbe avareque.+ ‘When the war of the mercenaries broke out in
  Africa (241-238 B.C.) Rome availed herself of the distress of
  Carthage to extort the cession of Sardinia, and raised the war
  indemnity by 1200 talents.’ --Ihne.]

B. _The Oath of the Boy Hannibal._

Fama est etiam, Hannibalem annorum ferme {15} novem, pueriliter
blandientem patri Hamilcari, ut duceretur in Hispaniam, cum, perfecto
Africo bello, exercitum eo traiecturus sacrificaret, altaribus admotum,
tactis sacris, iure iurando adactum, se, cum primum posset, hostem fore
populo Romano. {20}

        LIVY, xxi. 1.

  16. +blandientem+ = _coaxingly entreating_. --D.
  17. +perfecto Africo bello+, i.e. between Carthage and her mutinous
  mercenaries, 241-237 B.C.]

+Parallel Passage.+ For Hannibal’s Oath, Livy xxxv. 19.

+Importance of the War.+ ‘It was a struggle for existence, for supremacy
or destruction. It was to decide whether the Graeco-Roman civilisation
of the West or the Semitic (Carthaginian) civilisation of the East was
to be established in Europe, and to determine its history for all future
time.’ --Ihne.



‘_The paths of glory lead but to the grave._’

  Expende Hannibalem: quot libras in duce summo          147
  Invenies? . . . .
  Additur imperiis Hispania, Pyrenaeum                   151
  Transilit. Opposuit natura Alpemque nivemque:
  Diducit scopulos et montem rumpit aceto.
  Iam tenet Italiam, tamen ultra pergere tendit:
  ‘Actum,’ inquit, ‘nihil est, nisi Poeno milite portas  155
  Frangimus et media vexillum pono Subura.’
  O qualis facies et quali digna tabella,
  Cum Gaetula ducem portaret belua luscum!
  Exitus ergo quis est? O gloria! vincitur idem
  Nempe et in exilium praeceps fugit, atque ibi magnus   160
  Mirandusque cliens sedet ad praetoria regis,
  Donec Bithyno libeat vigilare tyranno.
  Finem animae, quae res humanas miscuit olim,
  Non gladii, non saxa dabunt, nec tela, sed ille
  Cannarum vindex et tanti sanguinis ultor,              165
  Anulus. I, demens, et saevas curre per Alpes,
  Ut pueris placeas et declamatio fias.

        JUVENAL, _Sat._ x. 147-167.

  147-148. +Expende ... invenies+ = _if you lay_ (lit. ‘weigh’)
  _Hannibal in the scale, how many pounds will you find in the
  greatest of commanders?_ --Duff. Cf. Ov. _Met._ xii. 615:
    Iam cinis est: et de tam magno restat Achille
    Nescio quid parvam quod non bene compleat urnam.
  156. +media Subura+, i.e. in the heart of Rome. The Subura was one
  of the busiest and most populous quarters of Rome.
  157. +O qualis facies ... tabella+ = _what a sight and how fit for
  caricature!_ lit. ‘worthy of what a picture’ i.e. how ridiculous a
  picture it would have made. --Hardy.
  158. +luscum+ = _one-eyed_. Hannibal lost an eye from disease, while
  marching through the country flooded by the Arno, 217 B.C.
  160. +in exilium+, i.e. first to Antiochus of Syria, and then to
  Prusias of Bithynia.
  166. +anulus.+ Hannibal took poison which he carried about in a ring
  (+anulus+) 183 B.C., aged 76.
  167. +ut ... fias+ = _to suit the taste of schoolboys, and become
  the subject of their speeches_. --Duff.]

+For the thought+, cf. Shak. Ham. V. i. 232:

  Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay,
  Might stop a hole to keep the wind away:
  O, that that earth, which kept the world in awe
  Should patch a wall to expel the winter’s flaw!



_Character of Hannibal._

Nunquam ingenium idem ad res diversissimas, parendum atque imperandum,
habilius fuit. Itaque haud facile discerneres, utrum imperatori an
exercitui carior esset; neque Hasdrubal alium quemquam praeficere malle,
ubi quid fortiter ac strenue agendum {5} esset, neque milites alio duce
plus confidere aut audere. Plurimum audaciae ad pericula capessenda,
plurimum consilii inter ipsa pericula erat. Nullo labore aut corpus
fatigari aut animus vinci poterat. Caloris ac frigoris patientia par;
cibi potionisque {10} desiderio naturali, non voluptate modus finitus;
vigiliarum somnique nec die nec nocte discriminata tempora: id, quod
gerendis rebus superesset, quieti datum; ea neque molli strato neque
silentio accersita; multi saepe militari sagulo opertum humi iacentem
{15} inter custodias stationesque militum conspexerunt. Vestitus nihil
inter aequales excellens; arma atque equi conspiciebantur. Equitum
peditumque idem longe primus erat; princeps in proelium ibat, ultimus
conserto proelio excedebat. Has tantas viri virtutes {20} ingentia vitia
aequabant, inhumana crudelitas, perfidia plus quam Punica, nihil veri,
nihil sancti, nullus deum metus, nullum ius iurandum, nulla religio.

        LIVY, xxi. 4.

  2. +habilius+ = _better adapted_, lit. ‘more easily handled’; cf.
  our _handy_.
  7. +ad pericula capessenda+ = _in incurring peril_.
  12. +discriminata+ = _regulated_, lit. ‘divided off’; cf.
  _dis-cerno_, _dis-crimen_.
  14. +accersita+ (= _arcessita_) = _wooed_.
  15. +sagulo+ = _in his military cloak_: diminutive of _sagum_.
  21. +inhumana crudelitas.+ Polybius says that many of his alleged
  cruelties were to be set down to his namesake H. Monomachus.
  21-23. +perfidia plus quam Punica.+ ‘This does not seem to have been
  anything worse than a consummate adroitness in laying traps for his
  enemies.’ --Church and Brodribb. Cf. ‘Perfidious Albion.’
  23. +nulla religio+ = _no scruples_, i.e. no force binding (_re +
  ligare_) or restraining from wrong-doing, no conscience.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Livy xxvi. 41 of Scipio Africanus Minor--Sallust
_Cat._ 5 of Catiline--Polybius ix. 22-26 (important).

‘Bitterly as the Romans hated, reviled, and persecuted Carthage, the
most deadly poison of their hatred they poured upon Hannibal; they did
not hesitate to blacken his memory by the most revolting accusations.’



_The Siege of Saguntum, 219 B.C._

Angulus muri erat in planiorem patentioremque quam cetera circa vallem
vergens; adversus eum vineas agere instituit, per quas aries moenibus
admoveri posset. Sed ut locus procul muro satis aequus agendis vineis
fuit, ita haudquaquam prospere, {5} postquam ad effectum operis ventum
est, coeptis succedebat. Et turris ingens imminebat, et murus, ut in
suspecto loco, supra ceterae modum altitudinis emunitus erat, et
iuventus delecta, ubi plurimum periculi ac timoris ostendebatur, ibi vi
maiore obsistebant. {10} Ac primo missilibus summovere hostem nec
quicquam satis tutum munientibus pati; deinde iam non pro moenibus modo
atque turri tela micare, sed ad erumpendum etiam in stationes operaque
hostium animus erat; quibus tumultuariis certaminibus {15} haud ferme
plures Saguntini cadebant quam Poeni. Ut vero Hannibal ipse, dum murum
incautius subit, adversum femur tragula graviter ictus cecidit, tanta
circa fuga ac trepidatio fuit, ut non multum abesset, quin opera ac
vineae desererentur. {20}

        LIVY, xxi. 7.

  2. +quam cetera+ (sc. _loca_) +circa+ = _than the neighbouring
  4-5. +ut ... ita+ = lit. _as ... so_, i.e. _although ... yet ..._
  6. +postquam ... ventum est+ = _when they came to attack the wall in
  earnest_. +Effectum+ (verbal noun in _us_) = _the completion of the
  work_, i.e. the bringing up of the ram. --Dimsdale.
  8. +ut in suspecto loco+ = _as (was natural) in a suspected_ (i.e.
  weak) _spot_. --Capes.
  11-12. +nec quicquam ... pati+ = _they allowed those engaged on the
  works no sort of safety_, lit. not (even) moderate safety. --D.
  18. +adversum femur+ = _in the front of the thigh_.]

+SAGUNTUM+ (Murviedro = muri veteres) in Hispania Tarraconensis (about
20 miles S. of Valencia) was supposed to have been founded by Greek
colonists from Zacynthos (Zante). In 226 B.C. Rome made an alliance with
Saguntum and Hasdrubal was informed of the fact. Hannibal attacked the
city ostensibly on the ground of its having molested subject-allies of
Carthage, but really because he was unwilling to leave a strong city in
his rear, and wished to obtain funds. After an eight months’ siege and a
heroic defence, characteristic of Spanish towns, it was taken by storm
219 B.C.

  _Nec pavet hic populus (Massilia) pro libertate subire
  Obsessum Poeno gessit quod Marte Saguntum._

        LUCAN, _Phars._ iii. 349-50.

Cf. also Juv. _Sat._ xv. 113-14, and the siege of Saragossa, 1808 A.D.



A. _The Dream of Hannibal._

Hannibalem Coelius scribit, cum cepisset Saguntum, visum esse in somnis
a Iove in deorum concilium vocari; quo cum venisset, Iovem imperasse ut
Italiae bellum inferret, ducemque ei unum e concilio datum: quo illum
utentem cum exercitu progredi {5} coepisse; tum ei ducem illum
praecepisse ne respiceret; illum autem id diutius facere non potuisse
elatumque cupiditate respexisse: tum visam belluam vastam et immanem,
circumplicatam serpentibus, quacunque incederet, omnia arbusta,
virgulta, tecta {10} pervertere.

        CICERO, _De Divinatione_, i. 24, 49.

  1. +Coelius+, i.e. L. Coelius Antipater (a contemporary of C.
  Gracchus 123 B.C.), wrote Annales, which contained a valuable
  account of the Second Punic War. Livy borrows largely from his
  7. +id ... non potuisse.+ Cf. Livy ‘temperare oculis nequivisse = he
  could not restrain his eyes.’
  8. +cupiditate+ = _from curiosity_. Cf. Livy ‘cura ingeni humani =
  with the natural curiosity of the human mind.’
  8-11. +visam belluam ... pervertere+ = _he thought he saw a monster

B. _The Interpretation--Vastitatem esse Italiae._

  Hoc trepidus monstro ... ardua quae sit,       198...200
  Scitatur, pestis, terrasque urgentia membra
  Quo ferat et quosnam populos deposcat hiatu.
  Cui gelidis almae Cyllenes editus antris:
  ‘Bella vides optata tibi: te maxima bella,
  Te strages nemorum, te moto turbida caelo      205
  Tempestas, caedesque virum, magnaeque ruinae
  Idaei generis, lacrimosaque fata sequuntur.
  Quantus per campos populatis montibus actus
  Contorquet silvas squalenti tergore serpens,
  Et late umectat terras spumante veneno:        210
  Tantus, perdomitis decurrens Alpibus atro
  Involves bello Italiam, tantoque fragore
  Eruta convulsis prosternes oppida muris.’

        SILIUS ITALICUS, iii. 198-213.

  202. +hiatu+ = _with its wide-open mouth_.
  203. +Cyllenes+, i.e. Mt. Cyllene (Zyria), the highest point in the
  Peloponnesus, on the borders of Arcadia and Achaia, where Hermes is
  said to have been born: hence styled _Cyllenius_.
  209. +tergore = tergo+. poet. and post-Augustian.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Livy xxi. 22, and cf. Polybius iii. 47.



_From the Pyrenees to the Rhone. Passage of the Elephants._

Elephantorum traiciendorum varia consilia fuisse credo, certe variat
memoria actae rei. . . . Ceterum magis constat ratibus traiectos esse
elephantos. Ratem unam ducentos longam pedes quinquaginta latam a terra
in amnem porrexerunt, quam, ne {5} secunda aqua deferretur, pluribus
validis retinaculis parte superiore ripae religatam pontis in modum humo
iniecta constraverunt, ut beluae audacter velut per solum ingrederentur.
Altera ratis aeque lata, longa pedes centum, ad traiciendum flumen apta,
{10} huic copulata est; tum elephanti per stabilem ratem tamquam viam
praegredientibus feminis acti ubi in minorem applicatam transgressi
sunt, extemplo resolutis, quibus leviter annexa erat, vinculis ab
actuariis aliquot navibus ad alteram ripam pertrahitur. Ita {15} primis
expositis alii deinde repetiti ac traiecti sunt. Nihil sane trepidabant,
donec continenti velut ponte agerentur; primus erat pavor, cum soluta ab
ceteris rate in altum raperentur. Ibi urgentes inter se cedentibus
extremis ab aqua trepidationis aliquantum {20} edebant, donec quietem
ipse timor circumspectantibus aquam fecisset. Excidere etiam saevientes
quidam in flumen; sed pondere ipso stabilis deiectis rectoribus
quaerendis pedetemptim vadis in terram evasere. {25}

        LIVY, xxi. 28.

  2. +variat ... rei+ = _the accounts of what was done differ_.
  7. +parte superiore ... pontis+ = _fastened to the upper part of the
  bank_, i.e. to the bank at a point higher up stream. --D.
  9. +per solum+ = _on firm ground_.
  14. +ab actuariis+ = _by some light craft_, lit. ‘Easily moved’
  17-18. +donec ... agerentur+ = _So long as they were being driven on
  what seemed a bridge connected with the land._ --C. and B.
  _Agebantur_ would be more usual, but _agerentur_ may give the reason
  of _nihil trepidabant_. Cf. _donec--fecisset_ ll. 21-22.
  19. +in altum+ = _into mid stream_, usu. of the Sea. --D.
  +inter se+ = _one on another_, _alii alios_.
  24. +quaerendis pedetemptim vadis+ = _feeling their way into shallow
  water_. +pedetemptim+ = _step by step_, lit. ‘stretching out the
  feet’ (_pes + tendo_). Cf. _paulatim_, _sensim_.]

+Reference.+ Polybius, iii. 46. Both Polybius and Livy thought that
elephants could not swim.



_From the Rhone to Italy. Hannibal encourages his Soldiers._

Itaque Hannibal, postquam ipsi sententia stetit pergere ire atque
Italiam petere, advocata contione varie militum versat animos castigando
adhortandoque: mirari se, quinam pectora semper impavida repens terror
invaserit. . . . Alpes quidem habitari, coli, {5} gignere atque alere
animantes; pervias fauces esse exercitibus. Eos ipsos, quos cernant,
legatos non pinnis sublime elatos Alpes transgressos. Ne maiores quidem
eorum indigenas, sed advenas Italiae cultores has ipsas Alpes ingentibus
saepe agminibus cum {10} liberis ac coniugibus migrantium modo tuto
transmisisse. Militi quidem armato nihil secum praeter instrumenta belli
portanti quid invium aut inexsuperabile esse? Saguntum ut caperetur,
quid per octo menses periculi, quid laboris exhaustum esse! {15} Romam,
caput orbis terrarum, petentibus quicquam adeo asperum atque arduum
videri, quod inceptum moretur? Cepisse quondam Gallos ea, quae adiri
posse Poenus desperet. Proinde aut cederent animo atque virtute genti
per eos dies totiens ab se victae, {20} aut itineris finem sperent
campum interiacentem Tiberi ac moenibus Romanis.

        LIVY, xxi. 30.

  2-3. +varie ... versat+ = _works on their minds by different
  methods_, i.e. +castigando adhortandoque+.--Dimsdale.
  4-5. +repens terror.+ Livy says that H.’s soldiers dreaded the
  Romans (victorious in the 1st Punic War), but still more the
  exaggerated and unknown terrors of the Alps.
  7. +Eos ipsos legatos+, i.e. of the Boii (Insubrian Gauls), long
  settled in Gallia Cisalpina (round Mediolanum = Milan).
  9. +advenas Italiae cultores+ = _foreign settlers in Italy_.
  _advenas_ = adj. here. --D.
  11. +migrantium modo+ = _as immigrants_.
  16. +Romam caput orbis.+ A rhetorical exaggeration, for Rome was
  not yet mistress even of all Italy (e.g. the Boii not subdued until
  191 B.C.).
  18. +Cepisse Gallos.+ The Gauls sacked Rome 390 B.C.
  20. +genti ... victae+, e.g. at the Passage of the Rhone.
  21. +campum+, i.e. the Campus Martius, N.W. of Rome, where the Tiber
  makes a wide curve. For the thought cf. p. 116, ll. 7, 8.]
    [[Selection C9, lines 155, 156]]

+The Speeches of Livy.+ ‘He does not intend in them to reproduce the
substance of words actually spoken, or even to imitate the tone of the
time in which the speech is laid. He uses them as a vivid and dramatic
method of portraying character and motive.’ --Mackail.



_From the Rhone to Italy. The Descent of the Alps._

Natura locus iam ante praeceps recenti lapsu terrae in pedum mille
admodum altitudinem abruptus erat. . . . Tandem nequiquam iumentis atque
hominibus fatigatis castra in iugo posita, aegerrime ad id ipsum loco
purgato: tantum nivis fodiendum atque {5} egerendum fuit. Inde ad rupem
muniendam, per quam unam via esse poterat, milites ducti, cum caedendum
esset saxum, arboribus circa immanibus deiectis detruncatisque struem
ingentem lignorum faciunt, eamque, cum et vis venti apta faciendo igni
{10} coorta esset, succendunt ardentiaque saxa infuso aceto
putrefaciunt. Ita torridam incendio rupem ferro pandunt, molliuntque
anfractibus modicis clivos, ut non iumenta solum sed elephanti etiam
deduci possent. Quadriduum circa rupem consumptum {15} iumentis prope
fame absumptis; nuda enim fere cacumina sunt, et, si quid est pabuli,
obruunt nives. Inferiora valles apricosque quosdam colles habent
rivosque prope silvas et iam humano cultu digniora loca. Ibi iumenta in
pabulum missa, et quies {20} muniendo fessis hominibus data. Triduo inde
ad planum descensum iam et locis mollioribus et accolarum ingeniis.

        LIVY, xxi. 36, 37.

+Context.+ At a short distance from the summit of the Pass (prob. the
Little St. Bernard) Hannibal finds his passage barred by a break in the
road, caused by a landslip or avalanche.

  2-3. +in pedum ... abruptus erat.+ Polybius says that the precipice
  at the side of the road (leaving only a narrow ledge) extended for
  about 1000 ft. _in length_. Livy in mistake converts this into 1000
  ft. _in depth_.
  3-4. +Tandem ... fatigatis+, i.e. after H.’s attempt to pass by a
  side-way over a glacier failed.
  4. +in iugo+, i.e. on the higher level where the road was broken
  6. +ad rupem muniendam+ = _to cut a way through the rock_. _Munire_
  (cf. _moenia_) = lit. ‘to wall,’ ‘to build.’ So _munire viam_ = _to
  make a road_. Hannibal widened the narrow ledge of road by making a
  sort of terrace.
  9. +detruncatis+ = _trimmed_, (lit. ‘lopped off’), i.e. cleared of
  11-12. +infuso aceto.+ Limestone rock might be softened by vinegar,
  which the _posca_, the soldiers’ regular drink of vinegar and water,
  would supply. Polybius does not mention this.
  13-14. +molliuntque ... clivos+ = _relieve the steepness of the
  descent by gently-sloping zigzag paths_. _Anfractus_, from _ambi +

+References.+ Polybius, iii. 54-56; Ihne, i. 171-179.



A. _The Battle at the R. Trebia, 218 B.C._

Hannibal, cum ad Trebiam in conspectu haberet Semproni Longi consulis
castra, medio amne interfluente, saevissima hieme Magonem et electos in
insidiis posuit. Deinde Numidas equites ad eliciendam Semproni
credulitatem adequitare vallo eius {5} iussit, quibus praeceperat, ut ad
primum nostrorum incursum per nota refugerent vada. Hos consul et
adortus temere et secutus ieiunum exercitum in maximo frigore transitu
fluminis rigefecit: mox torpore et inedia adfectis Hannibal suum militem
{10} opposuit, quem ad id ignibus oleoque et cibo foverat; nec defuit
partibus Mago, quin terga hostium in hoc ordinatus caederet.

        FRONTINUS, _Strategemata_, ii. 5. 23.

  1. +ad Trebiam+, a small tributary S. of the Padus, which it joins 2
  miles W. of Placentia (Piacenza).
  2. +castra.+ Ti. Sempronius Longus, with his army from Sicily,
  effected a junction with his colleague, Scipio, in his fortified
  camp on the W. or left bank of the Trebia.
  8-9. +ieiunum ... rigefecit+, i.e. Sempronius _made stiff_
  (+rigefecit+) with wading breast-high across the icy river his men
  _faint with hunger_ (+ieiunum+).
  11. +oleoque+, i.e. _ut mollirent artus_ = _to make their limbs
  12-13. +nec defuit ... caederet.+ The Romans kept their ground with
  the utmost courage till Mago burst out from his ambush and attacked
  them in rear.]

B. _The River bars the Retreat._

  Et iam, dispersis Romana per agmina signis,        570
  Palantes agit, ad ripas, miserabile! Poenus
  Impellens trepidos, fluvioque immergere certat.
    Tum Trebia infausto nova proelia gurgite fessis
  Incohat, ac precibus Iunonis suscitat undas.
  Haurit subsidens fugientum corpora tellus,         575
  Infidaque soli frustrata voragine sorbet.
  Nec niti lentoque datur convellere limo
  Mersa pedum penitus vestigia: labe tenaci
  Haerent devincti gressus, resolutaque ripa
  Implicat aut caeca prosternit fraude paludis.      580

        SILIUS ITALICUS, iv. 570-580.

  574. +precibus ... undas.+ The poet, in his imitation of Vergil,
  makes Juno the devoted ally of Hannibal.
  576. +soli frustrata+ = _prevented from reaching firm ground_.
  577. +lento+ = _sticky_.
  579. +resoluta+ = _crumbling_.]

+References+. Livy, xxi. 52-56; Ihne, ii. 187-191.



_The Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 B.C._ (1)

Flaminius cum pridie solis occasu ad lacum pervenisset, inexplorato
postero die vixdum satis certa luce angustiis superatis, postquam in
patentiorem campum pandi agmen coepit, id tantum hostium, quod ex
adverso erat, conspexit; ab tergo ac super {5} caput _haud[29] detectae_
insidiae. Poenus ubi, id quod petierat, clausum lacu ac montibus et
circumfusum suis copiis habuit hostem, signum omnibus dat simul
invadendi. Qui ubi, qua cuique proximum fuit, decucurrerunt, eo magis
Romanis subita atque improvisa {10} res fuit, quod orta ex lacu nebula
campo quam montibus densior sederat, agminaque hostium ex pluribus
collibus ipsa inter se satis conspecta eoque magis pariter
decucurrerant. Romanus clamore prius undique orto, quam satis cerneret,
se circumventum {15} esse sensit, et ante in frontem lateraque pugnari
coeptum est, quam satis instrueretur acies aut expediri arma stringique
gladii possent. Consul perculsis omnibus ipse satis, ut[30] in re
trepida, impavidus turbatos ordines, vertente se quoque ad dissonos {20}
clamores, instruit, ut tempus locusque patitur, et, quacunque adire
audirique potest, adhortatur ac stare ac pugnare iubet. {25}

        LIVY, xxii. 4, 5.

    [Footnote 29: Var. lect. _decepere_.]

    [Footnote 30: For this qualifying use of _ut_ cf. p. 42, iii. (b)
    and p. 83 line 1.]  [[Demonstration IV.iii and Selection D24]]

  1. +Flaminius+ (Gaius), the chief of the popular party at Rome.
  Consul 223 B.C., conquered the Insubrian Gauls, Censor 220 B.C.
  Connected Picenum with Rome by the Via Flaminia. Consul (a second
  time) 217 B.C., defeated and killed at Trasimene.
  2. +inexplorato+ = _without reconnoitring_. ‘This word expresses the
  whole blame attaching to Flaminius, and it is great.’ --Dimsdale.
  4. +pandi+ (= _se pandere_) = _to deploy_.
  13. +ipsa ... conspecta+ = _were sufficiently visible to each
  15. +prius quam satis cerneret+ = _before he could clearly
  distinguish anything_. --D.
  19. +ut in re trepida+ = _considering the confusion of the moment_.

+The Scene of the Battle.+ At the N.W. end of the Lake the mountains of
Cortona come right down to the lake, but a little further E. the pass
expands and forms between the mountains and the lake a narrow plain from
½ to 1½ miles in width and about 4 miles in length. At the E. end of the
plain the mountains again close down upon the lake. Here Hannibal
encamped with his Africans and Spaniards; posted his light-armed troops
behind the crests of the hills which bounded the plain on the N., and
his cavalry at the entrance to the pass on the W. to cut off the Roman



_The Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 B.C._ (2)

Ceterum prae strepitu ac tumultu nec consilium nec imperium accipi
poterat, tantumque aberat, ut sua signa atque ordines et locum
noscerent, ut vix ad arma capienda aptandaque pugnae competeret animus,
opprimerenturque quidam onerati magis iis {5} quam tecti. Et erat in
tanta caligine maior usus aurium quam oculorum. Ad gemitus vulneratorum
ictusque corporum aut armorum et mixtos _strepentium_[31] paventiumque
clamores circumferebant ora oculosque. Alii fugientes pugnantium globo
illati {10} haerebant; alios redeuntes in pugnam avertebat fugientium
agmen. Deinde, ubi in omnes partes nequiquam impetus capti, et ab
lateribus montes ac lacus, a fronte et ab tergo hostium acies
claudebant, apparuitque nullam nisi in dextera ferroque salutis {15}
spem esse, tum sibi quisque dux adhortatorque factus ad rem gerendam et
nova de integro exorta pugna est, non illa ordinata per principes
hastatosque ac triarios, nec ut pro signis antesignani, post signa alia
pugnaret acies; fors conglobabat et animus suus {20} cuique ante aut
post pugnandi ordinem dabat; tantusque fuit ardor animorum, adeo
intentus pugnae animus, ut eum motum terrae, qui multarum urbium Italiae
magnas partes prostravit, nemo pugnantium senserit. {25}

        LIVY, xxii. 5.

    [Footnote 31: Var. lect. _terrentium_ = of those causing fear.]

  4. +ad arma capienda aptandaque+ = _to seize and put on for the
  battle their arms_. --Dimsdale.
  5. +onerati:+ i.e. most were cut down in their full marching
  8-9. +mixtos ... clamores+ = _the mingled shouts of noisy triumph_
  (+strepentium+) _or dismay_.
  10. +pugnantium ... haerebant+ = _rushed upon a knot_ (+globo+) _of
  combatants, and became entangled with it_. --Jebb.
  14. +a fronte+, i.e. by Hannibal’s African and Spanish infantry.
  +ab tergo+, i.e. by Hannibal’s cavalry and the Gauls.
  18-19. +non illa ... triarios+ = _not in that well-known_ (+illa+)
  _mode of fighting_ (sc. +pugna+) _arranged according to_. . . . Livy
  refers to the old mode of formation (said to have been introduced by
  Camillus) of i. +hastati+, _of young men_, ii. +principes+, _of men
  at their prime_, iii. +triarii+, _of middle-aged men_.]

+References:+ Polybius, iii. 82-84; Ihne, _Hist._ vol, i. pp. 204-10.



_The Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 B.C._ (3)

_The Death of Flaminius._

  Dumque ea commemorat densosque obit obvius hostes,
  Advolat ora ferus mentemque Ducarius. Acri         645
  Nomen erat gentile viro, fusisque catervis
  Boiorum quondam patriis, antiqua gerebat
  Vulnera barbaricae mentis, noscensque superbi
  Victoris vultus, ‘Tune, inquit, maximus ille
  Boiorum terror? libet hoc cognoscere telo,        650
  Corporis an tanti manet de vulnere sanguis.
  Nec vos poeniteat, populares, fortibus umbris
  Hoc mactare caput: nostros hic curribus egit
  Insistens victos alta ad Capitolia patres.
  Ultrix hora vocat.’ Pariter tunc undique fusis     655
  Obruitur telis, nimboque mente per auras
  Contectus nulli dextra iactare reliquit
  Flaminium cecidisse sua. Nec pugna perempto
  Ulterior ductore fuit; namque agmine denso
  Primores iuvenum, laeva ob discrimina Martis       660
  Infensi superis dextrisque, et cernere Poenum
  Victorem plus morte rati, super ocius omnes
  Membra ducis stratosque artus certamine magno
  Telaque corporaque et non fausto Marte cruentas
  Iniecere manus. Sic densi caedis acervo            665
  Ceu tumulo, texere virum.

        SILIUS ITALICUS, v. 644-666.

  644. +Dum ... hostes+, i.e. after Flaminius’ vain attempt to rally and
  form his men, and his consequent resolve to atone for his fault
  (_inexplorato_[32] _angustiis superatis_) with his life.
  646. +Ducarius+--Livy, ‘an Insubrian (Lombard) trooper.’
  651. +mānet+ = _will flow_. Cf. _emanate_.
  652. +populares+ = _fellow-countrymen_, but of Romans usu. _civis_.
  658-666. Livy says more simply ‘He (Ducarius) was trying to despoil
  the corpse, when some veterans screened it with their shields.’
  660. +laeva+ = _unfavourable_, lit. ‘on the left side.’ Cf.

    [Footnote 32: See p. 124, l. 2, note.]
    [[Selection C17, “inexplorato”]]

+Parallel Passages.+--Livy, xxii. 6; Polyb. iii. 84.

+Character of Flaminius.+ ‘The party feelings which have so coloured the
language of the ancient writers (e.g. Livy, Polybius) respecting him
need not be shared by a modern historian. Flaminius was indeed an
unequal antagonist to Hannibal; but, in his previous life, as Consul and
as Censor, he had served his country well; and if the defile of
Trasimene witnessed his rashness, it also contains his honourable
grave.’ Arnold, _Hist. Rome_, iii. 110.



_Quintus Fabus Maximus Cunctator._

Ego Q. Maximum, eum qui Tarentum recepit, senem adulescens ita dilexi,
ut aequalem. Erat enim in illo viro comitate condita gravitas, nec
senectus mores mutaverat. . . . Hic et bella gerebat ut adulescens, cum
plane grandis esset, et Hannibalem {5} iuveniliter exsultantem patientia
sua molliebat; de quo praeclare familiaris noster Ennius:

  _Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem;
  Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem;
  Ergo plusque magisque viri nunc gloria claret._     10

Nec vero in armis praestantior quam in toga; qui consul iterum, Sp.
Carvilio collega quiescente, C. Flaminio tribuno plebis, quoad potuit,
restitit agrum Picentem et Gallicum viritim contra senatus auctoritatem
dividenti. . . . Multa in eo viro praeclara {15} cognovi, sed nihil
admirabilius quam quo modo ille mortem fili tulit, clari viri et
consularis. Est in manibus laudatio, quam eum legimus, quem philosophum
non contemnimus? Nec vero ille in luce modo atque in oculis civium
magnus, sed intus {20} domique praestantior.

        CICERO, _De Senectute_, §§ 10-12.

  1. +Ego+, i.e. M. Porcius Cato, the famous Censor of 184 B.C.
  +eum qui Tarentum recepit.+ Tarentum was betrayed to Hannibal 212
  B.C. and _recovered_ by Fabius 209 B.C.
  2-3. +Erat ... gravitas+ = _that hero possessed dignity tempered by
  courtesy_. --J. S. R. +condita+ (_condio_) = lit. _seasoned_.
  5. +grandis+, sc. _natu_. He was consul for a first time in 233 B.C.
  6. +iuveniliter.+ Hannibal was 29 when he crossed the Alps.
  +exsultantem+ = _wildly roaming_, of a horse galloping at will.
  7. +noster Ennius+, circ. 239-169 B.C., famous espec. for his
  Annales in Hexameter verse. He was the first Latin writer to use
  this metre.
  9. +Noenum+ (_ne + oinum_ = _not one thing_) = _non_. Cf. _nihil_ =
  _ne + hilum_ = not a whit, nothing.
  12-14. Flaminius, when tribune 232 B.C., by a vote of the Comitia
  Tributa (i.e. by a _plebiscitum_) and against the expressed wish of
  the Senate (_contra senatus auctoritatem_) carried an agrarian law
  for the division of public land in Picenum amongst Roman citizens.
  18. +laudatio+, sc. _funebris_, the funeral speech.
  19-20. +in luce ... civium+ = _in public and under the gaze of his
  fellow-countrymen_. --J. S. R.]

+References.+ Polybius, iii. 89, 90; Livy, xxii. 12; Plutarch,
_Fabius_, vi.



_Fabius and his Master of the Horse, 217 B.C._

Ita per variam fortunam diei maiore parte exacta cum in castra reditum
esset, Minucius convocatis militibus ‘Saepe ego’ inquit ‘audivi,
milites, eum primum esse virum, qui ipse consulat, quid in rem sit,
secundum eum, qui bene monenti oboediat; qui {5} nec ipse consulere nec
alteri parere sciat, eum extremi ingenii esse. Nobis quoniam prima animi
ingeniique negata sors est, secundam ac mediam teneamus et, dum imperare
discimus, parere prudenti in animum inducamus. Castra cum Fabio
iungamus; ad praetorium {10} eius signa cum tulerimus, ubi ego eum
parentem appellavero, quod beneficio erga nos ac maiestate eius dignum
est, vos, milites, eos, quorum vos modo arma ac dexterae texerunt,
patronos salutabitis, et, si nihil aliud, gratorum certe nobis {15}
animorum gloriam dies hic dederit.’ Signo dato conclamatur inde, ut
colligantur vasa. Profecti et agmine incedentes ad dictatoris castra in
admirationem et ipsum et omnes, qui circa erant, converterunt. {20}

        LIVY, xxii. 29, 30.

+Context.+ Fabius’ policy of ‘masterly inactivity’ had become so
unpopular at Rome that the command of the army was divided between
Fabius and Minucius, who risked a battle, and was only saved from a
destruction as complete as that of the Trebia by the timely aid of
Fabius. +Minucius publicly and fully atones for his rashness.+

  4. +consulat+ = _can give counsel_--so _consulere_ l. 6.
  6-7. +extremi ingenii+ = _has the meanest capacity_. gen. of
  7-8. +prima ... sors est+ = _the highest rank in the scale of spirit
  and intellect_. --Dimsdale.
  14. +patronos+ = _as the authors of your freedom_. +Patronus+ =
  legal title used by a freed slave (_libertus_) of his former master.
  The soldiers of Minucius are to think of themselves as _liberti_,
  owing their freedom to those of Fabius, who are thus their
  17. +ut colligantur vasa+, i.e. _impedimenta_. Cf. _signa movere_.]

+Fabius Cunctator.+ ‘Fabius had to create a new army, to accustom it to
war, and to inspire it with courage. He did this skilfully and
persistently, and thus he rendered the most essential service that any
general could at that time render to the State. It was probably at this
time that the Senate voted him a crown of grass (_corona graminea_), the
highest distinction which was awarded to a general who had saved a
besieged town.’ --Ihne.


SECOND PUNIC WAR, 218-202 B.C. CANNAE, 218 B.C. (1)

_The Destruction of the Roman Infantry._

Sub equestris finem certaminis coorta est peditum pugna, primo et
viribus et animis par, dum constabant ordines Gallis Hispanisque; tandem
Romani, diu ac saepe conisi, obliqua fronte acieque densa impulere
hostium cuneum nimis tenuem eoque parum {5} validum a cetera prominentem
acie. Impulsis deinde ac trepide referentibus pedem institere ac tenore
uno per praeceps pavore fugientium agmen in mediam primum aciem illati,
postremo nullo resistente ad subsidia Afrorum pervenerunt, qui utrimque
reductis {10} alis constiterant media, qua Galli Hispanique steterant,
aliquantum prominente acie. Qui cuneus ut pulsus aequavit frontem
primum, dein cedendo etiam sinum in medio dedit, Afri circa iam cornua
fecerant irruentibusque incaute in medium Romanis circumdedere {15}
alas; mox cornua extendendo clausere et ab tergo hostis. Hinc Romani,
defuncti nequiquam proelio uno, omissis Gallis Hispanisque, quorum terga
ceciderant, adversus Afros integram pugnam ineunt non tantum eo iniquam,
quod inclusi adversus {20} circumfusos, sed etiam quod fessi cum
recentibus ac vegetis pugnabant.

        LIVY, xxii. 47.

  1. +Sub ... certaminis+, i.e. _at the close of_ (+sub+) the first
  stage in the battle, in which the Roman cavalry were defeated.
  2-3. +constabant ... Hispanisque.+ These formed Hannibal’s centre,
  the _convex_ of his semicircular formation of his infantry, with the
  African troops on the horns of the semicircle to the right and left,
  but at some distance behind.
  4. +obliqua fronte+, perh. = _concave_, so as to surround _the
  projecting part of the enemy’s line_ (+a cetera prominentem acie+).
  5. +cuneum:+ here = the _convex_ formation of the Gauls and
  8-9. +in mediam aciem+ = _the centre of the line_, i.e. of the Gauls
  and Spaniards, who were intended to engage with the Romans first.
  10. +subsidia+ = _reserves_, i.e. the Africans, on the right and
  14-16. +Afri circa ... alas.+ Hannibal’s formation is now
  reversed.[33] The horns (+cornua+) of the semicircle (the Africans)
  are now advanced, and _outflanked_ (+circumdedere alas+) the Romans,
  who rushed heedlessly _into the intervening space_ (+in medium+,
  i.e. the _concave_ part of H.’s line formed by the retirement of the
  Gauls and Spaniards).
  21-22. +recentibus ac vegetis+ = _fresh in body and mind_.]

    [Footnote 33: i.e. the Africans now formed the horns of
    a _crescent_ in relation to their centre, while it formed
    the _concave_ part of the crescent. --D.]

+Results of the Battle.+ Hannibal becomes master of Magna Graecia, and
the Romans lose (including 23,000 taken prisoners) about 70,000 men.


SECOND PUNIC WAR, 218-202 B.C. CANNAE, 216 B.C. (2)

‘_Paulus animae magnae prodigus._’

Cn. Lentulus tribunus militum cum praetervehens equo sedentem in saxo
cruore oppletum consulem vidisset, ‘L. Aemili’ inquit, ‘quem unum
insontem culpae cladis hodiernae dei respicere debent, cape hunc equum,
dum et tibi virium aliquid superest, {5} et comes ego te tollere possum
ac protegere. Ne funestam hanc pugnam morte consulis feceris; etiam sine
hoc lacrimarum satis luctusque est.’ Ad ea consul: ‘Tu quidem, Cn.
Corneli, macte virtute esto; sed cave frustra miserando exiguum tempus e
{10} manibus hostium evadendi absumas. Abi, nuntia publice patribus,
urbem Romanam muniant ac, priusquam victor hostis advenit, praesidiis
firment; privatim Q. Fabio L. Aemilium praeceptorum eius memorem et
vixisse adhuc et mori. Memet in hac {15} strage militum meorum patere
exspirare, ne aut reus iterum e consulatu sim aut accusator oollegae
existam, ut alieno crimine innocentiam meam protegam.’ Haec eos agentes
prius turba fugientium civium, deinde hostes oppressere; consulem
ignorantes, {20} quis esset, obruere telis, Lentulum inter tumultum
arripuit equus. Tum undique effuse fugiunt.

        LIVY, xxii. 49.

  1. +praetervehens equo+ = _riding by_. +praetervehor+ used here as a
  deponent. --Dimsdale.
  2. +oppletum+ (= _perfusum_) = _covered_ (lit. _filled up_), or
  4. +respicere+ = _to look on with favour_. --D.
  9. +macte virtute esto+ = lit. _go on and prosper in your courage_.
  +mactus+ = i. _magis + auctus_ = _increased_, _glorified_, or more
  prob. ii. = old partic. of obsolete _mago_ (= _augeo_), from
  √μακ e.g. in μάκ-αρ. Vocative used as nominative.
  14. +praeceptorum.+ His self-sacrifice was not in vain. The tactics
  of Fabius were again adopted after his death.
  15. +et vixisse adhuc et mori+ = _died as he had ever lived_. --D.
  17. +reus iterum e consulatu+ = _a second time to stand on my
  defence in consequence of my consulship_, i.e. on a charge that grew
  out of his acts as Consul (219 B.C.) with M. Livius Salinator of
  misappropriation of the spoils at the close of the Illyrian War.
  18-19. +ut ... protegam.+ The two Consuls had the chief command of
  the army on alternate days. Varro was in command at Cannae.]

‘The overthrow of Cannae was so complete that every other nation but the
Romans would have given up the idea of further resistance.’ --Ihne.


SECOND PUNIC WAR, 218-202 B.C. CANNAE, 216 B.C. (3)

A. _Maharbal urges Hannibal to march on Rome._

Hannibali victori cum ceteri circumfusi gratularentur suaderentque, ut
tanto perfunctus bello diei quod reliquum esset noctisque insequentis
quietem et ipse sibi sumeret et fessis daret militibus, Maharbal
praefectus equitum, minime cessandum ratus, ‘Immo {5} ut, quid hac pugna
sit actum, scias, die quinto’ inquit ‘victor in Capitolio epulaberis.
Sequere: cum equite, ut prius venisse quam venturum sciant, praecedam.’
Hannibali nimis laeta res est visa maiorque, quam ut eam statim capere
animo posset. Itaque voluntatem {10} se laudare Maharbalis ait; ad
consilium pensandum temporis opus esse. Tum Maharbal: ‘Non omnia nimirum
eidem di dedere; vincere scis, Hannibal, victoria uti nescis.’ Mora eius
diei satis creditur saluti fuisse urbi atque imperio. {15}

        LIVY, xxii. 51.

  2-4. +diei ... sumeret+ = _he should take what remained of that day
  and the following night for rest_. --Church and Brodribb.
  8. +venisse+, sc. +te+, suggested by +sequere+. --Dimsdale.
  9. +res+ = _the idea_, i.e. of such a rapid termination to the war.
  Hannibal was too far off (11 days’ march) to take Rome by storm. Its
  population contained as many soldiers as his army, and the city was
  strongly fortified by its situation and by art.]

B. _Scipio forbids the Nobles to abandon Italy._

Post Cannensem cladem perculsis ita Romanorum animis, ut pars magna
reliquiarum nobilissimis auctoribus deserendae Italiae iniret consilium,
P. Scipio adulescens admodum impetu facto, in eo ipso in quo talia
agitabantur coetu pronuntiavit manu se {20} sua interfecturum, nisi qui
iurasset non esse sibi mentem destituendae rei publicae: cumque ipse se
primus religione tali obligasset, stricto gladio mortem uni ex proximis
minatus, nisi acciperet sacramentum, illum metu, ceteros etiam exemplo
coegit ad iurandum. {25}

        FRONTINUS, _Strat._ iv. 7. 39.

  18. +P. Scipio adulescens+, i.e. P. Corn. Scipio Africanns Maior,
  _fatalis dux huiusce belli_, the predestined champion in this war.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Livy, xxii. 53, and cf. Livy, v. 50-55, where
Camillus dissuades the commons from migrating to Veii.



A. _Rome’s Heroes._

  Regulum et Scauros animaeque magnae
  Prodigum Paulum superante Poeno
  Gratus insigni referam Camena
        Fabriciumque.                     40
  Hunc et incomptis Curium capillis
  Utilem bello tulit et Camillum
  Saeva paupertas et avitus apto
        Cum lare fundus.                  44
  Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo
  Fama Marcelli; micat inter omnes
  Iulium sidus velut inter ignes
        Luna minores.                     48

        HORACE, _Odes_, I. xii. 37-48.

  37. +Scauros+[34] (= +Scaurum+) = _such men as Scaurus_. Censor,
  100 B.C.
  40. +Fabricium+, who despised the bribes of Pyrrhus. Censor 275 B.C.
  See p. 101, Fabricius the Just.  [[Selection D42]]
  43-44. +apto cum lare+ = _with homestead to match_. --Gow.]

    [Footnote 34: Cf. in French, _Les Vergiles_.]

B. _The Dream of Propertius._

  Visus eram molli recubans Heliconis in umbra,
    Bellerophontei qua fluit umor equi,
  Reges, Alba, tuos et regum facta tuorum,
    Tantum operis, nervis hiscere posse meis;          4
  Parvaque tam magnis admoram fontibus ora,
    Unde pater sitiens Ennius ante bibit,
  Et cecini Curios fratres et Horatia pila,
    Regiaque Aemilia vecta tropaea rate,               8
  Victricesque moras Fabii pugnamque sinistram
    Cannensem et versos ad pia vota deos,
  Hannibalemque Lares Romana sede fugantes,
    Anseris et tutum voce fuisse Iovem.               12

        PROPERTIUS, III. (IV.) iii. (ii.) 1-12.

+Subject:+--Propertius had tremblingly touched the mighty fount with his
lips (l. 5): he dreamed that he essayed, in consequence, to follow the
example of Ennius.

  2. i.e. the Spring of Pirene near Corinth, where Pegasus was caught
  by Bellerophon. Its waters possessed inspiring properties.
  4. +nervis ... meis+ = _that I had strength to gasp forth_.
  7. +Curios+ = _Curiatios_.
  +Horatia pila+: see pp. 67-68.  [[Selections D8, D9]]
  8. +Aemilia+, i.e. of L. Aemilius Paullus (son of the hero of
  Cannae), victor at Pydna 168 B.C. over Perseus of Macedon.
  10. +versos ... deos+, i.e. the solemn ordinances decreed by Fabius,
  Dictator after Trasimene, to which the gods _turned a ready ear_
  12. +fuisse+, dependent on +cecini+ l. 19.
  +Iovem+, i.e. _Iovis Capitolini templum_. See p. 84.]
    [[Selection D25]]



_The Revolt of Capua, 216-211 B.C._ (1)

A. _Capua aspires to rival Rome._

  Altera iam teritur bellis civilibus aetas,
    Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit.
  Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi,
    Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae manus,            4
  Aemula nec virtus Capuae nec Spartacus acer
    Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox,
  Nec fera caerulea domuit Germania pube
    Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal:             8
  Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas,
    Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum.

        HORACE, _Epod._ xvi. 1-10.

  5. +Aemula virtus Capuae.+ In 216 B.C. Capua was, after Rome, the
  richest and most powerful city in Italy. As the result of Cannae she
  aspired to dominion over Italy.
  +Spartacus acer+, leader of the Servile War, 73-71 B.C.
  6. +novis rebus infidelis+ = _faithless to revolution_, because they
  assisted in betraying Catiline’s plot 63 B.C.--Wickham.
  9. +impia ... aetas+ = _we an impious generation whose blood is
  foredoomed_ (i.e. there is a curse on us) _shall destroy_ (Rome).]

B. _Decius Magius defies Hannibal._

Egressus curia Hannibal in templo magistratuum consedit, comprehendique
Decium Magium atque ante pedes destitutum causam dicere iussit. Qui cum
manente ferocia animi negaret lege foederis id cogi posse, tum iniectae
catenae, ducique ante lictorem {15} in castra est iussus. Quoad capite
aperto est ductus, contionabundus incessit ad circumfusam undique
multitudinem vociferans: ‘Habetis libertatem, Campani, quam petistis:
foro medio, luce clara, videntibus vobis nulli Campanorum secundus
vinctus ad mortem {20} rapior. Quid violentius capta Capua fieret? Ite
obviam Hannibali, exornate urbem diemque adventus eius consecrate, ut
hunc triumphum de cive vestro spectetis.’

        LIVY, xxiii. 10.

+Context.+ After the Revolt of Capua, when Hannibal made a public entry
into the city, the whole population, with the exception of Decius Magius
and his son, poured out to meet him.

  11. +in templo magistratuum+ = _on the magistrates’ bench_, (or
  12. +Decium Magium+, one of the few Capuan nobles faithful to Rome.
  14-15. +negaret ... posse+ = _urged that by the terms of the treaty_
  (i.e. between the Capuans and H.) _this could not be insisted on_.
  --Church and Brodribb.]



_The Revolt of Capua, 216-211 B.C._ (2)

A. _‘Capua,’ it is said, ‘became Hannibal’s Cannae.’_

Cum victoria Hannibal posset uti, frui maluit relictaque Roma Campaniam
Tarentumque peragrare, ubi mox et ipse et exercitus ardor elanguit adeo
ut vere dictum sit Capuam Hannibali Cannas fuisse. Si quidem invictum
Alpibus, indomitum armis Campani--quis {5} crederet?--soles et tepentes
fontibus Baiae subegerunt.

        FLORUS, II. vi. 21-22.

  2. +Campaniam Tarentumque+, once the two most fertile districts in
  4. +Capuam ... fuisse.+ Ihne says: ‘Whatever may have been the
  pleasures and indulgences of Hannibal’s troops in Capua, their
  military qualities cannot have suffered by them, as the subsequent
  history of the war sufficiently demonstrates.’
  7-8. +tepentes fontibus Baiae+, on a small bay west of Naples and
  opposite Puteoli, abounded in warm mineral springs.]

B. _The Punishment of Rebel Capua, 211 B.C._

Ad septuaginta principes senatus interfecti, trecenti ferme nobiles
Campani in carcerem conditi; alii per sociorum Latini nominis urbes in
custodias {10} dati variis casibus interierunt; multitudo alia civium
Campanorum venum data. De urbe agroque reliqua consultatio fuit,
quibusdam delendam censentibus urbem praevalidam, propinquam, inimicam.
Ceterum praesens utilitas vicit; nam propter agrum, quem {15} omni
fertilitate terrae satis constabat primum in Italia esse, urbs servata
est, ut esset aliqua aratorum sedes. Urbi frequentandae multitudo
incolarum libertinorumque et institorum opificumque retenta; ager omnis
et tecta publica populi Romani facta. {20}

        LIVY, xxvi. 16.

  10. +sociorum Latini nominis+ = _sociorum_ +ac+ _Latini nominis_,
  which includes all the Italian allies. ‘The _Nomen Latinum_ were the
  members of the old Latin league whose rights were reduced in 338
  B.C. after the Latin War.’ --Rawlins.
  13. +delendam.+ Cf. Cato’s _Delenda est Carthago_.
  15-17. +agrum ... in Italia esse.+ Cf. Verg. _Georg._ ii. 224-5:
  ‘Such is the tilth of wealthy Capua and the coast that borders the
  Vesuvian ridge.’ --Mackail.
  18. +frequentandae+ = _for the purpose of peopling_.
  19. +institorum+ = _pedlars or dealers_. Cf. our ‘commercial
  20. +publica ... facta+ = _confiscated_. ‘This _ager publicus_ was
  leased by the censors to farmers (_aratores_) who paid rent
  (_vectigal_) for it.’ --R.]



_Marcellus at Nola, 216 B.C._

Ad tres portas in hostes versas Marcellus tripertito exercitum
instruxit. . . . Ita instructi intra portas stabant. Hannibali sub
signis, id quod per aliquot dies fecerat, ad multum diei in acie stanti
primo miraculo esse, quod nec exercitus Romanus {5} porta egrederetur
nec armatus quisquam in muris essent. Ratus deinde, prodita colloquia
esse, metuque resides factos, partem militum in castra remittit iussos
propere apparatum omnem oppugnandae urbis in primam aciem afferre, satis
fidens, si cunctantibus {10} instaret, tumultum aliquem in urbe plebem
moturam. Dum in sua quisque ministeria discursu trepidat ad prima signa
succeditque ad muros acies, patefacta repente porta Marcellus signa
canere clamoremque tolli ac pedites primum, deinde equites, quanto {15}
maximo possent impetu, in hostem erumpere iubet. Satis terroris
tumultusque in aciem mediam intulerant, cum duabus circa portis P.
Valerius Flaccus et C. Aurelius in cornua hostium erupere. . . . Ingens
victoria eo die res ac nescio an maxima illo bello gesta {20} est; non
vinci enim ab Hannibale tunc diffcilius fuit quam postea vincere.

        LIVY, xxiii. 16.

+Context.+ The plebs in Nola (as in Capua) was in favour of joining
Hannibal, and it was with difficulty that the nobles (who here, as
elsewhere, favoured Rome) delayed the decision, thus gaining time to
inform Marcellus, who was then stationed at Casilinum, of the danger of
a revolt. Marcellus immediately hastened to Nola, and occupied the town
with a strong garrison.

  3-5. +Hannibali ... primo miraculo esse+ = _Hannibal, who ... had
  his troops under arms till a late hour, was first of all astonished
  that_. --Church and Brodribb.
  7. +colloquia esse+, i.e. his _communications_ (+colloquia+) with
  the Carthaginian party in Nola.
  8. +resĭdes+ = _inactive_, lit. _that remains sitting_
  (+re + sedeo+).
  10. +si cunctantibus instaret+ = _if he met hesitation with prompt
  action_. --Church and Brodribb. Lit. _if he pressed upon those
  12. +in sua ... ministeria+ = _to their several posts_.
  19-21. +Ingens ... gesta est+ = _a great victory, the greatest,
  perhaps throughout the war, was achieved that day_.]

+Nola+, an important town in Campania, S.E. of Capua. It remained
faithful to the Romans, even after Cannae, when the other Campanian
towns revolted to Hannibal.

+Marcellus at Nola.+ ‘It was the merit of Marcellus that he saved Nola
from being taken.’ --Ihne.



_Cicero’s Description of Syracuse._

Urbem Syracusas maximam esse Graecarum urbium pulcherrimamque omnium
saepe audistis, Est, indices, ita, ut dicitur: nam et situ est cum
munito, tum ex omni aditu vel terra vel mari praeclaro ad aspectum: et
portus habet prope in aedificatione {5} aspectuque urbis inclusos: qui
cum diversos inter se aditus habeant, in exitu coniunguntur et
confluunt. Eorum coniunctione pars oppidi, quae appellatur Insula, mari
disiuncta angusto, ponte rursum adiungitur et continetur. Ea tanta est
urbs, ut ex {10} quattuor urbibus maximis constare dicatur: quarum una
est ea, quam dixi, Insula: quae duobus portubus cincta, in utriusque
portus ostium aditumque proiecta est: in qua domus est, quae Hieronis
regis fuit, qua praetores uti solent. Altera autem est urbs {15}
Syracusis, cui nomen Achradina est: in qua forum maximum, pulcherrimae
porticus, ornatissimum prytaneum, amplissima est curia, templumque
egregium Iovis Olympii. Tertia est urbs, quae, quod in ea parte Fortunae
fanum antiquum fuit, {20} Tycha nominata est, in qua et gymnasium
amplissimum est et complures aedes sacrae: coliturque ea pars et
habitatur frequentissime. Quarta autem est urbs, quae quia postrema
coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur: quam ad summam theatrum est
maximum. {25}

        CICERO, _In Verrem_, ii. 4. 117-119.

  5-6. +prope ... inclusos+, a special feature of Syracuse, because
  many ancient cities were built at some distance from the sea, with a
  harbour detached from them (e.g. Ostia, the port of Rome), though
  sometimes joined by long walls, as at Athens.
  7. +in exitu+ = _at their outlet_, i.e. the narrow channel between
  Ortygia (= Insula) and the mainland which connected the two
  9. +disiuncta+ = _separated from the rest_ (+dis+--).
  12. +Insula+, i.e. Ortygia, the only part now inhabited.
  14. +Hieronis regis+, King of Syracuse, 270-216 B.C., distinguished
  by his military ability and the wise policy of his reign. From 263
  B.C. till his death, the faithful friend and ally of Rome.
  16. +Achradina+, the mainland N. of Ortygia. At the time of the
  famous siege of Syracuse by the Athenians, 415-413 B.C., the city
  consisted only of Ortygia and Achradina.
  18. +prytaneum+ = _town-hall_ (πρυτανεῖον = _the presidents’
  25. +theatrum est maximum+, capable of holding 25,000 people. Of all
  the buildings described by Cicero as existing in Neapolis, the
  Theatre alone remains.]

+Reference.+ Freeman’s _History of Sicily_.



_Engineering Skill of Archimedes._

Adversus hunc navalem apparatum Archimedes variae magnitudinis tormenta
in muria disposuit. In eas, quae procul erant, naves saxa ingenti
pondere emittebat, propiores levioribus eoque magis crebris petebat
telis; postremo, ut sui vulnere intacti tela {5} in hostem ingererent,
murum ab imo ad summum crebris cubitalibus fere cavis aperuit, per quae
cava pars sagittis pars scorpionibus modicis ex occulto petebant hostem.
Quae propius quaedam subibant naves, quo interiores ictibus tormentorum
essent, in {10} eas tollenone super murum eminente ferrea manus, firmae
catenae illigata, cum iniecta prorae esset gravique libramento plumbi
recelleret ad solum, suspensa prora navem in puppim statuebat; dein
remissa subito velut ex muro cadentem navem cum {15} ingenti
trepidatione nautarum ita undae affligebat, ut, etiam si recta
reciderat, aliquantum aquae acciperet, Ita maritima oppugnatio est elusa
omnisque spes eo versa, ut totis viribus terra aggrederentur. Sed ea
quoque pars eodem omni apparatu tormehtorum instructa {20} erat Hieronis
impensis curaque per multos annos, Archimedis unica arte.

        LIVY, xxiv, 34.

  1. +adversus ... apparatum+, i.e. to oppose the elaborate naval
  attack by Marcellus on the seaward defences of Achradina.
  7. +cubitalibus fere cavis+ = _with holes_ (fr. +cavum+ = noun)
  _about 1½ feet square_, +cubitalibus+ (_cubitum_) = _a cubit long_.
  Polybius has a _palm_ long, about 3 inches. This is more probable.
  8. +scorpionibus+ = _crossbows_ or _manuballistae_.
  10. +quo interiores ... essent+ = _so as to be too close in to be
  hit by_ (+intertores ictibus+) _the engines_.
  10-12. +in eas+ (sc. +proras+) +iniecta+ = _on their bows was
  dropped_ ...
  11. +tollenone+ = _from a swing beam_, supported at the centre of
  gravity by a strong fixed fulcrum.
  12-13. +cum (ferrea manus) gravique ... ad solum+ = lit. _when (the
  grappling-iron) swung back_ (+recelleret+) _to the ground by a
  heavyweight of lead_. ‘This is incorrect; it was not the
  grappling-iron, but the other (_inland_) end of the lever which was
  brought down to the ground.’ --Rawlins.
  15. +remissa+ (sc. +ferrea manus+) = _the grappling-hook was (then)
  suddenly let go_.
  16. +ita undae affligebat+ = _was dashed with such violence on the
  disturbed water_ (+undae+).]

+Cause of the War.+ Soon after the death of Hiero in 216 B.C., his whole
family was murdered, and the supreme power in Syracuse fell into the
hands of the two brothers, Hippocrates and Epicydes, Hannibal’s agents.



_Marcellus laments over Syracuse._

Marcellus ut moenia ingressus ex superioribus locis urbem omnium ferme
ilia tempestate pulcherrimam subiectam oculis vidit, illacrimasse
dicitur partim gaudio tantae perpetratae rei, partim vetusta gloria
urbis. Atheniensium classes demersae et duo {5} ingentes exercitus cum
duobus clarissimis ducibus deleti occurrebant et tot bella cum
Carthaginiensibus tanto cum discrimine gesta, tot tam opulenti tyranni
regesque, praeter ceteros Hiero cum recentissimae memoriae rex, tum ante
omnia, quae virtus ei fortunaque {10} sua dederat, beneficiis in populum
Romanum insignis. Ea cum universa occurrerent animo subiretque
cogitatio, iam illa momento horae arsura omnia et ad cineres reditura,
priusquam signa Achradinam admoveret, praemittit Syracusanos, {15} qui
intra praesidia Romana fuerant, ut alloquio leni impellerent hostes ad
dedendam urbem. . . . Achradina diripienda militi data est. Cum multa
irae, multa avaritiae foeda exempla ederentur, Archimeden memoriae
proditum est in tanto tumultu, quantum {20} pavor captae urbis in
discursu diripientium militum ciere poterat, intentum formis, quas in
pulvere descripserat, ab ignaro milite, quis esset, interfectum; aegre
id Marcellum tulisse sepulturaeque curam habitam, et propinquis etiam
inquisitis honori praesidioque {25} nomen ac memoriam eius fuisse.

        LIVY, xxv. 24, 31.

  1-2. +ex superioribus locis+, i.e. from the heights of Epipolae,
  which he had taken by a night attack, when the Syracusans were
  celebrating a three days’ festival of Artemis.
  6. +ducibus+, e.g. Lamachus, Eurymedon, Demosthenes.
  7-8. +tot bella ... gesta+, e.g. at Himera, 480 B.C., on the same
  day as Salamis.
  8-9. +tot tam ... regesque+, e.g. Gelo, 485 B.C.; Dionysius the
  Elder, 406 B.C.; Hiero II., the friend and ally of Rome, King of
  Syracuse, 270-216 B.C.
  8. +tyranni+, i.e. _absolute rulers, despots_, with reference rather
  to the _irregular way_ in which the power was gained, than the way
  in which it _was exercised_.
  16. +qui ... fuerant+, i.e. Syracusan deserters who kept up
  communication with the republican (pro-Roman) party in Syracuse.
  22. +formis+ = _diagrams_.
  24. +sepulturae+. Cf. Demonstration VI, page 54.]

+The Treatment of Syracuse.+ It would have been the undying glory of
Marcellus if, on obtaining possession, he had shielded the unhappy city
from further miseries. The art-treasures of Syracuse were sent to Rome,
a precedent afterwards followed.



_The Death of Marcellus, 208 B.C._

Exiguum campi ante castra erat; inde in collem aperta undique et
conspecta ferebat via. Numidis speculator, nequaquam in spem tantae rei
positus, sed si quos vagos pabuli aut lignorum causa longius a castris
progressos possent excipere, signum dat, ut {5} pariter ab suis quisque
latebris exorerentur. Non ante apparuere, quibus obviis ab iugo ipso
consurgendum erat, quam circumiere, qui ab tergo intercluderent viam.
Tum undique omnes exorti et clamore sublato impetum fecere. Cum in ea
valle {10} consules essent, ut neque evadere possent in iugum occupatum
ab hoste nec receptum ab tergo circumventi haberent, extrahi tamen
diutius certamen potuisset, ni coepta ab Etruscis fuga pavorem ceteris
{15} iniecisset. Non tamen omisere pugnam deserti ab Etruscis
Fregellani, donec integri consules hortando ipsique ex parte pugnando
rem sustinebant; sed postquam vulneratos ambo consules, Marcellum etiam
transfixum lancea prolabentem ex equo moribundum {20} videre, tum et
ipsi--perpauci autem supererant--cum Crispino consule duobus iaculis
ieto et Marcello adolescente saucio et ipso effugerunt.

        LIVY, xxvii. 27.

+Context+. Marcellus was Consul for a fifth time in 208 B.C. After the
attempt to retake Locri (S.E. of Bruttium) was frustrated by Hannibal,
Marcellus and his colleague Crispinus faced H. near Venusia in Apulia.
Hannibal hoped to bring on a decisive action, but Marcellus adopted
Fabian tactics, and himself headed a cavalry reconnaissance to explore
the country between the Roman and the Carthaginian camps.

  2-3. +Numidis speculator+. A wooded hill lay between the two camps:
  H. had posted here in ambush some Numidian horsemen.
  4-5. +si quos possent excipere+ = _on the chance of their being able
  to intercept_. --Stephenson.
  6-8. +Non ante ... circumiere+ = _those who were to spring on the
  enemy_ (lit. _those to whom it was necessary to rise in a mass
  confronting the enemy_ +obviis+) _from the hill itself did not show
  themselves until a detachment had made their way round_
  10. +valle+ = _a hollow_, i.e. a depression on the Roman side of the
  16. +Fregellani+. Fregellae, a town of the Volsci, on the Via Latina
  between Rome and Campania, colonised 328 B.C.
  17. +ipsique ex parte pugnando+ = _taking their share in fighting_.

+Character of Marcellus+. ‘He was a brave soldier, a firm intrepid
patriot, and an unflinching enemy of the enemies of Rome, but as a
general no match for Hannibal.’ --Ihne.



_Character of Scipio Africanus Maior._

Fuit enim Scipio non veris tantum virtutibus mirabilis, sed arte quoque
quadam ab iuventa in ostentationem earum compositus, pleraque apud
multitudinem aut _ut_ per nocturnas visa species aut velut divinitus
mente monita agens, sive et ipse capti {5} quadam superstitione animi,
sive ut imperia consiliaque velut sorte oraculi missa sine cunctatione
exsequerentur. Ad hoc iam inde ab initio praeparans animos, ex quo togam
virilem sumpsit, nullo die prius ullam publicam privatamque rem egit,
quam {10} in Capitolium iret, ingressusque aedem consideret et plerumque
solus in secreto ibi tempus tereret. Hic mos, quem per omnem vitam
servabat, seu consulto seu temere vulgatae opinioni fidem apud quosdam
fecit, stirpis eum divinae virum esse. Multa alia {15} eiusdem generis,
alia vera, alia assimulata, admirationis humanae in eo iuvene
excesserant modum; quibus freta tunc civitas aetati haudquaquam maturae
tantam rerum molem tantumque imperium permisit.

        LIVY, xxvi. 19.

  2-3. +in ostentationem earum compositus+ = _he made a study_
  (+compositus+) _of displaying them_, implying artificiality. --R.
  3-5. +pleraque ... agens+ = _in most of his dealings_ (+pleraque
  agens+) _with the mob (representing his plans) as inspired_ (+visa+)
  _by visions in the night or as matters of inspiration_ (+divinitus
  mente monita+).
  7. +sorte+ = _by an oracular response_ (which was often written on a
  little tablet or _lot_, +sors+).
  11. +aedem+, i.e. the _cella_ (_chapel_, the part enclosed within
  the four side-walls) of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.
  13-14. +seu consulto seu temere vulgatae+ = _whether designedly or
  undesignedly spread abroad_.
  17. +humanae+ = _which one has for a mere man_. --Rawlins.
  19. +tantam rerum molem+ = _so stupendous a task_. --R. In 212 or
  211 B.C. the two brothers, Publius and Gnaeus Scipio, were totally
  defeated by Hasdrubal and fell at the head of their troops. Scipio,
  son of this P. Scipio, was in 210 B.C. sent to Spain, at the age of
  27, as proconsul in command of a reinforcement of 11,000 men.]

+Character of Scipio.+ ‘He was a man far above the average of his
contemporaries, and possessed a greatness of mind which could not fail
to rivet attention. He differed from the majority of generals by not
only daring to conceive bold plans, but by contriving to carry them
out.’ --Ihne.



_Scipio takes New Carthage, 210 B.C._

Scipio ipse, ut ei nuntiatum est aestum decedere, quod per piscatores
Tarraconenses nunc levibus cymbis, nunc, ubi eae siderent, vadis
pervagatos stagnum compertum habebat, facilem pedibus ad murum transitum
dari, eo secum armatos quingentos {5} duxit. Ubi urbem sine certamine
intravere, pergunt inde, quanto maximo cursu poterant, ad eam portam,
circa quam omne contractum certamen erat. In quod adeo intenti omnium
non animi solum fuere, sed etiam oculi auresque pugnantium
spectantiumque {10} et adhortantium pugnantes, ut nemo ante ab tergo
senserit captam urbem, quam tela in aversos inciderunt et utrimque
ancipitem hostem habebant. Tunc turbatis defensoribus metu et moenia
capta, et porta intus forisque pariter refringi coepta; et mox {15}
caedendo confectis ac distractis, ne iter impediretur, foribus armati
impetum fecerunt. . . . Quoad dedita arx est, caedes tota urbe passim
factae, nec ulli puberum qui obvius fuit parcebatur; tum signo dato
caedibus finis factus; ad praedam victores versi, {20} quae ingens omnis
generis fuit.

        LIVY, xxvi. 45, 46 (sel.)

  3. +vadis pervagatos stagnum+ = _made their way through the pool by
  wading_ (+vadis+).
  8. +contractum+ = _concentrated (confined)_.
  13. +ancipitem+ = _double_, _twofold_, _on two opposite sides_.
  15. +intus forisque+ = _both within and without_.
  +foris+, adv. (an abl. form from an obsolete nom. +fora+) = _out of
  doors_, _without_. Cf. +foras+ = _out through the doors_, _forth_.
  16-17. +caedendo ... distractis foribus+ = _when the doors were
  destroyed and broken up by blows_.]

+Carthago Nova+ (Carthagena) was founded by Hasdrubal (the uncle of
Hannibal) 243 B.C. The city is situated on a promontory running out into
the sea, and possesses one of the finest harbours in the world,
protected by an island as by a natural breakwater. But it had a weak
side, and this had been betrayed by fishermen to Scipio. During ebb-tide
the water of the shallow pool W. of the town fell so much that it was
fordable and the bottom was firm. Of this Scipio took advantage. He
first made a feint attack on the N. wall and then led 500 men across the
ford, who scaled the W. wall and opened the nearest gate from the

+Result of its Capture.+ ‘New Carthage, the key of Spain, the basis of
operations against Italy, and the Carthaginian arsenal, was taken, thus
determining the issue of the Spanish War.’ --Ihne.



