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Title: Round Games with Cards - A Practical Treatise on All the Most Popular Games, with Their Different Variations, and Hints for Their Practice
Author: Peel, W. H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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ROUND GAMES

by

BAXTER-WRAY.


ROUND GAMES WITH CARDS.

A Practical Treatise on All the Most Popular Games, with
Their Different Variations, and Hints for Their Practice.

by

BAXTER-WRAY.



1891
1897



CONTENTS.

                       PAGE
   NAP ...               3
   LOO ...              16
   POKER ...            31
   VINGT-UN ...         59
   COMMERCE ...         70
   SPECULATION ...      77
   POPE JOAN ...        80
   SPIN ...             87
   NEWMARKET ...        89
   SNIP-SNAP-SNORUM ... 90
   JIG ...              95
   CASSINO ...          97
   MY BIRD SINGS ...   101
   SPOIL FIVE ...      103
   LOTO ...            108



[3]

"NAP," OR "NAPOLEON."


The game of Napoleon, or as it is more generally and popularly called
"Nap," was introduced into this country from the United States, it is
believed, about 1865, although it is recorded that the game had previously
been played for high stakes at some of the more notorious gambling clubs.

It is named after the great Napoleon, as the principal player in the game
becomes, for the time being, an Ishmaelite, whose "hand" is against every
man's, and every man's against his, as was the case with the "Grand
Adventurer" in 1804-15 (_see_ Variations)--whence we have the terms
Wellington, Blücher, etc.

It is an admirable game for three, four, or five persons, and is also
available for two and six, though four is the ideal number, and it is
played with an ordinary pack of fifty-two cards. (For Nap with thirty-two
card pack, _see_ page 14).  With six persons taking part in the game the
dealer stands out of the play, not dealing any cards to himself, though he
receives and pays for the tricks like the others, and the same system is
sometimes adopted when there are five players; as, if all the players took
active part in the game, it would become most difficult to make the tricks,
because more cards would be in use.

The popularity of the game is no doubt owing to the short time necessary
for playing the hands, and to the fact [4] that it can be terminated at
any moment, for no game or deal need exceed two or three minutes, except
when a pool or "kitty" is introduced (_see_ Variations).  In this case
provision has to be made for the distribution of the amount of the kitty.

While care in playing is necessary, no great amount of skill is required to
render the game diverting as an amusement, while it also affords ample
scope for the exercise of speculation and the other elements of excitement.


_DESCRIPTION_.


The main idea of the play, as already stated, is for one of the competitors
to stand against the united efforts of the others, who, in turn, use their
powers to prevent his securing the object for which he is striving--in this
case to win the whole or a certain number of tricks.  The number of the
tricks to be won is variable, and it depends on the value of the cards
in each player's hand to decide what number he will endeavour to secure.
The greatest possible achievement is to win the whole of the tricks (which
are five in number), and the player who succeeds in doing this scores a
"Nap," and receives double stakes from each of his companions; if however,
after declaring his intention to try for Nap he fails, he only pays a
single, _i.e._, for five tricks; and, as will be shown later on, this
condition attaching to a Nap becomes an important feature in deciding
on the number of tricks to be played for, when a good hand is secured.

The only safe and perfect Nap is ace, king, queen, knave, and ten of the
same suit, but as this combination of cards does not often occur in actual
practice, it remains for the player to speculate on his chances with the
cards he holds.

[5]

It is this speculation of possibilities which forms the principal feature
of the game, and it is the ability of a competitor to make an immediate
decision on this point that governs his success or failure in its practice.
Very much, however, depends on the temperament of the player.  A bold,
enterprising person will risk much in the hope of winning much, and one
player will declare for Nap on the same cards which another would consider
only safe for three tricks, and, in like manner, one will declare for three
tricks where his neighbour would hesitate to risk two.

Another important matter for consideration is the number of players
engaged, and the consequent proportion of cards in use. Each player
receives five cards, so that it follows, with three players engaged,
that fifteen are in use, and thirty-seven remain in the pack unexposed;
whereas if five are playing there are twenty-five cards in use, and only
twenty-seven remaining unexposed.  The calculation necessary is, therefore,
as to the probability of certain superior cards being in the hands of the
opponents, or remaining in the undealt surplus of the pack.


_TACTICS_.


As a perfect Nap is of such rarity we must content ourselves with
substitutes, and in this respect we may regard the following combinations
as good ordinary hands on which to declare for the full number of tricks:
a flush of fairly high cards, _i.e._, the five all of one suit; four
of one suit (headed with ace or king), and one high card of another suit;
or three high cards of one suit, with two high cards of a second suit.
It is dangerous to risk a Nap on a hand of three suits, unless it consists
of three high cards of one suit with two other aces; then it is often
possible to [6] win the five tricks, by first exhausting the trumps, and
then playing the aces, which must win; but if one of the opponents starts
with four trumps, no matter how small, success is, of course, impossible.

If a player does not consider his cards good enough to permit of his
declaring for Nap--and it is fair to suppose that not once in a hundred
they will be absolutely safe--he has to decide what they are worth, and
declare accordingly.  It is not often that four tricks are called, because
a hand good enough for four is usually regarded as sufficiently good
for Nap, on account of the additional stakes received by the player who
succeeds in making the whole of the tricks, which amount to a difference
of six points from each competitor, as for four tricks he receives four,
while for Nap he receives ten, paying only five, however, if he loses.

On the same principle as already shown in regard to a "perfect" Nap,
it will be understood that ace, king, queen, is the only certain
combination with which to secure three tricks, but these cards, again,
are seldom met with in a hand, and speculation is once more the principal
matter for consideration.  Ace, knave, and ten of a suit is generally
good for three tricks, as the only possibility against such a combination
is that one of the other players holds king or queen of the same suit,
with a smaller trump to throw away when the ace is led.  Three tricks are,
however, often called on much lower cards than ace, knave, ten, especially
when the other cards in the hand are of one suit, or are sufficiently high
to admit of the possibility of one of them securing a trick.  The same line
of reasoning holds good in regard to a declaration of two tricks, the only
certainty in that case being ace and king.

It must not be considered, after these comments on the game, that there is
any great difficulty to surmount in acquiring [7] a knowledge of Napoleon.
As we said at the commencement of our remarks no great skill is essential,
but considerable care is necessary to secure anything like success at the
game, the chief factor in which is so-called luck.  It is impossible to
make tricks, or even declare an intention to try for them, unless one
receives a certain number of high cards.  One may even go further, and
say that luck goes far beyond the actual cards dealt to each player, for
the best of hands often fail, and poor cards frequently achieve success;
whilst it happens, in numerous cases, that the playing of the cards
demonstrates that really weak hands would have secured success if the
holder had had the pluck, or impudence, we may term it, to declare more
than the value of the cards seemed to justify.  On the other hand it
is often astonishing to find the number of high cards of a given suit
included among the fifteen, twenty, or twenty-five in the hands of the
players engaged in the game.

Taking all matters into consideration, it must be regarded as virtually
impossible to give any precise rules for deciding the number of tricks
to declare, and it is equally difficult to lay down any definite plan for
playing the cards to the tricks. We can only generalize for the information
of our readers, who must decide for themselves whether they will play an
adventurous game, with its greater risks, and greater possibilities of
success; or whether they will adopt a quieter and less speculative course,
standing to win or lose less on their own declarations.

It must always be borne in mind, however, that whichever course is pursued
it is only his own actions that can be governed by each player.  One
may adopt a quiet, safe game, and risk little, while some or all of the
opponents may adopt the opposite extreme, and force all the competitors,
[8] in a manner of speaking, to share in their risky speculations.
If the bold player wins, and we think the chances are in his favour,
the quieter ones, no matter how safe their own declarations may be,
must necessarily lose, and _vice versâ_ so that we have, not only the
numberless possible combinations of the cards to consider, but also the
temperament and position of those engaged in each game.

Care should be taken to remember, as far as possible, the cards thrown away
by the other players, when they cannot follow suit to any particular lead,
and it will be found in practice that much information can be derived
as to the character of the remaining cards from a careful study of the
hands during the progress of the play, and this knowledge is particularly
valuable when a player is left with two cards of equal, or nearly equal
value, and his chance of success depends upon his winning a trick with
one of them.

We shall now proceed to consider the various parts of the game, and the
variations that have been introduced into the method of playing it.


_STAKES_.


The stakes may consist of any amount previously arranged, and whatever is
decided upon, whether it be counters or money, is recognised as the limit
per trick, only changed when a player having declared for Nap, succeeds
in making it, in which case each player pays double, or as though he had
lost ten tricks.  In other cases the players win or lose one stake for each
trick that the senior hand has declared for.  Say, for example, he declared
to win three tricks, and succeeded, then each of the other players would
pay him three times the amount of the stake; if the senior hand did not
succeed, he would have to pay a similar amount to each of the others.

[9]

_DEALING_.


The deal is decided by the cards being turned face upwards before each
player, until the first knave is exposed.  The player to whom the knave
falls then becomes the first dealer.  It is better to play with two
separate packs of cards, as considerable time is saved in collecting and
shuffling, which operations are to be performed by the player on the next
dealer's left hand side.  When shuffled the cards are to be placed on the
right hand side of the dealer, where they are to be left until the player
on his right cuts them.  The dealer distributes five cards to each player,
going from left to might, and dealing the cards one at a time.

As the deal is a disadvantage, inasmuch as the dealer has the last call,
there is no penalty attaching to a misdeal, unless the game is being played
with the addition of a pool or kitty (_see_ page 11), in which case the
player making a misdeal pays a penalty to the pool equal to the stake of
one trick.  In the event of a misdeal, or accidental exposure of a card,
the whole pack must be collected, shuffled and re-cut, as before, after
which the cards are to be re-dealt by the same player who made the mistake.
The players must not interfere with the cards during the deal, under a
similar penalty, nor touch the remainder of the pack when once it has
left the dealer's hands.


_CALLING_.


The deal having been completed the players are entitled to look at their
cards, and then declare, in turn, whether they will "stand" or "pass," the
player on the dealer's left having the first call.  If he decide to stand
he declares the number of tricks he will stand for, while if he elects to
pass [10] he simply states his intention of so doing, but it is understood
that the first caller must stand for one trick, should all the others
decide to pass, except in the case where the Double Header is agreed to
(_see_ page 13).  The next player then announces his intention.  If he
cannot stand for more tricks than have already been called he must pass,
and the same holds good all round, until the dealer is reached.  No player
may make a second declaration, or alter one once made.


_PLAYING THE HANDS_.


The player who has called the highest number of tricks now becomes
senior hand, and his object is to make the tricks he has declared,
in opposition to the united efforts of the other players, who combine
--without consultation or arrangement of any kind--to defeat his purpose.
The senior hand may make trumps of any suit he chooses, and this he
signifies by leading one of the suit he selects.  It will thus be seen
that the first card played in each deal decides the trumps for that deal.

The player on the left of the leader then follows.  If he has a card of the
suit led he must play it, but if not he may throw off any card he chooses.
If he has more than one card of the suit he can play either, as he is not
forced to head the trick even if he has a card higher than that led but in
practice it is seldom desirable to pass a trick in the first round, when
headed by the senior hand, except under exceptional circumstances, such for
instance as holding ace and a small one, with knave or a lower card led.

Provided no player has headed the trick, _i.e._, played a higher card
of the same suit as the one led, the trick is scored by the senior hand,
and he leads for the second [11] round.  If, however, one of the players
has taken the trick, then the lead passes to the winner of that trick,
and the same occurs after the second, third and fourth tricks.

In the second and subsequent rounds the leader may play whatever card he
chooses, just as in the first, the trumps remaining unaltered.  A player
having one of the suit led in either round must play it, but if he has none
of the suit he may either discard one of the others, or head the trick by
playing a trump. This continues throughout the five rounds, unless the
senior hand shall have previously won the number of tricks he declared,
or shall have lost such a number as to render his success impossible,
in either of which cases the cards are collected for the next deal.



VARIATIONS.


There are several innovations and different methods of play which may
be introduced into the game of Napoleon, but any divergence from the
plain game should be carefully settled by the company _before the play
is commenced_.  Failing a proper understanding on this point, the rules
applicable to the simple game must be adhered to.


_POOL OR KITTY_.


When a pool is agreed to, payment is made by each dealer according to
the value of the stake of the game, but it is more convenient for all
of the players to pay in when it is the original dealer's turn to play.
The Kitty thus formed becomes the property of the caller who makes Nap,
and he takes it in addition to the double stakes he [12] receives from
each player, as already mentioned.  When it is found desirable to conclude
the game before a Nap has been secured, the amount of the kitty is to be
equally divided between the players, or it may be drawn for, in which case
a card is distributed to each player by the regular dealer, who has the
cards properly shuffled and cut for the purpose, when the holder of the
lowest card (ace here reckoning as highest) takes the pool.


_MISERY OR MISÉRE_.


This is the most common variation, and is the antithesis of Napoleon,
inasmuch as the caller must not make a single trick.  The caller leads
off in the ordinary way--the suit led being trumps, as usual, unless it
is agreed, as is sometimes done, that there shall be no trumps in this
variation.  The caller of misére must always follow suit, if he can, but
is not obliged to trump if he has none of the suit led.  He must, however,
play the cards so as to avoid taking a trick.  Should he be compelled to
win one of the tricks, or should his original lead remain unheaded by any
of the other players, then he fails in his declaration, and has to pay, but
if he avoids making a trick, the other players have to pay him.  The usual
stake for "misery," either for winner or loser, is three; but any player
declaring he can make three tricks takes precedence, and plays accordingly.


_BUYING CARDS_.


After the cards have been distributed, _but before any declaration has
been made_, the dealer asks each player in turn, beginning with the player
on his left, whether he wishes to buy a card or cards.  The player wishing
to purchase must first throw away the cards he desires to eject, [13] face
downwards, and must place in the pool the value of one trick for each card
he desires to receive from the dealer.  The card or cards must be taken
from the top of the pack, and handed unexposed to the player.


_SPARE HAND_.


An extra hand is dealt, which each player in turn has the option of adding
to his own hand, selecting from the ten cards thus held five with which to
play, but he must then stand for Nap, and, if there is a pool or kitty, he
must put therein the value of two tricks if he fails to score, in addition
to paying each of the players the ordinary stake on losing five tricks.


_DOUBLE HEADER_.


If each player "passes," then the stakes for the next deal are doubled,
and remain so until the person declaring has won. In cases where this
variation is decided upon, it is usual to agree that the lowest call be
"three," so that the double header occurs at frequent intervals.


_WELLINGTON_.


If a player calls Napoleon, and another player on his left considers he can
also make five tricks, he may call "Wellington," in which case the stakes
are doubled, the caller winning 20 or losing 10.  As this rule, however,
is regarded with disfavour by some, in consequence of its raising the limit
of a loss on any particular hand from 10 to 20, it is sometimes played
differently.  The player who calls Wellington does not receive more than
he would have done for Napoleon, but pays double, _i.e._, 10.


[14]

_BLÜCHER_.


This is called in the same manner, that is to say over the player calling
Wellington, and then the stakes are trebled, the caller winning 30 or
losing 15.

In the modification of this variety, as referred to in connection with
Wellington, the caller would still only receive 10 for winning, but would
pay 15 to each player if he lost.  This may appear a severe penalty, but it
must be remembered that both Wellington and Blücher are declarations
outside the ordinary limit of the game, and it is not possible for the
first caller to claim them, even though he may have the first five cards of
a suit, and therefore be certain of winning everything.  He calls Napoleon
as the limit allowed by the game, and it is therefore unfair that he should
lose the advantages of his good hand.

Another variety of this game is to allow the caller of Napoleon the
opportunity of altering his call to Wellington or Blücher if challenged
by any of the others to do so.  If he thinks he can scare he stands for
the higher call; if not, then the player who challenges him does so.

The settlement of these extended calls should be particularly agreed
upon before commencing play, or disagreement is all but inevitable,
as the player who insists on the forced increase of the limit is
certainly in the wrong, unless arrangement has previously been made.


_THIRTY-TWO CARD PACKS_.


If Piquet or Bézique cards are used, _i.e._, packs with the 2, 3, 4, 5
and 6 of each suit omitted--leaving but 32 cards in the set--the ordinary
rules are observed.  When playing with this smaller pack the hands will
_apparently_ be of far [15] greater value than usual.  This arises from
the fact that all the lower cards of each suit are omitted, and after a
few deals it will be found very difficult to make even a small number of
tricks with hands which, if a full pack of cards was in use, would be
exceptionally good.  There being but thirty-two cards to deal with,
the number of players must not exceed three, or perhaps four.


_SIX- OR SEVEN-CARD NAP_.


In this variation six or seven cards are dealt to each player, who,
before making his call, has to throw away (face downwards and unexposed)
one or two, as the case may be, of his cards, so as to leave the number
in his hand five, when the game is played on the regular lines.


_NINE-CARD NAP_.


This may be described as the last innovation in the game. It is conducted
on exactly similar lines to the five card method, except that nine cards
are held by each player, none being discarded as in the last mentioned
variation, but it has not yet become popular, and in view of the fact that
even with only three players more than half the pack is in use, its scope
is far more limited than any other variety.  In this variation the person
calling Nap would have to make all nine tricks, a most difficult and
very unfrequent occurrence.  It will be found to be a pleasing variety
for two players who are of about equal skill at the ordinary game,
its possibilities being so different from that method, but we doubt
its ever being made as popular as the five card game.



[16]

LOO.


