Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Bird Book - Illustrating in natural colors more than seven hundred North American birds; also several hundred photographs of their nests and eggs.
Author: Reed, Chester A. (Chester Albert), 1876-1912
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Bird Book - Illustrating in natural colors more than seven hundred North American birds; also several hundred photographs of their nests and eggs." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



http://www.pgdpcanada.net (This file was produced from
images generously made available by The Internet
Archive/American Libraries.)



-----------------------------------------------------------------------
TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES:

Page numbers have been retained for easier references. As a result,
pages are not concatenated; a few pages will end without punctuation,
and the following page will start in lower case.

Inconsistencies in the numbering sequence have been retained.

The illustration descriptions have been regrouped at the end of each
page. Where the description only states a color, it should be understood
as an "egg color".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------


Page 1

THE BIRD BOOK
[Illustration: 003]

Page 2

[Illustration: 004
PASSENGER OR WILD PIGEON
Female. Male. Young.]

Page 3

THE BIRD BOOK

ILLUSTRATING IN NATURAL COLORS
MORE THAN SEVEN HUNDRED
NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS;
ALSO SEVERAL HUNDRED
PHOTOGRAPHS OF THEIR
NESTS AND EGGS

BY

CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

[Illustration 005: Printer's Mark.]

GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

1915

Page 4

_Copyright, 1914, by_
CHARLES K. REED

_All rights reserved, including that of
translation into foreign languages,
including the Scandinavian._

Page 5

[Illustration 007: BARN OWL.]

Page 6

[Illustration 008: TOPOGRAPHY OF A BIRD.]

Page 7

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Diving Birds. Order I. Pygopodes                              10
  Grebes. Family Colymbidæ                                    11
  Loons. Family Gaviidæ                                       17
  Auks, Murres and Puffins. Family Alcidæ                     21

Long-winged Swimmers. Order II. Longipennes                   35
  Skuas and Jægers. Family Stercoraridæ                       35
  Gulls and Terns. Family Laridæ                              38
  Skimmers. Family Rynchopidæ                                 58

Tube-nosed Swimmers. Order III. Tubinares                     59
  Albatrosses. Family Diomedeidæ                              59
  Fulmars, Shearwaters and Petrels. Family Procellariidæ      61

Totipalmate Swimmers. Order IV. Steganopodes                  72
  Tropic Birds. Family Phæthontidæ                            72
  Gannets. Family Sulidæ                                      74
  Darters. Family Anhingidæ                                   77
  Cormorants. Family Phalacrocoracidæ                         78
  Pelicans. Family Pelecanidæ                                 83
  Man-o'-War Birds. Family Fregatidæ                          86

Lamellirostral Swimmers. Order V. Anseres                     87
  Ducks, Geese and Swans. Family Anatidæ                      87

Lamellirostral Grallatores. Order VI. Odontoglossæ           115
  Flamingoes. Family Phœnicopteridæ                          115

Herons, Storks, Ibises, etc. Order VII. Herodiones           115
  Spoonbills. Family Plataleidæ                              115
  Ibises. Family Ibididæ                                     117
  Storks and Wood Ibises. Family Ciconiidæ                   118
  Herons, Bitterns, etc. Family Ardeidæ                      119

Cranes, Rails, etc. Order VIII. Paludicolæ                   127
  Cranes. Family Gruidæ                                      127
  Courlans. Family Aramidæ                                   129
  Rails, Gallinules and Coots. Family Rallidæ                131

Shore Birds. Order IX. Limicolæ                              137
  Phalaropes. Family Phalaropodidæ                           137
  Avocets and Stilts. Family Recurvirostridæ                 139
  Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. Family Scolopacidæ                140
  Plovers. Family Charadriidæ                                161
  Surf Birds and Turnstones. Family Aphrizidæ                169
  Oyster-catchers. Family Hæmatopodidæ                       170
  Jacanas. Family Jacanidæ                                   172

Gallinaceous Birds. Order X. Gallinæ                         175
  Grouse, Partridges, etc. Family Odontophoridæ              175
  Turkeys. Family Meleagridæ                                 178
  Curassows and Guans. Family Cracidæ                        191

Page 8

Pigeons. Order XI. Columbæ                                   192
  Pigeons. Family Columbidæ                                  192

Birds of Prey. Order XII. Raptores                           198
  American Vultures. Family Cathartidæ                       198
  Hawks, Eagles, etc. Family Buteonidæ                       201
  Falcons, etc. Family Falconidæ                             218
  Osprey. Family Pandionidæ                                  225
  Barn Owls. Family Aluconidæ                                227
  Owls. Family Strigidæ                                      227

Parrots, Paroquets. Order XIII. Psittaci                     241
  Parrots and Paroquets. Psittacidæ                          241

Cuckoos, etc. Order XIV. Coccyges                            241
  Cuckoos, Anis, etc. Family Cuculidæ                        241
  Trogons. Family Trogonidæ                                  246
  Kingfishers. Family Alcedinidæ                             247

Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc. Order XV. Pici                   249
  Woodpeckers. Family Picidæ                                 249

Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc. Order XVI. Macrochires             262
  Goatsuckers, etc. Family Caprimulgidæ                      263
  Swifts. Family Micropodidæ                                 268
  Hummingbirds. Family Trochilidæ                            271

Perching Birds. Order XVII. Passeres                         280
  Cotingas. Family Cotingidæ                                 280
  Tyrant Flycatchers. Family Tyrannidæ                       280
  Larks. Family Alaudidæ                                     297
  Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc. Family Corvidæ                  300
  Starlings. Family Sturnidæ                                 314
  Blackbirds, Orioles, etc. Family Icteridæ                  314
  Finches, Sparrows, etc. Family Fringillidæ                 324
  Tanagers. Family Tangaridæ                                 369
  Swallows. Family Hirundinidæ                               372
  Waxwings. Family Bombycillidæ                              375
  Shrikes. Family Laniidæ                                    376
  Vireos. Family Vireonidæ                                   378
  Honey Creepers. Family Cœrebidæ                            385
  Warblers. Family Mniotiltidæ                               385
  Wagtails. Family Motacillidæ                               418
  Dippers. Family Cinclidæ                                   419
  Wrens. Family Troglodytidæ                                 423
  Thrashers, etc. Family Mimidæ                              429
  Creepers. Family Certhiidæ                                 430
  Nuthatches. Family Sittidæ                                 431
  Titmice. Family Paridæ                                     431
  Warblers, Kinglets, Gnatcatchers. Family Sylviidæ          433
  Thrushes, Solitaires, Bluebirds, etc. Family Turdidæ       442
Index                                                        450

Page 9

[Illustration 011: BALTIMORE ORIOLE.]



Page 10

THE BIRD BOOK

DIVING BIRDS. Order I. PYGOPODES

GREBES. Family COLYMBIDÆ

Grebes are birds having a ducklike body, but with pointed bills. Their
feet, too, are unlike those of the Ducks, each toe having its separate
web, and having a broad flat nail. Their wings are very small for the
size of the body, making it impossible for them to rise in flight from
the land. They rise from the water by running a few yards along the
surface until they have secured sufficient headway to allow them to
launch themselves into the air. After having risen from the water their
flight is very swift and strong. On land they are very awkward and can
only progress by a series of awkward hops; they generally lie flat on
their breasts, but occasionally stand up, supporting themselves upon
their whole tarsus. Grebes, together with the Loons, are the most expert
aquatic birds that we have, diving like a flash and swimming for an
incredible distance under water.

Page 11

1. WESTERN GREBE. _Aechmophorus occidentalis_.

Range.--Western parts of North America, from southern Alaska southward;
east to Minnesota and south in winter to the southern parts of the
United States and Mexico. Breeds from the Dakotas and northern
California northward. These are the largest of the American Grebes;
owing to their unusually long necks, they are frequently called "Swan
Grebes." They are very timid birds and conceal themselves in the rushes
on the least suspicion of danger. At times, to escape observation, they
will entirely submerge their body, leaving only their head and part of
the long neck visible above the water. This Grebe cannot be mistaken for
any other because of the long slender neck and the long pointed bill,
which has a slight upward turn. They nest abundantly in the marshes of
North Dakota and central Canada. Their nests are made of decayed rushes,
and are built over the water, being fastened to the rushes so that the
bottom of the nest rests in the water. The nesting season is at its
height during the latter part of May. They lay from three to five eggs,
the ground color of which is a pale blue; this color is, however, always
concealed by a thin chalky deposit, and this latter is frequently
stained to a dirty white. Size 2.40 × 1.55.


2. HOLBOELL'S GREBE. _Colymbus holboellii._

Range.--Throughout North America, breeding from northern United States
northward and wintering from the middle to the southern portions of the
United States. In regard to size this Grebe comes next to the Western,
being 19 in. in length. This bird can be distinguished by the white
cheeks and throat and the reddish brown foreneck. They breed abundantly
in the far north placing their floating islands of decayed vegetation in
the water in the midst of the marsh grass. They lay from three to six
eggs of a dingy white color which have the stained surface common to
Grebes eggs. Size 2.35 × 1.25.

[Illustration 013: Chalky bluish white, stained buff.]
[Illustration: Western Grebe Holboell's Grebe.]
[Illustration: White, stained buff.]
[Illustration: Right-hand margin.]

Page 12

[Illustration 014: Walter Raine
NEST AND EGGS OF HOLBOELL'S GREBE
Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba.]

Page 13

3. HORNED GREBE. Colymbus auritus.

Range.--The whole of North America, breeding in the interior from North
Dakota northwest; winters along the Gulf Coast. This species is one of
the most beautiful of the Grebes, having in the breeding season buffy
ear tufts, black cheeks and throat, and chestnut neck, breast and sides.
They breed abundantly in the marshy flats of North Dakota and the
interior of Canada. They build a typical Grebe's nest, a floating mass
of decayed matter which stains the naturally white eggs to a dirty
brown. The number of eggs varies from three to seven. Size 1.70 × 1.15.
Data.--Devils Lake, N. Dakota, June 20, 1900. 6 eggs much stained. Nest
floating in 4 ft. of water, a large mass of rotten rushes and weeds.
Collector. James Smalley.


4. EARED GREBE. _Colymbus nigricollis californicus._

Range.--North America west of the Mississippi, breeding from Texas to
Manitoba and wintering along the Pacific Coast of the United States and
from Texas southward.

Eared Grebes differ from the preceding in having the entire neck
blackish. They nest very abundantly throughout the west, in favorable
localities, from Texas to Minnesota and Dakota. Their nests are
constructed in the same manner as the preceding varieties and are
located in similar localities. As do all the Grebes when leaving the
nest, they cover the eggs with the damp rushes from around the base of
the nest. This is probably for the purpose of assisting incubation
during their absence, by the action of the sun's rays on the wet mass.
As they are nearly always thus covered upon the approach of anyone, this
may be done also as a protection from discovery. They lay from three to
eight bluish white eggs with the usual chalky and discolored appearance.
The breeding season is at its height early in June, or earlier, in the
southern portion of its range. Size 1.75 × 1.20. Data.--Artesian, S.
Dakota, June 21, 1899. Nest of rushes, floating in three feet of water.
Large colony in a small lake. Collector, F. A. Patton.

[Illustration 015: Horned Grebe. Eared Grebe.]
[Illustration: Buffy white, nest stained.]
[Illustration: Bluish white, stained.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 14

[Illustration 016: Walter Raine
NEST AND EGGS OF HORNED GREBE
Saltcoats Marshes, Assiniboia, June 6, 1901.]
[Illustration left margin.]

Page 15

5. MEXICAN GREBE. _Colymbus dominicus brachypterus._

Range.--Southern Texas and Lower California southward to South America,
breeding throughout its range.

The Least Grebe is by far the smallest of the Grebes in this country,
being but 10 in. in length; it can not be mistaken for any other, the
Eared Grebe being the only species of this family found in the same
localities during the summer. These little Grebes nest very abundantly
along the Rio Grande Valley in Texas, the nesting season lasting from
the latter part of May until well into December.

Their nests are floating piles of grass and weeds upon which they lay
from three to five chalky white eggs, which are always discolored,
sometimes to a deep chocolate hue. These eggs average a great deal
darker in color than do any of the other Grebes. In a series of fifty
sets fully half were a rich brown tint. Size 1.40 × .95.


6. PIED-BILLED GREBE. _Podilymbus podiceps._

Range.--From the British provinces southward to Argentine Republic,
breeding locally throughout the northern portions of its range.

The Dabchick, as this bird is called, is the most evenly distributed
bird of this family. It is nowhere especially abundant, nor is it,
except in a very few localities, regarded as rare. Consequently it is
the best known bird of the species. They do not congregate in such large
numbers as the other Grebes during the nesting season, but one or more
pairs may be found in almost any favorable locality. These birds render
their floating nest a little more substantial than those of the
preceding varieties by the addition of mud which they bring up from the
bottom of the pond; this addition also tends to soil the eggs more,
consequently the eggs of this bird are, as a general rule, browner than
the other Grebes with the exception of the Least. The bird may always be
known by the shape of its bill which is higher than it is broad, and in
the summer is white with a black band across the middle. The throat is
also black at this season. They lay from five to nine eggs commencing
about the middle of May. Size 1.70 × 1.18.

[Illustration 017: Deep buff or rich brown.]
[Illustration: Mexican Grebe. Pied-billed Grebe.]
[Illustration: Deep buff.]
[Illustration: right-hand margin.]

Page 16

[Illustration 018: PIED-BILLED GREBE.]

Page 17

LOONS. Family GAVIIDAE

Loons may be likened to gigantic Grebes from which they differ
externally, chiefly in the full webbed foot instead of the individually
webbed toes of the Grebe, and in the sharper, more pointed and
spear-like bill. These birds are similar in their habits to the Grebes,
except that their homes are generally more substantially built and are
placed upon a solid foundation, generally upon an island in some inland
lake.

Both Loons and Grebes are literally "Water witches," being practically,
and in the case of Grebes, actually, born in the water and living in it
ever afterwards. Loons are strong fliers, but like the Grebes, because
of their small wings they must get their first impetus from the water in
order to rise; in case there is any wind blowing they also make use of
this by starting their flight against it. They are very peculiar birds
and the expression "crazy as a loon" is not a fanciful one, being formed
from their early morning and evening antics when two or more of them
will race over the top of the water, up and down the lake, all the while
uttering their demoniacal laughter. They vie with the Grebes in diving
and disappear at the flash of a gun.

[Illustration 019: EGG OF LOON. Dark greenish brown.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 18

7. LOON. _Gavia immer._

Range.--North America north of the Mexican boundary, breeding from the
northern parts of the United States northward.

Unlike the Grebes, Loons do not build in colonies, generally not more
than one, or at the most two pairs nesting on the same lake or pond;
neither do they seek the marshy sloughs in which Grebes dwell,
preferring the more open, clear bodies of water. The common Loon may be
known in summer by the entirely black head and neck with the complete
ribbon of black and white stripes encircling the lower neck and the
narrower one which crosses the throat. The back is spotted with white.
In some sections Loons build no nest, simply scooping a hollow out in
the sand, while in other places they construct quite a large nest of
sticks, moss and grasses. It is usually placed but a few feet from the
waters edge, so that at the least suspicion the bird can slide off its
eggs into the water, where it can cope with any enemy. The nests are
nearly always concealed under the overhanging bushes that line the
shore; the one shown in the full page illustration, however, was located
upon the top of an old muskrat house. The two eggs which they lay are a
very dark greenish brown in color, with black spots. Size 3.50 × 2.25.
Data.--Lake Sunapee, N. H., June 28, 1895. Nest placed under the bushes
at the waters edge. Made of rushes, weeds and grasses; a large structure
nearly three feet in diameter. Collector, H. A. Collins.


8. YELLOW-BILLED LOON. _Gavia adamsi._

Range.--Northwestern North America, along the Arctic and northern
Alaskan coasts.

The Yellow-billed Loon with the exception of its whitish or yellowish
bill in place of the black, is practically otherwise indistinguishable
from the common Loon. It averages somewhat larger in size. This is one
of the most northerly breeding birds and it is only within a very few
years that anything has been learned about the breeding habits. Their
nesting habits and eggs are precisely like the preceding except that the
latter average a little larger. Size 3.60 × 2.25.


9. BLACK-THROATED LOON. _Gavia arctica._.

Range.--From northern United States northward, breeding along the Arctic
Coast.

This species can be easily separated from the Loon by the gray crown and
white streaks down the back of the neck. Its size, too, is about five
inches shorter. The nesting habits are the same as the Loons and the
eggs have rather more of an olive tint besides having the majority of
spots at the larger end. Size 3.10 × 2.00.

[Illustration 020: Loon. Black-throated Loon.]
[Illustration: left-hand margin.]

Page 19

10. PACIFIC LOON. _Gavia pacifica._

Range.--Western North America along the coast chiefly, breeding from
Alaska south to British Columbia. In winter, south along the coast to
Mexico.

This species differs from the Black-throated only in the tint of the
head reflections. The habits are the same as those of the other members
of the family. They lay two eggs of a greenish brown or greenish gray
hue with black spots. Size 3.10 × 1.90. Data.--Yukon River, Alaska, June
28, 1902. Nest of rubbish on an island; found by a miner.


11. RED-THROATED LOON. _Gavia stellata._

Range.--Northern parts of North America, breeding from southern Canada
northward in the interior on both coasts. South to the middle portions
of the United States in winter.

This is the smallest of the Loon family, being twenty-five inches in
length. In plumage it is wholly unlike any of the other members at all
seasons of the year. In summer the back, head and neck are gray, the
latter being striped with white. A large chestnut patch adorns the front
of the lower part of the neck. In winter the back is spotted with white,
whereas all the others are unspotted at this period. The nesting habits
are identical with the other species; the ground color of the two eggs
is also the same. Size 2.00 × 1.75.

[Illustration 021: Pacific Loon. Red-throated Loon.]
[Illustration: PACIFIC LOON. Greenish brown or gray.]
[Illustration: right-hand margin.]

Page 20

[Illustration 022: J. A. Munro.
NEST AND EGGS OF LOON.
This nest is built on top of a Muskrat house.]

Page 21

PUFFINS, AUKS and MURRES.
Family ALCIDÆ

Puffins, Auks and Murres are all sea birds and are only found inland
when blown there by some severe storm of winter. At this season numbers
of them are apt to lose their bearings and may sometimes be found with
their feet frozen in some of our inland ponds. Puffins are heavily built
birds in appearance, but are very active both on the wing and in the
water. Their wings are much larger comparatively than those of the other
members of this family, so they are enabled to perform evolutions in the
air, which are withheld from the others. They stand upright on the sole
of the foot and are able to walk quite easily on land. Puffins have very
heavy and deep but thin bills, which are entirely unlike those of any
other bird and often give then the name of Parrot Auks. Puffins, Auks
and Murres are otherwise recognized by the presence of but three toes
which are webbed.

[Illustration 023: NEST AND EGGS OF PIED-BILLED GREBE.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 22

12. TUFTED PUFFIN. _Lunda cirrhata._

Range.--Pacific Coast from Alaska southward to southern California,
breeding locally throughout their range.

Tufted Puffins are the largest of the Puffins. In the breeding plumage,
they are a sooty brownish or black color; the cheeks are white, and a
long tuft of straw colored feathers extends back from each eye; the bill
is bright red and greenish yellow. They breed commonly on the
Farallones, where two or three broods are raised by a bird in a single
season, but much more abundantly on the islands in the north. Their
single eggs are laid in burrows in the ground or else in natural
crevices formed by the rocks. The eggs are pure white or pale buff and
are without gloss. They very often have barely perceptible shell
markings of dull purplish color. The eggs are laid about the middle of
June. Size 2.80 × 1.90. Data.--Farallone Is., May 27, 1887. Single egg
laid in crevice of rocks. Collector, W. O. Emerson.


13. PUFFIN. _Fratercula arctica arctica._

Range.--North Atlantic Coast, breeding from the Bay of Fundy northward.
Winters from breeding range along the New England Coast.

The common Puffin has the cheeks, chin and underparts white; upper parts
and a band across the throat, blackish. Bill deep and thin, and colored
with red, orange and yellow. They breed in large numbers on Bird Rock in
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The nest is either among the natural crevices
of the

[Illustration 024: Tufted Puffin. Puffin.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 23

rocks, or in burrows excavated in the ground by the birds. These burrows
vary in length from two and a half to four or five feet. Except upon the
positive knowledge of the absence of the bird, it is a hazardous thing
to put the hand in one of these burrows for the bird can, and will nip
the fingers, sometimes to the bone. They lay but a single egg, usually
dull white and unmarked, but in some cases obscurely marked with reddish
brown. Size 2.50 × 1.75. Data.--So. Labrador, June 23, 1884. Single egg
laid at end of burrow in the ground. Collector, J. H. Jameson.


13a. LARGE-BILLED PUFFIN. _Fratercula arctica naumanni._

A more northerly subspecies of the last, inhabiting the Arctic region on
the Atlantic side. The bird is somewhat larger but otherwise
indistinguishable from the common species. The eggs are exactly the same
or average a trifle larger. Size 2.55 × 1.80. Data.--Iceland, July 6,
1900. Single egg in hole under a rock. Collector, Chas. Jefferys.


14. HORNED PUFFIN. _Fratercula corniculata._

Range.--Pacific Coast from Alaska to British Columbia. The Horned Puffin
differs from the common in that the blackish band across the throat
extends upwards in a point to the bill. Their nesting habits are
precisely the same as those of the preceding species. A single pure
white egg is laid; the shell is slightly rougher than those of the
others. Size 2.65 × 1.80. Data.--Round Is., Alaska, June 24, 1884.
Single egg laid at end of burrow in ground; no nest. Collector, G. L.
Kennedy.


15. RHINOCEROS AUKLET. _Cerorhinca monocerata._

Range.--Pacific Coast, breeding from British Columbia northward and
wintering southward to Lower California.

The Rhinoceros Auklet or Horned Auk has a much smaller bill than the
Puffins; in the summer this is adorned at the base by a horn from which
it takes its name. There are also slender plumes from above and below
the eyes. Unlike the Puffins, these birds sit upon their whole tarsus.

They nest on islands of the North Pacific Coast from Vancouver
northward. A single egg is laid in crevices among the rocks or in
burrows in the ground. It is similar both in size and shape to that of
the Puffins, but is often quite heavily blotched with brown. Size 2.70 ×
1.80. Data.--Unak Is., Alaska, June 30, 1900. Egg laid in a fissure of
the rocks; no nest. Collector, F. Weston.

[Illustration 025: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 24

16. CASSIN AUKLET. _Ptychoramphus aleuticus._

Range.--Pacific Coast from Alaska to Lower California, breeding nearly
throughout its range.

A plain appearing bird about 9 in. in length, with blackish upperparts
relieved only by a white spot over the eye; breast and throat gray and
belly white. This Auklet is fairly abundant on the Farallones, breeding
on the lower portions of the island. The late Mr. C. Barlow says that it
is found in deserted rabbit burrows and in all probability often
excavates its own burrows. It also nests among the cliffs placing its
eggs among the rocks in any crevice or tunnel which may offer a dark
retreat during the day for they are nocturnal in their habits. The
single egg which they lay is dull white in color, the inside of the
shell being a pale green, which color can only be seen by holding the
egg to the light. They are generally slightly nest stained. Size 1.80 ×
1.30. Data.--Coronado Islands, Cal., March 23, 1897. Single egg laid on
the bare ground at end of a burrow three and one-half feet long.
Collector, E. A. Shives.

[Illustration 026: Horned Puffin. Rhinoceros Auklet. Cassin Auklet.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]
[Illustration: RHINOCEROS AUKLET. Color white, sometimes heavily
blotched, as above, and again unspotted.]

Page 25

17. PAROQUET AUKLET.--_Phaleris psittacula._

Range.--The Alaskan Coast, casually farther south in winter.

This bird is about the same size as the preceding, and the plumage is
similar, except that it has no white spot over the eye, and the breast
is white. It also has a slender plume extending from back of the eye.
The bill is very peculiar, being quite deep and rounded and having an
upward tendency. It is orange red in color. They breed very commonly on
the islands of Bering Strait. Their eggs are laid in the crevices of the
cliff, often several feet in and by a crooked path so that it is
impossible to reach them. The single chalky white egg is laid in May.
Size 2.30 × 1.45. Data.--Rocky Islet in the Aleutians, June 22, 1890.
Single egg laid on bare rock in a deep crevice. Collector, Capt. S.
Wilson.


18. CRESTED AUKLET. _Aethia cristatella._

Range.--Alaska Coast, similar in form and plumage to the latter, except
that the whole under parts are gray and it has a crest of recurved
feathers. The nesting season begins in May, the birds nesting upon the
same islands and in the same kinds of sites as the last species. The
single egg is chalky white. Size 2.10 × 1.50. Data.--Unak Is., Alaska,
July 1, 1900. Egg laid in a crevice among the rocks. Collector, F.
Weston.


19. WHISKERED AUKLET. _Aethia pygmaea._

Range.--The Alaska Coast.

Much smaller than the preceding; but 7.5 in. in length. Breast gray,
belly white; a small tuft of recurved feathers on the forehead and
slender white plumes from base of bill over the eye and from under the
eye, backwards. The bill in summer is a bright vermillion color. On some
of the islands of the Aleutian chain they breed quite abundantly. The
nests are placed back in the crevices of the rocks, where the single
white eggs are laid. Size 2.00 × 1.25.

[Illustration 027: Paroquet Auklet. Crested Auklet.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 26

20. LEAST AUKLET. _Aethia pusilla._

Range.--North Pacific on the islands and coast of Alaska. This is the
smallest of the Auklets; length 6.5 in. This species has no crest, but
has the slender white plumes extending back from the eye. The entire
under parts are white sparsely spotted with dusky. This species is by
far the most abundant of the water birds of the extreme Northwest, and
thousands of them, accompanied by the two preceding species, nest on the
rocky cliffs of the islands of Bering Sea. Their nesting habits are the
same as those of the other Auklets, they placing their single white egg
on the bare rocks, in crevices on the cliffs. Size 1.55 × 1.10.
Data.--Pribilof Is., Alaska, June 8, 1897. Single egg laid in crevice.
Thousands breeding on the island.


21. ANCIENT MURRELET. _Synthliboramphus antiquus._

Range.--Pacific Coast, breeding from the border of the United States,
northward, and wintering south to southern California.

The Murrelets have no crests or plumes and the bills are more slender
than the Auklets and are not highly colored. The ancient Murrelet or
Black-throated Murrelet, as it is also called, has a gray back, white
under parts and a black head and throat, with a broad white stripe back
of the eye and another formed by the white on the breast extending up on
the side of the neck. They breed abundantly on the islands in Bering
Sea, laying one or two eggs at the end of burrows in the banks or on the
ground, and in some localities in crevices on the cliffs. The eggs are a
buffy white color and are faintly marked with light brown, some of these
being in the shape of spots and others lengthened. Size 2.40 × 1.40.
Data.--Sanak Islands, July 1, 1894. Two eggs on the ground under a tuft
of grass and in a slight excavation lined with fine grass.

[Illustration: Least Auklet. Ancient Murrelet. Marbled Murrelet.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 27

23. MARBLED MURRELET. _Brachyramphus marmoratus._

Range.--North Pacific Coast, breeding from Vancouver Island. South in
winter to southern California.

In the breeding plumage, this bird is brownish black above, barred with
rusty and below is marbled with brownish gray and white. Its nesting
habits and eggs are very similar to those of the Ancient Murrelet, they
placing their single eggs in holes in the ground or crevices among the
cliffs. Size 2.20 × 1.40. Data.--Chichagof Is., Alaska, June 18, 1898.
Single egg in crevice on face of cliff. Large colony breeding in company
with Ancient Murrelets.


24. KITTLITZ MURRELET. _Brachyramphus brevirostris._

Range.--North Pacific Coast in the Aleutian Islands and north to
Unalaska, breeding on isolated islands throughout its range. This
species is very similar to the Marbled Murrelet, the chief difference
being in the bill which is shorted. They have been found breeding on the
same islands with the preceding species. Their single white egg is laid
in crevices in the cliffs. Size 2.40 × 1.30. Data.--Sanak Is., Alaska,
June 25, 1890. Nest in a hollow under a bunch of rank matted grass. Many
ancient Burrelets breeding on the same Islands. Collector, Capt. Tilson.


25. XANTUS MURRELET. _Brachyramphus hypoleucus._

Range.--Resident along the coast of southern and Lower California.

This bird is blackish above and entirely white below, including the
sides of the head below the eye. The whole of the under surface of the
wing is also white. They breed on the coast islands from Santa Barbara
southward. The single egg is laid at the end of a burrow or in crevices
among the rocks. It is a pale buffy white in color and thickly, but
finely dotted over the whole surface with purplish brown, and with some
larger spots at the larger end. Size 2.05 × 1.40. Data.--Galapagos
Islands, March 2, 1901. No nest. Single egg laid in a crevice in the
rocks. Collector, Rollo H. Beck.

[Illustration 029: Buff.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Pale Blue.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 28

26. CRAVERI'S MURRELET. _Brachyramphus craveri._

Range.--Both coasts of Lower California, breeding chiefly on the Gulf
side. Craveri Murrelet is very similar to the last except that the under
surfaces of the wings are dusky. Breeds on the islands near Cape St.
Lucas, burrowing in the ground as do most of the others of this species.
They lay a single egg, the ground color of which is buff; they are quite
heavily blotched with brownish. Size 2.00 × 1.40.

27. BLACK GUILLEMOT. _Cepphus grylle._


Range.--Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, breeding from Maine
northward to southern Greenland. Guillemots are larger birds than the
Murrelets (length 13 inches) and their plumage is entirely different.
This species in summer is entirely black except the wing coverts which
are white. The bases of the greater coverts, however, are black, this
generally breaking the white mirror as it is called. The under surfaces
of the wings are white. Legs red. These birds breed abundantly on the
rocky islands and high cliffs along the coast. Soon after the first of
June the eggs are laid in the crevices of the rocks and sometimes upon
the bare ledges. Two or three eggs make the set. The ground color is a
pale bluish or greenish white and the markings are various shades of
brown and black. Size 2.40 × 1.60. Data.--Grand Manan, June 15, 1896.
Two eggs laid in a cavity back of large boulder. No nest. Collector, D.
H. Eaton.

[Illustration 030: Xantus Murrelet. Mandt's Guillemot.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Black Guillemot.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 29

28. MANDT'S GUILLEMOT. _Cepphus mandti._

Range.--North Atlantic coast, more northerly than the preceding,
breeding from Labrador to northern Greenland.

The bird differs from the Black Guillemot only in having the bases of
the coverts white also. The nesting habits and eggs are identical. They
nest in colonies of thousands and place the eggs upon the bare rock with
no attempt at nest building. Generally the eggs are in the crevices so
as to be difficult to get at. Size 2.30 × 1.55. Data.--Depot Island,
Hudson Bay, June 6, 1894. Two eggs laid on bare rocky ground. Collector
John Comer.


29. PIGEON GUILLEMOT. _Cepphus columba._

Range.--The Pacific Coast of North America, breeding from southern
California northward. This bird is very similar to the Black Guillemot
except that the under surfaces of the wings are dark. They breed
abundantly on some of the islands of Bering Sea and a few of them nest
on the Farallones. They lay their two eggs on the bare rock in dark
crevices. The color is grayish or pale greenish blue and the markings
are brown and black with paler shell markings of lilac. Size 2.40 ×
1.60. Data.--S. Farallone Islands, Cal. Two eggs laid on gravel at the
end of a burrow, about two feet from the entrance and 285 feet above the
sea level. Collector, Claude Fyfe.


30. MURRE. _Uria troile troille._

Range.--North Atlantic coasts and islands, breeding from Bird Rock
northward. Murres are similar in form to the Guillemots, but are larger,
being about 16 inches in length. Entire head and neck sooty brown; rest
of upper parts grayish black except the tips of the secondaries which
are white. Under parts white. These birds nest by thousands on Bird Rock
and on the cliffs of Labrador. They build no nests but simply lay their
single egg on the narrow ledges of cliffs, where the only guarantee
against its rolling off is its peculiar shape which causes it, when
moved, to revolve about its smaller end instead of rolling off the
ledge. The eggs are laid as closely as possible on the ledges where the
incubating birds sit upright, in long rows like an army on guard. As
long as each bird succeeds in finding an egg to cover, on its return
home, it is doubtful if they either know or care whether it is their own
or not. The ground color of the eggs vary from white to a deep greenish
blue and the markings of blackish brown vary in endless patterns, some
eggs being almost wholly unspotted. Size 3.40 × 2.00. Data.--South
Labrador, June 19, 1884. Single egg laid on the bare cliff. Large colony
breeding. Collector, M. A. Grasar.

[Illustration 031: Murre.]
[Illustration: Pale bluish gray.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 30

30a. CALIFORNIA MURRE. _Uria troille californica._

Range.--Pacific Coast, breeding from the Farallones north to Alaska.

This Pacific form of the common Murre is the most abundant breeding bird
on the Farallones. Their eggs are used in enormous numbers for
commercial purposes and these islands being located, as they are, within
easy distance from San Francisco, thousands of dozens of the eggs are
sold yearly, chiefly to bakeries. Although continually robbed, their
numbers have not as yet diminished to any great extent. They lay but a
single egg on the bare ledge. Individual eggs are indistinguishable from
the last species but in a large series the ground color averages
brighter. They show the same great difference in color and markings. The
first set is laid in May, but owing to their being so often molested,
fresh eggs can be found during August. Data.--Farallones, July 4, 1895.
Single egg laid on bare cliff. Collector, Thos. E. Slevin.


31. BRUNNICH MURRE. _Uria lomvia lomvia._

Range.--North Atlantic Coast, breeding range the same as the common
Murre.

This species differs from the common Murre in having a shorter and
thicker bill, the base of the cutting edge of which is less feathered.
They breed on the same islands in company with the common Murre and
their eggs are indistinguishable. Data.--Coast of South Labrador. Single
egg laid on ledge of cliff. About three hundred birds in the colony.

[Illustration 032: Varies from white to greenish blue.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 31

31a. PALLAS MURRE. _Uria lomvia arra._

Range.--The Pacific coasts and islands.

This is the Pacific form of Brunnich Murre. Its breeding range is more
northerly than that of the California variety. Countless thousands of
them breed on the islands off the coast of Alaska, their breeding habits
and eggs being the same as the more southern form.


32. RAZOR-BILLED AUK. _Alca torda._

Range.--North Atlantic coast, breeding from Bird Rock northward and
wintering south to the Middle States on the coast.

The Razor-billed Auk is in form similar to the Murres, but the bill is
very different, being deep and thin, and with the upper mandible rounded
at the tip. Entire upper parts black shading to brownish on the throat.
Under parts and tips of secondaries, white; line from eye to bill and
another across the middle of the bill, white. They nest in large numbers
on Bird Rock in company with the Murres and in still greater numbers off
the coast of Labrador. Their eggs are not placed in as exposed positions
as the Murres, being generally behind boulders or in crevices. This is
necessary because, not being of the pear-shaped form of the Murres, they
would be very apt to be dislodged if commonly placed on the narrow
ledges. The eggs vary endlessly in marking but do not show the
differences in ground color that the Murres do. The color is white,
grayish or buffy. But one egg is generally laid, although two are
sometimes found. Size 3.00 × 2.00. Data.--Bay of Fundy. June 17, 1891.
Single egg laid on bare rock in a crevice under loose rocks. Collector,
A. C. Bent.

[Illustration 033: Grayish white.] [Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 32

33. GREAT AUK. _Plautus impennis._

Range.--Formerly the whole of the North Atlantic coasts. Now extinct.

These great auks formerly dwelt in large numbers on the islands of the
North Atlantic, but owing to their lack of the powers of flight and the
destructiveness of mankind, the living bird has disappeared from the
face of the earth. Although they were about thirty inches in length,
their wings were even smaller than those of the Razor-billed Auk, a bird
only eighteen inches in length. Although breeding off the coast of
Newfoundland, they appeared winters as far south as Virginia, performing
their migration by swimming alone. The last bird appears to have been
taken in 1844, and Funk Island, off the coast of Newfoundland, marks the
place of their disappearance from our shores. There are about seventy
known specimens of the bird preserved, and about the same number of
eggs. The immediate cause of the extinction of these birds was their
destruction for food by fishermen and immigrants, and later for the use
of their feathers commercially. The single egg that they laid was about
5.00 x 3.00 inches, the ground color was buffy white, and the spots
brownish and blackish. The markings varied in endless pattern as do
those of the smaller Auk. There are but two real eggs (plaster casts in
imitation of the Auks eggs are to be found in many collections) in
collections in this country, one in the Academy of Natural Science,
Philadelphia, and the other in the National Museum, at Washington.
Through the kindness of Mr. Witmer Stone, of the Academy of Natural
Science, we are enabled to show a full-sized reproduction from a
photograph of the egg in their collection.

[Illustration 034: Great Auk Dovekie.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]
[Illustration: deco.]

Page 33

[Illustration 035: EGG OF THE GREAT AUK.
Photographed from the specimen in the Academy of Natural Science,
Philadelphia; not more than ten or twelve of these eggs are in this
country; the one figured is one of the best marked specimens.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 34

34. DOVEKIE. _Alle alle_.

Range.--Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and East Arctic oceans,
breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering as far south as the Middle
States. The little Dovekie or Sea Dove is the smallest member of the
family, being only 8 inches in length, and is the only member of the
sub-family allinæ. The form is very robust and the bill is short and
stout. In summer the plumage is black above; the throat and upper breast
are sooty brown, and the under parts are white, as are also the tips of
the secondaries and edges of the scapulars. They nest in large numbers
on the Rocky cliffs of islands in the East Arctic. Their single pale
greenish blue egg is placed in a crevice of the rocks. Size 1.80 × 1.25.
Data.--Greenland, June 8, 1893. Single egg laid in a crevice of a sea
cliff.

[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration 036: Dovekie.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: MURRE--White, buff, or deep greenish blue.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 35

LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS. Order II. LONGIPENNES
SKUA AND JAEGERS. Family STERCORARIIDAE

Skuas and Jægers are birds having a Gull or Tern-like form and with a
hooked bill, the base of which is covered with a scaly shield. They have
webbed feet and are able to swim and dive, but they commonly get their
living by preying upon the Gulls and Terns, overtaking them by their
superior speed and by their strength and ferocity forcing them to
relinquish their food. The Jægers especially are one of the swiftest and
most graceful birds that fly.

Page 36

35. SKUA. _Megalestris skua_.

Range.--Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, chiefly on the
European side; rare on the Atlantic coast of North America.

Skuas are large (22 inches in length) and very powerfully built birds,
having the general form of a Gull. Their whole plumage is a dingy
brownish black color, palest below. Breeds in Iceland and possibly on
some of the islands in Hudson Strait. The nest is a hollow on the ground
in the marsh grass and is lined with grass. The two eggs which they lay
have an olive greenish ground, spotted with dark brown. Size 2.75 ×
1.90.


36. POMARINE JAEGER. _Stercorarius pomarinus._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding within the Arctic Circle, more
commonly in the Old World.

In the breeding plumage, this Jæger has the crown and face blackish;
back and sides of head, throat and under parts pure white, except the
pointed stiffened feathers of the neck which are yellow. Back, wings and
tail blackish, the latter with the two middle feathers lengthened about
four inches beyond the rest of the tail, and broad to the tips, which
are twisted so that the feathers are vertical. They breed throughout the
Arctic regions, but not as commonly in America as the following species.
The nest is on the ground in the marsh grass and is made of grass and
moss. They lay two and rarely three eggs of an olive brown or greenish
color. These are spotted with brown and black. Size 2.20 × 1.70.

[Illustration 038: Olive brown.]
[Illustration: Skua. Pomarine Jæger.]
[Illustration: Deep olive brown.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 37

37. PARASITIC JAEGER. _Stercorarius parasiticus._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, wintering south to South America.

The Parasitic Jæger is very similar to the Pomarine except that the
central tail feathers are pointed and are straight instead of twisted.
It is an abundant bird in Alaska, breeding from the Aleutian Chain
northward.

They locate their nests in the highest parts of marshy places, the nest
itself being only a depression in the ground lined with grass and moss.
The two eggs have an olive greenish or brownish ground and are marked
with various shades of brown and black. Size 2.15 × 1.65.


38. LONG-TAILED JAEGER. _Stercorarius longicaudus._

Range.--Arctic America; south in winter to South America.

The long-tailed Jæger is, according to length, the largest of the
Jægers, being 21 in. long; this is, however, due to the long sharp
pointed central pair of tail feathers, which extend about eight inches
beyond the others, and from the most noticeable distinguishing point
from the former species. The plumages that have been described are the
light phases; all the Jægers have a dark phase in which the plumage is a
nearly uniform sooty brown, lightest below.

The Long-tailed Jægers are the most numerous in Alaska and are even more
graceful in flight than are the Gulls and Terns, floating, skimming,
sailing, plunging, and darting about with incredible swiftness and ease.
Like the others of this family, they pilfer their food from the Gulls,
and are also very destructive to young birds and eggs. Their eggs are
either laid on the bare ground or in a slight depression, scantily lined
with grasses. The eggs are indistinguishable from those of the preceding
species except that they average a trifle smaller. Size 2.10 × 1.50.

[Illustration 039: Brownish.]
[Illustration: Parastic Jæger. Long-tailed Jæger.]
[Illustration: Olive brown.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 38

GULLS and TERNS. Family LARIDÆ

Gulls are webbed footed birds having a slight hook to the end of the
upper mandible. Their plumage is generally a silvery gray above and
white below. They nest in large colonies, some on the islands of fresh
water inland, but mostly on the sea coast. They procure their food from
the surface of the water, it consisting mostly of dead fish and refuse
matter, and crustacea which they gather from the waters edge. When tired
they rest upon the surface of the water, where they ride the largest
waves in perfect safety.

Terns are birds of similar plumage to the Gulls, but their forms are
less robust and the bills are generally longer and sharply pointed.
Their food consists chiefly of small fish which they secure by hovering
above the water, and then plunging upon them. They are less often seen
on the surface of the water than are the Gulls.

[Illustration 040: Walter Raine. CHARACTERISTIC NEST OF A LOON.]
[Illustration: Left hand margin.]

Page 39

39. IVORY GULL. _Pagophila alba._

Range.--Arctic regions; south in winter to the northern border of the
United States.

The little Snow Gull, as it is often called, is eighteen inches in
length. In the breeding season the plumage is entirely white; the bill
is tipped with yellow and there is a red ring around the eye. These
Gulls nest in large colonies in the Arctic Regions, placing their nests
on the high rocky cliffs. The nest is made of grass, moss and rubbish,
and the three eggs are laid during June. The eggs are olive color and
the markings are dark brown.


40. KITTIWAKE. _Rissa tridactyla trydactyla._

Range.--North Atlantic and Arctic regions, breeding from the Gulf of the
St. Lawrence northward and wintering south to the Great Lakes and Long
Island.

The Kittiwake is sixteen inches in length, has a pearly gray mantle,
black tips to the primaries, and remainder of plumage white. Its hind
toe is very small being apparently wanting in the eastern form, while in
the Pacific it is more developed. These are very noisy Gulls, their
notes resembling a repetition of their name. They are very common in the
far north, placing nests on the ledges of high rocky cliffs, often in
company with Murres and Auks. They gather together a pile of sticks,
grass and moss, making the interior cup-shaped so as to hold their two
or three eggs. Large numbers of them breed on Bird Rock, they occupying
certain ledges while the Gannets and Murres, which also breed there,
also have distinct ledges on which to make their homes. The breeding
season is at its height during June. The eggs are buffy or brownish gray
and are spotted with different shades of brown. Size 2.25 × 1.60.
Data.--So. Labrador, June 15, 1884. Three eggs. Nest made of seaweed and
moss, placed on ledge of cliff. Many Murres nesting on other ledges.

[Illustration 041: Ivory Gull. Kittiwake.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 40

40a. PACIFIC KITTIWAKE. _Rissa tridactyla pollicaris._

Range.--Coast of the North Pacific, wintering south to California.

The Pacific Kittiwake breeds in immense rookeries on some of the islands
in Bering Sea. They are well distributed over Copper Island where they
nest in June and July, choosing the high ledges which overhang the sea.
The nesting habits and eggs are precisely the same as those of the
common Kittiwake.


41. RED-LEGGED KITTIWAKE. _Rissa brevirostris._

Range.--Northwestern coasts, breeding in high latitudes.

This Kittiwake is similar to the preceding, with the exception that the
legs are bright red, the mantle is darker, and the bill is shorter. This
species was found by Dr. Leonard Stejneger to be a very abundant nesting
bird on islands in Bering Sea, selecting steep and inaccessible rocks
and ledges on which to build its nest. Their nesting habits are
precisely the same as the Pacific Kittiwake, but they most often nest in
separate colonies, but can be distinguished readily when nesting
together by the darker mantles when on the nest and the red legs when
flying. Grass, moss and mud are used in the nest. The ground color of
the eggs is buffy or brownish, and the spots are dark brown and lilac.
Size 2.15 × 1.50.


42. GLAUCOUS GULL. _Larus hyperboreus._

Range.--Arctic regions, south in winter to Long Island, the Great Lakes,
and San Francisco Bay.

This Gull shares with the Great Black-backed Gull the honor of being the
largest of the Gulls, being 28 inches in length. Mantle light gray; it
is distinguished by its size and the primaries, which are white to the
tips. A powerful bird that preys upon the smaller Gulls and also devours
the young and eggs of smaller birds.

They nest on the ground on the islands and shores of Hudson Bay,
Greenland, etc. The nest is made of seaweed, grass and moss and is
generally quite bulky. The two or three eggs are laid in June. They are
of various shades of color from a light drab to a brownish, and are
spotted with brownish and black. Size about 3.00 × 2.20.

[Illustration 042: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: Red-legged Kittiwake. Glaucous Gull.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 41

42.1. POINT BARROW GULL. _Larus barrovianus._

Range.--Northwest coast from Bering Sea to Point Barrow.

This species is almost identical with the Glaucus Gull, averaging
perhaps a trifle smaller. Its standing as a distinct species is still
questioned and has not yet been decided satisfactorily. Early in June
their nests are built on remote islands in Bering Sea. These nests are
the same as the last species, large piles of vegetation, hollowed on top
for the reception of the eggs. The eggs have the same variations in
color and markings as the Glaucus Gull. Size 3.00 × 2.10.
Data.--Herschel Is., Alaska, July 1, 1900. Nest made of seaweed and
grass; placed on the ground. Three eggs. Collector, Rev. I. O. Stringer.


43. ICELAND GULL. _Larus leucopterus._

Range.--Arctic regions, south in winter to the Middle States.

This Gull in appearance is precisely like the two preceding ones but is
considerably smaller; 24 inches in length. A very common bird in the
north, breeding in colonies of thousands on many of the islands. It is
regarded as one of the most common of the larger Gulls in Bering Sea and
also nests commonly in Hudson Bay and Greenland, as well as in the
Eastern Hemisphere. They nest indifferently on high rocky cliffs or on
low sandy islands. Except when the eggs are laid in a sandy depression
in the soil, quite bulky nests are made of seaweed and moss. The eggs
are laid about the first of June; they number two to three and have a
ground color of brownish or greenish brown and are blotched with umber.
Size 2.80 × 1.83. Data.--Mackenzie Bay, Arctic America. June 18, 1899.
Nest made of seaweed and grass on an island in the bay.

[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Greenish brown.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 42

44. GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL. _Larus glaucescens_.

Range.--North Pacific coast, breeding from British Columbia northwards
and wintering from the same country to southern California.

This Gull is very like the preceding except that the primaries are the
same color as the mantle, and are tipped with white. Length about 27
inches. Not so northerly distributed a bird as the previous ones, and
consequently better known. They breed in large numbers both on the high
rocky cliffs of the islands along the coast and on the low sandy islands
of the Aleutian Chain. On Copper Island they breed on the inaccessible
cliffs overhanging the water. As in the case of the Iceland Gull, when
the nests are on the cliffs, a large nest of seaweed is made, whereas if
they are on the ground, especially in sandy places no attempt is made at
nest-building. The eggs have a greenish brown ground color and dark
brown spots. Size 2.75 × 2.05. Data.--West Coast of Vancouver Island.
June 20, 1896. Three eggs; nest made of seaweed. Located on a low ledge.
Collector, Dr. Newcombe.


45. KUMLIEN'S GULL. _Larus Kumlieni_.

Range.--North Atlantic coast, breeding in Cumberland Sound and wintering
as far south as Long Island.

This bird differs from the Glaucous-winged only in the pattern of the
gray markings of the primaries and in having a little lighter mantle. It
is quite common in its breeding haunts where it places its nest high up
on the ledges of the cliffs. The eggs are not different apparently from
glaucescens.


46. NELSON'S GULL. _Larus nelsoni_.

Range.--Coast of Alaska.

Plumage exactly like that of Kumlien Gull and questionably a new
species. The nests and eggs are not to be distinguished from the
preceding.

[Illustration 044: Iceland Gull. Glaucous-winged Gull.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish brown.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 43

47. GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL. _Larus marinus_.

Range.--North Atlantic on both the American and European sides; breeds
from Nova Scotia northward and winters south to the Great Lakes and the
Middle States.

The largest of the Gulls (thirty inches long) and unlike any other. The
mantle is dark slaty black, and the primaries are black with white tips.
The bill is very large and powerful and quite strongly hooked. They are
quite abundant birds in their range, and are very quarrelsome, both
among themselves and other species. They do not breed in as large
colonies as do the other Gulls, half a dozen pairs appropriating a small
island to the exclusion of all other birds. They are very rapacious
birds and live to a great extent, especially during the breeding season,
upon the eggs and young of other birds such as Ducks, Murres and smaller
Gulls. They place their nests upon the higher portions of sandy islands.
They are made of grasses and seaweed. The three eggs are laid early in
June; they are grayish or brownish, spotted with brown and lilac. Size
3.00 × 2.15. Data.--South Labrador, June 21, 1884. Three eggs. Nest on a
small island off the coast; of grasses and moss.


48. SLATY-BACKED GULL.--_Larus schistisagus_.

Range.--North Pacific and Arctic Oceans.

This Gull, which is similar to the Great Black-backed, but is smaller
and has a lighter mantle, does not breed in any considerable numbers on
the American side of the Pacific. It nests in June on some of the
islands in Bering Sea and probably more commonly farther north. They
often nest in company with other species, placing their small mounds of
seaweed on the ground on the higher parts of the islands. The full set
contains three eggs of grayish or brownish color, spotted with dark
brown or black. Size 2.90 × 2.00. Data.--Harrowby Bay, N. W. T. Canada,
June 11, 1901. Nest of grass, roots and mud and lined with dry grass; on
point making into the bay. Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish.

[Illustration 045: Great Black-Backed Gull. Kumlien's Gull.]
[Illustration: Grayish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 44

49. WESTERN GULL. _Larus occidentalis._

Range.--Pacific Coast, breeding from southern California to British
Columbia.

This bird, which is the most southerly distributed of the larger Gulls
is twenty-four inches in length. Mantle slate colored; primaries black,
both these and the secondaries being broadly tipped with white. These
Gulls nest abundantly on the Farallones, the majority of them showing a
preference for the lower portions of the island, although they nest on
the ledges also. Besides man, these Gulls are the greatest enemies that
the Murres have to content against. They are always on the watch and if
a Murre leaves its nest, one of the Gulls is nearly always ready to
pounce upon the egg and carry it away bodily in his bill. The Gulls too
suffer when the eggers come, for their eggs are gathered up with the
Murres for the markets. They make their nests of weeds and grass, and
during May and June lay three eggs showing the usual variations of color
common to the Gulls eggs. Size 2.75 × 1.90.


50. SIBERIAN GULL. _Larus affinis._

This bird does not nest in North America, and has a place on our list,
by its accidental occurrence in Greenland. It is an Old World species
and its nesting habits and eggs are like those of the Herring Gull.


51. HERRING GULL. _Larus argentatus._

Range.--Whole of the Northern Hemisphere, breeding from Maine and
British Columbia northward and wintering south to the Gulf.

This Gull, which formerly was No. 51a, a subspecies of the European
variety, is now regarded as identical with it, and is no longer a
sub-species. It is twenty-four inches in length, has a light gray mantle
and black primaries which are tipped with white. The Herring Gulls nest
in colonies in favorable localities throughout their range, chiefly on
the coasts and islands. A few pairs also nest on islands in some of the
inland bodies of fresh water. Except in places where they are
continually molested, when they will build in trees, they place their
nests on the ground either making no nest on the bare sand, or building
a bulky nest of seaweed in the grass on higher parts of the island. They
lay three eggs of a grayish color marked with brown. In rare cases
unspotted bluish white eggs are found. Size 2.80 × 1.70.

[Illustration 046: Western Gull. Herring Gull.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 45

52. VEGA GULL. _Larus vegae._

Range.--Coast of Alaska, south in winter to California.

Similar to the Herring Gull, but with the mantle darker, but not so dark
as in the Western Gull. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as
those of the Herring Gull, except that in a series, the eggs of the Vega
will average a little darker in ground color. It nests during May on the
coasts and islands of Bering Sea, placing its eggs in a hollow on the
ground. Size 2.75 × 1.65.


53. CALIFORNIA GULL. _Larus californicus._

Range.--Western North America, breeding in the interior.

A smaller Gull than the Herring with the primaries grayish instead of
black; length twenty-five inches. This Gull is found in winter on the
coast from British Columbia southward to Lower California, but nests in
the interior from Utah northward. They nest very abundantly around the
Great Salt Lake, placing their nests generally upon the bare ground.
Sometimes there is a scant lining of grasses or weeds and again the
nests will be situated in the midst of a tussock of grass. Three or four
eggs generally constitute a set, but occasionally five are laid. The
usual nesting time is during May. They show the same great variations in
color and markings common to most of the Gulls. Size 2.60 × 1.80.


54. RING-BILLED GULL. _Larus delawarenis._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding from the United States
northward and wintering south to the Gulf States.

A small Gull, eighteen inches in length, with a light gray mantle, black
primaries with white tips, and always to be distinguished in the
breeding season by the black band around the middle of the greenish
yellow bill. They nest in enormous colonies on islands in the interior
of the country and in smaller colonies on the coasts. Thousands of them
breed on the lakes of the Dakotas and northward. The majority of them
nest on the ground, although on the coast they are often found on the
cliffs. They commonly lay three eggs placing them in a slight hollow in
the ground, generally on the grassy portions of the islands. The color
varies from grayish to brownish, marked with brown and lilac. The height
of the nesting season is in June. Size of eggs, 2.80 × 1.75.

[Illustration 047: Grayish brown.]
[Illustration: Ring-billed Gull. California Gull.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 46

55. SHORT-BILLED GULL. _Larus brachyrhynchus._

Range.--Breeds from the interior of British Columbia northward to
Alaska; south in winter to Lower California.

The Short-billed or American Mew Gull is seventeen inches in length, has
a short, stout bill and is otherwise similar to the preceding species.
Nests on islands in the lakes and along the river banks of Alaska. The
nest is made of grass, weeds and moss and is placed on the ground. Early
in June the birds lay their set of three eggs, the ground color of which
is greenish brown marked with dark brown. Size 2.25 × 1.60.
Data.--Mackenzie River, N. W. T., June 18, 1900. Three eggs. Nest made
of seaweed and grass and placed on the ground on an island in the river.


56. MEW GULL. _Larus canus._

This is the European variety of the above species, breeding commonly
both in the British Isles and northern Europe. This species is given a
place in our avifauna because of its accidental appearance in Labrador.


57. HEERMAN'S GULL. _Larus heermanni._

Range.--Pacific Coast of North America from British Columbia south to
Panama, breeding chiefly south of the United States border.

A very handsome species, often called the White-headed Gull, and wholly
unlike any other; length seventeen inches. Adults, in summer, have the
entire head, neck and throat white, this shading quite abruptly into the
slaty upper and under parts; the primaries and tail are black, the
latter and the secondaries being tipped with white. The legs and bill
are vermilion. They are found off the coast of California, but are not
believed to breed there. They are known to breed on some of the islands
off the Mexican coast nesting on the ground the same as the other
species. The three eggs are greenish drab in color and are marked with
different shades of brown and lilac. Size 2.45 × 1.50.

[Illustration: Pale greenish-brown.]
[Illustration: Short-billed Gull. Heerman's Gull.]
[Illustration: Left hand margin.]

Page 47

58. LAUGHING GULL. LARUS ATRICILLA.

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from the Gulf to Nova Scotia,
chiefly on the coast. A beautiful Gull, 16 inches long, with a dark
slate colored head, gray mantle, black primaries, and white neck,
underparts and tail. Bill and feet red. This bird has its name from its
peculiar laughing cry when alarmed or angry; it is also called the
Black-headed Gull. They nest by thousands on the islands off the Gulf
Coast and along the South Atlantic States. The nest is placed on the
ground and is made of seaweed. Three, four and sometimes five eggs are
laid, of a grayish to greenish brown color, marked with brown and lilac.
Size 2.25 × 1.60. Data.--Timbalin Is., La., June 3, 1896. Three eggs.
Nest of drift grass thrown in a pile about 8 inches high, slightly
hollowed on top, in low marsh back of beach. Collector, E. A. McIlhenny.

[Illustration 049: Pale grayish brown.]
[Illustration: Laughing Gull.]
[Illustration: RING-BILLED GULL--Gray.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 48

59. FRANKLIN'S GULL. _Larus franklini._

Range.--Interior North America, breeding from middle United States
northward.

Like the last but smaller and with the primaries light. Underparts rosy
in breeding season. Nests very abundantly in the marshes of Minnesota
and northward. Nest made of grasses and placed in the marsh grass barely
above the surface of the water. Eggs same color as the last but the
markings more inclined to zigzag lines. Size 2.10 × 1.40. Data.--Heron
Lake, Minn., May 26, 1885. Nest of wet sedge stalks and rubbish placed
in a bunch of standing sedge in shallow water; at least five thousand
birds in rookery. Collector, J. W. Preston.


60. BONAPARTE'S GULL. _Larus philadelphia._

Range.--Breeds in the northern parts of North America; winters from
Maine and British Columbia to the southern border of the United States.

Smaller than the last; 14 inches long. Plumage similar, but bill slender
and black. They nest in great numbers on the marshes of Manitoba and to
the northward. The nests, of sticks and grass, are placed on the higher
parts of the marsh and the usual complement of three eggs is laid during
the latter part of June. The eggs are grayish to greenish brown, marked
with dark brown and lilac. Size 1.90 × 1.30.

[Illustration 050: Grayish brown.]
[Illustration: Franklin's Gull. Bonaparte's Gull.]
[Illustration: Pale grayish brown.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 49

60.1. LITTLE GULL. _Larus minutus._

This Gull is the smallest of the family; it is a European bird, and has
accidentally strayed to our shores but a few times. Its plumage is
similar to that of the Bonaparte Gull but the bill is red. It breeds in
the marshes around the Baltic Sea, placing its nest of dead vegetation
on the highest parts of the marsh. They lay three eggs of a greenish
gray color marked with dark brown and lilac. Size 1.75 × 1.25.


61. ROSES GULL. _Rhodostethia rosea._

Range.--The Arctic regions, south in winter to Alaska, Greenland,
northern Europe and Asia.

This beautiful bird is the most rare of all the Gulls, being very
difficult to obtain because of its extreme northerly distribution. It is
in form and plumage like Bonaparte Gull, with the exceptions that the
head is white, there being a narrow black collar around the neck, the
tail is wedge shaped, and the whole under parts from the chin to the
tail are rosy in the breeding plumage. The nests and eggs remain still
undiscovered, although Nansen, in August 1896, found a supposed breeding
ground in Franz Josef Land, because of the numbers of the birds, but
found no nests.


62. SABINE'S GULL. _Xema sabinii._

Range.--Arctic regions, breeding from Alaska and Greenland and
northward, and wintering south to New England.

A handsome bird, having the slaty hood bordered behind with a black
ring, the primaries black, white tipped, and the tail slightly forked.
They breed abundantly on the marshes of northern Alaska and Greenland,
nesting the same as others of the species. The two or three eggs are
laid in June. They are greenish brown in color and are marked with dark
brown. Size 1.75 × 1.25. Data.--Hudson Bay, August 1, 1894. Eggs laid on
the ground in the moss; no nest except the hollow in the moss.

[Illustration 051: Rose Gull. Sabine Gull.]
[Illustration: Greenish brown.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 50

63. GULL-BILLED TERN. _Gelochelidon nilotica._

Range.--Found in North America along the Gulf Coast and on the Atlantic
Coast north to Virginia and casually farther.

This is one of the largest of the Terns, is 14 inches long, has a short,
thick, black bill and a short slightly forked tail; the crown is black,
mantle pearly gray, white below. This species is very widely
distributed, being found in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. They are
known locally as "Marsh Terns" where they breed in immense numbers on
some of the marshes about the Gulf, particularly in Texas. They also
breed on many of the islands along the Coast, rarely making any nest,
but laying the eggs in a hollow in the sand. They nest most abundantly
in the latter part of May, generally laying three eggs. They are of a
yellowish, grayish or greenish buff color and are spotted with brown and
lilac. Size 1.80 × 1.30. Data.--Northampton Co., Va., May 28, 1882.
Three eggs laid on a mass of seaweed on marsh above tide water.


64. CASPIAN TERN. _Sterna caspia._

Range.--Like the preceding species, this bird is nearly cosmopolitan in
its range, in North America breeding from the Gulf Coast and Texas
northward to the Arctic Regions.

This beautiful bird is the largest of the Tern family, being about 22
inches in length, with the tail forked about 1.5 inches. The bill is
large, heavy and bright red; the crest, with which this and the next
three species are adorned, is black. The mantle is pale pearl and the
under parts white. These Terns sometimes nest in large colonies and then
again only a few pairs will be found on an island. In Texas, the
breeding season commences in May, it being later in the more northern
breeding grounds. They may be regarded as largely eastern birds, as
while they are common in the interior of the country, they are rarely
found on the Pacific Coast. Two or three eggs constitute a complete set;
these are laid on the sand in a slight hollow scooped out by the birds.
They vary from gray to greenish buff, marked with brown and lilac. Size
2.60 × 1.75. Data.--Hat Island, Lake Michigan, July 1, 1896. No nest.
Two eggs in a hollow in the gravel. Fully a thousand terns nesting on
about one acre. Collector, Charles L. Cass.

[Illustration 052: Pale greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Grayish buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 51

65. ROYAL TERN. _Sterna maxima._

Range.--Temperate North and South America, breeding in the United States
locally from Texas and the Gulf States northward to the northern
boundary of the United States.

The Royal Terns nest in great numbers on the coasts and islands on the
South Atlantic and Gulf States and in the marshes of southern Texas.
Like the former species they lay two or three eggs in a hollow on the
bare sand. The eggs are the same size but differ in being more pointed
and having a lighter ground and with the markings more bold and
distinct. Size 2.60 × 1.70.


66. ELEGANT TERN. _Sterna elegans._

Range.--Pacific Coast of South and Central America; north to California
in summer.

A similar bird to the Royal Tern, but easily distinguished by its
smaller size, slender bill, and more graceful form. In the breeding
plumage the under parts of these Terns are tinged with rosy, which
probably first gave the birds their name. They breed on the coasts and
islands of Mexico and Central America, placing their eggs on the sand.
They are believed to lay but a single egg, like that of the Royal Tern,
but smaller. Size 2.40 × 1.40. Data.--Honduras, Central America, June 5,
1899. Single egg laid on the sandy beach.

[Illustration 053: Gull-billed Tern. Caspian Tern. Royal Tern.]
[Illustration: Grayish buff.]
[Illustration: Cream color.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 52

67. CABOT TERN. _Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida._

Range.--A tropical species breeding regularly north to the Bahamas and
Florida; casually farther north. A beautiful bird distinguished from the
three preceding ones by its smaller size (sixteen inches) and by the
bill which is black with a yellow tip. They nest in colonies on the
shores of islands in the West Indies and Bahamas, but not to a great
extent on the United States Coast. Their two or three eggs have a creamy
ground color, and are boldly marked with brown and black. Size 2.10 ×
1.40.


68. TRUDEAU'S TERN. _Sterna trudeaui._

Range.--South America; accidentally along the coast of the United
States.

A rare and unique species with a form similar to the following, but with
the coloration entirely different. About fifteen inches in length; tail
long and deeply forked; bill yellow with a band of black about the
middle. Whole head pure white, shading into the pearly color of the
upper and under parts. A narrow band of black through the eye and over
the ear coverts. A very rare species that is supposed to breed in
southern South America. Given a place among North American birds on the
strength of a specimen seen by Audubon off Long Island.

[Illustration 054: Elegant Tern. Cabot's Tern.]
[Illustration: Cream color.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 53

69. FORSTER'S TERN. _Sterna forsteri._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding from Manitoba, Mass., and
California, south to the Gulf Coast and Texas.

Length about fifteen inches; tail long and deeply forked; crown black,
back and wings pearl and under parts white. Bill orange red. This
species and the three following are the most graceful of birds in
appearance and flight. Their movements can only be likened to those of
the Swallows, from which they get the name of "Sea Swallows." Their food
consists of fish, which they get by diving, and marine insects. They
breed by thousands in the marshes from Manitoba to Texas and along the
South Atlantic coast. The eggs are laid in a hollow on the dry grassy
portions of the islands or marshes. They generally lay three eggs and
rarely four. They are buffy or brownish spotted with dark brown and
lilac. Size 1.80 × 1.30. Data.--Cobb's Island, Va., June 8, 1887. Eggs
in a hollow on grassy bank. Collector, F. H. Judson.


70. COMMON TERN. _Sterna hirundo._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding both on the coast and in the
interior from the Gulf States northward.

This bird differs from the preceding chiefly in having a bright red bill
tipped with black, and the under parts washed with pearl. These are the
most common Terns on the New England coast, nesting abundantly from
Virginia to Newfoundland. These beautiful Terns, together with others of
the family, were formerly killed by thousands for millinery purposes,
but the practice is now being rapidly stopped. In May and June they lay
their three, or sometimes four eggs on the ground as do the other Terns.
They are similar to the preceding species but average shorter.
Data.--Duck Is., Maine, June 30, 1896. Three eggs in marsh grass about
fifty feet from beach. No nest. Collector, C. A. Reed.

[Illustration 055: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: Forsters Tern. Common Tern.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 54

71. ARCTIC TERN. _Sterna paradisaea._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding from New England northward to the
Arctic Regions and wintering south to California and the South Atlantic
States. A similar bird to the last, differing in having the bill wholly
red and the feet being smaller and weak for the size of the bird. A more
northern bird than the last, breeding abundantly in Alaska, both on the
coast and in the interior. In the southern limits of its breeding range,
it nests in company with the Common Tern, its nests and eggs being
indistinguishable from the latter. When their nesting grounds are
approached, all the birds arise like a great white cloud, uttering their
harsh, discordant "tearrr, tearrr," while now and then an individual,
bolder than the rest, will swoop close by with an angry "crack." On the
whole they are timid birds, keeping well out of reach. The nesting
season is early in June. Eggs like the preceding. Data.--Little Duck
Is., Me., June 29, 1896. Three eggs in a slight hollow on the beach,
three feet above high water mark.


72. ROSEATE TERN. _Sterna dougalli._

Range.--Temperate North America on the east coast, breeding from New
England to the Gulf.

These are the most beautiful birds, having a delicate pink blush on the
under parts during the breeding season; the tail is very long and deeply
forked, the outer feathers being over five inches longer than the middle
ones; the bill is red with a black tip. They nest in large colonies on
the islands from Southern New England southward, placing the nests in
the short grass, generally without any lining. They lay two or three
eggs which are indistinguishable from the two preceding species.


73. ALEUTIAN TERN. _Sterna aleutica._

Range.--Found in summer in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands.

South in winter to Japan. This handsome Tern is of the form and size of
the Common Tern, but has a darker mantle, and the forehead is white,
leaving a black line from the bill to the eye. They nest on islands off
the coast of Alaska, sometimes together with the Arctic Tern. The eggs
are laid upon the bare ground or moss, and are similar to the Arctic
Terns, but average narrower. They are two or three in number and are
laid in June and July. Size 1.70 × 1.15. Data.--Stuart Is., Alaska.
Three eggs in a slight hollow in the moss.

[Illustration 056: Arctic Tern. Roseate Tern. Aleutian Tern.]
[Illustration: Grayish or Brownish.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 55

74. LEAST TERN. _Sterna antillarum._

Range.--From northern South America to southern New England, Dakota and
California, breeding locally throughout its range.

These little Sea Swallows are the smallest of the Terns, being but 9
inches in length. They have a yellow bill with a black tip, a black
crown and nape, and white forehead. Although small, these little Terns
lose none of the grace and beauty of action of their larger relatives.
They nest in colonies on the South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, placing
their eggs upon the bare sand, where they are sometimes very difficult
to see among the shells and pebbles. They are of a grayish or buffy
color spotted with umber and lilac. They number two, three and rarely
four, and are laid in May and June. Size 1.25 × .95. Data.--DeSota
Beach, Fla., May 20, 1884. Three eggs laid on the sandy beach.
Collector, Chas. Graham.


75. SOOTY TERN. _Sterna fuscata._

Range.--Tropical America, north to the South Atlantic States. This
species measures 17 inches in length; it has a brownish black mantle,
wings and tail, except the outer feathers of the latter which are white;
the forehead and under parts are white, the crown and a line from the
eye to the bill, black. This tropical species is very numerous at its
breeding grounds on the small islands of the Florida Keys and the West
Indies. They lay but a single egg, generally placing it on the bare
ground, or occasionally building a frail nest of grasses. The egg has a
pinkish white or creamy ground and is beautifully sprinkled with spots
of reddish brown and lilac. They are laid during May. Size 2.05 × 1.45.
Data.--Clutheria Key, Bahamas, May 28, 1891. Single egg laid on bare
ground near water. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.

[Illustration 057: Light buff.]
[Illustration: Least Tern. Sooty Tern.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 56

76. BRIDLED TERN. _Sterna anaetheta._

Range.--Found in tropical regions of both hemispheres; casual or
accidental in Florida. This Tern is similar to the last except that the
nape is white and the white of the forehead extends in a line over the
eye. The Bridled Tern is common on some of the islands of the West
Indies and the Bahamas, nesting in company with the Sooty Terns and
Noddies. The single egg is laid on the seashore or among the rocks. It
is creamy white beautifully marked with brown and lilac. Size 1.85 ×
1.25. Data.--Bahamas, May 9, 1892. Single egg laid in a cavity among the
rocks. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.

77. BLACK TERN. _Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis._

Range.--Temperate America, breeding from the middle portions of the
United States northward to Alaska; south in winter beyond the United
States Border.

The identity of these Terns cannot be mistaken. They are but ten inches
in length; the whole head, neck and under parts are black; the back,
wings and tail are slaty and the under tail coverts are white. Their
dainty figure with their long slender wings gives them a grace and
airiness, if possible, superior to other species of the family. They are
very active and besides feeding upon all manner of marine crustacea,
they capture many insects in the air. They nest in large colonies in
marshes, both along the coast and in the interior, making a nest of
decayed reeds and grasses, or often laying their eggs upon rafts of
decayed vegetation which are floating on the water. The nesting season
commences in May, they laying three eggs of a brownish or greenish
color, very heavily blotched with blackish brown. Size 1.35 × .95.
Data.--Winnebago City, Minn., May 31, 1901. Three eggs. Nest made of a
mass of weeds and rushes floating on water in a swamp. Collector, R. H.
Bullis.

[Illustration 058: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Black Tern. Noddy. Black Skimmer.]
[Illustration: Deep greenish brown.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 57

78. WHITE-WINGED BLACK TERN. _Hydrochelidon leucoptera._

Range.--Eastern Hemisphere, its addition to American birds being made
because of the accidental appearance of one bird in Wisconsin in 1873.
They nest very abundantly among the lakes and marshes of southern
Europe, placing their eggs the same as the American species, upon masses
of decayed reeds and stalks. They lay three eggs which have a somewhat
brighter appearance than the common Black Terns because of a somewhat
lighter ground color.


79. NODDY. _Anous stolidus._

Range.--Tropical America, north to the Gulf and South Atlantic States.

A peculiar but handsome bird (about fifteen inches long), with a silvery
white head and the rest of the plumage brownish, and the tail rounded.
They breed in abundance on some of the Florida Keys, the West Indies and
the Bahamas. Their nests are made of sticks and grass, and are placed
either in trees or on the ground. They lay but a single egg with a buffy
or cream colored ground spotted with chestnut and lilac. Size 2.00 ×
1.30. Atwood's Key, Bahamas, June 1, 1891. Nest made of sticks and
grasses, three feet up a mangrove. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.

[Illustration 059: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: Noddy.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 58

SKIMMERS. Family RYNCHOPIDÆ

Skimmers are Tern-like birds having a very strangely developed bill. The
lower mandible is much longer than the upper and very thin, the upper
edge being as sharp as the lower. The lower mandible is rounded at the
end while the upper is more pointed. Young Skimmers are said to have
both mandibles of the same length, the abnormal development not
appearing until after flight. Skimmers are very graceful birds, and, as
implied by their name, they skim over the surface of the water, rising
and falling with the waves, and are said to pick up their food by
dropping the lower mandible below the surface, its thin edge cutting the
water like a knife. There are four species of Skimmers, only one of
which is found in North America.


80. BLACK SKIMMER. _Rynchops nigra._

Range.--The South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, breeding from New Jersey
southward. The Black Skimmer is about eighteen inches in length, and
besides the remarkable bill is a bird of striking plumage; the forehead,
ends of the secondaries, tail feathers and under parts are white; the
rest of the plumage is black and the basal half of the bill is crimson.
Skimmers nest in large communities, the same as do the Terns, laying
their eggs in hollows in the sand. They are partially nocturnal in their
habits and their hoarse barking cries may be heard after the shadows of
night have enveloped the earth. Fishermen call them by the names of
"Cut-water" and "Sea Dog." The nesting season commences in May and
continues through June and July. They lay from three to five eggs,
having a creamy or yellowish buff ground, blotched with black, chestnut
and lilac. Size 1.75 × 1.30. Data.--Cobb's Is., Va., June 8, 1894. Three
eggs laid in a hollow on the beach. No nest.

[Illustration 060: Buffy yellow.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 59

TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS. Order III. TUBINARES.

ALBATROSSES. Family DIOMEDEIDAE

Albatrosses are the largest of the sea birds and have an enormous
expanse of wing, the Wandering Albatross, the largest of the family,
sometimes attaining an expanse of fourteen feet. Their nostrils consist
of two slightly projecting tubes, one on each side near the base of the
bill. They are unsurpassed in powers of flight, but are only fair
swimmers and rarely, if ever, dive, getting their food, which consists
of dead animal matter, from the surface of the water.


81. BLACK-FOOTED ALBATROSS. _Diomedea nigripes._

Range.--North Pacific from California northward. This Albatross is
thirty-two inches in length; it is of a uniform sooty brown color
shading into whitish at the base of the bill, which is rounded. Like the
other members of the family, this species is noted for its extended
flights, following vessels day after day without any apparent period of
rest, for the purpose of feeding on the refuse that is thrown overboard.
They breed during our winter on some of the small isolated islands in
the extreme southern portions of the globe. They lay a single white egg
on the bare ground.


82. SHORT-TAILED ALBATROSS. _Diomedea albatrus._

Range.--North Pacific Ocean in summer, from Lower California to Alaska.
With the exception of the Wandering Albatross, which is now regarded as
doubtful as occurring off our coasts, the Short-tailed Albatross is one
of the largest of the group, measuring thirty-six inches in length, and
has an extent of seven feet or more. With the exception of the black
primaries, shoulders and tail, the entire plumage is white, tinged with
straw color on the back of the head. They breed on the guano islands in
the North Pacific off the coasts of Alaska and Japan. They lay a single
white egg on the bare ground or rocks. As with the other members of the
family, the eggs are extremely variable in size, but average about 4.25
× 2.50.

[Illustration 061: Black-footed Albatross.
Short-tailed Albatross.]

Page 60

82.1. LAYSAN ALBATROSS. _Diomedea immutabilis._

Range.--Laysan Island of the Hawaiian Group, appearing casually off the
coast of California. This species breeds in large numbers on the island
from which it takes its name. The birds are white with the exception of
the back, wings and tail, which are black. The birds, having been little
molested in their remote island, are exceedingly tame, and it is
possible to go among the sitting birds without disturbing them. Mr.
Walter K. Fisher has contributed an admirable report on this species in
the 1913 Bulletin of the Fish Commission, the report being illustrated
with numerous illustrations of the birds from photos by the author.
Their single white eggs are laid on the bare ground.

83. YELLOW-NOSED ALBATROSS. _Thalassogeron culminatus._

This is a species which inhabits the South Pacific and Indian Oceans,
and is said to rarely occur on the California coast. They breed during
our winter on some of the small islands and during our summer are ocean
wanderers. An egg in the collection of Col. John E. Thayer was taken on
Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean; Sept. 1st, 1888. The nest was a
mound of mud and grass about two feet in height. The single white egg
measured 3.75 × 2.25. It was collected by George Comer.


84. SOOTY ALBATROSS. _Phoebetria-palpebrata._

Range.--Southern seas, north in our summer along the Pacific coast of
the United States.

This species is entirely sooty brown except the white eyelids. It is
similar to the Black-footed Albatross from which species it can be
distinguished in all plumages by the narrow base of the bill, while the
bill of the former species is broad and rounded. They breed commonly on
isolated islands in many quarters of the southern hemisphere. Sometimes
this species constructs a mound of mud on which to deposit its single
white egg, and also often lays it on the bare ground or rock. A specimen
in Mr. Thayer's collection, taken by Geo. Comer on So. Georgia Is. in
the South Atlantic ocean, was laid in a hollow among loose stones on the
ledge of an overhanging cliff. Size 4.10 × 2.75.

[Illustration 062: Laysan Albatross. Yellow-nosed Albatross. Sooty
Albatross.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 61

FULMARS, SHEARWATERS and PETRELS Family PROCELLARIDAE

Fulmars, Shearwaters and Petrels are Gull-like birds with two nostril
tubes located side by side, in a single tube, on the top of the bill at
its base.

The Fulmars are mostly northern birds while the majority of the
Shearwaters nest in the extreme south during our winter, and appear off
our coasts during the summer. Their food consists of fish or offal which
they get from the surface of the water; large flocks of them hover about
fishermen, watching their chance to get any food which falls, or is
thrown, overboard.

[Illustration 063: EGG OF SOOTY ALBATROSS--White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand border.]

Page 62

85. GIANT FULMAR. _Macronectes gigantea._

Range.--This Petrel is a native of the southern seas and is only
casually met with off the Pacific coast.

