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Title: Kathay: A Cruise in the China Seas
Author: Macaulay, W. Hastings
Language: English
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  "Coelum, non animum, mutant,
  Qui trans mare currunt."


  Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852,
  In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the
  Southern District of New-York.

  49 Ann-Street.



I have presumed to address this work to you, more to prove the truth of
its motto, than from any hope that it may be intrinsically worthy of
your acceptance.

Connected with a noble profession by ties at once sad and dear, I have
considered that a narration of events seen in its service--however
unworthily set down, might not be uninteresting to you; and feeling
assured that your prayers and kind wishes have followed us through
"changing skies," as we have sped across "distant seas,"--upon our safe
return, I am truly happy in being able to imitate the custom of mariners
of more sunny climes, and to place this offering of affection upon the
altar of Gratitude.

                                                THE AUTHOR.




  Set Sail--Sea-sickness--Get a good offing--Sail ho!--Islets
  of St. Paul--Shipwreck there--Sufferings--Crossing the
  Line--Fernando Noronha--Fire--Remarkable peak--Arrival
  at Rio--Disappointment--Beauties of the harbor--Ashore at
  last--Village of San Domingo--Flying trip to city--Yellow
  fever--All hands up anchor--Sugarloaf Mountain--Off for
  the Cape                                                          9


  Telling Tales out of School--Double the Cape--The Flying
  Dutchman--Albatross and Cape pigeons--Catching the
  albatross--The man who ate the albatross--Superstition
  of sailors--Man overboard--Lying to--Accident--Death--
  The sailor's grave                                               20


  Island of St. Paul--Steering for Java Head--Land ho!--
  Christmas Island--Straits of Sunda--A Beautiful Scene--
  Sentimental Simile--Come to anchor--Anger Point--Village
  of Anger--On shore in Java--Perfume of the East--Banyan
  tree--The governor and Dutch hotel keeper--Welcome at
  an inn--Attack on Anger Fort--Dutch officers' prowess,
  and French!--The Javanese--Chinaman--Mosque--Mahomet--
  Bazaar--Watering place                                           26


  China Sea--Anchor off Macào--Canton River--Whampoa--Trip
  to Canton--The San-pan--Pagodas--Lob Creek--Salt junks--
  Description of a Junk--Mandarin, or search boats--Pirates--
  Crowded state of River at Canton--Land at Factory Stairs--
  Visit Vice-Consul--New China Street--A Cow-House--Wonders
  of Canton--Factory gardens--Water parties--Buddhist temples,
  and holy pigs--Dock-yard at Whampoa--American missionary at
  Newtown--Bethel, and its pastor--Fourth of July--Back to
  Macào--The Typa--The Barrier                                     33


  Passage ashore--A-ti--The Praya--Forts--Governor's Road--
  Description of Macào--Murder of Amaral--Manoeuvring of Seu
  and his triumph--A new Governor--His death--Council of
  Government--View from Guia Fort--Marques's garden--Camoen's
  grotto--Epitaph and doggerel written there--A beautiful
  spot--Stealing fire from the gods--Fate of Prometheus            44


  Up the Canton River again--Bay of Canton--Bocca Tigris--
  Forts at the Bogue--Their construction--Conduct of Chinese
  when attacked--The Feast of Lanterns--The Rebellion--Paddy
  fields and mosquitoes--Back to Typa--Pleasant times--Blowing
  up of a frigate!                                                 54


  Visit Hong-Kong--A beautiful morning--Harbor of Hong-Kong
  --Settlement of Victoria--Line-of-battle ship Hastings--
  Forecastle logic--An arrival from the Northern Seas--Her
  B. M. S. Herald--Salutes--Description of Victoria--Club
  House--Health of Hong-Kong--Death vacancies--Feasting and
  fêtes--Ball--Pic-Nic--Departure from Hong-Kong                   63


  China--Limited opportunities--The Chinese nation compared
  with others--Its antiquity--Magnitude of territory and
  practicability of laws--Supposed origin of the Chinese
  --Fables of their early writers--Explanation of their
  exaggerations--Foundation of the Empire--Chinese traditions
  compared with sacred history--Similarity of events--Wise men
  of the East--Introduction of Buddhism--Arts and sciences--
  The magnetic Needle--Discovery of Gunpowder--Origin of the
  name--China--Che-Hwang-te, King of Tsin--Parallel between
  him and Napoleon--Religion--Confucius--The Taouists--
  Buddhism--A Buddhist's idea of Heaven                            70


  Christmas and the New Year in Macào--Removal of remains of
  Da Cunha--The dead give place to the quick--Chinese manner
  of fishing--A new principle in hydraulics--Inspection of
  Macào Militia--An ancient cemetery--Arrival of the new
  Governor, Cardoza--Underway for Manilla--Fetch up at
  Hong-Kong--Another start--Island of Luconia--Bay of
  Manilla--Earthquake--Discovery and settlement of the
  Philippines--Description of Manilla--The Calzada--A
  puppet-show                                                      81


  Drive to the Balsa--Meaning of the word--A mob of women
  --Nora Creena--Magic, slipper--Description of the drive
  --Ferryman of the females--Decline the office--The suburbs
  --A la Balsa--Manilla, intra murales--The Mole by Moonlight
  --Friend in a fit--Circo Olympico--Scenes in the Circle          90


  An early drive--Visit to Churches--The Cathedral--
  Description--Reflections--Church of the Binondo Quarter
  --The dead child--Baptism--Life's entrances and exit--
  Ceremony of taking the veil--Poor Maraquita--An episode
  --Don Cæsar de Bazan--Interior of the convent--Interview
  with the Lady Superior--Interchange of compliments--
  Spanish courtesy--An admission                                   99


  Fabrico del Tobago--Manufacture of the cheroot--
  Description of the process--Female operatives--Gigantic
  effects--Midshipman attacked--A delightful Evening--Boat
  ahoy--Disappointed in trip to Lagunade Bay--Funcion
  Familia--Madame Theodore--The Calçada again--Margarita
  --Teatro Binondo--Teatro Tagalo de Tondo--Espana--Anecdote
  of an Englishman--Farewell to Manilla--Out to Sea               105


  Anchor in harbor of Hong-Kong--Hastings and Herald both
  off--Advantage of newspapers--A first-rate notice--The
  Press of Victoria--The Friend of China--Its pugnacity--
  Advertising sheets--Description of Island--Rain--
  Character of Chinese inhabitants                                114


  Hong-Kong--Object of its settlement--Its service as an
  opium dépôt--Views of the opium trade--Its history--
  Considered the cause and object of the war--Treaty of
  Nankin--Opium trade fixed on China                              121


  Trip to Macào--Disappointed in getting ashore--Mail
  arrived--Get no letters--Expression of sentiments--Causes
  and effects--Overland mail--Idea of a route--Happy Valley
  --Chase of Pirates--_A Poisson d'Avril_--Into the Typa
  again--Arrival of consort--Late dates--Catholic fête--
  Depart for Shanghae--The Yang-tse-Kiang--Improvement in
  the appearance of the country--Better race of men--Banks
  of the Woo-sung                                                 127


  Shanghae--Immense number of junks--Foreign residences--
  Novelty of Chimneys--Revolting appearance of beggars--
  Undertakers--Price of coffins--Decline trading--
  Description of city--Stagnant pools--Tea gardens--Sweet
  site--The Taoutae--Advantages of Shanghae--Departure--
  Ship ashore!--Sensation                                         135


  Amoy--Its trade--Cause of decay--Infanticide--Manner of
  destroying female infants--China woman's confession--
  Environs--British and American cemeteries--The fatal
  rock--Koo-lung-Seu--Chinese gunnery--Chinese Customs--
  Marriage--Death--Manner of mourning--Pagoda of
  Nan-tae-Woo-Shan                                                142


  Formosa--Description of the island--Its productions--Coal
  mines--Metals--The Dutch possessions--Their expulsion--
  Proper policy of civilized powers                               148


  Leave Amoy--Arrive in Macào Roads--Live ashore--Well
  guarded--Night calls--Ventriloquist at Typa Fort--
  Ordered on board--Up to Whampoa--Clipper Ships--Over
  to Hong-Kong--Coronation day--Independence day--
  Hurried on board--The mail--Ty-foongs                           154


  Ty-foong passed--Pleasant season--Theatrical exhibition
  --The Macàense--Philharmonic Society--Italian Opera--
  Awaiting orders for home--Thoughts of home and friends
  --Idea suggested by the setting sun--Poetry--Maladie de
  Pays--Its effects upon the Swiss--A remedy--My own
  experience, and manner of Cure                                  161


  Haul up all standing--Boat races--Interest in the sport--
  Excitement general--Arrangements--Jockeyism--Regatta--
  Preparations--The start--The race--The result--Launch and
  first cutter--Race described con-amore--Suggestion of an
  old salt--Satan and sailors                                     166


  Effects of the race--Suppers and their effects--The stuff
  that dreams are made of--A scrape in the Typa--Again at
  Whampoa                                                         172


  Anson's Bay--Hong-Kong again--P. & O. Company's hulk takes
  fire--Escape of captain's wife--Toong-Koo Bay--Piracy--
  Fire at Macào--Wolf again at Whampoa--Amateur theatricals
  at Canton--Melancholy musings                                   177


  Commodore arrives at last--Preparations for a start--Delay
  --Washington's Birthday--The clipper Challenge--Prisoners
  from her--Homeward bound!--Reflections on leaving--Case of
  small-pox--Second visit to Anger                                184


  No mosquitoes at Anger--The land of the East--A sketch--
  Advantages of Anger--Dolce-far-niente--Island of Java--
  Batavia--Bantam--Comparison between Anger and Singapore         189


  Pass through Sunda Strait--H. B. M. S. Rattler--Catch the
  trades--A learned opinion on diaries--Extracts from diary
  --Isle of France--Its romance--Bourbon--Mauritius--Cape
  of Good Hope--Description--Trouble in getting in--Table
  Bay and Mountain                                                194


  Land at Cape Town--Hotels and widows--Drive to Constantia
  --Description of drive--Price of wine--Manumission of
  slaves--Seasons at the Cape--The town through a microscope,
  &c. &c.                                                         200


  Settlement of Cape Town--Its productions--The Kaffir war--
  Latest dispatches--Cause of the rebellion--Description of
  the Kaffir by the traveller--Opinion of him by the resident
  --Authority of prominent men--Observatory, &c.                  208


  A death on board--Our freight--Extracts from diary--St.
  Helena and Napoleon--The trades--Poetical idea of a
  starry telegraph--Good sailing                                  217


  Classic ground--Hispaniola--Romance of the western waters
  --Extracts from diary--On a wind--Newsboats wanted--The
  Bermudas--Target practice                                       222


  The Gulf Stream--Darby's theory--Its ingenuity--The coasts
  of America--John Cabot, the Venetian--"_Terra primum
  visa_"--Completion of cruise--Conclusion                        226



  Set Sail--Sea-sickness--Get a good offing--Sail ho!--Islets
  of St. Paul--Shipwreck there--Sufferings--Crossing the
  Line--Fernando Noronha--Fire--Remarkable peak--Arrival at
  Rio--Disappointment--Beauties of the harbor--Ashore at
  last--Village of San Domingo--Flying trip to city--Yellow
  fever--All hands up anchor--Sugarloaf Mountain--Off for the

Immediately after noon, upon the 29th day of January, 1850, we east off
from the wharf at the Navy Yard in Charlestown, Massachusetts, and with
the pilot on board, proceeded to sea. But little time was allowed to
send our adieus, for he soon left us, bearing with him some hasty
scrawls, to the illegibility of one of which a very good friend of the
writer can testify. Our commander was very anxious to commence his
cruise, and having been delayed nearly one month for officers, put off
upon it as soon as the last gentleman had reported.

That bugbear to all landsmen,--sea-sickness,--gave me but little
annoyance, although some of the crew appeared to suffer greatly from its

Having a favorable wind we soon made a good offing, a very desirable
thing at that season of the year, and indeed one which no sailor objects
to on any coast, when outward bound; a fresh, favoring breeze and plenty
of sea room being his most fervent prayer.

Our first destination was Rio, and towards it we bent our course. A few
days out, and the novelty of our situation having worn off, pleasing
remembrances of persons, localities, and particular events which had
occurred during our sojourn in Boston, became less frequent, and pretty
allusions to "again standing upon the deck," poetical petitions to the
dark blue Ocean, praying it, in the language of Byron, to "roll on,"
gradually gave way to growlings, when old _Neptune_, as if in answer,
drove his chariot over its surface, and working its waters into a yeasty
foam, disturbed, at the same time, both our equilibrium and equanimity.

But little occurred to destroy the usual monotony of a sea voyage. At
long intervals "_sail ho_!" would be called out by the lookout on the
foretopsail yard, and after a time our eyes would be greeted from the
deck with the sight of another white-winged wanderer like ourself,
steering for his distant port. Then would come conjecture as to whither
he might be bound, and sailor-like reflections upon his rig, qualities
of sailing, and the judgment of the skipper in the selection of his

Our reckoning, and the change of temperature both of air and water,
soon announced that we were approaching that equatorial divider of our
globe, called "_the Line_," and in about one degree of latitude above
it (1° 16' N.) we made the islets of Saint Paul, a barren pile of
rocks of about one mile and a half in length, and of inconsiderable
breadth, standing solitarily and desolately here in mid ocean. Made
their longitude by the mean of three chronometers; observation 29° 19'
57'' west; about one degree different from the longitude in which they
were laid down in our chart; an error which should be corrected.

It was here that a few years ago a Dutch East Indiaman was wrecked, and
of nearly two hundred souls but three or four were saved, and these were
taken off after remaining upon the rocks some twelve days, without
nourishment and exposed to all the horrors of starvation. Worse yet than
that, deprived of shelter from a vertical sun, without water to restore
the fluids which his fierce rays extracted from their parching bodies.
An immense number of birds were flying over and around these jagged
peaks, and who knows how greatly these may have added to the torture of
the shipwrecked crew, when failing nature denied the power to protect

                 "Ah who can tell
    The looks men cast on famished men;
    The thoughts that came up there."

In the morning watch of the twenty-sixth of February, we "crossed the
line" in longitude 29° 56' 50'' west, with such light breezes, that at
meridian we had logged but 30' south. We escaped the usual visit of old
_Neptune_ upon entering the threshold of his dominions,--and as it was
early morning, suppose the "Old Salt" was calmly reposing in the arms
of _Amphitrite_. Seriously, I consider this custom of performing
practical jokes in the character of Neptune, as "one more honored in the
breach than the observance," and that no officer should endanger the
discipline of his ship by allowing such unmannerly pranks as we read of
having been performed, and where the initiated have paid the penalty
with broken bones, sometimes with life.

At 5. 45. A. M. of the same day, the island of Fernando Noronha was made
from the mast head, and as it gradually loomed to the vision, from the
deck, its remarkable peak began to assume various shapes, mostly
resolving themselves into the semblance of a high tower. It is on the
north side of the island, and is called "the Pyramid;" is said to
elevate its rocky proportions from the midst of a beautiful grove to the
height of about one thousand feet above the level of the sea. Near its
summit there is a station, from which a lookout can have supervision
over the entire island, and the sea for many leagues on every point
surrounding it.

The island of Fernando Noronha we found in latitude 3° 51' 04'' south,
and longitude 32° 27' 15'' west. It was at one time much resorted to by
whalers for provisions and water, although the scarcity of the latter at
certain seasons, does not render it at all times desirable for this
purpose. It is about seven miles long, and from two to three in breadth.

Noronha was at one time used by the Brazilian government as a place of
transportation for criminals, principally those exiled for treason, and
offenders against the state, and is said to contain some beautiful
scenery; also to produce magnificent fruit. But we were not to linger
there, and soon its peak, becoming more and more indistinct, sinking
slowly, lost its proportions beneath the horizon.

The first day of what would have been called spring in our own beautiful
land, was ushered in by an alarm of fire. The officers and the different
messes were nearly all at breakfast when the signal for such an accident
was given, and were not slow in obeying its summons; in less than a
minute every one was at his station, when the smoke was discovered
issuing from the galley funnel forward, into which a lazy cook, whose
duty it was to have it properly cleaned every morning, had inserted some
straw for the purpose of performing his duty more expeditiously and
effectually; and indeed he had nearly succeeded in getting rid of it
altogether, had it not been for the promptness of a forecastle man, who
seizing a bucket of water, opportunely standing near him on the
topgallant forecastle, dashed it down the funnel, preventing the flames
from communicating with the foresail, and thus probably saved the ship.

Of all the numerous accidents to which a man-of-war is so peculiarly
liable, that of destruction by fire is most likely to occur, and
requires the strictest discipline to guard against; for this are
established certain hours for smoking, and a stated period at night for
the extinguishing of all lights; so that after ten o'clock the peopled
ship speeds on her way, over the dark bosom of the heaving billows, with
only the light in the binnacle to show her course upon the illuminated
card, and the well-secured lamp in the cabin, by which her commander,
anxious and unsleeping, traces her track along the corrected chart.

Upon the tenth day of March, Sunday, at seven bells in the last dog
watch, we came to anchor in the harbor of Rio de Janeiro, off the town
known generally by the name of the river, but originally called San
Sebastian. After forty days at sea, the exact time made by the first
voyageur, Noah, we were as anxious as he might be supposed to have been,
to escape from his menagerie; for take it as you will, you will find
Emerson's "Experience" to agree with yours in this respect, however you
may differ from him in others, when he states in his essay with that
title (which essay, par parenthesis, I was compelled to swallow in
hospital for want of better mental aliment), that, "Every ship is a
romantic object, except the one you sail in,--embark, and the romance
quits your vessel, and hangs on every other sail in the horizon."

After, as I have said, this period of probation, in a vessel crowded
almost to the extent of Noah's, and whose crew bore some resemblance to
his, if one might judge from the _growls_ on board--the prospect of a
trip to the shore, fresh provender and iced drinks was delicious,
especially as the Hotel of Pharoux had been so repeatedly extolled
during the passage as a horn of plenty, abounding in delicacies, and our
mouths had been so often made to water upon many a "banyan day," by the
luscious descriptions of those who had on former occasions the happiness
to have indulged therein. But alas! for human hopes and expectations;

    "L'homme propose, et Dieu dispose!"

For early on the next morning, after getting out the boats, and making
other preparations for a visit to Rio, an order came from our commodore
on that station, forbidding us to land, or to hold communication with
the shore, on account of the prevalence of the yellow fever, then
epidemic there. So here we lay, only a few cables' length from the Ilha
da Cobras, with all the tropical plants and fruit almost within reach,
and tantalizing us with their perfume,--the domes, palaces and public
buildings of a gay capital (unvisited by many), rising picturesquely
before us, and yet forbidden. We thought of Tantalus, and his fate, of
Prometheus and the rock--of--of Adam and his expulsion, and must own
that in our first feelings of disappointment, we made but a partial
excuse for our primal progenitor, and great great grandmother, as we
repeated those expressive lines of the poet, so early engraved upon our

    "In Adam's fall
    We sinnéd all."

But trying as was our situation, we were in a measure compensated for
our disappointment by the beauty of this unrivalled harbor; and to
describe it fully, I must be allowed to revert to the period when the
coast of Brazil was first made, with its bold outlines developing new
beauties as we approached. Indications of land had been noticed early in
the morning of the day of our arrival, and shortly the numerous mountain
peaks for which this coast is celebrated, filled the horizon before us
like a line of dark clouds. As the distance was diminished, peak after
peak stood out in bold relief against the blue sky, and we were soon
enabled to make out the False Sugarloaf, Corcovado, Lord Hood's Nose,
and The Tops--so called by sailors, from their resemblance to those
parts of a ship. The light breeze, under which we carried
studding-sails, and all the canvas that would draw, gradually wafted us
towards the mouth of the river, yet so gently did we glide along that
not one feature of the scene was lost; but it was not until we had
passed the islands that screen its front, that its full magnificence was
developed, and then, as by the drawing aside of a curtain, the harbor of
Rio de Janeiro was displayed,--a magnificent basin surrounded by
innumerable hills, which were dotted with beautiful villas.

Under a spanking breeze, which suddenly sprung up, we dashed on nearly
to the base of Sugarloaf Mountain, and then stood over boldly to the
fort Santa Cruz, from which we were hailed, and as the short twilight
had given way to deeper shadows, were signalized by blue lights,
continued by an opposite fortification, until they were noticed at the
station on Signal Hill behind the city. Onward we sped, through a fleet
of vessels, our craft threading her way, "like a thing of life," obeying
the master's steady commands, creating no little sensation, as she
darted amongst them, inclining to the right or left, or pressing boldly,
straight ahead, to the repeated orders of "starboard," "port," or
"steady there, so," and causing the different craft to run up their
signal lights quite hastily. "Stand by," "let go the anchor," and there
she lay as if taking rest after a long journey.

On viewing the scene from the deck by the early light of the next
morning's dawn, I could compare it with nothing but the painting
displayed in a theatre, and the quiet that reigned in that still hour,
added greatly to the effect. The background of mountains piercing the
clouds; the foreground being formed by the town itself with its houses
of various hues, and picturesque styles of architecture, ascending the
mountain's side, and villas, and country seats aiding the perspective,
whilst the island of Cobras served as a side scene.

Around us stretched for leagues this splendid harbor, upon whose broad
bosom lay vessels of every nation (and which appeared capable of bearing
the fleets of the world), fringed by hills whose verdure seemed undying,
over which were spread the beautiful trees of a tropical clime.

An opportunity at last occurred of setting foot upon terra firma once
more, which was as gladly embraced--permission having been granted to
visit the shore opposite to Rio, where is the village of San Domingo and
the Praya Grande; with several officers we were pulled in the second
cutter to intercept one of those graceful lateen rigged boats, called
"felloas," which are seen in such numbers flitting in every direction
over these beautiful waters. As soon as we were landed at the village,
there ensued an amusing scene in paying for our passage. The sum of two
"dumps" (about four cents in the currency of the United States), each,
being demanded, we placed our quotas as nearly as we could make them, in
the hands of one of the party, who acted as spokesman, who tendered the
commandante of the felloa one of our silver coins, much greater in
value than the aggregate sum of our passage money,--which was
indignantly refused by the tawny Brazilian, who was immediately assailed
by each member of the party who had any pretensions to language other
than his own; from which babel we were but too happy to escape,
learning, however, when we were overtaken by the linguists, that they
had fairly talked "the old fellow" down, and compelled him to take more
money than (even allowing for difference of currency) he had demanded.

To a person who has never visited tropical countries, a landing upon
this part of the Empire of Brazil, must be productive of much pleasure.
At times, it is true, the heat is oppressive, but then the delightful
sea-breeze setting in at regular hours, amply compensates for the
inconvenience of the "terrales," the term applied to the wind which
blows off the land.

We wished much to have enjoyed the society of the opposite city, but the
fell destroyer held his revels there, and we could only manage a stolen
visit to it by night in one of the swift felloas from Praya Grande,
having to make a hasty flight on board ship early the next
morning--gaining but little information by our trip, excepting the
assurance that those who had promised so fairly for Mons. Pharoux were
indeed true prophets.

The call of "all hands up anchor," awakened us on the morning of the
18th of March, and before all hands were on deck, we were being towed
out of the harbor by one of the small steamers, to undertake the longest
part of our cruise. The view was then as fine as could be imagined; we
were near the outlet, but Corcovado, Sugarloaf, The Forts, and town
were all in sight, and we had but to turn our eyes from one magnificent
sight, to have them greeted by another. I was much struck by the
appearance of Sugarloaf Mountain as we passed; it is of great height,
and the reader will readily understand the peculiarity which gives its
name. At the time a cloud encircled its brow, within a short distance of
the summit, yet leaving its peak plainly visible, as if a wreath had
been cast over it, and had rested in that position. But soon Rio, and
its beauties had faded in the distance, and we were steering our lonely
course for the Cape.


  Telling Tales out of School--Double the Cape--The Flying
  Dutchman--Albatross and Cape Pigeons--Catching the Albatross
  --The Man who Ate the Albatross--Superstition of Sailors--Man
  Overboard--Lying to--Accident--Death--The Sailor's Grave.

It is very difficult to find incidents on board of a man-of-war which
you can feel justified in setting before the public; for be it known, in
regard to the "secrets of _this_ prison-house," that "such unwonted
blazon may not be." Now, on board a merchantman, a person might, if
afflicted with _Cacoethes Scribendi_, detail the peculiarities of the
skipper, and any little accident which may have befallen him; such as
the admixture of briny fluid, which Father Neptune may have chosen to
infuse into his glass of sherry, by sending an envoy, in the shape of a
wave, across the poop, who dropped his credentials as he passed over the
unclosed skylight: the numerous evils which befell the mate: the jokes
of Jones: the puns of Smith, or the sallies of Sandy. But here we are
forbidden to walk shodden over sacred ground and details of the cruise
must be confined to generalities; otherwise the travels of the
celebrated Gulliver would be eclipsed, Baron Munchausen lose his claim
to veracity, and the shade of the venerable Miller slink back to its
original punishment.

A strong northerly wind drove us along the coast of Brazil a little
farther south than was our intention to have steered; but upon its
changing, we mended our course, and soon doubled the Cape of Good Hope,
without any incident worthy of notice,--not even seeing the Flying
Dutchman; and if I except the white-winged albatross which followed in
our wake, and the graceful Cape pigeon that strove to emulate our speed,
I may say that, to all appearance, we were alone upon the ocean,--the
moving centre of one vast dial of water enlarging its circumference as
we advanced. But here I must be allowed to notice the occurrence of one
of those coincidences which serve to keep alive those smouldering fires
of superstition, which Education and Experience have done so much to
quench. It had been the practice to fish (?) for the friendly and
companionable albatross with a line towed astern, to which a hook was
attached, baited with a piece of pork. Now many had been the protests
made against these proceedings by some of our most stanch and fearless
men. They prophesied in substance, if not in words, that

    "It was not, nor could it come to good."

Yet these prophecies were disregarded, and notwithstanding their solemn
murmuring and ominous shakings of the head, the sport was continued; and
many a wondering albatross was bitten, when he took a bite at the
treacherous pork; until one day, after numbers had been taken, one of
the messes determined to have a sea-pie, of which the body of one of
these birds should be the component part. If force could have been used
to prevent the consummation of this deed, that mess had not dined that
day: but as the crew on board of a man-of-war have no other recourse but
to report their grievances to the first lieutenant, and that not being
deemed advisable in such a case, these men were allowed to eat the
albatross. Now I do not pretend to identify the captor of the bird, nor
was I able to point out the person who ate the greater portion of him
when transformed into a pie; but it so happened that the next morning,
about seven bells, the ship was alarmed by the cry of "A man overboard!"
This is an appalling sound at any time; but when the ship is making ten
knots, with a heavy sea on, the chances for a fellow-creature's fate,
make the moment one of dreadful anxiety, and especially to the
commander, one of fearful responsibility; as to save one life, that of
ten or more must be risked. Ready for the occasion, ours never
hesitated. The ship was put about at once, and as her headway was
reduced, a boat prepared for lowering, volunteers to the rescue called
away, and the boat at once so crowded as to make it necessary to order
men out of her before she could be let down. She had barely touched the
water, when the men gave way; but now came the difficulty, which way to
steer? Our velocity had been so great as to leave the poor fellow miles
astern; and as every one had been engaged at his station in wearing
ship, the bearings of the place where he was struggling for dear life
had become confused. Twenty voices shouted out "Pull there!" "Pull
here!" and as many hands pointed to as many different directions. Our
commander, who had carefully scanned the surrounding waters, and had
shown the greatest solicitude for the fate of the poor fellow, combined
with that steady coolness so necessary in such moments, ordering
silence, made a signal for the boat to pull towards a spot where a
number of albatross were hovering. The midshipman in the boat at last
comprehending the signal, pulled as directed; and then, after hoisting
in what appeared to be the life-buoy, which had been let go on the first
alarm, headed for the ship. To lessen the distance, in such a heavy
swell, the ship also approached the boat; and as she bent her head
gracefully towards that which she had so long sustained at her side, I
could hardly divest my mind of the idea that she was possessed of
instinct, and sought with maternal eagerness her tiny child, which had
strayed upon the ocean. As the boat approached, from the forecastle the
man's form could be distinguished;--he was saved! Soon he was handed
over the side, given over to the surgeon to resuscitate, and the next
day was about, and attending to his duty. And now for the connection of
the albatross with this accident. One of his messmates declared most
solemnly that he had seen an albatross sweeping over the topgallant
forecastle whenever this man--who had feasted upon one of his kind--had
appeared upon it; and that at the very moment of his disappearance, (he
fell from the head,) this same identical bird had made a swoop, and
carried him overboard! Then, the men in the boat also affirmed, that
when they reached the drowning man, two albatross were holding him up by
the hair, whilst others, circling round his head, pecked wickedly at his
face; thus retaliating upon one who had devoured their species, by
picking his bones in return. But if the truth must be told, however
disposed the birds may have been, they were the means used by Divine
Providence to prolong the sailor's life; for they not only sustained
him, as they would have done any other desirable object, by pecking at
it, but also directed us where to send the boat to his assistance. So
the man who ate, escaped the more prolonged punishment of him who

    ----"shot the albatross."

To show how these matters are managed on board a man-of-war, I give the
report of the affair: "At 7h. 30m., J. D. (O. S.) fell overboard; hove
to; lowered a boat; wore ship, and picked him up. At 8, wore, and stood
upon our course." If a man had slipped upon the pavement, and you had
assisted him to rise by extending your hand, the fact could hardly have
been explained in fewer words. But it is this indifference to danger,
and the casualties of his calling, that makes up the efficiency of the

On the twenty-third day of April we were obliged to lay to in lat. 38°
26' south, and longitude 45° 34' 47'' east, by chronometer, and on parts
of the first, third, and fourth days of May had to undergo the same
operation. This was by no means pleasant, as, owing to the weight of our
battery, we rolled very much; and as we could not close the ports
entirely, for fear of carrying them away, had a constant flow of water
across the deck, sometimes very difficult to bear up against.

On the tenth of May, at about 5 P. M., all hands were called to reef
topsails, and a forecastle man, who was hurrying aloft to assist his
companions on the foreyard, fell from only a few rattlings above the
sheerpole upon the deck, and injured himself so severely as to cause
his death early the next morning. Poor fellow!

    "Nor wife, nor children, more shall he behold,
    Nor friends, nor sacred home."

His remains were committed to the deep, at meridian of the same day; and
many a manly fellow among his messmates and the crew added a briny drop
to the wave

    ----which bore him away,
    And wept in compassion for him.

The ship, as if loth to leave the spot, lingered there; for it fell
calm, and by the next meridian we had logged but seven miles.


  Island of St. Paul--Steering for Java Head--Land ho!--Christmas
  Island--Straits of Sunda--A Beautiful Scene--Sentimental
  Simile--Come to Anchor--Anger Point--Village of Anger--On Shore
  in Java--Perfume of the East--Banyan Tree--The Governor and
  Dutch Hotel Keeper--Welcome at an Inn--Attack on Anger Fort--
  Dutch Officers' prowess, and French!--The Javanese--Chinaman--
  Mosque--Mahomet--Bazaar--Watering Place.

To make the island of Saint Paul in the Indian Ocean, became now our
principal object, but baffling and adverse winds delayed us. At last
during a stormy night the longitude of this island was obtained, and we
steered as well as we were able for Java Head and the Straits of Sunda.
Upon the twenty-fifth day of May at ten minutes past four, P. M., the
welcome cry of "Land ho!" was heard at the mast head, which was found to
be Christmas Island, and which we also passed in the night too late to
make any observations.

We were, however, more certain now of the correctness of our position,
and when, at daylight on the 27th, Trower's and Clapp's islands were
made, felt sure of soon seeing Java Head, and in a short time this long
looked for landmark greeted our eyes. Here we entered the Straits formed
by the approximation of the islands of Java and Sumatra, and called the
Straits of Sunda.

The night of our entrance was one of some anxiety, and between this
feeling and the excitement of making land after a long and boisterous
passage, caused a pretty general watch to be kept by idlers and all.

It was in the morning watch--Prince's Island had been safely passed, and
the principal dangers of the passage overcome, when seated upon the
foreyard a scene of beauty opened upon my eyes, which it may be long
before they are greeted with again. We were heading up the Straits, and
from my position the highlands of both islands were in sight. The
morning air was soft and balmy, and came laden with sweet odors, as if
Aurora had lingered to inhale them upon the "Spice island."

We were being wafted along almost imperceptibly, with but so slight an
undulation as scarcely to be felt. To the eastward rose a high peak on
Sumatra, around which the sky was rosy with the day god's first beams.
The gentle waters around us were still in shadow, with sufficient light,
however, upon their surface to enable the eye to take in their expanse,
and to distinguish objects upon them. In the distance, and approaching,
was a brig looking like a tiny toy, with British colors at her gaff,
beating out of the Straits. As the sun, climbing still higher the side
of the obstructing mountain, diffused his gladdening light over this
magnificent scene, the idea struck me, and call it sentimental if you
will, that it was like the first blush suffusing the face of a fair
young bride, ere the full glad assurance of her happiness comes in all
its power to convert it into a bright, beaming smile. So did these rosy
rays overspread the face of nature, and enliven every feature.

On the twenty-ninth of May, came to anchor at Anger Point off the
village of Anger (pronounced Anjier), a Dutch settlement. Of course the
desire to get on shore was general after being over seventy days on
ship-board, and my feet were among the first of those which touched the
soil of Java.

What struck me first as we approached the shore, was that remarkable
perfume which every one notices as peculiar to the East.

A magnificent banyan tree, which literally spreads itself over the
landing, next became an object of attraction; of its exact spread or
height I was not informed, but the natives muster in numbers under its
branches, and the Dutch Governor uses it to display the signal of his
authority--the flag of his nation.

The governor of this district, whose pardon I must crave for allowing
his name just now to slip from my memory, has, here at Anger, a very
fine house and extensive grounds kept in admirable order, and appeared
to enjoy himself in this out-of-the-way place, but as he possessed a
young, pretty, and interesting companion, in the shape of a little wife,
had a perfect right to do so, especially being

    "Monarch of all he surveyed."