_Nero’s famous March to the Metaurus, 207 B.C._

Praemissi (nuntii) per agrum Larinatem Marrucinum Frentanum
Praetutianum, qua exercitum ducturus erat, ut omnes ex agris urbibusque
commeatus paratos militi ad vescendum in viam deferrent, equos
iumentaque alia producerent, ut {5} vehiculorum fessis copia esset. Ipse
de toto exercitu civium sociorumque quod roboris erat delegit, sex milia
peditum, mille equites. . . . Et hercule per instructa omnia ordinibus
virorum mulierumque undique ex agris effusorum, inter vota ac preces et
{10} laudes ibant: illos praesidia rei publicae, vindices urbis Romanae
imperiique appellabant; in illorum armis dextrisque suam liberorumque
suorum salutem ac libertatem repositam esse. Deos omnes deasque
precabantur, ut illis faustum iter, felix pugna, matura {15} ex hostibus
victoria esset, damnarenturque ipsi votorum, quae pro iis suscepissent,
ut, quem ad modum nunc solliciti prosequerentur eos, ita paucos post
dies laeti ovantibus victoria obviam irent. Invitare inde pro se quisque
et offerre et fatigare {20} precibus, ut quae ipsis iumentisque usui
essent, ab se potissimum sumerent; benigne omnia cumulata dare. Modestia
certare milites, ne quid ultra usum necessarium sumerent; nihil morari,
nec abscedere ab signis nec subsistere nisi cibum capientes: diem {25}
ac noctem ire; vix quod satis ad naturale desiderium corporum esset,
quieti dare.

        LIVY, xxvii. 43, 45 (sel.)

+Context.+ Nero, on hearing from the captured Numidian horsemen of
Hasdrubal’s march and plans--to meet Hannibal in Umbria and then to
march on Narnia and Rome--with 6000 picked foot and 1000 horse withdrew
secretly from his camp before Hannibal at Canusium, and by a forced
march joined his colleague Livius at the Metaurus.

  1-2. +Larinatem+, etc., districts lying between Apulia and Umbria,
  but not given in their geographical order.
  15. +faustum+ (for _favostus_, _fav-eo_) = that which is done under
  the blessing of the gods: +felix+ = that which succeeds in
  consequence of having this blessing upon it. --Stephenson.
  16-17. +damnarentur ... votorum+ = _condemned (to pay) their vows_.
  Cf. Verg. _Voti reus_ = _bound to my vow_, i.e. bound to fulfilment.
  23. +Modestia certare+ (sc. _cum iis_) +... sumerent+ = _the
  soldiers were as moderate as they were pressing, refusing to take
  anything_ ...--S.]

‘Nero showed a resolution and a strategic ability which far surpassed
the average qualifications of Roman generals.’ --Ihne.



_The Metaurus, 207 B.C._

  Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis;
  Est in iuvencis, est in equis patrum
    Virtus, neque imbellem feroces
      Progenerant aquilae columbam;       32
  Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam,
  Rectique cultus pectora roborant;
    Utcumque defecere mores,
      Indecorant bene nata culpae.        36
  Quid debeas, o Roma, Neronibus,
  Testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal
    Devictus et pulcher fugatis
      Ille dies Latio tenebris,           40
  Qui primus alma risit adorea,
  Dirus per urbes Afer ut Italas
    Ceu flamma per taedas vel Eurus
      Per Siculas equitavit undas.        44
  Post hoc secundis usque laboribus
  Romana pubes crevit, et impio
    Vastata Poenorum tumultu
      Fana deos habuere rectos.           48

        HORACE, _Odes_, IV. iv. 29-48.

  29-36. The thought is: ‘It is true that scions of a good stock
  must be good in men as well as in animals, but yet _education_
  (+doctrina+ = _training_ l. 33) _brings out the innate force_.’
  29. +fortibus et bonis.+ For the combined epithets cf. καλὸς
  36. +Indecorant ... culpae+ = _faults disfigure_ (+indecorant =
  dedecorant+) _scions of an honourable stock_ (+bene nata+).
  37. +Neronibus+, e.g. M. Claudius Nero (the hero of Metaurus), and
  the brothers Drusus and Tiberius (afterwards Emperor), stepsons of
  41. +alma adorea+ = _with kindly (refreshing) success_.
  43. +ceu flamma per taedas+ = _like fire through a pine-forest_.
  44. +equitavit+ = _galloped_, _careered_, used of Hannibal, and, by
  zeugma, with +flamma+ and +Eurus+.
  46-47. +impio tumultu+ = _by the sacrilegious invasion_ (or _riot_,
  _outrage_), possibly with reference to Livy’s story (xxvi. 11) of
  the plundering of the Temple of Feronia.
  48. +rectos+ = _upright_, i.e. of the images supposed to have been
  thrown down by Hannibal, and not set on their pedestals again.]

+Results of the Battle.+ ‘The war in Italy was to all appearances
finished, and it was on the Metaurus that the Romans conquered Spain.’
--Ihne. When Hannibal recognised the head of his brother Hasdrubal, he
foresaw the doom of Carthage:--

      ‘Lost, lost is all:
    A nation’s hope, a nation’s name,
      They died with dying Hasdrubal.’
            --C. (Hor. _Od._ IV. iv. 70-73).



_Hannibal leaves Italy, 203 B.C._

Nihil certe ultra rei in Italia ab Hannibale gestum. Nam ad eum quoque
legati ab Carthagine vocantes in Africam eis forte diebus, quibus ad
Magonem, venerunt. Frendens gemensque ac vix lacrimis temperans dicitur
legatorum verba audisse. {5} Postquam edita sunt mandata, ‘Iam non
perplexe,’ inquit, ‘sed palam revocant, qui vetando supplementum et
pecuniam mitti iam pridem trahebant. Vicit ergo Hannibalem non populus
Romanus totiens caesus fugatusque, sed senatus Carthaginiensis {10}
obtrectatione atque invidia; neque hac deformitate reditus mei tam P.
Scipio exsultabit atque efferet sese quam Hanno, qui domum nostram,
quando alia re non potuit, ruina Carthaginis oppressit.’ Iam hoc ipsum
praesagiens animo praeparaverat {15} ante naves. Itaque inutili militum
turba praesidii specie in oppida Bruttii agri, quae pauca magis metu
quam fide continebantur, dimissa, quod roboris in exercitu erat in
Africam transvexit. Raro quemquam alium, patriam exilii causa
relinquentem, {20} tam maestum abisse ferunt quam Hannibalem, hostium
terra excedentem.

        LIVY, xxx. 19, 20.

+Context.+ Scipio (204 B.C.) landed in Africa and won such decisive
victories over the Carthaginians under Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco, that
ii was necessary in 203 B.C. to recall both Mago and Hannibal.

  3-4. +ad Magonem.+ Mago, H.’s youngest brother, had in 205 B.C. been
  despatched from Carthage with considerable reinforcements for H. He
  took Genoa, again roused the Gauls against Rome, and in 203 B.C.
  fought an indecisive action with the Romans. Mago was severely
  wounded, and died at sea before he reached Africa.
  6. +Iam non perplexe+ = _now in no veiled manner_ (lit. _not
  8. +iam pridem trahebant+ = _began long ago to try to pull me back_.
  11. +obtrectatione+ = _by disparagement_.
  13. +Hanno+, the leader of the aristocratic (peace) party at
  Carthage, and the persistent opponent of Hamilcar Barca and his

+Hannibal’s Speech.+ ll. 6-15. This is purely imaginary and illustrates
the bitter hatred of the Romans for H. They alleged that H. was
personally responsible for the war, and that he undertook it for selfish
and party ends. Also that Carthage, unable to prevent the war, withheld
supplies and reinforcements. Ihne says ‘The whole course of the war is a
sufficient refutation of these charges.’



_Zama, 202 B.C._ (1) _Before the Battle._

Ita infecta pace ex colloquio ad suos cum se recepissent, frustra verba
praelata renuntiant: armis decernendum esse habendamque eam fortunam,
quam dei dedissent. In castra ut est ventum, pronuntiant ambo, arma
expedirent milites animosque ad {5} supremum certamen, non in unum diem
sed in perpetuum, si felicitas adesset, victores. Roma an Carthago iura
gentibus daret, ante crastinam noctem scituros; neque enim Africam aut
Italiam, sed orbem terrarum victoriae praemium fore; par {10} periculum
praemio, quibus adversa pugnae fortuna fuisset. Nam neque Romanis
effugium ullum patebat in aliena ignotaque terra et Carthagini supremo
auxilio effuso adesse videbatur praesens excidium. Ad hoc discrimen
procedunt postero die duorum {15} opulentissimorum populorum duo longe
clarissimi duces, duo fortissimi exercitus, multa ante parta decora aut
cumulaturi eo die aut eversuri. Anceps igitur spes et metus miscebant
animos; contemplantibus modo suam modo hostium aciem, cum non oculis
{20} magis quam ratione pensarent vires, simul laeta simul tristia

        LIVY, xxx. 31, 32.

  1-2. +Ita infecta pace ... renuntiant+, referring to Livy’s
  picturesque account of the personal interview between Scipio and
  Hannibal, and the fruitless negotiations for peace.
  7-10. +Roma an Carthago ... praemium fore.+ ‘By the victory of Zama
  it was decided that the states of the ancient world should be welded
  into one great empire, and that this empire should be founded by
  Rome and not by Carthage.’ --Ihne.
  14. +effuso+ = _dispersed_, i.e. _defeated_.
  15. +discrimen+ = _decisive point_, _decision_.
  18. +aut cumulaturi aut eversuri+ = _either to augment_ (lit. _heap
  up_) _or overthrow_.
  21. +pensarent vires+ = _they estimated (weighed) their strength_.]

+The Battle of Zama.+ ‘Here, too, the elephants proved disastrous to
their own side. Some ran down the spaces between the Roman maniples (see
+C+ 39, B. note), and were of no further use; while others, driven aside
by the Roman skirmishers, threw H.’s Carthaginian cavalry into such
disorder that they were unable to resist the attack of Scipio’s horse.
The first Roman line threw H.’s mercenaries back upon their reserves of
the second line, and in the confusion that ensued Scipio advanced with
his second and third lines. The combat raged long and fiercely until
Scipio’s Roman and Numidian cavalry, returning from their pursuit of
H.’s horse, fell upon the enemy’s rear and decided the battle.’ --Ihne.



_Zama, 202 B.C._ (2) _The Order of Battle._

A. Hannibal adversus Scipionem, post elephantos lxxx, qui in prima
fronte positi hostium turbarent aciem, auxiliares Gallos et Ligures et
Baliares Maurosque posuit, ut neque fugere possent Poenis a tergo
stantibus et hostem oppositi, si non infestarent, {5} at certe
fatigarent: tum suis et Macedonibus, qui iam fessos Romanos integri
exciperent, in secunda acie collocatis, novissimos Italicos constituit,
quorum et timebat fidem et segnitiam verebatur, quoniam plerosque eorum
ab Italia invitos extraxerat. {10}

+Hannibal’s Army.+ It consisted broadly of five classes:

1. His veteran army of Italy, on which he could thoroughly rely, partly
Carthaginian, partly Italian (mostly Bruttians).

  These he placed in his _third_ line.

2. A newly raised force of Carthaginian and Libyan militia.

  These he placed in his _second_ line.

3. Mercenaries, consisting of Moors, Gauls, Ligurians, the Balearic
contingent, and the Spaniards.

  These he placed in his _first_ line.

4. Carthaginian and Numidian cavalry.

  These he placed on his _wings_.

5. 80 elephants. These he placed on his _front_, to open the attack.

B. Scipio adversus hanc formam robur legionis triplici acie in fronte
ordinatum per hastatos et principes et triarios opposuit: nec continuas
construxit cohortes, sed manipulis inter se distantibus spatium dedit,
per quod elephanti ab hostibus acti {15} facile transmitti sine
perturbatione ordinum possent. Ea ipsa intervalla expeditis velitibus
implevit, ne interluceret acies, dato his praecepto, ut ad impetum
elephantorum vel retro vel in latera concederent. Equitatum deinde in
cornua divisit et dextro Romanis {20} equitibus Laelium, sinistro
Numidis Masinissam praeposuit: quae tam prudens ordinatio non dubie
causa victoriae fuit.

        FRONTINUS, _Strategemata_, ii. 3. 16.

+Scipio’s order of battle.+ Instead of drawing up his manipuli like the
black squares of a chessboard--the usual order, so that, in advancing,
the manipuli of the three lines could form one unbroken line--he placed
them one behind the other, like the rounds of a ladder, so as to leave
spaces in the lines, through which the elephants might pass without
trampling down or throwing into confusion the infantry battalions, e.g.:

  +not+           +but+
  *   *   *       *   *   *
    *   *   *     *   *   *
  *   *   *       *   *   *




_Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 B.C._

Non dubia res fuit; extemplo terga vertere Macedones, terrore primo
bestiarum aversi. Et ceteri quidem hos pulsos sequebantur; unus e
tribunis militum, ex tempore capto consilio, cum viginti signorum
militibus, relicta ea parte suorum, quae {5} haud dubie vincebat, brevi
circuitu dextrum cornu hostium aversum invadit. Nullam aciem ab tergo
adortus non turbasset; ceterum ad communem omnium in tali re
trepidationem accessit, quod phalanx Macedonum, gravis atque immobilis,
nec {10} circumagere se poterat, nec hoc, qui a fronte, paulo ante pedem
referentes, tunc ultro territis instabant, patiebantur. Ad hoc loco
etiam premebantur, quia iugum, ex quo pugnaverant, dum per proclive
pulsos insequuntur, tradiderant hosti ad terga sua circumducto. {15}
Paulisper in medio caesi, deinde omissis plerique armis capessunt fugam.
Philippus cum paucis peditum equitumque primo tumulum altiorem inter
ceteros cepit, ut specularetur, quae in laeva parte suorum fortuna
esset; deinde, postquam fugam {20} effusam animadvertit et omnia circa
iuga signis atque armis fulgere, tum et ipse acie excessit.

        LIVY, xxxiii. 9, 10.

+Context.+ Philip V, King of Macedon, had made a treaty with Hannibal in
215 B.C., and provoked the first Macedonian War (214-205 B.C.) by an
attack on Apollonia in Illyria, and the capture of the port of Oricum in
Epirus. The Romans now resolved to make Philip suffer for the trouble he
had caused them by interfering in the war with Hannibal. A _casus belli_
was soon found in the Athenian Embassy to Rome (201 B.C.) asking for
help against Philip.

  3-4. +unus ... militum.+ Ihne says ‘He seized the favourable
  opportunity to shape the battle which had begun without plan into a
  brilliant victory for Rome.’
  5. +signorum+ (= _manipulorum_) = _companies_, i.e. with some 3500
  13. +loco premebantur+ = _they_ (i.e. _the phalanx_) _began to feel
  the disadvantage of position_. --Rawlins.
  16. +in medio caesi+ = _cut down from both sides_. --R.]

+Cynoscephalae+ (_Dog’s Heads_), a low chain of hills between Pherae and
Scotussa in Thessaly.

+Results of the Battle.+ ‘The Romans lost only 700 men. That was the
price paid for a victory which laid the Monarchy of Alexander the Great
in the dust.’ --Ihne.

+Terms of Peace+, 196 B.C. Macedonia to remain an independent state,
but, like Carthage, to lose all her foreign possessions, and to be sunk
to the level of a vassal state.



_Flamininus proclaims the Freedom of Greece, 196 B.C._

Isthmiorum statum ludicrum aderat, semper quidem et alias frequens cum
propter spectaculi studium insitum genti, quo certamina omnis generis
artium viriumque et pernicitatis visuntur, tum quia propter
opportunitatem loci, per duo diversa maria {5} omnium rerum usus
ministrantis humano generi, concilium Asiae Graeciaeque is mercatus
erat; tum vero non ad solitos modo usus undique convenerant, sed
exspectatione erecti, qui deinde status futurus Graeciae, quae sua
fortuna esset. Ad spectaculum {10} consederant, et praeco cum tubicine,
ut mos est, in mediam aream, unde sollemni carmine ludicrum indici
solet, processit et, tuba silentio facto, ita pronuntiat: ‘Senatus
Romanus et T. Quinctius imperator, Philippo rege Macedonibusque
devictis, {15} liberos, immunes, suis legibus esse iubet Corinthios,
Phocenses, Locrensesque omnes et insulam Euboeam et Magnetas, Thessalos,
Perrhaebos, Achaeos Phthiotas.’ ... Esse aliquam in terris gentem, quae
sua impensa, suo labore ac periculo bella gerat pro {20} libertate
aliorum. Una voce praeconis liberatas omnes Graeciae atque Asiae urbes;
hoc spe concipere audacis animi fuisse, ad effectum adducere et virtutis
et fortunae ingentis.

        LIVY, xxxiii. 32, 33 (sel.)

  1. +Isthmiorum statum ludicrum+ = _time fixed_ (+statum+) _for the
  Isthmian Games_ (celebrated at Corinth every two years).
  3-4. +quo certamina ... visuntur+ = _which makes them go to see
  contests of every kind of artistic performance_ (+artium+) _and of
  feats of strength and agility_. --Rawlins.
  7. +concilium is mercatus erat ...+ = _that gathering was the
  general rendezvous_ (+mercatus+) _of_ ... +mercatus+ = i. _trade_,
  or _mart_; ii. _a festival assemblage_ (πανήγυρις).
  11. +in mediam aream+ = _into the centre of the open space (of the
  17. +Locrensesque omnes+, i.e. E. & W. Locris.
  18. +Perrhaebos+, N. of Thessaly.
  +Achaeos Phthiotas+ = the Achaeans who inhabited Phthiotis (S.E. of
  19-24. +Esse aliquam ... ingentis:+ in these words the Greeks
  express their astonishment and gratitude at the greatness of the
  boon conferred upon them.]

+The Freedom of Greece.+ ‘The Greeks believed with a childlike
simplicity that the Romans really cared for their freedom, and that they
had crossed the sea with no other object than to deliver Greece from a
foreign yoke. . . . Flamininus was a skilful diplomatist, and
particularly qualified to sift and settle the affairs of Greece; for he
understood the Greek character, and was not inaccessible, like so many
other Romans, to Greek views and opinions.’ --Ihne.



A. _Battle of Thermopylae, 191 B.C. Victory due to Cato._

Acilius Glabrio consul adversus Antiochi regis aciem, quam is in Achaia
pro angustiis Thermopylarum direxerat, iniquitatibus loci non irritus
tantum, sed cum iactura qnoque repulsus esset, nisi circummissus ab eo
Porcius Cato, qui tum, iam {5} consularis, tribunus militum a populo
factus in exercitu erat, deiectis iugis Callidromi mentis Aetolis, qui
praesidio ea tenebant, super imminentem castris regiis collem a tergo
subitus apparuisset: quo facto perturbatis Antiochi copiis utrimque
irrupere Romani {10} et fusis fugatisque castra ceperunt.

        FRONTINUS, _Strategemata_, ii. 4. 4.

+Context.+ In 192 B.C. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, accepted the
invitation of the Aetolians, who, since the Peace of 196 B.C., had been
snubbed by the Romans, to come to liberate Greece from the tyranny of

B. _Battle of Magnesia, 190 B.C._

Tum consule Scipione, cui frater, ille modo victor Carthaginis
Africanus, aderat voluntaria legatione, debellari regem placet. Et iam
toto cesserat mari, sed nos imus ulterius. Maeandrum {15} ad amnem
montemque Sipylum castra ponuntur. Hic rex, incredibile dictu quibus
auxiliis, quibus copiis, consederat. Trecenta milia peditum, equitum
falcatorumque curruum non minor numerus. Elephantis ad hoc immensae
magnitudinis, auro purpura {20} argento et suo ebore fulgentibus aciem
utrimque vallaverat. Sed haec omnia praepedita magnitudine sua, ad hoc
imbre, qui subito superfusus mira felicitate Persicos arcus corruperat.
Primum trepidatio, mox fuga, deinde triumphus fuerunt. {25}

        FLORUS, i. 24. 14-18.

+Context.+ In 190 B.C. Lucius Scipio was appointed to carry the war into
Asia. Scipio Africanus, who accompanied his brother as Chief of Staff,
fell ill at Elaea, the port of Pergamum. His place was taken by Cn.
Domitius, an experienced officer.

  14-15. +Et iam toto cesserat mari+, as the result of the decisive
  defeat, in 190 B.C., of the Syrian fleet off +Myonnesus+.
  15-16. +Maeandrum ... ponuntur.+ The battle was fought near Magnesia
  (N.W. of Lydia) at the foot of Mt. Sipylus.]

+Parallel Passage.+ Livy, xxxvii. 39-44, ‘The +Battle of Magnesia+
decided the fate of the Syrian Empire, as the battles of +Zama+ and
+Cynoscephalae+ had decided the fate of Carthage and Macedonia.’ --Ihne.


_Deaths of Three Great Men, 183 B.C._

Hannibal, postquam est nuntiatum milites regios in vestibulo esse,
postico fugere conatus, ut id quoque occursu militum obsaeptum sensit et
omnia circa clausa custodiis dispositis esse, venenum, quod multo ante
praeparatum ad tales habebat casus, {5} poposcit. ‘Liberemus,’ inquit,
‘diuturna cura populum Romanum, quando mortem senis exspectare longum
censent. Nec magnam nec memorabilem ex inermi proditoque Flamininus
victoriam feret.’ Exsecratus deinde in caput regnumque {10} Prusiae, et
hospitales deos violatae ab eo fidei testes invocans, poculum
exhausit. . . . Trium clarissimorum suae cuiusque gentis virorum non
tempore magis congruente comparabilis mors videtur esse, quam quod nemo
eorum satis dignum splendore {15} vitae exitum habuit. Nam primum omnes
non in patrio solo mortui nec sepulti sunt. Veneno absumpti Hannibal et
Philopoemen; exsul Hannibal, proditus ab hospite, captus Philopoemen in
carcere et in vinculis exspiravit. Scipio etsi non exsul neque {20}
damnatus, die tamen dicta, ad quam non adfuerat reus, absens citatus,
voluntarium non sibimet ipse solum sed etiam funeri suo exsilium

        LIVY, xxxix, 51, 52 (sel.)

+Context.+ After Zama Hannibal held the highest office (_Suffete_ = L.
_praetura_) at Carthage, and effected useful democratic reforms.
However, his political enemies denounced him to Rome _as making plans
for a new war_, and in 195 B.C. he was forced to flee from Carthage and
took refuge with Antiochus. After Magnesia, H. found for seven years a
safe asylum with Prusias, king of Bithynia; but the Romans could not be
at ease so long as H. lived, and Flamininus the Liberator of Greece
undertook the inglorious quest of demanding the surrender of Hannibal.

  13-15. +non tempore magis congruente quam+ = _not so much in
  coincidence of_ (+congruente+, lit. _agreeing with_) _date as_. --R.
  18. +Philopoemen+, the heroic chief of the Achaean League, was taken
  prisoner by Dinocrates, imprisoned in a dungeon at Messene (+in
  carcere+, l. 19), and compelled to drink poison.
  20-23. +Scipio+ was accused, at the instigation of Cato, by the
  tribune Naevius (185 B.C.) of having been bribed by Antiochus to
  procure for him favourable conditions of peace. Too proud to defend
  himself against such a charge, Scipio retired to his country-seat at
  Liternum, where _by a voluntary act he consigned both himself and
  his grave to exile_ (+voluntarium ... indixit+).
    ‘_Ingrata patria, ne ossa quidem mea habes._’
  Epitaph of Scipio, written by himself.]


_M. Porcius Cato, 234-149 B.C._ (1)

At Cato, censor cum L. Valerio Flacco, severe praefuit ei potestati. Nam
et in complures nobiles animadvertit et multas res novas in edictum
addidit, qua re luxuria reprimeretur, quae iam tum incipiebat pullulare.
Circiter annos octoginta, usque ad extremam {5} aetatem ab adolescentia,
rei publicae causa suscipere inimicitias non destitit. A multis tentatus
non modo nullum detrimentum existimationis fecit, sed, quoad vixit,
virtutum laude crevit.

In omnibus rebus singulari fuit industria: nam {10} et agricola sollers
et peritus iuris consultus et magnus imperator et probabilis orator et
cupidissimus litterarum fuit. Quarum studium etsi senior arripuerat,
tamen tantum progressum fecit, ut non facile reperiri posset neque de
Graecis neque de {15} Italicis rebus, quod ei fuerit incognitum. Ab
adulescentia confecit orationes. Senex historias scribere instituit.
Earum sunt libri vii. Primus continet res gestas regum populi Romani,
secundus et tertius unde quaeque civitas orta sit Italica, ob quam rem
omnes {20} Origines videtur appellasse.

        NEPOS, _Cato_, ii., iii.

  1. +Censor+, 184 B.C., with L. Valerius Flaccus, his great friend
  and patron, by whom he was introduced to political life.
  3. +in edictum.+ The Censors, on their entrance upon office, issued
  a _proclamation_ or _edict_, setting forth the principles upon which
  they intended to act. Cato set forth in his edict that he intended
  to use his power for the suppression of luxury.
  5. +pullulare+ = _to spread, increase_; lit. _to put forth_, of
  plants and animals. Cf. _pull-us_ (our _pullet_), _pu-er_, πῶλος
  (= _a foal_).]
  +octoginta.+ This is an exaggeration. He was only eighty-five when
  he died 149 B.C.
  6-7. +rei publicae ... non destitit.+ Seneca says: _Scipio cum
  hostibus nostris bellum, Cato cum moribus gessit._
  7-9. Cato was accused no less than 44 times, but each time
  11. +iuris consultus+ = _lawyer_.
  12. +magnus imperator+, e.g. in the 2nd Punic War, and the decisive
  victory at Thermopylae (191 B.C.) was mainly due to Cato.
  +probabilis orator+ = _a tolerable, acceptable orator_. Oscar
  17-21. His two great works were his treatise +De Re Rustica+ (or +De
  Agri Cultura+), the earliest extant work in Latin prose, and his
  +Origines+, or accounts of the rise and growth of the Italian
  nation, the earliest history in Latin prose. ‘It was Cato’s great
  merit that he asserted the rights of his native language for
  literary prose composition.’ --Ihne.]

+Cato the Censor.+ ‘He deserves our highest respect for the defiant and
manly spirit that animated him in his untiring contest with the vices of
the age.’ --Ihne.


_M. Porcius Cato._ (2)

  Iam pauca aratro iugera regiae
  Moles relinquent, undique latius
    Extenta visentur Lucrino
      Stagna lacu platanusque caelebs      4
  Evincet ulmos: tum violaria et
  Myrtus et omnis copia narium
    Spargent olivetis odorem
      Fertilibus domino priori;            8
  Tum spissa ramis laurea fervidos
  Excludet ictus. Non ita Romuli
    Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis
      Auspiciis veterumque norma.         12
  Privatus illis census erat brevis,
  Commune magnum: nulla decempedis
    Metata privatis opacam
      Porticus excipiebat Arcton.         16
  Nec fortuitum spernere caespitem
  Leges sinebant, oppida publico
    Sumptu iubentes et deorum
      Templa novo decorare saxo.          20

        HORACE, _Odes_, II. xv.

+Argument.+ ‘Our palaces and fish-ponds and ornamental gardens are
supplanting the cultivation of corn and vines and olives. +This is not
the spirit of Romulus or of Cato.+ Their rule was private thrift, public
magnificence; private houses of turf, public buildings and temples of
hewn stone.’ --W.

  1. +Iam+ = _presently_.
  1-2. +regiae moles+ = _princely piles_. +moles+, lit. _masses_, of
  _huge buildings_.
  2-4. +undique ... lacu+ = _and fish-ponds_ (+stagna+) _of wider
  extent than the L. lake will be sights to see_
  4. +platanus caelebs+ = _the bachelor plane_, so called because
  vines were not _wedded to it_ (i.e. trained upon it).--Gow.
  6. +omnis copia narium+ = _all that is sweet to smell_. Lit. _all
  the fulness of the nostrils_.
  10. +ictus+ (sc. _solis_). The point is that formerly trees were
  stripped to admit the sun to the vines and olives: nowadays the sun
  is excluded. --Gow.
  11. +intonsi+ (= _antiqui_) = _old-fashioned_. Cf. Cic.’s use of
  13. +census erat brevis+ = _list of property was short_.
  14. +commune+ (= τὸ κοινόν) = _the common (public) stock_.
  14-15. +decempedis metata privatis+ = _measured with ten-foot rods
  for private owners_. In old days the +porticūs+ were always
  17. +fortuitum caespitem+ = _the chance-cut (handy) turf_.
  20. +novo saxo+ = _with fresh-hewn stone_, i.e. hewn on purpose.

+Parallel Passages.+ Livy xxxix. 6. 40. 41; Sallust, _Catiline_ 12, 13.

‘Cato saw the greatness of Rome in the olden time, and he endeavoured
without success to bring this old time back.’ --Ihne.



_Pydna (Aemilius Paulus), 168 B.C._ (1)

Movebat imperii maiestas, gloria viri, ante omnia aetas, quod maior
sexaginta annis iuvenum munia in parte praecipua laboris periculique
capessebat. Intervallum, quod inter caetratos at phalanges erat,
implevit legio, atque aciem hostium interrupit. A {5} tergo caetratis
erat, frontem adversus clipeatos habebat: chalcaspides appellabantur.
Secundam legionem L. Albinus consularis ducere adversus leucaspidem
phalangem iussus; ea media acies hostium fuit. In dextrum cornu, unde
circa fluvium {10} commissum proclium erat, elephantos inducit et alas
sociorum; et hinc primum fuga Macedonum est orta. Nam sicut pleraque
nova commenta mortalium in verbis vim habent, experiendo, cum agi, non
quemadmodum agatur edisseri oportet, sine ullo {15} effectu evanescunt,
ita tum elephantorum impetum sustinere non poterant, et commenta
Macedonum nomen tantum sine usu fuerunt. Elephantorum impetum subsecuti
sunt socii nominis Latini, pepuleruntque laevum cornu. {20}

        LIVY, xliv. 41.

+Context.+ Perseus, son of Philip, became King of Macedonia on the death
of his father in 179 B.C. He did all he could to prepare for the
inevitable struggle with Rome by strengthening Macedonia, posing as the
Liberator of Greece, and forming marriage alliances with Seleucus of
Syria (the successor of Antiochus), and Prusias of Bithynia. In 174
B.C., the Romans were informed that Perseus was secretly negotiating
with Carthage, and after fruitless embassies war was declared. The
Senate, after three years of unsuccessful warfare (171-168 B.C.),
appointed L. Aemilius Paulus (son of the hero who died at Cannae) to the
supreme command in Macedonia.

  4. +caetratos+ = _Targeteers_, armed with the _small_ round shield.
  5-7. +A tergo ... habebat+ (sc. +legio prima+) = _the (first)
  Legion thus took the Targeteers in the rear, while it faced towards
  the Shieldmen_. --Rawlins.
  6. +clipeatos+ = _Shieldmen_, armed with the _large_ round shield.
  7. +chalcaspides+ = _Brazen Shields_, Right Division of phalanx.
  9. +leucaspidem+ = _White Shields_, Left Division of phalanx.
  10. +in dextrum cornu+ (sc. +Romanum+), i.e. nearest to the sea.
  13-15. +commenta ... oportet+ = lit. _the contrivances of men,
  though in theory_ (+in verbis+) _they had some importance_ (+vim+)
  _yet upon trial_ (+experiendo+) _when there is need of action and
  not of discussion_ (+edisseri+) _how to act_. . . .
  17. +commenta Macedonum.+ Perh. with reference to Perseus’
  contrivances (e.g. by the use of _dummy_ elephants) to prepare his
  men and horses to make a stand against _real_ elephants.]



_Pydna (Aemilius Paulus), 168 B.C._ (2)

In medio secunda legio immissa dissipavit phalangem; neque ulla
evidentior causa victoriae fuit, quam quod multa passim proelia erant,
quae fluctuantem turbarunt primo, deinde disiecerunt phalangem, cuius
confertae et intentis horrentes {5} hastis intolerabiles vires sunt; si
carptim aggrediendo circumagere immobilem longitudine et gravitate
hastam cogas, confusa strue implicantur: si vero aut ab latere aut ab
tergo aliquid tumultus increpuit, ruinae modo turbantur. Sicut tum
adversus catervatim {10} incurrentes Romanos et interrupta multifariam
acie obviam ire cogebantur, et Romani, quacumque data intervalla essent,
insinuabant ordines suos. . . . Diu phalanx a fronte, a lateribus, ab
tergo caesa est; postremo, qui ex hostium manibus elapsi erant, {15}
inermes ad mare fugientes, quidam aquam etiam ingressi, manus ad eos,
qui in classe erant tendentes, suppliciter vitam orabant; et cum scaphas
concurrere undique ab navibus cernerent, ad excipiendos sese venire
rati, ut caperent potius quam occiderent, {20} longius in aquam, quidam
etiam natantes, progressi sunt. Sed cum hostiliter e scaphis
caederentur, retro, qui poterant, nando repetentes terram, in aliam
foediorem pestem incidebant. Elephanti enim, ab rectoribus ad litus
acti, exeuntes obterebant {25} elidebantque.

        LIVY, xliv. 41, 42.

  1. +In medio ... immissa+ = _On the centre the second legion
  charged_ (+immissa+), i.e. into the interstices of the phalanx,
  which was not preserving its usual close order. --Rawlins.
  4-6. +fluctuantem ... vires sunt+ = _first demoralised the phalanx
  so as to make it waver_, (+fluctuantem+), _and then shattered it.
  Its (aggressive) force, so long as it keeps close order and bristles
  with couched_ (+intentis+) _spears, is irresistible_
  6. +carptim aggrediendo+ = _by repeated harassing attacks_.
  10. +ruinae modo+ = _in hopeless confusion_. --R.
  17. +classe.+ The Roman fleet under Octavius was co-operating with
  the army.]

+Results of the Battle+. Perseus was captured, and his kingdom was
divided into four independent parts. The Macedonian phalanx had fought
its last great battle.

+Character of Paulus+. ‘He was a model of the Roman of the best time. He
was not, like his contemporary Cato, a onesided worshipper of everything
old; but he was a Conservative in the best sense of the word, anxious to
preserve old institutions, but at the same time to improve them.’



_Destruction of Carthage, 146 B.C._

Manilio deinde consule terra marique fervebat obsidio. Operti portus,
nudatus est primus et sequens, iam et tertius murus, cum tamen Byrsa,
quod nomen arci fuit, quasi altera civitas resistebat. Quamvis
profligato urbis excidio tamen fatale Africae nomen {5} Scipionum
videbatur. Igitur in alium Scipionem conversa respublica finem belli
reposcebat. Sed quem ad modum maxime mortiferi morsus solent esse
morientium bestiarum, sic plus negoti fuit cum semiruta Carthagine quam
cum integra. Compulsis {10} in unam arcem hostibus portum quoque mari
Romanus obstruxerat. Illi alterum sibi portum ab alia urbis parte
foderunt, nec ut fugerent; sed qua nemo illos nec evadere posse
credebat, inde quasi enata subito classis erupit, cum interim iam
diebus, {15} iam noctibus nova aliqua moles, nova machina, nova
perditorum hominum manus quasi ex obruto incendio subita de cineribus
flamma prodibat. Deploratis novissime rebus triginta sex milia virorum
se dederunt quod minus credas--duce Hasdrubale. {20}

        FLORUS, II. xv. 11-17 (sel.).

+Context.+ An Embassy was sent from Rome in 157 B.C. to inquire into the
affairs of Africa. Among its members was M. Porcius Cato, who,
astonished and alarmed at the flourishing condition of Carthage,
returned to Rome with the firm conviction that Carthage must be
destroyed--_delenda est Carthago_. A pretext was soon found in the war
(151 B.C.) between Carthage and Masinissa, King of Numidia, the ally of
Rome. Though the Carthaginians surrendered all their arms and munitions
of war, Rome declared that they would have to leave their city and
settle ten miles from the sea. The Carthaginians resolved to die rather
than give up the sacred soil of their country.

  5. +profligato+ = _almost finished_.
  6. +in alium Scipionem+, i.e. P. Corn. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
  Minor, the younger son of Aemilius Paulus (of Pydna) and adopted by
  P. Scipio, the son of the conqueror of Hannibal.
  12. +alterum portum+, i.e. they pierced the narrow strip of land
  separating the round naval port (Cothon) from the sea.
  18. +deploratis+ = _was looked upon as lost_, lit. _wept for
  20. +duce Hasdrubale:+ ‘Hasdrubal seems to have deserved the name of
  _the last Carthaginian_ in the best sense of the word, as a
  representative of the intensity of the strength, endurance, and
  patriotism of his race.’ --Ihne.]

‘The plough was drawn over the site of destroyed Carthage, and a solemn
curse was pronounced against anyone who should ever undertake to build a
new town on that spot.’ --Ihne.

+Africa made a Roman Province.+



_Destruction of Corinth (L. Mummius Achaicus), 146 B.C._

Eodem anno, quo Carthago concidit, L. Mummius Corinthum post annos
DCCCCLII, quam ab Alete Hippotis filio erat condita, funditus eruit.
Uterque imperator devictae a se gentis nomine honoratus, alter
Africanus, alter appellatus est Achaicus; nec {5} quisquam ex novis
hominibus prior Mummio cognomen virtute partum vindicavit. Diversi
imperatoribus mores, diversa fuere studia: quippe Scipio tam elegans
liberalium studiorum omnisque doctrinae et auctor et admirator fuit, ut
Polybium Panaetiumque, {10} praecellentes ingenio viros, domi
militiaeque secum habuerit. Neque enim quisquam hoc Scipione elegantius
intervalla negotiorum otio dispunxit semperque aut belli aut pacis
serviit artibus: semper inter arma ac studia versatus aut corpus
periculis {15} aut animum disciplinis exercuit. Mummius tam rudis fuit,
ut capta Corintho cum maximorum artificum perfectas manibus tabulas ac
statuas in Italiam portandas locaret, iuberet praedici conducentibus, si
eas perdidissent, novas eos reddituros. {20}


+Context.+ In 149 B.C. an adventurer named Andriscus claimed to be
Philip, the son of Perseus, and mastered Macedonia and part of Thessaly.
He totally defeated the praetor Juventius, but in 148 B.C. his army was
routed and himself taken prisoner by Q. Caecilius Metellus. The Romans,
_no longer needing the help of Greek troops_, determined to break up the
Achaean League. A last desperate struggle for freedom ensued, but the
Greeks were easily defeated (146 B.C.) by L. Mummius on the Isthmus, and
Corinth itself was plundered and destroyed.

  2-3. +quam ... condita.+ Aletes, son of Hippotes and a descendant of
  Heracles, is said to have taken possession of Corinth by the help of
  the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, and therefore named the city Διὸς
  10. +Panaetium+, a native of Rhodes and a celebrated Stoic
  philosopher, settled in Rome, where he became the intimate friend of
  Laelius and Scipio Africanus Minor.
  13. +dispunxit+ = _he devoted, gave up_ (lit. _marked off_).
  19. +locaret+ = _he hired_ (lit. _place out_, i.e. _give out on
  +conducentibus+ = _to the contractors_.]

+The Destruction of Corinth.+ ‘The flames which consumed Miletus
(destroyed by the Persians 494 B.C.) and Athens (burnt by Xerxes 480
B.C.) were the signal for the great rising of the people, the dawn of a
magnificent day of Greek splendour: after the fall of Corinth came the
long dark night.’ --Ihne.

+Macedonia made a Roman Province. Greece placed under the control of the
Roman governor of Macedonia+.



_The Lusitanian Hannibal._

Sed tota certaminum moles cum Lusitanis fuit et Numantinis. Quippe solis
gentium Hispaniae duces contigerunt. Lusitanos Viriathus erexit, vir
calliditatis acerrimae. Qui ex venatore latro, ex latrone subito dux
atque imperator et, si fortuna {5} cessisset, Hispaniae Romulus, non
contentus libertatem suorum defendere, per quattuordecim annos omnia
citra ultraque Hiberum et Tagum igni ferroque populatus, castra etiam
praetoria et praesidia aggressus Claudium Unimanum paene ad
internecionem {10} exercitus cecidit et insignia trabeis et fascibus
nostris quae ceperat in montibus suis tropaea fixit. Tandem eum iam
Fabius Maximus consul oppresserat; sed a successore Popilio violata
victoria est. Quippe qui conficiendae rei cupidus, fractum ducem et
extrema {15} deditionis agitantem per fraudem et insidias et domesticos
percussores aggressus hanc hosti gloriam dedit ut videretur aliter vinci
non posse.

        FLORUS, II. xvii. 13-17 (sel.).

+Context.+ After the defeat of Perseus (168 B.C.) and before the
outbreak of the third Punic War (149 B.C.) a suitable opportunity seemed
to present itself to Rome for continuing the interrupted conquest of
Spain; but ‘for eight long years Viriathus, although a barbarian and of
humble origin, defied the armies of Rome, and thereby secured for
himself a position in history almost equal to that of Hannibal and
Mithridates.’ Ihne.

  1. +cum Lusitanis.+ The Lusitani (S. of the R. Tagus = mod.
  Portugal, and part of Estremadura and Toledo) were not finally
  subdued till after the capture of Numantia by Scipio in 133 B.C.
  6. +cessisset+ (= _concessisset_) = _had permitted._
  10-12. +Claudium Unimanum ... fixit+, i.e. in 147 B.C. ‘The captured
  fasces of the lictors were exhibited, with other trophies (e.g.
  +trabeis+, l. 11), far and wide on the Spanish mountains.’ --Ihne.
  13. +Fabius Maximus consul+, i.e. Quintus Fabius Maximus
  Servilianus, who allowed himself to be decoyed into an ambush 141
  B.C., and was compelled to grant an honourable peace, which Rome
  soon found a pretext for breaking.
  17. +percussores+ = _assassins_, lit. _strikers_ (_per + cutio_ =
  _quatio_). Cf. the fate of Sertorius, 72 B.C.]

+The War with Viriathus.+ ‘It was sad and disgraceful for the Roman
arms, but in a far higher degree for Roman morals. It sowed, moreover,
the seeds of the Numantine War, in which both the warlike ability and
the moral virtues of the Roman nation appear more deteriorated than even
in the war with Viriathus.’ --Ihne.



_Destruction of Numantia, 133 B.C._

Tanti esse exercitum quanti imperatorem vere proditum est. Sic redacto
in disciplinam milite a Scipione commissa acies, quodque nemo visurum se
umquam speraverat, factum ut fugientes Numantinos quisquam videret.
Dedere etiam se volebant, {5} si toleranda viris imperarentur. Cum fossa
atque lorica quattuorque castris circumdatos fames premeret, a duce
orantes proelium, ut tamquam viros occideret, ubi non impetrabant,
placuit eruptio. Sic conserta manu plurimi occisi, et cum urgueret {10}
fames, novissime consilium fugae sedit; sed hoc quoque ruptis equorum
cingulis uxores ademere, summo scelere per amorem. Itaque deplorato
exitu in ultimam rabiem furoremque conversi, postremo Rhoecogene duce se
suos patriam ferro veneno {15} subiecto igne undique peregerunt. Macte
fortissimam et meo iudicio beatissimam in ipsis malis civitatem!
Asseruit cum fide socios, populum orbis terrarum viribus fultum sua manu
aetate tam longa sustinuit. Novissime maximo duce oppressa civitas
nullum de {20} se gaudium hosti reliquit. Unus enim vir Numantinus non
fuit qui in catenis duceretur; praeda, ut de pauperrimis, nulla: arma
ipsa cremaverunt. Triumphus fuit tantum de nomine.

        FLORUS, II. xviii. 11-17 (sel.).

+Context.+ In 143 B.C. the Celtiberians (of Middle Spain), encouraged by
the successes of the Lusitanians, took up arms once more. Their most
important town was Numantia, situated near the sources of the R. Durius
(Douro), strongly fortified by nature and by art. Consul after consul
failed to take it, until in 134 B.C. Scipio Africanus Minor, the
conqueror of Carthage, was sent out to Spain to reduce the stubborn

  2-3. +Sic redacto ... a Scipione.+ ‘Scipio’s first task, when he
  arrived in Spain, was to accustom the army which he found there,
  once more to Roman discipline. Luxury and indulgence were rife, and
  cowardice--the most unroman of all vices--had begun to creep in.’
  7. +lorica+ = _a breastwork_, serving as _a screen_. Usu. = _a
  11. +sedit+ = _was decided on_, lit. _settled_.
  16. +Macte+ = _a blessing on_ or _hail to thee_. +Mactus+ prob. from
  √μακ, e.g. in μάκ-αρ = _blessed_, but cf. _mag-nus_.
  18. +Asseruit+ = _it protected_. +assero+ (_ad + sero_) = lit.

+Destruction of Numantia.+ Scipio, of his own accord, razed the town to
the ground, and received the added surname of +Numantinus+.

+Roman Province in Spain.+


_Rome the Invincible._

  Dixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal:
  ‘Cervi, luporum praeda rapacium,
    Sectamur ultro, quos opimus
      Fallere et effugere est triumphus.  52
  Gens, quae cremato fortis ab Ilio
  Iactata Tuscis aequoribus sacra
    Natosque maturosque patres
      Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes,         56
  Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus
  Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido,
    Per damna, per caedes ab ipso
      Ducit opes animumque ferro          60
  Non Hydra secto corpore firmior
  Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem,
    Monstrumve submisere Colchi
      Maius Echioniaeve Thebae.           64
  Merses profundo: pulchrior evenit;
  Luctere: multa proruet integrum
    Cum laude victorem geretque
      Proelia coniugibus loquenda.’       68

        HORACE, _Odes_, IV. iv. 49-68.

  51. +ultro+ = _aggressively, needlessly_. --Wickham.
  51-52. +opimus triumphus+ = _a rare_ (lit. _rich, noble_) _triumph_.
  Cf. _spolia opima_.
  53-56. ‘This stanza is a _résumé_ of the story of the _Aeneid_.’ --W.
  53. +gens+ (sc. +illa+), i.e. the Roman stock.
  57-60. ‘The idea of this stanza is that their very calamities only
  gave them fresh heart and vigour. They rise like the Phoenix from
  its pyre.’ --W.
  58. +frondis+ with +feraci+. Cf. _fertilis frugum_.
  59-60. +ab ipso ... ferro+ = _from the very edge of the steel
  itself, the holm-oak_ (= _the Roman stock_) _draws fresh power and
  61-62. Cf. the saying of Pyrrhus, recorded by Floras i. 18, ‘I see
  that I was born under the constellation of Hercules, since so many
  heads of enemies, that were cut off, arise upon me afresh out of
  their own blood, as if from the Lernaean serpent.’
  63-64. i.e. of the armed warriors which sprang from the dragon’s
  teeth sown by Jason at Colchis or by Cadmus at Thebes.
  63. +submisere+ = _produced, raised_.
  64. +Echioniae Thebae.+ Echion was one of the five survivors of the
  Σπαρτοί  (sown men). He helped Cadmus to found Thebes.
  65. +Merses+ (= +si mersaris+) = _plunge it if you will_.
  +evenit+ = _it emerges (comes forth)_.
  66-67. +multa cum laude+ = _amid loud applause_, of a feat in a
  wrestling match. --W.
  68. +coniugibus+ = i. _by Roman wives_ or ii. _by Carthaginian
  widows_. So Conington, ‘Whose story widow’d wives shall tell.’]




Nam postquam Tiberius et C. Gracchus, quorum maiores Punico atque aliis
bellis multum rei publicae addiderant, vindicare plebem in libertatem et
paucorum celera patefacere coepere, nobilitas noxia atque eo perculsa,
modo per socios et nomen Latinum, {5} interdum per equites Romanos, quos
spes societatis a plebe dimoverat, Gracchorum actionibus obviam ierat,
et primo Tiberium, dein paucos post annos eadem ingredientem Gaium,
tribunum alterum, alterum triumvirum coloniis deducendis, cum M. {10}
Fulvio Flacco ferro necaverat. Et sane Gracchis cupidine victoriae haud
satis moderatus animus fuit. Sed bono vinci satius est quam malo more
iniuriam vincere. Igitur ea victoria nobilitas ex lubidine sua usa
multos mortales ferro aut fuga exstinxit plusque {15} in reliquum sibi
timoris quam potentiae addidit. Quae res plerumque magnas civitates
pessum dedit, dum alteri alteros vincere quovis modo et victos acerbius
ulcisci volunt.

        SALLUST, _Jugurtha_, 42.

  1-3. +quorum maiores ... addiderant+, e.g. their grandfather P.
  Scipio Africanus Maior, and their father Tib. Sempronius Gracchus
  (in Spain and Sardinia).
  3-4. +paucorum scelera ... coepere.+ (i) Tib. Gracchus by his
  Agrarian Law tried to counteract the selfish land-grabbing of the
  ruling class (in excess of the 500 _iugera_ limit of the Licinian
  Laws, 367 B.C.). (ii) C. Gracchus exposed the corrupt Senatorian
  Courts, transferred their judicial power to the Equites, and carried
  the Sempronian Law, ‘one of the cornerstones of individual liberty.’
  5. +per socios ... Latinum+, by working on Roman jealousy against
  the Italians, for whom equality was claimed.
  6. +spes societatis+, i.e. the hope of sharing with the nobility in
  office, and in provincial appointments.
  10. +triumvirum c. d.+, one of the three Commissioners for
  establishing Colonies of Roman citizens on the _ager publicus_.
  11. +Fulvio Flacco+, slain with C. Gracchus, 121 B.C.
  17. +pessum dedit+ = _has destroyed_. _pessum_ (prob.) = _pedis_ +
  _versum_ = _towards the feet, to the ground_, cf. _pessum ire_.]

+The aim of the Gracchi.+ ‘Their object was to reduce the excessive
power of the nobility, and to make the sovereignty of the people, which
had become merely nominal, a reality.’ --Ihne.

+Their political mistake.+ ‘Their error consisted in the belief that
such a change was possible by returning to the simple forms of the old
Comitia. They overlooked the necessity of +remodelling the Roman people
itself+ by giving the popular assemblies a form which would in reality
make them represent the people.’ --Ihne.



A. _On the Death of Tiberius Gracchus, 133 B.C._

Nec plus Africanus, singularis et vir et imperator, in exscindenda
Numantia rei publicae profuit quam eodem tempore P. Nasica privatus,
cum Ti. Gracchum interemit.

        _De Off._ i. 76.

  2. +Numantia+, destroyed by P. Scipio Africanus Minor Numantinus,
  133 B.C.
  3. +P. Nasīca+, a partisan leader of the Senate. +privatus+ = _not
  in office_. Cicero speaks very differently of the Gracchi when it
  suits his purpose, e.g. in _de lege agraria_, ii. § 10, _duos
  (Gracchos) clarissimos, ingeniosissimos, amantissimos plebei Romanae
  viros ... quorum consiliis, sapientia, legibus multas esse video
  partes constitutas_.]

B. _On the Lex Frumentaria of C. Gracchus, 123 B.C._

Et quidem C. Gracchus, cum largitiones maximas {5} fecisset et
effudisset aerarium, verbis tamen defendebat aerarium. Quid verba
audiam, cum facta videam? L. Piso ille Frugi semper contra legem
frumentariam dixerat. Is lege lata consularis ad frumentum accipiendum
venerat. Animum advertit {10} Gracchus in contione Pisonem stantem:
quaerit audiente populo Romano qui sibi constet, cum ea lege frumentum
petat, quam dissuaserit. ‘Nolim’ inquit ‘mea bona, Gracche, tibi viritim
dividere libeat, sed si facias, partem petam.’ Parumne declaravit vir
{15} gravis et sapiens lege Sempronia patrimonium publicum dissipari?
Lege orationes Gracchi, patronum aerari esse dices.

        _Tusc. Disput._ iii. 20, 48.

  8. +L. Piso ille Frugi+ = L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi (the man of
  _worth_), a convinced and honourable opponent of C. Gracchus.
  8-9. +legem frumentariam+, by which corn was sold to Roman citizens
  at about half the market price. ‘One of the worst measures ever
  proposed by a well-meaning statesman.’ --Ihne.
  12. +qui+ = _how_, old abl. of _qui_.]

C. _On C. Gracchus as an Orator._

Sed ecce in manibus vir et praestantissimo ingenio et flagranti studio
et doctus a puero, C. Gracchus. Noli enim putare quemquam. Brute,
pleniorem et uberiorem ad dicendum fuisse.

        _Brutus_, 125.

  20. +doctus a puero.+ CORNELIA MATER GRACCHORUM (inscribed upon her
  statue erected by the Roman people), the daughter of the Conqueror
  of Zama, was mainly responsible for their training and education;
  so Cic. _Brut._ 104 _Fuit Tib. Gracchus diligentia matris a puero
  doctus et Graecis literis eruditus_. ‘From her they had received
  that sensitive nature and that sympathy with the weak and suffering,
  which animated their political action.’ --Ihne.]



_The Betrayal of Jugurtha, 106 B.C._

Postea, tempore et loco constituto, in colloquium uti de pace veniretur,
Bocchus Sullam modo, modo Iugurthae legatum appellare, benigne habere,
idem ambobus polliceri. Illi pariter laeti ac spei bonae pleni esse. Sed
nocte ea, quae proxuma fuit ante {5} diem colloquio decretum, Maurus,
adhibitis amicis ac statim immutata voluntate remotis, dicitur secum
ipse multa agitavisse, voltu et oculis pariter atque animo varius: quae
scilicet tacente ipso occulta pectoris patefecisse. Tamen postremo
Sullam accersi {10} iubet et ex illius sententia Numidae insidias
tendit. Deinde ubi dies advenit et ei nuntiatum est Iugurtham haud
procul abesse, cum paucis amicis et quaestore nostro quasi obvius
honoris causa procedit in tumulum facillumum visu insidiantibus. Eodem
{15} Numida cum plerisque necessariis suis inermis, uti dictum erat,
accedit; ac statim signo dato undique simul ex insidiis invaditur.
Ceteri obtruncati, Iugurtha Suilae vinctus traditur et ab eo ad Marium
deductus est. {20}

        SALLUST, _Jugurtha_, 113.

  2. +Bocchus+, King of Mauretania, and father-in-law of Jugurtha,
  coveted the West of Numidia, and was ready to accept it either from
  the Romans or from Jugurtha, as the price of his alliance.
  +Sullam+, appointed Quaestor 107 B.C. by Marius, who superseded
  Metellus in the conduct of the Jugurthine War.
  9. +quae scilicet ... patefecisse+, i.e. the external signs of
  his irresolution,--the calling and then dismissing his people
  (+adhibitis ... remotis+, ll. 6, 7), and the changes of his
  countenance (+voltu ... varius+, ll. 8, 9). +Scilicet+ is here used
  with the Infinitive +patefecisse+, the verbal sense of the word
  (= _scire_ + _licet_) being prominent.
  10. +accersi+ (= _arcessiri_), frequent in Sallust.
  16. +necessariis+ (_necesse_) = _friends_. Cf. ἀναγκαῖοι (ἀνάγκη).
  19. +Iugurtha Sullae ... traditur.+ Sulla is said to have been so
  proud of this stratagem that he had the scene engraved upon a
  signet-ring, an act of vainglory which estranged Marius from him.
  (Plutarch, _Sulla_, 3.)]

+Jugurtha.+ ‘Having resisted the whole power of the great Republic for
six years, having kept his ground against the best generals of the time,
against a Metellus, a Marius, and a Sulla, he was deluded by treacherous
promises of peace and betrayed by his own ally and father-in-law.’


A. _Arpinum--Birthplace of Cicero and Marius._

  Hic novus Arpinas, ignobilis et modo Romae         237
  Municipalis eques, galeatum ponit ubique
  Praesidium attonitis et in omni monte laborat.
  . . . . . . . . . . . . Sed Roma parentem,         243
  Roma patrem patriae Ciceronem libera dixit.
  Arpinas alius Volscorum in monte solebat           245
  Poscere mercedes alieno lassus aratro,
  Nodosam post haec frangebat vertice vitem,
  Si lentus pigra muniret castra dolabra;
  Hic tamen et Cimbros et summa pericula rerum
  Excipit et solus trepidantem protegit urbem.       250

        JUVENAL, _Sat._ viii. 237-239, 243-250.

  239. +in omni monte+, i.e. in every part of Rome, on each of the seven
  244. +patrem patriae:+ under the Empire the title _pater patriae_
  became a formal one, always accorded to the new Emperor.
  +libera+ = _while yet free_, emphatic. The State was no longer free
  when Augustus received this title, 2 B.C.--Duff.
  247. +frangebat vertice vitem+ = _he had the vine-switch (rattan)
  broken on his head_, i.e. served as a common soldier. --D.
  248. +dolabra+ = half-hatchet for cutting stakes, and half-pickaxe
  for digging the fossa. For +dolabra+, cf. _Dolabella_.
  249. +Cimbros+, annihilated by Marius and Catulus near Vercellae,
  101 B.C.
  250. +Excipit+ = _faced_ (lit. _is ready to receive_); metaphor from
  field-sports. --D.]

B. _From a poem by Cicero on his fellow-townsman Marius._

  Hic Iovis altisoni subito pinnata satelles
  Arboris e trunco serpentis saucia morsu
  Surrigit ipsa feris transfigens unguibus anguem
  Semianimum et varia graviter cervice micantem.       4
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Hanc ubi praepetibus pennis lapsuque volantem
  Conspexit Marius, divini numinis augur,
  Faustaque signa suae laudis reditusque notavit,
  Partibus intonuit caeli pater ipse sinistris:
  Sic aquilae clarum firmavit Iuppiter omen.

  1. +Iovis pinnata satelles+, i.e. the Eagle. Cf. Pindar, _Pyth._
  i. 6: εὕδει δ’ ἀνὰ σκάπτῳ (= σκήπτρῳ) Διὸς αἰετός, _and sleeps on
  the staff of Zeus his eagle_.
  3. +Surrigit+ (= _surgit_) = _raises up_; very rare in this sense.
  The _v.l._ +Sūbigit+ (for _sŭbigit_) = _carries aloft_.]

Compare Plutarch’s story of the eagle’s nest, with seven young ones in
it, which fell into the lap of Marius when a boy, predicting (so the
diviners said) that Marius would be seven times Consul.


_The Annihilation of the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae, 102 B.C._

Cimbri et Teutones ab extremis Germaniae profugi, cum terras eorum
inundasset Oceanus, novas sedes toto orbe quaerebant, exclusique et
Gallia et Hispania cum in Italiam demigrarent, misere legatos in castra
Silani, inde ad Senatum {5} petentes ut populus Martius aliquid sibi
terrae daret. Sed quas daret terras populus Romanus, agrariis legibus
inter se dimicaturus? Repulsi igitur, quod nequiverant precibus, armis
petere coeperunt. Sed nec primum impetum barbarorum Silanus, nec {10}
secundum Mallius, nec tertium Caepio sustinere potuerunt: omnes fugati,
exuti castris. Actum erat, nisi Marius illi saeculo contigisset. . . .
Ille mira statim velocitate occupatis compendiis praevenit hostem,
prioresque Teutones sub ipsis Alpium radicibus {15} adsecutus in loco
quem Aquas Sextias vocant, proelio oppressit. Vallem fluviumque medium
hostes tenebant, et nostris aquarum nulla erat copia. Consultone id
egerit imperator an errorem in consilium verterit, dubium; certe
necessitate acta virtus {20} victoriae causa fuit. Nam flagitante aquam
exercitu, ‘Si viri estis’ inquit, ‘en, illic habetis.’ Itaque tanto
ardore pugnatum est, ea caedes hostium fuit ut victor Romanus cruento
flumine non plus aquae biberit quam sanguinis barbarorum. {25}

        FLORUS, III. iii. 1-9 (sel).

  5. +Silani+ = M. Junius Silanus, defeated by Cimbri, 109 B.C.
  11. +Mallius--Caepio+, defeated by Cimbrians at Arausio, on the
  Rhone, 105 B.C.
  Plutarch, _Lucullus_ 27, says: ‘The 6th Oct., on which day the
  battle was fought, was marked in the calendar as a black day, like
  the fatal day of the Allia, 390 B.C.’
  12. +Actum erat+, sc. _de republica_.
  14. +compendiis+ = _short ways_; cf. our _compendium_ = _an
  16. +Aquas Sextias+, founded by Sextius Calvinus 122 B.C. = Aix, 18
  miles N. of Marseilles.
  23. +caedes hostium.+ 150,000 (Vell.) and 200,000 (Liv. Ep.
  ‘By the great victories of Aquae Sextiae and of Vercellae (over the
  Cimbri, 101 B.C.), the movement of the German races southward was
  for the present stopped. Rome was saved, and the saviour of Rome was
  Marius, the champion of the people.’ --Ihne.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Propert. IV. iii. 41-44; Livy Ep. lxviii.

+References.+ Plutarch, _Marius_, 15. Ihne, _Hist. Rome_, vol. v. pp.


MARIUS, 157-86 B.C.

A. _His Flight from Sulla: Consul for the 7th time._

  Atque aliquis magno quaerens exempla timori,
  ‘Non alios,’ inquit, ‘motus tum fata parabant,
  Cum post Teutonicos victor Libycosque triumphos
  Exsul limosa Marius caput abdidit ulva.             70
  Stagna avidi texere soli laxaeque paludes
  Depositum, Fortuna, tuum: mox vincula ferri
  Exedere senem longusque in carcere paedor.
  Consul et eversa felix moriturus in urbe
  Poenas ante dabat scelerum. Mors ipsa refugit       75
  Saepe virum, frustraque hosti concessa potestas.
  Sanguinis invisi: primo qui caedis in ictu[35]
  Deriguit ferrumque manu torpente remisit;
  Viderat immensum tenebroso in carcere lumen
  Terribilesque deos scelerum Mariumque futurum       80
  Audieratque pavens: “Fas haec contingere non est
  Colla tibi: debet multas his legibus aevi
  Ante suam mortes: vanum depone furorem.”
  Si libet ulcisci deletae funera gentis,
  Hunc, Cimbri, servate senem.’                       85

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, ii. 67-85.

    [Footnote 35: Postgate, _actu_.]

  67. +exempla timori+ = _precedents to hear out his fears_. --Haskins.
  70. +Exsul.+ 88-7 B.C. For details see Plut. _Marius_, caps. 38-40.
  72. +Fortuna+, i.e. the _evil_ destiny of Rome, protecting him
  because the gods were angry with Rome. Cf. 16-17 _debet ... mortes_.
  73. +in carcere+, i.e. at Minturnae, S.E. of Latium. There were
  extensive marshes in the neighbourhood.
  +paedor+ = _filth_.
  82. +legibus aevi+ = _the laws that govern time_ = _fatis_. --H.]

B. _Marius outlived his fame._

                    Quid illo cive tulisset
  Natura in terris, quid Roma beatius umquam,
  Si circumducto captivorum agmine et omni       280
  Bellorum pompa animam exhalasset opimam,
  Cum de Teutonico vellet descendere curru?

        JUVENAL, _Sat._ x. 278-282.

_Marius outlived his powers and his reputation._

‘Had he now died, he would have gone down to posterity as one of the
greatest men of his people, as a second Romulus or Camillus, unstained
with any blood save that of foreign foes.’ --Ihne.

+Parallel Passages.+ Ov. _P. Ep._ iv. 3. 45-48; Juv. x. 276-278.

+References.+ Plut. _Marius_, caps. 38-end. Ihne, vol. iv. pp. 336-7,
vol. v. pp. 111-12.


_Cicero on Civil Strife._

Etenim recordamini, Quirites, omnes civiles dissensiones, non solum eas
quas audistis, sed et has quas vosmetipsi meministis atque vidistis. L.
Sulla P. Sulpicium oppressit: ex Urbe eiecit C. Marium, custodem huius
urbis, multosque fortes viros partim {5} eiecit ex civitate, partim
interemit. Cn. Octavius consul armis ex Urbe collegam suum expulit:
omnis his locus acervis corporum et civium sanguine redundavit.
Superavit postea Cinna cum Mario: tum vero, clarissimis viris
interfectis, lumina civitatis {10} exstincta sunt. Ultus est huius
victoriae crudelitatem postea Sulla: ne dici quidem opus est, quanta
deminutione civium et quanta calamitate reipublicae. . . . Atque illae
tamen omnes dissensiones, quae non ad delendam, sed ad commutandam
rempublicam {15} pertinebant--non illi nullam esse rempublicam, sed in
ea quae esset se esse principes, neque hanc urbem conflagrare, sed se in
hac urbe florere voluerunt--eius modi fuerunt, ut non reconciliatione
concordiae, sed internecione civium diiudicatae sint. {20}

        CICERO, _In Cat._ iii. 10.

  4. +P. Sulpicium+, distinguished orator, bought over by Marius. As
  Tribunus Plebis 88 B.C. carried the Leges Sulpiciae.
  6. +Cn. Octavius+, one of Sulla’s chief supporters. Consul 87 B.C.
  Expelled his colleague Cinna. Murdered in his curule chair.
  9-11. +Superavit ... exstincta sunt+, i.e. 87-6 B.C. The Reign of
  Terror. Marius Consul for the 7th time. Cf. Vell. Pat. ii. 22 ‘Nihil
  illa victoria fuisset crudelius, nisi mox Sullana esset secuta.’
  10. +lumina civitatis+, e.g. the Consuls Cn. Octavius and L. Merula;
  Q. Catulus, the conqueror (with Marius) in the Cimbric War; the
  orator M. Antonius; the brothers L. and C. Caesar.
  11-13. The victims of the Sullanian proscriptions. Cf. Vell. Pat.
  ii. 28 ‘Primus ille (Sulla), et utinam ultimus, exemplum
  proscriptionis invenit.’]

+Parallel Passages.+ Horace, _Epodes_ vii. and xvi. 1-14.

+The Sullanian Proscriptions.+ Sulla was not like Marius swayed by
feelings of revenge alone. His main object was the public good, which in
his conviction was to be realised by a return to the older institutions
of the republic. This he believed could be accomplished only by the
utter annihilation of his opponents. The Proscriptions were not however
intended to be an encouragement to indiscriminate murder, but rather a
barrier against the rage of over-zealous partisans.


_Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus, 91 B.C._

Deinde interiectis paucis annis tribunatum iniit M. Livius Drusus, vir
nobilissimus, eloquentissimus, sanetissimus, meliore in omnia ingenio
animoque quam fortuna usus. Qui cum senatui priscum restituere cuperet
decus et indicia ab equitibus ad {5} eum transferre ordinem ... in eis
ipsis, quae pro senatu moliebatur, senatum habuit adversarium non
intellegentem, si qua de plebis commodis ab eo agerentur, veluti
illiciendae multitudinis causa fieri, ut minoribus perceptis maiora
permitteret. Denique {10} ea fortuna Drusi fuit, ut malefacta collegarum
quamvis optime ab ipso cogitatis senatus probaret magis. . . . Tum
conversus Drusi animus, quando bene incepta male cedebant, ad dandam
civitatem Italiae: quod cum moliens revertisset e foro, immensa {15}
illa et incondita, quae eum semper comitabatur, cinctus multitudine in
area domus suae cultello percussus, qui affixus lateri eius relictus
est, intra paucas horas decessit. Sed cum ultimum redderet spiritum,
intuens circumstantium macrentiumque {20} frequentiam, effudit vocem
convenientissimam conscientiae suae: ecquandone, inquit, propinqui
amicique, similem mei civem habebit res publica? Hunc finem clarissimus
iuvenis vitae habuit.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 13-14.

  3-4. +Drusus.+ ‘Generous and free from all selfishness and meanness,
  but without political experience, adroitness and knowledge of men,
  he aspired to a task which surpassed his strength.’ --Ihne.
  4-6. By the Sempronian Laws of C. Gracchus 123 B.C. _exclusive
  judicial rights had been given to the Equites_, as a counterpoise to
  the power of the Senate. The corruption of the Equites (as Judices)
  was flagrant, and Drusus proposed to transfer the judicial functions
  to a mixed body of 300 Senators and 300 Knights, the selected
  Knights to be included in the now attenuated ranks of the Senate.
  14. +ad dandam civitatem Italiae.+ The claims of the Italians to the
  franchise were just and pressing, but the overbearing pride and
  self-sufficiency of the Roman citizens proved too strong.]

+Parallel Passages.+ Cic. _de Oratore_ iii. 1, and _pro Cluent._ 56,
153. Florus, iii. 18.

+Reference.+ Ihne, _Hist._ vol. v. pp. 176-189.

‘Drusus was the Mirabeau of the social revolution of Rome, and had his
measures been carried Rome might have been spared the most terrible of
her civil wars.’