Loo (or, as formerly it was sometimes called, Lue) is a very lively and
popular round game, justly described as one of the best and yet one of the
simplest known.  Indeed, until the introduction of "Nap," it was the most
fashionable of its class in this country.  The date of its origin is not
on record, but that some amount of antiquity can be claimed for it may be
inferred from the fact that a description of the game appears in works
published at the beginning of the present century, when the method of
playing it was virtually the same as is recognised at the present day,
except that then the five-card variation was the most popular,
whereas now the three-card game is in vogue.

Loo is usually played with an ordinary pack of fifty-two cards, but in
some variations the thirty-two card pack is used.  The number of players
who can take part in it is practically unlimited within the range of the
pack played with.  A writer of thirty years since justly remarks that
the game is good for any number up to a dozen, although the best game
is played with five, or not more than seven persons.  Five players
are sometimes regarded as the limit, and if more than that number
desire to take part, relief is sought by the dealer standing out of
the play, neither paying nor receiving on the tricks of that hand.
This arrangement, however, is one that can be decided at the option
of the company playing.

[17]

As is the case with Nap, a very short time is necessary for completing
the hands in the game, and a finish may be made at any moment, either
by an equal division of the amount in the pool among the players, or by
releasing those who failed to win a trick in the previous deal from the
penalty which usually attaches to such a result, and which is known as
a "loo."  In this case all "stand" on the last round, and there is no
"miss." It is usual, however, to play on until what is known as a "single"
occurs, _i.e._, when each of the players who declared to stand has
secured a trick, and, as a consequence, no one has been looed.  If,
however, a finish is desired before a single occurs, it is best to
arrange it so as to fall immediately before the original dealer's turn
to deal comes round again, as, in that case, all the players will have
paid for an equal number of deals.

A player may withdraw from the game at any time when it is his turn
to deal.  In that case he pays for his deal (as explained later on),
and also for his loo, if he was looed the previous hand, but he does not
deal any cards to himself, or take any part in the play of that round.


_DESCRIPTION_.


Three-card Loo being the most popular at the present day, we shall devote
ourselves more particularly to that game, leaving the five-card variety to
be considered later on, under the heading of Variations.  The object of
each player is to win one, two, or all of the three tricks into which each
deal is divided, and in doing so he is opposed by all the other players
who have elected to stand, and who, in turn, try to secure the tricks for
themselves.

The stakes are first decided on--usually three counters [18] or coins for
the deal, and six for a loo.  It is desirable that the amount in the pool
should be divisible by three, so as to allow of its equal apportionment
among the winners of the three tricks.  The first dealer is then chosen,
and he, having paid to the pool the agreed amount for his deal, proceeds
to distribute the cards for what is termed a single, a term denoting that
merely the dealer's stake is to be played for.

The pack having been duly shuffled and cut, the dealer turns the top card
face upwards in the middle of the table, and then distributes one card,
similarly exposed, to each player.  If either of the players receives a
higher card of the same suit as the one turned up, he wins the amount in
the pool.  If two or more receive superior cards, the higher takes the
stake.  The others are looed, each having to contribute the agreed amount
of a loo to the pool, for the next deal.  It is usually agreed that the
penalty for a loo on the single shall be half the amount of the ordinary
loo, or the same amount as for a deal.  If neither player receives a
higher card of the same suit as that turned up all are looed, and the
amount in the pool remains, being included in the stakes for the next
deal.  The amount of the loos having been placed in the pool, as also the
sum agreed upon to be contributed by the next dealer, the cards are
re-gathered, shuffled, and cut, and the second deal is proceeded with.
Three cards are distributed to each player, and a spare hand, or miss,
as it is generally called,¹ is left in the middle of the table.
The top [19] card of the undealt portion of the pack is next turned up,
to decide which of the suits shall be trump, and then each of the players
--commencing with the one on the left hand side of the dealer--in turn
looks at his cards, and decides whether he will stand, whether he will take
the miss, or whether he will throw up his cards for that deal, unless the
rule for "Club Law" shall have been previously decided upon, when all the
players have to stand, and the miss is withdrawn--see page 26.  If he
decides to stand, the player retains the three cards originally dealt him,
and says, "I play"; if he elects to throw up his cards, he places them,
unexposed, on the top of the undealt portion of the pack, and takes no
share in the remainder of that hand, neither paying nor receiving in
connection with the play; while if he determines to take the miss, his
original cards are added to the undealt portion of the pack, as before, and
he takes up the spare hand.  In this latter case he is compelled to stand,
that is, it is not optional with him to throw up the miss, when once he has
elected to take it.

   ¹ The spare hand is not always called the "miss."  Some players
     designate it the "cat"; the term possibly originating from its
     un-certainty; hence the expression, often used in connection
     with the spare hand--"Let us hope she will not scratch us."

The player on the dealer's left having determined which course he will
pursue, the one on his left has to decide, and so on, until the dealer is
reached; he may, in like manner, stand, throw up, or take miss, provided
the spare hand has not already been appropriated.  If none of the players
take the miss it is added to the pack, but in that case it must not be
exposed, or looked at by any of the players.

Should it happen that each of the players in front of the dealer has
thrown up his own cards, and neither has taken the miss, then the dealer
is entitled to the amount in the pool, no matter what his cards are.
Should it happen that only one player has declared to stand on his own
hand, [20] then the dealer, if he cannot stand on his own cards, may take
the miss.  If he does not care to do either he must play the miss for the
benefit of the pool, against the single player who declared to play on his
own cards, and anything he may then win with the miss is left in the pool
for the next deal.  Should it happen that all the players in front of the
dealer have thrown up their cards, and one has taken the miss, then the
dealer may stand, or not, as he chooses; but if he also throws up his
cards, then the holder of miss, being the only standing hand, takes the
whole amount of the pool.  These contingencies are seldom, if ever, met
with in actual play, but being possible it is necessary to fix laws to
govern them.

The players who have decided to stand, either on their own cards, or on
the miss, then proceed to play the tricks, the one nearest the dealer's
left having to lead.  It is, however, sometimes agreed that the holder
of miss for the time being shall lead, but this is hardly a desirable
departure from the more regular course of leaving the lead to the elder
hand, and we cannot recommend its adoption.  If the leader holds the
ace of trumps he must lead it, and similarly, if the ace is turned up,
and he holds the king, he must start off with that card.  If he has two or
three trumps (of any denomination) he must lead the highest.  "Two or more
trumps, lead _one_," is the rule of some players, but unless this matter
is specially decided upon before the commencement of play the rule to lead
the _highest_ of two or three must govern the point.  In all other cases
the leader may start off with whichever card he chooses.

The play proceeds from left to right, and each player, in turn, has to
follow suit if he can; as it is his desire to secure the trick for himself
he will play as high as possible [21] if he has the power to head the
trick.  If he cannot follow suit he must play a trump if he has one,
provided his trump is higher than any previously played to the trick,
but it is not compulsory to trump a suit when it is not possible to head
the trick by doing so.  Failing the ability to head the trick, he may
discard as he chooses.  It is compulsory, however, for each player,
in turn, to head the trick if he is able to do so, and herein lies one
of the greatest differences between Loo and Nap, for in the latter game,
as we have shown, it is optional with a player whether he will head the
trick, or pass it.  The trick is won by the player who plays the highest
of the suit led, or, if trumped, the highest trump.  As winner, he has
the privilege of leading for the next trick, which is conducted on
similar lines to the first.  This applies also to the third trick, the
only stipulations being that if the player who won the first trick has a
trump he must lead it, and if he be left with two trumps he must play the
higher of the two as the lead for the second trick.  The three tricks
having been disposed of the amount in the pool is divided equitably
among the winners, while those who stood--either on their own hand or on
miss,--and did not succeed in winning a trick are looed.  If all who stood
succeeded in making one or more tricks, so that neither of the players was
looed, it becomes a single again, and the cards are dealt as already
described for that round (see p. 18).

A player infringing any of the rules, or playing in an irregular manner,
is looed, and the amount of his winnings, if any, is left in the pool.
The hands must, however, be replayed in proper order, and if then the
tricks are secured by different players, that must be considered
the result of the hand, and the losers by the proper play are looed,
even though by the first and erroneous method they secured one [22]
or more of the tricks.  Briefly, no player can he looed, or secure any
part of the pool through the irregularity of either of the other players.
In any case the player who transgressed the law does not win anything.
If his cards secure one or all of the tricks the amount of his winnings is
left in the pool for the next deal, and he is looed.  This does not apply
to penalties for looking at the hands, or declaring out of turn, or making
a misdeal.  In those cases the offending player pays the penalty into the
pool for the current deal, and stands an equal chance with the others in
fighting for the tricks.  The cards as played are left in front of the
players, not being turned or otherwise interfered with until the
completion of the three tricks, when, as already described,
they are gathered up for the next round.

We will now proceed to consider the various points of the game not touched
upon in the description already given.


_STAKES_.


For the reason already mentioned the stakes should be so arranged that the
amount in the pool can always be divided by three.  Thus, supposing that
three counters, or coins, are fixed as the amount for the deal, and six
for a loo, there cannot possibly be any surplus after the division among
the winners of the three tricks, no matter how many may have paid in.
If, however, the pool consists of such an amount as to render equal
division impossible, the division is made as nearly equal as can be,
and the winners of the first and second tricks have the preference.

It is not necessary that the loo should be twice the amount of the deal,
indeed any sum may be fixed for either the one or the other, and it is not
unusual when the [23] deal is settled at 1½_d_. for the loo to be 6_d_.,
or when the one is 6_d_. for the other to be 2_s_. 6_d_., and so on.
Another method is to make the stake for a loo unlimited, and yet another
to make it somewhat of a combination, unlimited up to a certain amount
(_see_ Variations), but the more general course is to have a definite price
fixed (_a_) for the deal, (_b_) for an ordinary loo, and (_c_) for a single
loo, which latter is generally half the amount of the full loo.


Before commencing play in the game, it is desirable to settle
whether Club Law (_see_ Variations) is to be enforced, and whether
any alteration is to be made in the law compelling the holder of
two or more trumps to lead the _highest_ on the original lead.
The modification of this rule is "two or more trumps lead _one_."


_DEALING_.


The deal is settled in the same way as already described in connection
with Nap, and the cards having been shuffled and cut, the single is dealt,
as described on page 18.  In other rounds the dealer must distribute the
cards to the players one card at a time, in regular order from left to
right, and must deal to the spare hand, or miss immediately after dealing
his own card each time.  With some players deviation is permitted,
the dealer being allowed to distribute the cards in any order he likes,
and either singly or three at a time; or the miss is left until last,
when the three cards for the spare hand are dealt at once.  These
departures are not desirable, and we strongly recommend the enforcement of
the rule compelling the regular distribution of cards, as herein set out.

In the event of a misdeal, an irregular distribution of the cards, or the
exposure of a card during the dealing, the dealer is looed--the amount
of the loo in this, and most [24] other cases of penalty prior to the
commencement of the playing of the cards being the same as settled for a
single loo--and he immediately places the amount in the pool.  The whole
pack is collected, re-shuffled, and dealt again by the same player, and
the game proceeds.

Any player interfering with the cards during the deal is looed, but the
cards are not re-dealt, unless they have been mixed, or a card has been
exposed.


_DECLARING_.


The cards having been dealt, and the trump card turned up, the player on
the left of the dealer has the right to look at his cards, and declares his
intention to stand, throw up, or take miss.  He having decided, the player
on his left does the same, and so on all round.  Any player looking at his
cards before it is his turn to do so, or declaring out of turn, or looking
at the miss without taking it, or looking at either of the thrown up cards,
or at any part of the undealt portion of the pack, is looed a single, and
pays the penalty into the pool at once, but he is not debarred by any of
these irregularities--except when he looks at either of the opponent's
hands--from taking part in the play of that deal.  If he looks at the cards
of any other player he is looed the full loo, and must throw up his own
cards, unexposed, unless he has already declared to stand, or has taken the
miss, in which case he has to play to the tricks, having first paid his loo
into the pool; in the event of his cards securing either of the tricks the
amount won is left in the pool for the next deal.

No player may make a second declaration, or alter one once made, and a
player who decides to stand, or who takes the miss, must play his cards
with the others interested in [25] the stakes; he not being permitted to
stand out, lest his doing so should affect the others' play.


_PLAYING THE HANDS_.


The players having decided whether they will stand or not, the leader
plays his card.  If he holds ace, or with ace turned up holds king,
and fails to lead it, he is looed; similarly, with two or more trumps if
he fails to lead the highest he is looed.  Any player neglecting to follow
the suit led, when he is able to do so; or omitting to trump a suit,
when by so doing he can head the trick, is likewise looed; as also is any
one playing out of turn, or exposing or mentioning the value of his own,
or opponent's unplayed cards, or of either of those in the miss, or among
the undealt portion of the pack.

If the winner of the first trick remains with a trump, and fails to lead
it; or having two trumps left fails to lead the highest, he is looed.

In all these cases the penalty is the amount of a full loo, and it is
added to the pool for the _next_ deal.  The cards must he replayed in
proper order, and if the player who transgressed wins either of the tricks
his winnings must be left in the pool for the next deal.



VARIATIONS.


As mentioned in the case of Nap, any divergence from the plain game must
be carefully settled by the company before play is commenced, and failing
any special agreement it is understood that the rules of the simple game
are to be adhered to.


[26]

_CLUB LAW_.


This is the most common variation, and its object is to force a number of
loos, especially when a large number of players are engaged in the game.
When it is adopted, all the players have to stand on their own cards,
whenever the card turned up for trump proves to be a club.  In that case
the miss is withdrawn, and is added to the undealt portion of the pack
without being exposed.


_UNLIMITED LOO_.


In this variation the penalty to be paid for a loo varies with the amount
in the pool, and becomes the same as the total stakes of the previous
deal.  By the adoption of this variation a considerable sum may be lost
in a very few minutes, and, in consequence, it is not often played outside
the regular gambling clubs.  Of course the amount goes on increasing by
rapid strides until a single occurs, when a fresh start is made with only
the stake of the dealer to fight for.  At unlimited loo the amount payable
for the deal remains unaltered, no matter how much was in the pool the
previous round.


_MIXED LOO_.


This is played on the same lines as the unlimited variation, except that
a limit is fixed, beyond which the loo does not go.  For instance, suppose
the original stakes to be 3_d_. for a deal, and 6_d_. for a loo--limited to
2_s_. 6_d_., a player would be looed the amount in the pool, up to the
limit, but if the amount exceeded the 2_s_. 6_d_., he would not be called
upon for a larger sum.


[27]

_FIVE-CARD LOO_.


This is the old-fashioned game, and we may go back to old books for a
description of it.  It is said to be a much more amusing game than
three-card loo for a company not inclined to play for high stakes,
but is not suitable for more than six players, even if five should not be
regarded as the limit.  Each of those engaged in the game has five cards
dealt him, either first three, and then two, or one at a time, the latter
method being by far the best, and the following card is turned up for
trump.  There is no miss, but each player has the liberty of changing,
for others from the pack, all or any of the five cards dealt him, or of
throwing up the hand altogether.  If he decides to change any of his
cards, the player, whose turn it is to declare, places the cards he wishes
exchanged, face downwards, on the table, and the dealer gives him a like
number from the top of the pack.  No second exchange is allowable,
nor can a card once put out be taken back into the hand; neither may a
player who makes an exchange afterwards throw up his cards; he must play
them out.  The knave of clubs generally, or sometimes the knave of the
trump suit, as agreed upon, is the highest card, and is styled _Pam;_
the ace of trumps is next in value, and the rest in succession,
as in the three card variation, where the cards rank in the ordinary way:
ace, king, queen, knave, ten, nine, etc., down to the two.  Those who play
their cards, either with or without changing, and do not gain a trick,
are looed.  When a flush occurs, that is, five cards of the same suit,
or four cards of a suit with Pam, the holder of the flush--who does not
declare it until all the players have settled whether they will stand or
not--besides taking the amount in the pool, [28] receives from each of the
players, whether they stood or not, the amount of a loo, and the next deal
becomes a single, there being no payments to the pool, beyond the dealer's
fee.  A flush in trumps is superior to a flush in any other suit, but if
there is more than one flush--neither of which is of the trump suit--then
the flush which includes Pam wins, or if neither contains that card then
the elder hand, that is, the player nearest the dealer's left hand, scores
the flush, and the holder of the other flush takes nothing; he, however, is
exempt from the loo, which is payable by the other players.  When the ace
of trumps is led it is usual for the player of it to say, "Pam, be civil,"
in which case the holder of Pam must pass the trick, if he can do so
without revoking; but if he has no trump he may win the trick with Pam.


_IRISH LOO_.


This is virtually the same as the five-card variety, except that three
cards only are dealt to each player, and Pam is unknown.


_THIRTY-TWO CARD PACKS_.


As described in connection with Nap, Piquet or Bézique cards may be used
for Loo, but in that case the number of players must, of necessity,
be more limited, only 32 cards being available.  In all other respects the
rules applicable to the full packs apply.



[29]

_HINTS TO PLAYERS_.

_I_.--_Declaring_.


In deciding whether to stand on one's own cards, or whether to take the
miss, the amount in the pool is a matter for special consideration.
With a heavy stake to fight for, a player will run greater risks than
when a small amount is available.  Therefore, the first question to
decide should be the amount per trick in the pool, as compared with the
amount to be paid if one is looed.

It is unwise to stand on any hand that does not contain a trump; but if
the cards are very high ones, and the amount in the pool warrants it,
the risk may be taken.

With very few exceptions a player should stand on two trumps,
however small, but the first player should have a tolerably high card,
in addition to two small trumps, other wise the hand is a risky one.

An honour in trumps and high cards in other suits are generally safe,
especially for the player who has to lead; indeed, the first player may
stand on almost any single trump, if his other cards are high ones of
different suits--queens at least.