Whilst his next door neighbor, Mr. Van-Sy Something or other, having a
house nearly as comfortable, used it as a hotel, if hotel that can be
called, in which you have permission to wait upon yourself, and are
charged extravagantly for the privilege, whilst its proprietor pays his
_devoirs_ (_devours_?) to his bottle of Schnapps, from which his lips
are seldom removed, excepting to receive his pipe, and to sputter out
some delectable Dutch. Thought of Wm. Shenstone's "Warmest Welcome at
an Inn," and wished the poet had been compelled to "put up" with this
same Dutchman as a species of "poetical justice," for placing the
purchased pleasures of a _public house_ before the sacred and free gifts
of home.

There is a fort here in good repair and kept in excellent order, and I
was informed that a short time previous to our arrival it had been
attacked by the natives, who were repulsed with great slaughter. The
attack was fierce and vigorous, but as the Malays were not possessed of
fire-arms, and made the assault with only their naked creeses, they were
easily repulsed. Was told of the tremendous execution done by one gun in
throwing grape amongst them, but I felt a little inclined to doubt its
efficiency upon examining its bore.

The attacking Malays were not those of the immediate vicinity, whose
prowess, from their appearance, I should be inclined to doubt, but came
from the mountains, an unconquered people, who continually make war upon
the invaders of their soil. I was greatly amused by the recital of his
part in the affair, by a non-commissioned officer, who informed me that
he was born a Belgian, and gave his story in broken French, broken in
words as well as grammar, for he had been imbibing something stronger
than water. It appeared that his valiant self and two others equally
brave--one a Frenchman, the other a Prussian--had been selected to serve
as a picket, or _avante garde_, as he termed it, some distance from the
fort, at a place called the "Barrier." When at midnight they heard the
approach of the enemy. "Je mette mon fusil à mon bras," he said; "et à
le Francais je di, Prenez--garde! A le Prusse"--hesitating--"Prenez
garde! aussi, et nous faissons un grande detour,--et--et, nous
eschappons. Et voila, monsieur," he continued, pointing to the stripes
upon his arm, "Je suis sous officier donc. Je suis caporal de la
garde,--le meme comme Napoleon,--le petit Caporal." With a hearty laugh
we bade "le petit Caporal" bon nuit, and returned to our hotel, asking
ourselves what need there could be for the Philosopher's Stone, whilst
there existed such a talisman as Conceit?

The Javanese are called Malays, whilst the inhabitants of the
neighboring island of Sumatra also claim the same appellation. From
their rules for government, their religion, and other distinctive marks,
I would consider them connected with the Arabian race.

Polygamy is permitted amongst them, and they are allowed to possess
wives according to their means. Ouseman, our compradore, and a rajah,
told me he had three, all living peaceably together at his house. Think
of that, ye of the Caucasian race, who, with more means, find it
difficult to get along with one, and in a colder climate too!

Came upon a Chinaman here, a real Fa-qui, tail, costume and all, and for
aught I know may have seen the individual before, for he informed me
that he had been to the United States--"America" he called them--and had
sojourned in Boston, and this too with as strict regard to the memory of
Lindley Murray, and in as good English as we have heard from many a
denizen of that second Athens. He also proved that he had profited by
his residence abroad, for he cheated us entirely to our satisfaction,
and with such a grace as almost to make us fear he was robbing himself,
and only exchanged his articles for our coin, out of respect for our
country. These Chinese are truly said to be an imitative people.

They have a place of worship here, called a Mosque, where I was told the
Prophet was worshipped. Hearing, one night, a great noise within its
sacred precincts, I ventured in,--not without many mutterings of
dissatisfaction from the Malays assembled at its threshold,--and looked
upon a large room dimly lighted, without any visible presence of the
Prophet, although a large chair was raised in the centre of it for him
to rest upon, and a parcel of half-clad wretches were grovelling around
its feet, with cries piteous enough to have brought him down even from
the lap of the most beautiful of his dark-eyed houris, had he one-half
of that humanity for which his worshippers gave him credit. I was told
that these were sick persons, and their friends, praying for relief:--a
very commendable thing in a place where there were none but commissioned
surgeons, provided Mahomet has as much skill in medicine now, as he
possessed over these gentlemen in his methods of amputation when he
practised here below.

Visited the market-place, called Bazaar. Found all kinds of tropical
fruits in great abundance: cocoanuts, bananas, plantains, mangusteens,
&c. &c., and what proved its general use, at every stall, large
quantities of the betel-nut were exposed for sale. This nut is used for
its exhilarating properties, and is chewed as is tobacco; but whether
its juice is swallowed, I cannot say. It blackens the teeth, and must
prove very efficacious in destroying the enamel. Indeed, from the
practice they have of filing their teeth across, and the use of this
acid, it is a wonder that any thing should remain but blackened stumps.

Watered ship here, from a reservoir, supplied by an aqueduct from the
mountains, a distance of some leagues. The water is good, and the supply
appears sufficient, although I cannot commend the construction of the
channel through which it is brought. It is of stone, and stuccoed,
raised about two feet from the level of the road, and open at the top.
During a short walk along this road, I saw numbers of Malay women using
its waters for the purpose of ablution; and I could not count the number
of the various reptiles of this prolific clime, who, lured by their
deceitful flow, had met a watery death.

To show the economy of its construction, I may state, that it is brought
across a small stream, through bamboo troughs, so loosely attached that
sufficient water is wasted in its passage to turn a small mill in Yankee

The first day of June weighed anchor, and stood up the Straits; and a
busy time, too, we had in getting through. It was "Let go the anchor!"
"Furl sails!" "All hands up anchor!" "Make sail!" for several days. At
last, this channel and the Straits of Gaspar being passed, we entered
safely the China Sea.


  China Sea--Anchor off Macào--Canton River--Whampoa--Trip to
  Canton--The San-pan--Pagodas--Lob Creek--Salt Junks--Description
  of a Junk--Mandarin, or Search Boats--Pirates--Crowded state of
  River at Canton--Land at Factory Stairs--Visit Vice-Consul--New
  China Street--A Cow-House--Wonders of Canton--Factory Gardens--
  Water Parties--Buddhist Temples, and Holy Pigs--Dock-yard at
  Whampoa--American Missionary at Newtown--Bethel, and its Pastor
  --Fourth of July--Back to Macào--The Typa--The Barrier.

The southwest monsoon wafted us quietly and quickly over the China Sea,
and upon the nineteenth of June we came to anchor off Macào, in the
outer roads. Not finding the flag-ship there, as was expected, after
taking in some provisions from the naval depôt, weighed anchor, and
proceeded up the Canton River to Whampoa, where we moored ship in the
"American Reach" to undergo necessary repairs. Whilst these were going
on, I procured a "fast boat," and went up to Canton, about nine miles
above that part of the "Reach" in which we lay.

These boats--the "San-pan," or boat of this country--are used expressly
for the conveyance of passengers and their effects, and are kept
scrupulously clean for that purpose. They pull from three to six oars,
according to their size. The oarsmen are all seated forwards, whilst a
woman, generally with a child fastened to her back, both propels and
steers with a long oar from the stern, which she manages with great
dexterity, appearing to work harder, and with better effect, than her
lazy lord, (who has generally the bow oar,) at the same time keeping a
bright lookout ahead, and giving warning in her guttural chant of any

Passed two Pagodas, each of nine stories, and made a romantic cut-off,
via Lob Creek. Soon we came upon a large number of junks at anchor, with
huge manilla cables,--one of which our interpreter pointed out as "Salt
Junk." We had seen enough of that during our passage out, but this kind
of junk interested us; for a more clumsy piece of naval architecture
could hardly have been invented to annoy the eye of a sailor. With her
perpendicular masts of one stick, no bowsprit, only an opening where it
should be, to receive an anchor, made of part of a crooked tree; poop
sticking up like a game fowl's tail, and immense red and white eyes
painted on each bow:--for the Chinese sailor says: "No have eyes, how
can see? no can see, how can walkee?"--make such a picture of a thing to
float in, and wherewith to transport worldly effects, that the question
naturally arises, What would be the probable per centage a Chinese
underwriter would demand as premium to insure in such a bottom? Indeed,
I must do the memory of the patriarch Noah the justice to believe, that
his craft was put together with a better adaptation to the principles of
flotation than this, or it would never have lived through that gale of
forty days and forty nights, logged in the Good Book.

Soon, however, we came across some better-looking specimens, which we
were told were the "Mandarin," or "Search Boats," belonging to the
Chinese Customs. Their models appeared better adapted to "make walkee,"
and, in addition to sails, they had double banks of oars.

At what I took to be the Navy Yard, saw some English hulls, which had
been built upon, and which, in spite of all this eccentric people
could do to change their appearance, still looked ship-shaped. There
were also some sharp-looking junks being built, which I was told were
to be fitted out against the pirates; but, if what I afterwards
learned be true, they were more likely to become piratical craft
themselves; for it was reported that the person to whose charge they
were to have been consigned had been extensively engaged in that
business himself, until he was interfered with by the English, who
broke up his fleet; and that now he had humbugged the Chinese
government into giving him another. At least, so ran the rumor.

As we approached the Factories, it seemed almost impossible to make our
way through the immense number of boats and other craft which appeared
to play hide-and-seek amongst the larger junks moored in every direction
in the stream; but, thanks to the skill of our female pilot, we avoided
all collision, and brought up safely at the Factory stairs. It was
excessively hot; and as we walked across the Factory Gardens to the
Consulate, the effects of the sun upon the clean glossy walks was
painful to the eyes.

After paying our respects to the Vice-Consul, took a short turn up New
China Street to make a few necessary purchases, and then threaded our
way back to Acow's Hotel,--facetiously termed by one of the party who
had the remembrances of dainty spreads at the "Astor" and "Irving House"
in his mind, "a cow house!"

Here we had "tiffin,"--Anglice, lunch,--and then disposed ourselves as
well as we could for comfort and cool air, neither of which did we
obtain; nor what our parched throats so loudly called for,--cool water.
Acow had no ice; so our only recourse was to procure bottles of "aerated
water,"--we called it "Pop," in our ignorance, and to send them where
truth is said to reside,--the bottom of a well.

As the sun declined, walked out to view the wonders of Canton; and
although it was Sunday, found the streets thronged with coolies carrying
heavy burdens of merchandise, slung on bamboos resting on their
shoulders, plying backwards and forwards on their different errands, in
a jog trot, with a loud grunt;--the grunt as much to relieve them, as to
give warning to those in their way. Passed through different streets in
the neighborhood of the Factories, all composed of shops, from which
long-tailed Chinamen rushed out, chinchinning, and soliciting our
custom. These streets have a great similarity, and a description of one
would answer for all. With the exception of some that are devoted to the
sale of particular articles, as the Street of Tailors, and Curiosity
Street, they differ only in the appearance of the article exposed for
sale. They are quite narrow and used only by pedestrians. The only
quadruped I recollect seeing in them was a diminutive jackass, standing
before a shop in "Old China Street." How he came there, or for what
purpose, I could not determine. It may have been out of compliment to
the "Foreign Devils," that his long ears were exhibited; but if his
position was illusive, in one relation it failed; for, despite these
appendages, the beast _did not enter_ the shop.

The gardens I found the most attractive. They are in front of the
different factories, and over them floats the flag of the nation,
opposite its respective consulate. They cover several acres, and are
well laid out, planted with every variety of tree and shrub, and are
kept in admirable order. Formerly, I understood, there had been a
partition wall between the English and American portions, but this had
lately been removed, as I hope may be all causes of division between the
two governments.

Towards evening these gardens are frequented by nearly all of the
European population, who stroll about to enjoy the breezes from the
water after the heat of the day.

A number of Parsees are daily to be seen, with their long, white, and
scrupulously clean linen surtouts, turbans, or else bugshaped caps, wide
trousers, just appearing beneath their white coats (an improvement on
the Bloomer costume, I thought), and shoes pointed at the toes with
pieces of some kind of metal, turned up, after the fashion of what the
boys call "high dutch" in skates, at home.

Witnessed the worship of one of this strange sect, and his devotions to
his fire god in his setting, appeared as sincere, at least, as those of
many, who consider themselves more favored in being able to look
"through nature, up to nature's God."

A Fanqui, or foreigner, finds himself much circumscribed in his
peregrinations about Canton. With the few narrow streets above
mentioned, and the open space in front of the factories, he must fain
be content; but upon the water his way is more open, and the European
and American residents avail themselves of the broad river to launch
and sail their most beautiful boats, as also to use the hong boats,
san-pans, fast, and flower-boats, fitted up in every style of luxury.
In these, after the business of the day is over, and the heat of the
sun abated, parties pass their evenings, in smoking segars and

Across the river are some Buddhist temples, in which shaven priests are
almost continually engaged in "chin chinnings," and where are kept some
holy pigs in a state of continual surfeit. The very last animal I should
think of holding sacred.

There are some gardens in the suburbs of Canton, said to be worthy of a
visit, but these I had no opportunity to see.

After exhausting my patience and finances at "Acow's," I returned to the
ship to explore the environs of Whampoa. Our anchorage was at the head
of the Reach, opposite a ship yard in "Newtown," where a large ship, the
Prince de Joinville, was then in dock undergoing repairs. This yard was
at that time in the possession of a Mr. Cowper, a yankee, if I am not
misinformed, but had been originally established by a Chinaman. Every
thing necessary for repairing a vessel appeared to be on hand, and Mr.
C. was then engaged in coppering the one on his dock.

Whampoa Reach is the anchorage for merchantmen, and is the most
convenient place to Canton for that purpose. A large number of vessels
were here receiving and awaiting cargoes, and the daily arrivals and
departures of ships give it a cheerful aspect.

The old town of Whampoa is strictly Chinese, and separated from contact
with the "outside barbarian," as much as is Canton, by its walls. It is
true, you may be allowed to pass its gates, but run a risk of being
hustled and pelted out of their vicinity.

Newtown is composed of traders, who are gradually leaving the "old
town," which is some distance below, and is called Bamboo town. Both of
these places are accessible, and have the interminable lane of shops,
all the "same same," as in Canton.

Called upon Mr. Bonny, an American Missionary, who was then a resident
at Newtown, but who hoped soon to settle in Whampoa, and was making
arrangements for a house within its walls. He appeared devoted to his
vocation, with strong hopes of success. Found him (it was night) engaged
with several Chinese, the principal men of the village, to whom he was
exhibiting a magic lantern, with which they seemed greatly pleased. It
was a very superior instrument, and an excellent method of conveying to
unpractised minds, many things, which otherwise must have remained
mysteries to them. The motion of the earth, for instance, illustrated by
a ship rising above the horizon--the sidereal system, and the eclipses
of the moon. He describes the population of this vicinity as being very
dense, and ignorant. Their belief resembles the ancient mythology, for
they have their Jupiter Tonans, or "thunder god," and other deities
similar to those worshipped by the more classical heathen of Rome and
Greece. He has succeeded in partially disabusing the minds of some, but
finds it requires great efforts to eradicate ideas so strongly
implanted. May he have success in his disinterested labors! I should
have earlier mentioned that Mr. Bonny speaks the Chinese language, and
appears to convey his ideas with much fluency.

There is a bethel, or floating "seaman's chapel," anchored in the
"Reach," which was presided over by the Rev. George Loomis, whom I had
the pleasure to hear deliver an excellent discourse from the text: "And
by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin." In the course
of his remarks he made a beautiful and touching allusion to the deaths
of those two great men, Sir Robert Peel and General Taylor, the news of
which had just reached us by mail.

Was pleased to see a numerous and attentive audience of shipmasters and
seamen, and from the frank and pleasing address of Mr. L. cannot doubt
but that he will have great success with this class of men.

The bethel was in itself a very neat affair. The place devoted to public
worship being about fifty feet by thirty, prepared with admirable
adaptation for that purpose, and well ventilated. It contained, besides
apartments for the pastor, a fine reading room, where a number of
foreign papers were regularly filed, and a good library kept. Its roof
was flat, and above this was another covering of matting which formed a
fine sheltered promenade. Indeed, a building could hardly have been
planned ashore, comprising more commodious, convenient, or comfortable
quarters, and I am indebted to its cool retreat for the remembrance of
many an hour passed pleasantly.

The Anniversary of our National Independence came round whilst we lay in
Whampoa. It was recognized with due honor. The ship dressed with flags,
and a national salute fired at meridian. A dinner was given to the
officers by the American shipmasters and residents of the "Reach," which
passed off very pleasantly. The usual quantity of champagne and
patriotism expended. Toasts proposed and drank, and the fact generally
conceded that the United States were the greatest states on the face of
the globe, and the "United Staters" the greatest people.

Our repairs completed we unmoored, and commenced to back and fill down
the river until we had cleared the shipping, and then taking advantage
of the tide, got into the bay and headed for Macào. Found the flagship
at anchor in the outer roads, and after saluting and communicating with
the Commodore, went into the Typa, and moored there.

The Typa is an anchorage inside the harbor, and is so called from an
island which protects it from the sea. It has from four to four and a
half fathoms water, and of course cannot be entered by very large
vessels. Although in former times the largest sized East-Indiamen have
gone in. They are now forced, if stopping at Macào, to anchor outside,
abreast the town, and some four or five miles off.

Hong-Shan river, or the Broadway, commences here, and is a kind of a
cut-off, navigated by junks from Canton to Macào.

The city of Macào, called first by the Portuguese, Port da Macao, from
the name of a Chinese idol found there, is called Gaou, or Ou-moon by
the Chinese, and occupies the southernmost point of the island of

After the discovery of the passage to the East Indies around the Cape of
Good Hope, by De Gama, who landed on the Malabar Coast in 1498, the
Portuguese continued to navigate these seas, and were allowed by the
Chinese a shelter on this point. In the year 1550, having obtained a
foothold, by degrees they built themselves stone houses and forts, and
commenced the foundation of a city.

About this time, they had established a profitable commerce with Japan,
China, and the Eastern Islands, and this settlement became the centre of
an extensive trade, which increased until Macào grew into a place of
considerable importance.

The Chinese government, however, in granting this favor to the
Portuguese fenced it around with their usual caution, and placed many
restrictions upon them. The point upon which Macào stands, is almost
separated from the Island, the connection being an Isthmus of about
three hundred feet; across which, about three miles from the Praya, a
wall is built through which is a gateway, guarded by Chinese soldiers,
and beyond which the Portuguese were not allowed to pass; and their
municipal government was restricted to the barrier. It was placed there
in 1573.

When we were there the guard had been removed, and a part of the wall
thrown down; the Governor Amaral having broken through more _barriers_
than this, previous to his murder--of which, anon.


  Passage Ashore--A-ti--The Praya--Forts--Governor's Road--
  Description of Macào--Murder of Amaral--Manoeuvring of Seu
  and his Triumph--A new Governor--His Death--Council of
  Government--View from Guia Fort--Marques' Garden--Camoen's
  Grotto--Epitaph and Doggerel written there--A Beautiful
  Spot--Stealing Fire from the Gods--Fate of Prometheus.

Leaving the Typa in a fast boat, we were soon opposite the town, when we
were obliged to re-embark on board one of a fleet of Tanka boats, which
put out from the shore as soon as our buttons were discovered. Tanka
means eggboat; they resemble an eggshell divided longitudinally, and are
peculiar to Macào, the shoalness of the water preventing a landing in
larger vessels. Were captured by A-ti, a laughing Chinese nymph, with a
splendid set of the whitest teeth, and landed safely on the Praya, after
purchasing our ransom with a Spanish coin, in value twenty-five cents.

The Praya is a fine promenade, extending in a semi-circle along the
entire front of the city. On each of its points is a fortification, and
at its right extremity the Plaza. On the part which winds past the
Plaza, are placed stone seats, which are of a nature to retain much of
the caloric dispensed by the sun during the hot days in summer.

This walk is well paved, with a stanch sea wall to protect it from the
waves, which come in with considerable force, especially in the Typhoon
season. It commands a view of the neighboring islands, the Typa and
outer roads.

Back of the town, and overlooking it, is a hill, on which is placed an
extensive work, called Fort Monte, which not only commands the town but
the approaches from its rear.

From beyond the Campo gate, a fine, smooth, and well graded carriage
way extends to the "Barrier;" and to the right of the "Gate," on an
eminence, stands a well placed fort having guns bearing upon the

There appear, indeed, to be forts wherever one can be stuck, and the
wonder in regard to some of them is, how they ever got the guns into
them, so inaccessible do they seem.

On the Governor's road, about three fourths of a mile from the town, is
a fine garden, belonging to a French Abbè. It is arranged with much
taste: in its centre was a small mosque-like temple, whilst at each
corner of the enclosure were towers of the same style. The road is the
favorite promenade and drive, and upon it, at the season when we were
there, were to be seen some very fine equipages, principally belonging
to persons from Hong-Kong and Canton.

Macào, like other Portuguese towns, has many churches and its quantum of
priests. The cathedral is the best looking building, although not so
large as some of the others. It had lately been repaired, and both
internally and externally presented a gay and gaudy appearance, in
strong contrast with the decayed condition of the houses surrounding it.

There is the ruin of the church of "Mater Dei," which had been destroyed
by fire, the entire front of which still stands, covered with carving,
a majestic monument of the pride and power of Rome.

The other churches, although their interiors are kept in some repair for
the purpose of worship, have crumbling and mouldering walls, proving
that "_Tempus, edax rerum_" has not spared them, and in the absence of
rejuvenating art, still uses his remorseless tooth upon the softening

Indeed, what strikes the stranger most sadly and forcibly as he saunters
through the streets, is the universal evidence of decay. It is
melancholy to see buildings, which must once have been magnificent,
slowly sinking into rain. The mind cannot help picturing these
buildings, brilliant with beauty, and resounding with festivity, when
Macào was the depôt for the trade with China, with a fleet of all
nations filling its harbor, and its storehouses teeming with the rich
merchandise of the East.

But British perseverance, and Yankee enterprise, have asserted the
supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon race, and the vessels, which formerly made
this their port after their voyage around the Cape, now discharge and
receive their cargoes at Whampoa and Hong-Kong, whilst only occasionally
the masts of a man of war, or of some straggling merchantman, are to be
seen in the harbor of Macào.

The murder of Amaral in 1849, is said to have produced a prejudicial
effect upon the interests of Macào, but I cannot see how that could have
influenced it in this manner, as the difficulty had not extended to open
war, and a Chinaman would have been willing to trade if he found it
profitable, even should such have been the case; and had the Portuguese
artillery been echoing amongst the rocky hills of Ou-moon, you would
have found him seeking the almighty dollar

    "Even at the cannon's mouth."

The particulars of the Governor's murder, as I could obtain them, are
these: Ioao Maria Ferreira do Amaral, Governor of the provinces of
Macào, Timor, and Solor, was assassinated near the "Barrier," on the 22d
day of August, 1849. It appeared by the confession of Chang-asin, alias
Chou-asin, that an acquaintance of his, named Shing-Chi-liang, on
account of the Governor having made roads without the Campo gates, by
which the _graves of his ancestors were destroyed_, was so enraged
thereat, that he determined to murder him in order to satisfy his
revenge. For the purpose of assisting in this design he hired two
Chinese, Ko-Ahong and Li-Apau, and charged Chou-asin, together with two
other Chinamen, Chou-ayan and Chen-afat, to act as guards to prevent
people from approaching. To this they all agreed, and hearing that the
Governor would go out on that day for recreation, proceeded to waylay

Towards evening, when it was twilight, Shing-Chi-liang seeing Amaral,
the Governor, approach on horseback, went up to him under the pretence
that he had a petition to hand him, saying that he had a complaint to
prefer, and whilst Amaral was stretching out his hand to receive the
paper, Shing-Chi-liang drew a sharp knife he had concealed in the handle
of his umbrella, and commenced stabbing him in the arm and shoulder,
until he fell from his horse, when Shing-Chi-liang immediately cut off
his head and hand, and they all ran, each his own way. Chou-ayan and
Chen-afat were killed in an engagement with the English, having, with
himself, fled to Hiang-Kang, a seaport, from whence they went over to
the pirates, and he was afterwards seized by the Chinese government and
taken to Canton, where, after making this confession, he prayed for

A long and not very amicable correspondence was held by a Portuguese
Council of Government, formed at Macào upon Amaral's death, and Seu,
Governor-General at Canton, in which the Council demanded the head and
hand of their murdered Governor, and Seu required in return three
Chinese soldiers, (arrested by the Portuguese authorities at the Barrier
gate after the murder, and detained in prison at Macào, as accessory to
the deed,) as an exchange for the remains of the Governor. The Council
denounced this demand as infamous, denied the soldiers, and put the
question to Seu, if he intended to keep possession of these mutilated
remains of a brave man, cowardly slain, because he is conscious of
having acquired them by means which, in his judgment, give him a right
to traffic with them, regardless of constituting himself by this act a
participator in the crime which gave them into his possession; also
adding, that, protesting against his conduct, they would hold him
responsible for the assassination of the Most Excellent Governor Amaral,
and for the retention of his hand and head, which they would make known
to the world by means of a manifesto.

Seu answered, that the murderer of Amaral, Shing-Chi-liang, had been
apprehended, tried, sentenced, and executed.

That in consequence of his confession, the place where the head and hand
had been buried was discovered, and that a deputed officer had been sent
to deliver them up, but the council still detaining the three soldiers
apprehended at the Barrier, the officer did not dare to take upon
himself the responsibility, and concludes his dispatch, with true
Chinese sententiousness, in these words: "Here is the cause of the delay
and of this confusion. All things should be managed with reflection, and
in a proper way. Obstinacy cannot bring affairs to a conclusion," &c.,

Upon the 29th of the November succeeding, the Council published their
manifesto, in which Seu and the Chinese authorities are accused of
connivance in the murder of Amaral. This, Seu, who is evidently not to
be written down, answers by accounting for the disposal of the murderer
of the Governor, and his accomplices, and sends the confession of
Chou-asin. Matters remained in this position until the 24th of December
of the same year, when the Macào Council sent the three Chinese
prisoners to Seu, and assuming that these men, on duty at the time at
the Barrier, were at least cognizant of the murder of Amaral, demand
their trial, informing Seu at the same time, that in placing them in his
hands, they hold him responsible for them. When Seu had obtained these
men, after some delay, he sends the head and hand, which were delivered
to a commission appointed by the Council to receive them, on board a
Lorcha, off the Praya Grande. They were conveyed to the cathedral, and
after funeral service had been performed, placed in consecrated ground
with solemn ceremony. Thus His Excellency Governor-General Sen gained
his point. What became of the three Chinamen I did not learn, but
suppose they were allowed to escape.

A new governor was commissioned and sent out in the Portuguese corvette
Don Joas Primero. Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha, captain in the royal navy,
reached Macào on the second of May, 1850, and immediately assumed the
reins of government.

It was now supposed that something more efficacious than writing would
be resorted to; but he died very suddenly on the sixth of July
following, within about one month before the anniversary of the
assassination of his predecessor. A singular coincidence.

Some have been bold enough to assert that his sudden demise was to be
attributed to the effects of poison administered by Chinese servants,
bribed by their government, but I think that the report of his death
from cholera is correct.

After the death of Da Cunha, the administration of government devolved
again upon the "Council," of which D. Jeronimo Joze de Matta, Bishop of
the Province, was the head, assisted by a Chief Justice, Mayor, Judge,
Procurator, and Fiscal.

This was not very popular, as what government can be, to a declining
people, who will not exert themselves, but complain to Hercules, without
putting their own shoulders to the wheel.

The walks in the neighborhood of Macào are pleasant, and the views
very fine; among the best are those from Penha hill on the southern
point of the peninsula, and Guia fort on its northern side. From the
latter position the entire possessions of this Portuguese province can
be comprised at a glance, and Macào lies beneath you a miniature city,
with pigmies moving along the Praya and its principal streets. This
fort, from its commanding position, is used as a telegraphic station,
and news of any unusual event is communicated to the town by signals.

From its elevated ramparts the eye takes in the course of the Hong-shan,
or "Broadway;" Casa Branca; Ilha Verda; Camoen's grotto; the Barrier and
Barrier forts; the harbors, both inner and outer; the Lapa hills, and
numerous islands, as far as it can reach.

Camoen's grotto is situated on an eminence within the grounds of a
Portuguese gentleman, Senhor L. Marques, which, without the attraction
which would draw one to the poet's place of meditation, are themselves
well worthy of a visit.

I went there in company with some Peruvian gentlemen, and was at first
doubtful of the propriety of trespassing upon private property, but my
scruples being overcome by my curiosity, and the assurance of one of the
Peruvians that his acquaintance with the Senhor Marques would be a
sufficient passport, we proceeded.

Upon passing his mansion, and sending up our cards, learned from a
Coolie of the absence of its master, and entered unhesitatingly upon his
grounds. Descending a few steps we came to a splendid aviary placed in
the centre of the avenue. It was about fifteen feet in diameter and
twenty in height, and contained quite a variety of beautiful birds.

The grounds are very extensive, covering entirely one of the hills upon
which Macào is built, and are well laid out in broad smooth avenues
fringed with rare trees and shrubs, but

    "Each walk was green as is the mantled pool
    For want of human travel."

After walking some distance, had to ascend a path, which leading along
a dividing wall, brought us over the roofs of the Chinese houses in
the town below, and reminded us of the position of "Le diable boiteux"
of Le Sage, although I doubted if we could have gained as much
information as that personage did, had we possessed his powers. From
this part of the garden is a fine view of the inner harbor and the
Praya Manduco. Still ascending, upon the highest point found Camoen's
grotto. It had originally been an arched rock, but part of the arch
giving way, has been walled into a square enclosure, in which a
pedestal of corresponding proportions has been placed which sustains a
bust of the great Portuguese poet. Upon tablets set in the four sides
of the pedestal are inscribed appropriate verses from his poem--the
Lusiad; whilst in another place upon a stone set in the rock, is an
epitaph in the French language, but the most appropriate sentiment was
expressed in this couplet pencilled on the side of the grotto:

    "Sad poet! 'twas thy fate, alas, to be
    Not less the child of fame than misery."

Another poet degenerated into doggerel, and desecrated the spot by the
following impromptu, which, as he had the delicacy not to scribble on
Camoen's Cave, I transcribe for his benefit.

    "Oh, clear Camoens! what a time you had
    Bounding 'the Cape' to write the Lusiad:
    But you got fame, and I should have some too,
    For didn't I come round the Cape as well as you?
    So, if you now in glowing numbers shine,
    Did I not _right_ (?) when twice I've crossed the Line?
    But keep your laurels, poet, any how
    Your song is sad--'twas _written at Macào_."

The spot was well chosen for meditation, and imagination carried me back
to the time when the exiled child of genius was seated here, and "gave
to airy nothing a local habitation and a name."

Returning, as we passed a house occupied by a Chinaman who had
supervision of the grounds, one of the party lighted his cheroot from a
joss stick burning before the Chinaman's joss, and was reminded of a
certain Prometheus, who in olden times was said to have filched fire
from the heathen deities, but for a nobler purpose, and having been
convicted of this flaming larceny, had for his punishment "the Vulture
and the Rock," which fate I deprecated for my friend; although should he
remain long in this climate, I could not answer for the state of his

Poor fellow! little did I then think so soon to hear of his death. A few
months after he was murdered in a revolt of Coolies on board a ship in
which he was returning to Peru.


  Up the Canton River again--Bay of Canton--Bocca Tigris--Forts
  at the Bogue--Their Construction--Conduct of Chinese when
  Attacked--The Feast of Lanterns--the Rebellion--Paddy Fields
  and Mosquitoes--Back to Typa--Pleasant Times--Blowing up of a

A rebellion had broken out in the province adjoining that of Kwang-tung;
and as the insurgents had made rapid advances towards the capital, our
consul there thought our presence in the neighborhood might prove
beneficial to American interests. It was again, "All hands up anchor,"
to proceed up the Canton River, and away we steered, past the towering
island of Lin-tin, towards the Bocca Tigris.

Macào may be said to be situated in the Bay of Canton; for these are all
islands until you pass through the "Bogue."

Bocca Tigris was the name given to the eastern channel of the entrance
to the Pearl, or Canton River,--a near translation of the Chinese name
Hoo-tow-mun (Tiger's Head Passage). The pilots call it Foo-mun.

There is a fort on Anunghoy Point, and two others on the western channel
on the North Wang-tong island; also the office of Hoppo, Collector of
Customs, where pilots are forced to show their "chops."

There are also quite a number of Chinese forts in the neighborhood of
the "Bogue;" but they did not appear to be manned, although quite a
number of old rusty guns were sticking through their embrasures.

Some of these forts are very extensive; that is, their walls enclose a
considerable area; but they are badly constructed as places of defence,
having a greater part of their interior exposed, which cannot be helped,
as their walls mostly run up the sides of steep hills, in which no
excavations have been made. They present, however, quite a picturesque
appearance, and add greatly to the effect of this otherwise
uninteresting part of the river.

Many amusing tales are told of the conduct of their defenders when the
British vessels attacked them; and how, when a shell was thrown into
them, the Chinamen scattered in every direction, through their ports,
and every other available means of exit, exclaiming, "Ei-yah, how can
make shoot two time?"

Went up again to Canton, to the Consulate, and learned there that the
rebels had not advanced much farther, having stopped to plunder, whilst
Seu, the Governor-General, was preparing a large force to oppose them.
Found great preparations making for a festival, which my duties did not
allow me to see, but which those who witnessed it described as truly
magnificent. They called it the Feast of Lanterns. From what I saw have
no doubt but that it must have been so at night, when the immense number
of chandeliers, candelabra, lanterns, and other arrangements for making
an illumination, were lighted.

There were also images as large as life stuck over the gates of
different streets, and upon platforms crossing them, with paintings of
movable figures strung across them, Sing-Song houses, &c. &c. If you add
to this an immense multitude of fantastically-dressed Chinamen, each
carrying a lighted lantern richly ornamented, the coup d'oeil will be
better imagined than I can describe.

The celebration was kept up three nights, and the crowd assembled was
immense; so great, indeed, that those who were enabled to gratify their
curiosity did so with much wear and tear of clothing, and considerable
loss of buttons.

In the meanwhile the valiant Seu had started to chastise the insolent
disturbers of the peace of the "Central Flowery Land;" and being
determined to expedite his work, took with him a high and learned judge,
to condemn the vagabonds, and doubtless executioners to dispose of them.