It is the largest of the family, being about three feet in length, and
is normally a uniform sooty color, although it has light phases of
plumage. They nest in December on many of the islands south of Africa
and South America, laying their single white egg on the bare rocks.


86. FULMAR. _Fulmarus glacialis glacialis._

Range.--North Atlantic coasts from New England northward, breeding from
Hudson Bay and southern Greenland northward.

This bird which is 19 inches in length, in the light phase has a plumage
very similar to that of the larger Gulls. They nest by thousands on
rocky islands of the north, often in company with Murres and Gulls.
Owing to the filthy habits of the Fulmars, these breeding grounds always
have a nauseating odor, which is also imparted to, and retained by the
egg shell. Their single white eggs are laid on the bare rocks, in
crevices of the cliffs, often hundreds of feet above the water. Size
2.90 × 2.00. Data.--St. Kilda, off Scotland. June 5, 1897. Single egg
laid on rock on side of sea cliff. Collector, Angus Gillies.

[Illustration 062: Fulmar.]
[Illustration: egg.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 63

86b. PACIFIC FULMAR. _Fulmarus glacialis glupischa._

This sub-species of the preceding, has a darker mantle than the common
Fulmar; it is found on the northern Pacific coasts where it breeds on
the high rocky cliffs, the same as its eastern relative. They nest in
large colonies, every crevice in the rocks having its tenant. Their
flight is graceful like that of the Gulls, which they closely resemble.
They lay but a single white egg, the average dimensions of which are
slightly smaller than those of the common Fulmar. Data.--Copper Is.,
Alaska. May 14, 1889. Egg laid in a crevice among the cliffs.


86.1. RODGER'S FULMAR. _Fulmarus rodgers._

Range.--North Pacific, breeding in large numbers on some of the islands
in Bering Sea; south to California in winter. Very similar to the two
preceding species except that the back is mixed with whitish, it is not
believed to have a dark phase. Their breeding habits and eggs do not
differ from the common Fulmar. The eggs are laid on the rocky cliffs
during June.


87. SLENDER-BILLED FULMAR. _Priocella glacialoides._

Range.--Southern seas, appearing on the Pacific coast of the United
States in the summer. This species has a paler mantle than the others of
the family, and the primaries are black. The make-up and plumage of the
whole bird is more like that of the Gulls than any of the others. They
probably breed in the far south during our winter, although we have no
definite data relative to their nesting habits.

[Illustration 065: Pacific Fulmar. Slender-billed Fulmar.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 64

88. CORY'S SHEARWATER. _Puffinus borealis._

This species probably breeds in the far south. It has been found only
off the coast of Massachusetts and Long Island. This is the largest of
our Shearwaters, and can be distinguished from the next species by its
wholly white underparts, its light mantle and yellowish bill. We have no
data relative to its nesting habits.


89. GREATER SHEARWATER. _Puffinus gravis._

Range.--The whole of the Atlantic Ocean.

Thousands of them spend the latter part of the summer off the New
England coast, where they are known to the fishermen as Haglets. Their
upper parts are brownish gray, darker on the wings; bill and feet dark;
underparts white, with the middle of the belly and the under tail covers
dusky. Length about 20 inches. Little is known concerning their nesting
quarters, although they are said to breed in Greenland. From the fact of
their early appearance off the New England coast it is probable that the
greater part of them nest in the far south.


90. MANX SHEARWATER. _Puffinus puffinus._

This species inhabits the North Atlantic ocean chiefly on the European
side, being abundant in the Mediterranean and in the British Isles.
These birds deposit their single pure white eggs in crevices among the
cliffs, on the ground or in burrows dug by themselves. Size of egg 2.35
× 1.60. Data.--Isle of Hay, North Scotland. June 1, 1893. Single egg
laid at the end of a three foot burrow.

[Illustration 066: Cory Shearwater. Greater Shearwater.]
[Illustration: Egg of Audubon's Shearwater--White.]
[Illustration: Audubon's Shearwater.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 65

91. PINK-FOOTED SHEARWATER. _Puffinus creatopus._

Range.--Pacific Ocean, north on American side to California in summer.

This species, whose breeding habits are little known, is similar in size
and color to the Greater Shearwater, differing chiefly in the yellowish
bill and pinkish colored feet.


92. AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER. _Puffinus lherminieri._

Range.--Middle Atlantic, ranging north in late summer to Long Island.

This bird, having a length of but twelve inches, is the smallest of the
Shearwaters found along our coasts. Large colonies of them breed on some
of the small islands and keys of the West Indies and Bahamas, and not so
commonly in the Bermudas. Their eggs, which are pure white, are
deposited at the end of burrows dug by the birds. Size of egg 2.00 ×
1.35. Their nesting season commences about the latter part of March and
continues through April and May. After the young are able to fly, like
other members of the family, the birds become ocean wanderers and stray
north to southern New England. Data.--Bahamas, April 13, 1891. Single
egg laid at the end of a burrow about two feet in length. Collector, D.
P. Ingraham.


92.1. ALLIED SHEARWATER. _Puffinus assimilis._

This is an Australian and New Zealand species that has accidentally
strayed to the shores of Nova Scotia.


93. BLACK-VENTED SHEARWATER. _Puffinus opisthomelas._

Range.--Middle Pacific coast of the Americas, north in late summer along
the coast of California. This species breeds commonly on the islands off
the coast of Lower California, especially on the Gulf side. Their single
egg is white, size 2.00 × 1.30, and is located at the end of a burrow.
Data.--Natividad Is., Lower California, April 10, 1897. Single egg laid
on the sand at the end of a burrow six feet in length. Collector, A. W.
Anthony.


93.1. TOWNSEND'S SHEARWATER. _Puffinus auricularis._

This bird ranges from Cape St. Lucas, south along the Pacific coast of
Mexico, breeding on the Revillagigedo Islands off the Mexican coast.

[Illustration 067: Pink-footed Shearwater. Black-vented Shearwater.
Townsend's Shearwater.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 66

94. SOOTY SHEARWATER. _Puffins fuliginosus._

Range.--A common species off the Atlantic coast in summer; breeds along
our northern coasts, and it is also supposed that many of them nest in
southern seas and reach our coasts early in the summer. These
Shearwaters are entirely sooty gray, being somewhat lighter below. They
are called "black haglets" by the fishermen, whose vessels they follow
in the hope of procuring bits of refuse. They commonly nest in burrows
in the ground, but are also said to build in fissures among the ledges.
Their single white egg measures 2.55 × 1.75. Data.--Island in Ungava
Bay, northern Labrador, June 14, 1896. Egg laid in a fissure of a sea
cliff. Collector, A. N. McFord.


95. DARK-BODIED SHEARWATER. _Puffinus griseus._

This is a southern species which, after having nested on islands in the
far south during our winter, comes north and appears off the Pacific
coast of the United States during the summer. It is a similar bird to
the Sooty Shearwater, but is considerably darker and the under coverts
are whitish. Their nesting habits are the same as those of other members
of the family. Size of egg, 2.40 × 1.65. Data.--Stewart's Island, New
Zealand, February 15, 1896. Single egg at the end of a long burrow.


96. SLENDER-BILLED SHEARWATER. _Puffinus tenuirostris._

Range.--Northern Pacific Ocean in the summer, extending from Japan and
Alaska southward. Supposed to breed in the southern hemisphere, as well
as probably on some of the Aleutians in Alaska.


96.1. WEDGE-TAILED SHEARWATER. _Puffinus cuneatus._

Range.--North Pacific, breeding on the Revillagigedo Islands off the
coast of Mexico, and probably on some of the small islands in the Gulf
of California.


97. BLACK-TAILED SHEARWATER. _Priofinus cinerus._

This is a Shearwater which inhabits the southern hemisphere, but which
has accidentally wandered to the Pacific coast of the United States. It
is dark above and whitish below, with black under tail coverts. It
breeds in the far south.

[Illustration 068: Sooty Shearwater.]
[Illustration: Dark-bodied Shearwater. Slender-billed Shearwater.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 67

98. BLACK-CAPPED PETREL. _Æstrelata hasitata._

This is not a common species; it is an inhabitant of tropical seas and
has only been casually found on our coasts or inland. It is a handsome
species with white forehead, underparts and nape with a small isolated
black cap on the crown; the rest of the upper parts are blackish. It is
a native of the West Indies.


99. SCALED PETREL. _Æstrelata scalaris._

This is another rare species which is an inhabitant of southern seas. A
single specimen taken in New York State gives it a claim as a doubtful
North American species. It is a handsome bird, the feathers of the
grayish upperparts being edged with white, thus giving it the appearance
of being barred. Its eggs have only been known to science within the
past few years. Data.--Preservation Inlet, New Zealand, June 7, 1900.
Single white egg. Size 2.40 × 1.75. Collector, P. Seymour. Parent bird
taken with the egg.


100. FISHER'S PETREL. _Æstralata fisheri._

This is a handsome bird known only from the type specimen taken off
Kadiak Is., Alaska, by Mr. Fisher.


101. BULWER'S PETREL. _Bulweria bulweri._

An eastern Atlantic species which is only an accidental visitant to our
shores. They breed on the Madeira Islands where the eggs are laid in
crevices among the rocks or in burrows in the ground. Size 1.75 × 1.55,
white.


102. PINTADO PETREL. _Daption capensis._

This is the Cape Pigeon of the southern hemisphere. It has only
accidentally occurred on our coast.

[Illustration 069: Black-capped Petrel. Scaled Petrel. Fisher's
Petrel.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 68

103. LEAST PETREL. _Halocyptena microsoma._

Range.--Pacific coast of America from Lower California to Panama. The
Least Petrel is the smallest of this family, in length measuring only
5.75 inches. Their plumage is entirely dark sooty. They have been found
breeding on San Benito Island, Lower California, and they probably do on
others farther south. The single egg that this bird lays is white with a
wreath of fine black specks around one and sometimes both ends.
Data.--San Benito Is., Lower California, June 12, 1897. No nest, the egg
being simply laid on the bare rock in a crevice. Size 1.00 × .75.
Collector, A. W. Anthony.


104. STORM PETREL. _Thalassidroma pelagica._

North Atlantic Ocean chiefly on the European side, wintering south to
New Brunswick. Smallest of the white rumped, black petrels; 5.75 inches
in length.

This species is the originally called "Mother Cary's Chicken" by the
sailors. They nest abundantly on many of the islands off the coasts of
Europe and the British Isles, laying their single egg either in burrows
or crevices among the cliffs. Data.--Coast of County Kerry, Ireland,
June 1, 1895. Single egg laid at the end of burrow in a sea cliff. Size
1.05 × .80; white with a wreath of very fine dots about the larger end.
Collector, G. H. McDonald.


105. FORKED-TAILED PETREL. _Oceanodroma furcata._

Range.--North Pacific from California to Alaska, breeding in the
Aleutians.

These birds have a plumage of bluish gray, the wings being darker and
the underparts lightest. The nests are made in burrows or crevices in
the banks. Data.--Uniak Is., Alaska, June 10, 1900. No nest. Single egg
laid at the end of a burrow. Several pairs nesting near. Egg white with
a fine wreath of purplish black specks about the large end. Size 1.25 ×
.95.

[Illustration 070: White.]
[Illustration: Least Petrel. Stormy Petrel. Forked-tailed Petrel.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 69

105.2. KÆDING'S PETREL. _Oceanodroma kædingi._

This bird is similar to Leach Petrel, but is smaller and the tail is
less deeply forked. Its range is from California to Panama breeding on
the Revillagigedo Islands off Mexico.


106. LEACH'S PETREL. _Oceanodroma leucorhoa._

Range.--North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, breeding from Maine and
from the Farallones, northward to Greenland and the Aleutians.

These are the most common of the Petrels found on our coast; they are
eight inches in length, of a sooty brown color, and have a white rump.
The forked tail will at once distinguish them from any of the Atlantic
Petrels. They nest in burrows in the ground, laying a pure white egg,
sometimes with a very faint dusty wreath about the larger end. Size 1.20
× .95. These birds generally take turns in the task of incubation, one
remaining at sea during the day and returning at night while his mate
takes her turn roving the briny deep in search of food. The young are
fed by regurgitation upon an oily fluid which has a very offensive odor.
This odor is always noticeable about an island inhabited by Petrels and
is always retained by the eggs or skins of these birds. They are very
rarely seen flying in the vicinity of their nesting island during the
day; the bird that is on the nest will remain until removed by hand.
Data.--Pumpkin Is., Maine, June 22, 1893. Single egg; nest of a few
grasses at the end of a burrow dug in the bank. Collector, J. Lefavour.


106.1 GUADALUPE PETREL. _Oceanodroma macrodactyla._

This species, which is very similar to the preceding, except for a
longer and more deeply forked tail, breeds on Guadalupe Is. Their eggs
are white very minutely wreathed with reddish brown; they are, however,
nearly always nest stained to an uneven brownish color. Data.--Guadalupe
Is., Lower California, March 24, 1897. Single egg laid on a few oak
leaves and pine needles at the end of a three foot burrow. Size of egg
1.40 × 1.00. Collector, A. W. Anthony.

[Illustration 071: White.]
[Illustration: Kæding's Petrel. Leach's Petrel. Guadalupe Petrel.]
[Illustration: White, nest stained.]
[Illustration: right hand border.]

Page 70

107. BLACK PETREL. _Oceanodroma melania._

Range.--South Pacific, from southern California southward, breeding on
the small islands on both coasts of Lower California. They are similar
to the Leach's Petrel except that the rump is blackish. Data.--San
Benito Is., Lower California, July 23, 1896. White egg laid on bare
ground at the end of three foot burrow. Size 1.40 × 1. Collector, A. W.
Anthony.

108. ASHY PETREL. _Oceanodroma homochroa._

Range.--California coast, breeding on the Farallones and Santa Barbara
Islands.

This species, while not common, nests in all manner of localities on the
Farallones, concealing their eggs under any rock or in any crevice that
may attract their fancy. Their single white egg is only faintly if at
all wreathed with fine dust-like specks of reddish brown. Size 1.15 ×
.86. Data.--Farallone Is., California, June 12, 1895. Egg laid on sand
in crevice at the base of a stone wall; well concealed. Collector,
Chester Barlow.


108.1. SOCORRO PETREL. _Oceanodroma socorroensis._

Breeds on Socorro, San Benito and Coronado Islands, placing its eggs at
the end of burrow. Data.--San Benito Is., Lower California, July 12,
1897. Single egg at the end of a burrow 3 feet in length. Egg pure white
very finely wreathed with pale reddish brown. Size 1.15 × .87.
Collector, A. W. Anthony.

[Illustration 072: Black Petrel. Ashy Petrel.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 71

109. WILSON'S PETREL. _Oceanites oceanicus._

Breeds in the southern hemisphere in February and March and spends the
summer off the Atlantic coast as far north as Newfoundland. This species
can be distinguished from Leach Petrel by its square tail and from the
Stormy Petrel by its large size and yellow webs to its feet. These birds
are the greatest wanderers of the genus, being found at different
seasons in nearly all quarters of the globe. Their single egg is white.
Size 1.25 × .90.


110. WHITE-BELLIED PETREL. _Fregetta grallaria._

A small species (length about 7.5 inches) inhabiting southern seas.
Recorded once at Florida. General plumage blackish. Upper tail coverts,
bases of tail feathers, under wing coverts, and abdomen, white.


111. WHITE-FACED PETREL. _Pelagodroma marina._

Range.--Southern seas, accidentally north to the coast of Massachusetts.
This beautiful species is of about the same size as the Leach's Petrel.
It has bluish gray upper parts; the whole under parts, as well as the
forehead and sides of head, are white.

These birds have the same characteristics as do others of the species,
pattering over the water with their feet as they skim over the crests
and troughs of the waves. They are not uncommon in the waters about New
Zealand where they breed. Their single eggs are about the same as
Leach's Petrel, are brilliant white and are, very strongly, for a Petrel
egg, wreathed about the large end with dots of reddish brown. Size 1.32
× .90. Data.--Chatham Is., New Zealand, January 7, 1901. Egg laid at end
of a burrow. Collector, J. Lobb. This egg is in Mr. Thayer's collection.

[Illustration 073: Wilson's Petrel. White-billed Petrel. White-faced
Petrel.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 72

TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS. Order IV. STEGANOPODES
TROPIC BIRDS. Family PHAETHONTIDAE

Tropic Birds are Tern-like birds, having all the toes connected by a
web, and having the two central tail feathers very much lengthened.


112. YELLOW-BILLED TROPIC BIRD. _Phæthon americanus._

Range.--Tropical regions, breeding in the Bahamas, West Indies and the
Bermudas, casual in Florida and along the South Atlantic coast.

The Tropic Birds are the most strikingly beautiful of all the sea birds;
they are about 30 inches in length, of which their long slender tail
takes about 20 inches. They fly with the ease and grace of a Tern, but
with quicker wing beats. They feed on small fish, which they capture by
darting down upon, and upon snails which they get from the beach and
ledges. They build their nests in the crevices and along the ledges of
the rocky cliffs. While gregarious to a certain extent they are not
nearly as much so as the Terns. The nest is made of a mass of seaweed
and weeds; but one egg is laid, this being of a creamy or pale purplish
ground color, dotted and sprinkled with chestnut, so thickly as to often
obscure the ground color. Size 2.10 × 1.45. Data.--Coney Is., Bermudas,
May 1, 1901. Nest made of moss and seaweed in a crevice on ledge of
cliff. Collector, A. H. Verrill.

[Illustration 074: Dull purplish.]
[Illustration: Yellow-billed Tropic Bird. Red-billed Tropic Bird.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 73

113. RED-BILLED TROPIC BIRD. _Phæthon æthereus._

Range.--Tropical seas, chiefly in the Pacific Ocean; north to southern
California.

They breed on several islands in the Gulf of California. This species
differs from the preceding in having a red bill, and the back being
barred with black. Their plumage has a peculiar satiny appearance and is
quite dazzling when viewed in the sunlight. They are strong fliers and
are met with, hundreds of miles from land. They often rest upon the
water, elevating their long tails to keep them from getting wet. They
nest, as do the preceding species, on rocky islands and are said to also
build their nests in trees or upon the ground. The single egg that they
lay has a creamy ground and is minutely dotted with chestnut. Size 2.40
× 1.55. Data.--Daphone Is., Galapagos Is., South Pacific, March 6, 1901.
Egg laid in hole of a sea cliff. The eggs are easily told from those of
the yellow-billed by their much larger size. Collector, R. H. Beck.


113.1 RED-TAILED TROPIC BIRD. _Phæthon rubricaudus._

Range.--Tropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, accidental
off the coast of Lower California.

This is a singularly beautiful species resembling the latter except that
the central tail feathers are bright red, with the extreme tips white.
During August and September they breed in large colonies on small
islands in the South Seas. On Mauritius Island they build their nests
either in the trees or place them on the ground; the nest is made of
seaweed, sticks and weeds; numbers of them nest on Laysan Is., of the
Hawaiian group, concealing their nests on the ground under overhanging
brush.

The single egg has a pale purplish ground speckled with brown.

[Illustration 075: Pale purplish.]
[Illustration: Pale purplish ground color.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 74

GANNETS. Family SULIDAE

Gannets are large stoutly built birds, having the four toes joined by a
web; they have a small naked pouch beneath the bill; the bill is a
little longer than the head, and the tail is quite short. The plumage of
the adults is generally white, that of the young grayish.


114. BLUE-FACED BOOBY. _Sula syanops._

Range.--Widely distributed in the tropical seas, north casually to
Florida and breeding in the Bahamas.

Like the rest of the Gannets, this one is stupid and will often remain
on the nest until removed with the hand, merely hissing at the intruder.
Often they lay their eggs on the bare ground, but sometimes the nest is
lined with seaweed or grass. They lay either one or two eggs early in
April. These eggs are of a dull white color and are heavily covered with
a chalky deposit. Size 2.50 × 1.70. Data.--Clarion Is., Mexico, May 24,
1897. Nest a mere hollow in the sand near the beach. Collector, A. W.
Anthony.


114.1. BLUE-FOOTED BOOBY. _Sula nebouxi._

Range.--Pacific coasts and islands from the Gulf of California southward
to Chili.

These birds nest in numbers on the island of San Pedro Martir in the
Gulf of California. They lay but a single egg, placing it upon the bare
rock. Their breeding season extends from the latter part of March into
May. The egg is a dull white, generally nest stained and is covered with
the usual chalky deposit. Size 2.35 × 1.60. Data.--Clarion Island,
Mexico, May 21, 1897. Two eggs in a hollow in the sand near the beach.
Collector, A. W. Anthony.

[Illustration 076: Blue-faced Booby. Blue-footed Booby.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 75

115. BOOBY. _Sula leucogastra._

Range.--Tropical coasts and islands of the Atlantic; north casually to
Georgia.

The common Booby is an abundant bird on some of the islands of the
Bahamas and Bermudas; it is commonly called the Brown Booby because the
upper parts are of a brownish gray. These birds, as do the other
Gannets, have great powers of flight and without apparent effort dart
about with the speed of an arrow. They are quite awkward upon their feet
and are not very proficient swimmers. They rarely rest upon the water
except when tired. Hundreds and sometimes thousands of them breed in
company, laying their eggs upon the bare rocks. Sometimes a few sticks
or grasses will be placed about the bird to prevent the eggs from
rolling away. They generally lay two eggs, chalky white and nest
stained. Size 2.40 × 1.60. Data.--Key West, Bahamas, April 14, 1891. No
nest; two eggs laid on the bare rocks.


115.1. BREWSTER'S BOOBY. _Sula brewsteri._

Range.--Pacific coast from Lower California southward. This Gannet
replaces the common Booby on the Pacific coast. It nests abundantly on
many islands in the Gulf of California, and in company with the
blue-footed variety, on San Pedro Martir Island. They generally lay two
eggs, placing them upon the bare rocks and surrounding them with a ring
of sticks and seaweed to keep them in place. The eggs are chalky white
and cannot be distinguished from those of the other Boobies. Data.--San
Benedicto Is., Lower California, May 18, 1897. Single egg laid on the
sand amid a few blades of grass.


116. RED-FOOTED BOOBY. _Sula piscator._

This is another species that is only occasionally taken on the Florida
coast. The habits of the birds and their nesting habits are the same as
those of the others of the family. Two chalky white eggs are laid.
Data.--San Benedicto Is., Lower California, May 18, 1897. Single egg.
Nest a few twigs of rank grass. Collector, A. W. Anthony.

[Illustration 077: Chalky bluish white, nest stained.]
[Illustration: Booby. Red-footed Booby.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 76

117. GANNET. _Sula bassana._

Range.--North Atlantic, breeding, in America, only on Bird Rocks in the
St. Lawrence.

These are the largest of the family, being 35 inches in length. They
feed on fish which they catch by diving upon, from the air. When flying
their neck is carried fully extended. They rest on the water when tired,
the numerous air cells beneath the skin, causing them to sit high up in
the water and enabling them to weather the severest storm in perfect
safety. The only known breeding place in America is Bird Rocks, where
they nest by thousands, placing their nests in rows on the narrow
ledges; the nests are made of piles of seaweed, mud and stones. They lay
but one egg of dingy white color and covered with a chalky deposit. On
St. Kilda Island, off the coast of Scotland, they breed by millions.
They are very tame and will frequently allow themselves to be touched
with the hand. It is said that thousands of the young are killed by
fishermen every year and marketed in Edinburg and other places.
Data.--St. Kilda Island, Scotland, June 18, 1896. Single egg laid on a
large mass of seaweed on a sea cliff. Collector, H. McDonald.

[Illustration: Ganet Anhinga.]
[Illustration: Chalky bluish white.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 77

DARTERS. Family ANHINGIDAE

118. WATER TURKEY. _Anhinga anhinga._

Range.--Tropical America, north to the South Atlantic States and up the
Mississippi Valley to Illinois.

Anhingas or Snake Birds are curiously formed creatures with a Heron-like
head and neck, and the body of a Cormorant. They live in colonies in
inaccessible swamps. Owing to their thin and light bodies, they are
remarkable swimmers, and pursue and catch fish under water with ease.
When alarmed they have a habit of sinking their body below water,
leaving only their head and neck visible, thereby having the appearance
of a water snake. They also fly well and dive from their perch into the
water with the greatest celerity.

They nest in colonies in the swamps, placing their nests of sticks,
leaves and moss in the bushes over the water. They breed in April,
laying from three to five bluish eggs, covered with a chalky deposit.
Size 2.25 × 1.35. Data.--Gainesville, Florida, May 18, 1894. Nest in the
top of a button-wood tree, made of leaves and branches, overhanging the
water. Collector, George Graham.

[Illustration 079: Chalky bluish white.]
[Illustration: PELICAN POND. Washington Zoological Park.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 78

CORMORANTS. Family PHALACROCORACIDÆ

Cormorants have a more bulky body than do the Anhingas; their tail is
shorter and the bill strongly hooked at the tip. Cormorants are found in
nearly all quarters of the globe. They are very gregarious and most
species are maritime. They feed upon fish which they catch by pursuing
under water. Most of the Cormorants have green eyes.

[Illustration: 080 left hand margin.]

Page 79

119. CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax carbo._

Range.--The Atlantic coast breeding from Maine to Greenland.

The common Cormorant or Shag is one of the largest of the race, having a
length of 36 inches.

In breeding plumage, the black head and neck are so thickly covered with
the slender white plumes as to almost wholly obscure the black. There is
also a large white patch on the flanks. They nest in colonies on the
rocky shores of Newfoundland and Labrador, placing their nests of sticks
and seaweed in rows along the high ledges, where they sit, as one writer
aptly expresses it, like so many black bottles. A few pairs also nest on
some of the isolated rocky islets off the Maine coast. During the latter
part of May and during June they lay generally four or five greenish
white, chalky looking eggs. Size 2.50 × 1.40. Data.--Black Horse Rock,
Maine coast, June 6, 1893. Four eggs in a nest of seaweed and a few
sticks; on a high ledge of rock. Collector, C. A. Reed.


120. DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax auritus auritus._

Range.--The Atlantic coast and also in the interior, breeding from Nova
Scotia and North Dakota northward.

This is a slightly smaller bird than carbo, and in the nesting season
the white plumes of the latter are replaced by tufts of black and white
feathers from above each eye. On the coast they nest the same as carbo
and in company with them on rocky islands. In the interior they place
their nests on the ground or occasionally in low trees on islands in the
lakes. They breed in large colonies, making the nests of sticks and
weeds and lay three or four eggs like those of the common Cormorant but
averaging shorter. Size 2.30 × 1.40. Data.--Stump Lake, North Dakota,
May 31, 1897. Nest of dead weeds on an island. Six eggs. Collector, T.
F. Eastgate.

[Illustration 081: Chalky greenish or bluish white.]
[Illustration: Cormorant. Double-crested Cormorant.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 80

[Illustration 082: Walter Raine.
NESTS OF DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANTS.]

Page 81

120a. FLORIDA CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax auritus floridanus._

This sub-species is a common breeding bird in the swamps and islands of
the Gulf coast and north to South Carolina and southern Illinois. The
nests are placed in the mangroves in some of the most impenetrable
swamps and are composed of twigs and lined with leaves or moss. They lay
three or four chalky bluish white eggs. Size 2.30 × 1.40. Data.--Bird
Is., Lake Kissimee, Florida, April 5, 1898. Three eggs. Nest made of
weeds and grass, in a willow bush.


120b. WHITE-CRESTED CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax auritus cincinatus._

Range.--Northwestern coast of North America, breeding in Alaska, and
south to the northern boundary of the United States, breeding both in
the interior and on the coast, in the former case generally on the
ground or in low trees on swampy islands and in the latter, on the rocky
cliffs of the coasts and islands. The nests are built in the same
fashion as the other Cormorants, and the three to five eggs are similar.
Size 2.45 × 1.40.


120c. FARALLON CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus._

Range.--This sub-species breeds on the coasts and islands of California
and southward.

In company with other species of Cormorants, these birds breed in large
numbers on the Farallones, placing their nests well up on the higher
ridges and rocks. They breed most abundantly during May. When nesting on
the inland islands, they place their nests in low bushes. Their nests
and eggs are similar to those of the other Cormorants. Size 2.40 × 1.50.
Data.--Farallones, California. Nest of weeds and seaweed on the rocks.
Collector, W. O. Emerson.

121. MEXICAN CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax vigua mexicanus._


Range.--Breeds abundantly from southern Texas, south through Mexico;
north rarely to Kansas; has recently been found breeding in limited
number on some of the Bahamas. In the interior they nest in trees,
chiefly those overhanging or growing in the water. On the coasts they
nest on the rocky ledges, as do the other Cormorants. They nest in
colonies building their abode of twigs and weeds, and during May laying
three or four eggs, greenish white in color and chalky, as are all the
Cormorants. Size 2.25 × 1.35.

[Illustration: right hand margin.]
[Illustration 083: Greenish white.]

Page 82

122. BRANDT'S CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax penicillatus._

Range.--Pacific coast breeding along the whole coast of the United
States.

This species is found more abundantly on the Farallones than is the
Farallone Cormorant. Like the other Cormorants breeding on these
islands, these cling closely to their nests, for fear of being robbed by
the Gulls, that are ever on the watch to steal either eggs or young.
Their nesting habits and eggs are identical with those of the other
species. Size 2.50 × 1.50. Data.--Bird Island, California, May 24, 1885.
A very bulky nest of seaweed on the rocks. Collector, A. M. Ingersoll.


123. PELAGIC CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicus._

Range.--Coast of Alaska.

These are perhaps the most beautiful species of Cormorants, having
brilliant violet green metallic reflections and, in the breeding
plumage, crests on the forehead and nape, as well as large white flank
patches. They breed in large colonies on the Aleutian Islands, placing
their nests of sticks and sea mosses on the rocky ledges, often hundreds
of feet above the sea level. Three or four eggs are laid during May and
June. The young birds when hatched are naked and black, and are
repulsive looking objects, as are those of all the other Cormorants. The
eggs are greenish white with the usual calcareous deposit. Size 2.30 ×
1.40.


123a. VIOLET-GREEN CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus._

This sub-species is found on the Pacific coast from Washington to the
Aleutian Islands. Their habits and nests and eggs are the same as those
of the Pelagic Cormorant, nesting on the high cliffs of the rocky
islands. The eggs are the same size as those of the preceding.


123b. BAIRD'S CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax pelagicus resplendens._

This variety breeds on the Pacific coast from Washington south to
Mexico. They nest on the Farallones, but in smaller numbers than the
other varieties found there. Both the birds and their eggs are smaller
than the preceding. Size of eggs 2.20 × 1.40.


124. RED-FACED CORMORANT. _Phalacrocorax urile._

Range.--Southwest coast of Alaska, migrating to Japan in the winter.

This species differs from the Pelagic chiefly in having the forehead
bare. They do not differ in their breeding habits from others of the
family. That the Cormorants are expert fishermen may be seen from the
fact that the Chinese tame and have them catch fish for them, placing a
ring around their neck to prevent their swallowing the fish. Their
nesting places are very filthy, being covered with excrement and remains
of fish that are strewn around the nests. They breed in June laying
three or four eggs. Size 2.50 × 1.50.

[Illustration 084: 120c--122.]
[Illustration: 123b--124.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 83

PELICANS. Family PELECANIDÆ

Pelicans are large, short legged, web footed (all four toes joined by a
web) birds, the most noticeable feature of which is the long bill with
its enormous pouch suspended from lower mandible. This pouch, while
normally contracted, is capable of being distended to hold several
quarts. It is used as a scoop in which to catch small fish. Their skin
is filled with numerous air cells, making them very light and buoyant.


125. AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN. _Pelecanus erythrorhynchos._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding in the interior, from Utah and
the Dakotas northward. These large birds, reaching a length of five
feet, are entirely white except for the black primaries. They get their
food by approaching a school of small fish and, suddenly dipping their
head beneath the surface, sometimes scoop up a large number of fish at a
time; after allowing the water to run out of the sides of the mouth,
they proceed to swallow their catch. They nest in large communities on
islands in some of the inland lakes.

Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Shoal Lake, Manitoba, furnish breeding ground
for many thousands of Pelicans. They build their simple nests on the
ground, making them of sticks and weeds. They generally lay two eggs,
but often three or four. Size 3.45 × 2.30. Data.--Egg Island, Great Salt
Lake, June 19, 1884. Two eggs. Nest a slight hollow in the ground,
surrounded by a few sticks. Collector, F. F. Leonard.

[Illustration 085: Chalky white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 84

[Illustration 086: AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN.]

Page 85

126. BROWN PELICAN. _Pelecanus occidentalis._

Range.--Found on the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United
States.

Brown Pelicans are about 50 inches in length; they have a blackish and
grayish body and a white head and neck with a brown stripe down the back
of the latter. The pouch is a dark greenish brown. This species is
maritime and is not found inland. They breed in large colonies on many
of the islands in the Gulf of Mexico and on Pelican Island on the east
coast of Florida, in which latter place they are now protected from
further depredations at the hand of eggers and gunners. Their fishing
tactics differ from those of the White Pelican. They dive down upon the
school of fish from the air and rarely miss making a good catch. Their
nests are quite bulky structures made of sticks and weeds and grasses.
These are generally located on the ground but occasionally in low
mangroves, these latter nests being more bulky than the ground ones.
They lay from two to five chalky white eggs during May and June. Size 3.
× 1.90. Data.--Tampa Bay, Fla., May 29, 1894. Three eggs. Nest in the
top of a stout mangrove; made of sticks, branches and leaves. Collector,
Geo. Graham.


127. CALIFORNIA BROWN PELICAN. _Pelecanus californicus._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia south to the Galapagos
Islands.

This bird is similar to the preceding, but larger and the pouch is
reddish. They breed abundantly on the Coronado Islands and southward.
Their habits, nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the Brown
Pelican. Size of the three or four chalky white eggs is 3.10 × 1.95.
Data.--Coronado Islands, Calif., March 28, 1897. Three eggs. Nest of
sticks, lined with green leaves, located on the ground. Collector, H.
McConville.

[Illustration 087: Chalky white.]
[Illustration: Brown Pelican. White Pelican.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 86

MAN-O'-WAR BIRDS. Family FREGATIDÆ

128. MAN-O'-WAR BIRD. _Fregata aquila._

Range.--Tropical seas, north regularly in America to the South Atlantic
and Gulf coasts, casually farther.

Man-o'-war Birds or "Frigates," as they are often called, are remarkable
birds in many respects. In comparison with their weight they have the
largest expanse of wing of any known bird. Weighing only about four
pounds they have an extent of from seven to eight feet, their wings
being extremely long and pointed. The length of the bird is about 40
inches, of which the tail comprises about 18 in., 10 inches of this
being forked. They have a large bright orange gular sac, a long, hooked
bill, and small slightly webbed feet. Their powers of flight combine the
strength of the Albatrosses and the grace of the Terns. They are very
poor swimmers and do not dive, so are forced to procure their food by
preying upon the Gulls and Cormorants, forcing them to drop their fish,
which the pirates catch before it reaches the water. They also feed upon
flying fish, catching them in the air, whither they have been driven by
their enemies in their natural element. They nest in large colonies on
some of the Bahama Islands and on some of the small Florida Keys. Their
nests are small frail platforms of sticks and twigs and the single egg
is laid in March and April. It is white and has a smooth surface. Size
2.80 × 1.90. Data.--Key Verde, Bahamas, March 6, 1889. Single egg. Nest
a frail affair of sticks on a cactus. Collector, D. P. Ingraham.

[Illustration 088: White.]
[Illustration: Man-O'-War Bird.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 87

Order V. ANSERES
DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS. Family ANATIDAE

The birds comprising this family are of greatly varying sizes, but all
have webbed feet, and generally the bill is broader than high, and is
serrated on the edges or provided with gutters to act as a strainer in
assisting the birds to gather their food.


129. MERGANSER. _Mergus americanus._

Range.--North America, breeding from the northern border of the United
States northward.

The three species of Mergansers are almost exclusively fish eating
birds. Therefore their flesh is unpalatable and they are known as "Fish
Ducks." They are also sometimes called "Sawbills" because of the
teeth-like serration on both the upper and the under mandibles. Unlike
the other species of ducks, their bills are long, slender and rounded
instead of being broad and flat; it is also hooked at the tip. Like the
Cormorants, they often pursue and catch fish under the water, their
teeth-like bills enabling them to firmly hold their prey.

The American Mergansers, Goosanders, or Sheldrakes, as they are often
called, are found both on the coast and in the interior. Except in
certain mountainous regions, they breed chiefly north of the United
States. The male bird has no crest and the head is a beautiful green,
while the female has a reddish brown crest and head, shading to white on
the chin. They build their nest in hollow trees near the water. It is
made of grasses, leaves and moss and is lined with feathers from the
breast of the female. During May, they lay from six to ten eggs of a
creamy or buff color. Size 2.70 × 1.75. Data.--Gun Is., Lake Winnipeg.
June 16, 1903. Eleven eggs in a nest of white down, located between two
large boulders. Collector, Walter Raine.

[Illustration 089: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: American Merganser. Red-breasted Merganser.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 88

130. RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. _Mergus serrator._

Range.--North America, breeding from northern United States northward.

This species is more abundant than the preceding. It is slightly
smaller, being 22 inches in length, and the male is crested. Found
abundantly in the United States in winter. Breeds commonly in the
interior of British America and in Labrador and Newfoundland. They make
their nests on the ground, near the water, concealing them under rocks
or tufts of grass. The nest is made of grasses, leaves and moss and
lined with feathers. They lay, generally, about ten eggs of a buffy or
greenish buff color. Size 2.50 × 1.70. Data.--Lake Manitoba, N. W.
Canada. Two eggs in a hollow lined with down, under a patch of rose
bushes near shore. Collector, Jos. Hamaugh.


131. HOODED MERGANSER. _Lophodytes cucullatus._

Range.--North America, breeding locally throughout its range, in the
interior. These are beautiful little Ducks distinguished from all others
by the semi-circular, compressed crest which is black with an enclosed
white area. They make their nests in hollow trees, in wooded districts
near the water, lining the cavity with grasses and down. They lay ten or
twelve grayish white eggs. Size 2.15 × 1.70.


132. MALLARD. _Anas platyrhynchos._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America from northern United
States northward, and wintering south to Panama and the West Indies.

Contrasting with the preceding Fish Ducks, the Mallards are regarded as
one of the most esteemed table birds. They feed on mollusks and marine
insects which they generally reach by tipping in shallow water. They
nest in many localities in the United States but more abundantly north
of our borders. They nest in fields in close proximity to ponds or
lakes, placing their nests of grasses and feathers in the tall grass. In
May and June they lay from six to ten eggs of a buffy or olive color.
Size 2.25 × 1.25. Data.--San Diego, California, May 19, 1897. Nest made
of grass, lined with down, placed on the edge of a field near a pond.

[Illustration 090: Hooded Merganser. Mallard.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 89

[Illustration 091: Lake Winnipegosis, June 16, 1902 Walter Raine NEST
AND EGGS OF AMERICAN MERGANSER.

This species usually nest in holes in trees, but on this island they
were nesting in holes under boulders.]

Page 90

133. BLACK DUCK. _Anas rubripes._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from the middle portions north
to the Hudson Bay territory and Labrador.

Throughout their breeding region, one or more pairs of these ducks nest
in nearly every favorable locality. Their nests are placed on the ground
in marshes, swamps or fields bordering a pond or lake, the nest being
concealed in the long grass or reeds. They breed in equal abundance,
either in the interior or along the sea coast; in the latter case their
nests are often placed beside of, or under an overhanging rock. It is
made of weeds, grass and moss and is lined with feathers and down. They
lay from six to twelve eggs during May and June; these are buff or
greenish buff in color. Size 2.30 × 1.70. Data.--Duck Is., Maine, June
3, 1893. Nest of grasses, concealed in a large tuft on water's edge.


134. FLORIDA DUCK. _Anas fulvigula fulvigula._

Range.--Florida and the Gulf of the Mississippi.

This is a similar, lighter colored, locally distributed race of the
foregoing. The most noticeable difference in plumage between this and
the Black Duck is the absence of markings on the chin. The habits are
the same, and the eggs, which are deposited in April, are similar to
those of the Black Duck, but smaller. Size 2.15 × 1.60.

[Illustration 092: Pale greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Black Duck. Florida Duck.]
[Illustration: deco-photo.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 91

134a. MOTTLED DUCK. _Anas fulvigula maculosa._

Range.--Gulf coast of Texas and up the Mississippi Valley to Kansas.

The habits of this bird differ in no way from the preceding ones. The
six to ten eggs are greenish buff in color. Size 2.15 × 1.55.


135. GADWALL. _Chaulelasmus streperus._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America, chiefly in the United
States and north to Manitoba, chiefly in the interior.

South in winter to the Gulf. The males of these birds may be identified
by the white speculum and the chestnut wing coverts. Gadwalls nest on
the ground among the reeds of marshes or in the long grass of bordering
fields; they make little or no nest but line the cavity with down from
their breasts. They lay from seven to twelve eggs of a creamy buff
color. Size 2.10 × 1.60. Data.--Benson Co., North Dakota, June 19, 1898.
Eight eggs. Nest on the ground among rank grass on a low island in
Devils Lake. Made of weeds lined with down. Collector, E. S. Rolfe.


136. WIDGEON. _Mareca penelope_.

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America, only in the Aleutian
Islands; rare or accidental in other parts of the country.

The European Widgeon is similar in build and plumage to the following
species, except that the whole head, with the exception of the white
crown, is chestnut. They build their nests in the rushes, making them of
reeds and grass and lining them with feathers. They lay from six to ten
light buff colored eggs. Size 2.20 × 1.50.

[Illustration 093: Creamy buff.]
[Illustration: Gadwall. Widgeon.]
[Illustration: Pale buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 92

137. BALDPATE. _Mareca americana._

Range.--North America, breeding in the interior from Texas north to
Hudson Bay.

The Baldpate (so-called because of the white crown) or American Widgeon
is a handsomely marked bird and is regarded as a great table delicacy.
The male birds cannot be mistaken for any other species because of the
white crown, wing coverts and underparts and the broad green stripe,
back of the eye. They breed locally in many parts of the country,
building their nests of grass and weeds, neatly lined with feathers, on
the ground in marshes. They lay from six to twelve creamy eggs. Size
2.15 × 1.50. Data.--Lac Aux Morts, North Dakota. Eight eggs. Nest of
grass and down on ground in a grassy meadow. Collector, E. S. Bryant.


138. EUROPEAN TEAL. _Nettion crecca._

An old world species that is casually found on both coasts of America.


139. GREEN-WINGED TEAL. _Nettion carolinense._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding chiefly north of the United
States.

A small, handsome species, the male of which can readily be identified
by the reddish brown head and neck, with the large green patch behind
each ear; length fourteen inches. Green-winged Teals are our smallest
representative of the Duck family. They are eagerly sought by sportsmen,
both because of their beauty and the excellence of their flesh. They are
among the most common of Ducks in the interior, where they nest
generally in tufts of grass along ponds, lakes or brooks. Nest of grass
and weeds, lined with down from the bird. Eggs buffy, four to ten in
number. Size 1.85 × 1.25.

[Illustration 094: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Baldpate. Green-winged Teal.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 93

140. BLUE-WINGED TEAL. _Querquedula discors_.

Range.--North America, breeding from northern United States northward;
rare on the Pacific coast.

Another small species, known by the blue wing coverts and the white
crescent in front of eye. They nest in the same localities with the
preceding species, placing their nest of grass and weeds on the ground
in meadows near water. Eggs buffy white. Six to twelve in number. Size
1.90 × 1.30.


141. CINNAMON TEAL. _Querquedula cyanoptera_.

Range.--Western United States, chiefly west of the Rocky Mountains.
Casually east to Texas, Illinois and British Columbia.

The Cinnamon Teal is another small Duck, marked by the uniform rich
chestnut plumage and light blue wing coverts. The speculum is green. The
nesting habits are the same as those of the Teals, the nests being
placed on the ground in marshes or fields near water. Their nests are
closely woven of grass and weeds and lined with down and feathers from
the breast of the bird. The eggs are pale buff and number from six to
fourteen. Size 1.85 × 1.35.


141.1. RUDDY SHELDRAKE. _Casarca ferruginea._

This is an Old World species that has accidentally occurred in
Greenland.

[Illustration 095: Blue-winged Teal. Cinnamon Teal.]
[Illustration: deco-photo.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 94

142. SHOVELLER. _Spatula clypeata._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding in the interior from Texas
northward.

This strikingly marked Duck is twenty inches in length, has a green head
and speculum, blue wing coverts and chestnut belly. The bill is long and
broad at the tip. It makes its nest on the ground in marshy places, of
grass, weeds and feathers. Six to ten eggs constitute a complete set.
They are greenish or leaden gray color. Size 2.10 x 1.50.
Data.--Graham's Island, North Dakota, May 28, 1899. Nest of dead weed
stems and grass, lined with down. Ten eggs. Collector, E. S. Bryant.


143. PINTAIL. _Dafila acuta._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in North America from northern
United States northward, wintering south to Panama. This species, which
is also known as the Sprig-tail, is very common in the United States in
the spring and fall migrations. It is about thirty inches long, its
length depending upon the development of the tail feathers, the central
ones of which are long and pointed. They breed casually in many sections
of the United States, but in abundance from Manitoba to the Arctic
Ocean. They nest near the water, laying from six to twelve eggs of dull
olive color. Size 2.20 x 1.50. Data.--Graham's Island, Devil's Lake, N.
Dakota, June 15, 1900. Ten eggs. Nest on the ground, of weeds, lined
with down. Colony breeding. Collector, E. S. Bryant.

[Illustration 096: Lead gray.]
[Illustration: Pintail. Shoveller.]
[Illustration: Dull olive gray.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 95

144. WOOD DUC. _Aix sponsa._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding from Labrador and British
Columbia south to Florida.

Bridal Duck is a name often given to this, the most beautiful of all
Ducks.

They are beautifully marked, have a large crest, and are iridescent with
all colors of the rainbow. They frequent wooded country near ponds and
lakes, feeding on water insects and mollusks in the coves. They build
their nests in hollow trees and stumps, often at quite a distance from
the water. When the young are a few days old, they slide, scramble, or
flutter down the tree trunk to the ground below, and are led to the
water. The nest is made of twigs, weeds and grass, and warmly lined with
down. The eggs are a buff color and number eight to fifteen. Size 2. ×
1.5.


145. RUFOUS-CRESTED DUCK. _Netta rufina._

A European species; a single specimen taken on Long Island in 1872.


146. REDHEAD. _Marila americana._

Range.--North America at large, breeding from northern United States
northward, chiefly in the interior.

A bird commonly seen in the markets where it is often sold as the
following species because of their similarity. The nests are placed on
the ground in marshes or sloughs, and are made of grasses, lined with
feathers. Eggs from six to fourteen in number, of a buffy white color.
Size 2.40 × 1.70.

[Illustration 097: Rich buff.]
[Illustration: Wood Duck. Redhead.]
[Illustration: Buffy.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 96

[Illustration 098: WOOD DUCK.]

Page 97

147. CANVAS-BACK. _Marila valisineria._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding chiefly in the interior from
the United States to the Arctic Ocean.

A noted table bird, especially in the south where it feeds on wild
celery. Can be distinguished from the Redhead by its darker head,
lighter back, and gradually sloping bill. They nest abundantly in
Manitoba, their habits being the same as the preceding. They lay from
six to ten eggs of a darker shade than the Red-heads. Size 2.40 × 1.70.
Data.--Haunted Lake, N. Alberta, June 12, 1897. Ten eggs. Nest of reeds
in a heavy reed bed out in the lake. Collector, Walter Raine.


148. SCAUP DUCK. _Marila marila._

Range.--North America, breeding from North Dakota northward, chiefly in
the interior; south in winter to Central America.

This and the following species are widely known as "Blue-bills" owing to
the slaty blue color of that member. Their plumage is black and white,
somewhat similar in pattern to that of the Redhead, but darker, and the
whole head is black. They nest in marshes about many of the ponds and
lakes in the interior of British America. The nest is made of marsh
grasses and lined with feathers. The six to ten eggs are pale grayish or
greenish gray. Size 2.50 × 1.70. Data.--Saltcoats Marshes, N. W. Canada,
June 15, 1901. Ten eggs. Nest in the grass; a depression lined with down
and dried grasses. Collector, Walter Raine.

[Illustration: CANVAS-BACK. American Scaup Duck.]
[Illustration 099: Pale greenish gray.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 98

149. LESSER SCAUP DUCK. _Marila affinis._

Range.--North America, breeding from North Dakota and British Columbia
northward; winters south to Central America.

This Duck is distinguished from the preceding, chiefly by its size which
is about two inches less, or 17 inches in length. The nesting habits are
the same as those of the Greater Scaup and the eggs are similar but
smaller. Size 2.25 × 1.55. Data.--Northern Assiniboia, June 10, 1901.
Ten eggs on grass and down at the edge of a lagoon. Collector, Walter
Raine.


150. RING-NECKED DUCK. _Marila collaris._

Range.--North America, breeding in the interior, from North Dakota and
Washington northward. Winters from Maryland on the east and British
Columbia on the west to Central America.

Similar to the Lesser Scaup in size and plumage, except that it has a
narrow chestnut collar around the neck, the back is black instead of
barred with white, and the speculum is gray instead of white. The habits
and nesting habits of the Ring-neck do not differ from those of the
other Scaups. They lay from six to twelve eggs. Size 2.25 × 1.60.
Data.--Cape Bathurst, N. Y. T., June 18, 1901. Ten eggs in a slight
hollow in the moss, lined with down. Collector, Captain Bodfish.

[Illustration 100: Lesser Scaup Duck. Ring-necked Duck.]
[Illustration: Lead gray.]
[Illustration: deco-photo.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 99

151. GOLDEN-EYE. _Clangula clangula americana._

Range.--North America, breeding both on the coast and in the interior,
from the northern border of the United States northward to the Arctic
Ocean.

These are handsome Ducks known as "Whistlers" from the noise of their
wings when flying, and "Greatheads" because of the puffy crest. The head
is greenish with a large round white spot in front of, and a little
below the eye. The rest of the plumage is black and white. This species
nests in hollow trees near the water, lining the cavity with grass, moss
and leaves, and lining the nest with down from their breasts. In May and
June they lay from six to ten eggs of a grayish green color. Size 2.30 ×
1.70.


152. BARROW'S GOLDEN-EYE. _Clangula islandica._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding north of the United States
except from the mountainous portions of Colorado northward.

This Golden-eye differs from the preceding chiefly in the shape of the
white spot before the eye, which in this species is in the form of a
crescent. The size is the same, about 20 inches in length. The
reflections on the head are purplish rather than greenish as in the
preceding. The nesting habits are the same, they building in hollow
trees near water. The six to ten eggs are not different from the
preceding. Size 2.30 × 1.65. Data.--Alfusa, Iceland, June 30, 1900.
Seven eggs. Nest of grass and down in a box attached to a tree by an
islander.

[Illustration 101: Grayish green.]
[Illustration: American Golden-eye. Barrow Golden-eye.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 100

153. BUFFLE-HEAD. _Charitonetta albeola._

Range.--North America, breeding from United States northward. Winters
south to Mexico.

Gunners know this handsome little duck by the names of "Butter-ball,"
and "Dipper," a name also given to Grebes. It is also quite similar, but
smaller (15 in. long), to the American Golden-eye but has a large white
patch on the back of the head, from eye to eye. It is an active bird
and, like the two preceding, is capable of diving to a great depth to
get its food. Its nesting habits are like the preceding. Eggs eight to
fourteen. Size 2 × 1.40. Data.--Alberta, Canada, June 6, 1899. Seven
eggs. Nest in hole in tree stump, lined with down. Collector, Dr.
George.


154. OLD-SQUAW. _Harelda hyemalis._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the Arctic regions; south in
winter to New Jersey and Illinois.

The Long-tailed Duck, as it is called, is especially noticeable because
the breeding plumage of the male differs markedly from that in the
winter. In summer their general plumage is blackish brown, with a white
patch around the eye, and white belly. In winter they are largely white.
The central tail feathers are much lengthened. They breed abundantly in
Greenland, Alaska and the Hudson Bay Territory, placing their nests of
grasses and weeds on the ground near the water. It is generally
concealed in the long grass. The eggs number from six to twelve. Size 2.
× 1.50. Data.--N. Iceland, June 10, 1900. Nest on ground, lined with
down. Collector, S. H. Wallis.

[Illustration 102: Dull buff.]
[Illustration: Buffle-head. Old-squaw.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 101

155. HARLEQUIN DUCK. _Histrionicus histrionicus._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere in America, breeding from Newfoundland and
the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, northward. South in winter to
California and New England.

A beautiful and most gorgeous bird, not in colors, but in the oddity of
the markings, the colors only including black, white, gray and chestnut.
Either sex can be recognized by the small short bill. They breed mostly
in single pairs along swiftly running streams, placing their nest, which
is woven of weeds and grasses, in the ground near the water. It is also
claimed that they sometimes nest in hollow trees. They lay from five to
eight eggs, yellowish or greenish buff in color. Size 2.30 × 1.60.
Data.--Peel River, Alaska, June 13, 1898. Seven eggs in a hollow in
river bank, lined with down. Collector, C. E. Whittaker.


156. LABRADOR DUCK. _Camptorhynchus labradorius._

This bird, whose range was from Labrador to New Jersey in the winter,
has probably been extinct since 1875, when the last authentic capture
was made. It is a strange fact that a bird of this character should have
been completely exterminated, even though they were often sold in the
markets. Only forty-one specimens are known to be preserved at present
and nothing is known in regard to their nesting habits or eggs.

[Illustration 103: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Harlequin Duck. Labrador Duck.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 102

157. STELLER'S DUCK. _Polysticta stelleri._

Range.--Arctic regions in America, chiefly on the Aleutian Islands and
northwest coast of Alaska.

A very beautiful species eighteen inches long; head white, washed with
greenish on the forehead and nape; chin, throat, neck, back, tail and
crissum, black; underparts chestnut; wing coverts white, the long
scapulars black and white. It breeds on the rocky coasts and islands of
Bering Sea. The six to nine eggs are pale olive green in color. Size
2.25 × 1.60. Data.--Admiralty Bay, Alaska, June 22, 1898. Nest on a
hummock of the tundra, near a small pool, lined with grass and down.
Collector, E. A. McIlhenny.


158. SPECTACLED EIDER. _Arctonetta fischeri._

Range.--Coast of Alaska from the Aleutians to Point Barrow.

Like the rest of the true Eiders, this species is black beneath and
mostly white above. The head is largely washed with sea green, leaving a
large patch of white, narrowly bordered by black around each eye, thus
resembling a pair of spectacles. The nests are made of grass and seaweed
and lined with down; they are placed on the ground in clumps of grass or
beneath overhanging stones. The five to nine eggs are an olive drab or
greenish color. Size 2.70 × 1.85. Data.--Point Barrow, Alaska, June 15,
1898. Six eggs. Nest of moss and down in a hollow in dry tundra.
Collector, E. A. McIlhenny.


159. NORTHERN EIDER. _Somateria mollissima borealis._

Range.--North Atlantic coast, breeding from Labrador to Greenland and
wintering south to New England.

A large Duck similar to the next species, but with the base of the bill
differing, as noted in the description of the following species, and
with a more northerly distribution. The nesting habits are the same as
those of the other Eiders. Six to ten eggs generally of a greenish drab
color. Size 3. × 2.

[Illustration 104: Steller's Duck. Spectacled Eider.]
[Illustration: Pale olive green.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 103

160. EIDER. _Somateria dresseri._

Range.--Atlantic coast, breeding from Maine to Labrador and wintering
south to Delaware.

This species differs from the preceding only in the fleshy part of the
base of the bill, which extends back on each side of the forehead, it
being broad and rounded in this species and narrow and pointed in the
Northern or Greenland Eider. This species, but more especially the
Northern Eider, are the ones chiefly used for the eider-down of
commerce. The preceding species is often semi-domesticated in Greenland,
the people protecting them and encouraging them to nest in the
neighborhood. They make their nests of seaweed and grass and warmly line
it with down from their breast; this down is continually added to the
nest during incubation until there is a considerable amount in each
nest, averaging about an ounce in weight. The birds are among the
strongest of the sea ducks and get their food in very deep water. Their
flesh is not good eating. Their eggs number from five to ten and are
greenish drab. Size 3. × 2.


161. PACIFIC EIDER. _Somateria v-nigra._

Range.--North Pacific from the Aleutian Islands northward, and east to
Great Slave Lake.

This bird is, in plumage, like the Northern Eider, except that it has a
black V-shaped mark on the throat. They nest sparingly on the Aleutian
Islands, but in great numbers farther north on the coast about Point
Barrow. Their habits, nests and eggs are precisely the same as those of
the eastern forms. Their eggs number from five to ten and are of olive
greenish color. Size 3. × 2. Data.--Cape Smythe, Alaska, June 8, 1900.
Eight eggs. Nest a hollow in the moss, lined with grass and down.

[Illustration 105: Greenish drab.]
[Illustration: Eider. Pacific Eider.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 104

162. KING EIDER. _Somateria spectabilis._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America from Labrador to
Greenland and the Arctic Ocean; south in winter to the New England
States and rarely farther on the eastern side, and to the Aleutians on
the Pacific; also casually to the Great Lakes in the interior.

A handsome and very different species from any of the foregoing, having
the crown ashy blue, and the long scapulars black instead of white. It
also has a broad V-shaped mark on the throat. Like all the other Eiders,
the female is mottled brown and black, the different species being very
difficult to separate. The nests are sunk in the ground and lined with
down. Eggs number from six to ten. Size 2.80 × 1.80. Data.--Point
Barrow, Alaska, July 5, 1898. Five eggs. Nest a hollow in the moss on
tundra lined with moss and down. Collector, E. A. McIlhenny.


163. SCOTER. _Oidemia americana._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding from Labrador, the Hudson Bay
region and the Aleutian Islands northward; winters south to Virginia,
the Great Lakes and California.

Scoters or "Coots" as they are generally called are sea ducks whose
plumage is almost wholly black; they have fantastically colored and
shaped bills. The American Scoter is entirely black without markings;
base of bill yellow and orange. This species nest as do the Eiders,
often concealing the nest, of grass and feathers, under some overhanging
rock. They lay from six to ten eggs of a dingy buff color. Size 2.50 ×
1.70. Data.--Mackenzie Bay, June 15, 1899. Ten eggs. Nest a hollow in
the sand, lined with down.

[Illustration 106: King Eider. Scoter.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 105

164. VELVET SCOTER. _Oidemia fusca._

An Old World species that has accidentally occurred in Greenland.


165. WHITE-WINGED SCOTER. _Oidemia deglandi_.

Range.--Abundant in North America, breeding from Labrador, North Dakota
and British Columbia, northward. Wintering south to the Middle States,
southern Illinois and southern California.

The largest of the Scoters, length 22 inches, distinguished by a large
white speculum on the wing, also a white comet extending from under the
eye backwards. It also has a yellow eye. Like the other Scoters, this
species often feeds in very deep water. They are strong, active diving
birds, and are also strong on the wing, generally flying close to the
surface of the water. Their flesh is not regarded as good eating,
although they are often sold for that purpose. They nest on the ground,
generally in long grass or under low bushes making a coarse nest of
grasses, and sometimes twigs, lined with feathers. They lay from five to
eight eggs of a pale buff color. Size 2.75 × 1.85.


166. SURF SCOTER. _Oidemia perspicillata._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding north of the United States
boundary, and wintering south to Virginia and southern California.

The male of this species is entirely black, except for the white patches
on the forehead and nape, and the vari-colored bill of black, white,
pink and yellow. They nest either along the coast or in the interior,
building a nest lined with down, in the marsh grass bordering small
ponds. They lay from five to eight buffy cream colored eggs. Size 2.40 ×
1.70. The females of all the Scoters are a dingy brownish color, but
show the characteristic marking of the species, although the white is
generally dull or sometimes mottled. Data.--Mackenzie River, June 25,
1894. Six eggs in a nest of down on an island in the river.

[Illustration 107: Surf Scoter. White-winged Scoter.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 106

167. RUDDY DUCK. _Erismatura jamaicensis._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding chiefly north of the United
States border except locally on the Pacific coast. Winters along the
Gulf and through Mexico and Central America.

This peculiar species may always be recognized by the brownish or
chestnut upper parts, blackish crown, white cheeks and silvery white
underparts. The bill is very stout and broad at the end, and the tail
feathers are stiff and pointed like those of a Cormorant. They build
their nests in low marshy places, either placing them on the ground near
the water or in the rushes over it. Their nests are made of rushes and
grasses, sometimes lined and sometimes not, with down from the parents
breast. The eggs number from six to twelve and are grayish in color.
Size 2.40 × 1.75. Data.--Northern Assiniboia, Canada, June 6, 1901.
Eight eggs. Nest made of aquatic grasses, lined with down. Built in a
tuft of rushes in a marsh. Collector, Walter Raine.


168. MASKED DUCK. _Nomonyx dominicus._

This is a tropical species which is resident in Mexico, Central America
and in the West Indies. It occurs in Mexico north to the lower Rio
Grande Valley and has in three known instances strayed to northern
United States. The general plumage is a rusty chestnut, mottled with
blackish, it has a black face and throat, with white wing bars.

[Illustration 108: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Ruddy Duck. Masked Duck.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 107

169. SNOW GOOSE. _Chen hyperboreus hyperboreus._

Range.--North America west of the Mississippi Valley, breeding in
northern Alaska and the MacKenzie River district.

This smaller species of the Snow Goose nests on islands in rivers along
the arctic coast. The nest is a depression in the ground, lined with
grasses and, occasionally down. They lay from four to eight eggs of a
buffy or yellowish white color. Size 2.75 × 1.75.


169a. GREATER SNOW GOOSE. _Chen hyperboreus nivalis._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering chiefly on the Atlantic coast, south to Cuba.

This bird is like the preceding; except in size; about thirty-six
inches, instead of twenty-six inches in length as is the lesser variety.
The entire plumage is white except for the black primaries. They
construct their nests of grasses on the ground the same as the preceding
variety. The eggs number from five to eight and are cream colored. Size
3.40 × 2.40.


169.1. BLUE GOOSE. _Chen cærulescens._

Range.--North America, principally in the interior, breeding from Hudson
Bay northward and wintering along the Gulf coast.

This species may always be recognized by the entirely white head and
neck, the body being grayish or bluish gray. They nest on the ground as
do the other geese laying from four to eight eggs of a brownish buff
color. Size 2.50 × 1.75. Data,--Cape Bathurst, Arctic coast, June 29,
1899. Four eggs laid in a depression lined with grass, on an island.
Collected with the parent birds by the Esquimaux.

[Illustration 109: Grayish White.]
[Illustration: Lesser Snow Goose. Blue Goose.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 108

170. ROSS'S SNOW GOOSE. _Chen rossi._

Range.--This beautiful species, which is similar in plumage to the large
Snow Goose, is but twenty-one inches in length. It breeds in the extreme
north, and in winter is found in the western part of the United States
as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. Their nesting habits and eggs
probably do not differ from others in the family except in the matter of
size.


171. WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. _Anser albifrons albifrons._

This European species is exactly like the American except that it is
said to average a trifle smaller. It is occasionally found in Greenland.


171a. AMERICAN WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. _Anser albifrons gambeli._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering south to the Gulf coast; not common on the Atlantic coast
during migrations.

These birds may be recognized by their mottled plumage, dark head and
white forehead. This species is more abundant than any of the preceding
and nests in large colonies along the arctic coast and in Alaska. Their
nests are made of dried grasses, feathers and down and are placed on the
ground in a slight depression. From four to nine eggs are laid; these
have a dull buff ground. Size 3.00 × 2.05. Data.--Island in delta of
Mackenzie River, June 10, 1899. Four eggs. Nest of grass and feathers on
the ground on a small island. Collector, Rev. I. O. Stringer.


171.1. BEAN GOOSE. _Anser fabalis._

This European species is casually found in Greenland. It is one of the
most common of the Old World Species.

[Illustration 110: Ross Snow Goose. American White-fronted Goose.]
[Illustration: deco-photo.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 109

172. CANADA GOOSE. _Branta canadensis canadensis._

Range.--The whole of North America, breeding from northern United States
northward, and wintering in the southern parts of the United States.

This species is the most widely known of American Geese and is the most
abundant. Its familiar "honk" has long been regarded as the signal of
the coming of spring, and the familiar V-shaped formation in which the
flocks migrate is always an object of interest to everyone. With the
exception of in North Dakota and Minnesota, they breed chiefly north of
the United States. They construct quite a large nest of weeds and grass,
and warmly line it with down and feathers. They lay from four to nine
eggs of a buff or drab color. Size about 3.50 × 2.50. Data.--Ellingsars
Lake, North Dakota, May 18, 1896. Five eggs. Nest on an island in the
lake, constructed of weeds and trash, and lined with a few feathers.
Collector, Edwin S. Bryant.


172a. HUTCHINS GOOSE. _Branta canadensis hutchinsi._

This sub-species is like the preceding except that it is smaller, thirty
inches in length. It is a western variety, breeding in Alaska and along
the Arctic coast and wintering to southern California. Its breeding
habits, nests and eggs are the same as the common goose except that the
eggs are smaller. Size 3.00 × 2.05.


172b. WHITE-CHEEKED GOOSE. _Branta canadensis occidentalis._

This bird is about the same size as the Canada Goose and the plumage is
very similar except that the black sometimes extends on the throat,
thereby isolating the white cheek patches, and there is a white collar
below the back of the neck. It is a western species, breeding in Alaska
and wintering along the Pacific coast of the United States. Its nesting
habits and eggs are same as those of the Canada Goose except that the
latter are a trifle smaller.


172c. CACKLING GOOSE. _Branta canadensis minima._

This bird is really a miniature of the Canada Goose, being but
twenty-four inches in length. It breeds in Alaska and along the Arctic
coast and migrates into the western parts of the United States. They are
abundant birds in their breeding range, where they place their nests
upon the shores of ponds, or on islands in inland rivers or lakes. The
nests are made of weeds and grasses, lined with down. The eggs which are
buff colored, number from four to nine and are laid during June and
July. Size 2.30 × 1.95.

[Illustration 111: Canada Goose. Cackling Goose.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 110

[Illustration 112: CANADA GEESE.]

Page 111

173. BRANT. _Branta bernicla glaucogastra._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering in the United States east of the Mississippi.

The Brant resembles a small Canada Goose, except that the black of the
neck extends on the breast, and only the throat is white. They are one
of the favorite game birds and thousands are shot every fall and spring.
Their nests and eggs are the same as the next species.


174. BLACK BRANT. _Branta nigricans._

Range.--Western North America, breeding in Alaska and wintering on the
Pacific coast of the United States. Rare east of the Mississippi.


This species is like the last except that the black extends on the under
parts. This species nests very abundantly in northern Alaska, laying
their eggs in a depression in the ground, lined with down. Favorite
locations are the many small islets in ponds and small lakes. They lay
from four to eight grayish colored eggs. Size 2.80 × 1.75. Data.--Cape
Bathurst, North West Territory, Junes 22, 1901. Seven eggs in a small
hollow in the ground, lined with down. Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish.

[Illustration 113: Brant. Black Brant.]
[Illustration: Grayish.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 112

175. BARNACLE GOOSE. _Branta leucopsis._

This Old World species occurs frequently in Greenland and very rarely is
found on the mainland of this continent.


176. EMPEROR GOOSE. _Philacte canagica._

Range.--Alaska, south in winter casually to California.

This handsome species is twenty-six inches in length; it may be known
from the mottled or "scaly" appearance of the body, and the white head
with a black chin and throat. While not uncommon in restricted
localities, this may be considered as one of the most rare of North
American Geese. Their nests are built upon the ground and do not differ
from those of other geese. They lay from three to seven eggs of a dull
buff color. Size 3.10 × 2.15. Data.--Stuart Island, Alaska, June 16,
1900. Six eggs laid in a slight hollow in the ground, lined with a few
feathers and some down. Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish.

[Illustration 114: Barnacle Goose. Emperor Goose.]
[Illustration: Egg of Canada Goose--Buffy drab.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 113

177. BLACK-BELLIED TREE-DUCK. _Dendrocygna autumnalis._

Range.--Tropical America, north in the Rio Grande Valley to southern
Texas.

These peculiar long-legged Ducks are very abundant in southern Texas
during the summer months. They build their nests in hollow trees, often
quite a distance from the water. They lay their eggs upon the bottom of
the cavity with only a scant lining, if any, of feathers and down. They
are very prolific breeders, raising two broods in a season, each set of
eggs containing from ten to twenty. These eggs are creamy or pure white,
size 2.05 × 1.50. The first set is laid during the latter part of April
or early in May, and fresh eggs may be found as late as July. They are
especially abundant about Brownsville and Corpus Christi, Texas.
Data.--Hidalgo, Mexico, May 29, 1900. Ten eggs in a hole in an old elm
tree on side of lake in big woods near town. Eight feet from the ground.
Collector, F. B. Armstrong.


178. FULVOUS TREE-DUCK. _Dendrocygna bicolor._

Range.--This species is tropical like the last, but the summer range is
extended to cover, casually the whole southwestern border of the United
States.

This bird is long-legged like the last, but the plumage is entirely
different, being of a general rusty color, including the entire under
parts. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the
Black-bellied Duck, the white eggs being laid at the bottom of a cavity
in a tree. They number from eight to (in one instance) thirty-two eggs
in one nest. This species is nearly as abundant as the preceding in
southern Texas.

[Illustration 115: White.]
[Illustration: Black-bellied Tree duck. Fulvous Tree-duck.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 114

179. WHOOPER SWAN. _Olor cygnus._

This European variety frequently is found in Greenland and formerly,
regularly bred there. It nests in secluded swampy places in northern
Europe.


180. WHISTLING SWAN. _Olor columbianus._.

Range.--North America, breeding in the Arctic Circle, and wintering
south to the Gulf of Mexico.

These birds, which are nearly five feet in length, are snow white with
the exception of the black bill and feet. The Whistling Swan is
distinguished from the next species by the presence of a small yellow
spot on either side of the bill near its base. Their nests are made of a
large mass of rubbish, weeds, grass, moss, feathers and occasionally a
few sticks. It is generally placed in a somewhat marshy place in the
neighborhood of some isolated pond. The eggs are of a greenish or
brownish buff color, and number from three to six. Size 4.00 × 2.75.
Data.--Mackenzie River. Nest a mass of weeds, sods and grass, lined with
feathers; on an island near the mouth of the river. Collector, I. O.
Stringer.


181. TRUMPETER SWAN. _Olor buccinator._

Range.--Interior of North America from the Gulf of Mexico northward,
breeding from northern United States northward.

This is a magnificent bird, about five and one-half feet in length. Its
plumage is exactly like that of the preceding except that the bill is
entirely black, and the nostril is located nearer the eye. Their nesting
habits and eggs are the same as those of the Whistling Swan. While a few
pairs may breed within the United States by far the greater number are
found in the extreme north, from Hudson Bay to Alaska. The eggs may
average a trifle larger than those of the preceding species.

[Illustration 116: Whistling Swan.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 115

LAMELLIROSTRAL GRALLATORES. Order VI. ODONTOGLOSSÆ

FLAMINGOES. Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE


182. FLAMINGO. _Phœnicopterus ruber._

Range.--Tropical and sub-tropical America on the Atlantic coasts,
breeding in the Bahamas and West Indies; north to Florida and casually
to the South Atlantic States.

These remarkable and grotesque appearing birds attain a length of about
48 inches. The plumage varies from white to a deep rosy red. It requires
several years for them to attain the perfect adult plumage, and unlike
most birds, they are in the best of plumage during the winter, the
colors becoming faded as the nesting season approaches. The birds are
especially noticeable because of the crooked, hollow, scoop-shaped bill,
and the extremely long legs and neck. The feet are webbed, but more for
the purpose of supporting them upon the mud flats than for use in
swimming. The nests are usually built on a sandy point of an island;
they are mounds of earth, grass and rubbish from one to two feet in
height, the top being hollowed to receive the eggs. One or two eggs are
a complete set. The shell is pale blue, but this is covered with a heavy
white chalky deposit. The eggs are laid in June and July. Size 3.40 ×
2.15.


IBISES, STORKS, HERONS, etc. Order VII. HERODIONES

The members of this order are wading birds, consequently they all have
long legs and necks. They have four toes, not webbed.

SPOONBILLS. Family PLATALEIDAE


183. ROSEATE SPOONBILL. _Ajaia ajaja._.

Range.--Tropical America, north in summer to the Gulf States. They
formerly nested in remote swamps along the whole Gulf coast, but are now
confined chiefly to the Everglades in Florida.

[Illustration 117: American Flamingo. Roseate Spoonbill.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 116

This bird, with its broad, flat bill, bare head, and rosy plumage with
carmine epaulets and tail coverts, seem more like the fanciful creation
of some artist than a real bird of flesh and blood. Its plumage and
colors are strikingly clear and beautiful. Full plumaged adult birds
have very brilliant carmine shoulders and tail coverts, a saffron
colored tail, and a lengthened tuft of bright rosy feathers on the
foreneck. This species breed in small colonies in marshy places, often
in company with herons and ibises. Their nests are rather frail
platforms of sticks, located in bushes or trees, from four to fifteen
feet from the ground. The eggs are laid during the latter part of May
and June. They are three or four in number and have a ground color of
dull white, or pale greenish blue and are quite heavily blotched with
several shades of brown. Size 2.50 × 1.70.

[Illustration 118: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Chalky bluish white. Egg of American Flamingo.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 117

IBISES. Family IBIDIDÆ

Ibises are gracefully formed birds having a long curved bill and a bare
face.


184. WHITE IBIS. _Guara alba._

Range.--This is a tropical and sub-tropical species which is found along
the Gulf coast, and north to South Carolina, west to Lower California.

These handsome birds are wholly white, with the exception of black
primaries. The legs and the bare skin of the face is orange red. These
birds are very abundant in most marshy localities along the Gulf coast,
especially in Florida, where they nest in rookeries of thousands of
individuals. Owing to their not having plumes, they have not been
persecuted as have the white herons. They build their nests of sticks
and grasses, in the mangroves a few feet above the water. In other
localities they build their nests entirely of dead rushes, attaching
them to the standing ones a foot or more above the surface of the water.
They are quite substantially made and deeply cupped, very different from
the nests of the Herons. Their eggs are from three to five in number,
vary from grayish ash to pale greenish or bluish in color, blotched with
light brown. Size 2.25 × 1.60. The nesting season is during May and
June. Data.--Tampa Bay, Fla., June 4, 1895. Three eggs. Nest of sticks
and a few weeds in small bushes on an island. Collector, Fred Doane.


185. SCARLET IBIS. _Guara rubra._.

Range.--Occasionally, but not recently met with in the southern states.
Their habitat is tropical America, they being especially abundant along
the Orinoco River in northern South America.

Full plumaged adults of this species are wholly bright scarlet, except
for the primaries, which are black. Their nests are built in
impenetrable thickets, rushes or mangroves, the nests being constructed
like those of the White Ibis. The eggs, too, are very similar to those
of the preceding species, but both the ground color and the markings
average brighter. While still common in some localities, the species is
gradually becoming less abundant, chiefly because of the demand for
their feathers for use in fly-tying.

[Illustration 119: Grayish.]
[Illustration: White Ibis. Scarlet Ibis.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 118

186. GLOSSY IBIS. _Plegadis autumnalis._.

Range.--This tropical and sub-tropical species, is chiefly found in the
Old World. It is occasionally found in southeastern United States where
it sometimes breeds. Its habits, nesting habits and eggs are just the
same as the next species.


187. WHITE-FACED GLOSSY IBIS. _Plegadis guarauna._

Range.--A sub-tropical species found in the southwestern parts of the
United States, rarely found east of the Mississippi.

This species differs from the Glossy Ibis in having the feathers on the
front of the head white, the rest of the plumage is a dull brownish
chestnut, with greenish reflections on the back. As these birds are not
in demand commercially, their numbers have not decreased, and thousands
of them breed in colonies in southern Texas. They build a substantial
nest of reeds and rushes woven about the upright canes, close to the
surface of the water. Their eggs are laid during May, and number from
three to four. They are easily distinguished from those of the Herons,
being of a deeper greenish blue color and averaging more elongate. Size
1.95 × 1.35. Data.--Corpus Christi, Texas, May 26, 1899. Four eggs. Nest
of twigs and rushes on side of river. Collector, F. B. Armstrong.


STORKS and WOOD IBISES
Family CICONIIDAE

188. WOOD IBIS. _Mycteria americana._

Range.--A sub-tropical species which is resident along the Gulf coast
and which strays casually north to New England and Colorado.

This peculiar member of the Stork family has the whole head and part of
the neck bare and covered with numerous scales; the bill is large, long
and heavy; the plumage is white, except for the black primaries and
tail. It is a large bird about four feet in length. They are quite
abundant in swamps along the

[Illustration 120: Glossy Ibis. White-faced Glossy Ibis. Wood Ibis.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 119

Gulf coast, where they place their nests, which are platforms of sticks,
in trees and bushes over the water. They lay three eggs which are white,
and have a rough surface. Size 2.75 × 1.75.


189. JABIRU. _Jabiru mycteria._

This large bird, which is the only true Stork that claims a place in our
avifauna, is a native of South and Central America, wandering north,
casually to Texas. Their nests are large platforms of sticks in very
high trees.


BITTERNS and HERONS Family ARDEIDAE

Herons and Bitterns are long-legged waders, having straight, pointed
bills, and with the head feathered, except for the lores.


190. BITTERN. _Bautaurus lentiginosus._

Range.--United States and southern British provinces, breeding in the
northern half of the United States and wintering in the southern
portion.

This species, with its mottled rusty brownish plumage, is one of the
best known of the Heron family. It is known locally by a great many
names, nearly all of which have reference to the "booming" or "pumping"
sound made during the mating season. They build their nests in swampy or
marshy places, placing them on the ground, frequently on a tussock,
entirely surrounded by water. The nest proper is only a few grasses
twisted about to form a lining to the hollow. They lay from three to
five eggs of brownish drab. Size 1.95 × 1.50.

They do not breed in colonies, generally, but one or two pairs nesting
in one marsh. Data.--Worcester, Mass., June 3, 1897. Four eggs laid in a
grass lined hollow in middle of a hummock of earth and grass, in middle
of marsh. Collector, James Jackson.

[Illustration 121: Jabiru. Bittern.]
[Illustration: Brownish drab.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 120

191. LEAST BITTERN. _Ixobrychus exilis._

Range.--Common throughout the United States, especially in the eastern
part, and in the southern British provinces.