A. _Cause and Outbreak of the War at Asculum._

Cum ius civitatis, quam viribus auxerant, socii iustissime postularent,
quam in spem eos cupidine dominationis Drusus erexerat, postquam ille
domestico scelere oppressus est, eadem fax, quae illum cremavit, socios
in arma et in expugnationem urbis {5} accendit. . . . Primum fuit belli
consilium ut in Albano monte festo die Latinarum Iulius Caesar et
Marcius Philippus consules inter sacra et aras immolarentur. Postquam id
nefas proditione discussum est, Asculo furor omnis erupit, in ipsa
quidem ludorum {10} frequentia trucidatis qui tum aderant ab urbe
legatis. Hoc fuit impii belli sacramentum. Inde iam passim ab omni parte
Italiae duce et auctore belli discursante Poppaedio diversa per populos
et urbes signa cecinere. {15}

        FLORUS, III. xviii. 3-10 (sel.).

  2. +iustissime.+ ‘The final issue of the war confirmed the justice
  and the wisdom of the reforms planned by the Gracchi and by Livius
  Drusus.’ --Ihne.
  7. +Latinarum+, sc. _Feriarum_, the solemn festival conducted by the
  Consuls on the Alban Mount.
  10. +Asculo.+ Asculum (Ascoli), chief town of Picenum. The opening
  and closing scene of the war.]

B. _Advice of the Sabellian father to his sons._

  ‘Vivite contenti casulis et collibus istis,
  O pueri,’ Marsus dicebat et Hernicus olim              180
  Vestinusque senex, ‘panem quaeramus aratro,
  Qui satis est mensis: laudant hoc numina ruris,
  Quorum ope et auxilio gratae post munus aristae
  Contingunt homini veteris fastidia quercus.
  Nil vetitum fecisse volet, quem non pudet alto         185
  Per glaciem perone tegi, qui summovet Euros
  Pellibus inversis; peregrina ignotaque nobis
  Ad scelus atque nefas, quaecumque est, purpura ducit.’

        JUVENAL, _Sat._ xiv. 179-188.

  179. +collibus istis+, i.e. in the central mountain range of Italy.
  The Federals chose Corfinium (E. of Lake Fucinus) to be the Italian
  rallying-point, and the seat of a new State.
  180-181. +Marsus ... Hernicus ... Vestinus+, Sabellian peoples noted
  for their bravery and simplicity; the backbone of Rome’s army.
  182. +numina ruris+, e.g. Ceres, Liber and Priapus.
  185-196. +alto perone+ = a high rustic boot of raw hide.
  187. +pellibus inversis+ = skins with the hair turned inwards.



A. _Defeat and Death of Rutilius._

  Hanc tibi, ‘Quo properas’, memorant dixisse ‘Rutili?
    Luce mea Marso consul ab hoste cades.’
  Exitus accessit verbis, flumenque Toleni
    Purpureum mixtis sanguine fluxit aquis.              566

        OVID, _Fasti_, vi. 563-566.  [Hallam VI. 487-490]

  563. +Hanc+, sc. _Leucothea_, goddess of the sea and of harbours.
  +Rutili+. Rutilius, consul 90 B.C., defeated and slain at the
  R. Tolenus (Turano) by the Marsian Vettius Scato.]

B. _The Lex Plautia Papiria of 89 B.C._

Data est civitas Silvani lege et Carbonis: si qui {5} foederatis
civitatibus ascripti fuissent, si tum, cum lex ferebatur, in Italia
domicilium habuissent et si sexaginta diebus apud praetorem essent

        CICERO, _pro Archia_, 4, 7.

  5. +lege+, i.e. the Lex Plautia Papiria of the tribines M. Plautius
  Silvanus and C. Papirius Carbo. The Lex Julia of L. Julius Caesar
  90 B.C., granting the _civitas_ to the Latins and to all the other
  Italian States not in rebellion, had weakened the resistance. The
  Lex Plautia Papiria ‘scattered among the Italian ranks the seeds
  of discord and dissolution.’]

C. _Cicero’s first and only Campaign._

Memini colloquia et cum acerrimis hostibus et cum gravissime
dissidentibus civibus. Cn. Pompeius, {10} consul me praesente, cum essem
tiro in eius exercitu, cum P. Vettio Scatone, duce Marsorum, inter bina
castra collocutus est. . . . Quem cum Scato salutasset, ‘quem te
appellem?’ inquit: ‘voluntate hospitem, necessitate hostem.’ Erat in
colloquio aequitas: {15} nullus timor, nulla suberat suspicio; mediocre
etiam odium. Non enim, ut eriperent nobis socii civitatem, sed ut in eam
reciperentur petebant.

        CICERO, _Phil._ xii. 11, 27.

D. _The battle near Asculum, and capture of the city._

Strabo vero Pompeius omnia flammis ferroque populatus non prius finem
caedium fecit quam Asculi {20} eversione manibus tot exercituum consulum
direptarumque urbium dis litaretur.

        FLORUS, III. xviii. 14.

  20. +Asculi eversione.+ The siege was memorable for the desperate
  patriotism of the besieged under their leader Judacilius, cf. siege
  of Saguntum.]

+Reference.+ Ihne, _Hist._ vol. v. pp. 190-220.



_His Character and Bearing._

Igitur Sulla gentis patriciae nobilis fuit, familia prope iam exstincta
maiorum ignavia, litteris Graecis et Latinis iuxta atque doctissimi
eruditus, animo ingenti, cupidus voluptatum sed gloriae cupidior: tamen
ab negotiis numquam voluptas remorata; {5} facundus callidus et amicitia
facilis, ad simulanda negotia altitudo ingeni incredibilis, multarum
rerum ac maxumae pecuniae largitor. Atque illi, felicissumo omnium ante
civilem victoriam, numquam super industriam fortuna fuit, multique
dubitavere fortior {10} an felicior esset. Nam postea quae fecerit,
incertum habeo pudeat an pigeat magis disserere. Igitur Sulla, uti supra
dictum est, postquam in Africam atque in castra Mari cum equitatu venit,
rudis antea et ignarus belli, solertissumus omnium in paucis {15}
tempestatibus factus est. Ad hoc milites benigne appellare, multis
rogantibus aliis per se ipse dare beneficia, invitus accipere, sed ea
properantius quam aes mutuum reddere, ipse ab nullo repetere, magis id
laborare ut illi quam plurimi deberent, ioca atque {20} seria cum
humillumis agere, in operibus in agmine atque ad vigilias multus adesse
neque interim, quod prava ambitio solet, consulis aut cuiusquam boni
famam laedere, tantum modo neque consilio neque manu priorem alium pati,
plerosque antevenire. {25}

        SALLUST, _Jug._ 95, 96.

  1. +nobilis+, i.e. of a patrician family which had held curule
  1-2. +familia ... exstincta.+ The Cornelii were a distinguished
  _gens_ in early times and included 7 patrician families (e.g. the
  Lentuli and Scipios). Of these the Sullae were the least known.
  2-3. +litteris Graecis ... eruditus.+ Contrast the proud boast of
  Marius:--‘I have learnt no Greek: in the knowledge, however, which
  is far the most important for the State, I am a master.’ --Sall.
  _Jug._ 85.
  9. +ante civilem victoriam+, i.e. before 81 B.C.
  10-11. +fortior an felicior.+ Sulla assumed the name Felix on the
  death of the younger Marius 82 B.C. Cf. Plut. _Sulla_, cap. vi.
  11-12. +Nam postea ... disserere.+ Cf. Vell. Patere. II. xvii. 2:
  ‘Sulla vir qui neque ad finem victoriae satis laudari neque post
  victoriam abunde vituperari potest.’
  20. +illi+ more strictly _sibi_--‘a negligence not unfrequent.’
  22. +multus adesse+ = _frequently visited_, +multus+ = _saepe_.]

For +character of Sulla+ cf. Plut. _Sulla_, and Mommsen, iv. pp.
139-142: ‘One of the most marvellous characters in history.’



A. _His Youth and Early Training._

Huius futuram magnitudinem etiam caelestia ostenta praedixerant. Nam et
eo, quo genitus est, anno, et eo, quo regnare primum coepit, stella
cometes per utrumque tempus LXX diebus ita luxit, ut caelum omne
conflagrare videretur. Puer tutorum insidias {5} passus est, qui eum
fero equo impositum equitare iacularique cogebant: qui conatus cum eos
fefellissent, supra aetatem regente equum Mithridate, veneno eum
appetivere. Veritus deinde, ne inimici, quod veneno non potuerant, ferro
peragerent, venandi {10} studium finxit, quo per septem annos neque
urbano neque rustico tecto usus est, sed per silvas vagatus, diversis
montium regionibus pernoctabat ignaris omnibus, quibus esset locis;
adsuetus feras cursu aut fugere aut persequi, cum quibusdam etiam
viribus {15} congredi. Quibus rebus et insidias vitavit, et corpus ad
omnem virtutis patientiam duravit.

  1. +Huius.+ Mithridates (_Mithras_ = Persian sun-god) ‘second only
  to Hannibal in inextinguishable, life-long hostility to Rome, as
  also in military genius.’ Ihne.
  5. +tutorum+ = (_at the hands_) _of his guardians_. Cf. _tueor._
  17. +ad omnem virtutis patientiam+ = _to all manly endurance_.]

B. _His Preparations for Conquest._

Ad regni deinde administrationem cum accessisset, statim non de regendo,
sed de augendo regno cogitavit. Itaque Scythas invictos antea ingenti
{20} felicitate perdomuit. Hieme deinde appetente, non in convivio, sed
in campo, nec in avocationibus, nec inter sodales, sed inter aequales,
aut equo aut cursu aut viribus contendebat. Exercitum quoque suum ad
parem laboris patientiam cotidiana exercitatione {25} durabat, atque ita
invictus ipse inexpugnabilem exercitum fecerat.

        JUSTINUS, xxxvii. 2, 3, 4.

  19. +de augendo regno.+ He subdued all the coast districts of the
  Euxine, East, North and West, as far as the Hister (Danube).
  22. +avocationibus+ = _in diversions_ (very rare).
  24. +exercitum.+ At the outbreak of the War with Rome, 88 B.C.,
  he had collected a motley force of 250,000 foot and 40,000 horse.]

+Mithridates.+ ‘With one blow he overthrew the Roman dominion in Asia,
carried the war into Europe, united almost the whole Eastern world in an
attack on the Republic, and resisted for 25 years the first generals of
his time,--a Sulla, a Lucullus, and a Pompeius.’ --Ihne.

+Historic Parallels.+ Alexander, Hannibal, Peter the Great.



_The Battle of Chaeronea, 86 B.C. Brilliant Tactics of Sulla._

Archelaus adversus L. Sullam in fronte ad perturbandum hostem falcatas
quadrigas locavit, in secunda acie phalangem Macedonicam, in tertia
Romanorum more armatos auxiliares, mixtis fugitivis Italicae gentis,
quorum pervicaciae plurimum fidebat; {5} levem armaturam in ultimo
statuit; in utroque deinde latere equitatum, cuius amplum numerum
habebat, circumeundi hostis causa posuit. Contra haec Sulla fossas
amplae latitudinis utroque latere duxit et capitibus earum castella
communiit: qua {10} ratione, ne circuiretur ab hoste et peditum numero
et maxime equitatu superante, consecutus est. Triplicem deinde peditum
aciem ordinavit relictis intervallis per quae levem armaturam et
equitem, quem in novissimo conlocaverat, cum res exegisset, emitteret.
{15} Tum postsignanis qui in secunda acie erant imperavit ut densos
numerososque palos firme in terram defigerent, intraque eos
appropinquantibus quadrigis antesignanorum aciem recepit: tum demum
sublato universorum clamore velites et levem armaturam {20} ingerere
tela iussit. Quibus factis quadrigae hostium aut implicitae palis aut
exterritae clamore telisque in suos conversae sunt turbaveruntque
Macedonum structuram: qua cedente, cum Sulla instaret et Archelaus
equitem opposuisset, Romani equites {25} subito emissi averterunt eos
consummaverantque victoriam.

        FRONTINUS, _Strategemata_, ii. 3. 17.

  1. +Archelaus+ (and his brother Neoptolemus) ‘trained in the
  traditions and experience of Greek and Macedonian masters.’
  2. +falcatas quadrigras.+ Archelaus had 60 of these chariots armed
  with scythes projecting. Cf. Livy xxxvii. 41.
  5. +pervicaciae+ = _steadfastness_ (_per_ + _vic_; cf. _vinco_).
  11-12. +qua ratione ... consecutus est.+ Sulla had about 30,000 men
  (15,000 Romans only) against 120,000.
  23. +turbaverunt.+ ‘The war-chariots on this as on other occasions
  (e.g. at Magnesia) had not only proved a failure, but had actually
  led to a partial disaster.’ --Ihne. Cf. use of war elephants, e.g.
  at Beneventum 275 B.C. and at Zama 202 B.C.
  27. +victoriam.+ It was a great victory, but the results were
  trifling, partly because Sulla had no fleet, and partly because his
  political enemies at Rome were bent on crippling him.]

+Historic Parallel.+ The Battle of Magnesia 190 B.C.



A. _Capture of Athens and the Piraeus, 86 B.C._

Sulla interim cum Mithridatis praefectis circa Athenas ita dimicavit, ut
et Athenas reciperet et plurimo circa multiplices Piraei portus
munitiones labore expleto amplius CC milia hostium interficeret nec
minus multa caperet. . . . Nam oppressi (Athenienses) {5} Mithridatis
armis homines miserrimae condicionis cum ab inimicis tenerentur,
oppugnabantur ab amicis et animos extra moenia, corpora necessitati
servientes intra muros habebant.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 23.

  2. +ut Athenas reciperet.+ Sulla reduced the city by starvation.
  3. +Piraei portus.+ This was strongly held by Archelaus, and was
  taken only after a most obstinate defence.
  7. +cum ... tenerentur.+ The contemptible adventurer Aristion, with
  his bodyguard of 2000 men and the bribe of Delos and its treasure,
  had made himself master of Athens.]

B. _Battle of Orchomenus, 85 B.C. Sulla restores the Fight._

L. Sulla, cedentibus iam legionibus exercitui {10} Mithridatico ductu
Archelai, stricto gladio in primam aciem procucurrit appellansque
milites dixit, si quis quaesisset, ubi imperatorem reliquissent,
responderent pugnantem in Boeotia: cuius rei pudore universi eum secuti
sunt. {15}

        FRONTINUS, _Strategemata_, ii. 8. 12.

  10-15. = ‘The great victory at Orchomenus was the turning-point
  in the War.’ --Ihne.]

C. _Peace of Dardanus. End of the First Mithridatic War, 84 B.C._

Transgressus deinde in Asiam Sulla parentem ad omnia supplicemque
Mithridatem invenit, quem multatum pecunia ac parte navium, Asia
omnibusque aliis provinciis, quas armis occupaverat, decedere coegit,
captivos recepit, in perfugas noxiosque {20} animadvertit, paternis, id
est Ponticis finibus contentum esse iussit.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 23.

  16-22. +The terms of peace+ were (i) Restoration of all conquests,
  (ii) Surrender of 80 ships and of all prisoners, (iii) Indemnity
  of 3000 talents. Florus says ‘Non fregit ea res Ponticos, sed
  incendit.’ Sulla was anxious to secure peace, because his presence
  was needed at Rome.]

+Sulla’s Conduct of the War+. ‘No previous general had shown so great a
mastery of the art of war and such care and interest for the welfare of
the State, as distinguished from the success of a party.’ --Ihne.


SECOND CIVIL WAR, 83-82 B.C. (1)

_Battles of Sacriportus and the Colline Gate._


   Iam quot apud Sacri cecidere cadavera Portum
  Aut Collina tulit stratas quot porta catervas,     135
  Tum cum, paene caput mundi rerumque potestas
  Mutavit translata locum, Romanaque Samnis
  Ultra Caudinas speravit volnera Furcas.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, ii. 134-138.

  134. +apud Sacriportum+, near Praeneste, where Sulla totally defeated
  the Marians, under the younger Marius, 82 B.C.
  135. +Collina Porta+, i.e. N.E. gate of Rome near the _Collis_
  136. +paene+, with _mutavit_, l. 137.]

B. At Pontius Telesinus, dux Samnitium, vir animi bellique fortissimus
penitusque Romano nomini infestissimus, contractis circiter XL milibus
fortissimae pertinacissimaeque in retinendis armis iuventutis Kal.
Novembribus ita ad portam Collinam cum Sulla {10} dimicavit, ut ad
summum discrimen et eum et rempublicam perduceret, quae non maius
periculum adiit Hannibalis intra tertium miliarium conspicata castra,
quam eo die, quo circumvolans ordines exercitus sui Telesinus
dictitansque adesse Romanis ultimum {15} diem vociferabatur eruendam
delendamque urbem, adiciens numquam deluturos raptores Italicae
libertatis lupos, nisi silva, in quam refugere solerent, esset excisa.
Post primam demum horam noctis et Romana acies respiravit et hostium
cessit. Telesinus {20} postera die semianimis repertus est, victoris
magis quam morientis vultum praeferens, cuius abscisum caput ferro figi
gestarique circa Praeneste Sulla iussit.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 27.

  6. +Pontius Telesinus+, ‘a kinsman in name and temper of the hero of
  321 B.C.’
  12-14. +quae ... castra.+ ‘As Hannibal had tried to relieve the
  closely pressed Capua by a direct attack on Rome, Pontius Telesinus
  thought to draw off the besieging army from Praeneste by threatening
  the Capital.’ --Ihne.
  20. +Romana acies respiravit.+ Sulla, with the left wing, was driven
  back by the Samnites to the walls of Rome, but Crassus with the
  right wing was completely victorious, and to him the final victory
  was due.
  ‘The issue of the whole war, at least on Italian ground, was decided
  by the battle of the Colline Gate.’ --Ihne.]


SECOND CIVIL WAR, 83-82 B.C. (2)

A. _Death of the Younger Marius. Sulla Felix._

Tum demum desperatis rebus suis C. Marius adulescens per cuniculos, qui
miro opere fabricati in diversas agrorum partes fuerunt, conatus
erumpere, cum foramine e terra emersisset, a dispositis in id ipsum
interemptus est. . . . De quo iuvene quid {5} existimaverit Sulla, in
promptu est; occiso enim demum eo Felicis nomen adsumpsit, quod quidem
usurpasset iustissime, si eundem et vincendi et vivendi finem habuisset.

        VELL. PAT. ii. 27.

  1. +Tum+, i.e. after Sulla’s victory at the Colline Gate, 82 B.C.
  +C. Marius.+ ‘He possessed his father’s martial spirit, courage and
  unyielding perseverance.’ --Ihne.
  2. +per cuniculos+ = _through subterranean passages_.]

B. _The Sullan Proscriptions._

  ‘Sulla quoque immensis accessit cladibus ultor.    139
  Ille quod exiguum restabat sanguinis urbi
  Hausit: dumque nimis iam putria membra recidit,
  Excessit medicina modum, nimiumque secuta est,
  Qua morbi duxere, manus. . . .                     143
  Tum data libertas odiis, resolutaque legum         145
  Frenis ira ruit. Non uni cuncta dabantur,
  Sed fecit sibi quisque nefas: semel omnia victor
  Iusserat . . .
  Hisne Salus rerum, Felix his Sulla vocari,         221
  His meruit tumulum medio sibi tollere Campo?
  Haec rursus patienda manent: hoc ordine belli
  Ibitur: hic stabit civilibus exitus armis.’
    .    .    .    .    Sic maesta senectus          232
  Praeteritique memor flebat metuensque futuri.      233

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, ii. 139-148, 221-224.

  139. +Sulla ... ultor+ = _Sulla too in his vengeance came to crown
  these fearful disasters_. --Haskins.
  141-143. +dumque ... manus.+ Sulla is compared to a surgeon who in too
  great haste to remove the mortified flesh cuts away the sound flesh
  146. +non uni ...+ = _all crimes were not committed for one man’s
  sake_, i.e. to please Sulla.
  223-224. +hoc ordine belli ibitur+ = _in this course of war events
  will move_. --H. i.e. History will repeat itself.
  232. +sic maesta senectus.+ An old man, who had lived through the
  Marian and Sullan times, predicts similar horrors of the Civil War
  between Caesar and Pompey.]

+The Proscriptions.+ ‘They were the product not of passion or thirst of
blood, but of a cool political calculation, and the conviction of its
inevitable necessity.’ --Ihne.


A. _Sulla appointed Dictator, 81 B.C._

Dictator creatus (cuius honoris usurpatio per annos centum et viginti
intermissa; nam proximus post annum quam Hannibal Italia excesserat, uti
appareat populum Romanum usum dictatoris haud metu desiderasse tali quo
timuisset potestatem) imperio, {5} quo priores ad vindicandum maximis
periculis patriam usi erant, eo in immodicae crudelitatis licentiam usus

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 28.

  1-2. +cuius honoris ... intermissa.+ The last real Dictator
  (M. Junius Pera) was appointed after Cannae 216 B.C.
  5-8. +imperio quo ... usus est.+ ‘The Dictator of the first age of
  the Republic down to the Punic Wars had always a _well-defined
  special duty to discharge in a given time_. Sulla’s task was of _a
  general nature and all-comprehensive range_, and he had the most
  essential of all monarchical attributes, which is _the unlimited
  duration of office_.’ --Ihne.]

B. _Sulla lays down his Dictatorship, 79 B.C._

Nec minoris impotentiae voces propalam edebat, ut Titus Ampius scribit,
‘Nihil esse rempublicam, {10} appellationem modo sine corpore ac specie.
Sullam nescisse litteras, qui dictaturam deposuerit.’

        SUETONIUS, _Divus Iulius_, 77.

  9. +impotentiae+ = _arrogance_ (lack of self-restraint).
  10. +Ampius.+ Titus Ampius Balbus, a Pompeian general.
  11-12. +Sullam nescisse litteras+ = (i) S. had not profited by the
  teachings of History, or (ii) S. was without a liberal education.]

C. _Death of Sulla, 78 B.C._

Puteolis enim ardens indignatione, quod Granius, princeps eius coloniae
pecuniam a decurionibus ad refectionem Capitolii promissam cunctantius
daret, {15} animi concitatione nimia atque immoderato vocis impetu
convulso pectore, spiritum cruore ac minis mixtum evomuit, nec senio iam
prolapsus, utpote sexagesimum ingrediens annum, sed alita miseriis
reipublicae inpotentia furens. Igitur in dubio est {20} Sullane prior an
iracundia Sullae sit extincta.

        VALERIUS MAXIMUS, ix. 3. 8.

  13. +Granius+, the chief magistrate of Puteoli, had kept back money
  destined for the building of the new temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.
  The old one was destroyed by fire 83 B.C. ‘It was Sulla’s great
  desire that his name should be recorded on the front of the new
  temple, for it was to be the symbol of the Republic, restored as
  he fondly hoped by him to its pristine purity.’ --Ihne.]



A. _Limitation of the Tribune’s Right of Veto._

In ista quidem re vehementer Sullam probo, qui tribunis plebis sua lege
iniuriae faciendae potestatem ademerit, auxili ferendi reliquerit.

        CICERO, _de Legibus_, iii. 9. 22.

  2. +iniuriae faciendae+, e.g. by their abuse of the right of veto.
  3. +auxili ferendi.+ ‘Sulla limited the office of tribune to the
  original functions for which it was established, _the legal
  protection of the people from the abuse of magisterial power_.’

B. _Abolition of Corn Distributions._

Populus Romanus, paullo ante gentium moderator, exutus imperio gloria
iure, agitandi inops despectusque ne servilia quidem alimenta relicua

        SALLUST, _Hist., Orat. M. Lepidi_.

  5. +agitandi inops+ (i.e. _vitam sustentandi_) = _without means of
  6. +servilia alimenta+ = _a slave’s allowance of food_. Sulla
  abolished the largesses of corn.]

C. _Restoration of Judicial Functions to the Senators._

Iudicandi munus quod C. Gracchus ereptum senatui ad Equites, Sulla ab
illis ad Senatum transtulerat.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 32.

  8-10. Sulla filled up the gaps in the Senate from the ranks of the
  Equites, and to the new Senate thus constituted he entrusted the
  administration of justice.]

D. _A Sumptuary Law, Limiting the Expense of the Table._

L. Sulla dictator, cum plerique in patrimoniis amplis eluerentur et
familiam pecuniamque suam prandiorum conviviorumque gurgitibus
proluissent, legem ad populam tulit, qua cautum est, ut Kalendis,
Idibus, Nonis diebusque ludorum et feriis quibusdam {15} sollemnibus
sestertios trecenos in cenam insumere ius potestasque esset, ceteris
autem diebus omnibus non amplius tricenos.

        AULUS GELLIUS, ii. 24, 11.

  12. +eluerentur+ = _had squandered_ (lit. ‘washed away’).]

+Leges Corneliae.+ ‘Sulla’s legislation was an attempt to revive what
was dead and gone. The time had arrived when the old republican
institutions could last no longer. The transformation of the state into
a monarchy was inevitable.’ --Ihne.

+The Sultan Constitution.+ It had as little endurance as that of
Cromwell, and was finally destroyed in 70 B.C. during the consulship of
Pompeius and Crassus.


_Speech of Lepidus against Sulla, 78 B.C._

Nam praeter satellites commaculatos quis eadem volt? aut quis non omnia
mutata praeter victorem? Scilicet milites, quorum sanguine Tarulae
Scyrtoque, pessumis servorum, divitiae partae sunt! Itaque maxumam mihi
fiduciam parit victor exercitus, cui {5} per tot volnera et labores
nihil praeter tyrannum quaesitum est. Nisi forte tribuniciam potestatem
evorsum profecti sunt, per arma conditam a maioribus suis, utique iura
et iudicia sibimet extorquerent, egregia scilicet mercede, cum relegati
in paludes et {10} silvam contumeliam atque invidiam suam, praemia penes
paucos intellegerint. Quare igitur tanto agmine atque animis incedit?
Quia secundae res mire sunt vitiis obtentui; quibus labefactis, quam
formidatus est, tam contemnetur; nisi forte specie {15} concordiae et
pacis, quae sceleri et parricidio suo nomina indidit; neque aliter
rempublicam et belli finem ait, nisi maneat expulsa agris plebes, praeda
civilis acerbissima, ius iudiciumque omnium rerum penes se, quod populi
Romani fuit. Quae si vobis {20} pax et concordia intelleguntur, maxuma
turbamenta reipublicae atque exitia probate, annuite legibus impositis,
accipite otium cum servitio et tradite exemplum posteris ad populum
Romanum suimet sanguinis mercede circumveniundum. {25}

        SALLUST, _Hist, Orat. M. Lepidi_.

  1. +Nam+, sc. ‘His luck is not so great as he supposes, for...’
  7-8. +tribuniciam ... evorsum+, i.e. by the Leges Corneliae 81 B.C.
  9. +iudicia.+ Sulla restored the judicial functions to the Senate
  (from the Equites).
  10. +relegati in paludes.+ Sulla established 120,000 soldiers in
  military colonies in different parts of Italy, but their roaming
  adventurous life had unfitted them for agricultural pursuits.
  13-14. +Quia ... obtentui+ = _because prosperity serves in a
  marvellous manner to cover a man’s faults of character_. --Holden.
  For +obtentui+ cf. _draw a veil over_.
  16. +parricidio+ = _treason_.
  18. +nisi ... agris+, i.e. Sulla’s confiscations of estates,
  especially of those Italians who had fought against him.
  24-25. +ad p. R. circumveniundum+ = _for oppressing_ (enslaving)
  _the people of Rome_.]

+M. Aemillus Lepidus+, Consul 78 B.C., a disappointed Optimate, jealous
of Sulla’s power, but without Sulla’s ability. He posed as leader of the
democratic party, took up arms against the State, but was defeated by Q.
Catulus at the Milvian Bridge, 77 B.C.



_Sertorius and his Fawn._

Huic Sertorio cerva alba eximiae pulchritudinis et vivacissimae
celeritatis a Lusitano quodam dono data est. Hanc sibi oblatam
divinitus, et instinctam Dianae numine colloqui secum, monereque, et
docere, quae utilia factu essent, persuadere omnibus instituit: {5} ac,
si quid durius videbatur, quod imperandum militibus foret, a cerva sese
monitum tum praedicabat. Id cum dixerat, universi, tamquam si deo,
libentes parebant. Ea cerva quodam die, cum incursio esset hostium
nuntiata, festinatione ac tumultu consternata {10} in fugam se
proripuit, atque in palude proxima delituit; et postea requisita perisse
credita est. Neque multis diebus post inventam esse cervam Sertorio
nuntiatur. Tum, qui nuntiaverat, iussit tacere: ac, ne cui palam
diceret, interminatus est: {15} praecepitque, ut eam postero die repente
in eum locum, in quo ipse cum amicis esset, immitteret: admissis deinde
amicis postridie, visum sibi esse ait in quiete cervam, quae perisset,
ad se reverti, et, ut prius consueverat, quod opus esset facto
praedicare. {20} Tum servo, quod imperaverat, significat. Cerva emissa
in cubiculum Sertorii introrupit; clamor factus et orta admiratio est:
eaque hominum barbarorum credulitas Sertorio in magnis rebus magno usui
fuit. {25}

        GELLIUS, _Noctes Atticae_, xv. 22.

  1. +alba+ = a _dull_ white as opp. to +ater+ = _dull_ black. Cf.
  +candidus+ = _shining_ white as opp. to +niger+ = _shining_ black.
  3. +instinctam+ = _fired_, _animated_.
  15. +interminatus+ = _he forbade with threats_. +inter + minor+,
  freq. in Plautus and Terence.
  23-25. ‘Sertorius did not disdain to turn to account the
  superstition of the ruder Spanish tribes, and to have his plans of
  war brought to him as commands of Diana by the white fawn of the
  goddess.’ --M.]

+Character of Sertorius.+ ‘He was the only democratic (Marian) officer
who knew how to prepare and to conduct war, and the only democratic
statesman who opposed the furious doings of his party with statesmanlike
energy. His Spanish soldiers called him the new Hannibal, and not merely
because he had, like that hero, lost an eye in war. He in reality
reminds us of the great Phoenician by his equally cunning and courageous
strategy, and by the quickness of his ingenuity in turning to good
account his victories and averting the consequences of his defeats.’



A. _A New Hannibal._

Sertorius, exsul et profugus feralis illius tabulae, vir summae quidem
sed calamitosae virtutis, malis suis maria terrasque permiscuit; et iam
Africae, iam Balearibus insulis fortunam expertus usque in Oceanum
Fortunatasque insulas penetravit consiliis, {5} tandem Hispaniam
armavit. Viro cum viris facile convenit. Nec alias magis apparuit
Hispani militis vigor quam Romano duce. Quamquam ille non contentus
Hispania ad Mithridatem quoque Ponticosque respexit regemque classe
iuvit. Et quid futurum {10} fuit satis tanto hosti, cui uno imperatore
resistere res Romana non potuit? Additus Metello Gnaeus Pompeius. Hi
copias attrivere viri prope tota Hispania persecuti. Diu et ancipiti
semper acie pugnatum est; nec tamen prius bello quam suorum scelere {15}
et insidiis extinctus est.

        FLORUS, III. xxii. 2-6. A.

  1. +feralis illius tabulae+ = _from that fatal list_, i.e. Sulla’s
  list of proscribed Marians 82 B.C.
  9-10. +ad Mithridatem ... iuvit.+ In 75 B.C. he concluded a formal
  treaty of alliance with Mithridates, and sent him the propraetor
  M. Marius to lead his troops. Cf. alliance between Hannibal and
  14-15. +Diu et ancipiti semper acie pugnatum est+, e.g. the defeat
  of Pompey near Lauro. (For a graphic account of the strategy by
  which the battle was won see Frontinus, _Strat._ ii. 5.)]

B. _The Death of Sertorius._

M. Perpenna praetorius e proscriptis, gentis clarioris quam animi,
Sertorium inter cenam Oscae interemit Romanisque certam victoriam,
partibus suis excidium, sibi turpissimam mortem pessimo {20} auctoravit
facinore. Metellus et Pompeius ex Hispaniis triumphaverunt.

        VELL. PATERC. ii. 30.

  17. +M. Perpenna praetorius+ (= _ex-praetor_), with the remnant of
  the army of Lepidus (defeated by Pompey in 77 B.C.) joined Sertorius
  in Spain. After serving under Sertorius for some years, through
  jealousy, he brought about his leader’s assassination.
  21. +auctoravit+ = _he brought about_. More usu. as +auctorari+ =
  _to hire oneself out for some service_, e.g. of gladiators.]

+The Death of Sertorius.+ ‘So ended one of the greatest men that Rome
had hitherto produced--a man who under more fortunate circumstances
would perhaps have become the regenerator of his country.’ --M.


_Character and Early Career of Lucullus._

Magnum ingenium L. Luculli, magnumque optimarum artium studium, tum
omnis liberalis et digna homine nobili ab eo percepta doctrina, quibus
temporibus florere in foro maxime potuit, caruit omnino rebus urbanis.
Ut enim admodum adolescens, {5} cum fratre pari pietate et industria
praedito, paternas inimicitias magna cum gloria est persecutus, in Asiam
quaestor profectus, ibi permultos annos admirabili quadam laude
provinciae praefuit: deinde absens factus aedilis, continuo praetor:
licebat {10} enim celerius legis praemio: post in Africam: inde ad
consulatum: quem ita gessit ut diligentiam admirarentur omnes, ingenium
cognoscerent. Post ad Mithridaticum bellum missus a senatu non modo
opinionem vicit omnium quae de virtute eius erat, sed {15} etiam gloriam
superiorum. Idque eo fuit mirabilius, quod ab eo laus imperatoria non
admodum exspectabatur, qui adolescentiam in forensi opera, quaesturae
diuturnum tempus, Murena bellum in Ponto gerente, in Asiae pace
consumpserat. . . . {20} In eodem tanta prudentia fuit in constituendis
temperandisque civitatibus, tanta aequitas, ut hodie stet Asia Luculli
institutis servandis et quasi vestigiis persequendis.

        CICERO, _Academica_, ii. 1.

  1-3. +ingenium+, +studium+, +doctrina+, subjects of +caruit+.
  3-5. +quibus temporibus ... urbanis+ = _all this was divorced_
  (+caruit+, lit. _was cut off from_) _from the business of the
  capital, at the season when he might have had a specially brilliant
  career in the forum_. --J. S. Reid.
  6. +paternas inimicitias+ = _his father’s quarrel_. The first
  appearance of Lucullus in public life was as the accuser of the
  Augur Servilius who had procured the banishment of his father.
  7-9. +in Asiam ... praefuit+, i.e. as Sulla’s quaestor in the first
  Mithridatic War, 88-84 B.C. and then till 80 B.C. in charge of the
  province of Asia (= orig. Kingdom of Pergamus, N.W. part of Asia
  11. +legis praemio+ = _owing to a privilege conveyed by statute_.
  J. S. R.
  13-14. +ad Mithridaticum bellum+, i.e. the 3rd M. War, which he
  carried on for eight years (74-66 B.C.) with great success, until
  superseded by Pompeius in 66 B.C.
  19-20. +Murena ... gerente.+ Lic. Murena, anxious for distinction,
  provoked the disastrous 2nd Mithridatic War, 83-81 B.C., when by the
  peremptory orders of Sulla the peace was renewed.
  23. +stet ... servandis+ = _persists in maintaining_ (lit. _stands
  by_) _the ordinances of L._--J. S. R.]

+Reference.+ For _Character of Lucullus_, see Mommsen, vol. iv.
pp. 337-8. Cf. also Vell. Paterc. ii. 32.


A. _A Soldier of Lucullus._

  Luculli miles collecta viatica multis
  Aerumnis, lassus dum noctu stertit, ad assem
  Perdiderat; post hoc vehemens lupus, et sibi et hosti
  Iratus pariter, ieiunis dentibus acer,
  Praesidium regale loco deiecit, ut aiunt,               30
  Summe munito et multarum divite rerum.
  Clarus ob id factum donis ornatur honestis,
  Accipit et bis dena super sestertia nummum.
  Forte sub hoc tempus castellum evertere praetor
  Nescio quod cupiens hortari coepit eundem               35
  Verbis, quae timido quoque possent addere mentem:
  ‘I, bone, quo virtus tua te vocat, i pede fausto,
  Grandia laturus meritorum praemia. Quid stas?’
  Post haec ille catus, quantumvis rusticus, ‘Ibit,
  Ibit eo quo vis qui zonam perdidit,’ inquit.            40

        HORACE, _Ep._ II. ii. 26-40.

  26. +viatica+ = _savings_ (cf. _prize-money_). +viaticum+ =
  originally _travelling-money_.
  28. +vehemens lupus+ = _a very wolf in his fury_. Cf. Vergil’s simile
  for a forlorn hope--‘lupi ceu | Raptores.’ --Wickham.
  32. +donis honestis+ = _gifts of honour_--i.e. the _corona muralis_,
  the _mural crown_, such as is worn by the goddess Cybele.
  33. +nummum+ (= _nummorum_) = _in hard cash_.
  39. +catus+ = _shrewd_, _witty_, a Sabine word, = _acutus_.
  39-40. +Ibit ... quo vis+, the original of Juvenal’s _ad caelum,
  iusseris, ibit_.
  40. +zonam+ = _purse_. The +zona+ here was a broad belt made double
  or hollow to carry money in.]

B. _The Wealth of Lucullus._

                Chlamydes Lucullus, ut aiunt,             40
  Si posset centum scaenae praebere rogatus,
  ‘Qui possum tot?’ ait; ‘tamen et quaeram, et quot habebo
  Mittam’: post paulo scribit sibi milia quinque
  Esse domi chlamydum; partem vel tolleret omnes.         44

        HORACE, _Ep._ I. vi. 40-44.

+Subject.+ Horace says ‘I am like Lucullus’ soldier--when his pocket was
empty he would volunteer for forlorn hopes; when it was full again he
would do so no more. It was poverty that made me write verses.’ --W.

  40. +Chlamydes.+ The Chlamys was the light short mantle of the
  Greeks, here wanted for a pageant on the stage.
  44. +tolleret.+ The subj. is the praetor or person giving the show.

+Reference.+ For _the magnificence of his Villas_ at Tusculum and near
Neapolis, see Cicero _De Fin._ ii. § 107, _De Leg._ iii. § 30, Pliny,
_N. H._ ix. 170.



_Spartacus and his Gladiators._

Spartacus, Crixus, Oenomaus effracto Lentuli ludo cum triginta aut
amplius eiusdem fortunae viris erupere Capua; servisque ad vexillum
vocatis cum statim decem amplius milia coissent, homines modo effugisse
contenti iam et vindicari volebant. {5} Prima sedes velut rabidis beluis
mons Vesuvius placuit. Ibi cum obsiderentur a Clodio Glabro, per fauces
cavi montis vitineis delapsi vinculis ad imas eius descendere radices et
exitu inviso nihil tale opinantis ducis subito impetu castra rapuerunt.
Adfluentibus {10} in diem copiis cum iam esset iustus exercitus,
e viminibus pecudumque tegumentis inconditos sibi clipeos et ferro
ergastulorum recocto gladios ac tela fecerunt, Indo iam consulares
quoque aggressus in Appennino Lentuli exercitum percecidit, apud {15}
Mutinam Gai Cassi castra delevit. Tandem enim totis imperii viribus
contra mirmillonem consurgunt, pudoremque Romanum Marcus Crassus
asseruit: a quo pulsi fugatique hostes in extrema Italiae refugerunt.
Ibi circa Bruttium angulum clusi cum {20} fugam in Siciliam pararent
neque navigia suppeterent ratesque ex trabibus et dolia connexa
virgultis rapidissimo freto frustra experirentur, tandem eruptione facta
dignam viris obiere mortem, et quod sub gladiatore duce oportuit, sine
missione {25} pugnatum est. Spartacus ipse in primo agmine fortissime
dimicans quasi imperator occisus est.

        FLORUS, III. xx. 3-14 (sel.).

  1. +Spartacus+, by birth a Thracian, who had served among the
  Thracian auxiliaries in the Roman army, had deserted and become a
  chief of banditti. He was taken prisoner and sold to a trainer of
  +Crixus+, +Oenomaus+, the slave-names of two Celts.
  1-2. +effracto ludo+ = _broke out of the gladiators’ school_.
  8. +vitineis vinculis+ = _by means of ropes made of vine-branches_.
  9. +inviso+ = _unknown_, lit. _unseen_.
  13. +ergastulorum+ = _from the slaves’ work-houses_.
  17. +mirmillonem.+ The Mirmillones were a class of gladiators
  usually matched with the Thraces or the _retiarii_ (_net-fighters_).
  18. +Marcus Crassus+, the Triumvir of 60 B.C.
  +asseruit+ = _maintained_. Cf. our _assert_.
  21. +in Siciliam+, where the slaves had risen in 133 and 104 B.C.,
  and only waited an impulse to break out a third time.
  25. +sine missione+ = _without quarter_. Cf. _missio_ = _the
  discharge_ from service of soldiers and gladiators.]



_Lucullus Ponticus._

Quoniam de genere belli dixi, nunc de magnitudine pauca dicam. Atque ut
omnes intellegant me L. Lucullo tantum impertire laudis, quantum forti
viro et sapienti homini et magno imperatori debeatur, dico eius adventu
maximas Mithridatis {5} copias omnibus rebus ornatas atque instructas
fuisse urbemque Asiae clarissimam nobisque amicissimam, Cyzicenorum,
obsessam esse ab ipso rege maxima multitudine et oppugnatam
vehementissime, quam L. Lucullus virtute, assiduitate, consilio summis
{10} obsidionis periculis liberavit: ab eodem imperatore classem magnam
et ornatam, quae ducibus Sertorianis ad Italiam studio inflammata
raperetur, superatam esse atque depressam; magnas hostium praeterea
copias multis proeliis esse deletas patefactumque {15} nostris
legionibus esse Pontum, qui antea populo Romano ex omni aditu clausus
fuisset; Sinopen atque Amisum, quibus in oppidis erant domicilia regis,
omnibus rebus ornatas atque refertas, ceterasque urbes Ponti et
Cappadociae permultas uno {20} aditu adventuque esse captas; regem
spoliatum regno patrio atque avito ad alios se reges atque ad alias
gentes supplicem contulisse: atque haec omnia salvis populi Romani
sociis atque integris vectigalibus esse gesta. {25}

        CICERO, _pro Lege Manilia_, 20, 21.

  5-6. +maximas ... fuisse.+ M. had 140,000 well-trained men, Roman
  officers sent by Sertorius, 16,000 cavalry, a war-fleet of 400
  ships, and abundance of stores.
  7-11. +urbemque ... liberavit.+ The city of Cyzicus stood on the S.
  side of the island of the same name in the Propontis (Sea of
  Marmora), close to the shore of Mȳsia, to which it was joined by two
  12-14. +classem ... depressam+, i.e. probably the Battle of Tenedos
  73 B.C., in which Marcus Marius and the ablest of the Roman
  emigrants met their death, and the whole Aegean fleet of Mithridates
  was annihilated.
  15. +multis proeliis+, e.g. of Cabira, 72 B.C.; Tigranocerta, 69 B.C.
  18. +Sinopen.+ +Sinope+, on the W. headland of the great bay of
  which the delta of the R. Halys forms the E. headland, was the
  birthplace and residence (+domicilia+) of M.
  22. +ad alios reges+, e.g. to his son-in-law, Tigranes of Armenia.
  23-24. +salvis ... vectigalibus+, i.e. without ruining the
  provincial by forced contributions and requisitions.]

+Reference.+ For _Siege of Cyzicus_, see Mommsen, vol. iv. pp. 326-328;
Frontinus, _Strat._ ii. 13. 6.



_His Character, and Career to 66 B.C._

Iam vero virtuti Cn. Pompei quae potest oratio par inveniri? Quid est
quod quisquam aut illo dignum, aut vobis novum aut cuiquam inauditum
possit adferre? Neque enim illae sunt solae virtutes imperatoriae, quae
vulgo esistimantur, labor in {5} negotiis, fortitudo in periculis,
industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo, consilium in providendo,
quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus,
quos aut vidimus aut audivimus, non fuerunt. Testis est Italia, quam
ille ipse {10} victor L. Sulla huius virtute et subsidio confessus est
liberatam: testis est Sicilia, quam multis undique cinctam periculis non
terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate explicavit: testis est Africa,
quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis eorum ipsorum sanguine {15}
redundavit: testis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in
Hispaniam Gallorum internecione patefactum est: testis est Hispania,
quae saepissime plurimos hostes ab hoc superatos prostratosque
conspexit: testis est iterum et saepius Italia, quae {20} cum servili
bello taetro periculosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente
expetivit, quod bellum exspectatione eius attenuatum atque imminutum
est, adventu sublatum ac sepultum: testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque
omnes exterae gentes ac nationes. {25}

        CICERO, _pro Lege Manilia_, 29-31.

  10-12. +Testis est Italia ... liberatam.+ In 83 B.C. Pompeius, aged
  twenty-four, raised three legions in Picenum, gained several
  advantages over the Marian generals, and was saluted by Sulla as
  12-14. +testis est Sicilia ... explicavit.+ In 82 B.C. Pompeius,
  sent as propraetor to Sicily, quickly took possession of the island
  for Sulla.
  14-16. +testis est Africa ... redundavit.+ In 81 B.C. Pompeius
  defeated at Utica the Marian Ahenobarbus (allied with Hiarbas of
  Numidia), and was, though _a simple Roman eques_, granted a triumph
  by Sulla and saluted as +Magnus+.
  16-18. +testis est Gallia ... patefactum est.+ In 77 B.C., on his
  way to Spain as proconsul against Sertorius, he had to cut his way
  through the Transalpine Gauls, and laid out a new and shorter road
  over the Cottian Alps.
  21. +servili bello.+ On his return from Spain he cut to pieces the
  scattered remnants of the army of Spartacus.
  21-23. +ab hoc ... imminutum est.+ Cic. assumes that the enemy was
  crippled even by the mere notion of sending for Pompeius.]

+References.+ Plutarch, _Pompeius_; Vell. Paterc. ii. 29.



_The Man Caesar._

Fuisse traditur excelsa statura, colore candido, teretibus membris, ore
paulo pleniore, nigris vegetisque oculis, valetudine prospera; nisi quod
tempore extremo repente animo linqui atque etiam per somnum exterreri
solebat. Armorum et equitandi {5} peritissimus, laboris ultra fidem
patiens erat. In agmine nonnunquam equo, saepius pedibus anteibat,
capite detecto, seu sol seu imber esset; longissimas vias incredibili
celeritate confecit. In obeundis expeditionibus dubium cautior an
audentior, {10} exercitum neque per insidiosa itinera duxit umquam nisi
perspeculatus locorum situs. A Brundisio Dyrrachium inter oppositas
classes hieme transmisit cessantibusque copiis, quas subsequi iusserat,
cum ad accersendas frustra saepe misisset, {15} novissime ipse clam
noctu parvulum navigium solus obvoluto capite conscendit, neque aut quis
esset ante detexit aut gubernatorem cedere adversae tempestati passus
est, quam paene obrutus fluctibus. Ne religione quidem ulla a quoquam
incepto absterritus {20} umquam vel retardatus est. Cum immolanti
aufugisset hostia, profectionem adversus Scipionem et Iubam non
distulit. Prolapsus etiam in egressu navis, verso ad melius omine Teneo
te, inquit, Africa.

        SUETONIUS, _Divus Iulius_, 45, 57-59 (sel.)

  4. +animo linqui+ = _he was subject to fainting-fits_.
  8. +capite detecto+, so Cyrus the Younger and Hannibal.
  9. +incredibili celeritate+, cf. Cic. _Ep. ad Att._ viii. 9 _hoc_
  τέρας (= prodigy) _horribili vigilantia, celeritate, diligentia
  est_. Cf. also Napoleon the Great.
  14. +cessantibusque copiis+ = _and when the troops delayed their
  coming_. Caesar did not then know that Antonius had himself been
  attacked at Brundisium by a Pompeian fleet, and had shown great
  skill in baffling it, and forcing it to put to sea again. Once more
  Antonius set sail with 4 legions and 800 horsemen, and fortunately a
  strong S. wind carried him safely to the port of Lissus (N. of
  18-19. +gubernatorem ... passus est.+ ‘_Quid times? Caesarem
  vehis!_’ was Caesar’s famous exhortation to the pilot. (Florus.)
  21-22. +Cum ... hostia:+ if the victim even tugged at the rope when
  being led to sacrifice, it was considered unfortunate, and hence a
  long slack rope was used. Cf. Juv. xii. 5 _Sed procul extensum
  petulans_ (butting) _quatit hostia funem_.
  24. According to Frontinus his words were ‘_Teneo te, terra

+The man Caesar.+ ‘We may picture him as a man the dignity of whose
bodily presence was in due proportion to the greatness of his mental
powers.’ --Warde Fowler.



_Captured by Pirates. Studies Oratory at Rhodes, 76-75 B.C._

Composita seditione civili Cornelium Dolabellam consularem et
triumphalem repetundarum postulavit; absolutoque Rhodum secedere
statuit, et ad declinandam invidiam et ut per otium ac requiem Apollonio
Moloni clarissimo tunc dicendi magistro {5} operam daret. Huc dum
hibernis iam mensibus traicit, circa Pharmacussam insulam a praedonibus
captus est, mansitque apud eos, non sine summa indignatione, prope
quadraginta dies cum uno medico et cubicularis duobus. Nam comites
servosque {10} ceteros initio statim ad expediendas pecunias, quibus
redimeretur, dimiserat. Numeratis deinde quinquaginta talentis,
expositus in litore non distulit quin e vestigio classe deducta
persequeretur abeuntis, ac redactos in potestatem supplicio, quod saepe
illis {15} minatus inter iocum fuerat, adficeret. Vastante regiones
proximas Mithridate ne desidere in discrimine sociorum videretur, ab
Rhodio quo pertenderat, transiit in Asiam, auxiliisque contractis et
praefecto regis provincia expulso, nutantes ac dubias civitates {20}
retinuit in fide.

        SUETONIUS, _Divus Iulius_, 4.

  1. +Composita seditione civili+, i.e. after the abortive attempt of
  Lepidus to make himself master of the state 77 B.C.
  +C. Dolabellam,+ impeached for illegal extortion during his
  government of Macedonia.
  +Repetundarum+ (sc. _pecuniarum_), post-Aug. for _de repetundis
  (pecuniis)_, used i. of money extorted by an official and to be
  returned, ii. of money extorted as a bribe. Caesar lost his case,
  but succeeded in showing that Sulla’s senatorial judges were corrupt.
  4. +Apollonio Moloni+, the famous rhetorician, whose pupil Cicero
  was both at Rome and at Rhodes. Very possibly Caesar took this step
  by the advice of Cicero.
  7. +circa Pharmacussam insulam:+ S.W. of Miletus (= mod. _Farmako_).
  8-9. +non sine summa indignatione:+ Plutarch, _Caes._ gives a
  picturesque account of his adventures as their prisoner.
  10. +cubicularis+ (_cubiculum_) = lit. _chamber-servants_.
  11. +pecunias ...+ Velleius says that Caesar’s ransom was paid out
  of public funds.
  14. +e vestigio+ (= _statim_) = _immediately_.]

+Caesar at Rhodes.+ ‘Caesar, from what we know of his taste and
character, could hardly have found the same delight as Cicero in his
studies at Rhodes. He nevertheless became one of the greatest orators of
his day, and according to some accounts, second only to Cicero. It is
characteristic of Caesar, but unfortunate for us, that he never took any
pains to collect and preserve his speeches.’ --Warde Fowler.



_A Roman Citizen maltreated._

Quid ego de P. Gavio, Consano municipe, dicam, indices? Aut qua vi
vocis, qua gravitate verborum, quo dolore animi dicam? Quod crimen eius
modi est ut, cum primum ad me delatum est, usurum me illo non putarem;
tametsi enim verissimum esse {5} intellegebam, tamen credibile fore non
arbitrabar. Quid nunc agam? Rem in medio ponam: quae tantum habet ipsa
gravitatis ut neque mea, quae nulla est, neque cuiusquam ad inflammandos
vestros animos eloquentia requiratur. {10}

Caedebatur virgis in medio foro Messanae civis Romanus, iudices; cum
interea nullus gemitus, nulla vox alia illius miseri inter dolorem
crepitumque plagarum audiebatur, nisi haec, _Civis Romanus sum_. Hac se
commemoratione civitatis omnia verbera {15} depulsurum, cruciatum a
corpore deiecturum arbitrabatur. Is non modo hoc non perfecit ut
virgarum vim deprecaretur, sed cum imploraret saepius usurparetque nomen
civitatis, crux, crux, inquam, infelici et aerumnoso comparabatur. {20}

O nomen dulce libertatis! O ius eximium nostrae civitatis! O lex Porcia
legesque Semproniae! O graviter desiderata et aliquando reddita plebi
Romanae tribunicia potestas! Hucine tandem omnia reciderunt ut civis
Romanus in provincia populi Romani, {25} in oppido foederatorum, ab eo
qui beneficio populi Romani fasces et secures haberet deligatus in foro
virgis caederetur?

        CICERO, _in Verrem_, ii. 5. 62.

  1. +Consano municipe+ = _a burgess of Consa_, on the borders of
  22. +Lex Porcia.+ Passed by M. Porcius Cato, 197 B.C., forbade the
  execution or scourging of a Roman citizen.
  +Leges Semproniae+, a code of laws passed by C. Sempronius Gracchus,
  123 B.C. One of these declared it to be the sole right of the people
  to decide capital cases.
  22-24. +O graviter desiderata ... potestas!+ Sulla (Dictator 82-79
  B.C.) took from the tribunes _the right of proposing laws_, and left
  them only their original right of Intercessio or veto. In 70 B.C.
  Pompeius, who had formally accepted the democratic programme, gave
  back to the tribunes the power to initiate legislation.]

+The Orationes In Verrem.+ Cicero, as patronus of the Sicilians,
undertook the prosecution of the Senator C. Verres for his gross
misconduct as governor of Sicily, 73-71 B.C.



_The Lex Gabinia, 67 B.C._

Converterat Cn. Pompei persona totum in se terrarum orbem et per omnia
maior cive habebatur. Qui cum consul perquam laudabiliter iurasset se in
nullam provinciam ex eo magistratu iturum idque servasset, post biennium
A. Gabinius tribunus {5} legem tulit, ut cum belli more, non
latrociniorum, orbem classibus iam, non furtivis expeditionibus, piratae
terrerent, quasdamque etiam Italiae urbis diripuissent, Cn. Pompeius ad
eos opprimendos mitteretur essetque ei imperium aequum in omnibus {10}
provinciis cum proconsulibus usque ad quinquagesimum miliarium a mari.
Quo decreto paene totius terrarum orbis imperium uni viro deferebatur;
sed tamen idem hoc ante biennium in M. Antoni praetura decretum erat.
Sed interdum persona ut exemplo {15} nocet, ita invidiam auget aut
levat: in Antonio homines aequo animo passi erant; raro enim invidetur
eorum honoribus, quorum vis non timetur: contra in iis homines
extraordinaria reformidant, qui ea suo arbitrio aut deposituri aut
retenturi videntur {20} et modum in voluntate habent. Dissuadebant
optimates, sed consilia impetu victa sunt.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 31.

  3-5. +Qui cum consul ... servasset.+ Pompeius, consul with Crassus
  in 71-70 B.C., thought it beneath his dignity to accept a consular
  province, and waited in Rome as a simple citizen until an
  opportunity should be offered him to play an extraordinary part.
  5. +A. Gabinius+, a client of Pompeius, a man ruined in finances and
  character, but a dexterous negotiator, a bold orator, and a brave
  soldier. In 57 B.C. did excellent service as proconsul of Syria.
  6-9. +ut cum belli more ... diripuissent.+ ‘For twenty years the sea
  had been rendered unsafe by these curses of human society.’ The
  commerce of the whole Mediterranean was in their power.
  13-15. +sed tamen ... decretum erat.+ In 74 B.C. M. Antonius, son of
  the orator and father of the triumvir, was entrusted by the Senate
  with the task of clearing the seas from the corsairs. In spite of
  his extensive powers, the utter incapacity of Antonius, and the
  mismanagement of the Senate, caused the expedition to end in failure
  and disgrace.]

+Result.+ ‘The Gabinio-Manilian proposals terminated the struggle
between the senate and the popular party, which the Sempronian laws
(133-123 B.C.) had begun. As the Sempronian laws first constituted the
revolutionary party into a _political opposition_, the Gabinio-Manilian
first converted it from an _opposition_ into a _government_.’ --M.



_Pompeius clears the Seas of Pirates, 67 B.C._

Quis enim umquam aut obeundi negoti aut consequendi quaestus studio tam
brevi tempore tot loca adire, tantos cursus conficere potuit, quam
celeriter Cn. Pompeio duce tanti belli impetus navigavit? Qui nondum
tempestivo ad navigandum mari Siciliam {5} adiit, Africam exploravit, in
Sardiniam cum classe venit, atque haec tria frumentaria subsidia rei
publicae firmissimis praesidiis classibusque munivit. Inde cum se in
Italiam recepisset, duabus Hispaniis et Gallia transalpina praesidiis ac
navibus confirmata, {10} missis item in oram Illyrici maris et in
Achaiam omnemque Graeciam navibus Italiae duo maria maximis classibus
firmissimisque praesidiis adornavit, ipse autem, ut Brundisio profectus
est, undequinquagesimo die totam ad imperium populi Romani {15} Ciliciam
adiunxit: omnes, qui ubique praedones fuerant, partim capti
interfectique sunt, partim unius huius se imperio ac potestati
dediderunt. Ita tantum bellum, tam diuturnum, tam longe lateque
dispersum, quo bello omnes gentes ac nationes {20} premebantur, Cn.
Pompeius extrema hieme adparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate

        CICERO, _pro Lege Manilia_, 34, 35.

  4. +tanti belli impetus,+ fig. for _an attacking fleet of such
  force_, which from its size would ordinarily sail slowly. --Wilkins.
  5-8. +Qui ... munivit.+ Early in the year (+nondum tempestivo ad
  navigandum+) Pompeius cleared of pirates the Sicilian, African, and
  Sardinian waters, so re-establish the supply of grain from these
  provinces to Italy.
  14-18. +undequagesimo ... dediderunt.+ The bold Cilician seakings
  alone ventured to face the Roman fleet in the offing of Coracesium
  (at the W. frontier of Cilicia), but were completely defeated.
  Forty-nine days (+undequinquagesimo+) after Pompeius had appeared in
  the Eastern seas, Cilicia was subdued, and the war at an end. ‘In
  all about 1300 piratical vessels are said to have been destroyed:
  besides which the richly filled arsenals and magazines of the
  buccaneers were burnt. Of the pirates, about 10,000 perished
  (+interfecti+); upwards of 20,000 fell alive (+partim capti--partim
  se dediderunt+) into the hands of the victor.’ --M.
  22. +ineunte vere ... confecit.+ ‘In the summer of 67 B.C., three
  months after the beginning of the campaign, commerce resumed its
  wonted course, and instead of the former famine abundance prevailed
  in Italy.’ --M.]

+This was the first trial of rule centralised in a single hand,+ and
Pompeius fully justified the confidence that was placed in him.



_Pompeius subdues Mithridates and Tigranes._

Pompeius interea memorabile adversus Mithridaten, qui post Luculli
profectionem magnas novi exercitus vires reparaverat, bellum gessit. At
rex fusus fugatusque et omnibus exutus copiis Armeniam Tigranenque
generum petit, regem eius temporis, {5} nisi qua Luculli armis erat
infractus, potentissimum. Simul itaque duos persecutus Pompeius intravit
Armeniam. Prior filius Tigranis, sed discors patri, pervenit ad
Pompeium: mox ipse supplex et praesens se regnumque dicioni eius
permisit, {10} praefatus neminem alium neque Romanum neque ullius gentis
virum futurum fuisse, cuius se societate commissurus foret, quam
Pompeium; non esse turpe ab eo vinci, quem vincere esset nefas, neque
inhoneste aliquem summitti huic, quem fortuna super {15} omnes
extulisset. Servatus regi honos imperi, sed multato ingenti pecunia,
quae omnis, sicuti Pompeio moris erat, redacta in quaestoris potestatem
ac publicis descripta litteris. Syria aliaeque, quas occupaverat,
provinciae ereptae, et aliae restitutae populo {20} Romano, aliae tum
primum in eius potestatem redactae, ut Syria, quae tum primum facta est
stipendiaria. Finis imperi regi terminatus Armenia.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 37.

+Context.+ In 66 B.C. Lucullus, of whom Mommsen says ‘hardly any other
Roman general accomplished so much with so trifling means,’ was
superseded by Pompeius. By the Lex Manilia Pompeius obtained, in
addition to the extensive powers conferred upon him by the Lex Gabinia
67 B.C., the military administration of Asia as far as Armenia. ‘Never
since Rome stood had such power been united in the hands of a single
man.’ --M.

  3-4. +rex fusus ... copiis+, i.e. in Lesser Armenia, on S. bank of
  R. Lycus, where Pompeius afterwards founded Nicopolis.
  5. +Tigranenque generum petit.+ Tigranes had married Cleopatra, the
  daughter of Mithridates.
  17-19. +quae omnis ... litteris,+ i.e. paid into the Roman treasury.
  Cf. Lucan ix. 197 _Immodicas possedit opes, sed plura retentis_ |
  _Intulit_ sc. _in aerarium_.]

+The End of Mithridates.+ After his defeat at Nicopolis the aged king
took refuge in his Northern capital of Panticapaeum (on the Cimmerian
Bosporus). Here, when all turned against him, he took poison, 63 B.C.
‘In him a great enemy was borne to the tomb, a greater than had ever yet
withstood the Romans in the indolent East.’ --M.

+Syria made a Roman Province,+ 65 B.C.



A. _Curule Aedile, 65 B.C._

Aedilis praeter comitium ac forum basilicasque etiam Capitolium ornavit
porticibus ad tempus exstructis, in quibus abundante rerum copia pars
apparatus exponeretur. Venationes autem ludosque et cum collega et
separatim edidit, quo factum est, {5} ut communium quoque impensarum
solus gratiam caperet, nec dissimularet collega eius Marcus Bibulus
evenisse sibi quod Polluci: ut enim geminis fratribus aedes in foro
constituta tantum Castoris vocaretur, ita suam Caesarisque munificentiam
unius Caesaris {10} dici.

        SUETONIUS, _Divus Iulius_, 10.

  1. +Aedilis.+ As curule-aedile Caesar exceeded all previous
  expenditure. This was meant to secure the favour of the democracy,
  and gain the position of its leader, which was in fact vacant; for
  Crassus was never popular, and Pompeius was absent in the East.
  +basilicas+ (βασιλική sc. οἰκία and στοά: _regia_) = _halls_.
  2. +porticibus:+ these acted as booths, in a grand fair, as we
  should say.
  4. +Venationes+, here of the combats with wild beasts.
  7. +M. Bibulus+, also Caesar’s colleague in his first consulship,
  59 B.C.]

B. _Propraetor in Further Spain, 61 B.C._

Ex praetura ulteriorem sortitus Hispaniam, retinentes creditores
interventu sponsorum removit, ac neque more neque iure, ante quam
provinciae ornarentur, profectus est; pacataque provincia, pari {15}
festinatione, non expectato successore, ad triumphum simul consulatumque
decessit. Sed cum, edictis iam comitiis, ratio eius haberi non posset
nisi privatus introisset urbem, et ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi
contradicerent, coactus est triumphum, {20} ne consulatu excluderetur,

        SUETONIUS, _Divus Iulius_, 18.

+Context.+ In 69 B.C. Caesar was elected to a Quaestorship (the lowest
step in the ladder of official life) and discharged his judicial duties
in Further Spain with tact and industry.

  13. +retinentes ... removit+ = _freed himself from his creditors,
  who were for detaining him_, by the help of sureties. Caesar is said
  to have borrowed from Crassus 830 talents.
  14-15. +ante quam provinciae ornarentur:+ a regular phrase used of
  supplying the newly chosen magistrate with money, arms, attendants,
  18. +ratio ... posset+ = _his candidature could not be considered_.]

+Propraetor in F. Spain.+ ‘His governorship enabled him partly to rid
himself of his debts partly to lay the foundation for his military
repute.’ --M.



_Cicero declaims against the Audacity of Catiline._

Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam diu etiam
furor iste tuus nos eludet? Quem ad finem sese effrenata iactabit
audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palati, nihil urbis vigiliae,
nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum {5} omnium, nihil hic
munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora voltusque moverunt?
Patere tua consilia non sentis? Constrictam iam horum omnium scientia
teneri coniurationem tuam non vides? Quid proxima, quid superiore nocte
egeris, {10} ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, quem
nostrum ignorare arbitraris? O tempora! O mores! Senatus haec
intellegit; consul videt: hic tamen vivit. Vivit? immo vero etiam in
senatum venit: fit publici consilii particeps; notat at designat {15}
oculis ad caedem unum quemque nostrum. . . . Castra sunt in Italia
contra rem publicam in Etruriae faucibus collocata: crescit in dies
singulos hostium numerus; eorum autem castrorum imperatorem ducemque
hostium intra moenia atque {20} adeo in senatu videmus intestinam
aliquam cotidie perniciem rei publicae molientem. Si te iam, Catilina,
eomprehendi, si interfici iussero, credo, erit verendum mihi ne non hoc
potius omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat.

        CICERO, _in Catilinam_, i. §§ 1, 2, 5.

  1. +Quo usque tandem abutere+ = _how long, pray, will you presume
  upon?_ Catiline had been declared _hostis patriae_, and yet dared to
  appear in the Senate.
  4. +praesidium Palati+: in the case of any threatening danger the
  +Mons Palatinus+ was occupied as one of the most important military
  points in the city.
  6-7. +senatus locus+, i.e. the temple of +Jupiter Stator+, on the N.
  slope of the Palatine, chosen as the safest meeting-place, and near
  Cicero’s house.
  17-18. +castra ... collocata+, the camp of Manlius (one of the
  veteran centurions of Sulla) was planted at Faesulae (Fiesole),
  a rocky fastness three miles N.E. of Florence.
  19. +imperatorem:+ ironical, as though Catiline were the legally
  appointed general of the Republic.]

+In L. Catilinam Oratio i.+ ‘This splendid oration, in its fiery vigour
and mastery of invective, is unsurpassed except by the Second
Philippic.’ --Cruttwell.

+Its effect on Catiline.+ _Tum ille furibundus ‘quoniam quidem
circumventus’ inquit ‘ab inimicis praeceps agor, incendium meum ruina
restinguam.’_ Sall. _Catil._ 31. That night Catiline left Rome for the
camp of Manlius.



_The End of Catiline._

Sed confecto proelio tum vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque vis
animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Nam fere, quem quisque vivus
pugnando locum ceperat, eum, amissa anima, corpore tegebat. Pauci autem,
quos medios cohors praetoria disiecerat, {5} paulo divorsius, sed omnes
tamen advorsis volneribus conciderant. Catilina vero longe a suis inter
hostium cadavera repertus est, paululum etiam spirans ferociamque animi,
quam habuerat vivus, in voltu retinens. Postremo ex omni copia neque in
{10} proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus captus est. Ita
cuncti suae hostiumque vitae iuxta pepercerant. Neque tamen exercitus
populi Romani laetam aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat; nam
strenuissumus quisque aut occiderat in proelio, aut {15} graviter
volneratus discesserat. Multi autem, qui de castris visundi aut
spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia cadavera, amicum alii,
pars hospitem aut cognatum reperiebant; fuere item, qui inimicos suos
cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem {20} exercitum laetitia, maeror,
luctus atque gaudia agitabantur.

        SALLUST, _Bellum Catilinae_, 61.

  5. +cohors praetoria+: a _corps d’élite_, specially organised as a
  bodyguard of the general (_praetor_ = _praeitor_, _prae + eo_),
  dating from the time when the praetores was the older name of the
  consuls (= _colleagues_).
  8. +etiam+ (= _adhuc_) = _still_. Cf. Verg. _Aen._ vi. 485 _etiam
  currus etiam arma tenentem_.
  11. +civis ingenuus+, i.e. a free citizen born of free citizens.
  12. +Ita cuncti ... pepercerant+ = _so unsparing had they all been
  alike of their own and their opponents’ lives_. --Pollard.
  21. +laetitia+ = joy manifested, +gaudia+ = joy felt.
  +luctus+ = grief shown by outward signs, e.g. by dress.
  +maeror+ = grief shown by inward signs, e.g. by tears, or a sad

+The Battle of Pistoria+ (Pistoia, N.W. of Faesulae). ‘Catiline showed
on this day that nature had destined him for no ordinary things, and
that he knew at once how to command and how to fight as a soldier. At
length Petreius, with his bodyguard, broke the centre of the enemy, and
then attacked the two wings from within. This decided the day.’ --M.

+The character of Catiline.+ ‘He was one of the most wicked men in that
wicked age. He possessed in a high degree the qualities which are
required in the leader of a band of ruined and desperate men--the
faculty of enjoying all pleasures and of bearing all privations,
courage, military talent, knowledge of men, indomitable energy.’ --M.
Cf. Sall. _Catil._ 5.