We remained in Whampoa Reach, awaiting the issue, amidst the delightful
odors of decaying paddy fields, and lulled to rest by the harmonious
music of myriads of mosquitoes.

During this grand convulsion of the Chinese empire, it was delightful to
notice the regularity with which our Chinese compradore, Ayooke,
supplied the ship with provisions, and how little he appeared to know or
care about the matter. I thought him then a great philosopher, but
changed my opinion when I learned that these affairs are of common
occurrence in the Chinese empire, especially at the commencement of a
new reign, and that the authorities know as well how to manage them, as
police officers to put down a row in Ann Street, Boston; and even
better, for they have a _golden_ remedy, which long experience has
taught them how to apply.

After remaining one month at Whampoa, and a large proportion of the crew
getting on the sick-list, we were at length allowed to leave for our old
anchorage in the Typa, where we learned that the puissant Sen, his
generals, and his judges, had quenched the revolt, and the misguided
wretches, whom he had in pity spared, were sorrowfully retracing their
steps. But one thing I noticed in his extended and flowery report, that
quite a number of his officers were degraded, and heavy fines imposed
upon them for alleged misconduct; thus proving in China, as throughout
the world, that the larger fish consume the smaller fry, and increase
greatly in consequence.

Found the change of position very agreeable, the fine bracing air from
the sea acting like a charm upon the invalids, and driving away those
wandering minstrels, the mosquitoes. Besides, there was the daily trip
on shore in the "fast boat," available to those whose duties would allow
it. The pleasant walk along the "Praya," or on the Governor's Road, and
the generally delightful sail off to the ship at nine o'clock, on some
of those beautiful moonlight evenings, when with but a gentle breeze to
waft us smoothly over the placid waters, we could recline in our
commodious boat, and puffing the mild cheroot (a privilege not the less
valued because it was later than the regulations permitted smoking on
board), we looked upon those gentle beams, and thought kindly of those
friends _beneath our feet_, upon whom they might fall to-morrow, "wind
and weather permitting," and a sweet face would glisten upon us from
the undulating wave, and "Boat a-hoy!" from the watchful quartermaster
would bring us back to reality and the ship; overboard would go our
magical cheroot, over the side our imaginative self, and having duly
reported the important fact of our return on board, down we would dive
through the steerage hatch, to conjure up again in dreams the dear face
we saw in the moonlighted wave.

Our anchorage in the Typa was the same we had occupied on our first
visit, and was very eligible, being protected by Typa island from the
sea. Upon the point of this island nearest to us stood a fort, named
after the island; and a little more than a cable's length from our
moorings lay the Portuguese frigate Donna Maria Segunda, of thirty-eight
guns, commanded by Captain Francisco d'Assis e Silva.

Affairs had been pursuing their usual routine, when upon the evening of
the twenty-eighth of October a boat boarded us from the frigate, under
charge of an officer, who brought an invitation from Captain D'Assis to
join with him on the twenty-ninth in the celebration of the birthday of
the King Consort of Portugal, upon which occasion it was his intention
to dress his ship, and fire a national salute at meridian. Of course, an
assent was given; and accordingly at eight o'clock the next morning,
every thing having been previously prepared, we broke stops with the
frigate, and thus bedecked, both vessels made a gallant show.

We had dressed perpendicularly, whilst she had her flags fore and aft,
running up to her flying jib-boom from the water, and down to the gaff
on her mizzen. The frigate had been newly painted, and looked upon this
occasion exceedingly well, her neat appearance being the subject of
general remark.

We lay thus, side by side, until meridian, when she fired a well-timed
salute, in which we joined; and every thing remained quiet, until about
twenty minutes past two, when a report was heard resembling the
discharge of a whole broadside of double-shotted guns, and a shock
communicated as though we had received their contents.

The water was forced through the air-ports, splashed over the spar-deck,
and dashed down the hatches. The first and general impression was, that
the frigate had fired into us. On rushing upon deck, nothing could be
distinguished, for we were completely enveloped in a dense cloud of
flame and smoke. For a minute or two nothing could be determined. At
length an old quartermaster sung out, "The frigate has blown up!" I
ascended the poop, and looking towards her moorings, saw all that
remained of the "Donna Maria Segunda,"--a part of her stern-frame, just
above water, and burning. Where once had pointed her tall spars, so
proudly decked with the flags of all nations, no trace remained. She was
the most complete wreck that could be imagined. The water was covered
for acres with her fragments, and her masts and spars were shivered to

Our boats were instantly alongside the wreck, and took from it, and
picked out of the water, ten persons in all, of whom two were Chinamen.
Amongst these was the young officer who had boarded us the previous
evening, with the invitation to join in the celebration,--a fine-looking
man. He had been drawn from under the capstan, which had been blown
aft, was horribly mutilated, and had doubtless nearly all his bones
broken, besides sustaining internal injuries. He died like a hero upon
our quarter-deck, without a groan.

The crew of the Donna Maria was said to have been composed of two
hundred and forty souls; but there were some sick in the hospital at
Macào, and a few absent on leave and duty. They had, however, some
Chinese on board, not mustered as the crew, carpenters, and other
artisans, and some prisoners from a French bark, the "Chili." I consider
the number killed by this catastrophe may be fairly set down as two

The commandant, d'Assis, perished with his vessel. His body was found
two days after, dragging astern, he having been blown through the stern
port, and caught in a sail. His remains were carried to Macào, and
buried with military honors, our officers assisting at the ceremony. His
son, a young Aspirante, or Midshipman, was ashore at the time. A
lieutenant was in charge of the "Typa Fort," and the surgeon in Macào,
at their hospital. The other officers were principally on board the

Our commander, with others, had received an invitation to dine on board,
but the time had been fortunately postponed.

At the precise moment of the explosion on board the "Donna Maria," we
were probably as near as it would have been possible to have been in our
relative moorings, lying broadside on, but a little astern of her; our
starboard battery could have been brought to bear a point forward of the
beam; and this very proximity was doubtless the cause of our escaping
serious injury. Two of her heavy guns passed entirely over us, clearing
our royal masts, and falling into the water about twenty feet on our
port beam. Our main deck awning was spotted, as if a shower of blood had
passed over it. Some shot, pieces of lead, fragments of spars, and the
brains and entrails of the sufferers were lodged in the tops, and other
parts of our ship. The gig was stove, but her keeper escaped without
injury; another boat-keeper was not so fortunate, an iron bolt striking
him on the knee, and maiming him for life.

A gun carriage was thrown past us into the fort, breaking through the
roof, and falling directly in the place where an officer had been seated
writing, but a few moments before.

After the explosion a number of smaller ones took place, and then the
remains of the ill-fated frigate burned to the water's edge.

Her magazine was said to have contained eighteen thousand pounds of
powder. Three hundred barrels of sixty pounds each, for which orders
came out a few days later, to be stowed in the magazine in Macào, and
the frigate to proceed to Lisbon.

The disaster was attributed to design. The gunner was said to have fired
the magazine for revenge.

It was said that only a few days previous, he had been severely
reprimanded by the Captain, for some neglect of duty, and that the
Captain had pulled his beard.

Afterwards he told his messmates that he could not survive such an
indignity, that he was an old man, and had not long to live, but when he
died, others should die too.

This is the way the Portuguese account for the loss of the vessel and
her crew.

Out of all those picked up, but one survived! Our own escape can only be
attributed to the protecting hand of that Providence, without whose
knowledge not even the smallest sparrow can fall to the ground


  Visit Hong-Kong--A beautiful Morning--Harbor of Hong-Kong
  --Settlement of Victoria--Line-of-battle ship Hastings--
  Forecastle logic--An arrival from the Northern Seas--Her
  B. M. S. Herald--Salutes--Description of Victoria--Club
  House--Health of Hong-Kong--Death vacancies--Feasting and
  Fêtes--Ball--Pic-Nic--Departure from Hong-Kong.

A visit to Hong-Kong had been some time in contemplation, and
accordingly on Friday afternoon, twenty-ninth of November, we unmoored,
and at three o'clock on Saturday morning, weighed the remaining anchor,
and drifted with the ebb towards the entrance of the Typa, but sticking
fast on a mud bank, had to wait for the next tide, which luckily bore us
off on the afternoon of the same day, when we got out and underway.

Upon one of the most beautiful mornings I had ever seen in this climate,
Sunday, the first of December, we were approaching Hong-Kong harbor,
with easy tacks, and came to anchor off the town at noon.

The harbor is a very fine one, having sufficient depth to float vessels
of the largest size, which is indicated by its color, being of a
beautiful blue, and forming a strong contrast to that of the Typa, and
the waters around Macào, which are discolored by the debouchment of the
Canton river.

It is very wide, and commodious, and completely locked by islands,
making, I should think, a safe anchorage in the Tyfoong season.

Hong-Kong is also an island, and was ceded to the British by treaty with
the Chinese. The settlement on it was called Victoria, but is generally
known by the name of Hong-Kong; in fact, I believe you would puzzle some
persons if you should call it by the former name. It extends over much
ground, and a towering mountain in its rear, upon the base of which a
portion of the town is built, has quite a romantic appearance.

Found in harbor Her British Majesty's line-of-battle ship Hastings,
bearing the flag of Admiral Austen, and a number of merchantmen of all
nations. One, which lay near us, with the Peruvian flag at her gaff, had
painted upon her stern, "Iowa, of San Francisco," and I overheard a
conversation between two of the men, on the subject of the apparent
anomaly. A forecastleman, addressing a petty officer, inquired how she
could hail from San Francisco, then belonging to the United States, and
fly the Peruvian flag. "Why, look ye, you nincompoop," was the reply,
"can't there be more'n one Jack Jones on the purser's books, and
wherefore shouldn't there be more than one San Francisco in the chart of
the world? Doesn't it stand to reason, seeing it's a saint's name, and
they're all Catholics along that coast, that they should have a Saint
Francisco in Peru?"

This reasoning appeared conclusive, as the subject was dropped. But
afterwards I learned that she had been purchased in California, and in a
few days her nation was made known, by the word Callao filling the
place of that of the Golden City on her stern: although her owner
appeared to regret that he had been forced to change her flag, as, I
understood, he thought he could have done better in an American bottom.

Upon the afternoon of the day of our arrival, H. B. M. ship Herald came
in from the North Seas, on her return, having been six years out from
England. No news of Sir John Franklin. Found her officers a fine,
gentlemanly set, in excellent health and spirits, and apparently glad of
a chance of thawing out.

On Monday saluted the Governor, twenty-one guns, which was returned from
the "Murray Battery," a field work on shore, gun for gun. Afterwards
gave the Admiral a salute of thirteen guns, returned by the "Hastings"
with fifteen. This appears to be a British Admiral's salute, although
we, having no such rank in our service, are not allowed to give him more
guns than we give to our highest naval officer, viz., a Commodore. It
may be all correct and proper, considering we have no corresponding
rank, but if our government would only view the matter in a proper
light, and lay aside petty prejudice, it would put our navy officers
upon a par with those of other nations, and by giving them a rank, if
only in name, entitle them to the same honors!

What are these officers but representatives of our government abroad,
and how are foreign nations to judge of us, but through the weight these
officers bear? Appearances and display go a great way with
semi-civilized nations!

But I tread upon ground I had intended to avoid, and must step back to a
more neutral point--my narrative.

After saluting, official visits were paid to the Governor and Admiral,
and I took an opportunity to view the settlement.

There is a striking difference between Macào and Victoria. Here the
merchants are princes, and dwell in princely edifices; here is life in
the streets, and people move about as if they had an object, and the
stranger says at once, "Ah! here is civilization!"

It is true he may not witness the evidence that caused an observing
traveller to make such an exclamation upon coming to a gallows; but that
proof may not be wanting that human nature requires restraint in all its
phases, he will see patrols of policemen with loaded clubs, and Sepoys,
having a carbine, or small rifle slung across their shoulders, parading
in great profusion.

Another difference will be remarked between this place and Macào, which
is, whilst Macào presents its best features in approaching it from
seawards, Victoria makes but little show from the water, and if a person
were only to have seen it from the harbor, he would set it down as a
very inconsiderable place. It is only when you land, and after walking
up one of the narrow slips, you pass through a gate into the "Queen's
Road," that any thing can be seen of the town. It is true, as I have
before stated, that some fine houses may be noticed on the base of the
mountain, but upon this road, the principal portion of the town is
built, and that cannot be seen from the water, owing to the houses being
built down to its edge, having their entrances from the "Road."

This avenue is wide, and well graded, having a fine carriage way and
_banquettes_ for pedestrians on either side.

The houses are mostly built of a beautiful light-colored granite, and
are of an imposing style of architecture. For a distance of nearly two
miles along this principal thoroughfare, you come, every few rods, upon
some public or private building that would do credit to any city. There
are large, commodious barracks, hospitals, ordnance storehouses,
interspersed with the dwellings of merchants, all built of this
solid-looking building material.

But the pride of the colony should be its club-house, which is the
finest looking building in the place of its style. It is very extensive,
and built of blocks of granite, with a splendid front, a façade
supported by a number of large granite pillars; and its interior
arrangements correspond with its external appearance.

Ascending by steps from the street, you enter, from a wide portico,
which extends along the entire front, upon a large open hall, in which
are entrances to different apartments--billiard rooms, writing, smoking,
and general reception rooms, and the superintendent's apartments. Two
wide flights of stairs bring you to the upper story, or _au premiér_ as
the French would call it.

Here are a suite of rooms, extending along the whole front, in which are
newspapers from all parts of the world, materials and tables for
writing, and all kinds of couches, divans, &c., for lounging. You can
step from these rooms upon a magnificent balcony, corresponding with the
porch below, where you can enjoy such refreshments as you may be
pleased to order, _al fresco_ if you choose.

Another large apartment is used as a restaurant, and in another place is
a fine library. Upon the floor above are sleeping apartments, baths,
&c., and the attic furnishes rooms for coolies and attendants.

Through the attention of our consul, we had the entrée and use of this
desirable place, and never did tired traveller enjoy the friendly
welcome of an inn, after a weary journey, more than I did this hall of
ease. Like the dove, I had found a resting-place from the waste of
waters, and loth, very loth was I to return to my home upon the deep.

With all its attractions, however, Victoria will never become a
desirable place of residence, on account of its insalubrity. Macào has
very much the advantage over it in this respect, as indeed in every
other, where natural causes are considered; and never was the difference
between races so apparent as in the position and condition of these two
settlements in China.

It cannot but be sickly in Hong-Kong in the summer season, and without
entering into explanations of the cause, I merely state the fact, that
during the summer of 1850, more than one-third of Her Majesty's
fifty-ninth regiment were cut off by diseases incident to the climate.
And the remark of an officer attached to Her Majesty's service, that it
was a fine place for _death vacancies_, has more truth than poetry in
it, I trow.

We were fêted and feasted here to our heart's content. Among those who
were most forward to do us honor, I must mention our own Consul, and
Mr. Burd, Consul of the Swedish government. These gentlemen, who did us
so much good, need hardly blush for this publicity of their deeds.

The officers of the Hastings gave a grand ball, to which our officers
were invited, whilst the "Heralds" proved by their kind attentions that
their cruise in the hyperborean regions of the North, had in nowise
chilled the warm current of their hearts.

A pic-nic had been gotten up for the eighteenth of December, but the
arrival of the mail on that day prevented many from attending, who
would otherwise have been glad to have explored the island in pleasant
company. As we only waited for our letters, as soon as they were
received we were forced to bid a reluctant adieu to hospitable


  China--Limited opportunities--The Chinese nation compared
  with others--Its antiquity--Magnitude of territory and
  practicability of laws--Supposed origin of the Chinese--
  Fables of their early writers--Explanation of their
  exaggerations--Foundation of the Empire--Chinese traditions
  compared with sacred history--Similarity of events--Wise men
  of the East--Introduction of Buddhism--Arts and Sciences--
  The Magnetic Needle--Discovery of Gunpowder--Origin of the
  name--China--Che-Hwang-te, King of Tsin--Parallel between
  him and Napoleon--Religion--Confucius--The Taouists--
  Buddhism--A Buddhist's idea of Heaven.

A chapter descriptive of China may not inappropriately fill up a period,
during which I was ill and convalescent at Macào; although, for a person
situated as I was, the attempt to describe the character of a people,
covering such an extensive portion of the globe (having only had a peep
at them through a few of their outermost ports, and these considerably
Europeanized), is somewhat like the efforts of one to give an idea of
Saint Peter's at Rome, after a single glimpse through its portals.

However, I may venture to speak of these people from what I have seen,
fully aware that plenty of more potential pens, held by persons who have
lived longer among them, and penetrated their country to a greater
extent than I shall ever be able to do, have given their peculiarities
to the public.

Another difficulty prevents a better knowledge of their forms and
systems, and that is ignorance of their language, and the disposition of
those with whom one can communicate to mislead and misinform the
inquirer. For much as their interests may lead them to pretend to it,
they really have but little respect for the "outside barbarian."

The Chinese are, not only numerically but comparatively, a great people,
and their government (the oldest now known) a marvel and a wonder. As a
nation, they have consistently carried on their system, whilst other
congregations of people, arising successively upon the sea of Time, have
spent their force and dashed their sparkling particles upon the shores
of Oblivion. They, like the ocean, though occasionally vexed by storms
and convulsions, still cover the expanse allotted to them.

The Egyptian, who held the Jew captive, became himself a slave. The
"people of God," who broke through and displaced the nations of the
plain, vainly opposing their passage to the promised land, themselves at
last dispersed, sought refuge throughout the world; when the "Holy City"
Jerusalem became in turn a prey to the Roman. And Rome, the mistress of
the world! Rome, too, was blotted from the list of nations.

An empire, which, extending from ninety-eight to one hundred and
twenty-three degrees of east longitude, and eighteen to forty-two north
latitude; bounded on the north by Russia and Siberia, on the east by the
great Pacific Ocean; south by the islands (many of them independent
powers) which fill the China Sea, and disconnect it from the Indian
Ocean; and westward by the independent Tartar nations, covering with
its dependent provinces an area of five millions of square miles, of
which only about one-fourth is included within the geographical limits
of China proper, governs, at the present time, a population of four
hundred millions of souls (a proportion of one-third of the estimated
inhabitants of the globe), with a code of laws which has been handed
down from the earliest ages of which we have a knowledge.

Situated on a continent, supposed to have been selected by the Creator
as the spot on which to place the first of the human race; upon which,
as is told in holy writ, at the Divine command, light first burst upon
the world, it is singular that this part of Asia should so long have
remained in darkness, and that even now conjecture loses itself in
searching for the origin of this peculiar people.

If we take the first book of the Pentateuch for our guide, we must come
to the conclusion, that in the confusion of tongues at the building of
Babel, when the Lord said, as is described in the eleventh chapter of
that book, "Let us go down and there confound their language, so that
they may not understand one another's speech;" "and from thence the Lord
did scatter them abroad upon the face of the earth;" that this nation
formed a portion of those presumptuous builders, who, in their
migrations, settled down upon the banks of the Yellow River, and there
multiplying, gradually peopled this vast surface.

Their early traditions, indeed, appear to extend beyond the period of
the flood, and from these the "dark idolater of chance," who would
rejoice to prove that "Book of Books" a splendid fable, draws his
deductions. But how he fails. The learned men of China, those held in
the greatest repute amongst a people where such a reputation is not
easily obtained, themselves admit, that the history of their empire in
its infancy, is, for the most part, apocryphal, and that the myths of
these early writers are only to be considered as such, and are not to
affect its chronology.

Indeed, the character of the language, when it refers to superior
powers, has such a tendency to exaggeration, as to afford great
facilities to those who would construe it to suit this particular

The Chinese historians speak of their Celestial Emperor, who reigned
forty-five thousand years! They also name a Terrestrial Emperor, whose
reign extended eighteen thousand years! And they had, in addition, a
Human Emperor, who occupied the throne for the same period, in
succession. There is then their fabulous period, which commences with
the creation of man, when Pwan-Koo (First Man) was produced. After
which the Celestial Emperor, Teen-Hwang-She, "Imperial Heaven,"
settled the years, taking eighteen thousand years to perform this
task. Succeeded by Te-Hwang-She, "Royal Earth,"--who is said to have
devoted the same period to fix the months. After Royal Earth comes
Jin-Hwang-She,--"Sovereign Man,"--who divided the land, and was
forty-five thousand years about it.

Following the string of their traditions, we come down to two thousand
three hundred and fifty-six years before Christ, when was founded the
first dynasty,--that of Te-yaou,--according to their chronology, Hea
being Emperor, or Chief, as De Guignes rationally supposes. This is
about the time of the dispersion of the human family, and, I think, the
proper date for the birth of this nation. Let that be as it may, there
is a great similarity between their traditions and our sacred record.
Their first man was produced by superior power, and was placed over the
inferior animals.

In the reign of Te-yaou there was an account of a great flood. Shortly
after, wine was discovered, and its intoxicating effects found out in
the reign of Fohi, who answers the description of Noah. Then came a
prince noted for his fondness for hunting, who was contemporary with
Nimrod. And there was a seven years' drought, like that described in
Genesis, ch. xli.

Another singular coincidence in their chronology, which I may be allowed
to refer to before dismissing this part of the subject, is the fact set
down by one of their historians, that in the fifty-fifth year of the
forty-fifth cycle, the Emperor Ming-te, in about the tenth year of his
reign, sent messengers to look for "_the holy man of the West_." Now
this period corresponds with the commencement of the Christian era: and
allowing for discrepancies unavoidable in such a calculation, could it
not have been possible that a faint glimmering of the "Star of
Bethlehem" had crossed this monarch's vision, and that, but for their
dilatory footsteps, these ambassadors of the Chinese Emperor might have
knelt by the side of those other "wise men of the East," who were guided
by its beams to the cradle of the infant Saviour? Certain it is, that
Buddhism was introduced into China about that time, and that this ruler
felt the need of a holy man, as if by inspiration!

The Chinese appear rapidly to have progressed in the arts, and to have
been foremost in all those inventions, which in their application have
conduced so much to the amelioration and welfare of the human race.
Eleven hundred and eight years before we commence to count our era
(B. C. 1108,) the unerring magnet that points so steadily to the pole,
was discovered by this ingenious people; and who may say what other
progress may have been made in science and literature up to B. C. 220,
when the cruel and ambitious Che-Hwang-te, who, having finished the
Great Wall, and wishing to date the foundation of his empire from his
reign, collected and burned all such records as he could obtain, and
destroyed by a cruel death the wise men within his dominions.[2]

Since then, at a very early part of the Christian era, they are known to
have made a representative of money in the shape of paper,[3] and a
stamp duty was imposed upon the sale of lands (A. D. 369). Shortly
after, learning became much cherished; literary men rose to dignities
and honor, and colleges were endowed in different parts of the empire.

Types had been invented some time in the early part of the ninth
century,[4] and the art of book-binding was known as early as A. D.
750.[5] The application of Gunpowder as a projectile was made in 1225;
and the invention of the Loom is dated a few years later.

The name, China, is derived from 'Tsin; and it became known by this name
to the other nations of the world through the ambition of Che-Hwang-te,
before mentioned, who assumed the title of King of 'Tsin; and who, if he
was cruel, appears to have been also able and talented. He not only
enlarged and extended the empire, but what was gained to it he
consolidated and strengthened. The Great Wall was not the only monument
of his reign. Splendid roads afforded facilities for trade, which he
greatly encouraged. Overflown lands were redeemed, and stagnant and
unwholesome marshes became, by the magic of his mind, fertile and
healthy plains. His capital was enlarged and beautified, and employment
given by his great works to thousands who else had starved. As he was
the greatest, so was he the last of his dynasty; for it ended in the
death of his son, but a short time after his own demise, and a new
dynasty,--that of Han,--was erected upon its ruins; thus destroying
plans for the furtherance of which much blood had been shed.

There is a strong parallel between the life and fate of this monarch and
that of the Emperor Napoleon. Both of humble origin,[6] each made
himself a NAME, and from each a name descended to his country. Under the
influence of that insanity of great minds,--Ambition,--each filled the
world with his reflected glory, and each failed in his dearest and most
cherished wish, the perpetuation of his name through his offspring. Much
good did either do, but in the prosecution of the plans of each, much
innocent blood was spilled. They both were great! Was either good?

The name of Kathay, or Cathay, was applied to this country by ancient
writers, among whom was Marco Polo, a Venetian, who was about the first
who penetrated its boundaries. I have assumed it, therefore, as a title,
as much from its antiquity as for its euphony.

When one would speak of the religious institutions of China, he is
indeed in the position of the person named in the commencement of this
chapter. There appears to be three systems of religions, viz., that of
Confucius, the system of Laou-tze, and that of Buddha. But when you
attempt to find out his belief, a Chinaman is very apt to confound you
with a part of each doctrine, and it is only by much sifting that you
can come at his real sentiments. The superior men of China affect the
doctrines of the two first-named philosophers, whilst the dark and
ambiguous creed of Buddha obtains with the lower classes.

The system of Confucius is well known to the general reader. It is an
excellent code of morals. He advocates a control over the passions, and
a proper management of the affections, and comes as near as he can to
the rule laid down in the New Testament, "to do to others, as we would
have others do unto us." His virtues are benevolence, righteousness,
_politeness_, (!) wisdom and truth. Filial piety is inculcated as the
first and primary duty. In fact, he considers it the foundation of all;
and teaches that ancestors are to be worshipped after death, and their
slightest command obeyed throughout life. He advocates subjection to
superiors, and contentment with our lot, but appears to have no idea of
retribution beyond this life; and although in his works the existence of
a superior power is admitted, and he even says, in one instance,
"Imperial Heaven has no kindred to serve, and will only assist Virtue,"
yet a favorite maxim of his, "Respect the gods, but keep them at a
distance," proves that he considered the superior influences as having
but little affinity with man.

The religion of Laou-tze comes next for our consideration. Its followers
are called Taouists, from the word Taou,--Reason,--the active
principle,--eternal reason. Its founder lived about the same time as
Confucius, who is said to have had an interview with him. Confucius
describes Laou-tze as resembling the dragon, and received from him a
lecture, in which he accuses him of worldly-mindedness and vanity, and
concludes by telling him to make the best of it he can. He is called
the "Venerable Philosopher," and is said to have appeared thrice upon
earth; in one instance as Lavu-Tan, when he honored Confucius with a
visit; another time as Laou-Keun, "The venerable Prince."

He has left some good maxims, but his religion is tinged with error, and
is filled with superstition. I have hardly time, and it would be
scarcely worth while, to describe the peculiar tenets he inculcates; but
he allows extensive powers to evil and malignant spirits, and the
priests make great use of their supposed influence. The belief that
ghosts will return to haunt and disturb the places in which the spirit
has left the body, causes many a poor believer of this doctrine to be
cast out, and deserted by its disciples in the agonies of death!

The doctrines of Buddha, from their prevalence in India, are generally
known to the reading public. Buddhism is the basest kind of idolatry,
and its rites are debasing and revolting. The worshipper is to infuse
himself into Buddha by a constant repetition of his name, and
continually thinking of him.

The Buddhists sacrifice to their ancestors, and feed the hungry ghosts.
They also furnish them with clothing, and other necessaries, by shaping
the article required from paper, and destroying it by fire. In this
manner houses, and household utensils, money, and even slaves, are
remitted to such ghosts as are thought to need them.

I have only space within the limits assigned to this chapter to give a
description of heaven, copied from a Buddhistic work, before I leave the
subject to continue the incidents of the cruise.

"The land of Heaven--Buddha's--is perfect gold. Its gardens and palaces
are adorned with gems. They are encircled with rows of trees, and
borders of net-work. There are lovely birds, of sparkling plumage and
exquisite notes. The great god O-lo-han; the goddess of Mercy; the
unnumbered Buddhas; the host of demigods, and the sages of heaven and
earth, will all be assembled on that sacred spot. But in that sacred
kingdom there are _no women_; (!) for the women who will live in that
country are first changed _into men_. The inhabitants are produced from
the Lotus flower, and have pure and fragrant bodies, fair and
well-formed countenances, with hearts full of wisdom, and free from
vexation. They are without pain or sickness, and never become old. This
is the Paradise of the West; and the way to obtain it the most simple
imaginable, depending on one sentence, O-me-to-fuh. Amida Buddha!"


[Footnote 1: One of the causes which have led the Chinese themselves
into great errors with regard to the ancient state of their country, is
the having given to their ancient characters the acceptations which they
did not acquire until later times.

The characters which are now translated by the words emperor, province,
city, palace, meant no more in former times than the chief of a tribe, a
district, a camp, a house. These simple meanings did not flatter their
vanity sufficiently, and they therefore preferred employing terms which
would represent their ancestors as rich and powerful, and their empire
vast and flourishing in the _first year_ of its foundation as if _by

[Footnote 2: This presumption was overruled by an all-wise Providence,
by the subsequent discovery of some books of Confucius in repairing an

[Footnote 3: Anno Domini 297.]

[Footnote 4: Anno Domini 924.]

[Footnote 5: The Chinese made paper about 350 years before Christ; and
Confucius, about a century before, wrote his admirable maxims on a
bamboo, with a stylus.]

[Footnote 6: The mother of Che-Hwang-te had been a concubine of a
merchant of Ho-nan.]


  Christmas and the New Year in Macào--Removal of remains of Da
  Cunha--The Dead give place to the Quick--Chinese manner of
  Fishing--A new principle in Hydraulics--Inspection of Macào
  Militia--An ancient Cemetery--Arrival of the new Governor,
  Cardoza--Under way for Manilla--Fetch up at Hong-Kong--Another
  Start--Island of Luconia--Bay of Manilla--Earthquake--Discovery
  and Settlement of the Philippines--Description of Manilla--The
  Calzada--A puppet-show.

Christmas was passed by me a valetudinarian at Macào, the ship having
left me there, in hospital, on her passage from Hong-Kong to Whampoa.

On Christmas eve I visited the different churches, all Roman Catholic of
course. They were brilliantly illuminated, and filled principally with
females, who knelt upon the bare floors whilst services, suitable for
the occasion, were performed. All the churches were opened, and in that
of San Augustinho heard some pretty good singing by boys. The old year
was allowed to pass out and the new year come in without much _eclât_ at
Macào, indeed they are a dull set--the Macànese, and if the Chinese had
any courage they could soon dislodge them.

Upon the 2d of January the removal of the remains of ex-Governor Da
Cunha, from the government house to the church of San Francisco, took
place. The corpse was accompanied by the troops and clergy; and the
dead Governor vacated in favor of a living one soon expected from

In my walks outside of the town, along the beach, I noticed some
Chinamen fishing: their net was very extensive and staked down on the
beach, to its sides were attached ropes which led to a temporary shed
upon a rock, where they were fastened to an axle having treadles, which
a Chinaman, by applying his feet, made revolve, and by this means
elevated and depressed the net at pleasure. Saw also a new principle in
hydraulics, the object to which it was applied being to fill a sluice to
irrigate a vegetable garden from a reservoir, and the _modus operandi_
was this: two Chinamen, standing _vis-à-vis_, held the ends of two
ropes, each fastened to the upper and lower parts of a bucket, by
slackening which they dipped the bucket into a well, and then by hauling
in tautened it, and communicating a swinging motion to the bucket by the
same process, discharged its contents into the drain.

Witnessed an inspection drill of the Macào Militia. They were out in
considerable numbers, and were clothed in a neat dark green uniform, but
did not appear very perfect in the manual. It struck me that these
youths did not take much pride in their position as privates, especially
when several of the garrison troops were looking on, and when they were
dismissed, those who had no servants to carry their muskets, used them
as walking-sticks on returning home.

Strolling about one afternoon, I came upon an old graveyard on the top
of a barren hill, off from the Governor's road, about two miles from the
Campo gate. The stones were all flat and weather-worn; the inscriptions
of many were indistinct, and would have baffled the skill of Old
Mortality to decipher. Upon one I found the date 1767. None as late as
the present century; some were in German, others had the English text.

This burial-place did not appear to have ever been inclosed, nor had it
been used for the purpose of sepulture for nearly one century. That
quaint ditty came into my head, and I naturally used its words as I
looked upon these tombs:

    "Oh where are those who lived and talked
      A hundred years ago?"

And where will be those who breathe and walk one hundred years hence?

After three days hard work, the ship was got out of the Typa, and on the
29th of January (the anniversary of our departure from the United
States,) got under way with the intention of steering for Manilla, but
adverse winds and strong tides forced us to put into Hong-Kong, where we
found it convenient to lay in additional stores.

Before we left Macào, the Portuguese corvette Don Joao Primero, had
landed the new Governor, Cordoza.

On the morning of the 1st of February got under way, and stood out of
the harbor of Hong-Kong--destination, Manilla.

In this month commences the Chinese new year, and our departure deprived
us of an opportunity of witnessing its celebration, which is curious and
worth seeing. It is perhaps the only general holiday the Chinese have:
they devote it to feasting and hilarity, drinking sam-chu, and
gambling; and as the fourth commandment is not considered in their
religion, it is the only period when a cessation from labor occurs among
them, and they appear to make the most of it, for they dispose of any
thing at a low rate for a coin, previous to its advent, and the Coolies
will appropriate every thing they can lay their hands on to promote its

Made the Island of Luconia, the principal of the Philippine group, on
the 5th of February, in the morning watch, and employed that day in
running down its coast. Stood off and on the entrance of the Bay of
Manilla that night, and early the next morning passed El Corregidor, and
stood up the bay with a fair wind, coming to anchor off the town about
six bells, eleven o'clock, P. M.

The Bay of Manilla is magnificent in its proportions, but there are no
striking objects surrounding it as at Rio. The water is generally bold
and its navigation easy, yet there is a bar, or shallow spit projecting
into it about twenty miles from its mouth, upon which a brig, which had
been ahead of us, struck as we came up, thus proving that there are
_striking_ objects _in_ the bay, at least.

Upon the morning after our arrival, a "tremblor," or shock from an
earthquake, was felt on shore. They said it was the most severe one
sustained for many years. No damage was done that I could learn, and
they do not appear to dread them much, having an outlet for these
sulphureous quakers in an extensive volcano.