This small variety of Bittern is very common in the southern portions of
the United States, but less so and locally distributed in the northern
portions of its range. They are very quiet and sly birds, and their
presence is often unsuspected when they are really quite abundant. When
approached, they will remain perfectly quiet, with the body erect and
the head and neck pointed skyward, in which position their yellowish
brown plumage strongly resembles the rushes among which they are found.
Their nests are made of strips of rushes woven about upright stalks,
generally over water. They lay from three to five eggs of a pale bluish
white color. Size 1.20 × .90. Data.--Avery's Island, La., May 1, 1896.
Four eggs. Nest of strips of rushes woven together to form a platform
and fastened to saw grass growing on the bank of a stream. Collector, E.
A. McIlhenny.


191.1. CORY'S LEAST BITTERN. _Ixobrychus neoxenus._

This rare species, of which about twenty specimens are known is probably
resident in Florida, wandering north in the summer, specimens having
been taken in Ontario, Canada, and in several localities in eastern
United States. It is very different from the Least Bittern, having a
more uniform chestnut coloration, especially on the under parts. It is
twelve inches in length. Mr. C. W. Crandall has a set of five eggs of
this species, taken on the Caloosahatchee River, Fla., April 15, 1891,
by S. B. Ladd. Nest was made of grasses and rushes placed in the cane
two feet above the water.

[Illustration 122: Pale bluish gray.]
[Illustration: Least Bittern. Cory's Least Bittern.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 121

192. GREAT WHITE HERON. _Ardea occidentalis._

Range.--This species occurs in the United States regularly, only in the
southern parts of Florida. It is a resident of the West Indies.

This large white Heron is about the same size as the Great Blue Heron;
it has none of the slender plumes found on the smaller White Herons.
These birds are not uncommon in southern Florida, especially on the
Keyes, where they build their nests in company with Great Blue Herons.
Their nesting habits and eggs are very similar to those of the Blue
Heron. Size of eggs 2.25 × 1.80. Data.--Outside of Torch Key, Florida,
June 16, 1899. Nest a platform of sticks about five feet from the
ground, in a mangrove tree. Three eggs. Collector, O. Tollin.


194. GREAT BLUE HERON. _Ardea herodias herodias._

Range.--Nearly the whole of North America, except the extreme north;
resident south of the middle portions of the United States and migratory
north of there.

This handsome Heron is about four feet in length. Its general color is a
bluish gray, relieved by a black crest, primaries and patches on the
sides, and a white crown. In the south they breed in large colonies,
often in company with many other species. In the northern portions of
their range they breed singly or in companies of under a hundred
individuals. They generally place their rude platforms of sticks well up
in trees, near ponds, swamps or rivers, but in the most northerly parts
of their range, where trees are scarce, they often build on the ground.
Unless they are disturbed, they return to the same breeding grounds,
year after year. They lay from three to five eggs of a greenish blue
color. Size 2.50 × 1.50. Data.--Duck Island, Maine, May 20, 1883. Three
eggs. Nest of sticks and twigs, about fifteen feet from the ground.
Collector, R. B. Gray.


194a. NORTHWEST COAST HERON. _Ardea herodias fannini._

This darker sub-species of the breeding is found along the Pacific
coast, north to Sitka, Alaska. Its nests and eggs do not differ from the
former species.

[Illustration 123: Great White Heron. Great Blue Heron.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 122

194b. WARD'S HERON. _Ardea herodias wardi._

This sub-species is a resident in Florida. It is a lighter variety than
the common. It nests together with the Great Blue Heron and its habits
are the same.


195. EUROPEAN HERON. _Ardea cinerea._

This species is only an accidental straggler in Greenland. It is very
similar to our Blue Heron and is the one which was formerly used to
furnish sport for the royalty when falconry was at its height.


196. EGRET. _Herodias egretta._

Range.--Resident in the southern portions of the United States,
straggling northward casually to the northern parts.

This is one of the beautiful Herons which have been sought by plume
hunters till they are upon the verge of extermination. They are entirely
white, with a long train of beautiful straight "aigrettes" flowing from
the middle of the back. In remote localities, quite large colonies of
them may still be found, but where they numbered thousands, years ago,
they can be counted by dozens now. They breed in impenetrable swamps,
very often in company with the following species, and also with
Louisiana and Little Blue Herons, and White Ibises. Their nests are but
frail platforms, generally in bushes over the water. Their usual
complement of eggs numbers from three to five, four as the most common
number. They are generally laid during the latter part of May, but often
on account of their being disturbed, nests with eggs may be found in
July. The eggs are a light bluish green in color. Size 2.25 × 1.45.
Data.--Gainesville, Florida, April 14, 1894. Four eggs on a platform of
sticks and grass, in a button-wood bush over six feet of water.
Collector, George Graham.


197. SNOWY EGRET. _Egretta candidissima candidissima._

Range.--Common now only in restricted localities in the Gulf States and
Mexico.

This species, which is smaller than the last, being but twenty-four
inches in length, is also adorned with "aigrettes," but they are
beautifully recurved at the tips. Owing to the merciless slaughter to
which they have been subjected, their ranks have been woefully
decimated, and it is to be hoped that the remaining ones may be safely
protected. Their nesting habits are the same as the last, although, of
course, the eggs are smaller. Size 1.80 × 1.25.

[Illustration 124: Snowy Egret. Egret.]
[Illustration: Light greenish blue.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 123

198. REDDISH EGRET. _Dichromanassa rufescens._

Range.--In the United States, this species is confined chiefly to the
Gulf States.

It is somewhat larger than the last species, the head and neck are
rufous, the body is bluish gray, and the back is adorned with slender
gray plumes. It also has a white phase. This Egret is very abundant
along the whole Gulf coast, but especially so in Texas. Their nesting
habits are identical with those of the other small Herons and Egrets.
The three or four eggs are rather of a more greenish blue than the
preceding. Size 1.90 × 1.45. Data.--Gainesville, Florida, April 14,
1894. Three eggs. Nest of sticks and straw in a button-wood tree, two
feet above the water. Collector, George Graham.


199. LOUISIANA HERON. _Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis._

Range.--Sub-tropical America, north regularly to the Gulf States and
casually farther.

This Heron is of about the size of the Reddish Egret, but the neck is
longer, more slender and dark, while the chin, throat and underparts are
white. The plumes from the back are short, reaching barely to the end of
the tail. They nest in large colonies in company with Egrets and Little
Blue Herons, placing their nests in the mangroves, only a few feet above
the water. Their nests are the same as those of the other species, a
slight platform of sticks, and the three to five eggs are practically
not distinguishable from those of the Snowy or Little Blue Herons. Size
1.75 × 1.35.

[Illustration 125: Pale bluish green.]
[Illustration: Reddish Egret. Louisiana Heron.]
[Illustration: Pale bluish green.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 124

200. LITTLE BLUE HERON. _Florida cærulea._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, north casually to New England
and Manitoba; west to Kansas and Nebraska.

A smaller species than the preceding, length 22 inches, plumage a
uniform slaty blue changing to purplish red on the head and neck. They
also have a white phase, but always show traces of the slaty blue,
especially on the primaries. Young birds are always white. They breed in
immense rookeries during April and May. Their nesting habits and eggs
are very similar to the last species, although the eggs average a trifle
smaller. Size 1.75 × 1.25. Data.--Avery's Island, Louisiana, April 21,
1896. 5 eggs. Nest a flat and frail platform of twigs in a Mimosa tree
growing in floating turf, over deep water in a large swamp. Collector,
E. A. McIlhenny.


201. GREEN HERON. _Butorides virescens virescens._

Range.--Temperate and sub-tropical America, breeding north to the
British Provinces.

This is the smallest of our Herons, and is well known all over the
country. Sometimes they breed in numbers in rookeries, in company with
the larger Herons, but in most sections of the country they will be
found nesting, one or two pairs together, along the border of some swamp
or stream. They have a greater diversity of building sites, than do any
of the other Herons and frequently nest a long ways from water. Their
nests may be found in alders, birches or even apple trees. It is the
usual Heron type of platform, upon which the three to six eggs are laid.
They are a pale greenish blue in color, and measure 1.45 × 1.10.
Data.--Avery's Island, Louisiana, April 10, 1894. 5 eggs on a platform
of twigs placed in a willow tree growing on the edge of a pond.
Collected by E. A. McIlhenny.

[Illustration 126: Pale bluish green.]
[Illustration: Little Blue Heron. Green Heron.]
[Illustration: Light bluish green.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 125

201a. FRAZAR'S GREEN HERON. _Butorides virescens frazari._

A darker variety found in Lower California; nesting the same as the
common species.

201b. ANTHONY'S GREEN HERON. _Butorides virescens anthonyi._

A lighter, desert form found in the arid portions of the interior of
southwestern United States and Mexico.

[Illustration 127: NEST AND EGGS OF GREEN HERON.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 126

202. BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. _Nycticorax nycticorax naevius_.

Range.--North America from southern British Provinces, southward;
winters along the Gulf coast and beyond.

A well known bird, often called "quawk" from the sound of its note
frequently heard in the evening. While, in some localities, only a few
pairs of these birds are found nesting together, most of them gather
together into large colonies during the breeding season. In New England
they generally select a remote pine grove as their breeding grounds. If
not disturbed they will return to this same place each year. Their nests
are built of sticks and lined with small twigs, and are placed well up
towards the tops of the trees.

Frequently several nests will be found in the same tree, and I have
counted as many as fifty nests in view at the same time. In large swamps
in the south they generally nest at a low elevation, while in the
marshes of Wisconsin and Minnesota, large colonies of them nest on the
ground, making their nest of rushes. Like all Heronries, those of this
species have a nauseating odor, from the remains of decayed fish, etc.,
which are strewn around the bases of the trees. Their eggs number from
three to five and are of a pale bluish green color. Size 2.00 × 1.40.
Data.--Uxbridge, Mass., May 30, 1898. 4 eggs. Nest of sticks, about
thirty feet up in a pine tree. Many other nests. Collector, H. A. Smith.


203. YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. _Nyctanassa violacea_.

Range.--Sub-tropical America, breeding along the Gulf coast and to Lower
California; casually farther north, to Illinois and South Carolina.

A handsome grayish colored species, with long lanceolate plumes on the
back, and two or three fine white plumes from the back of the head, like
those of the Black-crowned species. Its black head, with tawny white
crown and ear coverts, renders it unmistakable. This species nests in
colonies or by pairs, like the preceding, and very often in company with
other Herons. They lay from three to six eggs, very similar in size,
shape and color to those of the Black-crowned Heron.

[Illustration 128: Pale bluish green.]
[Illustration: Black-crowned Night Heron. Yellow-crowned Heron.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 127

CRANES, RAILS, etc. Order VIII. PALUDICOLÆ

CRANES. Family GRUIDAE

Cranes are large, long-legged, long-necked birds, somewhat resembling
Herons. Their structure and mode of living partakes more of the nature
of the Rails, however. They are found upon the prairies, where besides
shell fish from the ponds, they feed largely upon grasshoppers, worms,
etc.


204. WHOOPING CRANE. _Grus americana._

Range.--Interior of North America, breeding from about the latitude of
Iowa northward to the Arctic regions; winters in the Gulf states and
southward.

The Whooping Crane is the largest of the family in America, measuring 50
inches or more in length. The plumage of the adults is pure white, with
black primaries. The bare parts of the head and face are carmine. It is
a very locally distributed species, in some sections being practically
unknown, while in a neighboring locality it may be rated as common. They
are very shy birds and are not easily obtained. They nest either upon
the solid earth or in marshy places over the water. In either case the
nest is a very bulky mass of grass and weeds from two to three feet in
diameter and raised perhaps a foot above the ground. They lay two eggs
of a brownish buff color, irregularly blotched with brown, and with
fainter marking of gray. Size 3.75 x 2.50. Data.--Torkton, northern
Assiniboia, northwest Canada. Nest a mass of marsh hay, three feet in
diameter, on the prairie. The birds seen, but very wary. Collector,
Cowbry Brown.


205. LITTLE BROWN CRANE. _Grus canadensis._

Range.--North America in the interior, breeding from Hudson Bay and
southern Alaska north to the Arctic coast; south in winter to Mexico.

This uniform gray colored Crane differs from the next species only in
size, being about three feet in length, while the Sandhill averages
three and one-half feet. The eggs cannot be distinguished with any
certainty.

[Illustration 129: Whooping Crane. Little Brown Crane.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 128

[Illustration 130: Brownish buff. EGG OF WHOOPING CRANE.]
[Illustration: Buff. EGG OF LITTLE BROWN CRANE.]
[Illustration: Left hand margin.]

Page 129

206. SANDHILL CRANE. _Grus mexicana._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding from the Gulf States, locally
north to the southern parts of the British Provinces.

This is the most common and the most southerly distributed member of the
family. In some sections of Florida and Texas it is regarded as
abundant. They nest in marshy places near secluded ponds. The nests are
masses of grass, weeds and roots, generally placed in marshes and
entirely surrounded by water. The two eggs are similar to those of the
Whooping Crane, but the ground color is lighter. The eggs of the two
species cannot always, with certainty, be distinguished. Size 3.75 x
2.40. Data.--Carman, Manitoba, May 31, 1903. 2 eggs. Nest on a knoll in
a marsh, hidden by dead rushes and weeds; a flat loose structure of
broken rushes and reeds. Collector, Chris Forge.


COURLANS. Family ARAMIDÆ

207. LIMPKIN. _Aramus vociferus._

Range.--This bird is a native of the West Indies and Central America,
but occurs regularly north to the southern portions of Florida.

This strange bird is the only member of its family found in the United
States. It may be likened to a large Rail or a small Crane, being
apparently, a connecting link between the two. It is about two feet in
length, and the plumage is mottled brownish and white. It lives in the
marshes, from whence, until late at night, emanate its strange cries,
which are likened to those of a child in distress. They nest in the most
impenetrable parts of swamps, building their nests of rushes, grass and
weeds, in tangled masses of vines a few feet above the ground or water.
They lay from three to eight eggs having a ground color of buff or
grayish white and blotched with light brown. Their coloration is very
similar to those of the Cranes. Size 2.30 x 1.70. They nest in April and
May.

[Illustration 131: Sandhill Crane. Limpkin.]
[Illustration: Buffy white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 130

[Illustration 132: Walter Raine.
NEST AND EGGS OF LITTLE BROWN CRANE.]

Page 131

RAILS, GALLINULES and COOTS. Family RALLIDÆ

Members of this family are almost exclusively frequenters of marshes,
where they lead a shy, retiring life and are more often heard than seen.


208. KING RAIL. _Rallus elegans._

Range.--Fresh water marshes of eastern United States from New England
and the Dakotas, southward. Very abundant on the South Atlantic coast,
in the inland marshes.

This is one of the largest of the Rails, (17 inches in length) and may
be known by the richness of its plumage, the breast and wing coverts
being a rich cinnamon color. It is almost exclusively a fresh water
species and is very rarely found around a salt water marsh. Its nest is
built on the ground, in a tuft of grass and weeds woven about the
upright stalks. They lay from five to twelve eggs having a cream colored
ground, sparingly speckled with brown and lilac. Size 1.60 × 1.20.
Data.--Clark County, Missouri, June 6, 1893. 10 eggs. Nest composed of
reed stalks; a slightly concave mass 8 inches across, and only two
inches above the water, in a clump of reeds. Collector, Ed. S. Currier.


209. BELDING'S RAIL. _Rallus beldingi._

Range.--Lower California and the islands in the Gulf.

This is a locally confined species, very similar to the preceding but
darker and with the flank bars narrower. Its nesting or eggs will not
differ from those of the King Rail.


210. CALIFORNIA CLAPPER RAIL. _Rallus obsoletus._

Range.--Salt marshes of the Pacific coast of the United States.

This species is like a dull colored King Rail, with reference to the
markings of the back, or a bright colored Clapper Rail, as it has a
cinnamon colored breast. It is an abundant species in nearly all the
salt marshes along the coast. They make their nests on the higher parts
of the marsh, where it is comparatively dry, building them of grass and
strips of rushes. They lay from four to nine eggs of a light buff color,
boldly spotted with brown, and with fainter markings of lilac. Size 1.75
× 1.25. Data.--Palo Alto, Cal., May 1, 1899. Nest of marsh grass under a
small bush on bank of slough. Collector, Ernest Adams.

[Illustration 133: Cream color.]
[Illustration: Light buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 132

211. CLAPPER RAIL. _Rallus crepitans crepitans._

Range.--Salt marshes of the Atlantic coast from southern New England
southward.

A grayish colored Rail, about the size of, and with the markings similar
to those of the King Rail. It is as exclusively a salt water species as
the King Rail is a fresh water one. With the possible exception of the
Carolina or Sora Rail, this is the most abundant of all the Rails,
hundreds nesting in a single marsh on the South Atlantic coast. Their
nests are built of rushes and weeds, and are placed on the ground either
in the tall grass bordering the marshes or attached to the rushes in the
midst of the marsh. The nesting season commences during April and
continues through May. They lay from six to fourteen eggs, of a buff
color spotted irregularly with brown and gray. Size 1.70 × 1.20.


211a. LOUISIANA CLAPPER RAIL. _Rallus crepitans saturatus._

The habitation of this subspecies is limited to the coast of Louisiana.
It is very similar to the proceeding but is said to be brighter in
plumage.


211b. FLORIDA CLAPPER RAIL. _Rallus crepitans scotti._

Range.--Western coast of Florida.

This bird is also similar to crepitans but is much darker and brighter.


211c. WAYNE'S CLAPPER RAIL. _Rallus crepitans waynei_.

Range.--South Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Florida.

This subspecies is a little darker than crepitans, being about midway
between that species and Rallus scotti. The nests and eggs of any of
these sub-species cannot be distinguished from those of the common
Clapper Rail.


211.2. CARIBBEAN CLAPPER RAIL. _Rallus longirostris caribaeus._

Range.--West Indies and east coast of Mexico, north to southern Texas.

This species is similar to the Clapper, but has a shorter and relatively
stouter bill.

[Illustration 134: King Rail. Clapper Rail.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 133

212. VIRGINIA RAIL. _Rallus virginianus._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding from the Middle States and
California, northward to British Columbia and Labrador, and wintering
along the Gulf coast; most abundant in the east.

A small Rail, 9 inches long, very similar in markings and coloration to
the King Rail. It is found chiefly in fresh water swamps, where it
builds its nests in tufts of rushes. The eggs number from six to
fourteen, and are creamy white, or white, speckled with reddish brown.
Size 1.25 × .90 Data.--Fighting Island, Detroit River, Michigan, May 30,
1904. Nest made of marsh grass, in rushes, 6 inches above the water.
Collector, E. Leroy King.


213. SPOTTED CRAKE. _Porzana porzana._

This common European species is casually found in Greenland. It breeds
in large numbers throughout temperate Europe, nesting as do the American
Rails.


214. SORA. _Porzana carolina._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding from the southern parts of the
British possessions, south to the Gulf coast.

This abundant species of Rail may be readily known by its small size,
about eight inches long, and the black face and throat of the adult.
These are the "Rail-birds" or "Ortolans" which are annually slaughtered
by thousands, for sport and marketing, during their fall migration. It
is only because of the large families that they rear, that they are able
to withstand this yearly decimation of their ranks. They nest either in
salt or fresh water marshes, making a rude structure of grass, weeds and
strips of rushes, on the ground, generally concealed in a tuft of grass
in a tangled swamp or marsh. During May, they lay from six to sixteen
eggs of a bright, buffy gray color, spotted with reddish brown and
lavender. Size 1.25 × .90.

[Illustration 135: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Sora. Virginia Rail.]
[Illustration: Bright buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 134

215. Yellow Rail. _Coturnicops noveboracensis._

Range.--Locally distributed in temperate North America, from New England
and Nova Scotia, to California and British Columbia; south to the Gulf
States in winter.

This is a very handsome species, with plumage of glossy brown, yellowish
buff, black and white; length seven inches. They are very shy and
secretive, and are probably more common than generally supposed. Their
nesting habits are the same as those of the preceding. Their eggs are of
a rich buff color, speckled in the form of a wreath about the large end,
with reddish brown. They are relatively narrower than those of other
Rails. Size 1.10 × .80. Data.--Benson Co., North Dakota, June 4, 1901.
Set of ten eggs collected by Rev. P. B. Peabody. This set is in the
collection of Mr. John Lewis Childs.


216. BLACK RAIL. _Creciscus jamaicensis._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding from northern United States
southward.

Smallest of the rails; 5 inches in length. A dark slaty colored bird
with white specks, and a patch of dark chestnut on the fore back. This
diminutive species is very hard to find because of its retiring habits,
but according to Mr. Brewster it may be located by the clicking sound of
its song.

Their nests are woven of strips of rushes or grasses, and are well
"cupped" to receive the eggs. They are on the ground on the border of,
or in, marshy places. Mr. Childs has a fine set of eight eggs, taken by
Arthur T. Wayne, at Mt. Pleasant, S. C., June 10, 1903. The nest was
located in an oat field. The eggs have a creamy white ground, and are
specked all over with reddish brown. Size 1.03 × .75.


216.1. FARALLON RAIL. _Creciscus coturniculus._

Known only from a single specimen, which is slightly smaller than
_jamaicensis_ and without the white specks on the back.

[Illustration 136: Rich buff.]
[Illustration: Yellow Rail. Black Rail.]
[Illustration]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left margin.]

Page 135

217. Corn Crake. _Crex crex._

This European Rail is casually found in Greenland and along the Atlantic
coast of North America. It is the most abundant of European Rails and is
found breeding in marshes, meadows and along streams.


218. PURPLE GALLINULE. _Ionornis martinicus_.

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States; casually north in eastern United
States to Massachusetts and Ohio.


A very handsome bird with purplish head, neck and under parts, and a
greenish back. Like all the Gallinules and Coots, this species has a
scaly crown plate. An abundant breeding species in the southern parts of
its range. Its nests are made of rushes or grasses woven together and
either attached to living rushes or placed in tufts of grass. They lay
from six to ten eggs of a creamy or pale buff color sparingly blotched
with chestnut. Size 1.60 × 1.15. Data.--Avery's Island, Louisiana, May
7, 1896. Ten eggs. Nest of dry rushes, woven to standing ones growing
around an "alligator hole" in a marsh. Collector, E. A. McIlhenny.

[Illustration 137: Purple Gallinule. Corn Crake.]
[Illustration: Pale buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 136

219. FLORIDA GALLINULE. _Gallinula galeata._

Range.--Temperate North America, from New England, Manitoba and
California, southward.

A grayish colored bird of similar size to the last (13 inches long),
with flanks streaked with white, and with the bill and crown plate
reddish. They nest in colonies in marshes and swamps, building their
nests like those of the Purple Gallinule. The eggs, too, are similar,
but larger and slightly duller. Size 1.75 × 1.20.

Data.--Montezuma marshes, Florida, June 6, 1894. Eleven eggs. Nest of
dead flaggs, floating in two feet of water. Collector, Robert Warwick.


220. EUROPEAN COOT. _Fulica atra._

A European species very similar to the next, and only casually found in
Greenland. Nesting the same as our species.


221. COOT. _Fulica americana._

Range.--Whole of temperate North America, from the southern parts of the
British Provinces, southward; very common in suitable localities
throughout its range.

The Coot bears some resemblance to the Florida Gallinule, but is
somewhat larger, its bill is white with a blackish band about the
middle, and each toe has a scalloped web. They inhabit the same marshes
and sloughs that are used by the Rails and Gallinules as nesting places,
and they have the same retiring habits, skulking through the grass to
avoid observation, rather than flying. Their nests are either floating
piles of decayed vegetation, or are built of dead rushes in clumps of
rushes on the banks. They generally build in large colonies. The eggs
number from six to sixteen and have a grayish ground color, finely
specked all over the surface with blackish. Size 1.80 × 1.30.

[Illustration 138: Pale buff.]
[Illustration: Florida Gallinule. Coot.]
[Illustration: Grayish.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration left hand margin.]

Page 137

SHORE BIRDS. Order IX. LIMICOLÆ

PHALAROPES. Family PHALAROPODIDAE

Phalaropes are small Plover-like birds, but with lobate webbed feet,
similar to those of the Grebes and Coots.


222. RED PHALAROPE. _Phalaropus fulicarius._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the far north, and migrating to
the middle portions of the United States, chiefly on the coasts.

The Red Phalarope during the breeding season has the underparts wholly
reddish brown; they are very rarely seen in the United States in this
dress, however for it is early changed for a suit of plain gray and
white. This species has a much stouter bill than the two following; it
is about nine inches in length. All the Phalaropes are good swimmers,
and this species, especially, is often found in large flocks off the
coast, floating on the surface of the water; they feed largely upon
small marine insects. Nests in hollows on the ground, lined with a few
grasses. The eggs are three or four in number, generally of a greenish
buff color, spotted and blotched with brown and blackish.
Data.--Myvates, Iceland, June 19, 1897. Collector, C. Jefferys.


223. NORTHERN PHALAROPE. _Lobipes labatus._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the northern parts of the
British Provinces.

This is the smallest of the Phalaropes, being about eight inches long;
in summer it has a chestnut band across the breast and on the side of
the neck. Its habits and nesting habits vary but little from those of
the Red Phalarope, although its distribution is a little more southerly,
and it is not as exclusively maritime as the preceding species. It is
found on both coasts of the United States, but more common on the
Pacific side, during the fall and spring, when going to or returning
from its winter quarters in the tropics. Their eggs cannot, with
certainty, be distinguished from the preceding species.

[Illustration 139: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Red Phalarope. Northern Phalarope.]
[Illustration: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 138

224. WILSON'S PHALAROPE. _Steganopus tricolor._

Range.--Interior of temperate North America, breeding from the latitude
of Iowa, northward, and wintering south of the United States.

This is the most handsome species of the family, being of a very
graceful form, of a grayish and white color, with a broad stripe through
the eye and down the neck, where it fades insensibly into a rich
chestnut color. It is an exclusively American species and is rarely
found near the coast. It builds its nest generally in a tuft of grass,
the nests also being of grass. The eggs are of a brownish or greenish
buff color, spotted and blotched with black and brown. Size 1.30 × .90.
Data.--Larimore, N. D., May 30, 1897. Nest a shallow depression,
scratched in the sand, under a tuft of grass on an island. Collector, T.
F. Eastgate.

[Illustration 140: Male, female, young. Wilson's Phalarope.]
[Illustration: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 139

AVOCETS and STILTS. Family RECURVIROSTRIDÆ

225. AVOCET. _Recurvirostra americana_.

Range.--Western North America, breeding north to Northwest Territory.

The Avocet can be known from any other bird by its up-curved bill, light
plumage, webbed feet and large size (length about 17 inches). These
waders are quite numerous in suitable localities throughout the west,
constructing their nests in the grass, bordering marshy places. The nest
is simply a lining of grass in a hollow in the ground. They lay three or
four eggs of a dark greenish or brownish buff color, boldly marked with
brown and black. Size 1.90 × 1.30. Data.--Rush Lake, Assiniboia. Four
eggs laid in a depression in the sand, lined with dry weeds. Many birds
nesting in the colony.


226. BLACK-NECKED STILT. _Himantopus mexicanus_.

Range.--Like the last, this species is rarely found east of the
Mississippi, but is very abundant in the United States west of that
river.

A black and white wader, with extremely long red legs; otherwise a
gracefully formed bird. It breeds in large colonies anywhere in its
range, making its nests of weeds and sometimes a few twigs, on the
ground beside of, or in the marshes. Their eggs number three or four and
are brownish or greenish buff with numerous markings of brownish black,
these markings being somewhat lengthened and mostly running lengthwise
of the shell. They nest during April in the southern parts of their
range and through May and June in the northern. Size of eggs 1.80 ×
1.25. Data.--Freshwater Lake, southern California, June 5, 1891. Four
eggs laid on a mud flat near the water's edge; no nest. Collector, Evan
Davis.

[Illustration 141: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: American Avocet. Black-necked Stilt.]
[Illustration: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 140

SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, Family SCOLOPACIDÆ

Members of this family are long-legged waders, of either large or small
size, and found either about streams or ponds in the interior or along
the coasts. They feed upon small shell fish, or insects which they get
usually by probing in the soft mud.

227. EUROPEAN WOODCOCK. _Scolopax rusticola_.

This European bird is similar to the American Woodcock, but is larger
and is barred beneath. Their habits are the same as those of our
species.

228. WOODCOCK. _Philohela minor_.

Range.--Eastern North America, north to the British Provinces, breeding
throughout its range.

This is one of the most eagerly sought game birds of the east. Their
flight is very rapid and erratic, and accompanied by a peculiar
whistling sound made by the rapid motion of the wings; it requires a
skillful marksman to bring them down. They frequent boggy places
especially "runs" lined with alders, where they bore in the soft ground
for worms and grubs. Their eggs are laid upon the bare ground among the
leaves and sticks; they are of about the color of dead leaves, as is
also the bird, making it quite difficult to discover their nests. They
lay three or four eggs of a buffy color, with yellowish brown spots.
Size 1.50 × 1.15.


229. EUROPEAN SNIPE. _Gallinago gallinago_.

A common species in Europe; of casual or accidental appearance in
Greenland. The bird does not differ essentially from our Snipe and its
habits are the same.

[Illustration 142: Buffy gray.]
[Illustration: American Woodcock. Wilson's Snipe.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 141

[Illustration 143: C. A. Reed.
WOODCOCK ON HER NEST.]

Page 142

[Illustration 144: WOODCOCK.]

Page 143

WILSON SNIPE. _Gallinago delicata_.

Range.--North America, breeding from northern United States northward;
winters along the Gulf States and to California, and southward.

Another favorite game bird, but one which requires skill to hunt
successfully. Of about the same size as the Woodcock (11 inches long).
This species, to a great extent frequents the same haunts used by
Woodcock, but is especially fond of open marshy meadows, with winding
brooks. Their nests are depressions in grassy banks, generally unlined;
the three or four eggs have an olive gray color and are strongly marked
with blackish brown. Size 1.50 × 1.10. Data.--Lake Winnipegosis,
Manitoba, June 10, 1903. Nest in a hollow on a tuft of marsh grass, the
four eggs having their points together. Collector, Walter Raine.


230.1. GREATER SNIPE. _Gallinago media_.

A European species, only American as having accidentally occurred at
Hudson Bay; similar in appearance to the preceding species.

[Illustration 145: Olive gray.]
[Illustration: NEST AND EGGS OF WOODCOCK.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 144

231. DOWITCHER. _Macrorhamphus griseus_.

Range.--North America, most abundant in the eastern parts; breeds in the
extreme north, and winters from the Gulf States to Northern South
America.

This species is commonly known as "Red-breasted Snipe" in late spring
and summer because of the rich, rusty red coloration of the underparts,
and as "Gray-back" in winter because of its color at that season. They
are very common along the Atlantic coast during the Spring migration;
they can be easily identified by their very long bills, which are over
two inches in length and nearly one quarter the length of the whole
bird. They nest during June, placing their three or four eggs in a
slight hollow, which may or may not be lined with dried grass or leaves.
The eggs have a greenish or brownish buff color and are boldly marked
with dark brown. They do not differ greatly from those of the Snipe.
Data.--Mackenzie River, June 27, 1900. Four eggs in a hollow in the
grass, lined with dead grass. Collector, Walter Raine.

[Illustration 146: Dowitcher.]
[Illustration: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: LOON.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 145

232. LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER. _Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus_.

Range.--Whole of North America, but not common on the Atlantic coast;
breeds in the Arctic regions and migrates chiefly through the central
and western parts of the United States to Mexico.

This bird is practically the same as the last, but is a trifle larger
and the bill averages about a half inch longer. They are very numerous
in their breeding haunts, and, during their migrations, fly in large
compact flocks. They are not very timid, and consequently fall an easy
prey to the gunners. Their nesting habits and eggs are the same as the
last species, except that the eggs may average a trifle larger. Size
1.75 × 1.15. Data.--Norton Is., Alaska, June, 1900. Nest a small hollow
in the dry ground. Four eggs. Collector, Capt. H. H. Bodfish.


233. STILT SANDPIPER. _Micropalama himantopus_.

Range.--North America, east of the Rocky Mountains; breeds in the Arctic
regions and winters from the Gulf States southward.

In the summer, these birds may be known by the reddish coloration of the
underparts, which are numerously barred; they are smaller than the
preceding, length about eight inches. Their nesting habits are the same
as those of the majority of the members of the family. The three or four
eggs are buffy or grayish, and are blotched and spotted with shades of
brown. Size 1.40 × 1.00.

[Illustration 147: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Long-billed.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 146

234. KNOT. _Tringa canutus_.

Range.--Arctic regions in summer; south through the United States,
chiefly on the Atlantic coast, to South America.

Of about the same size as the Dowitchers, length 10.5 inches, but with a
much shorter bill. In summer the entire under parts are a uniform
reddish chestnut color. They are known to breed in Arctic America, from
Point Barrow and Hudson Bay, northward, but no authentic eggs are known,
at present, to exist in collections. One taken from a bird by Lieut.
Greely, was a pea green color, specked with brown; size 1.10 × 1.00. As
it was not fully developed, it was probably correct neither as to size
nor color.


235. PURPLE SANDPIPER. _Arquatella maritima maritima_.

Range.--Arctic regions, wintering south to the Middle States and the
Great Lakes, but chiefly on the coast.

A grayish and blackish colored species, about nine inches long. It nests
in northern Labrador, about Hudson Bay and in Iceland. Its eggs are a
grayish buff color handsomely splashed with rich shades of brown and
obscure markings of darker gray. Data.--Northern Iceland, June 7, 1897.
Four eggs. Nest a hollow in the ground among grass and weeds and lined
with a few grasses. Collector, C. Jefferys.


235a. ALEUTIAN SANDPIPER. _Arguatella maritima couesi_.

Range.--Supposed to be a resident on the coast and islands of Alaska,
from the Aleutians northward.

A very similar species to the preceding; scarcely distinguishable. These
Sandpipers, which are found in Alaska at all seasons of the year, breed
during May and June. Their nesting habits are the same as those of the
preceding bird and the eggs are indistinguishable. Size 1.40 × 1.00.
Data.--Unalaska, Bering Sea, June 3, 1898. Nest containing four eggs, a
depression in the moss, lined with grasses and bits of moss. The eggs
were laid with their small ends together.

[Illustration 148: Knot. Purple Sandpiper.]
[Illustration: Grayish buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 147

237. PRIBILOF SANDPIPER. _Arquatella maritina ptilocnemis_.

Range.--Coast and islands of Bering Sea, south in winter to southern
Alaska.

This bird, which is ten inches in length, has the feathers of the upper
parts edged with rusty, and the underparts light, with a distinguishing
patch of black on the breast. Similar in appearance to the Red-backed
Sandpiper, but not so reddish above, and the latter has the black patch
on the belly. They breed commonly on the Pribilof and other islands in
Bering Sea, nesting the same as other Sandpipers. Their four eggs are
similar to those of the preceding, but average darker. Size 1.50 × 1.05.


238. SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER. _Pisobia aurita_.

Range.--An Asiatic species, quite abundant in Alaska in the summer;
supposed to migrate south in winter, wholly on the Asiatic side of the
Pacific.

A similar bird, in appearance, to the following, but slightly smaller
and with the breast more ruddy. Its nesting habits probably do not
differ from those of the following Sandpiper.


239. PECTORAL SANDPIPER. _Pisobia maculata_.

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions, and
wintering south of the United States, most abundant in the eastern parts
of the United States during migrations.

This species is blackish brown above, with light brown edgings to the
feathers, and white below, except the chest, which is brownish, streaked
with black. A very peculiar species, having the power, during the mating
season, of inflating the throat to a great extent, making a balloon-like
appendage, nearly the size of the bird. They have more the habits of
Snipe, than do most of the Sandpipers, frequenting grassy meadows or
marshes, in preference to the seashore. Their nests are grass lined
depressions, and the eggs are grayish or greenish buff, blotched with
brown. Size 1.45 × 1.00. Data.--Cape Smythe, Alaska, June 1900. Four
eggs in a hollow in the ground, lined with grass.

[Illustration 149: Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. Pectoral Sandpiper.]
[Illustration: egg, no caption.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 148

240. WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER. _Pisobia fuscicollis_.

Range.--North America, breeding from Labrador and southern Greenland,
northward and wintering from central to Southern South America; most
common on the Atlantic coast.

This species is 7.5 inches in length, and has white upper tail coverts;
otherwise it is marked similarly to the preceding Sandpiper. Its nesting
habits are the same as those of the majority of the family, and the
three or four eggs that they lay cannot be distinguished from those of
the following species. Size 1.30 × .90. These are one of the most common
of the beach birds along the Atlantic coast during migrations; they are
very often known as Bonaparte Sandpipers.


241. BAIRD'S SANDPIPER. _Pisobia bairdi_.

Range.--North America, chiefly in the interior, breeding along the
Arctic coast and about Hudson Bay, and wintering south of the United
States.

A very similar species to the preceding, but without the white rump.
Their nests are hollows in the ground, generally concealed in a tuft of
grass, and lined with grasses and a few leaves. They lay three or four
eggs having a grayish colored ground, and marked with different shades
of brown, and also with some faint markings of lilac. Size 1.30 × .90.
Data.--Peel River, Arctic America, June 18, 1898. Four eggs, taken with
the bird by an Indian. Eggs in a slight hollow on the river bank.


242. LEAST SANDPIPER. _Pisobia minutilla_.

Range.--North America, breeding from the southern parts of the British
Provinces northward; winters from southern United States southward.
Common in the interior and on both coasts.

This is the smallest of our Sandpipers, being under six inches in
length. Except for size, they are similar in appearance to Baird's
Sandpiper, only the back is browner. A very abundant species during
migrations, being found on the seashore or in marshes, nearly always in
company with other species of the family. Their nests are the same as
other Sandpipers, and the eggs are grayish, thickly specked with brown.
Size 1.15 × .80. Data.--Peel River, Arctic America, June 20, 1899. Nest
simply a depression in the river bank, lined with grass.

[Illustration 150: White-rumped Sandpiper. Baird's Sandpiper. Least
Sandpiper.]
[Illustration: Grayish.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 149

242.1. LONG-TOED STINT. _Pisobia damacensis_.

An Asiatic species accidentally found on the Alaskan shores. It is a
very similar bird to the Least Sandpiper, and about the same size. As
implied by its name, it has unusually long toes.


243. DUNLIN. _Pelidna alpina alpina_.

A very common Sandpiper in the British Isles and in Europe, but only
casually occurring as a straggler along the Atlantic coast. Very similar
to the next species, but a trifle smaller. The nest and eggs do not
differ from the following.


243a. RED-BACKED SANDPIPER. _Pelidna alpina sakhalina_.

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding from southern Greenland,
Labrador, Hudson Bay and the Yukon, northward, wintering from the Gulf
States southward. This handsome species is similar to the Pribilof
Sandpiper, but is smaller (length 8 inches), the upperparts are more
reddish, the breast more heavily streaked, and it has a black patch on
the belly instead of on the breast as in ptilocnemis. Their nesting
habits are similar to others of the family; they lay three or four eggs
with a brownish or greenish buff color, heavily blotched and spotted
with shades of brown and chestnut. Size 1.40 × 1.00. Data.--- Peel
River, Arctic America, June 30, 1899. Nest a simple cavity in the
ground, lined with a few grasses and three or four leaves. Collector, J.
O. Stringer.


244. CURLEW SANDPIPER. _Erolia ferruginea_.

Range.--A common Old World species, but regarded as rare in eastern
North America and northern Alaska.

A bird of slighter build, but similar coloration to the Knot; smaller
(length eight inches) and with a slightly decurved bill. Until within
recent years, eggs of these birds were rarely seen in collections, and I
believe they have not yet been taken in this country, although a few
pairs nest along our Arctic coast. Their eggs are very similar to those
of the Red-backed Sandpiper, but average somewhat larger. Size 1.50 ×
1.05. Data.--Kola, northern Lapland, June 15, 1898. Four eggs laid in a
grass-lined hollow in the ground. Collector, J. Ramberg.

[Illustration 151: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Red-backed Sandpiper. Curlew Sandpiper.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 150

245. SPOONBILL SANDPIPER. _Eurynorhynchus pygmeus_.

A very rare Asiatic species, which has been taken in Kotzebue Sound,
Alaska. A very peculiar bird having the end of the bill broadened and
flattened into a sort of spatula. Otherwise very similar to the Least
Sandpiper, but with the breast and sides of neck ruddy in summer. About
75 specimens of this rare bird are known to exist.


246. SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. _Ereunetes pusillus_.

Range.--Whole of North America, but chiefly in the eastern and central
parts, breeding about the ponds and streams of Labrador and Hudson Bay,
and northward. These little Sandpipers are abundant during the
migrations either in marshes or on beaches. They are most often found in
company with other species, such as the Spotted and Least Sandpipers.
Their appearance is very similar to that of the Least Sandpipers, but
they are slightly larger and the feet are partially webbed. Their eggs
have a greenish buff or grayish ground color and are spotted with
brownish or blackish, sometimes, so heavily as to completely obscure the
shell color. Size 1.20 × .80. Data.--Small island near Okak, Labrador,
July 3, 1895. 2 eggs. Nest a hollow at the foot of a tuft of grass,
lined with a few bits of grass and small leaves. Eggs unmistakable in
this dark type.

[Illustration 152: Spoonbill Sandpiper. Semipalmated Sandpiper.]
[Illustration: Grayish.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 151

247. WESTERN SANDPIPER. _Ereunetes mauri._

Range.--Western North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
migrating through the United States, chiefly west of the Mississippi to
the Gulf States and southward.

Scarcely to be distinguished from the preceding species, but the upper
parts are said to be brighter and the bill, to average a trifle longer.
The nesting habits and eggs are precisely the same as those of the
Semipalmated variety. Data.--Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, June 28,
1898. Four eggs. Nest a neatly rounded hollow, sunk into a mossy hummock
in marshy ground. Collector, Joseph Grinnell.


248. SANDERLING. _Calidris leucophaea._

Range.--Found in all parts of the northern hemisphere, breeding within
the Arctic Circle and wintering in North America, from California and
South Carolina southward.

A handsome and abundant species, found during migrations by thousands on
beaches and about large bodies of water in the interior. They are one of
the lightest colored of the Sandpipers, either in winter or summer
plumage. In summer the upper parts are a light rusty color and black,
and the whole underparts are white. Owing to their extreme northerly
distribution in summer, but few of their eggs have been taken. Their
nesting habits are like those of the other Sandpipers. The three or four
eggs are greenish buff in color, spotted and blotched with brown. Size
1.45 × .95. Data.--Peel River, Alaska, June 18, 1897. Three eggs in a
depression on the ground.


249. MARBLED GODWIT. _Limosa fedoa._

Range.--North America, breeding, chiefly in the interior, from northern
United States northward.

Godwits are large Plovers with long slightly up-curved bills. This
species is 19 inches in length, is of a nearly uniform ruddy color and
is handsomely marbled above, and barred below with black. Their eggs are
laid upon the ground in the vicinity of ponds or rivers; sometimes there
is no lining and again a few straws or grasses may be twisted around the
depression. Their eggs number three or four and have a ground color of
grayish or greenish buff, sometimes quite dark, and are blotched with
dark brown. Size 2.25 × 1.60. Data.--Devil's Lake, N. D., June 10, 1895.
Four eggs laid on the ground in the middle of an unused road. Lined with
a few grasses. Collector, W. F. Hill.

[Illustration 153: Grayish buff.]
[Illustration: Western Sandpiper. Sanderling. Marbled Godwit.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 152

250. PACIFIC GODWIT. _Limosa lapponica baueri._

Range.--Coasts and islands of the Pacific Ocean on the Asiatic side,
north in summer to Alaska.

This species is more uniform and brighter ruddy beneath than the
preceding, and the back is not marbled as strongly. Even in Alaska where
it breeds, it is not a common species, and it only occurs elsewhere on
the Pacific coast of America casually. The nesting habits are the same,
but the eggs are somewhat darker than those of the preceding, but not as
dark as those of the following species. Size 2.20 × 1.45.


251. HUDSONIAN GODWIT. _Limosa haemastica._

Range.--North America, east of the Rocky Mountains, breeding in the
Arctic regions and wintering south of the United States.

This species is apparently not as common or is more locally distributed
during migrations than is the Marbled Godwit. They are more abundant in
their breeding grounds and are occasionally seen in large flocks. They
are smaller than the Marbled Godwit (length 18 inches) and are deep
reddish brown below. They lay four eggs on the ground, in marshes or
near ponds or streams, lining the hollow with weeds and dried leaves.
The eggs have a dark brownish buff ground color and are blotched with
brownish black. Size 2.20 × 1.40. Data.--Mackenzie River, Arctic
America. Four eggs laid in a hollow in the ground. Collector, J. O.
Stringer.


252. BLACK-TAILED GODWIT. _Limosa limosa._

A European and Asiatic species only casually occurring in Greenland.
Very similar in appearance to our Hudsonian Godwit, which is frequently
called by the name of this species. The nesting habits and the eggs are
precisely like those of the American bird.


253. GREEN SHANK. _Glottis nebularia._

A common bird in Europe and the British Isles, but only American as
having been taken once in Florida. A very similar species to the
following.

[Illustration 154: Pacific Godwit. Hudsonian Godwit.]
[Illustration: Brownish.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 153

254. GREATER YELLOW-LEGS. _Totanus melanoleucus._

Range.--Whole of North America, nesting in the British Provinces and
rarely in the northern part of the Mississippi Valley.

This and the next species are much sought by sportsmen during their
migrations; they are commonly called "Tell-tale," the present species
being the "Greater Tell-tale." They are blackish above, speckled with
white, and below are white and, in summer, marked with arrowhead spots
of black. The legs, as implied by the name of the bird, are yellow and
long; length of bird, 14 inches. They nest most abundantly in localities
remote from habitations, in the interior of Canada. The eggs are
generally laid on the ground, near a marsh or on the bank of a stream,
with little or no lining to the nest. They are grayish white, boldly
splashed with several shades of brown, and with lilac. Size 1.65 × 1.25.
Data.--Whale River, Labrador, June 10, 1902. Eggs laid on the ground in
an open marsh.


255. YELLOW-LEGS. _Totanus flavipes._

Range.--North America, breeding chiefly in the interior and eastern
parts of Canada, and rarely in the upper Mississippi Valley. This
species is very similar to the preceding, but is smaller; length 10.5
inches. It is also called the "Lesser Tell-tale," a name applied because
of their wariness, and because, when they fly, they warn all other
species within hearing, of danger. Their eggs are laid on the ground,
and in similar localities to the preceding. They are three or four in
number, grayish or buffy in color, and are quite heavily blotched and
spotted with rich brown and grayish or lilac. Size 1.60 × 1.20.
Data.--Whale River, Labrador, June 14, 1902. Four eggs laid on the
ground in a large marsh.

[Illustration 155: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Greater Yellow-legs. Yellow-legs.]
[Illustration: Buffy.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 154

256. SOLITARY SANDPIPER. _Helodromas solitarius solitarius._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding chiefly north of the United
States boundary, but apt to be found nesting in any part of its range;
winters south of the United States.

A bird with a greenish gray back, barred with white, and white below;
length 8.5 inches. This species is one of the oddities among the waders.
They are most always met with, singly or in pairs, and are very rarely
seen, even in very small flocks. Their preference is for small ponds or
streams in wet woods or open meadows, rather than marshes which are
frequented by other species. They are occasionally seen during the
nesting season, even in the southern parts of their range, and they
probably breed there although their eggs are very rarely found. The eggs
are clay-colored, spotted with brownish black. Data.--Simco Island,
Kingston, Ontario, June 10, 1898. 5 eggs in a shallow depression on the
ground, lined with a few grasses.

[Illustration 156: Solitary Sandpiper.]
[Illustration: Clay-colored.]
[Illustration: NEST OF SPOTTED SANDPIPER.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 155

256a. WESTERN SOLITARY SANDPIPER. _Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus._

Range.--North America, west of the Plains; breeds in British Columbia
and probably south of there, also.

This bird is like the last, except that the spots on the back are buffy
instead of white. Its nest and eggs will not differ in any respect from
those of the eastern form.


257. GREEN SANDPIPER. _Helodromas acrophus._

This species, which very closely resembles our Solitary Sandpiper, is
common in the northern parts of the Old World. It has only accidentally
strayed to our shores.


258. WILLET. _Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding north to the Middle States and
occasionally straying to the Canadian border, especially in the
Mississippi Valley.

These large waders are among the most abundant of the marsh or beach
birds. They breed in small companies in marshes, frequently in those
which are covered with water at high tide, building a frail nest of
grasses and weeds, where it will be barely out of reach of the highest
water. The three or four eggs have a brownish, or sometimes greenish,
buff ground color and are blotched with umber, and have fainter markings
of lilac. Size 2.00 × 1.50. Data.--Sandy Bank, South Carolina, May 3,
1901. Nest on the ground, secreted in the high grass. Made of dead marsh
grass, lined with finer grasses.

[Illustration 157: Western Sandpiper. Willet.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 156

258a. WESTERN WILLET. _Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus._

Range.--Western North America, breeding north to Manitoba and British
Columbia. Casually found on the South Atlantic coast during migrations.

A larger and paler form of the preceding species; length 15.5 inches.
The nesting habits are the same, and the eggs cannot be distinguished
from those of the common Willet. Data.--Refugio, Texas, May 18, 1900. 4
eggs in a grass lined depression on the bay shore flat. Collector, J. W.
Preston.


259. WANDERING TATTLER. _Heteractitis incanus._

Range.--Pacific coast of North America, breeding from British Columbia
northward.

This is a handsome species, uniform grayish above and white below,
closely barred (in summer) with blackish. During the breeding season it
is found on the rugged coasts and islands of Alaska, and casually south.
It breeds in the marsh grass near the shores and along the banks of
streams.


260. RUFF. _Machetes pugnax._

A common European species, occasionally found on the Atlantic coast of
North America. It is a species remarkable for its pugnacity during the
mating season; in size and appearance it is about like the Upland
Plover, with the exception of the "ruff" which adorns the neck and
breast of the male bird.


261. UPLAND PLOVER. _Bartramia longicauda._

Range.--North America, chiefly east of the Rocky Mountains, breeding
from middle United States, northward.

A handsome bird, 12 inches in length, generally known as the "Upland
Plover," from its habit of frequenting dry side hills, where it feeds
upon grasshoppers and worms. It is a favorite bird with many sportsmen.
It builds a nest of grasses, on the ground in a tuft of grass in the
middle of fields. The three or four eggs have a buff ground and are
blotched with yellowish brown. Size 1.75 × 1.25. Data.--Stump Lake, N.
D., June 10, 1897. Nest of grass, lined with wool, under a tuft of grass
left by the mower. Collector, Alf. Eastgate.

[Illustration 158: Wandering Tattler. Ruff. Upland Plover.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 157

[Illustration 159: Walter Raine.
NEST AND EGGS OF UPLAND PLOVER.]

Page 158

262. BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER. _Tryngites subruficollis._

Range.--Interior of North America, breeding from the Hudson Bay region
to the Arctic coast.

A buffy colored species, with a peculiarly marbled back. Size 8.5 inches
long. It is an upland species like the last. The nests are scantily
lined depressions in the ground. The eggs have a grayish white ground
and are boldly blotched with rich brown and chestnut with fainter
markings of lilac. Size 1.45 × 1.05. Data.--Cape Smythe, Alaska, June,
1900. 4 eggs in a hollow in dry spot on a marsh. Collector, H. H.
Bodfish.


263. SPOTTED SANDPIPER. _Actitis macularia._

Range.--Whole of North America from Hudson Bay southward, breeding
throughout its range.

A small wader about 7.5 inches in length, with brownish gray upper
parts, and white underparts thickly spotted with blackish, especially on
the breast and flanks. This is the most abundant of all the shore birds,
and its "peet-weet" is a familiar sound to every country boy. It has a
peculiar habit of continually moving its tail up and down, when at rest
on a stone or when running along the shore; from these characteristic
actions it has received the very common names of "Teeter-tail" and
"Tip-up." They build their nests on the ground near ponds, brooks or
marshes, generally concealing it in a tuft of grass or weeds on the
shore or in the high grass at the edge of the meadows. The eggs number
from three to five and are of a grayish buff color, spotted and blotched
with blackish brown. The young, like those of all the shore birds, are
hatched covered with down, and run about as soon as born. They are
anxiously attended by the parents and at the least sign of danger,
conceal themselves beneath a tuft of grass or behind a small stone,
where they remain perfectly motionless until called by the old birds.
The adults frequently attempt to lead an enemy away from the young by
feigning a broken wing, or lameness. Size of eggs 1.35 × .90.
Data.--Parker County, Ind., May 22, 1901. Nest about six yards from bank
of creek, among weeds on a sand bar; a hollow in the sand lined with
weeds. Collector, Winfield S. Catlin.

[Illustration 160: Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Spotted Sandpiper.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 159

264. LONG-BILLED CURLEW. _Numenius americanus._

Range.--Breeds in the South Atlantic states and northward in the
interior to Manitoba and British Columbia.

This is the largest of the family of shore birds, having a length of
about 24 inches. Its plumage is of a buffy color, much variegated above
with black and brown; the bill is strongly curved downward and is from
four to eight inches in length. Their nests are located on the ground in
meadows or on the prairies, and three or four eggs are laid, of a buff
or greenish buff color, covered with numerous spots of brownish black.
Eggs of the common Curlew of Europe, have been very frequently used as
belonging to this species, but the eggs of our species have a lighter
and more greenish ground, and the spots are smaller and more numerous.
Size, 2.50 × 1.80.


265. HUDSONIAN CURLEW. _Numenius hudsonicus._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering south of the United States.

This species is smaller (length 17 inches), darker, more grayish and has
a shorter bill than the preceding species. It also has white median and
lateral stripes on the top of the head. The nesting habits are the same
as those of the Long-billed species; the three or four eggs have a
brownish buff ground color and are blotched with blackish brown. Size
2.25 × 1.60. Data.--McKenzie River, Arctic America. Nest a pile of
grass, moss and weeds on an island in the river.

[Illustration 161: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Long-billed Curlew. Hudsonian Curlew.]
[Illustration: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 160

266. ESKIMO CURLEW. _Numenius borealis._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering in South America; migrating through the eastern half of the
United States, more abundantly in the interior than on the coast.

A still smaller species than the last (length 14 inches) and very
similar to it. A few years ago this was considered the most abundant of
the curlews, but so persistently have they been hunted that they are now
practically exterminated. They were the most unsuspicious of the shore
birds, and would allow the near approach of the gunner, and the penalty
may now be seen. Only a short while ago they were very often found,
during migration, in company with other waders such as the Golden or
Black-bellied Plovers. Their nests are simply hollows in the plains,
lined with a few grasses, dried leaves, or moss. The three or four eggs
are the same as the last for color but are smaller; size 2.00 × 1.45.


267. WHIMBREL. _Numenius phaeopus._

A European species casually appearing in Greenland; very similar to the
Hudsonian Curlew, but with the rump white.

This species is known as the Jack Curlew in England and Scotland, where
it is very abundant, and is a favorite game bird. It breeds in the
northern parts of Europe and Asia, and in the extreme north of Scotland
and on the Shetland Islands. The eggs are laid in hollows on the ground
on higher parts of the marshes. The three or four eggs have an olive or
greenish brown color and are blotched with dark brown. Size 2.30 × 1.60.
Data.--Native, Iceland, May 29, 1900. Six eggs. Nest a depression in the
ground, lined with dried grass.


268. BRISTLE-THIGHED CURLEW. _Numenius tahitiensis._

Range.--Islands and coast on the Asiatic side of the Pacific; casually
found in Alaska. A very peculiar species with many of the feathers on
the flanks terminating in long bristles.

[Illustration 162: Eskimo Curlew.]
[Illustration: Olive brown.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 161

PLOVERS. Family CHARADRIIDÆ

Plovers are stouter built birds than those of the previous family, have
larger head, shorter necks and but three toes, the bill also is much
harder and shorter.


269. LAPWING. _Vanellus vanellus._

An abundant European species accidentally occurring on the Atlantic
coast. It may readily be recognized by its long black crest, black chin
and throat, and white under parts. It breeds throughout temperate
Europe, laying its eggs in hollows on the ground. The eggs have a dark
grayish buff ground and are spotted with black. Size 1.85 × 1.30.


269.1. DOTTEREL. _Eudromias morinellus._

A European bird supposed to have been accidentally taken on the Atlantic
coast.


270. BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER. _Squatarola squatarola._

Range.--Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering from the Gulf States to northern South America.

This is a remarkably handsome species when in the summer dress. The
upper parts are largely white with black spots and bars on the back,
wings and tail; the throat, sides of head, breast and fore under parts,
black. In winter, brownish-black, somewhat mottled, above; below, dull
white. Young similar to winter adults, but the back is spotted with
yellowish-white. While these handsome plover migrate to some extent, and
sometimes in large flocks, through the interior of the United States,
they are chiefly and most abundantly found on the coast. This species
has a very small hind toe. It is a very familiar bird to sportsmen and
gunners, to whom it is generally known by the names of "Bull-head," or
"Beetle-head Plover." They are very numerous in the fall, during which
season the underparts are entirely white. The eggs are either laid upon
the bare ground or upon a slight lining of grasses or dead leaves. They
are three or four in number, brownish or greenish buff in color and
boldly marked with black. Size 2.00 × 1.40. Data.--Point Barrow, Alaska,
June, 1900. Nest a small hollow on side of hillock, lined with dry
grass.

[Illustration 163: Grayish.]
[Illustration: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 162

[Illustration 164: BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER.]

Page 163

272. EUROPEAN GOLDEN PLOVER. _Charadrius apricarius._

A European bird, similar to the next, casually found in Greenland.

It is a very abundant bird throughout Europe, breeding in the northern
parts. Its habits, nests and eggs are the same as those of the American
bird.


272. GOLDEN PLOVER. _Charadrius dominicus dominicus._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and
wintering south to Patagonia.


This handsome bird is about the same size as the Black-bellied Plover
(10.5 inches long). No hind toe. Back and tail mottled with black and
yellow; below, more or less entirely black to the tail. Young and winter
adults, more or less spotted with yellow and blackish-brown above, and
grayish-white below, with indistinct streaks on the breast. Often
confused with the last species in this plumage, but is smaller, bill
smaller and more slender, and the axillars, or feathers nearest the
body, under the wings, are gray while those of the Black-bellied Plover
are black. This species is now regarded as rare on the North Atlantic
coast during migrations, while in the interior it is more abundant than
the last species. They do not seem to be as suspicious as the
Black-bellies, and a flock will often allow a close approach, even when
they see you. They nest abundantly along the coast and islands of the
Arctic Ocean. The four eggs are very similar to those of the preceding,
but smaller. Size 1.90 × 1.30. Data.--Peel River, Arctic America, June
1, 1898. Nest of grasses and leaves on the ground in the moss.


272a. PACIFIC GOLDEN PLOVER. _Charadrius dominicus fulvus._

Range.--An Asiatic species, breeding in northern Asia and on the islands
and coast of Asia. Very like the preceding, but more golden color on the
back and wings. Nesting and eggs the same.

[Illustration 165: Black-bellied Plover. Golden Plover.]
[Illustration: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 164

[Illustration 166: A. R. Spaid.
NEST AND EGGS OF KILLDEER.]

Page 165

273. Killdeer. _Oxyechus vociferus._

Range.--Temperate North America from the southern parts of Canada
southward. Next to the Spotted Sandpiper, this bird is the most common
of the shore birds in the United States. It is rarely seen in New
England, but is common south of there and in the interior of the country
to Canada.

They are very noisy birds, continually uttering their "kil-deer,
kil-deer" from which they take their name. They nest anywhere on the
ground, generally near water, placing their nests in fields, cornfields
or meadows. The eggs are drab or greenish buff and profusely spotted
with black. Size 1.50 × 1.10. Data.--Refugio county, Texas, May 11,
1899. 4 eggs in a depression on the ground, lined with a few grasses.


274. SEMIPALMATED. _Ægialitis semipalmata._

Range.--North America, breeding in the interior of Canada and wintering
south from the Gulf States.

Small web between the bases of the two outer toes. Single broad, black
band across the breast; black line from base of bill to eye. They are
very abundant on our seacoast in Fall, both in flocks composed entirely
of their own kind, and also with Least and Semipalmated Sandpipers. They
usually keep on the inner side of sandbars or muddy flats bordering
marshes, rather than on the open ocean beach. It is also found in
smaller flocks, about ponds and marshes in the interior of the country.
They are usually unsuspicious and will allow a close approach, or if you
are still, will run by within a very few feet. Nest on the ground; eggs
buffy, sparsely specked with black, 1.30 × .90; June.

[Illustration 167: Grayish buff.]
[Illustration: Kildeer. Semi-palmated Plover.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 166


275. RING PLOVER. _Ægialitis hiaticula._

Range.--A European bird that breeds abundantly in Greenland. It nests in
great numbers on the banks of streams and in fields, laying its eggs in
hollows on the ground, generally without any lining. Their three or four
eggs are practically not distinguishable from those of the Semipalmated
Plover, but larger; size, 1.40 x 1.00. The bird, too, is similar, but
the toes are not palmated, and the black breast band is wider.


276. LITTLE RINGED PLOVER. _Ægialitis dubia._

An Old World species, accidentally occurring on the Pacific coast. Like
the last species, but smaller. The eggs, too, are smaller; size 1.20 x
.85.


277. PIPING PLOVER. _Ægialitis meloda._

Range.--Eastern North America, chiefly along the Atlantic coast,
breeding from the Carolinas north to Newfoundland.

A handsome little bird, with a black crescent on each side of neck, a
small black patch on top of the head, and without any black on the lores
or ear coverts. It is the lightest colored of any of the eastern
Plovers. Length, 7 inches. Young, similar, but the black replaced by
grayish, as is the case with the last species. This species, apparently,
never could be classed as abundant and of late years, it is becoming
rather rare along our Atlantic coast; this is probably more due to the
building of summer resorts and homes along their former breeding grounds
than to hunters. They are rather more shy than the last species, but
will usually attempt to escape by running along the beach or by hiding,
rather than by flight. Owing to their light colors it is very difficult
to see them at any distance. They lay their eggs upon the sandy beaches
in slight, and generally unlined, hollows. The eggs have a pale clay
colored ground and are sparsely specked with small black dots. Size 1.25
x 1.00.

[Illustration 168: Ring Plover. Snowy Plover.]
[Illustration: Buffy.]
[Illustration: Clay Color.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 167

278. SNOWY PLOVER. _Ægialitis nivosa._

Range.--Breeds along the Pacific coast of the United States, and from
Texas to Manitoba in the interior. Winters on the California coast and
south to Chili.

Snowy Plovers are very much like the Piping, but are smaller (length 6.5
inches), have a longer and more slender bill, and have a small black
patch on the side of head. It is the palest colored of the Plovers.
Large numbers of them nest along the Pacific coast and in Texas; north
of Texas, in the interior, they are locally distributed. The eggs are
pale clay color, marked with small scratchy dots of black. Size 1.20 x
.90. Data.--Newport Beach, California, May 1, 1897. Nest a hollow in the
sand, a short distance above high water; lined with broken shell.
Collector, Evan Davis.


279. MONGOLIAN PLOVER. _Ægialitis mongola._

An inhabitant of the Old World, awarded a place in our avifauna because
of its accidental occurrence at Alaska.

[Illustration 169: Pale buff.]
[Illustration: C. A. Reed. SPOTTED SANDPIPER AND NEST.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 168

280. WILSON'S PLOVER. _Octhodromus wilsonius._

Range.--An abundant breeding species on the Gulf coast, coast of Lower
California, and on the Atlantic coast north to Virginia, and casually
farther.

A common Plover, which may be distinguished from others of the genus by
its comparatively large heavy black bill, and the single broad black
band across the breast, and not extending around the back of the neck.
They nest on pebbly "shingle" or in the marsh, back of the beaches.
Their eggs are an olive gray color and are spotted and scratched with
blackish brown, with some fainter markings of gray. Size 1.40 x 1.05.
Data.--Corpus Christi, Texas, May 10, 1899. 4 eggs laid on the ground
among drifted grass on a salt marsh near town. Collector, Frank B.
Armstrong.


281. MOUNTAIN PLOVER. _Podasocys montanus_.

Range.--Plains and prairies of western North America, breeding from the
central portions north to Manitoba, and wintering in California and
southward.

A very peculiar species, inhabiting even the driest portions of the
western prairies. It is 9 inches in length, and has a plumage of a pale
buffy tone. It seems to be less aquatic than any other American Plover
and is rarely found in the vicinity of bodies of water. It nests on the
ground anywhere on the prairie, laying its eggs in a slight hollow. The
eggs are brownish gray in color and are spotted and blotched with
blackish brown. Data.--Morgan county, Colorado, May 7, 1902. Nest a
slight hollow on the ground, near a large cactus bed and close to a
water hole. No lining to nest. Collector, Glenn S. White.

[Illustration 170: Olive gray.]
[Illustration: Wilson's Plover. Mountain Plover.]
[Illustration: Brownish gray.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 169

SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES. Family APHRIZIDÆ

282. Surf Bird. _Aphriza virgata._

This species, which is found on the Pacific coast from Alaska to Chili,
seems to be the connecting link between the plovers and the Turnstones,
having the habits of the latter combined with the bill of the former.
Its nest and eggs are not known to have been yet discovered.


283. TURNSTONE. _Arenaria interpres._

Range.--The distribution of this species, which is grayer above than the
following, is supposed to be confined, in America, to the extreme north
from Greenland to Alaska. Its habits and eggs are precisely like the
next.


283a. RUDDY TURNSTONE. _Arenaria interpres morinella._

Range.--Breeds in the Arctic regions, and migrates through all parts of
the United States, south to the southern parts of South America. This
species has the upperparts variegated with reddish brown, black and
white; the underparts are pure white, except for a black patch on the
throat, branching upward to the eye and back to the sides of the breast.
It has a peculiar, slightly up-turned bill, which is used, as their name
implies, for turning over pebbles and stones in their search for food.
They nest commonly in northern Labrador, about Hudson Bay and in Alaska,
laying their eggs in scantily lined hollows on the ground, near water.
The eggs are very peculiar and beautiful, having a light grayish or
cream color ground, peculiarly marbled with many shades of brown and
lilac. Size 1.65 × 1.10. Data.--Mackenzie River, Arctic America, June
28, 1900. Four eggs in a grass lined depression in the sand.

[Illustration 171: Creamy.]
[Illustration: Turnstone.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 170

284. BLACK TURNSTONE. _Arenaria melanocephala._

Range.--Pacific coast of North America, breeding from British Columbia
northward, and wintering south to Lower California.

This species, which has the form and habits of the preceding, is
blackish above and on the breast; the rump and the base of the tail are
white, being separated from each other by the black tail coverts. Their
nesting habits are in no wise different from those of the common
turnstone. The eggs are similar, but the markings are not so strikingly
arranged. Size 1.60 × 1.10. Data.--Kutlik, Alaska, June 21, 1898. Nest
simply a depression in the sand on the sea beach.


OYSTER-CATCHERS. Family HÆMATOPODIDÆ

285. EUROPEAN OYSTER-CATCHER. _Hæmatopus frazari._

This European species is very similar to the American one which follows.
It casually occurs in Greenland.


286. OYSTER-CATCHER. _Hæmatopus palliatus._

Range.--Breeds on the coast of the South Atlantic States and Lower
California and winters south to Patagonia. Oyster-catchers are

large, heavy-bodied birds, with stocky red legs and long, stout red
bills. The present species has the whole upper parts and entire head and
neck, blackish; underparts and ends of secondaries, white; length, 19
inches. They are abundant breeding birds on the sandy beaches of the
South Atlantic States, and casually wander north to Nova Scotia. They
lay their two or three eggs on the ground in slight hollows scooped out
of the sand. The eggs are of a buffy or brownish buff color, and are
irregularly spotted with blackish brown, with subdued markings of
lavender. Size 2.20 × 1.50. Data.--Sandy Point, S. C., May 12, 1902.
Three eggs on the sand just above high water mark; nest a mere
depression on a small "sand dune" lined with pieces of shells.

[Illustration 172: Grayish.]
[Illustration: American Oyster-catcher.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 171

286.1. Frazar's Oyster-catcher. _Hæmatopus bachmani._

Range.--Lower California.

This species is darker on the back than the preceding, and the breast is
mottled with dusky. Bill very long, heavy, compressed, and thin and
chisel-like at the tip.

Bill and eyes red; legs flesh color; under parts white, and a white wing
bar. These are large, awkward looking birds. It is not an uncommon wader
in its somewhat restricted range. Its nesting habits are the same as
those of the preceding one, but the markings are generally more sharply
defined. The one figured is from a set in the collection of Mr. C. W.
Crandall.


287. BLACK OYSTER-CATCHER. _Hæmatopus bachmani._

Range.--Pacific coast of North America from Lower California north to
Alaska.

This species is the same size as the Oyster-catcher, but the plumage is
entirely black both above and below. They are found upon the rocky
coasts and islands, more frequently than upon sandy beaches. Their eggs
are laid upon bare rocks or pebbles with no attempt at lining for the
nest. The eggs are an olive buff in color, spotted and blotched with
brownish black. Size 2.20 × 1.55. Breeding throughout the Aleutian
Islands, British Columbia and south to Lower California. Three or four
eggs are laid.

[Illustration 173: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: 287--286.1.]
[Illustration: Olive buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 172

JACANAS. Family JACANIDÆ

288. Mexican Jacana. _Jacana spinosa._

Range.--Tropical America, north in summer to the lower Rio Grande Valley
in Texas, and casually to Florida.

This interesting species has most of its structural characters similar
to the Plovers, but has more the appearance and habits of the Rails.
They are about eight inches long, the head and neck are black, the body
chestnut, and the wings largely greenish yellow. They have long legs,
long toes and extremely long toe nails, a scaly leaf on the forehead,
and a sharp spur on the shoulder of the wing. Owing to their long toes
and nails, they are enabled to walk over floating weeds and rubbish that
would sink beneath their weight, otherwise. They build their nests on
these little floating islands in the marsh; they are also sometimes made
of weeds and trash on floating lily pads. They lay from three to five
eggs of a yellowish olive color, curiously scrawled with brown and
black. Size 1.22 × .95. Data.--Tampico, Mexico, June 3, 1900. Three
eggs. Nest of weeds and drift on lily leaf floating in fresh water pond
near town.

[Illustration 174: Mexican Jacana.]
[Illustration: Yellowish olive.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 173

[Illustration 175: C. A. Reed.
NEST AND EGGS OF BOB-WHITE.]

Page 174

[Illustration 176: BOB WHITE.
Female--Male.]

Page 175

GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. Order X. GALLINÆ

GROUSE, PARTRIDGES, ETC. Family TETRAONIDAE

The members of this family are birds of robust form, subdued (not
brightly colored) plumage, comparatively short legs and necks; the tarsi
and toes are feathered in the Ptarmigan, the tarsi, only, feathered in
the Grouse, and the tarsi and toes bare in the Partridges and
Bob-whites. They feed upon berries, buds, grain and insects.


289. BOB-WHITE. _Colinus virginianus virginianus._

Range.--United States east of North Dakota and Texas and from the
southern British Provinces to the Gulf coast.

A celebrated "game bird" which has been hunted so assiduously in New
England that it is upon the verge of extermination, and the covers have
to be continually replenished with birds trapped in the south and west.
They frequent open fields, which have a luxuriant growth of weeds, or
grain fields in the fall. Their nests are built along the roadsides, or
beside stonewalls or any place affording satisfactory shelter. The nest
is made of dried grasses and is arched over with grass or overhanging
leaves so as to conceal the eggs. They lay from ten to twenty pure white
eggs, which are very frequently nest stained when found. Size 1.20 ×
.95. Often two or three broods are raised in a season, but frequently
one or more broods are destroyed by rainy weather.


289a. FLORIDA BOB-WHITE. _Colinus virginianus floridanus._

Range.--This sub-species, which is found in the southern half of
Florida, is very much darker than the northern Bob-white, and is
numerously barred below with black. Its nesting habits and eggs are
identical with those of the preceding.


289b. TEXAS BOB-WHITE. _Colinus virginianus texanus._

Range.--Texas; casually north to Kansas. A grayer variety of the
Bob-white. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the
Bob-white, except that the eggs may average a trifle smaller. Size 1.18
× .92.


291. MASKED BOB-WHITE. _Colinus ridgwayi._

Range.--Sonoran region of Mexico north to southern Arizona.

The female of this species is like that of the Texan Bob-white. Their
nesting habits and eggs are in all respects like those of the other
Bob-whites. Size of eggs, 1.20 × .95.

[Illustration 177: White.]
[Illustration: Bobwhite. Florida Bobwhite. Masked Bobwhite.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 176

292. MOUNTAIN QUAIL. _Oreortyx picta picta._

Range.--Pacific coast of North America from California to Washington.

This is the largest of the Partridges, being 11 inches in length. It is
of a general grayish color, with chestnut throat patch, and chestnut
flanks, barred with white. Two long plumes extend downward from the back
of the head. This species nests abundantly in the mountainous portions
of northern California and throughout Oregon, and is gradually
increasing in numbers in Washington. As a rule they nest only on the
higher mountain ranges, placing their nest of leaves under the
protection of an overhanging bush or tuft of grass. Their eggs number
from six to fifteen, and are of a pale reddish buff color. Size 1.35 ×
1.05.


292a. PLUMED QUAIL. _Oreortyx picta plumifera._

Range.--Mountain ranges of California and Lower California, chiefly in
the southern parts of the former. This species is like the latter except
that it is grayer on the back of the head and neck. Its nesting habits
and eggs are like the preceding.


292b. SAN PEDRO QUAIL. _Oreortyx picta confinis._

Range.--San Pedro Mountains, Lower California.

This species, which is grayer above than the preceding two, breeds only
in the highest peaks of its range. Otherwise its nesting habits and eggs
are the same as the other Plumed Partridges.


293. SCALED QUAIL. _Callipepla squamata squamata._

Range.--Mexico and southwestern border of the United States.

This blue gray species is 10 inches in length; the feathers on the neck
and underparts have narrow dark borders, thus giving the plumage a scaly
appearance, from which the birds take their name. They have a small tuft
of whitish or buffy feathers on the top of the head. It is especially
abundant in the dry arid portions of its range, being found often many
miles away from water. Their eggs are laid in a shallow hollow under
some small bush or cactus, and number from eight to sixteen; they are
creamy white, finely specked with buff or pale brownish. Size 1.25 ×
.95.

[Illustration 178: Reddish buff.]
[Illustration: Mountain Partridge. Scaled Partridge.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 177

293a. CHESTNUT-BELLIED SCALED QUAIL. _Callipepla squamata
castanogastris._

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward into Mexico.

This sub-species is like the last with the addition of a chestnut patch
on the belly. Their breeding habits do not vary in any particular way
from those of the Scaled Partridge.


294. CALIFORNIA QUAIL. _Lophortyx californica californica._

Range.--Coast region of California, Oregon, Washington and British
Columbia.

This is one of the most beautiful of the Partridges, with its crest of
feathers rising from the crown and curving forwards so that the
broadened ends hang directly over the bill. It is about the size of the
preceding species, and is distinguished from the following one by its
white forehead, chestnut patch on the belly and the scaly appearance of
the feathers in that region, by its dark crown and the gray flanks with
white streaks. They lay from eight to twenty eggs with a creamy white or
buffy ground color, handsomely blotched with shades of brown and
yellowish brown. Size 1.20 × .93.


294a. VALLEY PARTRIDGE. _Lophortyx californica vallicola._

Range.--Interior portions of California, Oregon and Washington.

The nesting habits of this grayer sub-species do not differ in any
manner from those of the above species. The eggs are indistinguishable.


295. GAMBEL QUAIL. _Lophortyx gambeli._

Range.--Southwestern United States from Texas to California; north to
Utah.

This handsome species differs from the California in the Chestnut crown
and flanks, and the black patch on the belly. They are very abundant in
Arizona, both on the mountains and in the valleys, and apparently
without any regard to the nearness to, or remoteness from a water
supply. They breed during May, laying their eggs on the ground under any
suitable cover. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the
California Partridge, except that they average a trifle larger. Size
1.25 × .95.

[Illustration 179: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: California Partridge.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 178

296. MEARNS QUAIL. _Cyrtonyx montezumæ mearnsi._

Range.--Mexico, north to southern Arizona and New Mexico, and to western
Texas.

A remarkable species about 9 inches long; often called "Fool Quail"
because of its eccentric and clownish markings, streaks and spots of
black, white, buff, gray and chestnut. It is met with in small flocks on
the mountains and less frequently in the valleys. It frequents scrubby
wooded places rather than open hill sides and is very easy to approach
and kill; this confidence or stupidity together with its clownish
appearance are the reasons for its commonly used local name. Their nests
are hollows in the ground, lined with grasses and concealed by
overhanging tufts of grass. The eggs, which are pure white, are not
distinguishable with certainty from those of the Bob-white, but average
longer. Size 1.25 × .95.


297. DUSKY GROUSE. _Dendragapus obscurus obscurus._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from central Montana south to New Mexico.

With the exception of the Sage Grouse, this species is the largest of
the family, being about 20 inches in length. The general tone of its
plumage below is gray; above, blackish gray and the tail blackish with a
broad terminal band of light gray. They frequent the wooded and
especially the coniferous districts, where they build their nests under
fallen trees or at the bases of standing ones. They lay from six to ten
eggs of a buffy color, sparsely spotted and blotched with brownish. Size
2.00 × 1.40.


297a. SOOTY GROUSE. _Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus._

Range.--Mountain ranges along the Pacific coast from California to
British Columbia.

Like the last, this somewhat darker sub-species is met with in timbered
regions, where its habits are about the same as those of the Ruffled
Grouse, except, of course, that they are not nearly as shy as the Grouse
in New England. Their eggs are laid in hollows beside stumps or under
logs. The eggs are buff colored, spotted with reddish brown. Size 2.00 ×
1.40.

[Illustration 180: Mearns Partridge.]
[Illustration: Rich buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 179

297b. RICHARDSON'S GROUSE. _Dendragapus obscurus richardsoni._

Range.--Northern Rocky Mountains from central Montana to British
Columbia.

A dark variety with no terminal band of gray on the tail. Its habits,
nesting and eggs are precisely like those of the preceding species.


298. HUDSONIAN SPRUCE PARTRIDGE. _Canachites canadensis canadensis._

Range.--Northern United States and southern British Provinces; west to
Minnesota.