King of trumps with small cards in other suits is generally safe,
although cautious players throw up such a hand.  Very much depends on
the amount in the pool, although we should not reject such cards under
any conditions.

Queen or knave of trumps with small cards of other suits are matters
which must be left to individual opinion--based on the number of players
and the stake to be played for.  They are undoubtedly risky hands, but
if one only stands on certainties half the amusement and all the
excitement vanishes.

After a few rounds have been played, a fair opinion can [30] be formed as
to what cards are likely to make a trick, and if the sum in the pool is
considerable, risky cards may be kept, or the miss taken at an early stage,
although it must not be overlooked that the other players will likewise
stand on risky hands, and, as a consequence, there will be more
competition, with fewer chances of securing a trick.

The first hand should seldom take the miss, nor should either of the other
players if each of those in front of him has decided to stand on his own
cards, as it may be assumed that in such cases there is strength.  With
five playing, two of whom have thrown up, miss may be taken, but with three
players standing on their own cards, miss should not be attempted.


_II_.--_Playing_.


The laws of the game define what shall be led with two or three trumps,
or with ace only (or king only, if ace is turned up), and therefore the
only hints necessary are when the leader has but one trump.

With one trump and high cards of other suits, the trump should be led if
several players remain in, but if only two or three are standing,
either of the others should be led, the higher of the two for
preference.

With one high trump and small other cards, we prefer leading the
smallest, relying on the second and third tricks for opportunities of
making our single trump.



[31]

POKER.


_DESCRIPTION_.

The game of Poker is played with an ordinary pack of fifty-two cards.

The number of players is limited only by the number of cards,
but in practice it is found better to limit each table to five,
or at most six, players.

The cards have the same values as at Whist, _i.e._ ace is the highest
in each suit; then follow king, queen, knave, ten, etc., down to two.

In "sequences," however, the ace is the lowest card, and the king the
highest.

The suit of hearts, _ceteris paribus_, takes precedence of other suits.

Before beginning play, it is customary and advisable to agree upon a
sum (technically called the "limit" or "rise") which shall be the maximum
stake permitted to be made by a player at one time; or, in other words,
which shall be the greatest sum by which he may increase the stake at
any one time.

The "limit," of course, does not refer to the total amount of a player's
stakes, and it is understood that a player may stake _less_ than the limit
at any time, but not _more_.

After being seated, the players cut for the deal, and the player who
cuts the lowest card deals first.  If two or more players cut equal
lowest cards, these players must cut again for the deal.

[32]

The duty of dealing in each game after the first, devolves upon the
player to the left of the previous dealer.

Before beginning play, every player has a right to shuffle the pack;
the dealer has a right to the last shuffle.  After being shuffled,
the pack must be cut by the player to the right of the dealer.

The player to the left of the dealer then stakes a certain fixed sum
(generally small in comparison with the limit) which is called the "ante."
This initial stake must in every game be laid by the player to the left
of the dealer, before the cards are dealt.  He is, in fact, identified
with this initial stake, and is known as "ante" throughout the game.

After "ante" has staked, the player to his left, who is called No. 1,
has the option of "straddling," _i.e._ of staking a sum double that of
the ante.  If No. 1 does not straddle the ante, no other player may do so,
and the dealer proceeds to deal the cards.

If No. 1 straddle the ante, the player to his left has the same option, and
may increase the straddle by the amount of the ante.  This may go on round
the table, each player in turn having the right to increase the straddle
before the deal; but the ante may not be increased by any straddle,
or by successive straddles, to an amount exceeding one-half of the limit.

To illustrate this, let us suppose the limit be two shillings and the
ante be one penny.  This latter sum is staked (_i.e._ placed in the
middle of the table before him) by the player on the left of the dealer.
No. 1 then has the right to straddle the ante, and he may stake two pence.
No. 2 then has the same option, and may, if he wish, increase the straddle
by one penny.  When the sum staked in this way by successive players
reaches one shilling (half the limit), the straddling must cease,
and the cards must be dealt.  [33] It should be fully understood that if
No. 1 does not exercise his right to straddle, no other player may do so.

The dealer, beginning with the player at his left hand, then deals one
card, face downwards, to each player (himself included) in succession,
until every player has received five cards.¹ He then places the remainder
of the pack before him on the table, face downwards.  After the cards
have been dealt the betting before the draw begins.

   ¹ These five cards constitute the "hand," and in no case may
     a player have a greater or less number of cards than five.

_If the ante has not been straddled_, the player to the left of ante
has the "say," and may begin the betting before the draw.

He looks at his cards, and may either--


(a) Reject them, and elect not to play.

(b) Accept them, and so "open the game."

If (a) he reject his cards, he throws them, face downwards, on the table,
and is out of the game until the next deal.

If (b) he accept his cards, he must stake a sum at least twice the amount
of ante.  He may, of course, increase the ante by any sum not exceeding the
limit; but it is not usual or advisable to do more than double the ante.

No. 2, who is the player on the left of No. 1, has now the same option.
He looks at his cards, and may reject them without staking (throwing them,
in this case, face downwards, on the table), or he may accept them and
elect to take part in the game.  In this latter case he must stake a sum
equal to that staked by his predecessor, or he may increase this sum by
an amount not exceeding the limit.

Each succeeding player, including and ending with the [34] dealer, has,
in his turn, the same privilege.  He must either reject his cards and
not play until the next deal, or accept them and stake a sum at least
equal to that staked by his predecessor.

It is not advisable for any player to increase the stake on this first
round, since to do so would probably cause succeeding players with moderate
hands to reject their cards and not stake.  The dealer or last player
frequently, however, raises the stake with the object of inducing ante,
who may hold a weak hand, to relinquish his initial stake.

Ante is the last to look at his cards, or in other words, has the last say.

If he pass, _i.e._ elect not to play, he throws his cards, face
downwards, on the table, and retires from the game until the next deal,
losing his original stake.  If he accept his cards and elect to play,
he must make his stake at least equal to that of the player on his right.

_If the ante has been straddled_, the player to the left of the straddler
(or of the last straddler, if there be more than one) has the say,
_i.e._ has the option of beginning the betting before the draw.
He may, after looking at his cards, either

(a) Throw them, face downwards, on the table, and elect not to play.

(b) Accept them and "open the game."

If he open the game, he must stake a sum at least equal to double the
ante and straddles together, and he may also, if he choose, stake a
further sum not exceeding the limit.  Whichever he elect to do, the say
afterwards passes to the player at his left hand, who has a similar option;
and so on round the table.  The last straddler has thus the last say.

Beginning with ante, or with the first player on the left of the dealer,
each player may then exchange all or any number of the cards he holds for
others from the remainder [35] of the pack.  He must first throw on the
table, face downwards, the number of cards he wishes to exchange (this is
called "discarding"), and the dealer then gives him an equal number from
the top of the pack.  Before exchanging any of his cards, however, each
player must make his stake equal to that of ante, or of the last player.

It is not compulsory for a player to exchange all or any of his cards;
but he must exercise or relinquish the privilege of doing so when his
turn comes, once for all; and he cannot afterwards modify his choice,
nor take back any card or cards he may have discarded.

Whether he exchange any of his cards, or whether he retains the hand first
dealt out to him, each player must make his stake equal to that of ante,
or of the last player, so that when all players have been supplied with,
or refused, new cards, the stakes are all equal, and are all placed in
the pool.


To give a practical illustration of this process, let us suppose that there
are five players taking part in the game, that the ante is fixed at
threepence, and the limit at a shilling.  The players cut for deal, and the
deal falls to _A_.


 (No. 1) C /¯¯¯¯\ D (No. 2)
          (      )
  (Ante) B \____/ E (No. 3)
             A
          (Dealer)


_B_ then is ante, _C_ No. 1, etc.

_B_ (ante) stakes threepence.

[36]

_C_, who has the right to straddle the ante does not do so, so no other
player may.

_A_ then deals five rounds of one card each to each player, beginning
with _B_, and then puts the remainder of the pack on the table.

_C_ (No. 1) then looks at his cards, elects to play, and stakes
sixpence (double ante's stake).

_D_ (No. 2) looks at his cards, rejects them, throwing them face
downwards on the table, and retiring from the game until the next deal.

_E_ (No. 3) looks at his cards, elects to play, and stakes sixpence.

_A_ (dealer) looks at his cards, elects to play, and stakes one shilling
and sixpence (he must stake sixpence, but he raises the stakes by the
maximum amount allowed).

_B_ (ante) looks at his cards, elects to play, and stakes one shilling
and threepence, making his stake equal to _A's_.  _B_ then discards two
of his cards, places them face downwards on the table, and receives from
_A_ two in their place.

_C_ (No. 1) adds a shilling to his stake, making it equal to _A's_ and
_B's_, and throws down all his cards, receiving five new ones in their
place.

_E_ (No. 3), rather than increase his stake to one shilling and sixpence,
relinquishes his hand, throwing down his cards, and losing the sixpence
he has already staked.

_A_ (dealer), who has already staked one shilling and sixpence, throws
down one card and takes another in its place from the top of the pack.

There are now three players, _A_, _B_, and _C_, each of whom has staked one
shilling and sixpence on his hand, and there is a sum of five shillings,
including _E's_ first stake in the pool.

No. 1 then begins play by betting a sum not exceeding [37] the limit.
He may, if he choose, "stand," decline to bet until the next round, or he
may throw his cards face downwards on the table and retire from the game,
losing the money he has already staked.  The turn then passes to No. 2.
Let us suppose, in the first place, that he does bet.

The next player on his left must then--

(_a_) Make his stake equal to that of No. 1, in which case he is said
to "call" No. 1, and he has the right to see No. 1's hand when the game
is over, or--

(_b_) Make his stake greater than that of No. 1 by a sum not exceeding
the limit, in which case he is said to "raise" No. 1; or--

(_c_) Resign the game, place his cards face downwards on the table,
and lose the sum he has already staked.

Each player in succession has a similar choice.  He must--

(_a_) Call the preceding player; or

(_b_) Raise the preceding player; or

(_c_) Resign his stake and the game.

If No. 1 had "stood," _i.e._ not bet when it was first his turn to play,
he would have to do so when the turn came round to him again,
or else relinquish his cards and his stake.

When all the stakes are equal, each player throws his cards face upwards
on the table, and the player with the best hand takes the pool and all
the stakes.

It will be seen thus that there is no play of the cards in Poker, as
in most other card games.  The best hand exposed wins the game and takes
the stakes; and the play of the game consists in estimating the probable
value of the opponents' hands as compared with the player's own hand.

[38]

To resume our illustration (page 36).

_C_ begins play by betting sixpence.

_A_ also bets sixpence, making his stake equal to _C's_, and by doing
so is said to call _C_.

_B_ bets one shilling and sixpence, _i.e._ raises _C_ a shilling.
He makes his stake equal to _C's_ and _A's_, and has exercised his
right to increase it by a sum not exceeding the limit.

_C_, whose turn it now is again, adds two shillings to his stake,
raising _B_ a shilling.

_A_ will not stake more, so relinquishes the game and his stake,
placing his cards face downwards on the table.

_B_ adds one shilling to his stake, making it equal to _C's_,
and _C_ is therefore compelled to show his hand.  It happens to be
better than _B's_, so _C_ claims _B's_ stake (two shillings and sixpence)
and the pool (five shillings and sixpence); and the game is over.


_VALUE OF THE_ "_HANDS_."


The "hands" at Poker are as follows, in order of value:--


No. 1. _Sequence Flush_, or _Straight Flush_.--A sequence of five cards
of the same suit.  In sequences the ace is the lowest card, and therefore
ace to five is the lowest possible sequence.  Nine to king is the highest
possible sequence, and if a "flush," _i.e._ all the cards of the same
suit, is the best possible hand in Poker.


No. 2. _Fours_, or _Four of a kind_.--Four cards of equal value, and one
other card of no value.  Four aces take precedence, then four kings, etc.


No. 3. _Full Hand_.--Three cards of equal value, and two [39] cards of
equal value (for instance, three queens and two aces).  The relative values
of two or more "full hands" are fixed by the threes they contain, the
highest three taking precedence, without regard to the value of the other
two cards.  Thus, a "full hand" consisting of three tens and two fours,
is better than a "full hand" consisting of three nines and two kings.


No. 4. _Flush_.--Five cards of one suit.  The relative values of two
or more "flush" hands depend upon the value of the cards they comprise,
--the highest card taking precedence.


No. 5. _Sequence_, or _Straight_.--A sequence in value of cards,
not being all of one suit.  Nine to king is the highest sequence,
and wins, of course, against any lower sequence.


No. 6. _Triplets_, or _Threes_.--Three cards of the same value,
and two other cards which are of no value.  Three aces are highest,
then three kings, three queens, etc.


No. 7. _Two Pairs_.--Two sets of two cards each, of equal value (_i.e._
2 knaves and 2 fours for instance), and one card of no value.  The relative
values of two or more "two pair" hands is decided by the highest pair.  If
two hands have equally high pairs, the value is decided by the second pair.


No. 8. _A Pair_.--Two cards of equal value, and three of no value.
Two aces are the highest pair.

If, when the cards are exposed after a game, no player holds any of the
foregoing "hands," the player whose hand contains the card highest in value
wins the stakes.  If two or more players hold cards equally high in value,
the player who holds the next highest card wins.


[40]

_THE JACK-POT_.


If all the players reject their cards, declining to play, ante's stake
remains in the pool; and the deal passes to him.  Before he deals, however,
he and every other player must put into the pool a sum equal to the ante.
The next hand is called a Jack-pot, and the game cannot be opened by any
player unless he has at least a pair of knaves in his hand.  Any better
hand entitles him to open the game of course, but he must have at least
two knaves.  If there be no players in a Jack-pot, the stakes still remain
in the pool, every player again puts in a sum equal to the ante, and the
deal passes on as before.  In this second Jack-pot, however, two queens
is the lowest hand with which the game may be opened.  If there are again
no players, the pool is again replenished, and the next game cannot be
opened with anything less than two kings; then the Jack-pot comes down to
two knaves again, and continues the same series of minimum hands--2 knaves,
2 queens, 2 kings--until the game is opened by a player holding the
requisite or a better hand.  A Jack-pot having been opened, the winner
takes the accumulated pool, and the succeeding game reverts to the ordinary
conditions, _i.e._ may be opened by any player in his turn and without
reference to his hand.  If a player open a Jack-pot, and all the other
players pass, he must, before he can claim the pool, show, by laying
his cards face upwards on the table, that he really does possess the
minimum hand necessary to open the game with.  If he have the minimum hand,
or better, he takes the pool; but if he have not, the next game is a
Jack-pot, just as if the previous game had not been opened, and the
player who opened the game improperly must pay a sum double that of
the ante into the pool as a penalty.


[41]

_MODIFICATIONS_.


Modifications of the game have been from time to time introduced,
but few have any claim to permanence or popularity.  The best known in
this country are the Blaze and the Joker.

_The Blaze_ is an additional hand which consists of five court cards.
It takes precedence of two pairs, but is beaten by triplets.
The relative values of two or more blaze hands are fixed by the
highest card, a hand containing ace or aces being best.

_The Joker_ is an additional card, sometimes included in the pack, and to
which any value may be given by the player holding it.  If for instance,
a player hold king, queen, knave, and ten of hearts, and the joker,
he may call the joker ace of hearts, and so claim a sequence flush.
The joker is a higher card, moreover, than the actual card whose name
it takes, _i.e._ a joker which is called the king of spades is better
than the real king of spades.


_TECHNICAL TERMS_.


For convenience of reference we annex explanations of the few technical
terms used in Poker.

_Age_.--The eldest hand, _i.e._ the player to the left of the dealer.
Generally called the ante-man or "ante."

_Ante_.--The first stake in the game.  It must be made before
the cards have been dealt, by the player on the left of the dealer.
It is the only compulsory stake, and for this reason the amount is fixed,
and is generally small.  It must not exceed one half the limit.

The player to the left of the dealer is identified with his stake,
and is familiarly called ante.

[42]

_Bluff_.--To stake an unwarrantable sum on a weak hand for the purpose
of inducing the other players to relinquish their stakes rather than
continue betting.  To pretend to have a good hand.

_Blaze_.--A hand consisting of five court cards (see p. 41).

_Chips_.--Counters.  An American term, little used by English players.
_To chip_ means to stake chips, to bet.

_Call_.--To call the preceding player is to stake an amount equal to
his stake (see p. 37).

_Discard_.--To throw away cards so as to receive others in exchange
for them (see p. 35).

_Draw_.--To receive cards from the dealer in exchange for an equal
number discarded.

_Eldest Hand_.--The player to the left of the dealer.  See _Ante_.

_Foul Hand_.--A hand containing more or less than five cards.
Such hand must be relinquished, and the owner must retire from that game,
losing any sum he may have staked.

_Go Better_.--See _Raise_.

_Go in_.--To stake a sum equal to double the ante and any straddles or
raises which may have been added to it, in order to qualify for drawing
and playing for the pool.

_Hand_.--The five cards held by any player.

_Jack-pot_.--The game which follows an unopened game, _i.e._ which
follows a game in which every player had rejected his cards (see p. 40).

_Joker_.--An extra card, to which any value may be assigned by the
player holding it (see p. 41).

_Kitty_.--A portion of the stakes set aside in every game, either to defray
the expenses of the table, or as a reward for some specially good hand.

_Limit_.--The maximum amount by which stakes may be [43] increased
at one time.  The limit, which has a tendency to prevent wild and
unreasonable betting, is generally fixed before play begins.

_Make Good_.--To make good is really the same as to call, but a player
may make good his previous bet, _i.e._ may make it equal to that of
the previous player, and may afterwards raise.

_No_. 1.--The player to the left of ante--the next player is No. 2,
and so on round to the dealer.