"The celebrated and ever loyal city of Manilla," as it is called in the
most grandiliquose of languages, is one of the oldest European
settlements in the East, and it has well deserved its name. It is the
capital of Luconia, or Luzon, and is situated in about lat. 14° 30' N.
and 121° E. long.

Luconia, as I have before stated, being the principal island of the
Philippines, gives this singular group a character throughout the world.

These islands were first discovered by that celebrated, but unfortunate
navigator, Magellan,[7] in whose honor a column is erected in Manilla,
who did not survive long enough to enjoy the fruits of his skill and
perseverance, having been killed at the island of Matan in 1521.

After the death of Magellan, and the defeat of his expedition, two more
attempts were made, which also failed. A fourth expedition, under
command of Villalobos, sent by Mendoza, then Governor of New Spain, in
1542, succeeded in reaching the islands, when was given to them the name
of Philippines, in honor of Philip the Second, Prince of Asturias; but
Villalobos dying, it was broken up, and the few Spaniards that survived,
returned home disheartened.

It remained to Segaspi to establish permanently the Spanish power upon
these islands, and in 1565 he planted successfully that flag upon
Luconia, and became its first Governor. By a judicious policy the good
will of its inhabitants was secured, and the successful attempts of
priests in converting the credulous natives to Catholicism, cemented a
conquest for Spain, the least stained of any in her sanguinary history.

In 1571 Manilla was formed into a city with a municipal government, but
it was not until 1795 that its charter received the royal seal, and only
in 1638 that it obtained the privileges of the other royal cities of

"The ever loyal city" is supposed to be that portion inclosed by walls,
but the suburbs are most interesting to a stranger.

The semi-circular space called "Manilla," contains the dwellings of the
full-fed drowsy officials, whilst surrounding it is a busy, active
buzzing hive. The change from the bustle of the Binondo quarter to the
dull torpor _intra murales_, strikes you at once.

Leaving the ship in one of her boats, we were pulled up the Pasig, a
river which runs through the town, and connects Laguna de Bay with the
Bay of Manilla, and is here between two and three hundred yards wide,
protected by an extensive Mole, which projects some distance into the
Bay, upon the extremity of which is a light-house.

A short distance from its entrance was the Hotel of San Fernando,
situated upon its left bank, which we reached about noon, and finding
the heat oppressive, gladly availed ourselves of the protection of its
roof, and the refreshment of a shower bath, which no one can appreciate
more than a person who has been confined on board a man of war, with
"one wide water all around" him, and but few chances to use it.

Took dinner at the hotel, and having thus refreshed and fortified the
inner man, hired a "piscante" (a carriage to contain two persons), and
drove, through the suburbs, out to the Calçada, to reach which, had to
cross a magnificent, but ancient bridge over the Pasig.

The Calçada is the fashionable drive, and the meaning of the word is a
causeway, or raised road; it extends along the walls of the city, and
its centre, as well as each of its sides, is planted with fine flowering
trees. A space is left between the double row of trees in the centre, in
which are placed mounted guards, in showy uniforms, and mounted on
splendid horses, to preserve order, and prevent collision of carriages,
which are not permitted to pass out of a line, but must enter the passeo
from the city at the left, and are obliged to follow each other at a
slow pace and return upon the opposite side in the same order; the duty
of the patrol being to see that no carriage leaves its place in the

This part of the road forms the chord of a semi-circle, whilst a
continuation, not planted, is the segment, which turning round the walls
of the city extends along the beach of the bay, giving a fine view of
the shipping in the roads.

From the Calçada branch roads, leading to different points on this
beautiful island, and these drives are truly magnificent. The roads
are natural, and smooth as the most carefully kept lawn, your carriage
rolls along them with so even a motion, and the scenery through which
you drive is of such an oriental character, and the produce so
luxuriant and rare, its fragrance so sweet, that one leans back in his
easy-going piscante, totally forgetful of every thing but the present
enjoyment, and almost realizing the ideas of fairy land which fancy

    "In Life's young day."

On the evening of our first day in Manilla, after returning from our
drive, directed the "cochero" to take us to the theatre; he accordingly
drove us to the Carillo quarter, and to the theatre of that name. Were
admitted on the payment of two reals each, and seated ourselves,
patiently awaiting the withdrawing of a curtain, upon which was
delineated an uncouth figure and accompaniment, supposed to represent
the "divine Apollo" and his lyre.

The building was of bamboo, and, covered with leaves from the same tree,
was cool and well ventilated.

About fifty persons composed the audience, and these were principally
civilized Indians of the Tagalo tribe, a fine-looking race. They were
remarkably well behaved, and listened with much attention and apparent
pleasure, to some most execrable music, elicited by scraping "the
hair of the horse over the entrails of a cat," to wit: fiddling!
which, ceasing at last, at a given signal, up rose the curtain,
and with it Apollo took flight, and ascended to the clouds. The
performance commenced, and lo! we found we had been beguiled into a
puppet-show!--the actors being of pasteboard, and, although managed
very well, we soon tired of them, and retracing our road to the hotel,
took a shower bath, and turned in.


[Footnote 7: Fernando Magelhaens, generally called as in the text, was
the first who attempted the circumnavigation of the globe. He was a
Portuguese by birth, and sailed from the port of St. Lucar, in Spain,
with an expedition of five vessels, under the auspices of Charles V., on
the 20th of September, 1519. But one of his vessels effected its object,
the Vitoria, under Sebastian del Cano, which reached St. Lucar, the 6th
of September, 1522, with but eighteen survivors, who made a pilgrimage
barefooted to the Saints for their safe return. He gave his name to
those Straits, through which he reached the East, a few years after his
fellow-countryman, De Gama, had passed around the Cape of Good Hope.]


  Drive to the Balsa--Meaning of the word--A Mob of Women--Nora
  Creena--Magic, slipper--Description of the drive--Ferryman of
  the Females--Decline the office--The Suburbs--A la Balsa--
  Manilla, intra murales--The Mole by Moonlight--Friend in a
  fit--Circo Olympico--Scenes in the Circle.

Up betimes upon the morning of our second day on shore, for a drive to
the Balsa. The word, in English, means pool or raft, and the road over
which we drove led to a ferry over a stream, which you cross to reach
the romantic village of Maraquino.

Met crowds of native women coming in from that neighborhood to commence
their work at the tobacco factory. Had heard of _miles_ of girls at
Lowell, greeting with smiles the noble father of the system which gave
them employment, the honorable and the honest Henry Clay, but had never
anticipated meeting with so many of the sex, within a mile, in these

The crowd was so great as to materially affect our progress. We had
often to haul up to allow them to pass, and when our cochero received
the order "_ander_" it was coupled with the caution "_despacho_" that he
might drive carefully for fear of injuring some of them.

Did not count, but suppose there could not have been less than two
thousand women in this mob; but, alas! though some were young, but few
were beautiful, and, as they shuffled along, in their short jackets, and
the ungainly _sciar_ wrapped around their nether extremities, they made
a display of charms by no means attractive. Their style of dress
differing from Nora Creena's in this, that whilst her gown was

    "Flowing free as mountain breezes,"

their substitute for that portion of woman's apparel appeared as if the
strongest kind of a "mountain breeze" had wrapped it tightly round their
forms, and continued to keep them enveloped in its Laocoon-like folds;
and although "_every beauty_" was not left exactly "_free_" yet there
could be no disputing the evidence of _sinking_ and _swelling_ so
sweetly described by the poet, as the peculiar charm exhibited in the
costume of his admired Nora. They were generally barefooted, and those
whose feet were clad, had them covered with that wonderful slipper,
which barely covers the extremity of the foot, and is kept in its place
by the adhesion of the smallest toe to its neighbor.

Getting clear, at length, of this crowd of feminines, "presto" was the
word, and away we bowled along one of the most beautiful roads I have
ever seen. The foliage was luxuriant, the air of the early morning cool
and refreshing, and filled with fragrance. The road (a natural one) even
as a bowling green.

A drive of about one hour brought us to the river. I forget its name; it
is a small stream flowing into the Bay of Manilla at Cavitè, where we
found the float formed of bamboo, which is drawn across by _ropes_ (?)
made of the same material. By this means that immense concourse of
women had been transported, and great as is my devotion and subjection
to their charms, should have declined the office of ferryman, after the
morning's rencontre.

A sudden shower prevented our making a long stay at this romantic spot,
and also interfered with a contemplated visit to a manufactory of
Manilla cordage in the neighborhood.

Breakfast was awaiting our return at the hotel, at half-past nine,
and this dispatched, spent some time expecting a permit to visit the
"Fabrica del Tobago," in which being disappointed, made our cochero
drive us through the suburbs. As I have before stated, these form the
principal part of the town, and are of considerable extent, but the
houses in them are generally constructed of bamboo.

There are a number built of stone, but many of them were in a
dilapidated condition.

In the after part of the day drove again to the Calçada, where we spent
the evening passing up and down, and occasionally slipping out of place
in the line when we could escape the vigilant eye of the guard, to
enable us to pass the equipage and to see the face of "some gay beauty,"
the exquisite shape of whose neck and shoulders had tempted us to risk
fine and imprisonment for the sake of a "front view."

After a refreshing sleep, which was superinduced by a glorious shower
bath, and made doubly delicious by the remembrance of the glances of the
beauties of the Prado, which, like fire-flies, flitted through our
dreams, started again upon the Balsa road with an intention of visiting
the "Rope factory," from seeing which the rain deterred us yesterday.

Our command to the cochero upon his mounting, was _a la Balsa_, trusting
to be able to direct him on the way, but as we depended somewhat upon
the fellow's knowledge of the proper place to turn off, found ourselves
again disappointed, for the confounded postillion either could not or
would not find the road, and out to the ferry again he drove us, in
spite of my teeth, and all the Spanish I could get through them. I
rather thought he made ignorance a plea for unwillingness, until I
afterwards learned that these men, the cocheros, who are a class _sui
generis_, being of the Indian race, understand but little more of the
Spanish language than what they pick up at hotels, in the way of their
profession--their own tongue being the Tagalo, of which tribe they are
generally natives. My vanity somewhat soothed by this information, after
breakfasting drove within the walls of the city, and entered the "city
of Manilla," little more now than a citadel for the surrounding
population. These walls are in themselves thick and massive, and cover a
considerable space in their foundation, although the area which they
inclose is not so great as it appears from the bay. Within them the
houses are of a better style of architecture than those of the suburbs,
and the streets through which I drove were well graded, even and clean;
but life was wanting here, and the solitary soldier at his post was the
only thing human I saw; however, my visit was not well timed, being at
the hour when the Señoras are supposed to be taking their siestas, and
my object was merely to see what kind of a place it was. Upon a future
occasion saw it to more advantage.

I refer to my diary, from which make the following extracts.

_Monday, the eighteenth of February._--Returned on board from another
trip to the shore, last night at twelve, and have seen so many sights,
that I scarcely know in what manner to record them; perhaps the best
plan is to detail them, seriatim.

Left the ship on Saturday morning, in the ten o'clock boat, and reaching
the hotel, remained there until dinner, occupying time in reading and
taking a bath. After dinner drove out to the Calçada, around it to the
front of the city and the mole; walked upon the mole for an hour or
more, when the moon rose. It was full and bright; never had seen such
splendid moonlight. Had a sentimental friend with me, upon whom it
operated powerfully. He remarked, "What a treat it would be to have by
your side, in such a scene, one whom you loved, and who could love you!"

Finding the fit strong upon him, made the cochero drive off the Prado
directly, and take us to the "Circo Olympico"--its opening night. Paid
six reals each for admission and had our money's worth.

The performers were all Indians, excepting the proprietor, who was
himself a native of _la belle France_. The horses were "_native_" if not
to "the _manner_ born." Nice little nags, these ponies of Manilla. The
Frenchman had trained the _menage_, both Indians and horses, and
promised the enlightened public a treat such as had never been offered
before. His place was well arranged, and we had tickets stamped _a la
premiere lunette_--to the dress circle. In it were several very tastily
dressed and rather handsome ladies--brunettes of course. The performance
had commenced before we entered, and at that time the act in progress
was that of jumping and turning somersets over a poor and patient
quadruped of the equine species. There was no clown in "propria
persona," but a poor _Mestizo_ supplied the place of one, for being so
unfortunate as to make some awkward leaps at the commencement, and
showing some concern at his failure, whenever his turn came, he was sure
to be greeted with laughter and applause. The audience had elected him
clown, nem. con.--thus proving the truth of the axiom,

    "Some men have greatness thrust upon them."

To vary the scene, the manner of leaping was changed, and two men were
placed upon the beast in a reversed position, which my sentimental
friend, now becoming facetious, thought very peculiar; they were soon,
however, both sprawling in the tan amidst screams of laughter, having
been knocked off by this bungling individual.

This over, the music commenced. Such music! During the uproar an
_attaché_ of the establishment appeared all bespangled, with an
implement such as haymakers use in the happy harvest time, with which he
described eccentric circles round the ring, stepping gingerly backwards
at each swoop. At this my sentimental friend became witty, and selling
himself to Josephus Millerius Senior, inquired in a whisper if that act
might not have been set down in the bills as "The Rake's Progress." Had
no hopes for him now, but in a shaved head, low diet, and the _Water

The proprietor stepped gracefully forth upon the smoothed tan to
announce the grand scene--an act of riding two horses by himself, and a
young lady--her first appearance in any ring! Indeed it appeared to be
the first essay of all the performers.

With a grand flourish of the entire band, consisting of trombone, riddle
and drum, two small Manilla ponies made their _entrée_, accompanied by
attendants enough to have borne them on bodily. Señor y Señiorita
followed hand in hand, and introduced themselves, in character, with a
graceful bow, a modest curtsy, and the disengaged hand on his heart, on
the part of the gentleman as a token for both.

The lady was assisted to mount the inside pony, when the gentleman
leaped lightly upon the off one. He was at first seated, as indeed was
the female performer. At a sudden burst from the band, he started from
his seat, _a la cavalier_, and bounding into the air, alighted upon the
backs of the horses, a leg upon each. The lady was expected to have
followed this graceful action, but its effect appeared to astonish the
beasts, and the off steed, as mischievous a Mustang as ever munched at a
manger, suspicious of a design to make him carry double, commenced
curveting, and disturbed the equilibrium of the lady considerably. Then
he seemed determined upon a separation "a vinculo," and spreading out,
placed the gentleman in an awkward predicament, forcing him to make a
stride like a pair of compasses in measuring a hemisphere, and
stretching his tight and light-blue pantaloons to the very extent of
their elasticity, a quantity of chalk from the saddle, marking the part
which had come in contact with it. The disorganizing pony, after being
well flogged, was forced back into his original position by his numerous
attendants--_vi et armis_--and assisted in describing a semi-circle,
with a few deviations, when suddenly stopping at the place of entrance,
he caused the gentleman to perform an involuntary back somerset, and
saluted him with a shower of kicks in his descent. But the undaunted
Frenchman was soon upon his legs and the pony's back again, and then
commenced a combat in which all the performers joined. The horses were
whipped by the attendants, and kicked, plunged, and reared on their
part. The proprietor expostulated with his lady co-actor, whom he
threatened and coaxed in turn, but who evidently had a strong desire to
discontinue the act; and it was amusing to watch the varying expression
of his countenance, as, with frowning brow, and clenched hands, and such
a grimace as a Frenchman only can produce, he menaced the lady, and "the
passing smile his features wore," when he turned round deprecatingly to
the audience.

At last, a compromise having been effected, the horses were gotten
fairly under way, and had attained considerable headway, but broaching
to, the Señora was dismounted, and regaining her feet, made an exit with
more speed than grace, and the performance was announced--concluded. But
upon taking a peep, after the audience had retired, I saw one of the
ponies, mounted by a Manilla man, running the gauntlet of four long
whips around the ring, and felt certain his rider could not have enjoyed
much pleasure from the act, for every now and then he caught a lash
intended for the horse, and if the other naughty pony had to come in for
a like portion, expect he had another rider.


  An early drive--Visit to Churches--The Cathedral--Description
  --Reflections--Church of the Binondo Quarter--The Dead Child
  --Baptism--Life's Entrances and Exit--Ceremony of taking the
  Veil--Poor Maraquita--An Episode--Don Cæsar de Bazan--Interior
  of the Convent--Interview with the Lady Superior--Interchange
  of compliments--Spanish Courtesy--An admission.

Sunday morning, took an early drive upon one of the beautiful roads that
penetrate the interior of this fruitful island, and returned with a keen
appetite for breakfast; this dispatched, drove with a party to visit the

Went first within the walls to the Cathedral. Mass was over, and they
were about to close the church. Had an opportunity, however, to obtain a
hasty look at its interior.

It is very spacious and very grand, the roof supported by pillars about
twelve feet in thickness. No galleries.

The principal altar was quite imposing, and upon it, plate of
considerable value was exposed.

There are also other altars, and a number of chapels inclosed.

A full length figure of our Saviour, after His Descent from the Cross,
is extended in a glass case beneath one of the altars, exciting grateful
emotion for that love which caused Him to lay down His life for man, but
not a proper subject, in my opinion, for exhibition.

The divine mission of Christ, its object, His self-humiliation, denials,
struggles, sufferings and sacrifice, cannot be too often presented to
our minds, nor too eloquently told. His Gospel cannot lose by
repetition, and His life should be our grand exemplar! But the image of
the Incarnate Godhead should never be associated with the waxen figure
of a revolting corpse, nor should the hand of the creature, however
skilful, attempt the presentment of the Great Creator. If Christ took
upon Himself to become man, after He had performed His mission, and laid
aside the form which He had assumed in which to perform the work of
eternity, His carnal attributes should be swallowed up in the glory of
His Being, and the mind should be taught to look up from the humiliation
of the grave, and follow, with awe, the hand that rent the vail of the
Temple in twain, up to the mercy seat, whence he ascended to plead for
his murderers!

There was here an altar, on which the representation of a vine, with
clusters of grapes was very elaborately cut, also a statue of an
apostle, in wood, very naturally carved, and a conspicuous object.

Entered another church, outside the walls, in the Binondo Quarter. This
was not so large as the Cathedral, nor as imposing, but it was crowded
with worshippers, principally Indians of the Tagalo tribe. They were in
every posture of devotion, telling their beads, and praying with
apparent fervor. Indeed they appeared very zealous converts.

At the entrance to this church of the Binondo was exposed the corpse of
a child of about seven or eight years. It was fantastically dressed and
laid out upon a litter. To the left of this "_memento mori_" which
appeared to produce but little effect, were quite a number of matrons,
holding very young infants in their arms, awaiting their turn for
baptism; on some of these baby's heads they had placed wigs!

It was a strange sight, and one in which the entrances and the exits of
the stage of life were exhibited--that dead child, flanked by those
newly breathing infants!

Had been told that the ceremony of taking the veil would come off that
afternoon at a convent within the city walls, but the information was
received too late, for, after hastening to the house of our hospitable
friends, with whom we drove at once to the convent, found the ceremony
over. The vicinity of the convent was all astir, and we saw a number of
ladies, and heard some good music from a fine band, which, although the
airs were gay, must, we thought, have had a mournful sound in the ears
of the poor renouncing soul, henceforth to be immured within those
gloomy walls. But no one appeared to care for her, all was life and
gayety without, one would have thought some marriage fête was being
celebrated, that those joy notes sounded for the binding of the holiest
and dearest tie, had he not known their melody jarred upon heart-strings
rudely severed, and ties for ever broken. But she was married, yes,
_married_ to the church! Poor Maraquita, thy fate was melancholy, and
thy story a sad one, but one too often told of the warm-eyed and
passionate maidens of this "land of the sun."

She had loved, her family opposed. Her lover was beneath her in
condition, yet she loved him still the dearer. In these countries, for
a daughter to _think_ of mating without consent of priests and parents,
is sacrilege. She was guilty of it, her proud and haughty mother
had destined Maraquita to be the bride of a wealthy grandee of old
Spain--had disposed of those affections, no longer in Maraquita's power
to give, for they had already been transferred with all the other
treasures of a young and loving heart, to the keeping of a dark-eyed
youth of Manilla. He had been rudely repulsed by her parents, but often
would the cautious twang of his guitar bring her to a midnight
interview. These clandestine meetings were interrupted. Her dark-eyed
lover no longer came, and she was told she would never see him more. A
marriage with the Don was urged, she resisted--the alternative was a
convent! In pity she implored a short delay, and then convinced that her
lover had suffered from her cruel parents' jealousy, gave the vows of
her broken heart to the church. And that music is her requiem, and his
too! For after those vows had been pronounced, and the black veil had
shut out hope for ever, a haggard youth was released from confinement,
of whose few and ill-starred years the turbid waters of the Pasig soon
washed away all trace.

Poor Maraquita! Poor Carlos! I know not whose fate the most to deplore--

    "The one to end in madness,
    Both in misery."

With the narrator of this sad tale of passion and despair, I dropped a
tear to their memory, thinking how truly the poet of all time has

    "The course of true love never did run smooth."

The foregoing was not related at the time, but afterwards, by a young
Spanish gentleman, who had taken some pains to enable us to witness the
ceremony. I had hardly expected to hear a serious story from his lips,
for his appearance was reckless and gay, and I had associated him in my
mind with the character of Don Cæsar de Bazan, as I had seen it

He introduced us further into the convent than I would have ventured
upon my own responsibility--appeared at home with all the priests
towards whom his manner conveyed but little reverence--and inquiring if
we had any desire to see the nuns, went up to an opening in which there
was a revolving frame, and asked for the Lady Superior. The lady mother
soon presented her round and not unhandsome form at a door to the right,
and in choice Italian demanded our business. With much _nonchalance_ Don
C. expressed a desire to pay his respects to the ladies under her
charge, especially to the one just admitted. His coolness somewhat
disconcerted the supreme lady Abbess, to whom such a request had never
before been preferred, I warrant, and her black eyes sparkled with
scarcely a _holy_ fire, as she answered this time in Spanish, and in the
tone of dignity which that language can convey so well, "That the nuns
were in their place, and the new one did not receive company, especially
that of such gay cavaliers," and intimated that in attending to their
duties they set an example which would be well followed by those

Don Cæsar, his _sang froid_ still retaining its temperature, with the
grave courtesy of a true Spaniard, bowing almost to the floor, told
her, "Heaven was the proper place for angels such as her noble self and
her illustrious daughters," and wishing the whole family a pleasant
journey thither, commended them to God. "Adios!" and the door was closed
a little hastily.

After this interchange of compliments, Don Cæsar took us to his father's
house, within the walls near the convent, where he gave us introductions
to his sisters, cousins, and other ladies, all under the excitement of
the event of the day.

The old gentleman placed, with the usual Spanish compliment, his house,
and all that it contained in our hands. And when I state, that like
Jephtha, he "had a daughter who was passing fair," my sensations can be
imagined, and it may be understood how small a portion of the "Casa,"
with this appurtenance, would have satisfied me.


  Fabrico del Tobago--Manufacture of the Cheroot--Description of
  the process--Female Operatives--Gigantic effects--Midshipman
  attacked--A delightful Evening--Boat ahoy--Disappointed in trip
  to Lagunade Bay--Funcion Familia--Madame Theodore--The Calçada
  again--Margarita--Teatro Binondo--Teatro Tagalo de Tondo--
  Espana--Anecdote of an Englishman--Farewell to Manilla--Out
  to Sea.

The greatest curiosity of Manilla is its Tobacco Manufactory, or rather
the Segar Factory, for it is only into segars that the tobacco is made
here. It is a government monopoly, and the revenue from it is very

I forget the number of segars said to be made daily, but there are
between eight and nine thousand women employed solely for that purpose,
and giving the small average of twelve segars to each, there would be
over one hundred thousand produced per diem; and yet the government is
unable to meet the demand for them, having, as I learned, orders months

The article manufactured is called the Cheroot, and is made in two
different styles--one called _Cortada_, from having both ends cut; the
other, Havana, being twisted at one end like the Cuban segar. They have
but lately commenced to make them in this fashion, and these are put up
principally for the California market, where doubtless they are disposed
of as the real Habana.

Cheroots, in any shape, are worth in Manilla about eight dollars per M.,
subject, I believe, to a small export duty, which more than covers the
expense for boxes, labels, and packing, so that supposing each woman to
make the number stated above, and the whole force to be employed, we
have the immense sum of eight hundred thousand dollars worth of segars
from this mammoth Tobaccary per diem. Each operative receives one real a
day, but there are others not enumerated in this class, such as male
laborers, overseers, inspectors, accountants, book-keepers, &c., who
receive from twelve to thirty dollars per mensem, so that two thousand
dollars daily is not a large estimate of wages paid out by this

The interior is divided into sections, of which there are nine or ten.
In each section from eight hundred to one thousand women are engaged. At
the head of each sectional division are rooms for inspection, where are
stationed persons to examine the segars, who return those which do not
come up to a certain standard. Of those that pass the test a sample is
placed, after being marked and numbered, in a glass case suspended in
the apartment.

Every morning a certain quantity of tobacco is given to each person, and
water is measured out sufficient to dampen it. The operatives are held
accountable for the material. Out of the number of hanks of the leaf so
many segars are to be produced, and if the water is used for any other
than the specified purpose, no more can be procured. They are said to
resort to many ingenious expedients to eke out the allowance. From eight
to ten women are employed together, squatted at a low table; and there
are double rows of these tables, leaving a space to pass through the
centre of the room. At each table the entire process of making the
cheroot is performed. The leaf is untwisted from the form into which it
is fashioned by the grower, spread out and dampened. For the purpose of
flattening these leaves they are supplied with stones, with which, and
their tongues, an incessant and most infernal clatter is kept up. One of
the party selects and arranges the tobacco, another fills the segar and
hands it to her neighbor, who rolls it into shape and passes it to the
next person, who cuts it, and it is thus quickly transferred from hand
to hand, until the care-dispelling cheroot is perfected and prepared for
inspection. As each is completed, it is dropped into a basket placed at
the end of the table nearest the passage way, from which the cheroots
are taken and tied up into bundles. The Cortada into bunches of ten. The
Havanas always in bundles of twenty-five.

The factory, as may be supposed, is very extensive, and covers a
considerable area. The delineations of it upon the Manilla segar boxes,
though rude, are tolerably good illustrations, and will convey some idea
of the appearance of the building externally. But a visit within its
walls is necessary to a realization of its importance.

I am ignorant of the name and title of the Narcotian saint who has the
honor to preside over these operations, but they have images of several
stuck up in niches at the entrance to the different sections; and if the
sense of smelling in their originals, be equal to that of _hearing_,
which has been attributed to them, there floats about them sufficient of
the aroma of tobacco to gratify the nostrils of the most inveterate
snuff-taker that ever was canonized.

My companion on this visit was the young gentleman who slid into the
sentimentals, as I have recorded, upon the moonlighted mole. He was
born and _raised_ (as they say) in the West; nor did he discredit
his _raising_, being in the proportion of every thing native to that
extensive country, and six feet three or four inches in height. It was
amusing to notice the sensation he created as he strode through the
different apartments. As he approached, the clatter of both tongues and
stones ceased, and hundreds of eyes would be upraised to scan his
towering proportions. They have pretty black eyes, those Tagalo girls,
and exuberant crops of jet black hair too; but it is coarse, and freely
anointed with that pungent unguent, cocoanut oil! "Mira! El Gigantè!"
would be ejaculated in Spanish, whilst no less sonorous notes of
admiration would be issued in the Tagalo dialect.

Two Spanish soldiers accompanied us as a guard, and I doubt not but
that their presence prevented these unsophisticated damsels from laying
violent hands upon my virtuous friend. Indeed, I was told of an English
midshipman, who, with the usual assurance of his order, disdaining the
protection of a soldier, ventured alone into the midst of the female
Indian army, which, relying upon its numerical strength, and either
prompted by curiosity, or feeling inclined to resent such bold
intrusion, surrounded him and handled him so roughly, that he was
obliged to "ignominiously cry for quarter;" and was only released after
the loss of his uniform jacket and some other articles of male attire.
Of course, we witnessed no demonstration of this kind, and I do not
vouch for the truth of the "yarn"--telling it only "as 'twas told to

From the segar factory to the bath, which, with a change of garments,
found necessary to remove the taint of tobacco obtained by remaining so
long amidst such quantities of it. Then a siesta, and after drove to
dine with our kind friends who procured permits for our admission to the
"Fabrica del Tobago." After dinner to spend the evening with a Spanish
family related to our mercurial friend, Don Cæsar de Bazan. Had dancing,
polkas and mazourkas being especial favorites; singing also, and music
from La Norma and Sonnambula, exquisitely performed. At eleven o'clock
were forced to tear ourselves away from as delightful a party as it had
been our lot to enjoy since we had left our native land, and pulling off
in a rocking banca to exchange the soft and liquid notes of beautiful
Señoras, for the gruff salute of the sentry.

Had been strongly pressed to make one of a party to Laguna de Bay, but
coming on shore found the day for our departure fixed, and as the party
could not be expected to return by that time, were reluctantly compelled
to decline.

Found, however, invitations awaiting us for a "Funcion Familia" that
evening, which accepted. Determining to make the most of the time that
remained, procured a "piscanté" and drove through the suburbs. In the
"Escolta"--principal street--found the establishment of Madame Theodore,
a fine-looking Mestizo woman, who sells peña dresses, etc., and has a
splendid assortment. She is said to be very wealthy, and though still
young--a widow, and is doing a very large business. Of course she has
plenty of suitors, and is a _match_ for them all; for she appears to
have attained perfection in the art of managing men. Should a college of
women ever want a professor, she deserves a degree of Mistress of Arts,
and would admirably fill the Chair of Coquetry.

Dined again with our kind friends, and then took a last drive upon the
Calçada. Backwards and forwards along this beautiful _paseo_ we went,
the moon lending her enchantment, and the different bands filling the
air with ravishing strains, odorous plants of the tropics lading it with
perfumes, and the dark-eyed Señoras reclining in their luxurious
calesas, gave as good an idea of a paradise of Mahomet's order as one
could wish. Lingered here as long as we could, and then off to the
"Funcion," where spent a delightful evening. This was a family dancing
party, such as the French describe by the words "_Soirée dansante_." At
it met several of the ladies we had seen on Sunday, after poor Maraquita
had taken the veil. Were very kindly received, and warmly greeted by the
sunny smile and speaking eyes of Señora Margarita. The ladies danced
with much grace, and entered into the spirit of the thing as if they
enjoyed it. They were in different costumes, and saw here the only
graceful exhibition of the _Jaceto_ and _Sciar_. Many of them had no
covering to their beautiful little feet, excepting that magical slipper
named before, which they managed to admiration, never allowing it to
lose its position, or to touch the floor at any other part but the toe,
to which it adhered with singular tenacity, through the most difficult
steps of the whirling waltz or puzzling polka.

The lovely daughter of the Don--Margarita, however, was dressed in the
latest Parisian fashion, and looked like an--angel, I was going to
write, but the recollection of that "lurking devil" in her eye stayed
the perjury of my pen. She looked a real bona fide woman, and a specimen
of the race I shall be well enough satisfied with, until I am assured
beyond a doubt that angels _are_ feminine, of which there is no proof in
either sacred or profane history (all the illustrations I have ever seen
proving the contrary)--and I can get as close to them as I was to Señora

_February 22d._--Birthday of the immortal Washington. The day appointed
for sailing was fast approaching, and had to make all speed to get
through various engagements in Manilla. Having been informed that an
opera would be performed on our last evening, and opera being a special
delight, went ashore for the purpose of attending, but on arriving at
the theatre found the opera had been postponed on account of the _primo
tenore_ being afflicted with "boils." Had often known _broils_ to have
been the cause of disappointment to the lovers of "Ernani" and other
rapturous representative music, but here the _artiste_ had gotten hot
blood into him, instead of getting into hot water; and thinking of the
patient man of Uz, I sympathized with him; for, _par parenthèse_, these
eruptions of the skin are exceedingly sore in this climate, as you may
find out if you but come to the East Indies and eat mangoes.

A comedy had been substituted, called El lindo Diego, the part of which
we saw was well performed. A disagreeable feature, however, was in the
position of the prompter, who was placed in the centre of the
footlights, and kept up a continuous recitation of the play in a
monotonous tone, which greatly marred the effect.

The _Teatro Binondo_, where I saw this, is a very comfortable place,
with good accommodations, splendid box for the Governor, fine airy
saloons, and extensive verandahs. The price for admission was
moderate--sixty-two and a half cents in United States currency.

Adjourned, after witnessing a dance between the acts, with castanets,
to another place of amusement, the _Teatro Tagalo de Tonda_ (where
the performance was in the Indian tongue), which is of a less imposing
style, but where they get along very well.

After stopping here a short time, drove with Don Cæsar to his residence
in the country, about three miles; and in both going and returning were
hailed every square by a sentry, who will permit no one to pass without
a response. The watchword that night was _España_, which I was compelled
to repeat so often that I heartily wished them all _in Spain_, and felt
very much inclined to send them all thither, or to some other warm
climate, but that Don C. cautioned me not to trifle with these
punctilious privates: as on one occasion an Englishman, annoyed as I had
been, having answered the fiftieth hail disrespectfully, in his own
language, was marched off to the Calaboose, where he was detained all
night, and only released the next morning upon the payment of a heavy
fine, with the hint that the next time he insulted a Spanish soldier,
it would be better to use some language he did not understand. I,
however, got back safely to the "San Fernando," calling out continually,
_Presto_, to the cochero, and _España_, to the sentries, and turned in.
Next morning settled up accounts, and found the item for carriage hire
considerable, averaging three dollars a day! Bidding adieu to Manilla,
embarked in a banca--Manilla boat--and came on board ship.

At meridian a salute was fired in honor of the day, the smoke from which
had hardly cleared away before the anchor was tripped, and with
studding-sails set, we were standing down the bay, with a fine leading
wind. Passed the island of Corregidor, at its entrance, about sunset;
and before midnight had made some fifty miles of an offing.


  Anchor in Harbor of Hong-Kong--Hastings and Herald both off
  --Advantage of Newspapers--A First-rate notice--The Press
  of Victoria--The Friend of China--Its pugnacity--Advertising
  Sheets--Description of Island--Rain--Character of Chinese

Our passage to Hong-Kong was unmarked by any incident worthy of especial
notice; and we reached that harbor safely upon the second of March, and
came to anchor. Found every thing in about the same condition as when
we left, and a large fleet of merchantmen in port; but missed the
"Hastings" from her moorings, as also the "Herald." They both had
sailed during our absence: the Hastings' to be roasted by the hot
sun of Bombay; the Herald's to a warm greeting in their native isle.