A dark species, smaller than the last (15 inches long), and easily
recognized by its black throat and extensive black patch on the breast.
The habits of this species and the two varieties into which it has been
sub-divided are the same; as a species, they are very tame, will not fly
unless actually obliged to, and frequently allow themselves to be
knocked down with sticks. Their nests are hollows in the leaves on the
ground, generally under the sheltering branches of a low spreading fir
tree. The six to fifteen eggs are a bright buff color, blotched and
spotted boldly with various shades of brown. Size 1.70 × 1.25.


298b. ALASKA SPRUCE PARTRIDGE. _Canachites canadensis osgoodi._

Range.--Alaska.

This variety is practically the same as the preceding, the birds not
always being distinguishable; the nest and eggs are the same as the
Canada Grouse.


298c. Canada Spruce Partridge. _Canachites canadensis canace._

Range.--Labrador and the Hudson Bay region.

Like the last, this variety is hardly to be distinguished from the
Hudsonian. Its nesting habits and eggs are the same.

[Illustration 181: Bright buff.]
[Illustration: Sooty Grouse. Spruce Grouse.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 180

299. FRANKLIN'S GROUSE. _Canachites franklin franklini._

Range.--Northwestern United States and British Columbia.

This species is very similar to the Canada Grouse, the most apparent
difference being the absence of the brownish gray tip to the tail, and
the upper coverts are broadly tipped with white. This species, which is
very abundant in the northwest, has the same stupid habits of the
eastern bird. During the mating season, the males of both this and the
preceding species have the same habit of "drumming" that the Ruffed
Grouse has. Their nests are placed on the ground under bushes or fir
trees and from eight to fifteen eggs are laid. These are brownish buff
in color, spotted and blotched with rich brown. They are very similar to
the eggs of the Canada Grouse. Data.--Moberly Peak, Cascade Mts.,
British Columbia, June 9, 1902. 7 eggs in a slight hollow on the ground.
Collector, G. F. Dippie.


300. RUFFED GROUSE. _Bonasa umbellus umbellus._

Range.--Eastern United States from Minnesota to New England; south to
Virginia.

The Ruffed Grouse is "King of the Game Birds" in the east, where it has
been hunted so freely, that it has become very wary and requires a
skillful marksman to bring it down. Because of the cutting off of all
heavy timber, and the vigor with which they are pursued by hunters, they
are becoming very scarce in New England, and within a few years they
will probably be practically extinct in that section. Their favorite
resorts are heavily timbered woods or low growth birches. Their nests
are hollows in the leaves under fallen trees, beside some stump or
concealed among the small shoots at the base of a large tree. The bird
sits very close, but when she does fly, goes with the familiar rumble
and roar which always disconcerts the novice, the wind created by her
sudden flight generally causing the leaves to settle in the nest and
conceal the eggs. They lay from eight to fifteen eggs, of a brownish
buff color, sometimes with a few faint markings of brown, but generally
unspotted. Size 1.55 × 1.15. The young of all the Partridges and Grouse
are born covered with down and follow their parents soon after leaving
the shell. The adults are very skillful in leading enemies away from
their young, feigning lameness, broken wings, etc. The nesting habits
and eggs of the three sub-species are precisely the same in every
respect as those of this bird.

[Illustration 182: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: Ruffed Grouse.]
[Illustration: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 181

[Illustration 183: RUFFED GROUSE.]

Page 182

300a. CANADA RUFFED GROUSE. _Bonasa umbellus togata._

Range.--Northern United States and southern British
Provinces from Maine and Nova Scotia west to Washington
and British Columbia.


300b. GRAY RUFFED GROUSE. _Bonasa umbellus umbelloides._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from Colorado to
Alaska.

A grayer species than the common.


300c. OREGON RUFFED GROUSE. _Bonasa umbellus sabini._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to British Columbia.

A dark species with the prevailing color a reddish tone.

[Illustration 184: 299--300a.]
[Illustration: J. B. Pardoe. NEST AND EGGS OF RUFFED GROUSE.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 183

301. WILLOW PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus lagopus lagopus._

Range.--Arctic regions, in America south nearly to the United States
border, and casually to Maine.

Ptarmigan are Grouse-like birds, feathered to the toe nails; they have
many changes of plumage, in winter being nearly pure white, and in
summer largely reddish brown or grayish, barred with black. In the
breeding plumage they have red comb-like wattles over the eye. In other
seasons, their plumage varies in all degrees between winter and summer.
They nest on the ground in hollows among the leaves, lined with a few
grasses, and sometimes feathers. They lay from six to sixteen eggs which
have a ground color of buff or brownish buff, heavily speckled, blotched
and marbled with blackish brown. Size 1.75 × 1.25.


301a. ALLEN'S PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus lagopus alleni._

Range.--Newfoundland. A very similar bird to the preceding; eggs
indistinguishable.


302. ROCK PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus rupestris rupestris._

Range.--Chiefly in the interior of British America, from the southern
portions to Alaska and the Arctic Ocean.

A species with a smaller bill and in summer a grayer plumage, more
finely barred with black. Its nesting habits are the same as the other
species, it nesting on the ground in such localities as would be
frequented by the Ruffed Grouse. Its eggs cannot be positively
distinguished from those of the Willow Ptarmigan. Size 1.70 × 1.20.

[Illustration 185: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: Willow Ptarmigan. Rock Ptarmigan.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 184

302a. REINHARDT'S PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus rupestris reinhardi._

Range.--Labrador and Greenland; an eastern variety of the preceding
species. Its habits, nesting habits and eggs are just the same as those
of Rock Ptarmigan.


302b. NELSON'S PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus rupestris nelsoni._

Range.--Unalaska, of the Aleutian chain. An abundant species in its
restricted range, making its nest on the ground in the valleys. Eggs
like the others.


302c. TURNER'S PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus rupestris atkhensis._

Range.--Atka Island, of the Aleutian chain. Nests and eggs not
distinctive.


302d. TOWNSEND'S PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus rupestris townsendi._

Range.--Kyska Island of the Aleutian group.

On account of the constantly changing plumage of these birds, while
interesting, they are very unsatisfactory to study, and it is doubtful
if anyone can identify the different sub-species of the Rock Ptarmigan,
granting that there is any difference, which is doubtful.


302.1. EVERMANN'S PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus evermanni._

Range.--Attu Island, of the Aleutian group.

This is, in summer, the darkest of the Ptarmigans, having little or no
rufous and much blackish. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as
those of the Rock Ptarmigan.


303. WELCH'S PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus welchi._

Range.--Newfoundland.

This species, in summer, is more grayish than the Rock Ptarmigan, and is
very finely vermiculated with blackish. It is a perfectly distinct
species from the Allen Ptarmigan, which is the only other species found
on the island. They inhabit the higher ranges and hills in the interior
of the island, where they are quite abundant. They build their nests on
the ground under protection of overhanging bushes. The eggs are laid in
a hollow in the dead leaves, sometimes with a lining of grasses. The
eggs do not differ in size or appearance from those of the Rock
Ptarmigan. Data.--Newfoundland, June 3, 1901. Nest a slight hollow in
the moss, besides a fallen stump; lined with a few feathers. Collector,
E. H. Montgomery.

[Illustration 186: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 185

304. WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus leucurus leucurus._

Range.--Higher ranges of the Rocky Mountains, from New Mexico north to
Alaska.

Ptarmigan are remarkable birds in that they are in an almost continual
state of molting, nearly every month in the year showing them in
different stages of plumage, ranging from the snow-white winter dress to
the summer one in which reddish-brown prevails on Willow Ptarmigan and a
black and gray barred effect predominates on the other species. Notice
that they are feathered to the toes, in winter the feathers on the toes
growing dense and hair-like, not only protecting the toes from the cold
but making excellent snowshoes which enable them to walk with impunity
over the lightest snow.

Ptarmigan form the staple article of diet for northern foxes, and were
it not for the fact that their plumage changes to correspond to the
appearance of the ground at the various seasons they would fare hardly
indeed.

In spring the little red combs above the eyes of the males are swollen
and conspicuous. At this season they strut and perform curious antics,
such as all Grouse are noted for.

This species differs from any of the preceding in having at all seasons
of the year, a white tail; it is also somewhat smaller than the Rock
Ptarmigan. They nest abundantly near the summits of the ranges in
Colorado, making their nests among the rocks, and generally lining them
with a few grasses. During June, they lay from six to twelve eggs having
a creamy background, speckled and blotched with chestnut brown. Size
1.70 x 1.15.


304a. KENAI WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN. _Lagopus leucurus peninsularis._

Range.--Kenai Peninsular, Alaska. A similar but paler (in summer)
variety of the preceding. The nesting habits or eggs will not differ.


305. PRAIRIE CHICKEN. _Tympanuchus americanus americanus._

Range.--The prairies, chiefly west of the Mississippi; north to
Manitoba, east to Ohio, and west to Colorado.

This familiar game bird of the west is about 18 inches in length,
brownish above and grayish below, with bars of brownish black both above
and below. In the place of the ruffs of the Ruffled Grouse, are long
tufts of rounded or square ended feathers, and beneath these a peculiar
sac, bright orange in the

[Illustration 187: Olive Buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Pag 186

breeding season, and capable of being inflated to the size of a small
orange; this is done when the bird makes its familiar "booming" noise.
They are very good "table birds" and although they are still very
abundant in most of their range, so many are being killed for market,
that it has become necessary to make more stringent laws relating to the
killing and sale of Pinnated Grouse, as they are often called. They nest
anywhere on the prairie, in hollows on the ground under overhanging
bushes or tufts of grass. They lay from eight to fifteen eggs having a
buffy or olive buff ground color, sparingly and finely sprinkled with
brown; size 1.70 × 1.25.


305a. ATTWATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN. _Tympanuchus americanus attwateri._

Range.--Coast region of Louisiana and Texas.

This is a slightly smaller and darker variety of the Pinnated Grouse.
Its eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the more northerly
distributed bird.


306. HEATH HEN. _Tympanuchus cupido._

Range.--Island of Martha's Vineyard, Mass.

This species is similar to the preceding, but has the scapulars more
broadly tipped with buff, the axillars barred, and the pinnated feathers
on the neck pointed. It is slightly smaller than the western species. It
is found on the wooded portions of the island, where its breeding habits
are the same as those of the Ruffed Grouse. Mr. Brewster probably has
the only authentic set of the eggs of this species. They are of a
yellowish green color and are unspotted. Size 1.70 × 1.25. A number of
Prairie Hens liberated on the island several years ago are apparently
thriving well, and nests found there now would be fully as apt to belong
to this species.

[Illustration 188:(baby birds)]
[Illustration: Prairie Chicken. Heath Hen.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 187

307. LESSER PRAIRIE CHICKEN. _Tympanuchus pallidicinctus._

Range.--Prairies from southwestern Kansas through Indian Territory to
western Texas.

A smaller and paler species than the Prairie Chicken. Never as abundant
as the common Pinnated Grouse, this species appears to be becoming
scarcer each year. Its nests are concealed under overhanging brush or
placed under a large tuft of prairie grass, and are generally lined with
a few grasses or leaves. They lay from eight to twelve eggs of a buffy
color, much lighter than those of the Prairie Chicken, and unmarked.
Size 1.65 × 1.25.


308. SHARP-TAILED GROUSE. _Pedioecetes phasianellus phasianellus._

Range.--Interior of British America, from the United States boundary
northwest to the Yukon.

Sharp-tailed Grouse are similar in form to the Prairie Chicken, but are
somewhat smaller and very much lighter in color, being nearly white
below, with arrowhead markings on the breast and flanks. This species is
very abundant in Manitoba and especially so on the plains west of Hudson
Bay. Their nests are generally concealed under a thicket or a large tuft
of grass, and are lined with grasses and feathers. They lay from six to
fifteen eggs of a drab color, very minutely specked all over with brown.
Size 1.70 × 1.25.


308a. COLUMBIAN SHARP-TAILED GROUSE. _Pedioecetes phasianellus
columbianus._

Range.--Northwestern United States and British Columbia to central
Alaska. Both the nesting habits and eggs of this variety are the same as
the last, with which species, the birds gradually intergrade as their
ranges approach.


308b. PRAIRIE SHARP-TAILED GROUSE. _Pedioecetes phasianellus
campestris._

Range.--Plains of the United States from the Mississippi to the Rockies.
This sub-species shades directly into the two preceding where their
ranges meet, and only birds from the extreme parts of the range of each
show any marked differences. The nesting habits and eggs of all three
are not to be distinguished.

[Illustration 189: Pale buff.]
[Illustration: Buffy drab.]
[Illustration: Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 188

309. SAGE HEN. _Centrocercus urophasianus._

Range.--Sage plains of the Rocky Mountain region from British Columbia
to New Mexico, and from California to Dakota. This handsome bird is the
largest of the American Grouse, being about 30 inches long (the hen bird
is about six inches shorter). It may easily be recognized by its large
size, its peculiar graduated tail with extremely sharp pointed feathers,
and the black belly and throat. Their nests are hollows scratched out in
the sand, under the sage bushes, generally with no lining. The nesting
season is during April and May, they laying from six to twelve eggs of a
greenish drab color, spotted with brown. Size 2.15 × 1.50.


PHEASANTS. Family PHASIANIDÆ

* * * RING-NECKED PHEASANT. _Phasianus torquatus._

Several species of Pheasants have been introduced into the United
States, among them being the Ring-necked, English, and Green Pheasants.
The Ring-necked species seems to be the only one that has obtained a
really strong foothold, it being now very abundant in Oregon and
Washington, and adjacent states, and also found in abundance on many
game preserves in the east. The males of any of the species may at once
be distinguished from any of our birds by the long tail. Their nests are
hollows in the leaves under tufts of grass or bushes. They lay from
eight to fourteen eggs of a buff or greenish buff color, unmarked; size
1.50 × 1.30.

[Illustration 190: Sage Hen.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish drab.]
[Illustration: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 189

[Illustration 191: RING-NECKED PHEASANT.]

Page 190

TURKEYS. Family MELEAGRIDÆ

310. Wild Turkey. _Meleagris gallopavo silvestris._

Range.--Eastern United States from southern Middle States south to
central Florida and west to the Mississippi Valley and eastern Texas.
These magnificent birds, which once ranged over the whole of eastern
United States, are being yearly confined to a smaller range, chiefly
because of the destruction of their natural covers, and from persecution
by hunters. They are generally very wary birds and either escape by
running through the underbrush or by flying as soon as a human being
appears in sight. Their nests are made under tangled growths of
underbrush or briers. Their eggs, which are laid during April and May,
range from eight to sixteen in number. They are of a buff color
sprinkled and spotted with brownish. Size 2.55 × 1.90. Data.--Hammond,
La., April 17, 1897. Fifteen eggs. Nest hollow scraped in the ground
under a bush on the edge of a pine woods; lined with grasses and leaves.
Collector, E. A. McIlhenny.


310a. MERRIAM'S TURKEY. _Meleagris gallopavo merriami._

Range.--Southwestern United States from Colorado south through western
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to Mexico.

This variety is abundant throughout its range, its nesting habits and
eggs being practically indistinguishable from those of the eastern form.

[Illustration 192: Buff.]
[Illustration: Sage Hen. Wild Turkey.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 191

310b. FLORIDA TURKEY. _Meleagris gallopavo osceola._

Range.--Southern Florida.

A small variety of the Wild Turkey, about 42 inches long. They breed in
the tangled thickets in the higher portions of the southern half of
Florida, laying from ten to sixteen eggs of a brighter and deeper buff
color than the northern variety, and smaller; size 2.30 × 1.75. Their
nests are generally lined with grasses and occasionally with feathers.
The female sits very close when incubating and will not fly until almost
trod upon, trusting to her variegated markings to conceal her from
observation.


310c. RIO GRANDE TURKEY. _Meleagris gallopavo intermedia._

Range.--Lowlands of the southern parts of Texas and northern Mexico. A
sub-species which differs slightly in plumage and not at all in nesting
habits or eggs from the common Wild Turkey.


CURASSOWS AND GUANS. Family CRACIDÆ

311. CHACHALACA. _Ortalis vetula mccalli._

Range.--Eastern portions of Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley
in Texas.

A very peculiar grayish colored bird with a greenish gloss to the back,
and a long, broad tail, quite long legs, and with the face and sides of
the throat devoid of feathers. They are very abundant birds in some
localities, and very noisy during the breeding season, their notes
resembling a harsh trumpeting repetition of their name. They are ground
inhabiting birds, but nest in low bushes. Their nests are made of
sticks, twigs, leaves, or moss and are generally frail, flat structures
only a few feet above the ground. During April, they lay from three to
five buffy white eggs, the shell of which is very rough and hard. Size
2.25 × 1.55.

[Illustration 193: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Buffy white.]
[Illustration: Chachalaca.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 192

PIGEONS AND DOVES. Order XI. COLUMBÆ

Family COLUMBIDAE

Pigeons and doves are distributed throughout nearly every temperate and
tropical country on the globe, nearly five hundred species being known,
of which twelve occur within our limits. Their plumage is generally soft
and subdued colors, the head small, the wings strong and the flight
rapid.


312. BAND-TAILED PIGEON. _Columba fasciata fasciata._

Range.--The Rocky Mountains and westward to the Pacific, from British
Columbia south to Mexico.

This large species may be generally recognized by the white crescent on
the nape; it is about 15 inches in length. They nest abundantly on the
mountain ranges, sometimes in large flocks, and again, only a few pairs
together. Their nests are rude platforms of sticks and twigs either in
bushes or in large trees in heavily wooded districts. The two eggs which
are laid during May or June are pure white in color, and like those of
all the pigeons, equally rounded at each end. Size 1.55 × 1.10.


312a. VIOSCA'S PIGEON. _Columba fasciata vioscæ._

Range.--Southern Lower California. This is a paler variety of the
preceding species and is not noticeably different in its habits, nesting
or eggs.


313. RED-BILLED PIGEON. _Columba flavirostris._

Range.--Mexico and Central America, north to southern Texas, Arizona and
New Mexico.

This species, characterized by its red bill, purplish colored head, neck
and breast and absence of iridescent markings, is abundant in the valley
of the Lower Rio Grande, where they build their frail nests in thickets
and low bushes, and during May and June lay their white eggs. Size of
eggs, 1.55 × 1.05.


314. WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON. _Columba leucocephala._

Range.--Resident of the West Indies; in summer, found on the Florida
Keys. This species, which can be identified by its white crown, nests in
trees or mangroves on certain of the Florida Keys, laying its two white
eggs on its rude platform of sticks and twigs. Size of eggs 1.40 × 1.05.
Nests in April and May.


314.1. SCALED PIGEON. _Columba squamosa._

A West Indian species, a single specimen of which was taken at Key West,
Florida.

A dark colored species, with purplish head, neck and breast; named from
the scaly appearance of the iridescent feathers on the sides of the
neck.

[Illustration 194: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 193

315. PASSENGER PIGEON. _Ectopistes migratorius._

Range.--Formerly, North America east of the Rockies; casually seen in
the upper Mississippi Valley, now extinct.

A handsome species (see frontispiece) with ruddy underparts, grayish
upperparts and a long graduated tail. This species years ago found in
flocks of thousands or millions, is now practically exterminated,
chiefly by being hunted and trapped. A few pairs probably now nest in
the interior, from northern United States to Hudson Bay. Their nests are
very rude, frail platforms of twigs, on which two white eggs are laid,
they being longer and narrower, comparatively, than those of other
species. Size of eggs, 1.50 × 1.02. Data.--Southwest shore of Lake
Manitoba, June 1, 1891. Nest of twigs in an aspen tree.


316. Mourning Dove. _Zenaidura macroura carolinensis._

Range.--North America from New England, Manitoba and British Columbia,
southward.

Now that the Passenger Pigeon has disappeared, this species becomes the
only one found in the east, with the exception of the little Ground Dove
in the South Atlantic and Gulf States. While, sometimes, small flocks of
them nest in a community, they generally nest in companies of two or
three pairs. Their nests are generally at a low elevation, in trees,
bushes and often upon the ground. Their nests are made entirely of twigs
and rootlets, and eggs may be found from early in April until the latter
part of September, as they often raise two or three broods a season. The
two eggs are white. Size 1.15 × .80. Data.--Refugio Co., Texas, May 3,
1899. Two eggs laid on the ground in a slight cradle of twigs.
Collector, James J. Carroll.

[Illustration 195: White.]
[Illustration: Passenger Pigeon.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Mourning Dove.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 194

317. ZENAIDA DOVE. _Zenaida zenaida._

Range.--West Indies; in summer, on the Florida Keys, but not in great
numbers.

This species is similar in size to the Mourning Dove, but it has a short
and square tail, and the secondaries are tipped with white, and the
underparts more ruddy. They generally nest upon the ground, but
occasionally in small bushes, laying two white eggs a trifle larger than
those of the preceding species. Size 1.20 × .90. The nests are made of
grasses and twigs, on the ground under bushes.

[Illustration 196: NEST AND EGGS OF MOURNING DOVE. H. B. Stough.]
[Illustration.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 195

318. WHITE-FRONTED DOVE. _Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera._

Range.--Mexico and Central America north to southern Texas.

Slightly larger than the last, much paler below, with no black ear mark
as in the two preceding species, and with the forehead whitish. They
build their nests of sticks, grasses and weeds, and place them in
tangled vines and thickets a few feet from the ground. Their two eggs,
which are laid in May and June, have a creamy white or buffy color. Size
1.15 × .85. They cannot be called a common species within our borders.


319. WHITE-WINGED DOVE. _Melopelia asiatica._

Range.--Central America, Mexico and the southwestern border of the
United States.

This species is 12 inches in length, has a black patch on the ear
coverts, white tips to the greater and lesser coverts and some of the
secondaries, and broad white tips to the outer tail feathers, which are
black. This species is very abundant in some localities within our
borders. Their nests are very frail platforms of twigs placed in trees
or bushes or precariously suspended among tangled vines. Their two eggs
are white or creamy white, and measure 1.15 × .85.


320. GROUND DOVE. _Columbigallina passerina terrestris._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States to eastern Texas.

The Ground Doves are the smallest of the family, measuring but about 6.5
inches in length. Their nesting habits and eggs are exactly like those
of the next to be described. They are very abundant, especially along
the South Atlantic coast.


320a. MEXICAN GROUND DOVE. _Chæmepelia passerinus pallescens._

Range.--Border of the United States from Texas to southern California
and southward.

This paler sub-species builds a nest of twigs and weeds, placing the
flat structure either in low bushes or on the ground. Their two white
eggs are laid during April to July, they sometimes rearing two broods a
season. Size of eggs, .85 × .65.


320b. BERMUDA GROUND DOVE. _Chæmepelia passerina bermudiana._

Range.--Bermuda. Smaller and paler than the last; otherwise the same in
nesting habits and eggs.

[Illustration: White-fronted Dove. White-winged Dove.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 196

321. INCA DOVE. _Scardafella inca._

Range.--Mexican border of the United States south to Central America and
Lower California.

This handsome species is about the size of the last, but its tail is
longer and graduated, consequently its length is greater, it being about
8 inches long. It is not an uncommon species along our Mexican border,
but is not nearly as abundant as is the Ground Dove. It is often called
"Scaled Dove" because of the blackish edges of nearly all its feathers.
They build fairly compact nests of twigs, rootlets and weeds, these
being placed in bushes at a low elevation. They are two in number and
pure white. Size .85 × .65.


322. KEY WEST QUAIL DOVE. _Geotrygon chrysia._

Range.--West Indies, rarely found at Key West, although supposed to have
been common there in Audubon's time. This species is of about the size
of the Mourning Dove, has rusty colored upper parts, and is whitish
below, the white below the eye being separated from that of the throat
by a stripe of dusky from the base of the bill. They nest in trees,
laying two buffy white eggs. Size 1.15 × .9O.


322.1. RUDDY QUAIL DOVE. _Geotrygon montana._

Range.--Central America, north to eastern Mexico and the West Indies;
once taken at Key West. This species is similar to the last but has no
white streak under the eye, and the underparts are buffy. Eggs, creamy
white. Size 1.15 × .90.


323. BLUE-HEADED QUAIL DOVE. _Starnoenas cyanocephala._

Range.--Cuba, accidentally straying to Key West, but not in recent
years.

It is a beautiful species, with a bright blue crown, black throat and
stripe through the eye, separated by a white line under the eye. The
rest of the plumage is of a brownish or rusty color. Eggs buffy white.
Size 1.30 × 1.05.

[Illustration 198: Inca Dove. Ground Dove.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 197

[Illustration 199: CALIFORNIA VULTURE.]

Page 198

VULTURES, HAWKS and OWLS. Order XII. RAPTORES

AMERICAN VULTURES. Family CATHARTIDAE

Vultures are peculiarly formed birds of prey, having a bare head and
neck, a lengthened bill strongly hooked at the end for tearing flesh,
and long, strong, broad wings upon which they float in the air for hours
at a time without any visible flapping. They are scavengers and do great
service to mankind by devouring dead animal matter, that, if allowed to
remain, would soon taint the atmosphere. Their eyesight and sense of
smell is very acute. They do not, except in very unusual cases, capture
their prey, but feed upon that which has been killed or died of disease.


324. CALIFORNIA VULTURE. _Gymnogyps californianus._

Range.--Apparently now restricted to the coast ranges of California,
casually inland to Arizona, and formerly to British Columbia.

This large bird, which weighs about 20 pounds, measures about 4 feet in
length, and has an expanse of wings of about 10 feet. Its plumage is
blackish with lengthened lanceolate feathers about the neck, and with
the greater wing coverts broadly tipped with grayish white (in very old
birds). The birds are very rare in their restricted range and are
becoming scarcer each year, owing to their being shot and their nests
robbed. While the eggs are very rarely found and only secured at a great
risk, they are not as unobtainable as many suppose, as may be seen from
the fact that one private collection contains no less than six perfect
specimens of the eggs and as many mounted birds. These birds lay but a
single egg, placing it generally in caves or recesses in the face of
cliffs, hundreds of feet from the ground, and often in inaccessible
locations. The eggs are of an ashy gray color and measure about 4.45 ×
1.55.

[Illustration 200: Ashy gray.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 199

325. TURKEY VULTURE. _Cathartes aura septentrionalis._

Range.--America, from New Jersey on the Atlantic coast, Manitoba and
British Columbia, south to southern South America, wintering in the
southern half of the United States.

The plumage of this small Buzzard (length 30 inches) is blackish brown,
the naked head being red. It is very common in the southern and central
portions of its range, where it frequents the streets and door yards
picking up any refuse that is edible. It is a very graceful bird while
on the wing, and can readily be identified when at a distance from the
fact that, when in flight, the tips of the wings curve upward. The two
eggs which constitute a set are laid upon the ground between large
rocks, in hollow stumps, under logs, or between the branching trunks of
large trees, generally in large woods. They frequently nest in
communities and again, only a single pair may be found in the woods. Its
nesting season ranges from March until June in the different localities.
The eggs are creamy or bluish white, spotted and blotched with shades of
brown, and with fainter markings of lavender. Size 2.70 × 1.85.


326. BLACK VULTURE. _Catharista uruba._

Range.--More southerly than the preceding; north regularly to North
Carolina and southern Illinois, and west to the Rocky Mountains.

This species is about the same size, or slightly smaller than the Turkey
Vulture; its plumage is entirely black as is also the naked head, and
bill. In the South Atlantic and Gulf States, the present species is even
more abundant than the preceding, and might even be said to be partially
domesticated. The nesting habits are the same as those of the Turkey
Buzzard but their eggs average longer and the ground color is pale
greenish or bluish white rather than creamy. They are spotted and
blotched the same. Size 3.00 × 2.00.

[Illustration 201: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: 324--325.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 200

[Illustration 202: Bluish white.
EGG OF BLACK VULTURE.]

[Illustration: NEST AND EGGS OF TURKEY VULTURE.
N. W. Swayne.]

Page 201

KITES, HAWKS AND EAGLES. Family BUTEONIDÆ

The members of this family are chiefly diurnal; they get their living by
preying upon smaller animals or birds. They have strong sharply hooked
bills, powerful legs and feet armed with strong, curved and sharply
pointed talons.


327. SWALLOW-TAILED KITE. _Elanoides forficatus._

Range.--Southern United States; casually north to New York and Manitoba.

This most beautiful Kite can never be mistaken for any other; its whole
head, neck and underparts are snowy white, while the back, wings and
tail are glossy blue black, the wings being very long and the tail long
and deeply forked. The extreme length of the bird is 24 inches. As a
rule nests of this bird are placed high up in the tallest trees; they
are made of sticks, weeds and moss. Two eggs, or rarely three,
constitute a full set. They are white or bluish white, spotted with
brown. The one figured is an unusually handsome marked specimen in the
collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall. Average size of eggs, 1.80 × 1.50.
Data.--Yegna Creek bottoms, Texas, April 27, 1891. Two eggs. Nest of
sticks and green moss, the same moss also being used for lining; in an
elm tree 80 feet up.


328. White-tailed Kite. _Elanus leucurus._

Range.--Southern United States, north to the Carolinas, Illinois and
middle California.

This species can be recognized by its light bluish gray mantle, black
shoulders and white tail. It is a very active species, feeding upon
insects and reptiles, and small birds and mammals. The nests of these
species are placed in trees at quite an elevation from the ground, being
made of sticks, weeds and leaves. The eggs are creamy white, profusely
blotched and spotted with reddish brown and umber. Size 1.65 × 1.25.
Data.--Los Angeles, Cal., April 9, 1896. Nest in fork of willows about
25 feet up. Made of willow twigs and weed stalks, lined with pieces of
bark.

[Illustration 203: Swallow-tailed Kite.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 202

329. MISSISSIPPI KITE. _Ictinia mississippiensis._

Range.--Southeastern United States, north to South Carolina and
Illinois.

A small species (length 14 inches) with the head, neck, and underparts
gray, and the back, wings and tail blackish, the tips of the secondaries
being grayish. They live almost exclusively upon insects, such as
grasshoppers, and small reptiles. They build their nests of sticks and
weeds well up in tall trees. The eggs are two or three in number and
normally bluish white, unmarked, but occasionally with very faint spots
of pale brown. Size 1.65 × 1.25. Data.--Giddings, Texas, May 31, 1887.
Nest of sticks and weeds, with green pecan leaves in the lining; placed
in the top of a live oak sapling, 20 feet from the ground. Collector, J.
A. Singley.


330. EVERGLADE KITE. _Rostrhamus sociabilis._

Range.--South America, north to southern Florida and Mexico.

This peculiar species has a long, slender, curved bill, blackish
plumage, with white rump and bases of outer tail feather. They feed
largely upon snails, both land and water varieties. They nest at a low
elevation in bushes or under brush, often over the water. The nests are
of sticks, weeds and leaves. The three eggs are light greenish white,
spotted and splashed with chestnut brown. Size, 1.70 × 1.30. Nest in a
custard apple tree, 6 feet from the ground, built of twigs, lined with
small vine stems and willow leaves.

[Illustration 204: White-tailed Kite. Mississippi Kite.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish white.]
[Illustration: Everglade Kite.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 203

[Illustration 205: NEST AND EGGS OF MARSH HAWK.]

Page 204

331. MARSH HAWK. _Circus hudsonius._

Range.--Whole of North America, very abundant in all sections.

The adult of this species is very light colored, and young birds of the
first two years have a reddish brown coloration; in both plumages the
species is easily identified by the white patch on the rump. They are,
almost exclusively frequenters of fields and marshes, where they can
most often be seen, towards dusk, swooping in broad curves near the
ground, watching for field mice, which form the larger portion of their
diet. Their nests are made in swampy ground, often in the middle of a
large marsh, being placed on the ground in the centre of a hummock or
clump of grass; it is generally well lined with grasses and often
rushes. They lay from four to seven pale bluish white eggs, generally
unmarked; size 1.80 × 1.40.


332. SHARP-SHINNED HAWK. _Accipiter velox._

Range.--Whole of North America, wintering in the United States and
southward; breeds throughout its range, but most abundantly in northern
United States and northward. This is one of the smallest of the hawks
and in the adult plumage is a beautiful species, being barred below with
light brown, and having a bluish slate back. It is a very spirited and
daring bird and is one of the most destructive to small birds and young
chickens. Its nest is a rude and sometimes very frail platform of twigs
and leaves placed against the trunk of the tree at any height, but
averaging, perhaps, fifteen feet. The eggs are bluish white, beautifully
blotched and spotted with shades of brown.

[Illustration 206: (Adult and young). Marsh Hawk.]
[Illustration: Pale bluish white.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Sharp-shinned Hawk.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 205

333. COOPER'S HAWK. _Accipiter cooperi._

Range.--Whole of temperate North America, breeding throughout its range.

Although larger (length 17 inches), the plumage of this species is
almost exactly the same as that of the preceding. Like the last, this is
also a destructive species. They construct their nests in the crotches
of trees, generally at quite a height from the ground; the nest is made
of sticks and twigs, and often lined with pieces of bark; occasionally
an old Hawk's or Crow's nest is used by the birds. Their eggs are bluish
white, unmarked or faintly spotted with pale brown.


334. GOSHAWK. _Astur atricapillus atricapillus._

Range.--Northern North America, south in winter to the northern parts of
the United States.

This species is one of the largest, strongest and most audacious of
American Hawks, frequently carrying off Grouse and poultry, the latter
often in the presence of the owner. It is a handsome species in the
adult plumage, with bluish gray upper parts, and light under parts,
finely vermiculated with grayish and black shafts to the feathers.
Length 23 inches. Their nests are placed well up in the tallest trees,
usually in dense woods, the nests being of sticks lined with weeds and
bark. The three or four eggs are bluish white, generally unmarked, but
occasionally with faint spots of brown. Size 2.30 x 1.70.

[Illustration 207: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Cooper's Hawk.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: American Goshawk.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 206

[Illustration 208: Geo. L. Fordyce.
NEST AND EGGS OF COOPER'S HAWK.]

Page 207

334a. WESTERN GOSHAWK. _Astur atricapillus striatulus._

Range.--Western North America from Alaska to California, breeding
chiefly north of the United States except in some of the higher ranges
of the Pacific coast. This sub-species is darker, both above and below,
than the American Goshawk. Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely the
same. The eggs are quite variable in size.


335. HARRIS'S HAWK. _Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi._

Range.--Mexico and Central America, north to the Mexican border of the
United States; very abundant in southern Texas.

This is a peculiar blackish species, with white rump, and chestnut
shoulders and thighs. It is commonly met with in company with Caracaras,
Turkey Buzzards and Black Vultures, feeding upon carrion. They also feed
to an extent on small mammals and birds. Their nests are made of sticks,
twigs and weeds, and placed in bushes or low trees. The three or four
eggs are laid in April or May. They are dull white in color and
generally unmarked, although often showing traces of pale brown spots.
They are quite variable in size, averaging 2.10 x 1.65.

[Illustration 209: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Harris's Hawk.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 208

337. RED-TAILED HAWK. _Buteo borealis borealis_.

This is one of the handsomest of the larger hawks, and is the best known
in the east, where it is commonly, but wrongly, designated as "hen
hawk", a name, however, which is indiscriminately applied to any bird
that has talons and a hooked beak. The adult of this species is
unmistakable because of its reddish brown tail; young birds are very
frequently confounded with other species. Their food consists chiefly of
small rodents, snakes and lizards, and only occasionally are poultry or
birds taken. They nest in the tallest trees in large patches of woods,
the nests being made of sticks, weeds, leaves and trash. The eggs number
from two to four, and are white, sometimes heavily, and sometimes
sparingly, blotched and spotted with various shades of brown. Size 2.35
x 1.80.


337a. KRIDER'S HAWK. _Buteo borealis krideri_.

Range.--Plains of the United States, north to Manitoba.

This sub-species is described as lighter on the underparts, which are
almost immaculate. Its nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of
the preceding.


337b. WESTERN RED-TAIL. _Buteo borealis calurus_.

Range.--Western North America, chiefly west of the Rocky Mountains.

This sub-species varies from the plumage of the eastern Red-tail, to a
nearly uniform sooty above and below, with the dark red tail crossed by
several bands; it is a generally darker variety than the Red-tail. Its
nesting habits are the same and the eggs show the great variations in
markings that are common to the eastern bird.

[Illustration 210: Red-tailed Hawk.]
[Illustration: Pale bluish white.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 209

337d. HARLAN'S HAWK. _Buteo borealis harlani._

Range.--Gulf States and southward, north to Kansas.

This dark sub-species is generally nearly uniform blackish, but
sometimes is lighter or even white below. Its tail is rusty, mottled
with blackish and white. Its nesting habits are the same and the eggs
are not distinguishable from those of the other Red-tails.


339. RED-SHOULDERED HAWK. _Buteo lineatus lineatus._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains and from the southern parts of
the British Provinces southward; abundant and breeding throughout its
range.

This species is smaller than the Red-tailed and is not as powerfully
built; length 19 inches. The adults are handsomely barred beneath with
reddish brown, giving the entire underparts a ruddy color. Like the last
species, they rarely feed upon poultry, confining their diet chiefly to
mice, rats, frogs, reptiles, etc. These Hawks nest in the larger growths
of timber, usually building their nests high above the ground. The nest
is of sticks, and lined with leaves, weeds and pieces of bark. They lay
three or four eggs with a white ground color, variously blotched and
spotted, either sparingly or heavily, with different shades of brown.
Size 2.15 × 1.75. Data.--Kalamazoo, Michigan, April 25, 1898. Nest about
40 feet up in an oak tree; made of sticks and twigs and lined with bark.
Four eggs. Collector, J. C. Holmes.


339a. Florida Red-shouldered Hawk. _Buteo lineatus alleni._

Range.--Florida and the Gulf coast; north to South Carolina. The nesting
habits of this paler sub-species are precisely like those of the last
species.

[Illustration 211: Red-shouldered Hawk.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 210

[Illustration 212: Geo. L. Fordyce.
NEST AND EGGS OF RED-SHOULDERED HAWK.]

Page 211

339b. RED-BELLIED HAWK. _Buteo lineatus elegans._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia south to Lower California,
chiefly west of the Rockies.

This variety is similar to, but darker than lineatus, and the underparts
are a uniform reddish brown, without barring. Their nests are like those
of the Red-shouldered variety, and almost always placed high up in the
largest trees. The eggs are very similar, but average lighter in
markings. Size 2.15 × 1.70. Data.--Diego, Cal., April 13, 1897. Nest in
a sycamore 20 feet from ground, made of sticks, leaves and feathers.


340. Zone-tailed Hawk. _Buteo abbreviatus._

Range.--Mexico and Central America, north to the Mexican border of the
United States.

This species, which is 19 inches long, is wholly black with the
exception of the tail, which is banded. Their nests are built in heavy
woods, and preferably in trees along the bank of a stream. The nest is
of the usual Hawk construction and the two to four eggs are white,
faintly marked with pale chestnut. Data.--Marathon, Texas. Nest of
sticks, lined with weeds and rabbit fur; on a horizontal branch of a
cotton-wood tree, 30 feet up.

[Illustration 213: White.]
[Illustration: 339b--340.]
[Illustration: White,]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 212

341. SENNETT'S WHITE-TAILED HAWK. _Buteo albicaudatus sennetti._

Range.--Mexican border of the United States and southward.

A large, handsome Hawk which may be identified by its dark upper parts
and white underparts and tail, the flanks and tail being lightly barred
with grayish; the shoulders are chestnut. It is especially abundant in
the southern parts of Texas, where it builds its nests of sticks and
weeds, lined with grasses, leaves and moss. They nest in March and
April, laying two, or rarely three, eggs which are a dull white, and
generally immaculate, but occasionally faintly or sparingly spotted with
brown. Size of eggs 2.25 × 1.80.


342. SWAINSON'S HAWK. _Buteo swainsoni._

Range.--Central and western North America, from the Mississippi Valley
and Hudson Bay, to the Pacific coast, breeding throughout its range.

In the greater part of its range, this is the most abundant of the Hawk
family. Its plumage is extremely variable, showing all the
intergradations from a uniform sooty blackish to the typical adult
plumage of a grayish above, and a white below, with a large breast patch
of rich chestnut. Their nesting habits are as variable as their plumage.
In some localities, they nest exclusively in trees, in others
indifferently upon the ground or rocky ledges. The nest is the usual
Hawk structure of sticks; the eggs are white, variously splashed and
spotted with reddish brown and umber. Size 2.20 × 1.70. Data.--Stark
Co., N. D., May 21, 1897. Nest of sticks, lined with weeds in an ash
tree. Collector, Roy Dodd.

[Illustration 214: Sennett's White-tailed Hawk.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Swainson's Hawk.]
[Illustration: left hand margin,]

Page 213

343. BROAD-WINGED HAWK. _Buteo platypterus._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains, and from the British
Provinces southward.

A medium sized species, about 16 inches in length, and with a short tail
and broad rounded wings; adults have the underparts handsomely barred
with brown. Their nests are usually built in large trees, but generally
placed against the trunk in the crotch of some of the lower branches. It
is made of sticks and almost invariably lined with bark. The two to four
eggs are of a grayish white color, marked with chestnut, brown and stone
gray; size 1.90 × 1.55. Data.--Worcester, Mass., May 16, 1895. Nest
about 20 feet up in a large chestnut tree. The birds continually circled
overhead, their weird cries sounding like the creaking of branches.
Collector, A. J. White.


344. SHORT-TAILED HAWK. _Buteo brachyurus._

Range.--A tropical species, which occurs north to the Mexican border and
regularly to southern Florida, where it breeds in the large cypress
swamps. Its eggs are pale greenish white, sparingly spotted with brown,
chiefly at the large end. Size 2.15 × 1.60.


345. MEXICAN BLACK HAWK. _Urubitinga anthracina._

Range.--Mexican border of the United States and southward.

A coal black species about 22 inches in length, distinguished by the
white tip, and broad white band across the tail about midway. This is
one of the least abundant of the Mexican species that cross the border.
They are shy birds and build their nests in the tallest trees in remote
woods. Their two or three eggs are grayish white, faintly spotted with
pale brown; size 2.25 × 1.80. Data.--Los Angeles County, Cal., April 6,
1889. Nest of sticks, lined with bark and leaves; 45 feet up in a
sycamore tree. Collector, R. B. Chapman.

[Illustration 215: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: American Rough-legged Hawk.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 214

346. MEXICAN GOSHAWK. _Asturina plagiata._

Range.--Mexico, north to the border of the United States.

A beautiful, medium sized Hawk (17 inches long), slaty gray above, white
below, numerously barred with grayish; tail black, crossed by several
white bars. These are graceful and active birds, feeding largely upon
small rodents, and occasionally small birds. They nest in the top of
tall trees, laying two or three greenish white, unmarked eggs; size 1.95
x 1.60. Data.--Santa Cruz River, Arizona, June 3, 1902. Nest in the fork
of a mesquite tree about forty feet from the ground; made of large
sticks, lined with smaller ones and leaves. Three eggs. Collector, O. W.
Howard.


347a. ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK. _Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding chiefly north of our borders
and wintering south to the middle portions of the United States.

The Rough-legs are large, heavily built birds of prey, specially
characterized by the completely feathered legs. The present species is
22 inches long, and in the normal plumage has a whitish head, neck,
breast and tail, the former being streaked and the latter barred with
blackish; the remainder of the upper and underparts are blackish brown.
Their nests are usually placed in trees, and less often on the ground
than those of the next species. These Rough-legs are very irregularly
distributed, and are nowhere as common as the next. While the greater
number nest north of the United States, it is very probable that a great
many nest on the higher ranges within our borders. The species is often
taken in summer, even in Massachusetts. They lay three eggs of a bluish
white color, boldly splashed with dark brown; size 2.25 x 1.75.

[Illustration 216: White.]
[Illustration: Rough-legged Hawk.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 215

348. FERRUGINOUS ROUGH-LEG. _Archibuteo ferrugineus._

Range.--North America, west of the Mississippi, breeding from the
latitude of Colorado north to the Saskatchewan region.

This species nests very abundantly along our northern states,
particularly in Dakota. It is a larger bird than the preceding and can
easily be told by its reddish coloration, particularly on the shoulders
and tibia. While in some localities they nest only in trees, the greater
number appear to build their nests on the ground or rocky ledges, making
a large heap of sticks, weeds and grass. Their three or four eggs are
white, beautifully spotted and blotched, in endless variety, with
various shades of brown. Size 2.60 x 2.00. Data.--Stark Co., N. D.,
April 29, 1900. Nest built of coarse sticks on a clay butte.


349. GOLDEN EAGLE. _Aquila chrysætos._

Range.--North America, west of the Mississippi; most abundant in the
Rockies and along the Pacific coast ranges.

This magnificent bird, which is even more powerful than the Bald Eagle,
measures about 34 inches long, and spreads about 7 feet. Its plumage is
a rich brownish black, very old birds being golden brown on the nape.
They can be distinguished in all plumages from the Bald Eagle by the
completely feathered tarsus. They build their nests in the tops of the
tallest trees in the wild, mountainous country of the west, and more
rarely upon ledges of the cliffs. The nests are made of large sticks,
lined with smaller ones and leaves and weeds. Their eggs are the most
handsome of the Raptores, being white in color, and blotched, splashed,
spotted and specked with light brown and clouded with gray or lilac, of
course varying endlessly in pattern and intensity. Size 2.90 x 2.50.
Data.--Monterey Co., Cal., May 3, 1888. Three eggs. Nest of sticks,
lined with pine needles, in a pine tree, 50 feet up.

[Illustration 217: White.]
[Illustration: Rough-legged Hawk.]
[Illustration: Golden Eagle.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 216

[Illustration 218: BALD EAGLE.]

Page 217

351. GRAY SEA EAGLE. _Haliæetus albicilla._

A common species on the sea coasts of Europe; straggling to southern
Greenland, where it nests upon the rocky cliffs.


352. BALD EAGLE. _Haliæetus leucocephalus leucocephalus._

Range.--Whole of North America; most abundant on the Atlantic coast;
breeds throughout its range. This large white-headed and white-tailed
species is abundant in sufficiently wild localities along the Atlantic
coast. It only attains the white head and tail when three years old, the
first two years, being blackish. It is about 34 inches in length and
expands about seven feet, never over eight feet, and only birds of the
second year (when they are larger than the adults) ever approach this
expanse. Their food consists of fish (which they sometimes capture
themselves, but more often take from the Osprey), carrion, and Ducks,
which they catch in flight. Their nests are massive structures of
sticks, in the tops of tall trees. They very rarely lay more than two
eggs, which are white. Size 2.75 x 2.10. Data.--Mt. Pleasant, S. C.,
nest in top of a pine, 105 feet from the ground; made of large sticks
and lined with Spanish moss.


352a. NORTHERN BALD EAGLE.--_Haliæetus leucocephalus alascanus._

Range.--Alaska. This sub-species averages slightly larger than the Bald
Eagle, but never exceeds the largest dimensions of that species. Its
nesting habits and eggs are the same, except that it more often builds
its nests on rocky cliffs than does the Bald Eagle. The eggs are laid in
February and March.

[Illustration 219: White.]
[Illustration: Bald Eagle.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 218

FALCONS AND CARACARAS

Family FALCONDIDAE

353. WHITE GYRFALCON. _Falco islandus._

Range.--Arctic regions; south in winter casually to northern United
States, chiefly on the coast.

Gyrfalcons are large, strong, active and fearless birds, about 23 inches
in length. Their food consists chiefly of hares, Ducks and Waders which
abound in the far north. The present species is snowy white, more or
less barred with blackish brown on the back and wings and with a few
marks on the breast. They nest upon the ledges of high cliffs, laying
three or four eggs of a buffy color, blotched and finely specked with
reddish brown, this color often concealing the ground color. Size of
eggs, 2.30 × 1.80. In America, they nest in Greenland and the Arctic
regions.


354. GRAY GYRFALCON. _Falco rusticolus rusticolus._

Range.--Arctic regions; south in winter to northern United States.

This species is of the size of the last but the plumage is largely gray,
barred with dusky. They nest more abundantly in southern Greenland than
do the preceding species. The nesting habits and eggs do not differ.


354a. Gyrfalcon. _Falco rusticolus gyrfalco._

Range.--Arctic regions; south casually to Long Island.

This sub-species is hardly to be distinguished from the preceding; its
nesting habits and eggs are identical, the nests being of sticks, lined
with weeds and feathers and placed upon the most inaccessible ledges of
cliffs.

[Illustration 220: Gray Gyrfalcon. White Gyrfalcon.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 219

354b. BLACK GYRFALCON. _Falco rusticolus obsoletus._

Range.--Labrador; south casually, in winter, to Long Island.

A slightly darker variety. Eggs indistinguishable. Data.--Ungava coast,
Labrador, May 25, 1900. Nest a heap of seaweed and feathers on sea
cliff, containing three eggs.


355. PRAIRIE FALCON. _Falcon mexicanus._

Range.--United States west of the Mississippi, and from Dakota and
Washington southward to Mexico.

This species abounds in suitable localities, generally placing its nests
upon rocky ledges and cliffs, and sometimes trees, generally upon the
banks of some stream. The nests are masses of sticks, lined with weeds
and grasses. The three or four eggs have a reddish buff ground color,
and are thickly sprinkled and blotched with reddish buff brown and
chestnut; size 2.05 × 1.60.

356a. Duck Hawk. _Falco peregrinus anatum._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding locally, chiefly in mountainous
regions, throughout its range.

This beautiful species, characterized by its black moustache, is the
most graceful, fearless, and swiftest of the Falcons, striking down
birds of several times its own weight, such as some of the larger Ducks.
It breeds quite abundantly on the Pacific coast and in certain
localities in the Dakotas, laying its eggs on the rocky ledges. Their
eggs are similar to those of the Prairie Falcon, but are darker and
brighter, in fact they are the darkest, brightest marked, and most
beautiful of Falcon eggs; size 2.05 × 1.55.

[Illustration 221: Reddish buff.]
[Illustration: Prairie Falcon.]
[Illustration: Duck Hawk.]
[Illustration: Buff or reddish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 220

356b. PEALE'S FALCON. _Falco peregrinus pealei._

Range.--Pacific coast from northern United States north to Alaska.

A darker form of the preceding, such as occurs in this section with a
great many other birds. The nesting habits and the eggs are precisely
like those of the Duck Hawk.


357. Pigeon Hawk. _Falco columbarius columbarius._

Range.--North America, breeding chiefly north of the United States
except in some of the higher ranges along our northern border. A small
Falcon, about 11 inches long, often confused with the Sharp-shinned
Hawk, but much darker and a more stoutly built bird. It is a daring
species, often attacking birds larger than itself; it also feeds on
mice, grasshoppers, squirrels, etc. They generally build a nest of
sticks in trees, deep in the woods; less often in natural cavities of
dead trees; and sometimes on rocky ledges. Their four or five eggs have
a brownish buff ground color, heavily blotched with brown and chestnut.
Size 1.50 × 1.22.


357a. BLACK PIGEON HAWK. _Falco columbarius suckleyi._

Range.--Pacific coast from northern United States north to Alaska.

Very similar in appearance to the preceding, but much darker, both above
and below. Its nesting habits and eggs will not differ in any manner
from those of the Pigeon Hawk.


357b. RICHARDSON'S PIGEON HAWK. _Falco columbarius richardsoni._

Range.--Interior of North America from the Mississippi to the Rockies
and from Mexico to the Saskatchewan.

This species is similar to the Pigeon Hawk, but is paler both above and
below, and the tail bars are more numerous and white. Their nesting
habits are the same as those of the preceding species, they either
building in hollow trees, or making a rude nest of sticks and twigs in
the tops of trees. The eggs have a creamy ground and are sprinkled with
dots and blotches of various shades of brown. Size 1.60 × 1.23. The egg
figured is one of a beautiful set of four in the collection of Mr. C. W.
Crandall.

[Illustration 222: Brownish buff.]
[Illustration: Pigeon Hawk.]
[Illustration: Richardson's Pigeon Hawk.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 221

358.1 MERLIN. _Falco æsalon._

This common European species was once accidentally taken in southern
Greenland. Their eggs are generally laid on the ground on cliffs or
banks.


359. APLOMADO FALCON. _Falco fusco-cærulescens._

Range.--Tropical America north to Mexican boundary of the United States.

This handsome and strikingly marked Falcon is found in limited numbers
within the United States, but south is common and widely distributed.
They nest at a low elevation, in bushes or small trees, making their
rude nests of twigs, lined with a few grasses. They lay three, and
sometimes four, eggs which have a creamy white ground color, finely
dotted with cinnamon, and with heavy blotches of brown. Size 1.75 ×
1.30.


359.1. KESTREL. _Falco tinnunculus._

Range.--Whole of Europe; accidental on the coast of Massachusetts.

This species is very similar in size and coloration to the American
Sparrow Hawk. They are much more abundant than the Sparrow Hawk is in
this country and frequently nest about houses, in hollow trees, on
rafters of barns, or on ledges and embankments. Their eggs are of a
reddish buff color, speckled and blotched with reddish brown, they being
much darker than those of the American Sparrow Hawk.


360a. Desert Sparrow Hawk. _Falco sparverius phalæna._

Range.--Western United States from British Columbia south to Mexico.

This variety is slightly larger and paler than the eastern form. There
are no differences in the identification of the two varieties.

[Illustration 223: Buff.]
[Illustration: Aplomado Falcon. Desert Sparrow Hawk.]
[Illustration: Reddish buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 222

360. SPARROW HAWK. _Falco sparverius._

Range.--North America, east of the Rocky Mountains and north to Hudson
Bay; winters from the middle portions of the United States, southward.

This beautiful little Falcon is the smallest of the American Hawks,
being only 10 inches in length. They are very abundant in the east,
nesting anywhere in cavities in trees, either in woods or open fields.
The eggs are generally deposited upon the bottom of the cavity with no
lining; they are creamy or yellowish buff in color, sprinkled, spotted
or blotched in endless variety, with reddish brown. Size 1.35 × 1.10.
These birds are very noisy, especially when the young are learning to
fly, uttering a loud, tinkling, "killy, killy, killy." They have a very
amiable disposition, and frequently nest harmoniously in the same tree
with other birds, such as Flickers and Robins.


360b. ST. LUCAS SPARROW HAWK. _Falco sparverius peninsularis._

Range.--Lower California.

This variety is smaller than the eastern, and even paler than the
western form. Eggs identical with eastern specimens.


361. CUBAN SPARROW HAWK. _Falco sparveroides._

A darker colored West Indian form, whose habits and nesting do not vary
from those of the common Sparrow Hawk; casually taken in Florida.

[Illustration 224: Buffy.]
[Illustration: Sparrow Hawk.]
[Illustration: Egg of Golden Eagle.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 223

[Illustration 225: SPARROW HAWK.]

Page 224

362. Audubon Caracara. _Polyborus cheriway._

Range.--Southern border of the United States south to South America.

A strikingly marked blackish and whitish species, much barred on the
fore back and the breast, with the head and throat largely white, except
for a black and somewhat crested crown. They are numerous in southern
Texas and also in the interior of southern Florida, where they are
resident. They build bulky, but shabby nests of sticks, weeds and grass,
piled into a promiscuous heap, generally located in bushes or low trees.
Their two or three eggs have a ground color varying from buff to bright
cinnamon, and are dotted and blotched with all shades of brown and
umber. On the whole, these eggs show a greater diversity of markings and
ground color than those of any other species. Size 2.50 × 1.80.


363. GUADALUPE CARACARA. _Polyborus lutosus._

Range.--Guadalupe Island and others off Lower California.

This species is somewhat like the preceding, but the plumage is duller,
and the coloration more uniform. Their nesting habits and eggs do not
vary essentially from those of Audubon Caracara. Mr. John Lewis Childs
has a set of two eggs taken June 8, 1896, on Santa Anita Island, by
Coolidge and Miller. The nest was made of sticks and situated in a giant
cactus. The eggs are slightly brighter and more clearly marked than any
of cheriway that I have ever seen.

[Illustration 226: Audubon's Caracara.]
[Illustration: Cinnamon.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 225

OSPREY. Family Pandionidae

364. OSPREY. _Pandion haliætus carolinensis._

Range.--Whole of temperate America from the Arctic circle south to the
equator, most abundant along the sea coasts.

Real old birds have the head whiter, and less white edging to the back
feathers, than do the young. Feet very strong, and very hard and rough,
perfectly adapted to grasping slippery fish; outer toe can be used
equally as well, either in front or behind, when perching or grasping
their prey.

Probably this great fisherman is as well known from one end of the
country to the other as any of our wild birds. He is protected by law in
a great many states and by custom in nearly all localities where they
breed. It is one of the pleasantest sights along the coast to watch a
number of these great birds as they soar at an elevation above the
water, watching for fish to come near the surface, when, with folded
wings, the bird speeds downward and plunges into the water, rarely
missing his prey. In many localities they are very tame and nest in the
vicinity of houses, sometimes even in the yard. Their nests are
platforms of sticks, which, being used year after year and constantly
added to, become of enormous proportions. They lay two or three eggs of
a bright creamy color, handsomely blotched with bright chestnut brown.
They show a great diversity of size as well as markings, but average
2.40 × 1.80.

[Illustration 227: American Osprey.]
[Illustration.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 226

[Illustration 228: C. A. Reed.
OSPREY LEAVING NEST.]

Page 227

BARN OWLS. Family Alucondidae

365. BARN OWL. _Aluco pratincola._

Range.--Chiefly in the southern parts of the United States; north
casually to Massachusetts, Minnesota and Washington.

This is one of the lightest colored of the Owls; it has a long,
peculiarly hooded face, from which it gets the name of "Monkey-faced
Owl." Its plumage is yellowish buff, specked and barred lightly with
blackish.

It nests usually in hollow cavities of trees, but appears to have no
objections to barns, holes in banks, or anywhere it can find a concealed
crevice in which to deposit its four to six pure white eggs; size 1.70 ×
1.30.


HORNED OWL. Family Strigidae

366. LONG-EARED OWL. _Asio wilsonianus._

Range.--North America, breeding from the southern parts of British
America, southward.

This species is 15 inches in length; it can easily be separated from any
other species by its long ear tufts, brownish face, and barred
underparts. Their food consists almost entirely of small rodents, which
they catch at night. Most of their nests are found in trees, they
generally using old Crow's or Hawk's nests. They also, in some
localities, nest in hollow trees, or in crevices among rocks. They lay
from four to seven pure white eggs; size 1.55 × 1.35.

[Illustration 229: White.]
[Illustration: Barn Owl.]
[Illustration: Long-eared Owl.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 228

[Illustration 230: L. S. Horton.
LONG-EARED OWL ON NEST.]

Page 229

367. SHORT-EARED OWL. _Asio flammeus._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding from the middle portions of the
United States northward, and wintering in the United States.

This species is of the size of the last, but is paler, has very short
ear tufts, and is streaked beneath. Its habits are the same except that
it frequently hunts, over the marshes and meadows, on dark days and
towards dusk.

Their four to seven pure white eggs are laid upon the ground in marshy
places, sometimes upon a lining of sticks and weeds, and are generally
under a bush, or close to an old log. Size of eggs 1.55 × 1.25.


368. BARRED OWL. _Strix varia varia._

Range.--Eastern North America, from the British Provinces, southward;
west to the Rockies.

This species is the most common of the large owls, and can be
distinguished by its mottled and barred gray and white plumage, and lack
of ear tufts; length 20 inches. It is the bird commonly meant by the
term "hoot owl", and being strictly nocturnal, is rarely seen flying in
the day time, unless disturbed from its roosting place in the deep
woods. Its food consists chiefly of rats, mice and frogs, and sometimes,
but not often, poultry. It nests in the heart of large woods, generally
in hollows of large trees, and less often in deserted Crow's nests. They
lay from two to four pure white eggs, averaging considerably smaller
than those of the Great Horned Owl; size 1.95 × 1.65.


368a. FLORIDA BARRED OWL. _Strix varia alleni._

Range.--Florida and the Gulf States; north to South Carolina.

[Illustration 231: Short-eared Owl.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Barred Owl.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 230

[Illustration 232: Chas. W. Long.
BARRED OWL.]

Page 231

368b. TEXAS BARRED OWL. _Strix varia albogilva._

Range.--Southern Texas.

A very similar but slightly paler variety than the Barred Owl, and with
the toes bare, as in _alleni._ Eggs indistinguishable.


369. SPOTTED OWL. _Strix occidentalis occidentalis._

Range.--Western United States, from southern Oregon and Colorado,
southward.

Similar to the Barred Owl, but spotted, instead of barred, on the back
of head and neck, and much more extensively barred on the under parts.
The nesting habits do not appear to differ in any respect from those of
the eastern Barred Owl, and their eggs, which are from two to four in
number, can not be distinguished from those of the latter species; size
2.05 × 1.80.


369a. NORTHERN SPOTTED Owl. _Strix occidentalis caurina._

Range.--Northwestern United States and British Columbia.

Similar to the preceding, but darker, both above and below; nesting the
same, in hollow trees or in old Hawk's or Crow's nests. Eggs not
distinguishable.


370. Great Gray Owl. _Scotiaptex nebulosa._

Range.--Northern North America; wintering regularly south to the
northern border of the United States and casually farther.

This is the largest of American Owls, being about 26 inches in length;
it does not weigh nearly as much, however, as the Great Horned or Snowy
Owls, its plumage being very light and fluffy, and dark gray in color,
mottled with white. The facial disc is very large, and the eyes are
small and yellow, while those of the Barred Owl are large and blue
black. They nest in heavily wooded districts, building their nests of
sticks, chiefly in pine trees. The two to four white eggs are laid
during May and June; size 2.15 × 1.70.

[Illustration 233: Great Gray Owl.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 232

370a. LAPP OWL. _Scotiaptex nebulosa lapponica._

A paler form of the Great Gray Owl, inhabiting the Arctic regions of the
Old World; accidental on the coast of Alaska. Their nesting habits and
eggs do not differ from those of the American bird.


371. RICHARDSON'S OWL. _Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding north of the United States;
winters south to our border and casually farther.

This is a dark grayish and white bird, 10 inches in length, and without
ear tufts. Breeds commonly in the extensively wooded districts of
British America, chiefly in the northern parts. Their three or four
white eggs are usually at the bottom of a cavity in a tree, but
occasionally the birds build a rude nest of sticks and twigs, lined with
leaves and placed in trees at a moderate height from the ground. Size of
eggs, 1.25 × 1.05.


372. SAW-WHET OWL; ACADIAN OWL. _Cryptoglaux acadica acadica._

Range.--North America, breeding in the northern parts of the United
States and in British America, and south in the Rockies to Mexico;
winters south to the middle portions of the United States.

This small species (length 8 inches) is marked very similarly to the
preceding, but the plumage is brown instead of gray. They normally nest
in hollow trees, generally in deserted Woodpecker holes, in extensively
wooded sections, and usually in mountainous country, especially in the
United States. They have also been known to nest in bird boxes near farm
houses and in old Crow's nests. During April or May, they lay from three
to six white eggs. Size 1.20 × 1.00. They are quiet and chiefly
nocturnal birds, not often seen, and may be found nesting in any of the
northern states.


372a. NORTHWESTERN SAW-WHET OWL. _Cryptoglaux acadica scotiæa._

Range.--A dark variety found on the coast of British Columbia.

[Illustration 234: Richardson's Owl. Saw-whet Owl.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 233

373. SCREECH OWL. _Otus asio asio._

Range.--North America, east of the plains and from the southern British
Provinces to Florida.

This well known species, which is often called "Little Horned Owl"
because of its ear tufts is found either in the type form of some of its
varieties in all parts of the United States. They have two color phases,
the plumage being either a yellowish brown or gray, and black and white;
these color phases are not dependent upon sex or locality, as often
young or both phases are found in the same nest; the gray phase is the
most abundant. They nest anywhere in hollow trees, being found very
frequently in decayed stubs of apple trees. They also often nest in
barns or other old buildings which are not frequented too freely. Their
food consists chiefly of mice and meadow moles, with occasionally small
birds. During April or May they lay their white eggs, the full
complement of which is from five to eight. Size 1.35 × 1.20. The nesting
habits of all the sub-species, as far as we can learn, are exactly like
those of the eastern Screech Owl; the eggs cannot be distinguished, and
in most cases, even the birds cannot be distinguished.


373a. FLORIDA SCREECH OWL. _Otus asio floridanus._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

Slightly smaller and darker than asio. The eggs average slightly
smaller. Size 1.30 × 1.15.


373b. Texas Screech Owl. _Otus asio mccalli._

Range.--Texas, and southward into Mexico. Very similar to floridanus.

373c. CALIFORNIA SCREECH OWL. _Otus asio bendirei._

Range.--Coast of California and Oregon. Size of, but darker than asio.


373d. KENNICOTT'S SCREECH OWL. _Otus asio kennicotti._

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska. This is the darkest of the
Screech Owls and averages a trifle larger than the eastern form.


373e. ROCKY MOUNTAIN SCREECH OWL. _Otus asio maxwelliæ._

Range.--Foothills of the Rockies, from Colorado to Montana. This is the
palest form of the Screech Owl. Of the same size as the last.

[Illustration 235: White.]
[Illustration: Screech Owl.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 234

373f. Mexican Screech Owl. _Otus asio cineraceus._

Range.--Western Mexico and southwestern border of the United States. A
gray form with little or no buff, and more numerously barred below.


373g. AIKEN'S SCREECH Owl. _Otus asio aikeni._

Range.--El Paso County, Colorado. A gray form, with the dark markings
coarser and more numerous than in any other.

373h. MACFARLANE'S SCREECH OWL. _Otus asio macfarlanei._

Range.--Northern border of the United States from Washington to Montana.


373.1. Spotted Screech Owl. _Otus trichopsis._

Range.--Mountains of southern Arizona, south into Mexico.

A grayish species, similar to asio, but paler and more finely barred
beneath, and with whitish spots on the feathers of the foreback. The
nesting habits and eggs are probably the same as those of the Screech
Owl.


373.2. XANTUS'S SCREECH OWL. _Otus xantusi._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

A grayish species with the back and underparts finely vermiculated with
reddish brown, and with streaks of darker. It is not likely that the
habits or eggs of this species will be found to differ from those of the
Screech Owl.


374. FLAMMULATED SCREECH OWL. _Otus flammeolus flammeolus._

Range.--Mountain ranges of Mexico, north to Colorado and west to
California.

This species is smaller than asio, has shorter ear tufts, the plumage is
much streaked and edged with rusty, and the toes are unfeathered to
their base. They nest in hollow trees, generally using deserted
Woodpecker holes. Their three or four eggs are white. Size 1.15 × .95.
This species is uncommon in all parts of its range.


374a. DWARF SCREECH OWL. _Otus flammeolus idahœnsis._

Range.--Local in Idaho, eastern Washington and California.

This rare variety is smaller than the preceding and is considerably
paler. Its eggs have not been described, but should be a trifle smaller
than the last.

[Illustration 236: 374--375a.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 235

375. GREAT HORNED OWL. _Bubo virginianus virginianus._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains and north to Labrador.

This species and its varieties are the only large Owls having
conspicuous ear tufts. They are about 22 inches in length, and have a
mottled brown, black and white plumage, barred below. This is also one
of the "Hoot Owls," but is not nearly as abundant as the Barred Owl. It
is one of the strongest of the family, and captures rabbits, grouse and
poultry, and is very often found to have been feeding upon, or to have
been in the immediate vicinity of a skunk. They nest very early,
January, February and March. Deserted Hawk's or Crow's nests are very
frequently used by this bird, if they are located in dense woods. They
also sometimes nest in hollow cavities in large trees. They lay from two
to four pure white eggs. Size 2.25 × 1.85.


375a. Western Horned Owl. _Bubo virginianus pallescens._

Range.--Western North America, except the Pacific coast.

A smaller and lighter colored form of the preceding, having the same
habits and the eggs being indistinguishable from those of the eastern
bird.


375b. ARCTIC HORNED OWL. _Bubo virginianus subarcticus._

Range.--Interior of Arctic America from Hudson Bay to Alaska; south in
winter to the northwestern tier of states.

A very pale colored Horned Owl with little or no buff or brownish in the
plumage, some specimens (very rare) being pure white with only a few
black bars on the back. Their nesting habits are the same and the eggs
do not vary appreciably from those of the eastern Horned Owl.

375c. DUSKY HORNED OWL. _Bubo virginianus saturatus._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to Alaska.

This is the darkest of the Horned Owls, the extreme case being nearly
black on the back and very dark below. Nesting the same as the Great
Horned Owl.


375d. PACIFIC HORNED OWL. _Bubo virginianus pacificus._

Range.--California, southward and east to Arizona.

Smaller and darker than the eastern form but not as dark as the last.
Eggs the same as those of the others.

[Illustration 237: White.]
[Illustration: Great Horned Owl.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 236

[Illustration 238: YOUNG SCREECH OWLS.]

Page 237

375e. DWARF HORNED OWL. _Bubo virginianus elachistus._

Range.--Lower California.

This is a similar but darker form of the Horned Owl and is very much
smaller than virginianus. The nesting habits will be the same, but the
eggs may average smaller.


376. Snowy Owl. _Nyctea nyctea._

Range.--Arctic regions, breeding within the Arctic Circle and wintering
to the northern border of the United States and casually farther.

This very beautiful species varies in plumage from pure white, unmarked,
to specimens heavily and broadly barred with blackish brown. It is, next
to the Great Gray Owl, the largest species found in America, being 2
feet in length. Like the Great Horned Owls, they are very strong,
fearless, and rapacious birds, feeding upon hares, squirrels and smaller
mammals, as well as Grouse, Ptarmigan, etc. They nest upon the ground,
on banks or mossy hummocks on the dry portions of marshes, laying from
two to eight eggs, white in color and with a smoother shell than those
of the Great Horned Owl. Size 2.25 × 1.75. Data.--Point Barrow, Alaska,
June 16, 1898. Three eggs laid in a hollow in the moss.


377. European Hawk Owl. _Surnia ulula ulula._

Range.--Northern portion of the Old World; accidental in Alaska.

Similar to the American species, but lighter and more brownish.

[Illustration 239: White.]
[Illustration: Snowy Owl.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 238

377a. HAWK OWL. _Surnia ulula caparoch._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding from the central portions of
British America northward; probably also breeds in the Rocky Mountains
in the northern tier of states and casually farther.

This handsome mottled and barred, gray and black Owl might readily be
mistaken for a Hawk, because of his Hawk-like appearance and long
rounded tail. They are very active birds, especially in the day time,
for they are more diurnal than nocturnal; their food is mostly of small
rodents, and also small birds. They nest either in the tops of large fir
trees, in hollows of stumps, or, in some cases, upon the ground. When in
trees their nests are made of twigs, leaves and weeds, and sometimes
lined with moss and feathers; they lay from three to eight white eggs,
size 1.50 × 1.20. Data.--Labrador, May 3, 1899. Five eggs. Nest in the
top of a dead tree, 15 feet from the ground.


378. BURROWING OWL. _Speotyto cunicularia hypogæa._

Range.--Western North America from the Mississippi Valley west to
California; north to the southern parts of British America and south to
Central America.

These peculiar birds are wholly different in plumage, form and habits
from any other American Owls. They can readily be recognized by their
long, slender and scantily feathered legs. Their plumage is brownish,
spotted with white above, and white, barred with brown below; length 10
inches. They nest, generally in large communities in burrows in the
ground, usually deserted Prairie Dog holes. While generally but a single
pair occupy one burrow, as many as twenty have been found nesting
together. Sometimes the burrows are unlined, and again may have a carpet
of grasses and feathers. Their white eggs generally number from six to
ten; size 1.25 × 1.00. Data.--Sterling, Kans., May 7, 1899. Nest of bits
of dry dung at the end of a deserted Prairie Dog burrow.

[Illustration 240: American Hawk Owl.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 239

378a. FLORIDA BURROWING OWL. _Speotyto cunicularia floridana._

Range.--Local in the interior of Florida.

Like the last, but slightly smaller and paler, and with the tarsus less
feathered. Their habits or eggs do not differ from the preceding.


379. PYGMY OWL. _Glaucidium gnoma gnoma._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region and westward; from British Columbia
southward. These interesting little Owls, which are but seven inches in
length, feed in the day time upon insects, mice and, occasionally, small
birds. They frequent extensively wooded districts, chiefly in the
mountain ranges. They nest in tall trees, generally in deserted
Woodpeckers' holes, laying three or four white eggs during May; size
about 1.00 × .90.


379a. California Pygmy Owl. _Glaucidium gnoma californicum._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia, south through California.
This sub-species is darker and more brownish than the last. It is not an
uncommon bird in California. They nest in the tallest trees along the
ranges, often being found 75 or more feet from the ground. The eggs do
not differ from those of the Pygmy Owl, ranging in size from 1.00 × .85
to 1.20 × .95.


379.1. HOSKIN'S PYGMY OWL. _Glaucidium hoskinsi._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

This species is smaller and more gray than the preceding. It is not
probable that its manners of nesting or eggs differ in any respect from
those of the others of this genus.

[Illustration 241: Burrowing Owl.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 240

380. FERRUGINOUS PYGMY OWL. _Glaucidium phalœnoides._

Range.--Mexico and Central America; north to the Mexican border of the
United States.

This species is of the same size as the last, but is much tinged with
rufous on the upper parts, and the tail is of a bright chestnut brown
color, crossed by about eight bars of black. They nest in hollow
cavities in trees, from ten to forty feet from the ground, laying three
or four glossy white eggs; size 1.10 × .90.


381. ELF OWL. _Micropallas whitneyi._

Range.--Mexico, north to the bordering states.

This odd little bird is the smallest member of the family found in
America, attaining a length of only six inches. In plumage it may be
described as similar to a very small, earless Screech Owl, only with the
pattern of the markings a great deal finer. They are said to be quite
abundant in the table lands of central Mexico and in southern Arizona,
where they build their nests in deserted Woodpeckers' holes, perhaps
most frequently in the giant cactus. It is said to be more nocturnal
than the Pygmy Owls and to feed almost exclusively upon insects. They
lay from three to five eggs having a slight gloss. Size 1.02 × .90.
Data.--Southern Arizona, May 22, 1902. Nest in a deserted Woodpecker
hole. Two eggs.

[Illustration 242: 380--381.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco-photo.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 241

PAROQUETS AND PARROTS. Order XIII. PSITTACI.

Family PSITTACIDAE

382. CAROLINA PAROQUET. _Conuropsis carolinensis._

Range.--Now rare in Florida and along the Gulf coast to Indian
Territory. As late as 1885, the Carolina Paroquets were abundant in the
South Atlantic and Gulf States, but owing to their wanton destruction by
man, they have been exterminated in the greater portion of their range,
and now are rarely seen in any locality, and then only in the most
unhabitable swamps and thickets. A reliable account of their nesting
habits is lacking, as are also specimens of their eggs taken from wild
birds. They are said to build rude nests of sticks upon horizontal
branches of cypress trees, and to nest in colonies; it is also claimed
that they nest in hollow trees, laying from three to five pure white
eggs. The one figured is one of three laid in confinement at Washington,
D. C., by a pair of birds owned by Mr. Robert Ridgeway. It is 1.31 ×
1.06 and was laid July 12, 1892. This set is in the collection of Mr.
John Lewis Childs.


382.1. Thick-billed Parrot. _Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha._

Range.--Mexico, north casually to the Mexican border of the United
States. This large Parrot (16 inches long) has a heavy black bill, and
the plumage is entirely green except for the deep red forehead, strips
over the eye, shoulder, and thighs, and the yellowish under wing
coverts. Their eggs are white and are laid in natural cavities in large
trees in forests.


CUCKOOS, TROGANS, KINGFISHERS, ETC. Order XIV.

CUCKOOS, ANIS, ETC. Family CUCULIDAE

383. ANI. _Crotophaga ani._

Range.--Northeastern South America and the West Indies; casual in
Florida, and along the Gulf coast; accidental in Pennsylvania.

This species is similar to the next, but the bill is smoother and
without grooves. Its nesting habits are the same as those of the more
common American species.

[Illustration 243: White.]
[Illustration: Carolina Paroquet.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 242

[Illustration 244: ROADRUNNER.]

Page 243

384. GROOVE-BILLED ANI. _Crotophaga sulcirostris._

Range.--Mexico and the border of the United States; common in southern
Texas. This odd species has a Cuckoo-like form, but is wholly blue black
in color, and has a high thin bill with three conspicuous longitudinal
grooves on each side. They build large bulky nests of twigs, lined with
leaves and grasses, and located in low trees and bushes. They build in
small colonies but do not, as is claimed of the common Ani, build a
large nest for several to occupy. They lay from three to five eggs of a
greenish blue color, covered with a chalky white deposit. Size 1.25 ×
1.00. They are laid in May or June.


385. ROAD-RUNNER. _Geococcyx californianus._

Range.--Western United States from Oregon, Colorado and Kansas,
southward; most abundant on the Mexican border, and wintering in central
Mexico. This curious species is known as the "Chaparral Cock", "Ground
Cuckoo," "Snake-killer," etc. Its upper parts are a glossy greenish
brown, each feather being edged or fringed with whitish; the tail is
very long, broad and graduated, the feathers being broadly tipped with
white. They are noted for their swiftness on foot, paddling over the
ground at an astonishing rate, aided by their outstretched wings and
spread tail, which act as aeroplanes; their legs are long and have two
toes front and two back. Their food consists of lizards and small
snakes, they being particularly savage in their attacks upon the latter.
They build rude nests of sticks and twigs, in low trees or bushes, and
during April or May, lay from four to ten eggs, depositing them at
intervals of several days. They are pure white and measure 1.55 × 1.20.

[Illustration 245: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Road Runner. Groove-billed Ani.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 244

386. MANGROVE CUCKOO. _Coccyzus minor minor._

Range.--West Indies, Mexico and South America, north regularly to
southern Florida.

This species is very similar to our common Yellow-billed Cuckoo, but the
whole underparts are deep buff. It is a common species and nests
abundantly in the West Indies, but occurs only in limited numbers in
southern Florida. Their nests are shallow platforms of twigs and
rootlets, placed in bushes and low trees, and upon which they lay three
or four pale greenish blue eggs, similar to those of the Yellow-billed
species but averaging smaller; size 1.15 × .85.


386a. MAYNARD'S CUCKOO. _Coccyzus minor maynardi._

Range.--Bahamas; accidental on Florida Keys. This is a slightly smaller
and paler form than the preceding.


387. YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO. _Coccyzus americanus americanus._

Range.--United States east of the Plains and from southern Canada
southward.

This species is generally abundant in all localities in its range, which
afford suitable nesting places of tangled underbrush or vines. It may be
distinguished from the Black-billed variety by its larger size (12
inches long), blackish tail with broad white tips, and yellowish lower
mandible. They are often regarded by the superstitious as forecasters of
rain, and as omens, probably because of their gutteral croaking notes.