_Forms the First Triumvirate: Consul, 60-59 B.C._

Hoc igitur consule inter eum et Cn. Pompeium et M. Crassum inita
potentiae societas, quae urbi orbique terrarum nec minus diverso quoque
tempore ipsis exitiabilis fuit. Hoc consilium sequendi Pompeius causam
habuerat, ut tandem acta in {5} transmarinis provinciis, quibus, ut
praediximus, multi obtrectabant, per Caesarem confirmarentur consulem,
Caesar autem, quod animadvertebat se cedendo Pompei gloriae aucturum
suam et invidia communis potentiae in illum relegata confirmaturum {10}
vires suas, Crassus, ut quem principatum solus adsequi non poterat,
auctoritate Pompei, viribus teneret Caesaris. Adfinitas etiam inter
Caesarem Pompeiumque contracta nuptiis, quippe Iuliam, filiam C.
Caesaris, Cn. Magnus duxit uxorem. In {15} hoc consulatu Caesar legem
tulit, ut ager Campanus plebei divideretur, suasore legis Pompeio: ita
circiter XX milia civium eo deducta et ius urbis restitutum post annos
circiter CLII quam bello Punico ab Romanis Capua in formam praefecturae
{20} redacta erat. Bibulus, collega Caesaris, cum actiones eius magis
vellet impedire quam posset, maiore parte anni domi se tenuit: quo facto
dum augere vult invidiam collegae, auxit potentiam. Tum Caesari decretae
in quinquennium Galliae. {25}

        VELL. PAT. ii. 44.

  1-2. +inter eum ... societas+, the famous First Triumvirate. ‘It
  was at first an expedient to secure, as we should say, a working
  majority for a vigorous democratic policy, but the bitterness of its
  enemies transformed the coalition itself from an honourable union
  into the semblance of a three-headed tyranny.’ --Warde Fowler.
  4-7. The ultra-senatorial party (after Pompeius’ great act of
  renunciation, when he dismissed his victorious veterans in 62 B.C.)
  had checked and worried Pompeius by refusing to ratify his
  arrangements in the East, and by criticising and opposing his plans
  for rewarding his veterans. Thus they deliberately drove him once
  more into the arms of Caesar and the democracy.
  10. +relegata+ = _attributed_, _imputed_, lit. _removed_
  (_re_ + _lēgo_).
  21. +Bibulus, collega Caesaris:+ cf. Suet. _Divus Iulius_ 20:
    _Non Bibulo quicquam, nuper sed Caesare factum est:
      Nam Bibulo fieri consule nil memini._]

+Caesar’s First Consulship.+ Among his other acts was the famous _Lex
Iulia de pecuniis repetundis_ (against official extortion in the
provinces), which won strong praise even from Cicero himself.


THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (1)

‘_That day he overcame the Nervii_,’ 57 B.C.

Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus, ubi
suos urgeri signisque in unum locum collatis duodecimae legionis
confertos milites sibi ipsos ad pugnam esse impedimento vidit--quartae
cohortis omnibus centurionibus occisis, {5} signifero interfecto, signo
amisso, reliquarum cohortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vulneratis
aut occisis, in his primipilo P. Sextio Baculo, fortissimo viro, multis
gravibusque volneribus confecto, ut iam se sustinere non posset;
reliquos esse tardiores et nonnullos {10} ab novissimis deserto proelio
excedere ac tela vitare, hostes neque a fronte ex inferiore loco
subeuntes intermittere et ab utroque latere instare, et rem esse in
angusto vidit neque ullum esse subsidium quod submitti posset, scuto ab
novissimis {15} militi detracto, quod ipse eo sine scuto venerat, in
primam aciem processit; centurionibusque nominatim appellatis reliquos
cohortatus milites signa inferre et manipulos laxare iussit, quo
facilius gladiis uti possent. Cuius adventu spe illata militibus ac {20}
redintegrato animo, cum pro se quisque in conspectu imperatoris etiam in
extremis suis rebus operam navare cuperet, paulum hostium impetus
tardatus est.

        CAESAR, _de B. G._ ii. 25.

+Context.+ The Nervii, the bravest of the Belgae, surprised Caesar’s men
while at work on their camp. There was no time to think: they took
station where they could. The 9th and 10th legions on the left broke and
pursued the enemy in front of them, and the two legions in the centre
stood firm. But on the right there was a gap, and the Nervii were
rapidly surrounding the two legions huddled together here, and the fight
threatened every moment to become a second Cannae, +when Caesar restored
the fight+. Labienus sent back the victorious 10th, who took the enemy
in their rear, and the cavalry completed the victory.

  14-15. +neque ullum ... posset+: the rear guard, the 13th and 14th
  legions, had not yet come up.
  18-19. +signa ... laxare+ = _to charge and_ (thus) _open out the
  22-23. +operam navare+ = _to do their very best_. +navo+ (orig.
  _gnavo_; cf. γνώσκω) = lit. _to make known_, _to exhibit_.]

+The Battle of the Sambre.+ One of the most desperate that Caesar ever
fought. The memory of it lived in Caesar’s mind so vividly that he seems
to fight the battle over again as he describes it, in language for him
unusually strong and intense. --W. F.

+Result of the Battle+, the submission of North West Gaul.


THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (2)

_Naval Battle with the Veneti, 56 B.C._

Una erat magno usui res praeparata a nostris,--falces praeacutae
insertae affixaeque longuriis non absimili forma muralium falcium. His
cum funes qui antemnas ad malos destinabant comprehensi adductique
essent, navigio remis incitato praerumpebantur. {5} Quibus abscisis
antemnae necessario concidebant; ut, cum omnis Gallicis spes in velis
armamentisque consisteret, his ereptis omnis usus navium uno tempore
eriperetur. Reliquum erat certamen positum in virtute, qua nostri
milites facile {10} superabant atque eo magis, quod in conspectu
Caesaris atque omnis exercitus res gerebatur, ut nullum paulo fortius
factum latere posset; omnes enim colles ac loca superiora, unde erat
propinquus despectus in mare, ab exercitu tenebantur. Disiectis, ut
diximus, {15} antemnis, cum singulas binae ac ternae naves
circumsteterant, milites summa vi transcendere in hostium naves
contendebant. Quod postquam barbari fieri animadverterunt, expugnatis
compluribus navibus, cum ei rei nullum reperiretur auxilium, fuga {20}
salutem petere contenderunt. Ac iam conversis in eam partem navibus quo
ventus ferebat, tanta subito malacia ac tranquillitas exstitit ut se ex
loco movere non possent. Quae quidem res ad negotium conficiendum maxime
fuit opportuna; nam singulas {25} nostri consectati expugnaverunt, ut
perpaucae ex omni numero noctis interventu ad terram pervenerint, cum ab
hora fere quarta usque ad solis occasum pugnaretur.

        CAESAR, _de B. G._ iii. 14, 15.

+Context.+ In the winter of 57-6 Roman officers, who came to levy
requisitions of grain, were detained by the Veneti. Caesar’s attack on
their coast-towns failed to reduce them to submission: so he determined
to wait for his fleet. This he entrusted to Decimus Brutus, an able and
devoted officer. At first the Roman galleys were powerless against the
high-decked strong sailing-vessels of the Veneti, but +the use of the
murales falces, and the opportune calm, enabled Brutus to annihilate
their fleet+.

  11-12. +quod ... gerebatur.+ Napoleon (_Caesar_, vol. ii. p. 6)
  thinks that Caesar was encamped on the heights of Saint Gildas
  overlooking Quiberon Bay.
  23. +malacia+ = _a calm_, but μαλακία = _softness_, L. _mollities_.]

+Result of the Victory+--the surrender of the Veneti and of all
Brittany. +The earliest historical naval battle fought on the Atlantic


THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (3)

_Caesar’s Bridge across the Rhine, 55 B.C._

Rationem pontis hanc instituit. Tigna bina sesquipedalia paulum ab imo
praeacuta, dimensa ad altitudinem fluminis, intervallo pedum duorum
inter se iungebat. Haec cum machinationibus immissa in flumen defixerat
fistucisque adegerat--non sublicae {5} modo derecte ad perpendiculum,
sed prone ac fastigate, ut secundum naturam fluminis procumberent--eis
item contraria duo ad eundem modum iuncta intervallo pedum quadragenum
ab inferiore parte contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa statuebat.
{10} Haec utraque insuper bipedalibus trabibus immissis, quantum eorum
tignorum iunctura distabat, binis utrimque fibulis ab extrema parte
distinebantur; quibus disclusis atque in contrariam partem revinctis,
tanta erat operis firmitudo atque {15} ea rerum natura ut, quo maior vis
aquae se incitavisset, hoc artius illigata tenerentur. Haec derecta
materia iniecta contexebantur ac longuriis cratibusque consternebantur;
ac nihilo setius sublicae et ad inferiorem partem fluminis oblique
agebantur, quae {20} pro ariete subiectae et cum omni opere coniunctae
vim fluminis exciperent; et aliae item supra pontem mediocri spatio, ut,
si arborum trunci sive naves deiciendi operis essent a barbaris
immissae, his defensoribus earum rerum vis minueretur, neu ponti {25}

        CAESAR, _de B. G._ iv. 17.

+Context.+ The year 55 B.C. appears to have been marked by a general
movement in the migration of the German tribes. An advance, consisting
of two tribes, the Usipetes and Tenctri, crowded forward by the more
powerful Suevi, crossed the Lower Rhine into N. Gaul. Caesar drove them
back across the Rhine, +bridged the river+, followed them up into their
own territories, and fully established the supremacy of the Roman arms.
--Allen and Greenough.

  5. +fistucisque adegerat+ = _and had driven them home_ (+ad+-) _with
  rammers_. For Plan of Bridge see Allen’s _Caesar_, p. 103.
  11-14. +Haec ... distinebantur+ = _these two sets were held apart by
  two-feet timbers laid on above, equal_ (in thickness) _to the
  interval left by the fastening of the piles_ (+quantum ...
  distabat+), _with a pair of ties_ (+fibulis+) _at each end_.
  --A. & G.
  17-18. +Haec ... contexebantur+ = _these_ (i.e. the framework of
  timber) _were covered over by boards_ (+materia+) _laid lengthwise_.
  +longuriis+ = _with long poles_.]

+The Bridge+ (prob. near Bonn). ‘With extraordinary speed (in ten days)
the bridge was completed. It was a triumph of engineering and industry.’
--W. F.


THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (4)

_Cassivellaunus. Second Invasion of Britain, 54 B.C._

Cassivellaunus, omni deposita spe contentionis, dimissis amplioribus
copiis, milibus circiter quattuor essedariorum relictis itinera nostra
servabat: paulumque ex via excedebat locisque impeditis ac silvestribus
sese occultabat, atque eis regionibus quibus {5} nos iter facturos
cognoverat pecora atque homines ex agris in silvas compellebat; et cum
equitatus noster liberius praedandi vastandique causa se in agros
eiecerat, omnibus viis semitisque essedarios ex silvis emittebat; et
magno cum periculo nostrorum {10} equitum cum eis confligebat atque hoc
metu latius vagari prohibebat. Relinquebatur ut neque longius ab agmine
legionum discedi Caesar pateretur, et tantum in agris vastandis
incendiisque faciendis hostibus noceretur quantum in labore atque
itinere {15} legionarii milites efficere poterant. . . . Cassivellaunus
hoc proelio nuntiato, tot detrimentis acceptis, vastatis finibus, maxime
etiam permotus defectione civitatum, legatos per Atrebatem Commium de
deditione ad Caesarem mittit. {20}

        CAESAR, _de B. G._ v. 19, 22.

+Context.+ The First Invasion of Britain (55 B.C.) was only a visit of
exploration; but in the Second Invasion (54 B.C.) Caesar aimed at a
partial conquest. He had been hearing of Britain ever since he came to
Gaul, and knew it to be a refuge for his Celtic enemies and a secret
source of their strength. He set sail from the Portus Ittius (mod.
Wissant, some twelve miles W. of Calais) and after drifting some way to
the N.E., made his way to his former landing-place, probably near
Romney. Some severe fighting followed, till at length Caesar crossed the
Thames (apparently between Kingston and Brentford) and +entered the
country of Cassivellaunus, who gave Caesar much trouble by his guerilla
tactics. Deserted by his allies, Cassivellaunus offered his submission,
which Caesar gladly accepted.+

  1. +Contentionis+, i.e. of a general engagement with Caesar.
  12. +Relinquebatur ut+ = _the consequence was that_ ...
  17. +hoc proelio+, i.e. the storming by Caesar of his fortified
  camp, perh. St. Albans.
  18-19. +defectione civitatum+, espec. of the Trinobantes (chief
  place _Camulodunum_, later _Colonia castrum_ = _Colchester_).
  19. +Commium+, Caesar had made him King of the Atrebates (N.W.

+Caesar In Britain.+ ‘What he tells us of the geography and inhabitants
of the Island comprises almost all we know, except from  coins, down to
the time of its final conquest by Clodius 51 A.D.’ --W. F.


THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (5)

_The Gallic uprising. Fabian tactics of Vercingetorix, 52 B.C._

Vercingetorix tot continuis incommodis acceptis suos ad concilium
convocat. Docet ‘longe alia ratione esse bellum gerendum atque antea
gestum sit; omnibus modis huic rei studendum ut pabulatione et commeatu
Romani prohibeantur: id esse {5} facile, quod equitatu ipsi abundent et
quod anni tempore subleventur; pabulum secari non posse; necessario
dispersos hostes ex aedificiis petere; hos omnes cotidie ab equitibus
deleri posse. Praeterea, salutis causa rei familiaris commoda
neglegenda; {10} vicos atque aedificia incendi oportere hoc spatio
quoqueversus, quo pabulandi causa adire posse videantur. Harum ipsis
rerum copiam suppetere, quod quorum in finibus bellum geratur eorum
opibus subleventur: Romanos aut inopiam non laturos aut {15} magno cum
periculo longius a castris processuros; neque interesse ipsosne
interficiant an impedimentis exuant, quibus amissis bellum geri non
possit. Praeterea, oppida incendi oportere quae non munitione et loci
natura ab omni sint periculo tuta; ne {20} suis sint ad detrectandam
militiam receptacula, neu Romanis proposita ad copiam commeatus
praedamque tollendam. Haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, multo illa
gravius aestimari debere, liberos, coniuges in servitutem abstrahi,
ipsos interfici; {25} quae sit necesse accidere victis.’

        CAESAR, _de B. G._ vii. 14.

+Context.+ On his return from Britain, Caesar found the N. Gauls in open
revolt. The division of Sabinus (at Aduatuca, near Liège) was
annihilated by Ambiorix, and Caesar was only just in time to relieve Q.
Cicero at Charleroi. To prevent all further support to the Gauls from
the Germans across the Rhine, Caesar again made a military demonstration
across the river, and put an end to all the hopes of the Germans of
breaking through this boundary. In the winter of 53-2 B.C., during his
absence in Cisalpine Gaul, +a general uprising of the S. and Central
Gauls took place under the Arvernian Vercingetorix, the hero of the
whole Gallic race+.

  6-7. +anni tempore+, i.e. scarcely yet spring, when no crops could
  be got off the land.
  11-12. +hoc spatio quoqueversus, quo+ = _so far in every
  direction as_.
  19. +oppida incendi:+ only Avaricum (Bourges) was to be spared.
  22. +proposita+ = _offered_ to be captured by the Romans.]

+The tactics of Vercingetorix.+ ‘He adopted a system of warfare similar
to that by which Cassivellaunus had saved the Celts of Britain.’ --M.


THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (6)

_Siege of Gergovia. Petronius dies to save his men, 52 B.C._

Cum acerrime comminus pugnaretur, hostes loco et numero, nostri virtute
confiderent, subito sunt Aedui visi ab latere nostris aperto, quos
Caesar ab dextra parte alio ascensu manus distinendae causa miserat. Hi
similitudine armorum vehementer {5} nostros perterruerunt. Eodem tempore
L. Fabius centurio quique una murum ascenderant circumventi atque
interfecti de muro praecipitabantur. M. Petronius, eiusdem legionis
centurio, cum portas excidere conatus esset, a multitudine oppressus ac
sibi desperans, {10} multis iam volneribus acceptis, manipularibus suis
qui illum secuti erant, ‘Quoniam,’ inquit, ‘me una vobiscum servare non
possum, vestrae quidem certe vitae prospiciam, quos cupiditate gloriae
adductus in periculum deduxi. Vos data facultate vobis consulite.’ {15}
Simul in niedios hostes irrupit, duobusque interfectis reliquos a porta
paulum submovit. Conantibus auxiliari suis, ‘Frustra,’ inquit, ‘meae
vitae subvenire conamini, quem iam sanguis viresque deficiunt. Proinde
abite dum est facultas vosque ad {20} legionem recipite.’ Ita pugnans
post paulum concidit ac suis saluti fuit.

        CAESAR, _de B. G._ vii. 50.

+Context.+ With a half-starved army Caesar stormed Avaricum after a most
obstinate defence, and then laid siege to the Arvernian capital of
Gergovia, in hope of destroying Vercingetorix and ending the war. As the
town was too strong to be taken by storm, he resolved to try a blockade,
but he failed, as at Dyrrachium in 49 B.C., from want of sufficient

+A last desperate attack on the town was repulsed+, and Caesar, defeated
for the first time, was forced to raise the siege.

  3. +ab latere nostris aperto:+ as a soldier carries his shield on
  the left arm, leaving the sword hand free, this (right) side is
  called +latus apertum+.--Compton.
  4. +manus distinendae causa+ = _for the purpose of diverting_
  (+distinendae+, lit. _hold off_) _the enemy’s force_.
  6. +perterruerunt+: this was all the more natural, as the Aeduan
  contingent was only awaiting the result of the blockade, to openly
  join the insurgents.
  9. +excidere+ = _to cut away_, _hew down_, i.e. from within.]

+Gergovia+, 4 miles S. of Clermont. This famous stronghold consists of a
rectangular plateau nearly a mile in length, and some 1300 feet above
the plain through which the Allier flows, and descending steeply on all
sides but one to the ground.

+Caesar’s failure.+ ‘The fact was that chiefly owing to the nature of
the ground and their own ardour, Caesar’s men were not well in hand.’
--W. F.


THE GALLIC WAR, 58-50 B.C. (7)

_Siege of Alesia. The Last Fight of Vercingetorix, 52 B.C._

Vercingetorix ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus ex oppido egreditur:
crates, longurios, musculos, fasces, reliquaque quae eruptionis causa
paraverat profert. Pugnatur uno tempore omnibus locis atque omnia
temptantur; quae minime visa pars firma est huc {5} concurritur.
Romanorum manus tantis munitionibus distinetur nec facile pluribus locis
occurrit. . . . Labienus, postquam neque aggeres neque fossae vim
hostium sustinere poterant, coactis XI cohortibus, quas ex proximis
praesidiis deductas fors obtulit, {10} Caesarem per nuntios facit
certiorem quid faciendum existimet. Accelerat Caesar ut proelio
intersit. Eius adventu ex colore vestitus cognito (quo insigni in
proeliis uti consuerat), turmisque equitum et cohortibus visis quas se
sequi iusserat, ut de locis {15} superioribus haec declivia et devexa
cemebantur, hostes proelium committunt. Utrimque clamore sublato excipit
rursus ex vallo atque omnibus munitionibus clamor. Nostri omissis pilis
gladiis rem gerunt. Repente post tergum equitatus cernitur: {20}
cohortes aliae appropinquant. Hostes terga vertunt; fugientibus equites
occurrunt: fit magna caedes: pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in
castra recipiunt.

        CAESAR, _de B. G._ vii. 84, 87, 88.

+Context.+ After his successful defence of Gergovia, Vercingetorix
allowed his judgment to be overruled, and attacked Caesar’s army (now
united to the division of Labienus) on the march. Caesar shook off the
enemy with the help of his German cavalry, and turned their retreat into
a rout. V. then threw himself with all his forces into Alesia. Caesar
constructed an inner line of investment and an outer line of defence,
and was thus able to wear out the besieged and +beat back the relieving
host of the Gauls+.

  1. +suos+, i.e. the host (some 250,000) of the relieving army of
  2. +musculos+ (dimin. of _mus_) = _pent-houses_ or _sheds_.
  4. +omnibus locis+, i.e. along the whole length of Caesar’s outer
  line of defence, _where it ran along the slope of Mont Réa_, to the
  N.W. of Alesia. This, as the relieving Gauls were quick to see, was
  the weakest point of the whole line.
  13. +ex colore vestitus+, i.e. the purple or scarlet paludamentum.]

+Vercingetorix.+ The Celtic officers delivered up V. to Caesar, to be
led in triumph five years later, and beheaded as a traitor. In 1865 a
statue was erected on the summit of Alesia, in honour of the heroic

+The fall of Alesia decided the fate of Gaul.+



_His Banishment._

Per idem tempus P. Clodius, homo nobilis, disertus, audax, quique
dicendi neque faciendi ullum nisi quem vellet nosset modum, malorum
propositorum exsecutor acerrimus, cum graves inimicitias cum M. Cicerone
exerceret (quid enim inter tam {5} dissimilis amicum esse poterat?) et a
patribus ad plebem transisset, legem in tribunatu tulit, qui civem
Romanum non damnatum interemisset, ei aqua et igni interdiceretur: cuius
verbis etsi non nominabatur Cicero, tamen solus petebatur. Ita vir
optime {10} meritus de re publica conservatae patriae pretium
calamitatem exili tulit. Non caruerunt suspicione oppressi Ciceronis
Caesar et Pompeius. Hoc sibi contraxisse videbatur Cicero, quod inter xx
viros dividendo agro Campano esse noluisset. Idem intra {15} biennium
sera Cn. Pompei cura, verum ut coepit intenta, votisque Italiae ac
decretis senatus, virtute atque actione Anni Milonis tribuni pl.
dignitati patriaeque restitutus est. Neque post Numidici exilium ac
reditum quisquam aut expulsus invidiosius {20} aut receptus est laetius:
cuius domus quam infeste a Clodio disiecta erat, tam speciose a senatu
restituta est.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 45.

  6-7. +a patribus ... transisset.+ When Cicero refused to throw in
  his lot with the Triumvirs, Publius Clodius was (by the aid of
  Caesar as Pontifex Maximus) hurriedly transferred from a patrician
  to a plebeian gens, and then chosen a tribune of the people for the
  year 58 B.C. Clodius was thus enabled to satisfy his private hatred
  of Cicero, and Caesar was enabled to get rid of the man who
  persisted in opposing him.
  7-8. +qui ... interemisset:+ aimed at Cicero for his share in the
  summary execution of the Catilinarians 63 B.C. Mommsen calls it a
  judicial murder. Undoubtedly the Senate had not the power of
  sentencing _citizens_ to death. But Cicero argues that the legal
  effect of the _Senatus consultum ultimum_ was to _disenfranchise_
  Lentulus and his associates, and to place them in the position of
  12-13. +Non caruerunt ... Pompeius:+ Caesar having in vain tried to
  win him over abandoned him to his fate, and Pompeius basely deserted
  15. +dividendo agro Campano+, i.e. by Caesar’s Agrarian Law of 59
  B.C., to provide for Pompey’s veterans.
  18. +Anni Milonis:+ the bravoes of Milo protected from disturbance
  the voters engaged in sanctioning the decree for the recall of
  19. +Numidici+, i.e. Q. Caecilius Metellus, general against
  Jugurtha, superseded by Marius and forced to retire to Rhodes.]



_His Return._

Pr. Nonas Sextiles Dyrrachio sum profectus, ipso illo die, quo lex est
lata de nobis; Brundisium veni Nonis Sextilibus: ibi mihi Tulliola mea
fuit praesto natali suo ipso die, qui casu idem natalis erat et
Brundisinae coloniae et tuae vicinae Salutis; quae {5} res animadversa a
multitudine summa Brundisinorum gratulatione celebrata est. Ante diem vi
Idus Sextiles cognovi, cum Brundisii essem, litteris Quinti, mirifico
studio omnium aetatum atque ordinum, incredibili concursu Italiae legem
comitiis {10} centuriatis esse perlatam: inde a Brundisinis
honestissimis ornatus iter ita feci, ut undique ad me cum gratulatione
legati convenerint. Ad urbem ita veni, ut nemo ullius ordinis homo
nomenclatori notus fuerit, qui mihi obviam non venerit, praeter eos {15}
inimicos, quibus id ipsum, se inimicos esse, non liceret aut dissimulare
aut negare. Cum venissem ad portam Capenam, gradus templorum ab infima
plebe completi erant, a qua plausu maximo cum esset mihi gratulatio
significata, similis et frequentia {20} et plausus me usque ad
Capitolium celebravit, in foroque et in ipso Capitolio miranda multitudo
fuit. Postridie in senatu, qui fuit dies Nonarum Septembr., senatui
gratias egimus.

        CICERO, _Ep. ad Att._ iv. 1.

  1. +Dyrrachio+ (formerly _Epidamnus_, mod. _Durazzo_), a town in
  Illyria, on a peninsula in the Adriatic. It was the usual port of
  landing and departure from and for Brundisium (distant about 100
  3. +Tulliola+, Cicero’s dearly-loved daughter Tullia, the only one
  of his family of whose conduct he never complains, and his tender
  and sympathising companion in all his pursuits.
  4-5. +qui casu ... coloniae.+ Brundisium was founded 244 B.C. The
  Via Appia terminated here.
  5. +tuae vicinae Salutis+, the Temple of Salus on the Quirinal was
  near the house of Atticus.
  9. +Quinti+ (sc. _Ciceronis_): Cicero’s only brother, a gallant
  soldier (e.g. as legatus to Caesar in Gaul), but a man of violent
  temper. Proscribed by the Triumvirs, and put to death in 43 B.C.
  11-12. +a Brundisinis ... ornatus+ = _having received attentions
  from the most respectable men of Brundisium_.
  13. +legati+ = _deputations_, i.e. from the various towns en route.
  14. +nomenclatori+ (= lit. _one who calls by name_, cf. καλ-έω,
  _Cal-endae_): a confidential slave who attended his master in
  canvassing, and on similar occasions, and told him the names of the
  people he met.
  18. +ad portam Capenam+ (_Porta S. Sebastiano_), by which the Via
  Appia led to Capua. ‘Cicero, perhaps for effect, followed the line
  of triumphal procession.’ --Impey.]



_In praise of Caesar._

Itaque cum acerrimis nationibus et maximis Germanorum et Helvetiorum
proeliis felicissime decertavit: ceteras conterruit, compulit, domuit,
imperio populi Romani parere assuefecit, et quas regiones, quasque
gentes nullae nobis antea litterae, {5} nulla vox, nulla fama notas
fecerat, has noster imperator nosterque exercitus et populi Romani arma
peragrarunt. Semitam tantum Galliae tenebamus antea, patres conscripti;
ceterae partes a gentibus aut inimicis huic imperio, aut infidis, aut
{10} incognitis, aut certe immanibus et barbaris et bellicosis
tenebantur; quas nationes, nemo umquam fuit, quin frangi domarique
cuperet; nemo sapienter de republica nostra cogitavit iam inde a
principio huius imperi, quin Galliam maxime timendam huic {15} imperio
putaret; sed propter vim ac multitudinem gentium illarum numquam est
antea cum omnibus dimicatum. Restitimus semper lacessiti. Nunc denique
est perfectum, ut imperii nostri terrarumque illarum idem esset
extremum. {20}

        CICERO, _de Provinciis Consularibus_, § 33.

  3. +compulit+ = _checked_, usu. = _to constrain_.
  5. +nullae litterae+ = _no book_.
  8. +Semitam tantum Galliae+ = _it was but a strip of Gaul._ --W. F.
  +Semita+ (_se + mi_ = _go aside_, cf. _meo_, _trames_) = lit.
  _a narrow way_, _path._
  13-14. +nemo ... cogitavit+ = _there never has been a prudent
  statesman_. --W. F.
  17. +cum omnibus+, i.e. with the Gauls as a nation.
  19-20. +ut imperi ... extremum+, i.e. that our Empire extends to the
  utmost limits of that land.]

+Cicero’s Recantation+ (παλινῳδία). The time for the struggle between
the Senatorial party (the Optimates) and the Triumvirs, weakened by
their mutual jealousy, seemed to have come. Accordingly Cicero proposed
in a full house to reconsider Caesar’s Agrarian Law (of 59 B.C.) for the
allotment of lands in Campania; while Domitius Ahenobarbus (candidate
for next year’s Consulship) openly declared his intention to propose
Caesar’s recall. Caesar acted with his usual promptness, and the
Conference at Luca restored an understanding between the three regents.
Pompeius then crossed to Sardinia, and informed Q. Cicero that he would
be held reponsible for any act of hostility on the part of his brother.
Cicero had no choice but to submit, and delivered in the Senate his
oration _de Provinciis Consularibus_, a political manifesto on behalf of
Caesar and Pompeius--the _Recantation_ alluded to in _Ep. ad Att._ iv.
5, and elaborately explained in _Ep. ad Fam._ i. 9 (to Lentulus


CARRHAE, 53 B.C. (1)

‘_Quem deus vult perdere, prius dementat._’

Dum Gallos per Caesarem in septentrione debellat, ipse interim ad
orientem grave volnus a Parthis populus Romanus accepit. Nec de fortuna
queri possumus; caret solacio clades. Adversis et dis et hominibus
cupiditas consulis Crassi, dum Parthico {5} inhiat auro, undecim strage
legionum et ipsius capite multata est. Primum enim, qui solus et
subvehere commeatus et munire poterat a tergo, relictus Euphrates, dum
simulato transfugae cuidam Mazzarae Syro creditur. Tum in mediam
camporum {10} vastitatem eodem duce ductus exercitus, ut undique hosti
exponeretur. Itaque vixdum venerat Carrhas cum undique praefecti regis
Silaces et Surenas ostendere signa auro sericisque vexillis vibrantia.
Tunc sine mora circumfusi undique equitatus in {15} modum grandinis
atque nimborum densa pariter tela fuderunt. Sic miserabili strage
deletus exercitus. Ipse in colloquium sollicitatus signo dato vivus in
hostium manus incidisset, nisi tribunis reluctantibus fugam ducis
barbari ferro occupassent. Filium {20} ducis paene in conspectu patris
eisdem telis operuerunt. Reliquiae infelicis exercitus, quo quemque
rapuit fuga, in Armeniam Ciliciam Syriamque distractae vix nuntium
cladis rettulerunt.

        FLORUS, III. xi. 1-10 (sel.)

+Context.+ By the conference of the Triumvirs at Luca, it was arranged
to secure the succession of Crassus to the government of Syria, in order
to make war on the growing strength of the Parthian Empire beyond the
Euphrates. Consul with Pompeius in 55 B.C. he set out for his province
even before the expiration of his consulship ‘eager to gather in the
treasures of the East in addition to those of the West.’

  7-14. +Primum enim ... vibrantia.+ The Arab prince Abgarus induced
  Crassus to leave the Euphrates, and cross the great Mesopotamian
  desert to the Tigris. When at length the enemy offered battle some
  30 miles to the S. of Carrhae (Harran, not far from Edessa), by the
  side of the Parthian vizier stood prince Abgarus with his Bedouins.
  15-17. +Tunc sine mora ... exercitus.+ The Roman weapons of close
  combat, and the Roman system of concentration yielded for the first
  time to cavalry and distant warfare (the bow).
  20-21. +Filium ducis:+ his young and brave son Publius, who had
  served with the greatest distinction under Caesar in Gaul.
  22. +Reliquiae:+ out of 40,000 Roman legionaries, who had crossed
  the Euphrates, not a fourth part returned: 20,000 fell, and 10,000
  were taken prisoners.]

+Carrhae.+ ‘The day of Carrhae takes its place side by side with the
days of the Allia, and of Cannae.’ --M.


CARRHAE, 53 B.C. (2)

_After the Battle._


  Temporis angusti mansit concordia discors,
  Paxque fuit non sponte ducum; nam sola futuri
  Crassus erat belli medius mora. Qualiter undas         100
  Qui secat et geminum gracilis mare separat Isthmos
  Nec patitur conferre fretum: si terra recedat,
  Ionium Aegaeo frangat mare: sic, ubi saeva
  Arma ducum dirimens miserando funere Crassus
  Assyrias Latio maculavit sanguine Carrhas,             105
  Parthica Romanos solverunt damna furores.
  Plus illa vobis acie quam creditis actum est,
  Arsacidae: bellum victis civile dedistis.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, i. 98-108.

  98. +Temporis ... discors+ = _the short-lived concord endured, but
  it was a jarring_ (+discors+) _concord_. --Haskins.
  101. +Isthmos+, sc. _of Corinth_: Caesar planned to cut it, and thus
  to secure a direct route by sea, connecting Italy and the East.
  102. +Nec patitur ... fretum+ = _and suffers it_ (+mare+, l. 101)
  _not to join its waters_, i.e. the Corinthian and Saronic gulfs.]


  Milesne Crassi coniuge barbara
  Turpis maritus vixit, et hostium
    (Pro curia inversique mores!)
      Consenuit socerorum in armis     8
  Sub rege Medo Marsus et Apulus,
  Anciliorum et nominis et togae
    Oblitus aeternaeque Vestae,
      Incolumi Iove et urbe Roma?     12

        HORACE, _Odes_ III. v. 5-12.

Nearly 10,000 Roman prisoners were settled by the victors in the oasis
of Merv, as bondsmen compelled after the Parthian fashion to render
military service (+in armis+, l. 8).

  8. +Consenuit:+ Carrhae (53 B.C.) was fought 26 years before this
  Ode was written (27 B.C.).
  10-11. +Anciliorum, aeternae Vestae+, pledges of the immortality of
  10. +togae+, i.e. the Roman people, the _gens togata_.
  12. +Iove+, Jove’s temple on the Capitol.]


  Crassus ad Euphraten aquilas natumque suosque
      Perdidit, et leto est ultimus ipse datus.
  “Parthe, quid exsultas?” dixit dea, “signa remittes,
      Quique necem Crassi vindicet, ultor erit.”         468

        OVID, _Fasti_, vi. 465-468.  [[Hallam VI. 397-400]]

  3-4. During the last few months of his life, Caesar was occupied
  with the preparations for his expedition against the Parthians. In
  36 B.C. Antonius carried on a disastrous campaign against Phraates,
  King of Parthia, but in 20 B.C. Augustus received from the King the
  Eagles (+signa+, l. 467) and prisoners captured at Carrhae.]



_His humane Administration._

Ipse in Asiam profectus sum Tarso Nonis Ianuariis, non mehercule dici
potest, qua admiratione Ciliciae civitatum maximeque Tarsensium; postea
vero quam Taurum transgressus sum, mirifica exspectatio Asiae nostrarum
dioecesium, quae sex {5} mensibus imperii mei nullas meas acceperat
litteras, numquam hospitem viderat. Illud autem tempus quotannis ante
me fuerat in hoc quaestu; civitates locupletes, ne in hiberna milites
reciperent, magnas pecunias dabant, Cyprii talenta Attica CC, qua
ex {10} insula--non ὑπερβολικῶς, sed verissime loquor--nummus nullus
me obtinente erogabatur. Ob haec beneficia, quibus illi obstupescunt,
nullos honores mihi nisi verborum decerni sino; statuas, fana,
τέθριππα prohibeo, nec sum in ulla re alia molestus {15} civitatibus,
sed fortasse tibi, qui haec praedicem de me. Perifer, si me amas; tu
enim me haec facere voluisti. Iter igitur ita per Asiam feci, ut etiam
fames, qua nihil miserius est, quae tum erat in hac mea Asia--messis
enim nulla fuerat--, mihi optanda {20} fuerit: quacumque iter feci,
nulla vi, nullo iudicio, nulla contumelia auctoritate et cohortatione
perfeci, ut et Graeci et cives Romani, qui frumentum compresserant,
magnum numerum populis pollicerentur.

        CICERO, _Ep. ad Atticum_, v. 21.

  1. +in Asiam+, i.e. to the districts N. of the Taurus range, which
  belonged geographically to Asia in the Roman sense, but were
  politically attached to Cilicia. --Watson.
  +Tarso+ = on the R. Cydnus, about twelve miles above its mouth.
  Pompeius made Tarsus the capital of the new province of Cilicia,
  66 B.C.
  6-7. +nullas meas ... viderat+ = _had never received demands_
  (+litteras+) _from me, never seen a man billeted on them_. The
  +hospites+ = _soldiers or public officials_.
  8. +fuerat in hoc quaestu+ = _had been devoted to gain in the
  following fashion_. --Tyrrell.
  9. +ne in hiberna milites reciperent:+ Mommsen says ‘A town suffered
  nearly to the same extent when a Roman army took up winter quarters
  in it as when an enemy took it by storm.’
  15. τέθριππα = _statues in chariots drawn by four horses_.
  20-21. +mihi optanda fuerit:+ i.e. because it gave him the
  opportunity of showing the effect of his personal influence. --T.
  23. +compresserant+ = _had stowed away_; lit. _kept back_, rare.]

+Cicero as Governor.+ His administration seems to have been just,
considerate and popular.

For +Cicero’s Ideal of a Roman Governor+, see _Ep. ad Q. F._ i. 1
(Q. Cicero governed Asia as Propraetor 62-58 B.C.)


  _Nec quemquam iam ferre potest Caesarve priorem
  Pompeiusve parem._ --LUCAN.

+56 B.C. By the Conference at Luca+ it was arranged:--

(i) to give Caesar a new term of five years’ government in which to
complete his work in Gaul (until March 1, 49);

(ii) to give Pompeius the government of the two Spains, and Crassus that
of Syria, for five years also.

It was further agreed that Pompeius and Crassus should have the
consulship for 55 B.C.

+52 B.C. Pompeius Sole Consul.+ So things continued until 52 B.C., when
the constant rioting (Clodius v. Milo), and utter lawlessness prevailing
in Rome +gave Pompeius his opportunity+. The Senate in their distress
caused Pompeius to be nominated sole Consul, with supreme power to meet
the crisis. The death of Julia in 54 and of Crassus in 53 had removed
the two strongest influences for peace, and from 52 onwards the breach
between Pompeius and Caesar began to widen.

During Caesar’s long absence from Rome his opponents, with Cato at their
head, were waiting their chance to impeach him for numerous acts in his
province, as soon as he appeared in Rome for the consular elections. He
would then be merely a private citizen, and as such amenable to
prosecution. Now Caesar’s proconsulship of Gaul was to terminate on
March 1, 49, and the consular elections would take place at the earliest
in the following summer. +There would therefore be an interval between
the two offices+, and Caesar would be exposed to the utmost peril, if he
gave up province and army on March 1, 49. Caesar had long foreseen this.
When the law was passed in 55, which added a fresh term of five years to
his government, +Pompeius seems to have inserted in it+ (doubtless in
accordance with a previous promise to Caesar) +a clause prohibiting the
discussion of a successor before March 1, 50+. Caesar therefore could
not be superseded except by the consuls of 49, and these would not be
able to succeed him (as proconsuls) till Jan. 1, 48. He would thus be
able to retain his army and government throughout the year 49.

+Caesar’s canvass for the Consulship.+ As the law stood, he would have
to come in person to Rome. But early in 52 +a decree was promulgated,
with the support of Pompeius, which relieved him from the necessity of
canvassing in person+. Caesar might now feel himself safe: he would
retain both army and provinces throughout 49, and would not be forced to
return to Rome until he was safe from prosecution as Consul.

+Lex Pompeia de iure magistratuum.+ But this did not suit Caesar’s
enemies. Pompeius and the Senate combined to alter the whole legal
machinery for appointing provincial governors. +There was to be an
interval of five years between a consulship and a proconsulship+, which
would prevent Caesar, even if he were duly elected Consul in 49, from
obtaining a fresh provincial governorship until five years from the end
of 48. When the bill became law (as it did in 51) there would be an
interval of some years before any consuls would be qualified under it
for provinces: and to fill up the governorships during the interval, the
Senate was authorised to appoint any person of consular rank who had not
as yet proceeded to a proconsulship. +Thus Caesar’s resignation both of
his army and his province could be demanded on March 1, 49.+

+50 B.C. Caesar’s overtures for peace.+ Caesar let it be known to the
Senate through Curio that +he was willing to resign his army and
provinces if Pompeius would simultaneously do the same+: and the Senate
voted a resolution in this sense by a majority of 370 to 22. The
presiding Consul, Gaius Marcellus, broke up the meeting in anger, and
with the two Consuls elected for 49 (Claudius Marcellus and Lentulus
Crus) requested Pompeius to put himself at the head of the two legions
stationed at Capua and to call the Italian militia to arms.

+Caesar had completely attained the object of devolving the initiative
of Civil War on his opponents.+ He had, while himself keeping on legal
ground, compelled Pompeius to declare war, and to declare it not as the
representative of the legitimate authority, but as general of a
revolutionary minority of the Senate, which overawed the majority.
--_Adapted from Long, Mommsen, and Warde Fowler._


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (1)

_Caesar crosses the Rubicon, 49 B.C._

  Fonte cadit modico parvisque impellitur undis
  Puniceus Rubicon cum fervida canduit aestas,
  Perque imas serpit valles et Gallica certus            215
  Limes ab Ausoniis disterminat arva colonis.
  Tunc vires praebebat hiemps atque auxerat undas
  Tertia iam gravido pluvialis Cynthia cornu
  Et madidis Euri resolutae flatibus Alpes.
  Primus in obliquum sonipes opponitur amnem             220
  Excepturus aquas; molli tum cetera rumpit
  Turba vado faciles iam fracti fluminis undas.
  Caesar, ut adversam superato gurgite ripam
  Attigit Hesperiae vetitis et constitit arvis,
  ‘Hic’ ait ‘hic pacem temerataque iura relinquo;        225
  Te, Fortuna, sequor; procul hinc iam foedora sunto,
  Credidimus fatis, utendum est iudice bello.’
  Sic fatus noctis tenebris rapit agmina ductor
  Impiger; it torto Balearis verbere fundae
  Ocior et missa Parthi post terga sagitta               230
  Vicinumque minax invadit Ariminum, et ignes
  Solis lucifero fugiebant astra relicto.
  Iamque dies primos belli visura tumultus
  Exoritur; seu sponte deum, seu turbidus Auster
  Impulerat, maestam tenuerunt nubila lucem.             235

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, i. 213-235.

+Context.+ On Lentulus Crus and Claudius Marcellus, the Consuls for 49
B.C., must rest the immediate blame of the Civil War. On Jan. 1st
Caesar’s tribune Curio once more presented proposals from Caesar, which
startle us by their marvellous moderation (cf. Suet. _Caesar_, 29, 30),
but Lentulus would not allow them to be considered. On Jan. 7th the
_Senatus consultum ultimum_ was decreed, and a state of war declared.
Caesar crossed the Rubicon, the narrow brook which separated his
province from Italy, to pass which at the head of an army was high
treason to the State. --W. F.

  214. +puniceus+ = _dark red_: +Rubicon+, as if from _ruber_.
  216. +limes+, i.e. until the time of Augustus, by whom Italy was
  extended to the R. Varus, the boundary between Gallia Narbonensis
  and Italy.
  218. I.e. prob. the third night after the change of moon; +gravido+ =
  _surcharged with rain_. --Haskins.
  219. +Alpes+ = _mountains_, not _the_ Alps.
  225. +temerata+, i.e. by Pompeius and the senatorial party.
  229. +verbere+ = the _thong_, i.e. of the sling (+fundae+).
  231. +Ariminum+ (Rimini), at this period the frontier town of Italy.]

+The Passage of the Rubicon.+ ‘When after nine years’ absence he trod
once more the soil of his native land, he trod at the same time the path
of revolution. Alea iacta est.’ --M.


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (2)

_Caesar defends himself before the Senate, April 49 B.C._

His rebus confectis Caesar, ut reliquum tempus a labore intermitteretur,
milites in proxima municipia deducit; ipse ad urbem proficiscitur.
Coacto senatu iniurias inimicorum commemorat. Docet se nullum
extraordinarium honorem appetisse, sed exspectato {5} legitimo tempore
consulatus eo fuisse contentum, quod omnibus civibus pateret. Latum ab x
tribunis plebis contradicentibus inimicis, Catone vero acerrime
repugnante et pristina consuetudine dicendi mora dies extrahente, ut sui
ratio absentis haberetur, ipso {10} consule Pompeio; qui si improbasset,
cur ferri passus esset? qui si improbasset, cur se uti populi beneficio
prohibuisset? Patientiam proponit suam, cum de exercitibus dimittendis
ultro postulavisset; in quo iacturam dignitatis atque honoris ipse
facturus {15} esset. Acerbitatem inimicorum docet, qui, quod ab altero
postularent, in se recusarent atque omnia permisceri mallent, quam
imperium exercitusque dimittere. Iniuriam in eripiendis legionibus
praedicat, crudelitatem et insolentiam in circumscribendis {20} tribunis
plebis; condiciones a se latas, expetita colloquia et denegata
commemorat. Pro quibus rebus hortatur ac postulat, ut rem publicam
suscipiant atque una secum administrent.

        CAESAR, _de B. C._ i. 32.

+Context.+ After his passage of the Rubicon, Caesar quickly made himself
master of Italy. Town after town opened its gates to him. Corfinium
(held in force by Domitius for Pompeius) surrendered, and the captured
troops enlisted in his ranks. An attempt to blockade Pompeius in
Brundisium was skilfully foiled. On the last day of March Caesar arrived
at Rome. The Senate was legally summoned by the tribunes Antonius and
Cassius, and +was invited to unite with him in carrying on the

  2. +municipia+, i.e. Brundisium, Tarentum, Hydruntum (Otranto).
  10. +ut sui ... haberetur+, i.e. allowing him to stand for the
  consulship in his absence.
  15. +iacturam dignitatis+ = sacrifice of prestige. --Long.
  19. +eripiendis legionibus+, i.e. in 50 B.C. Caesar was required to
  send home a legion he had borrowed of Pompeius, and contribute
  another himself, ostensibly for the Parthian War; but the legions
  were detained by Pompeius in Italy, and the Parthian War was quietly

+Caesar in Rome.+ All Caesar’s acts after the crossing of the Rubicon
were entirely unconstitutional. But when he told the senators that he
was prepared to take the government on himself, he was justified to
himself by the past, and to posterity by the result. --W. F.


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (3)

_The Campaign round Lerida: the Soldiers fraternise, 49 B.C._

  Dixit et ad montes tendentem praevenit hostem.
  Illic exiguo paulum distantia vallo
  Castra locant. Postquam spatio languentia nullo
  Mutua conspicuos habuerunt lumina voltus,          170
  Et fratres natosque sues videre, patresque;
  Deprensum est civile nefas. Tenuere parumper
  Ora metu, tantum nutu motoque salutant
  Ense suos; mox ut stimulis maioribus ardens
  Rupit amor leges, audet transcendere vallum        175
  Miles, in amplexus effusas tendere palmas.
  Hospitis ille ciet nomen, vocat ille propinquum,
  Admonet hunc studiis consors puerilibus aetas;
  Nec Romanus erat, qui non agnoverat hostem.        179
    Pax erat, et miles castris permixtus utrisque    196
  Errabat; duro concordes caespite mensas
  Instituunt et permixto libamina Baccho;
  Graminei luxere foci, iunctoque cubili
  Extrahit insomnes bellorum fabula noctes,          200
  Quo primum steterint campo, qua lancea dextrum
  Exierit. Dum quae gesserunt fortia iactant,
  Et dum multa negant, quod solum fata petebant,
  Est miseris renovata fides, atque omne futurum
  Crevit amore nefas.                                205

        LUCAN, iv. 167-179, 196-205.

+Context.+ On leaving Rome Caesar set out for Spain to encounter the
veteran army of Pompeius under his legati Afranius and Petreius. If this
were crushed, he felt he would be free to take the offensive against
Pompeius in the East. Round Lerida (_Ilerda_) on the R. Segres
(a tributary of the Ebro) he fought the most brilliant campaign of all
his military life. After severe losses and hardships, Caesar
outmanœuvred the Pompeians, cut them off from their base on the Ebro,
and forced a surrender on most generous terms.

  167. +Dixit+, sc. Caesar.
  +ad montes+, i.e. the rocky hills through which the retreating
  Pompeians had to pass before they could reach the Ebro valley.
  Caesar, by a wonderful march, outstrips (+praevenit+) them and
  blocks the way.
  169. +spatio+ (sc. _interposito_) +languentia nullo+ = _not failing_
  (+languentia+) _owing to the distance_, i.e. they were so near they
  could not fail to recognise one another. --Haskins.
  173. +metu+, i.e. of their leaders.
  175. +Rupit leges+ = _burst the bonds of discipline_. --H.
  178. +Admonet ... aetas+ = _one is reminded of his friend by the time
  passed together in boyhood’s pursuits_. --H.
  200. +Extrahit+ = _whiles away_.]

+Result of the Campaign.+ The whole of the western half of the Empire
was now in Caesar’s power, with the single exception of Massilia.


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (4)

_Siege of Massilia. A Treacherous Sortie, 49 B.C._


  Iam satis hoc Graiae memorandum contigit urbi
  Aeternumque decus, quod non impulsa nec ipso
  Strata metu tenuit flagrantis in omnia belli       390
  Praecipitem cursum, raptisque a Caesare cunctis
  Vincitur una mora. Quantum est quod fata tenentur,
  Quodque virum toti properans imponere mundo
  Hos perdit fortuna, dies!

        LUCAN, iii. 388-394.

+Context.+ Caesar’s appeal to the leading citizens to espouse his cause
was at first successful, but the arrival of Domitius (whom he had
treated so generously at Corfinium) with a fleet caused the Massiliots
to change their mind. Unable to remain himself, Caesar entrusted the
siege to Trebonius, supported by Dec. Brutus with the fleet. He has,
however, left us a detailed account of their skill and energy, and of
the heroic defence of the citizens, +marred by a treacherous sortie
under a truce+. He returned to receive its final submission, and left
the city unharmed, as a tribute ‘rather to its ancient renown than to
any claim it had on himself.’

  389. +non impulsa+ = _not urged by others_, i.e. by Pompeius and his
  adherents. But cf. Caesar, _de B. C._ i. 34.
  391. +raptis+ = _speedily won_. --H.]

B. At hostes sine fide tempus atque occasionem fraudis ac doli quaerunt;
interiectisque aliquot diebus, nostris languentibus atque animo
remissis, {10} subito meridiano tempore, cum alius discessisset, alius
ex diutino labore in ipsis operibus quieti se dedisset, arma vero omnia
reposita contectaque essent, portis se foras erumpunt, secundo magnoque
vento ignem operibus inferunt. Hunc sic distulit {15} ventus, uti uno
tempore agger, plutei, testudo, turris, tormenta flammam conciperent, et
prius haec omnia consumerentur, quam quem ad modum accidisset
animadverti posset. Nostri repentina fortuna permoti arma, quae possunt,
arripiunt; alii ex castris {20} sese incitant. Fit in hostes impetus
eorum, sed muro sagittis tormentisque fugientes persequi prohibentur.
Illi sub murum se recipiunt, ibique musculum turrimque latericiam libere
incendunt. Ita multorum mensium labor hostium perfidia et vi {25}
tempestatis puncto temporis interiit.

        CAESAR, _de Bello Civili_, ii. 14.

  13. +contecta:+ i.e. the shield kept in a leather casing.
  16. +plutei+ = _screens_ or _mantlets_ of hurdles covered with raw
  17. +tormenta+ (_torqu + mentum_) = _artillery_, engines for
  throwing missiles by _twisted_ ropes; e.g. the _ballista_,
  24. +musculum+ = _sapping-shed_.
  +turrim latericiam+ = _brick tower_.
  25. +multorum mensium+, i.e. from May to August 49 B.C.]


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (5)

              ‘_Nothing in his life
    Became him like the leaving it._’

  Quid nunc rostra tibi prosunt turbata forumque
  Unde tribunicia plebeius signifer arce             800
  Arma dabas populis? Quid prodita iura senatus
  Et gener atque socer bello concurrere iussi?
  Ante iaces quam dira duces Pharsalia confert,
  Spectandumque tibi bellum civile negatum est.      804
                    Libycas en nobile corpus         809
  Pascit aves nullo contectus Curio busto.           810
  At tibi nos, quando non proderit ista silere
  A quibus omne aevi senium sua fama repellit,
  Digna damus, iuvenis, meritae praeconia vitae.
  Haud alium tanta civem tulit indole Roma,
  Aut cui plus leges deberent recta sequenti.        815
  Perdita nunc urbi nocuerunt saecula, postquam
  Ambitus et luxus et opum metuenda facultas
  Transverso mentem dubiam torrente tulerunt;
  Momentumque fuit mutatus Curio rerum
  Gallorum captus spoliis et Caesaris auro.          820
  Ius licet in iugulos nostros sibi fecerit ense
  Sulla potens Mariusque ferox et Cinna cruentus
  Caesareaeque domus series; cui tanta potestas
  Concessa est? Emere omnes, hic vendidit urbem.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, iv. 799-804, 809-end.

+Context.+ In 49 B.C. Curio was sent by Caesar to wrest the
corn-province of Africa from the Pompeians. He won a signal success over
Varus (allied with Juba) at Utica, but allowed himself to be surprised
on the plain of the Bagradas, and, when all was lost, died sword in

  800. +tribunicia arce+ = _from the citadel of the tribune_, i.e. the
  inviolability of the office and the right of veto. As tribune Curio
  played an all-important part in the crisis of 50 B.C.
  801. +prodita iura senatus+, i.e. of the right of the senators to
  appoint governors of the provinces. --Haskins.
  802. +gener atque socer:+ by the early death of Julia (54 B.C.)--a
  beloved wife and daughter--the personal relation between Pompeius
  and Caesar was broken up.
  812. +senium+ (_senex_) = _decay_ (of lapse of time).
  813. +digna ... vitae+ = _such a panegyric_ (+praeconia+) _as thy
  life deserves_. --H.
  815-818. As tribune Curio for a time played the part of an
  independent republican, till his talent induced Caesar to buy him
  819. +momentum+ (= _movi + mentum_) +rerum+ = _that which turned the
  scale of history_. --H.
  824. +vendidit+: perh. referred to by Verg. _Aen._ vi. 621-2:
    _Vendidit hic auro patriam dominumque potentem
    Imposuit; fixit leges pretio atque refixit._]


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (6)

_Dyrrachium. Caesar’s line of circumvallation, 48 B.C._

Erat nova et inusitata belli ratio cum tot castellorum numero tantoque
spatio et tantis munitionibus et toto obsidionis genere, tum etiam
reliquis rebus. Nam quicumque alterum obsidere conati sunt, perculsos
atque infirmos hostes adorti aut proelio superatos {5} aut aliqua
offensione permotos continuerunt, cum ipsi numero equitum militumque
praestarent; causa autem obsidionis haec fere esse consuevit, ut
frumento hostes prohiberent. At tum integras atque incolumes copias
Caesar inferiore militum {10} numero continebat, cum illi omnium rerum
copia abundarent; cotidie enim magnus undique navium numerus
conveniebat, quae commeatum supportarent, neque ullus flare ventus
poterat, quin aliqua ex parte secundum cursum haberent. Ipse autem
consumptis {15} omnibus longe lateque frumentis summis erat in
angustiis. Sed tamen haec singulari patientia milites ferebant.
Recordabantur enim eadem se superiore anno in Hispania perpessos labore
et patientia maximum bellum confecisse, meminerant ad {20} Alesiam
magnam se inopiam perpessos, multo etiam maiorem ad Avaricum maximarum
se gentium victores discessisse.

        CAESAR, _de B. C._ iii. 47.

+Context.+ In Jan. (48 B.C.) Caesar set sail from Brundisium and landed
safely in Epirus. After a junction with Antonius, who followed him from
Brundisium with reinforcements, Caesar established himself close to
Dyrrachium (Durazzo), the key of the whole military situation. Pompeius
refused to fight, and encamped on a hill close to the sea at Petra,
a short distance S. of Dyrrachium, where his fleets could bring him
supplies. Caesar now determined to hem him in by a line of

  2. +tanto spatio+: eventually the whole circuit of circumvallation
  covered at the least 16 miles: to this was afterwards added, just as
  before Alesia, an outer line of defence.
  6. +aut aliqua offensione permotos+ = _or demoralised by some other
  mishap_ (+offensione+, lit. _stumbling_, and so _failure_).
  12-15. Pompeius still had undisputed command of the sea.]

+Caesar’s lines broken.+ Pompeius was informed by Celtic deserters that
Caesar had not yet secured by a cross wall the beach between his two
chains of entrenchment on his left (200 yards apart), leaving it
possible to land troops from the sea into the unprotected space. Troops
were landed by night: Caesar’s outer line of defence was carried, and
his lines broken through. ‘Like Wellington at Burgos in 1812, Caesar
failed from want of a sufficient force. In each case the only safe
course was a retreat: in each case the retreat was conducted with
admirable skill.’ --W. F.

[Illustration: DYRRACHIUM. [_To face p. 216._]


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (7)

_The Eve of Pharsalus. Dream of Pompeius._

    At nox, felicis Magno pars ultima vitae,
  Sollicitos vana decepit imagine somnos.
  Nam Pompeiani visus sibi sede theatri
  Innumeram effigiem Romanae cernere plebis,          10
  Attollique suum laetis ad sidera nomen
  Vocibus, et plausu cuneos certare sonantes.
  Qualis erat populi facies clamorque faventis,
  Olim cum iuvenis primique aetata triumphi
  Post domitas gentes quas torrens ambit Hiberus,     15
  Et quaecumque fugax Sertorius impulit arma,
  Vespere pacato, pura venerabilis aeque
  Quam currus ornante toga, plaudente senatu,
  Sedit adhuc Romanus eques: seu fine bonorum
  Anxia venturis ad tempora laeta refugit,            20
  Sive per ambages solitas contraria visis
  Vaticinata quies magni tulit omina planctus,
  Seu vetito patrias ultra tibi cernere sedes
  Sic Romam fortuna dedit. Ne rumpite somnos.
  Castrorum vigiles, nullas tuba verberet aures.      25
  Crastina dira quies et imagine maesta diurna
  Undique funestas acies feret undique bellum.
  Unde pares somnos populi noctemque beatam?
  O felix, si te vel sic tua Roma videret.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, vii. 7-29.

  9. +Pompeiani theatri.+ Pompeius built the first stone theatre at
  Rome, near the Campus Martius, capable of holding 40,000 people.
  10. +Innumeram ... plebis+ = _the image of the countless Roman
  people_. +innumeram+ which belongs to +plebis+ is transferred to
  14. +Olim ... triumphi+, i.e. over Africa 79 B.C. when only 24, and
  +adhuc Romanus eques+ (l. 19). It was not until 71 B.C. that he
  triumphed over Spain, after the murder of Sertorius. Lucan confuses
  the two triumphs.
  16. +impulit+ = _set in motion_ (lit. _drive forward_).
  17-18. +pura venerabilis ... toga+ = _no less worshipful in pure
  white gown than_ (he would have been) _in that which usually adorns
  the car of triumph_, i.e. the _toga picta_. --H.
  20. +anxia+ (sc. _quies_) = _his repose full of anxiety for the
  future_. --H.
  21-22. +solitas ... vaticinata+ = _foretelling the opposite of his
  visions_ i.e. by the +plausus+ of which he dreamed, the +planctus+
  which was in store for him was foreshadowed. --H.
  25. +nullas+ = _at all_. Cf. Cic. _Ep._: _nullus venit_ = _he never
  26. +Crastina ... diurna+ = _to-morrow’s night of horror haunted by
  the sad image of the day’s events_. --H.
  29. +sic+, i.e. in dreams.]

+The Dream of Pompeius.+ Macaulay says ‘I hardly know an instance of
so great an effect produced by means so simple.’


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (8)

_Pompeius ill-advised at Pharsalus, 48 B.C._

Inter duas acies tantum erat relictum spatii, ut satis esset ad
concursum utriusque exercitus. Sed Pompeius suis praedixerat, ut
Caesaris impetum exciperent neve se loco moverent aciemque eius distrahi
paterentur; idque admonitu C. Triarii {5} fecisse dicebatur, ut primus
excursus visque militum infringeretur aciesque distenderetur atque in
suis ordinibus dispositi dispersos adorirentur; leviusque casura pila
sperabat in loco retentis militibus, quam si ipsi immissis telis
occucurrissent, simul fore, ut {10} duplicato cursu Caesaris milites
exanimarentur et lassitudine conficerentur. Quod nobis quidem nulla
ratione factum a Pompeio videtur, propterea quod est quaedam animi
incitatio atque alacritas naturaliter innata omnibus, quae studio pugnae
incenditur. {15} Hanc non reprimere, sed augere imperatores debent;
neque frustra antiquitus institutum est, ut signa undique concinerent
clamoremque universi tollerent: quibus rebus et hostes terreri et suos
incitari existimaverunt. {20}

        CAESAR, _de Bello Civili_, iii. 92.

+Context.+ Caesar made for Apollonia, where he left his wounded, and
then marched S.E. into Thessaly, where he joined Domitius Calvinus. (He
had been sent with two legions E. into Macedonia, to stop reinforcements
for Pompeius under Scipio, Pompeius’ father-in-law.) Pompeius followed
Caesar, and encamped on the slope of a hill facing Caesar’s position
near Pharsalus. Here he offered battle, his better judgment overruled by
the clamorous Senators in his camp.

  4-5. +aciem ... paterentur+ = _so as to allow their_ (advancing)
  _line to become disorganised_ (+distrahi+), by the force of its
  7. +in suis ... dispositi+ = _by maintaining their proper

+Scene of the Fight.+ The battle was fought near the town of
_Pharsalus_, while the territory of the town was named _Pharsalia_. Cf.
Catull. lxiv. 37:

+Pharsalum+ _coeunt_, +Pharsalia+ _late frequentant_.

+The Battle.+ Pompeius had 47,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry against
Caesar’s 22,000 infantry and 1000 cavalry. Pompeius stationed his
cavalry and archers on his left, and confidently expected to outflank
his enemy’s right. But Caesar, foreseeing the defeat of his cavalry, had
stationed behind it in reserve 2000 of his best legionaries. When
Caesar’s cavalry fell back outnumbered, this reserve ran forward at the
charge, not discharging their _pila_, but using them as spears, and
driving them against man and horse. Taken aback by so unusual an
infantry attack, the Pompeian cavalry wavered and fled. Caesar’s third
line (forming a rear-guard) was now sent forward to support the two
front lines, and this decided the battle. --+Result.+ Submission of the
East to Caesar.

[Illustration: PHARSALUS. [_To face p. 218._]


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (9)

A. _Pharsalus and Cannae compared._

  Non aetas haec carpsit edax monimentaque rerum
  Putria destituit: crimen civile videmus
  Tot vacuas urbes. Generis quo turba redacta est
  Humani? Toto populi qui nascimur orbe              400
  Nec muros implere viris nec possumus agros;
  Urbs nos una capit. Vincto fossore coluntur
  Hesperiae segetes, stat tectis putris avitis
  In nullos ruitura domus, nulloque frequentem
  Cive suo Romam, sed mundi faece repletam           405
  Cladis eo dedimus, ne tanto in tempore bellum
  Iam posset civile geri. Pharsalia tanti
  Causa mali. Cedant feralia nomina Cannae
  Et damnata diu Romanis Allia fastis.
  Tempora signavit leviorum Roma malorum:            410
  Hunc voluit nescire diem.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, vii. 397-411.

  397-398. +monimentaque ... destituit+ = _and has abandoned to decay
  the monuments of the past_. --Haskins.
  402. +vincto fossore+ = _by a chained digger_ (delver), in
  consequence of the dearth of free labour. Cf. Juv. xi. 80 _squalidus
  in magna ... compede fossor_.
  404. +in nullos ruitura+ = _ready to fall, but on the heads of
  none_. --H.
  405. +faece+ = _dregs_. Cf. Juv. iii. 60, 61 _Non possum ferre
  Quirites_ | _Graecam urbem_ (a Greek Rome); _quamvis_ (and yet)
  _quota portio_ (how small a fraction) _faecis Achaei_?
  406-407. +ne tanto ... geri+ = lit. _so that during the long time
  since, it is impossible to wage_ +civil+ _war_, i.e. from the dearth
  of genuine Roman soldiers.
  409. +Allia+: 390 B.C. Cf. Vergil. _Aeneid_, vii. 717 _quosque
  secans infaustum interluit Allia nomen_.
  411. +nescire+ = _to ignore_.]

B. _The Battlefields of Pharsalus and Philippi._

  Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis
  Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi;              490
  Nec fuit indignum superis, bis sanguine nostro
  Emathiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos.
  Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum finibus illis
  Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro,
  Exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila,               495
  Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes,
  Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris.

        VERGIL, _Georg._ i. 489-497.

  489. +Ergo+ = _therefore_, in fulfilment of the terrible warnings at
  the death of Caesar.
  490. +iterum+, i.e. at Philippi 42 B.C.; the first time at


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (10)

_How Pompeius died, 48 B.C._

Pompeius, deposito adeundae Syriae consilio, et aeris magno pondere ad
militarem usum in naves imposito, duobusque milibus hominum armatis,
Pelusium pervenit. Ibi casu rex erat Ptolemaeus, puer aetate, magnis
copiis cum sorore Cleopatra {5} bellum gerens, quam paucis ante mensibus
per suos propinquos atque amicos regno expulerat; castraque Cleopatrae
non longo spatio ab eius castris distabant. Ad eum Pompeius misit, ut
pro hospitio atque amicitia patris Alexandria reciperetur atque illius
opibus in {10} calamitate tegeretur. Sed, qui ab eo missi erant,
confecto legationis officio, liberius cum militibus regis colloqui
coeperant eosque hortari, ut suum officium Pompeio praestarent, neve
eius fortunam despicerent. His tunc cognitis rebus amici regis, {15} qui
propter aetatem eius in procuratione erant regni, sive timore adducti,
ne Pompeius Alexandriam Aegyptunique occuparet, sive despecta eius
fortuna, iis, qui erant ab eo missi, palam liberaliter responderunt
eumque ad regem venire iusserunt: ipsi, {20} clam consilio inito,
Achillan, praefectum regium, singulari hominem audacia, et L. Septimium,
tribunum militum, ad interficiendum Pompeium miserunt. Ab his
liberaliter ipse appellatus naviculam parvulam conscendit cum paucis
suis, et ibi {25} ab Achilla et Septimio interficitur.

        CAESAR, _de Bello Civili_, iii. 103, 104 (sel.)

+Context.+ After the battle of Pharsalus, Pompeius, closely pursued by
Caesar, had thoughts of going to Parthia and trying to form alliances
there. While in Cyprus he heard that Antioch (in Syria) had declared for
Caesar and that the route to the Parthians was no longer open. So he
altered his plan and sailed to Egypt, where a number of his old soldiers
served in the Egyptian army.

  4. +Pelusium+, on the E. side of the easternmost mouth of the Nile.
  5. +cum sorore Cleopatra.+ By his father’s will, Ptolemy ruled
  jointly with his sister for three years, 51-48 B.C., when he
  expelled her. Cleopatra raised an army in Syria and invaded Egypt.
  The two armies were encamped opposite each other when Pompeius
  landed to seek the help of Ptolemy.
  15. +amici regis+, e.g. Achillas, l. 21, and espec. Ptolemy’s
  guardian Pothinus, the _de facto_ ruler of Egypt.]

‘On the same day (28 Sept.) on which he had triumphed over Mithridates
(61 B.C.) Pompeius died on the desert sands of the inhospitable Casian
shore by the hands of one of his old soldiers (Septimius).’--M.


CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS, 106-48 B.C. (11)

_Cato’s Eulogy on Pompeius._

  ‘Civis obit,’ inquit, ‘multum maioribus impar      190
  Nosse modum iuris sed in hoc tamen utilis aevo,
  Cui non ulla fuit iusti reverentia; salva
  Libertate potens, et solus plebe parata
  Privatus servire sibi, rectorque senatus,
  Sed regnantis, erat. Nil belli iure poposcit,      195
  Quaeque dari voluit, voluit sibi posse negari.
  Immodicas possedit opes, sed plura retentis
  Intulit: invasit ferrum, sed ponere norat;
  Praetulit arma togae, sed pacem armatus amavit;
  Iuvit sumpta ducem, iuvit dimissa potestas.        200
  Casta domus luxuque carens corruptaque numquam
  Fortuna domini. Clarum et venerabile nomen
  Gentibus, et multum nostrae quod proderat urbi.
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  O felix, cui summa dies fuit obvia victo,          208
  Et cui quaerendos Pharium scelus obtulit enses!
  Forsitan in soceri potuisses vivere regno.
  Scire mori sors prima viris sed proxima cogi.’     211
    Vocibus his maior, quam si Romana sonarent       215
  Rostra ducis laudes, generosam venit ad umbram
  Mortis honos.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, ix. 190-217.