Missed the officers of these vessels very much; for a kindly feeling had
sprung up amongst us, and interchanges of courtesies had made us
friends. But thus it is in this roving life; and it may be best that the
acquaintance thus stumbled upon remains but long enough to please, and
is gone before the gloss of novelty is rubbed off,--before familiarity
deadens or destroys its first impression.

There is one thing connected with this colony which adds greatly to its
interest to a person coming from a country where "the art preservative
of all arts" sends the rays of knowledge throughout the entire length
and breadth, to all classes and conditions, illuminating as well the
squatter's hut, as the patrician's hall. I allude to the existence of
newspapers. Only a person who has been accustomed to them, as we are in
the United States, can appreciate the deprivation of this mental food,
when placed beyond its reach, on a foreign station like this, where a
paper some three months after its publication is seized upon with the
greatest delight; and news, which at home has long lost its name, is
devoured with avidity, and discussed as a dainty. How true is it, that
we can only appreciate our blessings by their loss. Why, with all the
arts lending their aid; with steam, with electricity, with the painter's
skill, condensed by the most powerful intellects; with midnight toil,
and daily effort to produce that "map of busy life," which is diurnally,
almost hourly, spread out before us, and for a consideration, too, which
in many instances is not equivalent to the cost of the material upon
which it is sketched: with the lightning harmlessly conducting along the
pliant wire, stretched from one end of the continent to the other,
thoughts which have annihilated time: with another element, which has
nearly obliterated space, they are spread over its face; and by another
application of the same magic power are wafted hundreds and hundreds of
miles, and thrown upon your lap, damp and reeking, ere yet the process
has had time to dry. If Faust was supposed to have been assisted by the
Evil One, what would his persecutors have said, had they been shown a
picture like this? What would they have said? Why, that even Satan
himself possessed not such power, and denied that to the devil, which is
now accomplished by a poor _devil_ of a printer! And yet how often do we
throw aside the teeming sheet, placed as regularly before us as our
breakfast, and declaring it indifferent, petulantly begrudge its
publisher the poor penny of its price. Let the grumbler be stationed in
these Chinese waters for two years and upwards, and when he has been
deprived a greater part of that time of the "Sun," that awaited his
pleasure to shine, the "Herald," ushering in the morn at his bidding,
the "Times," that never grew old, and the "News," expressly awaiting his
perusal,--let him, I say, after perusing papers that have reached him in
March, '51, bearing the date of the past Christmas, pick up a paper out
here, even if it be a colonial one, upon the day of its publication, and
he will sing, _Io Triumphe_, as I did.

There are two newspapers printed in Victoria (Hong-Kong), and both of
these, I believe, are bi-weekly. One is called the "Friend of China, and
Hong-Kong Gazette;" the other, "The China Mail." The latter is the
government organ, and has the colonial printing. The former is
independent, and slashes away right and left, sparing neither friend nor
foe, and its columns are always open to complaining correspondents. Sir
Geo. Bonham, the Governor, often got severely handled; and either
because the government laid itself open to attack, or the editor had
some cause for pique, it appeared to be continually "pitching into" it.
Its articles were bold and forcibly expressed, and from their tenor
would suppose it exposed itself to prosecution for libel, but understood
it had steered clear of the Courts that far. Its editor shows a great
deal of industry and perseverance in its management. His Marine List is
full and complete. Not only does he give the arrivals and departures of
shipping at Hong-Kong, but at all the other ports in China waters; also
a full and corrected list of all vessels at Whampoa, Shanghae, and
Macào, and publishes all the information that can be obtained of the
extensive commerce of this part of the East, such as statistics of
imports and exports, &c., &c. His is the ungracious task to reform
abuses; perhaps, like Hamlet, he thinks "the times are out of joint,"
and he "was born to set them right." Or it may be that he is influenced
by the same motive as the Irishman, who, upon the eve of a presidential
election in the United States, was asked to cast his vote for the party
which aspired to place their candidate upon the chair, after ousting the
incumbent. Pat's first inquiry was, if it was _aginst_ the government
they wanted him to vote; and being told it was, assented, upon the
principle that he always went against the government.

In addition to these there are several advertising sheets, which are
distributed _gratis_, and exhibit the extensive trade carried on by the
merchants of the colony and Canton. Even these are interesting, proving,
as they do, the indomitable perseverance of the race, and bringing up
pleasant remembrances by their familiar diction.

The island of Hong-Kong, the original word in the Chinese is
Hoong-Keang, which means "Red Harbor," is in about lat. 22° 17' 00''
North, long. 114° East, and is one of the Ladrones, a group of rocky
islands which dot this part of Canton Bay. In length it is about eight
miles, its greatest breadth not more than four, and it is separated
from the mainland by an arm of the sea, called the Lyemoon Passage, in
which are several smaller islands, which vary its width, and make
admirable hiding places for the pirates, whose existence has given to
this Archipelago its distinctive title of Ladrone. In fact the Strait is
named after a celebrated pirate who once commanded there.

Upon the northern side of this island of Hong-Kong, is the settlement
called Victoria, which, as I have before stated, is generally known by
the name of the island, and a reference to it is made in a former page.

This island is mountainous, but contains many extensive valleys--none
very remarkable for fertility.

The mountains are formed of a species of granite, the greater part of
which is of a crumbling nature, and through them runs a stratum of a red
sandy formation, which, I suppose, geologists would call "poecilitic."
There are occasionally to be found solid boulders of this material,
which has been used for building. But it is to be remarked that the
granite found in that state is generally detached from the larger
masses, which appear to be in a state of decomposition, the particles
from which, washed down by the heavy summer rains, are said to add
greatly to the fatality occasioned by the decimating properties of an
Indian sun.

That old lady who asserted that "it never rains but it pours," would
have been furnished with corroborative proofs had she witnessed some of
the pluvial exhibitions at Hong-Kong. It really does pour on such
occasions there. Talk of the deluge, when the windows of heaven were
said to have been opened! Why if that venerable dame could have seen
the descent of these torrents, she would have thought that all
obstructing barriers of the blue empyrean had been removed, and the
surcharged clouds suddenly overturned, and have come to the conclusion
that forty days of such outpouring would leave no resting-place, even
upon the lofty peak of Victoria mountain.

They call the period from June to October the rainy season, but I have
witnessed extensive showers in nearly all the intermediate months. These
are sudden and overwhelming. Instances are related of Coolies having
been caught in currents rushing down the mountain, and drowned without
the possibility of assistance.

In the years 1845 and '6, from July to January, within a period of six
months, _ten feet of rain_ was measured by an ombrometer, having fallen
at Hong-Kong.

The island came into possession of Great Britain in 1842 by cession, but
had been occupied on the 26th of January of the previous year, in
consequence of a treaty which was afterwards rejected by the Emperor.
Great inducements were held out to Chinese to settle in Victoria by the
British government. They were guaranteed all their rights and
privileges, and allowed freedom in their religious rites, and permitted
to follow their own customs. These inducements, however, appeared to
have but little effect upon the Chinese. They distrusted the "outside
barbarians," and it was to the interest of the Mandarins to prevent
emigration to the new settlement. At present much of the distrust has
worn away, and many have taken advantage of the opening made by
thriving trade; still it must be admitted that the majority of Chinamen
to be found in Hong-Kong, are of the nature of those patriots who leave
"their country for their country's good," and the numbers seen in the
chain gangs, show the manner in which they best serve the State.


  Hong-Kong--Object of its Settlement--Its service as an Opium
  Depot--Views of the Opium Trade--Its History--Considered the
  cause and object of the War--Treaty of Nankin--Opium Trade
  fixed on China.

The principal advantage possessed by Hong-Kong--I shall designate the
settlement henceforth by the name assigned to it by common consent--is
the facility its position affords for carrying on the trade in opium,
which deleterious drug will continue to be introduced into China, in
spite of the strongest imperial edicts, and the severest denouncements
of punishment against its consumers, so infatuated are its users, and so
governed by the spirit of avarice its introducers.

After the celebrated destruction of all he could get possession of, by
Commissioner Lin, in June, 1839, which operated somewhat like the
Frenchman's revenge upon the bank, in destroying the bill for which he
had been refused specie, not only having to be paid for by the Chinese,
after an expensive war, but causing other imports of the drug to supply
its place; the English, naturally seeking a safe and suitable spot for a
dépôt, arranged so as to make its cession an article in a treaty with
High Commissioner Keshen, in January, 1841, which, although it was
abrogated, and hostilities resumed, made but little difference in the
destinies of Hong-Kong, for it is well known that wherever that nation
plants its foot, the marks of it are not easily obliterated. There can
be little doubt but that this was what gave the barren island more
importance in their eyes, than the more healthy and fertile Chousan.

The cession made, their great desire to procure an emigration of Chinese
to this point, proved a wish for consumers and distributors, and the
stationing at once of receiving ships in the Red Harbor, disclosed their

In answer to orders, from Bombay and Calcutta came numerous vessels
which here deposited their poisonous cargoes, and returning for another
freight, left it to be distributed by swift-sailing and armed clippers,
throughout the dominions of an empire whose laws they had signed a
solemn compact to respect, which laws made its delivery contraband.

"But," will exclaim some, "these were not the acts of the British
Government. The crown lends no aid to such a traffic." Indeed! then let
us say that it is the act of the people of a colony under the fostering
care of that crown, with the representative of the Queen directing its
affairs. To his lordship's knowledge, I will not say to his profit, but
certainly to the pecuniary benefit of the colony, and against the most
repeated protests of the Chinese Government are these imports and
exports allowed and countenanced, until even good men of their own kind
have called out in their midst--_proh pudor_!

"Have not the colonists a right to import a drug, which is legally an
article of import, allowed by the crown?" No! not for the avowed purpose
of distributing it amongst a people, whose government protests against
its introduction; for no opium dealer will pretend to assert that it is
for consumption by the inhabitants of Hong-Kong, or foreign residents of
Canton, but must admit that it is brought expressly for transhipment to
the coasts of China, at no port of which would it be admitted upon the
payment of any duty; in fact, it is contraband! As good a right has the
Frenchman to land his Bordeaux brandy upon a part of the English coast,
to evade the customs. Aye! if you come to that, a better right; for upon
the payment of a duty its admission is not denied; but this article is
considered so baneful to China, that no premium is thought equivalent to
the injury sustained by its introduction.

The argument advanced by interested persons, that supposing they did not
prosecute the trade, others would reap its advantages, bears its fallacy
upon its face. For it is not permitted to us to profit by doing evil,
for the reason that the possibility of performing the wicked act is in
the hands of others.

The first opium known in China was grown in small quantities in one of
its own provinces, that of Yunnam, which was used medicinally. It
belonged to the East India Company first to introduce it into the empire
as a luxury; for we have an account of the importation of a number of
chests in one of its vessels from Bengal in 1773. Shortly after other
English merchants entered in the trade, and two vessels were stationed
as receiving ships, near Macào. By degrees these opium dépôts were
extended to Whampoa, Lintin, Cap-sing-Moon, and other suitable places,
until its consumption began to attract the notice of the Chinese
government; and in the year 1800 its importation was prohibited by a
special Imperial edict, and measures were taken to prevent its use
throughout the provinces. But the habit had become too strong to be
controlled, and its consumption increased, despite the severest
penalties. Death, transportation, confiscation of property, could not
deter those upon whom the sight of its daily operations had no effect;
and the immense profits realized in the sale caused those engaged in the
traffic to incur all risks.

From the southern, it spread to the northern and eastern coasts.
Receiving vessels were stationed at Amoy, Fuh-Choo, Namoa, and Woosung,
with fast clippers to supply them from the principal dépôt at Hong-Kong;
and opium was smuggled almost within the precincts of the Imperial

The government did all in its power to prevent its introduction and
sale, but its efforts were fruitless, until Commissioner Lin was sent to
Canton, empowered by the Emperor himself. By prompt and vigorous
measures, he succeeded in obtaining possession of two thousand two
hundred and eighty-three chests, which he publicly destroyed, and which
act was the cause of the rupture between England and China, justly
called the Opium War. This war was continued with much success by the
English, and a great deal of intriguing on the part of the Chinese,
until, on the twenty-ninth of August, 1842, after the British forces had
possessed themselves of nearly all the important towns on the coast,
and penetrated the Chinese empire as far as Nankin, a treaty was
concluded between the two nations on board H. B. M. ship Cornwallis,
which was to take effect from that date, after being signed and sealed
by the Plenipotentiaries of the respective parties. By this treaty, five
ports in China were to be opened to British subjects for residence and
trade. These are Canton, Amoy, Fuh-Choo, Ning-po, and Shanghae: six
millions of dollars paid as the value of the opium destroyed by Lin: the
system of Co-Hong abolished, and three millions paid for losses by the
Hong merchants to British subjects; twelve millions to defray the
expenses of the war; and the island of Hong-Kong ceded for ever to the
British government. By the cession of this island, all future attempts
of the Chinese government to prevent the introduction of opium are
frustrated. Previously, those who dealt in this article were confined to
the insecure dépôt of a receiving vessel, liable to attack, fire, and
wreck. Now they possess an island capable of a strong defence, where the
opium can be imported in any quantity, under the protection of the
English flag, and from whence it can be exported at leisure to any point
in China. Certainly, by the acquisition of Hong-Kong the British have
secured this trade; and henceforth the "flowing poison" must spread from
hence over the length and breadth of the "Central Flowery Land," unless
the Celestials, with one consent, should abandon its use,--a thing
almost impossible to a people once brought under its influence.

It has been urged by Chinese of much shrewdness, that its importation as
a drug should be allowed under a heavy duty, and that the government
thus secure a profit from the evil; but a former Emperor declared he
could never receive a revenue from the misery of his people, and the
present government still perseveringly opposes its use.


  Trip to Macào--Disappointed in getting ashore--Mail arrived--
  Get no Letters--Expression of Sentiments--Causes and Effects
  --Overland Mail--Idea of a Route--Happy Valley--Chase of
  Pirates--_A Poisson d'Avril_--Into the Typa again--Arrival of
  Consort--Late Dates--Catholic Fête--Depart for Shanghae--The
  Yang-tse-Kiang--Improvement in the appearance of the Country
  --Better race of Men--Banks of the Woo-sung.

Took a trip over to Macào, for a supply of provisions, our dépôt being
there, and having these on board, back again to Hong-Kong. Did not get
ashore at Macào, which was somewhat of a disappointment, as I had some
kind friends there whom I wished much to see, and from whom the cruise
to Manilla had made the separation longer than usual.

Upon the eighteenth of March the Mail Steamer came into Hong-Kong, with
the overland mail. I had been anxiously expecting its arrival, with
letters for myself, but was disappointed, and gave expression to my
feelings in this wise:

    No news from home! My weary heart
      Beats sadly in its prison cage,
    And 'gainst its bars, with bound and start,
      A wearing, useless war doth wage.
    Alone, alone! Its feeble song
      Finds no responsive, answering tone;
    And it hath sung in silence long,
      And long, alas! may sing alone.
    Oh, for a sound across the main,
      A note affection knows so well;
    That it might dream of heaven again,
      That peace again with it might dwell;
    And joy delayed, at last may come,
    In cheerful, happy news from home.

After this felt somewhat relieved; for the mind is like the body, and
mental, as well as physical suffering, must have vent. A twinge of a
tooth brings forth a groan; a twitch of the heart-strings produces
poetry in me: have only to hope the poetry may not have the effect of
the toothache upon the reader.

The overland mail is brought across the desert by the Isthmus of Suez,
and reaches Hong-Kong in about forty-five days from England, and brings
dates from the United States in from 60 to 70 days, depending upon the
junction of the Atlantic steamers. Letters by it can either be sent via
Southampton, England, or Marseilles, France; the latter is considered
the swiftest route, the former the most secure.

Monsoons in the China Sea affect its transit on that end of the line,
and letters have been known to have reached Hong-Kong from New-York
during a favorable monsoon within 60 days.

Since the acquisition of California, our government possesses a much
speedier route, and would find it greatly to her interest to establish a
line by any of the overland routes across the Isthmus of Darien, and
from thence by steam to Shanghae, or even Hong-Kong in China; and I do
not despair of seeing the time when letters will be delivered in these
ports within forty days, from the Atlantic cities. Our growing interests
in this section of the globe demand attention and some arrangement of
this kind.

Remained moored in the harbor of Hong-Kong until the second day of
April, visiting the town occasionally, and strolling over the hills for

They have some very fine roads for drives, cut at a considerable expense
through hills and boulders of granite. The "Victoria Road" leads out,
about four miles to a place called East Point, and upon it, about two
miles from the town, is a fine race-course. This course has been gotten
up by subscription, and is situated in a large and beautiful valley,
called "Happy Valley." It is well named, if beauty can confer happiness,
and it certainly is a principal ingredient, for has not a poet said

    "A thing of beauty is a joy forever."

Here are held periodical races, and the sport is much enjoyed, as it
always is by Englishmen. No climate is too hot, none too cold to prevent
it, and these trials of speed are characteristic of the nation. The
Spaniard will have his bull-fight, the Mexican pits his cocks, but John
Bull selects the noblest of quadrupeds, and infuses into him his own
emulation for superiority.

Upon the evening of the 31st of March, had a little excitement to
destroy the monotony of a life on shipboard. A report was circulated
that a band of pirates had smuggled themselves on board the P. & O.
Company's steamer "Hong-Kong," which had left that day for Canton.

These boats are in the habit of taking Chinese passengers at one dollar
a head, a very low rate, and as such, it was said a number of
desperadoes, armed, had embarked in her.

H. B. M. screw propeller "Reynard," immediately got up steam, thirty men
and officers from our ship were transferred to the little American
steamer "Spark," and both vessels started in hot pursuit.

The Reynard stopped at the Bogue, and her boats proceeded to scour those
waters, whilst the Spark proceeded up the Canton river. She had not far
to go, however, for about midnight the return steamer was hailed, which
reported having passed the "Hong-Kong," all right. So both vessels
returned to Hong-Kong, upon the morning of the first of April.

But although the coincidence was ominous, they could not truly be said
to have caught a "_poisson d'avril_," for there was doubtless a design
against the steamer, which had on board a large amount of treasure, and
some of these Chinamen were afterwards tried and condemned at Hong-Kong,
for the attempt. Want of unanimity or some other cause having defeated
their purpose.

Upon the second of April, left for Macào, there to await the arrival of
our consort. Tried to get into our old anchorage in the Typa, and stuck
upon the mud-bank again, where we remained until the fourth morning,
kedging, hauling and warping, when succeeded in getting afloat by
pumping out the water, and transferring shot, &c., into a lorcha. After
reaching the anchorage, hoisted the Portuguese flag, and fired a salute
of 21 guns in honor of the birthday of the Queen of Portugal.

Upon the 8th instant, our consort arrived, and anchored in the outer
roads; by her I received old newspapers, and a letter seven months and
seventeen days after date.

Had been ashore several times in Macào, but found little to interest me
until the evening before Good Friday, when there was a general turn out
of the inhabitants, and all the churches were brilliantly illuminated,
and the altars decked with flowers. Crowds went from one church to the
next, and the principal object appeared to be that of visiting each and
every church, a continuous stream being kept up between them.

Upon Good Friday the tragedy of the death of our Saviour was performed
at the cathedral. After the crucifixion, the body was removed from the
cross, and carried upon a bier, through the different streets in solemn
procession. First came the host with its usual attendants, then followed
the "accursed tree" with the bloody garment of Christ upon it. After it
came ten beautiful children, personating angels; then was borne a waxen
image to represent the corpse, followed by the virgin mother, and
immediately succeeding the two other Marys. The bishop and suite were
next, then the troops of the garrison, with arms reversed, and mournful
music; the rear being brought up by male citizens in mourning dresses
and heads uncovered. In this line of march the procession moved through
the principal streets, and back to the cathedral, where the body was
placed in the tomb with solemn ceremony.

On the first day of the week the resurrection was celebrated with
appropriate joyful demonstration. At night, maskers went about the
streets, stopping at intervals to have a dance, and entering houses,
where after going through a performance, they would partake of

Left Macào for Shanghae on the 25th of April, to beat up the China Sea
against a strong N. E. monsoon. In this passage our craft behaved
remarkably well, and although quite wet, held her own, and diligently
ploughed her way through all difficulties, amongst not the least
obstructing was a heavy head sea, which made her very uncomfortable,
also greatly impeded her progress.

Made the islands off the mouth of the Yang-tse-Kiang on the 12th of May,
and came to anchor in the river that night. Found the current very
strong, and the wind being ahead, had to await a change of tide.

Weighed anchor with the first setting in of the flood, and got about
eight miles up the river, when had to let it go again. Thus we continued
until the 14th, when had worked our way into the Woo-Sung or Shanghae
river, where, although the breeze was favorable, the water shoaled so
suddenly, that we were forced to come to, just above the village of
Woo-Sung. The Woo-Sung river empties into the Yang-tse-Kiang about 40
miles from its confluence with the ocean, and the city of Shanghae is
situated upon the Woo-Sung, about three leagues above its junction with
the Yang-tse-Kiang, which is one of the largest rivers in China, and
washes the walls of the city of Nankin, formerly the southern capital of
the Empire.

Nankin is laid down in latitude 32° 5' N., longitude 119° E., and is
about 50 leagues from the ocean.

The meaning of the words Yang-tse-Kiang, is, Child of the Ocean, or more
literally, "Son of the Sea;" it is about two thousand five hundred miles
in length, and its breadth and capacity entitle it to the classification
of the third river of the world.[8]

As we ascended the Woo-Sung, found a marked difference in the face of
the country. Our former stations in China had been amongst the rocky
hills of the southern Archipelago, which scarcely allowed the smallest
shrub to take root upon their barren sides, and the sight of trees had
become rare to us. But here, upon either side, was stretched out a
beautiful green plain, giving evidence of the most industrious
cultivation, protected from encroachments of the river by strong and
broad levees. Substantial, comfortable farm-houses meeting the eye in
every direction, supplied the places of the insecure huts of the
fishermen. Fruit trees were abundant, and the general aspect gave
evidence of a genial soil, aiding the efforts of the provident

The men, too, whom we could see at work beyond the embankments, were of
a larger stature, and had a more healthy appearance than their southern
brethren. Their complexions were of a lighter hue, and here, for the
first time, I saw a Chinaman with rosy cheeks.

The invigorating effects of a northern climate were fully proven in the
appearance of these people. They seemed to enjoy the roughest health,
and were free from that care-worn look of the Chinese about Canton. They
were clad more entirely than these also, and wore more of woollen in the
material of their garments. Chow-chow appeared more abundant, and the
children were the fattest little rascals I have ever seen. But I cannot
commend them for cleanliness, and must admit that their countrymen
nearer the sea make a better use of that cleansing element,--possibly
because it was spread before them in larger quantities.

It was in the spring-time, in the "merrie month of May," when we
approached Shanghae; every thing was in bloom. There had been the usual
spring rains, and the weather had settled down to that delightful
temperature, which has such a cheering effect upon the spirits. And as
we dodged the tides in the winding Woo-Sung, spots would be descried
which brought to mind some similar scenes at home: these would be
pointed out. Another would find a resemblance in some grove, plantation,
or clump of trees; and thus its banks were made sacred, and our Lares
and Penates jostled the household gods that presided there.


[Footnote 8: An English tourist, who found himself upon the
Yang-tse-Kiang, compared it with the Thames, admitting its superiority.
I, as a Yankee, compare it with my own Mississippi; and place it next in
rank to the "Father of waters," to which stream it hears some


  Shanghae--Immense number of Junks--Foreign Residences--Novelty
  of Chimneys--Revolting appearance of Beggars--Undertakers
  --Price of Coffins--Decline Trading--Description of City
  --Stagnant Pools--Tea Gardens--Sweet Site--The Taoutae--
  Advantages of Shanghae--Departure--Ship Ashore!--Sensation.

Shanghae is situated in about 30° 26' N. latitude; longitude 120° 48'
East. Reached it on the 16th of May, and came to anchor about one mile
below its walls, off the dwellings of the foreign residents. As we
approached, were struck with the appearance of a forest of masts,
belonging to junks in front of the city; in fact, these were all we
could see, as they completely shut out a view of the city from our

Although suffering from sickness, could not resist the desire to get on
shore, and accordingly landed amongst the residents' houses the first
opportunity. These are built entirely in the European style, and some of
them present a fine appearance. The climate in the winter season
compelling the use of fire, they are all provided with chimneys, which
was a feature remarkable at once, it being unusual on the southern
coast. From these houses, as you approach the city, you enter upon a
scene of filth and dirt indescribable, and have to pass through a line
of beggars, who exhibit the most loathsome and revolting sores, to
excite the pity of the passer-by.

In approaching the city, had to skirt a graveyard, where the coffins are
placed above ground, and left there until their contents are decomposed,
when they are removed, to make place for others. In the neighborhood are
numerous coffin makers, and the trade appears to be thriving, from the
numbers engaged at it. Our guide informed me that I could procure one of
these "accommodations" at prices varying from five to five hundred
dollars. I declined trading for them, however, considering _that_ a
negotiation to be entered into by "sorrowing friends."

Entered the city through a double gateway, having had to cross a fetid,
shallow ditch before the walls.

Shanghae is a walled city, and in its appearance much like other Chinese
towns, only it was more filthy than any I had yet visited. Crossed a
number of stagnant pools, over bridges much too good for such stinking
streams, being, in their architecture, entirely out of keeping with the
other properties. Saw a great many Tea Gardens, where the tea was
dispensed by the cup; and when a Chinaman called for a cup, it was
perhaps in the same spirit that some of our country men demand a
"smaller" of brandy, rum, or gin, though the Celestial certainly imbibes
the least noxious potion. One of these gardens formed the centre of a
stagnant pool, and was reached by bridges from different points. A
fantastic-looking temple appeared the rendezvous, and upon the whole the
effect would have been pleasing, but for that sickly green water.

Visited several shops, and made a few purchases of "_curios_" and was
then perfectly satisfied to get out of such a filthy hole.

The day after his arrival, our commander and suite paid an official
visit to the Taoutae,--Lead man of the district,--and was well received.
The Chinese who held this office had been an old Hong merchant at
Canton. He gave the entertainment in the European style; and from having
consorted so much with "Fankwies," in his former capacity, he was quite
at home; but you may depend upon it, it is always with much reluctance
that these Celestial citizens of the Central Flowery Land dispense with
any of their customs in our favor; and when they do condescend to lay
aside their chop-sticks, and use the knife and fork, there is policy in
it. What was the object in this instance, further than to honor a nation
where "gold grows," I did not ascertain. But we have undoubtedly risen
greatly in their estimation since the acquisition of California, and the
appearance of our magnificent clipper ships in their waters.

The day following His Excellency, the Taoutae, sent on board numerous
presents, amongst which were some early fruit, sweetmeats, and two very
fine sheep. These latter, of the celebrated Shanghae breed, were the
finest specimens I have seen for a long time; and the most striking
peculiarity about them was the preponderance of fat to their caudal
extremities, the tail of each being of an entirely different formation
from that of the European breed; and I can compare it to nothing better
than an immense woolly mop, "in the place where the _tail_ ought to
grow." I do not know if any of these sheep have ever been imported into
the United States, or whether they would endure the voyage, but
understood the stock is not considered equal to our own. These certainly
were covered with heavy coats of wool: of its quality I was unable to
judge, having confined my examination entirely to what lay beneath,
which I can unhesitatingly pronounce to be as good mutton as I had ever

A very short stay, and an attack of sickness, prevented me from
exploring much of Shanghae, or its environs, and I learned there are a
thousand things worth seeing.

The Chinese call this province the Paradise of China, and if I am not
mistaken, the word has this signification when interpreted: and they
have a proverb, which runs in this wise: "See Shanghae, and die." I came
very near acting up to their advice, for after seeing what is previously
written, I was taken seriously ill; so that, had our stay been
prolonged, I would have been unable to have gone on shore, unless,
indeed, in one of their fancy coffins!

Learned, however, from one of the officers of Her Majesty's brig
"Contest," who had been stationed here some time, that the climate is
delightful to those who are able to withstand the cold of the winters;
that the features of the country have not been misstated, but are equal
to any representation made; that game is at all times abundant,
especially in autumn, when fine sport is to be obtained by those who
handle "mantons" with even moderate skill; furthermore, the followers of
quaint old Isaac, the ancient angler, need but a tithe of his art to
tempt the piscatory tribe from their native element. But he did affirm
that in midsummer, the mercury in the tube scarcely ever gets below
100° Fahrenheit, and the action of the sun's rays upon the stagnant
water before-named, gives such an intimation to the nostrils of the
state of the atmosphere, as to render the use of the eudiometer

Got under way from our moorings early in the morning of Monday the 19th,
and dropped down with the tide; getting out of the Woo-Sung, anchored in
the Yang-tse-Kiang, on the 20th, passed Saddle Island, and dismissing
the pilot, headed for Amoy, at which port we were to look in on our

We had proceeded along pretty well until the morning of the 27th, when
about three o'clock in the morning watch, as I was lying awake in my
apartment, heard the officer of the deck give the order for tacking
ship--"Ready about"--and after the boatswain's pipe to "Stations."
"Ready, ready," when she received a shock, as from the concussion of a
heavy sea, then another, and another, which soon convinced me that the
ship was ashore. This was certainly unpleasant, as I had no doubt but
that we were at that time twenty miles from land, and the idea of a
coral reef in that position, was premonitory of a salt-water bath.
Before the call of "All hands save ship," was given, I was upon deck,
and found that she had grounded upon a bank on the northern coast of the
island of Formosa, having been swept by an unusual current over thirty
miles in the course of twelve hours, an event altogether unlooked for,
and which would have baffled the skill of the most experienced
navigator; our chart, upon examination, also proving to be incorrect.
Luckily it was ebb tide when she went on, and after getting out all the
boats, and lightening the ship by throwing overboard shot and starting
water, she was got off, after having been aground about eight hours, and
thumping terribly.

It was the first time I had ever felt the effects of a heavy sea upon a
ship ashore, and never wish to experience them again.

With our armament and stores we were probably as heavily laden as a
merchant vessel of greater tonnage would have been with cargo, but being
more strongly built, were of course better able to withstand the shocks.

Every time she struck, the top-gallant masts would sway like saplings,
and the ship tremble throughout her whole frame, indeed, a homely remark
of one of her crew was very expressive of her condition: "Why the old
ship has got the hiccups," and her motions were truly resembling those
of a human being in convulsive throes.

Notwithstanding we got off so easily, yet our situation had in it much
of peril, and we were at one time in some danger.

The inhabitants of this part of Formosa are savages, some say cannibals.
They had gathered in great numbers on the beach, some two or three
thousands, and appeared divided into different clans, awaiting our
breaking up. Had we fallen into their hands, defenceless, there was but
little chance of escaping, so greatly did they outnumber our crew.

As it was, we got off barely in time, for it commenced to "blow great
guns" about the time we got afloat, which created such a sea as would
soon have knocked us to pieces, and even before we had way on, the surf
was beating so violently upon the beach, as to have precluded all
possibility of reaching the shore in an armed body.

Under double-reefed topsails we beat over to Amoy, and the next morning
made the entrance to that port, but had to stand off and on the whole
day and night, the sea being so high as to make it dangerous to attempt
to enter the harbor.


  Amoy--Its Trade--Cause of Decay--Infanticide--Manner of
  destroying Female Infants--China Woman's Confession--
  Environs--British and American Cemeteries--The Fatal
  Rock--Koo-lung-Seu--Chinese Gunnery--Chinese Customs--
  Marriage--Death--Manner of Mourning--Pagoda of

On the morning of the 29th of May, came into the port of Amoy and
anchored. Communicated with our Consul, who stated that our commerce was
very small at that point, and although it is connected with the tea
district, but five American vessels had entered the port for the past
two years.

Of all the "five ports," Amoy appears to have the least foreign trade,
and notwithstanding its contiguity to the region of China, in which its
principal article of export is produced, enjoys but little commerce.

This is in a measure to be attributed to the difficulty of entering its
bay at all seasons, but is mainly caused by the apathy and lack of
enterprise of its inhabitants. They appear to be less disposed to trade
with foreigners than any other Chinese we visited, and in their shops
were perfectly indifferent whether we became purchasers or not, using no
exertions to effect sales. This was so opposite to what we had always
found to be a prominent feature of Chinese character as to excite
remark. In Canton, Macào, and Shanghae, they had pressed their wares
upon us, but in Amoy you might examine the contents of a shop, without
being importuned to purchase a single article.

The principal trade appeared to be in opium. There were two receiving
ships in the bay, and from the general appearance of the people, would
be led to suppose that a great deal of it was smoked by them, and this
accounted for their apathy and want of energy.

It must end so, that this opium trade will be the ruin of China, for in
its use it not only enervates the people, but it is procured by draining
the country of the precious metals, and it may be fairly stated, that
for every ounce of opium brought into the country, nearly its weight in
Sycee silver has been extracted.

The town of Amoy presents the same features as Shanghae, and other
Chinese cities: streets narrow and filthy, and dirt abundant, an equal
number of offensive smells pervade the atmosphere, and as many
disgusting sights offend the eye; beggars, to be sure, are not so common
as at Shanghae, but the inhabitants have a squalid look, as if _too lazy
to beg_. Infanticide--or if I may be allowed to coin a word for this
peculiar kind of child murder on account of its being confined entirely
to the female sex--"Puellacide" is said to prevail to a greater extent
in this region than even in Canton itself. Whilst sons are considered an
honor, and their growth looked upon as a matter of profit, the giving
birth to a daughter is proportionably a disgrace, and the rearing of it
a disadvantage, consequently the female infant is generally allowed but
a few moments existence in "this breathing world," and is usually
strangled by the hands of its unnatural mother immediately upon its
birth. The manner in which this act is said to be performed, is by
filling up the mouth of the babe with rice, and holding its nostrils
closed with the hand until suffocation is produced.