Their nests are made of twigs, lined with shreds of grape vine bark or
catkins; the nests are generally very shabbily made and so flat on the
top that the eggs frequently roll off. They are located near the ground
in bushes or low trees. The three or four eggs are deposited at
intervals of several days, and frequently young birds and eggs are found
in the nest at the same time. Like the Flicker, this bird will
frequently continue laying if one egg is removed at a time, and as many
as twelve have been taken from the same nest, by this means. The eggs
are light greenish blue. Size 1.20 × .90. They are usually laid during
May or June.

[Illustration 246: Mangrove Cuckoo. Yellow-billed Cuckoo.]
[Illustration: Light greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 245

[Illustration 247: A. R. Spaid.
NEST AND EGGS OF YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO.]

Page 246

387a. CALIFORNIA CUCKOO. _Coccyzus americanus occidentalis._

Range.--Western North America, from British Columbia, southward.

Slightly larger and with a stouter bill than the last. Eggs not
distinguishable.


388. BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO. _Coccyzus erythrophthalmus._

Range.--United States east of the Rocky Mountains; north to Labrador and
Manitoba; south in winter to Central and South America.

This species is rather more common in the northern part of the United
States than the Yellow-billed variety. The bird is smaller, has a
blackish bill, and the tail is the same color as the back and only
slightly tipped with white. Their nests are built in similar locations
and of the same materials as used by the Yellow-bill; the three or four
eggs are smaller and a darker shade of greenish blue. Size 1.15 × .85.
All the Cuckoos are close sitters and will not leave the nest until
nearly reached with the hand, when they will slowly flutter off through
the underbrush, and continue to utter their mournful "Kuk-kuk-kuk," many
times repeated.


388.1. KAMCHATKA CUCKOO. _Cuculus canorus telephonus._

An Asiatic subspecies of the common European Cuckoo, accidentally
occurring in Alaska.


TROGONS. Family TROGONIDÆ

389. COPPERY-TAILED TROGON. _Trogon ambiguus._

Range.--Southern Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande in Texas and in
southern Arizona, in both of which localities they probably breed.

This is the only member of this family of beautiful birds which reaches
our borders. This species is 12 inches in length, and is a metallic
green color on the upper parts and breast, and with coppery reflections
of the middle tail feathers, the outer ones being white, very finely
vermiculated with black, as are the wing coverts. The underparts, except
for a white band across the breast, are rosy red. This species nest in
cavities in large trees, generally in large, deserted Woodpecker holes.
They are also said to have been found nesting in holes in banks. Their
eggs are three or four in number and are a dull white in color. Size
1.10 × .85.

[Illustration 248: Black-billed Cuckoo.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Dull White.]
[Illustration: 387a--389.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 247

KINGFISHERS. Family ALCEDINIDÆ

390. BELTED KINGFISHER. _Ceryle alcyon._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding from southern United States,
northward and wintering from the southern parts of its breeding range,
southward.

This well known bird is abundant in all localities near water, where its
rattling notes are among the most familiar of sounds. Their food is
almost entirely of small fish, which they catch by plunging upon from
their perch on an old dead limb overhanging the water, or by hovering in
the air like an Osprey. Their nests are located at the end of burrows in
sand banks or the banks of creeks and rivers. These tunnels, which are
dug by the birds, generally commence two or three feet from the top of
the bank and extend back from six to eight feet, either in a straight
line or curved; the end is enlarged to form a suitable nesting place, in
which from five to eight eggs are laid. They are glossy and pure white
in color. Size 1.35 × 1.05. Data.--Lake Quinsigamond, Massachusetts,
June 6, 1900. 7 eggs at the end of a 6 foot tunnel in a sand bank. Bird
removed by hand from the nest. Collector, C. E. Howe.


390.1. Ringed Kingfisher. _Ceryle torquata._

Range.--Mexico, north casually to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

This handsome species is much larger than the Belted Kingfisher and the
underparts are nearly all bright chestnut, except the white throat. They
nest in river banks the same as the common American species, and the
eggs are white, but larger. Size 1.45 × 1.10.

[Illustration 249: White.]
[Illustration: Belted Kingfisher.]
[Illustration: deco-photo.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 248

[Illustration 250: C. A. Reed.
YOUNG KINGFISHERS.]

Page 249

391. TEXAS KINGFISHER. _Ceryle americana septentrionalis_.

Range.--Southern Texas, south through Mexico.

This variety is much smaller than the Belted, length 8 inches, and is a
lustrous greenish above, variously speckled with white, and is white
below, spotted with greenish. It is a common and resident species in
southern Texas, where it lays its eggs in holes in the banks along
streams. The eggs are white and glossy, and measure .95 × .70.


WOODPECKERS. Order XV. PICI.

Family PICIDAE

Woodpeckers are well known birds having sharp chisel-like bills, sharply
pointed and stiffened tail feathers, and strongly clawed feet with two
toes forward and two back, except in one genus. Their food is insects
and grubs, which they get by boring in trees, and from under the bark,
clinging to the sides of trunks or the under side of branches with their
strong curved nails, aided by the tail, for a prop. They are largely
resident where found.


392. IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER. _Campephilus principalis._

Range.--Locally distributed, and rare, in Florida, along the Gulf coast
and north casually to South Carolina and Arkansas.

This is the largest of the Woodpeckers found within our borders, being
20 inches in length. But one other American species exceeds it in size,
the Imperial Woodpecker of Mexico, which reaches a length of nearly two
feet; as this species is found within a few miles of our Mexican border,
it may yet be classed as a North American bird. The present species has
a large, heavy, ivory-white bill. They can readily be identified, at a
great distance, from the Pileated Woodpecker by the large amount of
white on the secondaries. They used to be not uncommonly seen in many
sections of the southeast but are now found very locally and only in the
largest and remote woods. They nest in holes in large trees in the most
impenetrable swamps; laying three, and probably as many as six pure
white glossy eggs measuring 1.45 × 1.00.

[Illustration 251: Texas Kingfisher.]
[Illustration: Ivory-billed Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 250

393. HAIRY WOODPECKER. _Dryobates villosus villosus._

Range.--United States east of the Plains and from North Carolina to
Canada.

The Hairy Woodpecker or its sub-species is found in all parts of North
America. The nesting habits and eggs of all the sub-species are not in
any way different from those of the eastern bird, consequently what is
said in regard to the eastern form will apply equally to all its
varieties.

Except during the winter months, this species is not as commonly seen
about houses or orchards as the Downy Woodpecker. During the summer they
retire to the larger woods to nest, laying their eggs in holes in the
trunks or limbs of trees at any height from the ground, and generally
using the same hole year after year, and often twice or three times
during one season, if the first sets are taken. They lay from three to
six glossy white eggs; size .95 × .70. This species can be distinguished
from the Downy Woodpeckers by their larger size (9 inches long), and the
white outer tail feathers, which are unspotted.


393a. NORTHERN HAIRY WOODPECKER. _Dryobates villosus leucomelas._

Range.--North America, north of the United States.

Slightly larger than the preceding.


393b. SOUTHERN HAIRY WOODPECKER. _Dryobates villosus auduboni._

Range.--Southern United States; north to South Carolina.

Similar to the Hairy Woodpecker, but smaller.


393c. HARRIS'S WOODPECKER. _Dryobates villosus harrisi._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to British Columbia.

Similar to the Hairy but with fewer or no white spots on the wing
coverts, and grayish on the underparts.


393d. CABANIS WOODPECKER. _Dryobates villosus hyloscopus._

Range.--Southern California, east to Arizona and south into Mexico. Like
the preceding but whiter below.


393e. ROCKY MOUNTAIN HAIRY WOODPECKER. _Dryobates villosus monticola._

Range.--Rocky Mountains from British Columbia south to New Mexico.

Similar to _harrisi_ but slightly larger and pure white below.


393f. QUEEN CHARLOTTE WOODPECKER. _Dryobates villosus picoideus._

Range.--Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.

Like Harris Woodpecker, but with the flanks streaked and the middle of
the back spotted with blackish.

[Illustration 252: Hairy Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 393c--394a.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 251

394. SOUTHERN DOWNY WOODPECKER. _Dryobates pubescens pubescens._

Range.--Gulf and South Atlantic States; north to South Carolina.

This species, which is the smallest of the North American Woodpecker
(length 6 inches), is similar in plumage to the Hairy Woodpecker, but
has the ends of the white, outer tail feathers spotted with black. Like
the last species, it is represented by sub-species in all parts of North
America, the nesting habits of all the varieties being the same and the
eggs not distinguishable from one another. They nest in holes in trees,
very often in orchards or trees in the neighborhood of houses. They are
not nearly as shy as the Hairy Woodpeckers, and also associate with
other birds very freely. The three to six eggs are laid upon the bottom
of the cavity, with no lining. The height of the nesting season is
during May or June. The white glossy eggs are .75 × .60.


394a. GAIRDNER'S WOODPECKER. Dryobates pubescens gairdneri.

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to British Columbia.

This sub-species is like the last, but is without spots on the wing
coverts and is a dingy white below, differing the same as Harris
Woodpecker from the Hairy.


394b. BATCHELDER'S WOODPECKER. _Dryobates pubescens homorus._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region of the United States.

Like the last but whiter below.


394c. DOWNY WOODPECKER. _Dryobates pubescens medianus._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains and north of South Carolina.

Similar to the southern variety but slightly larger and whiter.


394d. NELSON'S DOWNY WOODPECKER. _Dryobates pubescens nelsoni._

Range.--Alaska.

Similar to the northern variety but still larger.


394e. WILLOW WOODPECKER. _Dryobates pubescens turati._

Range.--California except the northern parts and the ranges of the
south.

Similar to Gairdner Woodpecker, but smaller and whiter.


395. RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER. _Dryobates borealis._

Range.--Southeastern United States, from South Carolina and Arkansas,
southward.

This black and white species may be known from any other because of the
uniform black crown and nape, the male having a small dot of red on
either side of the crown, back of the eye. They are quite abundant in
the Gulf States and Florida, where they nest during April and May, and
in some localities in March. They build in hollow trees or stumps at an
elevation from the ground, laying from three to six glossy white eggs;
size .95 × .70.

[Illustration 253: white, glossy.]
[Illustration: Southern Downy.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 252

396. TEXAS WOODPECKER. _Dryobates scalaris bairdi._

Range.--Southwestern United States from southern Colorado south to
northern Mexico. This species is brownish white below, has the back
barred with black and white, and the male has the whole crown red,
shading into mixed black and whitish on the forehead. Its habits and
nesting are just the same as those of the Downy, but the three or four
white eggs, that they lay in April, are larger; size .80 × .65.


396a. SAN LUCAS WOODPECKER. _Dryobates scalaris lucasanus._

Range.--Lower California, north to the Colorado Desert, California.

Very similar to the last; less barring on the outer tail feathers. Eggs
the same.


397. NUTTALL'S WOODPECKER. _Dryobates nuttalli._

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon south to Lower California.

Similar to the Texan Woodpecker but whiter below, with whitish nasal
tufts, and the fore part of the crown black and white striped, the red
being confined to the nape region. They nest in holes in trees, either
in dead stumps or in growing trees, and at any height above ground.
During April or May they deposit their white glossy eggs upon the bottom
of the cavity. The eggs measure .85 × .65.


398. ARIZONA WOODPECKER. _Dryobates arizonæ._

Range.--Mexican border of the United States, chiefly in Arizona and New
Mexico.

This species is entirely different from any others of our Woodpeckers,
being uniform brownish above, and soiled whitish below, spotted with
black. The male bird has a red crescent on the nape. They are said to be
fairly abundant in some sections of southern Arizona. Their nesting
habits do not vary from those of the other Woodpeckers found in the same
regions, and they show no especial preference for any particular kind of
a tree in which to lay their eggs. The nesting season appears to be at
its height in April. The pure white eggs average in size about .85 ×
.60.

[Illustration 254: Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Texas Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: 398--399.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 253

399. WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER. _Xenopicus albolarvatus._

Range.--Western United States from southern California to southern
British Columbia.

This odd species is wholly a dull black color, except for the white head
and neck, and basal half of the primaries. They are quite abundant in
some localities, particularly in California on mountain ranges. They
nest at any height, but the greater number have been found under twenty
feet from the ground and in old pine stubs. They lay from four to six
glossy white eggs, measuring .95 × .70. They are said to be more silent
than others of the Woodpecker family, and rarely make the familiar
tapping and never drum. It is claimed that they get at their food by
scaling bark off the trees, instead of by boring.


400. ARCTIC THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. _Picoides arcticus._

As implied by their name, members of this genus have but three toes, two
in front and one behind. The plumage of this species is entirely black
above, and whitish below, with the flanks barred with blackish. The male
has a yellow patch on the crown. They breed abundantly in coniferous
forests in mountainous regions throughout their range, laying their eggs
in cavities in decayed stumps and trees, apparently at any height, from
five feet up. The eggs are laid in May or June. Size .95 × .70.

Range.--Northern parts of the United States, north to the Arctic
regions.



401. THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. _Picoides americanus americanus._

Range.--From northern United States northward.

The chief difference between this species and the last is in the white
on the back, either as a patch or in the form of broken bars. The
nesting habits are just the same and the eggs cannot be distinguished
from those of the preceding. Both forms are found breeding in the same
localities in the Adirondacks and in nearly all other portions of their
range.

[Illustration 255: White.]
[Illustration: Three-toed Woodpecker. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 254

401a. ALASKA THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. _Picoides americanus fasciatus._

Range.--Alaska, south to British Columbia and Washington.

Like the last, but with more white on the back. Eggs like the arcticus.


401b. ALPINE THREE-TOED WOODPECKER. _Picoides americanus dorsalis._

Range.--Rocky Mountains from British Columbia south to New Mexico.

Slightly larger than the preceding and with more white on the back,
almost entirely losing the barred effect of the American Three-toed
variety. They nest chiefly in dead pines, laying four or five white eggs
that cannot be distinguished from those of many other species. Size .95
× .70.


402. YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER. _Sphyrapicus varius varius._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains; breeding from Massachusetts
northward, and wintering from the Carolinas and Illinois southward.

This species is one of the most handsomely marked of the family; they
can easily be recognized by the red crown and throat (white on the
female), each bordered by black, and the yellowish underparts. The
members of this genus have been found to be the only ones that are
really injurious, and these only to a slight extent, to cultivated
trees. This species and the two following are the only real
"sapsuckers," a crime that is often attributed to the most useful of the
family. Their nesting season is during May and June, they then resorting
to the interior of the woods, where they deposit their four to seven
glossy eggs on the bottom of holes in trees, generally at quite an
elevation from the ground. Size of eggs .85 × .60.


402a. Red-naped Sapsucker. _Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region of the United States and southern Canada
south to Mexico and west to California.

This variety differs from the last, chiefly in addition of a band of
scarlet on the nape in place of the white on the Yellow-bellied species.
Coming as it does, midway between the ranges of the preceding species
and the following, this variety, with its extension of red on the head
and throat, may be regarded somewhat as a connecting link between the
two species, but it is perfectly distinct and does not intergrade with
either. There appears to be no difference in the nesting habits of the
two varieties, except that the present one, according to Bendire, shows
a preference to nesting in live aspens. The eggs measure .90 × .65.

[Illustration 256: Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 255

403. RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER. _Sphyrapicus ruber ruber._

Range.--Pacific Coast from Lower California to Oregon.

Except for a whitish line from the eye to the bill, the entire head,
neck and breast of this species is red, of varying shades in different
individuals, from carmine to nearly a scarlet; the remainder of their
plumage is very similar to that of the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. This is
an abundant species and in most parts of the range they are not timid.
Like many of the Woodpeckers, they spend a great deal of their time in
drumming on some dead limb. They nest commonly in aspens, preferably
living ones, and are said to build a new nesting hole each year rather
than use the old. The eggs are laid during May or June, being glossy
white, five to seven in number, and measuring .90 × .70.


403a. NORTHERN RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER. _Sphyrapicus ruber notkensis._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to Alaska.


404. WILLIAMSON'S SAPSUCKER. _Sphyrapicus thyroideus._

This is a deeper and brighter variety, and is more yellowish on the
belly. Its nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the southern
form.

Range.--Mountain ranges from the Rockies to the Pacific; north to
British Columbia.

This oddly marked species shows a surprising number of variations in
plumage; the normal adult male is largely black on the upper parts and
breast, with only a narrow patch of red on the throat, and with the
belly, bright yellow. The female is entirely different in plumage and
for a long time was supposed to be a distinct species; she is brownish
in place of the black in the male, has no red in the plumage, and is
barred with black and white on the back and wings. They nest at high
altitudes in mountain ranges, either in coniferous forests or in aspens.
There is no peculiarity in their nesting habits; they lay from four to
seven eggs, glossy white. Size .97 × .67.


405. PILEATED WOODPECKER. _Phlœotomus pileatus pileatus._

Range.--Southern and South Atlantic States.

This heavily built Woodpecker is nearly as large as the Ivory-bill,
being 17 inches in length. They are not nearly as beautiful as the
Ivory-bills, their plumage being a sooty black instead of glossy, and
the white on the wing, being confined to a very small patch at the base
of the primaries; the whole crown and crest are vermillion, as is also a
moustache mark in the male. They breed in the most heavily timbered
districts, and generally at a high elevation; excavating a cavity
sometimes 25 inches in depth and eight inches in diameter. In most
localities they are very shy and difficult to approach. During April or
May they lay from three to six white eggs. Size 1.30 × 1.00.

[Illustration 257: Pileated Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 256

405a. NORTHERN PILEATED WOODPECKER. _Phlœotomus pileatus abieticola._

Range.--Local throughout North America, from the northern parts of the
United States northward.

This variety is only very slightly larger than the preceding, it
otherwise being the same. It is still abundant in many localities, but
its range is rapidly being reduced, on account of cutting away the
forests. Its nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the
southern variety.


406. RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. _Melanerpes erythrocephalus._

Range.--United States, east of the Rockies, except New England; north to
northern Canada; winters in southern United States.

This beautiful species has a bright red head, neck and breast, glossy
blue black back, wings and tail, and white underparts, rump and
secondaries. It is the most abundant of the family in the greater
portion of its range, where it nests in any kind of trees or in
telegraph poles at any height from the ground; they also sometimes nest
in holes under the eaves of buildings. They are the most pugnacious of
the Woodpeckers, and are often seen chasing one another or driving away
some other bird. They are also known to destroy the nests and eggs of
many species, and also to kill and devour the young, they being the only
Woodpecker, so far as known, to have acquired this disreputable habit;
they also feed upon, besides ants and larvæ, many kinds of fruit and
berries. Their nesting season is during May and June, when they lay from
four to eight white eggs, with less gloss than those of the Flicker.
Size 1.00 × .75.


407. ANT-EATING WOODPECKER. _Melanerpes formicivorus formicivorus._

Range.--Mexican border of the United States, southward.

This species may be identified by the black region around the base of
the bill, the white forehead, red crown and nape, yellowish throat, and
blackish upper parts, extending in a band across the breast, this
variety having the band streaked with white posteriorly. The habits of
this variety are the same as the next which is most abundant in the
United States.

[Illustration 258: Williamson Sapsucker Northern Pileated Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Red-headed Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 257

407a. CALIFORNIA WOODPECKER. _Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi._

Range.--California and Oregon.

This bird differs from the last in having fewer white stripes in the
black breast band. In suitable localities, this is the most abundant of
Woodpeckers on the Pacific coast. They have none of the bad habits of
the Red-heads, appear to be sociable among their kind, and are not
afraid of mankind. It nests indifferently in all kinds of trees at any
height from the ground, laying from three to seven eggs. Size 1.00 ×
.75. This species has the habit of storing food for future use developed
to a greater extent than any other of the family. They sometimes
completely honeycomb the exterior surface of decayed trees, with holes
designed to hold acorns.


407b. NARROW-FRONTED WOODPECKER. _Melanerpes formicivorus angustifrons._
Range.--Southern Lower California.

This variety differs from the others in being slightly smaller and in
having the white band on the forehead narrower. Its nesting habits are
the same, but the eggs average smaller. Size .95 × .75.


408. LEWIS'S WOODPECKER. _Asyndesmus lewisi._

Range.--Western United States from the Rockies to the Pacific coast;
from British Columbia south to Mexico.

A very oddly colored species, 11 inches in length having a dark red
face, streaked red and white under parts, a gray breast band, and glossy
greenish black upperparts. They are not uncommon in the greater part of
their range, can not be called shy birds, and nest in all kinds of trees
at heights varying from six to one hundred feet from the ground, the
five to nine white eggs measuring 1.05 × .80, and being laid during May
or June.


409. RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. _Centurus carolinus._

Range.--United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf States
north in nearly all parts of their range, frequenting the more heavily
timbered regions, where they nest in any place that attracts their
fancy; in some localities they also commonly nest in telegraph poles.
They are quite tame, and during the winter months come about yards and
houses, the same as, and often in company with Downy Woodpeckers. Their
eggs, which are laid during May, are glossy white, average in size 1.00
× .75 and number from four to six.

[Illustration 259: Red-bellied Woodpecker.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 258

410. GOLDEN-FRONTED WOODPECKER. _Centurus aurifrons._

Range.--Mexico and southern Texas, resident.

This is also one of the "zebra" or "ladder-backed" Woodpeckers, having
the back and wings closely barred with black and white, the same as the
preceding; the forehead, nasal tufts and nape are golden yellow, and the
male has a patch of red on the crown. This is a very common resident
species in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas, where it nests in trees
or telegraph poles, sometimes so numerously in the latter situations as
to become a nuisance. Their nesting habits are not in any manner
peculiar, and the eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the
preceding. Size 1.00 × .75. Laid during April and May.


411. GILA WOODPECKER. _Centurus uropygialis._

Range.--Mexican border of the United States, in southern Arizona and New
Mexico.

Like the preceding but without any yellow on the head, the male having a
red patch in the center of the crown. They are locally distributed in
New Mexico, but appear to be abundant in all parts of southern Arizona,
where they nest principally in giant cacti, but also in many other trees
such as cotton-woods, mesquite, sycamores, etc. Besides their decided
preference for giant cacti, there is nothing unusual in their nesting
habits, and the eggs are not different from those of others of the
genus. They lay from three to six eggs in April or May. Size 1.00 × .75.


412. FLICKER. _Colaptes auratus auratus._

Range.--Southeastern United States.

Flickers are well known, large Woodpeckers (13 inches long), with a
brownish tone to the plumage, barred on the back and spotted on the
breast with black. The present species has a golden yellow lining to the
wings and tail, and the shafts of the feathers are yellow; it has a red
crescent on the nape, and the male has black moustache marks. This
species and its sub-variety are the most widely known Woodpeckers in
eastern North America, where they are known in different localities, by
something like a hundred local names, of which

[Illustration 260: 408--411.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 259

Pigeon Woodpecker and Yellow-hammer seem to be the most universal. They
have the undulating flight common to all Woodpeckers and show the white
rump patch conspicuously when flying. They are often found on the ground
in pastures or on side hills, feeding upon ants; they are more
terrestrial than any others of the family. They nest anywhere, where
they can find or make a suitable cavity for the reception of their eggs;
in trees in woods or solitary trees in large pastures, in apple trees in
orchards, in fence posts, in holes under the roofs of buildings, etc.
They ordinarily lay from five to ten very glossy eggs, but it has been
found that they will continue laying, if one egg is removed from the
nest at a time, until in one case seventy-one eggs were secured. Fresh
eggs may be found at any time from May until August, as they frequently
raise two broods a season. Size of eggs, 1.10 × .90 with considerable
variations.



412a. NORTHERN FLICKER. _Colaptes auratus luteus._

Range.--Whole of North America, east of the Rockies, except the
southeastern portion.

Averaging larger than the preceding, but individual specimens of the
northern variety are frequently found to be even smaller than the
southern, and vice versa, making the distinction one of the study rather
than Nature.


413. RED-SHAFTED FLICKER. _Colaptes cafer collaris._

Range.--United States west of the Rockies.

This species is marked similarly to the preceding, but the top of the
head is brownish instead of gray, and the underparts of the wings and
tail, and their quills are reddish. Neither sex has the red crescent on
the back of the head, except in the case of hybrids between the two
species, but the male has red moustache marks. There are no differences
in the nidification between this species and the preceding, but the eggs
of this average a trifle larger (1.15 × .90).


413a. NORTHWESTERN FLICKER. _Colaptes cafer saturatior._

Range.--Pacific coast, breeding from Oregon to Alaska.

This is a much darker variety of the Red-shafted Flicker, but its
nesting habits or eggs do not differ in any way.

[Illustration 261: Northern Flicker.]
[Illustration: Red-shafted Flicker.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 260

[Illustration 262: NORTHERN FLICKER.]

Page 261

[Illustration 263: G. E. Moulthrope.
NEST AND EGGS OF NORTHERN FLICKER.]

Page 262

414. Gilded Flicker. _Colaptes chrysoides._

Range.--Arizona and southward through Mexico to southern Lower
California.

This pale species has the yellowish lining to the wings and tail as in
the Flicker, but has a pale cinnamon brown crown, no crescent on back of
head, and the male has red moustache marks. It is a common species in
all localities where the giant cactus abounds, and shows a preference to
nesting in these strange growths, to any other trees. Their habits are,
in all respects, the same as those of the other Flickers and their eggs
cannot be distinguished. Size 1.10 × .90.


414a. SAN FERNANDO FLICKER. _Colaptes chrysoides brunnescens._

Range.--Northern Lower California.

This is a slightly smaller and darker variety of the Gilded Flicker.


415. GUADALUPE FLICKER. _Colaptes rufipileus._

Range.--Guadalupe Island.

Similar to the Red-shafted Flicker, but with the crown darker and the
rump a solid pinkish white. They are common in a large cypress grove in
the middle of the island, but rarely found on any other portions. The
eggs have been described by Mr. Walter E. Bryant, who found them
breeding on the island, to be indistinguishable from those of the others
of the genus.


GOATSUCKERS, SWIFTS, AND HUMMINGBIRDS.

Order XVI. MACROCHIRES.

GOATSUCKERS, Family CAPRIMULGIDAE.

Goatsuckers are long winged birds, with small bills, but with an
extraordinarily large mouth, the opening of which extends beneath and
beyond the eyes. They are chiefly dusk or night fliers, their food
consisting of insects which they catch on the wing. Their plumage is
mottled black, brownish and white, resembling the ground upon which they
lay their eggs.

[Illustration 264.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 263

416. CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW. _Antrostomus carolinensis._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States, breeding north to Virginia and
Indiana, and west to Arkansas and eastern Texas.

These birds are abundant summer residents in the southern portions of
their range, but as they are silent and hiding in the woods during the
day time, they are not as popularly known as are most birds. They rarely
fly during the day time unless disturbed from their roosting place which
is on the ground under underbrush or in hollow logs. Their notes, which
are a rapid and repeatedly uttered whistling repetition of their name,
are heard until late in the night. They nest during April, May or June,
laying two eggs on the ground amid the leaves in woods or scrubby
underbrush. The eggs are grayish to creamy white in color, handsomely
marked with shades of lilac, gray and brownish; size 1.40 × 1.00.


417. WHIP-POOR-WILL. _Antrostomus vociferus vociferus._

Range.--North America east of the Plains; north to the southern parts of
the British possessions; winters along the Gulf coast and southward.

This species is well known, by sound, in nearly all parts of its range,
but comparatively few ever observed the bird, and probably the greater
number mistake the Nighthawk for this species. The two species can
readily be distinguished at a distance by the absence of any pronounced
white marking in the wings, and by the white tips to the outer tail
feathers in the present species, while the Night Hawk has a prominent
white band across the tail, but the top is black, and the tail slightly
forked. The Whip-poor-will, rarely leaves its place of concealment
before dark, and is never seen flying about cities, as are the
Nighthawks. In their pursuit of insects, they glide like a shadow over
fields and woods, their soft plumage giving forth no sound as their
wings cleave the air. Until late at night, their whistling cry
"whip-poor-will," repeated at intervals, rings out in all wooded hilly
districts. Their two eggs are deposited on the ground among dead leaves,
generally in dense woods. They are grayish white or cream color marbled
with pale brown and gray, with fainter markings of lilac. Size 1.50 ×
.85.

[Illustration 265: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Chuck-will's-widow.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Whip-poor-will.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 264

417a. STEPHEN'S WHIP-POOR-WILL. _Antrostomus vociferus macromystax._

Range.--Arizona and New Mexico, south through the tableland of Mexico.

This sub-species is slightly larger and has longer mouth bristles than
the eastern bird. Their nesting habits are the same and the eggs differ
only in averaging lighter in color, with fainter markings, some
specimens being almost immaculate.


418. POOR-WILL. _Phalænoptilus nuttalli nuttalli._

Range.--United States west of the Mississippi, breeding from Kansas and
northern California northward to Montana and British Columbia.

This handsome species is the smallest of the family, being under 8
inches in length. Its plumage is mottled black, white and frosty gray,
harmoniously blended together. They can easily be distinguished from all
other Goatsuckers by their size and silvery appearance. They nest on the
ground, either placing their two eggs upon a bed of leaves or upon a
flat rock. The breeding season is from the latter part of May through
July. The eggs are pure white and glossy; size 1.00 × .75.


418a. FROSTED POOR-WILL. _Phalænoptilus nuttalli nitidus._

Range.--Texas and Arizona, north to western Kansas.

This variety is like the last but paler, both above and below. Eggs
indistinguishable from those of others of the genus.


418b. DUSKY POOR-WILL. _Phalænoptilus nuttalli californicus._

Range.--A darker race found on the coast of California, having the same
nesting habits as the others.

The egg figured is of this species. Data.--Los Angeles, Cal., June 24,
1900. 2 eggs on the ground at the foot of an oak tree on the side of a
hill. Collector, F. M. Palmer.

[Illustration 266: Poor-will. Merrill's Paraque.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 265

419. MERRILL'S PARAUQUE. _Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli._

Range.--Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande in southern Texas.

This species is the same length as the Chuck-will's-widow, but is not as
stoutly built, and has a slightly longer tail. It can be distinguished
from any other of the family by its tail, the outer feather on each side
being black (or brownish barred with black in the female), and the next
two having white ends for nearly half their length. Their eggs are laid
on the ground in open localities, and generally under the protection of
an overhanging bush. They are two in number and differ greatly from
those of any other American member of this family, being a buff or rich
salmon buff in color, spotted and splashed with gray, lavender, and
reddish brown; size 1.25 × .90. Data.--Brownsville, Texas, April 16,
1900. Eggs laid on the ground in a dense thicket. Collector, Frank B.
Armstrong.

[Illustration 267: Salmon buff.]
[Illustration: Geo. S. Fiske. NEST AND EGGS OF WHIP-POOR-WILL.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 266

420. NIGHTHAWK. _Chordeiles virginianus virginianus._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains and from Labrador to the Gulf
of Mexico; winters through Mexico to northern South America.

The Nighthawk or some of its sub-species is found in nearly all parts of
North America, its habits being the same in all localities. It is of the
same size as the Whip-poor-will, from which species it can readily be
distinguished by its lack of mouth bristles, forked tail with a white
band near the end, and the white band across the primaries, the latter
mark showing very plainly during flight. Besides in the country, they
are very common in cities, where they will be seen any summer day
towards dusk flying, skimming, sailing, and swooping over the tops of
the buildings, upon the gravel roofs on which they often lay their eggs.
They nest generally on rocky hillsides or in open woods, laying their
two eggs upon the top of a flat rock. The eggs are a grayish white
color, marbled, blotched and spotted with darker shades of gray. Size
1.20 x .85.

420a. WESTERN NIGHTHAWK. _Chordeiles virginianus henryi._

Range.--United States west of the Plains.

A similar bird to the preceding, but with plumage somewhat more rusty.
It frequents the more open portions of the country in its range, its
habits and nesting habits being the same as others of the former
species; the eggs average a trifle lighter in color.


420b. FLORIDA NIGHTHAWK. _Chordeiles virginianus chapmani._

Range.--A smaller and paler form found in Florida and along the Gulf
coast. No difference can be observed in the nesting habits of this as
compared with the northern form and the eggs are indistinguishable.

[Illustration 268: Nighthawk.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 267

[Illustration 269: J. E. Seebold.
NEST AND EGGS OF NIGHTHAWK.]

Page 268

420c. SENNETT'S NIGHTHAWK. _Cordeiles virginianus sennetti._

Range.--A very pale species with little or no tawny; found in the Great
Plains from Texas north to the Saskatchewan; winters south of the United
States.


421. TEXAS NIGHTHAWK. _Chordeiles acutipennis texensis._

Range.--Mexico and Central America, breeding north to southern Utah and
California.

The pattern of the marking of this species is finer and more mottled
with rusty than the Nighthawk. Its habits do not differ to any extent
from those of the preceding species; they lay their two mottled gray
eggs upon the bare ground, often on the dry sand and in arid regions
where they are exposed, with no protection, to the scorching rays of the
sun. The eggs vary endlessly in extent of markings, some being very pale
and others very dark gray, mottled with various shades of gray, brown
and lilac. Size 1.10 x .75.


SWIFTS. Family MICROPODIDÆ

422. BLACK SWIFT. _Cypseloides niger borealis._

Range.--Mountain ranges from Central America north to British Columbia,
locally distributed throughout its range.

The plumage of this Swift is entirely sooty black, darkest above; the
tail is slightly forked and is without spines; length of bird, 7 inches.
Although the general habits of this species are well known, little is
known of their nesting; they are seen during the breeding season about
the higher ranges throughout their United States habitat, and are
supposed to nest in crevices on the face of cliffs at a high altitude.

[Illustration 270: 420-421.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: 422-424.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 269

423. CHIMNEY SWIFT. _Chætura pelagica._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from central Canada,
south to the Gulf coast, and wintering south of our borders.

This well known species is sooty brownish black, 5.5 inches long, and
has the tail feathers terminating in sharp spines. They are very
abundant in all portions of their range, and may be seen on the wing at
all hours of the day, but especially abundant in the early morning and
toward dusk. They formerly dwelt and bred only in hollow trees, and a
great many still continue to do so, as large hollow stumps are known
where hundreds nest every year. The majority of the eastern Chimney
Swifts now nest in old chimneys that are unused, at least during the
summer; some small chimneys contain but a single pair while other large
ones may have from fifty to a hundred or more nests glued to the sides.
The birds are on the wing during the greater part of the day, generally
not frequenting the vicinity of their nesting site, but returning toward
dusk, when they may

[Illustration 271: Chimney Swift.]
[Illustration: E. R. Forrest. NEST AND EGGS OF CHIMNEY SWIFT.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 270

be seen to, one at a time, dive headforemost into the tops of chimneys.
The nest is made of small twigs firmly glued to the sides of the
chimney, or tree, and to each other, with the glutinous saliva of the
bird, making a narrow semi-circle platform for the reception of their
three to five white eggs which are deposited in May or June; size .75 ×
.50.


424. VAUX'S SWIFT. _Chætura vauxi._

Range.--Western United States, chiefly west of the Rockies; breeding
north to British Columbia, and wintering south of the United States.

Similar to the last but smaller (length 4.5 inches), and paler in color,
fading to white on the throat. The habits of this species are like those
of the eastern Chimney Swift, except that the majority of these species
still continue to use hollow trees as nesting places. The eggs are just
like those of the last bird.


425. WHITE-THROATED SWIFT. _Æronautes melanoleucus._

Range.--Western United States south of Canada, and chiefly in the Rocky
Mountains, and in California ranges, north to Lat. 38°.

A handsome species, 6.5 inches in length, with blackish upper parts and
sides, and white throat, breast and central line of under parts, flank
patches and ends of secondaries; tail feathers not spined or stiffened.
These birds are fairly common in some localities within their range, but
appear to be found only on high ranges or in their immediate vicinity.
They nest in crevices and caves in the face of cliffs, making a nest
similar in construction to that of the Chimney Swift but of weed stalks
instead of twigs, and lined with feathers. They lay four or five dull
white eggs, during June or July; size .85 × .50.

[Illustration 272: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 425--426.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 271

HUMMINGBIRDS. Family TROCHILIDAE

Hummingbirds have been truly called "Winged Gems." They are the smallest
of birds, the usual plumage being a metallic green with throat or crown
patches of the brightest of iridescent shining red, orange, blue or
violet. Their nests are marvels of architecture being compactly and
intricately made of plant fibres and downy feathers ornamented in some
cases with lichens. Their flight is accompanied by a peculiar buzzing
sound produced by their rapidly vibrating stiffened wing feathers. Their
food is small insects and honey both of which they get chiefly from
flowers.


426. RIVOLI'S HUMMINGBIRD. _Eugenes fulgens._

Range.--Mexico, north in summer to southern Arizona where they breed at
high elevations in the Huachuca Mountains.

This is one of the most gorgeous of the Hummers having the crown a
violet purple color, and the throat brilliant green. This species
saddles its nest upon branches often at heights of 20 or 30 feet from
the ground. They are made of plant down and generally decorated with
lichens on the outside, similar to nests of the Ruby-throat. The two
white eggs measure .65 × .40.


427. BLUE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD. _Cyanolæmus clemenciæ._

Range.--Mexico, north in summer to the border of Arizona and western New
Mexico.

This species is the largest of North American Hummers being 5.25 inches
long, this being slightly larger than the preceding. As the name
implies, it has a patch of blue on the throat, the upper parts being a
uniform greenish; the outer tail feathers are broadly tipped with white.
Their nests, which are placed upon the limbs of trees, are made of
mosses and plant fibres covered with cobwebs. The two eggs are laid
during July and August, and measure .65 × .40.

[Illustration 273: 427--429.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 272

[Illustration 274: J. H. Miller.
FEMALE RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD ON NEST.]

Page 273

428. RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD. _Archilochus colubris._

Range.--North America east of the Plains and north to Labrador.

This is the only representative of the family found east of the
Mississippi. It is a small species, 3.5 inches long, with greenish upper
parts and a bright ruby throat. Its nest is as beautiful, if not more
so, than that of any other species. They build their nests on horizontal
limbs of trees at any height from the ground, but usually more than six
feet. Branches an inch or more in diameter are usually selected, they
not being particular as to the kind of tree, but oaks, pines and maples
perhaps being used the most often. The nests are made of plant fibres
and down, and the exterior is completely covered with green lichens so
that it appears like a small bunch of moss on the limb. The two white
eggs are laid in May or June; size .50 × .35.


429. BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD. _Archilochus alexandri._

Range.--North America west of the Rocky Mountains; north to British
Columbia; winters south of the United States.

Similar in size and appearance to the Ruby-throat, but with the chin and
upper throat black, the rest of the throat gorget being violet or
amethyst. It is an abundant species in summer in many localities,
especially in the southern half of its range. They build their nests at
low elevations, rarely above ten feet, on small branches or the fork at
the end of a limb. The nests are made of yellowish plant fibres and are
not covered with lichens, so that they have a peculiar spongy
appearance. Eggs indistinguishable from those of the Ruby-throat. Laid
during April, May or June.

[Illustration 275: Ruby-throated Hummingbird.]
[Illustration:]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 274

[Illustration 276: RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD.]

Page 275

430. COSTA'S HUMMINGBIRD. _Calypte costæ._

Range.--Southwestern United States; north to southern Utah; winters
south of our border.

Smaller than the last and with both the crown and the throat gorget,
violet or amethyst, the feathers on the sides of the latter being
lengthened. Their nests are situated in the forks of branches generally
near the ground, and seldom above six feet from it. They are made of
plant down with shreds of weeds, bark and lichens worked into the
outside portions, and are often lined with soft feathers. The two eggs
average .48 × .32. Data.--Arroyo Seco, California, June 10, 1900. Nest
in an alder bush. Collector, Charles E. Groesbeck.


431. ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD. _Calypte anna_.

Range.--Pacific coast of the United States from northern California,
southward, wintering in Mexico and southern California.

This handsome species has both the crown and the broadened and
lengthened throat gorgets, a purplish pink; it is slightly larger than
the Ruby-throat. They are very abundant in their restricted range, and
nest in February and March and again in April or May, raising two broods
a season. Their nests are made of plant down and covered on the outside
with cobwebs and a few lichens, and are generally located at a low
elevation. The white eggs average .50 × .30. Data.--Santa Monica,
California, March 4, 1897. Nest in a bunch of seed pods in a gum tree,
ten feet from the ground. Collector, Tom Bundy.

[Illustration 277: 430--431.]
[Illustration.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 276

432. BROAD-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD. _Selasphorus platycercus._

Range.--Rocky Mountain regions, north to Wyoming; winters south of the
United States.

This species is similar to the Ruby-throat, but larger and with the back
more golden green color, and the throat shining lilac. They are very
abundant in Colorado and Arizona, nesting as do the Ruby-throats in the
east, and their nests being similar in construction and appearance to
those of that species. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of
other species.


433. RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD. _Selasphorus rufus._

Range.--Western North America, breeding from the Mexican border north to
Alaska and fairly abundant in most of its range.

A handsome little species with the back and tail reddish brown, and with
a throat gorget of orange red, the feathers being slightly lengthened
into a ruff on the side of the gorget. They nest in a great variety of
locations and at a low elevation, such as vines, bushes and the low
hanging branches of trees. The nest is made of vegetable fibres covered
with cobwebs and often with lichens. The eggs do not differ from those
of the other Hummers.

[Illustration 278: 432--433--434.]
[Illustration:.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 277

434. ALLEN'S HUMMINGBIRD. _Selasphorus alleni._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia southward; most abundant in
California. Winters in Mexico.

This species is like the last, but the back is greenish, only the tail
being reddish brown. These birds generally locate their nests at low
elevations near the end of overhanging branches, on vines, weed stalks,
or bushes, but have been found as high as 90 feet above ground. The
nests of this species are made of plant fibres and cobwebs, generally
decorated with lichens. The two white eggs measure .50 × .32.
Data.--Santa Monica, Cal., May 29, 1896. Nest two feet from the ground
in a sage bush. Collector, W. Lee Chambers.

[Illustration 279.]
[Illustration: E. L. Bickford. ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 278

435. MORCOM'S HUMMINGBIRD. _Atthis morcomi._

Range.--This species is known only from a single specimen, taken in the
Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, in 1896.


436. CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD. _Stellula calliope._

Range.--Western United States from British Columbia southward, and from
the Rocky Mountains west to eastern Oregon and California.

This is the smallest of North American Hummers, being but 3 inches in
length. It is greenish above and has a violet gorget showing the white
bases of the feathers. They build their nests in all manner of locations
from high up in tall pines to within a foot of the ground in slender
bushes. The nests are made interiorly with plant down, but the outside
is generally grayish colored shreds and lichens. The eggs average but a
trifle smaller than those of _colubris_, .45 × .30.


437. LUCIFER'S HUMMINGBIRD. _Calothorax lucifer._

Range.--Mexico, north to southwestern Texas and Arizona.

This species, which is common in parts of Central Mexico, occurs only
casually north to our borders and has not yet been found nesting there.
They build small compact nests of plant down attached to the stalks or
leaves of plants or weeds.


438. REIFFER'S HUMMINGBIRD. _Amizilis tzacatl._

Range.--Abundant in southern Mexico; casual in southern Texas.

This species is greenish above, with a bronzy lustre; the tail is
reddish brown, and the throat and breast are metallic green. They breed
abundantly about houses and nest apparently at all seasons of the year
in Central America, where they are the most common species of Hummers.

[Illustration 280: 436--437--438.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 279

439. BUFF-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD. _Amizilis cerviniventris chalconota._

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward through Mexico.

These birds are like the last but have the underparts a pale brownish
buff color. They are quite common in their summer range in the United
States, nesting at a low elevation in bushes and low trees. The two eggs
are white, .50 × .35. Data.--Brownsville, Texas, May 5, 1892. Nest of
fine bark-like fibre on the outside, lined with lint from thistle plant;
located on limb of small hackberry. Collector, Frank G. Armstrong.


440. XANTUS' HUMMINGBIRD. _Basilinna xantusi._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

A handsome species, greenish above, with a coppery tinge and shading
into reddish brown on the tail; under parts buffy, throat metallic
green, and a broad white streak behind the eye. They breed on the ranges
making a similar nest to those of other Hummers, placed on weeds or
bushes near the ground. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of
the majority of other species.


440.1. WHITE-EARED HUMMINGBIRD. _Basilinna leucotis._

Range.--A Central American and Mexican species, casually found on the
ranges in Southern Arizona.

The plumage of this species is greenish above and below, being metallic
green on the breast; the forehead, sides of head, and throat are
iridescent blue and a white line extends back from the eye.


441. BROAD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD. _Cynanthus latirostris._

Range.--Mountains of central Mexico north to southern Arizona and New
Mexico.

The throat of this species is a rich metallic blue; otherwise the
plumage is greenish above and below, being brighter and more irisdescent
on the breast. They are not uncommon on the ranges of southern Arizona,
where they have been found nesting in July and August, their nest not
being unlike those of the Rufous Hummer, but with the exterior largely
composed of shreds of grayish bark and lichens. Their eggs are like many
others of the Hummers.

[Illustration 281: 439--440.1--441.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 280

PERCHING BIRDS. Order XVII. PASSERES

COTINGAS. Family COTINGIDAE

441.1. XANTUS BECARD. _Platypsaris aglaiæ albiventris._

Range.--Mexico; north casually to the southern border of Arizona.

This peculiar species is grayish above and lighter gray below, has dark
slaty crown, and a patch of rose color on the lower throat. This is the
only representative of this tropical family that has been found as yet
over the Mexican border, but its near ally, the Rose-throated Becard has
been found within a very few miles and will doubtless be added to our
fauna as an accidental visitor ere long. Their nests are large masses of
grasses, weeds, strips of bark, etc., partially suspended from the forks
of branches. Their eggs number four or five and are a pale buffy gray
color, dotted and scratched with a pale reddish brown and dark gray.
Size .95 × .70. The one figured is from a set in the collection of Mr.
Crandall, taken June 1, 1897 at Presidio Sinaloa, Mexico.


FLYCATCHERS. Family TYRANNIDÆ

Flycatchers, which are found only in America and chiefly in the tropics,
are insect-eating birds, generally having a grayish colored plumage,
sometimes adorned with a slight crest or a coronal mark of orange, red,
or yellow. Only two of the species found in North America are gaudy in
plumage, the Vermilion, and the Derby Flycatchers. They all have the
habit of sitting erect on a dead twig, and watching for passing insects,
which they catch on the wing.


442. FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER. _Muscivora tryannus._

Range.--A Central and South American species accidentally having
occurred in the United States on several occasions.

This is a handsome black, white and gray species of the size and form of
the next.

[Illustration 282: Buffy gray.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 281

443. SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER. _Muscivora forficata._

Range.--Mexico, north through Texas to southern Kansas; accidental in
other parts of the country.

The Scissor-tail or "Texan Bird of Paradise" is the most beautiful
member of this interesting family. Including its long tail, often 10
inches in length and forked for about 6 inches, this Flycatcher reaches
a length of about 15 inches. It is pale grayish above, fading into
whitish below, and has scarlet linings to the wings, and a scarlet crown
patch. They are one of the most abundant of the breeding birds in Texas,
placing their large roughly built nests in all kinds of trees and at any
elevation, but averaging between ten and fifteen feet above ground. The
nests are built of rootlets, grasses, weeds and trash of all kinds, such
as paper, rags, string, etc. The interior is generally lined with plant
fibres, hair or wool. They lay from three to five, and rarely six eggs
with a creamy white ground color, more or less spotted and blotched with
reddish brown, lilac and gray, the markings generally being most
numerous about the larger end. They average in size about .90 × .67.
Data.--Corpus Christi, Texas, May 18, 1899. 6 eggs. Nest of moss, vines,
etc., on small trees in open woods near town. Collector, Frank B.
Armstrong.


444. KINGBIRD. _Tyrannus tyrannus._

Range.--Temperate North America, breeding from the Gulf of Mexico north
to New Brunswick, Manitoba and British Columbia; rare off the Pacific
coast.

This common Tyrant Flycatcher is very abundant in the eastern parts of
its range. They are one of the most pugnacious and courageous of birds
attacking and driving away any feathered creature to which they take a
dislike, regardless of size. Before and during the nesting season, their
sharp, nerve-racking clatter is kept up all day long, and with redoubled
vigor when anyone approaches their nesting site. They nest in any kind
of a tree, in fields or open woods, and at any height from the ground,
being found on fence rails within two feet of the ground or in the tops
of pines 70 or 80 feet above the earth. Nearly every orchard will be
found to contain one or

[Illustration 283: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Scissor-tailed Flycatcher.]
[Illustration: Cream color.]
[Illustration: Kingbird.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 282

more pairs of these great insect destroyers; if more than one pair,
there will be continual warfare as often as one encroaches on the
domains of the other. Their nests are made of strips of vegetable fibre,
weeds, etc., and lined with horsehair or catkins. They are sometimes
quite bulky and generally very substantially made. The three to five
eggs are laid the latter part of May, and are of a creamy ground color
splashed with reddish brown and lilac. Size .95 × .70. Data.--Worcester
County, Massachusetts, June 3, 1895. 4 eggs. Nest 10 feet from the
ground in an apple tree; made of fibres, string, rootlets and weeds,
lined with horse hair. Collector, F. C. Clark.

[Illustration 284: G. E. Moulthrope. NEST AND EGGS OF KINGBIRD.]

Page 283

445. GRAY KINGBIRD. _Tyrannus dominicensis._

Range.--West Indies; north in April to Florida and the South Atlantic
States to South Carolina and casually farther.

This species is slightly larger than our Kingbird, (9 inches long),
grayish instead of dark drab above, white below, and without any white
tip to tail. Like the common Kingbird, it has a concealed orange patch
on the crown. Their habits and nesting habits are the same as those of
our common bird, but the nest is not generally as well built, and nearly
always is made largely of twigs. The three or four eggs have a creamy or
a creamy pink ground color, spotted and blotched with dark brown and
lilac, most numerously about the large end. Size 1.00 × .73. Tarpon
Springs, Florida, May 28, 1802. Nest of twigs and weeds in a low bush.
Collector, J. A. Southley.


446. COUCH'S KINGBIRD. _Tyrannus melancholicus couchi._

Range.--Mexico, north in summer to southern Texas.

This species is very similar to the next but the throat and breast are
white, and the underparts a brighter yellow. Like the other members of
this genus, these build their nests in any location in trees or bushes,
making them of twigs, weeds and moss. Their three or four eggs have a
creamy ground with a pinkish cast and are spotted with brown and lilac.
Size .97 × .12.


447. ARKANSAS KINGBIRD. _Tyrannus verticalis._

Range.--Western United States and southern British Provinces from Kansas
and Minnesota west to the Pacific.

This species has grayish upper parts, shading into darker on the wings
and tail, and lighter on the throat and upper breast; the underparts are
yellow, and there is a concealed patch of orange on the crown. They are
very abundant throughout the west, where they have the same familiar
habits of the eastern species, nesting in all sorts of locations such as
would be used by the latter. Their nests are made of plant fibres,
weeds, string, paper or any trash that may be handy, being sometimes
quite bulky. Their eggs do not differ in any particular from those of
the eastern bird, except that they may average a little smaller. Size
.95 × .65.

[Illustration 285: Creamy.]
[Illustration: Gray Kingbird.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: Arkansas Kingbird.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 284

448. CASSIN'S KINGBIRD. _Tyrannus vociferans._

Range.--Western United States from the Rocky Mountain region to
California, and from Wyoming southward.

This species is like the last except that the throat and breast are
darker. Their habits, nesting habits and eggs are indistinguishable from
those of the other Tyrant Flycatchers, and they are fully as courageous
in the defense of their homes against either man or bird, their notes
resembling those of the common Kingbird of the east.


449. DERBY FLYCATCHER. _Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus._

Range.--Mexico and Central America, breeding north to southern Texas.

This handsome bird is the largest of the Flycatcher family found in the
United States, being 11 inches in length. It has a black crown enclosing
a yellow crown patch; a broad black stripe from the bill, through the
eye and around the back of the head, is separated from the crown by a
white forehead and line over the eye; the throat is white shading into
yellow on the underparts. They are abundant in the interior of Mexico,
but can hardly be classed as common over our border, where they nest in
limited numbers. Their nests are unlike those of any of our other
Flycatchers being large masses of moss, weeds and grass, arched over on
top and with the entrance on the side. The three or four eggs are creamy
white, sprinkled chiefly about the large end with small reddish brown or
umber spots; size 1.15 × .85.

[Illustration 286: Buff.]
[Illustration: Derby Flycatcher.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 285

451. SULPHUR-BELLIED FLYCATCHER. _Myiodynastes luteiventris._

Range.--Mexico and Central America, breeding north to the Mexican border
of Arizona.

This peculiar Flycatcher, which is unlike any other American species,
can only be regarded as a rare breeding bird in the Huachuca Mts. It is
8 inches in length, has a grayish back streaked with black, the tail
largely rusty brown and the underparts sulphur yellow, streaked on the
breast and sides with dusky; a yellow crown patch is bordered on either
side by a stripe of mottled dusky, and is separated from the blackish
patch through the eye, by white superciliary lines. Their habits are
similar to those of the genus Myiarchus, and, like them, they nest in
cavities in trees, and lay from three to five eggs of a creamy buff
color thickly spotted and blotched with brown and purplish, the markings
not assuming the scratchy appearance of the Crested Flycatchers, but
looking more like those of a Cardinal; size of egg 1.05 × .75.
Data.--Huachuca Mts., Arizona, June 29, 1901. 4 eggs. Nest in the
natural cavity of a live sycamore tree about fifty feet from the ground;
composed of twigs. Collector, O. W. Howard.


452. CRESTED FLYCATCHER. _Myiarchus crinitus._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains, and from New Brunswick and
Manitoba southward; winters from the Gulf States southward.

This trim and graceful, but quarrelsome, species is grayish on the head,
neck, and breast, shading to greenish on the back and quite abruptly
into bright yellow on the underparts; the head is slightly crested and
the inner webs of all the lateral tail feathers are reddish brown. They
are abundant in most of their range but are generally shy so they are
not as often seen as many other more rare birds. They nest in cavities
of any kind of trees and at any elevation from the ground, the nest
being made of twigs, weeds and trash, and generally having incorporated
into its make-up a piece of cast off snake skin. They lay from four to
six eggs of a buffy color, blotched and lined with dark brown and
lavender. Size .85 × .65.

[Illustration 287: Creamy buff.]
[Illustration: Crested Flycatcher.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 286

453. ARIZONA CRESTED FLYCATCHER. _Myiarchus magister magister._

Range.--Southern Arizona and New Mexico, south through Mexico.

This bird is very similar to, but averages slightly larger than the
Mexican Flycatcher. Its nesting habits are the same and the eggs cannot
be distinguished from those of the latter, the nest being most
frequently found in giant cacti.


453a. MEXICAN CRESTED FLYCATCHER. _Myiarchus magister nelsoni._

Range.--Mexico, north to southern Texas.

This species is similar to the last but is considerably paler. They are
common in some localities, nesting in holes in trees or stumps, often
those deserted by Woodpeckers. Their eggs are like those of the last but
average paler. Data.--Corpus Christi, Texas, May 10, 1899. Nest in hole
in telegraph pole; made of red cow hair, feathers and leaves. 4 eggs.
Collector, Frank B. Armstrong.


454. ASH-THROATED FLYCATCHER. _Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens._

Range.--North America, west of the Plains and south of Canada.

Similar to the others of the genus but grayish brown above and with the
underparts much paler, the throat and breast being nearly white. Like
the others they nest in cavities in trees, either natural or ones made
by Woodpeckers. Their four to five eggs are lighter in color than those
of crinitus but cannot be distinguished from those of the Mexican
Crested Flycatcher.

[Illustration 288: 453--454.]
[Illustration: Pale buff.]
[Illustration: no caption.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 287

454b. LOWER CALIFORNIA FLYCATCHER. _Myiarchus cinerascens pertinax._

Range.--Lower California.

This sub-species is similar to Nutting Flycatcher but paler below and
grayish above.


455a. OLIVACEOUS FLYCATCHER. _Myiarchus lawrencei olivascens._

Range.--Western Mexico, north to southern Arizona.

This is the smallest of the genus found in the United States, being but
7 inches in length. Except for size it is similar to _crinitus_ but with
very little, if any, rusty brown on tail, except for a slight edging on
the outer web. Their nesting sites are the same as those chosen by the
other Crested Flycatcher, but their eggs appear to have but little of
the scratchy appearance of the other members. They are pale buffy,
speckled and spotted with brown and lilac; size .80 × .60.
Data.--Toluca, Mexico, May 20, 1895. Nest of brown hair and feathers, in
hole in tree in woods. Collector, Fred T. Francis.


456. PHŒBE.. _Sayornis phœbe._

Range.--North America, east of the Rockies and north to Nova Scotia.

These very common, grayish colored birds are very often known as "Bridge
Birds" because of the frequency with which they construct their nests
under bridges and arches; they also build in crevices in ledges or among
the hanging roots near the tops of embankments, and on the rafters or
beams of old buildings. The nests are made of mud, moss and grass, lined
with feathers. The four or five eggs measure .75 × .55. Occasionally,
eggs will be found that have a few minute spots of reddish brown. Freak
situations in which to locate their nests are often chosen by these
birds, such as the brake beam of a freight car, in the crevices of old
wells, hen houses, etc. The birds are one of the most useful that we
have; being very active and continually on the alert for insects and
beetles that constitute their whole bill of fare.

[Illustration 289: Buffy.]
[Illustration: Phœbe.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 288

[Illustration 290: G. E. Moulthrope.
PHOEBE ON NEST.]

Page 289

457. Say's Phœbe. _Sayornis sayus._

Range.--Western United States, breeding from southern United States,
north to the Arctic regions, and from Kansas and Wisconsin westward.
Winters in Mexico.

This bird is slightly larger than the last (7.5 inches long), and is
rusty brown color on the belly and lower breast. Like the eastern Phœbes
they are one of the earliest birds to return in the spring and are
abundant in the greater parts of their range. Like the latter, they
often raise two broods a season, one in April and another in July. Their
nests are generally placed on narrow shelves and crevices of ledges, but
they also nest as commonly about houses and farms as does the eastern
bird. The nests are made of weeds, mosses, fibres and wool, and are
quite flat. They lay four or five white eggs. Size .78 x .58.


458. BLACK PHŒBE. _Sayornis nigricans._

Range.--Mexico and north in summer into the bordering States.

This species is of the size of the last but is blackish (darkest on the
head and breast), with a white belly and under tail coverts, the latter
streaked with dusky. Their habits and nesting habits are the same as
those of the eastern Phœbe, they building their nests of mud, moss,
weeds and feathers on ledges or about buildings, and generally close to
or in the vicinity of water. They breed during April or May, laying four
or five white eggs which cannot be distinguished from those of the
common Phœbe. Size .75 x .55.


458a. WESTERN BLACK PHŒBE. _Sayornis nigricans semiatra._

Range.--Pacific Coast of Mexico and the United States, breeding north to
Oregon.

This variety differs from the last in having the under tail coverts pure
white. Its nesting habits are precisely the same and the eggs
indistinguishable.

[Illustration 291: 457-458.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 290

459. OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER. _Nuttallornis borealis._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding from the Middle States and
California northward, and in the Rockies, south to Mexico; winters south
of the United States.

These Flycatchers are nowhere abundant, and in some parts of the
country, especially in the middle portion, they are very rare. They
breed very locally and generally not more than one pair in any locality.
In New England, I have always found them nesting in company with Parula
Warblers, in dead coniferous swamps in which the branches are covered
with long pendant moss. Their nests are placed high up in the trees,
generally above fifty feet from the ground, and on small horizontal
limbs; they are made of small twigs and rootlets, lined with finer
rootlets and moss, and are very flat and shallow; as they are generally
made to match the surrounding, they are one of the most difficult nests
to find. They lay three or four cream colored eggs which are spotted
with reddish brown and lilac, chiefly about the large end. Size .85 x
.65. Data.--Lake Quinsigamond, Massachusetts, June 12, 1897. Nest of
twigs and moss, about 60 feet above the ground, in a dead pine tree in
center of a large wet swamp. Nest could not be seen from the ground, and
was found by watching the birds.

[Illustration 292: Olive-sided Flycatcher.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 291

460. COUES'S FLYCATCHER. _Myiochanes pertinax pallidiventris._

Range.--Western Mexico, breeding north to central Arizona.

This Flycatcher builds one of the most artistic nests created by
feathered creatures. It bears some resemblance on the exterior to that
of the next species, but it is much more firmly made, and the walls are
usually higher, making a very deeply cupped interior. The outside of the
nest is made of fibres, cobwebs, catkins, etc., firmly felted together
and ornamented with green lichens to match the limb upon which it is
saddled. The interior is heavily lined with dried, yellowish grasses,
making a very strong contrast to the exterior. They are fairly abundant
birds in the ranges of southern Arizona, where they nest generally
during June. They lay three eggs of a rich creamy color, spotted and
blotched, chiefly about the larger end, with reddish brown and lilac
gray. Size .95 x .61. Data.--Huachuca Mts., Arizona, July 8, 1897. 3
eggs. Nest in a yellow pine about 60 feet up and near the extremity of a
long slender limb. Elevation 7000 feet. Collector, O. W. Howard.


461. WOOD PEWEE. _Myiochanes virens._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains and north to the southern
parts of the British Provinces. Winters south of the United States.

This is one of the best known and one of the most common frequenters of
open woods, where all summer long its pleasing notes may be heard,
resembling "Pee-a-wee" or sometimes only two syllables "pee-wee." They
nest on horizontal limbs at elevations of six feet or over, making
handsome nests of plant fibres and fine grasses, covered on the exterior
with lichens; they are quite shallow and very much resembles a small
knot on the limb of the tree. They lay three or four eggs of a cream
color spotted in a wreath about the large end, with reddish brown and
lavender; size .80 x .55. Data.--Torrington, Conn., June 16, 1890. Nest
of fibres covered with lichens, saddled on the branch of an oak tree
near roadside. Collector, John Gath.

[Illustration 293: Cream color.]
[Illustration: Wood Pewee.]
[Illustration: Cream color.]
[Illustration: Chickadee Family.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 292

[Illustration 294: Guy H. Briggs.
NEST AND EGGS OF WOOD PEWEE.]

Page 293

462. WESTERN WOOD PEWEE. _Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni._

Range.--Western United States from the Plains to the Pacific, and from
Manitoba southward, wintering south of the United States.

The nesting habits of this bird are the same as those of the eastern
Pewee, but their nests are more strongly built and generally deeper, and
without the outside ornamentation of lichens. They are saddled upon
horizontal branches, like those of the preceding, as a rule, but are
also said to have been found in upright crotches like those of the Least
Flycatcher. Their three or four eggs cannot be distinguished from those
of the eastern Wood Pewee.


462a. LARGE-BILLED WOOD PEWEE. _Myiochanes richardsoni peninsulæ._

Range.--This species which differs from the last only slightly, as is
indicated by the name, inhabits the peninsula of Lower California; its
nesting habits and eggs will not differ from those of the other Pewees.


463. YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax flaviventris._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains and north to Labrador; winters
south of the United States.

This species is slightly larger than the Least Flycatcher and is more
yellowish above and below, the breast being quite bright. While common
in some districts it is quite shy and frequents thickly wooded regions,
where it is not very often seen. They nest near or on the ground among
rocks or roots of fallen trees, chiefly in swampy places; the nests are
made in bunches of moss, hollowed out and lined with very fine grasses.
Their four eggs are creamy or buffy white, spotted and speckled about
the larger end with reddish brown and gray; size .68 × .51.


464. WESTERN FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax difficilis difficilis._

Range.--Western North America, from the Rocky Mountain region to the
Pacific, and north to Alaska; winters chiefly south of the United
States.

This Flycatcher, which is similar to the last, nests in similar
locations as well as in many others, such as crevices and fissures in
rocks, holes in banks, cavities in trees, rafters in buildings, etc. The
nests are variously made, but consist chiefly of fine grasses, weeds and
fibres. The eggs are as a rule similar to those of the last species and
cannot be distinguished.

[Illustration 295: Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Acadian Flycatcher.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 294

464a. SAN LUCAS FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax difficilis cineritius._

Range.--Lower California.

This species is similar to, but duller in plumage than the Western
Flycatcher. Their nesting habits do not probably vary from those of the
latter.


465. ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax virescens._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern New
England, and in the Mississippi Valley to Manitoba.

This species is very pale below and greenish yellow on the back. They
are among the latest of the migrants to reach our borders and arrive in
the Middle States about the latter part of May, when they are quite
common. They build semi-pensile nests in the forks of bushes or
overhanging branches at heights of from four to twenty feet, the nests
being made of rootlets, fibres, fine grasses, etc., and partially
suspended from the branch; they are quite shallow and loosely
constructed and often appear more like a bunch of debris deposited in
the fork by the wind than like the creation of a bird. Their three or
four eggs are buffy, spotted or specked with brown; size .75 × .55.


466. TRAILL'S FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax trailli trailli._

Range.--Western North America, from the Mississippi Valley to the
Pacific; winters south of the United States.

This species is very similar to the next, but the back is said to be
more brownish. They are common and nest abundantly in thickets and low
scrubby woods, usually placing the nest at a low elevation, preferably
in a clump of willows; the nests are made of fine strips of bark, plant
fibres, and very fine rootlets being woven about and firmly fastened in
upright crotches. Their eggs, which are laid in June, are buffy white,
specked and spotted, chiefly at the large end, with brownish; size .70 ×
.54.

[Illustration 296: 464--466.]
[Illustration: Buffy.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 295

466a. ALDER FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax trailli alnorum._

Range.--United States, east of the Mississippi and north to New
Brunswick.

The only difference between this and the preceding variety is in the
more greenish upper parts. They are quite abundant in the breeding
season from New England and northern New York northward, frequenting, to
a great extent, alder thickets bordering streams. Their nests and eggs
do not differ appreciably from those of the western variety of Traill
Flycatcher.


467. LEAST FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax minimus._

Range.--North America, east of the Rockies and north to the interior of
Canada, wintering south of the United States.

These little birds (5.5 inches long) are common about houses and
orchards on the outskirts of cities, and on the edges of forests or open
woods. They are very frequently known by the name of Chebec from their
continually uttered note. In nearly all instances, the nests are placed
in upright forks at elevations varying from four to twenty-four feet
from the ground. The nests are made chiefly of plant fibres, fine
grasses, string, cobwebs, etc., and the three to five eggs are pale
creamy white; size .65 × .50.


468. HAMMOND'S FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax hammondi._

Range.--North America, west of the Rockies and from British Columbia
southward, wintering south of the United States.

This western representative of the Least Flycatcher is less abundant and
more shy, but has the same nesting habits as the eastern birds, placing
its nests either in upright crotches or, more rarely, upon horizontal
branches at a low elevation. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those
of the last species.


469. WRIGHT'S FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax wrighti._

Range.--Western United States, breeding from the Mexican border to
Oregon and wintering south of the United States.

A very similar bird to the last but whiter below. It is a much more
abundant species than the last and is found breeding in open woods and
thickets on all the ranges. The nests are built like those of the Least
Flycatcher and nearly always are found in the crotch of trees or bushes
at a low elevation; their nests, like those of the two preceding
species, bear a strong resemblance to those of the Yellow Warblers which
are found in the same localities and locations. The eggs are pale creamy
white, four in number and measure .68 × .52.

[Illustration 297: Least Flycatcher.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 462--469--469.1.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 296

469.1. GRAY FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax griseus._

Range.--Lower California, north to southern California.

This is a slightly larger species than the preceding and is grayish
above and paler below, with little or no tinge of brownish or yellow. As
far as I can learn its eggs have not yet been taken.


470a. BUFF-BREASTED FLYCATCHER. _Empidonax fulvifrons pygmæus._

Range.--Western Mexico, north to southern New Mexico and Arizona.

This small bird, which is but 4.75 inches in length, is brownish gray
above and brownish buff below. It is not a common species anywhere, but
is known to nest during June or July, on high mountain ranges, saddling
its nest of fibres, covered with lichens, on horizontal boughs at quite
an elevation from the ground. The eggs are pale buffy white, unspotted,
and measure .60 × .50.


471. VERMILLION FLYCATCHER. _Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus._

Range.--Mexico, north regularly to southern Texas, Arizona and New
Mexico.

This is one of the most gaudy attired of all North American birds, being
brownish gray on the back, wings and tail, and having a bright
vermillion crown, crest and underparts. They are quite common in
southern Texas, but far more abundant in the southern parts of Arizona.
Their habits do not differ from those of other Flycatchers, they living
almost exclusively upon insects. The majority of their nests can not be
distinguished from those of the Wood Pewee, being covered with lichens
and saddled upon limbs in a similar manner, but some lack the mossy
ornamentation. Their three or four eggs are buffy, boldly blotched with
dark brown and lavender, chiefly in a wreath about the middle of the
egg; size .70 × .50. Data.--San Pedro River, Arizona, June 10, 1899.
Nest in the fork of a willow about 20 feet above the stream. Collector,
O. W. Howard.


472. BEARDLESS FLYCATCHER. _Camptostoma imberbe._

Range.--Central America; north casually to the Lower Rio Grande in
Texas.

This strange little Flycatcher, several specimens of which have been
taken in the vicinity of Lomita, Texas, is but 4.5 inches in length,
grayish in color and has a short bill, the upper mandible of which is
curved. It has all the habits peculiar to Flycatchers. Their eggs have
not as yet been found as far as I can learn.

[Illustration 298: Vermillion Flycatcher.]
[Illustration: Buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 297

LARKS. Family ALAUDIDÆ

473. SKYLARK. _Alauda arvensis._

Range.--Old World, straggling casually to Greenland and Bermuda.

This noted foreigner has been imported and liberated a number of times
in this country, but apparently is not able to thrive here, a fact which
will not cause much regret when we remember the experiment with the
English Sparrow. They are abundant in Europe and Great Britain where
they nest on the ground in cultivated fields or meadows, laying from
three to five grayish eggs, marked with brown, drab and lavender.


474. HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris alpestris._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding in Labrador and about Hudson
Bay; winters in eastern United States south to Carolina.

This variety of this much sub-divided species is 7.5 inches in length,
has brownish gray upper parts and is white below with black patches on
the breast and below the eye, yellowish throat and small black ear
tufts. The various subspecies are all marked alike, their distinction
being based upon slight differences in size, variations in the shade of
the back, or the greater or less intensity of the yellowish throat and
superciliary stripe. The nesting habits of all the varieties are the
same and the eggs differ only in the shade of the ground color, this
variation among the eggs of the same variety being so great that an egg
cannot be identified without knowing the locality in which it was taken.
The present variety build their nests on the ground generally under
tufts of grass or in hollows in the moss which is found in their
breeding range, making them of dried grasses and generally lining them
with feathers. The eggs are grayish with a slight greenish tinge, and
are specked and spotted over the whole surface with drab, brownish and
dark lavender. The eggs of this and the next variety average
considerably larger than those of the more southerly distributed
varieties; size .92 × .65.


474a. PALLID HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris arcticola._

Range.--Breeds in Alaska and winters south to Oregon and Montana.

This is the largest of the Horned Larks and has the throat white, with
no trace of yellow. Its nest is built in similar locations and the eggs
are like those of the preceding species.

[Illustration 299: Grayish.]
[Illustration: Horned Lark.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 298

474b. PRAIRIE HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris praticola._

Range.--Breeds in the Mississippi Valley from Illinois north to Manitoba
and east to the Middle States; winters south to Carolina and Texas.

This sub-species is considerably smaller than the Horned Lark, and the
throat is paler yellow, while the line over the eye and the forehead is
white. They are the most abundant and have the most extended range of
any of the better known species. In the Mississippi Valley, where they
are of the most common of the nesting birds, they build on the ground in
meadows or cultivated fields, and very often in cornfields; the nests
are made of grasses and lined with horse hairs or feathers, and placed
in slight hollows generally under a tuft of grass or sods. They raise
two broods a season and sometimes three, laying the first set of eggs in
March and another in June or July. The three or four eggs have an olive
buff ground and are thickly sprinkled with drab and lavender; size .83 ×
.60.


474c. DESERT HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris leucolæma._

Range.--Plains of western United States, east of the Rockies and west of
Kansas and Dakota; breeds north to Alberta, and winters south to Mexico,
Texas and southern California.

This species is like _praticola_, but paler on the back; nest and eggs
the same.


474d. TEXAS HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris giraudi._

Range.--Coast of southeastern Texas.

A pale variety like _leucolæma_, but smaller; throat bright yellow, and
breast tinged with yellow. Nest and eggs like those of the others.


474e. CALIFORNIA HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris actia._

Range.--Lower California and southern California.

This bird is similar to the last but the yellow areas are brighter, and
the nape and back are ruddy.


474f. RUDDY HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris rubea._

Ranges--Sacramento Valley, California.

This variety has the yellow areas brighter than in any other and the
back and nape are more ruddy. The eggs cannot be distinguished from
those of the others.

[Illustration 300: Olive buff.]
[Illustration: 474c--474e--474f.]
[Illustration: Olive buff.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 299


474g. STREAKED HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris strigata._

Range.--Northwestern United States (Washington, Oregon and northern
California).

Similar to the last, but with the back broadly streaked with black, the
ruddy less intense and the underparts tinged with yellowish.


474h. SCORCHED HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris adusta._

Range.--Western Mexico, north in summer to southern Arizona.

This variety has the back and nape nearly a uniform pinkish ruddy with
but little streaking.


474i. DUSKY HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris merrilli._

Range.--Northwestern United States and southern British Columbia,
wintering south to central California.

Similar to _praticola_ but slightly darker above.


474j. SONORA HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris pallida._

Range.--Gulf coast of northern Lower California.

The upperparts of this variety are very pale pinkish brown.


474k. HOYT'S HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris hoyti._

Range.--Interior of British America, west of Hudson Bay and east of
Alaska, south in winter in the interior of the United States to Kansas.

Much larger than the last; equal in size and similar to _articola_ but
with the throat yellowish and the upperparts darker and brighter.


474l. MONTEZUMA HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris occidentalis._

Range.--Western New Mexico and eastern Arizona, south in winter to
northern Mexico.

This variety has the upperparts pale brownish and not streaked; throat
and forehead yellowish.


474m. ISLAND HORNED LARK. _Otocoris alpestris insularis._

Range.--Santa Barbara Islands, California.

Similar to _strigata_ but darker. With the exception of the three large
varieties of Horned Larks found north of our borders, neither the eggs
nor, in most cases, the birds can be identified without the precise
location where they were taken.

[Illustration deco (301).]
[Illustration right hand border.]

Page 300

CROWS, JAYS, MAGPIES, ETC. Family CORVIDÆ.


475. MAGPIE. _Pica pica hudsonia._

Range.--Western North America from the Great Plains to the Pacific and
from Alaska to Arizona and New Mexico.

These large handsome birds have the entire head, neck and breast velvety
black, abruptly defined against the white underparts. The back, wings
and tail are greenish or bluish black, and the scapulars, white; length
of bird 20 inches. They are well known throughout the west, where their
bold and thievish habits always excite comment. They nest in bushes and
trees at low elevations from the ground, making a very large nest of
sticks, with an opening on the side, and the interior is made of weeds
and mud, lined with fine grasses; these nests often reach a diameter of
three feet and are made of quite large sticks. During April or May, they
lay from four to eight grayish white eggs, plentifully spotted with
brown and drab. Size 1.25 x .90.


476. YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE. _Pica nuttalli._

Range.--Middle parts of California, west of the Sierra Nevadas.

This species is slightly smaller than the last and has a yellowish bill
and lores, otherwise being precisely like the more common species. Their
habits do not differ from those of the other, the nests are the same and
the eggs are indistinguishable. Size 1.25 x .88.

[Illustration 302: Magpie.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 301

[Illustration 303: R. B. Rockwell.
NEST OF AMERICAN MAGPIE.]

Page 302

[Illustration 304: YOUNG BLUE JAYS.]

Page 303


477. BLUE JAY. _Cyanocitta cristata cristata._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains and north to Hudson Bay;
resident and very abundant in its United States range.

These beautiful and bold marauders are too well known to need
description, suffice it to say that they are the most beautiful of North
American Jays; but beneath their handsome plumage beats a heart as cruel
and cunning as that in any bird of prey. In the fall, winter and spring,
their food consists largely of acorns, chestnuts, berries, seeds, grain,
insects, lizards, etc., but during the summer months they destroy and
devour a great many eggs and young of the smaller birds, their taste for
which, being so great that they are known to watch a nest until the full
complement of eggs is laid before making their theft. They nest in open
woods or clumps of trees, indifferently, in pines or young trees,
building most often below twenty feet from the ground; the nests are
made of twigs and rootlets, lined with fine rootlets. During May they
lay from four to six eggs of a greenish buff color spotted with olive
brown. Size 1.10 x .80.


477a. FLORIDA BLUE JAY. _Cyanocitta cristata florincola._

Range.--Florida and the Gulf coast.

The nesting habits and eggs of this smaller sub-species are the same as
those of the northern Blue Jay. Like our birds, they frequently nest
near habitations.


478. STELLER'S JAY. _Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri._

Range.--Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska; resident and
breeding throughout its range.

All the members of this sub-species are similar in plumage, having a
sooty black head, crest and neck, shading insensibly into dark bluish on
the back and underparts, and brighter blue on the wings and tail. They
usually have a few streaks or spots of pale blue on the forehead. They
are just as noisy, bold and thievish as the eastern Jay and are also
excellent mimics like the latter. They nest in fir trees at any height
from the ground and in April or May deposit their three to six greenish
blue eggs which are spotted with various shades of brown. Size 1.25 x
.90. Their nests are more bulky than those of the eastern Jay and are
usually made of larger sticks and held together with some mud.


478a. BLUE-FRONTED JAY. _Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis._

Range.--Coast ranges of California and Oregon.

The nesting habits and eggs of this variety are indistinguishable from
those of the preceding. The bird has more blue on the forehead.


478b. LONG-CRESTED JAY. _Cyanocitta stelleri diademata._

Range.--Southern Rocky Mountains from Arizona to Wyoming.

No general difference can be found between the eggs of this species and
the Steller Jay, and the nests of each are constructed similarly and in
like situations.

[Illustration 305: Blue Jay.]
[Illustration: Greenish buff.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 304

[Illustration 306: Dr. J. B. Pardoe. YOUNG BLUE JAYS.]

Page 305

[Illustration 307: BLUE JAY.]

Page 306

478c. BLACK-HEADED JAY. _Cyanocitta stelleri annectens._

Range.--Northern Rocky Mountains from northern Colorado to British
Columbia.

The eggs of this sub-species cannot be identified from those of the
other varieties. Like the others, their nests are made of sticks
plastered together with mud and lined with weeds and rootlets.