_Pass_.--To give up the game.  To throw the cards, face downwards,
on the table, and cease playing until the next deal.  The player who
passes loses any sum he may have staked.

_Pat_.--A term used in reference to the hand originally dealt to each
player in a game.  To play pat is to bet on the hand originally dealt,
without drawing.  A pat hand is a hand of high value, which has been
dealt to the player, a hand which he cannot hope to improve by drawing.

_Player_.--This is not strictly a technical term, but the tyro should
note that the persons seated at the table are not necessarily all players.
One or more may retire from the game, and on doing so forfeit all their
interest, and cease to be players in that game.  There are seldom more
than two or three players remaining at the end of a game.

_Pool_.--The whole of the stakes in a game.

_Pot_.--The pool.

_Raise_.--To raise the preceding player is to stake a sum in excess of
that staked by him.

_Rise_.--See _Limit_.

_Say_.--The option, which comes to each player in turn, of playing,
and therefore betting, or of passing, _i.e._ throwing down his cards
and resigning the game.

_See_.--To see or call your opponent is to make your [44] stake equal
to his.  If the stake be not then raised by succeeding players,
every hand must be exposed (see p. 37).

_Show_.--The exposure of a hand or hands at the end of the game.

_Skip Straight or Skip Sequence_.--A sequence of alternate cards--two,
four, six, eight, ten, for instance.  This hand is sometimes introduced,
and takes precedence of _triplets_.  It is beaten by an ordinary sequence.

_Straddle_.--To raise the ante.  To double the initial stake made by
ante in every game before the cards are dealt.  Straddling the ante
gives the straddler (or the last straddler, if there be more than one)
the advantage of the last say before the draw.

_Straight_.--A sequence, a series of five cards in regular order
(see p. 38).


_THE STAKES_.


As before stated, the ante and limit should be fixed before play begins,
and once fixed should not be altered in any circumstances.  Players who
have lost sometimes apply to have the limit raised.  This should be
refused.

The ante should be a small sum, the smaller the better.  It must not exceed
half the limit, and for general play a much lower proportion is desirable.
If the limit be one shilling, the ante may be fixed at one penny.

Counters are desirable for play in all cases; they are in every
way more convenient, and avoid the constant trouble of giving change.
They should be circular in form, and all of one size, but of three values,
represented by different colours:--

1, say Red; the value of ante.

2, say White; treble the value of ante.

3, say Blue; the value of the limit.  [45]
The counters should be sold to each player before the game begins,
and be bought back at the same rate after play.


_HINTS TO PLAYERS_.


A few words of advice to the tyro may not, in conclusion, be out of place.
They will not make him into a good player--practice and experience alone
can do that,--but they may prevent him paying for his experience more
than is necessary:--

Do not play with folk you do not know.

Never play with a man you cannot implicitly trust.  The game needs all
your attention, and it becomes a toil instead of a pleasure if you have
to be on the watch for unfair play.

Never play for a stake you are not prepared to lose.

Fix a limit to your losses and cease play at once when they reach it.
The temptation to continue is greater when losing than when winning.

Fix a time to cease play--and keep to it.

Perfect self-control is, it is needless to say, essential to
successful play.

The man whose losses make him ill-tempered, must not play at all.
He certainly cannot win, since loss of temper involves loss of judgment.
A game like Poker, which it must be confessed is not calculated to rouse
the finer feelings of humanity, is only tolerable when played under the
severest self-imposed restraint.

Avoid playing, moreover, with an opponent who cannot keep his temper.
You will beat him, no doubt, but anger is infectious, and, unless you
are blessed with extraordinary self-command, the risk of catching it
is too great.

Neither voice, manner, nor features should give the [46] slightest clue
to your hand.  One or other will do so at first inevitably, and all will
need a constant effort to control.  The perfect Poker player sits like
an automaton, and his face is a mask.

Study your opponents, their features and manner, in success and failure.
To an accurate observer they will generally betray themselves.
An American authority says, "the study of my adversaries is,
of more value than the study of my cards."

Bluffing is at best a very dangerous game, seldom worth the risk, and it
involves, even for its occasional success, a very just estimate of your
opponents.  Remember that you cannot bluff even a tyro out of "fours."

If you do bluff, bluff when you are winning, and have established a fear
of your hands in the minds of your opponents.

To bluff when losing is insanity.

In actual play there are few maxims which hold good for all cases.
All depends on what is termed luck, and nearly every Poker player
recognises luck, whatever that may be, as an important factor in the
game--one they often allow to override calculable chances.  Some players
seem to have almost persistent good luck, and win with comparatively
poor hands.  Others are just as unlucky, losing with high cards.

With a pair, if you decide to play, discard the remaining three cards.
You have then three chances of triplets.

With triplets discard one, your chance of getting fours is remote, and you
leave your opponents in doubt as to whether you are not trying for a flush.

With triplets you may generally risk _seeing_ your opponent.

Never try for the completing card of a sequence.  If, for instance,
you have 3, 4, 6, 7 and king, do not play--[47] discarding the king on
the chance of receiving a 5.  Throw up your hand.  With a sequence you
may generally wait till your opponents think fit to see you.

With fours, discard the odd card, in order to mislead your opponents.
This hand, or anything better, so seldom comes to a player, that he is
justified in staking as much as possible upon it.

Be content to pass sometimes with the better hand.  The best players do so,
since it costs less than the habit of calling.

Neither borrow nor lend a penny at the table.

_RULES OF THE GAME_.

_The Deal_.

1. The cards shall be the ordinary pack of fifty-two cards.

2. The players, after being seated, shall each draw a card from the pack,
face downwards, and the player drawing the card lowest in value (ace being
lowest), shall deal in the first game.  If two or more players draw cards
of equal value, such cards being the lowest, such players only shall draw
again for the deal.

3. Any player may demand to shuffle the cards, but the dealer shall have
a right to the last shuffle before the cards are cut.

4. The pack shall be shuffled by the dealer, and cut by the player on
the right of the dealer, before every deal.

5. The cards shall be shuffled, face downwards, above the table.

6. The cards shall be dealt, face downwards, so that their faces cannot
be seen; and they must be placed by the dealer on the table in front of
the players to whom they are severally dealt.

[48]

7. The dealer shall give one card from the top of the pack to each player
in turn from right to left, beginning with the player at his left hand,
and in this order shall give to each player five cards.

8. If the cards be dealt without the pack having been cut, and if the fact
be pointed out to the dealer before the deal is finished, it is a misdeal,
and there shall be a new deal by the same dealer.

9. If the fact that the cards have been dealt without the pack having
been cut for such deal be not pointed out to the dealer before such deal
is finished, the deal shall stand.

10. If a card be found face upwards in the pack before the deal is
finished, it is a misdeal, and there shall be a new deal by the same
dealer.

11. If the dealer, while dealing, accidentally expose a card, such card
shall be accepted by the player to whom it is dealt, as though it had not
been exposed, and the dealer shall not, nor shall any player, exchange
such exposed card for another, except in the regular course of discarding
after the deal is completed.

12. If any player have more or less than five cards dealt to him,
and if such player, or any player, announce the fact before the cards
are raised from the table, it is a misdeal, and there shall be a new
deal by the same dealer.

13. If any player have more or less than five cards dealt to him, and if
the fact be not announced before any portion of the hand is raised from the
table, such hand is a foul hand, and the player to whom it is dealt shall
place his cards, face downwards, on the table, and retire from the game,
and shall forfeit his stake in that game.

14. If a player be compelled to retire from the game in consequence of
having a foul hand dealt to him, his stake, [49] if he has staked, shall
remain in the pool, and the dealer shall refund such player the amount of
his ante or straddle only in that game.

15. No player shall speak to the dealer while the cards are being dealt..

16. If any player speak to the dealer, or distract him by noise or
gesture, while the cards are being dealt, such player, and not the
dealer, shall refund, as provided by Rule 14, the ante or straddle of
any player to whom a foul hand is dealt in that deal.

17. The deal shall be finished when every player has received five cards.

18. The duty of dealing shall devolve upon each player in turn,
from right to left; the player to the left of the last dealer shall be
the dealer in the next game.  If the dealer in a game pass and retire,
he shall continue his duty as dealer in that game.


_The Ante_.


19. The ante shall not exceed one-half the amount of the limit.

20. The ante shall be staked by the player to the left of the dealer
before the cards are dealt.

21. The right to straddle shall belong to the player to the left of ante.
If he does not straddle, no other player shall, do so; but if he does
straddle, the succeeding players shall have, in turn from right to left,
and ending with the dealer, the right to increase the straddle in every
case by the amount of the ante.

22. The ante shall not be straddled by a player, or by successive players,
to an amount exceeding one-half the limit.

23. If the ante be not straddled, the player to the left of [50] ante
shall have first say after the deal, and ante shall have the last say.

24. If the ante be straddled, the player to the left of the straddler
(or of the last straddler, if there be more than one) shall have first
say after the deal, and the last straddler shall have the last say.


_The Play_.


25. The turn to say shall pads from right to left, and the player who
has first say after the deal shall, if he open the game, stake a sum
at least double the amount of ante.

26. Each succeeding player shall, if he play, at least make good his
stake to that of the preceding player.

27. If a player pass, he shall place his cards, face downwards, on
the table, and shall not again take them into his hand, and he shall
forfeit unconditionally his stake and his right to play in that game.

28. A player who retires from the game shall not divulge the cards nor
the value of the hand he has thrown down.


_The Jack-pot_.


29. If the game be not opened by any player, the ante and straddles,
if any, shall remain in the pool, and the next game shall be a Jack-pot.

30. In a Jack-pot every player shall pay into the pool a sum equal to
the ante, and the game shall not be opened by any player unless he have
two knaves, or better, in his original hand.

31. If a Jack-pot be not opened by any player, each player shall again
pay into the pool a sum equal to the ante, and the next game shall be a
Jack-pot, and shall not be opened by any player unless he have two queens,
or better, in his original hand.

[51]

32. A third successive Jack-pot shall not be opened with less than two
kings, and for successive Jack-pots the series of two knaves, two queens,
two kings shall be maintained as the minimum hands with which the games may
severally be opened.

33. If a player open a Jack-pot and win the stakes, he shall show his hand
(notwithstanding any law which in ordinary circumstances permits him to
keep it concealed) before he shall claim the pool; and if he have not two
knaves, or the minimum hand with which the game may be opened according to
the above laws, or a better hand, he shall not claim the pool, and he shall
pay into the pool, as penalty, a sum equal to double the ante, and the
next game shall be a Jack-pot as if the previous game had not been opened.


_The Draw_.


34. The first player to the left of the dealer shall have first draw.

35. The turn to draw shall pass from right to left.

36. Before drawing any card or cards, a player shall make his stake equal
to the highest stake on the table, and he shall discard as many cards, and
no more, as he intends to draw.

37. Cards discarded shall be placed on the table, face downwards, and shall
not again be taken into the hand of the player discarding them.

38. If a player, when it is his turn to draw, do not discard or have not
discarded, he shall forfeit his right to discard and draw in that game.

39. Each player, after discarding, shall ask for the same number of cards
he has discarded, and the dealer shall place on the table, in front of such
player, such number of cards, face downwards, from the top of the pack.

[52]

40. If the dealer, in giving to any player the number of cards demanded
after the discard, expose a card or cards; such exposed card or cards shall
be returned to the pack, and shall not be given to the player.

41. If the dealer have not sufficient cards remaining in the pack to give
to every player the number of cards demanded after the discard, the dealer
shall call upon any player who has not discarded, but who intends to
discard, to do so, and to announce the number he discards, and the dealer
also shall discard, and the dealer (or some player for him) shall then
collect the whole of the cards discarded, and shall collect them in a pack
and shuffle them, and shall have them cut by the player at his right hand,
and shall then use them to supply the players who have discarded.

42. If the dealer give to any player more than the number of cards demanded
by such player, and such player or any player point out the excess before
any of the cards so given are raised from the table, the dealer shall take
back and return to the pack the card or cards given in excess of the number
demanded.

43. If the dealer give to any player less than the number of cards demanded
by such player, the dealer shall make good such deficiency if it be pointed
out by any player before the cards already given have been raised from the
table.

44. If a player demand a greater or less number of cards than he has
discarded, the dealer need not give him such wrong number, but may demand
to see how many cards have been discarded, and give him that number.

45. If the dealer give to a player the number of cards demanded by such
player, and such number prove to be more or less than the number of cards
discarded, the hand of such player shall be a foul hand, whether it be
raised from [53] the table or not, and such player shall retire from the
game and forfeit his stake in that game.

46. It there be a dispute between a player and the dealer, as to the
number of cards demanded, the evidence of the person at the left hand of
the dealer (whether he be playing in that game or have retired) shall be
taken as deciding the matter; and if the person at the left hand of the
dealer cannot give evidence, or if he be the player who is disputing with
the dealer, the evidence of the person to the right of the dealer shall
be taken, and shall be held conclusive, and if the person to the right
of the dealer cannot give evidence, the evidence of the first person
(beginning with the first person to the left of the disputing player,
and going in succession to each person from right to left) who can give
evidence, shall be taken as conclusive; and if no person at the table can
give evidence, the disputing player shall be held to have demanded the
proper number of cards.

47. If the dealer draw more or less than the number of cards he has
discarded, he shall be held to have demanded such improper number,
and his hand shall be a foul hand, and he shall retire from the game
and shall forfeit his state in that game.

48. If cards drawn be raised from the table, and the hand be found to
contain more or less than five cards, such hand shall be a foul hand,
and the player to whom it belongs shall retire from the game and shall
forfeit his stake in that game.

49. Any player after drawing, but before raising his hand from the table,
may ask the dealer how many cards he, the dealer, drew, and the dealer
shall answer correctly.

50. If a player raise from the table the cards he has drawn, or if he bet,
he shall forfeit his right to ask the dealer how many cards he, the dealer,
drew.

[54]

51. The dealer shall not give any information as to the number of cards
drawn by any other player.


_The Betting_.


52. All bets shall be deposited in the pool.

53. The first player to the left of the ante shall have first right to bet
after the draw, whether the ante-man have retired or not.  The turn to bet
shall pass to each player from right to left, and each player shall stake a
sum at least equal to that staked by the preceding player.

54. If, when his turn comes, any player have not staked, and does not
stake a sum at least equal to that staked by the preceding player, such
player shall place his cards, face downwards, on the table, and shall
retire from the game, and shall forfeit his stake in that game.

55. A bet once made, whether made in proper turn or not, cannot be
recalled.

56. A bet¹ is complete and irrevocable when the player making it has
deposited the amount in money or value on the table, and such deposit
shall be considered as a deposit into the pool.

   ¹ _i.e._: The bet is the actual amount deposited, and the
     player's statement that he intends or intended depositing
     another amount is of no value.

57. The statement of his intention to bet, or to refrain from betting,
shall not invalidate the right of any player to bet or pass when his
turn comes.

58. If a player bet or raise the stake of a previous player, and no
other player call or raise him, such player wins the pool, and shall
not be compelled to show his hand.

59. When the bets of all the players are equal, each player in turn,
beginning with the player to the left of the [55] last player, shall
show his hand, and the player with the best hand shall win the pool.

60. If a player's bet be raised, and such player have not funds to call
the raise, he may deposit in the pool whatever funds he has, and demand a
show for that amount.  If, when the game is over, he prove to hold the best
hand, he shall claim from the pool the amount of the ante and straddle or
straddles (if any), and also a sum equal to his stake from every player
in the game at the time of his demanding a show, out of their stakes.
The holder of the next best hand shall claim the remainder of the pool.

61. A player demanding a show for a certain sum under the above rule,
shall not stop the game if there be other players who wish to continue
the betting, and he shall not show his hand until the game is over.

62. If a player borrow money to raise, he shall borrow to call.

63. If a player bet with a foul hand, he shall lose his stake.

64. If any player be found to have a foul hand at the end of the game,
he shall forfeit his stake; and if there be only one other player, that
player shall claim the pool; and if there be more than one other player,
the holder of the best hand shall claim the pool.


_The Hands_.


65. The following shall be the hands in order of value; the first
being the highest:--1, Sequence flush; 2, Fours; 3, Full; 4, Flush;
5, Sequence not a flush; 6, Threes; 7, Two pairs; 8, A pair.

66. If there be two or more flush sequences shown, the player whose
sequence contains the highest card (ace being the lowest) shall be held to
have the best hand.

[56]

67. If there be two or more fours shown, fours being the best hand, the
player who has the four cards highest in value shall be held to have the
best hand.

68. If there be two or more full hands shown, a full hand being the best
hand, the player whose full hand contains threes highest in value shall
be held to have the best hand.

69. If there be two or more flush hands shown, a flush hand being
the best hand, a flush in hearts shall be held to be the best hand;
and if there be no flush hand in hearts, the flush hand which contains
the card highest in value, and which is not tied by a card of equal
value in another flush hand, shall be the best hand.

70. If there be two or more sequences shown, a sequence being the best
hand, the player whose sequence contains the highest card (ace being the
lowest) shall be held to be the best hand; and if there be two or more
sequences of cards of equal value, a sequence in hearts, _ceteris paribus_,
shall be the best hand.

71. The ace shall only begin a sequence; it shall not end a sequence after
a king, nor shall it be an intermediate card between a king and a two.¹

   ¹ This law, and the others which are involved in it, has
     only the authority of custom in this country.  Some American
     writers permit of the ace being used at the beginning or
     end of a sequence, making ten to ace the highest sequence.

72. If there be two or more threes shown, threes being the best hand, the
hand containing the threes highest in value shall be the best hand.

73. If there be two or more two-pairs shown, two-pairs being the best hand,
the hand containing the pair highest in value shall be the best hand; and
if two two-pair hands contain pairs equally high in value, such pairs being
the [57] highest, the value of the other pair shall decide which is the
better hand.