It is hard to suppose that a mother can thus act towards her offspring,
but it is known to be too true, and it may be a better fate than is
reserved for many of the sex whose lives have been spared, for so
useless an incumbrance are females considered in the families of the
lower orders, and so little regard have their parents for them, that
even before they grow up, they are often sold for the worst purposes.

A Chinese woman, who had been converted to Christianity, confessed, that
in her ignorance, she had destroyed _seven_ of her own infants, females
of course, not considering the custom of her country, at that time, a

Although there is but little to interest one in the town of Amoy, there
are several pleasant places in its vicinity. Yet every where appeared
the evidence of "decay's effacing fingers." On the opposite side of the
bay was once a flourishing site, which previous to the attack of the
English had been the residence of the wealthier citizens, mandarins,
etc. When the British troops invested this place, they occupied these
buildings as barracks; and being withdrawn after the treaty, left them
in a ruinous condition. They have not been used since, and the large
gardens, evidently at one time cultivated with much taste, have now run
to waste. In these were romantic grottoes, in which are curiously carved
resting-places, cut out of the rock.

The English burial ground is in this neighborhood; it is a small place,
and walled in. The mortality amongst the troops was very great during
the occupancy of this place, and this area is said to contain over a
regiment of soldiers.

The American cemetery is more prepossessing in appearance. It is
situated in a picturesque valley, full of beautiful trees, and did not
contain many graves. From it there is a fine view of the bay and
islands, and the city of Amoy.

In crossing the bay on our return, there was pointed out a singularly
shaped rock in height about thirty feet, with a narrow base, and
swelling out as it ascended, in appearance similar to a boy's top. The
Chinese have a startling prophecy connected with it, which is, that when
it shall fall, the present dynasty of China will also decline; reminding
one of the Latin saying, "When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall." But
Rome has fallen, and the Coliseum still stands! Will the parallel hold
good between this rock and China? The island of Koo-lung-Seu, when the
British made the attack upon Amoy, appears to have been well fortified,
but the Chinese committed a great error in the _training_ of their guns,
or rather in placing them so as to have been unable to take any other
range than point blank! Here is a fort mounting upwards of fifty guns of
large calibre, which would have commanded the bay, but the embrasures
are so small as barely to admit the muzzle of the gun, the breech of
which was imbedded in the earth. These were soon silenced, as may well
be supposed, by the attacking squadron taking a position beyond their
range, and training their own batteries to bear upon the Chinese
gunners within, who kept blazing away into the unresisting air, whilst
the British riddled the fort at leisure. The mandarin in charge, a
Tartar, who would not be caught, drowned himself.

From Mr. Bradley, our intelligent Consul at Amoy, who appears to have
devoted much time to the study of the Chinese and their customs,
obtained a great deal of information respecting them.

In regard to marriages, he stated, that when a Chinaman considers
himself rich enough to take a wife, he informs the object of his choice
_by letter_, which is usually a sheet of paper some five or six feet in
length; this is shown to her parents, and if the match is thought a
proper one, she is allowed to make known her compliance in a
_billet-doux_ of equal proportions. After this interchange, the father
of the selected fair calls upon the proposing party to arrange
preliminaries, amongst not the least important of which is the payment
of a sum of money agreed upon between them; this fund is _supposed_ to
be for the furnishing of the bride.

The happy day is then appointed, and when it arrives a plentiful supply
of edibles flows in from the friends of both families to the house of
the bridegroom; from whence are dispatched a number of his friends to
carry the bride to her future home; by these she is borne along in a
sedan chair, closely veiled, accompanied by music, and is received by
her future "lord and _master_" seated in state, and surrounded by the
tablets of his ancestors; then for the _first_ time in his life he
_beholds the face_ of the woman of his choice!

The marriage being consummated, three days succeeding are devoted to

When a woman has been so unfortunate as to become a widow, especially
without male issue, she testifies her grief in every imaginable manner,
filling the air with her lamentations, tearing her loosened hair, and
giving all the demonstrations of the deepest sorrow. At each meal food
is placed at the accustomed seat, and the absentee is entreated to
return and partake in the most endearing terms. This is continued for a
season, when, as if tired of entreaty so unavailingly lavished, and in
the true spirit of her sex, the widow changes her tune, and commences to
abuse the "dear departed." For one year this practice is kept up, after
that, twice a month for three years; then only upon the anniversary of
his death. Have not been apprised of any success having attended these
applications, or whether the applicants were sincere in their
expressions; but am rather inclined to doubt the sincerity of the
mourner, excepting in cases where male issue is desired, and then their
grief has a selfish motive.

There was an instance in a Chinese house opposite the Consulate, where a
woman, who had been deprived of her partner by death, a short time
previously, was calling him to breakfast, and deprecating his delay in
no measured terms.

The Pagoda, or tower of Nan-tae-Woo-Shan, is a conspicuous object near
Amoy. It is one thousand seven hundred and twenty-eight feet above the
level of the sea, and an excellent mark for vessels making the harbor.


  Formosa--Description of the Island--Its productions--Coal
  Mines--Metals--The Dutch Possessions--Their Expulsion--Proper
  policy of Civilized Powers.

The island of Formosa--from going on which we so narrowly escaped--is
destined from its position and importance, to become, at a time not long
future, a place of considerable trade for both Europeans and Americans,
as it is now indeed with the Chinese of the neighboring provinces of
Fo-Kien and Che-Kiang on the main land.

As its name implies, it is a "beautiful" island, especially on its
southern extremity, which has been described as a fruitful garden,
producing delicious fruits and grain of every description, and exporting
vast quantities of rice, sugar, tobacco, and camphor.

The Chinese call it Te-wan; it extends between the degrees of twenty and
twenty-six north latitude, is about fifty miles wide, and is separated
from the province of Foo-Kien, of which it is a dependency, by a channel
of from eighty to ninety miles in breadth.

It is equidistant from Japan and the Philippine Islands, being about one
hundred and fifty miles from each, and appears to have been placed
directly in the highway of commerce.

As yet it has been but little explored, and of its harbors, with the
exception of Kelung, not much is known. This harbor is on its northern
extremity, in latitude 25° 9' north of Greenwich, by a late observation.
There is a good anchorage here for vessels drawing not over sixteen
feet, and water and supplies can be obtained from the town, which
contains about two thousand inhabitants, said to be very civil and
obliging. They are principally engaged in fishing and the cultivation of
the land, which is set down as luxuriant in the extreme.

Coal is said to be very abundant in this neighborhood, and many
excavations have been made in the surrounding hills, some of them having
been tunnelled over forty feet, and a distinct stratum exhibited of
about four feet thick, hard and easily detached, lying between blue soft
shale and sandstone. The quality of this coal was described by a person
who visited the mines, to be very good, heavy, easily detached, igniting
readily, and burning with a bituminous gassy flame, leaving a very small
quantity of ashes of a reddish white color. From specimens which I
have seen, do not suppose it equal to the English Cannel or our own
Pittsburgh; but have known coal of a not much superior quality to have
been produced from the first workings of mines in the valley of the
Ohio, and who can say but that much better veins exist, of which these
are but the openings?

In this however does not consist entirely the mineral wealth of this
prolific island, and in the range of mountains which run through its
centre is found gold and silver, iron ore and copper. Whilst in the
valleys at their feet, the labors of the husbandman are bountifully
rewarded in extensive crops of sugar and rice, so easily produced from
the luxuriant soil of a southern latitude.

The Pang-hoo or Pescadore Islands, which lie between it and the
province of Foo-Kien, compose with Formosa, one Foo, or department
of that province, and are subject to its Foo-yuen or Governor. These
dependencies are divided into six districts, five of which are within
the limits of Formosa, the sixth comprising the Pescadore Islands.

But although the Chinese government asserts supremacy over Formosa, and
subjects its inhabitants to tribute, yet amongst the aborigines are
several tribes, which it has never been able to subdue, and who as yet
successfully dispute its authority, overrun the peaceably disposed
districts, and prevent this extensive island from being more thoroughly
explored, and its vast resources fully developed. It was upon their
inhospitable shore that we came near being cast, and from their tender
mercies made so narrow an escape.

In the year 1624, the Dutch, being then powerful at sea, made an attack
upon the Portuguese settlement at Macào; from which being repulsed,
their Admiral sought refuge on Formosa, and taking possession of the
Pescadore Islands, attacked Chinese junks, trading in those waters, and
plundering them, disposed of their cargoes on the neighboring island of

By permission from the reigning dynasty of China, then tottering to its
fall, they were allowed to establish a factory on the S. W. coast of
Formosa, where they erected a fort, which they named Fort Zealand.
This settlement became quite flourishing, from the fact that the
disturbances on the main land drove numbers of the more peaceably
disposed Chinese to the security of this new retreat on the beautiful

A number of Spaniards from Manilla, noting the advantageous position of
the island, attempted a settlement on its northern side, but it was soon
broken up by the Dutch, who drove them away, and held undisputed sway
over it until 1644, when the Tartars conquered China, who naturally
becoming jealous of this band of foreigners so near their shores, made
arrangements with the celebrated Coxinga--son of him who had been
educated by the Portuguese and baptized Nicholas--to repair to Formosa,
and root out this growing power.

Having, by professions of peace, induced the Dutch Admiral sent for its
protection to withdraw his forces and return to Batavia, he approached
the settlement with a large force, and landing, was immediately joined
by his countrymen the Chinese who had emigrated thither. With these
added to his command, Coxinga demanded Formosa from the Dutch, requiring
them to depart at once or "hoist the red flag," that is, prepare to
fight. This they did, and after sustaining a siege of nine months,
surrendered the fort, and were allowed to proceed to Java.

Had they conciliated the Chinese, who had come to live amongst them,
they might have had their support, and retained possession of the
island, but by barbarous treatment they had alienated them, so that
Coxinga found in them willing allies.

Since the expulsion of the Dutch, there has been no attempt at
settlement on this desirable island by any European power; which, when
its fertility and position are considered, is somewhat remarkable. As I
have before stated, its productions are distributed by Chinese junks, of
which between two and three hundred are engaged in carrying rice to the
neighboring provinces, and nearly one hundred are said to be employed in
transporting the article of sugar alone to one single port in China,
that of Tein-tsin. The trade between it and Canton is also said to be
considerable, camphor being the principal export thence.

But if gain will not induce civilized powers to occupy this as yet
undeveloped island, the cause of humanity should interest some such
maritime nation as England or America, to at least chastise those
barbarous savages who overrun its eastern shores; it is from these that
many a peaceful mariner, coasting them in trading voyages, having been
caught in those dreadful Typhoons which ravage those seas, and thrown
helpless into their hands, has met with a cruel and torturing death, and
from the fact of numberless shipwrecks along that coast, of which no
survivors have remained, it is but fair to judge that the hapless crews
have only escaped the angry waters, to meet a more violent end on these
inhospitable shores. An instance occurred in the crew of the "Larpent,"
an English merchant vessel, which went ashore here, about the time we
passed the island, of which but four escaped, and these by a miracle.
They saw their unfortunate shipmates lanced, and decapitated, and
themselves, being hotly pursued, escaped in their boat, and landing at a
point unobserved, were, whilst pushing their way to the interior,
captured and sold as slaves, from which condition they were released by
a chief from another part of the island, and put on board the
"Antelope," an opium clipper, which brought them to Shanghae.


  Leave Amoy--Arrive in Macào Roads--Live ashore--Well guarded
  --Night calls--Ventriloquist at Typa Fort--Ordered on board
  --Up to Whampoa--Clipper Ships--Over to Hong-Kong--Coronation
  day--Independence day--Hurried on board--The mail--Ty-foongs.

Came to anchor in Macào Roads on the 4th of June, having made the
passage to Shanghae and back in just forty days, including stoppage
there, at Amoy, and delay from getting aground on Formosa.

Left Amoy on the 31st of May, and ran down the coast with favoring
breezes, nothing worth noting having occurred since our departure from
the latter port.

Went ashore on the first opportunity, and found there awaiting our
arrival several letters and packages of newspapers, which had reached by
overland mail during our absence. This was indeed a treat, and repaid us
for all the inconveniences of our voyage. A good piece of news also was
received, to wit, that there was a probability of our leaving the
station for home in the fall.

Suffering still from sickness, I was allowed to take up my lodgings on
shore, and duly installed myself in apartments No. 7, Senate Square,
where I witnessed the Governor's daily visit to the Senate house, and
the relieving of the guard; but as all situations have their drawbacks,
was greatly annoyed by the unearthly noises made by the sentries during
the night. Not a person could pass, but he was hailed, and every half
hour I was awakened by the guard yelling out some unintelligible words,
which were caught up in every direction, in the most discordant tones,
until echo herself grew hoarse and disgusted with the repetition. I was
well guarded to be sure, but could have dispensed with the attention,
and would have bargained for less honor, with an equal diminution of

The Portuguese lay great stress upon these night calls; and at the Typa
fort, where we lay, which but two or three soldiers garrison, it was
said they had a ventriloquist, who sent the word _Alerto_, with various
changes, throughout the works.

After one week's residence _en grand seigneur_, was obliged to give up
my _casa_, and repair on board. Orders being to go up to Whampoa, about
the confounded insurrection.

On the seventeenth of June, came to anchor in the "Reach" again, and
found every thing as usual there, the standing joke of the Chinese
having taken Canton not being realized.

Saw there some of the first of those Yankee clippers that have since
almost monopolized the China carrying trade. The "Sea Serpent," bound
for the United States, passed close to us, and a magnificent specimen of
naval architecture she was. She excited a strong yearning for home, and
gladly would I have exchanged on board of her.

These clippers, I then noted, were to effect a change in East Indiamen,
such as would have been hooted at ten years ago. Then, speed was a
secondary consideration, and capacity for carrying deemed the _sine qua
non_. Now, speed is the object; and it has been proved, that in making
quick trips, with a lesser cargo, in suitable seasons, the advantage is
greater than in freighting larger vessels, that in consequence of their
greater capacity sail slower.

The anniversary of our arrival in China came round whilst we lay at
Whampoa, and I celebrated it by a trip to Canton, to make an official
call upon our Chargé d'Affaires, and returned the same day.

Our only amusements here were strolling over the hills, and sauntering
through Bamboo and Newtown--the novelty of which places having some
time worn off--and passing away the evening at the bowling alleys,
and billiard room, where prices were high and refreshments execrable.
However, here we got exercise even at a high rate; and this exercise is
considered so desirable, that persons from Canton--a distance of ten
miles--resort to this place.

From Whampoa departed for Hong-Kong, where found a number of old
friends. We arrived there upon Coronation day, which was being
celebrated with all honor. The Queen--God bless her!--was toasted, and
the healths of the King consort, and all the royal family drunk. In the
evening, the devotion of her loyal subjects was expended in a brilliant
display of fireworks, which was untimely quenched by a sudden shower.

Celebrated our own "Independence day" for the second time in China,
whilst we lay in the harbor of Hong-Kong; and H. B. M. frigate
Cleopatra, and brig Lily, were dressed, and fired national salutes with
us;--a pretty compliment, and as it should be. An editor in Hong-Kong
made it the subject of unseemly remark, but am confident he had not the
countenance of one of his subscribers. A dinner was given in honor of
the occasion at our Consul's. It was a splendid affair, several lady
residents of Hong-Kong gracing the board with their presence. The
gentlemen kept it up long after they had retired, and the union of the
States was cemented,--representatives from nearly all being
present,--amongst the hours

    "Ayont the twal."

We lay at anchor off Hong-Kong until the eleventh of July, when received
orders to proceed over to Macào, and join our consort there. I was out
of the ship when the orders came, and of course knew nothing about them;
had spent the evening on board H. M. S. S. Minden, where I occupied the
state-room of an absent officer, an acquaintance. The next morning,
whilst breakfasting, my attention was directed, through the port, to
some unusual movement on board our ship; such as a boat being dispatched
to the Cleopatra, sending aloft topgallant yards, and unshipping the
companion ladder. This last movement was decisive. Sailing orders must
be on: and bringing my meal to a hasty conclusion, got on board to find
the messenger shipped, and all hands heaving away at the capstan. Soon
we had sail on, and I did not get on board a minute too soon to secure a
passage to Macào.

After reaching that port, and concluding the business for which we had
been summoned, received permission to exchange our rolling and pitching
in the outer roads, for the snug and quiet anchorage in the Typa; and
our old pleasant trips to the shore were again resumed: rambles along
the Governor's Road, and over the hills, filling up the afternoons of
"liberty days," and suppers at "Frank's"--Hotel--at night adding
considerably to the amount of monthly mess bills.

The arrival of the mail was always an event with us; and this
month--August--it reached Macào unusually early, having been received
on the eighth day: just fifty-eight days from New-York. I do not know
what we would have done without this mail, the anticipation of its
arrival keeping our minds occupied, and the business of answering
letters and mailing them filling up the monthly intervals. We closed
our correspondence in the last week of the month, expecting dates from
home during the first week of the next.

Whilst we lay in the Typa had strong indications of a Ty-foong, but it
passed over with some bad weather, high winds, and squalls. Felt
perfectly secure at our anchorage, but used the precaution of bending
the sheet-cables, sending down yards, and housing topgallant-masts. As
it was, had considerable of a blow, and the Ty-foong ravaged the coasts
in our vicinity.

The Ty-foong of the East is synonymous with the hurricane or tornado of
the West Indies, as the monsoon may be said to assimilate with the
trade-winds of the opposite hemisphere; but this "strong wind" blows
with even more violence, and has a circular motion. Ships have had their
masts bodily twisted out of them, and many, more unfortunate, have been
ingulfed in the maelstrom created by its fury. From its veering so
suddenly to every point of the compass, the usual precautions against
ordinary gales afford but little protection. A heavy, boding swell
precedes, to give notice of the dreaded Ty-foong. The aquatic birds,
with natural instinct, take wing and fly before its approach; whilst on
shore the air is filled with insects in constant motion. So indicative,
indeed, is this flight of insects, that the Chinese call them Ty-foong

The inhabitants predicate the recursion of these storms by numerous
other signs, and are prompt to take every precaution to avoid their
effects. At Macào, upon this occasion, the proprietors of the "Tanka"
and "pull away" boats drew them on shore, some distance from the
landing, and close to the houses. In these, the boat folk, men, women,
and children, stowed themselves away, prepared to weather the Ty-foong.
The walls of the dwellings on the Praya forming a good lee, they lashed
their boats as well as they were able, and secured the bamboo coverings.
Not a boatman could be prevailed upon to launch his craft for love or
money. Some of them, indeed, from the habit of their profession, would
say, "Suppose have give ten, twelve dollar, so;" but if you appeared for
an instant to incline to their extortionate demand, they would at once
change their tune, and shaking both head and tail,--please to remember
that Chinese boatmen _have_ tails to their heads,--cry out, with
deprecatory gestures, "Ei-yah! how can make walkee? my tinkee can
catchee too muchee Ti-fung!" and then slide back beneath their bamboo
shelter, with a decisive "No can!"

The season when Ty-foongs generally prevail in these latitudes,--and
it is only within a few degrees upon these coasts that they rage,--is
between July and October, inclusive of those months. They form a
serious impediment to the navigation of the China Sea, almost amounting
to its obstruction at this period; for the inducement must be great to
encounter such a risk. H. B. M. ship Hastings experienced a severe one
late in October, and the new American clipper ship "Witchcraft," came
into Victoria harbor on the third of December, 1851, having encountered
a strong Tyfoong in 142° east, which carried away all her topmasts, and
jib-boom, narrowly escaping going down. Both these vessels were caught
unexpectedly, neither expecting to find Ty-foongs in the latitudes in
which they were at that season of the year.


  Ty-foong passed--Pleasant Season--Theatrical Exhibition--The
  Macàense--Philharmonic Society--Italian Opera--Awaiting Orders
  for Home--Thoughts of Home and Friends--Idea suggested by the
  Setting Sun--Poetry--Maladie de Pays--Its effects upon the
  Swiss--A Remedy--My own Experience--And manner of Cure.

The symptoms of the Ty-foong having passed over, and all fears of its
recurrence at an end, time went pleasantly by at Macào. The temperature
was most delightful, this season being certainly the most agreeable in
this part of China, a number of foreign residents from Canton and
Hong-Kong adding to its gayety.

The Portuguese officers, aided by the citizens, got up for our
amusement a theatrical exhibition, at the old rooms formerly occupied
by the Philharmonic Society. The representations were very good, and
the accommodations for the audience excellent. Saw the _elité_ of Macào
at these performances, and must say the Macàense are not without a
goodly share of female beauty, although it is not apparent upon all
occasions, for the decline of the place has affected the finances of
the families, and their pride will not allow them to exhibit their
poverty upon common occasions, not that there was any evidence of it
here, for the ladies were all richly as well as tastily dressed.

It is perhaps not generally known that opera once flourished in Macào.
An Italian company, who had carried their "sweet voices" around the
world, once made these walls vocal with the music of Donnizetti,
Bellini, and others of their great maestros, and "Lucia di Lammermoor"
lamented her lost love, and the amiable Amina sobbed forth her
somnambulic sorrows for her false lover, upon these very boards.

The performance given upon this occasion was not in opera, but dramatic,
something about the troubles of a Jew--not _le Juif Errant_--although
this member of his tribe was off and on sufficiently to have given him a
claim to this title.

An interval, filled up by promenading to some pretty good music, was
succeeded by a funny farce, which sent the audience laughing to their

We awaited here the arrival of the Commodore, whom we had heard was to
bring us our release, and send us home immediately upon his reaching the
station. Had not a full view of the part of the horizon from which the
flagship might be expected to emerge, but many were the glasses directed
to the mouth of the Typa, from which a glimpse of the ocean could be
gained, and the quarter-masters of each watch were repeatedly ordered to
keep a good look-out. The fact was, we were getting tired of China, and
despite all the kind favors showered upon us, longed for home:

    "Breathes there a man with soul so dead,
    Who never to himself has said:
    This is my own--my native land!"

And thoughts of home and dear ones there, would intrude, and strong
desires once more to tread the soil of that loved native land, and to
press the hands of early and long-tried friends, could not be entirely
repressed, although not altogether just to "those we had here."

But we had been now nearly two years absent. Two years on shipboard is a
long, a very long time--try it if you doubt--and had seen nearly all
that was worthy of observation within our reach. Seas of immense extent
rolled between us and our homes, and the circumference of the globe had
to be traversed ere we could expect to meet our friends. No wonder then
that we so ardently desired to be allowed to point our prow towards the
West, or watching the retiring beams of the setting sun, envied that orb
the privilege that action gave, of kissing eyelids and gazing into eyes,
on which we were wont to gaze "lang syne," nor under the influence of
such thoughts that we should give them vent in this manner:

    "Farewell, my love, the evening gun
      Has boomed in echo o'er the sea;
    My soul goes with that sinking sun,
      Which sheds its rising beams on thee.

    "May it bring to thee peace and joy,
      Tho' here, it care and darkness leaves;
    For gloomy thoughts my soul employ,
      Which now no light from thine receives.

    "Oh, for one old accustomed smile!
      That dark eye's glance of lustrous light;
    But these are distant many a mile,
      And I can only sigh--Good Night!

    "Good night, my love, whilst darkness lowers
      Around our lone and silent bark,
    Morning smiles sweetly on thy bowers,
      And greeting, upwards flies the lark.

    "Thou art the sun that glads my way,
      Thine _eye_ the beam of life to me,
    Thy _smile_ can turn my night to day,
      As upwards speeds _my soul_ to thee."

I have before explained the causes which operated upon me to produce
such effects as above, and hope the reader, if ever he or she should
have been afflicted in either of the ways I have mentioned, will at
least tolerate the method of alleviation.

This "_maladie-de-pays_" is a horrible sensation, worse than
sea-sickness, I ween, and I can fully sympathize with the poor Swiss,
who are said to have fallen victims to it in the armies of Napoleon. He
should have allowed pens, ink, and any quantity of writing paper; they
might have relieved their minds by _scribbling_. Music is also said to
be a capital cure, although the "_Ranz des Vaches_" did not succeed; but
I judge from the cheerful countenances of those of their countrymen who
are in the habit of parading our streets with a hand organ and monkey,
and enlivening us with the air of

    "Arouse thee, arouse thee, my merry Swiss boy."

For myself I have only experienced the malady twice. The first
attack occurred, when with a heart rather more tender than at the
present writing, I was left amongst a parcel of strange inquisitive
boys, at a boarding-school in the country, at what then appeared to
my unsophisticated mind away "'tother side of yonder;"--I shall
never forget, although I may laugh at it now, the feeling of utter
desolateness that came over me, or how low sank my little heart,
even to the very soles of my stockings, when the Dominie, whose face
was fast forgetting the smiles it had worn in my good parents'
presence, inquired in a tone half hypocritical, half ironical: "What
does the young gentleman want now?" and I blubberingly answered,
"I--want--to--go--go--home." I recovered from that attack with the
aid of counter irritation by the application of birch, and emollients
in the shape of scribbling verses to the metre of "dulce--dulce
domum." The effects of the second are now before the reader, from
which I opine he is the greatest sufferer, and this is dispersed by
music, for the "retreat" has just been beaten, and I shall turn in.


  Haul up all standing--Boat Races--Interest in the sport--
  Excitement general--Arrangements--Jockeyism--Regatta--
  Preparations--The Start--The Race--The Result--Launch and
  First Cutter--Race described con-amore--Suggestion of an
  Old Salt--Satan and Sailors.

But I must cease my digressions, lest my sickness become epidemic, and
extend to my readers, in which event I should fear they would not be "at
home" to me. To continue:

To fill up the time, and give some relaxation to the men, had boat races
between the different crews in the "Typa."

It was surprising to see with what interest the sailors entered into the
sport, and the excitement produced by the contests; bets ran high
amongst them, and Tattersalls, previous to the great St. Leger Stake,
could not produce a greater scene of excitement than did our top-gallant
forecastle and forward gangways, during the preparations for a race; the
claims of different candidates for an oar would be carefully canvassed,
and the coxswains became, for the nonce, men of vast importance, for
upon their _ipse dixit_ in selecting the crews, the success of the boats
was thought mainly to depend. Then the non-combatants had their favorite
boats and men, and their suggestions would be strongly urged.

The enthusiasm even extended to the officers, and produced an excitement
as deep, if not so loud, upon the quarter deck and poop. Sums were
raised amongst them, and set up as prizes for the crew of the winning
boat, and suppers on shore, and segars in hand, hung upon the success of
the second or third cutters--the first cutter and the launch.

Every plan known to experienced boatmen was resorted to; every
unnecessary impediment that could offer the slightest obstruction
removed; the bottoms of the boats, after having been well scraped, were
_secretly greased_, and the pintals of the rudder carefully oiled, the
weight of the oars well calculated, and the trim of the boats arranged
by placing breakers of water fore, aft, or amidships, as it was thought
their weight might be required to give a proper balance.

The oars, too, were carefully overhauled, scraped, pointed, and newly
leathered; the rowlocks, in which they were to be placed, arranged, and
nothing that skill or experience could suggest, was neglected to secure

_Preparation for the race._--The hour big with fate to the crews of the
second and third cutters approached. One bell in the afternoon watch had
been struck, and preparations commenced. The respective crews having
taken the lightest kind of a dinner, divested themselves of all
unnecessary clothing, tied handkerchiefs around their heads, and making
their belts taut around their bodies, stood by, ready for a call. The
boats, their oars all in, and extra ones secured handily to the
gunwales, in case of accident, with a coxswain in each, lay at either of
the booms,--second cutter on starboard, third on the port side; and the
arrangement was that they should both lay upon their oars and await the
signal, which was to be the dropping of a handkerchief by the umpire,
who was first to see that neither had the advantage. A few minutes
before two bells, the boatswain's mate piped away the crews, and they
descended into their respective boats by the booms.

_The start._--After being seated, and having peaked their oars by way of
a salute, the order was given to "let fall;" splash went their oars into
the water, and anxiety was depicted upon every countenance. "Take your
stations"--"Back your oars, third cutters"--"Steady there, second
cutters," were the orders given and repeated with only an alteration in
the titles of the boats, as the crew of each with a natural impulse
strove to prevent the other from stealing a length upon them; from this
impatience it was found impossible to make their position exactly
relative; but at last the handkerchief was dropped, and off they shot
with the velocity of arrows from a bow, the second cutter having the
advantage of half a length in the start.

_The race._--The distance to be rowed was one mile and a half to a
stake boat, round that, and back. The prize, a bag containing sixty-four
dollars, suspended from an oar in the stake boat. The second cutter
having the start, kept the distance open between her and her competitor
(now extended a full length), which pulled up steadily in her wake; the
coxswain of the leading boat dexterously anticipating all his pursuer's
efforts to pass, and keeping him dead in his wake until they had shot
over half the distance between the ship and the stake boat, when, by a
desperate effort, the third cutter appeared to leap bodily out of the
water, her oars quivering like the wings of a bird, from the impulse
given by those muscular arms. Side by side, their oars almost
overlapping, they dashed like the wind towards the prize. Now came the
tug--a single tarpauling would at one moment have covered them both and
retained its position, so steadily did they pull; it was apparently a
tie, when an unusual movement was observed on board the third cutter.

_The result_--This was caused by the breaking of the bow oar, which
snapping short off, dropped into the water, and fouled the starboard
oars; not an instant was spent in shipping another, but the advantage
had been lost. The second cutter, with her full power, shot ahead,
rounded the stake boat and led the way back; her opponent recovering
from the accident, and following so closely, that the two appeared like
one boat of unusual length as they approached; but the struggle was
unequal. Two third cutters, unable to stand the additional labor, gave
out. The flag was hauled down from the fore as the second cutter passed
the line, and the third, contending to the last, came in about three
boats' lengths astern.

The next race was between the launch and the first cutter; the launch, a
heavy boat, called by sailors the "Purser's Gig," pulling sixteen oars;
first cutter, a fast craft, with a crack crew, pulling just eight. This
was _the_ race of the Regatta, and excited much interest. Various were
the opinions as to the result, and to use a phrase of the turf, "bets
were even;" not that any serious amounts of money were risked, for that
would have been "_contra bonos mores_;" but several suppers and sundry
boxes of segars hung on the balance.

Both the boats were put in capital order, and the crews of both were
sanguine of success. The launchers depended upon the power they
possessed in a double bank of oars; the first cutters upon the qualities
and lightness of their boat. Impelled by these hopes, they started. I
happened to be in the launch; we took the lead after a fair start, and
led the cutter around the stake boat, a distance of more than a mile;
but that which had given the launch a great advantage on the first
stretch, proved a serious drawback on her return, the prevalence of a
very high wind, which increasing, kicked up a tremendous sea, and
causing her to roll and pitch, very much deadened her headway. Gradually
the first cutter crawled up; gallantly the launchers contested the space
they had gained. "Give way, lads! give way, they're gaining on us!" and
the oars bent like willows in the hands of the hardy launchers; but in
vain this expenditure of strength; one half of it was lost in a heavy
lurch, which sent the starboard oars glancing in the sunbeams, dripping
salt tears from their blades into the exulting wave, and nearly
unseating the men. Like the Giselle, the agile cutter skips alongside.
"Pull steadily now, men!" "Pull with a will!" It is vain; side by side
we plunge, but the cutter evidently gains; a glimpse of blue sky is
apparent at the back of her steerer; it increases; the slanting beams of
the setting sun shines full in our eyes. It is noticed by the
crew--sailors are superstitious, and their hopes sink with the sun; "But
it will rise again! Give way, boys, give way! we'll beat them yet!"
Again they put forth all their power, and the bow oars nearly touch. But
the wind increases, the sea rises, a heavy swell knocks us back from the
vantage we had gained. The third cutter, buoyant as a cork, perches an
instant on the crest of a wave, and then rushes down its opposite side
with a cheer from its crew. The race _was_ to the swift, but "the battle
was not to the strong;" the "Purser's Gig" was distanced.

But, if the launch had been beaten, its crew were not conquered, and the
coxswain, old Andrews, captain of the forecastle, who, with a picked
crew, would have undertaken to have pulled the boat across his own
maelstrom, offered his whack--the sum to his credit on the purser's
books, on his discharge,--against a plug of tobacco,--upon the issue, in
moderately smooth water; whilst I, with others, had not lost confidence
in the strong arms that impelled the "purser's gig;" although I did not
incline to make one of her crew in a contest in which old A. proposed to
beat the devil, on his own lake of fiery brimstone, with his favorite
launch; but A. was excited by the race, and had got a tot of a mixture
which assimilated to that "_fire water_," and forgot that his boat was
not framed of asbestos; besides, I fear he held his satanic majesty
slightly in contempt from the nautical notion that he possesses power
over sailors no more within his dominions.


  Effects of the Race--Suppers and their effects--The stuff that
  Dreams are made of--A Scrape in the Typa--Again at Whampoa.

Some suppers had to be ordered, and somebody had to eat them. Suppers
are _spiritless_ affairs without wine--nay! I deny the soft
impeachment,--no _pun is meant_! And wine came forth at the bidding.
Some one observes,

    "You _can call_ spirits from the vasty deep!
    But _will_ they come?"

Let him but whisper the name of one "familiar" of any shade, complexion,
or color within the corridors of Francisco Diaz's mansion for thirsty
men, in Macào; and lo! it appears!

His house is haunted; there are _bottle imps_ therein. Suppers were
eaten at which epicures had not lingered; wine gulped down which would
_not_ have inspired Anacreon, and segars smoked that Sir Walter Raleigh
_might have_ relished! Apropos of segars--I should have said
cheroots--Manillas scent the Indian air, Havanas have few lips to greet
them in the East. Cheroots, then; who is there amongst the masculine
dwellers of the land of "_musquitoes_ and myrtle," that affects not the
gentle cheroot? soft in its fragrance as the sigh of love! cheering in
its effects as the presence of woman in the hour of pain! seducing in
its influence as the eye of beauty! And whence gains the cheroot its
magical properties? Look back, if you please, to chapter twelfth of this
moving tale, and there you have it fully explained. It comes from the
_hand_ of woman! the same that presented the apple to Adam, and the
pitcher to Abraham, who in falling or fainting, in laughing or weeping,
still infuses the sweetness and acidity that makes the lemonade of life,
and in mixing the ingredients "gives it all its flavor!"