478d. QUEEN CHARLOTTE JAY. _Cyanocitta stelleri carlottæ._

Range.--Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.


479. FLORIDA JAY. _Aphelocoma cyanea._

Range.--Locally distributed in Florida.

All the birds of this genus have no crests or decided markings, are
white or grayish below, and more or less intense blue above, with the
back grayish or brownish blue. This species is 11.5 inches long, has a
pale blue crown and a nearly white forehead. It has a very limited
distribution, being confined chiefly to the coast districts of middle
Florida, and very abundant in some localities and rare in adjoining
ones. They build shallow structures of small sticks and weeds lined with
fine rootlets and placed at low elevations in bushes or scrubby trees.
The three or four eggs, which are laid in April or May are dull greenish
blue, marked with olive brown. Size 1.00 x .80. Data.--Titusville, Fla.,
April 17, 1899. Nest of sticks in a scrub oak, five feet from the
ground.


480. WOODHOUSE'S JAY. _Aphelocoma woodhousei._

Range.--United States west of the Rockies and from Oregon and Wyoming to
Mexico.

This species has the crown and forehead bluish, and the underparts gray,
streaked with bluish gray on the breast. It is also larger than the
last, being 12 inches long. They are very abundant in the Great Basin
between the Rockies and the Sierra Nevadas, breeding during April or May
in scrubby trees or bushes at low elevations and generally near streams.
They lay from three to five eggs of a dull bluish green color, spotted
with umber and lilac gray. Size 1.08 x .80. Data.--Iron County, Utah,
May 3, 1897. 4 eggs. Nest of sticks and weeds in a small pine tree.

[Illustration 308: Florida Jay.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: 480-487.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 307

480.1. BLUE-EARED JAY. _Aphelocoma cyanotis._

Range.--Interior of Mexico north to the southern boundary of Texas.

The nesting habits of this species are the same as those of the others
of the genus and the eggs are similar but the markings are generally
more prominent and larger. Size 1.10 × .80.


480.2. TEXAS JAY. _Aphelocoma texana._

Range.--Southeastern Texas.

It is not likely that the eggs of this species differ essentially from
those of many of the others.


481. CALIFORNIA JAY. _Aphelocoma californica californica._

Range.--Pacific coast of California and Washington.

This is a very abundant species both about habitations and in low
woodlands. They are very bold and familiar, stealing everything they may
take a fancy to, and frequently robbing smaller birds of their eggs and
young. They are said to be more tame and familiar than the eastern Blue
Jay, thereby bringing their bad habits much more frequently to the
attention of the masses. They nest most often in bushes or low trees,
but not as a rule, far above the ground. Their eggs are a bright bluish
green color, speckled and spotted with brownish and lavender. Size
1.10 × .80.


481a. XANTUS'S JAY. _Aphelocoma californica hypoleuca._

Range.--Lower California.

The habits and nests and eggs of this lighter colored variety do not
differ from those of the California Jay.

481b. BELDING'S JAY. _Aphelocoma californica obscura._

Range.--San Pedro Martir Mts. Lower California.

A darker variety of the California Jay, whose nesting habits will not
differ in any essential particular.


481.1. SANTA CRUZ JAY. _Aphelocoma insularis._

Range.--Santa Cruz Island, California.

This species is the largest and darkest colored bird of the genus
_Aphelocoma_. It is said to be a very abundant species on the island
from which it takes its name, and to have the habits and traits common
to all the members of the Jay family. The nesting habits are the same as
those of the others, but the eggs are slightly larger, averaging 1.15 ×
.85. Set of three in the collection of John Lewis Childs, taken by R. H.
Beck on May 10, 1897.


482. ARIZONA JAY. _Aphelocoma sieberi arizonæ._

Range.--Arizona and southwestern New Mexico south into Mexico.

[Illustration 309: Bright bluish green.]
[Illustration: 482--484a--485.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 308

482a. COUCH'S JAY. _Aphelocoma sieberi couchi._

Range.--Eastern Mexico, north to western Texas.


483. GREEN JAY. _Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens._

Range.--Northeastern Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

This handsome species has a bright blue crown and patches under the
eyes, the rest of the upper parts being greenish; throat and sides of
head black, underparts greenish white. This gaudy and noisy bird has all
the habits common to other Jays including that of robbing birds' nests.
They build generally in tangled thickets or low bushes, placing their
nests at a low elevation and making them of twigs, weeds, moss, etc.,
lined with fine rootlets. Their four or five eggs, which are laid during
April or May, are grayish buff in color, spotted with various shades of
brown and lavender gray. Size 1.20 × .85.


484. CANADA JAY. _Perisoreus canadensis canadensis._

Range.--Southeastern British Provinces and the adjacent portions of the
United States; west to the Rockies.

This is the bird that is well known to hunters of "big game" by various
names such as "Whiskey Jack", "Moose Bird", "Camp Robber", etc. During
the winter months, owing to the scarcity of food, their thieving
propensities are greatly enhanced and they remove everything from the
camps, which looks as though it might be edible. Birds of this genus are
smoky gray on the back and lighter below, shading to white on the
throat; the forehead and part of the crown is white and the nape
blackish. Their nests are placed at low elevations in bushes or fir
trees, and are usually very different from any of the preceding Jays'
nests. They are nearly as high as wide, and are made of small twigs,
moss, catkins, weeds and feathers making a soft spongy mass which is
placed in an upright crotch. The eggs are a yellowish gray color spotted
and blotched with brown and grayish. Size 1.15 × .80. Data.--Innisfail,
Alberta, March 12, 1903. Nest a beautiful structure of twigs, moss and
feathers in a willow bush, 6 feet from the ground. The thermometer
registered 32 below zero the day the eggs were taken. Collector, W.
Blackwood.

[Illustration 310: Green Jay.]
[Illustration: Grayish buff.]
[Illustration: Grayish.]
[Illustration: Canada Jay.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 309

484a. ROCKY MOUNTAIN JAY. _Perisoreus canadensis capitalis._

Range.--Rocky Mountains from Montana to Arizona.

This variety has the whole crown white and only a small amount of
blackish on the nape. Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely like
those of the last.


484b. ALASKA JAY. _Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons._

Range.--Alaska.

A very similar bird to the Canada Jay but with the forehead yellowish or
duller; the nests and eggs are like those of the others of the genus.


484c. LABRADOR JAY. _Perisoreus canadensis nigricapillus._

Range.--Labrador.

This is a darker variety of the Canada Jay. Its eggs cannot be
distinguished from those of any of the others of the genus.


485. Oregon Jay. _Perisoreus obscurus obscurus._

Range.--Mountain ranges from northern California to British Columbia.

These birds are very similar to _canadensis_ but have the whole
underparts white. Like the Canada Jays they appear to be wholly fearless
and pay little or no attention to the presence of mankind. Their nesting
habits and eggs are the same as the preceding except that they have
generally been found nesting near the tops of tall fir trees. Size of
eggs, 1.05 × .80.

[Illustration 311: NEST AND EGGS OF CANADA JAY SHOWING CONSTRUCTION.]
[Illustration right hand margin.]

Page 310

[Illustration 312: YOUNG CROWS]

Page 311

485a. GRAY JAY. _Perisoreus obscurus griseus._

Range.--British Columbia to northern California, east of the coast
ranges.

This bird is said to be larger and grayer than the preceding.


486. RAVEN. _Corvus corax sinuatus._

Range.--North America west of the Rockies and from British Columbia
southward.

The Raven is like a very large Crow, length 24 inches, but has the
feathers on the neck lengthened and stiffened. Their habits are similar
to those of the Crow, but more dignified, and they remain mated for
life. Besides grasshoppers and worms, they feed largely upon animal
matter such as lizards, shell fish, frogs, eggs and young of birds, and
carrion. They nest on ledges of high inaccessible cliffs or the tops of
tall trees, making large nests of sticks lined with smaller ones and
hair or wool; the eggs are laid in April or May, number from four to
seven, and are light greenish in color, blotched with umber and drab.
Size 1.95 × 1.25.


486a. NORTHERN RAVEN. _Corvus corax principalis._

Range.--Eastern North America chiefly north of the United States and
northwest to Alaska; south on some of the higher ranges to Georgia.

This variety is like the last but is larger. They are not nearly as
abundant as the western form and are very rare within the United States.
A few pairs still breed on some of the rocky islands off the coast of
Maine; more off New Brunswick and Newfoundland, and they are quite
common on the cliffs of Labrador and Alaska. Their nesting habits and
eggs are like those of the last.


487. WHITE-NECKED RAVEN. _Corvus cryptoleucus._

Range.--Mexico and the border of the United States; north to eastern
Kansas.

This small Raven is of about the size of the Crow, and has the bases of
the neck feathers white. They are very abundant in some localities,
especially in southern Arizona. Their food consists chiefly of animal
matter, the same as the large Ravens, and they are not nearly as shy,
frequently feeding in camps upon refuse which is thrown out to them.
They build at low elevations in any tree, but preferably in mesquites,
making their nests of sticks and lining them with hair, leaves, bark,
wool or anything soft. During June they lay from four to six pale bluish
green eggs, generally sparingly spotted or scratched with dark brown and
drab. Size 1.75 × 1.20.

[Illustration 313: Pale greenish white.]
[Illustration: Pale bluish green.]
[Illustration right hand margin.]

Page 312

488. CROW. _Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos._

Range.--Whole of North America south of the Arctic Circle; most abundant
in eastern United States; rare in many localities in the west.

These birds, against which the hand of every farmer is uplifted, are
very shy and cunning; as is well known, they nearly always post a
sentinel in some tree top to keep watch while the rest of the flock is
feeding in the field below. In the fall and winter, large numbers of
them flock, and at night all roost in one piece of woods; some of the
"crow roosts" are of vast extent and contain thousands of individuals.
Crows nest near the tops of large trees, preferably pines, either in
woods or single trees in fields. Their nests are made of sticks and
lined with rootlets, and the eggs, which are laid in April or May, range
from four to seven in number, are a bluish or greenish white, sparingly
or very densely speckled, spotted and blotched with various shades of
brown and lilac. Size 1.60 × 1.15.


488a. FLORIDA CROW. _Corvus brachyrhynchos pascuus._

Range.--Florida.

This variety has a slightly shorter tail and wings than the last.


490. FISH CROW. _Corvus ossifragus._

Range.--Northwest coast from Oregon to Alaska.

This small Crow which is but 16 inches in length, is found only on the
coast, where they feed upon shell fish and offal. They nest, as do the
Ravens, either on ledges or in tree tops. The eggs resemble those of the
common Crow, but are smaller. Size 1.55 × 1.05.


489. NORTHWESTERN CROW. _Corvus caurinus._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, north in summer to Connecticut.

From Virginia southward, this small Crow (length 16 inches) is more
abundant on the coast than the common Crow which is often in company
with this species. Their food consists of grain, berries, and animal
matter. Their nesting habits are like those of the common Crow and the
eggs are similar and have as great variations, but are smaller. Size
1.45 × 1.05.

[Illustration: American Crow. American Raven.]
[Illustration 314: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Left hand margin.]

Page 313

491. CLARKE'S NUTCRACKER. _Nucifraga columbiana._

Range.--Mountains of western North America from Mexico to Alaska.

The Clarke Crow, as this bird is often known, is a common resident in
most of its range. The adults are grayish with black wings and central
tail feathers, the tips of the primaries and outer tail feathers being
white. Their tail is short and their flight slow and somewhat undulating
like that of some of the Woodpeckers. Their food consists of anything
edible from seeds and larvæ in the winter to insects, berries, eggs and
young birds at other seasons. In the spring they retire to the tops of
ranges, nearly to the limit of trees, where they build their large nests
of sticks, twigs, weeds, strips of bark, and fibres matted together so
as to form a soft round ball with a deeply cupped interior; the nest is
located at from ten to forty feet from the ground in pine trees and the
eggs are laid early before the snow begins to leave. They are three in
number, grayish in color with a greenish tinge and finely spotted over
the whole surface with dark brown and lavender. Size 1.30 × .90.
Data.--Salt Lake Co., Utah, April 25, 1900. Nest placed in pine 40 feet
up on a horizontal branch, and not visible from below. The tree was at
the upper edge of a pine forest at an altitude of about 3000 feet above
Salt Lake City. The nest was discovered by seeing the parent fly into
the tree; the next day a nest was found with three young nearly ready to
fly. Collector, W. H. Parker. This set of three eggs is in the oological
collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall.


492. PINON JAY. _Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus._

Range.--Western United States between the Rockies and Sierra Nevadas,
and from southern British Columbia to Arizona.

This Crow-like Jay has a nearly uniform bluish plumage, and is found
abundantly in the pine belts of its range. Their habits are similar to
those of the Clarke Crow and the nests are similarly built at lower
elevations in pines or junipers. During April or May they lay from three
to five eggs of a bluish white color specked and spotted with brown.
Size 1.20 × .85.

[Illustration 315: Clarke's Nutcracker.]
[Illustration: Grayish blue.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 314

STARLINGS. Family STURNIDÆ


493. STARLING. _Sturnus vulgaris._

Range.--A European species which has casually been taken in Greenland.
It was liberated a number of years ago in Central Park, New York City,
and has now become abundant there and is spreading slowly in all
directions.

They build their nests in all sorts of locations such as are used by the
English Sparrow, wherever they can find a sufficiently large crevice or
opening; less often they build their nests in trees, making them of
straw, twigs and trash. They lay from four to six pale bluish green
eggs; size 1.15 × .85. Two broods are reared in a season.


BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. Family ICTERIDÆ

494. BOBOLINK. _Dolichonyx oryzivorus._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from New Jersey north to Nova
Scotia and Manitoba, and west to Utah and Nevada; winters in South
America.

This black and white bird is well known in the east, where his sweet,
wild music, often uttered on the wing, is much admired. He sings all day
long during May and June to his Sparrow-like mate, who is sitting on her
nest concealed in the meadow grass. They are quite sociable birds and
several pairs often nest in the same field, generally a damp meadow; the
nests are hollows in the ground, lined with grass and frequently with
the top slightly arched to conceal the eggs, which are grayish white,
clouded, spotted and blotched with brownish, gray and lilac; size .84 ×
.62. They number from four to six and are laid in June.


495. COWBIRD. _Molothrus ater ater._

Range.--North America from the Atlantic to eastern California, and from
New Brunswick and Manitoba southward; winters from the southern half of
the United States southward.

[Illustration 316: Starling.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: Bobolink.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 315

These uncivilized members of the bird world build no nests for
themselves, but slyly deposit their egg in the nest of some other bird
from the size of a Robin down, probably the greater number being in
Warblers and Sparrows nests; the eggs are hatched and the young cared
for by the unfortunate birds upon which they are thrust. The eggs are
white, spotted and speckled all over, more or less strongly with brown
and yellowish brown; size .85 × .64.


495a. DWARF COWBIRD. _Molothrus ater obscurus._

Range.--Southwestern United States and Mexico, wintering south of our
borders.

This variety is like the last, but slightly smaller. The nesting habits
of the two are identical and the eggs are indistinguishable. It is
believed that Cowbirds do more damage to the smaller birds than all
other dangers combined, as their young being larger and stronger either
crowd or smother the other young or else starve them by getting most of
the food brought to the nest.


496. RED-EYED COWBIRD. _Tangavius æneus involucratus._

Range.--Mexico; north in summer to the Lower Rio Grande in Texas.

This parasite is larger than the Cowbird, being 9 inches long, and is
glossy black with brassy reflections on the upper and under parts. They
are abundant in southern Texas where they deposit their eggs in the
nests of other birds, apparently preferring those of Orioles; their eggs
are pale bluish green, unmarked; size .90 × .70.


497. YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD. _Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus._

Range.--North America west of the Mississippi to eastern California,
breeding from the southern parts of the United States north to British
Columbia and Hudson Bay and wintering from southern United States
downward.

This large handsome Blackbird with bright yellow head and breast is very
abundant in some parts of the west, where they nest in large colonies in
sloughs and marshes, being especially abundant in the Dakotas and
Manitoba. The nests are made of strips of rushes, skillfully woven
together and attached to upright cane near the surface of the water.
They lay from four to six eggs having a grayish white ground color,
finely specked and spotted with shades of brown and gray; size 1.00 ×
.70.

[Illustration 317: White.]
[Illustration: Cowbird.]
[Illustration: Light blue-green.]
[Illustration: Yellow-headed Blackbird.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 316

498. RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD. _Agelaius phœniceus phœniceus._

Range.--North America east of the Rockies and from the southern British
Provinces southward to the Gulf; winter in southern United States.

These birds are familiar to every frequenter of the country, in their
range; too familiar to many, for the enormous flocks do considerable
damage to grain fields in the fall. They also do a great amount of good
at other seasons in the destruction of injurious insects and weed seed.
They breed from April in the southern parts of their range to May and
June in the northern, making their nests of grasses, woven and twisted
together and placing them in bushes in swamps or over water, and
sometimes on the ground in clumps of grass. Their eggs are from three to
five in number, bluish white boldly spotted, clouded or lined with
blackish brown and purplish. Size 1.00 × .70. The nests and eggs of the
numerous sub-species are all precisely the same as those of this bird,
so we will but enumerate the varieties and their range. To identify
these varieties other than by their ranges will require micrometer
calipers and the services of the men who separated them.


498a. SONORA RED-WING. _Agelaius phœniceus sonoriensis._

Range.--A slightly larger variety found in southern United States.


498b. BAHAMA RED-WING. _Agelaius phœniceus bryanti._

Range.--Bahamas and southern Florida.

This species has a slightly longer bill.


498c. FLORIDA RED-WING. _Agelaius phœniceus floridanus._

Range.--Florida and Gulf coast.

A smaller species with a longer bill.


498d. THICK-BILLED RED-WING. _Agelaius phœniceus fortis._

Range.--Breeds in the interior of British America; in winter south
through the Plains to southwestern United States.


498e. SAN DIEGO RED-WING. _Agelaius Phœniceus neutralis._

Range.--Great Basin between the Rockies and Sierra Nevadas, from British
Columbia to Mexico, wintering in the southern parts of its range.


498f. NORTHWESTERN RED-WING. _Agelaius phœniceus caurinus._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to British Columbia.

[Illustration 318: Red-winged Blackbird.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration left hand margin.]

Page 317

499. Bicolored Red-wing. _Agelaius gubernator californicus._

Range.--Pacific coast, west of the Sierra Nevadas, from Washington south
to Lower California.

The males of this species are distinguished from those of the Red-wings
by the absence of light margins to the orange red shoulders. They are
fairly abundant in their restricted localities, building their nests in
swamps about ponds and streams. The nests are like those of the
Red-wings, and the eggs are similar and with the same great variations
in markings, but average a trifle smaller; size .95 × .67.


500. TRICOLORED RED-WING. _Agelaius tricolor._

Range.--Pacific coast of California and Oregon; rare east of the Sierra
Nevadas.

This species differs from the Red-wing in having the shoulders a much
darker red and the median coverts white instead of buffy. Like the last
species they have a limited range and are nowhere as common as are the
Red-wings in the east. Their nests are like those of the Red-wings and
the eggs are not distinguishable in their many variations, but they
appear to be more often lined than those of the former.


501. MEADOWLARK. _Sturnella magna magna._

Range.--North America east of the Plains and north to Nova Scotia and
Manitoba; winters from New England southward.

This handsome dweller among our fields and meadows is frequently heard
giving his high, pleasing, flute-like whistle with its variations; his
beautiful yellow breast with its black crescent is not so frequently
seen in life, for they are usually quite shy birds. They artfully
conceal their nests on the ground among the tall grass of meadows,
arching them over with dead grass. During May or June they lay from four
to six white eggs, speckled over the whole surface with reddish brown
and purplish; size 1.10 × .80.


501a. Rio Grande Meadowlark. _Sturnella magna hoopesi._

Range.--A brighter and slightly smaller variety found along the Mexican
border.

[Illustration 319: Dull bluish white.]
[Illustration: Meadowlark.]
[Illustration: Dull bluish white.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 500--501.1.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 318

[Illustration 320: R. H. B. Beebe.
NEST AND EGGS OF MEADOWLARK.]

Page 319

501.1. WESTERN MEADOWLARK. _Sturnella neglecta._

Range.--North America west of the Mississippi and from Manitoba and
British Columbia southward, its range overlapping that of the eastern
Meadowlark in the Mississippi Valley, but the two varieties appear not
to intermingle. This variety is paler than the eastern, but the greatest
point of difference is in the songs, they being wholly unlike, and that
of the western bird much louder, sweeter and more varied than the simple
whistle of the eastern form. The nesting habits of both varieties are
the same and the eggs indistinguishable.


501c. SOUTHERN MEADOWLARK. _Sturnella magna argutula._

Range.--Florida and the Gulf coast.

A very similar bird to the northern form but slightly smaller and
darker. There is no difference between the eggs of the two varieties.


503. AUDUBON'S ORIOLE. _Icterus melanocephalus auduboni._

Range.--Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

This large Oriole has a wholly black head, neck, fore breast, tail and
wings; it is 9.5 inches in length. They are quite abundant and resident
in southern Texas where they build at low elevations in trees,
preferably mesquites, making the nests of woven grasses and hanging them
from the small twigs of the trees; the nests are more like those of the
Orchard Oriole and not long and pensile like those of the Baltimore. The
three to five eggs are grayish white, blotched, clouded, spotted or
streaked with brownish and purple. Size 1.00 x .70. Data.--Brownsville,
Texas, April 6, 1897. 5 eggs. Nest of threads from palmetto leaves,
hanging from limb of mesquite, 10 feet above ground in the open woods.
Collector, Frank B. Armstrong.

[Illustration 321: Audubon Oriole.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco-photo.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 320

504. SCOTT'S ORIOLE. _Icterus parisorum._

Range.--Western Mexico north to the adjoining states; north to Nevada.

This handsome black and yellow species does not appear to be abundant in
any part of its range. Their nests are swung from the under side of
leaves of the yucca palm or from small branches of low trees, and are
made of grass and fibres. The eggs are bluish white, specked and
blotched chiefly about the large end with blackish brown and lilac gray.
Size .95 X .65. Data.--Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, June 5, 1900. Nest
placed on the under side of a yucca palm leaf, being hung from the
spines, about 4 feet from the ground. Altitude 7000 feet. Collector, O.
W. Howard.


505. SENNETT'S ORIOLE. _Icterus cucullatus sennetti._

Range.--Mexico, north in summer to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

This species is orange yellow except for the face, throat, fore back,
wings and tail, which are black; the wings are crossed by two white
bars. These handsome birds are the most abundant of the Orioles on the
Lower Rio Grande, where their pure mellow whistle is heard at frequent
intervals throughout the day. They generally build their nests in
hanging moss from mesquite trees, turning up at the ends and lining the
pocket with moss, or else make a shallow hanging nest of fibres and
suspend it from yuccas. During May or June they lay from three to five
eggs of a white color, spotted (rarely lined) with purplish brown and
gray. Size .85 × .60.

505a. ARIZONA HOODED ORIOLE. _Icterus cucullatus nelsoni._

Range.--Western Mexico; in summer north to southern Arizona, New Mexico
and California.

This variety is like the last but more yellowish. Their nests are made
of a wiry grass compactly woven together and partially suspended to
mistletoe twigs growing from cottonwood trees; nests of this type are
perfectly distinct from those of the preceding, but when they are made
of fibre and attached to yuccas, they cannot be distinguished from nests
of the former variety. Their eggs are similar to those of the Hooded
Oriole, but generally more strongly marked and usually with some zigzag
lines. Size .85 × .60.

[Illustration 322: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Hooded Oriole.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 321

506. ORCHARD ORIOLE. _Icterus spurius._

Range.--United States, east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to
southern New England, and Canada in the interior. Winters beyond our
borders.

The adult male of this species is a rich chocolate brown and black, it
requiring three years to attain this plumage. They nest commonly about
habitations in their range, usually preferring orchard trees for sites.
Their nests are skillfully woven baskets of fresh grasses, about as high
as wide; they are generally placed in upright forks and well concealed
by drooping leaves. They lay from four to six bluish white eggs, spotted
and blotched with brown and lavender. Size .80 × .55. Data.--Avery's
Island, La., May 10, 1896. Nest of grass, lined with thistledown;
semi-pensile in drooping twigs of a willow. Collector, F. A. McIlhenny.


507. BALTIMORE ORIOLE. _Icterus galbula._

Range.--North America, east of the Rockies, breeding from southern
United States north to New Brunswick and Saskatchewan.

This beautiful and well known eastern Oriole can readily be identified
by its orange flame color and entirely black head. Even better known
than the birds, are the pensile nests which retain their positions on
the swaying drooping branches all through the winter. Although they
build in many other trees, elms seem to be their favorites. Their nests
are made of plant fibres and frequently string, and often reach a length
of about 10 inches and about half that in diameter; they are usually
attached to drooping branches by the rim so that they rock to and fro,
but are sometimes held more firmly in position by having their side
bound to a branch. Their eggs, which are laid in May and June, are
white, streaked and lined with blackish brown and grayish. Size .90 ×
.60.

[Illustration: Arizona Hooded Oriole. Orchard Oriole.]
[Illustration 323: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Baltimore Oriole.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 322

508. BULLOCK'S ORIOLE. _Icterus bullocki._

Range.--North America, west of the Plains and from British Columbia
southward, wintering in Mexico.

This handsome species is as abundant in the west as the Baltimore Oriole
is in the east, and breeds throughout its United States range. Their
nests are similarly made and in similar locations, and the eggs are
hardly distinguishable from those of the preceding, but the ground color
is generally of a pale bluish white tint and the markings are usually
finer, the lines running around the eggs and often making a very
handsome wreath about the large end. Size of eggs, .94 × .62.


509. RUSTY BLACKBIRD. _Euphagus carolinus._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from northern New
England and the Adirondacks northward; winters in southern United
States.

But few of these birds breed within our borders, the majority of them
passing on to the interior of Canada. They generally nest in pairs, or
at the most three or four pairs in a locality, building their large
substantial nests of moss, twigs and grass, lined with fine green grass;
this structure is situated in bushes or low trees in swampy places and
at from 3 to 20 feet from the ground. The eggs are laid in May or June;
they vary from three to five in number, of a pale bluish green color,
spotted, blotched and clouded with shades of brown and gray. Size .96 ×
.71.


510. BREWER'S BLACKBIRD. _Euphagus cyanocephalus._

Range.--North America west of the Plains, and from British Columbia and
Saskatchewan southward.

This western representative of the preceding is of about the same size
(10 inches long), but differs in having a purplish head and greenish
black body. They nest abundantly throughout their range either in bushes
or trees at low elevations or upon the ground; the nests are made of
sticks, rootlets and grasses, lined with finer grass and moss, and the
eggs, which are very variable, are dull whitish, clouded and blotched
with brownish and streaked with blackish. Size 1.00 × .75.

[Illustration 324: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Rusty Blackbird. Brewster's Blackbird.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: Dull white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 323

511. PURPLE GRACKLE. _Quiscalus quiscula quiscula._

Range.--Eastern United States from the Gulf to Massachusetts; winters
along the Gulf.

This species, which is commonly known as Crow Blackbird, nests in trees
or bushes anywhere in its range, and on the coast frequently constructs
its nests among the large sticks of Ospery nests. Large pines appear to
be favorite sites for them to locate their large nests of twigs, weeds,
grass and trash. They are placed at any elevation from nearly on the
ground to 50 feet above it. The eggs range from three to five and are
greenish white, splashed, spotted and scrawled with various shades of
brown and gray, and with streaks of black. Size 1.10 × .80. The nesting
habits and eggs of the sub-species of this Grackle do not differ in any
particular. Like those of this variety the eggs show an endless number
of patterns of markings.


511a. FLORIDA GRACKLE. _Quiscalus quiscula aglæus._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States.

A smaller variety of the preceding; length about 11 inches. Eggs
indistinguishable.


511b. BRONZED GRACKLE. _Quiscalus quiscula æneus._

Range.--North America east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to
Hudson Bay and Labrador. Winters in the southern parts of the United
States. This is the most common and widely distributed of the Crow
Blackbirds and is distinguished by the brassy color of the upper parts.


513. BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE. _Megaquiscalus major major._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States; north to Virginia.

This handsome bird measures about 16 inches in length, is iridescent
with purplish and greenish, and has a very long, graduated and hollowed
tail. These Grackles are very abundant residents along the Gulf,
breeding in large colonies in swamps, placing their nests of weeds,
moss, grasses, etc., in bushes, trees, canes or rushes, but a few inches
above the water, while those in trees are sometimes 50 feet above the
ground. The eggs are laid in March, April or May, are from three to five
in number, and are a dull bluish or grayish white, streaked, lined,
clouded and blotched with brown, black and gray; size 1.25 × .95.

[Illustration 325: Dull greenish white.]
[Illustration: Purple Grackle. Bronzed Grackle.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration right hand margin.]

Page 324

513a. GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE. _Megaquiscalus major macrourus._

Range.--Mexico to southern and eastern Texas.

This variety is larger than the last (length 18 inches) and the tail is
very broad and flat. Like the former, they nest in bushes, rushes or
trees at any elevation from the ground. The nests are built of the same
materials and the eggs are similar to those of the Boat-tailed Grackle,
but larger; size 1.28 × .88.


FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. Family FRINGILLDÆ

514. EVENING GROSBEAK. _Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina._

Range.--Western United States in the Rocky Mountain region; north to
Saskatchewan; south in winter to Mississippi Valley and casually east to
New England and the intermediate states.

These are dull and yellowish birds, shading to brownish on the head;
with a bright yellow forehead and susperciliary line, black wings and
tail, and white inner secondaries and greater coverts. They breed in the
mountainous portions of their range, placing their flat nests of sticks
and rootlets in low trees or bushes. The eggs are laid in May or June
and are greenish white spotted and blotched with brown; size .90 × .65.


514a. WESTERN EVENING GROSBEAK. _Hesperiphona vespertina montana._

Range.--Western United States, breeding in the mountains from New Mexico
to British Columbia.

The nesting habits and eggs of this variety are the same as those of the
preceding, and the birds can rarely be separated.


515. PINE GROSBEAK. _Pinicola enucleator leucura._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from northern New England
northward, and wintering to southern New England and Ohio and casually
farther. They build in conifers

[Illustration 326: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Evening Grosbeak.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Pine Grosbeak.]
[Illustration left hand margin.]

Page 325

making their nests of small twigs and rootlets, lined with fine grasses
and lichens. During the latter part of May or June they lay three or
four eggs, which have a ground color of light greenish blue, spotted and
splashed with dark brown, and with fainter markings of lilac. Size 1.00
× .70. Pine Grosbeaks have been separated into the following
sub-species, the chief distinction between them being in their ranges.
The nesting habits and eggs of all are alike.


515a. ROCKY MOUNTAIN PINE GROSBEAK. _Pinicola enucleator montana._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico to Montana.


515b. CALIFORNIA PINE GROSBEAK. _Pinicola enucleator californica._

Range.--Higher parts of the Sierra Nevadas in California.


515c. ALASKA PINE GROSBEAK. _Pinicola enucleator alascensis._

Range.--Interior of Northwest America from Alaska south to British
Columbia.


515d. KADIAK PINE GROSBEAK. _Pinicola enucleator flammula._

Range.--Kadiak Island and the southern coast of Alaska.


516. CASSIN'S BULLFINCH. _Pyrrhula cassini._

Range.--Northern Asia; accidental in Alaska.


517. PURPLE FINCH. _Carpodacus purpureus purpureus._

Range.--North America east of the plains, breeding from the Middle
States north to Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in the United States.

These sweet songsters are quite abundant in New England in the summer,
but more so north of our borders. While they breed sometimes in trees,
in orchards, I have nearly always found their nests in evergreens,
usually about three-fourths of the way up. The nests are made of fine
weeds and grasses and lined with horse hair. The eggs, which are usually
laid in June, are greenish blue, spotted with dark brownish; size .85 ×
.65.


517a. CALIFORNIA PURPLE FINCH. _Carpodacus purpureus californicus._

Range.--Pacific coast, breeding from central California to British
Columbia and wintering throughout California.

The nesting habits and eggs of this darker colored variety are just like
those of the last.

[Illustration 327: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Purple Finch.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: 515b--517a.]
[Illustration right hand margin.]

Page 326

518. CASSIN'S PURPLE FINCH. _Carpodacus cassini._

Range.--North America west of the Rockies, breeding from British
Columbia south to New Mexico.

This species is similar to the last but the back, wings and tail are
darker and the purplish color of the preceding species is replaced by a
more pinkish shade. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of
the eastern Purple Finch; size of eggs .85 × .60. Data.--Willis, New
Mexico, June 23, 1901. Nest made of twigs and rootlets and lined with
horse hair. Collector, F. J. Birtwell.


519. HOUSE FINCH. _Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis._

Range.--United States west of the Plains and from Oregon and Wyoming to
Mexico.

This is one of the best known of western birds, and nests commonly in
all situations from trees and bushes to vines growing on porches. Their
nests are made of rootlets and grasses and are lined with horse hair.
Their nesting season includes all the summer months, they raising two
and sometimes three broods a season. The three to five eggs are pale
greenish blue with a few sharp blackish brown specks about the large
end. Size .80 × .55.


519b. SAN LUCAS HOUSE FINCH. _Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus._

Range.--Southern Lower California. A slightly smaller variety of the
preceding.


519c. SAN CLEMENTE HOUSE FINCH. _Carpodacus mexicanus clematis._

Range.--San Clemente and Santa Barbara Islands. Somewhat darker than the
last.


520. GUADALUPE FINCH. _Carpodacus amplus._

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

Similar to the House Finch, but deeper red and slightly larger. Their
nesting habits and eggs are precisely like those of the House Finch but
the eggs average larger; size .85 × .60.


520.1. MCGREGOR'S HOUSE FINCH. _Carpodacus mcgregori._

Range.--San Benito Island, Lower California.

A newly made species, hardly to be distinguished from the last. Eggs
probably the same.

[Illustration 328: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: 518--519.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 327

521. CROSSBILL. _Loxia curvirostra minor._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding in the Alleghanies and from
northern New England northward; winters south to the middle portions of
the United States and casually farther.

The birds are very curious both in appearance and actions, being very
"flighty" and restless, and apt to remain to breed on any of the
mountains. They build during March or April, making their nests of
twigs, rootlets, moss, feathers, etc., and placing them in forks or on
branches of trees (usually conifers) at any height from the ground. The
eggs are greenish white, spotted with brown and with lavender shell
markings; size .75 × .55.


521a. MEXICAN CROSSBILL. _Loxia curvirostra stricklandi._

Range.--Mountain ranges from central Mexico north to Wyoming.

A larger variety of the preceding. The eggs will not differ except
perhaps a trifle in size.


522. WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL. _Loxia leucoptera._

Range.--Northern North America, breeding in the Alleghanies and from
northern Maine northward; winters to middle portions of the United
States.

This species is rosy red with two white wing bars. Like the last, they
are of a roving disposition and are apt to be found in any unexpected
locality. Their nesting habits are the same as those of the American
Crossbill, but the eggs average larger and the markings are more
blotchy; size .80 × .55.


523. ALEUTIAN ROSY FINCH. _Leucosticte griseonucha._

Range.--Aleutian and Pribilof Islands; south to Kadiak.

This is the largest of the genus, and can be distinguished from the
others by its very dark chestnut coloration and the gray hindneck and
cheeks. Like the other Leucostictes, they are found in flocks and
frequent rocky or mountainous country, where they are nearly always
found on the ground. They build in crevices among the rocks or under
ledges or embankments, making the nest of weeds and grasses. Their four
or five pure white eggs are laid during June. Size .97 × .67.
Data.--St. George Islands of the

[Illustration 329: Crossbill.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: White-winged Crossbill.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 328

524. GRAY-CROWNED ROSY FINCH. _Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from Saskatchewan south to northern United
States and also breeding in the Sierra Nevadas; winters on the lowlands
of northwestern United States and east to Manitoba.

The habits and breeding habits of this species are like those of the
last. The bird is paler colored and the gray is restricted to the hind
part of the head. They nest on the ground in June, laying four or five
white eggs.


524a. HEPBURN ROSY FINCH. _Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis._

Range.--Higher ranges from Washington and British Columbia to Alaska.

This variety is like the Aleutian Leucosticte but the brown is a great
deal paler. The nesting habits and eggs are, in all probability, like
those of the last.


525. BLACK ROSY FINCH. _Leucosticte atrata._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region of northern United States; known to breed
in Idaho.

This species is black in place of the brown of the others; the gray is
restricted to the hind part of the head and the rosy is rather more
extensive on the wings. Their eggs probably cannot be distinguished from
those of the Gray-crowned variety.


526. BROWN-CAPPED ROSY FINCH. _Leucosticte australis_.

Range.--Breeds at high altitudes in the Rockies in Colorado; south to
New Mexico in winter.

A similar bird to the Gray-crowned Leucosticte but with no gray on the
head. They nest on the ground above timber line on the higher ranges of
the Rockies.


527. GREENLAND REDPOLL. _Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni._

Range.--Greenland and northern Europe; south in winter to Labrador.

This large Redpoll nests at low elevations in trees and bushes, its
habits and eggs being similar to the more common American species.


527a. HOARY REDPOLL. _Acanthis hornemanni exilipes._

Range.--Breeds in the Arctic regions and winters south to the northern
parts of the United States.

This variety is smaller than the last and is considerably darker but
still retains the white rump of the Greenland Redpoll. Its nesting
habits are the same as those of the next.

[Illustration 330: White.]
[Illustration: 523--524--524a.]
[Illustration: 525--526.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 329

528. REDPOLL. _Acanthis linaria linaria._

Range.--Breeds within the Arctic Circle; winters south to New York,
Kansas and northern California and casually farther.

This species is similar to the last but much darker, and the rump is
also streaked with blackish. These handsome birds are often met with in
winter, feeding on seeds of the weed stems that project above the snow.
Their flight and song is similar to that of the Goldfinch or Pine
Siskin. They nest at low elevations, either in trees or bushes. The eggs
number from three to six and are pale bluish, sparingly specked with
reddish brown. Size .65 × .50. Data.--Mouth of Great Whale River, Hudson
Bay, May 16, 1899. Nest in a willow 4 feet from the ground; made of fine
rootlets and grass, lined with feathers. Collector, A. P. Lowe.


528a. HOLBOLL'S REDPOLL. _Acanthis linaria holbœlli._

Range.--Arctic regions; south casually to the border of the United
States.

A slightly larger variety of the common Redpoll. Eggs probably not
distinguished.


528b. GREATER REDPOLL. _Acanthis linaria rostrata._

Range.--Breeds in southern Greenland; in winter south through Labrador
to the northern border of the United States.

This variety is larger and darker than the common Redpoll. It has been
found breeding abundantly in southern Greenland, where its nesting
habits are the same as those of the Redpoll and the eggs similar but
averaging a trifle larger.


529. GOLDFINCH. _Astragalinus tristis tristis_.

Range.--North America east of the Rockies, and from Labrador and
Manitoba southward.

These beautiful birds are among our sweetest songsters from May until
September. They are resident throughout their United States range, where
they breed in August or early in September, being one of the latest
nesting birds that we have. Their nests are located in bushes, at a
height of generally below fifteen feet above the ground, being placed in
upright forks, and made of plant fibres and thistle down, firmly woven
together. They lay from three to six plain bluish white eggs. Size .65 ×
.50. The majority of nests that I have found have been in alders over
small streams.

[Illustration 331: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: Redpoll.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Goldfinch.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 330

[Illustration 332: AMERICAN GOLDFINCH.]

Page 331

529a. PALE GOLDFINCH. _Astragalinus tristis pallidus._

Range.--Rocky Mountains from Mexico to British Columbia.

This variety is slightly larger and (in winter) paler than the last.


529b. WILLOW GOLDFINCH. _Astragalinus tristis salicamans._

Range.--Pacific coast from Washington to Lower California.

Similar to the eastern Goldfinch but back said to be slightly greenish
yellow.


530. ARKANSAS GOLDFINCH. _Astragalinus psaltria psaltria._

Range.--United States, west of the Plains and from Oregon to Mexico.

This species has greenish upper parts and yellow below; the crown, wings
and tail are black, the bases of the lateral tail feathers and primaries
being whitish. They are common in portions of their range, nesting in
similar locations to those chosen by the common Goldfinch and laying
from three to five eggs which are similar but slightly smaller. Size .60
× .45. Data.--Riverside, California, May 20, 1891. 5 eggs. Nest made of
fine grasses lined with cotton; 5 feet from the ground in a small tree.


530a. GREEN-BACKED GOLDFINCH. _Astragalinus hesperophilus._

Range.--Mexico north to the Lower Rio Grande in southern Texas.

A similar bird to the last but with the entire upper parts and cheeks,
black. The habits, nests and eggs are identical with those of the
Arkansas Goldfinch.


531. LAWRENCE'S GOLDFINCH. _Astragalinus lawrencei._

Range.--Pacific coast of California, wintering along the Mexican border.

This grayish colored Goldfinch has a black face and yellow breast, rump,
wing coverts and edges of the primaries. They are quite common in their
restricted range, nesting either in upright crotches or in the forks of
horizontal limbs. The four or five eggs which they lay are pure white;
size .60 × .45. Data.--Santa Monica Canyon, Cal., April 26, 1903. Nest
in a cypress tree 12 feet up; composed of grasses, feathers, etc.
Collector, W. Lee Chambers.


532. BLACK-HEADED GOLDFINCH. _Spinus notatus._

Range.--Mountainous regions of Central America and southern Mexico;
accidental in the United States.

[Illustration 333: 529a--529b--530.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 332

533. PINE SISKIN. _Spinus pinus._

Range.--Breeds from northern United States northward, in the Alleghanies
and in the Rockies south to New Mexico. Winters throughout the United
States.

Siskins are of the size of the Goldfinch (5 inches long), and their
calls, songs and habits are similar to those of this bird. Their plumage
is grayish brown, streaked with dusky and the bases of the wings and
tail feathers are yellow. Like the Crossbills, they frequently feed
along our northern borders, but very sporadically. Their nests are built
on horizontal branches of pines or cedars at any elevation from the
ground, being made of grasses and rootlets lined with hair or pine
needles, and of rather frail and flat construction. Their eggs are laid
during May or June and are greenish white, specked with reddish brown;
size .68 × .48. Data.--Hamilton Inlet, Labrador, June 17, 1898. Nest on
branch of a spruce, 10 feet from the ground; made of grass, lined with
moss and feathers. Collector, L. Dicks.


534. Snow Bunting. _Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis._

Range.--Breeds in the Arctic regions, and winters irregularly in large
flocks through the United States to Oregon, Kansas and Georgia.

These birds are only seen in the United States in large roving flocks,
during the winter when they feed on weed seeds on side hills. Their
nests are built on the ground, being sunk into the sphagnum moss, and
made of grasses lined with feathers. Their four or five eggs are a light
greenish white, spotted and splashed with yellowish brown and lilac.
Size .90 × .65.


534a. PRIBILOF SNOW BUNTING. _Plectrophenax nivalis townsendi._

Range.--Pribilof and Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

A slightly larger variety which is resident on the islands in its range.
Eggs like those of the preceding; laid from May to July.

[Illustration 334: Pine Siskin.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Snowflake.]
[Illustration: left hand border.]

Page 333

535. MCKAY'S SNOW BUNTING. _Pletrophenax hyperboreus._

Range.--Western Alaska; known to breed on Hall's Island.

This beautiful species is, in summer, entirely white except for the tips
of the primaries and a black spot on end of central tail feathers, thus
being very distinct from the preceding, which has the back and the wings
to a greater extent black, at this season. Their eggs probably very
closely resemble those of the last species.


536. LAPLAND LONGSPUR. _Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus._

Range.--Breeds in northern North America; winters south casually to New
York, Ohio and Oregon and occasionally farther.

These sparrow-like birds are 6.5 inches long and have a black crown,
cheeks and throat, and chestnut band on nape. Like the Snowflakes they
nest on the ground in moss, but the four to six eggs that they lay are
grayish, heavily mottled and blotched with chocolate brown; size .80 ×
.60.


536a. ALASKA LONGSPUR. _Calcarius lapponicus alascensis._

Range.--Northwest North America, breeding in Alaska; winter south to
Oregon. This sub-species is like the last but slightly paler. Eggs
indistinguishable.

[Illustration 335: Grayish.]
[Illustration: Norman W. Swayns. NEST AND EGGS OF GOLDFINCH.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 334

537. SMITH'S LONGSPUR. _Calcarius pictus._

Range.--Breeds in Hudson Bay and Mackenzie River districts and winters
south to Texas chiefly on the Plains.

This species is of the size of the last but is a rich buff color below,
and the other markings are very different. These birds together with the
next species are very common on the prairies in central United States in
winter. They nest on the ground like the preceding species but the nests
are scantily made of grasses and not warmly lined like those of the
last. The eggs are similar but paler; size .80 × .60. Data.--Herschell
Island, Arctic Ocean, June 10, 1901. Nest built in a tuft of grass; made
of fine roots and grass, lined with feathers.


538. CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR. _Calcarius ornatus._

Range.--Plains in the interior of North America, breeding from Kansas
north to Saskatchewan; very abundant in the Dakotas and Montana.

This handsome species in the breeding plumage has the throat white,
breast and belly black, and a chestnut collar on the nape. They are one
of the most abundant breeding birds on the prairies, nesting in hollows
on the ground either in the open or protected by a tuft of grass. The
nests are made of grasses and sometimes moss; three or four eggs laid in
June or July; white, blotched, lined and obscurely marked with brown and
purplish; size .75 x .55.


539. MCCOWN'S LONGSPUR. _Rhynchophanes mccowni._

Range.--Great Plains, breeding from Kansas to the Saskatchewan.

This Longspur which breeds in company with the preceding, throughout its
range, can be distinguished from it by the small black patch on the
breast, the black crown, and chestnut wing coverts. Their nesting habits
are the same, and at this season all the Longspurs have a sweet song
often uttered during flight, like that of the Bobolink. Their eggs are
of the same size and similarly marked as the last, but the ground color
is more gray or olive.

[Illustration: Smith's Longspur.]
[Illustration 336: Grayish.]
[Illustration: Chestnut-collared Longspur.]
[Illustration: Dull white.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 335

540. VESPER SPARROW. _Poœcetes gramineus gramineus._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from Virginia and Missouri north
to Manitoba and New Brunswick; winters in the southern half of the
United States.

A streaked grayish, buffy and white bird distinguished by its chestnut
shoulders and white outer tail feathers. They are abundant birds in
eastern fields where their loud piping whistle is known to many
frequenters of weedy pastures. They build on the ground, either in
grassy or cultivated fields, lining the hollow scantily with grasses.
Their four or five eggs are usually laid in May or June; they are dull
whitish, blotched and splashed with light brown and lavender tints; size
.80 × .60.


540a. WESTERN VESPER SPARROW. _Poœcetes gramineus confinis._

Range.--This paler variety is found in North America west of the Plains
and south of Saskatchewan.

Its nesting habits are like those of the preceding and the eggs are
indistinguishable.


540b. OREGON VESPER SPARROW. _Poœcetes gramineus affinis._

A browner variety found on the coast of Oregon and northern California.

Its nesting habits are like those of the eastern bird and the eggs
similar but averaging a trifle smaller.


* * * ENGLISH SPARROW. _Passer domesticus._

These birds, which were imported from Europe, have increased so rapidly
that they have overrun the cities and villages of the country and are
doing inestimable damage both by driving out native insect eating birds
and by their own destructiveness. They nest in all sorts of places but
preferably behind blinds, where their unsightly masses of straw protrude
from between the slats, and their droppings besmirch the buildings
below; they breed at all seasons of the year, eggs having often been
found in January, with several feet of snow on the ground and the
mercury below zero. The eggs number from four to eight in a set and from
four to eight sets a season; the eggs are whitish, spotted and blotched
with shades of gray and black. Size .88 × .60.

[Illustration 337: Whitish.]
[Illustration: McCown's Longspur.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Vesper Sparrow.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 336

[Illustration 338: A. R. Spaid.
NEST AND EGGS OF VESPER SPARROW.]

Page 337

541. IPSWICH SPARROW. _Passerculus princeps._

Range.--Breeds on Sable Island, off Nova Scotia; winters on coast of
South Atlantic States. This a large and pale colored form of the common
Savannah Sparrow. Its nesting habits are similar to those of the latter
and the eggs are marked the same but average larger. Size .80 × .60.


542. ALEUTIAN SAVANNAH SPARROW. _Passerculus sandwichensis
sandwichensis._

Range.--Breeds on the Alaskan coast; winters south to northern
California.

A streaked Sparrow like the next but with the yellow superciliary line
brighter and more extended. Its nesting habits are precisely like those
of the next variety which is common and well known; the eggs are
indistinguishable.


542a. SAVANNAH SPARROW. _Passerculus sandwichensis savanna._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Middle
States north to Labrador and the Hudson Bay region.

Similar to the last but with the superciliary line paler and the yellow
reduced to a spot on the lores. Their nests are hollows in the ground,
lined with grasses and generally concealed by tufts of grass or weeds.
Their three to five eggs vary greatly in markings from finely and evenly
dotted all over to very heavily blotched, the ground color being grayish
white. Size .75 × .55


542b. WESTERN SAVANNAH SPARROW. _Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus._

Range.--Western North America from Alaska to Mexico.

A slightly paler form whose nesting habits and eggs do not differ from
those of the last.


542c. BRYANT'S SPARROW. _Passerculus sandwichensis bryanti._

Range.--Salt marshes of California from San Francisco Bay south to
Mexico.

Slightly darker and brighter than the eastern Savannah Sparrow and with
a more slender bill. The eggs are not different from many specimens of
savanna; they are light greenish white heavily blotched with various
shades of brown and lavender. Size .75 × .55.


543. Belding's Sparrow. _Passerculus beldingi._

Range.--Pacific coast marshes of southern California and southward.

This species is similar to the last but darker and more heavily streaked
below. They breed abundantly in salt marshes, building their nests in
the grass or patches of seaweed barely above the water, and making them
of grass and weeds, lined with hair; the eggs are dull grayish white,
boldly splashed, spotted and clouded with brown and lavender. Size
.78 × .55.

[Illustration 339: Grayish White.]
[Illustration: Savannah Sparrow.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: 542b--543.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 338

544. LARGE-BILLED SPARROW. _Passerculus rostratus rostratus._

Range.--Coast of southern and Lower California.

Similar to the Savannah Sparrow but paler and grayer, without yellow
lores and a larger and stouter bill. They are common in salt marshes,
often in company with the last species and their nesting habits are
similar to and the eggs not distinguished with certainty from those of
the latter.


544a. SAN LUCAS SPARROW. _Passerculus rostratus guttatus._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

A slightly darker form of the preceding, having identical habits, and
probably, eggs.


544c. SAN BENITO SPARROW. _Passerculus rostratus sanctorum._

Range.--Breeds on San Benito Islands; winters in southern Lower
California.

The nesting habits and eggs of these very similar subspecies are
identical.


545. BAIRD'S SPARROW. _Ammodramus bairdi_.

Range.--Plains, breeding from northern United States to the
Saskatchewan; south in winter to the Mexican border.

These Sparrows breed abundantly on the plains of Dakota and northward,
placing their nest in hollows on the ground in fields and along road
sides. During June or July, they lay three to five dull whitish eggs,
blotched, splashed and spotted with light shades of brown and gray. Size
.80 × .60.


546. GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. _Ammodramus savannarum australis._

Range.--United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to
Canada.

A stoutly built Sparrow marked on the upper parts peculiarly, like a
quail; nape grayish and chestnut. These birds are common in dry fields
and pastures, where their scarcely audible, grasshopper-like song is
heard during the heat of the day. Their nests are sunken in the ground
and

arched over so that they are very difficult to find, especially as the
bird will not flush until nearly trod upon. The four or five eggs, laid
in June, are white, specked with reddish brown. Size .72 × .55.


546a. WESTERN GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. _Ammodramus savannarum bimaculatus_

Range.--West of the Plains from British Columbia to Mexico.

Slightly paler than the last; has the same nesting habits; eggs
indistinguishable.

[Illustration 340: 544--544c.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Baird's Sparrow. Grasshopper Sparrow.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 339

[Illustration 341: C. A. Reed.
GRASSHOPPER SPARROW ON NEST.]

Page 340

546b. FLORIDA GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. _Ammodramus savannarum floridanus._

Range.--Central Florida.

A local form, darker above and paler below than the common species. Eggs
not different in any particular.


547. HENSLOW'S SPARROW. _Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi._

Range.--United States east of the Plains, breeding locally from Maryland
and Missouri north to Massachusetts and Minnesota.

This species is similar in form and marking to the last, but is olive
green on the nape, and the breast and sides are streaked with blackish.
Their nesting habits are very similar to those of the Grasshopper
Sparrow, the nests being difficult to find. The eggs are greenish white,
spotted with reddish brown. Size .75 × .55.


547a. WESTERN HENSLOW'S SPARROW. _Passerherbulus henslowi occidentalis._

Range.--A paler and very local form found in the Plains in South Dakota
and probably, adjoining states. Eggs not apt to differ from those of the
preceding.


548. LECONTE'S SPARROW. _Passerherbulus lecontei._

Range.--Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to
Assiniboia; winters south to Texas and the Gulf States.

A bird of more slender form than the preceding, and with a long,
graduated tail, the feathers of which are very narrow and pointed. They
nest on the ground in damp meadows, but the eggs are difficult to find
because the bird is flushed from the nest with great difficulty. The
eggs are white and are freely specked with brown. Size .70 × .52.


549. SHARP-TAILED SPARROW. _Passerherbulus caudacutus._

Range.--Breeds in marshes along the Atlantic coast from Maine to South
Carolina and winters farther south.

These birds are very common in nearly all the salt marshes of the coast,
nesting in the marsh grass. I have nearly always found their nests
attached to the coarse marsh grass a few inches above water at high
tide, and generally under apiece of drifted seaweed. The nests are made
of grasses, and the four or five eggs are whitish, thickly specked with
reddish brown. Size .75 × .55. The birds are hard to flush and then fly
but a few feet and quickly drop into the grass again.

[Illustration 342: White.]
[Illustration: Henslow's Sparrow. Leconte's Sparrow.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Sharp-tailed Sparrow.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 341

549.1. Nelson's Sparrow. _Passerherbulus nelsoni nelsoni._

Range.--Breeds in the fresh water marshes of the Mississippi valley from
Illinois to Manitoba.

This species is similar to the Sharp-tailed Finch but more buffy on the
breast and generally without streaks. The nesting habits are the same
and the eggs indistinguishable.


549.1a. ACADIAN SHARP-TAILED SPARROW. _Passerherbulus nelsoni
subvirgatus._

Range.--Breeds in the marshes on the coast of New England and New
Brunswick; winters south to the South Atlantic States.

This paler variety of Nelson's Sparrow nests like the Sharp-tailed
species and the eggs are the same as those of that bird.


550. SEASIDE SPARROW. _Passerherbulus maritimus maritimus._

Range.--Atlantic coast, breeding from southern New England to Carolina
and wintering farther south.

This sharp-tailed Finch is uniform grayish above and light streaked with
dusky, below. They are very abundant in the breeding range, where they
nest in marshes in company with caudacutus. Their nests are the same as
those of that species and the eggs similar but slightly larger. Size .80
x .60. Data.--Smith Island, Va., May 20, 1900. Nest situated in tall
grass near shore; made of dried grass and seaweed. Collector, H. W.
Bailey.

All the members of this genus have a habit of fluttering out over the
water, and then gliding back to their perch on the grass, on set wings,
meanwhile uttering a strange rasping song. The nesting habits and eggs
of all the subspecies are precisely like those of this variety, and they
all occasionally arch their nests over, leaving an entrance on the side.


550a. SCOTT'S SEASIDE SPARROW. _Passerherbulus maritimus peninsulœ._

Range.--Coasts of Florida and north to South Carolina. Above blackish
streaked with brownish gray; below heavily streaked with black.


550b. TEXAS SEASIDE SPARROW. _Passerherbulus maritimus sennetti._

Range.--Coast of Texas. Similar to maritimus, but streaked above.


550c. LOUISIANA SEASIDE SPARROW. _Passerherbulus maritimus fisheri._

Range.--Gulf coast. This form is similar to peninsulœ, but darker and
more brownish.

[Illustration 343: Seaside Sparrow. Dusky Seaside Sparrow.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 342

550d. MACGILLIVRAY'S SEASIDE SPARROW. _Passerherbulus maritimus
macgillivrai._

Range.--Coast of South Carolina. Like fisheri but grayer.


551. DUSKY SEASIDE SPARROW. _Passerherbulus nigrescens._

Range.--Marshes of Indian River near Titusville, Florida.

This species is the darkest of the genus, both above and below, being
nearly black on the upperparts. Their habits are like those of the
others and the eggs are not likely to differ.


552. LARK SPARROW. _Chondestes grammacus grammacus._

Range.--Mississippi Valley from the Plains to Illinois and casually
farther east, and from Manitoba to Texas; winters in Mexico.

This handsome Sparrow has the sides of the crown and ear patches
chestnut, and the sides of the throat and a spot on the breast, black.
They are sweet singers and very welcome birds in their range, where they
are quite abundant. Their nests are generally placed on the ground in
the midst of or under a clump of weeds or tuft of grass, but sometimes
in bushes or even trees; they are made of grasses and weeds and the
eggs, which are usually laid in May, are white marked chiefly about the
large end with blackish zigzag lines and spots. Size .80 × .60.


552a. WESTERN LARK SPARROW. _Chondestes grammacus strigatus._

Range.--United States west of the Plains; breeds from British Columbia
to Mexico.

This paler and duller colored variety is common on the Pacific coast;
its habits and nests and eggs are like those of the last.


553. HARRIS'S SPARROW. _Zonotrichia querula._

Range.--Mississippi Valley, chiefly west, breeding in Manitoba and
Saskatchewan, the exact range being unknown.

Although the birds are abundant during migrations, they seem to suddenly
and strangely disappear during the breeding season. Supposed nests have
been found a few inches above the ground in clumps of grass, the eggs
being whitish, thickly spotted with shades of brown. Size .85 × .65.

[Illustration 344: Lark Sparrow.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Whitish.]
[Illustration: Harris's Sparrow.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 343

554. WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW. _Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys._

Range.--North America breeding abundantly in Labrador and about Hudson
Bay, and casually in northern New England and in western United States
in the Rockies and Sierras.

Winters along our Mexican border and southward. A handsome species with
a broad white crown bordered on either side by black, and with a white
superciliary line and black lores; the underparts are uniform grayish
white. These birds appear to be nowhere as common as the White-throated
Sparrows with which they associate during migrations and in the breeding
grounds. They build on the ground, generally near the edges of woods or
in clearings, and lay from four to six eggs similar but larger, and with
as much variation in markings as those of the Song Sparrow; pale
greenish blue, spotted and splashed with reddish brown and grayish. Size
.90 × .65. Data.--Nachook, Labrador, June 10, 1897. Nest of fine grasses
on the ground in a clump of grass.


554a. GAMBEL'S SPARROW. _Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli._

Range.--Rocky Mountains and westward from Mexico to Alaska, breeding
chiefly north of the United States.

This bird is like the last but the lores are white. Its nesting habits
and eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the former.


554b. NUTTALL'S SPARROW. _Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia to Lower California.

Similar to the last but smaller and browner above; nests on the ground
or in bushes, the eggs not being distinguishable from those of the other
White-crowns.


557. GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW. _Zonotrichia coronata_.

Range.--Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska, breeding chiefly north of
our borders.

This species has the crown yellow, bordered by black on the sides. Their
habits are like those of the White-crowned Sparrows, they feeding upon
the ground among the dead leaves, and usually being found in flocks and
often accompanied by many of the last species. They nest upon the ground
or in low bushes, and in May or June lay three or four eggs very similar
to the last. Size .90 × .65.

[Illustration 345: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: White-crowned Sparrow.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: 554a--557.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 344

[Illustration 346: CHIPPING SPARROW.]

Page 345

558. WHITE-THROATED SPARROW. _Zonotrichia albicollis._

Range.--North America east of the Plains and breeding from the northern
tier of states northward; winters from the Middle States southward.

To my mind this is the most beautiful of Sparrows, with its bright and
softly blended plumage and the pure white throat boldly contrasting with
its grayish breast and sides of the head; the lores are adorned with a
bright yellow spot. They are one of the most abundant of Sparrows in the
east during migrations and their musical piping whistle is heard from
hedge and wood. They nest most abundantly north of our borders, laying
their three or four eggs in grass lined hollows in the ground, or more
rarely in nests in bushes. The eggs are white or bluish white, thickly
spotted with several shades of brown. Size .85 × .62. They nest most
often in thickets or on the edge of swamps, in just such places as they
are met with on their migrations.


559. TREE SPARROW. _Spizella monticola monticola._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding north of the United
States to the Arctic coast, east of the Rockies; winters within the
United States.

A larger bird but somewhat resembling the common Chipping Sparrow, but
browner above, with a black spot on the breast and no black on the head.
They are quite hardy birds and winter in many of the northern states
where they may be found in flocks upon the snow, feeding on seeds of
protruding weeds. They breed very abundantly in Labrador and about
Hudson Bay, placing their green nests in hollows on the ground or moss;
their three or four eggs are greenish white, abundantly speckled all
over the surface with reddish brown. Size .80 × .55. Data.--Foothills of
Black Mountains, McKenzie River, Arctic America, June 13, 1899. Nest on
the ground under a tuft of grass on level plain; made of grasses and
moss and lined with feathers.


559a. WESTERN TREE SPARROW. _Spizella monticola ochracea._

Range.--North America west of the Plains, breeding in Alaska and
wintering to Mexico. A paler form of the last, the nesting habits and
eggs of which are the same.


560. CHIPPING SPARROW. _Spizella passerina passerina._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to the
interior of Canada and Newfoundland.

[Illustration 347: White.]
[Illustration: White-throated Sparrow.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Tree Sparrow.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 346

As indicated by their name _socialis_, Chipping Sparrows are sociable
birds not only with others of the bird tribe, but with man. In all
localities that are not overrun with English Sparrows, you will find
these confiding birds nesting in trees and shrubs in the yard and in
vines from porches, while in orchards, nearly every tree has its tenant.
They are smaller birds than the last (5.5 in. long) and have the brown
crown bordered by blackish and a black line through the eye. Their
nests, which may be found at any height from the ground and in any kind
of a tree or shrub, are made of fine grass and weed stems, lined with
hair; their three to five eggs are a handsome greenish blue, sparingly
specked chiefly about the large end with blackish brown and purplish.
Size .70 × .52.


560a. WESTERN CHIPPING SPARROW. _Spizella passerina arizonæ._

Range.--Western North America, chiefly west of the Rockies, from Mexico
to Alaska; winters in Mexico.

This variety is much duller colored than the last and has but little
brown on the back; its nesting habits are the same and the eggs do not
appear to differ in any respect from those of the eastern bird.


561. CLAY-COLORED SPARROW. _Spizella pallida._

Range.--Interior of United States and Canada, from the Mississippi
Valley to the Rockies, breeding from Iowa and Colorado northward;
winters in Mexico.

These birds can best be described as like the Chipping Sparrow with the
brown largely replaced with blackish. They breed quite abundantly in
Manitoba and Minnesota, placing their nests on or near the ground, and
making them of fine grasses. The eggs cannot be distinguished with
certainty from those of the preceding but average a trifle smaller. Size
.65 × .50. Data.--Barnsley, Manitoba, May 24, 1900. Nest of grass stalks
lined with fine grass, one foot above ground in tuft of grass.


562. BREWER'S SPARROW. _Spizella breweri._

Range.--Western United States from Mexico to British Columbia rarely and
chiefly between the Rockies and the Sierras; most abundant in New Mexico
and Arizona.

This bird is similar to the last but is paler and more finely streaked.
Their nesting habits are like those of pallida and the eggs are
indistinguishable.

[Illustration 348: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: 559a--560a.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: 561--562--564.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 347

[Illustration 349: CHIPPING SPARROWS (The whole family).]

Page 348

563. Field Sparrow. _Spizella pusilla pusilla._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to
southern Manitoba and Quebec; winters in the Gulf States.

These are abundant birds along roadsides, in thickets, or on dry
sidehills, where they nest indifferently on the ground or in bushes,
making their nests of grass and weed stems. They are the birds, whose
high piping song is most frequently heard on hot sultry days in summer.
Their eggs are laid in May or June; they are pale bluish white, speckled
and blotched with yellowish brown and grayish purple. Size .65 × .50.


563a. WESTERN FIELD SPARROW. _Spizella pusilla arenacea._

Range.--Great Plains from Mexico to Montana, breeding in the northern
half of its range and wintering in the southern.

A paler form of the last, whose general habits and eggs are the same as
those of the eastern bird.


564. WORTHEN'S SPARROW. _Spizella wortheni._

Range.--Southern New Mexico southward through central Mexico.

This pale colored species is the size of the Field Sparrow but has no
decided markings anywhere. It is a rare bird within our borders and
uncommon anywhere. I am not able to find any material in regard to their
eggs.


565. BLACK-CHINNED SPARROW. _Spizella atrogularis._

Range.--Mexican border of the United States and southward.

This slim-bodied, long-tailed species is grayish with a dusky streaked,
reddish brown patch on the back and a black face, chin and throat. Their
habits are similar to those of the Field Sparrow and their nests are
made near the ground in bushes, but the eggs are plain bluish green,
about like unmarked Chipping Sparrows' eggs. Size .65 × .50.


566. WHITE-WINGED JUNCO. _Junco aikeni._

Range.--Breeds in the Black Hills of Dakota and Wyoming; winters in
Colorado and casually to Kansas.

This species is like the next but larger and with the wings crossed by
two white bars. Its habits are like those of the common Juncos, the
nests are placed on the ground, concealed under overhanging rocks or
tufts of grass, and the eggs are like those often seen of the
Slate-colored Junco; 3 or 4 in number, pinkish white specked and spotted
with light reddish brown. Size .75 × .55.

[Illustration 350: Field Sparrow.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: White-winged Junco.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 349

567. SLATE-COLORED JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis hyemalis._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding in the northern tier
of states and northward; winters in southern United States.

This species is slaty gray on the head, neck, breast, flanks, back,
wings and central tail feathers; the rest of the underparts are white,
sharply defined against the gray. They migrate through the United States
in large flocks, usually accompanied by White-throated or Fox Sparrows.
They breed very abundantly in the northern parts of their range,
frequently in the immediate vicinity of houses but generally on the
edges of clearings, etc., placing their nests on the ground and
generally partially concealed by rocks, stumps, sods or logs; the nests
are made of grasses, lined with hair, and the four or five eggs are
white or greenish white, variously speckled with reddish brown either
over the entire surface or in a wreath about the large end. Size .80 ×
.55.


567a. OREGON JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis oreganus._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to Alaska, breeding north of the
United States.

This sub-species is entirely unlike the preceding, having a black head,
neck, throat, breast, wings and tail, and brown back; the remainder of
the underparts are white, washed with pinkish brown on the sides. The
habits and nesting habits of this western Junco are the same as those of
the eastern, the birds building in similar localities and making the
nests of the same material. There appears to be little, if any,
difference between the eggs of the two varieties.


567b. SHUFELDT'S JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis counectens._

Range.--Pacific coast breeding from Oregon to British Columbia and
wintering south to the Mexican boundary.

Said to be slightly larger and duller colored than the Oregon Junco;
eggs the same.


567c. THURBER'S JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis thurberi._

Range.--The Sierra Nevadas from Oregon to southern California.

Similar to _oreganus_ but paler and back more pinkish; eggs will not
differ.


567d. POINT PINOS JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis pinosus._

Range.--A very locally confined variety breeding in pine woods of
southwestern California, about Monterey and Santa Cruz.

Similar to _thurberi_ with the head and neck slaty instead of black.

[Illustration 351: Slate-Colored Junco.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 567a--567g--567c.]
[Illustration: right hend margin.]

Page 350

567e. CAROLINA JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis carolinensis._

Range.--Alleghanies in Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia.

A slightly larger bird than the Slate-colored Junco and with the bill
horn color instead of pinkish white. They have been found to breed very
abundantly in the higher ranges of the Carolinas, nesting under banks,
in tufts of grass, or occasionally in small bushes, in fact in such
locations as are used by hyemalis. Their eggs which are laid during May,
June or July (probably two broods being raised) are similar to those of
the Slate-colored species but slightly larger.


567f. MONTANA JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis montanus._

Range.--From northern Idaho and Montana north to Alberta; winters south
to Mexico.

This variety is like _mearnsi_ but darker on the head and throat and
with less pink on the sides. Its nesting habits and eggs do not differ
from those of the Pink-sided Junco.


567g. PINK-SIDED JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis mearnsi._

Range.--Breeds in mountains of Idaho, Wyoming and Montana and winters
south to Mexico.

This species has the head and breast gray, the back brownish and the
sides pinkish brown. They breed at high altitudes in the ranges, placing
their nests of grasses under sods or overhanging rocks; their eggs are
pinkish white before being blown and are spotted over the whole surface
but more heavily at the large end with pale reddish brown and gray. Size
.80 × .60.


570. ARIZONA JUNCO. _Junco phæonotus palliatus._

Range.--Mountains of western Mexico north to southern Arizona.

Similar to the preceding species but upper mandible blackish and the
gray on throat shading insensibly into the grayish white underparts.
They are quite abundant in the higher ranges of southern Arizona, where
they breed, placing their nests on the ground in similar locations to
those chosen by other Juncos; the three or four eggs are greenish white,
finely speckled chiefly about the large end with reddish brown. Size .76
× .60.


570a. RED-BACKED JUNCO. _Junco phæonotus dorsalis._

Range.--Breeds in the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona and southward.

This variety is like the last but the reddish brown on the back does not
extend to the coverts or wings. The nesting habits are like those of the
last but the eggs are only minutely specked about the large end.


570b. GRAY-HEADED JUNCO. _Junco phæonotus caniceps._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from Wyoming south to Mexico.

This species is similar to the Slate-colored Junco but has a reddish
brown patch on the back. They nest on the ground in mountainous regions,
concealing the nests in tufts of grass or under logs, stones, etc. The
eggs are creamy or bluish white, specked over the whole surface, but
most numerously about the larger end with reddish brown. Size .75 × .60.
Data.--Custer Co., Colo., June 4, 1897. Slight nest of small rootlets
and fine grass placed under a tuft of grass. Altitude over 8,000 feet.

[Illustration 352: White.]
[Illustration: 570b--571--572.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 351

571. BAIRD'S JUNCO. _Junco bairdi._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

This gray headed species with rusty back and sides is locally confined
to the southern parts of the California peninsula where it is resident.
Its eggs are not likely to differ from those of the Pink-sided Junco
which it most nearly resembles.


567i. TOWNSEND'S JUNCO. _Junco hyemalis townsendi._

Range.--Mountains of northern Lower California; resident and breeding.
Similar to the Pink-sided Junco but duller colored; eggs probably the
same.


572. GUADALUPE JUNCO. _Junco insularis._

Range.--Guadalupe Island off Lower California

Resembles the Pink-sided Junco but is smaller, darker and duller
colored. They are common on the island where they nest in the pine
groves, laying their first sets in February or March. The nests are like
those of the genus and the eggs are greenish white, finely dotted with
reddish brown at the large end. Size .77 × .60.


573. BLACK-THROATED SPARROW. _Amphispiza bilineata bilineata._

Range.--Breeds from central Texas to Kansas; winters in southern Texas
and Mexico.

This species is grayish brown above, with black throat, white
superciliary and line on side of throat. This is a common species that
nests on the ground or at low elevations in bushes, making their nests
of weed stems and grasses. The three to five eggs are bluish white,
unmarked and similar to those of the Bluebird but smaller.
Size .72 × .55.


573a. DESERT SPARROW. _Amphispiza bilineata deserticola._

Range.--Southwestern United States from western Texas to southern
California, and north to Colorado and Nevada; winters in Mexico.

Like the last but paler above. An abundant bird among the foothills and
on plains throughout its range. Found generally in sage brush and
thickets where it nests in bushes or on the ground laying three or four
bluish white eggs like those of the last.


574. BELL'S SPARROW. _Amphispiza belli._

Range.--Southern half of California and southward.

These grayish, black and white birds are abundant in sage brush and
thickets, nesting on the ground or at low elevations in bushes, and
during May or June, laying from three to four eggs of a pale greenish
white color, spotted and blotched with reddish brown and purplish. Size
.75 × .60.

[Illustration 353: Black-throated Sparrow.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: 573a--574.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 352

574.1. Sage Sparrow. _Amphispiza nevadensis nevadensis._

Range.--Sage deserts of the Great Basin from Oregon and Montana, south
to Mexico.

This sub-species is abundant throughout its range where it nests near or
on the ground, in or under bushes and generally concealed from view. The
nests are made of grass and sage bark lined with fine grass; the eggs
are like those of the last species, greenish white, spotted and blotched
with shades of brown and purplish.


574.1a. GRAY SAGE SPARROW. _Amphispiza nevadensis cinerea._

Range.--A smaller and paler variety found in Lower California.

The nests and eggs of this pale variety probably do not differ in any
respect from those of the better known varieties.


575. PINE-WOODS SPARROW. _Peucæa æstivalis æstivalis._

Range.--Florida and southern Georgia.

These birds are common in restricted localities in their range, nesting
on the ground under bushes or shrubs; the nests are made of grasses and
the four or five eggs are pure white with a slight gloss. Size .75 ×
.60. The birds are said to be fine singers and to frequent, almost
exclusively, pine barrens.


475a. BACHMAN'S SPARROW. _Peucæa æstivalis bachmani._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States; north to Indiana and Illinois.

This variety is common in most localities in its range, frequenting pine
woods and barrens chiefly, and nesting on the ground in May or June.
Their nests are made of grasses and lined with very fine grass, and have
the tops completely arched over leaving a small entrance on the side.
The eggs are pure white with a slight gloss and measure .75 × .60.


576. BOTTERI'S SPARROW. _Peucæa botterii._

Range.--Mexican plateau north to southern Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.

They nest in abundance in tall grass in the lowlands of their range, the
nests being difficult to find because the bird flushes with great
difficulty. The nests are on the ground, made of grass, and the three to
five eggs are pure white, measuring .75 × .60.

[Illustration 354: 574.1--576.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 353

578. CASSIN'S SPARROWS. _Peucæa cassini._

Range.--Plains and valleys from Texas and Arizona north to Kansas and
Nevada.

These birds breed in numbers on the arid plains, placing their grass
nests on the ground at the foot of small bushes or concealed in tufts of
grass, and during May lay four pure white eggs which are of the same
size and indistinguishable from those of others of the genus.


579. RUFOUS-WINGED SPARROW. _Aimophila carpalis._

Range.--Plains of western Mexico and north to southern Arizona.

This pale colored bird bears a remote resemblance to the Tree Sparrow.
They nest commonly in dry arid regions, placing their nests at low
elevations in bushes or cacti, preferably young mesquites, and making
them of coarse grass lined with finer. Two broods are raised a season
and from May to August sets of four or five plain bluish white eggs may
be found. Size .75 × .60.


580. RUFOUS-CROWNED SPARROW. _Aimophila ruficeps ruficeps._

Range.--Local in southern half of California and in Lower California.

A brownish colored species both above and below, which is found on
mountains and hillsides in restricted localities. They nest on the
ground placing their grass structures in hollows, usually at the foot of
a small bush or shrub and well concealed. They lay from three to five
pale bluish white eggs. Size .80 × .60.


580a. SCOTT'S SPARROW. _Aimophila ruficeps scotti._

Range.--Western Texas, New Mexico and Arizona south in Mexico.

A paler species, above, than the last, and whitish below. It is quite a
common species on the mountain ranges where it nests on the ground, in
clumps of grass or beneath shrubs or overhanging rocks; the nests are
made of grasses and weeds scantily put together. The eggs are white,
untinted. Size .80 × .60.


580b. ROCK SPARROW. _Aimophila ruficeps eremæca._

Range.--Middle and southern Texas and south in Mexico.

This variety frequents rocky mountain sides where it nests abundantly
under rocks or at the foot of shrubs, the nests being made of coarse
grasses loosely twisted together and lined with finer grass. The birds
are shy and skulk off through the underbrush upon the approach of anyone
so that the nests are quite difficult to find. The three to five eggs
are pure white and of the same size as those of the last.


580c. LAGUNA SPARROW. _Aimophila ruficeps sororia._

Range.--Mountains of southern Lower California.

The nests and eggs of this very similar variety to _ruficeps_ proper are
not likely to differ in any particular from those of that species.

[Illustration 355: White.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: 579--580.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 354

581. SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia melodia_.

Range.--North America, east of the Plains, breeding from Virginia to
Manitoba and New Brunswick, and wintering chiefly in the southern half
of the United States.

A favorite and one of the most abundant in all sections of the east.
They are sweet and persistent songsters and frequent side hills,
pastures, roadsides, gardens and dooryards if English Sparrows be not
present. They nest indifferently upon the ground or in bushes, generally
artfully concealing the nest by drooping leaves; it is made of grass and
weed stems, lined with fine grass or, occasionally, horse hair. As is
usual in the case of birds that abound about habitations they frequently
choose odd nesting sites. They lay two and sometimes three sets of eggs
a season, from May to August, the eggs being three to five in number and
white or greenish white, marked, spotted, blotched or splashed in
endless variety of pattern and intensity, with many shades of brown;
some eggs are very heavily blotched so as to wholly obscure the ground
color while others are specked very sparingly. They measure .80 × .60
with great variations.


581a. DESERT SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia fallax_.

Range.--Desert regions of southern Nevada, Arizona and southeastern
California. The eggs of this very pale form are the same as those of the
last.


581b. MOUNTAIN SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia montana_.

Range.--Rockies and the Great Basin from Oregon and Montana southward.

This variety is paler than the Song Sparrow but darker than _fallax_.
Eggs the same.


581c. HEERMAN'S SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia heermanni_.

Range.--California, west of the Sierra Nevadas.

Similar to _melodia_ but with less brown and the markings blacker and
more distinct. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs similar to
large dark specimens of the eastern Song Sparrow. Size .85 × .62.


581d. SAMUELS SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia samuelis_.

Range.--Coast regions of California, chiefly in the marshes.

Similar to the last but smaller. They nest on the ground in marsh grass,
usually in sandy districts along the shore. The eggs average smaller
than those of _melodia_. Size .78 × .58.


581e. RUSTY SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia morphna_.

Range.--Pacific coast of Oregon and British Columbia.

A dark species with the upper parts dark reddish brown and heavily
streaked with the same below. The nesting habits and eggs are like those
of _melodia_.

[Illustration 356: Song Sparrow.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 581a--581c--581e.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 355

581f. SOOTY SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia rufina._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia to Alaska.