74. If there be two or more pairs, pairs being the best hand, the hand
containing the pair highest in value shall be the best hand; and if two
hands contain equally high pairs, the hand containing the highest card
which is not tied by an equally high card in the other hand shall be the
better hand.

75. If no pair hand nor any better hand be shown, the player whose hand
contains the card highest in value which is not tied by a card of similar
value in another competing hand, shall be held to have the best hand.

76. If, when the final call is made and the hands shown, two or more
players hold hands identical in value, such players shall share the pool
equally between them.


_Disputes_.


77. Any dispute shall be referred to the dealer, unless he be one of the
disputing persons; and if on a matter of fact his decision shall be final
and binding; and if on a matter of law, he shall interpret these laws
literally, and not by implication.

78. If the dealer be one of the disputing persons, the dispute shall
be referred to the person on the left of the dealer, and if he be one
of the disputing persons, it shall be referred to the person on the
tight of the dealer.

79. In a dispute, the dealer, or any player appointed to settle such
dispute, may appeal to any person at the table for evidence, and if such
person can give evidence, he shall do so.

80. If the players agree to waive a particular rule on a particular
occasion, a like concession cannot be claimed on another similar occasion.

[58]

81. These rules shall be binding on all players, unless a departure from
them has been agreed upon unanimously before play begins, and if one or
more rules he abrogated by common consent, such abrogation shall hold
only for that sitting, and for that sitting only so long as there is
no change of players, and it shall not apply to any future sitting.



[59]

VINGT-UN.


Vingt-un, or twenty-one, is another game we find described in books
published at the commencement of the present century.  Its name would seem
to imply that it is of French origin; but in reference to this, as well
as in regard to the date of its introduction into the country, we have
no definite details.  The manner of playing it at the present time is
very little different from that practised at the earlier date mentioned,
although modifications have been introduced in some minor points, and
the tendency is to make yet further departures from the methods adopted
in years gone by.

The game is well suited for a large number of players, and may also be
engaged in by smaller parties; its practice, with even only two competing,
being both interesting and exciting.  It is purely a game of chance,
and little or no skill is required in playing it, although a little
judgment may often prove of advantage to the player who exercises it.

Vingt-un is played with an ordinary pack of fifty-two cards, which count
in accordance with the number of pips on each, the ace reckoning as either
one or eleven, at the option of the player, and each of the court cards
counting ten.  No distinction is made during any part of the game in the
various suits, each of the four sorts being of equal value in counting
the points.

A player may retire after the completion of any hand, [60] and the game
itself may be concluded at the same period, although it is desirable
to arrive at some understanding, previous to the commencement of play,
as to the method to be adopted in closing it, as, from the fact of the
deal being an advantage, it is unfair to conclude until each of those
engaged has had a turn, or equal number of turns, as dealer.  This is
assuming that the deal goes round in rotation, which is the arrangement
now generally adopted, in lieu of the old-fashioned method of transferring
the privilege to the player throwing the dealer out by the declaration
of a "natural" Vingt-un, as explained later on.  It must be understood,
however, that with several players engaged it may take a considerable
time for the deal to pass round, unless it be further agreed that each
player shall hold the deal for a limited period, another modification,
and one possessing many advantages over the old system, which was,
in reality, a mere question of chance, and often resulted in the privilege
of dealing being very unevenly divided among those engaged in play.

As already mentioned, the deal is an advantage, and the earliest
consideration should be to decide who is first to enjoy the privilege,
and for how long.  By the old system one player retained the deal until
put out by one of the others receiving a natural Vingt-un, that is,
an ace (counting as 11) and a 10, or court card (counting as 10), and, as
a consequence, the deal often remained for a considerable period with the
same person, to the disadvantage of all the others engaged in the game;
and even when a change was made, it was not in any definite order,
but by mere chance, governed by the fall of the cards.

Modern innovations in the method of playing the game have tended to remove
these objections,--firstly, by arranging that the deal shall pass in
regular order from left to right; [61] and secondly, by placing a limit
on the number of rounds to be dealt by each player in turn.  Although the
latter of these changes is not yet generally adopted, the former is almost
universal; and we shall now proceed to explain the game on that basis,
ignoring the second point, for the time being, as, although its adoption
may make matters more equal, it has, perhaps, the disadvantage of depriving
the game of one of its main elements of chance, and, in the opinion of
many, thereby robs it of much of its attractiveness.

The limits of the stakes are first determined, and then the dealer
is decided upon.  The minimum is usually one coin or counter, and the
maximum whatever may be agreed upon.  The maximum is understood to mean
the highest amount that may be staked by a player on his card, and
not the maximum that may be lost or won over any hand, for, by the
rules of the game, the dealer is allowed to double the stakes, even if
a player has staked the maximum.  If after that any one secures a Vingt-un,
_i_._e_ twenty-one points, that again doubles the stakes, and thus it
is quite possible for a player to win or lose four times the amount of
the maximum over one hand.


_DESCRIPTION_.


The object of the players is to secure from their cards--the pips on
which count as already mentioned--twenty-one points, or as near that
number as possible; hence the title.  During the progress of the game
the dealer pays those players who secure better hands than his own,
and receives from all who over-draw, or whose points are lower or equal
to his, the only exception being in the case of a tie with a natural
Vingt-un, when neither the holder nor the dealer pays anything to the
other, the tie in such a case [62] simply nullifying matters between the
two.  If the dealer over-draws, he only pays to those who are standing in,
and does not return anything to those players who have paid him on their
over-drawing; and herein lies the main advantage of the deal, for, as will
be found in practice, the majority of hands are decided by over-drawing,
which must necessarily be to the benefit of the dealer.

The dealer having been decided upon, takes the pack of cards and shuffles
them, after which he has the pack cut by the player on his right-hand side,
and then proceeds to distribute one card, face downwards and unexposed,
to each player, dealing in regular order from left to right.

Each player, in turn, looks at his card, and stakes on it whatever amount
he chooses--which he usually does by placing coins or counters in front
of him.  In deciding on the amount of his stake, a player is guided by
the chance he considers the card gives him of ultimately making twenty-one,
or a near approach thereto.  When it comes round to the dealer's turn,
he also looks at his card, but does not stake anything upon it; he may,
however, if he considers his card a good one, double the stakes of the
other players, which he does by calling "double."  In that case the
individual players add the "double" to their stake, and the amounts being
thus settled all round, the dealer gives a second card to each player,
in the same order as the first, and also unexposed.  The dealer then looks
at his own two cards, and if he should have received a natural Vingt-un,
he at once declares it; throws the two cards, face upwards, on the table,
and collects the stakes from the other players, the amount in this case
being double from each, as the result of the Vingt-un; so that, if the
dealer had previously doubled, as he probably would have done when he
found his first card was an ace or a 10 (or court card), [63] he would
collect four times the amount staked by each o the players on their
original card.  The only exception to this is in the case of a player who,
like the dealer, has received a natural Vingt-un--in that case neither
pays to the other, as previously mentioned.

If either of the players other than the dealer should receive a natural
Vingt-un, he should at once declare it, and claim double the amount of
his stake, or of the double, if that was called, from the dealer, who is
thereupon deprived of his privilege of dealing, the right of continuing
the deal passing to the player on his left-hand side.--It is often agreed
that a natural shall not throw out the dealer, and in some cases the
holder of a natural receives a stake from each of the other players.
(_See_ Variations in regard to the two points.)

If the dealer has not secured a natural Vingt-un, he turns to the player
on his left, and, if that player desires it, he gives him--face upwards,
and from off the top of the remainder of the pack--a third, fourth,
or fifth card; in fact, as many more as may be required by the player,
until he considers it safe to stand, or has over-drawn, _i.e._, got
beyond the 21 points.  For instance, suppose a player receives at first a
4, and then a 9, making 13; he asks for a third card, and may receive a 7,
making his total 20, on which he would stand.  Had his third card been a 9,
it would have been an over-draw, and the player would have had to pay the
dealer the amount he staked, or the double, if the dealer had doubled.
At the same time he would throw up his cards, or hand them to the player
on the dealer's right, who is termed the pone, and whose duty it is to
collect the cards as they are played and keep them in readiness for the
dealer when he requires a further supply.  A player when throwing up his
cards must not expose the two first dealt [64] to him, neither may the
pone or either of the other players look at them.

Having settled with the player on his left, the dealer goes to the next
in order, and treats him in a similar manner, and so on, until he has gone
the round of the table.  He then turns up his own two cards in front of
him, and in view of the company, and decides, as the others have done,
as to whether he will stand on the two he has, or take a further card or
cards.  If he decides to stand on the two he already has, he calls on those
players who have not over-drawn to declare their hands, and each in turn
does so, the dealer receiving the stakes when his points are higher or are
equal to those of the other players, and paying when his points are lower
than theirs.  If he elects to take a third card, he deals it from the top
of the pack; and if the third card does not satisfy him, he may take more;
when satisfied, he challenges the others, as just explained.  If, however,
he over-draws, he pays to all who are standing, but not to those who have
previously over-drawn and thrown up.

If the dealer should succeed in securing such cards (other than an ace
and 10) as to make exactly 21 points--a "drawn" Vingt-un--he receives
double stakes from each of the players, excepting those who have also drawn
a Vingt-un, who only pay the amount staked; and those who have previously
over-drawn and thrown up, who do not have to pay anything further.
If a player has a drawn Vingt-un and the dealer has not, or the dealer
has over-drawn, then the dealer has to pay the holder of the Vingt-un
double the amount of his stake, or of the double if that has been called.

Should any of the players receive for the first cards two of the same
denomination,--for instance, two aces, two twos, two kings, two queens,
etc.,--he has the option of staking a [65] separate amount on each of them,
but it is not compulsory that he should do so.  If he decides to divide his
pair, he puts on the second card a separate stake, the amount of which need
not be similar to that of his original one, and then asks the dealer for
two other cards with which to complete the two hands he then possesses.
If either of these later cards should be of the same denomination as the
first two, the player may also stand independently on that card, in which
case he would, of course, have three hands, with a separate stake on each.
The same opportunity would occur if he received all four of the kind
--he could then play on four independent hands.  This division of cards
is equally available for the dealer, or all or any of the other players,
so that two or more may have duplicate hands in   the same round, provided
they receive similar cards at the outset, for it is only when the original
pairs occur in the first two cards that it is permissible to divide them;
that is to say, if the third card received by any player matches either
of those already in the hand, no division is allowable.

At this game the pack of cards is not re-united after each round;
the dealer works with the one pack until he gets to the last card, and
the pone collects the used cards as they are disposed of by the players.
When the dealer comes to the last card of the pack, he does not deal it or
otherwise use it as he has done with the others, but hands it, unexposed,
to the pone, who adds it to those already in his care, shuffles them,
and hands them to the dealer, who proceeds with the game as before.

The same procedure is repeated until one of the players secures a natural
Vingt-un, which, unless the dealer also holds a natural that hand, puts
the dealer out, and the deal passes, either to the next player, or to
the holder of the natural, as may have been decided upon.  It is, however,
[66] best to adopt the former system, for the reason already given, and
in that case it is often considered desirable to have a pool, which is
secured by the player declaring the natural.  (_See_ Variations.)

There is one exception to the power of a natural Vingt-un to put the
dealer out--namely, when it occurs in the first hand of the deal; then
the dealer disregards it, except that he has to pay to the holder as for
a drawn Vingt-un, and proceeds with his deal until a second natural occurs.

We will now amplify, as far as is necessary, the points already touched
upon, and introduce the Variations recognised in connection with the game.


_DEALING_.


The first dealer is settled by one of the company distributing the cards in
the same manner as explained in connection with "Nap" (see page 9), except
that in the case of Vingt-un the player to whom the first _ace_ is dealt
becomes the dealer.  He proceeds with the game as explained on page 61.

If, in preparing the pack for the dealer, any confusion occurs, or any card
or cards are exposed, the whole pack must be re-shuffled and cut again.
If two cards are dealt to one player, the error may be rectified if
discovered before a third card is dealt; but if a third card has been
dealt, then the player receiving the surplus card must look at his hand,
and reject which of the two he chooses.  If the dealer gives himself two
cards at one time, and the mistake is not discovered until another card
has been dealt, then the pone must take one of the cards, at random,
and add it to the used portion of the pack.

A card exposed in dealing may be kept or rejected at the [67] option of the
player; but if the dealer exposes one of his own cards, he must retain it.


_DRAWING_.


The whole of the hands having been dealt--that is, two cards given to
each player, and also to cases of divided pairs, the drawing of further
cards commences.  The dealer begins with the player on his left-hand side,
and he, if he does not require any more cards, says "content."  If he does
require more, he says "yes," or, "a card," when the dealer delivers one
from the top of the undealt portion of the pack, placing it face upwards
on the table in front of the player.  If another card or cards is needed,
it must be given in like manner, until the player is content or has
over-drawn.  The dealer must settle with one player before he attends
to the next, and similarly, when a player is standing on divided pairs,
he must settle with one hand before attending to the other.

If the dealer gives a player two cards while the process of drawing
is going on, the player may keep either or both of them; but if he
rejects one, he must be regarded as content, and cannot draw another card.
The one rejected is added to the stock in the hands of the pone.
If the dealer in drawing gives himself two cards, he must keep them both,
and suffer the consequences of an over-draw if then his points exceed 21.

If the dealer distributes the draw cards out of order, the player or
players missed may either be supplied at any time from the top of the pack,
or they may throw up their cards.

If a player draws separately on his two cards, when they do not pair,
he has to pay the dealer on each hand, and forfeits any amount he may
have won.

[68]

In any of these cases of irregularity, the offender pays a penalty to the
pool, if there be one.


_POOL_.


A pool may be formed for any purpose that may be decided upon, and may
be made up according to arrangement.  For this purpose, it may be agreed
(a) that each player contribute a coin or counter to the pool at the
commencement of each deal; (b) that whenever the dealer over-draws, he pay
a penalty to the pool; (c) that whenever the dealer receives on ties, he
pay a proportion to the pool, say one-fourth or one-third of his receipts.
Other methods of increasing the pool will present themselves in actual
play, those here inserted being intended as specimens of what may be done,
or to form a basis on which to work.


_LIMITING THE DEAL_.


In the game we have described we have adopted the principle that the
declaration of a natural Vingt-un throws the dealer out; but another method
is to limit the deal to a certain number of hands, or to allow the dealer
to go through the pack twice, or to have two packs of cards shuffled
together, and go through them once.  In these cases the dealer is allowed
to draw from the used pack as many cards as may be necessary to complete a
round started upon with his limited supply, and the cards are prepared by
the pone for the purpose, being all collected, shuffled, and cut before
they are used by the dealer.


_SELLING THE DEAL_.


Should a player object to take his turn at dealing, or desire to part
with it for other reason, he is at liberty to sell the right to any
other player; and in view of the fact that [69] the deal is an advantage,
a purchaser will generally be found.  The buyer has to deal the cards,
but does not change his seat.  He has to commence each time with the player
on the left-hand side of the proper dealer, and when the buyer loses his
turn, the deal reverts to the player who would have had the next turn
had there been no sale.  The buyer takes his turn with the others in the
ordinary course.


_ADDITIONAL PRIVILEGES FOR A NATURAL_.


It is sometimes agreed that the holder of a natural Vingt-un, providing
the dealer has not also received a natural, shall be entitled to an amount
equal to, or double that of his own stake from each of the other players,
unless there be other Vingt-uns, the holders of which are exempted from
payment.  This is the old fashioned method of playing the game, and in
many quarters the rule had been abolished, because, as the deal formerly
passed to the holder of the natural Vingt-un, who threw the dealer out,
that was considered sufficient reward for holding the two cards.  Now,
however, that the deal merely passes to the next in order, it is desirable
that some further reward should follow from the best possible hand, and the
payment of a stake or a double from each player appears to be the fairest
method, especially as the declaration of a natural brings the deal nearer
to all.  The same result may be achieved by agreeing that the contents of
a pool, for which provision has already been made, shall go to the player
declaring the natural.



[70]

COMMERCE.


_DESCRIPTION OF THE GAME_.

Ninety years ago the game of Commerce was recognised as being played in
two distinct ways, the new and the old mode, so that it may justly be
termed one of the oldest round games now practised.  Although it is not
so popular as some of the others treated of in this volume, it will be
found to be a good game; exciting, entertaining, and well deserving of
more extended popularity than it has lately enjoyed.

Commerce is usually played with the full pack of fifty-two cards, but if
the number of players does not exceed seven the smaller pack of thirty-two
may be used, the game being available for any number of players within the
range of the pack, say seven with the thirty-two cards, and twelve with
the fifty-two.

The cards count in the usual way, except that in reckoning the number
of pips upon them, which is sometimes necessary in the course of play,
the ace counts for eleven, and the court cards for ten each.  There is no
particular suit or trumps recognised in the game, the object of the players
being to secure special combinations of the cards, technically termed
(_a_) Tricon, (_b_) Sequence, (_c_) Flush, (_d_) Pair, (_e_) Point, which
range in value in the order given.  The holder of the best combination in
each [71] round is the winner, and he takes the pool or whatever other
stake may have been decided upon.

The five combinations just mentioned consist of the following:--


(_a_) _Tricon_.--Three cards of the same denominations as, for example,
three aces, three fives, three knaves, etc.

(_b_) _Sequence_.--Three following cards of the same suit, as, for
instance, ace, two, three; ten, knave, queen; queen, king, ace, etc.
Although the ace may be used at either end to form a sequence, it must not
be so used between a king and a two.  King, ace, two, is not, therefore,
permissible as a sequence.