"Let the toast be dear woman!" "Hallo, old fellow, thought you were
asleep. Had something of a nightmare, eh? Been mumbling away as if the
supper didn't agree with you." "Well, your toast, with all the honors,
and then to bed." "Agreed."

"Let us go on board ship," proposed a seasoned mate, "the fast boat
shoves off at ten." "Agreed, agreed again," was chorused round the
table, and "one bottle more" of sparkling champagne being called for,
"success to the launch" was drank, and then a majority of the party
sought the boat, gained the ship, and turned in. "Let the toast be dear
woman," danced through my brain upon sparkling beams of champagne, and
the vibration of the nettles in the clews of my hammock plainly said or

    "The wine that is mellowed by woman's bright eye,
    Outrivals the nectar of Jove."

And I had a dream, which _was_ "all a dream." With Byron in his waking
"Dream," "I saw two beings in the hue of youth," and like his lovers,
they _were_ "standing upon a hill," and "both were young, and one was
_beautiful_." I do not know how in fitting words to tell my dream. But
as it was similar to his, oh that I could with his language, without
the imputation of plagiarism, set down what crossed my sleeping mind.
Besides, I have a dread of offending some readers in these
transcendental times, when lectures on mysterious subjects are given to
married ladies _only_, whose faces would tingle at the mere mention of
one of those English classics, from whose fount flowed "the well of
English undefiled." But to my dream. It was the age of early manhood,
boyhood still lingering on the face of a being who filled my mind until
it formed a part of myself. The being described as _beautiful_, oh
beautiful as an angel was she! was by his side. Love, full, passionate
love, brimmed over in her dark black eye, darker, more dazzling than the
gazelle's, which was reflected back from his dark orbs, which took their
brightest brilliancy from hers. Over her cheek the rosy god had spread
his crimson mantle, and in the dimples of her chin the mischievous boy
had found a lurking-place. They walked and talked, and in what phrase?
Truly they knew not themselves! and yet each word, each glance, each
touch, had a meaning perfectly intelligible. Time passed, but what was
time to them, they saw nothing of his beard, heard not the rustling of
his ancient wings, his scythe was hidden. The heavens are overcast,
thunder rolls above them, and the lightning's glare makes the black
fringes of the heavy cloud more funereal. A shadow, heavy, dense,
_material_, interposes, and the boy seeks for his fair companion--but
she is gone: "Got to see the hammocks up! six bells, come turn out,"
"rouse and bitt," "show a leg in a purser's stocking." "Zounds, how he
sleeps," "where, where, oh where is my hammock boy?" who appeared at my
call, and whom I wished at the gangway, that I might have slept on. But
turn out I must now--and so turned out my dream.

Other races were upon the _tapis_. The launchers, like brave old Taylor,
would not stay beaten, and demanded another trial; they offered to
oppose any thing, from the Captain's gig, down to the dingui--they even
wanted to challenge the boats of the whole squadron, and old A., the
coxswain, in the true spirit of Rhoderick Dhu, exclaimed, "Come one,
come all," but the regatta was put a stop to, by orders to get out of
the Typa, and the men commenced "mud-larking," as they termed it. The
Typa is filling up so rapidly that we never could get out _now_ without
a _scrape_, and the senior officer perhaps thought it better we should
move before we had formed a bar with our beef bones.

So out of the Typa again we got, poised our wings in the outer harbor,
and took flight for Whampoa again, and settled down in our old resting
place in the "Reach," on the 11th of October. From here I took another
trip to Canton, made a few purchases, as I then supposed it would be our
last opportunity. Heard there of an extensive fire which had raged near
the factories, in which over five hundred houses had been destroyed. A
fire in Canton is a serious affair, and from the ideas of fatalism
which the Chinese entertain, is much dreaded by foreign residents.

Our stay at Whampoa was not marked by any incidents worth noticing, and
it is only to keep up the chronological character of my journal, that
the trip is introduced.


  Anson's Bay--Hong-Kong again--P. & O. Company's hulk takes
  fire--Escape of Captain's wife--Toong-Koo Bay--Piracy--Fire
  at Macào--Wolf again at Whampoa--Amateur Theatricals at
  Canton--Melancholy musings.

From Whampoa, came down the river to Anson's Bay and anchored; here held
communication with our consort, which went up to the "Reach" to take our

Anson's Bay is just outside of the Bogue, and from our anchorage had a
fine view of the Forts, some eight or nine being in sight. Tiger Island
was also conspicuous, and the formation of a tiger's head quite

From Anson's Bay took our departure for Hong-Kong, where moored ship on
the 19th October.

On the 20th, at about 5 P. M., the Peninsular and Oriental Company's
hulk "Fort William," used for storing coal and opium, took fire and
burned until 10 o'clock that night, when the fire was got under. Our
crew assisted, with buckets from the ship, nearly all of which they
managed to lose. The Captain's wife, who lived on board the hulk, had a
narrow escape, having to be lowered out of the stern ports.

From Hong-Kong over to Macào, where obtained permission to go into
Toong-Koo Bay for the purpose of calking, preparatory to our long voyage
home, upon which we now hoped to be ordered daily; the rolling in the
Roads preventing the possibility of effecting it at Macào.

Toong-Koo Bay is in the Cap-sing-moon passage, and about thirty miles
from Hong-Kong. The British fleet rendezvoused here during the war with

Were anchored near Sam-sah Island, where tents were pitched and the sick
placed in them. Every morning one watch was permitted to go on shore to
wash their clothes, &c., until relieved by the other watch, so that
there was always a little colony on the island. It was otherwise

Strolling over the island, came upon the ruins of a house and some human
bones, and ascending a hill had a splendid view of the bay and
surrounding islands. These appeared innumerable, like icebergs in the
Antarctic circle, cutting up the bay into intricate channels, and as
barren, if not as cold, as those ice islands. Pirates are plentiful in
this neighborhood, and one morning, at daylight, Afouke, our fast
boatman, brought on board two Chinamen, whom he had picked up swimming.
They were badly wounded, and stated that about three o'clock that
morning, as they were fishing, they were boarded by pirates, who threw
fire-balls amongst them, burning them badly, and forcing them to leap
into the water to save their fives, and then took possession of their
boats. These waters are infested with pirates, who ostensibly pursue the
avocation of fishermen, until an opportunity opens to catch men. The
English navy did a great deal towards extirpating them, until their
government took away the "head money," and now but few expeditions are
fitted out; although doubtless the junior officers are as anxious for
the service as ever.

The calking completed, reported ourselves at Macào; but no Commodore
appearing, and our coppers being worn out, went over to Hong-Kong to get
them repaired. Here we got a mail and news from home which was cheering,
and increased our desire to start.

Went through a round of dinners at Hong-Kong, exchanging civilities with
officers and citizens, but began to get tired of this kind of thing;
like the schoolboy, _wanted to go home_!

At this time the government of Macào changed again, Cardozo being
recalled, and Gruimaraens, commander of the corvette "Don Jooa,"
superseding him, his _ex_-Excellency departed for Lisbon in the return
mail steamer, not much regretted, I understood.

A powder boat laying almost under our bows was robbed, the powder
removed, and its keeper carried away, without exciting any attention; so
silently was the act performed.

As we were leaving for Macào, the clipper ship Witchcraft came in,
disabled, as I have recorded in a previous chapter.

Whilst at Macào, this time, a very extensive fire occurred, amongst
China houses near the Bazaar. About thirty were destroyed, and a great
many goods. A silk merchant's loss was considerable. So frightened was
the fellow, that he removed his goods into a house that was afterwards
burned, his own shop escaping; literally "jumping out of the frying-pan
into the fire."

On the nineteenth of December, ordered again to Whampoa, to relieve our
consort, and protect American interests from that imaginary wolf, the
rebellion. Christmas day passed by there gloomily, and the new year
commenced unprofitably.

Went up to Canton, to witness a theatrical performance, by amateurs,
and was delighted. The room was well fitted up, and the appointments
excellent. The play was, "The Schoolfellows,"--a beautiful little drama,
by Douglas Jerrold, I believe; and it was admirably cast. Mr. Murray as
Tom Drops--a good-hearted, liquor-loving _vaut-rien_--was inimitable. He
was waiter and hostler to a village inn; and the scene in which he, upon
wine being called for by a customer, produces, condemns, and consumes, a
bottle of the "_black seal_" was the perfection of acting, the different
phases of ebriety were well portrayed, and in the course of the play,
additional red patches appeared upon his face, to show the effects of
his habits.

Box and Cox was the after-piece; and Mr. Clavering as _Mrs._ Bouncer,
was the very beau-ideal of a landlady, "fair, fat, and forty." The
prologue was excellent, and well delivered, and the amateur company had
just reason to be proud of their performance.

Having been favored with a copy of the opening address, I transcribe it.
Of course, it loses much from the effect given by its composer in its

    "Fair ladies, and kind friends, who deign to smile
    On our attempt an hour to beguile,
    I'm hither by the actors sent, to pray
    A gentle judgment on a first Essay.
    They bid me state, their novel situation
    Has set their hearts in such strange perturbation,
    They dare not raise the curtain till they've pleaded
    First, for the pardon will be so much needed.
    I'm shocked to say, it sounds so of the oddest,
    Our ladies want much practice to look modest;
    The rough, strong voice, ill suits with feelings tender,
    And 'tis such work to make their waists look slender!
    As for the men, the case is little better;
    Some, of the dialogue scarce know a letter:
    All unacquainted with each classic rule,
    We feel we've need enough to go to school;
    And trembling stand, afraid to come before ye,
    And of the Schoolfellows to tell the story.
    Yet need this be? I see no critic here;
    No surly newspaper have we to fear;
    Our scenery may be bad, but this is certain,
    Bright decorations are before the curtain,
    Under whose influence, you may well believe,
    We do not sigh for Stanfield, grieve for Grieve!
    Yet not too far to carry innovation,
    And to comply with settled regulation,
    Prompter we have, our memories to ease;
    But our best prompter is, the wish to please.
    Then kindly say, to stumblers in their part,
    What they have _got_, was surely got _by heart_;
    And each, surrounded by his friends, so stands,
    He will meet nought but kindness at their hands."

The Stanfield and Grieve, upon whose names the happy alliteration is
made, are supposed to be celebrated English scene painters. But although
the scenery meets with disparagement in the prologue, yet it was very
superior; and the interior of the old schoolhouse, with the names of the
boys cut into the oaken pannels of the door, and on which Jasper points
out to Horace their initials intertwined, was a perfect picture.

Having gone thus far, I cannot omit a notice of Mr. Benjamin Sears'
impersonation of the aged schoolmaster, Cedar. The dignity and
simplicity of the character combined, was rendered by him in such a
manner as almost to bring back those forgotten tears, drawn forth in
olden times by that masterpiece of acting of Harry Placide's, in
Grandfather Whitehead.

"Our Ladies," who required so much practice "to _look_ modest," had
become perfect in that requisite before the upraising of the curtain;
and the young gentlemen cast in those characters sustained them with
much tact, and knowledge of the demeanor of well-bred ladies: so much
so, indeed, that after they had got through their parts, they were
added, still in character, to the galaxy of "decorations before the
curtain;" and the only _faux pas_ I noticed was by "Marion," who, in
being led to her seat in the dress circle, was about to take an
unladylike step ever an obstruction, which her (?) innate modesty
checked with the impulse.

After the performance, all the characters attended a fancy dress ball in
their stage costume; and the pseudo ladies found partners in every
dance, and won many hearts by their grace and beauty.

Had also a performance in the "Reach," by the crew of H. B. M. steamer
Salamander. The larboard side of the forecastle was allotted to them;
and they gave a drama "adapted to their stage," by one of their number
called the "Smuggler," which they produced with good effect. The
performance was, as they gave out, "under the distinguished patronage
of the American and Her Majesty's officers."

But in spite of all these distractions, our delay was barely
supportable; and watching the course of the muddy river, the following
lament was penned:

    Oh! swiftly flows thy dusky tide,
      Dark river, onward to the sea;
    And little doth thy current bide
      The thousand things that float on thee!

    From off thy shore a weed is cast--
      Swiftly, in thy resistless sway,
    In eddying currents, sweeping past,
      'Tis borne, unheeded, far away.

    Like thine, the sweeping tide of Time,
      Rolls onward ever to the shore
    Of that uncertain, unknown clime,
      From which it may return no more;

    And on its flow, my brittle life
      Drops down, uncared for, to _that_ sea,
    Where, 'midst the dark waves' stormy strife,
      It soon shall sink, and cease to be.


  Commodore arrives at last--Preparations for a Start--Delay
  --Washington's Birthday--The Clipper Challenge--Prisoners
  from her--Homeward Bound!--Reflections on Leaving--Case of
  Small-Pox--Second visit to Anger.

The flag-ship being now daily expected, we unmoored, and came down to
Macào, awaiting her arrival in the outer Roads. Lay there, rolling, with
occasional trips on shore, until the fourth of February, when the
Commodore's broad pendant hove in sight. He anchored in the roads: and
after we had reported, ordered us, by signal, to accompany him to
Hong-Kong. Here we anchored, and remained until the squadron were all
assembled, when we were ordered back to Macào, to take in provisions for
the voyage home, and remove the invalids from the hospital. This
accomplished, we returned again to the rendezvous, to receive our final
orders, which were to relieve us from duty on the station, and send us

Were delayed by the investigation of a mutiny on board the American
clipper ship Challenge, the ringleaders being then in custody in the
Hong-Kong jail, and the case before the United States Consul.

Washington's birthday came round again whilst we remained in the harbor
of Hong-Kong, and was celebrated by our squadron, the guns of which
made quite a noise in the ears of the descendants of those who had once
denounced him as a rebel.

Took an opportunity to look at the "Challenge." She is an immense
vessel, 243 feet long, with 43 feet beam, and over 2,000 tons burthen,
but so beautifully proportioned as not to appear above 1,200. Her spars
are immense, and she spreads a _cloud_ of canvas. Depend upon it, she
will not belie her name, but with any kind of a chance, is destined to
make a voyage, which she may confidently _challenge_ the navies of the
world to beat!

On the twenty-fifth of February, the prisoners from the Challenge were
sent on board, six in number; and at 6 bells P. M. got up anchor, and
fired a parting salute, which was returned by the Commodore, gun for
gun. Exchanged cheers with the squadron, made an evolution in the
harbor, by way of "salaam," and then stood out, with studding-sails set,
homeward bound!

There is a sort of unexpressed concern, a kind of shock, that sets one's
heart ajar at leaving even the most unpleasant people and places, says
one who ought to know, for he had travelled much, and I could not help
agreeing with him, as we took our departure: There was but little to
regret in leaving China. I had formed few ties there. The places and
people (with but few exceptions), if not unpleasant, were at least
indifferent. Yet I must admit this unexpressed and inexpressible
concern, as our vessel glided out of the harbor of Hong-Kong, towards

But we had a long passage before us, and much water to sail through,
ere we reached our homes. The China and the Java seas had to be
traversed ere the Straits of Sunda gave us a passage to the Indian
Ocean, whose bosom we had to plough until the southern point of Africa
passed, the Atlantic could be pressed by our keel;--and then not the
Ocean of our hemisphere: for many degrees of longitude must be tracked,
before we could set them down as West; and the imaginary "Line" divided
us from the Northern Ocean, in which lay our port.

Took our departure from the "Ladrone Islands" at 8 o'clock on the night
of the twenty-fifth, and the next day at meridian, we had made 128 miles
on a S. S. West course. Weather fine; beautiful, easy sailing, with the
wind abeam.

On the twenty-seventh, wind hauled ahead, and we only got eighty-eight
miles out of the ship in the last twenty-four hours; and for the last
two days of February had a dead beat--a thing altogether unlooked for in
the China Sea at this season.

On Thursday, eleventh of March,--sea time,--at meridian, we were
thirteen miles south of the Line, in long. 107° 22' 55'' east; being the
third time of our "crossing" it. A few days previous to this a case of
small-pox had broken out, one of the prisoners having contracted the
disease in Hong-Kong, where it had been raging to some extent. This was
rather a serious matter in a small and crowded ship at sea; but he,
being placed in the lee quarter boat, and a strong N. E. monsoon then
prevailing, after a while recovered, no contagion having been
communicated to the ship's company.

The Island of Saint Barbe was passed on the morning of the last date. It
is a beautiful island, uninhabited, and as near the line as can be.

On St. Patrick's day, 17th. March, came to anchor at Anger, where we
stopped for a supply of water and wood. I have described this place in
an earlier chapter, and on landing found the town without much change.
The Banyan tree still there, with the Dutch flag above it, and the
string of half clad Malays on their usual walk between it and the
Bazaar. The former mansion of the Governor had been destroyed by fire,
and a new Governor had been installed, who occupied the house formerly
used as a hotel. He was absent on official duty, but his Secretary did
the honors of reception.

Naturally looking round for our old friend, the Dutch landlord, found
him in a smaller house, his only customer; had expected to have heard
that he had fallen a victim to his love for "schnapps," but here he was
as blooming as ever, and as much addicted to his national
liquor--certainly gin appeared to have agreed with him.

Took possession of his quarters at once, and ordered a supper, of which
some _slap-jacks_ was the only dish eatable. Composed ourselves for the
night, on a mattress hauled from his own bed, with expectation of a more
comfortable breakfast, which, with the addition of eggs, and the
omission of slap-jacks, was a fac-simile of the evening meal.

There was one thing peculiar about the eggs, which I would recommend be
introduced into the United States, viz., to have the date of the time in
which they were laid marked upon the shell, as he had, only proposing
that the marker be sworn as to the correctness of the date; in which
case the Dutchman would have perjured himself, I fear.

Had a splendid bath, by favor of the Secretary, in the Governor's
bath-house, which was large enough to swim in, and constantly supplied
with fresh water by the same aqueduct that brings it to the shipping.
Our compradore gave us a treat of mangusteens, delicious fruit, and then
the cornet being hoisted at the fore, the signal for sailing, repaired
on board, having spent twenty-four hours very pleasantly again at Anger.


  No Musquitoes at Anger--The Land of the East--A Sketch--
  Advantages of Anger--Dolce-far-Niente--Island of Java--
  Batavia--Bantam--Comparison between Anger and Singapore.

A peculiarity about Anger is, that there are no musquitoes there, and
very few of the noxious vermin that destroy the romance of tropical
climes. It does very well in poetry, to pen, in pretty phrase, the query
of your acquaintance with the

    "Land of the orange and myrtle;"

but they are more than _poetically_ "emblems of _deeds_ that are done in
their clime," and gastric derangement from the former fruit, with
cutaneous affections from the sweet-scented vine, are not the only
proofs of a change in the properties of the Garden of Eden. "Latet
anguis in herba," of the most inviting natural lawn, and of its gayest
flowers, truly has the poet said, "the trail of the serpent is over them
all." The East is called the "land of the sun," and justly too, for he
reigns supreme there, and if you defy his power, soon brings you to your
senses, or rather deprives you of them, by a _coup de soleil_. Evading
his beams you seek the covert of a grateful shade, where the spreading
palm, with parasol-like leaves, forms romantic shelter, the cocoa-nut
in its triple cluster hanging invitingly in its crotch; away high up
upon its straight and graceful stem, birds of magnificent plumage are
flitting from tree to tree, making the grove vocal with their notes;
monkeys, mischievous, but not considered dangerous, dance overhead upon
the boughs, and with comic antics provoke a smile. With gentle breezes
wafting perfumes such as Gouraud never was gladdened with in his most
happy ambrosial dreams, and glimpses of the blue sky, seen partially
through the waving foliage, which gently moves with a composing sound,
reminding you that "Heaven is above all," you close your eyes, about to
sink into the arms of the "twin sister" of that mysterious deity, who
bears you thither, when--wiss-s-rattle, crack--down comes a cocoa-nut,
denting the ground within two inches from whence you had just jerked
your happy head, which had it hit would have transferred you from the
arms of one "twin" to the other; and a malicious monkey scampers off
chattering and grinning, as if he had performed a feat worthy of his

"Oh know you the land of the orange and myrtle?" where the Thug crawls
cautiously with his strangling cord, and the tiger welcomes you with his
feline fangs!

But Anger--please pronounce it softly, as if written thus, Anjeer--Anger
is not so bad as described in the foregoing sketch; as I have stated,
there are no musquitoes there, and you are not much troubled with those
bumping, buzzing bugs, who "put out the light, and then put out _their_
light." Lizards crawl over the walls and ceilings, but they are
harmless, and catch flies. I do not know how it is, and it may be
thought a strange taste, but I rather affection the lizard. His frugal
habits, his unobtrusive manners, and that cunning blink of his bright
black eyes, have taken away that aversion which is a natural sentiment
towards that species of animals "which crawl upon the belly;" and upon
the whole, must confess I consider him, despite his ugly tail, a very
proper _domestic_ animal; more so than many other gluttonous pets.

Tigers, it is true, are said to prowl about at night, seeking something
to devour, but I never encountered one, else I might not have been here
to write about them. Crocodiles infest the stream that winds around and
about the Malay houses. But they do not appear to hold them in dread,
for I have seen men, women, children and crocodiles in the same water,
and at the same time. That they, the crocodiles, are not converts to
Malthus, is pretty apparent, from the number of _tender_ infants they
permit to be added to the census of the Malay population.

Upon the whole, there was something about Anger peculiarly pleasing
to me; whether that it had been the "first of Eastern lands" I had
trodden upon, or there could have been any thing conducive to the
"dolce-far-niente" feeling in its atmosphere, but I felt as if I
could have laid back and smoked segars in Mynheer's porch for the
remainder of my days--

    "The world forgetting, by the world forgot."

Don't know how long the feeling would have lasted had I indulged it _ad
libitum_; but I certainly did enjoy the few hours passed there in a
kind of dreamy abstraction, which approached the pleasure of the
opium-eater's reverie.

The Island of Java, sometimes called "Great," on account of Balie having
once been called by the same name, is nearly five hundred miles in
length, and a place of considerable importance in the commercial world;
that part of it occupied by the Dutch, producing coffee, rice, and
"straits produce." Batavia, the principal settlement, is a city of
considerable importance, only about sixty miles by land from Anger, a
communication being kept up by post between the two places. It is
described as a very populous and beautiful city, but of a climate, at
certain seasons, deadly to Europeans. The Governor-General of the Dutch
possessions in the East Indies, resides at Batavia, and it is the dépôt
of the Dutch trade. It is well known that the English possessed
themselves of this place after the provinces had declared war against
Great Britain, and lost more men during its short occupancy, by disease,
than by the casualties of war. Bantam is also neighboring to Anger, with
which a post route is also kept up; it was once a place of considerable
importance, but has fallen into decay, Batavia obtaining its trade, and
rising upon its ruins.

Anger itself, from its advantageous position in the Straits of Sunda,
with an enterprising population, might become a place of considerable
importance, and rival in time its neighbor, Sincapore, in the Straits of
Malacca. It is now the stopping place for nearly every vessel passing
through these Straits for water and provisions, and there is nothing to
prevent its becoming an emporium for the products of this fertile
Island, excepting the short-sighted policy of the Dutch, who wishing to
centre all the trade at Batavia, force the merchantmen to a sickly city
for the pepper, coffee, rice, &c., raised upon it. Nothing is allowed to
be exported from Anger, and when we wished to procure some coffee for
use on board ship, found it only could be obtained in an underhand
manner. If the English when they took possession of the island, had but
made a settlement and retained this point, they would have found it
greatly to their advantage, even more profitable than Sincapore.


  Pass through Sunda Strait--H. B. M. S. Rattler--Catch
  the Trades--A learned opinion on Diaries--Extracts from
  Diary--Isle of France--Its Romance--Bourbon--Mauritius--
  Cape of Good Hope--Description--Trouble in getting in--
  Table Bay and Mountain.

In passing through the Straits, after leaving Anger, H. B. M. screw
propeller "Rattler" went up on her way to China. Did not envy her
officers, nor feel at all inclined to exchange with them.

Ran out of the Straits with a fine leading wind, taking our departure
from Java-Head at early daylight on the morning of the 19th of March;
struck the "trades" at once, and held them to the 28th, when had made
1550 miles.

The distance run, by log, from Hong-Kong to Anger, was just nineteen
hundred forty-five and three-fourth miles, making us at that time
exactly three thousand four hundred and ninety-six on our way home. This
was done in a little over thirty days, including stoppage.

The learned Baron of Verulam has said: "It is a strange thing in sea
voyages, when there is nothing to be seen but sea and sky, that men
should make diaries, and omit them in land travel, as if chance were
fitter to be registered than observation." Now I have made my diary,
both at sea and on shore, and copy from it:

_At Sea, Sunday, April 11th, 1852._--Have now run down to the southward
of the Island of Madagascar, and are in the same longitude, having
passed the Isle of France, or the "Mauritius," and Bourbon safely.
Hurricanes prevail off these islands, but we have only had one small
blow. Last Sunday caught a shark, about seven feet and a half long.
Some of the men ate part of him.

Beautiful "Isle of France," degraded into Mauritius by the Dutch in
honor of their Stadtholder Maurice, but made celebrated by the pen of
Bernardin St. Pierre, as the scene of the life, loves and "fate of Paul
and Virginia, and consecrated by their tomb!" Creative power of genius,
thus to constitute an insignificant island, far, far away amongst the
distant waves of the Indian Ocean, a shrine to which pilgrims shall
resort in honor of true and young and ill-starred love!

Bourbon, too, the Island of Rëunion--happy nomenclature--has also
pleasant associations connected with its name.

Madagascar, however, from its importance, is worthy of a passing notice.
It is one of the largest islands known. It covers, in the Indian Ocean,
the spaces between latitudes 12° and 25° degrees south, and the
longitudes 43° and 51° east of London; at a close calculation, has been
found to fill up a superficies of over two hundred thousand square
miles;--equal in extent to the Pyrenean peninsula, composed of Spain and
Portugal. It has been but little explored; but treaties have been made
with its reigning powers by both Great Britain and the United States.

_Monday, April 19th._--At sea, in latitude 35° 13', about one degree
south of the Cape. Have been prevented from making entries in diary by
rough weather, and heartily joined the schoolmaster in his wish, that
"if Britannia _ruled_ the waves, she would bring them more parallel to
the '_Line_!'"

_Sunday, April 25th, 1852._--Are now off the Cape of Good Hope, called
by its discoverer, Diaz, Cabo Tormentoso, or the Tormenting Cape, from
the storms he encountered in its latitude. And well was it named, too,
in our case; for here we are, with a wind right in our teeth, trying to
beat up to Table Bay, and chasseeing to the Cape, as if to a stationary

Just sixty days from China, and have run by reckoning seven thousand one
hundred and forty-five miles,--our course giving us five thousand one
hundred and ninety-four and one-half miles from Anger.

On Friday night last, while becalmed off Cape Algulhas, caught a number
of very fine fish on the Algulhas banks. One kind was called "Cape
Salmon;" another species was known at Cape Town by the name of "King

On last Sunday, had made our calculations to be in Cape Town on the
ensuing Tuesday, from the fine wind we had; but if we get in by next
Tuesday, shall consider ourselves fortunate. Can appreciate the
situation of Mynheer Vanderdecken now, and his anxiety to forward
letters by passing vessels. Shall take advantage of the steamer for
England, at Cape Town, to forward some myself; which have hopes will be
more fortunate in reaching their destination than the dispatches of the
Flying Dutchman, passing there, as they will, through the Colonial Post

The Cape of Good Hope is not the most extreme point of Southern Africa,
the before-mentioned Algulhas extending farther into the Southern Ocean.
Cape Town is to the westward of the Cape, upon an indentation called
Table Bay. But I will now resume my diary, as we are approaching a place
proper for it to be kept, according to the learned Lord Bacon. The next
date is,

_Southern Atlantic Ocean, May 3d, 1852._--Since last entry have been
into Table Bay, for water, and have been on shore at Cape Town. Are now,
as above, in latitude 30° 24' south, with the wind dead aft, heading up
the Atlantic for home: and from our last departure, begin to say at
last, "We're homeward bound!"

On Monday last, April 26th, came to anchor in Table Bay about 5 P. M.,
having spent that and the previous day in trying to get in.

The approach to Cape Town is interesting; Table Mountain, with its
extensive flat top, forming a prominent feature.

Before you round the point, which shuts in the anchorage, and excludes a
view of the town, leaving only the heavy brow of this mountain visible,
you pass along a coast composed of a long sloping hill in the
proportions of a lion _couchant_. It extends eastwardly and westwardly,
and the "Lion's Head" is first seen as you approach from the eastward.
Upon the mount called thus, is a large rock, very similar in appearance
to the outlines of a sculptured lion, of the Egyptian style of carving.
The hill gradually diminishing, makes a good representation of the mane
and hinder parts of a reposing lion; on what is distinguished as "the
Rump," is a signal station: along the part forming the flanks are
distributed beautiful country-seats: rounding "the Rump," the town is
visible, with Table Bay, and shipping.

Table Bay in itself is not very imposing; is a bad roadstead, and
vessels intending to make any stay at the colony, go round to Simon's
Bay, which is a safe roadstead within the larger one called False Bay.
Numerous windmills along the shore are remarkable objects, and prove the
scarcity of water to grind the corn. It is a feature in the economy of
Southern Africa, that streams, which are torrents at one season, become
almost dry beds in the other.

Table Mountain, with the well laid out town at its base, flanked by
"Devil's Peak" and "Lion's Head," makes a majestic, natural frame to a
beautiful landscape. This singular mountain, before whose noble
proportions the works of man sink into insignificance,--his dwellings
appearing, from its summit, mere ant-hills,--is 3,582 feet above the
level of the ocean; and for one thousand or more feet from its top
descends on the north-east side perpendicularly, whilst the flat
appearance of its lengthened surface completes the resemblance to the
piece of furniture from which it receives its _soubriquet_.

The long even line, cutting the sky at right angles, was very pretty to
look at while I was there. But a few weeks after, when Æolus spreads
"the cloth," and invites the winds to a feast, then let the mariner,
whose vessel may be caught in the bay beneath, beware. Forth from their
revels they rush over its precipitous sides, and ships become their
play-things, and man their prey!


  Land at Cape Town--Hotels and Widows--Drive to Constantia
  --Description of Drive--Price of Wine--Manumission of
  Slaves--Seasons at the Cape--The Town through a Microscope,
  &c. &c.

Landed at Cape Town on a fine jetty, which projects some distance into
the bay. This, with another about a mile above, are the only landing
places. Stopped at "Parke's Hotel," at its head. This is kept by a
widow lady, and a spruce dandy of a mulatto superintends its internal
arrangements in the capacity of steward. There are two other
hotels,--"The Masonic," and "Welch's,"--and a club-house. I believe all
the houses of entertainment here have widows at their head--Sam
Weller's injunction needed here--"Parke's" I know to be; "Welch's," I
think, is; and two "Widows," at least in name, being man and wife with
that appellation, spread forth the good things at "The Masonic;" and I
have heard there are no _bereavements_ there.

After a fine bath,--my first care in every port,--took a stroll through
the town. There is at the head of the street, on which the hotel was
situated, a splendid wide avenue, planted with rows of majestic oaks,
their branches meeting overhead. This extends over one mile; on one side
of it is the Governor's Palace and grounds, cut off from vulgar feet by
a moat, or walled ditch, and accessible by a small drawbridge from the
avenue. Opposite is a Botanical Garden.

With a party from the ship, hired a splendid barouche and team, and
drove out to "Constantia," about thirteen miles, where the wine is made.
It is a most beautiful drive, lined on either side by English
country-houses, with surrounding grounds, intersected by broad avenues,
smooth roads and walks, with green lawns spreading out around them,
covered with close-clipped oak trees.

The drive was rather dusty, which somewhat detracted from its pleasure;
but a shower of rain opportunely coming up, made the return more

Passed through a number of villages, among them Wynberg,--a nourishing,
pretty place. Saw a great number of school-houses and churches; but
taverns, "licensed to sell spirituous liquors," as appeared upon their
signs, were most numerous on this road. A small chapel was being built,
which, from its dimensions, supposed to be of the _established_ church,
and no increase of congregation expected.

Visited the Vinery of S. Van Renen & Co., High Constantia. Was well
received, although the coachman drove us to the wrong place; and we
handed him a letter addressed to a Mr. Colyin, a neighbor, thinking it
to be his place.

The grape season was over: wine had been all pressed and stowed away.
They gather the grape in March, but it is allowed to become almost a
raisin on the stem before it is plucked. Tasted these wines; found them
sweet and luscious, too much so for my palate. This peculiar flavor is
caused by the condition of the grape when pressed.

              _Prices of Constantia in Cask._

    _Copied from a Table on the Card of S. Van Renen & Co._

                          19 Gallons.   10 Gallons.   5 Gallons.

  Pontac Constantia,          £14           £8           £5

  Frontignac   "               10            6            4

  White        "                9            5            3

  Red          "                9            5            3

M. Van Renen, whom we found on the premises, after exhibiting the
different wines, took us over the place, and showed us a collection of
the different aborigines of South Africa, in statuary. There were
Kaffirs, Hottentots, Fingoes, Betjouanas, and Boschmen. M. V. deprecated
the abolition of slavery as a great injury to the agriculturists and
vine-growers of the colony. They can get no one to perform any
continuous labor, and whilst at one time his establishment kept eighty
able-bodied men at work, would find it difficult to get three now whom
they could depend upon. Living in a climate where clothing beyond the
demands of decency is scarcely needed, and where the products of labor
for two days will support the careless negro for one week, naturally
improvident, he takes no heed for the morrow, and becomes lazy, idle,
and intemperate; and when he can be persuaded to work, with the prospect
of high wages, wherewith to purchase that necessary stimulus which has
already nearly deprived him of his capacities, as soon as he can obtain
them he rushes to the grog shop, from whence he may not be expected to
return until his wants compel him again to his intermittent labor.

The colonists, especially the agricultural part of them, complain
bitterly of hasty legislation in depriving them of slave labor. They had
offered to submit to a gradual manumission, so that by degrees they
might be able to supply the place of the negro operatives, but the
English government would set them free at once, and the result has been
injurious to the freedman and ruinous to the farmer. Was told that land
could be purchased about Constantia at the low rate of _one shilling the
acre_, altogether owing to the inability to procure labor to cultivate
it; and to bring about this state of things here and elsewhere, some
£20,060,000 was expended!