A darker bird, both above and below, even than the last. Eggs like the
last but averaging a trifle larger. Size .82 × .62.


581g. BROWN'S SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia rivularis._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

A light colored form like the Desert Song Sparrow; said to build in cat
tails above water as well as on the ground; eggs not different from
others of the genus.


581h. SANTA BARBARA SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia graminea._

Range.--Breeds on Santa Barbara Islands; winters on adjacent coast of
California.

A variety of the same size but paler than _samuelis_. Nesting or eggs
not peculiar.


581i. SAN CLEMENTE SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia clementæ._

Range.--San Clemente and Santa Rosa Island of the Santa Barbara group.

Slightly larger than the last; habits and eggs the same.


581j. DAKOTA SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia juddi._

Range.--North Dakota, breeding in the Turtle Mountains.

Practically indistinguishable from the common Song Sparrow; the eggs
will not differ.


581k. MERRILL'S SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia merrilli._

Range.--Northwestern United States; eastern Oregon and Washington to
Idaho.

Very similar to, but lighter than the Rusty Song Sparrow.


581l. ALAMEDA SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia pusillula_.

Range.--Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay, California.

Similar to, but still smaller than Samuel Song Sparrow. Eggs will not
differ.


581m. SAN DIEGO SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia cooperi._

Range.--Southern coast of California; north to Monterey Bay.

Similar to, but smaller and lighter than _heermanni_.


581n. YAKUTAT SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia caurina._

Range.--Coast of Alaska from Cross Sound to Prince Williams Sound.

Similar to the Sooty Song Sparrow but larger and grayer. Eggs probably
average larger.


581o. KENAI SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza Melodia kenaiensis._

Range.--Kenai Peninsula on the coasts.

Like the last but still larger; length about 7 inches.


581q. BISCHOFF'S SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia insignis._

Range.--Kadiak Island, Alaska.

Similar to and nearly as large as the next species, but browner.


581r. ALEUTIAN SONG SPARROW. _Melospiza melodia sanaka._

Range.--Found on nearly all the islands of the Aleutian group, excluding
Kadiak.

This is the largest of the Song Sparrows being nearly 8 inches in
length; it is similar in appearance to the Sooty Song Sparrow but
grayer. It nests either on the ground or at low elevations in bushes,
the nest usually being concealed in a tuft of grass or often placed
under rocks or, sometimes, driftwood along the shores. The nests are
made of grasses and weed stems, and the eggs are similar to those of the
Song Sparrow but much larger and more elongate. Size .90 × .65.

[Illustration 357: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 356

583. LINCOLN'S SPARROW. _Melospiza lincolni lincolni._

Range.--North America, breeding from northern United States north to the
Arctic regions; most abundant in the interior and the west; rare in New
England.

This bird is shy and retiring and skulks off through the underbrush of
thickets and swamps that it frequents upon the approach of anyone;
consequently it is often little known in localities where it is quite
abundant. They nest on the ground like Song Sparrows, and rarely in
bushes. Their eggs are very similar to those of the Song Sparrow, three
or four in number, greenish white in color, heavily spotted and blotched
with chestnut and gray. Size .80 × .58.


583a. FORBUSH'S SPARROW. _Melospiza lincolni striata._

Range.--Pacific coast of Oregon and British Columbia.

Similar to the preceding but darker and browner. Eggs probably like
those of the last.


584. SWAMP SPARROW. _Melospiza georgiana._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains, breeding from middle United
States north to Labrador and Hudson Bay.

This common and dark colored Sparrow frequents swampy places where it
breeds; owing to its sly habits it is not commonly seen during the
breeding season. Its nests are made of grasses and located on the ground
usually in places where the walking is extremely treacherous. The eggs
are similar to those of the Song Sparrow but are generally darker and
more clouded and average smaller. Size .75 × .55.


585. FOX SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca iliaca._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from southern Canada northward,
and northwest to Alaska; winters in southern United States.

This large handsome species, with its mottled grayish and reddish brown
plumage and bright rufous tail, is very common in eastern United States
during migrations, being found in open woods and hedges in company with
Juncos and White-throated Sparrows, with which species their song vies
in sweetness. They nest usually on the ground, but sometimes in low
bushes; the nests are made of grasses and are concealed beneath the
overhanging branches of bushes or evergreens. The three or four eggs are
greenish-white, spotted and blotched with brown. Size .94 × .68.

[Illustration 358: Lincoln's Sparrow.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Swamp Sparrow.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 357

585a. SHUMAGIN FOX SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca unalaschensis._

Range.--Shumagin Islands and the Alaska coast to Cook Inlet.

Similar to the last but paler, being one of the several recent
unsatisfactory subdivisions of this genus. The nesting habits and eggs
of all the varieties are like those of the common eastern form.


585b. THICK-BILLED SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca megarhyncha._

Range.--Mountains of eastern California and western Nevada; locally
confined.

Entire upper parts and breast spots gray; wings and tail brown. It nests
in the heaviest underbrush of the mountain sides, building on or close
to the ground.


585c. SLATE-COLORED SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca schistacea._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region, breeding from Colorado to British
Columbia.

This variety which is similar to, but smaller than the last, nests in
thickets along the mountain streams. The eggs are like those of iliaca,
but average smaller.


585d. STEPHEN'S SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca stephensi._

Range.--Breeds in the San Bernadino and San Jacinto Mts. in southern
California.

Like the Thick-billed Sparrow, but bill still larger and bird slightly
so.


585e. SOOTY FOX SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca fuliginosa._

Range.--Coast of Washington and British Columbia; south to California in
winter.


585f. KADIAK FOX SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca insularis._

Range.--Breeding on Kadiak Island; winters south to California.

Like the last but browner above and below.

585g. TOWNSEND'S FOX SPARROW. _Passerella iliaca townsendi._

Range.--Southern coast of Alaska; winters south to California. Like the
last but more rufous above.

Upperparts and tail uniform brownish umber, below heavily spotted.


586. TEXAS SPARROW. _Arremonops rufivirgatus._

Range.--Eastern Mexico and southern Texas.

This odd species has a brownish crown, olive greenish upperparts, wings
and tail, and grayish white underparts. They are common resident birds
along the Lower Rio Grande, being found in tangled thickets, where they
nest at low elevations, making their quite bulky nests of coarse weeds
and grass and sometimes twigs, lined with finer grass and hair; they are
often partially domed with an entrance on the side. Their eggs are plain
white, without markings; often several broods are raised in a season and
eggs may be found from May until August.

[Illustration 359: Fox Sparrow.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 358

587. TOWHEE. _Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to
Manitoba.

The well known Towhee, Ground Robin or Chewink is a bird commonly met
with in eastern United States; it frequents thickets, swamps and open
woods where they nest generally upon the ground and sometimes in bushes
near the ground. The nests are well made of grasses, lined with fine
grasses and rootlets, and the eggs, which are laid in May or June, are
pinkish white, generally finely sprinkled but sometimes with bold
markings of light reddish brown, with great variations. Size .90 × .70.

Towhees are noisy birds and at frequent intervals, while they are
scratching among the leaves for their food they will stop and utter
their familiar "tow-hee" or "che-wink" and then again will mount to the
summit of a tree or bush and sing their sweet refrain for a long time.


587a. WHITE-EYED TOWHEE. _Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni._

Range.--Florida and the Atlantic coast to South Carolina.

This variety is like the preceding except that the eyes are white
instead of red. There is no difference between their nesting habits and
eggs, except that they much more frequently, and in some localities,
almost always, nest in trees.


588. ARCTIC TOWHEE. _Pipilo maculatus arcticus._

Range.--Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to the
Saskatchewan.

This species is similar to the eastern Towhee but has the scapulars and
coverts tipped with white. They nest abundantly in suitable localities
in Montana and North Dakota and more commonly north of our borders. Like
the eastern Towhee, they nest on the ground under the protection of
overhanging bushes, the nests being made of strips of bark and grasses
and lined with fine rootlets. Their three or four eggs, which are laid
during May, June or July, are pinkish white, profusely speckled with
reddish brown; very similar to those of the eastern Towhee. Size .92 ×
.70.


588a. SPURRED TOWHEE. _Pipilo maculatus montanus._

Range.--Breeds from Mexico to British Columbia, west of the Rockies.

Similar to the last but with less white on the back. The nesting habits
and eggs are like those of the Towhee, but in some localities the nests
are most often found in bushes above the ground.

[Illustration 360: Towhee or Chewink.]
[Illustration: Purplish white.]
[Illustration: Pinkish white.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 359

[Illustration 361: C. A. Reed.
NEST AND EGGS OF TOWHEE.]

Page 360

588b. OREGON TOWHEE. _Pipilo maculatus oregonus._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to British Columbia; winters to
Mexico. Similar to the last but with still fewer white markings on the
back and the chestnut flanks brighter. The nesting habits and eggs of
this variety differ in no essential particular from those of the
preceding Towhees.


588c. SAN CLEMENTE TOWHEE. _Pipilo maculatus clementæ._

Range.--San Clemente Is. and other of the Santa Barbara group.

Black of male said to be duller. Probably no difference between the eggs
and others.


588d. SAN DIEGO TOWHEE. _Pipilo maculatus megalonyx._

Range.--Coast of southern California and Lower California. Said to be
darker than _megalonyx._


588e. LARGE-BILLED TOWHEE. _Pipilo maculatus magnirostris._

Range.--Southern Lower California. Similar to _arcticus_; bill said to
be larger.

589. GUADALUPE TOWHEE. _Pipilo consobrinus._

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

Similar to _oregonus_ but smaller and with a relatively shorter tail.
The nesting habits and eggs of this species will not likely be found to
differ essentially from those of others of the genus.


591. CANON TOWHEE. _Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus._

Range.--Mexico and north to Arizona and New Mexico and casually farther
to Colorado.

A common species in the valleys and on the side hills, nesting in bushes
near the ground, and sometimes on the ground; the nests are made of
grasses, weeds and twigs lined with rootlets, and the three or four eggs
are greenish blue sparingly spotted or scrawled with blackish brown, the
markings being similar to those on many Red-winged Blackbirds' eggs.
Size 1.00 × .70.


591a. SAN LUCAS TOWHEE. _Pipilo fuscus albigula._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

This variety is like the last but is usually paler below. It is abundant
in the region about the cape where they nest in thickets, either in the
bushes or on the ground. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of
the Canon Towhee.


591b. CALIFORNIA TOWHEE. _Pipilo crissalis crissalis._

Range.--Pacific coast of California.

This variety is similar to the Canon Towhee but is browner, both above
and below. They are one of the most common of California birds,
frequenting scrubby thickets, both on mountain sides and in valleys and
canons, from which their harsh scolding voice always greets intruders.
They place their nests in bushes at low elevations from the ground and
sometimes on the ground;

[Illustration 362: 588b--591.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 361

they are made of twigs, strips of bark, weeds and coarse grasses, lined
with fine rootlets. Their three or four eggs are laid in April or May;
they are light bluish green marked like the others with purplish or
brownish black. Size .95 × .72.


591.1a. ANTHONY'S TOWHEE. _Pipilo crissalis senicula._

Range.--Southern California and south through Lower California.

A very similar bird to the last but sightly smaller and lighter below.
The habits and nesting habits of these birds are in every way identical
with those of the California Towhee and the eggs cannot be distinguished
from those of that variety. They are fully as abundant in the southern
parts of California as the others are in the northern.


592. ABERT'S TOWHEE. _Pipilo aberti._

Range.--Arizona and New Mexico north to Colorado and Nevada and east to
southeastern California.

This bird is wholly brownish gray both above and below shading into
reddish brown on the under tail coverts; the face is black. They are
abundant in the valleys of Arizona and New Mexico, but unlike the
preceding species, they are generally wild and shy. They nest in
chaparral thickets along streams, the nests being constructed similarly
to those of the California Towhee, and the eggs are not easily
distinguishable from those of that species, but they are usually more
sparsely specked and the markings more distinct. Size 1.00 × .75.


592.1. GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE. _Oreospiza chlorura._

Range.--Western United States, chiefly west of the Rockies from Montana
and Washington south to Mexico; wintering in southwestern United States.

This handsome and entirely different plumaged species from any of the
preceding would, from appearance, be better placed in the group with the
White-throated Sparrow than its present position. It has a reddish brown
crown, the remainder of the upper parts, wings and tail being greenish
yellow; the throat is white, bordered abruptly with gray on the breast
and sides of head. These birds place their nests on the ground. The
nests are built similarly to those of the eastern Towhee, and the eggs,
too, are similar, being whitish, finely dotted and specked with reddish
brown, the markings being most numerous around the larger end. Size .85
× .65.

[Illustration 363: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: 591.1--592--592.1.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Whitish.]
[Illustration: Green-tailed Towhee.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 362

[Illustration 364: CARDINAL.]

Page 363

593. CARDINAL. _Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis._

Range.--Eastern United States, north to New York and Illinois, west to
the Plains and Texas. Resident in most of its range.

These beautiful fiery red and crested songsters are one of the most
attractive of our birds, and in their range, nest about habitations as
freely as among the thickets and scrubby brush of wood or hillside.
Their nests are rarely placed higher than ten feet from the ground in
bushes, branches, vines, brush piles or trees; they are loosely made of
twigs, coarse grasses and weeds, shreds of bark, leaves, etc., and lined
with fine grass or hair. They frequently lay two or three sets of eggs a
season, the first being completed usually early in May; three or four,
and sometimes five, white or pale bluish white eggs are laid; they are
very varied in markings but usually profusely spotted, more heavily at
the large end, with reddish brown and lavender. Size 1.00 × .70.


593a. ARIZONA CARDINAL. _Cardinalis cardinalis superbus._

Range.--Northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona.

A larger and more rosy form of the Cardinal. Its eggs cannot be
distinguished from those of the eastern Redbird.


593b. SAN LUCAS CARDINAL. _Cardinalis cardinalis igneus._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

Like the last but smaller and with less black on the forehead; eggs the
same.

[Illustration 365: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: NEST OF CARDINAL.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 364

593c. GRAY-TAILED CARDINAL. _Cardinalis cardinalis canicaudus._

Range.--Northeastern Mexico and southern Texas.

The male of this species is like the eastern Cardinal but the female is
said to be grayer. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs
identical with those of the latter.


593d. FLORIDA CARDINAL. _Cardinalis cardinalis floridanus._

Range.--Southern Florida.

Supposed to be a deeper and richer shade of red. Eggs like those of
cardinalis.


594. ARIZONA PYRRHULOXIA. _Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata._

Range.--Northwestern Mexico and the southern border of New Mexico,
Arizona and western Texas.

This species is of similar form and crested like a Cardinal, but the
bill is very short and hooked like that of a Parrot; the plumage is
grayish, with wings and tail dull reddish; face and throat, and middle
of belly rosy red. Their habits are the same as those of the Cardinal,
but their nests are said to be slighter; they are placed in similar
locations to those of the latter, the two species often nesting together
in the same thicket. Their eggs are like those of the Cardinal but
average smaller, although the ranges overlap so that the eggs cannot be
distinguished. Size .90 x .70. Data.--San Antonio, Texas, May 16, 1889.
Nest of fine grasses, lined with rootlets; 4 feet from ground in a
mesquite tree.


594a. TEXAS PYRRHULOXIA. _Pyrrhuloxia sinuata texana._

Range.--Northeastern Mexico and southern Texas.

Said to be grayer and the bill to average larger than that of the last.
There are no differences in the nesting habits or eggs between the two
varieties.


594b. SAN LUCAS PYRRHULOXIA. _Pyrrhuloxia sinuata peninsulæ._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

Smaller than the Arizona Cardinal but with a larger bill. The eggs are
like those of the others but may average a trifle smaller.

[Illustration 366: Cardinal.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Texas Pyrrhuloxia.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 365

595. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. _Zamelodia ludoviciana._

Range.--United States, east of the Plains, breeding from the Middle
States and Ohio north to Manitoba and Nova Scotia.

This beautiful black and white bird with rosy red breast and under wing
coverts, is one of the most pleasing of our songsters. They nest either
in bushes or trees, generally between six and twenty feet from the
ground and usually in thick clumps of trees or scrubby apple trees. The
three or four eggs, which are laid in June, are greenish blue, spotted,
most heavily about the larger end, with reddish brown. Size 1.00 × .75.
Data.--Worcester, Mass., June 5, 1899. Nest of twigs and rootlets in
small apple tree in woods; nest very frail, eggs showing through the
bottom.


596. BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK. _Zamelodia melanocephala._

Range.--United States, west of the Plains, breeding from Mexico north to
British Columbia; winters south of the United States.

This species is of the size of the last (8 inches long), and is a bright
cinnamon brown color with black head, and black and white wings and
tail. The habits of this bird are the same as those of the Rose-breasted
Grosbeak and its song is very similar but more lengthy. Their nests,
like those of the last, are very flimsy structures placed in bushes or
trees, usually below twenty feet from the ground; they are open
frameworks of twigs, rootlets and weed stalks, through which the eggs
can be plainly seen. The eggs are similar to those of the preceding but
are usually of a paler color, the markings, therefore showing with
greater distinctness. Size 1.00 × .70.

[Illustration 367: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Rose-breasted Grosbeak.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish white.]
[Illustration: J. B. Pardoe. NEST OF ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 366

597. BLUE GROSBEAK. _Guiraca cærulea._

Range.--Southeastern United States, breeding from the Gulf north to
Pennsylvania and Illinois, and casually to New England.

Smaller than the last two species and deep blue, with wings and tail
blackish, and the lesser coverts and tips of greater, chestnut. It is a
fairly common species in the southerly parts of its range, nesting most
frequently in low bushes or vines in thickets; the nest is made of
rootlets, weed stalks and grasses and sometimes leaves. The three or
four eggs are bluish white, unmarked. Size .85 × .65. Data.--Chatham
Co., Ga., June 10, 1898. 3 eggs. Nest of roots, leaves and snake skin,
lined with fine rootlets, 3 feet from the ground in a small oak bush.


597a. WESTERN BLUE GROSBEAK. _Guiraca cærulea lazula._

Range.--Western United States north to Kansas, Colorado and northern
California.

Slightly larger than the last and lighter blue; nests the same and egg
not distinctive.


598. INDIGO BUNTING. _Passerina cyanea._

Range.--United States, east of the Plains, breeding north to Manitoba
and Nova Scotia; winters south of the United States.

This handsome species is rich indigo on the head and neck, shading into
blue or greenish blue on the upper and under parts. They are very
abundant in some localities along roadsides, in thickets and open woods,
where their song is frequently heard, it being a very sweet refrain
resembling, somewhat, certain passages from that of the Goldfinch. They
nest at low elevations in thickets or vines, building their home of
grass and weeds, lined with fine grass or hair, it being quite a
substantial structure. The eggs, which are laid in June or July, are
pale bluish white. Size .75 × .52.


599. LAZULI BUNTING. _Passerina amœna._

Range.--Western United States, breeding from Mexico to northern United
States and the interior of British Columbia; east to Kansas.

This handsome bird is of the size of _cyanea_, but is azure blue above
and on the throat, the

[Illustration 368: Blue Grosbeak.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Pale bluish white.]
[Illustration: Indigo Bunting.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 367

breast being brownish and the rest of the underparts, white. It is the
western representative of the Indigo Bunting, and its habits and nesting
habits are in all respects the same as those of that species, the nests
being made of twigs, grasses, strips of bark, weeds, leaves, etc. The
eggs are like those of the last, pale bluish white. Size .75 × .55.


600. VARIED BUNTING. _Passerina versicolor_.

Range.--Mexico and north to southern Texas.

The general color of this odd bird is purplish, changing to bright blue
on the crown and rump, and with a reddish nape. They are quite abundant
in some localities along the Lower Rio Grande, where they nest in bushes
and tangled under brush, the nests being like those of the last species,
and rarely above five feet from the ground. The eggs are pale bluish
white, three or four in number, and laid during May or June. Size .75 ×
.55.


600a. BEAUTIFUL BUNTING. _Passerina versicolor pulchra._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

Slightly smaller but very similar to the last; eggs will not differ.


601. PAINTED BUNTING. _Passerina ciris._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States; north to Illinois in the
interior.

Without exception, this is the most gaudily attired of North American
birds, the whole underparts being red, the head and neck deep blue, the
back yellowish green, and the rump purple, the line of demarcation
between the colors being sharp. They are frequently kept as cage birds
but more for their bright colors than any musical ability, their song
being of the character of the Indigo Bunting, but weaker and less
musical. They are very abundant in the South Atlantic and Gulf States,
where they nest usually in bushes or hedges at low elevations, but
occasionally on branches of tall trees. Their nests are made of weeds,
shreds of bark, grasses, etc., lined with fine grass, very much
resembling that of the Indigo. Their eggs are laid in May, June or July,
they frequently raising two broods; they are white or pale bluish white,
speckled with reddish brown. Size .75 × .55.

[Illustration 369: Pale bluish white.]
[Illustration: Lazuli Bunting.]
[Illustration: Pale bluish white.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Varied Bunting.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 368

602. SHARPE'S SEED-EATER. _Sporophila morelleti morelleti_.

Range.--Eastern Mexico, breeding north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in
Texas.

This peculiar, diminutive Finch is but 4.5 inches in length, and in
plumage is black, white and gray. In restricted localities in southern
Texas, they are not uncommon during the summer months. They build in
bushes or young trees at low elevations making their nests of fine
grasses or fibres, firmly woven together and usually placed in an
upright crotch. The eggs are pale greenish blue, plentifully speckled
with reddish and umber brown, and some markings of lilac. Size .65 ×
.45. Data.--Brownsville, Texas, May 7, 1892. Nest of fine fibre-like
material lined with horse hairs, on limb of small tree in open woods
near a lake of fresh water; 6 feet above ground. Collector, Frank B.
Armstrong. This set is in the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall.


603. GRASSQUIT. _Tiaris bicolor._

Range.--This small Finch is a Cuban species which casually strays to
southern Florida.

They are abundant on the island, building large arched nests of grass,
with a small entrance on the side. They lay from three to six white
eggs, specked with brown. Size .65 × .50.


603.1 MELODIOUS GRASSQUIT. _Tiaris canora._

Another Cuban Finch which has been taken in the Florida Keys. Eggs like
the last.


604. DICKCISSEL. _Spiza americana._

Range.--Interior of the United States, breeding from the Gulf to
northern United States, west to the Rockies, east to the Alleghanies.

A sparrow-like Bunting with a yellow breast patch, line over eye and on
side of throat; throat black, chin white and wing coverts chestnut.
These sleek-coated, harmoniously colored birds are very common in dry
bush-grown pastures and on the prairies. They are very persistent
singers, and their song, while very simple, is welcome on hot days when
other birds are quiet. They nest anywhere, as suits their fancy, on the
ground, in clumps of grass, in clover fields, bushes, low trees, or in
thistles. The nests are made of weeds, grasses, leaves and rootlets,
lined with fine grass, and the three to five eggs are bluish white. Size
.80 × .60.

[Illustration 370: Painted Bunting.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Sharpe's Seed-eater.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 369

605. LARK BUNTING. _Calamospiza melanocorys._.

Range.--A bird of the Plains, abundant from western Kansas to eastern
Colorado and north to the Canadian border; winters in Mexico.

These black and white birds have a sweet song which they often utter
while on the wing after the manner of the Bobolink, all their habits
being similar to those of this bird, except that this species likes the
broad dry prairies where it nests on the ground under the protection of
a tuft of grass or a low bush. Their four or five eggs are like those of
the last but slightly larger. Size .85 × .65. Data.--Franklin Co.,
Kansas. 4 eggs. Nest in cornfield in a hollow on the ground at the base
of a stalk; made of straw and weeds.


TANAGERS. Family TANAGRIDÆ

607. WESTERN TANAGER. _Piranga ludoviciana._

Range.--United States, west of the Plains and north to British Columbia.

This handsome species is black and yellow, with an orange or reddish
head. They are common and breed in suitable localities through their
range, nesting as do the eastern Tanagers in trees usually at a low
elevation, the nests being saddled on the forks of horizontal branches;
they are made of rootlets, strips of bark, and weed stalks, and are
usually frail like those of the Grosbeaks. Their eggs, which are laid in
May or June, are bluish green, specked with brown of varying shades.
Size .95 × .65.


608. SCARLET TANAGER. _Piranga erythromelas._

These beautiful scarlet and black birds frequent, chiefly, woodlands,
although they are very often found breeding in orchards and small pine
groves. They are quiet birds, in actions, but their loud warbling song
is heard at a great distance, and is readily recognized by its
peculiarity. They nest upon horizontal

[Illustration 371: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Dickcissel.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Lark Bunting.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 370

limbs or forks at elevations of four to twenty feet, making frail nests
of twigs, rootlets and weeds; they are often found in pine trees, but
apparently just as frequently in other kinds. Their eggs are greenish
blue, specked and spotted with various shades of brown. Size .95 × .65.
Data.--Holden, Mass., May 31, 1898. Nest on low limb of an oak, 4 feet
above ground; of weeds and rootlets and very frail.



609. HEPATIC TANAGER. _Piranga hepatica._

Range.--Western Mexico, north to New Mexico and Arizona in summer.

This species is similar to the next but is darker red on the upper parts
and bright vermilion below. They nest on the lower horizontal branches
of trees, usually live oaks, making the nests of rootlets and weeds; the
eggs are bluish green, like those of the next, but the markings appear
to average more blotchy and brighter. Size .92 × .64.


610. SUMMER TANAGER. _Piranga rubra rubra._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to New York and
Kansas, and casually farther; west to Texas; winters south of our
borders.

This bird is of the size of the Scarlet Tanager, but is of a uniform
rosy red color, darker on the back. They are very common in the South
Atlantic and Gulf States. Their nests are located at low elevations on
horizontal branches of trees in open woods, edges of clearings, or along
the roadside; the nests are made of strips of bark, weed stems, leaves,
etc., and are frail like those of the other Tanagers. Their eggs are
light bluish green, speckled and spotted with reddish brown, and not
distinguishable with certainty from those of the Scarlet Tanager. Size
.92 × .64.


610a. COOPER'S TANAGER. _Piranga rubra cooperi._

Range.--Western United States, breeding from the Mexican border and
Texas north to central California and Nevada.

Similar to but slightly larger than the last. There are no differences
between the nesting of this form and the last and the eggs are not in
any way different.

[Illustration 372: Scarlet Tanager.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: Light bluish green.]
[Illustration: Summer Tanager.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 371

[Illustration 373: SCARLET TANAGER.]

Page 372

SWALLOWS. Family HIRUNDINIDÆ

611. PURPLE MARTIN. _Progne subis subis._

Range.--Breeds throughout the United States and temperate British
America; winters in South America.

These large, lustrous, steely-blue Swallows readily adapt themselves to
civilization and, throughout the east, may be found nesting in bird
houses, provided by appreciative land owners or tenants; some of these
houses are beautiful structures modeled after modern residences and
tenanted by twenty or thirty pairs of Martins; others are plain,
unpainted soap boxes or the like, but the birds seem to take to one as
kindly as the other, making nests in their compartments of weeds, grass,
mud, feathers, etc. They also, and most commonly in the west, nest in
cavities of trees making nests of any available material. During June or
July, they lay from four to six white eggs; size .95 × .65.
Data.--Leicester, Mass., June 16, 1903. 5 eggs in Martin house; nest of
grasses.


611a. WESTERN MARTIN. _Progne subis hesperia._

Range.--Pacific coast from Washington south.

The nesting habits, eggs, and birds of this form are identical with
those found in the east.


611.1. CUBAN MARTIN. _Progne cryptoleuca_.

Range.--Cuba and southern Florida (in summer).

Slightly smaller than the Purple Martin and the eggs average a trifle
smaller.


612. CLIFF SWALLOW. _Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons._

Range.--Whole of North America, breeding north from the south Atlantic
and Gulf States.

These birds can easily be recognized by their brownish throat and
breast, whitish forehead and buffy rump. They build one of the most
peculiar of nests, the highest type being a flask shaped structure of
mud securely cemented to the face of a cliff or under the eaves of a
building, the entrance being drawn out and small, while the outside of
the nest proper is large and rounded; they vary from

[Illustration 374: White.]
[Illustration: Purple Martin.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Cliff Swallow.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 373

this typical nest down to plain mud platforms, but are all warmly lined
with grass and feathers. In some localities, cliffs resemble bee hives,
they having thousands of these nests side by side and in tiers. Their
eggs are creamy white spotted with reddish brown; size .80 × .55 with
great variations. Data.--Rockford, Minn., June 12, 1890. Nest made of
mud, lined with feathers; placed under the eaves of a freight house.

612.1. CUBAN CLIFF SWALLOW. _Petrochelidon fulva._

Range.--West Indies and Central America; accidental on Florida Keys.


613. BARN SWALLOW. _Hirundo erythrogastra._

Range.--Whole of North America; winters south to South America.

This Swallow is the most beautiful and graceful of the family, and is a
familiar sight to everyone, skimming over the meadows and ponds in long
graceful sweeps, curves and turns, its lengthened outer tail feathers
streaming behind. Throughout their range, they nest in barns, sheds or
any building where they will not be often disturbed, making their nests
of mud and attaching them to the rafters; they are warmly lined with
feathers and the outside is rough, caused by the pellets which they
place on the exterior. Before the advent of civilized man, they attached
their nests to the sides of caves, in crevices among rocks and in hollow
trees, as they do now in some localities. Their eggs cannot be
distinguished from those of the Cliff Swallow. Data.--Penikese Is.,
Mass., July 2, 1900. Nest on beam in sheep shed; made of pellets of mud,
lined with feathers.


614. TREE SWALLOW; White-bellied Swallow. _Iridoprocne bicolor._

Range.--Whole of temperate North America, breeding from middle United
States northward; winters in the Gulf States and along the Mexican
border and southward.

This vivacious and active species is as well known as the last, and
nests about habitations on the outskirts of cities and in the country.

[Illustration 375: Barn Swallow.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Tree Swallow.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 374

They naturally nest in holes in trees or stumps, preferable in the
vicinity of water, but large numbers now take up their abode in houses
provided for them by man, providing that English Sparrows are kept away.
They make their nests of straws and grasses, lined with feathers, and
lay four to six plain white eggs; size .75 × .50. Data.--Portage, Mich.,
May 26, 1897. Nest in a gate post; hole about 6 inches deep, lined with
feathers.


615. NORTHERN VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW. _Tachycineta thalassina lepida._

Range.--United States in the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific
coast, breeding from Mexico to British Columbia; winters south of our
borders.

This very beautiful species is smaller than the last, but, like it, is
white below, but the upper parts are blue, green and purple without
gloss. They are common in their range and nest, usually in holes in
trees, less often in banks and under eaves; the nests are made of grass
and feathers, and the eggs are pure white, four or five in number; size
.72 × .50.


615a. SAN LUCAS SWALLOW. _Tachycineta thalassina brachyptera._

Range.--Southern Lower California. Practically the same bird as the last
but with the wing very slightly shorter. Nesting habits or eggs will not
differ.


615.1. BAHAMAN SWALLOW. _Callichelidon cyaneoviridis._

Range.--Bahamas; casual at Dry Tortugas, Florida.

This very beautiful species is similar to the western Violet-green
Swallow, as are also its eggs.


616. BANK SWALLOW. _Riparia riparia._

Range.--Whole of North America, north to the limit of trees, breeding
from the middle portions of the United States northward; winters south
of our borders.

This dull-colored Swallow is grayish above and white below, with a gray
band across the breast, they breed in holes in embankments, digging
small tunnels from one to three feet in length, enlarged and lined at
the end with grass and feathers. During May, June or July, according to
latitude, they lay from four to six pure white eggs; size .70 × .50.


617. ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW. _Stelgidopteryx serripennis._

Range.--United States, breeding from Mexico north to southern New
England, Manitoba and British Columbia; winters south of our borders.

This species is slightly larger than the last and similar but with the
throat and breast grayish and with the outer web of the outer primary
provided with recurved hooks. They nest in holes in embankments, in
crevices in cliffs or among stones of bridges or buildings. Their eggs
are like those of the Bank Swallow but average a trifle larger; size .75
× .52.

[Illustration 376: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 615--616.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 375

WAXWINGS. Family AMPELIDÆ

618. BOHEMIAN WAXWING. _Bombycilla garrulus_.

Range.--Breeds in the Arctic regions except in the Rockies where it
nearly reaches the United States; winters south to the northern tier of
states.

This handsome crested, grayish brown Waxwing resembles the common Cedar
Waxwing but is larger (length 8 inches), has a black throat, much white
and yellow on the wing and a yellow tip to tail. Their nests are made of
rootlets, grass and moss, and situated in trees usually at a low
elevation. The eggs resemble those of the Cedar-bird, but are larger and
the marking more blotchy with indistinct edges; dull bluish blotched
with blackish brown; size .95 × .70. Data.--Great Slave Lake, June 23,
1884. Nest in a willow 8 feet from the ground. Collected for Josiah
Hooper. (Crandall collection).


619. CEDAR WAXWING. _Bombycilla cedrorum._

Range.--Whole of temperate North America, breeding in the northern half
of the United States and northward.

These birds are very gregarious and go in large flocks during the
greater part of the year, splitting up into smaller companies during the
breeding season and nesting in orchards or groves and in any kind of
tree either in an upright crotch or on a horizontal bough; the nests are
made of grasses, strips of bark, moss, string, etc., and are often quite
bulky. Their eggs are of a dull grayish blue color sharply speckled with
blackish brown; size .85 × .60. Data.--Old Saybrook, Conn., June 22,
1900. Nest composed of cinquefoil vines, grasses, wool and cottony
substances; situated on an apple tree branch about 10 feet from the
ground. Collector, John N. Clark. This species has a special fondness
for cherries, both wild and cultivated, and they are often known as
Cherry-birds. They also feed upon various berries, and frequently catch
insects in the air after the manner of Flycatchers. Their only notes are
a strange lisping sound often barely audible.

[Illustration 377: Dull bluish.]
[Illustration: Bohemian Waxwing.]
[Illustration: Dull bluish.]
[Illustration: Cedar Waxwing.]

Page 376

620. PHAINOPEPLA. _Phainopepla nitens_.

Range.--Southwestern United States and Mexico; north to southern Utah
and Colorado.

This peculiar crested species is wholly shining blue black except for a
patch of white on the inner webs of the primaries. Their habits are
somewhat like those of the Cedar-bird, they being restless, and feeding
upon berries or insects, catching the latter in the air. They make
loosely constructed nests of twigs, mosses, plant fibres, etc., placed
on branches of trees, usually below 20 feet from the ground, in thickets
or open woods near water; the eggs are two or three in number, light
gray, spotted sharply with black; size .88 × .65. Data.--Pasadena, Cal.,
July 15, 1894. Nest in an oak 10 feet up; composed of weeds and string.
Collector, Horace Gaylord.


SHRIKES. Family LANIIDÆ

621. NORTHERN SHRIKE. _Lanius borealis._

Range.--North America, breeding north of our borders; winters in
northern half of the United States and casually farther south.

All Shrikes are similar in nature and plumage, being grayish above and
white below, with black wings, tail and ear patches, and with white
outer tail feathers and bases of primaries; the present species may be
known by its larger size (length over 10 inches) and wavy dusky lines on
the breast. They are bold and cruel birds, feeding upon insects, small
rodents and small birds, in the capture of which they display great
cunning and courage; as they have weak feet, in order to tear their prey
to pieces with their hooked bill, they impale it upon thorns. They nest
in thickets and tangled underbrush, making their nests of vines,
grasses, catkins, etc., matted together into a rude structure. During
April or May they lay from four to six grayish white eggs, spotted and
blotched with yellowish brown and umber; size 1.05 × .75.

622. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. _Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus._

Range.--United States, east of the Plains, breeding north to New England
and Illinois; winters in Southern States.

Like the last but smaller (length 9 inches), not marked below and with
the ear patches sharply defined. They nest in hedges or thickly tangled
brush, showing a predilection for dense thorn bushes, where they place
their piles of weeds, grasses, feathers and rubbish; the four or five
eggs are laid in April or May; they are like those of the last, but
smaller, averaging .96 × .72.

[Illustration 378: 619--620.]
[Illustration: Light gray.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Northern Shrike.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 377

[Illustration 379: I. E. Hess.
LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE AND NEST.]

Page 378

622a. WHITE-RUMPED SHRIKE. _Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides._

Range.--North America, west of the Plains, breeding north to Manitoba
and the Saskatchewan; winters south to Mexico.

Like the last but paler and the rump white. Their nesting habits and
eggs are in every respect like those of the Loggerhead Shrike.


622b. CALIFORNIA SHRIKE. _Lanius ludovicianus gambeli._

Range.--Pacific coast north to British Columbia.

Similar to the eastern form but with the breast washed with brownish and
with indistinct wavy bars. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those
of the others.


622c. ISLAND SHRIKE. _Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi._

Range.--Santa Barbara Islands, California. Like the last but smaller and
darker. Eggs not distinguishable.


VIREOS. Family VIREONDIDÆ

623. BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO. _Vireosylva calidris barbatula._

Range.--A Central American species, breeding in Cuba, Bahamas and
southern Florida.

Like the Red-eyed Vireo but with a dusky streak on either side of the
chin. They build pensile nests of strips of bark and fibres, swung from
the forks of branches. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of
the next species, being white, more or less specked about the large end
with reddish brown and umber. Size .78 × .55.

[Illustration 380: Loggerhead Shrike.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 622a--622b.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 379

[Illustration 381: YOUNG SHRIKES (All ready for flight).]

Page 380

624. RED-EYED VIREO. _Vireosylva olivacea_.

Range.--United States, east of the Rockies, breeding north to Labrador,
Manitoba and British Columbia.

This is the most common of the Vireos in the greater part of its range
and is a most persistent songster, frequenting groves, open woods or
roadsides. Their eyes are brown, scarcely if any more red than those of
any other species and I have yet to see one with red eyes outside of
mounted museum specimens. They swing their nests from the forks of trees
at any elevation from the ground but usually below ten feet, and I have
found them where the bottom rested on the ground; they are made of
strips of bark, fibre, etc., and often have pieces of string or paper
woven into the sides; they are one of the most beautiful of bird homes
and are woven so strongly that old nests hang to the branches for
several seasons. Their three or four eggs, often accompanied by one of
the Cowbirds, are laid in May or June; they are white, sparingly specked
with blackish brown. Size .85 × .55.


625. YELLOW-GREEN VIREO. _Vireosylva flavoviridis._

Range.--Southern Texas and southward to South America.

Similar to the Red-eye but greener above and more yellowish on the
sides. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs indistinguishable
from those of that species.


626. PHILADELPHIA VIREO. _Vireosylva philadelphica_.

Range.--Eastern United States breeding from northern New England and
Manitoba northward.

This species is much smaller than the Red-eye (length 5 in.) and is
yellowish below, and without black edges to the gray crown. Their eggs
do not differ from those of the Red-eyed Vireo except in size, averaging
.70 × .50.


627. WARBLING VIREO. _Vireosylva gilva gilva._

Range.--North America east to the Plains, breeding north to Labrador.

This Vireo is nearly as abundant as the Red-eye but is not generally as
well known, probably because it is usually higher in the trees and more
concealed from view. Their nests are like those of the Red-eye, but
smaller and usually placed higher in the trees. The birds are even more
persistent singers, than are the latter but the song is more musical and
delivered in a more even manner, as they creep about among the foliage,
peering under every leaf for lurking insects. The eggs are pure white,
spotted with brown or reddish brown. Size .72 × .52.

[Illustration 382: Red-eyed Vireo.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 626-627.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 381

[Illustration 383: C. A. Reed.
RED-EYED VIREO ON NEST.]

Page 382

627a. WESTERN WARBLING VIREO. _Vireosylva gilva swainsoni._

Range.--Western United States, breeding from Mexico to British Columbia.

This species is like the last but said to be a trifle smaller and paler
color. Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely like those of the
eastern form.


628. YELLOW-THROATED VIREO. _Lanivireo flavifrons._

Range.--United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to
Manitoba and New Brunswick.

This handsome bird is wholly unlike any others of the Vireos, having a
bright yellow throat and breast; the upper parts are greenish and the
wings and tail gray, the latter with two white bars. They are fairly
common breeding birds in northern United States, placing their handsome
basket-like structures in forks of branches and at any elevation from
the ground; the nests are like those of the preceding Vireos but are
frequently adorned on the outside with lichens, thereby adding
materially to their natural beauty. The four or five eggs are pinkish or
creamy white, speckled about the large end with reddish brown. Size .80
× .60.


629. BLUE-HEADED VIREO. _Lanivireo solitarius solitarius._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from southern New England and
the northern states north to Hudson Bay; winters in the Gulf States and
southward.

A beautiful Vireo with a slaty blue crown and nape, greenish back, white
wing bars and underparts, the flanks being washed with greenish yellow;
a conspicuous mark is the white eye ring and loral spot. They build
firm, pensile, basket-like nests of strips of birch and grapevine bark,
lined with fine grasses and hair, suspended from forks, usually at low
elevation and often in pine or fir trees (of some twenty nests that I
have found in New England all have been in low branches of conifers).
Their three or four white eggs are specked with reddish brown. Size .80
× .60.


629a. CASSIN'S VIREO. _Lanivireo solitarius cassini._

Range.--United States west of the Rockies; north to British Columbia.

Similar to the last but with the back grayish.

629b. PLUMBEOUS VIREO. _Lanivireo solitarius plumbeus._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region, breeding from Mexico to Dakota and
Wyoming.

Like the Blue-headed Vireo but with the yellowish wholly replaced by
leaden gray.

[Illustration: Yellow-throated Vireo.]
[Illustration 384: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Blue-headed Vireo.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 383

629c. MOUNTAIN VIREO. _Lanivireo solitarius alticola._

Range.--Mountains of Carolina and Georgia; winters in Florida.

Said to be larger and darker than _solitarius_ proper. From all
accounts, the habits, nests or eggs of this species differ in no wise
from many of those of the northern Solitary Vireo, whose nests show
great variations in size and material.


629d. SAN LUCAS VIREO. _Lanivireo solitarius lucasanus._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

Similar to cassini but with the flanks more yellow. Their nesting habits
or eggs will not differ from the others.


630. BLACK-CAPPED VIREO. _Vireo atricapillus._

Range.--Central Texas north to Kansas; winters in Mexico.

This peculiar Vireo has a black crown and sides of head, broken by a
white eye ring and loral stripe; upper parts greenish, below white. They
appear to be fairly common in certain localities of their restricted
range, and nest at low elevations in mesquites or oaks, placing the
nests in forks the same as other Vireos; they are of the ordinary Vireo
architecture, lined with grasses. The three or four eggs are pure white,
unmarked. Size .70 × .50. Data.--Comal Co., Texas, May 21, 1888, 4 eggs.
Nest located in a scrub Spanish oak, 5 feet from the ground.


631. WHITE-EYED VIREO. _Vireo griseus griseus._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to northern United
States.

This Vireo has white eyes, as implied by its name, is yellowish green on
the sides and with two prominent bars. They have no song, like the other
Vireos, but a strange medley of notes resembling those of the Chat or
Shrike. They nest near the ground in tangled thickets, making large
nests for the size of the birds and not always suspended; they are made
of weeds, leaves, grass, bark or any trash. Their three or four eggs are
laid late in May or early in June; they are white, sparingly speckled
with brown; size .75 × .55.


631a. KEY WEST VIREO. _Vireo griseus maynardi._

Range.--Southern Florida.

This grayer and paler variety nests in the same manner and the eggs are
not distinct from those of the last form.

[Illustration 385: Black-capped Vireo.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White-eyed Vireo.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 384

631b. BERMUDA VIREO. _Vireo griseus bermudianus._

Range.--Bermudas.

This variety is said to be slightly smaller and to have no yellow on the
sides. Its eggs are probably the same as those of the others.

631c. SMALL WHITE-EYED VIREO. _Vireo griseus micrus._

Range.--Eastern Mexico north to southern Texas.

Said to be slightly smaller and grayer than the common White-eyed Vireo.
Its eggs will not differ.


632. HUTTON'S VIREO. _Vireo huttoni huttoni._

Range.--Resident on the California coast; chiefly in the southern parts.

A similar species to _noveboracensis_ but with the under parts tinged
with yellow. These birds are quite common but shy, nesting at any height
from the ground in open woods or groves; the nests are made of grasses
and moss and swung from forked limbs; the three or four eggs are pure
white, finely specked with reddish brown. Size .70 × .50.


632a. STEPHEN'S VIREO. _Vireo huttoni stephensi._

Range.--Northwestern Mexico and the boundary of the United States.

This variety, which is more yellowish than the last, appears to be
rather uncommon but as far as I can learn its habits and nesting do not
differ from those of the other Vireos; the eggs are white, specked with
brown. Size .70 × .50.


632c. ANTHONY'S VIREO. _Vireo huttoni obscurus._

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon (and Cal. in winter) to British
Columbia.

The nesting habits and eggs of this darker and smaller variety are the
same in all respects as those of the Hutton's Vireo.


633. BELL'S VIREO. _Vireo belli belli._

Range.--Interior of the United States, breeding from Texas to Minnesota
and Dakota.

The nesting habits of this smaller species are just the same as those of
the larger varieties, they suspending their small grass-woven baskets in
the forks of bushes or trees and usually at a low elevation. Their nests
are handsome and compact little structures, being often made almost
wholly of strips of bark lined with very fine grasses. The eggs are
white, specked with reddish brown. Size .70 × .50. Data.--Austin, Texas,
June 16, 1898. Nest of strips of bark, fibres and grasses, neatly woven
and swung from the fork of a low bush, 2 feet from the ground.

[Illustration 386: White.]
[Illustration: 629a--632.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 633a-634.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 385

633a. LEAST VIREO. _Vireo belli pusillus._

Range.--Western Mexico, Arizona and southern California.

This Vireo is slightly smaller and grayer than the last; they are quite
common in southern Arizona, nesting the same as Bell's at low elevations
in bushes or small trees. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of
_belli_.


634. GRAY VIREO. _Vireo vicinior._

Range.--Southwestern United States from western Texas, southern
California and Nevada southward.

This species is grayish above and grayish white below, with white eye
ring, lores and wing bar. They are not uncommon birds in the Huachuca
Mts. of southern Arizona, where they nest in bushes at low elevations,
making the semi-pensile structures of woven strips of bark and grasses,
lined with fine round grasses attached by the rim to a fork and
sometimes stayed on the side by convenient twigs. Eggs white, specked
with brown. Size .72 × .53.


HONEY CREEPERS. Family COEREBIDÆ

635. BAHAMA HONEY CREEPER. _Cœreba bahamensis_.

Range.--Bahamas, casually to southern Florida and the Keys.

This peculiar curved-billed species is dark brown above, with the
underparts, superciliary line and spot at base of primaries, whitish;
the rump and a breast patch are yellow. They nest at low elevations in
bushes or trees usually in tangled thickets, making a large dome-shaped
nest of grasses, leaves and fibres and, during May or June, lay from
three to five pale creamy white eggs, speckled sparingly all over the
surface and more abundantly at the large end with reddish brown. Size
.65 × .50.


WARBLERS. Family MNIOTILTIDÆ

Warblers as a family may be classed as the most beautiful, interesting
and useful birds that we have. With few exceptions, they only return
from their winter quarters as the trees shoot forth their leaves or
flowers, they feed largely among the foliage upon small, and mostly
injurious, insects. They are very active and always flitting from branch
to branch, showing their handsome plumage to the best advantage. Their
songs are simple but effectively delivered and the nests are of a high
order of architecture.

636. BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER. _Mniotilta varia._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf States
north to the Hudson Bay region; winters from our southern borders to
South America.

This striped black and white Warbler is usually seen creeping about tree
trunks and branches after the manner of a Nuthatch. They are very active
gleaners and of inestimable value to man. They nest on the ground in
woods or swamps, making their nest of strips of bark and grass, placed
among the leaves usually beside stones, stumps or fallen trees. Their
three to five eggs are white, finely specked and wreathed with reddish
brown. Size .65 × .50. Data.--Worcester, Mass., June 3, 1889. Nest of
strips of bark on the ground in an old decayed stump.

[Illustration 387: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Black and White Warbler.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 386

637. PROTHONOTARY WARBLER. _Prothonotaria citrea._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States, north in the interior to Iowa
and Illinois.

This species is often known as the Golden Swamp Warbler because of the
rich golden yellow of the head and underparts. They frequent and nest in
the vicinity of swamps or ponds, nesting in the cavities of trees or
stubs at low elevations, filling the cavity with leaves, moss and
grasses, neatly cupped to receive the four to seven eggs, which are
creamy or pinkish white, profusely spotted with reddish brown and
chestnut. Size .72 × .55. Data.--Quincy, Mo., June 1, 1897. 5 eggs. Nest
in hole of a dead stub 6 feet up, in timber some distance from water;
made of moss and grasses, lined with hair.


638. SWAINSON'S WARBLER. _Helinaia swainsoni._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to Virginia and Indiana,
and west to eastern Texas; winters in Mexico and the West Indies.

This species is brownish above and white below, with a whitish
superciliary stripe. It has been found breeding most numerously in
thickets and tangled underbush about swamps and pools in any locality.
Their nests are either in bushes or attached to upright rushes over
water after the manner of the Long-billed Marsh Wren, being made of
leaves, moss, rootlets, etc., lined with fine grasses or hair, and
deeply cupped for the reception of the three or four unmarked white or
bluish white eggs which are laid during May or June. Size .75 × .58.
Data.--Near Charlestown, S. C., May 12, 1888, 3 eggs. Nest in canes 4
feet from ground, made of strips of rushes, sweet gum and water oak
leaves, lined with pine needles.


639. WORM-EATING WARBLER. _Helmitheros vermivorus._

Range.--United States east of the Plains, breeding north to southern New
England and Illinois; winters south of our borders.

This bird can be identified in all plumages by the three light buff and
two black stripes on the crown and narrower black stripes through the
eye. Their habits are similar to those of the Oven-bird, they

[Illustration 388: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Prothonotary Warbler.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Swainson's Warbler. Worm-eating Warbler.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 387

feeding largely upon the ground amid dead leaves. They are quite
abundant in most localities in their range, nesting in hollows on the
ground in open woods or shrubbery on hill sides; the nest is made of
leaves, grasses and rootlets, lined with hair or finer grasses, and is
usually placed under the shelter of some small bush. They lay (in May,
June or July) three to six eggs, white, marked or blotched either
sparingly or heavily with chestnut or lavender. Size .70 × .52.


640. BACHMAN'S WARBLER. _Vermivora bachmani._

Range.--Southeastern United States, along the Gulf coast to Louisiana
and north to Virginia and Missouri.

This species is one of the rarest of the Warblers, but is now much more
abundant than twenty years ago, when it had apparently disappeared. They
are greenish above, and yellow below, and on the forehead and shoulder,
and with black patches on the crown and breast. They have been found
breeding in Missouri, nesting on the ground like others of this genus;
the eggs are white wreathed about the large end and sparingly specked
over the whole surface with reddish brown and chestnut. Size .65 × .50.


641. BLUE-WINGED WARBLER. _Vermivora pinus._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding north to southern New England
and in the Mississippi Valley to Minnesota; winters south of our
borders.

This common species has the crown and underparts yellow, line through
the eye black, and white wing bars and spots on outer tail feathers.
They breed most abundantly in the northern half of their United States
range, placing their nests on the ground in thickets or on the edge of
woods; the nests are made of strips of bark, usually grapevine, and
leaves, and are usually high and deeply cupped, they are almost always
placed among the upright shoots of young bushes. The eggs are white,
finely specked with reddish brown with great variations as to markings.
Size .65 × .50. Data.--Old Saybrook, Conn., June 1, 1900. 5 eggs. Nest
composed chiefly of dry beech leaves and strips of cedar bark, lined
with shreds of bark and fine grass; situated on the ground among a bunch
of weeds in the woods.

[Illustration 389: Bachman's Warbler. Lawrence's Warbler. Brewster's
Warbler.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 388

642. GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER. _Vermivora chrysoptera._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding north to the southern parts of
the British Provinces, winters south of the United States.

This is a very handsome species with black throat and ear patches, and
yellow crown and wing bars, the upper parts being gray and the lower
white. They frequent low fields or hillsides where they nest among weeds
or vines, making the nest of strips of bark, grasses and fibres, and
locating it close to the ground in clumps of weeds, low bushes or
briers. The three to five eggs are white with a very great diversity of
markings, either heavily or minutely spotted or wreathed with chestnut
and gray. Size .62 × .50.


643. LUCY'S WARBLER. _Vermivora luciæ._

Range.--Western Mexico, north commonly to Arizona and casually to
southern Utah.

This small gray and white Warbler is especially distinguished by a
chestnut rump and patch in center of the crown. Besides nesting in forks
of low bushes, this species is said to place the domiciles in almost any
crevice or nook that suits their fancy, such as loose bark on tree
trunks, holes in trees, or other birds' nests. The eggs which are
usually laid during May are white, sparingly specked and wreathed with
reddish brown. Size .60 × .50.


644. VIRGINIA'S WARBLER. _Vermivora virginiæ._

Range.--Western Mexico, north to Arizona and New Mexico, and also less
commonly to Colorado.

This species is similar to the last but has the rump and a patch on the
breast, yellow. They are found quite abundantly in some localities,
usually on mountain ranges, nesting in hollows on the ground beside
rocks, stumps or in crevices among the rocks; the nests are made of fine
strips of bark and grasses, skillfully woven together, and the three to
five eggs are pure white, specked and wreathed with reddish brown. Size
.62 × .50.

[Illustration 390: Golden-winged Warbler.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Lucy's Warbler. Virginia Warbler.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 389

645. NASHVILLE WARBLER. _Vermivora rubricapilla rubricapilla._

Range.--North America east of the Plains, breeding from New York and
Illinois north to Hudson Bay and Labrador; winters south of our borders.

This small species is yellow below and greenish above, with an ashy gray
head and neck, enclosing a chestnut crown patch. They breed abundantly
in New England, usually on side hills covered with clumps of young
pines, the nests being placed flush with the surface of the ground and
usually covered with overhanging grass; they are made of grasses and
pine needles, the eggs are white, finely specked with bright reddish
brown. Size .60 × .45. Data.--Worcester, Mass., June 23, 1895. Nest of
pine needles and grasses in hollow in the moss on a scrubby pine
hillside.


645a. CALAVERAS WARBLER. _Vermivora rubricapilla gutturalis._

Range.--Western United States, breeding on ranges from California and
Idaho north to British Columbia; winters in Mexico.

A slightly brighter colored form of the last species. Their habits are
the same and the eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the eastern
bird.


646. ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER. _Vermivora celata celata._

Range.--North America, chiefly in the interior, breeding north of the
United States except in the Rockies south to Arizona and New Mexico;
winters in the Gulf States and southward.

This plainly clad, greenish colored species has a concealed patch of
orange brown on the crown. They have been found breeding about Hudson
Bay and in the Mackenzie River district, placing their nests in hollows
on the ground, usually on the side of banks or hills and concealed by
small tufts of grass or bushes. The three or four eggs are white,
speckled with reddish brown. Size .64 × .45.


646a. LUTESCENT WARBLER. _Vermivora celata lutescens._

Range.--Pacific coast, breeding from California to Alaska; winters in
Mexico.

Similar to the last but more yellowish below. They make their nests of
leaves, rootlets, moss, etc., lined with hair, and placed on the ground,
concealed by tufts of grass or by bushes. The eggs are like those of the
last. Data.--Danville, Cal., April 21, 1898. Nest on the ground on a
side hill; among weeds in the shade of a large oak.

[Illustration 391: White.]
[Illustration: Nashville Warbler. Orange-crowned Warbler.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 390

646b. DUSKY WARBLER. _Vermivora celata sordida._

Range.--Santa Barbara Islands, off California.

Said to be duller colored and darker than the others. The eggs cannot be
distinguished.


647. TENNESSEE WARBLER. _Vermivora peregrina._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from the northern tier of
states, northward; winters to northern South America.

This species has greenish upper parts, white lower parts and
superciliary line, and gray crown and nape. They nest either on the
ground or at low elevations in bushes, making the structure of grasses
and fibres, lined with hair; they are found on wild, tangled hillsides
and mountain ranges. The eggs are pure white, sparingly specked with
reddish brown. Size .62 × .45.


648. PARULA WARBLER. _Compsothlypis americana americana._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding in the southern half.

The upper parts of this handsome species are bluish gray with a greenish
patch in the middle of the back; the throat and breast are yellow with a
patch of black and chestnut. They are abundant birds in suitable
localities, breeding in swamps, especially those with old or dead trees
covered with hanging moss (usnea). The nests may be found at any height
from the ground, and are usually made by turning and gathering up the
ends of the hanging moss to form a pocket, which is lined with fine
grass or hair. The four to six eggs are white or creamy white, wreathed
with specks of reddish brown and chestnut. Size .64 × .44.


648a. NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER. _Compsothlypis americana usneæ._

Range.--Northern half of eastern United States and southern Canada;
winters from the Gulf States southward.

The nesting habits of the northern form of the Blue-yellow-backed
Warbler are in all respects like those of the last, and like them, where
moss grown swamps are not to be found, they have been known to construct
nests of moss suspended from branches of trees, or to nest in bunches of
dead leaves. Data.--Oxford, Mass., June 7, 1895. Nest in a dead pine
swamp; made in end of hanging moss about 6 feet from the ground. Large
colony breeding.

[Illustration 392: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Tennessee Warblers. Olive Warblers.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 391

649. SENNETT'S WARBLER. _Compsothlypis piti ayumi nigrilora._

Range.--Eastern Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

This species is similar to the Parula but is more extensively yellow
below, and has black lores and ear coverts. Their habits are the same as
those of the last and their nests are generally placed in hanging moss,
and are also said to have been found hollowed out in the mistletoe which
grows on many trees in southern Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. The eggs
cannot be distinguished from those of the last.


650. CAPE MAY WARBLER. _Dendroica tigrina._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from northern New England and
Manitoba northward; winters south of the United States.

This beautiful Warbler is yellow below and on the rump, streaked on the
breast and sides with black; the ear coverts and sometimes the throat
are chestnut. They are very local in their distribution both during
migrations and in their breeding grounds. They nest in the outer
branches of trees, preferably conifers, making the nest of slender
twigs, rootlets, grasses, etc., lined with hair; the four or five eggs
are white, variously specked with reddish brown and lilac; size .65 ×
.48.


651. OLIVE WARBLER. _Peucedramus olivaceus._

Range.--Mountains of New Mexico and Arizona southward.

This peculiar species may readily be recognized by its saffron or
orange-brown colored head and neck, with broad black bar through the
eye. They nest at high elevations in coniferous trees on the mountain
sides, placing their nests either on the horizontal boughs or forks at
the end of them. The nests are very beautiful structures made of moss,
lichens, fine rootlets and grasses and setting high on the limb like
those of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. The eggs are grayish white with a
bluish tinge, thickly speckled with blackish; size .64 × .48.
Data.--Huachuca Mts., Arizona, June 21, 1901. Nest in a sugar pine near
extremity of branch, 25 feet from the ground and 20 feet out from the
trunk of the tree; composed of lichens and fine rootlets, lined with
plant down.

[Illustration 393: White.]
[Illustration: Parula Warbler. Sennett's Warbler.]
[Illustration: Grayish blue.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 392

652. YELLOW WARBLER. _Dendroica æstiva æstiva._

Range.--Breeds in the whole or North America; winters south of our
borders.

This well known and very common species is wholly yellow, being more or
less greenish on the back, wings and tail, and the male is streaked on
the sides with chestnut. They nest anywhere in trees or bushes, either
in woods, pastures, parks or dooryards, and their sprightly song is much
in evidence throughout the summer. The nests are usually placed in
upright crotches or forks, and are made of vegetable fibres and fine
grasses compactly woven together and lined with plant down and hair; the
eggs, which are laid in May or June, are greenish white, boldly specked
in endless patterns with shades of brown and lilac; size .65 × .50.


652a. SONORA YELLOW WARBLER. _Dendroica æstiva sonorana._

Range.--Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas, southward.

This form is brighter yellow, especially above, than the last. The
nesting habits are the same and the eggs indistinguishable from those of
the preceding.


652b. ALASKA YELLOW WARBLER. _Dendroica æstiva rubiginosa._

Range.--Breeds in Alaska and on the coast south to Vancouver; winters
south of the United States.

Similar to the common Yellow Warbler but slightly darker above; its eggs
and nesting habits are the same.

[Illustration 394: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Cape May Warblers. Yellow Warblers.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 393

[Illustration 395: J. B. Pardoe.
NEST OF YELLOW WARBLER.]

Page 394

653. MANGROVE WARBLER. Dendroica bryanti castaneiceps.

Range.--Southern Lower California
and western Mexico and
Central America.

This species is very similar to
the Yellow Warbler but the entire
head and neck of the male
are yellowish chestnut. Their
nesting habits or eggs do not vary in any essential
particular from those of the common Yellow-birds
of the United States.


654. BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER. _Dendroica cærulescens cærulescens._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from
northern United States northward; winters in
the Gulf States and southward.

These black-throated bluish-backed Warblers
are abundant in swampy woodland both during
migrations and at their breeding grounds; either
sex can readily be identified in any plumage, by
the presence of a small white spot at the base of
the primaries. They nest in underbrush or low
bushes only a few inches above the ground, making
the nests of bark strips, moss rootlets, etc.,
lined with fine grasses or hair;
the eggs are pale buffy white
more or less dotted with pale
brownish; size .65 × .50. Data.--Warren,
Pa., June 9, 1891. 3
eggs. Nest one foot from the
ground in brush; made of fine
pieces of rotten wood, laurel bark and lined with
fine grasses.


654a. CAIRNS WARBLER. _Dendroica cærulescens cairnsi._

Range.--Mountain ranges of North Carolina to Georgia.

A darker form whose habits and eggs are identical with those of the last.

[Illustration 396: Mangrove Warblers. Black-throated Blue Warblers.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Buffy white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 395

655. MYRTLE WARBLER. _Dendroica coronata._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States
northward. Winters in the southern half of eastern United States.

This beautiful gray, white and black Warbler can readily be identified
by its yellow rump, side patches and crown patch. It is one of our most
common species during migrations when it is found west to the Rockies
and casually farther. They nest on the lower branches of coniferous
trees, making their homes of rootlets, plant fibres and grasses; during
June or the latter part of May, three or four eggs are laid; they are
white, spotted with several shades of brown and lilac; size .70 × .50.
Data.--Lancaster, N. H., June 7, 1888. Nest in a small spruce, about 6
feet up; made of fine twigs, lined with feathers.


656. AUDUBON'S WARBLER. _Dendroica auduboni auduboni._

Range.--Mountain ranges of western United States from British Columbia
to Mexico.

This bird resembles the last in the location of the yellow patches but
has a yellow instead of a white throat, and is otherwise differently
marked. They are as abundant in suitable localities as are the Myrtle
Warblers in the east, nesting on the outer branches of coniferous trees
at any height from the ground. The nests are made of bark strips,
rootlets, plant fibre, grasses and pine needles, the three to five eggs
are greenish or bluish white marked with brown and lilac; size .68 ×
.52. The one figured is from a beautiful set of four in Mr. C. W.
Crandall's collection, and the ground color is a delicate shade of blue.
Data.--Spanaway, Washington, April 23, 1902. Nest on the limb of a large
fir in a clump of three in prairie country.


656a. BLACK-FRONTED WARBLER. _Dendroica auduboni nigrifrons._

Range.--Mountains of southern Arizona and Mexico.

Similar to the preceding, but with the forehead and ear coverts black.
Their nests and eggs are in no way different from those of Audubon's
Warbler.

[Illustration 397: White.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Myrtle Warblers. Audubon's Warblers.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 396

657. MAGNOLIA WARBLER. _Dendroica magnolia._

Range.--North America east of the Rockies, breeding from northern United
States to Hudson Bay region and in the Alleghanies, south to
Pennsylvania. Winters south of our borders. This species, which is one
of the most beautiful of the Warblers, is entirely yellow below and on
the rump, the breast and sides being heavily streaked with black; a
large patch on the back and the ear coverts are black. They build in
coniferous trees at any elevation from the ground, making their nests of
rootlets and grass stems, usually lined with hair; the eggs are dull
white, specked with pale reddish brown; size .65 × .48.
Data.--Worcester, Mass., May 30, 1895. 4 eggs. Nest of fine rootlets and
grasses about 30 feet up on the end of a limb of a pine overhanging a
brook.


658. CERULEAN WARBLER. _Dendroica cærulea_.

Range.--United States east of the Plains, breeding chiefly in the
northern half of the Mississippi Valley, rare east of the Alleghanies
and casual in New England. These beautiful Warblers are light blue gray
above, streaked with black on back, white below, with a grayish blue
band on breast and streaks on the sides; they have two wide white wing
bars and spots on the outer tail feathers. They are found chiefly in the
higher trees where they glean on the foliage; they build also usually
above twenty feet from the ground in any kind of tree, placing the nests
well out on the horizontal limbs, generally in a fork. The nests are
made of fine strips of bark, fibres, rootlets, etc., lined with hair;
the eggs are white or pale bluish white, specked with reddish brown;
size .62 × .48. Data.--Fargo, Ontario, June 2, 1901. Nest in a burr oak,
18 feet from the ground on a horizontal limb.

[Illustration 398: Magnolia Warblers. Cerulean Warblers.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: No caption.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 397

[Illustration 399: NEST OF MAGNOLIA WARBLER.]

Page 398

659. CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER. _Dendroica pensylvanica._

Range.--United States, east of the Plains, breeding in the Middle States
and Illinois, north to Manitoba and New Brunswick. Winters south of our
border.

The adults of this handsome species may readily be known by the white
underparts and the broad chestnut stripe on the flanks; the crown is
yellow. They frequent low brush in open woods or on hillsides and
pastures, nesting at low elevations, usually below three feet from the
ground, and often concealing their nests beneath the leaves in the tops
of low small bushes. The nests are made of grasses, weed stems and some
fibres, but they do not have as wooly an appearance as those of the
Yellow Warblers which nest in the same localities and similar locations.
Their eggs are white or creamy white (never greenish white), specked
with brown and gray. Size .65 × .50. Data.--Worcester, Mass., June 6,
1890. Nest in the top of a huckleberry bush, 2 feet from the ground;
made of grasses and plant fibres. Bird did not leave nest until touched
with the hand.


660. BAY-BREASTED WARBLER. _Dendroica castanea._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains, breeding from northern United
States north to the Hudson Bay; winters in Central and South America.

This species has the crown, throat and sides a rich chestnut; forehead
and face black; underparts white. They nest in coniferous trees in
swampy places, making their nests of bark shreds and rootlets and
placing them in horizontal forks at elevations of from five to thirty
feet from the ground. The three or four eggs are laid late in May or
during June; they are white, usually quite heavily spotted and blotched
with reddish brown, umber and grayish. Size .70 × .50.

[Illustration 400: Chestnut-sided Warblers. Bay-breasted Warblers.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 399

661. BLACK-POLL WARBLER. _Dendroica striata._

Range.--North America, east of the Rockies, breeding from northern
United States north to Labrador and Alaska; winters in South America.

This black and white Warbler has a solid black cap, and the underparts
are white, streaked with black on the sides. In the woods they bear some
resemblance to the Black and White Warbler, but do not have the creeping
habits of that species. During migrations they are found in equal
abundance in swamps or orchards. In their breeding range, they nest at
low elevations in stunted pines or spruces, making their nests of
rootlets and lichens, lined with feathers. The eggs are dull whitish,
spotted or blotched with brown and neutral tints. Size .72 × .50.
Data.--Grand Manan, N. B., June 12, 1883. Nest and four eggs on branch
of a stunted spruce 2 feet from the ground.


662. BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER. _Dendroica fusca._

Range.--North America, east of the Plains, breeding from Massachusetts
and Minnesota north to Hudson Bay; south in the Alleghanies to the
Carolinas. Winters in Central and South America.

This species is, without exception, the most exquisite of the family;
the male can always be known by the bright orange throat, breast and
superciliary stripe, the upper parts being largely black. They arrive
with us when the apple trees are in bloom and after a week's delay pass
on to more northerly districts. Their nests are constructed of rootlets,
fine weed stalks and grasses, lined with hair, and are placed on
horizontal limbs of coniferous trees. The three or four eggs are
greenish white, speckled, spotted and blotched with reddish brown and
neutral tints. Size .70 × .48. Data.--Lancaster, Mass., June 21, 1901.
Nest in a white pine, 38 feet from the ground on a limb 4 feet from the
trunk; composed of fine rootlets and hair, resembling the nest of a
Chipping Sparrow.

[Illustration 401: White.]
[Illustration: Black-poll Warblers. Blackburnian Warblers.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 400

[Illustration 402: BLACKBURNIAN WARBLERS.]

Page 401

663. YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER. _Dendroica dominica dominica._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to Virginia and casually
farther; winters in Florida and the West Indies.

This species has gray upper parts with two white wing bars, the throat,
breast and superciliary line are yellow, and the lores, cheeks and
streaks on the sides are black. These birds nest abundantly in the South
Atlantic States, usually in pines, and either on horizontal limbs or in
bunches of Spanish moss. The nests are made of slender pieces of twigs,
rootlets and strips of bark, and lined with either hair or feathers, the
eggs are three to five in number, pale greenish white, specked about the
large end with reddish brown and gray. Size .70 × .50. Data.--Raleigh,
N. C., May 3, 1890. Nest 43 feet up on limb of pine; made of grasses and
hair.


663a. SYCAMORE WARBLER. _Dendroica dominica albilora._

Range.--Mississippi Valley, breeding north to Ohio and Illinois, and
west to Kansas and Texas; winters south of the United States.

This bird is precisely like the last except that the superciliary stripe
is usually white. Their nesting habits are precisely like those of the
last, and the nests are usually on horizontal branches of sycamores; the
eggs cannot be distinguished from those of the Yellow-throated Warbler.


664. GRACE'S WARBLER. _Dendroica graciæ._

Range.--Southwestern United States, abundant in Arizona and New Mexico.

This Warbler is similar in markings and colors to the Yellow-throated
variety except that the cheeks are gray instead of black. The nesting
habits of the two species are the same, these birds building high in
coniferous trees; the nests are made of rootlets and bark shreds, lined
with hair or feathers; the eggs are white, dotted with reddish brown and
lilac. Size .68 × .48.

[Illustration 403: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Yellow-throated Warblers. Grace's Warblers.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 402

665. BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER. _Dendroica nigrescens._

Range.--United States from the Rockies to the Pacific coast and north to
British Columbia; winters south of our borders.

The general color of this species is grayish above and white below as is
a superciliary line and stripe down the side of the throat; the crown,
cheeks and throat are black and there is a yellow spot in front of the
eye. They inhabit woodland and thickets and are common in such
localities from Arizona to Oregon, nesting usually at low elevations in
bushes or shrubs; the nests are made of grasses and fibres, woven
together, and lined with hair or fine grasses, resembling, slightly,
nests of the Yellow Warbler. The eggs are white or greenish white,
specked with reddish brown and umber. Size .65 × .52. Data.--Waldo,
Oregon, June 1, 1901. Nest 3 feet from the ground in a small oak in
valley. Collector, C. W. Bowles. (Crandall collection.)


666. GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER. _Dendroica chrysoparia._

Range.--Central and southern Texas south to Central America.

This beautiful and rare species is entirely black above and on the
throat, enclosing a large bright yellow patch about the eye and a small
one on the crown. In their very restricted United States range, the
birds are met with in cedar timber where they nest at low elevations in
the upright forks of young trees of this variety. Their nests are made
of strips of cedar bark, interwoven with plant fibres and spider webs
making compact nests, which they line with hair and feathers. Their
three or four eggs are white, dotted and specked with reddish brown and
umber. Size .75 × .55.

[Illustration 404: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Black-throated Warblers. Golden-cheeked Warblers.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 403

667. BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER. _Dendroica virens._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from southern New England, South
Carolina in the Alleghanies, and Illinois north to Hudson Bay; winters
south of the United States.

These common eastern birds are similar to the last but the entire upper
parts are olive greenish. They are nearly always found, and always nest,
in pines, either groves or hillsides covered with young pines. The nests
are usually placed out among the pine needles where they are very
difficult to locate, and resemble nests of the Chipping Sparrow. I have
found them at heights ranging from six to forty or fifty feet from the
ground. The three or four eggs, which they lay in June, are white,
wreathed and speckled with brownish and lilac. Size .60 × .50.


668. TOWNSEND'S WARBLER. _Dendroica townsendi._

Range.--Western United States, from the Rockies to the Pacific and from
Alaska southward; winters in Mexico.

This is the common western representative of the last species, and is
similar but has black ear patches and the crown is black. They nest in
coniferous woods throughout their United States and Canadian range, the
nests being placed at any height from the ground and being constructed
like those of the Black-throated Green. Their eggs are not
distinguishable from those of the latter. Size .60 × .50.

[Illustration 405: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Black-throated Green Warbler. Townsend's Warblers.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 404

669. HERMIT WARBLER. _Dendroica occidentalis._

Range.--Western United States and British Columbia chiefly on the higher
ranges. Winters south to Central America.

This peculiar species has the entire head bright yellow and the throat
black; upperparts grayish, underparts white. They are found nesting in
wild rugged country, high up in pine trees, the nests being located
among bunches of needles so that they are very difficult to find. The
nests are made of rootlets, shreds of bark, pine needles, etc., lined
with fine grasses or hair. The three or four eggs are laid during June
or the latter part of May; they are white or creamy white, and sometimes
with a faint greenish tinge, specked and wreathed with brown and lilac
gray. Size .68 × .52.


670. KIRTLAND'S WARBLER. _Dendroica kirtlandi._

Range.--Eastern United States; apt to be found in any of the South
Atlantic, Middle or Central States, and in Ontario, Canada. Winters in
the Bahamas where by far the greater number of specimens have been
found.

This very rare Warbler is bluish gray above, streaked with black, and
yellow below with the throat and sides streaked. Until the summer of
1903, the locality where they bred was a mystery. The capture of a
specimen, in June, in Oscodo Co., Michigan, led to the search for the
nests by N. A. Wood, taxidermist for the Michigan Museum at Ann Arbor.
He was successful in his quest and found two nests with young and one
egg. The nest in which the egg was found contained two young birds also.
It was in a depression in the ground at the foot of a Jack pine tree and
only a few feet from a cart road. The nest was made of strips of bark
and vegetable fibres, lined with grass and pine needles. The egg is
white, sprinkled with brown in a wreath about the large end. Size .72 ×
.56. It is estimated that there were thirteen pairs of the birds in this
colony.

[Illustration 406: Hermit Warblers. Kirtland's Warblers.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 405

671. PINE WARBLER. _Dendroica vigorsi._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern
British Provinces; winters in the Gulf States and southward.

This common eastern species is greenish above and dull yellowish below,
streaked with dusky on the sides. They are almost exclusively found in
pine woods, either light or heavy growth, where they can always be
located by their peculiar, musical lisping trill. They nest high in
these trees, placing their nests in thick bunches of needles, so that
they are very difficult to locate. They nest from March in the south to
May in the northern states, laying three or four dull whitish eggs,
specked or blotched with shades of brown and lilac; size .68 × .52.
Data.--Worcester, Mass., May 28, 1891. Nest 30 feet up in a pine; made
of pine needles and rootlets.


672. PALM WARBLER. _Dendroica palmarum palmarum._

Range.--Interior of North America, breeding about Hudson Bay and
northward and wintering in the lower Mississippi Valley and the West
Indies.

This species is brownish yellow above and yellow on the throat and
breast, the crown and streaks on the sides are chestnut. They are found
during migrations on or near the ground on the edges of woods or
thickets and along roadsides; have a peculiar habit of "teetering" their
tail which will readily identify them. They nest on the ground in, or on
the edges of swampy places, lining the hollow with grasses and rootlets.
In May or June they lay three or four eggs which are creamy white,
variously specked with brown and lilac; size .68 × .52.


672a. YELLOW PALM WARBLER. _Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from Nova Scotia, northward.

This is the common Yellow Redpoll Warbler of the eastern states, and is
very abundant during migrations. Their habits are the same, if not
identical with the interior species. Their nests are also like those of
the last, placed on the ground and the eggs are indistinguishable.

[Illustration 407: Dull white.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: Pine Warblers. Palm Warblers.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 406

[Illustration 408: C. A. Reed.
PRAIRIE WARBLER NEST.]

Page 407

673. PRAIRIE WARBLER. _Dendroica discolor._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to Massachusetts
and Ontario; winters in southern Florida and the West Indies.

A species readily recognized by its bright yellow underparts and the
black stripes on the face and sides; several bright chestnut spots are
in the middle of the greenish back. These birds will be found on dry
scrubby hillsides and valleys, where they nest in low bushes, and the
male will be found in the tops of the tallest lookout trees delivering
his quaint and very peculiar lisping song. Their nests are handsomely
made of vegetable fibres and grasses, closely woven together and lined
with hair; this structure is placed in the top of low bushes so that it
is well concealed by the upper foliage. Their three to five eggs are
whitish, specked and spotted with shades of brown and neutral tints;
size .64 × .48. Data.--Worcester, Mass., June 23, 1891. Nest in the top
of a young walnut, two feet from ground; made of plant fibres and
grasses. Four eggs.


674. OVEN-BIRD. _Seiurus aurocapillus._

Range.--North America east of the Rockies, breeding from the middle
portions of the United States, north to Labrador and Alaska. Winters
from the Gulf States southward.

This species is fully as often known as the Golden-crowned Thrush,
because of its brownish orange crown bordered with black. They are
woodland birds exclusively and nest on the ground, arching the top over
with rootlets or leaves, the nest proper being made of grasses and leaf
skeletons. As they are concealed so effectually, the nests are usually
found by flushing the bird. The four to six eggs are white, slightly
glossy and spotted, blotched or wreathed with reddish brown and lilac;
size .80 × .60. Data.--Old Saybrook, Conn., June 19, 1899. Domed nest
with a side entrance on the ground in woods.

[Illustration 409: Whitish.]
[Illustration: Prairie Warblers. Oven-bird.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 408

[Illustration 410: C. A. Reed.
ARCHED NEST OF OVEN-BIRD.]

[Illustration: J. B. Canfield.
NEST AND EGGS OF LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH.]

Page 409

675. WATER-THRUSH. _Seiurus novebora censis noveboracensis._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States
north to Hudson Bay and Newfoundland. Winters from the Gulf to South
America.