  190-191. +multum ... iuris+ = _far inferior to our ancestors in
  recognising the due bounds of power_. --Haskins.
  193. +solus+ (sc. _ex proceribus_) ... +servire sibi+ = _alone (of the
  chief men of the State) acting the private citizen when the populace
  were ready to be his slaves_, i.e. acting unlike Sulla or Caesar.
  195. +sed regnantis.+ ‘Pompeius came forward as the duly installed
  general of the Senate against the Imperator of the street, once more
  to save his country.’ --M.
  198. +Intulit+, sc. _in aerarium_. Cf. Shaksp. _Jul. C._ III. ii.
  (Mark Antony of Caesar) ‘He hath brought many captives home to Rome
  | Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill.’ ‘Caesar devoted the
  proceeds of the confiscations (the property of defeated opponents)
  entirely to the benefit of the State.’ --M.
  208. +cui summa dies ... victo+ = _whom the day of death met when he
  was vanquished_, i.e. without his having to seek it himself. --H.
  209. +Pharium+ = _Egyptian_, lit. of _Pharos_ (= Faro), an island
  near Alexandria, famous for its lighthouse.
  211. One of Lucan’s famous _sententiae_ (γνῶμαι, _maxims_).]

+Pompeius.+ ‘Even in his own age he would have had a clearly defined and
respectable position, _had he contented himself with being the general
of the Senate_, for which he was from the outset destined.’ --M.


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (12)

_The Grave of Pompeius. His Roll of Fame._

              Tunc ne levis aura retectos
  Auferret cineres, saxo compressit harenam:             790
  Nautaque ne bustum religato fune moveret,
  Inscripsit sacrum semiusto stipite nomen:
    Quod si tam sacro dignaris nomine saxum,             806
  Adde actus tantos monimentaque maxima rerum,
  Adde truces Lepidi motus Alpinaque bella
  Armaque Sertori revocato consule victa,
  Et currus quos egit eques, commercia tuta              810
  Gentibus et pavidos Cilicas maris: adde subactam
  Barbariem gentesque vagas et quidquid in Euro
  Regnorum Boreaque iacet. Die semper ab armis
  Civilem repetisse togam, ter curribus actis
  Contentum patriae multos donasse triumphos.            815
    Quis capit haec tumulus? Surgit miserabile bustum
  Non ullis plenum titulis, non ordine tanto
  Fastorum, solitumque legi super alta deorum
  Culmina et exstructos spoliis hostilibus arcus
  Haud procul est ima Pompei nomen harena,               820
  Depressum tumulo, quod non legat advena rectus,
  Quod nisi monstratum Romanus transeat hospes.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, viii. 789-793, 806-822.

+Subject.+ Cordus, whom Lucan calls _infaustus Magni comes_ (or
according to Plutarch Philippus the faithful freedman of Pompeius),
finds the cast-up body of Pompeius and gives it honourable burial.

  793. +HIC SITUS EST+ = ἔνθαδε κεῖται, the regular inscription on
  a tombstone.
  808. +truces Lepidi motus.+ Cf. page 178, last note on page.
  809. +revocato consule+, i.e. Metellus. Cf. page 180, A., l. 12.
    [[Selection B21, “Metello”]]
  811. +pavidos Cilicas maris+ = _the Cilicians scared from the sea_.
  --Jebb. _Pompeius effecit ut piratae timerent maria quibus ipsi ante
  grassabantur_ (= they sailed at will).--Schol.
  813-814. +dic semper ... togam+, e.g. after his triumph over Spain
  71 B.C., and over Mithridates and the East in 61 B.C.
  814-815. +ter curribus ... triumphos+ = (tell how) _content with
  thrice driving the_ (triumphal) _car he made a present to his
  fatherland of many triumphs_, i.e. he did not claim them when he
  might have done so.
  817-818. +Non ordine tanto Fastorum+ = _storied with no majestic
  annals_. --Jebb.
  819. +arcus+ = _triumphal arches_, orig. temporary structures of
  wood, but under the Empire built of marble, e.g. of Septimius
  821. +Depressum ... rectus+ = _sunk low upon a tomb, which the
  stranger cannot read without stooping_ (+rectus+).--Haskins.]


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (13)

_Atrox Animus Catonis, 46 B.C._

Complures interim ex fuga Uticam perveniunt. Quos omnes Cato convocatos
una cum trecentis, qui pecuniam Scipioni ad bellum faciendum
contulerant, hortatur, ut servitia manumitterent, oppidumque
defenderent. Quorum cum partem assentire, partem {5} animum mentemque
perterritam atque in fugam destinatam habere intellexisset, amplius de
ea re agere destitit, navesque eis attribuit, ut in quas quisque partes
vellet proficisceretur. Ipse, omnibus rebus diligentissime constitutis,
liberis suis L. Caesari, {10} qui tum ei pro quaestore fuerat,
commendatis et sine suspicione, vultu atque sermone, quo superiore
tempore usus fuerat, cum dormitum isset, ferrum intro clam in cubiculum
tulit, atque ita se traiecit. Qui cum anima nondum exspirata
concidisset, et, {15} impetu facto in cubiculum ex suspicione, medicus
familiaresque continere atque vulnus obligare coepissent, ipse suis
manibus vulnus crudelissime divellit, atque animo praesenti se

        ASINIUS POLLIO, _de B. Africo_, 88.

+Context.+ After Pharsalus and the flight of Pompeius, we finally part
company with Caesar as an author. The _Bellum Alexandrinum_ (Caesar’s
perils in Egypt and his settlement of the East 48-47 B.C.), the _B.
Africum_ (Thapsus 46 B.C.), the _B. Hispaniense_ (Munda 45 B.C.), are
the work of eyewitnesses and officers of his army. After a delay of
fifteen precious months Caesar landed in Africa (Jan. 46), and by
investing Thapsus tempted Scipio (Pompeius’ father-in-law) to try to
save the city by a battle. His troops were quickly arranged as at
Pharsalus, and by a single impetuous charge won a complete victory. The
slaughter was terrible: the survivors fled to Utica, where Cato in vain
tried to organise a defence and to restore order, and then in despair
died by his own sword.

  1. +Uticam:+ second in importance to Carthage.
  19. +animo praesenti+ = _deliberately_.]

+After Thapsus.+ ‘Caesar left Africa in June 46 B.C., and celebrated a
magnificent triumph, not over Roman citizens, but over Gauls and
Egyptians, Pharnaces and Juba. As Dictator he remained in Rome several
months, in which more permanently valuable work was done than was ever
achieved in the same space of time, unless it were by Cromwell in
1653-4. The senseless outbreak of the Pompeian party in Spain under
Labienus and the two sons of Pompeius took him away from Rome: but the
victory of Munda (45 B.C.) closed the civil strife. Caesar returned to
Rome in September, and six months more of life was all that was left to
him.’ --W. F.


CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. (14)

_Cato Uticensis, 46 B.C._

A. Hic genitus proavo M. Catone, principe illo familiae Porciae, homo
Virtuti simillimus et per omnia ingenio diis quam hominibus propior, qui
nunquam recte fecit, ut facere videretur, sed quia aliter facere non
potuerat, cuique id solum visum {5} est rationem habere, quod haberet
iustitiae, omnibus humanis vitiis immunis semper fortunam in sua
potestate habuit.

        VELL. PATERC. ii. 35.

  1. +M. Catone+, the famous Censor of 184 B.C.
  +principe+ = _founder_.]


  Ut primum tolli feralia viderat arma,
  Intonsos rigidam in frontem descendere canos       375
  Passus erat maestamque genis increscere barbam:
  Uni quippe vacat studiis odiisque carenti
  Humanum lugere genus . . .
        Hi mores, haec duri immota Catonis           380
  Secta fuit, servare modum finemque tenere
  Naturamque sequi patriaeque impendere vitam
  Nec sibi sed toti genitum se credere mundo.
  Huic epulae, vicisse famem; magnique penates,
  Summovisse hiemem tecto; pretiosaque vestis,       385
  Hirtam membra super Romani more Quiritis
  Induxisse togam . . .
  Iustitiae cultor, rigidi servator honesti,         389
  In commune bonus: nullosque Catonis in actus
  Subrepsit partemque tulit sibi nata voluptas.

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, ii. 374-391 (sel.)

  377. +uni+ (sc. _Catoni_), as the only true representative of the
  wise man of the Stoics. --Haskins.
  381. +secta+ (sc. _via_, lit. _a beaten way_) here = _disciplina_ =
  381-383. +servare modum ... mundo.+ These expressions are Stoic
  maxims. Lucan (the nephew of Seneca) depicts the Stoic idea of
  virtue in the character of Cato.
  382-383. +patriaeque ... mundo.+ Cato’s aim is +patriae impendere
  vitam+. His devotion to the service of humanity is complete; it is
  his part +toti genitum se credere mundo+. But this humanity includes
  Rome in the first place, the rest of the world in a quite secondary
  sense. --H.
  386-387. +hirtam togam+ = _a coarse_ (lit. _hairy_) _toga_.
  389. +honesti+ = τοῦ καλοῦ. Cicero defines +honestum+ as _aut ipsa
  virtus, aut res gesta virtute_.]

+Cato Uticensis.+ ‘He was like Caesar alone in this, that he had clear
political convictions and acted on them not only with consistency but
with justice and humanity. It is “his vain faith and courage” that alone
lights up the dark hours of the falling Commonwealth:--

  ‘Victrix causa deis placuit, sed victa Catoni.’ --W. F.



_Caesar dines with Cicero, Dec. 19, 45 B.C._

O hospitem mihi tam gravem ἀμεταμέλητον! fuit enim periucunde. Sed cum
secundis Saturnalibus ad Philippum vesperi venisset, villa ita completa
militibus est, ut vix triclinium, ubi cenaturus ipse Caesar esset,
vacaret; quippe hominum ⅭⅠↃ ⅭⅠↃ. {5} Sane sum commotus, quid futurum
esset postridie; at mihi Barba Cassius subvenit: custodes dedit. Castra
in agro, villa defensa est. Ille tertiis Saturnalibus apud Philippum ad
h. VII, nec quemquam admisit: rationes opinor cum Balbo. Inde ambulavit
{10} in litore; post h. VIII in balneum; unctus est, accubuit. Et edit
et bibit ἀδεῶς et iucunde, opipare sane et apparate, nec id solum, sed

                              _bene cocto,
  condito, sermone bono et, si quaeri’, libenter._            15

Praeterea tribus tricliniis accepti οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν valde copiose.
Libertis minus lautis servisque nihil defuit: nam lautiores eleganter
accepti. Quid multa? homines visi sumus. Hospes tamen non is, cui
diceres: ‘amabo te, eodem ad me, cum revertere’: semel {20} satis est.
Σπουδαῖον οὐδὲν in sermone, φιλόλογα multa. Quid quaeris? delectatus est
et libenter fuit. Puteolis se aiebat unum diem fore, alterum ad Baias.
Habes hospitium sive ἐπισταθμείαν, odiosam mihi, dixi, non molestam.

        CICERO, _Ep. ad Att._ xiii. 52.

+Subject.+ We here catch a glimpse of Caesar as he really was. He had
spent a night near Puteoli (where Cicero also had a villa) with
Philippus, the step-father of Octavianus. The Dictator proposed a visit,
and Cicero in this memorable letter describes to Atticus what happened.

  1. +O hospitem ...+ ἀμεταμέλητον! = _Oh, what a formidable guest to
  have had, and yet I have had no reason to repent of it_
  10. +rationes+ (sc. _conferebat_) ... +Balbo+ = _he was settling
  accounts with Balbus, I suppose_. L. Cornelius Balbus, a native of
  Gades (Cadiz), was Caesar’s confidential secretary and faithful
  friend. He was the first enfranchised foreigner who attained to the
  highest magistracy (Consul 40 B.C.).
                  ‘Though the cook was good,
    ’Twas Attic salt (+sermone bono+) that flavoured most the food.’
  18-19. +homines visi sumus+ = _I showed myself a man of taste_, i.e.
  as host.
  21. Σπουδαῖον οὐδὲν = lit. _nothing serious_, i.e. _nothing
  political_. φιλόλογα = _literary chat_.
  24-25. ἐπισταθμείαν = _billeting_, as Caesar’s offer to dine with
  Cicero was equivalent to a command. +odiosam ... molestam+ =
  _unwelcome, though not disagreeable_.]



_The Death of Caesar, 44 B.C._

Assidentem conspirati specie officii circumsteterunt; ilicoque Cimber
Tillius, qui primas partes susceperat, quasi aliquid rogaturus propius
accessit, renuentique et gestu in aliud tempus differenti ab utroque
umero togam apprehendit; deinde clamantem: {5} _Ista quidem vis est_,
alter e Cascis aversum vulnerat, paulum infra iugulum. Caesar Cascae
brachium arreptum graphio traiecit, conatusque prosilire alio vulnere
tardatus est; utque animadvertit undique se strictis pugionibus peti,
toga caput {10} obvolvit, simul sinistra manu sinum ad ima crura
deduxit, quo honestius caderet etiam inferiore corporis parte velata.
Atque ita tribus et viginti plagis confossus est, uno modo ad primum
ictum gemitu sine voce edito; etsi tradiderunt quidam {15} Marco Bruto
irruenti dixisse: Καὶ σὺ τέκνον; Exanimis, diffugientibus cunctis,
aliquamdiu iacuit, donec lecticae impositum, dependente brachio, tres
servoli domum rettulerunt. Nec in tot vulneribus, ut Antistius medicus
existimabat, letale ullum {20} repertum est, nisi quod secundo loco in
pectore acceperat.

        SUETONIUS, _Divus Iulius_, 82.

+Context.+ After his return from Spain (Sept. 45 B.C.), Caesar was busy
with the reconstruction of the Senate, the completion of his vast
buildings in Rome, and with other far-reaching projects. But during
these months the clouds of ill-will were gathering and threatening him
on every side. A conspiracy was formed, of which C. Cassius, ‘a lean and
hungry man,’ of a bitter and jealous disposition, seems to have been the
real instigator. He persuaded Brutus, a student of life chiefly in
books, that liberty could only be gained by murder, and at last it was
resolved that the deed should be done on the Ides (15th) of March.

  8. +graphio+ (γραφίον = _scriptorium_) = _a writing-style_.
  12. +quo honestius caderet+, cf. Ovid, _Fasti_ ii. 833 (of
  Lucretia):  [Hallam II. 675]
    _Tunc quoque iam moriens ne non procumbat honeste
      Respicit, haec etiam cura cadentis erat._
  16. Καὶ σὺ τέκνον; there seems to be no authority for attributing
  the words _Et tu Brute?_ to Caesar. Shakespeare found them in an
  earlier play.]

+The Murder of Caesar.+ ‘It is the most brutal and the most pathetic
scene that profane history has to record; it was, as Goethe has said,
the most senseless deed that ever was done. It was wholly useless, for
it did not and could not save Rome from monarchy. The deed was done by
a handful of men, who, pursuing a phantom liberty and following the lead
of a personal hatred, slew +the one man who saw the truth of things+.’
--W. F.



      ‘_There may be many Caesars
  Ere such another Julius._’--Cymbeline.

A. Fuit in illo ingenium, ratio, memoria, litterae, cura, cogitatio,
diligentia; res bello gesserat quamvis rei publicae calamitosas, at
tamen magnas; multos annos regnare meditatus magno labore multis
periculis quod cogitarat effecerat; muneribus, monumentis, {5}
congiariis, epulis multitudinem imperitam delenierat: suos praemiis,
adversarios clementiae specie devinxerat.

        CICERO, _Philippica_, ii. 45.

  4. +regnare meditatus.+ For Caesar monarchy meant the liberation of
  the Empire.
  5. +muneribus+ (sc. +gladiatoriis+) = _gladiatorial shows_.
  +monumentis+ = _public buildings_, e.g. his forum, amphitheatre,
  Temple of Venus Genetrix, and other public works begun (e.g. the
  _Curia Iulia_) and planned.
  6. +congiariis+ (sc. _donis_), orig. a _gift of wine_ (a _congius_
  = about 6 pints), then = _wine-money_ (Ger. _Trinkgeld_), and so of
  any largess.
  7-8. +clementiae specie.+ Cic. himself refutes this ungrateful taunt
  in his _pro Marcello_: _Recte igitur unus invictus est, a quo etiam
  ipsius victoriae condicio visque devicta est_.]


              Sed non in Caesare tantum
  Nomen erat nec fama ducis, sed nescia virtus
  Stare loco, solusque pudor non vincere bello.
  Acer et indomitus, quo spes quoque ira vocasset,   145
  Ferre manum et numquam temerando parcere ferro.
  Successus urguere suos, instare favori
  Numinis, impellens quidquid sibi summa petenti
  Obstaret, gaudensque viam fecisse ruina.           150

        LUCAN, _Pharsalia_, i. 143-150.

  143-144. +tantum nomen+ = _not a mere name alone_, in contrast to
  Pompeius:--_Stat magni nominis umbra._ -- Haskins.
  146. +temerando parcere ferro+ = _shrink from dyeing his sword_ (in

_Apotheosis of Caesar._

C. Periit sexto et quinquagesimo aetatis anno atque in deorum numerum
relatus est, non ore modo decernentium sed et persuasione volgi. Si
quidem ludis, quos primos consecrato ei heres Augustus edebat, {20}
stella crinita per septem continuos dies fulsit, exoriens circa
undecimam horam, creditumque est animam esse Caesaris in caelum recepti;
et hac de causa simulacro eius in vertice additur stella.

        SUET. _Div. Iul._ 88.

  21. +stella crinita+ (= κομήτης); cf. Verg. _Georg._ iv. 466-8:
    _Ille_ (= the sun) _etiam exstincto miseratus Caesare Romam
    Cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine_ (= gloom) _texit,
    Impiaque aeternam timuerunt saecula noctem._]



Caesar was the sole creative genius produced by Rome, and the last
produced by the ancient world, which accordingly moved on in the path
that he marked out for it until its sun went down.

Whatever he undertook and achieved was pervaded and guided by the cool
sobriety which constitutes the most marked peculiarity of his genius. To
this he owed the power of living energetically in the present,
undisturbed either by recollection or by expectation: to this he owed
the capacity of acting at any moment with collected vigour, and of
applying his whole genius even to the smallest and most incidental
enterprise. Gifts such as these could not fail to produce a statesman.

+Caesar as a statesman.+--From early youth Caesar was a statesman in the
deepest sense of the term, and his aim was the +political, military,
intellectual, and moral regeneration of his own deeply decayed nation,
and of the still more deeply decayed Hellenic nation intimately akin to
his own+. According to his original plan, he had proposed to reach his
object, like Pericles and Gaius Gracchus, without force of arms, until,
reluctantly convinced of the necessity for a military support, he, when
already forty years of age, put himself at the head of an army.

+His talent for organisation was marvellous.+--No statesman has ever
compelled alliances, no general has ever collected an army out of
unyielding and refractory elements with such decision, and kept them
together with such firmness, as Caesar displayed in constraining and
upholding his coalitions and his legions; never did regent judge his
instruments and assign each to the place appropriate for him with so
accurate an eye.

+He was monarch; but he never played the king.+--‘I am no king, but
Caesar.’ Even when absolute lord of Rome, he retained the deportment of
the party-leader; perfectly pliant and smooth, easy and charming in
conversation, complaisant towards everyone, it seemed as if he wished io
be nothing but the first among his peers.

Caesar ruled as king of Rome for five years and a half, not half as long
as Alexander: in the intervals of seven great campaigns, which allowed
him to stay not more than fifteen months altogether in the capital of
his empire, +he regulated the destinies of the world for the present and
the future+. The outlines were laid down, and thereby the new State was
defined for all coming time: the boundless future alone could complete
the structure. But precisely because the building was an endless one,
the master so long as he lived restlessly added stone to stone, with
always the same dexterity and always the same elasticity busy at work.
Thus he worked and created as never did any man before or after him: and
as a worker and creator he still, after well-nigh two thousand years,
lives in the memory of the nations--the first and withal unique
Imperator Caesar.




A. _Peroration of the Second Philippic, 44 B.C._

Respice, quaeso, aliquando rem publicam, M. Antoni: quibus ortus sis,
non quibuscum vivas considera: mecum, uti voles: redi cum re publica in
gratiam. Sed de te tu videris: ego de me ipso profitebor. Defendi rem
publicam adulescens, non {5} deseram senex: contempsi Catilinae gladios,
non pertimescam tuos. Quin etiam corpus libenter obtulerim, si
repraesentari morte mea libertas civitatis potest: ut aliquando dolor
populi Romani pariat, quod iam diu parturit. Etenim si abhinc {10} annos
prope viginti hoc ipso in templo negavi posse mortem immaturam esse
consulari, quanto verius nunc negabo seni? Mihi vero, patres conscripti,
iam etiam optanda mors est, perfuncto rebus eis quas adeptus sum quasque
gessi. Duo modo haec {15} opto: unum, ut moriens populum Romanum liberum
relinquam--hoc mihi maius ab dis immortalibus dari nihil
potest,--alterum, ut ita cuique eveniat ut de re publica quisque

        CICERO, _Phil._ ii. 46.

  2. +quibus ortus sis+: espec. his grandfather M. Antonius, the
  famous orator, whom Cicero held in great esteem.
  5. +adulescens+, i.e. in 63 B.C., when he was in his 44th year.
  8. +repraesentari+ = _be realised, won now and here_. --Jebb.
  11. +templo+, i.e. _Concordiae_. Cic. refers to _In Catil._ iv.

+The Peroration.+ ‘Such a passage speaks to us with a living impression
of unity and directness which we acknowledge without question. We admire
and ask for nothing more.’ --Nettleship.

B. _On the Murder of Cicero, by order of Antonius._

  Par scelus admisit Phariis Antonius armis:
    Abscidit voltus ensis uterque sacros.
  Illud, laurigeros ageres cum laeta triumphos,
    Hoc tibi, Roma, caput, cum loquereris, erat.   4
  Antoni tamen est peior quam causa Pothini:
    Hic facinus domino praestitit, ille sibi.

        MARTIAL, _Epig._ III. lxvi.

  1. +Par Phariis armis+ = _which matches (that committed by) the
  armed hand of an Egyptian_, i.e. Pothinus (the guardian of the young
  king) who planned the murder of Pompeius, when he fled to Egypt
  48 B.C.
  +sacros+: _consecrated_ to Rome from their public services.
  3-4. +Illud caput+ = Pompeius. +hoc caput+ = Cicero. Cf. _Epig._
  v. lxix: _Quid gladium demens_ +Romana+ _stringis_ +in ora+?
  6. +domino+, sc. Ptolemaeus, King of Egypt, jointly with Cleopatra.]



A. _Cicero as Orator and Poet._

    Eloquium ac famam Demosthenis aut Ciceronis
  Incipit optare et totis Quinquatribus optat        115
  Quisquis adhuc uno parcam colit asse Minervam,
  Quem sequitur custos angustae vernula capsae.
  Eloquio sed uterque perit orator, utrumque
  Largus et exundans leto dedit ingenii fons.
  Ingenio manus est et cervix caesa, nec umquam      120
  Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli.
  ‘O fortunatam natam me consule Romam’:
  Antoni gladios potuit contemnere, si sic
  Omnia dixisset. Ridenda poemata malo
  Quam te, conspicuae divina Philippica famae,       125
  Volveris a prima quae proxima.

        JUVENAL, _Satires_, x. 114-126.

  114-117. Boys at school long to be a Demosthenes or a Cicero.
  115. +totis Quinquatribus+, i.e. during all the five days of the
  Quinquatria, an annual feast of Minerva, March 19-23: it was always
  a holiday time at schools, and the school year began at the close
  of it.
  116. +parcam Minervam+ = _a cheap kind of learning_, and +uno asse+
  = _an entrance fee of one_ +as+. But Duff says +as+ here = +stips+,
  i.e. the boy’s contribution to the goddess of wisdom, who can make
  him wise, and +parcam+ (= _economical_), transferred from +asse+ to
  117. +vernula+ = _a little home-born slave_, +capsa+ a circular box
  of beech-wood, used for the transport of books.
  121. +causidici pusilli+ = _of a petty pleader_, as opposed to
  122. From Cicero’s poem _de suo consulatu_. Another line quoted in
  the 2nd Philippic is _Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi_.
  124. +Ridenda poemata malo+, i.e. they are better as being safer.
  Juvenal himself refutes this argument:
    _Summum crede nefas animam praeferre pudori
    Et propter vitam vivendi perdere causas._]

B. _Cicero as Advocate._

  Disertissime Romuli nepotum,
  Quot sunt quotque fuere, Marce Tulli,
  Quotque post aliis erunt in annis,
  Gratias tibi maximas Catullus
  Agit pessimus omnium poeta,              5
  Tanto pessimus omnium poeta
  Quanto tu optimus omnium patronus.

        CATULLUS, xlix.

  2. +Marce Tulli+: the formal address suits the formal expression of
  thanks to a _patronus_ (= _advocate_).
  5. +pessimus omnium poeta:+ the self-depreciation heightens the
  praise of the last line. --Merrill.]



_His Death, by order of Antonius, 43 B.C._

M. Cicero sub adventum triumvirorum urbe cesserat pro certo habens id
quod erat, non magis se Antonio eripi quam Caesari Cassium et Brutum
posse: primo in Tusculanum fugerat, inde transversis itineribus in
Formianum ut ab Caieta navem {5} conscensurus proficiscitur. Unde
aliquoties in altum provectum cum modo venti adversi retulissent, modo
ipse iactationem navis caeco volvente fluctu pati non posset, taedium
tandem eum et fugae et vitae cepit, regressusque ad superiorem villam,
quae paulo {10} plus mille passibus a mari abest, ‘moriar,’ inquit, ‘in
patria saepe servata.’ Satis constat servos fortiter fideliterque
paratos fuisse ad dimicandum; ipsum deponi lecticam et quietos pati quod
sors iniqua cogeret iussisse. Prominenti ex lectica praebentique {15}
immotam cervicem caput praecisum est. Nec satis stolidae crudelitati
militum fuit: manus quoque scripsisse aliquid in Antonium exprobrantes
praeciderunt. Ita relatum caput ad Antonium iussuque eius inter duas
manus in rostris positum, ubi {20} ille consul, ubi saepe consularis,
ubi eo ipso anno adversus Antonium quanta nulla umquam humana vox cum
admiratione eloquentiae auditus fuerat: vix attollentes prae lacrimis
oculos homines intueri trucidati membra civis poterant. Vixit tres et
sexaginta {25} annos, ut si vis afuisset, ne immatura quidem mors videri

        LIVY, _Fr. ap. Sen. Rh. Suas._ vii.

  1. +triumvirorum+, sc. Antonius, Octavianus, and Lepidus. These
  three allies (about the end of Oct. 43 B.C.) held their famous
  meeting on an island in the R. Rhenus (a tributary of the Padus)
  near Bononia (Bologna), at which they constituted themselves a
  commission of three with absolute powers for five years. This was
  followed by a proscription of their principal opponents, of whom
  seventeen, including Cicero (sacrificed to Antonius), were at once
  put to death.
  4. +in Tusculanum+, i.e. to his villa at Tusculum, richly adorned
  with pictures and statues.
  5. +in Formianum+, i.e. to his villa at Formiae, on the Appian Way,
  in the innermost corner of the beautiful Gulf of Caieta (Gaëta).
  Near this villa Cicero was murdered.]

+The Death of Cicero.+ Cicero’s work was over, and the tragedy of his
death was the natural outcome of his splendid failure. The restoration
of the Commonwealth of the Scipios was but a dream; still it was a
beautiful dream, and Cicero gave his life for it. --Tyrrell.


_In Praise of Cicero._

A. Nihil tamen egisti, M. Antoni, nihil, inquam, egisti mercedem
caelestissimi oris et clarissimi capitis abscisi numerando,
auctoramentoque funebri ad conservatoris quondam rei publicae tantique
consulis irritando necem. Rapuisti tum Ciceroni lucem {5} sollicitam et
aetatem senilem et vitam miseriorem te principe quam sub te triumviro
mortem, famam vero gloriamque factorum atque dictorum adeo non
abstulisti, ut auxeris. Vivit vivetque per omnem saeculorum memoriam,
dumque hoc vel forte vel {10} providentia vel utcumque constitutum rerum
naturae corpus, quod ille paene solus Romanorum animo vidit, ingenio
complexus est, eloquentia illuminavit, manebit incolume, comitem aevi
sui laudem Ciceronis trahet omnisque posteritas illius in te scripta
mirabitur, {15} tuum in eum factum exsecrabitur citiusque e mundo genus
hominum quam Ciceronis memoria cedet.

        VELLEIUS PATERCULUS, ii. 66.

  3-4. +auctoramentoque funebri irritando+ = lit. _and by stimulating
  (provoking) by a fatal reward_ (+auctoramento+) _the death_. . . .
  10-15. +dumque ... trahet+, in reference to Cicero’s philosophical
  works, in which Cicero propounds no original scheme of philosophy,
  claiming only that he renders the conclusions of Greek thinkers
  accessible to his own countrymen.]

B. Ingenium et operibus et praemiis operum felix; ipse fortunae diu
prosperae et in longo tenore felicitatis {20} magnis interim ictus
vulneribus, exilio, ruina partium pro quibus steterat, filiae exitu tam
tristi tamque acerbo, omnium adversorum nihil ut viro dignum erat tulit
praeter mortem, quae vere aestimanti minus indigna videri potuit, quod a
victore {25} inimico nil crudelius passurus erat quam quod eiusdem
fortunae compos victo fecisset. Si quis tamen virtutibus vitia pensaret,
vir magnus ac memorabilis fuit, et in cuius laudes exsequendas Cicerone
laudatore opus fuerit. {30}

        LIVY, _Fr. ap. Sen._

  21-22. +ruina ... steterat+, i.e. the restoration of the
  Commonwealth of the Scipios.]

+Cicero.+ ‘It happened many years after that Augustus once found one of
his grandsons with a work of Cicero’s in his hands. The boy was
frightened, and hid the book under his gown; but Caesar took it from
him, and, standing there motionless, he read through a great part of the
book; then he gave it back to the boy, and said “This was a great
orator, my child; a great orator, and a man who loved his country
well.”’--Plutarch, _Cicero_, 49.



  Si te forte iuvant Helles Athamantidos urbes,
    Nec desiderio, Tulle, movere meo,
  Tu licet aspicias caelum omne Atlanta gerentem,
    Sectaque Persea Phorcidos ora manu,                    8
  Geryonis stabula et luctantum in pulvere signa
    Herculis Antaeique Hesperidumque choros,
  Tuque tuo Colchum propellas remige Phasim,
    Peliacaeque trabis totum iter ipse legas,             12
  Qua rudis Argoa natat inter saxa columba
    In faciem prorae pinus adacta novae,
  Et siqua Ortygii visenda est ora Caystri,
    Et quae septenas temperat unda vias;                  16
  Omnia Romanae cedent miracula terrae;
    Natura his posuit, quicquid ubique fuit.
  Armis apta magis tellus, quam commoda noxae:
    Famam, Roma, tuae non pudet historiae.                20
  Nam quantum ferro, tantum pietate potentes
    Stamus: victrices temperat illa manus.
  Hic Anio Tiburne fluis, Clitumnus ab Umbro
    Tramite, et aeternum Marcius umor opus,               24
  Albanus lacus et foliis Nemorensis abundans,
    Potaque Pollucis lympha salubris equo.                26
  Haec tibi, Tulle, parens, haec est pulcherrima sedes;   39
    Hic tibi pro digna gente petendus honos;
  Hic tibi ad eloquium cives, hic ampla nepotum
    Spes et venturae coniugis aptus amor.                 42

        PROPERTIUS, III. (IV.) xxii. 5-26, 39-42.

+Subject.+ Go where thou wilt, my Tullus, know that all the sights and
marvels of all lands, from West to East, are outdone by those of thine
own Italy. A truly famous land! A land ever victorious, ever merciful;
full of fair lakes and streams. Here, Tullus, is thy true abode: here
seek a life of honour and a home.

  8. +Phorcidos ora+ = _the head of Medusa_, the daughter of Phorcus.
  15. +Ortygii Caystri.+ Ortygia, an old name for Ephesus, near the
  mouth of the R. Cayster: the haunt of _quails_ (_Ortygia_, ὄρτυξ).
  16. +temperat septenas vias+ = _moderates its seven channels_, of
  the delta of the Nile. --Ramsay.
  19-22. Cf. Verg. _Aen._ vi. 853 _Parcere subiectis et debellare
  19. +commoda noxae+ = _disposed to harm_. --North Pinder.
  24. +Marcius umor+, i.e. the aqueduct of Q. Marcius Rex; built
  145 B.C.
  25. The Alban and Arician Lakes (+Nemorensis+ = mod. _Nemi_) are
  close together.
  26. i.e. the well Iuturna in the Forum (‘the well that springs by
  Vesta’s fane’) at which the Dioscuri washed their horses after their
  hot ride from Lake Regillus.
  41. +ad eloquium cives+ = _citizens to hear and profit by your
  eloquence_. --N. P.]



  Haec est in gremium victos quae sola recepit       150
  Humanumque genus communi nomine fovit
  Matris, non dominae ritu: civesque vocavit
  Quos domuit, nexuque pio longinqua revinxit.
  Huius pacificis debemus moribus omnes
  Quod veluti patriis regionibus utitur hospes:      155
  Quod sedem mutare licet: quod cernere Thulen
  Lusus, et horrendos quondam penetrare recessus:
  Quod bibimus passim Rhodanum, potamus Orontem;
  Quod cuncti gens una sumus. Nec terminus unquam
  Romanae dicionis erit. Nam cetera regna            160
  Luxuries vitiis odiisque superbia vertit.
  Sic male sublimes fregit Spartanus Athenas
  Atque idem Thebas cecidit. Sic Medus ademit
  Assyrio, Medoque tulit moderamina Perses:
  Subiecit Macedo Persen, cessurus et ipse           165
  Romanis. Haec auguriis firmata Sibyllae,
  Haec sacris animata Numae: huic fulmina vibrat
  Iuppiter: hanc tota Tritonia Gorgone velat.
  Arcanas huc Vesta faces, huc orgia Bacchus
  Transtulit, et Phrygios genetrix turrita leones.   170
  Huc defensurus morbos Epidaurius hospes
  Reptavit placido tractu, vectumque per undas
  Insula Paeonium texit Tiberina draconem.

        CLAUDIAN, _de Consulatu Stilichonis_, iii. 150-173.

  153. +nexuque ... revinxit+ = _and has linked far places in a bond
  of love_. --Jebb.
  156. +Thulen:+ cf. Vergil’s _ultima Thule_, of the northernmost
  island known, variously identified with the Shetlands, Iceland, or
  158. +Orontem+: the largest river of Syria, whence Juvenal, iii. 62,
  uses it of the Syrian people--
    _Iam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes._
  159. +Quod cuncti ... sumus+ = _that the whole earth is one people_.
  164. +moderamina+ = _the reins of power_; lit. _a means of
  168. +hanc tota ... velat+ = _she it is above whom Pallas spreads
  the whole shadow of the aegis_ (+tota Gorgone+). Cf. Verg. _Aen._
  viii. 435-8:
    _Aegidaque horriferam, turbatae Palladis arma,
    Certatim squamis serpentum auroque polibant,
    Connexosque angues ipsamque in pectore divae
    Gorgona, desecto vertentem lumina collo._
  170. +genetrix turrita+, i.e. Cybele, the goddess of settled life.
  171. +Epidaurius hospes+, i.e. Asclepius (Aesculapius), who had a
  famous temple at Epidaurus (in Argolis), whence his worship was
  introduced into Rome to avert a pestilence 293 B.C.
  172. +reptavit placido tractu+ = _came gently gliding on his voyage_.
  --Jebb. --For +reptavit+ cf. _repo_, ἕρπω, and our _creep_.
  173. +Paeonium draconem+ = _the serpent of the healer_. Cf. Παιών.]



  Vis dicam, quae causa tuos, Romane, labores
  In tantum extulerit, quis gloria fotibus aucta
  Sic cluat, impositis ut mundum frenet habenis?         585
  Discordes linguis populos et dissona cultu
  Regna volens sociare Dens, subiungier uni
  Imperio, quidquid tractabile moribus esset,
  Concordique iugo retinacula mollia ferre
  Constituit, quo corda hominum coniuncta teneret        590
  Relligionis amor: nec enim fit copula Christo
  Digna, nisi implicitas societ mens unica gentes.       592
  Ius fecit commune pares et nomine eodem                608
  Nexuit et domitos fraterna in vincla redegit.
  Vivitur omnigenis in partibus, haud secus ac si
  Cives congenitos concludat moenibus unis
  Urbs patria atque omnes lare conciliemur avito.        612
    En ades omnipotens, concordibus influe terris:       634
  Iam mundus te, Christe, capit, quem congrege nexu
  Pax et Roma tenent: capita haec et culmina rerum
  Esse iubes, nec Roma tibi sine pace probatur:
  Et pax ut placeat, facit excellentia Romae,
  Quae motus varios simul et dicione coercet
  Et terrore premit.                                     640

        PRUDENTIUS, _contra Symmachum_, ii. 583-640 (sel.).

+Subject.+ In a remarkable passage, Prudentius (circ. 400 A.D.) views
the victorious empire of Rome as preparing the way for the coming of
Christ. The triumphs of the Romans were not, he says, the gifts of false
gods, grateful for sacrifices, but were designed by Providence to break
down the barriers between the jarring nationalities of the world, and
familiarise them with a common yoke, by way of disciplining them for a
common Christianity. An “universal peace is struck through sea and
land,” and Law, Art, Commerce, and Marriage constitute the world one
city and one family. Thus the way was paved for the coming of Christ by
the unity of the empire and the civilisation of the individual subject.
--North Pinder.

  584. +fotibus+ (cf. _fotum_, _foveo_) = _cherishings_, _supports_,
  585. +sic cluat+ = _is so famed_, for _cluo_ (ante and post-class.)
  cf. κλέος.
  590-591. +quo+ (sc. _iugo_) ... +amor+, i.e. hearts once knit
  together by a common yoke would best be held together by a common
  faith. --N. P.
  609. +fraterna in vincla+ = _in the bonds of brotherhood, not those
  of slavery, as_ +domitos+ _would naturally suggest_.
  634. +concordibus+ = _now they are in harmony and peace_, emphatic.
  635. +capit+ = _is fit to receive thee_.]



_The Perils of the Deep._


  Sic te diva potens Cypri,
    Sic fratres Helenae, lucida sidera,
  Ventorumque regat pater
    Obstrictis aliis praeter Iapyga,           4
  Navis, quae tibi creditum
    Debes Vergilium, finibus Atticis
  Reddas incolumem precor
    Et serves animae dimidium meae.            8
  Illi robur et aes triplex
    Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci
  Commisit pelago ratem
    Primus, nec timuit praecipitem Africum    12
  Decertantem Aquilonibus
    Nec tristes Hyadas nec rabiem Noti,
  Quo non arbiter Hadriae
    Maior, tollere seu ponere vult freta.     16
  Quem mortis timuit gradum,
    Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia,
  Qui vidit mare turbidum et
    Infames scopulos Acroceraunia?            20
  Nequiquam deus abscidit
    Prudens Oceano dissociabili
  Terras, si tamen impiae
    Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada.      24

    [Footnote 36: A ‘God-speed’ to Vergil’s ship.]

‘_Nought is there for man too high._’


  Audax omnia perpeti
    Gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas:
  Audax Iapeti genus
    Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit;       28
  Post ignem aetheria domo
    Subductum macies et nova febrium
  Terris incubuit cohors
    Semotique prius tarda necessitas          32
  Leti corripuit gradum.
    Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera.
  Pinnis non homini datis;
    Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor.       36
  Nil mortalibus arduist;
    Caelum ipsum petimus stultitia neque
  Per nostrum patimur scelus
    Iracunda Iovem ponere fulmina.            40

        HORACE, _Od._ I. iii.


_A Prayer for his friend’s safety._


  Di, quibus audaces amor est servare carinas
  Saevaque ventosi mulcere pericula ponti,
  Sternite molle fretum placidumque advertite votis
  Concilium, et lenis non obstrepat unda precanti:
  Grande tuo rarumque damus, Neptune, profundo             5
  Depositum. Iuvenis dubio committitur alto
  Maecius atque animae partem super aequora nostrae
  Maiorem transferre parat. Proferte benigna
  Sidera et antemnae gemino considite cornu,
  Oebalii fratres; vobis pontusque polusque               10
  Luceat; Iliacae longe nimbosa sororis
  Astra fugate, precor, totoque excludite caelo.
  Vos quoque caeruleum ponti, Nereides, agmen
  Quis honor ei regni cessit fortuna secundi,
  Dicere quae magni fas sit mihi sidera ponti,            15
  Surgite de vitreis spumosae Doridos antris
  Baianosque sinus et feta tepentibus undis
  Litora tranquillo certatim ambite natatu,
  Quaerentes ubi celsa ratis, quam scandere gaudet
  Nobilis Ausoniae Celer armipotentis alumnus. . . .      20

_His Prayer is heard. Man’s audacity._


  Et pater, Aeolio frangit qui carcere ventos             42
  Cui varii flatus omnisque per aequora mundi
  Spiritus atque hiemes nimbosaque nubila parent,
  Artius obiecto Borean Eurumque Notumque                 45
  Monte premat: soli Zephyro sit copia caeli,
  Solus agat puppes summasque supernatet undas
  Assiduus pelago; donec tua turbine nullo
  Laeta Paraetoniis assignet carbasa ripis. . . .
  Audimur. Vocat ipse ratem nautasque morantes            50
  Increpat. Ecce meum timido iam frigore pectus
  Labitur et nequeo, quamvis movet ominis horror,
  Claudere suspensos oculorum in margine fletus. . . .    53
    Quis rude et abscissum miseris animantibus aequor     61
  Fecit iter solidaeque pios telluris alumnos
  Expulit in fluctus pelagoque immisit hianti
  Audax ingenii? nec enim temeraria virtus
  Illa magis, summae gelidum quae Pelion Ossae            65
  Iunxit anhelantemque iugis bis pressit Olympum.

        STATIUS, _Silvae_, II. ii. 1-20, 42-53, 61-66.


_For those ‘qui corporis cura mentem obruerunt.’_

A. Stulta est enim, mi Lucili, et minime conveniens litterato viro
occupatio exercendi lacertos et dilatandi cervicem, ac latera firmandi.
Cum tibi feliciter sagina cesserit, et tori creverint: nec vires unquam
opimi bovis, nec pondus aequabis. Adice nunc, quod maiore corporis
sarcina animus eliditur, et minus agilis est. Itaque, quantum potes
circumscribe corpus tuum, et animo locum laxa. Multa sequuntur incommoda
huic deditos curae. Primum exercitationes, quarum labor spiritum
exhaurit, et inhabilem intentioni ac studiis acrioribus reddit; deinde
copia ciborum subtilitas animi impeditur. Accedunt pessimae notae,
mancipia in magisterium recepta, homines inter oleum et vinum occupati:
quibus ad votum dies est actus, si bene desudaverunt, si in locum eius
quod effluxit, multum potionis altius ieiuno gutture regesserunt. Bibere
et sudare, vita cardiaci est. Sunt exercitationes et faciles et breves,
quae corpus et sine mora laxent, et tempori parcant: cuius praecipua
ratio habenda est. Cursus, et cum aliquo pondere manus motae, et saltus,
vel ille qui corpus in altum levat, vel ille qui in longum mittit, vel
ille (ut ita dicam) saliaris, aut (ut contumeliosius dicam) fullonius.
Quodlibet ex his elige, usu fit facile. Neque ego te iubeo semper
imminere libro, aut pugillaribus. Dandum et aliquod intervallum animo:
ita tamen ut non resolvatur, sed remittatur.

        SENECA, _Ep._ xv. 8.

‘_They needs must die._’


  Incognitum istud facinus, ac dirum nefas
  A me quoque absit. Quod scelus miseri luent?
  Scelus est Iason genitor, et maius scelus
  Medea mater. Occidant: non sunt mei.
  Pereant? mei sunt. Crimine et culpa carent.
  Sunt innocentes, fateor: et frater fuit.
  Quid, anime, titubas? ora quid lacrimae rigant?
  Variamque nunc huc ira nunc illuc amor
  Diducit? anceps aestus incertam rapit.

        SENECA, _Medea_, 920.


_An Estimate of early Roman Dramatists._


  Ennius, et sapiens et fortis et alter Homerus,      50
  Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur,
  Quo promissa cadant et somnia Pythagorea.
  Naevius in manibus non est et mentibus haeret
  Paene recens? Adeo sanctum est vetus omne poema.
  Ambigitur quotiens uter utro sit prior, aufert      55
  Pacuvius docti famam senis, Accius alti,
  Dicitur Afrani toga convenisse Menandro,
  Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi,
  Vincere Caecilius gravitate, Terentius arte.
  Hos ediscit et hos arto stipata theatro             60
  Spectat Roma potens, habet hos numeratque poetas
  Ad nostrum tempus Livi scriptoris ab aevo.

        HOR. _Ep._ II. i. 50-62.

‘_Teréntio non símilem dices quémpiam._’


  Tu quoque tu in summis, o dimidiate Menander,
  Poneris, et merito, puri sermonis amator.
  Lenibus atque utinam scriptis adiuncta foret vis,
  Comica ut aequato virtus polleret honore
  Cum Graecis neve hac despectus parte iaceres!
  Unum hoc maceror ac doleo tibi deesse, Terenti.

        CAESAR, _ap._ SUETON. _vit. Ter._

_Ovid on his Contemporaries._


  Temporis illius colui fovique poetas,
    Quotque aderant vates, rebar adesse deos.
  Saepe suas volucres legit mihi grandior aevo,
    Quaeque nocet serpens, quae iuvat herba, Macer.   44
  Saepe suos solitus recitare Propertius ignes,
    Iure sodalicio qui mihi iunctus erat.
  Ponticus heroo, Bassus quoque clarus iambis
    Dulcia convictus membra fuere mei;                48
  Et tenuit nostras numerosus Horatius aures,
    Dum ferit Ausonia carmina culta lyra.
  Vergilium vidi tantum: nec amara Tibullo
    Tempus amicitiae fata dedere meae.                52
  Successor fuit hic tibi, Galle, Propertius illi;
    Quartus ab his serie temporis ipse fui:
  Utque ego maiores, sic me coluere minores,
    Notaque non tarde facta Thalia mea est.           56

        OVID, _Tr._ IV. x. 41-56.

Cf. OVID, _Am._ I. xv. 9-30; _Am._ III. ix. 38-68; _Rem. Am._ 65-388;
QUINT. X. i. 85-90.


_Ovid describes a Storm at Sea._


  Me miserum, quanti montes volvuntur aquarum!
    Iam iam tacturos sidera summa putes.              20
  Quantae diducto subsidunt aequore valles!
    Iam iam tacturas Tartara nigra putes.
  Quocumque aspicio, nihil est nisi pontus et aer,
    Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax.        24
  Inter utrumque fremunt inmani murmure venti:
    Nescit, cui domino pareat, unda maris.
  Nam modo purpureo vires capit Eurus ab ortu,
    Nunc Zephyrus sero vespere missus adest,          28
  Nunc sicca gelidus Boreas bacchatur ab Arcto,
    Nunc Notus adversa proelia fronte gerit.
  Rector in incerto est nec quid fugiatve petatve
    Invenit: ambiguis ars stupet ipsa malis.          32

        OVID, _Tr._ I. ii. 19-32.

_The passing of Romulus._


  Sol fugit, et removent subeuntia nubila caelum,
    Et gravis effusis decidet imber aquis.
  Hinc tonat, hinc missis abrumpitur ignibus aether,
    Fit fuga, rex patriis astra petebat equis.

        OVID, _Fast._ ii. 493-496.  [Hallam II. 369-372]

_Thunder and Hail._


  Ínterea prope iam óccidente sóle inhorrescít mare,
  Ténebrae conduplicántur, noctisque ét nimbum occaecát nigror,
  Flámma inter nubés coruscat, caélum tonitru cóntremit,
  Grándo mixta imbri largifico súbita praecipitáns cadit,
  Úndique omnes vénti erumpunt, saévi existunt túrbines,
  Férvit aestu pélagus.

        PACUVIUS _ap._ CIC. _De Div._ I. xiv. 24.

_The Argo in a Gale._


  Tollitur atque intra Minyas Argoaque vela
  Styrus adest: vasto rursus desidit hiatu
  Abrupta revolutus aqua. Iamque omnis in astra      330
  Itque reditque ratis, lapsoque reciproca fluctu
  Descendit. Vorat hos vertex, hos agmine toto
  Gurges agit. Simul in voltus micat undique terror;
  Crebra ruina poli caelestia limina laxat.

        VAL. FL. _Argon._ viii. 328-334.

Cf. VERG. _Aen._ i. 81-123, _Aen._ iv, 160-168; STAT. _Theb._
i. 336-363.


_Lesbia’s Sparrow._


  Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque,
  Et quantumst hominum venustiorum.
  Passer mortuus est meae puellae,
  Passer, deliciae meae puellae,
  Quem plus illa oculis suis amabat.          5
  Nam mellitus erat suamque norat
  Ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem;
  Nec sese a gremio illius movebat,
  Sed circumsiliens modo huc modo illuc
  Ad solam dominam usque pipiabat.           10
  Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum
  Illuc, unde negant redire quemquam.
  At vobis male sit, malae tenebrae
  Orci, quae omnia bella devoratis:
  Tam bellum mihi passerem abstulistis.      15
  Vae factum male! vae miselle passer!
  Tua nunc opera meae puellae
  Flendo turgiduli rubent ocelli.

        CATULLUS, iii.

‘_My Parrot an obtrusive bird._’


  Psittace, dux volucrum, domini facunda voluptas,
  Humanae sollers imitator, psittace, linguae,
  Quis tua tam subito praeclusit murmura fato?

        STATIUS, _Silv._ ii. 4

_The Lap-dog and its Portrait._


  Issa est passere nequior Catulli,
  Issa est purior osculo columbae,
  Issa est blandior omnibus puellis,
  Issa est carior Indicis lapillis,
  Issa est deliciae catella Publi.         5
  Hanc tu, si queritur, loqui putabis;
  Sentit tristitiamque gaudiumque.
  Collo nixa cubat capitque somnos,
  Ut suspiria nulla sentiantur.
  Hanc ne lux rapiat suprema totam,       10
  Picta Publius exprimit tabella,
  In qua tam similem videbis Issam,
  Ut sit tam similis sibi nec ipsa.
  Issam denique pone cum tabella:
  Aut utramque putabis esse veram,        15
  Aut utramque putabis esse pictam.

        MARTIAL, I. cix.

Cf. CATULL. ii.; OVID, _Am._ ii. 6.


A. Satura quidem tota nostra est, in qua primus insignem laudem adeptus
Lucilius quosdam ita deditos sibi adhuc habet amatores, ut eum non
eiusdem modo operis auctoribus, sed omnibus poetis praeferre non
dubitent. Ego quantum ab illis tantum ab Horatio dissentio, qui
Lucilium _fluere lutulentum et esse aliquid, quod tollere possis_,
putat. Nam et eruditio in eo mira et libertas atque inde acerbitas, et
abunde salis. Multum eo est tersior ac purus magis Horatius, et, nisi
labor eius amore, praecipuus. Multum et verae gloriae, quamvis uno
libro, Persius meruit.

        QUINT. X. i. 93.

_A Criticism of Lucilius._


  Eupolis atque Cratinus Aristophanesque poetae
  Atque alii, quorum comoedia prisca virorum est,
  Siquis erat dignus describi, quod malus ac fur,
  Quod moechus foret aut sicarius aut alioqui
  Famosus, multa cum libertate notabant.               5
    Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius, hosce secutus
  Mutatis tantum pedibus numerisque, facetus,
  Emunctae naris, durus componere versus.
  Nam fuit hoc vitiosus: in hora saepe ducentos,
  Ut magnum, versus dictabat stans pede in uno;       10
  Cum flueret lutulentus, erat quod tollere velles;
  Garrulus atque piger scribendi ferre laborem.

        HORACE, _Sat._ I. iv. 1-12.

_Juvenal’s Reasons for Writing Satire._


  Cur tamen hoc potius libeat decurrere campo,        19
  Per quem magnus equos Auruncae flexit alumnus,
  Si vacat ac placidi rationem admittitis, edam.      21
    Cum pars Niliacae plebis, cum verna Canopi        26
  Crispinus Tyrias umero revocante lacernas
  Ventilet aestivum digitis sudantibus aurum
  Nec sufferre queat maioris pondera gemmae,
  Difficile est saturam non scribere.                 30

        JUVENAL, _Sat._ i. 19-21, 26-30.

_His Subject._


  Ex quo Deucalion, nimbis tollentibus aequor,            81
  Navigio montem ascendit sortesque poposcit,
  Paulatimque anima caluerunt mollia saxa,                83
  Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas,    85
  Gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli est.          86

        JUVENAL, _Sat._ i. 81-86.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The omitted line (84) is
    _Et maribus nudas ostendit Pyrrha puellas_]


_Virtue defined._


  Virtus, Albine, est pretium persolvere verum
  Quis in versamur, quis vivimus rebus potesse:
  Virtus est homini scire id quo quaeque habeat res.
  Virtus scire homini rectum, utile, quid sit honestum;
  Quae bona, quae mala item, quid inutile, turpe, inhonestum;  5
  Virtus quaerendae finem rei scire modumque:
  Virtus divitiis pretium persolvere posse:
  Virtus, id dare, quod re ipsa debetur, honori;
  Hostem esse atque inimicum hominum morumque malorum,
  Contra defensorem hominum morumque bonorum;                 10
  Hos magni facere, his bene velle, his vivere amicum;
  Commoda praeterea patriai prima putare,
  Deinde parentum, tertia iam postremaque nostra.

        LUCILIUS, _Sat. Frag._

      ‘_The names of men so poor
  Who could do mighty deeds._’


  Cum tremerent autem Fabios durumque Catonem     90
  Et Scauros et Fabricium rigidique severos
  Censoris mores etiam collega timeret,
  Nemo inter curas et seria duxit habendum
  Qualis in Oceani fluctu testudo nataret
  Clarum Troiugenis factura et nobile fulcrum,    95
  Sed nudo latere et parvis frons aerea lectis
  Vile coronati caput ostendebat aselli,
  Ad quod lascivi ludebant ruris alumni.
  Tales ergo cibi qualis domus atque supellex.

        JUVENAL, _Sat._ xi. 90-99.

_Persius in Praise of his Tutor, Cornutus._


  Cum primum pavido custos mihi purpura cessit        30
  Bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit;
  Cum blandi comites totaque inpune Subura
  Permisit sparsisse oculos iam candidus umbo,
  Cumque iter ambiguum est et vitae nescius error
  Deducit trepidas ramosa in compita mentes,          35
  Me tibi supposui. Teneros tu suscipis annos
  Socratico, Cornute, sinu; tum fallere sollers
  Apposita intortos extendit regula mores,
  Et premitur ratione animus vincique laborat
  Artificemque tuo ducit sub pollice vultum.          40

        PERSIUS, _Sat._ v. 19-25, 30-40.


_Objections to a Permanent Theatre, 151 B.C._

A. Cum locatum a censoribus theatrum exstrueretur, P. Cornelio Nasica
auctore tamquam inutile et nociturum publicis moribus ex senatus
consulto destructum est, populusque aliquamdiu stans ludos spectavit.

        LIVY, _Epit._ 48.

_Scenic Arrangements._

B. Apud maiores theatri gradus tantum fuerunt. Nam scena de lignotantum
ad tempus fiebat, unde hodieque permansit consuetudo, ut componantur
pegmata a ludorum theatralium editoribus. Scena autem, quae fiebat, aut
versilis erat aut ductilis. Versilis tunc erat, cum subito tota machinis
quibusdam convertebantur, et aliam picturae faciem ostendebat. Ductilis
tunc, cum tractis tabulatis hac atque illac species picturae nudabatur
interior. Unde perite utrumque tetigit, dicens, ‘Versis discedat
frontibus’: singula singulis complectens sermonibus. Quod Varro et
Suetonius commemorant.

        SUET. _ap. Serv. Georg._ iii. 24.

_The Awnings._


  Et vulgo faciunt id lutea russaque vela         75
  Et ferrugina, cum magnis intenta theatris
  Per malos volgata trabesque trementia flutant;
  Namque ibi consessam caveai subter et omnem
  Scaenai speciem, patrum coetumque decorum
  Inficiunt coguntque suo fluitare colore.        80

        LUCRETIUS, iv. 75-80.

_The Law of Otho, 67 B.C._

D. L. Roscius Otho tribunus plebis legem tulit, ut equitibus Romanis in
theatro quattuordecim gradus proximi adsignarentur.

        LIVY, _Epit._ 99.

_Usurpers of Equestrian Privileges._


  ‘Sectus flagellis hic triumviralibus
    Praeconis ad fastidium
  Arat Falerni mille fundi iugera
    Et Appiam mannis terit                30
  Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques
    Othone contempto sedet.’

        HORACE, _Epod._ iv. 11-16.


_The Parcae spin the Web of Fate._


    Laeva colum molli lana retinebat amictum,
  Dextera tum leviter deducens fila supinis
  Formabat digitis, tum prono in pollice torquens
  Libratum tereti versabat turbine fusum,
  Atque ita decerpens aequabat semper opus dens,     315
  Laneaque aridulis haerebant morsa labellis,
  Quae prius in levi fuerant extantia filo:
  Ante pedes autem candentis mollia lanae
  Vellera virgati custodibant calathisci.
  Haec tum clarisona pellentes vellera voce          320
  Talia divino fuderunt carmine fata,
  Carmine perfidiae quod post nulla arguet aetas.
    ‘O decus eximium magnis virtutibus augens,
  Emathiae tutamen opis, clarissime nato,
  Accipe, quod laeta tibi pandunt luce sorores,      325
  Veridicum oraclum--sed vos quae fata secuntur
  Currite ducentes subtemina, currite fusi.’

        CATULLUS, lxiv. 311-327.

_The Skill of Arachne. Her Contest with Pallas._


    Sive rudem primos lanam glomerabat in orbes,
  Seu digitis subigebat opus repetitaque longo        20
  Vellera mollibat nebulas aequantia tractu
  Sive levi teretem versabat pollice fusum,
  Seu pingebat acu scires a Pallade doctam.
       .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Haud mora constituunt diversis partibus ambae
  Et gracili geminas intendunt stamine telas.
  Tela iugo vincta est, stamen secernit harundo,      55
  Inseritur medium radiis subtemen acutis
  Quod digiti expediunt, atque inter stamina ductum
  Percusso paviunt insecti pectine dentes.
  Utraque festinant cinctaeque ad pectora vestes
  Bracchia docta movent, studio fallente laborem.     60

        OVID, _Met._ vi. 19-23, 53-60.

_The Pastime of Circe._


    Proxima Circaeae raduntur litora terrae       10
  Dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos
  Assiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis
  Urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum,
  Arguto tenues percurrens pectine telas.

        VERG. _Aen._ vii. 10-14.

Cf. OVID, _Met._ iv. 220-229; _Fasti_, iii. 815-20.  [III. 857-862]


_The Approach of the Monster._


    Andromedan poenas immitis iusserat Ammon.            671
  Quam simul ad duras religatam bracchia cautes
  Vidit Abantiades, nisi quod levis aura capillos
  Moverat et tepido manabant lumina fletu,
  Marmoreum ratus esset opus. Trahit inscius ignes       675
  Et stupet et visae correptus imagine formae
  Paene suas quatere est oblitus in aere pennas. . . .   677
  Ecce velut navis praefixo concita rostro               706
  Sulcat aquas, iuvenum sudantibus acta lacertis,
  Sic fera dimotis inpulsu pectoris undis
  Tantum aberat scopulis, quantum Balearica torto
  Funda potest plumbo medii transmittere caeli;          710
  Cum subito iuvenis pedibus tellure repulsa
  Arduus in nubes abiit. Ut in aequore summo
  Umbra viri visa est, visam fera saevit in umbram.
  Utque Iovis praepes, vacuo cum vidit in arvo
  Praebentem Phoebo liventia terga draconem,             715
  Occupat aversum, neu saeva retorqueat ora,
  Squamigeris avidos figit cervicibus ungues,
  Sic celeri missus praeceps per inane volatu
  Terga ferae pressit dextroque frementis in armo
  Inachides ferrum curvo tenus abdidit hamo.             720

_How Perseus won his Bride._


    Vulnere laesa gravi modo se sublimis in auras
  Attollit, modo subdit aquis, modo more ferocis
  Versat apri, quem turba canum circumsona terret.
  Ille avidos morsus velocibus effugit alis;
  Quaque patet, nunc terga cavis super obsita conchis,   725
  Nunc laterum costas, nunc qua tenuissima cauda
  Desinit in piscem, falcato vulnerat ense.
  Belua puniceo mixtos cum sanguine fluctus
  Ore vomit; maduere graves adspergine pennae.
  Nec bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus              730
  Credere, conspexit scopulum, qui vertice summo
  Stantibus extat aquis, operitur ab aequore moto.
  Nixus eo rupisque tenens iuga prima sinistra
  Ter quater exegit repetita per ilia ferrum.
  Litora cum plausu clamor superasque deorum             735
  Inplevere domos; gaudent generumque salutant
  Auxiliumque domus servatoremque fatentur
  Cassiope Cepheusque pater, resoluta catenis
  Incedit virgo, pretiumque et causa laboris.

        OVID, _Met._ iv. 671-677, 706-720, 721-739.


                  ‘_From afar, unknowing, I marked thee,
    Shining, a snow-white cross on the dark-green walls
        of the sea-cliff._’ --KINGSLEY.


    Tandem Gorgonei victorem Persea monstri
  Felix illa dies redeuntem ad litora duxit.
  Isque ubi pendentem vidit de rupe puellam,
  Deriguit facie, quam non stupefecerat hostis;          670
  Vixque manu spolium tenuit; victorque Medusae
  Victus in Andromeda est. Iam cautibus invidet ipsis
  Felicesque vocat, teneant quae membra, catenas.
  Et postquam poenae causam cognovit ab ipsa,
  Destinat in thalamos per bellum vadere ponti,          675
  Altera si Gorgo veniat, non territus ira.
  Concitat aerios cursus flentesque parentes
  Promissu vitae recreat pactusque maritam
  Ad litus remeat. Gravidus nam surgere pontus
  Coeperat, et longo fugiebant agmine fluctus            680
  Impellentis onus monstri. Caput eminet undis
  Scindentis pelagusque movet. Circumsonat aequor
  Dentibus, inque ipso rapidum mare navigat ore.

_The Death of the Monster._


    Illa[37] subit contra versoque a gurgite frontem     595
  Erigit et tortis innitens orbibus alte
  Emicat ac toto sublimis corpore fertur.
  Sed quantum illa subit semet iaculata profundo,
  In tantum revolat laxumque per aethera ludit
  Perseus et ceti subeuntis verberat ora.                600
  Nec cedit tamen illa viro, sed saevit in auras
  Morsibus, et vani crepitant sine vulnere dentes;
  Efflat et in caelum pelagus mergitque volantem
  Sanguineis undis pontumque extollit in astra.
  Spectabat pugnam pugnandi causa puella;                605
  Iamque oblita sui, metuit pro vindice tali
  Suspirans, animoque magis quam corpore pendet.
  Tandem confossis subsedit belua membris
  Plena maris summasque iterum remeavit ad undas
  Et magnum vasto contexit corpore pontum,               610
  Tunc quoque terribilis nec virginis ore videnda.
  Perfundit liquido Perseus in marmore corpus
  Maior et ex undis ad cautes pervolat alto
  Solvitque haerentem vinclis de rupe puellam
  Desponsam pugna, nupturam dote mariti.                 615

        MANILIUS, _Astronomica_, v. 667-583, 595-615.

    [Footnote 37: _illa_ = _belua_.]


_The School of Flavius, at Venusia._


  Causa fuit pater his, qui macro pauper agello
  Noluit in Flavi ludum me mittere, magni
  Quo pueri magnis e centurionibus orti,
  Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto,
  Ibant octonos refererentes Idibus aeris.        75

        HOR. _Sat._ I. vi. 71-75.

_Ovid and his Brother educated at Rome._


  Protinus excolimur teneri, curaque parentis
    Imus ad insignes Urbis ab arte viros.         16
  Frater ad eloquium viridi tendebat ab aevo,
    Fortia verbosi natus ad arma fori.
  At mihi iam puero caelestia sacra placebant,
    Inque suum furtim Musa trahebat opus.         20

        OVID, _Tristia_, IV. x. 15-20.

_The Schoolmaster’s life a hard one._


  Dummodo non pereat, mediae quod noctis ab hora
  Sedisti, qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet,
  Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro;
  Dummodo non pereat, totidem olfecisse lucernas,    225
  Quot stabant pueri, cum totus decolor esset
  Flaccus, et haereret nigro fuligo Maroni.

        JUVENAL, vii. 222-227.

_Early School._


  Surgite: iam vendit pueris ientacula pistor,
    Cristataeque sonant undique lucis aves.

        MARTIAL, XIV. ccxxiii.

_Homogeneous Divisions._


Non inutilem scio servatum esse a praeceptoribus meis morem, qui, cum
pueros in classes distribuerent, ordinem discendi secundum vires ingeni

        QUINTIL. I. ii. 23.

_Plagosus Orbilius._


  Quid tibi nobiscum est, ludi scelerate magister,
    Invisum pueris virginibusque caput?
  Nondum cristati rupere silentia galli:
    Murmure iam saevo verberibusque tonas.

        MARTIAL, IX. lxviii. 1-4.

Cf. JUV. x. 114-7; MARTIAL, X. lxii.; HOR. _Ep._ II. i. 69-71.



  Parve (nec invideo) sine me, liber, ibis in urbem:
    Ei mihi, quod domino non licet ire tuo.
  Vade, sed incultus, qualem decet exsulis esse:
    Infelix habitum temporis huius habe.               4
  Nec te purpureo velent vaccinia fuco:
    Non est conveniens luctibus ille color:
  Nec titulus minio nec cedro charta notetur,
    Candida nec nigra cornua fronte geras.             8
  Felices ornent haec instrumenta libellos:
    Fortunae memorem te decet esse meae.
  Nec fragili geminae poliantur pumice frontes,
    Hirsutus sparsis ut videare comis.                12
  Neve liturarum pudeat. Qui viderit illas
    De lacrimis factas sentiat esse meis.
  Vade, liber, verbisque meis loca grata saluta:
    Contingam certe quo licet illa pede.              16

        OVID, _Trist._ I. i. 1-16.


  Lutea sed niveum involvat membrana libellum,
    Pumex et canas tondeat ante comas
  Summaque praetexat tenuis fastigia chartae
    Indicet ut nomen littera facta meum,          12
  Atque inter geminas pingantur cornua frontes:
    Sic etenim comptum mittere oportet opus.

        TIBULLUS, III. i. 9-14.


  Qui tecum cupis esse meos ubicumque libellos
    Et comites longae quaeris habere viae,
  Hos eme, quos artat brevibus membrana tabellis:
    Scrinia da magnis, me manus una capit.         4
  Ne tamen ignores ubi sim venalis et erres
    Urbe vagus tota, me duce certus eris:
  Libertum docti Lucensis quaere Secundum
    Limina post Pacis Palladiumque forum.          8

        MARTIAL, I. ii.

Cf. HOR. _Epist._ I. xx.; CATULL. xxii, 4-8; STATIUS, _Silvae_,
IV. ix.


          ‘_As an eagle pursuing
          A dove to its ruin
    Down the streams of the cloudy wind._’--SHELLEY.


    Lassa revertebar (memini) Stymphalide silva;         585
  Aestus erat, magnumque labor geminaverat aestum.
  Invenio sine vertice aquas, sine murmure euntes,
  Perspicuas ad humum, per quas numerabilis alte
  Calculus omnis erat, quas tu vix ire putares. . . .    589
  Nescioquod medio sensi sub gurgite murmur              597
  Territaque insisto propioris margine fontis.
  ‘Quo properas Arethusa?’ suis Alpheos ab undis,
  ‘Quo properas?’ iterum rauco mihi dixerat ore. . . .   600
  Sic ego currebam, sic me ferus ille premebat,          604
  Ut fugere accipitrem penna trepidante columbae,
  Ut solet accipiter trepidas urguere columbas.
  Usque sub Orchomenon Psophidaque Cyllenenque
  Maenaliosque sinus gelidumque Erymanthon et Elin
  Currere sustinui; nec me velocior ille.
  Sed tolerare diu cursus ego, viribus inpar,            610
  Non poteram; longi patiens erat ille laboris.
  Per tamen et campos, per opertos arbore montes,
  Saxa quoque et rupes et qua via nulla, cucurri.

      ‘_Alpheum fama est huc Elidis amnem
    Occultas egisse vias subter mare, qui nunc
    Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis._’ --VERGIL.