Returning from Constantia, our spanking team of four well proportioned
iron grays, attracted considerable attention. It ought to have, for the
expense of its hire was two pounds ten shillings. Stopped at the "Crown
Inn," upon the road, for refreshments, and on handing a ragged little
urchin a shilling for his voluntary service of standing at the door of
our barouche, on starting off were saluted by a hiss for our generosity.
A greater _douceur_ was expected from the drivers of such a magnificent

The road, a greater part of it, was a turnpike, very even and smooth;
paid toll, one shilling. Drove through an avenue of large oak trees,
their topmost branches meeting overhead, to the extent of one fourth of
a mile, forming a fine shade in summer. The seasons, of which there are
but two, winter and summer, are reversed in Southern Africa; July being
a cool month, and Christmas coming in _midsummer_ at the Cape.

Returned to dinner at the hotel at seven o'clock, and ate some splendid
Cape mutton. The caudal arrangements of the sheep at the Cape bear a
great similarity to those at Shanghae.

After supper set out for a walk, in which were disappointed by a shower.
It rains only in the winter season here, but heavy dews in the summer
make up this deficiency of nature's nourishment, and the colony is
carpeted with herbage of the most delicious fragrance, so that the paths
of the colonists may then be said to be strewn with flowers.

The winters at the Cape are extremely mild; no snow falls there; and if
at night ice is formed, it does not long withstand the rays of the sun.
The season corresponds in its general features with our autumn. In the
interior the winters are said to be more severe, and streams are
sometimes frozen over.

Although it was the first winter month, in M. Van Renen's orange grove
at Constantia, the trees were so laden with the Hesperian fruit, that
their limbs were bent to the ground and many broken. Saw there also,
pomegranates, liquots, rose apples, and a variety of tropical fruits,
some ready to pluck, others in different stages of ripening.

Up betimes the next morning for a walk through Cape Town. Streets wide
and clean, principally paved or macadamized. No banquettes; porches
project in front of the houses, covering the _trottoir_, and pedestrians
are forced into the middle of the street. That Hibernian must have been
an emigrant to Cape Town, who remarked that "the middle of the street
was the _best side_ of the way."

The houses, however, present a fine appearance externally; they are
usually about three stories in height, and being stuccoed, are painted
in imitation of free-stone. Their tops are flat, to which their
occupants repair to spend the remainder of the evening after their late
dinners. There is a freshness about the place which is quite reviving
after many days at sea, and was particularly pleasant to us, who had
seen nothing but filthy Chinese towns for two years and upwards;
Hong-Kong having been the nearest approach to a civilized community we
had visited during the cruise, and even there the "long-tailed pig-eyed
Celestial" predominated.

The parade ground is an extensive oblong space running along the strand,
with a ditch dividing it from Strand-street. It has a border of a double
row of fine flowering trees, and must be a delightful place for a stroll
on a summer evening.

The Commercial Exchange and Library rooms are upon it, fronting the
principal street; and back of the Exchange is a rough brick and mortar
pillar to mark the spot where Sir J. Herschell, the astronomer, made his

Near the parade ground, and facing it, are the barracks, _manned_ at
that time by women, their husbands, the soldiers, having been shipped
off to Kaffir land. By the way; a terrible accident had occurred a few
weeks before our arrival, to her Britannic Majesty's steamer Berkenhead,
employed in transporting troops up the coast, to the war. She struck
upon "Point Danger," and going down almost immediately, four out of
five hundred of those on board were drowned.

I was told that only about eighty men had been left to garrison the
town, and that a panic had lately been gotten up, from fears of a rising
of the colored population. The lazy negroes, whom England, in her
mistaken philanthropy, had liberated, not being compelled to work, chose
to rob and steal.

The Custom-house, an unpretending building, with the letters and
numerals G. IV. R. over its portals, is also on Strand-street, fronting
the "Parade."

Early on the last morning ashore took a walk to the new market on the
outskirts of the town, where the wholesale farmers bring their produce
by teams drawn by from ten to fifteen yoke of oxen. These animals are
the most suitable beasts for draught I have ever seen. With their
long legs they get over the ground nearly as fast as a horse, in a
walk, and, when required, go off in a fine, easy, and not ungraceful
trot. They bring in immense loads, and come a great distance, over
mountainous ways. The wagons they draw resemble those known as the
Conestoga, on many of which noticed a projection astern something
like a poop, serving as a sleeping cabin for the owners and drivers.
In meeting these teams on the road, one at first imagines them to be
a drove of beeves, but is soon undeceived by the crack of the
lash--"long as the maintop-bowline"--striking against the side of a
lagging bullock.

The new market is walled in, with gateways at either side to admit these
teams, which, when they enter, and the wagon has been placed in a line
with others, are outspanned, that is, detached; and form an immense herd
in front of the wagons, the line of which, with the wall of the market
place, make a complete _corral_.

The reason why I call these farmers wholesale, is, that all the produce
brought by them is disposed of by lot to the highest bidders, according
to "rise and fall" by auctioneers, who regularly attend for this

Met a number of this gentry hurrying to their duties on my return,
having been too early to witness the auction. Hucksters receive their
supplies in this manner, which they retail to the citizens--an extra
tax, I should suppose, upon the honest burghers, from whose pockets must
eventually be drawn the amount paid as commission to the auctioneers.


  Settlement of Cape Town--Its productions--The Kaffir War
  --Latest dispatches--Cause of the Rebellion--Description
  of the Kaffir by the Traveller--Opinion of him by the
  Resident--Authority of prominent men--Observatory, &c.

Within larger limits I would willingly indulge in a more extended
description of Southern Africa, which is set down by geographers as the
"Cape Region;" but as each day now diminishes our cruise, so does each
chapter deprive me of space for digression, and I must confine myself to
the Cape Colony, or more properly speaking, to Cape Town and its

The town is in latitude 33° 55' 30'' south, and as the Observatory has
been decided to be in longitude 18° 29', and is distant three miles and
a quarter from the town, due east, it would be placed 18° 25' 45'' east

The Cape of Good Hope, which is _not_ the extremity of Southern Africa,
as some geographers have it--"Lagullas" protruding further into the
Indian Ocean--was discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1486, who gave it
the name of the "Tormenting Cape," as previously stated, which was
afterwards changed into its present title by the far-seeing Emanuel, and
the hopes he then entertained of his navigators reaching the rich shores
of the far "Inde," were made good by Vasco de Gama, eleven years after
its discovery. The Dutch made their settlement here in 1652, of which
they were deprived by the English in 1795, who afterwards restored it to
them by treaty at Amiens, in 1802. Eventually it was ceded to Great
Britain in 1815. The colony is quite extensive, and would be very
productive but for numerous local causes which impede its growth. One of
these has been named in the system of labor; but the most important
impediment is want of unanimity amongst the settlers themselves. The
Dutchman clinging to his ancient customs and habits, which are an
abomination in the eyes of the Englishman; and the natives having been
once subjected to the tender mercies of the white man, not understanding
the use of freedom, or the benefits of self-government, live literally
from "hand to mouth," in constant dread of recapture, and being forced,
under the eyes of intelligent masters, to properly support themselves.

But even with these drawbacks the colony may be said to be flourishing,
and when the Kaffir war is ended, and the Kat River rebellion put down,
numerous fertile valleys will be open to the squatter, and contribute
from their luxuriant bosoms bountiful supplies of wealth to the colony.

The principal productions of the Cape are grain of all kinds, and the
grapes from which the Constantia wines are made. The specimen of wheat
which I saw, was certainly superior to any I had ever seen in the United
States, and an intelligent merchant there informed me that it is
considered the best in the world. From the number of pounds he said it
would weigh to a bushel, and its clean large grain, should think it the
most profitable to the grower.

When we were at the Cape, the Kaffir war was dragging its slow length
along. The troops had been pushed into Kaffraria, and the latest news
from the scene of operations appeared in the Government Gazette,
published by authority on the 22d April, 1852. Dispatches had been
received from camp up to the 4th of that month. Major-General the Hon.
George Cathcart, with the local rank of Lieutenant-General, having
superseded Sir Harry G. W. Smith, was in command. The campaign was on
the Kei, and Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, 73d regiment, following a spoor of
cattle, had captured 1,220 head of Gaika cattle, mostly cows, and
fifteen horses.

He had several skirmishes with the enemy, who came forth in considerable
numbers to protect their herds. Major Armstrong's passage of the Kei,
and charge, is spoken of in warm terms of commendation. In this affair
the Kaffirs numbered about 500, of whom 100 were mounted. The gallant
Major's command, including himself, was 100; with these he crossed the
river under a heavy fire, and dispersed five times his number.

A general order had been published at head-quarters, King William's
Town, dated 6th April, 1852, in which the Commander-in-Chief
congratulates the army on the prospect of a speedy termination of the
war, and states that the troops then occupied every stronghold in the
Amatolas, and it was impossible the enemy could retain a footing, so
closely was he pursued in every direction. Notwithstanding this cheering
announcement, I fear this Kaffir war will resemble in its pursuance and
general features our Florida campaigns, although the officers engaged in
it will receive more credit than our own; and if their duties are
arduous in chasing the Hottentots over mountains, and through rugged
defiles, yet they have the advantage of a healthy field of operations,
and can bivouac on the mountain ridge, or amongst the green valleys,
whilst our troops had to seek their damp beds amidst the miasmatic
everglades, or more pestiferous marsh. Again, the Kaffirs do
occasionally make a stand, and some very severe actions have taken place
between them and the British troops.

This war was caused by a rebellion of a portion of the Hottentots of the
Kat River settlement, at Fort Beaufort, and the Theopolis Missionary
establishment, in Albany. It is supposed to have originated because of
the application of stringent vagrant laws, and from apprehensions of
being again forced into slavery. It is carried on on the eastern
frontier of the country. The above are the surmised causes, but there
are thought to have been other motives. A representative from one of the
eastern districts, stated in his place in the Legislative Council, that
he considered the rebellion to be a _national movement_, that all the
documents found in the rebel camps were exhortations to stand up in the
defence of their nation. "General Orders" had been found which had been
scattered over a country 500 miles in extent, and these call upon the
colored men to unite and drive the white men into the sea, "of which
they are the scum."

Sir Andrew Stockenstrom, from the Kat River settlement, called the
rebellion "a Riddle," and the Hon. John Montague, Secretary to
Government, ascribes the hostile feelings of the Hottentots, to an idea
that they are to be made slaves. One gentleman asks in relation to the
subject: "What do we know of the rebellion? Why it was only the other
day that an officer of the Government was brought to Cape Town, a
prisoner for rebellion!"

A commission, appointed by her Majesty the Queen, consisting of Major
Hogge and Mr. Owen, had not then commenced their investigations.

There were some Kaffirs in Cape Town, sent in as witnesses, but did not
see them. The following is Barrow's description of this people: "They
are tall, robust, and muscular, and distinguished by a peculiar firmness
of carriage. Some of them were six feet ten inches, and so elegantly
proportioned that they would not have disgraced the pedestal of the
Farnese Hercules." Further on, he states: "The natives of Kaffraria, if
taken collectively, are perhaps superior, in point of figure, to the
inhabitants of any other country on earth; they are indeed exempt from
many of those causes which, in civilized society, tend to debilitate and
impede the growth of the human body. Their diet is perfectly simple,
their exercise conducive to health, and the air they breathe salubrious.
Strangers to the licentious appetites which frequently proceed from a
depraved imagination, they cheerfully receive the bounteous gifts of
nature, and when night sways her ebon sceptre o'er the scene,

    'Sweetly composed the weary shepherd lies,
      Though through the woods terrific winds resound,
    Though rattling thunder shakes the vaulted skies,
      Or vivid lightning runs along the ground.'"

After that read the opinions held of them in Cape Town. I make the
extracts from the published debates of the Legislative Council of the
colony, in assembly there. The Secretary to Government says: "We have
before us the most remarkable fact, that hundreds of these people on the
frontier, who had lived with the farmers, many of them ten or twelve,
and even a greater number of years, suddenly, and without the _smallest
provocation_, turned round and murdered them, or turned them out of
their houses with hardly a rag upon them, destroyed their property, and
walked over to the enemy." Hardly a man who speaks of them, that does
not complain of their pilfering propensities; the farmers grievously as
regards their sheep.

There were at one time some 800 rebels at Fort Hare; a great number were
allowed to depart. Some 3 or 400 were thrown into a regiment and armed;
50 only of the 800 were convicted. This black regiment became so
dangerous, after all the confidence bestowed upon them, that their
officers would not go out with them, fearing more to be shot by their
own men than the enemy. Shortly after they were found sending ammunition
in large quantities to the rebels, and had to be disbanded. One of the
members of the Council contended that the Kaffir and the Hottentot (they
appeared, indeed, to make little distinction between them) are not to be
purchased with favors, or conciliated by constitutional privileges; in
his own forcible language, "I feel that no man of experience with regard
to the Kaffir and Hottentot, will come to such a conclusion. Like the
wild fox, they may, indeed, accept your favors and concessions, but it
is only to await a more favorable opportunity of seizing their prey."

Mr. Godlonton, from those provinces, asserted that _idleness_ had been
the bane and ruin of the colored classes of the colony, and in the
eastern provinces has led to rebellion, anarchy, robbery, and murder.

To prove that I have not made my assertions in a previous page, in
regard to the condition of the colored population, and the little
benefit conferred upon them by emancipation, hastily and without
authority, I quote the opinions of many of the best informed men of the
colony, which have the greater weight as coming from persons whose
positions placed them above the power of petty prejudices.

A Mr. Stegman gives in evidence that a portion of the Hottentots who
went from Cape Town, were in communication with the rebels in the field,
and at one time hesitated whether they should use their arms against
them, or her Majesty's troops.

Mr. Cock stated, in debate, that within his own knowledge, there was a
general fear of the colored races in the eastern districts of the Cape
Colony, and he fears that the seeds of disaffection, if not rebellion,
are deeply sown within their breasts, and that, if they saw any
probability that her Majesty's troops would be subdued, they would at
once go over to the rebels; and after asking what has brought this state
of things about--what led to the war on the frontier--the desolation of
some of the finest districts--desecration of their homesteads, and the
spilling of the best blood of the colonists--attributes it to the want
of a firm and efficient government.

In relation to the Hottentots enrolled in the Western provinces, it is
stated that when they went into the field under Colonel Mackinnon, and
were attacked near the Amatola, they were saved from destruction by the
interposition of the seventy-third regiment.

A gentleman, who is called a "native foreigner," thus expresses himself:
"I know the Hottentot character well, as well as any man in the colony.
I am a colonist born, and I believe from my soul, that it will be the
most _dangerous_ experiment ever made to allow these men to vote under a
franchise amounting to universal suffrage."

The Secretary of Government stated: "We had nearly a rebellion here (at
Cape Town), amongst the same class of colored people as those at the
East, and although the panic had partially subsided, the hostile
disposition of that class against the whites had assuredly not." So much
for the fidelity of, and the confidence reposed in, the colored classes
of the Cape Colony.

The population of the Cape is heterogeneous; composed of Dutch, English,
French, Germans, Malays, Hottentots, emancipated Slaves, Betjouanas,
Fingoes, and others coming under the name of native foreigners; which, I
take it, means the same as the West India word "_creole_"--one born of
European parents in a colony. The Dutch, as being the earliest settlers,
are most numerous, of those laying claims to white blood; but all the
power is in the hands of the English, of course, who are too
quick-witted for the phlegmatic "Boer," the term they apply to the
Hollander. After the French and Germans, a small proportion, and the few
Malays now left, comes the Hottentot--the Aborigine. With them are
enumerated the other colored races, as having the mark of degradation
stamped by the Almighty upon the first-born of mankind. The "emancipated
slaves," having, with a few exceptions, originally sprung from that
race, have been but little raised in the scale of humanity, during their
term of servitude to the Dutch.

Wished much to have visited the celebrated Observatory, but understood
its interior had been destroyed by fire, a few weeks before. There are
many constellations seen at the Cape not visible elsewhere.

Was disappointed also in examining the Library; I wanted to overhaul the
celebrated Cape Records, said to be interesting.


  A Death on board--Our Freight--Extracts from Diary--St.
  Helena and Napoleon--The Trades--Poetical idea of a
  starry Telegraph--Good Sailing.

One of the invalids, whom we were bringing home from the squadron, died
and was buried at Cape Town. Poor fellow, he was never destined to see
his native land again. His disease, consumption, with the usual tendency
of that complaint, made rapid advances as we drew near land. He had
resigned himself to die, and his repeated wish was that we might reach
the Cape before he should breathe his last; that he might feel assured
of resting in consecrated ground. He was of the Catholic faith, and had
his wish, for a priest of his religion attended his remains to their
last resting-place, where the seagull swoops, on the shores of the
"stormy Cape."

On leaving the Cape, our ship presented the appearance of a vessel
engaged by naturalists to bring home specimens; and the botanical
department was represented by boxes containing specimens of sugar-cane
placed in the quarter, stern boats, and on the poop. Monkeys, belonging
to the men, made a menagerie on the booms. Others of the genus _simia_
were stationed in the tops; an aviary composed of cockatoos, Cape
parrots, Java sparrows, minas, &c., was dispersed through different
messes; whilst indigenous animals, such as rats, mice, cockroaches and
ants, had their appropriate haunts.

_Fifth of May._--"Rolling down to St. Helena," as the sailors' song has
it. Have passed the latitude of _Angra Pequena_, on the African coast,
where Martin Diaz the Portuguese navigator erected a cross, and gave it
the additional title of Santa Cruz. This emblem is said to have been
lately overthrown by an English merchant captain. I can imagine the
Goth, bloated with beer, and vomiting forth strange oaths!

_May the 10th._--Still heading for St. Helena, which calculate on making
within three days. Have caught the "trades," but indeed have had winds
answering their purpose ever since we left the Cape, having had them
generally aft.

On the 13th of May at 10 h. 30 m. made the loom of the Island of St.
Helena, bearing N. N. E. per compass, passed it about thirty miles to
windward, just twelve days and a half from the Cape, within the average

Helena, lone hermit of the ocean, saddened by the memory of Napoleon,
its involuntary hermit. But the dead lion no longer reposes there; his
remains have been transferred to one of his own splendid monuments in
unfaithful but now penitent Paris; and the spirit of prophecy must have
prompted the pen of Byron to write, long before the event took place--

    "France shall yet demand his bones!"

_May 19th._--In latitude 8° 50' south, 19° 33' west longitude,
approaching the line; have had fine trades; now getting light; weather
warm, and fine; for the last few days summer clothing in demand.

_Sunday, 23d of May._--Trade wind still holds on; three sail in sight;
one passed across our bows bound to the southward and westward, and
showed Dutch colors.

_Thursday, 27th May, 1852._--Crossed the line last night in about
longitude 34° west; are now in the northern Atlantic, and fairly in our
own hemisphere; have hit the same day of the month to cross it, in
returning; going out the 26th of February, 1850, and coming back the
26th of May, 1852. What has passed in the interval! Is it not faithfully
recorded on these pages?

Are now looking out for the N. E. trades, and have symptoms of soon
getting them. With luck shall make our port within a month from present

_Tuesday, June 1st._--Within this month expected to be detached; for the
last few days have encountered calms and squalls, line weather, and have
not made much progress; got no observation yesterday; last night at half
past eleven the master took a lunar, which put us in 3° 17' north
latitude. Whilst writing have struck a fine breeze, which we hope will
soon carry us out of the _doldrums_.

_Third of June._--Latitude 7° 1' north; have caught the trades at last;
after coquetting for several days, these winds, so constant when caught,
have consented to fill our sails, and we are now careering along,
knocking off hourly nine knots of the distance which divides us from our
homes. It is pleasant sailing, too, in these trades, and when you once
strike them, you feel secure of their continuance up to a certain
parallel. All you have to do is to set your sails, studding-sails,
royals, moonsails and sky-scrapers, if you carry them; keep them full,
and let your vessel go dancing along, day after day, without handling a
brace. Seamanship may take a spell below, for your ship will almost
_sail herself_!

Saw the northern or polar star last night for the first time, a few
degrees above the horizon, peeping at us with its twinkling eye, as much
as to say, welcome home! Hailed it as a link connecting us with our
native land. How many eyes of persons dear to us, look upon that star,
when they think of us. Its appearance suggests the following idea:

    If to yon glittering, gleaming star,
      Our thoughts might wing their rapid flight,
    To meet in that bright orb, afar;
      Thoughts that are sent towards us to-night:
    How happy thitherward to speed,
      Soul meeting soul, above the wave;
    From earth, and earth's dark passions freed,
      And--oh! what _postage_ it would _save_!

_Saturday, June 5th, 1852._--Latitude 20° 43' N., longitude 47° 40' W.
Yesterday knocked off two hundred and forty miles, averaging ten miles
per hour; best run yet; only about 2200 miles distant to-day; made two
hundred and twenty-four miles the last twenty-four hours.

_Sixth of June._--Twelve o'clock just reported, and latitude 15° 14',
and have run two hundred and twenty-two miles since meridian yesterday;
making six hundred and eighty-six miles in three days, an average of
two hundred and twenty-eight and two third miles per diem. Have passed
the Windward Islands; are getting anxious now, and even if we do make
good runs, yet this practice of killing time by half hours (the bell is
struck every half hour), is becoming tedious, as we draw near home.


  Classic Ground--Hispaniola--Romance of the Western Waters
  --Extracts from Diary--On a Wind--Newsboats wanted--The
  Bermudas--Target practice.

We are now upon what might be called with poetical license, "classic
ground." Over these seas the small caravels of Columbus sought the land,
which had appeared to him in dreams, which we can now hardly look upon
as less than inspired. To-day, the eighth of June, we are in the
latitude of the south side of Cuba, along the shores of which he
coasted, mistaking them for Cipango, beyond which he was to reach the
magnificent country of Kathay, as described in the glowing pages of
Marco Polo, and Mandeville.

We have passed the parallel of the Isle of St. Domingo, his beloved and
heart-breaking Hispaniola. How blackened now its history, and how
inapposite its name! Obliquely we run past the Lucayan Isles, looking
out almost as anxiously as he did for the "promised land." But how
opposite our situations! We, with all the certain aids of science and
experience, steer for a well-known country; whilst he, thinking to make
the far distant land from which we now return, his own mind his chart,
his inspiration his guide, pointed his prow to uncertain ports in
unknown seas.

Talk of the Mediterranean, its Islands and its romance, why there is
more of the wonderful and romantic connected with the first voyages to
the western Archipelago, and the continent of America, than is comprised
in the history of the travel-stained Levant.

Would you have the story of the Argonauts, enlarged and improved, follow
the track of any of those Portuguese, Spanish, or even English
adventurers in search of gold, to these lands, and amongst these keys,
and see how the expedition for the "golden fleece" dwindles into
insignificance. But what does my poor pen with what our own wizard of
the west, Washington Irving, has made immortal? Turn to the pages of his
Columbus, but not before you have laid aside these.

_Tuesday, June 8th._--Each day decreases our distance, and we were, at
meridian, but 1600 miles from our port. The 20th is put down as the time
of our arrival now. Have been busy in preparing things for debarkation.
A barque came near running into us the night before last. To-day saw two
sail, a bark and brig. Sea-weed is floating by; like ourselves,
returning to the Gulf from strange seas.

_Thursday, June 10th._--Lat. 24° 21' north. Made 218 miles the last
twenty-four hours: about 180 the day previous, which leaves only 1200
miles to run, and going nine knots. Trade still strong.

_Friday, June 11th._--Passed an English barque bound to the eastward.
She showed her longitude on a black board. Did not hail. Showed our
longitude, still keeping on. She was a degree out of her reckoning.

At meridian had made 225 miles, and were in lat. 26° 47'; long. 63° 15'
west. Ten days more ought to bring us in easily.

_Sunday, June 13th._--Lost the trades yesterday, in lat. 28° 44', long.
65° 42'; and from nine and ten knots, have come down to three and four.
Made only 176 miles yesterday. To-day nearly calm; made but 80 miles
since meridian yesterday. Most beautiful weather; could not be more
pleasant, only have no wind. Are now in the "horse latitudes," but
cannot complain; the trade has pushed us along bravely, and served us
well. Only 720 miles from our port at meridian.

_June 14th._--On coming on deck this morning, found the wind had come
out nearly dead ahead, and the ship barely heading her course under a
topsail breeze, with her yards braced sharp.

It is a pretty sight, or rather Would be a pleasant thing, as the
Epicurean Lucretius expresses it, "to stand upon the shore, and to see
ships tossed at sea." At least I imagined so this morning, with our
craft "upon a wind," whilst standing in the weather gangway, and
watching her plunge and curvet, held up to her course by the helm, as a
steed by a curb, obeying its rider; but I did not think the motion as
agreeable as that derived from equestrian exercise. Motion quite
disagreeable; and I made strange work at dotting i's and crossing t's.
Hyphens also will connect words more closely than intended,--confounding
too all compound terms. Showed our colors to a brig standing to the
southward and eastward. Impossible to speak a vessel just now; but if we
could only have gotten near one yesterday, might have communicated by
boat, obtained newspapers, and learned the nominations, and general
state of the country. By this time, two poor men, pitted against each
other for the Presidency, have doubtless been made out more miserable
characters than their most intimate acquaintance ever supposed them to
be. And if either were elected, with the charges brought against him
fully proved, it would be a disgrace to the Republic!

Twelve o'clock, and latitude just reported 30° 24'--the parallel of
New-Orleans; longitude 68° 01'. Are getting past the Bermudas,--as
usual, the "still vexed Bermoothes," though what continues to keep
Bermoothes out of temper I cannot imagine.

_Tuesday, June 15th._--Longitude, by chronometer, 70° 47' west; latitude
observed, 32° 12' north: are barely making a northwest course, with a
westerly variation. Have the wind steady at northeast by east. This
makes it quite cold, and flannels and thick coats are comfortable.

_June 16th._--In turning out this morning at four bells, found it quite
calm; and on looking at the log slate, found that the wind had gone down
within the past hour. Took advantage of the calm to practice at a
target. Fired both batteries,--very good shooting; but the target
escaped until the last shot, which knocked off the bull's eye, and
dismounted the gun.

Whilst exercising, a clipper ship passed at some distance from us, bound
to southward and eastward.


  The Gulf Stream--Darby's Theory--Its ingenuity--The
  Coasts of America--John Cabot, the Venetian--"_Terra
  Primum Visa_"--Completion of Cruise--Conclusion.

_Thursday, June 17th._--Have at last got amongst the variable winds, for
we struck a breeze yesterday immediately after exercising, and went
pitching along at the rate of eight knots before dark. Sea quite rough.
This morning calm again. Have touched the edge of the Gulf Stream,
judging from the temperature of the water, and general appearance of the
weather. Darby's theory of this current is so learned and philosophical,
that I may be excused giving place to it here. In his theme, The Earth,
he touches upon this phenomena, and explains it thus: "The earth turns
round upon its axis once in twenty-four hours, and consequently fifteen
degrees of its meridians revolve hourly; therefore, by multiplying the
breadth of any number of degrees of longitude by fifteen, we have the
hourly motion of that part of the earth's surface round the axis; as,
for example, in lat. 45°, a degree of long. is 48-3/4 English miles
wide, within a trifling fraction. From these elements, it results that
particles of matter on lat. 45° on the surface of the earth, revolve
about 630 miles hourly: this is nearly the mean motion, as the maximum
at the equator is a fraction less than 1,040 miles hourly, and
decreasing along the meridians, until it becomes 0 at either pole."

From this hypothesis he reasons that atmospheric and oceanic masses are
moved along with the decumbent nucleus with a velocity decreasing from
the equator to the poles; and if the least retardation operates on the
atmospheric and oceanic waters, a counter-current will be formed,
flowing with the greatest rapidity where the retardation is greatest.
This, he says, occurs along the equator, where the horary motion is at
its maximum; and thus the tropic current is formed. This current
receives volume and velocity from another cause, which is thus
explained: "Immediately under the sun, or where the beams of that
luminary are direct, a vacuum is produced, into which the circumambient
air rushes; and as this vacuity is carried westward along the equator,
upwards of 1,035 miles hourly, an atmospheric current follows, which,
acting on the ocean waters, impels them westward, and adds force and
mass to the tropic current. In the Atlantic Ocean, from the peculiar
structure of its shores, a very remarkable phenomenon--the Gulf
Stream--is produced. South America, in form an immense triangle, is
based on the Pacific, and protrudes its perpendicular angle into the
Atlantic at south latitude 6°. This salient point is Cape St. Roque,
from which the continent extends to the northwest, crosses the equator,
and stretches beyond the northern tropic, forming in the Gulf of Mexico
an immense reservoir. Here the continent again turns at right angles,
and continues northeast into the northern polar circle. The very deep
indenting of the American Continent in the Gulf of Mexico, and the long
line of coast from its recesses into the southern section of the torrid
zone, is in a peculiar manner calculated to produce that very reflux,
which constitutes the largest whirlpool on the globe."

Much more does this ingenious writer advance, but my limits prevent its
insertion here, and the subject is not exactly in accordance with the
tenor of my task. Suffice it for the present, that upon this day, the
18th of June, we have passed over this equatorial current, and are now
heading for our native shores, and are in the waters made classic by the
glorious endeavors of the early navigators. Strange is it that of all
those who sought this coast, the name of John Cabot, the first
adventurer who landed upon it, should be so seldom mentioned: and
History, called by a philosopher a Splendid Lie, should prove its title
to mendacity, by giving all the glory of the land, "_primum visa_" to
his son, Sebastian. To John Cabot, a Venetian, then a merchant of
Bristol, England, in the reign of the Seventh Henry, is all the honor to
be ascribed of setting the first European foot upon the then desert
wilds that now bloom, the Garden of the United States; and if a name
must be derived from the discoverer, without reference to its euphony,
to descend as a patronymic, by such a rule, we should be called
Cabotians, instead of Yankees, United Staters, or by the Vespucian title
of Americans.

But to Columbus attaches all the fame of the original idea of navigating
the Western Seas, and if he did not set foot upon the shores towards
which we are now sailing, his voyage incited others to undertake what
perhaps would never otherwise have been dreamed of, and the tropics
would long after have remained painted in their imaginations as a circle
of fire in which the Salamander sported. About a year after the Genoese
had returned from his first voyage--I quote from an Italian,
Tiraboschi--the merchant of Bristol appears to have embraced the idea
that new lands might be discovered in the North West, and a passage to
India might be brought to light by this course. And, in answer to his
application, on the 5th of March, 1495, King Henry the Seventh granted a
commission to John Cabot and his three sons, Louis, Sebastian, and
Sanchez. And on the 24th of June, 1497, he discovered that part of this
Continent, which he called "_Terra primum Visa_" nearly a year previous
to the discovery of the country south of the Isthmus of Darien. But,
_satis superque_, we have had almost enough of ships and the sea. Our
prow is directed towards our own loved shores; the southern gales waft
us propitiously on them; with each swell of the ocean, our bosoms heave
in unison, our hearts leap forwards with our gallant barque, over every
obstructing wave:

    "Bend, bend, ye lithe and quivering spars,
    Point home my country's stripes and stars."

It is evening, and yon setting sun, whose course we have tracked from
the lonely anchorage in the Typa, down the China Seas, across the Indian
Ocean, and over the wide expanse of the Atlantic, sinks slowly to night
behind the mountains of our own broad and beautiful land. They gild the
spire of an ancient village church, beneath which, in the days that are
no more, our youthful ears drank in the kindly teachings of the
gray-headed and venerable man, now forming one of the congregation that
sleeps beneath the green sod surrounding it. They gild, with a golden
tint, the attic windows of an old homestead, behind the small panes of
which, there came to us once, more golden, but equally unsubstantial,
visions, when our hearts, untravelled, sank to slumbers light and sweet.
Ere its next setting, have hopes that the telegraph wires will convey
thither the glad news of our safe return.

We have taken a pilot on board; the chain cables are ranged forward on
either gangway, bent to the anchors, ready for letting go; the changing
color of the water denotes soundings, and every thing indicates we shall
soon be in.

Patient reader, my Cruise is completed. Its preparation has beguiled me
of many a monotonous hour at sea. If either at sea or on shore it be, in
this manner beneficial to you, I shall be satisfied. We must part. I bid
you adieu, with a feeling towards you as if you had been my _compagnon
du voyage_; and fervently wish that your Cruise of Life may be over
placid seas, to pleasant ports, and always in company with kind and
generous friends.


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Transcriber's Notes:

Inconsistencies in the hyphenation of words preserved. (ahoy, a-hoy;
cocoanut, cocoa-nut; flagship, flag-ship; Lintin, Lin-tin; lookout,
look-out; northeast, north-east; shipboard, ship-board; topgallant,
top-gallant; Tyfoong, Ty-foong; Woosung, Woo-sung)

Pg. 58, name d'Assis is also rendered as D'Assis in other instances on
the same and subsequent pages. Original text preserved in all

Pg. 65, "allthough" changed to "although" (although her owner appeared

Pg. 84, unusual spelling "grandiliquose" retained.

Pg. 119, "afterterwards" changed to "afterwards". (treaty which was

Pg. 127, "fom" changed to "from". (No news from home!)

Pg. 137, "o" changed to "of". (much reluctance that these Celestial
citizens of)

Pg. 165, "unshophisticated" changed to "unsophisticated". (appeared to
my unsophisticated)

Pg. 168, "supended" changed to "suspended". (suspended from an oar)

Pg. 179, name of corvette "Don Jooa", is spelled "Don Joao" on page 83.
Original text preserved in both instances.

Pg. 191, "unobstrusive" changed to "obtrusive". (his unobstrusive

Pg. 196, unmatched doublequote marks in block of quoted speech: "if
Britannia ... to the "_Line_!". To avoid ambiguity, this has been
changed to "if Britannia ... to the '_Line_!'".

Pg. 214, paragraph ending with '... robbery and murder.' In the
original text this paragraph ended with a doublequote mark indicating
that some portion of the paragraph was quoted speech. However an
opening doublequote mark was missing and it was not clear where the
quoted speech began. Perhaps the quote speech began after 'asserted
that' but there is no way of being sure. Hence, the closing doublequote
mark has been removed from the paragraph.

Pg. 223, "af" changed to "of". (the story of the Argonauts)

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