(_c_) _Flush_.--Three cards of the same suit, irrespective of value.

(_d_) _Pair_.--Two cards of the same denomination, the third one being
different.

(_e_) _Point_.--The total number of pips on the three cards, ace reckoning
for eleven, and either of the court cards for ten.


In case of a tie between two or more of the players in any round,
the following rules are observed:--

(_a_) With Tricons, the highest wins, aces being first in this respect;
then kings, queens, etc., down to twos.

(_b_) With Sequences, the highest wins; the ace, king, queen sequence
reckoning as the best, and the three, two, ace sequence as the lowest.

(_c_) With Flushes, the one making the best "point"--as already described
--wins.

(_d_) With Pairs, the highest wins.  If two players are alike, then the
holder of the highest third card has the preference.

(_e_) With Point a tie is very rare; but if equality does [72] occur, then
the holder of the first highest card different from the opponent's wins.

The deal is an advantage, and on that account it is best, when a finish
is desired, to conclude the game just before the first dealer's turn
comes round again, as then all the players will have had an equal number
of deals.  Should it be found necessary, however, to conclude before the
original dealer's turn, play may be discontinued after the completion of
any deal, although such a course is somewhat unfair to the intervening
players.

There is only one stake recognised in the game, so that it is simply
necessary to decide what shall be regarded as the value of a counter,
or what coin shall constitute the limit.

The amount of the stake having been settled, the dealer is decided upon
in the same manner as described in connection with the game of "Nap"
(see page 9).  Each of the players then pays the amount of the stake
into the pool, the dealer also contributing on account of his deal,
so that he has to pay double.

The pack having been shuffled by the dealer, and cut by the player on his
right-hand side, three cards are distributed to each player, face downwards
and unexposed.  The cards may be dealt either singly or all three at a
time, at the option of the dealer.  The players having looked at their
cards, the dealer first addresses the one on his left-hand side, and asks
if he will trade; and he must either do so or stand on the cards dealt him.

If he decides to stand on the cards he has received, he turns his hand
face upwards on the table, and all the other players do the same, when
the holder of the best hand takes the amount in the pool, and also receives
the amount of a stake from the dealer, who is thus penalised for the [73]
advantage that accrues to him from selling cards to those who wish to trade
for ready money, the amount he receives on that account becoming his own
property, subject to the payment mentioned.  Should the player who declares
to stand be beaten by any of the others, he has to pay an additional stake
to the holders of the better hands.

If the player decides to trade, he may either do so for "ready money" or
by "barter."  If for ready money, he continues operations with the dealer;
if by barter, with the next player in order round the table, who, in turn,
must exchange a card, unless he has a hand sufficiently strong to stand
upon, in which case he at once declares it.

If the player trades for ready money, he throws out a card from his hand,
pays a stake to the dealer, and receives the top card from the pack; his
rejected card being placed at the bottom of the pack without being exposed.

If the player decides to barter, he turns to the player on his left-hand
side and offers a card, which must be exchanged for one of those in the
next player's hand, unless that player considers his cards sufficiently
strong to stand upon, in which case the winner is decided by the method
just described.

If the player has traded, either for ready money or barter, and has secured
a hand strong enough, he at once stands, and exposes his cards; if not,
the dealer passes or to the next player, and acts in a similar manner,
going round and round the table until one of the players decides to stand,
when the hands are exposed and the round settled.

A player may only purchase or exchange one card at each turn; he must
not do both, but he is compelled to do the one or the other, unless he
decides to stand.  When once a player agrees to stand, the commerce on
that round ceases, and all the hands must be exposed.


[74]

_THE OLD GAME_.


The older mode of playing the game of Commerce differs materially from
the description given above, and as it does not present such chances,
but is of a more limited character, it is not so interesting, nor does
it afford so much scope for speculation and excitement.

The deal is decided and the cards are distributed in the same way as in the
more modern game, but here an additional hand, of three cards, is dealt,
and placed face upwards in the middle of the table.  There is no trading
with the dealer or any of the players, the operations of commerce being
confined to the three cards exposed on the table.  The player to the
left of the dealer has the first turn, and he must either stand, pass,
or exchange a card.  In the latter case he takes one of those lying face
upwards on the table, adds it to his hand, and places one of his own cards,
face upwards, in place of the one removed.  If the player passes, he says,
"I pass," and is then debarred from afterwards exchanging any of his cards
during that hand; while if he decides to stand, the next player decides
what he will do, and so on round the table, until two of the players are
satisfied with their hands, or all have declared to pass.  If two of the
players stand then each of the other players may make one more exchange
(if they have not previously passed), and then the whole of the hands are
exposed, just as described in connection with the modern game.  There is
no pool in this variation, the winner receiving instead the amount of the
stake from each of the other players.  In case of absolute equality between
the two best hands, which may be regarded as an almost impossible event,
then each of the winners receives a stake from all the other players.


[75]

_POOL COMMERCE_.


This is a variation of the old method of conducting the game, and is played
on somewhat similar lines, except that a pool is made up, by each player
paying in an equal sum, for which he receives three counters.  Play then
proceeds in the manner just described as the old game.  The winner of
the hand, instead of receiving a stake from each of the players, takes a
previously arranged sum from the pool, while the player who has the worst
hand puts one counter into the pool.  The game continues until all but one
of the players have exhausted their three counters, when the player who
remains with the last counter or counters takes the amount left in the
pool.  As soon as a player has exhausted his counters he has to stand
out of the game, and no cards are dealt to him, so that the adoption of
this variation makes the game very tedious for those who are first out,
as they may have to wait a considerable time before the stock of the
other players is exhausted.

The player who is first out has the option of buying one counter from
the pool, which is termed "buying a horse."  He has to pay for the same
into the pool such sum as may be agreed upon--usually one-third or one-half
the amount of the original stake.


_LIMITED COMMERCE_.


It may be agreed that only the Tricon, Sequence, Flush, and Point shall be
recognised in the game, or even Tricon, Sequence, and Point only; but the
greater the number of combinations permissible the greater the enjoyment
to be derived from the game, so that limitations of this character have
little to recommend them.


[76]

_PENALTIES FOR THE DEALER_.


It is sometimes agreed that when the dealer holds a Tricon, Sequence,
Flush, or Pair, and his hand is beaten by either of the others, he has
to pay the amount of a stake to each player, or only to those who have
better hands than his.  The former course will be found to be a severe
tax on the dealer, and is not to be recommended.  The dealer only has
the same chances as the others, and such a penalty seems unjust.


_EXTENDED COMMERCE_.


This is only applicable to the modern mode of playing the game, which in
this variation is extended until all the players are satisfied, that is,
they may keep on trading, either for ready money or by barter, until they
all receive cards sufficiently good to stand upon.  The great objection
to this variation is that it makes the game wearisome for those players
who are soon enabled to stand, as they have to wait while the others are
being satisfied.


_CONTINUOUS DEALING_.


Another method of playing the modern game is to allow the same dealer to
remain in until one of the players secures a Tricon, Sequence, or Flush,
when the deal passes to the next player, on the left-hand side.  This
variation is based on the same principle as governs the game of Vingt-un.



[77]

SPECULATION.


This is a round game which for very many years has been one of the most
popular of its class.  It requires little skill in its conduct, being
essentially a game of chance.  The players do not look at their hands,
and therefore cannot in any way influence their possibilities of success
with the three cards dealt them.  The only element of skill associated
is in connection with the speculations which form part of the play,
and which may be carried on by each of the players during its progress.

The ordinary packs of fifty-two or thirty-two cards may be used, and the
number of players who may take part in the game is practically unlimited
within the range of the pack; but it will be found that not more than
ten players are desirable with the fifty-two card pack, and not more than
six with the thirty-two card one, as otherwise too great a proportion
of the pack is brought into use each deal, and there is not much scope
for speculation as to what remains in the undealt portion of the pack.

In playing the game the ace is reckoned the highest card, then follow king,
queen, knave, ten, etc., down to two.

The first dealer is decided in the manner explained in connection with
"Nap" (see page 9), and he has to pay two coins or counters into the pool,
each of the other players contributing one.  Three cards are then dealt
to each player, one at a time, and going round from left to right.  The
top card remaining on the pack is turned up for trump, but [78] before
turning it the dealer may sell it to any other of the players.  If the
dealer sells the turn-up card, the buyer becomes entitled to all the
privileges that may ultimately attach to it, taking the entire amount in
the pool if no higher trump is turned up during the progress of the hands.

The player next to the dealer, or if the dealer sold the turn-up card the
one next to the purchaser, then turns up the top card of the three dealt
him.  If it proves to be a higher card of the trump suit than that already
exposed, he becomes the chief hand, and may either retain the card, with
the ultimate prospect of winning the pool, or he may sell it to either of
the other players if a speculation can be arranged.  If he sells the card,
he passes it over to the purchaser, and the player on the left-hand side
of the new holder becomes the next player.  If the card turned up is not
a trump, or is a lower trump than that already exposed, it is of no value,
and the next player has to follow on with his top card.

The same proceeding is continued round and round until all the players,
except the holder of the highest trump, have exposed their three cards.
The owner of the leading trump, or the dealer, if he did not sell the
turn-up and it remains unbeaten, does not expose his cards in the various
rounds, but retains them until last.  Even then he may sell them, before
they are turned up, either singly or all together.

When all the cards have been exposed, the holder of the highest trump takes
the amount in the pool, and a fresh deal, with new payments to the pool,
is started upon.

If the card turned up proves to be an ace, king, queen, or knave, it is
usual for the deal to pass.  In that case the dealer, or the purchaser
of the trump card if the dealer has sold it, takes the pool, when all
the players contribute as before, the next in turn becoming the dealer,
and using the next top card of the pack for his trump card.  This method
[79] saves the time of going all round with the hands, when with so high
a card turned up there are so few chances of either of the players having
a better one, as to virtually put an end to all speculation that hand.

During the progress of the game either of the players may sell the card
which it is his turn to expose.  In that case he turns it up without
disturbing the order of play, and retains it if it is not a superior trump.
If it is a superior one, it has to be handed over to the purchaser, and
the player on his left has to proceed with the play.

The holder of the highest trump card may sell it at any time, so that it
may change hands several times during the same deal, and each time there is
a change the player on the buyer's left-hand side is the next to proceed.

Any player looking at a card out of turn has to pay a penalty into the
pool, and should he prove the winner he cannot take the amount in the pool,
but must leave it to be added to the stakes for the next deal.

It is sometimes agreed that the turn-up card shall belong to the pool,
and in that case it is not offered for sale.  If it proves the ultimate
Winner of the round, the amount is left in the pool, and added to the
stake for the next deal, the amount of which is made up just as if the
previous one had been taken by one of the players.

A second method of benefiting the pool is to deal a spare hand, which
is left in the middle of the table until all the other hands have been
finished.  The spare hand is then turned up, and if it contains a winning
card the amount in the pool is added to the stake for the next round.

Another variation is to impose a penalty when a knave or five is turned up,
the penalty being paid into the pool by the owner of the card, that is,
the original holder or the purchaser if it was sold before being turned up.



[80]

POPE JOAN.


For the game of Pope, or Pope Joan, a special board, or a pool with
eight compartments, is required, or the divisions may be marked on a
sheet of paper or card.  The game is available for any number of
players, and an ordinary pack of fifty-two cards is used, the eight of
diamonds being taken out, so as to form what is termed a stop, that is,
a break in the sequence of the cards, which are here reckoned in regular
order from ace to king, the four suits being kept distinct throughout
the play.  The seven of diamonds thus becomes a stop, and the king of
each Suit is also a stop, there being no "following" card in either
case.  The turn-up or trump card, as will be further explained later on,
forms another stop, and thus there are six regular known stops at the
commencement of each game, with a number of unknown ones caused by the
cards in the spare hand which forms part of the game.

The object of the players is to dispose of their cards as rapidly as
possible, under certain conditions, and the player who first succeeds
in clearing his hand wins the stake set apart for game, as well as a
contribution from the other players for each of the cards remaining
in their hands.  The holders of certain other cards secure the stakes
contributed for them if they play them out during the progress of the
hands.

[81]

The earliest matter for consideration is to determine who shall be the
first dealer, and that is settled in the same way as at "Nap" (see page
9).  The players then contribute between them fifteen (or more) counters
or coins to form a pool, the dealer giving double the amount paid by
the other players.  The counters or coins are then distributed so as
to dress the eight divisions of the board, which are named as follows:--
Pope Joan (the nine of diamonds), Matrimony (king and queen of trumps),
Intrigue (queen and knave of trumps), Ace, King, Queen, Knave (of
trumps), and Game, which latter is secured by the player who first
succeeds in disposing of all the cards dealt him.  Six of the counters
are placed for Pope Joan, two each for Matrimony and Intrigue, one each
for Ace, King, Queen, and Knave, and the remainder for Game.  To save
the trouble and time of collecting the stakes from the several players
for each round, it is often agreed that the dealer for the time being
shall dress the board, in which case it is necessary that the game
should be finished just before the original dealer's turn comes round
again, else the payments to the pool will not have been equitably
divided.

The stakes being completed, the pack, from which the eight of diamonds
has been removed, is shuffled and cut.  The dealer then proceeds to
distribute the cards, one at a time, as equally among the players as
possible, dealing a spare hand, which is left unexposed on the table,
for the purpose of forming further stops, and turning up the last card
for trump.  If any odd cards remain after dealing round to the players,
it is best to add the surplus to the spare hand.  For instance, with
five players there will be eight cards for each hand, one to turn up,
and two remaining; these two should be added to the spare hand.  With
eight players there will be five each, and five remaining; so [82] that
the spare hand will be increased to ten, but that will only cause a
greater number of stops, which will not prove any disadvantage with so
many players engaged.

Should the trump card prove to be the nine of diamonds--Pope Joan,--the
dealer takes the amount staked for that card, and, in addition, receives
from each player a stake for every card dealt.  If there are but few
players engaged in the game, it is best to agree that the payment for Pope
Joan shall be limited to either four or six counters or coins, and it may
be best to do so, no matter what number of players are engaged.  If the
card turned up for trump be either Ace, King, Queen or Knave, the dealer
takes whatever stake is deposited on the hoard in the corresponding
division, and the game proceeds, as is also the case if any lower card
is turned up.

During the progress of the game, the holder of Pope Joan, Matrimony,
Intrigue, or Ace, King, Queen, or Knave of trumps can, if he has the
opportunity, play those cards, in which event he takes the amount of the
stake on the corresponding part of the board, and, in the case of Pope
Joan, he receives a stake from every player for each card remaining in
hand.  Neither of these combinations or cards wins anything, however,
if not played out during the progress of the game, and they can only be
declared in the ordinary course of play.  For this reason Pope Joan or
ace of trumps should be led on the first opportunity, as neither of them
can be played up to, each following a stop.  When any or all of the
special cards are not played out, the stake on their particular division
of the board is left for the next deal, so that it may happen that
either of the compartments except Game, which is won every deal, may
be considerably increased before it is secured by one of the players.
For this reason it is desirable to study the state [83] of the board,
so as to see if the stake on any particular card in hand is sufficient
to warrant its being played at an early stage, even though lower cards
of the same suit are in hand, which would, in the ordinary course,
be cleared off first.

It is sometimes agreed that when Intrigue or Matrimony is played by
different hands, the amount staked on those chances shall be divided
between the two-players concerned, and in each case the player of knave,
queen, or king takes the stake on those chances in addition.

Play in the game is commenced by the elder hand, that is, the player on
the left-hand side of the dealer, leading a card, to which the other
players have to follow on in the same suit and in sequence, passing
where they are unable to follow, until a stop occurs, when the
competitor who plays the stop has the next lead.  The played cards are
turned over, face downwards on the table, after each stop.  It must be
remembered that the object of the players is to dispose of their cards
as soon as possible, and on that account the known stops should be
played out at the first opportunity, or led up to as early as possible.

To better explain the method of play, we will take an imaginary hand.
We will suppose there are five players, and that the one on the dealer's
left-hand side receives

    5 and 7 of diamonds, 4 and knave of hearts, knave
    and king of spades, ace and queen of clubs.

The turn-up card proves to be the 7 of hearts.  The player thus knows he
has two stops among his eight cards, viz., the  of diamonds and king of
spades; but in each case he has lower cards of the same suit, and he
must therefore consider how best to clear them off.  The king of spades
being a stop, and the player having the knave and king of that suit,
[84] he cannot do wrong in leading the knave, as, if the queen is played
he follows on with the king, and if by chance the queen should be in the
spare hand, he still gets rid of the king, having to follow on, after
his knave having proved a stop.  The same argument holds good in the
case of the diamonds, of which he first leads the five and clears the
suit.  The ace of clubs must next be played, as unless he leads that
himself there is no possibility of his being able to play it, as no card
can lead up to an ace.  He therefore plays the club ace for his fifth
card, the two and three follow on from different hands, and then a stop
occurs, so that it is assumed the four is in the spare hand, and thus
the three is a stop.  The player of the three has, among his other cards,
the queen and king of hearts, plays them (taking the stake on Matrimony,
as hearts are trumps), and follows on with the seven of spades, of which
he also holds the ten, which, as knave, queen, and king have been
played, he knows to be a stop.  By playing off queen and king of hearts,
this player made the knave of hearts in the first hand a stop.  Later on
the game leads up to the queen of clubs, which also proves to be a stop,
the king being in the spare hand, and the original leader is left with
the lead with only two cards in hand, of which one is known to be a
stop.  He therefore first plays this knave of hearts, following on with
his four, clearing his hand and winning the game.  He takes the stake on
Game from the board, and receives one counter from the other players for
each card remaining in their hand, the only exception in such cases
being in favour of the holder of Pope Joan, who is exempt if he has not
played that card, but who has to pay as the rest if he has played it.