    Sol erat a tergo: vidi praecedere longam
  Ante pedes umbram, nisi si timor illa videbat,         615
  Sed certe sonitusque pedum terrebat et ingens
  Crinales vittas afflabat anhelitus oris.
  Fessa labore fugae ‘fer opem, deprendimur,’ inquam,
  ‘Armigerae, Diana, tuae, cui saepe dedisti
  Ferre tuos arcus inclusaque tela pharetra.’            620
  Mota dea est spissisque ferens e nubibus unam
  Me super iniecit. lustrat caligine tectam
  Amnis et ignarus circum cava nubila quaerit.
  Bisque locum, quo me dea texerat, inscius ambit
  Et bis ‘io Arethusa, io Arethusa’ vocavit. . . .       625
  In latices mutor, sed enim cognoscit amatas            636
  Amnis aquas, positoque viri, quod sumpserat, ore
  Vertitur in proprias, ut se mihi misceat, undas.
  Delia rupit humum, caecisque ego mersa cavernis
  Advehor Ortygiam, quae me cognomine divae              640
  Grata meae superas eduxit prima sub auras.

        OVID, _Met._ v. 586-641 (sel.).


Οὕτω μὲν κάλλιστος Ὕλας μακάρων ἀριθμεῖται.


  Namque ferunt olim Pagasae navalibus Argon
    Egressam longe Phasidis isse viam,
  Et iam praeteritis labentem Athamantidos undis
    Mysorum scopulis applicuisse ratem.               20
  Hic manus heroum, placidis ut constitit oris,
    Mollia composita litora fronde tegit.
  At comes invicti iuvenis processerat ultra,
    Sacram sepositi quaerere fontis aquam.            24
  Hanc circum irriguo surgebant lilia prato           37
    Candida purpureis mixta papaveribus.
  Quae modo decerpens tenero pueriliter ungui
    Proposito florem praetulit officio,               40
  Ex modo formosis incumbens nescius undis
    Errorem blandis tardat imaginibus.
  Tandem haurire parat demissis flumina palmis
    Innixus dextro plena trahens umero.               44
  Cuius ut accensae Hydriades candore puellae
    Miratae solitos destituere choros.
  Prolapsum leviter facili traxere liquore:
    Tum sonitum rapto corpore fecit Hylas.            48

        PROPERTIUS, I. xx. 17-24, 37-48.

_Litus ‘Hyla Hyla’ omne sonabat._


    Continuo, volucri ceu pectora tactus asilo
  Emicuit Calabria taurus per confraga saeptis
  Obvia quaque ruens, tali se concitat ardens
  In iuga senta fuga: pavet omnis conscia late
  Silva, pavent montes, luctu succensus acerbo           585
  Quid struat Alcides tantaque quid apparet ira.
  Ille, velut refugi quem contigit improba Mauri
  Lancea sanguineus vasto leo murmure fertur,
  Frangit et absentem vacuis sub dentibus hostem,
  Sic furiis accensa gerens Tirynthius ora               590
  Fertur et intento decurrit montibus arcu.
  Heu miserae quibus ille ferae, quibus incidit usquam
  Immeritis per lustra viris! volat ordine nullo
  Cuncta petens; nunc ad ripas deiectaque saxis
  Flumina, nunc notas nemorum procurrit ad umbras.       595
  Rursus Hylan et rursus Hylan per longa reclamat
  Avia: responsant silvae et vaga certat imago.

        VALERIUS FLACCUS, _Argonautica_, iii. 581-597.

Cf. APOLLONIUS RHODIUS, _Argonautica_, i. 1224-1239.


_The Portmanteau Fish._


  TR.       Quid ais, impudens?
  Ausu’s etiam comparare vidulum cum piscibus?
  Eadem tandem res videtur? GR. In manu non est mea:              60
  Ubi demisi rete atque hamum, quidquid haesit extraho
  Meum quod rete atque bami nancti sunt, meum potissimumst.

  TR. Immo hercle haud est, siquidem quod
          vas excepisti.

  GR.                    Philosophe!

  TR. Sed tu, enunquam piscatorem vidisti, venefice,
  Vidulum piscem cepisse aut protulisse ullum in forum?           65
  Non enim tu hic quidem occupabis omnes quaestus quos voles:
  Et vitorem et piscatorem te esse, impure, postulas.
  Vel te mihi monstrare oportet piscis qui sit vidulus:
  Vel quod in mari non natumst neque habet squamas ne feras.

  GR. Quid tu? nunquam audisti antehac vidulum
          esse piscem? TR. Scelus,                                70
  Nullus est. GR. Immost profecto: ego qui sum piscator scio.
  Verum rare capitur: nullus minus saepe ad terram venit.

  TR. Nil agis: dare verba speras mihi te posse, furcifer.
  Quo colorest? GR. Hoc colore capiuntur pauxilluli:
  Sunt alii puniceo corio, magni autem, atque atri.

  TR.                                               Scio:         75
  Tu hercle, opino, in vidulum piscem te convortes, nisi caves:
  Fiet tibi puniceum corium, postea atrum denuo.

        _Rudens_, IV. iii. 58-77.


‘_Humani nil a me alienum puto._’



  CH. Numquam tam mane egredior neque tam vesperi         15
  Domum revortor, quin te in fundo conspicer
  Fodere aut arare aut aliquid ferre. Denique
  Nullum remittis tempus neque te respicis.
  Haec non voluptati tibi esse satis certo scio.
  ‘Enim,’ dices, ‘quantum hic operis fiat poenitet.’      20
  Quod in opere faciundo operae consumis tuae,
  Si sumas in illis exercendis, plus agas.

  ME. Chremes, tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi,
  Aliena ut cures ea quae nil ad te attinent?

  CH. Homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto.             25
  Vel me monere hoc vel percontari puta:
  Rectumst, ego ut faciam; non est, te ut deterream.

  ME. Mihi sic est usus: tibi ut opus factost, face.

  CH. An quoiquamst usus homini, se ut cruciet?

  ME.                                           Mihi.     30

  CH. Siquid laborist, nollem: sed quid istuc malist?
  Quaeso, quid de te tantum commeruisti?

  ME.                                    Eheu.

  CH. Ne lacruma, atque istuc, quidquid est, fac me ut sciam;
  Ne retice, ne verere, crede inquam mihi:
  Aut consolando aut consilio aut re iuvero.              34

        _Hautont._ I. i. 15-34.

_Cicero on Terence._


  ‘Tu quoque, qui solus lecto sermone, Terenti,
  Conversum expressumque Latina voce Menandrum
  In medium nobis sedatis vocibus effers,
  Quiddam come loquens, atque omnia dulcia miscens.’

        SUETON. _Vit. Ter._ p. 34.

_Terence defends his use of ‘Contaminatio.’_[38]


  Nam quod rumores distulerunt malivoli
  Multas contaminasse Graecas, dum facit
  Paucas Latinas: factum id esse hic non negat,
  Neque se pigere et deinde facturum autumat.
  Habet bonorum exemplum, quo exemplo sibi          20
  Licere id facere quod illi fecerunt putat.

        _Hautont._ Prol. 16-21.

    [Footnote 38: _Contaminatio_ = the _blending_ of the parts of
    different comedies into one whole--e.g. the _Andria_ of Terence,
    an adaptation of Menander’s _Andria_ and _Perinthia_.]


_The Song of the Nightingale._

A. Lusciniis diebus ac noctibus continuis xv garrulus sine intermissu
cantus densante se frondium germine, non in novissimum digna miratu ave.
Primum tanta vox tam parvo in corpusculo, tam pertinax spiritus; deinde
in una perfecta musica scientia: modulatus editur sonus, et nunc
continuo spiritu trahitur in longum, nunc variatur inflexo, nunc
distinguitur conciso, copulatur intorto, promittitur revocato,
infuscatur ex inopinato interdum et secum ipse murmurat, plenus, gravis,
acutus, creber, extentus, ubi visum est, vibrans, summus, medius, imus;
breviterque omnia tam parvulis in faucibus quae tot exquisitis tibiarum
tormentis ars hominum excogitavit, ut non sit dubium hanc suavitatem
praemonstratam efficaci auspicio, cum in ore Stesichori cecinit
infantis. Ac ne quis dubitet artis esse, plures singulis sunt cantus,
nec iidem omnibus, sed sui cuique. Certant inter se, palamque animosa
contentio est: victa morte finit saepe vitam, spiritu prius deficiente
quam captu. Meditantur iuveniores versusque quos imitentur accipiunt:
audit discipula intentione magna et reddit vicibusque reticent;
intelligitur emendatae correptio et in docente quaedam reprehensio.

        _Hist. Nat._ x. 81.


_A Corinthian Statuette._

B. Ex hereditate, quae mihi obvenit, emi proxime Corinthium signum,
modicum quidem, sed festivum et expressum, quantum ego sapio, qui
fortasse in omni re, in hac certe perquam exiguum sapio: hoc tamen
signum ego quoque intellego. Est enim nudum, nec aut vitia, si qua sunt,
celat, aut laudes parum ostentat. Effingit senem stantem: ossa, musculi,
nervi, venae, rugae etiam ut spirantis apparent: rari et cedentes
capilli, lata frons, contracta facies, exile collum. Aes ipsum, quantum
verus color indicat, vetus et antiquum. Talia denique omnia, ut possint
artificum oculos tenere, delectare imperitorum. Quod me, quamquam
tirunculum, solicitavit ad emendum. Emi autem, non at haberem domi,
verum ut in patria nostri celebri loco ponerem; ac potissimum in Iovis
templo. Videtur enim dignum templo, dignum deo donum.

        _Ep._ iii. 6.


_Helps to Style._

A. Quaeris, quemadmodum in secessu, quo iam diu frueris, putem te
studere oportere. Utile in primis, et multi praecipiunt, vel ex Graeco
in Latinum, vel ex Latino vertere in Graecum: quo genere exercitationis
proprietas splendorque verborum, copia figurarum, vis explicandi,
praeterea imitatione optimorum similia inveniendi facultas paratur;
simul quae legentem fefellissent transferentem fugere non possunt.
Intelligentia ex hoc et iudicium adquiritur. Nihil obfuerit, quae
legeris hactenus, ut rem argumentumque teneas, quasi aemulum scribere
lectisque conferre, ac sedulo pensitare quid tu, quid ille commodius.
Magna gratulatio, si non nulla tu; magnus pudor, si cuncta ille melius.
Licebit interdum et notissima eligere, et certare cum electis. Poteris
et, quae dixeris, post oblivionem retractare, multa retinere, plura
transire, alia interscribere, alia rescribere. Laboriosum istud et
taedio plenum sed difficultate ipsa fructuosum, recalescere ex integro,
et resumere impetum fractum omissumque, postremo nova velut membra
peracto corpori intexere, nec tamen priora turbare. Fas est et carmine
remitti, non dico continuo et longo (id enim perfici nisi in otio non
potest), sed hoc arguto et brevi, quod apte quantaslibet occupationes
curasque distinguit.

        PLINY THE YOUNGER, _Ep._ vii. 9 (sel.)

_Importance of Concentration._

B. Sed silentium et secessus et undique liber animus ut sunt maxime
optanda, ita non semper possunt contingere, ideoque non statim, si quid
obstrepet, abiciendi codices erunt et deplorandus dies, verum incommodis
repugnandum et hic faciendus usus, ut omnia quae impedient vincat
intentio: quam si tota mente in opus ipsum direxeris, nihil eorum, quae
oculis vel auribus incursant, ad animum perveniet. An vero frequenter
etiam fortuita hoc cogitatio praestat, ut obvios non videamus et itinere
deerremus; non consequemur, si et voluerimus? Non est indulgendum causis
desidiae. Nam si nonnisi refecti, nonnisi hilares, nonnisi omnibus aliis
curis vacantes studendum existimaverimus, semper erit propter quod nobis

        QUINTILIAN, _Inst. Or._ X. iii. 28.


_De Simonide._


    Homo doctus in se semper divitias habet.
    Simonides, qui scripsit egregium melos,
  Quo paupertatem sustineret facilius,
  Circum ire coepit urbes Asiae nobiles,
  Mercede accepta laudem victorum canens.              5
  Hoc genere quaestus postquam locuples factus est,
  Revenire in patriam voluit cursu pelagio;
  Erat autem, ut aiunt, natus in Chia insula.
  Ascendit navem, quam tempestas horrida
  Simul et vetustas medio dissolvit mari.             10
  Hi zonas, illi res pretiosas colligunt,
  Subsidium vitae. Quidam curiosior:
  ‘Simonide, tu ex opibus nil sumis tuis?’
  ‘Mecum,’ inquit, ‘mea sunt cuncta.’[39] Tunc pauci enatant,
  Quia plures onere degravati perierant.              15
  Praedones adsunt, rapiunt quod quisque extulit,
  Nudos relinquunt. Forte Clazomenae prope
  Antiqua fuit urbs; quam petierunt naufragi.
  Hic litterarum quidam studio deditus,
  Simondis qui saepe versus legerat                   20
  Eratque absentis admirator maximus,
  Sermone ab ipso cognitum cupidissime
  Ad se recepit; veste, nummis, familia
  Hominem exornavit. Ceteri tabulam suam
  Portant rogantes victum. Quos casu obvios           25
  Simonides ut vidit, ‘Dixi’ inquit ‘mea
  Mecum esse cuncta: vos quod habuistis, perit.’

        iv. 23.

    [Footnote 39: Cf. ‘Omnia bona mea mecum sunt.’ --SENECA, _Ep._ 9.]

_Mons Parturiens._


  Mons parturibat, gemitus immanes ciens,
  Eratque in terris maxima expectatio.
  At ille murem peperit. Hoc scriptum est tibi,
  Qui, magna cum minaris, extricas nihil.

        iv. 24.

_Nihil ita occultum esse quod non reveletur._


  Pastor capellae cornu baculo fregerat:
  Rogare coepit, ne se domino proderet ...
  ‘Quamvis indigne laesa, reticebo tamen;
  Sed res clamabit ipsa quid deliqueris.’

        _Appendix_, 22.


_The Golden Age._


  Quam bene Saturno vivebant rege, priusquam
    Tellus in longas est patefacta vias!              36
  Nondum caeruleas pinus contempserat undas,
    Effusum ventis praebueratque sinum,
  Nec vagus ignotis repetens compendia terris
    Presserat externa navita merce ratem.             40
  Illo non validus subiit iuga tempore taurus,
    Non domito frenos ore momordit equus,
  Non domus ulla fores habuit, non fixus in agris
    Qui regeret certis finibus arva, lapis.           44
  Ipsae mella dabant quercus, ultroque ferebant
    Obvia securis ubera lactis oves.
  Non acies, non ira fuit, non bella, nec ensem
    Immiti saevus duxerat arte faber.                 48
  Nunc Iove sub domino caedes et vulnera semper,
    Nunc mare, nunc leti mille repente viae.

        I. iii. 35-50.

Cf. CATULLUS, lxiv.; VERGIL, _Ecl._ iv.

_Birthday Wishes._


  Dicamus bona verba: venit natalis ad aras:
    Quisquis ades, lingua, vir mulierque fave.
  Urantur pia tura focis, urantur odores,
    Quos tener e terra divite mittit Arabs.            4
  Ipse suos Genius adsit visurus honores,
    Cui decorent sanctas mollia serta comas.
  Illius puro destillent tempora nardo,
    Atque satur libo sit madeatque mero,               8
  Adnuat et, Cornute, tibi quodcumque rogabis.
    En age, quid cessas? adnuit ille: roga.
  Auguror, uxoris fidos optabis amores;
    Iam reor hoc ipsos edidicisse deos.               12
  Nec tibi malueris, totum quaecumque per orbem
    Fortis arat valido rusticus arva bove,
  Nec tibi, gemmarum quidquid felicibus Indis
    Nascitur, Eoi qua maris unda rubet.               16
  Vota cadunt: utinam strepitantibus advolet alis
    Flavaque coniugio vincula portet Amor,
  Vincula, quae maneant semper, dum tarda senectus
    Inducat rugas inficiatque comas.                  20
  Hic veniat natalis avis prolemque ministret,
    Ludat et ante tuos turba novella pedes.

        II. ii.

Cf. TIBULL. I. vii. 49-54; PERSIUS, ii. 1-4.


_On the delights of hunting with a note-book._

A. Ridebis, et licet rideas. Ego ille, quem nosti apros tres, et quidem
pulcherrimos, cepi. Ipse? inquis. Ipse; non tamen ut omnino ab inertia
mea et quiete discederem. Ad retia sedebam: erat in proximo, non
venabulum aut lancea, sed stilus et pugillares. Meditabar aliquid
enotabamque, ut, si manus vacuas, plenas tamen ceras reportarem. Non
est, quod contemnas hoc studendi genus. Mirum est ut animus agitatione
motuque corporis excitetur. Iam undique silvae et solitudo, ipsumque
illud silentium, quod venationi datur, magna cogitationis incitamenta
sunt. Proinde cum venabere, licebit auctore me ut panarium et lagunculam
sic etiam pugillares feras. Experieris non Dianam magis montibus, quam
Minervam inerrare. Vale.

        PLINY, _Ep._ i. 6.

_Oenone Paridi._


  Quis tibi monstrabat saltus venatibus aptos
    Et tegeret catulos qua fera rupe suos?
  Retia saepe comes maculis distincta tetendi;
    Saepi cites egi per iuga longa canes.         20

        OVID, _Her._ v. 17-20.

_The Hunting Party._


    Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit.
  It portis iubare exorto delecta iuventus;              130
  Retia rara, plagae, lato venabula ferro,
  Massylique ruunt equites et odora canum vis.
  Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi
  Poenorum exspectant, ostroque insignis et auro
  Stat sonipes ac frena ferox spumantia mandit.          135
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Postquam altos ventum in montes atque invia lustra
  Ecce ferae, saxi deiectae vertice, caprae
  Decurrere iugis; alia de parte patentes
  Transmittunt cursu campos atque agmina cervi
  Pulverulenta fuga glomerant montisque relinquunt.      155
  At puer Ascanius mediis in vallibus acri
  Gaudet equo, iamque hos cursu, iam praeterit illos
  Spumantemque dari pecora inter inertia votis
  Optat aprum aut fulvum descendere monte leonem.

        VERG. _Aen._ iv. 129-135, 151-159.


_Its Duties and Amusements._


  Prima salutantes atque altera conterit hora;
    Exercet raucos tertia causidicos;
  In quintam varies extendit Roma labores;
    Sexta quies lassis; septima finis erit;          4
  Sufficit in nonam nitidis octava palaestris;
    Imperat exstructos frangere nona toros;
  Hora libellorum decima est, Eupheme, meorum,
    Temperat ambrosias cum tua cura dapes            8
  Et bonus aetherio laxatur nectare Caesar
    Ingentique tenet pocula parca manu.
  Tunc admitte iocos: gressu timet ire licenti
    Ad matutinum nostra Thalia Iovem.               12

        MARTIAL, IV. viii.

_The Simple Life. How Horace spent his day._


  Hoc ego commodius quam tu praeclare senator,           110
  Milibus atque aliis vivo. Quacunque libido est
  Incedo solus, percontor quanti holus ac far,
  Fallacem circum vespertinumque pererro
  Saepe forum, adsisto divinis. Inde domum me
  Ad porri et ciceris refero laganique catinum;          115
  Cena ministratur pueris tribus, et lapis albus
  Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet, astat echinus
  Vilis, cum patera guttus, Campana supellex.
  Deinde eo dormitum, non sollicitus, mihi quod cras
  Surgendum sit mane, obeundus Marsya, qui se            120
  Voltum ferre negat Noviorum posse minoris.
  Ad quartam iaceo; post hanc vagor, aut ego, lecto
  Aut scripto quod me tacitum iuvet, unguor olivo,
  Non quo fraudatis immundus Natta lucernis.
  Ast ubi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum               125
  Admonuit, fugio campum lusumque trigonem.
  Pransus non avide quantum interpellet inani
  Ventre diem durare, domesticus otior. Haec est
  Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique.
  His me consolor victurum suavius, ac si                130
  Quaestor avus pater atque meus patruusque fuisset.

        HORACE, _Sat._ I. vi. 110-131.

Cf. Cic. _ad Fam._ ix. 20; Lucr. ii. 14-33; Verg. _Georg._ ii. 458-474;
Hor. _Od._ III, i.


  ‘_Lives of great men all remind us,
  We can make our lives sublime._’

A. Si quis piorum manibus locus, si, ut sapientibus placet, non cum
corpore extinguuntur magnae animae, placide quiescas, nosque domum tuam
ab inferno desiderio et muliebribus lamentis ad contemplationem virtutum
tuarum voces, quas neque lugeri neque plangi fas est. Admiratione te
potius et immortalibus laudibus et, si natura suppeditet, similitudine
colamus: is verus honos, ea coniunctissimi cuiusque pietas. Id filiae
quoque uxorique praeceperim, sic patris, sic mariti memoriam venerari,
ut omnia facta dictaque eius secum revolvant, formamque ac figuram animi
magis quam corporis complectantur, non quia intercedendum putem
imaginibus quae marmore aut aere finguntur, sed, ut vultus hominum, ita
simulacra vultus imbecilla ac mortalia sunt, forma mentis aeterna, quam
tenere et exprimere non per alienam materiam et artem, sed tuis ipse
moribus possis. Quidquid ex Agricola amavimus, quidquid mirati sumus,
manet mansurumque est in animis hominum, in aeternitate temporum, in
fama rerum; nam multos veterum velut inglorios et ignobilis oblivio
obruet: Agricola posteritati narratus et traditus superstes erit.

        _Agricola_ 46.

_The Climate and Products of Britain._

B. Caelum crebris imbribus ac nebulis foedum; asperitas frigorum abest.
Dierum spatia ultra nostri orbis mensuram; nox clara et extrema
Britanniae parte brevis, ut finem atque initium lucis exiguo discrimine
internoscas. Quod si nubes non officiunt, aspici per noctem solis
fulgorem, nec occidere et exsurgere, sed transire affirmant. Scilicet
extrema et plana terrarum humili umbra non erigunt tenebras, infraque
caelum et sidera nox cadit. Solum praeter oleam vitemque et cetera
calidioribus terris oriri sueta patiens frugum, fecundum: tarde
mitescunt, cito proveniunt; eademque utriusque rei causa, multus umor
terrarum caelique. Fert Britannia aurum et argentum et alia metalla,
pretium victoriae. Gignit et oceanus margarita, sed subfusca ac

        _Agricola_ 12.


_Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. An Ignorant Connoisseur._

A. Plausum post hoc automatum familia dedit, et ‘Gaio feliciter!’
conclamavit: nec non cocus potione oneratus est, et argentea corona
poculumque in lance accepit Corinthia. Quam cum Agamemnon propius
consideraret, ait Trimalchio: ‘Solus sum, qui vera Corinthea habeam.’
Exspectabam, ut pro reliqua insolentia diceret sibi vasa Corintho
afferri. Sed ille melius: ‘Et forsitan,’ inquit, ‘quaeris, quare solus
Corinthea vera possideam? Quia scilicet aerarius, a quo emo, Corinthus
vocatur; quid est autem Corintheum, nisi quis Corinthum habeat? Et ne me
putetis nesapium esse, valde bene scio, unde primum Corinthea nata sint.
Cum Ilium captum est, Hannibal, homo vafer, et magnus stelio, omnes
statuas aeneas, et aureas, et argenteas in unum rogum congessit, et eas
incendit; factae sunt in unum aera miscellanea. Ita ex hac massa fabri
sustulerunt, et fecerunt catilla et paropsides et statuncula. Sic
Corinthea nata sunt, ex omnibus in unum, nec hoc, nec illud.’


_The Glass Bowl, and its Maker._

B. ‘Ignoscetis mihi,’ inquit Trimalchio, ‘quod dixero: ego malo mihi
vitrea; certe non olunt. Quod si non frangerentur, mallem mihi, quam
aurum; nunc autem vilia sunt. Fuit tamen faber, qui fecit phialam
vitream, quae non frangebatur. Admissus ergo Caesarem est cum suo
munere; deinde fecit se porrigere Caesari, et illam in pavimentum
proiecit. Caesar non pote validius, quam expavit. At ille sustulit
phialam de terra: collisa erat, tanquam vasum aeneum. Deinde marceolum
de sinu protulit, et phialam otio belle correxit. Hoc facto putabat se
solium Iovis tenere, utique, postquam illi dixit: “Numquid alius scit
hanc condituram vitreorum?” Vide modo. Postquam negavit, iussit illum
Caesar decollari; quia enim, si scitum esset, aurum pro luto haberemus.’



    [Footnote 40: For further information see Dr. Postgate’s _How to
    pronounce Latin_ (Bell & Sons).]


I. Diu deinde servatum ne consonantibus (veteres) adspirarent, ut in
_Graccis_ et in _triumpis_. Erupit brevi tempore nimius usus, ut
_choronae_, _chenturiones_, _praechones_ adhuc quibusdam in
inscriptionibus maneant, qua de re Catulli nobile epigramma est.

        QUINT. i. 5. 20.

  C_h_ommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet
    Dicere, et insidias Arrius _h_insidias,
  Et tum mirifice sperabat se esse locutum,
    Cum quantum poterat dixerat _h_insidias.
  Credo, sic mater, sic liber avonculus eius,
    Sic maternus avos dixerat atque avia.
  Hoc misso in Syriam requierant omnibus aures:
    Audibant eadem haec leviter et leviter,
  Nec sibi postilla metuebant talia verba,
    Cum subito adfertur nuntius horribilis,
  Ionios fluctus, postquam illuc Arrius isset,
    Iam non Ionios esse, sed _H_ionios.

        CATULLUS, lxxxiv.

_A Street Cry._

II. Cum M. Crassus exercitum Brundisii imponeret, quidam in portu,
caricas Cauno advectas vendens, _Cauneas!_ clamitabat. Dicamus, si
placet, monitum ab eo Crassum, caveret, ne iret (_cau[e] n[e] eas_ = _do
not go_): non fuisse periturum, si omini paruisset. Quae si suscipiamus,
pedis offensio nobis et abruptio corrigiae et sternutamenta erunt

        CICERO, _Div._ ii. 40. 84.

+K. Q. C.+

  III. +K+ perspicuum est littera quod vacare possit;
  Et +Q+, similis, namque eadem vis in utraque est;
  Quia qui locus est primitus unde exoritur +C+,
  Quascunque deinceps libeat iugare voces,
  Mutare necesse est sonitum quidem supremum,
  Refert nihilum, +K+ prior an +Q+ siet an +C+.

        TERENTIANUS MAURUS (_circ._ 300 A.D.).



  ME. Egon’ dedi?

  PE. Tu tu, istic, inquam! Vin’ adferri noctuam
  Quae _tu tu_ usque dicat tibi? Nam nos iam defessi sumus.

        PLAUTUS, _Men._ 553-6.


I. Nam quae volumus et credimus libenter.

        CAES. _B. Civ._ ii. 27.

II. Cuiusvis hominis est errare; nullius nisi insipientis in errore
perseverare. Posteriores enim cogitationes, ut aiunt, sapientiores
solent esse.

        CIC. _Phil._ xii. 5.

III. Dimidium facti qui coepit habet.

        HOR. _Ep._ I. ii. 40.

IV. Nemo repente fuit turpissimus.

        JUV. _Sat._ ii. 83.

V. Velut materiam igni praebentes.

        LIVY, xxi. 10.

VI. Et quasi cursores vitai lampada tradunt.

        LUCR. ii. 79.


  Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare:
    Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te.

        MARTIAL, _Ep._ I. xxxii.


      quem di diligunt
  Adulescens moritur.

        PLAUT. _Bacch._ I. ii. 36.

IX. Nullumst iam dictum, quod non sit dictum prius.

        TERENCE, _Eun. Prol._ 41.

X. Quot homines tot sententiae: suus cuique mos.

        TER. _Phormio_, II. iv. 14.

XI. Stultum facit fortuna, quem vult pedere.

        PUB. SYRUS.


  Vita brevis est, longa ars.
  Vita, si scias uti, longa est.

        SEN. _de Brevit. vitae_, i. 2.

XIII. Omne ignotum pro magnifico.

        TAC. _Agric._ 30.

XIV. Divina natura dedit agros, ars humana aedificavit urbes.

        VARRO, _de Re Rust._ iii. 1.


  Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito
  Quam tua te Fortuna sinet.

        VERG. _Aen._ vi. 95.

        . . . . Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi;
  Sunt lacrimae rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt.

        VERG. _Aen._ i. 461-2.


‘_Whom the gods love die young._’

A. Una post haec Quintiliani mei spe ac voluptate nitebar: at poterat
sufficere solatio. Non enim flosculos, sicut prior, sed iam decimum
aetatis ingressus annum, certos ac deformatos fructus ostenderat. Iuro
per mala mea, per infelicem conscientiam, per illos manes, numina mei
doloris, has me in illo vidisse virtutes ingeni, non modo ad
percipiendas disciplinas, quo nihil praestantius cognovi plurima
expertus studiique iam tum non coacti (sciunt praeceptores), sed
probitatis, pietatis, humanitatis, liberalitatis, ut prorsus posset hinc
esse tanti fulminis metus, quod observatum fere est, celerius occidere
festinatam maturitatem: et esse nescio quam quae spes tantas decerpat
invidiam, ne videlicet ultra, quam homini datum est, nostra provehantur.
Etiam illa fortuita aderant omnia, vocis iucunditas claritasque, oris
suavitas, et in utracumque lingua, tanquam ad eam demum natus esset,
expressa proprietas omnium litterarum. Sed haec spes adhuc: illa maiora,
constantia, gravitas, contra dolores etiam ac metus robur. Nam quo ille
animo, qua medicorum admiratione, mensium octo valetudinem tulit! ut me
in supremis consolatus est! quam etiam deficiens, iamque _non_
[41]_noster_, ipsum illum alienatae mentis errorem circa solas literas

        QUINTILIAN, _Inst. Or._ VI. i. 9.

    [Footnote 41: Cf. ‘Invalidasque tibi tendens, heu _non tua_,
      VERG. _G._ iv. 498.]

_Servius Sulpicius to Cicero._

B. Quae res mihi non mediocrem consolationem attulerit, volo tibi
commemorare, si forte eadem res tibi dolorem minuere possit. [42]Ex Asia
rediens, cum ab Aegina Megaram versus navigarem, coepi regiones
circumcirca prospicere. Post me erat Aegina, ante me Megara, dextra
Piraeeus, sinistra Corinthus: quae oppida quodam tempore florentissima
fuerunt, nunc prostrata et diruta ante oculos iacent. Coepi egomet mecum
sic cogitare: ‘Hem! nos homunculi indignamur, si quis nostrum interiit
aut occisus est, quorum vita brevior esse debet, cum uno loco tot
oppidum cadavera proiecta iacent? Visne tu te, Servi, cohibere et
meminisse hominem te esse natum?’

        CICERO, _Ep. ad Fam._ iv. 5.

    [Footnote 42: Cf. Byron, _Childe Harold_, iv. 44-5.]


_Catullus at the Grave of his Brother._


  Multas per gentes et multa per aequora vectus
    Advenio has miseras, frater, ad inferias,
  Ut te postremo donarem munere mortis
    Et mutam nequiquam alloquerer cinerem,             4
  Quandoquidem fortuna mihi tete abstulit ipsum,
    Heu miser indigne frater adempte mihi.
  Nunc tamen interea haec prisco quae more parentum
    Tradita sunt tristes munera ad inferias,           8
  Accipe fraterno multum manantia fletu,
    Atque in perpetuum, frater, ave atque vale.

        CATULLUS, ci.

_To Calvus on the Death of his Wife._


  Si quicquam muteis gratum acceptumve sepulcris
    Accidere a nostro, Calve, dolore potest,
  Cum desiderio veteres renovamus amores
    Atque olim amissas flemus amicitias,
  Certe non tanto mors immatura dolori est
    Quintiliae, quantum gaudet amore tuo.

        CATULLUS, xcvi.

_The Plea of Cornelia to her Husband._


  Desine, Paule, meum lacrimis urgere sepulcrum:
    Panditur ad nullas ianua nigra preces.
  Cum semel infernas intrarunt funera leges,
    Obserat umbrosos lurida porta locos. . . .         4
  Nunc tibi commendo communia pignora natos:
    Haec cura et cineri spirat inusta meo.
  Te Lepide, et te, Paule, meum post fata levamen;
    Condita sunt vestro lumina nostra sinu.           76
  Fungere maternis vicibus, pater: illa meorum
    Omnis erit collo turba ferenda tuo.
  Oscula cum dederis tua flentibus, adice matris:
    Tota domus coepit nunc onus esse tuum.            80

        PROPERTIUS, IV. (V.) xi. 1-4, 73-80.

_Mors Tibulli._


  Memnona si mater, mater ploravit Achillem,
    Et tangunt magnas tristia fata deas,
  Flebilis indignos, Elegia, solve capillos:
    A nimis ex vero nunc tibi nomen erit!
  Ille tui vates operis, tua fama, Tibullus
    Ardet in exstructo corpus inane rogo.

        OVID, _Am._ III. ix. (sel.)


    [Footnote 43: Apophoreta (ἀποφόρητα = to be carried away),
    Christmas presents which were interchanged at the Saturnalia.]


  Quo vis cumque loco potes hunc finire libellum:
    Versibus explicitumst omne duobus opus.
  Lemmata si quaeris cur sint adscripta, docebo,
    Ut, si malueris, lemmata sola legas.

_Chartae Epistulares._

  I. Seu leviter noto seu caro missa sodali
      Omnes ista solet charta vocare suos.

_Theca Libraria._

  II. Sortitus thecam calamis armare memento:
      Cetera nos dedimus, tu leviora para.


  III. Accipe quae nimios vincant umbracula soles:
      Sit licet et ventus, te tua vela tegent.


  IV. Militiae decus hoc gratique erit omen honoris,
      Arma tribunicium cingere digna latus.


  V. Pax me certa ducis placidos curvavit in usus.
      Agricolae nunc sum, militis ante fui.


  VI. Selectos nisi das mihi libellos,
      Admittam tineas trucesque blattas.

_Candelabrum Corinthium._

  VII. Nomina candelae nobis antiqua dederunt.
      Non norat parcos uncta lucerna patres.

_Pila Paganica._

  VIII. Haec quae difficili turget paganica pluma,
      Folle minus laxast et minus arta pila.

_Pila Trigonalis._

  IX. Si me mobilibus scis expulsare sinistris,
      Sum tua. Tu nescis? rustice, redde pilam.


  X. Ite procul, iuvenes: mitis mihi convenit aetas:
      Folle decet pueros ludere, folle senes.

_Vergilius in membranis._

  I. Quam brevis immensum cepit membrana Maronem!
      Ipsius vultus prima tabella gerit.

_Cicero in membranis._

  II. Si comes ista tibi fuerit membrana, putato
      Carpere te longas cum Cicerone vias.

_Monobyblos Properti._

  III. Cynthia, facundi carmen iuvenale Properti,
      Accepit famam; non minus ipsa dedit.

_Titus Livius in membranis._

  IV. Pellibus exiguis artatur Livius ingens,
      Quem mea non totum bybliotheca capit.


  V. Hic erit, ut perhibent doctorum corda virorum,
      Primus Romana Crispus in historia.


  VI. Sunt quidam qui me dicunt non esse poetam:
      Sed qui me vendit bybliopola putat.


  VII. Tantum magna suo debet Verona Catullo,
      Quantum parva suo Mantua Vergilio.


  VIII. Quid me corapactam ceris et harundine rides?
      Quae primum structa est fistula talis erat.

_Catella Gallicana._

  IX. Delicias parvae si vis audire catellae
      Narranti brevis est pagina tota mihi.

_Minerva argentea._

  X. Dic mihi, virgo ferox, cum sit tibi cassis et hasta
      Quare non habeas aegida. ‘Caesar habet.’

_Hercules fictilis._

  XI. Sum fragilis: sed tu, moneo, ne sperne sigillum:
      Non pudet Alciden nomen habere meum.


  XII. ‘Romanos rerum dominos gentemque togatam’
      Ille facit, magno qui dedit astra patri.


_On Naevius_ (by himself).

  I. ‘Immortales mortales si foret fas flere
  Flerent divae Camenae Naevium poetam;
  Itaque postquam est Orci traditus thesauro
  Obliti sunt Romai loquier lingua Latina.’

_On Ennius_ (by himself).

  II. ‘Aspicite, o cives, senis Enni imaginis formam:
    Hic vestrum panxit maxima facta patrum.
  Nemo me lacrumis decoret nec funera fletu
    Faxit. Cur? Volito vivas per ora virum.’

_On Pacuvius_ (by himself).

  III. ‘Adulescens, tametsi properas, te hoc saxum rogat,
  Ut sese aspicias, deinde quod scriptum est, legas.
  Hic sunt poetae Pacuvi Marci sita
  Ossa. Hoc volebam nescius ne esses. Vale.’

_On Plautus_ (by himself).

  IV. ‘Postquam est mortem aptus Plautus, Comoedia luget,
  Scena est deserta, ac dein Risus, Ludus, Iocusque,
  Et Numeri innumeri simul omnes collacrumarunt.’

_On Tibullus._

  V. ‘Te quoque Vergilio comitem non aequa, Tibulle,
    Mors iuvenem campos misit ad Elysios,
  Ne foret aut elegis molles qui fleret amores
    Aut caneret forti regia bella pede.’


_In tumulo hominis felicis._

  VI. ‘Sparge mero cineres, bene olentis et unguine nardi,
    Hospes, et adde rosis balsama puniceis.
  Perpetuum mihi ver agit illacrimabilis urna
    Et commutavi saecula, non obii.
  Nulla mihi veteris perierunt gaudia vitae,
    Seu meminisse putes omnia, sive nihil.’

        AUSONIUS, _Epit._ 36.


  VII. ‘Ὦ ξεῖν’, ἀγγέλλειν Λακεδαιμονίοις, ὅτι τῇδε
    Κείμεθα, τοῖς κείνων ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι.’

        SIMONIDES _of Ceos_.

  ‘Dic, hospes, Spartae, nos te vidisse iacentes,
    Dum sanctis patriae legibus obsequimur.’

        _Transl. by_ CICERO, _Tusc._ i. 42. 101.




  Exegi monumentum aere perennius
  Regalique situ pyramidum altius,
  Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens
  Possit diruere aut innumerabilis
  Annorum series et fuga temporum.             5
  Non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei
  Vitabit Libitinam: usque ego postera
  Crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium
  Scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex.
  Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus        10
  Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium
  Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens
  Princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos
  Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam
  Quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica          15
  Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam.

        HORACE, _Od._ III. xxx.



  Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis
  Nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas.
  Cum volet, illa dies, quae nil nisi corporis huius
  Ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi;
  Parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis        875
  Astra ferar nomenque erit indelebile nostrum.
  Quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris,
  Ore legar populi perque omnia saecula fama,
  Siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.

        OVID, _Met._ xv. 871-9.



  Ohe, iam satis est, ohe, libelle,
  Iam pervenimus usque ad umbilicos:
  Tu procedere adhuc et ire quaeris,
  Nec summa potes in schida teneri,
  Sic tamquam tibi res peracta non sit,    5
  Quae prima quoque pagina peracta est.
  Iam lector queriturque deficitque;
  Iam librarius hoc et ipse dicit
  ‘Ohe, iam satis est, ohe, libelle.’

        MARTIAL, _Epig._ IV. lxxxix.



   I. List of Important Conjunctions                           274-276
  II. List of Important Prefixes                               277-281
 III. List of Important Suffixes                               282-286
  IV. Groups of Cognate Words                                  287-288
   V. How to Think in Latin                                    289-292
  VI. Short Lives of Roman Authors                             293-345
 VII. Chronological Outlines of Roman History
        and Literature                                         347-363

[Transcriber’s Note:

In Appendixes I-IV, most +boldface+ markup has been omitted for
readability. In general, Latin words are unmarked, while English
translations are _italicized_.]



+I. CO-ORDINATE.+--These conjunctions join sentences of equal
grammatical _rank_ (+ordo+), that is, each sentence is grammatically
independent of the other.

They are generally divided into FIVE classes:--

(1) COPULATIVE (_link_) conjunctions are those which connect both the
sentences and the meaning.

  et, -quĕ, ac, atque ... _and_.
  et ... et, -que ... -que (poet.) ... _both ... and_.
  ĕtĭam, quŏque ... _also_.

    _Divide +et+ impera._
    Divide +and+ control.

(2) DISJUNCTIVE conjunctions join together the sentence but they
_disjoin_ or separate from each other the thoughts conveyed.

  aut ... aut, vĕl ... vĕl (vĕ) ... _either ... or_.
  sĭve (seu) ... seu ... _whether ... or_.
  nĕc (nĕque) ... nec (neque) ... _neither ... nor_.
      _+aut+ vincemus +aut+ moriemur._
      We will +either+ conquer +or+ die.

(3) ADVERSATIVE conjunctions _oppose_ two statements to each other.

  sĕd, vērum, vērō, cētĕrum ... _but_.
  autem, tămen ... _however_.
  ăt ... _but_, _on the other hand_.
      _Ille quidem tardior: tu +autem+ ingeniosus,
          +sed+ in omni vita inconstans._
      He is a little dull: +while+ you are clever,
          +but+ unstable in all your actions.

(4) INFERENTIAL.--The statement of one sentence _brings in_ (+infert+)
or proves the other.

  Ergo, ĭgĭtur, ĭtăque ... _therefore_, _accordingly_.

    ‘_Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem:
    +Ergo+ postque magisque viri nunc gloria claret_.’



  nam, namque, ĕnim, ĕtĕnim ... _for_.
  quāpropter, quārē, quămobrem ... _wherefore_.

  Ex.: ‘_+quamobrem+, Quirites, celebratote illos dies cum coniugibus
  ac liberis vestris: +nam+ multi saepe honores dis immortalibus iusti
  habiti sunt, sed profecto iustiores nunquam._’

+II. SUBORDINATE.+--These conjunctions attach to a sentence or clause
another clause which holds (grammatically) a lower or _subordinate_
position, qualifying the principal clause just as an adverb qualifies a

Thus in ‘I will do this, _if_ you do,’ the _if_ clause is equivalent to
the adverb _conditionally_.

They are generally divided into EIGHT classes:--

(1) FINAL introduce a clause expressing a _purpose_.

  ŭt, quō ... _that_, _in order to_.
  nē, quōmĭnus ... _that not_, _lest_.
  qui ... _who_ (= ut is ...).
    _Edo +ut+ vivam._
    _+Ne+ ignavum te putemus, fortiter pugna._
    _Pauci mihi sunt +quos+ mittam._

(2) CONSECUTIVE introduce a clause expressing a _consequence_ or

  ŭt ... _so that_, _so as to_.
  ŭt nōn, quīn ... _so as not to_.
  qui ... _who (of such a kind as to...)_.
  Ex.: _Tam fortis adest nemo ut solus muros ascendat._
      _Tam fortis est +ut+ hostes +non+ timeat._
      _Dignus erat +qui+ rex fieret._


  cum, quandō ... _when_.
  ŭbī̆, ŭt ... _when_, _as_.
  sĭmŭl, sĭmŭl atque (ac) ... _as soon as_.
  postquam ... _after that_.
  dum, dōnec, quŏad ... _until_, _as long as_, _while_.
  prĭus ... quam, antĕ ... quam ... _before that_.

    _Discedere +prius+ noluit +quam+ ducem vidisset._
    _Pompeius +ut+ equitatum suum pulsum vidit, acie excessit._


  sī, nĭsī̆ (nī), si non, quod sī ... _if_, _unless_, _if not_,
_but if_.
  mŏdŏ, dummŏdo, si mŏdo ... _if only_, _provided that_.
  dummŏdo nē (dum nē, mŏdo nē) ... _provided only not_.

    _Ne promiseris unquam +nisi+ fidem praestare potes._
    _Never promise +if+ you cannot keep your word._


  ut, utī, sīcut, vĕlut ... _just as_, _as_.
  tanquam, quăsĭ ... _as if_.
  quo ... ĕo ... _the more ... the more_.

    _Poenas dedit +sicut+ meritus est._
    _E corpore +velut+ e carcere, evolat animus._
      The soul flies forth from the prison-house of the body.
    _+quo+ difficilius +eo+ praeclarius._


  etsī, ĕtĭamsi, tămetsi ... _even if_.
  quamquam ... _although_.
  quamvīs, quamlĭbet ... _however much_.
  lĭcet, ut, cum ... _though_, _although_.

    _+Cum+ liber esse posset, servire maluit._


  quĭă, quŏd, quŏnĭam, quandō ... _because_.
  cum ... _since_.
  proptĕrĕā ... quod ... _for this reason ... that_.
  quandōquĭdem, quippe ... _since indeed_, _inasmuch as_.

    _Quae +cum+ ita sint, ab urbe discedam._
    _Socrates accusatus est +quod+ iuventutem corrumperet._

(8) INTERROGATIVE (with dependent clauses).

  cūr, ūtrum ... ăn, num ... _why_, _whether ... or_, _if_.
  quemadmŏdum, ut ... _how_.
  ŭbī̆, quandō ... _when_.

    _Caesar +utrum+ iure caesus fuerit, +an+ nefarie
    necatus, dubitari potest._
      _Whether_ Caesar was rightfully put to death, +or+ foully
      murdered, is open to question.



+I. PREPOSITIONS.+--In these compounds the Prepositions retain their
original adverbial force.

A-, AB-, ABS-, = _away_, _from_ (of the starting-place)

  (i) = _separation._

    abire = _go away_.
    abscēdere = _go away_.
    āvŏcare = _call away_.

  (ii) = _consumption._
    absūmere = _take away_, _consume_.
    ăbūti = _use up_.

AD-, AC-, A-, = to (of a person, place, or thing, as the goal of

  (i) = _to_, _at_ (local).
    accēdere = _approach_.
    adfāri = _speak to_.
  (ii) = _in addition._
    acquīrere = _get in addition_.

ANTE = before (of place and time).

    antecēdere = _come before_.
    anteferre = _prefer_.

CIRCUM = around.

    circumdăre = _surround_.
    circumdūcere   }
    circumscrībere } literally, and with secondary meaning, = _cheat_.
    circumvĕnire   }

COM-, CON- (CUM), CO-, COL-, COR-, = together.

  (i) = _collectively._

    conclāmare = _shout together_.
    commiscēre = _mix together_.

  (ii) = _completely_ (often apparently only pleonastic).

    consectari = _follow persistently_.
    confirmare = _strengthen_.

DE-, = down, from.

  (i) = _down_, _down off_, _down to._

    decĭdere = _fall down_, or _off_.
    devĕnire = _come to_.

  (ii) = _off_, _away_, _aside._

    dēcēdere = _depart_.
    deflectere = _turn aside_.
    deterrēre = _frighten_.

  (iii) = _completely._

    depŏpŭlari = _lay waste_.
    debellare = _bring a war to an end_.

  (iv) = _un-_ (negative).

    despērare = _despair_.
    deesse = _be wanting_.

E-, EX-, EC-, EF-, = out of.

  (i) = _out_, _forth._

    excēdere = _go out_.
    effundere = _pour forth_.

  (ii) = _throughout_, _to the end_, _thoroughly._

    explēre = _fill to the brim_.
    exposcere = _earnestly ask_.

IN-, IM-, IR-, I-, = in, on, against.

  (i) = _in_, _into_, _on._

    inclūdere = _shut in_.
    incĭdere = _fall on_.
    invĭdere = _look at_ (with ill intent),_envy_.

  (ii) = _intensive_, almost _pleonastic_.

    incĭpere = _take up_, _begin_.
    implēre = _fill_.

INTER = between.

  (i) = _between_, _among._

    intercēdere = _come between_.
    intellĕgere = _pick among_, _perceive_.

  (ii) = _breaking a continuity._

    interclūdere = _shut off_, _blockade_.
    interfĭcere = _destroy_ (lit. _put between_).

OB-, OBS-, OC-, OF-, OP-, O-, = against, on account of.

  (i) = _over against_, _before_ (as an obstruction).

    offendere = _strike against_.
    oblŏqui = _speak against_.

  (ii) = _towards_, with the idea of _favour_ or _compliance_.

    oboedire = _hearken to_.
    obsĕqui = _follow compliantly_.

PER-, = through, along.

  (i) = _through_, _all over._

    perrumpere = _break through_.
    perspĭcēre = _look through_.

  (ii) = _thoroughly_, _to completion._

    perdiscere = _learn thoroughly_.
    perfungi = _go through a duty_, _discharge_.
    permagnus = _very large_.

PRAE = in front.

  (i) = (of place) _before_, _in front_.

    praefĭcere = _put at the head of_.
    praeses (sĕdeo) = _guardian_.

  (ii) = (of time) _before_, _too soon_.

    praediscere = _learn beforehand_.
    praevĕnire = _outstrip_.

  (iii) = _before others_, _in comparison_, _greatly._

    praecellens = _surpassing_.

PRO-, PROD-, = before, in front of, forth.

    prod-ire = _come forth_.
    provĭdēre = _look onwards or ahead_.

SUB-, SUF-, SUM-, SUP-, SUR-, SU-, SUS-, = beneath, under.

  (i) = _under._

    subĭcere = _throw under_, _subject_.
    supprĭmere = _press under_, _suppress_.

  (ii) = _up._

    succingere = _gird up_.
    sustĭnēre = _hold up_, _check_.

  (iii) = _to the help of_, _close to._

    subvĕnire = _come up to aid of_.

  (iv) = _secretly._

    subdūcere = _withdraw secretly_.

  (v) = _slightly._

    subrīdere = _laugh somewhat_, _smile_.
    sublustris = _giving some light_.

SUPER = over, upon.

  (i) = _over_, _upon_ (of place).

    superpōnere_ = place upon_ or _over_.

  (ii) = _metaphorically._

    sūperesse = _remain_, _survive_, _abound_.

TRANS-, TRA-, = across.

   (i) = _across._

    transgrĕdi = _step across_.

 (ii) = _a change or transference._

    trādere = _hand over_, _surrender_.

  (iii) = _through to the end._

    transĭgere = _complete_ a business.

II. SEPARABLE PARTICLES, which do not appear as Prepositions in Latin.

AMB-, AM-, AN-, = around, on both sides.

    ambīre = _go around_, _canvass_.
    amplecti = _fold oneself round_, _embrace_.

DIS-, DI-, DIF-, DIR-, = in twain.

  (i) = _asunder_, _apart._

    discēdere = _part asunder_, _depart_.
    discernere = _separate_, _distinguish_.
    dīmittere = _send in different directions_.

  (ii) = _un-_ (negative).

    displĭcēre = _displease_.
    diffīdere = _distrust_.

  (iii) = _exceedingly._

    differtus = _crammed to bursting_.

  (iv) = _individually_, _separately_.

    dīnŭmĕrare = _count up (singly)_.

IN- (cf. ἀν-, ἀ-) = UN-, usually with adjectives.

    ignoscere = _not to know_, _forget_, _pardon_.
    innŏcens = _not guilty_, _harmless_.

PER- (cf. παρά) = in a sense of wrong or injury.

    perdere = _destroy_.
    perfĭdus = _faithless_.

RED-, RE-, = back.

  (i) = _back_, _backwards._

    rĕcumbere = _lie down_.
    rĕflectere = _bend back_.

  (ii) = _in response_, or _return_.

    reddere = _give in return_.

  (iii) = _against_, _behind._

    rĕpugnare = _fight against_.
    rĕlinquere = _leave behind_.

  (iv) = _again._

    rĕfĭcere = _make again_, _repair_.
    rĕpĕrire = _find again_, _discover_.

  (v) = _intensive action._

    rĕvellere = _pluck by the roots_.

  (vi) = _un-_ (negative).

    rĕfīgere = _unfix_.

SED-, SE-, = apart.

    sēcernere = _sift away_, _separate_.
    sēcēdere = _go aside_, _withdraw_.
    sēd-ĭtio = _a going apart_, _secession_.




  (i.) TOR (-SOR), M. } +Agent+ or +doer+ of an action
            -TRIX, F. }

  ac-tor   = _doer_,     formed from √ag = _do_.
  auc-tor  = _maker_          „      √aug = _increase_.
  vic-tor  = _conqueror_      „      √vic = _conquer_.
  petī-tor = _candidate_      „      √pet = _seek_.
  ton-sor  = _barber_         „      √tem = _cut_.

(ii.) +Abstract+ Nouns and +Names+ of +Actions+.

  -OR, -SUS (= -TUS), M.
  -ĒS, -IA (-IES), -TIA (-TIES), -IŌ, -TIŌ,} F.
  -TĀS, -TŪS, -TŪDŌ, -DŌ, -GŌ, -NIA,       }

  tĭm-or       = _fear_         formed from tĭm-ere = _to fear_.
  sen-sus      = _feeling_           „      sent-ire = _to feel_.
  sēd-ēs       = _seat_              „      sĕd-ēre = _to sit_.
  audāc-ia     = _boldness_          „      audax = _bold_.
  segnĭt-ies   = _laziness_          „      segnis = _lazy_.
  tristĭ-tia   = _sadness_           „      tristis = _sad_.
  lĕg-io       = _a collecting_ }    „      lĕg-ere = _to collect_.
                 _a legion_     }
  sălūtā-tio   = _a greeting_        „      salutare = _to greet_.
  bŏnĭ-tas     = _goodness_          „      bonus = _good_.
  sĕnec-tūs    = _age_               „      senex = _old_.
  magni-tudo   = _greatness_         „      magnus = _great_.
  cupī-dō      = _desire_            „      cupere = _to desire_.
  vertī-go     = _a turning_ }       „      vertere = _to turn_.
                 _giddiness_ }
  pĕcū-nia     = _money (chattels)_  „      pecus = _cattle_.
  gĕn-us       = _race_, _birth_     „     √gen = _to be born_.
  auspĭc-ium   = an _omen_           „    { auspex = _a soothsayer_.
                                          { avis + spicio
  gaud-ium     = _joy_               „      gaudēre = _to rejoice_.
  lā̆tro-cinium = _robbery_           „      latro = _robber_.
  auxĭ-lium    = _help_              „      augēre = _to increase_.

(iii.) +Nouns+ denoting +acts+, or +means+ and +results of acts+.


  quĕri-monia = _complaint_,     formed from quĕri = _to complain_.
  ag-men      = _line of march_ }      „     agere √ag = _to lead_.
                _band_          }
  mŏnŭ-mentum = a _memorial_,          „     mon-ēre = _to remind_.
  nō-men      = a _name_               „    √gno = _to know_.

(iv.) Nouns denoting means or instrument.


  stā-bulum  = _stall_  formed from stare = _to stand_.
  vĕhĭ-cŭlum = _wagon_      „       vehere = _to carry_.
  sĕpul-crum = _tomb_       „       sepelīre = _to bury_.
  ărā-trum   = _plough_     „       arāre = _to plough_.


(i.) +Adjectives+ expressing +diminution+, and used as +Diminutive


  rīv-ulus    = a _streamlet_    formed from rīvus  = a _brook_.
  fīlĭ-olus   = a _little son_        „      filius = a _son_.
  mūnus-culum = a _little gift_       „      munus  = a _gift_.
  cōdic-illi  = _writing tablets_     „      codex
                                               = a _block of wood_.
  lĭb-ellus   = a _little book_       „      lĭber = a _book_.

(ii.) +Patronymics+, indicating +descent+ or +relationship+.


-AS, -IS, -EIS, F.

  Atlanti-adēs = _Mercury_     } formed from Atlas.
  Atlant-idĕs  = the _Pleiads_ }
  Tȳd-īdēs     = _Diomedes_           „      Tydeus.
  Cissē-is     = _Hecuba_             „      Cisseus.

(iii.) +Adjectives+ meaning +full of, prone to+.


  form-ōsus  = _beautiful_ formed from forma = _beauty_.
  pesti-lens = _pestilent_      „      pestis = _plague_.
  vĭŏ-lentus = _violent_        „      vis = _force_.

(iv.) +Adjectives+ meaning +provided with+.


  fūnes-tus = _deadly_  formed from funus (funer-) = _death_.
  barb-ātus = _bearded_      „      barba = a _beard_.
  turr-ītus = _turreted_     „      turris = a _tower_.
  corn-ūtus = _horned_       „      cornu = a _horn_.

(v.) +Adjectives+ meaning +made of+ or +belonging to+, or
+pertaining to+.


  aur-eus     = _golden_      formed from aurum = _gold_.
  patr-ius    = _paternal_         „      pater = a _father_.
  subterr-aneus = _subterranean_   „      sub terrā = _underground_.
  dŏmes-ticus = _domestic_         „      domus = a _house_.
  nātūr-ālis  = _natural_          „      natura = _nature_.
  pŏpŭl-aris = _fellow-countryman_ „      populus = a _people_.
  vĕtĕr-ānus  = _veteran_          „      vetus (veter-) = _old_.
  sĕr-ēnus    = _calm_, _of        „      serus = _late_.
                evening stillness_
  dīv-īnus    = _divine_           „      divus = _god_.
  fŏr-ensis   = _of the forum_     „      forum = _a market-place_.
  lac-teus    = _milky_            „      lac (lacti-) = _milk_.
  subl-icius  = _resting           „      sublica = a _pile_.
                  on piles_
  pălus-ter   = _marshy_           „      palūs = a _marsh_.
  silv-ester  = _woody_            „      silva = a _wood_.
  fīnĭ-timus  = _neighbouring_     „      finis = a _boundary_.
  ver-nus     = _vernal_           „      vēr = _spring_.
  dĭ-urnus    = _daily_            „      dies = _day_.
  diū-turnus  = _lasting_          „      diū = _long_ (time).

(vi.) +Adjectives+ expressing the action of the Verb as +a quality+ or


  pugn-ax   = _pugnacious_  formed from pugnare = _to fight_.
  cŭp-idus  = _eager_            „      cupere = _to desire_.
  bĭb-ulus  = _thirsty_          „      bibere = _to drink_.
               (of sand etc.)
  nŏc-uus   = _hurtful_          „      nocēre = _to hurt_.
  cap-tivus = _captive_          „      capere = _to take_.

(vii.) +Adjectives+ expressing +passive qualities+ but +occasionally


  frăg-ilis = _frail_         formed from frangere √frag = _to break_.
  nō-bilis  = _well known_         „      noscere √gno   = _to know_.
  exĭm-ius  = _choice_, _rare_     „      eximere        = _take out_.
  tex-tilis = _woven_              „      texere         = _to weave_.

(viii.) +Adjectives originally gerundives.+


  sĕcu-ndus   = _second (the   } formed from sequi =_to follow_.
                  following)_, }
                  _favourable_ }
  mŏrĭ-bundus = _dying_               „      mori = _to die_.
  fā-cundus   = _eloquent_            „      fa-ri = _to speak_.


-ĀRIUS, denotes +person employed about+ anything.

  argent-ārius = _silversmith_, formed from argentum = _silver_.

-ĀRIUM, denotes +place of+ a thing.

  aer-arium = _treasury_  formed from aes = _copper_.

-ĪLE denotes +stall of an animal+.

  bŏv-īle = _cattle-stall_ formed from bōs (bŏv-) = _ox_.
  ŏv-īle  = _sheep-fold_        „      ovis = _sheep_.

-ĒTUM denotes +place where a tree or plant grows+.

  querc-ētum = _oak-grove_ formed from quercus = _an oak_.


(i.) +From Nouns and Adjectives.+

  stĭmŭlo, -āre  = _to goad_,  formed from stimulus = _a goad_.
  nŏvo, -āre     = _to renew_       „      novus = _new_.
  vĭgĭlo, -āre   = _to watch_       „      vigil = _awake_.
  albeo, -ēre    = _to be white_    „      albus = _white_.
  mĕtuo, -ere    = _to fear_        „      metus = _fear_.
  ăcuo, -ere     = _to sharpen_     „      acus = _needle_.
  mōlior, -īri   = _to toil_        „      moles = _mass_.
  custōdio, -īre = _to guard _      „      custos (custod-)
                                             = _guardian_.

(ii.) +Verbs from other Verbs.+

-SCO denotes the +beginning+ of an action. (Third Conjugation.)

  lăbā-sco = _begin to totter_ formed from labo = _totter_.
  mītē-sco = _grow mild_            „      mītis = _mild_.

-TO, -ĬTO, (rarely -SŌ), -ESSO, denote +forcible or repeated action+.

  iac-to, -ăre   = _hurl_       formed from iacio = _throw_.
  quas-so, āre   = _shatter_         „      quatio = _shake_.
  făc-esso, -ĕre = _do_              „      facio = _do_.
                    (with energy)

-TŬRIO (-SŬRIO) denotes +longing or wishing+.

  par-turio, -īre = { _to bring forth_ formed from pario
                    { _produce_                      = _bring forth_.
  ē-surio         = _to be hungry_          „      edo
    (= _ed-turio_)                                     = _to eat_.



√AC = sharp.
                                        English derivative.

  āc-er    = _sharp_.                   eager (F. aigre).
  ăc-erbus = _harsh_, _cruel_.          acerbity (= harshness).
  ăc-ervus = _a heap_.
  ăc-ies   = _edge_, _keen look_.    }  Fr. acier (= steel).
             _army in battle array_. }
  ăc-idus  = _sour_.                    acid.
  ăc-uo    = _to sharpen_.
  ăc-utus  = _sharpened_, _sharp_.      acute (Fr. aigu).
  ăc-umen  = _a point_, _acuteness_.    acumen.
  ăc-us    = _a needle_.                Fr. aiguille.

√AUG = be active, strong.

  aug-eo      = _increase_.
  aug-mentum  = _an increase_.               augment.
  auc-tio     = _a sale by increase of }     auction.
                  bids_, _an auction_  }
  auc-tor     = _a maker_, _producer_.       author.
  auc-toritas = _a producing_, _authority_.  authority.
  aug-ustus   = _majestic_, _august_.        august.
  aux-ilium   = _aid_, _help_.               auxiliary.

√CAP = take hold of, seize.

  căp-io       = _take hold of_.          captive.
  căp-ax       = _capacious_.             capacious.
  căp-ulus     = _handle_,
                   _hilt of a sword_.
  ac-cĭp-io    = _take to_, _receive_.    accept.
    (ad + capio)
  ex-cĭp-io    = _take up_.               exception.
    (ex_ +capio)
  man-cĭp-ium  = _property_, _a slave_.   emancipate.
    (manus + capio)
  muni-cĭp-ium = _a free town_.           municipal.
    (munia + capio)
  prin-ceps    = _first_, _chief_.      { principal.
    (primus + capio)                    { prince.

√GEN-, √GNA- = beget, become, produce.

  gi-gn-o      = _to beget_.                indigenous.
    (= gi-gĕn-o)
  gĕn-i-tor    = _a father_.                (pro)genitor.
  gen-s        = _clan_, _house_, _race_.   gentile.
  in-gens      = _vast_.
  gĕn-us       = _birth_, _race_.           genus (Fr. genre).
  in-gĕn-ium   = _innate quality_,
  in-gĕn-uus   = _native_, _free-born_,     ingenuous.
  in-gĕn-iosus = _of good natural }         ingenious.
                   abilities_.    }
  pro-gĕn-ies  = _descent_, _descendants_.  progenitor.
  gĕn-er       = _son-in-law_.
  gĕn-ius      = _the innate superior   }   genius.
                   nature_, _tutelary   }
                   (protecting) deity_. }
  indi-gĕn-a   = _nature_.                  indigenous.
  gĕn-erōsus   = _of noble birth_,          generous.
  gĕn-ĕro      = _to beget_, _produce_.     generate.
  gĕn-ĕtivus   = _of or belonging to   }    genitive.
                   birth_, _genitive_. }
  na-scor      = _to be born_.              native.
    = gna-scor
  nā-tūra      = _nature_.                  nature.
  nā-tio       = _birth_, _a race_.         nation.



_Flaminius atones for his rashness._[44]

    [Footnote 44: Cf. p. 126.]  [[Selection C19]]

  Tres ferme horas pugnatum est et ubique atrociter;
  circa consulem tamen acrior infestiorque pugna est.
  Eum et robora virorum sequebantur, et ipse, quacunque
  in parte premi ac laborare senserat suos, impigre ferebat
  opem; insignemque armis et hostes summa vi petebant            {5}
  et tuebantur cives, donec Insuber eques (Ducario nomen
  erat) facie quoque noscitans consulem, ‘En’ inquit ‘hic
  est’ popularibus suis, ‘qui legiones nostras cecidit agrosque
  et urbem est depopulatus. Iam ego hanc victimam manibus
  peremptorum foede civium dabo.’ Subditisque calcaribus        {10}
  equo per confertissimam hostium turbam impetum
  facit, obtruncatoque prius armigero, qui se infesto venienti
  obviam obiecerat, consulem lancea transfixit; spoliare
  cupientem triarii obiectis scutis arcuere.

        LIVY, xxii. 6.

The heading and the author will at once suggest the stirring incident in
the Battle of Lake Trasimene, when Flaminius atoned for his rashness by
his gallant example and death.

You have seen how Analysis helps you to arrive at the main thought of
the sentence, and you are familiar with the principles that govern the
order of words in Latin, and the important part played by the emphatic
position of words. So you may now try to +think in Latin+; that is, to
take the thought in the Latin order, without reference to analysis or
the English order. You will do well to follow closely this advice of
experienced teachers:--‘Read every word as if it were the last on the
page, and you had to turn over without being able to turn back. If,
however, you are obliged to turn back, begin again at the beginning of
the sentence and proceed as before. Let each word of the Latin suggest
some conception gradually adding to and completing the meaning of the
writer. If the form of the word gives several possibilities, hold them
all in your mind, so far as may be, till something occurs in the
progress of the sentence to settle the doubt.’

1. +Tres ferme horas+ = _for nearly three hours_. This construction
(Acc. of extent of time) will be familiar to you. Notice the emphatic
position of the phrase.

+pugnatum est+ = _the battle was fought_. This use of the so-called
impersonal passive is very frequent, and is generally best translated by
taking the root-idea of the verb as a subject.

+et ubique atrociter+ = _and everywhere fiercely_.

2. +circa consulem tamen+ = _around the consul however_.

+acrior infestiorque pugna est+ = _the battle is more keen and more
vehement_. This presents no difficulty; +acrior+ and +infestior+ must
qualify +pugna+, which follows immediately.

3. +eum+ = _him_, plainly _consulem_ (i.e. Flaminius), for no one else
has been mentioned. Notice the emphatic position of +eum+.

+et robora virorum sequebantur+ = _both the strongest of his troops
followed_. You may know that +robur+ (lit. _hard wood_) is often used of
_the toughest troops_, _the flower of an army_.

+et ipse+ = _and himself_, i.e. the consul (Flaminius).

3-4. +quacunque in parte+ = _in whatever part_.

4. +premi ac laborare senserat suos+ = _he had seen his men hard pressed
and in distress_. No other meaning is possible, nor does the order
present any difficulty, but notice the emphatic position of +suos+.

4-5. +impigre ferebat opem+ = _actively he bore help_.

5. +insignemque armis+ = _and distinguished by his arms_, clearly
referring to +consulem+ (l. 2). Cf. +eum+ (l. 3).

+et hostes summa vi petebant+ = _both the enemy with all their might
attacked_. +et+ might, of course, = _also_ (cf. +et+, l. 2), but the
second +et+ which immediately follows determines the meaning _both_.

6. +et tuebantur cives+ = _and his fellow-citizens_ (Romans) _defended_

+donec Insuber eques+ = _until an Insubrian trooper_. +donec+ may mean
_while_, but the context shows that _until_ or _at last_ is the right
meaning here.

6-7. +Ducario nomen erat+ = (his) _name was Ducarius_, i.e. _ei nomen
erat Ducario_, where +Ducario+ is possess. dat. in appos. to _ei_
understood. It is, however, possible that the trooper’s name was
Ducario, but cf. page 126, l. 2.  [[Selection C19, line 645]]

7. +facie quoque noscitans consulem+ = _by his face also_ (i.e. as well
as by his armour) _recognising the consul_.

7-8. +‘En’ inquit ‘his est’ popularibus suis+ = _See, said he, to his
fellow-countrymen_ (comrades), _this is the man_.

8. +qui legiones nostras cecīdit+ = _who slaughtered our legions_. There
is a slight difficulty here, but a moment’s thought will remove it. It
must be +cecīdit+, perf. of _caedo_, and not _cecĭdit_, perf. of _cado_,
which is intransitive.

8-9. +agrosque et urbem est depopulatus+ = _and laid waste our fields
and our city_.

9-10. +Iam ego hanc victimam mānibus peremptorum foede civium dabo+ =
_now I will give this victim to the shades of our countrymen foully
slain_. +Mānibus+ cannot = _hands_ (_mănibus_), for +peremptorum
civium+, which immediately follows, fixes the right meaning.

10-11. +subditisque calcaribus equo+ = _and putting spurs to his horse_.
You will not attempt to translate this Abl. Absol. literally.

11-12. +per confertissimam hostium turbam impetum facit+ = _through the
closely packed crowd of the enemy he makes his charge_.

12. +obtruncatoque prius armigero+ = _and first cut down the
armour-bearer_ (i.e. of Flaminius).

12-13. +qui se infesto venienti obviam obiecerat+ = _who had thrown
himself in the way of him advancing at the charge_.

+infesto venienti+ is clearly dative with +obviam+.

13. +consulem lancea transfixit+ = _ran the Consul through with his

13-14. +spoliare cupientem+ = (him, i.e. Ducarius) _wishing to spoil_
(the consul).

14. +triarii obiectis scutis arcuere+ = _the triarii_ (veterans)
_thrusting their shields in the way kept off_.

This passage is quite simple, but it will serve to show you how you may
with practice learn to +take the thought in the Latin order+, and to
grasp the writer’s meaning. All that now remains for you to do is to
write out a translation in good English, using short coordinate
sentences, each complete in itself, in place of the more involved
structure of the original. The following version by the late Professor
Jebb will serve as a model:--

They fought for about three hours, and everywhere with desperation.
Around the consul, however, the fight was peculiarly keen and vehement.
He had the toughest troops with him; and he himself, whenever he saw
that his men were hard pressed, was indefatigable in coming to the
rescue. Distinguished by his equipment, he was a target for the enemy
and a rallying-point for the Romans. At last a Lombard trooper, named
Ducario, recognising the person as well as the guise of the consul,
cried out to his people, ‘Here is the man who cut our legions to pieces
and sacked our city--now I will give this victim to the shades of our
murdered countrymen.’ Putting spurs to his horse, he dashed through the
thick of the foe. First he cut down the armour-bearer, who had thrown
himself in the way of the onset. Then he drove his lance through the
consul. He was trying to despoil the corpse, when some veterans screened
it with their shields.




1. Life.

[Sidenote: AUSONIUS.]

Born at Burdigala (_Bordeaux_), and carefully educated. At the age of
thirty appointed professor of rhetoric in his native University, where
he became so famous that he was appointed tutor to Gratian, son of the
Emperor Valentinian (364-375 A.D.), and was afterwards raised to the
highest honours of the State (Consul, 379 A.D.). Theodosius (Emperor of
the East, 378-395 A.D.) gave him leave to retire from court to his
native country, where he closed his days in an honoured literary

2. Works.

A very voluminous writer both in prose and verse.

1. Prose: The only extant specimen is his _Gratiarum Actio_ to Gratianus
for the Consulship.

2. Verse: Of this we have much: it has little value as poetry, but in
point of contents and diction it is interesting and valuable. Some of
his _Epigrammata_ and _Epitaphia_ are worth preserving, but his claim to
rank as a poet rests on his _Mosella_, a beautiful description of the R.
Moselle, which is worthy to be compared with Pliny’s description of the
R. Clitumnus (_Ep._ viii. 8).

‘In virtue of this poem Ausonius ranks not merely as the last, or all
but the last, of Latin, but as the first of French poets.’ --Mackail.

GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR, 102 (or 100?)-44 B.C.

1. Important Events in Caesar’s Life.

[Sidenote: CAESAR.]

  B.C. 102. Gaius Julius Caesar, nephew of Marius, born July 12th.
   „    83. Marries Cornelia, daughter of Cinna, the friend of Marius.
   „  81-78. Served with distinction in Asia.
   „    76. Studies oratory at Rhodes.
   „    68. Begins his political career as Quaestor, partly at Rome,
              partly in Spain.
   „    65. Curule Aedile. Incurs enormous debts by his splendid shows.
   „    61. Propraetor in Spain: conquers Lusitanians: amasses wealth.
   „    60. Coalition of Pompeius, Caesar, and Crassus: First
   „    59. Consul. The Leges Iuliae.
   „    58-50. Subjugation of Gaul and two invasions of Britain
              (55 and 54).
   „    56. Meeting of Triumvirate at Luca.
   „    50. The trouble with Pompeius begins.
   „    49. Crosses the Rubicon. Civil war with Pompeius. Dictator
              a first time.
   „    48. Pharsalus. Defeats Pompeius. Dictator a second time.
   „    46. Thapsus. Defeats Scipio, Sulla, and Afranius. Declared
              Dictator for ten years.
   „    45. Munda. Defeats Gn. Pompeius and Labienus. Dictator and
              Imperator for life.
   „    44. Assassinated in the Senate House on the Ides of March.

2. Works.

(1) +THE DE BELLO GALLICO.+--This work describes Caesar’s operations in
Gaul, Germany, and Britain during the years 58-52 B.C., the events of
each year occupying a separate Book.

  BOOK  I. B.C. 58. The Helvetii and Ariovistus the German defeated.
   „   II.  „   57. The Nervii, the bravest Belgian tribe, almost
   „  III.  „   56. Conquest of the coast tribes of Brittany (Veneti,
                      &c.) and of the South-West (Aquitani).
   „   IV.  „   55. Inroad of Germans into Northern Gaul repulsed.
                      Caesar crosses the Rhine a first time. First
                      invasion of Britain.
   „    V.  „   54. Second invasion of Britain. Fresh risings of the
                      Gauls put down by Labienus and Q. Cicero.
   „   VI.  „   53. Caesar crosses the Rhine a second time. Northern
                      Gaul reduced to peace.
   „  VII.  „   52. Uprising of the Gauls under Vercingetorix.
                      Siege and capture of Alesia. Surrender of
                      Vercingetorix. He is taken in chains to Rome,
                      to adorn Caesar’s triumph.
   „ VIII.  „   51  (added by HIRTIUS). Final subjugation of Gaul.

Caesar’s object was threefold:--

(i) To provide materials for professed historians.

(ii) To justify the conquest he describes.

(iii) To vindicate in the eyes of the world his opposition to the Senate
and the Government.

(2) +DE BELLO CIVILI.+--This work, in three Books, is similar in plan
to the _De Bello Gallico_. It describes the events of the Civil War
during the years 49-48 B.C. Book III. ends abruptly with the words:

_Haec initia belli Alexandrini fuerunt._

  BOOK  I. B.C. 49. Caesar crosses the Rubicon. Follows Pompeius to
                      Brundusium and conquers Afranius in Spain.
   „   II.  „   49. Caesar takes Massilia. Submission of Varro in
                      Further Spain. Defeat and death of Curio before

   „  III.  „   48. Caesar follows Pompeius into Illyria. The lines of
                      Dyrrachium and the Battle of Pharsalus. The
                      beginning of the Alexandrine War.

(3) +OTHER WORKS.+--All Caesar’s other writings (Speeches, Poems, &c.)
have been lost, with the exception of a few brief Letters to Cicero.

3. Style.

Remarkable for brevity, directness, and simplicity. The simplest facts
told in the simplest way. _Ars est celare artem._

‘Caesar’s Commentaries are worthy of all praise; they are unadorned,
straightforward, and elegant, every ornament being stripped off as if it
were a garment.’ --CICERO.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: CATO.]

For his military and political career, his Consulship (195 B.C.), his
famous Censorship (184 B.C.), and his social reforms, see some good
history, e.g. Mommsen, vol, iii.

2.  Works.

His chief works are:--

(1) His treatise +De Re Rustica+ or +De Agri Cultura+ (his only extant
work).--A series of terse and pointed directions following one on
another, somewhat in the manner of Hesiod, and interesting ‘as showing
the practical Latin style, and as giving the prose groundwork of
Vergil’s stately and beautiful embroidery in the _Georgics_.’ --Mackail.

(2) +The Origines.+--‘The oldest historical work written in Latin, and
the first important prose work in Roman literature.’ --Mommsen. Nepos,
_Cato_, 3, summarises the contents of the seven books.

Cato struggled all his life against Greek influence in literature and in
manners, which he felt would be fatal to his ideal of a Roman citizen.
In a letter to his son Marcus he says _Quandoque ista gens suas litteras
dabit, omnia corrumpet_. He was famous for his homely wisdom, which
gained him the title of _Sapiens_, e.g. _Rem tene: verba
sequentur_--‘Take care of the sense: the words will take care of


1. Life.

[Sidenote: CATULLUS.]

Born at Verona, of a family of wealth and position, as is seen from his
having estates at Sirmio:--

_Salve, O venusta Sirmio, atque ero gaude_ (C. 31)

and near Tibur: _O funde noster seu Sabine seu Tiburs_ (C. 44). His
father was an intimate friend of Caesar. He went to Rome early, where he
spent the greater part of his short life,

          _Romae vivimus: illa domus,
  Illa mihi sedes, illic mea carpitur aetas_ (C. 68),

with the exception of an official journey to Bithynia, 57 B.C. to better
his fortunes: cf. _Iam ver egelidos refert tepores ... Linquantur
Phrygii, Catulle, campi_ (C. 46). After a life of poetic culture and
free social enjoyment he died at the early age of thirty, ‘the young
Catullus,’ _hedera iuvenilia tempora cinctus_ (Ovid, _Am._ III. ix. 61).

2. Works.

116 poems written in various metres and on various subjects, Lyric,
Elegiac, Epic.

‘The event which first revealed the full power of his genius, and which
made both the supreme happiness and supreme misery of his life, was his
love for Lesbia (Clodia).’--Sellar.

‘Catullus is one of the great poets of the world, not so much through
vividness of imagination as through his singleness of nature, his vivid
impressibility, and his keen perception. He received the gifts of the
passing hour so happily that to produce pure and lasting poetry it was
enough for him to utter in natural words something of the fulness of his
heart. He says on every occasion exactly what he wanted to say, in
clear, forcible, spontaneous language.’ --Sellar.

‘The most attractive feature in the character of Catullus is the warmth
of his affection. If to love warmly, constantly, and unselfishly be the
best title to the love of others, few poets in any age or country
deserve a kindlier place in the hearts of men than “the young


1. Important Events in Cicero’s Life, and chief Works.

[Sidenote: CICERO.]

 B.C. 106. Born at Arpinum. Birth of Pompeius.
   „  102. Birth of Quintus Cicero, and of Caesar.
   „   91. Assumes the _toga virilis_. Q. Mucius Scaevola the augur
           becomes his tutor in civil law. Writes an heroic poem in
           praise of Marius.
   „   89. Serves his first and only campaign under Pompeius Strabo.
   „   87. Studies Rhetoric at Rome under Apollonius Molo of Rhodes.
   „   81. Delivers his first speech (_causa privata_) +Pro
           P. Quinctio+.
   „   80. Delivers his first speech (_causa publica_) +Pro S. Roscio
   „ 79-7. Studies at Athens and Rhodes. Marries Terentia.
   „ 75-4. Quaestor at Lilybaeum in Sicily.
   „   70. The six speeches +In C. Verrem+.
   „   69. Curule Aedile. The +Pro Caecina+.
   „   68. Date of the earliest extant letter.
   „   67. Praetor. The Lex Gabinia.
   „   66. The De Imperio Cn. Pompeii (+Pro Lege Manilia+).
   „   64. Birth of his son Marcus. Marriage of Tullia to C. Piso Frugi.
   „   63. Consul. The four speeches +In Catilinam+. The +Pro Murena+.
   „   62. Cicero hailed ‘pater patriae.’ The +Pro Sulla+ and +Pro
   „   60. Poem ‘De consulatu meo.’
   „   59. The First Triumvirate (Caesar, Pompeius, and Crassus). The
           +Pro Valerio Flacco+.
   „ 58-7. Cicero in Exile. The four speeches +Post Reditum+.
   „   56. The +Pro Sestio+ and +De Provinciis Consularibus+ (his
   „   55. The +De Oratore+ and +De temporibus meis+.
   „   52. The +Pro Milone+. The +De Legibus+: the +De Republica+.
   „ 51-50. Proconsul of Cilicia. Is granted a _supplicatio_.
   „   49. Joins Pompeius at Dyrrachium.
   „   47. Becomes reconciled to Caesar.
   „   46. The +Brutus+ and +Orator+.
   „   45. Death of Tullia. The +De Finibus+ and +Academics+.
   „   44. The +Tusculanae Disputationes+: the +De Natura Deorum+: +De
           Divinatione+: +De Amicitia+: +De Senectute+: +De Officiis+.
           +Philippics i-iv.+
   „   43. +Philippics v-xiv.+ The Second Triumvirate (Antonius,
           Octavianus, and Lepidus).  Murder of Cicero.

2. Works.

(1) +Speeches.+--We possess 57 speeches, and fragments of about 20 more,
and we know of 33 others delivered by Cicero.

‘As a speaker and orator Cicero succeeded in gaining a place beside
Demosthenes. His strongest point is his style; there he is clear,
concise and apt, perspicuous, elegant and brilliant. He commands all
moods, from playful jest to tragic pathos, but is most successful in the
imitation of conviction and feeling, to which he gave increased
impression by his fiery delivery.’ --Teuffel. Quintilian says of him
that his eloquence combined the power of Demosthenes, the copiousness of
Plato, and the sweetness of Isocrates.

(2) +Philosophical Works.+--The chief are the _De Republica_ (closed by
the _Sommium Sciponis_): the _De Legibus_: the _De Finibus Bonorum et
Malorum_: the _Academics_: _Tusculan Disputations_ with the _De
Divinatione_: the _De Senectute_ and _De Amicitia_: _De natura Deorum_,
and the _De Officiis_.

As a philosopher Cicero had no pretensions to originality. He found the
materials for most of these works in the writings of the Greek
philosophers. ‘I have to supply little but the words,’ he writes, ‘and
for these I am never at a loss.’ It was however no small achievement to
mould the Latin tongue to be a vehicle for Greek philosophic thought,
and thus to render the conclusions of Greek thinkers accessible to his
own countrymen.

(3) +Rhetorical treatises.+--The chief are the _De Oratore_ (in 3
Books), perhaps the most finished example of the Ciceronian style: the
_Brutus_ or _De Claris Oratoribus_, and the _Orator_ (or _De optime
Genere Dicendi_).

(4) +Letters.+--Besides 774 letters written by Cicero, we have 90
addressed to him by friends. The two largest collections of his Letters
are the _Epistulae ad Atticum_ (68-43 B.C.) and the _Epistulae ad
Familiares_ (62-43 B.C.).

These letters are of supreme importance for the history of Cicero’s
time. ‘The quality which makes them most valuable is that they were not
(like the letters of Pliny, and Seneca, and Madame de Sévigné) written
to be published. We see in them Cicero as he was. We behold him in his
strength and in his weakness--the bold advocate, and yet timid and
vacillating statesman, the fond husband, the affectionate father, the
kind master, the warm-hearted friend.’ --Tyrrell.

The style of the Letters is colloquial but thoroughly accurate. ‘The art
of letter-writing suddenly rose in Cicero’s hands to its full
perfection.’ --Mackail.

(5) +Poems.+--The fragments we possess show that verse-writing came
easily to him, but he never could have been a great poet, for he had not
the _divinus afflatus_, so finely expressed by Ovid in the line _Est
Deus in nobis, agitante calescimus illo_.

‘Cicero stands in prose like Vergil in poetry, as the bridge between the
ancient and the modern world. Before his time Latin prose was, from a
wide point of view, but one among many local ancient dialects. As it
left his hands it had become a universal language, one which had
definitely superseded all others, Greek included, as the type of
civilised expression.’ --Mackail.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: CLAUDIAN.]

Born probably at Alexandria, where he lived until, in the year of the
death of Theodosius 395 A.D., he acquired the patronage of Stilicho, the
great Vandal general, who, as guardian of the young Emperor Honorius,
was practically ruler of the Western Empire. He remained attached to the
Court at Milan, Rome and Ravenna, and died soon after the downfall of
his patron Stilicho, 408 A.D.

2. Works.

In his historical epics he derived his subjects from his own age,
praising his patrons Stilicho (_On the Consulate of Stilicho_) and
Honorius (_on the Consulate of Honorius_), and inveighing against
Rufinus and Eutropius, the rivals of Stilicho. Of poems on other
subjects, ‘his three books of the unfinished Rape of Proserpine are
among the finest examples of the purely literary epic.’ --Mackail.

‘Claudian is the last of the Latin poets, forming the transitional link
between the Classic and the Gothic mode of thought.’ --Coleridge.

3. Style.

‘His faults belong almost as much to the age as to the writer. In
description he is too copious and detailed: his poems abound with long
speeches: his parade of varied learning, his partiality for abstruse
mythology, are just the natural defects of a lettered but uninspired
epoch.’ --North Pinder.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: ENNIUS.]

He was born at Rudiae in Calabria (about 19 miles S. of Brundisium),
a meeting-place of three different languages, that of common life
(Oscan, cf. _Opici_), that of culture and education (Greek), that of
military service (Latin). Here he lived for some twenty years, availing
himself of those means of education which at this time were denied to
Rome or Latium. We next hear of him serving as centurion in Sardinia,
where he attracted the attention of Cato, then quaestor, and accompanied
him to Rome, 204 B.C. Here for some fifteen years he lived plainly,
supporting himself by teaching Greek, and making translations of Greek
plays for the Roman stage, and so won the friendship of the elder
Scipio. In 189 B.C. M. Fulvius Nobilior took Ennius with him in his
campaign against the Aetolians, as a witness and herald of his deeds.
His son obtained for Ennius the Roman citizenship (184 B.C.) by giving
him a grant of land at Potentia in Picenum. _Nos sumus Romani, qui
fuimus ante Rudini._ The rest of his life was spent mainly at Rome in
cheerful simplicity and active literary work.

2. Works.

The chief are:--

(1) +Tragedies.+--Mainly translations, especially from Euripides. A few
fragments only remain. ‘It was certainly due to Ennius that Roman
Tragedy was first raised to that pitch of popular favour which it
enjoyed till the age of Cicero.’ --Sellar.

(2) +Annales.+--An Epic Hexameter poem, in 18 books, which dealt with
the History of Rome from the landing of Aeneas in Italy down to the
Third Macedonian War (Pydna, 168 B.C.). About 600 lines are extant.

‘In his Annals he unfolds a long gallery of national portraits. His
heroes are men of one common aim--the advancement of Rome; animated with
one sentiment, devotion to the State. All that was purely personal in
them seems merged in the traditional pictures which express only the
fortitude, dignity and sagacity of the Republic.’ --Sellar.

3. Style.

For the first time Ennius succeeded in moulding the Latin language to
the movement of the Greek hexameter. In spite of imperfections and
roughness, his _Annals_ remained the foremost and representative Roman
poem till Vergil wrote the _Aeneid_. Lucretius, whom he influenced, and
to whom Vergil owes so much, says of him:

  _Ennius ut noster cecinit, qui primus amoeno
  Detulit ex Helicone perenni fronde coronam,
  Per gentes Italas honinum quae clara clueret;_

    ‘As sang our Ennius, the first who brought down from
    pleasant Helicon a chaplet of unfading leaf, the fame of
    which should ring out clear through the nations of Italy.’

And later, Quintilian, X. i. 88: ‘Ennium sicut sacros vetustate lucos
adoremus, in quibus grandia et antiqua robora iam non tantam habent
speciem quantam religionem: Let us venerate Ennius like the groves,
sacred from their antiquity, in which the great and ancient oak-trees
are invested, not so much with beauty, as with sacred associations.’


1. Life.

[Sidenote: EUTROPIUS.]

Very little is known of his life. He is said to have held the office of
a secretary under Contanstine the Great (_ob._ 337 A.D.), and to have
served under the Emperor Julian in his ill-fated expedition against the
Persians, 363 A.D.

2. Works.

His only extant work is his

+Breviarium Historiae Romanae.+--A brief compendium of Roman History in
ten books from the foundation of the city to the accession of Valens,
364 A.D., to whom it is inscribed.

3. Style.

His work is a compilation made from the best authorities, with good
judgment and impartiality, and in a simple style. Its brevity and
practical arrangement made it very popular.

FLORUS, circ. 120 (or 140?) A.D. (temp. Hadrian).

1. Life.

[Sidenote: FLORUS.]

L. Julius (or Annaeus) Florus lived at Rome in the time of Trajan or
Hadrian. Little else is known of his life.

2. Works.

An Epitome of the Wars of Livy, in two Books:--

  Book I. treats of the good time of Rome, 753-133 B.C. (the

    „ II. treats of the decline of Rome, 133-29 B.C. (Temple of
             Janus closed).

3. Style.

A pretentious and smartly written work abounding in mistakes,
contradictions, and misrepresentations of historical truth. It was,
however, popular in the Middle Ages on account of its brevity and its
rhetorical style. Florus is useful in giving us a short account of
events in periods where we have no books of Livy to guide us.

S. JULIUS FRONTINUS, circ. 41-103 A.D.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: FRONTINUS.]

He was _praetor urbanus_ 70 A.D., and in 75 succeeded Cerealis as
governor oi Britain, where, as Tacitus tells us, he distinguished
himself by the conquest of the Silures: _sustinuit molem Iulius
Frontinus, vir magnus, quantum licebat, validamque et pugnacem Siturum
gentem armis subegit_: ‘Julius Frontinus was equal to the burden,
a great man as far as greatness was then possible (i.e. under the
jealous rule of Domitian), who subdued by his arms the powerful and
warlike tribe of the Silures.’

In 97 he was nominated _curator aquarum_, administrator of the aqueducts
of Rome: the closing years of his life were passed in studious
retirement at his villa on the Bay of Naples. Cf. Mart. X. lviii.

2. Works.

Two works of his are extant:--

(1) +De Aquis Urbis Romae.+--A treatise on the Roman water-supply,
published under Trajan, soon after the death of Nerva, 97 A.D.; a
complete and valuable account.

(2) +Strategemata.+--A manual of strategy, in three books, consisting of
historical examples derived chiefly from Sallust, Caesar, and Livy.

3. Style.

Simple and concise: ‘he shuns the conceits of the period and goes back
to the republican authors, of whom (and especially of Caesar’s
Commentaries) his language strongly reminds us.’ --Cruttwell.

As a mark of his unaffected modesty, Pliny (_Ep._ ix. 19) tells us:
_vetuit exstrui monimentum: sed quibus verbis? ‘impensa monimenta
supervacua est: memoria nostri durabit, si vita meruimus_.’

AULUS GELLIUS, circ. 123-175 A.D.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: GELLIUS.]

All that is known about his life is gathered from occasional hints in
his own writings. He seems to have spent his early years at Rome,
studying under the most famous teachers, first at Rome and afterwards at
Athens, and then to have returned to Rome, where he spent the remaining
years of his life in literary pursuits and in the society of a large
circle of friends.

2. Works.

The +Noctes Atticae+ (so called because it was begun during the long
nights of winter in a country house in Attica) in twenty books consists
of numerous extracts from Greek and Roman writers on subjects connected
with history, philosophy, philology, natural science and antiquities,
illustrated by abundant criticisms and discussions. It is, in fact,
a commonplace book, and the arrangement of the contents is merely
casual, following the course of his reading of Greek and Latin authors.
The work is, however, of special value to us from the very numerous
quotations from ancient authors preserved by him alone.

3. Style.

His language is sober but full of archaisms, which he much affected (he
gives, therefore, no quotations from post-Augustan writers). His style
shows the defects of an age in which men had ceased to feel the full
meaning of the words they used, and strove to hide the triviality of a
subject under obscure phrases and florid expression. Yet, on the whole,
he is a very interesting writer, and the last that can in any way be
called classical.

‘_Vir elegantissimi eloquii et multae ac facundae scientiae._’ --St.
Augustine, 400 A.D.


1. Important Events in the Life of Horace.

[Sidenote: HORACE.]

  B.C. 65. Born at Venusia (_Venosa_) on the confines of Apulia and
   „  53-46. Educated at Rome under the famous _plagosus_ Orbilius.
   „  46-44. At the University of Athens.
   „  44-42. Served under Brutus as _tribunus militum_: fought at
   „  42-39. Pardoned by Octavianus and allowed to return to Rome.
             His poverty compelled him to write verses, prob. _Sat._ I,
             ii. iii. iv., and some _Epodes_. Through these he obtained
             the notice of Varius and Vergil, who became his fast
             friends and
   „   38. introduced him to Maecenas, the trusted minister of Augustus.
   „   35. +Satires, Book I+ published. (Journey to Brundisium
             described, _Sat._ I. v.)
   „   33. Maecenas bestowed upon him a Sabine farm (about 15 miles
             N.E. of Tivoli). For fullest description see _Epist._
             I. xvi.
   „   31. +Satires, Book II+, and +Epodes+ published.
   „   23. +Odes, Books I-III+ published.
   „   20. +Epistles, Book I+ published.
   „   17. +Carmen Saeculare+ written at the request of Augustus for
             the _Ludi Saeculares_.
   „   13. +Odes, Book IV+ published.
   „   12. +Epistles, Book II+ published.
   „    8. Died in the same year as his friend and patron Maecenas.

  3. Works.

(1) +Odes+, in four books, and +Epodes+.--The words of Cicero (_pro
Archia_ 16) best describe the abiding value of the four Books of the
Odes--_Adolescentiam alunt_ (strengthen), _senectutem oblectant,
secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solacium praebent, delectant
domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur,
rusticantur_. In them we see a poet, as Quintilian says, _verbis
felicissime audax_--most happily daring in his use of words and endowed,
as Petronius says, with _curiosa felicitas_, a subtle happiness of
expression--‘what oft was thought but ne’er so well express’d.’

(2) +Satires (Sermones)+ in two Books.--Horace’s chief model is
Lucilius, whom he wished to adapt to the Augustan age. To touch on
political topics was impossible; Horace employed satire to display his
own individuality and his own views on various subjects. Book I (his
earliest effort) is marred by faults in execution and is often wanting
in good taste; but in Book II ‘he uses the hexameter to exhibit the
semi-dramatic form of easy dialogue, with a perfection as complete as
that of Vergil in the stately and serious manner. In reading these
Satires we all read our own minds and hearts.’ --Mackail.

(3) +The Epistles (Sermones)+ in two Books, and +Ars Poetica+ (_Ep. ad
Pisones_).--These represent his most mature production. As a poet Horace
now stood without a rival. Life was still full of vivid interest for
him, but years (_fallentis semita vitae_) had brought the philosophic
mind. ‘To teach the true end and wise regulation of life, and to act on
character from within, are the motives of the more formal and elaborate
epistles.’ --Sellar.

The +Ars Poetica+ is a _résumé_ of Greek criticism on the drama.

3. Style.

‘With the principal lyric metres, the Sapphic and Alcaic, Horace had
done what Vergil had accomplished with the dactylic hexameter, carried
them to the highest point of which the foreign Latin tongue was
capable.’ --Mackail.

‘As Vergil is the most idealising exponent of what was of permanent and
universal significance in the time, Horace is the most complete exponent
of its actual life and movement. He is at once the lyrical poet, with
heart and imagination responsive to the deeper meaning and lighter
amusements of life, and the satirist, the moralist, and the literary
critic of the age.’ --Sellar.

JUSTINUS, circ. 150 A.D. (_temp._ Antoninus Pius).

1. Life.

[Sidenote: JUSTINUS.]

We know nothing positively about him, though probably he lived in the
age of the Antonines. Teuffel says ‘Considering his correct mode of
thinking and the style of his preface, we should not like to put him
much later than Florus, who epitomised Livy.’

2.  Works.

+Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi+, in forty-four
Books.--An abridgment of the Universal History of Pompeius Trogus
(_temp._ Livy). The title _Historiae Philippicae_ was given to it by
Trogus because its main object was to give the history of the Macedonian
monarchy, with all its branches, but he allowed himself, like Herodotus,
to indulge in such large digressions that it was regarded by many as a
Universal History. It was arranged according to nations; it began with
Ninus, the Nimrod of legend, and was brought down to about 9 A.D.

3.  Style.

Justinus (as he tells us in his Preface) made it his business to form an
attractive reading-book--_breve veluti florum corpusculum feci_ (an
anthology)--and his chief merit is that he seems to have been a faithful


1. Life.

[Sidenote: JUVENAL.]

Of Juvenal’s life very little is certainly known. Thirteen lives of him
exist, which are confused and contradictory in detail. From the
evidences of the Satires we learn that he lived from early youth at
Rome, but went for holidays to Aquinum, a town of the Volscians (where
perhaps he was born in the reign of Nero); that he had a small farm at
Tibur, and a house in Rome, where he entertained his friends in a modest
way; that he had been in Egypt; that he wrote Satires late in life; that
he reached his eightieth year, and lived into the reign of Antoninus
Pius. He complains frequently and bitterly of his poverty and of the
hardships of a dependent’s life. In short, the circumstances of his life
were very similar to those of Martial, who speaks of Juvenal as a very
intimate friend.

The famous inscription at Aquinum--which Duff considers does not refer
to the poet but to a wealthy kinsman of his--indicates that he had
served in the army as commander of a Dalmatian cohort, and, as one of
the chief men of the town, was superintendent of the civic worship paid
to Vespasian after his deification.

All the Lives assert that Juvenal was banished to Egypt--Juvenal himself
never alludes to this--for offence given to an actor who was high in
favour with the reigning Emperor (Hadrian according to Prof. Hardy), and
that he died in exile.

2. Works.

+Saturae+, sixteen, grouped in five Books.

Books I-III (Satires 1-9) are sharply divided both in form and substance
from Books IV-V (Satires 10-16), which are not satires at all, but moral
essays, in the form of letters. The first nine satires present a
wonderfully vivid picture of the seamy side of life at Rome at the end
of the first century. We must, however, read side by side with them the
contemporary Letters of Pliny, in which we find ourselves in a different
world from that scourged by the satirist.

‘His chief literary qualities are his power of painting lifelike scenes,
and his command of brilliant epigrammatic phrase.’ --Duff. Nothing, for
instance, could surpass his picture of the fall of Sejanus (Sat. x.
56-97). His power of coining phrases is seen in these _sententiae_:
_nemo repente fuit turpissimus--expende Hannibalem_: _quot libras in
duce summo | invenies_: _maxima debetur puero reverentia_: _mens sana in
corpora sano_--which are familiar proverbs among educated men.

Juvenal tells us that he takes all life, all the world, for his text:

  _Quidquid agunt homines, Votum, Timor, Ira, Voluptas,
  Gaudia, Discursus, nostri est farrago libelli_
      (the motley subject of my page).--_Sat._ i. 85-6.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: LIVY.]

Livy was born at Patavium (_Padua_) between the years 59 and 57 B.C.
Little is known of his life, but his aristocratic sympathies, as seen in
his writings, seem to suggest that he was of good family. Padua was a
populous and busy place, where opportunities for public speaking were
abundant and the public life vigorous; thus Livy was early trained in
eloquence, and lived amid scenes of human activity. About 30 B.C. he
settled at Rome, where his literary talents secured the patronage and
friendship of Augustus. But though a courtier he was no flatterer.
‘Titus Livius,’ says Tacitus (_Ann._ iv. 34), ‘pre-eminently famous for
eloquence and truthfulness, extolled Cn. Pompeius in such a panegyric
that Augustus called him Pompeianus, and yet this was no obstacle to
their friendship.’ He returned to his native town before his death, 17
A.D., at the age of about 75.

2. Works.

+History of Rome+ (_Ab urbe condita Libri_), a comprehensive account in
142 Books of the whole History of Rome from the foundation of the City
to the death of Drusus, 9 A.D. It is probable that he intended to
continue his work in 150 Books, down to the death of Augustus in 14
A.D., the point from which Tacitus starts. The number of Books now
extant is 35, about one fourth of the whole number, but we possess
summaries (_Periochae_ or _Argumenta_) of nearly the whole work. The
division of the History into decades (sets of ten Books), though merely
conventional, is convenient. According to this arrangement the Books now
extant are:

Books I-X, 754-293 B.C., to nearly the close of the Third Samnite War.

Books XXI-XXX, 219-201 B.C., the narrative of the Second Punic War.

Books XXXI-XLV, 201-167 B.C., describe the Wars in Greece and Macedonia,
and end with the triumph of Aemilius Paulus after Pydna, 168 B.C.

3. Style.

His style is characterised by variety, liveliness, and picturesqueness.
‘As a master of style Livy is in the first rank of historians. He marks
the highest point which the enlarged and enriched prose of the Augustan
age reached just before it began to fall into decadence. . . . The
periodic structure of Latin prose, which had been developed by Cicero,
is carried by him to an even greater complexity and used with a greater
daring and freedom. . . . His imagination never fails to kindle at great
actions; it is he, more than any other author, who has impressed the
great soldiers and statesmen of the Republic on the imagination of the
world.’ --Mackail.

4. The Speeches.

‘The spirit in which he writes History is well illustrated by the
Speeches. These, in a way, set the tone of the whole work. He does not
affect in them to reproduce the substance of words actually spoken, or
even to imitate the colour of the time in which the speech is laid. He
uses them rather as a vivid and dramatic method of portraying character
and motive.’ --Mackail. ‘Everything,’ says Quintilian (X. i. 101), ‘is
perfectly adapted both to the circumstances and personages introduced.’

5.  The Purpose of his History.

The first ten books of Livy were being written about the same time as
the _Aeneid_; both Vergil and Livy had the same patriotic purpose, ‘to
celebrate the growth, in accordance with a divine dispensation, of the
Roman Empire and Roman civilisation.’ --Nettleship. Livy, however,
brought into greater prominence the moral causes which contributed to
the growth of the Empire. In his preface to Book I, § 9, he asks his
readers to consider _what have been the life and habits of the Romans,
by aid of what men and by what talents at home and in the field their
Empire has been gained and extended_. Only by virtue and manliness,
justice and piety, was the dominion of the world achieved.

‘In ancient Rome he sees his ideal realised, and _romanus_ hence
signifies in his language all that is noble. He thus involuntarily
appears partial to Rome, and unjust to her enemies, notably to the
Samnites and Hannibal.’ --Teuffel.

‘As the title of _Gesta Populi Romani_ was given to the _Aeneid_ on its
appearance, so the _Historiae ab Urbe Condita_ might be called, with no
less truth, a funeral eulogy--_consummatio totius vitae et quasi
funebris laudatio_ (Sen. _Suas._ VI. 21)--delivered, by the most loving
and most eloquent of her sons, over the grave of the great Republic.’


1. Life.

[Sidenote: LUCAN.]

+Important Events in the Life of Lucan.+

  A.D. 39. Born at Corduba (_Cordova_) on the R. Baetis
   „   40. His father migrates with his family to Rome.
   „ 54-68. Nero Emperor.
   „   55. Lucan under Cornutus, the tutor also of Persius.
   „ 57-9. At the University of Athens.
   „   60. Wins the favour of Nero, who begins to hate Seneca.
   „   61. Lucan quaestor: famous as a reciter and pleader.
   „   62. Disgrace of Seneca. +Pharsalia I.-III.+ published. Death of
   „   63. Marries Polla Argentaria, a marriage of affection.
   „   64. Nero, from jealousy, forbids Lucan to publish poems or to
             recite them.
   „   65. Pisonian conspiracy discovered. Lucan compelled to die.

Lucan was a nephew of M. Annaeus Novatus (the Gallio of Acts xviii.
12-17), and of Seneca, the philosopher and tutor of Nero. ‘Rhetoric and
Stoic dogma were the staple of his mental training. For a much-petted,
quick-witted youth, plunged into such a society as that of Rome in the
first century A.D., hardly any training could be more mischievous.
Puffed up with presumed merits and the applause of the lecture-room and
the _salon_, he became a shallow rhetorician, devoted to phrase-making
and tinsel ornament, and ready to write and declaim on any subject in
verse or prose at the shortest notice.’ --Heitland. Silenced by Nero, in
an enforced retirement--probably in the stately gardens spoken of by
Juvenal vii. 79-80 _contentus fama iaceat Lucanus in hortis
Marmoreis--Lucan may repose in his park adorned with statues and find
fame enough_--he brooded over his wrongs, and despairing of any other
way of restoration to public life, joined the ill-fated conspiracy of

2. Works.

The +Pharsalia+ (or _De Bello Civili_), an epic poem in ten Books, from
the beginning of the Civil War down to the point where Caesar is
besieged in Alexandria, 49-48 B.C. His narrative thus runs parallel to
Caesar’s De _Bello Civili_, but it contains some valuable additional
matter and gives a faithful picture of the feeling general among the
nobility of the day.

3. Style.

‘To Lucan’s rhetorical instincts and training, and the influence of the
recitations which Juvenal _Sat._ iii. tells us were so customary and
such a nuisance in his day, are due the great defects of the
_Pharsalia_. We see the sacrifice of the whole to the parts, neglect of
the matter in an over-studious regard for the manner, a self-conscious
tone appealing rather to an audience than to a reader, venting itself in
apostrophes, digressions, hyperbole (over-drawn description), episodes
and epigrams, an unhappy laboriousness that strains itself to be
first-rate for a moment, but leaves the poem second-rate for ever.’

The general effect of Lucan’s verse is one of steady monotony, due to a
want of variety in the pauses and in the ending of lines, and a too
sparing use of elision, by which Vergil was able to regulate the
movement of lines and make sound and sense agree.

‘In spite of its immaturity and bad taste the poem compels admiration by
its elevation of thought and sustained brilliance of execution; it
contains passages of lofty thought and real beauty, such as the dream of
Pompeius, or the character which Cato gives of Pompeius, and is full of
quotations which have become household words; such as, _In se magna
ruunt--Stat magni nominis umbra--Nil actum reputans si quid superesset
agendum_ (a line which rivals Caesar’s energy).’--Mackail.

The brief and balanced judgment of Quintilian (_Inst. Orat._ X. i. 90)
sums up Lucan in words which suggest at once his chief merits and
defects as a poet: _Lucanus ardens et concitatus et sententiis
clarissimus et magis oratoribus quam poetis imitandus--Lucan has fire
and point, is very famous for his maxims, and indeed is rather a model
for orators than poets_.

GAIUS LUCILIUS, circ. 170-103 B.C.

1.  Life.

[Sidenote: LUCILIUS.]

Lucilius was born in the Latin town of Suessa of the Aurunci, in
Campania, of a well-to-do equestrian family. Velleius tells us that the
sister of Lucilius was grandmother to Pompeius, and that Lucilius served
in the cavalry under Scipio in the Numantine war, 134 B.C. Lucilius
lived on very intimate terms with Scipio Africanus Minor and Laelius,
and died at Naples (103 B.C.), where he was honoured with a public

2. Works.

+Saturae+ in thirty Books, in various metres. Fragments only are extant.

‘After Terence he is the most distinguished and the most important in
his literary influence among the friends of Scipio. The form of
literature which he invented and popularised, that of familiar poetry,
was one which proved singularly suited to the Latin genius. He speaks of
his own works under the name of _Sermones_ (talks)--a name which was
retained by his great successor and imitator Horace; but the peculiar
combination of metrical form with wide range of subject and the
pedestrian style of ordinary prose received in popular usage the name
_Satura_ (mixture).’--Mackail.

_Satura quidem tota nostra est, in qua primus insignem laudem adeptus
Lucilius._ --Quint. X. i. 93.

‘The chief social vices which Lucilius attacks are those which reappear
in the pages of the later satirists. They are the two extremes to which
the Roman temperament was most prone: rapacity and meanness in gaining
money, vulgar ostentation and coarse sensuality in using it.’ --Sellar.

Juvenal says of him (_Sat._ i. 165-7):

‘When old Lucilius seems to draw his sword and growls in burning ire,
the hearer blushes for shame, his conscience is chilled for his
offences, and his heart faints for secret sins.’

T. LUCRETIUS CARUS, circ. 99-55 B.C.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: LUCRETIUS.]

Very little is known of his life. The subiect of his poem prevented him
from telling his own history as Catullus, Horace, and Ovid have done,
and his contemporaries seldom refer to him. The name Lucretius suggests
that he was descended from one of the most ancient patrician houses of
Rome, famous in the early annals of the Republic. He was evidently a man
of wealth and position, but he deliberately chose the life of
contemplation, and lived apart from the ambitions and follies of his
day. Donatus, in his life of Vergil, tells us that Lucretius died on the
day on which Vergil assumed the _toga virilis_, Oct. 15, 55 B.C.

2. Works.

The +De Rerum Natura+, a didactic poem in hexameter verse in six Books.
The poem was left unfinished at his death, and Munro supports the
tradition that Cicero both corrected it and superintended its
publication. The object of the poem is to deliver men from the fear of
death and the terrors of superstition by the new knowledge of Nature:

  _Hunc igitur terrorem animi tenebrasque necessest
  Non radii solis neque lucida tela diei
  Discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque._

_This terror of the soul, therefore, and this darkness must be
dispelled, not by the rays of the sun or the bright shafts of day, but
by the outward aspect and harmonious plan of nature._ --S.

The source of these terrors is traced to the general ignorance of
certain facts in Nature--ignorance, namely, of the constitution and
condition of our minds and bodies, of the means by which the world came
into existence and is still maintained, and, lastly, of the causes of
many natural phenomena. Thus:

Books I and II uphold the principles of the Atomic Theory as held by
Epicurus (_fl._ 300 B.C.).

Book I states that the world consists of atoms and void. At line 694 is
stated the important doctrine that the evidence of the senses alone is
to be believed--_sensus, unde omnia credita pendent, the senses on which
rests all our belief_.

Book II treats of the _motions_ of atoms, including the curious doctrine
of the _swerve_, which enables them to combine and makes freedom of will
possible: then of their _shapes_ and _arrangement_.

Book III shows the nature of mind (_animus_) and life (_anima_) to be
material and therefore mortal. Therefore death is nothing to us:

  _Nil igitur mors est ad nos neque pertinet hilum,
  Quandoquidem natura animi mortalis habetur.
  Death therefore to us is nothing, concerns us not a jot,
  Since the nature of the mind is proved to be mortal._ --(M.)

Book IV gives Lucretius’ theory of vision and the nature of dreams and

Book V explains the origin of the heavens, of the earth, of vegetable
and animal life upon it, and the advance of human nature from a savage
state to the arts and usages of civilisation.

Book VI describes and accounts for certain natural
phenomena--thunderstorms, tempests, volcanoes, earthquakes, and the
like. It concludes with a theory of disease, illustrated by a fine
description of the plague at Athens.

Professor Tyrrell says: ‘It is interesting to point to places in which
Lucretius or his predecessors had really anticipated modern scientific
research. Thus Lucretius recognises that in a vacuum every body, no
matter what its weight, falls with equal swiftness; the circulation of
the sap in the vegetable world is known to him, and he describes falling
stars, aerolites, etc., as the unused material of the universe.’ The
great truth that matter is not destroyed but only changes its form is
very clearly stated by Lucretius, and his account (Book V) of the
beginnings of life upon the earth, the evolution of man, and the
progress of human society is interesting and valuable.

3. Style.

‘Notwithstanding the antique tinge (e.g. his use of archaism, assonance,
and alliteration) which for poetical ends he has given to his poem, the
best judges have always looked upon it as one of the purest models of
the Latin idiom in the age of its greatest perfection.’ --Munro.

‘The language of Lucretius, so bold, so genial, so powerful, and in its
way so perfect.’ --Nettleship.

  _Carmina sublimis tunc sunt peritura Lucreti,
    Exitio terras cum dabit una dies._ --Ovid. _Am._ I. xv. 23.

  ‘But till this cosmic order everywhere
    Shattered into one earthquake in one day
    Cracks all to pieces ... till that hour
    My golden work shall stand.’ --Tennyson, _Lucretius_.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: MANILIUS.]

Nothing is known of his life. That he was not of Roman birth (perhaps a
native of N. Africa) is probable from the foreign colouring of his
language at the outset, which in the later books becomes more smooth and
fluent from increased practice.

2. Works.

The +Astronomica+ in five Books of hexameter verse. The poem should
rather be called Astrology, as Astronomy is treated only in Book I. He
is proud of being the first writer on this subject in Latin literature.
A close study of Lucretius is obvious from several passages: he often
imitates Vergil, and in the legends (e.g. of Perseus and Andromeda)

3. Style.

He is not a great poet; but he is a writer of real power both in thought
and style. In his introductions to each Book, and in his digressions, he
shows sincere feeling and poetical ability.

M. VALERIUS MARTIALIS, circ. 40-102 A.D.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: MARTIAL.]

He was born at Bilbilis in Hispania Tarraconensis (E. Spain), a town
situated on a rocky height overlooking the R. Salo:

  _Municipes, Augusta mihi quos Bilbilis acri
    Monte creat, rapidis quem Salo cingit aquis._

  X. ciii. 1-2.

His father gave him a good education, and at the age of twenty-three (63
A.D.) he went to Rome. After living there for thirty-five years,
patronised by Titus and Vespasian, he returned to Bilbilis soon after
the accession of Trajan (98 A.D.), where he died _circ._ 102 A.D.

At Rome he for a time found powerful friends in his great countrymen of
the house of Seneca (Lucan and Seneca were then at the height of their
fame), and from 79 to 96 (_temp._ Trajan and Domitian) he received the
patronage of the Court, and numbered among his friends Pliny the
Younger, Quintilian, Juvenal, Valerius Flaccus, and Silius Italicus. His
complaints of his poverty are incessant. It is true that he lived
throughout the life of a dependent, but it is probable that Martial was
a poor man who contrived to get through a good deal of money, and who
mistook for poverty a capacity for spending more than he could get.

2. Works.

+Epigrammata+ in fourteen Books (Books XIII and XIV, _Xenia_ and
_Apophoreta_, are two collections of inscriptions for presents at the
Saturnalia); also a +Liber Spectaculorum+ on the opening of the grand
Flavian amphitheatre (the Coliseum) begun by Vespasian and completed by

3. Style.

‘Martial did not create the epigram. What he did was to differentiate
the epigram and elaborate it. Adhering always to what he considered the
true type of the literary epigram, consisting of i. the _preface_, or
description of the occasion of the epigram, rousing the curiosity to
know what the poet has to say about it; and, ii. the explanation or
commentary of the poet, commonly called the _point_--he employed his
vast resources of satire, wit, observation, fancy, and pathos to produce
the greatest number of varieties of epigram that the type admits
of. . . . What Martial really stands convicted of on his own showing is
of laughing at that which ought to have roused in him shame and
indignation, and of making literary capital out of other men’s vices.’
--Stephenson. Among his good points are his candour, his love of nature,
and the loyalty of his friendships.

Pliny says of him: _Audio Valerium Martialem decessisse et moleste fero.
Erat homo ingeniosus, acutus, acer, et qui plurimum in scribendo et
sltis haberet et fellis, nec candoris minus--I hear with regret that V.
Martial is dead. He was a man of talent, acuteness, and spirit: with
plenty of wit and gall, and as sincere as he was witty._ --Pliny, _Ep._
iii. 21.

‘The greatest epigrammatist of the world, and one of its most
disagreeable literary characters.’ --Merrill.

CORNELIUS NEPOS, circ. 100-24 B.C.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: NEPOS.]

Nepos was probably born at Ticinium on the R. Padus. He inherited an
ample fortune, and was thereby enabled to keep aloof from public life
and to devote himself to literature and to writing works of an
historical nature. In earlier life he was one of the circle of Catullus,
who dedicated a collection of poems to him (Catull. _C._ i.): ‘To whom
am I to give my dainty, new-born little volume? To you, Cornelius.’ He
was also a friend and contemporary of Cicero, and after Cicero’s death
(43 B.C.) was one of the chief friends of Atticus.

2. Works.

Of his numerous writings on history, chronology, and grammar we possess
only a fragment of his +De Viris Illustribus+ (originally in sixteen
Books), a collection of Roman and foreign biographies. Of this work
there is extant one complete section, +De Excellentibus Ducibus
Exterarum Gentium+, and two lives, those of Atticus and Cato the
Younger, from his +De Historicis Latinis+.

3. Style.

Nepos is a most untrustworthy historian, and his work possesses little
independent value. But his style is clear, elegant, and lively, and he
did much to make Greek learning popular among his fellow-citizens.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: OVID.]

Ovid’s own writings (espec. _Tr._ IV. x.) supply nearly all the
information we possess regarding his life. He was born at Sulmo, a town
in the cold, moist hills of the Peligni, one of the Sabine clans,
situated near Corfinium, and about ninety miles E. of Rome. He was of an
ancient equestrian family, and together with his elder brother received
a careful education at Rome, and studied also at Athens. He was trained
for the Bar, but in spite of his father’s remonstrances preferred poetry
to public life. ‘An easy fortune, a brilliant wit, an inexhaustible
memory, and an unfailing social tact soon made him a prominent figure in
society; and his genuine love of literature and admiration for genius
made him the friend of the whole contemporary world of letters.’
--Mackail. Up to his fiftieth year fortune smiled steadily upon Ovid:
his works were universally popular, and he enjoyed the favour and
patronage of the Emperor himself. But towards the end of 8 A.D. an
imperial edict ordered him to leave Rome on a named day and take up his
residence at the small barbarous town of Tomi, on the Black Sea, at the
extreme outposts of civilisation. Augustus proved deaf to all entreaties
to recall him, Tiberius remained alike inexorable, and Ovid died of a
broken heart at the ago of sixty, in the tenth year of his banishment.

2. Works.

(1) +Amores+, in three Books, poems in elegiac verse, nearly all on
Corinna, who was probably no real person, but only a name around which
Ovid grouped his own fancies, and wrote as the poet of a fashionable,
pleasure-loving society. The _Mors Psittaci_ is pleasing and the _Mors
Tibulli_ is a noble tribute to a brother poet.

(2) +Heroides+, twenty letters in elegiac verse, feigned to have been
written by ladies or chiefs of the heroic age to the absent objects of
their love (15-20 are in pairs, e.g. Paris to Helen and Helen to Paris,
and are probably spurious). ‘The Letters 1-14 are thoroughly modern:
they express the feelings and speak the language of refined women in a
refined age, and all exhibit an artificiality both in the substance and
the manner of their pleading.’ --Sellar.

(3) +Ars Amatoria+, in elegiac verse in three Books. This is an ironical
form of didactic poetry in which Ovid teaches the art of lying quite as
much as the art of loving.

(4) +Remedia Amoris+, in elegiac verse, while professing to be a
recantation of the _Ars Amatoria_, shows, if possible, a worse taste.

(5) +Metamorphoses+, in hexameter verse in fifteen Books, containing
versions of legends on transformations (_mutatae formae_) from Chaos
down to Caesar’s transformation into a star. In some respects this is
his greatest poem: Ovid himself makes for it as strong a claim to
immortality as Horace does for his Odes:

  _Quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris,
  Ore legar populi perque omnia saecula fama,
  Siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam._

        _Met._ XV. 877-end.

‘The attractiveness of this work lies in its descriptions; but the
attempt to divest it of the character of a dictionary of mythology by
interweaving stories, after the fashion of the _Arabian Nights_, is only
partially successful.’ --Tyrrell.

(6) +Fasti+, in elegiac verse in six Books, a poetical calendar of the
Roman year. Each month has a Book allotted to it, and Ovid probably
sketched out Books vii-xii, but his exile made it impossible for him to
complete the work. It contains much valuable information on Roman
customs and some exquisitely told stories (_e.g._ the Rape of
Proserpine), but leaves the impression of being an effort to produce on
the reader the effect of a patriotism which the writer did not feel.

(7) +Poems Written in Exile.+

  (i) +Tristia+, in elegiac verse in five Books: letters to Augustus,
  to Ovid’s wife (for whom he had a deep affection) and to friends,
  praying for pardon or for a place of exile nearer Rome.

  (ii) +Epistulae ex Ponto+: similar to the _Tristia_.

‘These poems are a melancholy record of flagging vitality and failing
powers.’ --Mackail.

3. Style.

The real importance of Ovid in literature and his gift to posterity lay
in the new and vivid life which he imparted to the fables of Greek
mythology. ‘No other classical poet has furnished more ideas than Ovid
to the Italian poets and painters of the Renaissance, and to our own
poets--from Chaucer to Pope, who, like Ovid,

  ‘“Lisped in numbers, for the numbers came.”’


1. Life.

[Sidenote: PERSIUS.]

He was born at Volaterrae in Etruria, and was the son of a Roman knight
of wealth and rank. At twelve years of age Persius was removed to Rome,
where he placed himself under the guidance of the Stoic Cornutus, who
remained his close friend to the end of his short life. Persius
(_Sat._ v.) touchingly describes his residence with Cornutus, and the
influence of this beloved teacher in moulding his character:

  _Pars tua sit, Cornute, animae, tibi, dulcis amice,
  Ostendisse iuvat:_

‘_My delight is to show you, Cornutus, how large a share of my inmost
being is yours, my beloved friend._’--C.

He was nearly related to Arria, daughter of that ‘true wife’ who taught
her husband Paetus how to die (Mart. I. xiii.; Pliny _Epist._ i. 16). In
the consistent life of Thrasea (the husband of Arria), who was a Cato in
justice and more than a Cato in goodness, Persius had a noble example to
follow. So during the short span of his life the poet lived and worked,
a man of maidenly modesty, an excellent son, brother, and nephew, of
frugal and moderate habits.

2. Works.

+Saturae+, six Satires in hexameter verse. The first, devoted to an
attack upon the literary style of the day, is the only real Satire: the
other five are declamations or dogmas of the Stoic system (e.g. Sat.
ii., on right and wrong prayers to the gods), interspersed with dramatic
scenes. It was to Lucilius that Persius owed the impulse that made him a
writer of Satire, but his obligations to Horace are paramount. ‘He was
what would be called a plagiarist, but probably no writer ever borrowed
so much and yet left on the mind so decided an impression of
originality. Where he draws from his own experience, his portraits have
an imaginative truth, minutely accurate yet highly ideal, which would
entitle them to a distinguished place in any portrait gallery.’

3. Style.

‘The involved and obscure style of much of his work is the style which
his taste leads him to assume for satiric purposes. He feels that a
clear, straightforward, everyday manner of speech would not suit a
subject over which the gods themselves might hesitate whether to laugh
or weep. As the poet of Stoicism, using the very words of Vergil, he
calls upon a benighted race to acquaint itself with the _causes_ of
things: to an inquiry into the purpose of man’s being, the art of
skilful driving in the chariot-race of life, and the ordained position
of each individual in the social system.’ --Nettleship.

‘Persius is the sole instance among Roman writers of a philosopher whose
life was in accordance with the doctrines he professed.’ --Cruttwell.

_Multum et verae gloriae quamvis uno libro Persius meruit._ --Quint.
_Inst. Orat._ X. i. 94.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: PETRONIUS.]

He is probably the Petronius of whose life and character Tacitus has
given us a brilliant sketch in the _Annals_, xvi. 18. 19. ‘His days were
passed,’ says Tacitus, ‘in sleep, his nights in the duties or pleasures
of life: where others toiled for fame he had lounged into it. Yet, as
governor of Bithynia, and afterwards as consul, he showed himself a
vigorous and capable administrator; then relapsing into the habit or
assuming the mask of vice, he was adopted as +Elegantiae Arbiter+ (_the
authority on taste_) into the small circle of Nero’s intimate
companions. No luxury was charming or refined till Petronius had given
it his approval, and the jealousy of Tigellinus was roused against a
rival and master in the science of pleasure.’ Petronius anticipated his
inevitable fate by committing suicide.

2. Works.

+Satirae+ (or +Satiricon+), a character-novel, often called, from its
central and most entertaining incident, _The Supper of Trimalchio_.
‘This is the description of a Christmas dinner-party given by a sort of
Golden Dustman and his wife, people of low birth and little education,
who had come into an enormous fortune. The dinner itself, and the
conversation on literature and art that goes on at the dinner-table, are
conceived in a spirit of the wildest humour.’ --Mackail.

The chief interest of the _Satiricon_ for us is the glimpse which it
affords of everyday manners and conversation under the Empire among all
orders of society, from the highest to the lowest.

PHAEDRUS (_temp._ Augustus to Nero).

1. Life.

[Sidenote: PHAEDRUS.]

The Latin Fabulist, of whom we know nothing except what may be gathered
or inferred from his fables. He was originally a slave, and was born in
Thrace, possibly in the district of Pieria. He was brought to Rome at an
early age, and there became acquainted with Roman literature. His patron
appears to have been Augustus, who gave him his freedom. After
publishing two books of fables he incurred the resentment of Augustus
and was imprisoned. This was due probably to the bold outspokenness of
many of his fables. He survived the attacks made on him, and Book V was
written in his old age.

2. Works.

+Fables+, in five Books, written in _iambic senarii_, like those of
Terence and Publius Syrus. The full title of his work is _Phaedri
Augusti liberti fabularum Aesopiarum libri_. ‘Phaedrus constantly plumes
himself on his superiority to his model Aesop, but his animals have not
the lifelike reality of those of the latter. With Phaedrus the animals
are mere lay-figures: the moral comes first, and then he attaches an
animal to it.’ --Tyrrell.

‘The chief interest of the Fables lies in the fact that they form the
last survival of the _urbanus sermo_ (the speech of Terence) in Latin
poetry.’ --Mackail.

‘Phaedrus is the only important writer during the half-century of
literary darkness between the Golden and the Silver Age.’ --Tyrrell.

T. MACCIUS PLAUTUS, circ. 254-184 B.C.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: PLAUTUS.]

Plautus was born in the little Umbrian town of Sarsina, of free but poor
parents. He came to Rome and made a small fortune as a stage-carpenter,
but lost it by rash investment. He was then reduced to working for some
years in a corn-mill, during which time he wrote plays, and continued to
do so until his death.

2. Works.

+Comedies.+ About 130 plays were current under the name of Plautus, but
only 21 (_Fabulae Varronianae_) were, as Varro tells us, universally
admitted to be genuine. Of these, all except one are extant.

Though his comedies are mainly free versions of Greek originals--of
Philemon, Diphilus and Menander, the writers of the New Comedy 320-250
B.C.--the characters in them act, speak, and joke like genuine Romans,
and he thereby secured the sympatliy of his audience more completely
than Terence could ever have done.

‘In point of language his plays form one of the most important documents
for the history of the Latin language. In the freedom with which he
uses, without vulgarising, popular modes of speech, he has no equal
among Latin writers.’ --Sellar.

For Horace’s unfavourable judgment of Plautus see _Epist._ I. i.
170-176, and A. P. 270-272; Cicero’s criticism is more just: _Duplex
omnino est iocandi genus: unum illiberale petulans flagitiosum obscenum
(vulgar, spiteful, shameful, coarse), alterum elegans urbanum ingeniosum
facetum (in good taste, gracious, clever, witty). Quo genere non modo
Plautus noster et Atticorum antiqua comoedia_ (i.e. of Aristophanes),
_sed etiam philosophorum Socraticorum libri referti sunt_. --_De Off._
I. civ.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: PLINY THE ELDER.]

Born at Comum (_Como_) in the middle of the reign of Tiberius, Pliny
passed his life in high public employments, both military and civil,
which took him successively over nearly all the provinces of the Empire.
He had always felt a strong interest in science, and he used his
military position to secure information that otherwise might have been
hard to obtain. Vespasian (70-78 A.D.), with whom he was on terms of
close intimacy, made him admiral of the fleet stationed at Misenum. It
was while here that news was brought him of the memorable eruption of
Vesuvius in 79 A.D. ‘In his zeal for scientific investigation he set
sail for the spot in a man-of-war, and lingering too near the zone of
the eruption was suffocated by the rain of hot ashes. The account of his
death, given by his nephew, Pliny the Younger, in a letter to the
historian Tacitus (_Ep._ vi. 16), is one of the best known passages in
the classics.’ --Mackail.

2. Works.

A +Natural History+, in thirty-seven Books, is Pliny’s only extant work.
(For his numerous other writings see Pliny the Younger, _Ep._ iii. 5.)
‘It is a priceless storehouse of information on every branch of natural
science as known to the ancient world.’ --Mackail.

His work has been called the first popular encyclopedia of natural

_Plinius Aetatis Suae Doctissimus._ --Gellius.


1. Life.


Pliny the Younger was the son of C. Caecilius and of Plinia, the sister
of the elder Pliny. He was born at Comum (_Como_), also the birthplace
of his celebrated uncle. His father died when he was eight years old,
and he was placed under the care of a guardian, Verginius Rufus, one of
the most distinguished Romans of the day, since he had held the crown
within his grasp and had declined to wear it, 68 A.D. Verginius was not
much of a student, but Pliny learned from him high ideals of duty and
noble thoughts about the Rome of earlier days, and never lost his
unbounded admiration and respect for his guardian (_Ep._ ii. 1). Under
his uncle’s watchful care he received the best education Rome could
give, and studied rhetoric under the great Quintilian. His bachelor
uncle on his death in 79 left him his heir, adopting him in his will.
Gifted with wealth, enthusiasm, taste for publicity, and a wide circle
of influential friends, Pliny could not be content with the career of a
simple _eques_. Accordingly he began the course of office that led to
the Senate and the Consulship, and finally in 111 A.D. was appointed by
Trajan governor of Bithynia, where he discharged his duties with skill
and ability. His service seems to have been terminated only with his

2. Works.

+Epistulae+, Letters in nine Books, to which is added Pliny’s
correspondence with Trajan during his governorship of Bithynia. These
and his +Panegyricus+, in praise of Trajan, are his only extant works.

It is on his Letters that Pliny’s fame now rests, and both in tone and
style they are a monument that does him honour. In many cases they were
written for publication, and thus can never have the unique and
surpassing interest that belongs to those of Cicero, but they give a
varied and interesting picture of the time. ‘In the Letters the
character of the writer, its virtues and its weakness, is throughout
unmistakeable. Pliny, the patriotic citizen,--Pliny, the munificent
patron,--Pliny, the eminent man of letters,--Pliny, the affectionate
husband and humane master,--Pliny, the man of principle, is in his
various phases the real subject of the whole collection.’ --Mackail.

‘Pliny is an almost perfect type of a refined pagan gentleman.’


1. Life.

[Sidenote: PROPERTIUS.]

Of his life little or nothing is known, except what is recorded by
himself. He was an Umbrian by birth, and probably a native of Asisium
(_Assisi_), a town on the W. slope of the Apennines, not far from
Perusia. Like Vergil and Tibullus, he lost his family property in the
confiscation of lands by the Triumvirs in 42 B.C.; but his mother’s
efforts secured for him a good education, to complete which she brought
him to Rome. He entered on a course of training for the Bar, but
abandoned it in favour of poetry (IV. i. 131-4).

  _Mox ubi bulla rudi dimissa est aurea collo,
    Matris et ante deos libera sumpta toga,
  Tum tibi pauca suo de carmine dictat Apollo
    Et vetat insano verba tonare foro._

His earliest poems (Book I, _Cynthia_), published at the age of about
twenty, brought him into notice and gained him admission to the literary
circle of Maecenas. He lived in close intimacy with Vergil, Ovid, and
most of his other literary contemporaries, with the remarkable exception
of Horace, to whom the sensitive vanity and passionate manner of the
young elegiac poet were alike distasteful. He died young, before he was
thirty-five, about 15 B.C.

2. Works.

+Elegies+, in four Books. (Some editors divide Book II into two Books,
El. 1-9 Book II, and El. 10-34 Book III, so that III and IV of the MSS.
and of Postgate become IV and V.)

Books I and II are nearly all poems on Cynthia.

Book III contains, besides poems on Cynthia, themes dealing with
friendship (El. 7. 12. 22) and events of national interest (El. 4. 11.
18). The poet struggles to emancipate himself from the thraldom of
Cynthia and to accomplish work more worthy of his genius.

Book IV contains poems on Roman antiquities (El. 2. 4. 9. 10), written
at the suggestion of Maecenas, the paean on the great victory at Actium
(El. 6), and the noblest of his elegiacs, the Elegy on Cornelia
(El. 11).

3. Style.

The aim of Propertius was to be the Roman Callimachus: +Umbria Romani
patria Callimachi+ (IV. i. 64).

The flexibility and elasticity of rhythm of the finest Greek elegiacs he
made his own. The pentameter, instead of being a weaker echo of the
hexameter, is the stronger line of the two, and has a weightier
movement. In Book I he ends the pentameter freely with words of three,
four, and five syllables, and we find long continuous passages in which
there is scarcely any pause: e.g. in I. xx. 33-37:

  _Hic erat Arganthi Pege sub vertice montis
    Grata domus Nymphis umida Thyniasin,
  Quam supra nullae pendebant debita curae
    Roscida desertis poma sub arboribus,
  Et circum irriguo surgebant lilia prato
    Candida purpureis mixta papaveribus._

‘In some respects both Tibullus and Ovid may claim the advantage over
Propertius: Tibullus for refined simplicity, for natural grace and
exquisiteness of touch; Ovid for the technical merits of execution, for
transparency of construction, for smoothness and polish of expression.
But in all the higher qualities of a poet Propertius is as much their
superior.’ --Postgate.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: PRUDENTIUS.]

Prudentius (as he tells us in the brief metrical autobiography prefixed
to his poems) was born in the N. of Spain, and, like so many of the
Roman poets, began his public life as an advocate. He was afterwards
appointed by Theodosius (379-395 A.D.) judge over a district in Spain.
His active and successful discharge of this office induced Theodosius
(or Honorius, 395-423 A.D.) to promote him to some post of honour about
the Emperor’s person. His later years he devoted to the composition of
sacred poetry, and published his collected works 405 A.D., after which
date we know no more of his history.

2. Works.

His best known works are his +Cathemerina+, a series of poems on the
Christian’s day and life, of which the most graceful and pathetic is the
_Funeral Hymn_, e.g.

    _Iam maesta quiesce querella,
  Lacrimas suspendite matres,
  Nullus sua pignora plangat,
  Mors haec reparatio vitae est_,

and his +Peristephanon+ (περὶ στεφάνων _liber_) in praise of
Christian martyrs. ‘These represent the most substantial addition
to Latin lyrical poetry since Horace.’ --Mackail. We also have his
+Contra Symmachum+ in two Books of indifferent hexameter verse, in
which he combats Symmachus (Consul 391 A.D.), the last champion of
the old faith, and claims the victories of the Christian Stilicho as
triumphs alike of Rome and of the Cross.

‘Prudentius has his distinct place and office in the field of Latin
literature, as the chief author who bridged the gulf between pagan
poetry and Christian hymnology.’ --North Pinder.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: QUINTILIAN.]

Quintilian is the last and perhaps the most distinguished of that school
of Spanish writers (Martial, the two Senecas, and Lucan) which played so
important a part in the literary history of the first century. Born at
Calagurris, a small town on the Upper Ebro, he was educated at Rome, and
afterwards returned to his native town as a teacher of rhetoric. There
he made the acquaintance of the proconsul Galba (68-9), and was brought
back by him to Rome in 68 A.D., where for twenty years he enjoyed the
highest reputation as a teacher of eloquence. Among his pupils were
numbered Pliny the Younger and the two sons of Flavius Clemens,
grand-nephews of Domitian, destined for his successors. In 79 A.D. he
was appointed by Vespasian professor of rhetoric, the first teacher who
received a regular salary from the imperial exchequer. Domitian (81-96
A.D.) conferred upon him an honorary consulship, and the last ten years
of his life were spent in an honoured retirement, which he devoted to
recording for the benefit of posterity his unrivalled experience as a
teacher of rhetoric.

2. Works.

+Institutio Oratoria+, the _Training of an Orator_, in twelve Books.
This great work sums up the teaching and criticism of his life, and
gives us the complete training of an orator, starting with him in
childhood and leading him on to perfection.


Book I gives a sketch of the elementary training of the child from the
time he leaves the nursery. Quintilian rightly attaches the greatest
importance to early impressions.

Book II deals with the general principles and scope of the art of
oratory, and continues the discussion of the aims and methods of
education in its later stages.

Books III-VII are occupied with an exhaustive treatment of the _matter_
of oratory, and are highly technical. ‘Now that the formal study of the
art of rhetoric has ceased to be a part of the higher education these
Books have lost their general interest.’ --Mackail.

Books VIII-XI treat of the _manner_ (style) of oratory. In Book X, cap.
i, in the course of an enumeration of the Greek and Latin authors likely
to be most useful to an orator, Quintilian gives us a masterly sketch of
Latin literature, ‘in language so careful and so choice that many of his
brief phrases have remained the final words on the authors, both in
prose and verse, whom he mentions in his rapid survey.’ --Mackail.

Book XII treats of the moral qualifications of a great speaker. The good
orator must be a good man.

‘Quintilian with admirable clearness insists on the great truth that bad
education is responsible for bad life, and expresses with equal
plainness the complementary truth that education, from the cradle
upwards, is something which acts on the whole intellectual and moral
nature, and that its object is the production of the _good man_.’

3. Style.

The style of Quintilian is modelled on that of Cicero, whom he is never
tired of praising, and is intended to be a return to the usages of the
best period. In spite of some faults characteristic of the Silver Age
(e.g. his excessive use of antithesis) ‘for ordinary use it would be
difficult to name a manner that combines so well the Ciceronian dignity
with the rich colour and high finish added to Latin prose by the writers
of the earlier empire.’ --Mackail.

For the death of his son, aged ten, a boy of great promise, for whose
instruction he wrote the work, see Preface to Book VI.

  _Quintiliane, vagae moderator summe iuventae,
  Gloria Romanae, Quintiliane, togae._

Mart. II. xc. 1-2.

  _Nihil in studiis parvum est._
  _Cito scribendo non fit ut bene scribatur,
    bene scribendo fit ut cito._



1. Life.

[Sidenote: SALLUST.]