[85]

VARIATIONS.


The most popular variation from the foregoing game is for the winner,
_i.e._ the one who first plays out his cards, to only take the stake
for Game from the board, the players paying to the pool the penalty for
their unplayed card or cards, and distributing them on whichever chance
they prefer, except that all the eight must be covered.  In such a case
the regular dressing of the board by the players at the commencement of
each deal as previously described is omitted, the dealer alone paying a
single stake, which he may also place where he chooses.


_FIVE-POOL POPE_.


The board or pool may be made with five divisions only, in which case
Pope Joan, Matrimony, Intrigue, Ace, and Game are retained, King, Queen,
and Knave being omitted.  In other respects the game is conducted on the
ordinary lines, except that twelve coins or counters are sufficient to
dress the board.


_POPE JOAN WINS_.


In this variation, when Pope Joan is turned up the dealer at once wins
the game, and takes the stake standing to Game on the board, in addition
to that on Pope and the payment from each of the players already
referred to.  This is by no means a desirable innovation, and simply
causes extra trouble for dealing, etc., with little or no recompense.


_LIMITED STOPS_.


In lieu of the spare hand being dealt, with the object of making extra
stops, it may be arranged that a definite [86] number of cards be taken
from the pack, either from the top or the bottom, for the purpose, or
the remainder, after dealing the cards round as far as possible equally
among the players, may be so set apart.  The best way, however, is to
deal a spare hand with the others, as then the number of stops bears an
equitable proportion to the number of players engaged in the game.


_LOOKING AT THE SPARE HAND_.


Among amateurs and inexperienced players it is sometimes agreed that the
dealer shall look at the spare hand, so as to see what cards are stops;
but after a few rounds have been played, the absurdity of this rule will
be manifest.  It gives so much advantage to the dealer, who can play
cards which he alone knows to be stops, that in such a case he ought to
stand out, no cards being dealt him that round.  It is an altogether
objectionable variation, and not at all a necessary one.


Pope Joan is sometimes allowed to be played at any time in lieu of
a stop, thus: suppose a player has Pope and (say) knave of spades.
In the course of the game the nine of spades is played, and proves to
be a stop.  The holder of Pope may play it in lieu of the ten of spades,
and then continue with his knave of that suit, first taking his winnings
on Pope.



[87]

SPIN.


Spin may be regarded somewhat as a variation or offshoot of Pope Joan,
which game it very much resembles.  The dealer will therefore do well
to refer to the description given of that game, on pages 81 to 87,
for further and more extended details.

At Spin the two of hearts is taken out of the pack, in addition to the
eight of diamonds, but in distributing the cards no spare hand is dealt,
so that there are always six regular stops in the game.  In addition,
the ace of diamonds, which is called Spin, may also be used as a stop,
if the player chooses to make it one, and he has the necessary card with
which to follow, as explained later on.

There are only three pool chances to play for in this game: Matrimony
(king and queen of diamonds), Intrigue (queen and knave of diamonds),
and Game, or first out.  In addition to these three chances, the holder
of Spin receives a stake (usually three counters) from the other
competitors, provided the card is played out in the ordinary course of
the game; while each king entitles its holder to one counter from every
competitor when they are played out.  In both these cases the amounts
must be collected before another card is played, or they are forfeited.

The pool is made by each player, except the dealer, paying in a stake
for Game, while the dealer has to contribute a double stake to make a
pool for Matrimony, and a single stake for Intrigue.  He is sometimes
called upon to con[88]tribute to Game also, but that is putting a tax
upon him disproportionate to what is required from the other players.

The two of hearts and eight of diamonds having been taken out, the cards
are shuffled and then dealt out, as near equally as possible, among the
players.  No turn-up card is needed, as there are no trumps in this
game.  The player on the dealer's left has the lead, and he proceeds in
the manner described for Pope Joan (see page 84).

The holder of Matrimony or Intrigue can declare them at any time after
he plays a stop, and he then takes the stake for those chances in the
pool.  He need not play the cards, but simply shows them, and may then
follow on, as he has a right to do after a stop, with any card he
chooses.

The holder of Spin can play it at any time when either of his other
cards comes in sequence in the progress of the game, or after a stop.
In the former case, the playing of Spin makes it a stop, but it must
be played out with the card which follows on, or the holder loses his
chance of playing it.  For instance, suppose clubs are in play, that
the six is the last card, and that the holder of the seven has Spin.
He plays the two cards together, and says, "seven and Spin."
The other competitors then pay him the agreed stake for Spin, and the
game proceeds.  If the holder of Spin does not succeed in playing it he
has to pay double to the winner of the game for every card remaining in
his hand.

When one of the players has played all his cards, he becomes the winner,
and the others pay him a stake for each card remaining in their hands.
In addition he takes the amount of the pool set apart for first out.
The winner of the game is also exempt from payment towards the next pool
for Game.  If, however, the winner is the next dealer, then he has to
contribute to Matrimony and Intrigue in the ordinary course.



[89]

NEWMARKET.


This is another variation of Pope Joan, or Spin, and is played on
similar lines.  The seven of each suit is taken out to form stops,
and four cards are turned up in the middle of the table.  These must
be the four principal cards, viz., ace, king, queen, and knave, but of
different suits, so that each of the four are represented in the pool;
say, for example, knave of diamonds, queen of hearts, king of clubs,
and ace of spades may be turned up.

The several players pay a coin or counter to form the first pool, and
may put it on whichever card of the four turned up they choose, provided
that all four are covered.  The dealer pays one extra throughout the
game.  The whole of the cards are then dealt, as nearly equal as
possible, as for Spin.  Play proceeds as in that game, the holder of
the card immediately preceding those in the pool taking the stake upon
it when he plays his card.  For this purpose the ace is considered both
as lowest and highest, so that, in the supposed cases given above, the
holders of king of spades, queen of clubs, knave of hearts, and ten of
diamonds become winners of pool stakes on playing out their respective
cards.  These would in each case become stops, and the player would
have the right to play another card.

The one who first succeeds in clearing his hand wins the game, and
receives from each of the other competitors a stake for every remaining
card.  The pool stakes cannot be taken unless the cards are played up
to, and if this is not done the amounts are carried on to the next deal.
The hints and fuller explanation given in Pope Joan and Spin should be
studied in connection with this game.



[90]

SNIP-SNAP-SNORUM.


There are two distinct methods of playing this game, so unlike as to lead
to the conclusion that at some time or other two separate games must have
been confused by being called under the same name, and have since been so
associated with each other.  There is hardly one point in common between
the two methods in vogue; and while one is entirely different from anything
yet described in the present volume, the other is, to a great extent,
played on the lines of Pope Joan, Spin, and Newmarket, and may be regarded
as an offshoot of those games--rather than as an independent one--which has
got mixed with the one known under the title of Snip-Snap-Snorum, and has
come to be recognised under that name.  As preference in such a case should
be given to the independent game, we shall first describe that, and
afterwards devote attention to the other system.  In doing so we must
excuse ourselves for the manifest inconsistency of associating two distinct
games under the one title, on the ground of custom and practice among
different individuals, and in order to avoid confusion as far as possible,
we have re-named the game we shall describe last, as Jig, that being one of
the terms used in the game, and sufficiently distinctive for every purpose.

Snip-Snap-Snorum is a round game, available for any number, of players from
two to ten, when the full pack of fifty-two cards is played with, or for
any number up to six [91] when the smaller pack of thirty-two is used.
Probably the best number of players is five or six in the former case, and
three or four in the latter; the greatest objection to a large number of
players being that those first out have to wait until the others have
exhausted their stakes, which may not occur until several more rounds have
been completed.

At the commencement of the game each player has to be provided with five
coins or counters, of equal value, and the game is decided when all but one
of the players has exhausted those five stakes.  The player who holds out
the longest becomes the winner, and secures the whole of the pool, which is
contributed to during the progress of the game as described later on.

The deal is decided in the ordinary way, the player to whom the first knave
is turned up having the first right to deal the cards.  He shuffles the
pack, has it cut, and then distributes five cards to each player, one at a
time, and commencing with the one on his left-hand side.  There is no
turn-up card needed; when all have received their five cards the hands are
looked at, and the game begins.  The object of the players is to play cards
of equal value to those of their right-hand adversaries, and if they do so
the player has to pay a penalty into the pool; one stake for Snip, which is
the first pairing of a card; two stakes for Snap, the second pairing of the
same card; and three stakes for Snorum, the third pairing.  For instance,
suppose there are five players, _A_, _B_, _C_, _D_, and _E_.  _A_ is the
dealer, and, the cards having been dealt, _B_ has to lead; he plays a nine,
and calls it when he places it on the table face upwards in front of him;
_C_ likewise has a nine, which he must play by also placing it face upwards
on the table in front of him, and says "Snip," upon which _B_ has to pay a
stake into the pool, his card having been paired _D_ also has [92] a nine,
which he plays in similar manner, and says "Snap," upon which _C_ has to
pay two stakes into the pool, his card having been also paired; _E_ then
has to follow on, and also having a nine in hand, he must play it, and says
"Snorum," which imposes a penalty of three stakes upon _D_.  This having
disposed of the four nines in the pack, _A_, whose turn it now is to play,
has to start upon a new card, and he has the option of playing whichever of
the five in his hand he chooses.

The penalties of Snip-Snap-Snorum do not remain in force if any other card
intervenes between the pairs, so that it is only the player next in order
of play who has the opportunity of securing a stack& for the pool from any
of the others.  Taking the illustration given above, we will suppose that
_D_ had no nine, and was accordingly compelled to play, say, a ten.  _B_
would have had to pay the penalty for Snip, as before; but _C_ could have
nothing to pay, his card not having been paired.  Then suppose _E_, in his
turn, played a nine, and A also played one, that would only "snip" _E's_
nine, although the other two nines had just been played; _E_ would have
to pay one stake to the pool.

As soon as the five cards dealt to each player are exhausted, the next
in order becomes the dealer, and distributes five cards to each player,
as before, and the game is conducted round and round on exactly similar
lines until one of the party has lost the last of his five stakes.
He is then out of the game, and if he has any cards left he must add them,
face downwards and unexposed, to the top of the undealt portion of the
pack.  The other players proceed with the game, and as each loses his last
stake he is left out, and no fresh cards are dealt him.  This goes on until
all but one have lost their stakes, when, as already described, the game is
finished, and the last in takes the pool.

[93]

If a new game is started on, the first out in the previous game becomes
the new dealer.

The lead is a disadvantage in this game, as, after a few cards have been
played, it is often possible to know that certain cards remaining in hand
are absolutely safe, or nearly so.  For instance, suppose two knaves have
been played during the first round or two, and that a third knave is in a
player's hand, that card may be played as an almost safe one, as there is
only one other that can pair with it, and the odds of the fourth knave
being in the next player's hand are very remote.  For the same reason a
player having two of a kind in his own hand should always play one of them
when his turn comes round, provided, of course, he is not able to pair with
the player immediately preceding him.

If a player has a card similar to that played immediately before him,
he must play it.  In the event of his failing to do so, he has to pay
a double penalty to the pool, while the player who would have been
penalized has to contribute just as though the right card had been played.
These penalties must be enforced before the cards are cut
for the next deal.


VARIATIONS.


This method of playing the game is sometimes varied as follows: Instead
of dealing five cards to each player, the whole of the pack is distributed,
equally; or as nearly equal as possible, among the players, each of whom
starts with five coins or counters, as in the other game.  The player on
the dealer's left-hand side, whom we will call _B_, as above, has to lead,
and he keeps on playing one card after another until the opponent on his
left (_C_) can pair one of them.  When _C_ succeeds in doing this, he says
"Snip," and _B_ has to pay a stake into the pool, while he remains in [94]
active until the game has proceeded right round the table.  Play now rests
between _C_ and _D_.  If _D_ can pair _C's_ card with which he snipped _B_
he does so, and calls "Snap," when _C_ has to pay two stakes to the pool;
if then _E_ can also pair the card, he cries "Snorum," and _D_ has to pay
three stakes to the pool.  If, however, the players cannot pair, then _C_
has to keep on playing out his cards until _D_ can pair one, in which case
_C_ is snipped, and the game proceeds as just described.  The game goes
round until all have played their cards, when the pack is again shuffled,
and a new deal started upon, the game being won and the stakes secured
by the player who holds out the longest with his five stakes, as in the
other game.

This variation may be altered again by agreeing that an unlimited number of
coins or counters may be used, and that the player who first succeeds in
getting rid of his cards shall be the winner of the pool.  By this system
each deal becomes complete in itself, but it will not be found
a very desirable innovation if many players are engaged, as in that case
the cards are so divided that it becomes an easy matter to clear a hand.


_TURN-UP SNIP_.


It is sometimes agreed that the dealer shall turn up the top card of the
undealt portion of the pack, and if then the first player can match it, the
dealer has to pay the penalty for Snip.  A much better way of playing this
variation, however, is for the pool to pay the penalty for this first Snip.
In that case the player takes one counter out of the pool and adds it to
his own stock.



[95]

JIG.


We have already mentioned that our reason for adopting the above title is
to distinguish this method of playing the game of Snip-Snap-Snorum from
the one just described, and it will be evident to those who study the two
systems that we are quite justified in introducing a distinctive name for
the one we are now about to deal with, which, as we have said, has little
or nothing--beyond former title and use of similar terms--in common with
the other.

The first dealer having been settled, and the pack shuffled, the cards are
dealt out one at a time until the pack is exhausted.  The object of the
players is to get rid of their cards as speedily as possible, the one first
out winning a coin or counter from each of the other players for every card
remaining in their hands.  The player on the dealer's left-hand side has to
play first, and he leads whichever card he chooses, placing it face upwards
on the table in front of him, and saying "Snip"; the holder of the next
highest card of the same suit (ace counting as lowest and king as highest)
has to follow on, and says "Snap"; then the three next highest cards are
played, the holders of them saying "Snorum," "Hicockalorum" and "Jig"
respectively, when playing them.  The one who plays Jig has the next lead,
and may follow on with whichever card he chooses.  If either of the cards
played is a stop,--that is to say, the succeeding card has been played out,
or it is a king,--then the player says "Jig" after announcing what card
he plays, as, for [96] instance, "Snip-Jig," "Snap-Jig," and so on.
The player of the stop has to lead the next card.

It will thus be seen that the object of the players should be to lead
such cards as will bring the Jig into their own hand again whenever
possible, as then another card has to be led, and a greater chance exists
of clearing the hand.  To do this successfully, it is necessary to remember
what cards are played during the progress of the game, so as to know which
are stops, and then, if the stops are in hand, such cards should be played
as would lead up to them.  It will be well to bear in mind the following,
which gives a list of the "Jigs" to the several cards of the pack:--

The five is "Jig" to the ace. | The ten is "Jig" to six.
 "  six        "     two.     |  "  knave     "     seven.
 "  seven      "     three.   |  "  queen     "     eight.
 "  eight      "     four.    |  "  king      "     nine, ten,
 "  nine       "     five.    |        knave or queen.


Similarly, if the two, three, or four is a stop, the ace, two or three
may be played so as to lead up to them and thus secure the Jig.

When one of the party has exhausted his cards, he says "Out," and then
receives a coin or counter from each player for every card they have left,
and he also wins the amount in the pool if one has been formed.  This is
possible in many ways: either by each player contributing to it equally,
by calling upon the dealer to pay in, or by the infliction of fines or
penalties for incorrect calls, etc.

It is hardly necessary to give further details of the method of playing
the hands, the game being so similar to Pope Joan, Spin, and Newmarket,
which are fully described elsewhere.  Players will do well to refer to
those games for further information in regard to this variation of
Snip-Snap-Snorum.



[97]

CASSINO.


This game, which is of considerable antiquity, is available for two, three,
four, or more persons, but is usually played by four, when two of the
players act as partners against the other two.  It is, however, equally
available for four players acting independently, in which case each scores
his individual points, whereas in the partnership game, as with only two
players, the lesser number of points is taken from the greater, and the
difference only is scored by the winner.  With three players it is also
necessary to score independently, although in all these independent
scorings it is sometimes decided that the lowest scorer shall not reckon
anything, while the number of his points is deducted from those of each of
the others; as, for instance: suppose _A_ made 1 point, _B_ 2, _C_ 3 and
_D_ 5; _A_ would not score anything, while _B_ would score 1, _C_ 2, and
_D_ 4.  Similarly, if _A_ made 2 points, _B_ 2, _C_ 2 and _D_ 5; _D_ would
be the only one to score, and he would count 3.

It is usual to play with the full pack of fifty-two cards; there is however
no reason why the smaller pack of thirty-two should not be used, but in
that case the hands would be of shorter duration.

Assuming that four persons intend to take part in the game, and that they
decide to play in pairs, the first question to settle will be as to who
shall be partners, and who the first dealer.  This is arranged by each of
the four [98] players taking a card from the top or other part of the pack,
when those who draw the two lowest cards have to play against the drawers
of the two highest.  The lowest of the four (ace counting as lowest)
becomes the first dealer.  In the event of a tie, which prevents the
decision being thus made, only those whose cards are alike draw a second
time.  The partners sit opposite to each other, and the cards of each
player are kept distinct until the hands are completed by the entire pack
having been played through.

The cards having been shuffled and cut, the dealer distributes four cards
to each of the players, dealing them one at a time.  He also places four
other cards face upwards in the middle of the table.  It is usual to
deal these latter one at a time when going round with the regular hands,
but they may be taken all at one time from the top of the pack, after the
players have received their cards.  The player on the left-hand side of the
dealer then plays a card from his own hand, and takes with it every card of
the same denomination among those exposed on the table, as well as all that
will combine and make the same number.  For instance, a ten not only takes
every other ten, but also nine and ace, eight and two, seven and three,
six and four, or two fives, two threes and a four, and other combinations.