A member of a plebeian family, Sallust was born 86 B.C. at Amiternum, in
the country of the Sabines. As tribune of the people in 52 B.C. he took
an active part in opposing Milo (Cicero’s client) and the Pompeian party
in general. In 48 B.C. he commanded a legion in Illyria without
distinction, and next year Caesar sent him to treat with the mutinous
legions in Campania, where he narrowly escaped assassination. He
afterwards followed Caesar to Africa, and apparently did good service
there, for he was appointed in 46 the first governor of the newly formed
province of Numidia. In 45 he returned to Rome a very rich man, and
built himself a magnificent palace, surrounded by pleasure grounds (the
famous Gardens of Sallust, in the valley between the Quirinal and the
Pincius), which in after years emperors preferred to the palace of the
Caesars. After Caesar’s death Sallust retired from public life, and it
is to the leisure and study of these ten years that we owe the works
that have made him famous.

2. Works.

(1) +De Catilinae Coniuratione+ (or _Bellum Catilinae_), a monograph on
the famous conspiracy, in which Sallust writes very largely from direct
personal knowledge of men and events.

(2) +Bellum Iugurthinum+ (111-106 B.C.) The writing of this monograph
involved wide inquiry and much preparation.

(3) +Historiae+, in five books, dealing with the events from 78 B.C.
(death of Sulla) to 67 B.C., of which only a few fragments are extant.

3.  Style.

‘Sallust aimed at making historical writing a branch of literature. He
felt that nothing had yet been done by any Roman writer which would
stand beside Thucydides. It was his ambition to supply the want. That
could only be done by offering as complete a contrast to the tedious
annalist as possible, and Sallust neglected no means of giving variety
to his work. From Thucydides he probably borrowed the idea of his
introductions, the imaginary speeches and the character portraits; from
Cato the picturesque descriptions of the scenes of historical events and
the ethnographical digressions.’ --Cook.

‘The style of Sallust is characterised by the use of old words and forms
(especially in the speeches). He makes use of alliteration, extensively
employs the Historic Infinitive, and shows a partiality for
conversational expressions which from a literary point of view are
archaic. His abrupt unperiodic style of writing (rough periods without
particles of connexion) has won for Sallust his reputation for brevity.
His style is, however, the expression of the writer’s character, direct,
incisive, emphatic, and outspoken; to have been a model for Tacitus is
no slight merit.’ --Cook.

  _Nec minus noto Sallustius epigrammate incessitur:_
          ‘Et verba antiqui multum furate Catonis,
             Crispe, Iugurthinae conditor historiae.’

  Quint. VIII. iii. 29.

‘The last of the Ciceronians, Sallust is also in a sense the first of
the imperial prose-writers.’ --Mackail.

_Primus Romana Crispus in Historia_ (Mart. XIV. cxci.)


1. Life.

[Sidenote: SENECA.]

The son of Seneca the Elder, the famous rhetorician, was born at Corduba
(_Cordova_), in Spain, and brought to Rome by his parents at an early
age. His life was one of singularly dramatic contrasts and vicissitudes.
Under his mother Helvia’s watchful care he received the best education
Rome could give. Through the influence of his mother’s family he passed
into the Senate through the quaestorship, and his successes at the bar
awakened the jealousy of Caligula (37-41 A.D.) By his father’s advice he
retired for a time and spent his days in philosophy. On the accession of
Claudius (41-54 A.D.) he was banished to Corsica at the instance of the
Empress Messalina, probably because he was suspected of belonging to the
faction of Agrippina, the mother of Nero. After eight years he was
recalled (49 A.D.) by the influence of Agrippina (now the wife of
Claudius), and appointed tutor to her son Nero, then a boy of ten. When
Nero became emperor, at the age of seventeen (54 A.D.), Seneca, in
conjunction with his friend Burrus, the prefect of the praetorian
guards, became practically the administrator of the Empire. ‘The mild
and enlightened administration of the earlier years of the new reign,
the famous _quinquennium Neronis_, may indeed be largely ascribed to
Seneca’s influence; but this influence was based on an excessive
indulgence of Nero’s caprices, which soon worked out its own
punishment.’ --Mackail. His connivance at the murder of Agrippina (59
A.D.) was the death-blow to his influence for good, and the death of
Burrus (63 A.D.) was, as Tacitus says (_Ann._ xiv. 52), ‘a blow to
Seneca’s power, for virtue had not the same strength when one of its
champions, so to speak, was removed, and Nero began to lean on worse
advisers.’ Seneca resolved to retire, and entreated Nero to receive back
the wealth he had so lavishly bestowed. The Emperor, bent on vengeance,
refused the proffered gift, and Seneca knew that his doom was sealed. In
the year 65, on the pretext of complicity in the conspiracy of Piso, he
was commanded to commit suicide, and Tacitus (_Ann._ xv. 61-63) has
shown his love for Seneca, in spite of all his faults, by the tribute he
pays to the constancy of his death.

2. Works.

His chief works are:--

(1) +Dialogorum Libri XII+, of which the most important are the +De Ira+
and the +Consolatio+ to his mother Helvia, whom he tenderly loved.

(2) +De Clementia+, in three Books, addressed to Nero, written in 55-6
A.D., to show the public what sort of instruction Seneca had given his
pupil, and what sort of Emperor they had to expect.

(3) +De Beneficiis+, in seven Books. Seneca proves that a tyrant’s
benefits are not kindnesses, and sets forth his views on the giving and
receiving of benefits.

(4) +Epistulae morales ad Lucilium.+ 124 letters are extant, and form
the most important and most pleasing of his works.

(5) +Tragedies.+ Nine are extant, derived from plays by Sophocles and
Euripides. The only extant Latin tragedies.

‘As a moral writer Seneca stands deservedly high. Though infected with
the rhetorical vices of the age his treatises are full of striking and
often gorgeous eloquence, and in their combination of high thought with
deep feeling have rarely, if at all, been surpassed.’ --Mackail.

‘Seneca is a lamentable instance of variance between precept and
example.’ --Cruttwell.

SILIUS ITALICUS, circ. 25-100 A.D.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: SILIUS.]

A letter of Pliny (iii. 7) is the chief source of our knowledge of the
life of Silius. Pliny tells us that Silius had risen by acting as a
_delator_ (informer) under Nero, who made him consul 68 A.D. He goes on
to say ‘He had gained much credit by his proconsulship in Asia (under
Vespasian, _circ._ 77 A.D.), and had since by an honourable leisure
wiped out the blot which stained the activity of his former years.’
Martial also, who has the effrontery to speak of him as a combined
Vergil and Cicero, tells us of his luxurious and learned retirement in
Campania, and of his reverence for his master Vergil, ‘whose birthday he
kept more religiously than his own.’ According to Martial (xi. 49) the
tomb of Vergil had been practically forgotten, and was in the possession
of some poor man when Silius bought the plot of ground on which it

  _Iam prope desertos cineres et sancta Maronis
    Nomina qui coleret, pauper et unus erat.
  Silius optatae succurrere censuit umbrae,
    Silius et vatem, non minor ipse, colit._

2. Works.

The +Punica+, an Epic poem in seventeen Books, on the Second Punic War,
closes with Scipio’s triumph, after the Battle of Zama, 202 B.C.

Silius closely followed the history as told by Livy, and without any
inventive or constructive power of his own copies, with tasteless
pedantry, Homer and Vergil. ‘He cannot perceive that the divine
interventions which are admissible in the quarrel of Aeneas and Turnus
are ludicrous when imported into the struggle between Scipio and
Hannibal. Who can help resenting the unreality when at Saguntum Jupiter
guides an arrow into Hannibal’s body, which Juno immediately withdraws,
or when, at Cannae, Aeolus yields to the prayer of Juno and blinds the
Romans by a whirlwind of dust?’--Cruttwell.

The _Punica_ is valuable for its historical accuracy, but it is one of
the longest and one of the worst Epic poems ever written.

_Scribebat carmina maiore cura quam ingenio._

  Pliny, _Epist._ iii. 7.

P. PAPINIUS STATIUS, circ. 60-100 A.D.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: STATIUS.]

Statius was born at Naples, but early removed to Rome, where he was
carefully educated and spent the greater part of his life. His father
was a scholar, rhetorician, and poet of some distinction, and acted for
a time as tutor to Domitian. Statius had thus access to the Court, and
repaid the patronage of Domitian by incessant and shameless flattery.
After the completion of his +Thebais+ he retired to Naples, which was
endeared to him by its associations with Vergil, and there satisfied his
real love of nature.

2. Works.

(1) The +Thebais+, an Epic poem in twelve Books, on the strife between
the brothers Eteocles and Polynices, and the subsequent history of
Thebes to the death of Creon.

The Thebaid became very famous: Juvenal (_Sat._ vii. 82-4) tells us

  _Curritur ad vocem iucundam et carmen amicae
  Thebaidos, laetam cum fecit Statius urbem
  promisitque diem_ (i.e. for a public recitation of his poem).

‘Its smooth versification, copious diction, and sustained elegance made
it a sort of canon of poetical technique. Among much tedious rhetoric
and cumbrous mythology there is enough imagination and pathos to make
the poem interesting and even charming.’ --Mackail.

(2) The +Silvae+, in five Books, are occasional poems, descriptive and
lyrical, on miscellaneous subjects. These may well be considered his
masterpiece. ‘Genuine poetry,’ says Niebuhr, ‘imprinted with the
character of the true poet, and constituting some of the most graceful
productions of Roman literature.’

Among the best known are the touching poem to his wife Claudia (iii. 5),
the marriage song to his brother-poet Arruntius Stella (i. 2), the
_Propempticon Maecio Celeri_ (iii. 2), the _Epicedion_ (funeral song) on
the death of his adopted son (v. 5), and the short poem (v. 4) on Sleep.

The greatest poet of the Decline.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: SUETONIUS.]

The little we know of his life is chiefly gathered from the Letters of
Pliny the Younger, and from scattered allusions in his own works. The
son of an officer of the Thirteenth Legion, Suetonius in early life
practised as an advocate, and subsequently became one of Hadrian’s
private secretaries (_magister epistularum_), but was dismissed from
office in 121 A.D. After his retirement from the service of the Court he
devoted the rest of his long life to literary research and compilation,
and published a number of works on a great variety of subjects, so that
he became famous as the Varro of the imperial period.

2. Works.

His extant works are:

(1) +De Vita Caesarum+, the Lives of the Twelve Caesars, in eight Books
(I-VI Julius-Nero; VII Galba, Otho, and Vitellius; VIII Vespasian,
Titus, and Domitian). This is his most interesting and most valuable
work. His Lives are not works of art: he is simply a gatherer of facts,
collected from good sources with considerable care and judgment. ‘He
follows out with absolute faithfulness his own theory, which makes it
necessary to omit no possible detail that can throw light upon the
personality of his subject.’ --Peck.

(2) +De Viris Illustribus+, a history of Latin literature up to his day.
The greater part of the section +De grammaticis et rhetoribus+ is
extant, as well as the Lives of Terence, Horace, and Lucan (partly),
from the section +De poetis+, and fragments of the Life of Pliny the
Elder from the section +De historicis+.

Extracts made from this work by Jerome (_circ._ 400 A.D.) in his Latin
version of Eusebius’ Chronicles are the source from which much of our
information as to Latin authors is derived.

‘Suetonius is terse, and in that respect he resembles Tacitus; he is
deeply interesting, and there he shows some likeness to Livy; but his
style is one of his own creation. His chief desire is to present the
facts stripped of any comment whatever, grouped in such a way as to
produce their own effect without the adventitious aid of rhetoric; and
then to leave the reader to his own conclusions.’ --Peck.

_Probissimus, honestissimus, eruditissimus vir._

  Pliny, _Epist. ad Trai._ 94.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: SYRUS.]

All we know of him is that he was an enfranchised Syrian slave, a native
of Antioch, and wrote for the stage _mimes_ (farces) which were
performed with great applause. Mime-writing was also practised at this
time by the Knight Laberius, and Caesar is said to have patronised these
writers in the hope of elevating their art.

2. Works.

+Sententiae+ (_Maxims_). We possess 697 lines from his mimes
(unconnected and alphabetically arranged), a collection made in the
early Middle Ages, and much used in schools. As proverbs of worldly
wisdom, and admirable examples of the terse vigour of Roman philosophy,
they are widely known, e.g.

_Cuivis potest accidere quod cuiquam potest._

CORNELIUS TACITUS, circ. 54-120 A.D.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: TACITUS.]

The personal history of Tacitus is known to us only from allusions in
his own works, and from the letters of his friend the younger Pliny. He
was born early in the reign of Nero, probably in Rome; his education,
political career, and marriage into the distinguished family of Agricola
prove that he was a man of wealth and position. He studied rhetoric
under the best masters (possibly under Quintilian), and had, as Pliny
tells us (_Epist._ II. i. 6), a great reputation as a speaker. He passed
through the usual stages of an official career and was appointed _consul
suffectus_ under Trajan, 98 A.D., when he was a little over forty. From
89 to 93 A.D. he was absent from Rome, probably in some provincial
command, and during these years he may have acquired some personal
knowledge of the German peoples. In 100 A.D. he was associated with
Pliny in the prosecution for extortion of Marius Priscus, proconsul of
Africa, of whom Juvenal says (_Sat._ viii. 120):

_Cum tenues nuper Marius discinxerit Afros._

_Since Marius has so lately stripped to their girdles_ (i.e. thoroughly
plundered) _the needy Africans_.

From this date Tacitus seems to have devoted himself entirely to
literary pursuits and to have lived to or beyond the end of Trajan’s
reign, 116 A.D.

2. Works.

(1) +Dialogus de Oratoribus+, an inquiry into the causes of the decay of
oratory, his earliest extant work. In the style of this work the
influence of Quintilian and Cicero is strongly seen.

(2) +De Vita et Moribus Iulii Agricolae liber+, an account of the life
of his father-in-law, particularly of his career in Britain, published
shortly after the accession of Trajan, 98 A.D. ‘The Sallustian epoch of
Tacitus finds its expression in the _Agricola_ and _Germania_.’

The _Agricola_ is perhaps the most beautiful biography in ancient

(3) The +Germania+, or _Concerning the Geography, the Manners and
Customs, and the Tribes of Germany_, published in 98 or 99. ‘The motive
for its publication was apparently the pressing importance, in Tacitus’
opinion, of the “German question,” and the necessity for vigorous action
to secure the safety of the Roman Empire against the dangers with which.
it was threatened from German strength.’ --Stephenson.

‘The +Germania+ is an inestimable treasury of facts and generalisations,
and of the general faithfulness of the outline we have no doubt.’

(4) +Historiae+, consisting originally of fourteen Books, is a narrative
of the events of the reigns of Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus,
and Domitian, 69-96 A.D. Only Books I-IV and the first half of Book V
are extant, and give the history of 69 and most of 70 A.D.

‘The style of the _Historiae_ still retains some traces of the influence
of Cicero: it has not yet been pressed tight into the short _sententiae_
which were its final and most characteristic development, but shows in a
marked degree the influence of Vergil.’ --Cruttwell.

In the _Historiae_, as Tacitus himself says, ‘the secret of the imperial
system was divulged--that an emperor could be made elsewhere than at
Rome’; or, in other words, that the imperial system was a military and
not a civil institution.

(5) The +Annales, ab excessu divi Augusti+, in sixteen Books, containing
the history of the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, 14-68
A.D. There are extant only Books I-IV, parts of V and VI, and XI-XVI.

‘The old criticism, tracing the characteristics of the style of Tacitus
to poetic colouring (almost wholly Vergilian) and to the study of
brevity and of variety, is well founded. They may be explained by the
fact that he was the most finished pleader of an age which required
above all that its orators should be terse, brilliant, and striking, and
by his own painful consciousness of the dull monotony and repulsive
sadness of great part of his subject, which needed the help of every
sort of variety to stimulate the flagging interest of the reader.’

His aim as an historian is best given in his own words: ‘I hold it the
chief office of history to rescue virtue from oblivion, and to hold out
the reprobation of posterity as a terror to evil words and deeds’
(_Ann._ iii. 65).

The greatest of Roman historians.


1. Life

[Sidenote: TERENCE.]

Terence was born probably at Carthage, reached Rome as a slave-boy, and
passed there into the possession of a rich and educated Senator, P.
Terentius Lucanus, by whom he was educated and manumitted, taking from
him the name of Publius Terentius the African. ‘A small literary circle
of the Roman aristocracy admitted young Terence to their intimate
companionship; and soon he was widely known as making a third in the
friendship of Gaius Laelius with the first citizen of the Republic, the
younger Scipio Africanus. Six plays had been subjected to the criticism
of this informal academy of letters and produced on the stage, when
Terence undertook a prolonged visit to Greece for the purpose of further
study. He died of fever in the next year, 159 B.C., at the early age of
twenty-six.’ --Mackail.

2. Works.

+Comedies.+--All the six plays written and exhibited at Rome by Terence
are extant. They are the _Andria_ (exhibited 166 B.C., when the poet was
only eighteen years of age), the _Heauton Timoroumenos_, _Eunuchus_,
_Phormio_, _Hecyra_, _Adelphoe_.

‘With Terence Roman literature takes a new departure. The Scipionic
circle believed that the best way to create a national Latin literature
was to deviate as little as possible, in spirit, form, and substance,
from the works of Greek genius. The task which awaited Terence was the
complete Hellenising of Roman comedy: accordingly his aim was to give a
true picture of Greek life and manners in the purest Latin style. He was
not a popular poet, in the sense in which Plautus was popular: he has
none of the purely Roman characteristics of Plautus in sentiment,
allusion, or style; none of his extravagance, and none of his vigour and
originality.’ --Sellar. Terence is, accordingly, in substance and form,
as Caesar styles him, a _dimidiatus Menander (halved Menander)_:

  _Tu quoque, tu in summis, o dimidiate Menander,
  Poneris, et merito, puri sermonis amator._

A Roman only in language, but as _puri sermonis amator_ worthy to be
ranked by the side of Caesar himself and the purest Latin authors.

ALBIUS TIBULLUS, circ. 54-19 B.C.

1. Life.

[Sidenote: TIBULLUS.]

Tibullus was a Roman _eques_, and was probably born at Pedum, a Latin
town just at the foot of the Apennines, and a few miles north of
Praeneste, where his father possessed an ample estate. Much of his
inherited property was lost; and it is possible that, like Vergil,
Horace, and Propertius, he was a victim to the confiscations of the
Triumvirs in 42 B.C. He, however, retained or recovered enough to afford
him a modest competence. In 31-30 B.C. he served on the staff of his
life-long friend and patron M. Valerius Messalla, the eminent general
and statesman, not less distinguished in literature than in politics.
The rest of his short life the poet spent on his ancestral farm at
Pedum, amid the country scenes and employments congenial to his nature
and habits.

2. Works.

+Elegies+, in four Books (or three, Postgate). Tibullus published in his
lifetime two Books of elegiac poems: after his death a third volume was
published, containing a few of his own poems, together with poems by
other members of the literary circle of Messalla. Books I and II consist
mainly of poems addressed to Delia and to Nemesis (cf. Ov. _Am._ III.
ix. 31-32):

  _Sic Nemesis longum, sic Delia nomen habebunt;
      Altera cura recens, altera primus amor._

And to Messalla, e.g. _El._ I. vii. 55-6:

  _At tibi succrescat proles, quae facta parentis
      Augeat et circa stet veneranda senem._

3. Style.

‘Tibullus is pre-eminently Roman in his genius and poetry. He is the
natural poet of warm, tender, and simple feeling. Neither Greek
mythology nor Alexandrine learning had any attractions for his purely
Italian genius. His language may be limited in range and variety, but it
is terse, clear, simple, and popular. His constructions are plain and
direct.’ --North Pinder.

‘To Tibullus belongs the distinction of having given artistic perfection
to the Roman elegy.’ --Sellar.

_Elegia quoque Graecos provocamus, cuius mihi tersus atque elegans
maxime videtur auctor Tibullus._

‘_In elegy also we rival the Greeks, of which Tibullus appears to me
the purest and finest representative._’ --Quint. _Inst. Or._ X. i. 93.

‘Tibullus might be succinctly and perhaps not unjustly described as a
Vergil without the genius.’ --Mackail.

‘Tibullus and Vergil are alike in their human affection and their piety,
in their capacity of tender and self-forgetful love, in their delight in
the labours of the field and their sympathy with the herdsman and the
objects of his care.’ --Sellar.

  _Quid voveat dulci nutricula maius alumno,
  Qui sapere et fari possit quae sentiat, et cui
  Gratia, fama valetudo contingat abunde,
  Et mundus victus, non deficiente crumena!_

        Horace to Tibullus, _Epist._ I. iv. 8-11.

  _Si tamen e nobis aliquid nisi nomen et umbra
    Restat, in Elysia valle Tibullus erit._
    .    .    .    .    .
  _Ossa quieta, precor, tuta requiescite in urna,
    Et sit humus cineri non onerosa tuo._

        Ovid, _Am._ III. ix. 59-60, 67-8.


1. Life.


He lived in the reign of Vespasian (70-78 A.D.), to whom he dedicated
his poem, in which he refers to Vespasian’s exploits in Britain and to
the capture of Jerusalem by Titus, 70 A.D. There are also references to
the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. Quintilian is the only Roman writer
who mentions him (X. i. 90): _Multum in Valerio Flacco nuper amisimus_,
which shows that he must have died _circ._ 90 A.D.

2. Works.

+The Argonautica+, an Hexameter poem in eight Books, apparently
unfinished. The poem is in part a translation, in part a free imitation
of the Alexandrine epic of Apollonius Rhodius (222-181 B.C.) ‘His
descriptive power, particularly shown in touches of natural scenery, his
pure diction and correct style have inclined some critics to set
Valerius Flaccus above his Greek model.’ --North Pinder. The rhetorical
treatment of the subject, so characteristic of the period of the
decline, is, however, too prominent throughout his work. Both his rhythm
and language are closely modelled on Vergil.


1. Life.


All that we know of him is that he visited Asia in company with Sextus
Pompeius (the friend of Ovid and of Germanicus), _circ._ 27-30 A.D.

2. Works.

+Facta et Dicta Memorabilia+, in nine Books. Each Book is divided into
chapters on separate subjects (e.g. _De Severitate_, _De Verecundia_,
_De Constantia_), under each of which he gives illustrations from Roman
history and from the history of other nations, in order to show the
native superiority (as he thinks) of Romans to foreigners, and
especially to Greeks. As an historian he is most untrustworthy, but
there are many gaps in Roman history (e.g. owing to the lost books of
Livy) which he helps to supply. His style shows all the faults of his
age and rhetorical training; his work was probably intended to be a
commonplace-book for students and teachers of rhetoric.


1. Life.

[Sidenote: VARRO.]

Born at Reate, in the Sabine territory, which was the nurse of all manly
virtues, Varro was brought up in the good old-fashioned way. ‘For me
when a boy,’ he says, ‘there sufficed a single rough coat and a single
under-garment, shoes without stockings, a horse without a saddle.’ Bold,
frank, and sarcastic, he had all the qualities of the country gentleman
of the best days of the Republic. On account of his personal valour he
obtained in the war with the Pirates, 67 B.C., where he commanded a
division of the fleet, the naval crown. In politics he belonged, as was
natural, to the constitutional party, and bore an honourable and
energetic part in its doings and sufferings. On the outbreak of the
Civil War he served as the legatus of Pompeius in command of Further
Spain, but was compelled to surrender his forces to Caesar, 69 B.C. When
the cause of the Republic was lost Caesar, who knew Varro’s worth,
employed him in superintending the collection and arrangement of the
great library at Rome designed for public use. After Caesar’s death
Varro was exposed to the persecution of Antonius, whose drunken revels
and excesses at Varro’s villa at Casinum are vividly described by Cicero
(_Phil._ ii. 103 sqq.) Through the influence of his many friends Varro
obtained the protection of Octavianus, and was enabled to live at Rome
in peace until his death, 27 B.C., in his ninetieth year.

2. Works.

Of all the works of Varro, embracing almost all branches of knowledge
and literature, only two have come down to us:

(1) The +De Re Rustica+, in three Books, in the form of a dialogue,
written in his eightieth year. It was a subject of which he had a
thorough practical knowledge, and is the most important of all the
treatises upon ancient agriculture now extant. Book I treats of
agriculture; Book II of stock-raising; Book III of poultry, game, and

(2) +De Lingua Latina+, in twenty-five Books, of which only V-X have
been preserved. These contain much valuable information not found
elsewhere, but Varro’s notions of etymology are extremely crude.

Of his other works, we have much cause to regret the loss of his
+Antiquities of Things Human and Divine+, the standard work on the
religious and secular antiquities of Rome down to the time of Augustus,
and his +Imagines+, biographical sketches, with portraits, of seven
hundred famous Greeks and Romans, the first instance in history of the
publication of an illustrated book.

‘Varro belongs to the genuine type of old Roman, improved but not
altered by Greek learning, with his heart fixed in the past, deeply
conservative of everything national, and even in his style of speech
protesting against the innovations of the day.’ --Cruttwell.

_Omnium facile acutissimus, et sine ulla dubitatione doctissimus._

_Studiosum rerum tantum docet, quantum studiosum verborum Cicero
delectat._ --St. Augustine.


1. Life.


All we know of him is derived from his own pages. He descended from a
distinguished family in Campania, and his father was a Praefectus
equitum. He accompanied C. Caesar, the grandson of Augustus, on his
mission to the East, and was present at the interview with the Parthian
king. Two years afterwards, 4 A.D., he served under Tiberius in Germany
as Praefectus equitum. For the next eight years Paterculus served under
Tiberius in Pannonia and Dalmatia. Tiberius’ sterling qualities as a
soldier gained him the friendship of many of his officers, and Velleius
by his energy and ability secured that of Tiberius in return. The last
circumstance of his life that he records is the election to the
praetorship of his brother and himself as candidates of Caesar
(Tiberius) in 14 A.D.

2. Works.

The +Historia Romana+ in two Books. The beginning of Book I is lost;
chapters 1-8 in our text are occupied with a rapid survey of universal
history, especially of the East and of Greece. Chapter 8 breaks off at
the rape of the Sabine women, and there is a great gap in the text
before we reach in c. 9 the defeat of Perseus at Pydna in 168 B.C.
Chapters 9-13 carry the narrative down to the destruction of Carthage
and Corinth in 146 B.C. Book II continues the history and ends at the
death of Livia 27 A.D.

‘The pretentiousness of his style is partly due to the declining taste
of the period, partly to an idea of his own that he could write in the
manner of Sallust. It alternates between a sort of laboured
sprightliness and a careless, conversational manner full of endless
parentheses. Yet Velleius has two real merits: the eye of a trained
soldier for character, and an unaffected, if not a very intelligent,
interest in literature.’ --Mackail.


1. Important Events in Vergil’s Life, and Chief Works.

[Sidenote: VERGIL.]

  B.C. 70. Born at Andes, near Mantua.
   „   65. Birth of Horace.
   „   55. Assumes the _Toga Virilis_ at Cremona. Death of Lucretius.
   „   53. Studies philosophy at Rome under the Epicurean Siron.
   „   42. +Eclogues II, III, V+, and perhaps +VI+, written.
   „   41. Suffers confiscation of his estate. Takes refuge in
             _Siron’s_ villa. Estates restored by Octavianus through
             Pollio. +Eclogue I+.
   „   40. Vergil evicted a second time. +Eclogues IV, VI, IX+.
           Becomes a member of the literary circle of Maecenas.
   „   39. +Eclogues VIII+ and +X+.
   „   38. Introduces Horace to Maecenas.
   „   37. Begins the +Georgics+ at the suggestion of Maecenas.
   „   29. +Completed Georgics+ read to Octavianus. +Aeneid+ begun.
   „   27. Augustus Emperor.
   „   26. Banishment and death of his friend Gallus.
   „   25. Marriage of Marcellus to Julia, daughter of Augustus.
   „   23. Death of Marcellus: +Aeneid, Book VI+, read to the Imperial
   „   19. Journey of Vergil to Greece: is taken ill, dies at
             Brundusium, and is buried at Naples:

    _Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc
    Parthenope: cecini pascua, rura, duces._

2. Works.

(1) +Bucolica+ (Pastoral Poems), ten +Eclogues+ (selected pieces),
written 42-39 B.C. These are closely modelled on Theocritus, and have
all the weaknesses of imitative poetry. ‘The Eclogues of Vergil have
less of consistency but more of purpose than the Idylls of Theocritus.
They are an advocacy of the charm of scenery and the pleasures of the
country addressed to a luxurious and artificial society of dwellers in a
town.’ --Myers.

(2) +Georgica+, in four Books, written 37-30 B.C., at the suggestion of
Maecenas, ‘the Home Minister of Augustus, and public patron of art and
letters in the interest of the new government.’ --Mackail. ‘The details
of his subject Vergil draws mainly from his Greek predecessors, Hesiod,
Xenophon, Aratus, and Nicander, but it is to Lucretius he is chiefly
indebted. The language of Lucretius, so bold, so genial, so powerful,
and in its way so perfect, is echoed a thousand times in the Georgics.’

Book I treats of agriculture, Book II of the cultivation of trees, Book
III of domestic animals, Book IV of bees (including the Myth of
Aristaeus, ll. 315-558).

The _purpose of the Georgics_ is to ennoble the annual round of labour
in which the rural life was passed and to help the policy of Augustus by
inducing the people to go back to the land.

‘The motto of the Georgics might well be said to be _Ora et labora_.’

‘The Georgics represent the art of Vergil in its matured perfection, and
in mere technical finish are the most perfect work of Latin literature.’

(3) The +Aeneid+, in twelve Books, written 29-19 B.C.

The _choice of the subject_ was influenced by the wish of Augustus to
establish the legendary tradition of the connection of the gens Iulia
with Aeneas through his son Iulus, and by Vergil’s own desire to write
an epic on the greatness of Rome, in the manner of Homer. Thus ‘the
centre of the mythical background was naturally Aeneas, as Augustus was
the centre of the present magnificence of the Roman Empire. _We surpass
all other nations_, says Cicero (_De Nat. Deor._ ii. 8), _in holding
fast the belief that all things are ordered by a Divine Providence_. The
theme of the _Aeneid_ is the building up of the Roman Empire under this
Providence. Aeneas is the son of a goddess, and his life the working out
of the divine decrees.’ --Nettleship.

  _Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento;
  Hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem._

  _Aen._ vi. 851-2.

‘At a verse from the _Aeneid_, the sun goes back for us on the dial; our
boyhood is recreated, and returns to us for a moment like a visitant
from a happy dreamland.’ --Tyrrell.

‘In merely technical quality the supremacy of Vergil’s art has never
been disputed. The Latin Hexameter, _the stateliest measure ever moulded
by the lips of man_, was brought by him to a perfection which made any
further development impossible.’ --Mackail.

‘As Homer among the Greeks, so Vergil among our own authors will best
head the list; he is beyond doubt the second epic poet of either
nation.’ --Quint. X. i. 85.

‘The chastest poet and royalest, Vergilius Maro, that to the memory of
man is known.’ --Bacon.



The following Chronological Outlines of Roman History and Literature are
intended to illustrate the passages selected for translation. Important
events and writers in contemporary History and Literature are added, in
order to emphasise the comparative method of treating History.

The names of those Latin authors from whose works passages have been
selected are printed in capitals in the Literature Column.

A fuller outline of the Imperial Period will be given in a later volume.


  PERIOD I.   The Growth of Latin Literature        250-80 B.C.
  PERIOD II.  The Golden Age of Latin Literature    80 B.C.-14 A.D.
  PERIOD III. The Silver Age of Latin Literature    14-117 A.D.
  PERIOD IV.  The Later Empire                      from 117 A.D.


  PART I.--REGAL PERIOD, 753-509 B.C.
    +Foundation of Carthage+ 878
      Amos _c._ 760

  +Foundation of Rome+
    Rise of Corinth 745
      Isaiah _c._ 720

  ROMULUS. Roman Senate of 200. _Spolia opima_ (1)
    Captivity of Israel 721
      Hesiod _c._ 700

  NUMA POMPILIUS. Religious Institutions
    Carentum founded 708

  TULLUS HOSTILIUS. Destruction of _Alba_
    Destruction of Sennacherib’s host 701
      Tyrtaeus (Sparta) _c._ 680
  Legend of +Horatii+ and +Curiatii+
    Cyrene founded 641
      Archilochus. 650

  ANCUS MARTIUS. Conquest of Latin Towns
    Josiah’s reformation 625
      Jeremiah _c._ 625
  _Ostia_, first maritime colony
    Periander, tyrant of Corinth 625-585

  TARQUINIUS PRISCUS. Public Works: the _Circus Maximus_, _Cloaca
  Maxima_, and Temple of Jupiter
    Draco, the law-giver at Athens 621
      Alcaeus }
      Sappho  } 600
      Solon   }
    +Massilia founded+ 600

  SERVIUS TULLIUS. The Census, basis of _Comitia Centuriata_.
  The Servian Wall includes the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills,
  i.e. Rome of Republican times.
    Captivity of Judah 606-536
    Solon at Athens 594
      Thales 590
    Peisistratus at Athens 560-527
      Ezekiel 585
    Croesus in Lydia 560-546
      Aesop _c._ 570

  TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS. Conquest of _Gabii_. Tyranny leading to
  expulsion of the Tarquins and abolition of the monarchy
    Cyrus enters Babylon 538
      Theognis 540
    Return of Jews under Zerubbabel 536
      Pythagoras 530
    Expulsion of Peisistratidae 510
      Anacreon 530
  +Two Consuls (Praetors) first appointed+
    Darius Hystaspes 521-486
      Aeschylus 525-456
  _Lex Valeria_ establishes right of appeal
      Pindar 518-_c._ 443

  Rome taken by Etruscans under Porsena
    Ionian Revolt 501-493
      Heracleitus 500

  +Latin War. Dictator first appointed.+
    Miltiades at Athens 493-489
      Simonides (Ceos) 490
  Battle of _Lake Regillus_
    Ionians defeated at Lade 494

  First Session of the Plebs. _Tribuni Plebis_
    Battle of Marathon 490

  Volscian War (+Coriolanus+)
    Aristides and Themistocles 490-470
      Parmenides 490

  Agrarian Law. Spurius Cassius put to death
    Xerxes 485-465
      Bacchylides 470

  Destruction of the +Fabii+ at _Cremera_
    Thermopylae. Salamis. Himera 480
      Anaxagoras 460

  War with Aequians--Battle of _Mt. Algidus_
    Plataea (Pausanians). Mycale 479
      Sophocles 496-406
  Cincinnatus Dictator
    Hiero I at Syracuse 478-467
      Euripides 480-406

  +First Decemvirate. Ten Tables+
    Pericles at Athens 469-429
      Herodotus _c._ 484-425

  Second Decemvirate. Two new Tables. (+Appius Claudius+)
    Cimon at Athens 466-449
      _Phidias (Parthenon)_ 448

  Second Secession of the Plebs, resulting in the _Valerio-Horatian_
    Athenian defeat at Coronea 447
      Empedocles 445
    Ezra and Nehemiah _c._ 444

  Military tribunes with consular power appointed
    Athenian colony to Thurii 444
      Era of the Sophists 440
      (Gorgias, Protagoras)

  Censors first appointed

  Spurius Maelius killed

  War with Etruscans. +Cossus+ wins _Spolia opima_ (2)
    War of Corinth and Corcyra 435
      Antiphon _c._ 480-411

  Capua taken by the Samnites
    Peloponnesian War 431-405
      Thucydides _c._ 471-402
    Sphacteria (Demosthenes, Cleon) 425
      _Zeuxis_ }
      _Parrhasius_} _painters_ _c._ 420
    Alcibiades at Athens 424-404
    Syracusan Expedition 415-413
      Lysias _c._ 445-378

  +War with Veii. Camillus Dictator+
    Battle of Aegospotami 405
      Aristophanes _c._ 450-385

  Roman soldiers first receive pay
    Lysander enters Athens 404
      Cratinus 449
    Critias and Thirty Tyrants 404
      Eupolis 429
    Democracy restored (Thrasybulus) 403

  +Invasion of the Gauls+. Battle of the _Allia_
    Artaxerxes II 405-359
  Burning of Rome (+Brennus+)
    Expedition of Cyrus the Younger (The _Anabasis_ of Xenophon) 401
  +Manlius Capitolinus+. +Camillus+ _Parens Patriae_
      Xenophon _c._ 430-355
  _History based on documents begins_
    Socrates condemned 399
      Socrates 468-399

  Rome rebuilt
    Dionysius I of Syracuse, Wars of Syracuse and Carthage 405-368
      Plato 420-348
      Isocrates 436-338

  +The Licinian Laws+
    Pelopidas and Epaminondas (Thebes) 378-362
      Isaeus 420-348
    Supremacy of Thebes (Leuctra) 371
  +First Plebeian Consul+
    Death of Epaminondas (Mantinea) 362
  First Praetor (Judge) appointed
  Second Invasion of the Gauls
    Dionysius II of Syracuse 368-343
      Diogenes (Cynic) _c._ 419-324
  Legend of +Manlius Torquatus+
    Battle of Mantinea 362
      +Ludi Scenici at Rome+ 365

  C. Marcius Rutilus, First Plebeian Dictator
    Philip of Macedon 359-336

  War with Gauls. Legend of +M. Valerius Corvus+
    Dion at Syracuse 357-353
      _Praxiteles_ (_sculptor_) _fl._ 360

  _Treaty of Rome with Carthage_
    Olynthus taken by Philip 348
      Aeschines 389-314

  +First Samnite War+
      Demosthenes 384-322
  Battle of _Mt. Gaurus_ (M. Valerius Corvus)
      Aristotle 384-322

  +The Latin War+. Devotion of +Decius Mus I+.
    Battle of Chaeronea 338
      _Apelles_ (_painter_) 336
  Battle of _Mt. Vesuvius_

  _Leges Publiliae. Supremacy of Comitia Tributa_
    +Alexander the Great+ 336-323

  +Second Samnite War (C. Pontius)+
    Battle of Issus 333
      Menander 344-292

  +Caudine Forks+. The Yoke
    Foundation of Alexandria 332

  Appius Claudius, Censor. The _Via Appia_
    Battle of Arbela 331

  Etruscan War. First Battle at _Lake Vadimo_
    Alexander’s Successors }
    Battle of Ipsus (301)  } 323-301

  Battle of _Bovianum_

  +Third Samnite War+
    Ptolemy I (Soter) 323-285
      Euclid _fl._ 300
    Agathocles at Syracuse 317-289
      Theophrastus _c._ 384-277

  Battle of _Sentinum_. Devotion of +Decius Mus II+.
    Demetrius Poliorcetes 308-283
      Zeno, the Stoic _c._ 366-264

  Last Secession of the Plebs
    Rhodes powerful 300-200
      Epicurus 341-270

  _Lex Hortensia. Legislative power of Comitia Tributa finally
  _Political distinction between the Patricians and Plebeians now
  at an end_
    Aetolian League 284-167
      Theocritus _fl._ 280

  Renewed Etruscan and Gallic War
    Achaean League 280-146
      Bion and Moschus _fl._ 270
  Second Battle at _Lake Vadimo_

  +War with Tarentines and Pyrrhus+

  Battle of _Heraclea_. Victory of the phalanx
    Gauls in Greece 280-278

  Battle of _Asculum_. +Fabricius the Just+
    Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) 285-247
      _Septuagint_ _c._ 277

  +Rome and Carthage allied+

  Pyrrhus masters nearly all Sicily

  Battle near _Beneventum_ (+M’. Curius Dentatus+)
  Pyrrhus returns to Epirus

  Treaty of Rome with Egypt. _Recognition of Rome as one of the great
      _Aratus_ (_astronomer_) _fl._ 270

  Pyrrhus killed at Argos. Surrender of Tarentum

  +All Italy (south of the Apennines) Roman+
  +First Punic War+

  +Hiero of Syracuse+ joins Rome
    +Hiero of Syracuse+ 269-219

  Romans build a fleet

  Naval victory of +Duilius+ near _Mylae_
    Aratus, General of Achaean League 245
      Callimachus _fl._ 260
  _Columna Rostrata_

  Naval victory of +Regulus+ at _Ecnomus_
  Regulus defeated by Xanthippus of Sparta

  Roman victory at _Panormus_ (Metellus)

  Carthaginian victory at _Drepana_ (Claudius)

  +Hamilcar Barca+ in Sicily
    Ptolemy III (Euergetes) 247-222

  Victory of Lutatius off the _Aegates Insulae_
  _Peace with Carthage_
  +Sicily made a Roman Province+ (1)
        Livius Andronicus (_fl._ 240)

  War of Carthage with her Mercenaries
  +Corsica and Sardinia made a Roman Province+ (2)
        Naevius (_fl._ 235)

  +Hamilcar in Spain. Hannibal’s oath+

  Illyrian War. (Queen Teuta)
    Athens joins Achaean League 229

  Corinth admits the Romans to the Isthmian Games
    +Roman Embassy to Greece+ 228
  +Hasdrubal+ succeeds Hamilcar in Spain
  _Founds New Carthage_. The _Iberus_ (_Ebro_) fixed as the
  Carthaginian boundary

  Gallic rising (Boii and Insubres)
    Reforms of Cleomenes at Sparta 226-5
  Great victory near _Telamon_

  Victory over the Insubres at _Clastidium_
    Aratus and Antigonus take Sparta 221
  +M. Marcellus+ wins the _spolia opima_ (3)
  Subjugation of Gaul south of the Alps
    Antiochus the Great (Syria) 224-187

  +Hannibal succeeds Hasdrubal in Spain+

  Hannibal takes _Saguntum_ (ally of Rome)
    Ptolemy IV (Philopator) 222-205

  +Second Punic War+
    Philip V (Macedon) 221-179
        PLAUTUS (254-184)

  Hannibal crosses the Alps
  Battles of the _Ticinus_ and _Trebia_

  Battle of _Lake Trasimene_. Death of +Flaminius+
  +Q. Fabius Maximus, Dictator+
    +Philip allied with Hannibal+ 216
      Fabius Pictor (_fl._ 216)
        ENNIUS (239-169)

  Battle of _Cannae_. Death of +Paulus+

  +Revolt of Capua+

  Marcellus saves Nola
    First Macedonian War 214-205

  +Siege and Capture of Syracuse by Marcellus+
    +Death of Archimedes+ 212

  P. & Cn. Scipio defeated by Hasdrubal
  Loss of Spain south of the Ebro
  Hannibal seizes Tarentum

  +P. Cornelius Scipio+ (Africanus Maior) in Spain
    Rome allied with Aetolians 211

  Scipio surprises New Carthage

  +Hasdrubal+ (son of Hamilcar) eludes Scipio and crosses the
  Pyrenees to join Hannibal
    Philopoemen, General of Achaean League 208-183

  +Defeat and Death of Hasdrubal at the Metaurus (Nero)+

  Scipio goes to Africa: blockades _Utica_
    +Peace of Rome with Philip+ 205

  +Hannibal recalled: leaves Italy+

  Battle of _Zama_. Peace made
  +Second Macedonian War+

  Battle of _Cynoscephalae_ (+Flaminius+)

  _Proclamation of the Freedom of Greece_

  Hannibal takes refuge with Antiochus
      Cato (234-149)

  War with Insubrian and Boian Gauls
  +Gallia Cisalpina a Roman Province+ (3)
    Antiochus in Greece 192

  +War with Antiochus of Syria+

  Battle of _Thermopylae_ (+Cato+)

  Battle of _Magnesia_. (L. Scipio and Domitius)
    Hannibal with Prusias, King of Bithynia 190-183
        PACUVIUS (220-132)

  +Censorship of Cato+

  _Deaths of Hannibal, Scipio and Philopoemen_

  T. Sempronius Gracchus in Spain
    War of Antiochus and Egypt 172-168

  +Third Macedonian War (Perseus)+

  Battle of _Pydna_ (+Aemilius Paulus+)
    Judas Maccabaeus (a treaty with Rome, 161) 166-161
        TERENCE (185-159)
  Egypt accepts the protectorate of Rome

  +Third Punic War (Scipio Africanus Minor)+
  _Destruction of Carthage_
        LUCILIUS (180-103)

  War with Andriscus (the pseudo-Philip) and the Achaeans.
  _Destruction of Corinth_ (+Mummius+)

  +Macedonia made a Roman Province+ (4)
  +Illyricum made a Roman Province+ (5)

  War with +Viriathus+, the Lusitanian Hero
    Judaea free from Syrian control (Simon Maccabaeus) 142

  +Numantine War+

  _Destruction of Numantia_ (Scipio Africanus Minor)
        Accius (_c._ 170-90)
  +Roman Province in Spain+ (7)
  +Achaia made a Roman Province+ (8)

  Attalus III bequeaths the Kingdom of Pergamum to Rome. This becomes
  the +Roman Province of Asia+ (9)
  Attempted reforms (_Leges Semproniae_) of the Gracchi

  Agrarian Law of +Tiberius Gracchus+
    John Hyrcanus subdues Idumea and Samaria 129
  Murder of Tib. Gracchus (P. Scipio Nasica)
  First civil bloodshed in Rome

  _Two plebeian Consuls_ (the first time)

  Death of Scipio Africanus Minor (Carbo suspected)

  +Tribunate of C. Gracchus+
    _Roman Colony sent to Carthage_ 123

  Death of C. Gracchus
  Conquest of S. Gaul. +Province of Narbonensis+ (10)
    +Mithridates (Pontus)+ 120-63
        Afranius (_fl._ 100)

  Death of Micipsa, King of Numidia

  +The Jugurthine War (Metellus, Marius, Sulla)+
    Conquests of Mithridates on the Black Sea 112-110

  Jugurtha betrayed to Sulla

  The Cimbrians defeat the Romans at _Arausio_

  Marius defeats Teutones at _Aquae Sextiae_

  Marius (with Catulus) defeats Cimbri at _Vercellae_

  Marius Consul a sixth time
    Sulla on the Euphrates 92

  +Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus+

  +The Social or Marsic War+
    +Tigranes+ (_Armenia_) 95-60

  _Lex Iulia_, granting the _civitas_ to the Italian States not
  in rebellion

  Battle of _Asculum_

  +First Civil War (between Marius and Sulla)+
  80 B.C.-14 A.D.
  Sulla occupies Rome. _First invasion of Rome by a Roman army_

  +Cinnan revolution+. Marius’ reign of terror

  +First Mithridatic War. (Sulla)+

  Massacre of Romans in Asia

  Victory at _Chaeronea_. Sulla takes Athens
  Death of Marius

  Victory at _Orchomenus_
    Tigranes at war with Rome 86-85
        LUCRETIUS (97-53)

  _Peace of Dardanus with Mithridates_

  +Second Civil War (between Marius and Sulla)+

  Death of the younger Marius. _Sulla Felix_

  _The Sullan Proscriptions_
  Second Mithridatic War (Murena)
    Pompeius in Africa: triumphs as an Eques 81

  Sulla Dictator. _Leges Corneliae_

  +Cilicia made a Roman Province+ (11)

  Death of Sulla

  +War with Sertorius in Spain (Pompeius)+
    Pharisees supreme in Judaea 78
      Sisenna (_fl._ 78)

  Mithridates in alliance with Sertorius

  +Bithynia made a Roman Province+ (12)
    _Nicomedes leaves Bithynia to Rome_ 75
      VARRO (116-27)

  Betrayal and murder of Sertorius

  +War with Spartacus and his gladiators+

  Death of Spartacus (Crassus and Pompeius)

  +Third Mithridatic War (Lucullus, Pompeius)+

  Victory of _Cabira_ (Pontus). Lucullus reforms the province of Asia
  (hence unpopular with Equites)
        CATULLUS (84-54)

  +First Consulship of Pompeius and Crassus+
  Overthrow of the Sullan Constitution

  Victory at _Tigranocerta_ (capital of Armenia)
      NEPOS (100-24)

  Mutiny of Lucullus’ soldiers. Mithridates recovers Pontus
    Rome interferes in Palestine 65
      SALLUST (86-34)
  _Lex Gabinia_. Pompeius destroys the Pirates

  _Lex Manilia_. Lucullus superseded by Pompeius
  Victory of _Nicopolis_ (Armenia). _Peace with Tigranes_
      CICERO (106-43)

  +Syria made a Roman Province+ (13)

  Pompeius takes Jerusalem
  Death of Mithridates

  +Cicero Consul+. Catiline’s conspiracy crushed
  Cicero saluted as _Pater Patriae_

  Pompeius’ great Triumph

  +First Triumvirate+ (Pompeius, Caesar, Crassus)

  +Caesar’s first Consulship+. The _Leges Iuliae_

  +Caesar in Gaul+ (in Britain 55 and 54 B.C.)
  +Gaul divided into three Provinces+ (14, 15, 16)
      CAESAR (102-44)

  Cicero’s banishment and return
      A. Hirtius (ob. 43)

  Conference of the Triumvirs at _Luca_

  Second Consulship of Pompeius and Crassus

  Disaster at _Carrhae_. Death of Crassus

  +Pompeius sole Consul+ till August 1st

  Cicero Governor of Cilicia

  +Third Civil War (between Caesar and Pompeius)+

  Caesar crosses the _Rubicon_

  Caesar’s successful campaign round _Lerida_ (Spain)

  _Massilia_ surrenders to Caesar

  Defeat and death of Curio in Africa

  Caesar’s unsuccessful investment of _Dyrrachium_
    +Cleopatra+ 69-30

  Battle of _Pharsalus_. Murder of Pompeius

  Alexandrine War. Settlement of Asia

  Battle of _Thapsus_. Death of Cato

  Caesar sole Consul. Battle of _Munda_ (Spain)
      PUB. SYRUS (_fl._ 45)

  +Murder of Caesar+
  +Second Triumvirate+ (Lepidus, Antonius, Octavianus)
    Herod the Great in Judaea 37-4
      Pollio (_fl._ 40)
        VERGIL (70-19)

  Battle of _Philippi_ (Brutus and Cassius)

  Battle of _Actium_ (Antonius and Cleopatra)
    +Egypt a Roman Province+ (17)
        HORACE (65-8)
  27 B.C.-14 A.D.
        TIBULLUS (54-19)

  Death of +Marcellus+
      LIVY (59 B.C.-18 A.D.)
        PROPERTIUS (49-15)

  Parthians restore standards
        OVID (43 B.C.-18 A.D.)

  A.D. 9
  Destruction of army under Varus (Arminius)


    Pontius Pilate in Judaea 26-36
      V. PATERCULUS (_fl._ 20)
        MANILIUS (_fl._ 12)

  Conquest of Britain
      VAL. MAXIMUS (_fl._ 26)
        PHAEDRUS (_fl._ 30-40)

    Boadicea in Britain 61
      SENECA (4 B.C.-65 A.D.)
        PERSIUS (34-62)

  Rome burnt 64

      PETRONIUS (_ob._ 66)
        LUCAN (39-65)

  VESPASIAN. (Colosseum built)

    Titus destroys Jerusalem 70
      PLINY I. (23-79)
        VAL. FLACCUS (_ob._ 90)

  Eruption of Vesuvius (Herculaneum and Pompeii)

    Agricola subdues Britain 78-85

  Death of +Agricola+ (father-in-law of Tacitus)
      QUINTILIAN (_c._ 35-95)

      FRONTINUS (_c._ 41-103)
        STATIUS (_ob._ 95)

    _Greatest extent of Roman Empire_
      TACITUS (_c._ 55-120)
      PLINY II. (61-113)
        SILIUS (25-101)
        MARTIAL (_c._ 40-102)

    Hadrian’s wall 121
      FLORUS (_fl._ 137)
        JUVENAL (_c._ 55-138)

      SUETONIUS (_c._ 75-160)
      JUSTINUS (_c._ 150)

    Wall of Antonine 140
      A. GELLIUS (_fl._ 169)

    Council of _Nicaea_ 325
        NEMESIANUS (_fl._ 284)
        TER. MAURUS (_c._ 300)
        AUSONIUS (_fl._ 379)

  +Byzantine Empire+
    Romans leave Britain 409-420

  +Alaric+ the Goth at Rome (Stilicho)
    Hengist and Horsa (Kent) 449
      EUTROPIUS (_fl._ 375)
        CLAUDIAN (_fl._ 400)

  +Attila+ the Hun defeated at Chalons
    Constantinople taken by Turks 1453

  +Genseric+ the Vandal at Rome
      Augustine (354-430)
        PRUDENTIUS (_fl._ 404)

  +Odoacer+ at Rome. +Western Empire ends+
        Rutilius (_fl._ 416)


_The numbers refer to pages throughout._

  Ablative Absolute, 12, 58
  +Aegates Insulae+, battle off, 114
  +Alban Lake+, its rise, 79
  +Alesia+, siege of, 202
  +Allia+, battle of the, 81, 82
  Analysis, help through, 6, 23, 47
  +Andriscus+, war with, 156
  +Antiochus+, his overthrow, 149
  +Antonius+, attacked by Cicero, 230;
    causes the murder of Cicero, 230, 232
  +Appius Claudius+, his speech against peace with Pyrrhus, 102
  +Aquae Sextiae+, Teutones annihilated at, 164
  +Archelaus+, defeated at Chaeronea, 172;
    at Orchomenus, 173
  +Archimedes+, his engineering skill, 137;
    the Tomb of Archimedes, 54
  +Arpinum+, birthplace of Cicero and Marius, 163
  +Asculum+ (Apulia), battle of, 103
  +Asculum+ (Picenum), outbreak of Social War at, 108;
    battle near, 169

  +Beneventum+, battle near, 103
  +Bovianum+, battle of, 98

  +Caesar+, personal appearance and physical powers, 186;
    captured by pirates, studies oratory at Rhodes, 187;
    curule aedile, propraetor, 192;
    first triumvirate, consul, 195;
    campaigns in Gaul and Britain, 196-202;
    civil war with Pompeius, 209-224;
    dines with Cicero, 225;
    his death, 226;
    his character, 227-229;
    life of, 293-296
  +Camillus+, capture of Veii, 80;
    delivers Rome from the Gauls, 85;
    stays migration to Veii, 86
  +Capua+, the revolt and punishment of, 133, 134
  +Carrhae+, battle of, 206, 207
  +Carthage+, its foundation, 109;
    the building of, 110;
    wars between Rome and, 108-146;
    destruction of, 155
  +Cassivellaunus+, submission of, to Caesar, 199
  +Catiline+, his conspiracy, 193;
    his end, 194
  +Cato Major+, his character, 151, 152;
    life of, 296
  +Cato Uticensis+, his character, 224;
    his death, 223
  +Caudine Forks+, the Romans entrapped and sent under the yoke, 95, 96
  +Chaeronea+, battle of, 172
  +Cicero+, his first and only campaign, 169;
    impeaches Verres, 188;
    speech against Catiline, 193;
    his banishment and return, 203, 204;
    his recantation, 205;
    governor of Cilicia, 208;
    speech against Antonius, 230;
    his death, 232;
    his character, 231, 233;
    life of, 297-300
  +Cincinnatus+, called from the plough, 74
  +Claudius Pulcher+, his defeat off Drepana, 113
  Cognates, 4, 5, 44, 45, 267-8
  +Colline Gate+, battle at the, 174
  Compound Words, 3-5
  Conjunctions, 274-6
  +Corinth+, destruction of, 156
  +Coriolanus+ and his mother Veturia, 72
  +Corvus, M. Valerius+, hero of Mt. Gaurus, 91
  +Cossus, A. Cornelius+, wins _spolia opima_, 77
  +Crassus+, member of First Triumvirate, 195;
    his defeat at Carrhae, 206, 207
  +Cremera+ (River), Fabii destroyed at the, 73
  +Cynoscephalae+, battle of, 147

  +Dardanus+, peace of, 173
  +Decius Magius+, his defiance of Hannibal, 133
  +Decius Mus+ (the elder),
    his self-sacrifice at battle of Mt. Vesuvius, 92
  +Decius Mus+ (the younger),
    his self-sacrifice at battle of Sentinum, 99
  +Dentatus, M’. Curius+, an old-time Roman, 105
  +Drepana+, battle off, 113
  +Drusus, M. Livius+, his tribuneship, 167
  +Duilius+, his naval victory near Mylae, 112
  +Dyrrachium+, Caesar’s lines of circumvallation, 216;
    plan of, _opposite_ 216

  +Elissa+ (+Dido+), foundress of Carthage, 109
  English Derivatives, help through, 1, 2, 21, 29, 30

  +Fabii+, destruction of, 73
  +Fabius Maximus Cunctator+, his character, 127;
    and his Master of the Horse, 128
  +Fabricius+ the Just, 101
  +Flamininus+ proclaims the freedom of Greece, 148
  +Flaminius+, his defeat at Lake Trasimene, 124-126;
    his death, 126
  +Floralia+, origin of, 88
  French Derivatives, help through, 2, 3, 29, 30

  +Gaurus+ (Mount), battle of, 91
  +Gergovia+, siege of, 201
  +Gracchi+, The, 160, 161

  +Hannibal+, his oath, 115;
    his character, 116, 117;
    lays siege to Saguntum, 118;
    his dream and its interpretation, 119;
    his march from Spain to Italy, 120-122;
    his victory at the Trebia, 123;
    at Lake Trasimene, 124-126;
    at Cannae, 129, 130;
    the advice of Maharbal, 131;
    at Capua, 133, 134;
    leaves Italy, 144;
    his overthrow at Zama, 145, 146;
    his death, 150
  +Hasdrubal+, his defeat and death at the Metaurus, 143
  +Heraclea+, battle of, 100
  +Horatius Cocles+, his defence of the Sublician bridge, 67, 68

  +Jugurtha+, his betrayal, 162

  +Lepidus, M. Aemilius+, speech against Sulla, 178
  +Lerida+, campaign round, 213
  +Liciuius+, first plebeian consul, 87
  +Lucullus+, character and early career, 181;
    his wealth, 182;
    surnamed Ponticus, 184
  +Lutatius+, his victory off the Aegates Insulae, 114

  +Magnesia+, battle of, 149
  +Maharbal+ urges Hannibal to advance on Rome, 131
  +Manlius Capitolinus+, his fate, 84
  +Manilus, L.+, and his son Torquatus, 89
  +Marcellus+ saves Nola from Hannibal, 135;
    his lament over Syracuse, 138;
    his death, 139
  +Marius+, Cicero on, 163;
    annihilates Teutones at Aquae Sextiae, 164;
    seven times consul, 165;
    outlived his fame, 165
  +Marius the Younger+, death of, 175
  +Massilia+, siege of, 214
  +Menenius Agrippa+, harangues the Plebs, 71
  Metaphors, 13, 14
  +Metaurus+, Nero’s march to the, 142;
    battle of the, 143
  +Mithridates+, his youth and early training, 171;
    his preparations for conquest, 171
  +Mucius+ (Scaevola), loss of his right hand, 69
  +Mummius Achaicus+ destroys Corinth, 156
  +Mylae+, naval battle near, 112

  +Nero+, his march to the Metaurus, 142;
    his victory over Hasdrubal, 143
  +Nervii, The+, overthrown by Caesar, 196
  +Numantia+ destroyed, 158
  +Numa Pompilius+, 62

  Order of words in Latin, 9, 10

  +Papirius Cursor+ and his Master of the Horse, 94
  Parallelism, use of, in Ovid, 27
  Parataxis, use of, in Ovid, 26
  Participles, how to translate, 11, 12
  Passive in English for Latin Active, 11
  +Paulus L. Aemilius+, his victory at Pydna, 153, 154
  Period, the, 7-9
  +Perseus+, King of Macedon, his overthrow, 153, 154
  +Pharsalus+, battle of, 217-219;
    plan of, _opposite_ 218
  +Philip+, King of Macedon, his overthrow, 147
  +Philopoemen+, death of, 150
  Phrases for Latin Prose Composition, 45
  +Pompeius+, character and career to 66 B.C., 185;
    campaign against the pirates and Mithridates, 189-191;
    coalition with Caesar, 195;
    civil war with Caesar, 209-222;
    dream on the eve of Pharsalus, 217;
    ill-advised at Pharsalus, 218;
    his death, 220;
    Cato’s eulogy on, 221;
    his grave, 222
  +Porsenna, Lars+, attack upon Rome, 67-69
  Prefixes, 4, 22, 277-281
  Punctuation a help to translation, 6
  +Pydna+, battle of, 153, 154
  +Pyrrhus+, his aims, 100;
    defeats the Romans at Heraclea, 100;
    victorious at Asculum but routed near Beneventum, 103;
    his death and eulogy, 104

  +Regillus, Lake+, battle of, 70
  +Regulus+, his embassy, 111
  _Res_, different meanings of, 11, 33-34, 41
  +Rome+, position of, 65
  +Romulus+, the passing of, 61
  +Rutilius+, defeat and death of, 169

  +Sacriportus+, battle of, 174
  +Saguntum+, siege of, 118
  Scansion and Metre, a help to translation, 6
  +Scipio Major+, prevents Nobles from abandoning Italy, 131;
    his character, 140;
    takes New Carthage, 141;
    his victory at Zama, 145, 146;
    his death, 150
  +Scipio Minor+, destroys Carthage, 135;
    Numantia, 158
  +Sentinum+, battle of, 99
  +Sertorius+, and his Fawn, 179;
    his career and death, 180
  +Spartacus+, war with, 183
  Style, helps to, 13, 14
  Suffixes, 4, 282-286
  +Sulla+, his character and bearing, 170;
    his proscriptions, 175;
    his brilliant tactics at Chaeronea, 172;
    capture of Athens and the Piraeus, 173;
    victory at Orchomenus, 173;
    concludes peace with Mithridates, 173;
    defeats Marians at Sacriportus, 174;
    and at battle of the Colline Gate, 174;
    surnamed Felix, 175;
    dictator, abdication and death, 176;
    his legislation, 177
  +Syracuse+, description of, 136;
    siege and fall of, 137, 138

  +Tarentum+, Horace in praise of, 106
  +Tarquinius Superbus+, purchase of the Sibylline books, 63
  +Tarquinius, Sextus+, at Gabii, 64
  +Teutones+, annihilated at Aquae Sextiae, 164
  +Thermopylae+, battle of, 149
  Translation, helps to, 5-12
  +Trasimene+, battle of, 124-126
  +Trebia+, battle at, 123

  +Veii+, conquest of, 80
  +Veneti+, naval battle with, 197
  +Vercingetorix+, Gallic rising under, 200;
    his last fight, 202
  +Verginia+, the consequences of her death, 76
  +Verres+, prosecuted by Cicero, 188
  +Vesuvius+, Mount, battle of, 92, 93
  +Viriathus+, war with, 157
  Vocabulary, helps to, 1-5
  Vowel changes of Verbs, 3-4

  +Zama+, battle of, 145, 146


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

_Format of E-Text_

In Appendixes I-IV, +boldface+ markup of Latin words and word elements
was omitted for readability. English translations retain their _italic_

In the Demonstrations, sentence breaks were marked with || in the body
text corresponding to Roman numerals in the margin. These numerals are
shown _between_ paired lines as |IV|, or in braces {IV} when the lines
were not used.

Internal references using page numbers are supplemented in double
brackets as [[Selection C17]] or [[Introduction 6 (2)]].

_Line Numbers_

Reading passages were printed with marginal line numbers starting from
1 at the top of each page. A page might contain one or more selections,
but readings never crossed page breaks. Line numbers have been variously

All markings of line 1 were omitted.

In the six Demonstrations, line numbers are not used in the explanatory
text, so they were omitted. In the Miscellaneous Passages, which have no
linenotes, line numbers were omitted in all prose and in the shorter
verse selections.

In prose passages labeled B, C, D, line numbers by multiples of 5 were
printed in the margin. They are shown here in {braces} within the body
text. Where a word was split at line break, the number comes after the
complete word.

In verse passages, lines have been renumbered to match the actual line
numbers as cited in the text. Selections from the Hallam edition of
Ovid’s _Fasti_ (see below) are numbered from 1 within each passage.

Any cross-references containing line numbers have been correspondingly

_The Hallam Edition of Ovid’s Fasti_

This expurgated edition was produced in 1882 for the use of boys at
Harrow. Hallam’s Preface says:

  I have cut out all passages unfit for a boy to read, and renumbered
  all the lines in text and references, and it seemed best not to
  put the old numbering side by side with the new, except in the
  Grammatical Appendices. It has been necessary to alter the text,
  though very slightly, in about six places.

In some books, cuts are substantial: ii. 701-710 (reading D5B, page 64)
is 543-552 in Hallam. For this e-text, the original line number is shown
in double brackets after the cited Hallam number; when the original
number was used, the Hallam number is shown in the same way.

_Errata_ (noted by transcriber)


  149  A. ... Frontinus, _Strat._ ii. 4  [ii. 4.]


  Livy, 32, 40 ... 246, 265  [265,]


  Satan exalted sat.”’ [final ’ missing]
  +13. Additional Hints.+  [final . missing]


  [Table] ... subsidio misit.  [. missing]
  even although  [text unchanged]
  P. Corn. Sulla, the Praetor,  [final comma missing]
  +dimidia+ √+med-+, +mid-+ = _middle_  [+mid-+,]
  +cylindro+ = _a cylinder_, κύλινδρος.  [. for ,]
  [Footnote 19: Also the birthplace of Marius. Cf. p. 163.]
    [“p” (for “page”) invisible]


  Linenote 24. ...
    Plunged headlong in the tide. --Macaulay
      [mismatched close quote at end]

  Linenote 20 ... Cf. the Saxon Chronicle.  [final . missing]

  Linenote 23.  [32]

  Linenote 11. ... spectator, umpire.  [final . missing]

  Linenote 4. +cui+, i.e.  [final . missing]

  THE WAR WITH THE TARENTINES AND PYRRHUS. (3).  [closing ) missing]

  [Footnote 32: See p. 124, l. 2, note.]  [p, 124]

  +Parallel Passage.+  [, for .]

  Linenote 19. ... Cf. our ‘commercial travellers.’  [closing ’ missing]

  +Context.+ The plebs in Nola ...  [extraneous open quote at ‘The...]

  Linenote 22. +formis+ ...  [line number missing]

  Linenote 18. ... (+in carcere+, l. 19)  [l. 23]

  Audieratque pavens: “Fas haec contingere non est  [‘ for “]
  ... vanum depone furorem.”  [closing ” missing]

  Linenote 7. ... the solemn festival  [festvial]

  SUETONIUS, _Divus Iulius_, 77.  [SEUTONIUS]

  Linenote 21.  [19]

  +Caesar In Britain.+  [printed as if note to (nonexistent) line 24]

  Linenote 19-20. +ut imperi ... extremum+
    [_spelling unchanged: body text has “imperii”_]

  qui si improbasset
    [_syllable “im” crossed out by hand: readings of this passage
    include both “probasset” and “in(im-)probasset”]

  +Cato Uticensis.+ ... ‘Victrix causa ... Catoni.’ --W. F.
    [opening ‘ missing]


  SENECA, _Medea_ 920.  [_passage is more often numbered 931_]
  STATIUS, _Silvae_, III. ii. 1-20, 42-53, 61-66.  [II. ii.]
  PERSIUS, _Sat._ v. 19-25, 30-40.
    [_text shown as printed: passage quoted is ll. 30-40_]
  ANDROMEDA (2) B.  [. missing]
  Tibullus: _Birthday Wishes._ B.  [final . missing]
  Trimalchio's Supper B.
    ‘quod dixero ... “Numquid alius scit hanc condituram vitreorum?”
    Vide modo. Postquam negavit, iussit illum Caesar decollari; quia
    enim, si scitum esset, aurum pro luto haberemus.’
    [_as printed:_
    ‘quod dixero ... ‘Numquid alius scit hanc condituram vitreorum?’
    Vide modo. Postquam negavit, iussit illum Caesar decollari; quia
    enim, si scitum esset, aurum pro luto haberemus.]
    _Catella Gallicana._  [, for .]


  LIVY, xxii. 6: ‘En’ inquit ‘hic ... foede civium dabo.
    [closing ’ missing]
  Sallust: His style is, however  [‘His style]

APPENDIX VII (Chronological Outlines)

  Carthaginian victory at _Drepana_  [Cathaginian]

  149-146 B.C.:
    _Destruction of Carthage_
  148 B.C.:
    +Macedonia made a Roman Province+ (4)
    +Illyricum made a Roman Province+ (5)
  133 B.C.:
    +Roman Province in Spain+ (7)
    +Achaia made a Roman Province+ (8)

[Province #6 is missing. By this text’s numbering, Africa (146 BC)
should have been #4, with Macedonia and Illyricum as #5 and #6.]

  Wall of Antonine  [_text unchanged_]

[Text shown in {braces} is conjectural. In the printed book, the
rightmost part of some pages was lost in the gutter.]

  ROMULUS. Roman Senate of 200. _Spolia opima_ {(1)}
  SERVIUS TULLIUS. The Census, basis of _Com{itia} Centuriata_. The
  Servian Wall includes {the} Quirinal ...
  TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS. Conquest of _Gabii_. Tyran{ny} leading to
  expulsion of the Tarquins and aboli{tion} of the monarchy
  Two new Tables. (+Ap{pius} Claudius+)
  ... resulting in {the} _Valerio-Horatian_ Laws


  +Mummius Achaicus+ destroys Corinth, 156  [, missing]

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use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.