If the player is able to pair or combine any of the cards, he places them
with his own card face downwards on the table in front of him; but if he is
not able to pair or combine, he must add a card, face upwards, to those
already exposed on the table.  The next player does the same, and so on
round the table until the four cards in hand have either been paired,
combined, or added to the exposed stock on the table.  The original dealer
then distributes four fresh cards to each of the players, but does not
expose any on the table as in the first round.  The same proceeding [99]
is repeated until the whole pack has been exhausted, the player who is last
able to pair or combine any of the exposed cards taking all the remaining
cards off the table, and scoring one point for thus "sweeping the board,"
as it is termed.  If a player is able to sweep the board at any other time
during the progress of the game, he also scores a point, and the following
player has to commence a new board by laying out a card.

The whole of the cards having thus been played, the partners combine their
winnings, and the counting of the cards commences, the various points of
the game being as follow:


The winner of Great Cassino (the ten of
   diamonds) reckons      ...  ...  ...  ...  2 points.

The winner of Little Cassino (the two of
   spades) reckons   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1 point.

The winner of each ace reckons ...  ...  ...  1   "

The winner of the majority of the cards of
   the spade suit reckons      ...  ...  ...  1   "

The winner of the majority of the entire pack
   of cards reckons  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  3 points.


The partners whose winnings show the greater number of points then deduct
the points of their opponents from their own, and score the remainder
to their game; thus, if one sides secures 6, and the other side 5,
the former score 1 point and the latter score nothing; while if the
respective scores were 7 and 4, the winners of the seven points would
add to their score.

The object of those engaged in the game being to secure Great Cassino,
Little Cassino, the four aces, the majority of spades, and the greater
number of cards, a few rules will at once suggest themselves to guide
the play of the hands.  [100] Secure the Cassino cards on the first
opportunity, also aces and spades, after which aim to make as many
combinations as possible, leaving the pairs until last, unless they be
the ten or the two, which are always best got off the board as early as
possible, so as to prevent the opponents making the Cassinos if they
have them in hand.

When three players are engaged, it is sometimes agreed that the two lowest
shall add their points together, and subtract them from the highest.
In such a case, if the two lower numbers together either amount to or
exceed the higher, then neither party scores.  This method will not be
found desirable in actual play, as it leads to so many hands resulting
in a negative score.

If a card is exposed by the dealer in the first round, other than those
dealt for the exposed hand, then the deal is forfeited, but the exposure of
a card at a subsequent period does not disqualify the dealer, the player
being compelled to take the exposed card, although it is best to impose
some penalty for the fault.



[101]

MY BIRD SINGS.


This game may be played by any number of persons up to thirteen, if a
full pack of cards be used; or by any number up to eight with the smaller
pack of thirty-two cards.  A pool is formed by each player contributing a
counter or coin, the dealer paying one extra.  Four cards are then dealt
to each player, and all have the right to look at their hands.

The object of the players is to secure a flush, four cards of one suit;
or four cards of different suits; and when either of these combinations
is secured, the player says: "My Bird sings," and he becomes the winner,
and thereby entitled to the amount in the pool.

There are two methods of conducting the game: either by each player in
turn throwing out a card from his hand, or by allowing the opponent on
his left-hand side to take one.

The competitor on the dealer's left is the first to play, and, supposing
his "Bird" does not already "sing," and the first-named method is adopted,
he throws out one of his cards, face downwards, on the table.  The player
on his left adds this card to his own four, and if his "Bird" does not
"sing," he in like manner throws one of his cards out for the next player;
the same plan being adopted round and round, until one of the players
secures the four cards necessary.

If the second method is adopted the player does not [102] himself reject
a card, but turns his hand, without exposing it, to the next player, who
selects whichever card he chooses, and proceeds with the game as in the
other variation.

After going completely round among the players three times, the original
leader may exchange one of his cards for the top card of the undealt
portion of the pack, and if it should happen to be of the same suit as
the one he threw out, he rejects it, and takes the next or following one,
until he gets a different suit; but before introducing a new card into
the game he must throw out one of those in hand.  This introduction of new
cards may be made each round, after the first three of a hand, until one of
the players secures a winning set of cards, otherwise it may be a tedious
matter to get a winning combination.


VARIATIONS.


The game is sometimes played for flushes only; that is, the four cards
must be of one suit before a player's "Bird sings," and sometimes only
three cards are dealt to each player, in which latter case flushes alone
are recognised.

The game may also be continued until the whole pack of cards is exhausted;
in which case, whenever a player's bird sings, he turns the four cards
over and regards them as one trick.  Four other cards are then given him
from the top of the undealt portion of the pack, and the game proceeds as
before.  The ultimate winner is he who secures the greatest number of
tricks.  In the case of a tie the stakes are divided between the two or
more players who have an equal number.



[103]

SPOIL-FIVE


Spoil-Five may be played by any number of persons not exceeding ten; the
best game, however, is when four or live take part, as then about half the
cards are in play.  In this game the cards run in different order to the
ordinary course, vary in the two colours, and further, change in the trump
suit, as follows:

1. _In Hearts and Diamonds, when not trumps_.--King, queen, knave, 10, 9,
down to ace (the ace of hearts is always a trump card, and never counts
as a heart).

2. _In Clubs and Spades, when not trumps_.--King, queen, knave, ace, 2,
down to 10.

3. _In Hearts and Diamonds, when trumps_.--5, knave, ace of hearts, ace
of trumps, king, queen, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2.  (If hearts are trumps,
there is only one ace.)

4. _In Clubs and Spades, when trumps_.--5, knave, ace of hearts, ace of
trumps, king, queen, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

A simple method of remembering the order of the cards is to notice that the
highest of the minor ones are the best in the red suits, and the lowest in
the black ones.

A pool is made up by each player contributing two or three coins
or counters for the purpose, the dealer paying an additional stake.
The pool thus formed goes to the player who succeeds in winning three
tricks in one hand; but if neither player succeeds in doing so, the game
is said to be "spoilt," and the amount remains in the pool, the players
contributing for the next round only one coin or [104] counter, and paying
that number into the pool each deal until one of the party succeeds in
winning three tricks, when he takes the total amount in the pool, and
a new one is started by each player contributing the full stake as at
the commencement.  The dealer pays the sum agreed for the deal each time,
no matter whether the pool was won, or the game spoilt, the previous round.

If there are only two players engaged, or with four, if it is agreed that
two of the players combine against the other two, there can be no spoils,
as one must win three of the tricks, and thus secure the pool, each round.

To determine the first dealer, the cards are dealt round as in "Nap"
(see p. 9), when the player to whom the first knave falls becomes dealer.
He shuffles the pack, has it cut by the player on his right-hand side,
and proceeds to distribute five cards to each player, dealing them in
regular order from left to right, and either first two and then three to
each player, or first three and then two.  The top card of the undealt
portion of the pack is turned up for trump, and if it proves to be the ace,
the dealer has the option of "robbing," as explained hereafter; and if it
is not the ace, any one holding that card must rob before he plays, before
his turn comes round.

If the dealer makes a misdeal, or deals out of order, or exposes a card,
he loses his turn of dealing, and the next player in order takes his place;
or it may be agreed that in case of a misdeal the dealer shall have the
option of dealing again after paying a second stake for dealing into the
pool.  The deal is an advantage, and in case of a slip in the distribution
of the cards, it will generally be found best to pay the penalty and deal
again.

The game is opened by the player on the left-hand side of the dealer
leading whichever of his cards he chooses.  [105] If the card led be a
trump, then all the players must follow suit if they are able to do so,
subject to certain exceptions explained below under the heading of
"Reneging."

If the ace of hearts is led, and another suit is trumps, it does not
necessitate all the players following suit, even though the ace of hearts
is always reckoned as a trump.  The lead in this case is considered as made
from a plain suit, and the rules governing them are enforced.

If the card is not a trump, then the other players may trump the card,
or follow suit, as they please, but each must do the one or the other
if he holds a card of the suit led if he does not hold one of the suit,
then he may discard either of the others, or play a trump, as he prefers.
The player of the highest card of the suit led, or of the highest trump,
if trumps have been played, wins the trick, and he plays first to the next.
In deciding the winner the cards are reckoned in the special order given
above.

The game is continued until one player wins three tricks, when he takes
the pool; or, failing that, till all of the cards are played, when the game
is spoilt, and each contributes to the pool the reduced stake agreed upon.


_ROBBING_.


Robbing is one of the most important features of the game, inasmuch as if
the player who holds the ace of trumps omits to rob when his turn comes
round, he is de-barred from winning the pool that hand, even though he
may secure the necessary number of tricks.

The method of robbing if the ace is turned up, is for the dealer to place
one of his own cards on the table face downwards in front of him, which
card must not be exposed at any time during the progress of the hand.
He does not take the ace into his own hand until the others [106] have
played to the first trick, but when it comes to his turn he adds it to his
hand, or he may at once use it.  He must, however, throw out the card with
which he intends to rob the ace before the first card of the round is
played, and reasonable time must be allowed to do so.  The turn-up suit
remains trump throughout the hand.

In the case of the ace not being turned up, and being in the hand of either
of the players, then the holder must rob the turn-up card when it comes
to his turn to play to the first trick.  The manner of doing this is
somewhat similar to that just described; the holder of the ace rejects
a card placing it face downwards on the table, and takes the turn-up card
into his hand.  He must do this when it is his turn to play, and before
showing his first card, otherwise he forfeits the privilege, and is,
moreover, prohibited from winning the pool that round, no matter how many
tricks he may secure.  The same penalty is attached to the player who robs
the turn-up card without holding the ace.

As a variation, it may be agreed that robbing shall be optional,
or shall not be recognised as a part of the game.


_RENEGING_.


The holder of the five of trumps, the knave of trumps, or the ace of
hearts, enjoys the privilege of not being obliged to play them when a trump
is led; but this privilege (which is called reneging) only holds when the
trump led is a lower one.  For instance, if the knave be led, the holder
of the ace of hearts is obliged to play it.


VARIATIONS.


A very good game may be played by allowing the cards to retain their
ordinary sequence.  As this avoids confusion, it is more suitable for
family play.


[107]

_TWO TRICKS WIN_.


If five or more players are taking part in the game, it may be found
desirable that the winner of two tricks shall take the pool, or
partnerships can be formed; otherwise a long continuation of spoils
may occur.


_FIVING_.


This variation is sometimes played when two persons, or two sets of
partners are engaged in the game.  It consists in allowing the non-dealer,
providing he is not satisfied with his cards, to ask the dealer to "five"
it, when, if the dealer agrees, the trump card is removed, and the next
card is turned up for trump.  If that proves to be of the same suit as
the original turn-up, the next is taken, and so on until a change occurs.
The right to five can only be exercised once each hand.


_JINKING_.


A variation is sometimes made by the introduction of "jinking."  The winner
of all five tricks receives from each player his original stake in addition
to the amount in the pool; if, however, any player who has won three tricks
goes on playing, thinking he can jink, and fails to do so, he loses the
pool which he would otherwise have won for his three tricks.


_TWENTY-FIVE AND FORTY-FIVE_.


Instead of the game being finished in one hand, it may continue until one
player makes twenty-five, or forty-five.  In this case there are no spoils,
and every trick scores five to the winner.  Any player "jinking," _i.e._,
winning the five tricks, wins the game.



[108]

LOTO.


There are many varieties of Loto, with pictures, flowers, letters, etc.,
instead of numbers, which are known as Picture Loto, Botanical Loto,
Spelling Loto, Geographical Loto, Historical Loto, and so on.

These are mostly games for children, and are played in exactly the same
way as numbered Loto.

This game in England is usually regarded as an amusement for young
children; but it is one capable of affording amusement to grown-up people,
as may be seen by the interest shown in "Keno" by the Americans.

"Keno," or American Loto, is played in various places of public resort,
by adults, for considerable stakes, and is esteemed capital practice in
reading numbers rapidly and correctly.

The requisite paraphernalia for this game--which may be played by any
number of persons, not exceeding twenty-four--are boxes containing
100 counters; 14 fishes, each of which is reckoned as 10 counters;
12 contracts, valued at 10 fish or 100 counters apiece; a pack of
24 very large cards with fifteen different numbers marked on each,
and a bag containing 90 knobs or discs, numbered from 1 to 90.

   #==========================#
   #5 ¦11¦  ¦33¦  ¦50¦  ¦76¦  #
   #--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--#
   #  ¦17¦22¦  ¦43¦  ¦65¦  ¦89#
   #--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--#
   #2 ¦  ¦28¦55¦  ¦56¦  ¦74¦  #
   #==========================#
            Fig. 1.

In addition, a board with ten cavities cut therein for the purpose
of placing the knobs as drawn, is required.

[109]

A Loto card, on which are inscribed, in the manner shown in the diagram,
numbers ranging from 1 to 90--five numbers on each line, is represented in
fig 1.  The units are arranged in the first column, the tens in the second,
the twenties in the third, and so on.

The number of these cards supplied in a Loto box varies, but the general
number is twenty-four, although sometimes there are only eighteen.
With twenty-four cards, each number appears in four different cards.

There are several different methods of playing this game, of which we will
give the two principal ones.  The first method makes it a game of chance
and skill, or rather quickness in reading figures; and the second, purely
a game of luck.

_First Method_.--Before commencing the game, a dealer has to be chosen,
and his duties consist of shuffling the cards and dealing to each player
one or more cards.  The dealer is unable to join in the game, and is
obliged to stand out.

Each player should stake a certain sum, which should be reserved for the
winner; and a certain number of counters of no value, but merely to be
used for covering the numbers as called, should be placed in the pool.

Sometimes each player contributes a certain number of counters to the pool,
then each saves out of his stake the number of counters he has on his card
or cards; and the winner obtains the money for his fifteen counters on his
card, and receives in addition all the pool which remains.

In order to render the game still more interesting, the contributions to
the pool should be so arranged that it is capable of being divided into
four parts.  Then a fourth part of the pool is won by the player who first
succeeds in covering one horizontal row; another fourth part of the [110]
pool is won by the player who first succeeds in covering two horizontal
rows, and the remaining half is reserved for the winner who first covers
the whole of his card.

The dealer then, having deposited the 90 knobs in a bag, draws them forth
rapidly, one by one, and calls out the number which appears or the knob in
a clear tone.

The player, having the corresponding number on his cards or cards, who
first answers to the number called, covers the number on the card or cards
with one of the counters in the pool, which should be so placed on the
table as to be available for the use of all the players.

The player who first succeeds in covering all the numbers on his card or
cards wins the game.

_The Second Method_.--Every player should draw two cards, and deposit
a stake previously agreed upon; and if the party is not too numerous,
then any may take four or six cards, laying down a double or treble stake
accordingly; and when the players are more than twelve, then some are only
to have one card, paying half a stake, and likewise should the players
not take all the cards among them, the remainder of the pack is to be
laid aside until some other persons join the set.  From the cards not
taken, players may exchange one or more of those drawn, or they may change
with one another; similar exchanges, if the company consent, may also be
made previous to each drawing, and likewise prior to replenishing the pool.
Cards may be thrown up, or additional ones drawn from those put by;
stakes being paid proportionably.

The stakes are to be put together in a pool, placed in the middle of
the table, and also on the table there should be a quantity of counters
sufficient for the number of cards taken; upon the counters a value is to
be fixed adequate to the stakes first deposited, from the whole of which a
sum [111] must be reserved, enough to pay, at the conclusion of the game,
all the counters laid upon the table.

Then, after counting the 90 knobs, so as to be certain they are right, the
eldest hand shall first shake them well together in the bag, and afterwards
draw out ten successively, not only declaring the number of each as drawn,
but also placing the same conspicuously on the board.

As soon as a number is declared, each player having that number on one
or more of his cards, is to take up counters, sufficient to lay one upon
that number every time it occurs, and so on until the ten knobs are drawn.
When only part of the pack is taken, and a number drawn happens not to be
upon any player's card, then the players may put away that knob till some
person takes a card on which it is printed.

When ten knobs are drawn out, every player examining the cards separately,
and having only one counter upon any horizontal line, wins for that no more
than the said counter, which is styled gaining by _abstract;_ where two
counters are on the same horizontal line of a separate card, the player
gains an _ambo_, and becomes entitled to five counters besides the two;
when three are upon the same line, the player obtains a _terne_, and is
to receive 25 additional counters; if four are on the same line, that is
called a _quaterne_ winning 100 counters additional; when five occur on
the same line, that makes a _quinterne_, gaining 250 additional counters,
and the player is entitled to payment out of the pool for all the
above-mentioned acquisitions previous to another drawing.  Instead of
giving counters, payment for the same may at once be made from the stock
in the pool.

The knobs are then to be returned, and the bag given to the next player in
rotation, who is to shake the same, and draw, etc., as before stated.

[112]

Whenever the pool is exhausted, the players must contribute again,
according to the number of cards taken; and when it is resolved to finish
the game, they agree among themselves to have only a fixed number of
drawings more.

At the last drawing each player proceeds as heretofore directed, but the
drawing concludes when no more counters are left on the table.  The players
then, beginning with the eldest hand, are to be paid out of the pool,
as far as the money will go; and when that is expended, the others remain
unpaid, which is styled a Bankruptcy; lastly, the players should re-unite
the counters obtained from the pool with those that were on their cards,
and receive payment for them out of the fund reserved at the commencement
of the game.

The counters requisite for the payment of the players are:--

For 24 cards 144 times ten.
 "  18  "    108     "
 "  12  "     72     "
 "   6  "     36     "

Consequently, 60 counters should be contributed for every card taken by
a player





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