This species is uniform brownish olive above and white below, streaked
heavily with blackish; it has a whitish superciliary line. It is known
in most of the United States only as a migrant, being found in moist
woods or swampy places. They nest in such localities in their breeding
range, placing their nests among the cavities of rootlets and stumps,
the nest being made of moss, leaves and rootlets. Their eggs are white,
profusely specked and blotched with reddish brown and lavender gray.
Size .80 × .60. Data.--Listowell, Ontario, May 28, 1895. Nest in a
turned-up root over water; made of moss, grass and hair. Collector, Wm.
L. Kells. This set of five is in the collection of Mr. C. W. Crandall.


675a. GRINNELL'S WATER-THRUSH. _Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis._

Range.--Western North America, migrating between the Mississippi Valley
and the Rockies; breeds from northern United States north to Alaska;
winters in the south.

This sub-species is said to be very slightly larger, darker on the back,
and paler below. Their nesting habits and eggs are identical with those
of the last.


676. LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH. _Seiurus motacilla._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf, north to southern
New England, Ontario and Minnesota; winters south of our borders.

This species is similar to the last but is larger, grayer and less
distinctly streaked on the underparts. They nest in swampy places,
concealing their home in nooks among roots of trees or under overhanging
banks, the nest being made of leaves, moss, mud, grasses, etc., making a
bulky structure. The eggs, which are laid in May and number from four to
six, are white, spotted and blotched with chestnut and neutral tints.
Size .76 × .62.

[Illustration 411: White.]
[Illustration: Louisiana Water Thrush. Water-Thrush.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 410

677. KENTUCKY WARBLER. _Oporornis formosus._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to New York and
Michigan; winters south of the United States to South America.

Crown and ear coverts black, underparts and line over eye yellow; no
white in the plumage. These birds are found in about such localities as
are frequented by Oven-birds, but with a preference for woods which are
low and damp. They are locally common in some of the southern and
central states. They are active gleaners of the underbrush, keeping well
within the depths of tangled thickets. Like the Maryland Yellow-throat,
which has similar habits to those of this bird, they are quite
inquisitive and frequently come close to you to investigate or to scold.
They nest on the ground in open woods or on shrubby hillsides, making
large structures, of leaves and strips of bark, lined with grasses. The
eggs are white, sprinkled with dots or spots of reddish brown and gray.
Size .70 × .55. Data.--Greene Co., Pa., May 26, 1894. 4 eggs. Nest a
mass of leaves, lined with rootlets, placed on the ground at the base of
a small elm sprout in underbrush on a hillside.


678. Connecticut Warbler.--_Oporonis agilis._

Range.--Eastern United States; known to breed only in Manitoba and
Ontario.

These birds have greenish upperparts and sides, yellowish underparts,
and an ashy gray head, neck and breast; they have a complete whitish
ring about the eye, this distinguishing them in any plumage from the two
following species. As they do most of their feeding upon the ground and
remain in the depths of the thickets, they are rarely seen unless
attention is drawn to them. They are quite abundant in New England in
fall migrations, being found in swampy thickets. They have been found
breeding in Ontario by Wm. L. Kells, the nest being on the ground in the
woods among raspberry vines. It was made of leaves, bark fibres, grass,
rootlets and hair. The eggs are white, specked with brown and neutral
tints. Size .75 × .55.

[Illustration 412: White.]
[Illustration: Kentucky Warbler. Connecticut Warblers.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: Left hand margin.]

Page 411

679. MOURNING WARBLER. _Oporornis philadelphia_.

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from northern New England,
Pennsylvania, (Philadelphia) and Nebraska northward.

Very similar to the last but with no eye ring and a black patch on the
breast. The habits and nesting habits of this species are very similar
to those of _agilis_, the nest being on or very close to the ground.
With the exception of on mountain ranges it breeds chiefly north of our
borders. The eggs are white, specked with reddish brown. Size .72 × .55.
They cannot be distinguished from those of the last. Data.--Listowell,
Ontario, June 5, 1898. Nest in a tuft of swamp grass in low ground; not
very neatly made of dry leaves, grasses and hair. Collector, Wm. L.
Kells. (Crandall collection.)


680. MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER. _Oporornis tolmiei._

Range.--Western United States from the Rockies to the Pacific, breeding
north to British Columbia; winters in Mexico and Central America.

Similar to the last but with white spots on the upper and lower eyelids,
black lores, and the black patch on the breast mixed with gray. These
ground inhabiting birds are found in tangled thickets and shrubbery
where they nest at low elevations, from one to five feet from the
ground. Their nests are made of grasses and shreds of bark, lined with
hair and finer grasses, and the eggs are white, specked, spotted and
blotched with shades of brown and neutral tints; size .72 × .52.
Data.--Sonoma, Cal., May 17, 1897. A small nest, loosely made of grasses
(wild oats) lined with finer grasses; placed in blackberry vines 14
inches from the ground in a slough in the valley.

[Illustration 413: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Mourning Warblers. Macgillivray Warblers.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 412

681. MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT. _Geothlypis trichas trichas._

Range.--Eastern United States; this species has recently been still
further sub-divided so that this form is supposed to be restricted to
the south Atlantic coast of the United States.

The Maryland Yellow-throat is represented in all parts of the United
States by one of its forms. They are ground loving birds, frequenting
swamps and thickets where they can be located by their loud,
unmistakable song of "Witchery, w i t c h e r y, witch." They nest on or
very near the ground, making their nests of grass, lined with hair;
these are either in hollows in the ground at the foot of clumps of grass
or weeds, or attached to the weed stalks within a few inches of the
ground. They lay from three to five eggs in May or June; these are
white, specked about the larger end with reddish brown and umber, and
with shell markings of stone gray. Size .70 × .50. All the sub-species
of this bird have the same general habits of this one and their eggs
cannot be distinguished from examples of the eastern form; the birds,
too, owing to the great differences in plumage between individuals from
the same place, cannot be distinguished with any degree of satisfaction
except by the ones who "discovered" them.


681a. WESTERN YELLOW-THROAT. _Geothlypis trichas occidentalis._

Range.--This variety, which is said to be brighter yellow below, is
ascribed to the arid regions of western United States; not on the
Pacific coast.


681b. FLORIDA YELLOW-THROAT. _Geothlypis trichas ignota._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf coast to Texas.


681c. PACIFIC YELLOW-THROAT. _Geothlypis trichas arizela._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia southward.


681e. SALT MARSH YELLOW-THROAT. _Geothlypis trichas sinuosa._

Range.--Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay.

[Illustration 414: White.]
[Illustration: Maryland Yellow-throats. Belding's Yellow-throat.]
[Illustration: Left hand margin.]

Page 413

682. BELDING'S YELLOW-THROAT. _Geothlypis beldingi._

Range.--Lower California.

This peculiar species is like the common Yellow-throat but has the black
mask bordered by yellow instead of white, and the black on the forehead
extends diagonally across the head from in front of one eye to the rear
of the other. Their habits are like those of the other Yellow-throats
and the nests are similar to those of the latter, which are frequently
placed in cane over the water. Nests found by Mr. Walter E. Bryant were
situated in clumps of "cat-tails" between two and three feet above the
water; the nests were made of dry strips of these leaves, lined with
fibres; the eggs were like those of the common Yellow-throats but
larger; size .75 × .56.

682.1. RIO GRANDE YELLOW-THROAT. _Chamæthlypis poliocephala._

Range.--Mexico north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

This Yellow-throat has the crown and ear coverts gray, only the lores
and forehead being black. The nests and eggs of these birds, which are
fairly common about Brownsville, Texas, do not differ from those of the
other Yellow-throats.


683. YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. _Icteria virens virens._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf coast north to
southern New England and Minnesota.

This strange but handsome species is very common in underbrush and
thickets in the south; they are usually shy and endeavor, with success,
to keep out of sight, but their strange song and calls, consisting of
various whistles and squawks mingled together, are often heard. Their
nests are built in bushes or briars at low elevations, being made of
grass, strips of bark and leaves, lined with finer grass; their eggs are
white, sharply speckled and spotted with various shades of brown and
lavender; size .90 × .70.


683a. LONG-TAILED CHAT. _Icteria virens longicauda._

Range.--United States west of the Plains, breeding from Mexico to
British Columbia.

This bird is said to be grayer and to have a slightly longer tail than
the last. Its nesting habits and eggs are precisely the same.

[Illustration 415: Rio Grande Yellow-throat. Yellow-breasted Chat.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 414

684. HOODED WARBLER. _Wilsonia citrina._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding north to southern New England
and Michigan; winters south of our borders.

This yellow and greenish species can be identified by its black head,
neck and throat, with the large yellow patch about the eye and the
forehead. The members of this genus are active fly-catchers, darting
into the air after passing insects in the manner of the Flycatchers.
They frequent tangled thickets where they build their nests within a few
inches of the ground, making them of leaves, bark and grass, lined with
hair; the four or five eggs are white, specked with reddish brown and
neutral tints; size .70 × .50. Data.--Doddridge Co., Mo., May 29, 1897.
Nest one foot from the ground in a small bush; made of leaves, strips of
bark and fine grasses.


685. WILSON'S WARBLER. _Wilsonia pusilla pusilla_.

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States
northward; south to Central America in winter.

These handsome little black-capped flycatching Warblers are abundant
during migrations, especially in the spring, being found on the edges of
woods and in orchards. They nest on the ground, usually on the edges of
swamps, embedding their nests in the ground under the shelter of low
branches or on the edges of banks; the nest is of bark strips, fibres
and leaves, and the eggs are white, specked with reddish brown; size .60
× .50.


685a. PILEOLATED WARBLER. _Wilsonia pusilla pileolata._

Range.--Western United States, breeding in the Rocky Mountain region
from Mexico to Alaska; winters south of the United States.

Similar to the eastern form but the yellow underparts and greenish back
are brighter. Like the last species, this form nests on the ground or
very close to it, in weeds or rank undergrowth, in swamps. Their eggs
which are laid in May or June are not distinguishable from those of the
last.

[Illustration 416: Hooded Warblers. Wilson's Warblers.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 415

685b. GOLDEN PILEOLATED WARBLER. _Wilsonia pusilla chryseola._

Range.--Pacific coast of North America, breeding from southern
California in mountain ranges north to British Columbia.


686. CANADIAN WARBLER. _Wilsonia canadensis._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from Mass., New York, and
Michigan north to Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in Central America.

This handsome Warbler is plain gray above and yellow below, with a black
stripe down the sides of the neck and across the breast in a broken
band. They frequent swamps or open woods with a heavy growth of
underbrush, where

they build their nests on or very close to the ground. I have always
found them in Massachusetts nesting about the roots of laurels, the
nests being made of strips of bark, leaves and grass; in June or the
latter part of May they lay from three to five white eggs, specked and
wreathed with reddish brown and neutral tints; size .68 × .50.
Data.--Worcester, Mass., June 10, 1891. Nest on the ground under laurel
roots in swampy woods; made entirely of strips of laurel bark lined with
fine grass.


687. American Redstart. _Setophaga ruticilla._

Range.--North America, chiefly east of the Rockies, breeding in the
northern half of the United States and north to Labrador and Alaska;
winters south of our borders.

The male of this handsome, active and well known species is black with a
white belly, and orange patches on the sides, wings and bases of outer
tail feathers. They breed abundantly in swamps, open woods or thickets
by the roadside, placing their nests in trees or bushes at elevations of
from three to thirty feet above ground and usually in an upright fork.
The nests are very compactly made of fibres and grasses, felted
together, and lined with hair. Their eggs are white, variously blotched
and spotted with brown and gray; size .65 × .50. Data.--Chili, N. Y.,
June 1, 1894. Nest, a cup-shaped structure of plant fibres lined with
fine grasses and hair; 4 feet from the ground in the crotch of a small
chestnut.

[Illustration 417: White.]
[Illustration: Canadian Warblers. American Redstart.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 416

[Illustration 418: C. A. REED.
MALE REDSTART FEEDING YOUNG.]

Pgee 417

688. PAINTED REDSTART. _Setophaga picta._

Range.--Southern New Mexico and Arizona, southward.

This beautiful Redstart is black with a large white patch on the wing
coverts, white outer tail feathers, and with the belly and middle of the
breast bright red. These active birds, which have all the habits and
mannerisms of the common species, nest on the ground in thickets or
shrubbery usually near water, and generally conceal their homes under
overhanging stones or stumps; the nests are made of fine shreds of bark
and grasses, lined with hair; the eggs are white, dotted with reddish
brown; size .65 x .48. Data.--Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, May 31, 1900.
Nest of fine bark and grass under a small bush on the ground.


689. RED-BELLIED REDSTART. _Setophaga miniata._

Range.--Mexico; admitted to our avifauna on the authority of Giraud as
having occurred in Texas.

This species is similar to the last, but has a chestnut crown patch,
more red on the underparts, and less white on the tail; it is not
probable that their nesting habits or eggs differ from the last.


690. RED-FACED WARBLER. _Cardellina rubrifrons._

Range.--Southern Arizona and New Mexico, southward.

This attractive little Warbler is quite common in mountain ranges of the
southern Arizona. They nest on the ground on the side hills, concealing
the slight structure of grasses and rootlets under overhanging shrubs or
stones. Their eggs are specked and blotched with light reddish brown and
lavender. Size .64 x .48. Data.--Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, May 31, 1902.
Nest in a depression under a tuft of grass growing about 8 feet up on
the side of a bank.

[Illustration 419: White.]
[Illustration: Painted Redstart. Red-faced Warblers.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 418

WAGTAILS. Family MOTACILLIDÆ

694. WHITE WAGTAIL. _Motacilla alba._

Range.--An Old World species; accidental in Greenland.

These birds are abundant throughout Europe, nesting on the ground, in
stone walls, or in the crevices of old buildings, etc., the nests being
made of grass, rootlets, leaves, etc.; the eggs are grayish white,
finely specked with blackish gray. Size .75 × .55.


695. SWINHOE'S WAGTAIL. _Motacilla ocularis._

Range.--Eastern Asia; accidental in Lower California and probably
Alaska.


696. ALASKA YELLOW WAGTAIL. _Budytes flavus alascensis._

Range.--Eastern Asia; abundant on the Bering Sea coast of Alaska in the
summer.

These handsome Wagtails are common in summer on the coasts and islands
of Bering Sea, nesting on the ground under tufts of grass or beside
stones, usually in marshy ground. Their eggs number from four to six and
are white, profusely spotted with various shades of brown and gray. Size
.75 × .55. Data.--Kamchatka, June 20, 1896. Nest on the ground; made of
fine rootlets, grass and moss, lined neatly with animal fur.


697. PIPIT. _Anthus rubescens._

Range.--North America, breeding in the Arctic regions, and in the Rocky
Mountains south to Colorado, winters in southern United States and
southward.

The Titlarks are abundant birds in the United States during migrations,
being found in flocks in fields and cultivated ground. Their nests,
which are placed on the ground in meadows or marshes under tufts of
grass, are made of moss and grasses; the four to six eggs are dark
grayish, heavily spotted and blotched with brown and blackish. Size .75
× .55.


698. MEADOW PIPIT. _Anthus pratensis._

Range.--Whole of Europe; accidental in Greenland.

This species is similar to the American Pipit and like that species
nests on the ground; they are very abundant and are found in meadows,
woods or thickets in the vicinity of houses. Their nests are made
chiefly of grasses, lined with hair; the eggs are from four to six in
number and are grayish, very heavily spotted and blotched with grayish
brown. Size .78 × .58.

[Illustration 420: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: American Pipit. Sprague's Pipit.]
[Illustration: Gray.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 419

699. RED-THROATED PIPIT. _Anthus cervinus._

Range.--An Old World species; accidental in the Aleutians and Lower
California.

The nesting habits of this bird are like those of the others of the
genus.


700. SPRAGUE'S PIPIT. _Anthus spraguei._

Range.--Interior of North America, breeding from Wyoming north to
Saskatchewan. Winters in the plains of Mexico.

These birds are common on the prairies and breed abundantly on the
plains of the interior of northern United States and Manitoba. They have
a flight song which is said to be fully equal to that of the famous
European Skylark. They nest on the ground under tufts of grass or
up-turned sods, lining the hollow with fine grasses; their three or four
eggs are grayish white, finely specked with grayish black or purplish.
Size .85 × .60. Data.--Crescent Lake, Canada. Nest of fine dried
grasses, built in the ground at the side of a sod.


DIPPERS. Family CINCLIDÆ

701. DIPPER. _Cinclus mexicanus unicolor._

Range.--Mountains of western North America from Alaska to Central
America.

These short-tailed, grayish colored birds are among the strangest of
feathered creatures; they frequent the sides of mountain streams where
they feed upon aquatic insects and small fish. Although they do not have
webbed feet, they swim on or under water with the greatest of ease and
rapidity, using their wings as paddles. They have a thrush-like bill and
the teetering habits of the Sandpiper, and they are said to be one of
the sweetest of songsters. They nest among the rocks along the banks of
swiftly flowing streams, and sometimes beneath falls; the nests are
large round structures of green moss, lined with fine grass and with the
entrance on the side. The eggs are pure white, four or five in number,
and laid during May or June. Size 1.00 × .70.

WRENS, THRASHERS, ETC. Family TROGLODYTIDÆ


702. SAGE THRASHER. _Oreoscoptes montanus._

Range.--Plains and valleys of western United States, east of the Sierra
Nevadas, from Montana to Mexico.

This species is abundant in the sage regions of the west, nesting on the
ground or at low elevations in sage or other bushes. Their nests are
made of twigs, rootlets and bark strips, lined with fine rootlets; the
three or four eggs are a handsome greenish blue, brightly spotted with
reddish brown and gray. Size .95 × .70. Data.--Salt Lake Co., Utah, May
11, 1900. Nest placed in a sage bush; made of twigs of the same and
lined with bark strips. Collector, W. H. Parker, (Crandall collection.)

[Illustration 421: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Sage Thrasher.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 420

703. MOCKINGBIRD. _Mimus polyglottos polyglottos_.

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to New Jersey and
Illinois.

These noted birds are very common in the south where they are found, and
nest about houses in open woods, fields, and along roadways; their nests
are rude, bulky structures of twigs, grasses, leaves, etc., placed in
trees or bushes at low elevations; the three to five eggs are usually
dull greenish blue, boldly spotted with brownish. Size .95 × .72.


703a. WESTERN MOCKINGBIRD. _Mimus polyglottos leucopterus._

Range.--Southwestern United States from Texas to California, and
southward.

This subspecies is as common in its range, and its habits are the same
as those of the eastern bird. The nests and eggs are identical with
those of the last, and like that variety they frequently nest in odd
places as do all common birds when they become familiar with
civilization.


704. CATBIRD. _Dumetella carolinensis._

Range.--North America, breeding from the Gulf States to the
Saskatchewan; rare on the Pacific coast; winters in the Gulf States and
southward.

This well known mimic is abundant in the temperate portions of its
range, frequenting open woods, swamps, hillsides and hedges. Their nests
are usually low down in bushes or trees, and are constructed similarly
to those of the Mockingbird, of twigs and rootlets; a tangled mass of
vines and briers is a favorite place for them to locate their home.
Their eggs are laid in the latter part of May or during June, and are
from three to five in number and a bright bluish green in color,
unmarked. Size .95 × .70.

[Illustration 422: Dull greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Mockingbird.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: Catbird.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 421

705. BROWN THRASHER. _Toxostoma rufum_.

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from the Gulf States north to
Canada. Winters in the Gulf States and southward.

This large, handsome songster is found breeding in just such localities
as are preferred by the Catbird and the two are often found nesting in
the same hedge or thicket. The nests, too, are similar but that of the
Thrasher is usually more bulky; besides building in bushes they
frequently nest on the ground, lining the hollow under some bush with
fine rootlets. Their three to five eggs are laid during May or June;
they are whitish or pale greenish white, profusely dotted with reddish
brown. Size 1.05 × .80.


706. SENNETT'S THRASHER. _Toxostoma longirostre sennetti._

Range.--Southern Texas and northeastern Mexico.

Very similar to the last but darker above and with the spots on the
breast blacker and more distinct. This species which is very abundant in
the Lower Rio Grande Valley nests the same as the last species in thick
hedges and the eggs are very similar to those of the Brown Thrasher, but
in a large series, average more sparingly marked over the whole surface
and with a more definite wreath about the large end. Data.--Corpus
Christi, Texas, May 12, 1899. Nest of twigs and vines in a bush in
thicket. Six feet from the ground.


707. CURVE-BILLED THRASHER. _Toxostoma curvirostre curvirostre._

Range.--Mexico, north to southern Texas and eastern New Mexico.

This species is a uniform ashy gray above and soiled white below; the
bill is stout and decurved. These birds are as numerous in the Lower Rio
Grande Valley as are the Sennett's Thrasher, frequenting thickets where
they breed in scrubby bushes and cacti. Their nests are rather larger
and more deeply cupped than are those of the last species and the eggs
can easily be distinguished. They have a ground color of light bluish
green, minutely dotted evenly all over the surface with reddish brown.
Size 1.10 × .80. Data.--Brownsville, Texas, April 6, 1900. 5 eggs. Nest
of sticks and thorns on a cactus in a thicket; 6 feet from the ground.

[Illustration 423: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Brown Thrasher.]
[Illustration: Greenish white.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: 707a--708--710.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 422

707a. PALMER'S THRASHER. _Toxostoma curvirostre palmeri._

Range.--Very abundant in southern Arizona and southward into Mexico.

The nesting habits and eggs of these birds are exactly like those of the
last; they show a preference for placing their nests of sticks and
thorny twigs upon cacti at elevations below five feet from the ground.
Like the last, they generally raise two broods a season.


708. BENDIRE'S THRASHER. _Toxostoma bendirei._

Range.--Southern Arizona and Mexico; north locally to southern Colorado.

This species is not as abundant in the deserts of southern Arizona as
are the last species with which they associate. They nest at low
elevations in mesquites or cacti, laying their first sets in March and
early April and usually raising two broods a season; their three or four
eggs are dull whitish, spotted and blotched with brownish drab and lilac
gray. Size 1.00 × .72. Data.--Tucson, Arizona, April 15, 1896. Nest 3
feet up in a cholla cactus; made of large sticks lined with fine
grasses.


709. SAN LUCAS THRASHER. _Toxostoma cinereum cinereum._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

This species is similar to _curvirostre_ but the under parts are spotted
with dusky. Their habits and nests are similar to those of the other
Thrashers and the three or four eggs are pale greenish white, spotted
with reddish brown. Size 1.08 × .75. Data.--Santa Anita, June 3, 1896. 3
eggs. Nest in a cactus.


709a. MEARNS'S THRASHER. _Toxostoma cinereum mearnsi._

Range.--Northern Lower California.

This species is described as darker than the last and with larger,
blacker spots on the breast and underparts.


710. CALIFORNIA THRASHER. _Toxostoma redivivum._

Range.--Southern half of California, west of the Sierra Nevadas.

This species is more brownish than the other curve-billed species and
has a much longer and more curved bill. They are common in the under
brush of hillsides and ravines, where they locate their nests at low
elevations. Their nests are made of sticks and grass, lined with
rootlets, and the three or four eggs are bluish green with spots of
russet brown. Size 1.12 × .82. Data.--San Diego, Cal., Feb. 7, 1897.
Nest of sticks and rootlets in a grease-wood bush 4 feet from the
ground. Collector, Chas. W. Brown.

[Illustration 424: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish white.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 423

711. LECONTE'S THRASHER. _Toxostoma lecontei lecontei._

Range.--Desert regions of southwestern United States, chiefly in the
valleys of the Gila and Colorado Rivers.

This species is much paler than the last and has a shorter bill. It is
fairly common but locally distributed in its range and nests at low
elevations in bushes or cacti. The three or four eggs are pale greenish
blue, sparingly dotted with reddish brown. Size 1.10 × .75.
Data.--Phoenix, Arizona, April 2, 1897. 3 eggs. Large nest of dry twigs,
rootlets, etc., lined with bits of rabbit hair and feathers; 4 feet from
the ground in a small shrub.


711a. DESERT THRASHER. _Toxostoma lecontei arenicola._

Range.--Northern Lower California.

This form of the last is said to differ in being darker above. It is a
very locally confined race, chiefly about Rosalia Bay, Lower California.
Its eggs will not be distinctive.


712. CRISSAL THRASHER. _Toxostoma crissale._

Range.--Southwestern United States from western Texas to eastern
California; north to southern Utah and Nevada.

This species may be known from any other of the curve-billed Thrashers
by its grayish underparts and bright chestnut under tail coverts. These
sweet songsters are abundant in suitable localities, nesting at low
elevations in chaparral. Their nests are large, and bulkily made of
sticks and rootlets; the eggs range from two to four in number and are
pale greenish blue, unmarked. Size 1.10 × .75.


713. CACTUS WREN. _Heleodytes brunneicapillus couesi._

Range.--Southwestern United States from Texas to eastern California;
north to southern Nevada and Utah.

This species is the largest of the Wrens, being 8.5 inches in length.
They are very common in cactus and chaparrel districts, where they nest
at low elevations in bushes or cacti, making large purse-shaped
structures of grasses and thorny twigs, lined with feathers and with a
small entrance at one end. They raise two or three broods a year, the
first set of eggs being laid early in April; the eggs are creamy white,
dotted, so thickly as to obscure the ground color, with pale reddish
brown. Size .95 × .65. Data.--Placentia, Cal., April 15, 1901. Nest in
cactus about 6 feet from the ground; made of grasses and lined with
feathers and rabbit fur; nest 8 inches in diameter, 18 inches long.

[Illustration 425: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: 711--712.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Cactus Wren.]
[Illustration: Creamy white.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 424

713a. BRYANT'S CACTUS WREN. _Heleodytes brunneicapillus bryanti._

Range.--Northern Lower California and coast of southern California.

The nesting habits of this variety differ in no respect from those of
the last.


713b. SAN LUCAS CACTUS WREN. _Heleodytes brunneicapillus affinis._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

Eggs indistinguishable from those of the last.


715. ROCK WREN. _Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus._

Range.--United States, west of the plains, breeding north to British
Columbia, and south to Mexico; winters in southwestern United States and
southward.

This species appears to be quite abundant on rocky hillsides throughout
its range; like most of the Wrens they draw attention to themselves by
their loud and varied song. They nest in crevices or beneath overhanging
rocks, making the nest out of any trash that may be handy, such as
weeds, grass, wool, bark, rootlets, etc.; their eggs range from four to
eight in number and are pure white, finely specked with reddish brown.
Size .72 × .50.


716. GUADALUPE ROCK WREN. _Salpinctes guadeloupensis._

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

A similar but darker and browner species than the Rock Wren. It breeds
in abundance throughout the island from which it takes its name, placing
its nests in crevices among the boulders or cavities of fallen tree
trunks and, as is often done by the last species, lining the pathway to
the nest with small pebbles. The eggs, which are laid from January to
April, resemble, in all respects, those of the common Rock Wren.


717. WHITE-THROATED WREN. _Catherpes mexicanus albifrons._

Range.--Northeastern Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.

The habits of the White-throated Wren are the same as those of the Canon
Wren, which variety is more common and better known; the eggs of this
species are not distinguishable from those of the next.

[Illustration 426: Rock Wren.]
[Illustration: white.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 425

717a. CANON WREN. _Catherpes mexicanus conspersus._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region and west to the Sierra Nevadas; north to
Wyoming and Idaho and south to New Mexico and Arizona.

The Canon Wrens are uniform rusty brown all over except the large
sharply defined white throat patch; the underparts, wings and tail are
barred with black, and the back is specked with white. Their name is
well chosen for they are found abundantly in rocky canyons, ravines, and
side hills. They nest in crevices or caves among the rocks, placing
their nests in small niches; they are made of twigs, leaves, grasses and
feathers, and the three to six eggs, which are laid from April to June
according to locality, are white, sprinkled and blotched with reddish
brown and lilac. Size .72 × .52.


717b. DOTTED CANON WREN. _Catherpes mexicanus punctulatus._

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon to Lower California.

The habits and eggs of this coast form of the White-throated Wren do not
vary in any particular from those of the preceding variety.


718. CAROLINA WREN. _Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern New
England and Illinois; resident in the greater part of its range.

These loud-voiced songsters are well known in the south where they are
very abundant, being found along banks of streams, in thickets, along
walls, or about brush heaps. They nest in almost any suitable nook or
corner, in hollow trees or stumps, bird boxes, about buildings, and in
brush or bushes. When in exposed positions, the nest, which is made of
all sorts of trash, is arched over; the eggs, which are laid from March
to June, and frequently later, as several broods are sometimes reared in
a season, are white, profusely specked with light reddish brown and
purplish. Size .74 × .60.


718a. FLORIDA WREN. _Thryothorus ludovicianus miamensis._

Range.--Southern Florida.

A similar bird to the last but darker above and brighter below. Its eggs
are not distinguishable from those of the last.


718b. LOMITA WREN. _Thryothorus ludovicianus lomitensis._

Range.--Southern Texas.

This sub-species is abundant along the Lower Rio Grande in southern
Texas, where its habits are the same as those of the others and the eggs
are not distinctive.

[Illustration 427: Carolina Wren.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 717a--719a.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 426

719. BEWICK'S WREN. _Thryomanes bewicki bewicki._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States, and the Mississippi Valley north
to Minnesota and locally to the Middle States in the east.

This species is not common on the Atlantic coast but in the interior it
is the most abundant of the Wrens, nesting in holes in trees, stumps,
fences, bird boxes, tin cans, etc., filling the cavities with grass and
rootlets. Their eggs are laid in the latter part of April or May; they
are white, specked and usually wreathed about the large end with reddish
brown and purplish. Size .65 × .50.


719a. VIGORS'S WREN. _Thryomanes bewicki spilurus._

Range.--Pacific coast of California.

This similar bird to the last has the same general habits and the eggs
are not in any way different from those of Bewick's Wren.


719b. BAIRD'S WREN. _Thryomanes bewicki bairdi._

Range.--Southwestern United States, from western Texas to eastern
California and north to Colorado and Nevada.

Like the two preceding Wrens, this one nests in natural or artificial
cavities, and the four to seven eggs that they lay are precisely alike,
in every respect, to those of the others.


719c. TEXAS WREN. _Thryomanes bewicki cryptus._

Range.--Texas, north in summer to western Kansas.

A very abundant bird in Texas. Nesting habits not unusual nor eggs
distinctive.


719d. SAN DIEGO WREN. _Thryomanes bewicki charienturus._

Range.--Coast of southern California.

719e. SEATTLE WREN. _Thryomanes bewicki calophonus._

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon to British Columbia.

These last two sub-species have recently been separated from Vigors's
Wren, but their habits and eggs remain the same as those of that
variety.


719.1. SAN CLEMENTE WREN. _Thryomanes leucophrys._

Range.--San Clemente Island, California.

This species is similar to Vigors's Wren but is grayer and paler above.
It is not peculiar in its nesting habits and the eggs are like those of
_bewicki_.


720. GUADALUPE WREN. _Thryomanes brevicauda._

Range.--Guadalupe Island.

A very similar species to the Vigors's Wren; nesting habits and the eggs
are not apt to differ in any respect.

[Illustration 428: Bewick's Wren.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 427

721. HOUSE WREN. _Troglodytes aëdon._

Range.--North America east of the Mississippi, breeding from the Gulf
north to Manitoba and Ontario; winters in the southern half of the
United States.

This familiar and noisy little Wren is the most abundant and widely
distributed of the Wrens; they are met with on the edges of woods,
swamps, fields, pastures, orchards and very frequently build about
houses, in bird houses or any nook that may suit them; they fill the
cavity of the place they may select with twigs, grass, feathers, plant
down, etc., and lay from five to nine eggs in a set and frequently three
sets a year. The eggs are pinkish white, very profusely and minutely
dotted with pale reddish brown so as to make the egg appear to be a
nearly uniform salmon color and with a wreath of darker spots about the
large end. Size .65 × .52. Data.--Gretna, N. Y., May 29, 1896. Nest
three feet from the ground in cavity of an apple tree; made of twigs and
grass, and lined with hair and feathers.


721a. WESTERN HOUSE WREN. _Troglodytes aëdon parkmani._

Range.--United States, from the Mississippi Valley to eastern
California.

This variety is grayer above and below than the eastern form, but its
habits and eggs do not differ in any respect.


722. WINTER WREN. _Nannus hiemalis hiemalis._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States
northward, and south in the Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters in
the United States.

These are the smallest of the Wrens, being but four inches in length;
they have a very short tail which, like those of the others, is carried
erect over the back during excitement or anger. They are very sly birds
and creep about through stone walls and under brush like so many mice;
they have a sweet song but not as loud as that of the House Wren. Their
nests are placed in crevices of stumps, walls, old buildings or in brush
heaps, being made of twigs and leaves, lined with feathers. Their eggs,
which are laid during May or June, are pure white, finely and sparingly
dotted with reddish brown; size .60 × .48.

[Illustration 429: House Wren.]
[Illustration: Pinkish white.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 428

722a. WESTERN WINTER WREN. _Nannus hiemalis pacificus._

Range.--Western North America from the Rockies to the coast, north to
Alaska.

This species is much browner both above and below and is more heavily
barred than the last; its habits and eggs are like those of _hiemalis_.

722b. KADIAK WINTER WREN. _Nannushiemalis helleri._

Range.--Kadiak Island, Alaska.

Said to be slightly larger and paler than _pacificus_.


723. ALASKA WREN. _Nannus alascensis._

Range.--Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

Larger and paler than the Western Winter Wren. The habits of this
species are similar to those of the eastern Winter Wren; they nest
between boulders and in crevices of rocks or stumps, making their nests
of moss and rootlets, lined with feathers. The eggs are like those of
the Winter Wren but slightly larger; size .65 × .51.


723.1. ALEUTIAN WREN. _Nannus meliger._

Range.--Western Aleutian Islands to Alaska. Very similar to the above,
both in song and general habits. They nest in the crevices of rocks or
between boulders, making their nests of rootlets and grass, lining it
with hair and feathers. Usually six eggs are laid, white with a few
specks of brown (.58 × .46).


724. SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN. _Cistothorus stellaris_.

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to Manitoba and
Maine.

This species does not appear to be as common anywhere as is the
Long-billed variety, whose habits and nests are similar. They nest in or
on the borders of marshes, and nests being globular structures of
grasses, lined with hair, and with the entrance on the side; they are
attached above the ground or water in marsh grass or reeds. Their eggs,
which number from six to eight, are pure white; size .64 × .48.

[Illustration 430: Winter Wren.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: 623--723.1--725a.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 429

725. LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN. _Telmatodytes palustris palustris._

Range.--United States east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf north
to Manitoba and New England; winters in southern United States.

These birds are very abundant in suitable localities throughout their
range, breeding in colonies in large marshes and in smaller numbers in
small marshy places. Their nests are similar to those of the last, being
globular and attached to cat-tails or reeds; the entrance is a small
round hole in the side of the rush-woven structures and the interior is
neatly finished with fine grass and hair. They lay from five to eight
eggs of a pale chocolate color, dotted and spotted with darker shades of
the same; size .64 × .45. Data.--Delray, Mich., May 27, 1900. Six eggs.
Nest a ball of woven flags and grasses, lined with cat-tail down, and
attached to rushes in salt marsh over two feet of water. Collector, Geo.
W. Morse.


725a. TULE WREN. _Telmatodytes palustris paludicola._

Range.--Western United States on the Pacific coast; north to British
Columbia.

The nesting habits and eggs of these birds are in all respects like
those of the last.

725b. WORTHINGTON'S MARSH WREN. _Telmatodytes palustris griseus._

Range.--Coast of South Carolina and Georgia.

The habits and eggs of this paler form are identical with those of
_palustris_.


725c. WESTERN MARSH WREN. _Telmatodytes palustris plesius._

Range.--United States west of the Rockies, except the Pacific coast;
north to British Columbia. This variety is like the Tule Wren but
slightly paler; its nesting habits and eggs are the same.


725.1. MARIAN'S MARSH WREN. _Telmatodytes palustris marianæ._

Range.--West coast of Florida.

This species is similar to the Long-billed variety but is darker and
more barred above and below. Its nests and eggs will not be found to
differ materially from those of the others of this genus.

[Illustration 431: Short-billed Marsh Wren. Long-billed Marsh Wren.]
[Illustration: Pale brown.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 430

CREEPERS. Family CERTHIIDÆ

726. BROWN CREEPER. _Certhia familiaris americana._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from the northern tier of states
northward; winters in the United States.

These peculiar, weak-voiced Creepers are common in northern United
States during the winter, when they may be seen slowly toiling up the
tree trunks, searching the crannies of the bark for larvae. They make
their nests behind loose hanging bark on old tree stubs, usually at low
elevations, building them of twigs, bark, moss, etc., held together with
cobwebs. The eggs, which are laid in May or June, are pure white,
specked and spotted with reddish brown; they average in size .58 × .48.
The nests are most often found under the loosened bark on coniferous
trees.


726a. MEXICAN CREEPER. _Certhia familiaris albescens._

Range.--Western Mexico north to southern Arizona.

The nesting habits of this brighter colored form are the same as those
of the others.


726b. ROCKY MOUNTAIN CREEPER. _Certhia familiaris montana._

Range.--Rocky Mountains, breeding from New Mexico to Alaska.

The eggs of this grayer variety cannot be distinguished from those of
the eastern birds and the nests are in similar situations.


726c. CALIFORNIA CREEPER. _Certhia familiaris occidentalis._

Range.--Pacific coast from southern California north to Alaska.

An abundant species, especially on mountain ranges, breeding behind the
bark chiefly on pine trees. The eggs are not different from those of the
others.


726d. SIERRA CREEPER. _Certhia familiaris zelotes._

Range.--Sierra Nevada Mountains in California and the Cascade Range in
Oregon.

Very similar to the last and with the same habits; eggs
indistinguishable.

[Illustration 432: White.]
[Illustration: Brown Creeper.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 431

NUTHATCHES AND TITS. Family SITTIDÆ

727. WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH. _Sitta carolinensis carolinensis._

Range.--United States east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to
southern Canada; resident throughout its range.

These birds are creepers, but unlike the last species, these run about
on the trunks, either up or down; their tails are not pointed and
stiffened like those of the Brown Creepers, and their plumage is gray
and black above with a black crown, and white below. They nest in holes
in trees, usually deep in the woods and at any elevation from the
ground; they nearly always use deserted Woodpeckers' holes but are said
at times to excavate their own, with great labor as their bills are
little adapted for that work. They line the cavities with bark strips
and hair or feathers, and during April or May, lay from four to nine
white eggs, profusely specked with reddish brown and lilac. Size .80 ×
.60. Data.--Lancaster, Mass., May 16, 1902. Nest in hole in an oak tree,
45 feet above ground; made of fine strips of bark fibre and hair.


727a. SLENDER-BILLED NUTHATCH. _Sitta carolinensis aculeata._

Range.--North America, west of the Rockies and from Mexico to British
Columbia.

This species is as abundant in the west as the last is in the east, and
nests in like situations. The eggs cannot be distinguished from those of
the eastern birds.


727b. FLORIDA WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH. _Sitta carolinensis atkinsi._

Range.--Florida and the South Atlantic coast to South Carolina.

The habits and eggs of these birds are like those of the northern ones.


727c. ROCKY MOUNTAIN NUTHATCH. _Sitta carolinensis nelsoni._

Range.--Rocky Mountains from Mexico north to British Columbia.

Their nesting habits or eggs are not distinctive in any respect.


727d. SAN LUCAS NUTHATCH. _Sitta carolinensis lagunæ._

Range.--Mountain ranges of Lower California.

Said to be like _aculeata_ but with the wings and tail slightly shorter.

[Illustration 433: White-breasted Nuthatch.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 432

728. RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH. _Sitta canadensis._

Range.--North America, breeding from the northern tier of states
northward, and farther south in mountain ranges; winters south to
southern United States.

This species is smaller than the last and has reddish brown underparts
and a black stripe through the eye. The breeding habits are the same as
those of the White-bellied variety, but these birds almost invariably
coat the tree below the opening with pitch, for what purpose is unknown.
They lay from four to six white eggs, numerously spotted with reddish
brown; size, .60 × .50. Data.--Upton, Maine, June 21, 1898. Nest in hole
of dead birch stub, 20 feet from the ground; made of strips of bark and
a few feathers. 5 eggs.


729. BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH. _Sitta pusilla._

Range.--South Atlantic and Gulf States.

This species has a yellowish brown crown and whitish underparts. Their
habits are like those of the other Nuthatches, they nesting in cavities
at varying heights, from two to fifty feet from the ground. That they
sometimes depart from the usual custom is evidenced by the data
accompanying this egg. They lay from four to seven eggs, white with
profuse markings of reddish brown; size .60 × .48. Data.--St. Mary's,
Ga. Nest situated under the bark of an old dead pine stump, 4 feet from
the ground; made of fine strips of bark.


730. PYGMY NUTHATCH. _Sitta pygmæa pygmæa._

Range.--North America west of the Rockies, breeding from Mexico north to
British Columbia. Resident throughout its range.

This species has an olive gray crown bordered by dusky, the back is ashy
blue and the underparts soiled white or rusty. They are common in
mountains of western United States, nesting in holes in trees the same
as the other species of Nuthatches. They lay from five to nine eggs
which are white, speckled thickly with reddish brown; size .60 × .50.
Data.--Huachuca Mts., Arizona, May 25, 1901. Nest in cavity (10 inches
deep) in dead pine stump about 15 feet from the ground; composed of a
mass of vegetable down; altitude 9000 feet.

[Illustration 434: Red-breasted Nuthatch.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Brown-headed Nuthatch.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 433

730a. WHITE-NAPED NUTHATCH. _Sitta pygmæa leuconucha._

Range.--Lower California.

Like the last but grayer above and white below. Its habits and eggs are
the same as those of the Pygmy Nuthatch.


731. TUFTED TITMOUSE. _Bæolophus bicolor_.

Range.--Eastern United States, resident and breeding from the Gulf north
to New York and Illinois.

This species has a grayish crest and upper parts, and is white beneath
with brownish sides and black forehead. These common and noisy birds
nest in natural cavities in trees or in holes deserted by Woodpeckers;
they may be found at any elevation, from two to thirty feet from the
ground. They line the bottom of the cavity with leaves, bark, fibres and
hair, and during April or May lay five to eight white eggs, plentifully
specked with reddish brown. Size .74 × .54.


732. BLACK-CRESTED TITMOUSE. _Bæolophus atricristatus atricristatus._

Range.--Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward.

This Titmouse has a black crest and the forehead is white; otherwise
similar to the preceding. Like the last, these birds nest in deserted
Woodpeckers' holes and natural cavities in trees, either in open woods
or in the vicinity of habitations. Their eggs are sparsely spotted with
reddish brown, and not usually distinguishable from those of the Tufted
Titmouse. Size .70 × .54. Data.--Brownsville, Texas, May 11, 1892. Nest
of moss, hair, down and wool in cavity in tree in open woods near town;
4 feet from the ground.

[Illustration 435: White.]
[Illustration: Tufted Titmouse. Black-crested Titmouse.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 434

733. PLAIN TITMOUSE. _Bæolophus inornatus inornatus_.

Range.--California and Oregon west of the Sierra Nevadas.

This common, slightly crested Titmouse is grayish brown above and
grayish white below. They nest anywhere in cavities that meet with their
approval, about old buildings, in fence posts, etc., as well as holes in
trees. Their eggs range from five to eight in number and are white,
usually spotted with pale brownish. Size .72 × .52. Data.--Tulare Co.,
California, April 3, 1895. Nest in an oak tree, 32 feet from the ground,
in a natural cavity of a horizontal limb; composed of grasses, feathers
and fur.


733a. GRAY TITMOUSE. _Bæolophus inornatus griseus._

Range.--Southeastern United States, from Colorado and Nevada southward.

The nesting habits of this gray Titmouse are just the same as those of
the other.


733b. ASHY TITMOUSE. _Bæolophus inornatus cineraceus._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

The habits of this variety are the same as those of the Plain Titmouse
and doubtless the eggs are also.


734. BRIDLED TITMOUSE. _Bæolophus wollweberi._

Range.--Mexico north to southern Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas.

This handsome species is quite abundant in the mountains of southern
Arizona, and nests in woods or about ranches, lining the cavities of
trees with moss, down, leaves, etc. The three to seven eggs that they
lay are pure white, unmarked. Size .65 × .52. Data.--Huachuca Mountains,
Arizona, April 5, 1901. Nest in the natural cavity of a live oak, 12
feet from the ground; cavity lined with bark and feathers.


735. CHICKADEE. _Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding from the Middle and Central
States northward to Labrador; only migratory to a slight extent.

The Chickadee is too well known to need any description; suffice it to
say that they are the favorites, with everybody, among all the North
American birds. They breed in holes in trees in orchards or woods, and
also in bird boxes. I have found by far the greater number in decayed
birch stubs. They line the cavities with fine grasses and feathers, and
during May or June lay from five to eight white eggs, dotted with
reddish brown; size .55 × .45.

[Illustration 436: White.]
[Illustration: 733--734.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Chickadee. Carolina Chickadee.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 435

735a. LONG-TAILED CHICKADEE. _Penthestes ataricapillus septentrionalis._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region, north to British Columbia.

This variety is very similar to the last but has a slightly longer tail
and the colors are purer. Its nesting habits are the same and the eggs
are indistinguishable from those of the eastern Chickadee.


735b. OREGON CHICKADEE. _Penthestes atricapillus occidentalis._

Range.--Pacific coast from California to Alaska.

The habits and eggs of this slightly darker variety are just the same as
those of the common Chickadee of the east.


736. CAROLINA CHICKADEE. _Penthestes carolinensis carolinensis._

Range.--Southern United States from the Gulf to New Jersey and Illinois.

The southern Chickadee is smaller than the northern and the wing coverts
and feathers have little or no white edgings. Their nesting habits are
in every particular the same as those of _atricapillus_ and the eggs
cannot be distinguished with certainty, but average smaller; size .53 ×
.43.


736a. PLUMBEOUS CHICKADEE. _Penthestes carolinensis agilis._

Range.--Eastern and central Texas.

This variety is said to be more plumbeous above and much whiter below
than the preceding. No differences can be found in the eggs of the two
varieties and the nesting habits are the same.


737. MEXICAN CHICKADEE. _Penthestes sclateri._

Range.--Mountains of western Mexico north to southern Arizona.

This species has the black more extended on the throat and the under
parts are grayish of a lighter shade than the upper, the cheeks,
however, remaining white. Their nests are in hollow stubs and the eggs
are indistinguishable from those of the foregoing Chickadees.


738. MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE. _Penthestes gambeli gambeli._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region and west to the Pacific; north to British
Columbia chiefly in higher ranges.

This handsome little Titmouse has a white superciliary line, leaving a
black stripe through the eye. Their habits are like those of the other
Chickadees and they are equally confiding and inquisitive. Their eggs
range from five to eight in number and are either pure white or faintly
marked with reddish brown; size .60 × .45. Data.--Estes Park, Colorado,
June 8, 1803. Nest in an old Sapsucker's hole in a live aspen tree, 28
feet from the ground; cavity lined with hair and fur.

[Illustration 437: 735b--737--738.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 436

739. ALASKA CHICKADEE. _Penthestes cinctus alascensis._

Range.--Northern Alaska and eastern Siberia.

This bird, which is most like the Hudsonian Chickadee, nests in the
usual manner and its eggs are like those of the common Chickadee of the
east.


740. HUDSONIAN CHICKADEE. _Penthestes hudsonicus hudsonicus._

Range.--Western half of British America.

These brown capped Chickadees are very abundant throughout the northwest
and are even tamer than our United States varieties. They usually make
their nests at low elevations in dead and decayed stumps and line the
bottom of the cavity, which varies from three to eight inches in depth,
with moss and fur. Their eggs, which they lay in May, June or July, are
white, specked with reddish brown and cannot with any certainty be
distinguished from those of the Black-capped Chickadees, the eggs of all
the species showing considerable variations; size .60 × .45.


740a. ACADIAN CHICKADEE. _Penthestes hudsonicus littoralis._

Range.--Kowak River, northwest Alaska.

A larger and grayer form of the last species; nesting habits and eggs
not differing.


740b. COLUMBIAN CHICKADEE. _Penthestes hudsonicus columbianus._

Range.--Rocky Mountains from northern United States to Alaska.

Like _hudsonicus_ but with the crown slaty instead of brownish. No
difference can be distinguished either in their habits or eggs.


740c. CANADIAN CHICKADEE. _Penthestes hudsonicus littoralis._

Range.--Eastern half of Canada and northern New England and New York.

These birds were formerly _hudsonicus_ in company with the western ones,
but they are now supposed to be a trifle smaller and with the crown
duller; this division does not affect the similarity of their habits and
eggs.

[Illustration 438: Hudsonian Chickadee.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 437

741. CHESTNUT-BACKED CHICKADEE. _Penthestes rufescens rufescens._

Range.--Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska.

This species is similar to the Hudsonian in having a brown crown and
black throat, but has in addition, a chestnut colored back and sides.
They breed locally in Oregon, more commonly in Washington and are
abundant in British Columbia, making the nests of animal fur in holes in
dead stubs. Their eggs vary in number from five to eight and are creamy
white, dotted with reddish; size .60 × .45. Data.--Dayton, Oregon, May
28, 1906. Nest of hair and fur in willow stub, 10 feet up.


741a. CALIFORNIA CHICKADEE. _Penthestes rufescens neglectus._

Range.--Coast regions of California.

This variety is not as rufous on the sides as the more northern one. Its
habits and eggs are the same.


741b. BARLOW'S CHICKADEE. _Penthestes rufescens barlowi_.

Range.--About Monterey Bay, California.

This variety is said to have no rusty on the flanks. Its habits and eggs
are like those of the others.


742a. PALLID WREN-TIT. _Chamæa fasciata henshawi_.

Range.--Interior of California from Lower California to the Sacramento
Valley.

This duller colored variety has the same nesting habits and similar eggs
to those of the Coast Wren-tit.


742b. Coast Wren-Tit. _Chamæa fasciata fasciata._

Range.--Pacific coast from southern California north to Oregon.

These peculiar brownish gray colored birds frequent the tangled
underbrush of ravines and mountain sides where they lead the life of a
recluse. They nest at low elevations in the densest thickets, making
them of twigs, strips of bark, grasses and feathers, compactly woven
together and located in bushes from one to four feet from the ground.
They lay from three to five plain, unmarked, pure white eggs; size .75 ×
.54. Data.--Wrights, Cal. Nest in a tangle of vines in a deep ravine;
composed of strips of bark, moss and grasses, lined with cattle hair; a
bulky nest.


743. BUSH-TIT. _Psaltriparus minimus minimus._

Range.--Pacific coast of northern California, Oregon and Washington.

These diminutive little birds build nests that are marvels of
architecture, making long purse-like structures, suspended from twigs
usually at low elevations from the ground. The nests are made of moss,
lichens, fibres, ferns and grasses and lined with feathers or wool; the
opening is on one side near the top, and a typical nest averages 12
inches in length, by 4.5 inches in diameter at the bottom and 3 at the
top. Their eggs number from four to nine and are pure white; size .54 ×
.40. The birds are very active and have the same habits as the
Chickadees, being seen often suspended, head downward, from the ends of
twigs, in their search for insects.

[Illustration 439: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 438

743a. CALIFORNIA BUSH-TIT. _Psaltriparus minimus californicus._

Range.--California with the exception of the northern part.

This sub-species, which is like the last but with a lighter brown head,
has the same habits, nests in the same manner and its eggs are not
distinguishable from those of the others.


743b. GRINDA'S BUSH-TIT. _Psaltriparus minimus grindæ._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

The nesting habits of this variety, which is very similar to the last,
do not vary in any respect; eggs indistinguishable.


744. LEAD-COLORED BUSH-TIT. _Psaltriparus plumbeus._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from Wyoming south to Arizona.

This species suspends its semi-pensile nests in bushes or trees, and
some times from the mistletoe, which grows on numerous trees in southern
Arizona. The nests are composed like those of the Cal. Bush-Tit and
range from 6 to 10 inches in length. The eggs are white, five or six in
number and measure .55 × .42.


745. LLOYD'S BUSH-TIT. _Psaltriparus melanotis lloydi._

Range.--Northern Mexico north into western Texas and New Mexico.

This species is similar to the lead-colored Bush-Tit but has the ear
coverts glossy black. Like the others, it builds a long pensile nest of
similar material and suspended from the extremities of limbs near the
ground The five to seven eggs are pure white. Size .58 × .42.

[Illustration 440: E. L. Bickford. BUSH-TIT AND NEST.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 439

746. VERDIN. _Auriparus flaviceps flaviceps_.

Range.--Mexican border of the United States, north to Colorado and
Nevada.

This Bush-Tit has a bright yellow head and throat, the upper parts being
gray and the belly, white. They are abundant in chaparral brush, locally
throughout their range. Their large globular nests are situated in
bushes at low elevations from the ground, and are made of twigs and
weeds, softly lined with fur and feathers. Their three to six eggs are
pale greenish blue, specked and dotted with reddish brown. Size .58 ×
.44. Data.--Brownsville, Texas, May 8, 1894. Large nest of sticks and
thorns, lined with hair and feathers, and located in a bush in brush
thicket, 8 feet from the ground.


746a. CAPE VERDIN. _Auriparus flaviceps lamprocephalus._

Range.--Lower California.

This new sub-species is said to have shorter wings and tail, and also to
be brighter yellow on the head. Its habits and eggs will not differ from
those of the common Verdin or Yellow-headed Bush-Tit.


WARBLERS, KINGLETS and GNATCATCHERS. Family SYLVIIDÆ

747. KENNICOTT'S WILLOW WARBLER. _Acanthopneuste borealis._

Range.--Asia, casually found in Alaska.

This species breeds in the extreme northern parts of Asia, and I believe
its eggs have never been found on this continent. They build their nests
of moss and grasses, on the ground in open woods, concealing them under
tufts of grass or tussocks of earth. The three to five eggs are white,
spotted with pale reddish brown. Size .70 × .50.


748. GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET. _Regulus satrapa satrapa._

Range.--North America, breeding from northern United States northward,
and south in the Rockies to Mexico, and in the Alleghanies to the
Carolinas; winters throughout the United States.

This rugged little fellow appears to be perfectly content in our
northern states even during the most severe winters and leaves us early
in the spring for his breeding grounds farther north. They are usually
found in company with Chickadees and, like them, may be seen hanging to
twigs in all sorts of positions as they search for their meagre fare.
Their nests are large, round structures of green moss, bark strips and
fine rootlets, very thickly lined with soft feathers; these are placed
in forks or partially suspended among the branches of spruce trees,
usually high above the ground. During June they lay from five to ten
eggs of a dull whitish or grayish color, spotted heavily with pale brown
and lilac. Size .55 × .42.

[Illustration 441: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Verdin.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: Gray.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 440

748a. WESTERN GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET. _Regulas satrapa olivaceus._

Range.--Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska.

This variety is said to be brighter colored than the last; its habits
and eggs are the same in all particulars.

749. RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET. _Regulus calendula calendula._

Range.--North America, breeding from the northern border of the United
States northward, and farther south in mountain ranges; winters in
southern United States.

This little bird is of the size of the Golden-crowned Kinglet (4.25
inches long) and has a partially concealed patch of red on the crown,
not bordered by black and yellow as is the last species. Their nests are
similar in construction to those of the last species and are situated in
coniferous trees at any altitude from the ground. Their four to nine
eggs are creamy white, finely specked with reddish brown. Size .56 ×
.44.

[Illustration 442: Golden-crowned Kinglets.]
[Illustration: White.]
[Illustration: C. A. Smith. NEST AND EGGS OF BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 441

749A. SITKA KINGLET. _Regulas calendula grinnelli._

Range.--Pacific coast, breeding in Alaska.

Said to be brighter than the preceding variety.

749b. DUSKY KINGLET. _Regulus calendula obscurus._

Range.--Guadalupe Island, Lower California.

This species nests during March in the large cypress and pine groves at
high elevations above the ground. The nests are similar in construction
to those of the common Ruby-crown, and the eggs are scarcely different
from some specimens of that species; white, dotted and wreathed with
reddish brown. Size .56 × .43.


751. BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER. _Polioptila cærulea cærulea._

Range.--United States, east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to
the Middle and Central States; casually north to Massachusetts and
Minnesota.

These graceful birds are bluish gray above with a black forehead and
central tail feathers, and white underparts. They are common in wooded
districts in the south, where they saddle their beautiful nests upon
horizontal branches or in crotches usually at quite an elevation from
the ground; they resemble large Ruby-throated Hummers' nests but the
walls are much higher and thicker; they are made of plant fibres and
down, lined with cottony substances and hair, and covered on the outside
with lichens to match the limb upon which it is placed. Their eggs are
bluish white, specked with reddish chestnut. Size .58 × .45.
Data.--Chattanooga, Tenn., April 30, 1900. Nest of moss, covered with
lichens and lined with hair and feathers; 20 feet from the ground in a
small tree.


751a. WESTERN GNATCATCHER. _Polioptila cærulea obscura._

Range.--Western United States and Lower California.

The habits and eggs of this sub-species are the same as those of the
eastern bird, and the nests do not differ except, perhaps, in less
ornamentation of the exterior.


752. PLUMBEOUS GNATCATCHER. _Polioptila plumbea._

Range.--Mexican boundary from western Texas to southern California.

This species has a bright shining black crown and more black on the tail
than the eastern Gnatcatcher. They saddle their nests upon the branches
of trees or in upright forks, usually at an elevation of ten feet or
more from the ground; the nests are made of plant fibres and fine bark
strips, compactly felted together, and with little, if any, ornamental
lichens on the exterior. Their eggs are pale greenish blue, spotted with
reddish brown, and vary from three to five in number. Size .54 × .44.

[Illustration 443: Ruby-crowned Kinglet.]
[Illustration: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 442

753. BLACK-TAILED GNATCATCHER. _Polioptila californica._

Range.--Pacific coast of southern California and northern Lower
California.

This bird is very similar to the last but has still less white on the
outer tail feathers. Like the last, the nests of this species usually
lack the exterior covering of lichens, being made of vegetable fibres
and plant down, firmly quilted together and saddled on horizontal limbs
or placed in forks of trees at any height from the ground. Their eggs
are grayish white, specked with bright reddish brown. Size .55 × .44.
Data.--Escondido, Cal., May 17, 1903. 5 eggs. Nest on a large limb of a
sycamore, 30 feet above ground; made of weed fibres, etc., lined with
hair and fine fibres.


THRUSHES, SOLITAIRES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. Family TURDIDAE

754. TOWNSEND'S SOLITAIRE. _Myadestes townsendi._

Range.--Western United States, breeding from Arizona, New Mexico and
southern California north to British Columbia.

This unique species is of a uniform brownish gray color, with a white
eye ring, narrow bar on wing, and outer tail feathers, and with the
bases of the primaries rusty colored. It is a ground inhabiting bird,
feeding upon insects and berries in shrubbery and thickets. Their song
is said to be liquid, melodious and often long continued, equaling that
of any other bird. They nest on the ground in hollows under banks or
crevices about roots of trees or fallen stumps, making a large, loosely
constructed pile of weeds and trash, hollowed and lined with rootlets.
The three or four eggs, which are laid in June, are grayish white,
spotted with pale brown, chiefly or most abundantly about the large end.
Size .96 × .70.


755. WOOD THRUSH. _Hylocichla mustelina._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from North Carolina and Kansas
north to northern United States; winters south of our borders.

This Thrush with his brightly spotted breast is the most handsome of
this group of musical birds. They are common in damp woods and thickets,
in which places they breed, placing their nests of straw, leaves and
grasses in low trees usually between four and ten feet from the ground;
their nests are often very rustic, being ornamented by pieces of paper
and twigs with dead leaves attached hanging from the sides of the quite
bulky structures. During May or June they lay three or four greenish
blue eggs of about the shade of a Robin's. Size 1.05 × .70.

[Illustration 444: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Grayish white.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 443

756. VEERY. _Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding in the northern half of its
United States range and in the southern British Provinces.

The Veery is very abundantly distributed in woodland, either moist or
dry, and nests on the ground or within a very few inches of it, usually
placing its structures of woven bark strips and grasses, in the midst of
a clump of sprouts or ferns. The three or four eggs which they lay in
May or June are bluish green, much darker than those of the Wood Thrush,
and nearly the color of those of the Catbird. Size .90 × .65.


756a. WILLOW THRUSH. _Hylocichla fuscescens salicicola._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region, north to British Columbia.

The nests and eggs of this similar bird do not differ from those of the
last.


757. GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH. _Hylocichla aliciæ aliciæ._

Range.--Breeds from Labrador to Alaska; winters south to Central
America.

The nesting habits and eggs of this species are very similar to those of
the following sub-species and the same description will answer for both.


757. BICKNELL'S THRUSH. _Hylocichla aliciæ bicknelli._

Range.--Breeds in the Catskills, White Mountains and Nova Scotia.

These birds, which are practically identical with the preceding, build
their nests at low elevations in trees, usually evergreens when present,
making them of twigs, moss and rootlets, lined with fine grasses. The
eggs, which are laid during May or June, are pale greenish blue, spotted
and blotched with pale brown or russet. Size .88 × .64. Data.--Seal
Island, Nova Scotia, June 3, 1901. Nest of green moss and rootlets, in a
spruce, 5 feet from the ground.


758. RUSSET-BACKED THRUSH. _Hylocichla ustulata ustulata._

Range.--Pacific coast, breeding in Oregon and Alaska; winters in Central
America.

This species is very abundant in moist thickets throughout its range,
nesting in bushes and low trees, and making them of weed

[Illustration 445: Wood Thrush.]
[Illustration: Wilson's Thrush.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 444

[Illustration 446: WOOD THRUSH.]

Page 445

stalks, bark strips, grasses and moss, lined with fine black rootlets.
They are found at elevations of from two to ten feet above the ground.
Like the Wood Thrush the birds are tame while sitting on the nest and
will allow a very close approach, without taking alarm; nests are
frequently found which are made almost entirely out of green moss and
are very handsome structures. Their three to five eggs are laid in May
or June; they are greenish blue, spotted with brown of varying shades.
Size .92 × .65. Data.--Eureka, California, July 6, 1899. Nest in a fir
tree, 5 feet from the ground; made of moss and strips of redwood bark. 4
eggs.


758a. OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH. _Hylocichla swainsoni._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding chiefly north of the United
States, but locally in the northern parts, and abundantly in mountain
ranges.

The nesting habits and eggs of this eastern representative of the last
species are like those of that bird in all respects and the eggs cannot
be distinguished from those of _ustulatus_.


758b. OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH. _Hylocichla œdica_.

Range.--California and southern Oregon.

Nesting habits and eggs identical with those of _ustulatus._


759. ALASKA HERMIT THRUSH. _Hylocichla guttata guttata._

Range.--Pacific coast from British Columbia to Alaska. Winters in
Mexico.

The Hermit Thrushes can readily be identified from any other by the
reddish brown tail which is in marked contrast to the color of the back.
The nesting habits and eggs of this species are precisely like those of
the eastern Hermit Thrush, which is a sub-species of this.


759a. AUDUBON'S HERMIT THRUSH. _Hylocichla guttata auduboni._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Winters in Central
America.

The nesting habits of this bird are like those of the next except that
it more frequently nests in bushes above the ground. The eggs are not
distinctive.

[Illustration 447: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Gray-cheeked Thrush. Olive-backed Thrush.]
[Illustration: deco.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 446

759b. HERMIT THRUSH. _Hylocichla guttata pallasi._

Range.--Eastern North America, breeding in northern United States and
north to Labrador; winters in southern United States.

This species, which is noted for its sweet and musical song, frequents
damp swamps and thickets where it builds its nest either on the ground
or near it, like that of the Wilson Thrush; it is made of shreds of
bark, grasses, leaves and rootlets, lined with fine rootlets; the three
or four eggs, which are deposited in May or June, are bluish green and
cannot, with certainty, be distinguished from those of the Veery; size
.85 × .65.


759c. DWARF HERMIT THRUSH. _Hylocichla guttata nanus._

Range.--Pacific coast of United States, from Washington, southward.

The nesting habits and eggs of this slightly smaller and duller colored
variety are like those of the other Hermit Thrushes.


760. RED-WINGED THRUSH. _Turdus musicus._

Range.--An Old World species, accidentally straying to Greenland.

This common European bird nests at low elevations in bushes or trees,
laying four or five bluish green eggs, spotted with reddish brown; size
1.05 × .75.


761. ROBIN. _Planesticus migratorius migratorius._

Range.--North America east of the Rockies, breeding from the middle
portions of the United States, north to the Arctic Ocean.

These common birds nest in trees about houses, in orchards, open woods,
in corners of fences, on blinds on houses, and in fact almost every
conceivable position. Their nests are made of grasses, firmly cemented
together with mud and lined with finer grasses; when placed in trees
they are generally firmly saddled in crotches and may be found at any
height, from on the ground to sixty feet above it. Their eggs are
greenish blue; size 1.15 × .80. Eggs may be found at any time from May
until July or August as they raise several broods a season.

[Illustration 448: Hermit Thrush.]
[Illustration: Bluish green.]
[Illustration: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: American Robin.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 447

761b. SOUTHERN ROBIN. _Planesticus migratorius achrusterus._

Range.--The Carolinas and Georgia.

The eggs of this bird, which is said to be smaller and duller colored
than the northern variety, show no differences in any respect.

762. SAN LUCAS ROBIN. _Planesticus confinis._

Range.--Southern Lower California.

This is a very much paler form of the American Robin; its eggs probably
will not differ from those of the others.

[Illustration 449: J. B. Pardoe. NEST AND EGGS OF ROBIN.]
[Illustration: right hand margin.]

Page 448

763. VARIED THRUSH. _Ixoreus nævius nævius._

Range.--Pacific coast from northern California to Alaska; south to
Mexico in winter.

These handsome birds breed abundantly in Alaska and locally in mountain
ranges south to northern California. They nest at low elevations in
trees, making them of moss, twigs, weeds and grasses, forming a flat
shallow structure. Their eggs are greenish blue sharply but sparingly
spotted with dark brown; size 1.12 × .80. Data.--Delta of Kowak River,
Alaska, June 11, 1899. Four eggs. Nest 12 feet from the ground, against
the trunk of a slender spruce and supported by a clump of stiff twigs.


763a. NORTHERN VARIED THRUSH. _Ixoreus nævius meruloides._

Range.--Interior of western North America, breeding from British
Columbia to Alaska. Its habits and eggs do not differ from those of the
last.


764. SIBERIAN RED-SPOTTED BLUETHROAT. _Cyanosylvia suecica robusta._

Range.--Northern Asia; casually to Alaska.

This beautiful foreigner nests on the ground and lays four to six
greenish blue eggs, spotted with reddish brown; size .75 × .50.


765. WHEATEAR. _Saxicola œnanthe œnanthe._

Range.--Asia; casual in Alaska in summer; nesting habits and eggs like
the next.


765a. GREENLAND WHEATEAR. _Saxicola œnanthe leucorhoa._

Range.--Europe and Greenland; casual on the Atlantic coast of North
America.

This very abundant Old World species is a common breeding bird in
Greenland and probably also in Labrador. They nest in crevices of
quarries, holes in the ground, or stone walls, making a rude nest of
weeds, moss or grasses, lined with hair or feathers, and during May lay
from four to six pale greenish blue eggs; size .90 × .60.

[Illustration 450: Greenish blue.]
[Illustration: Wheatear.]
[Illustration: Pale greenish blue.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 449

[Illustration 451: BLUEBIRD.]

Page 450

766. BLUEBIRD. _Sialia sialis sialis._

Range.--Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern
Canada. Winters in the southern half of the United States.

These familiar birds build in cavities in trees, usually below 20 feet
from the ground, crevices among ledges, bird boxes and in any suitable
nook they may discover about buildings, providing that English Sparrows
do not molest them. They raise several broods a year, commencing in
April when they lay from three to six pale bluish white eggs (rarely
pure white); size .80 × .60. The cavities of their nesting sites are
lined with grasses and feathers usually, although I have found the eggs
on the unlined bottom of cavities in trees.


766a. AZURE BLUEBIRD. _Sialia sialis fulva._

Range.--This pale variety is found in southern Arizona and southward.

Its nesting habits are the same and the eggs are indistinguishable from
the last.


767. WESTERN BLUEBIRD. _Sialia mexicana occidentalis._

Range.--Pacific coast from Lower California to British Columbia.

The Western Bluebird is as common and familiar in its range as the
common Bluebird is in the east. It nests in similar locations and its
eggs are scarcely distinguishable, although averaging a trifle darker in
shade; size .80 × .60.


767a. CHESTNUT-BACKED BLUEBIRD. _Sialia mexicana bairdi._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region from Mexico to Wyoming.

The nesting habits or eggs of this brighter colored bird do not differ
from those of the last species.


767b. SAN PEDRO BLUEBIRD. _Sialia mexicana anabelæ._

Range.--San Pedro Martir Mountains in Lower California.

The eggs of this variety will not in all probability be any different
from those of the preceding Bluebirds.


768. MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD. _Sialia currucoides._

Range.--Rocky Mountain region, breeding from New Mexico north to Great
Slave Lake; winters in southwestern United States and Mexico.

This azure blue species is common in the greater part of its range and
is found west to the Sierra Nevadas in California. Like the eastern
Bluebird they nest in holes in trees or anywhere that they can find a
suitable cavity or crevice. Their eggs are slightly larger than those of
the other Bluebirds and have a slight greenish tint; size .85 × .64.

[Illustration 452: Bluish white.]
[Illustration: Bluebird.]
[Illustration: left hand margin.]

Page 451



INDEX

Acanthis hornemanni, 328
             "    exilipes, 328
  linaria, 329
     "   holbœli, 329
     "   rostrata, 329

Acanthopneuste borealis, 430

Accipiter cooperi, 205
  velox, 204

Actitis macularia, 158

Æchmophorus occidentalis, 11

Æegialitis dubia, 166
  hiaticula, 166
  meloda, 166
  mongola, 167
  nivosa, 167
  semipalmata, 165

Aeronautes melanoleucus, 270

Æstrelata fisheri, 67
  hasitata, 67
  scalaris, 67

Aethia cristatella, 25
  "    pygmaea, 25
  "    pusilla, 26

Agelaius gubernator californicus, 317
  phœniceus, 316
     "      bryanti, 316
     "      caurinus, 316
     "      floridanus, 316
     "      fortis, 316
     "      neutralis, 316
     "      sonoriensis, 316
  tricolor, 317

Aimophila carpalis, 353
  ruficeps, 353
     "     eremœca, 353
     "     scotti, 353
     "     sororia, 353

Aix sponsa, 95

Ajaja ajaja, 115

Alauda arvensis, 297

Alaudidæ, 297

Albatross, Black-footed, 59
  Laysan, 60
  Short-tailed, 59
  Sooty, 60
  Yellow-nosed, 60

Alca torda, 31

Alcedinidæ, 247

Alcidæ, 21

Alle alle, 34

Aluconidæ, 227

Alucopratincola, 227

Amzillis cerviniventris chalconota, 279
  tzacatl, 278

Ammodramus bairdi, 338
  savannarum australis, 338
      "      bimaculatus, 338
      "      floridanus, 340

Amphispiza belli, 351
  nevadensis cinerea, 352
      "      nevadensis, 352
  bilineata bilineata, 351
      "     deserticola, 351

Anas platyrhynchos, 88
  fulvigula fulvigula, 90
      "     maculosa, 91
  rubripes, 90

Anatidæ, 87

Anhinga, 77
  anhinga, 77

Anhingidæ, 77

Ani, 241
  Grove-billed, 243

Anous stolidus, 57

Anser albifrons albifrons, 108
         "      gambeli, 108
  fabalis, 108

Anseres, 87

Anthus cervinus, 419
  pratensis, 418
  rubescens, 418
  spraguei, 419

Antrostomus carolinensis, 263
  vociferus vociferus, 263
      "     macromystax, 264

Aphelocoma californica californica, 307

Aphelocoma californica hypoleuca, 307
               "       obscura, 307
  cyanea, 306
  cyanotis, 307
  insularis, 307
  sieberi arizonæ, 307
     "    couchi, 308
  texana, 307
  woodhousei, 306

Aphriza virgata, 169

Aphrizidæ, 169

Aquila chrysætos, 215

Aramidæ, 129

Aramus vociferus, 129

Archibuteo ferrugineus, 215
  lagopus sancti-johannis, 214

Archilochus alexandri, 273
    "       colubris, 273

Page 452

Arctonetta fischeri, 102

Ardea cinerea, 122
   "  herodias, 121
         "     fannini, 121
         "     wardi, 122
   "  occidentalis, 121

Ardeidæ, 119

Arenaria interpres interpres, 169
  melanocephala, 170
  morinella, 169

Arquatella maritima couesi, 146
  ptilocnemis, 147
  maritima maritima, 146

Arremonops rufivirgatus, 357

Asio accipitrinus, 229
 "   flammeus, 229
 "   wilsonianus, 227

Astragalinus lawrencei, 331
  psaltria psaltria, 331
  tristis tristis, 329
     "    pallidus, 331
     "    salicamans, 331

Astur atricapillus atricapillus, 205
           "       striatulus, 207

Asturina plagiata, 214

Asyndesmus lewisi, 257

Atthis morcomi, 278

Auk, Great, 33-32
  Razor-billed, 31

Auklet, Cassin's, 24
  Crested, 26
  Least, 27
  Paroquet, 26
  Rhinoceros, 23
  Whiskered, 26

Auriparus flaviceps flaviceps, 439
             "    lamprocephalus, 439

Avocet, 139

Bæolophus atricristatus atricristatus, 433
  bicolor, 433
  inornatus inornatus, 434
      "     cineraceus, 434
      "     griseus, 434
  wollweberi, 434

Baldpate, 92

Bartramia longicauda, 156

Basilinna leucotis, 279
  xantusi, 279

Becard, Xantus's, 280

Bittern, 119
  Cory's Least, 120
  Least, 120

Blackbird, Bicolored, 317
  Brewer's, 322
  Red-winged, 316
  Rusty, 322
  Tricolored, 317
  Yellow-headed, 315

Bluebird, 448
  Azure, 448
  Chestnut-backed, 450
  Mountain, 450
  San Pedro, 450
  Western, 450

Bluethroat Siberian Red-spotted, 448

Bobolink, 314

Bob-white, 175
  Florida, 175
  Masked, 175
  Texan, 175

Bombycilla cedrorum, 375
  garrula, 375

Bombycillidæ, 375

Bonasa umbellus umbellus, 180
          "     sabini, 182
          "     togata, 182
          "     umbelloides, 182

Booby, 75
  Blue-faced, 74
  Blue-footed, 74
  Brewster's, 75
  Red-footed, 75

Botaurus lentiginosus, 119

Brachyramphus brevirostris, 27
  craveri's, 28
  hypoleucus, 27
  marmoratus, 27

Brant, 111
  Black, 111

Branta bernicla glaucogastra, 111
  canadensis canadensis, 109
      "      hutchinsi, 109
      "      minima, 109
      "      occidentalis, 109
  leucopsis, 112

Branta nigricans, 111

Bubo virginianus virginianus, 235
         "       elachistus, 237
         "       pacificus, 235
         "       pallescens, 235
         "       saturatus, 235
         "       subarticus, 235

Budytes flavus alascensis, 418

Buffle-head, 100

Bullfinch, Cassin's, 325

Bulweria bulweri, 67

Bunting, Beautiful, 367
  Indigo, 366
  Lark, 369
  Lazuli, 366
  McKay's Snow, 333
  Painted, 367
  Pribilof Snow, 332

Page 453

  Snow, 332
  Varied, 367

Bush-Tit, 437
  California, 438
  Grinda's, 438
  Lead-colored, 438
  Lloyd's, 438

Buteo abbreviatus, 211
  albicaudatus sennetti, 212
  borealis borealis, 208
    " calurus, 208
    " harlani, 209
    " krideri, 208
  brachyurus, 213
  lineatus lineatus, 209
    " alleni, 209
    " elegans, 211
  platypterus, 213
  swainsoni, 212

Buteonidæ, 201

Butorides virescens virescens, 124
            " anthonyi, 125
            " frazari, 125

Buzzard, Turkey, 199

Calamospiza melanocorys, 369

Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus, 333
            "  alascensis, 333
  ornatus, 334
  pictus, 334

Calidris leucophæa, 151

Callichelidon cyaneoviridis, 374

Callothrus robustus.

Callipepla squamata squamata, 176
            " castanogastris, 177

Calothorax lucifer, 278

Calypte anna, 275
  costæ, 275

Campephilus principalis, 249
  labradorius, 101

Camptostoma imberbe, 296

Canachites canadensis canadensis, 179
            "  canace, 179
            "  osgoodi, 179
  franklini, 180

Canvas-back, 97

Caprimulgidæ, 263

Caracara, Audubon, 224
  Guadalupe, 224

Cardellina rubrifrons, 417

Cardinal, 363
  Arizona, 363
  Florida, 364
  Gray-tailed, 364
  San Lucas, 363

Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis, 363
            "  canicaudus, 364
            " floridanus, 364

Cardinalis igneus, 363
            "  superbus, 363

Carpodacus amplus, 326
  cassini, 326
  mcgregori, 326
  mexicanus clementis, 326
             " frontalis, 326
             " ruberrimus, 326
  purpureus purpureus, 325
             " californicus, 325

Casarca ferruginea, 93

Catbird, 420

Catharista urubu, 199

Cathartes aura septentrionalis, 199

Cathartidæ, 198

Catherpes mexicanus albifrons, 424
           "  conspersus, 425
           "  punctulatus, 425

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus, 155
  semipalmatus inornatus, 156

Centrocercus urophasianus, 188

Centurus aurifrons, 258
  carolinus, 257
  uropygialis, 258

Cepphus columba, 29
  grylle, 28
  mandti, 29

Cerorhinca monocerata, 23

Certhia familiaris albescens, 430
         "  americana, 430
         "  montana, 430

Certhia familiaris occidentalis, 430
         " zelotes, 430

Certhiidæ, 430

Ceryle alcyon, 247
  americana septentrionalis, 249
  torquata, 247

Chachalaca, 191

Chæmepelia passerina terrestris, 195
            "  pallescens, 195
            "  bermudiana, 195

Chætura pelagica, 269
  vauxi, 270

Chamæa fasciata fasciata, 437
        " henshawi, 437

Chamæthlypis poliocephala, 413

Charadriidæ, 161

Charadrius apricarius, 163
  dominicus dominicus, 163
    " fulvus, 163

Charitonetta albeola, 100

Chat, Long-tailed, 413
  Yellow-breasted, 413

Chaulelasmus streperus, 91

Chen cærulescens, 107
  hyperboreus hyperboreus, 107

Page 454

Chen hyperboreus Nivalis, 107
  rossi, 108

Chewink, 358

Chickadee, 434
  Acadian, 436
  Alaska, 436
  Barlow's, 437
  California, 437
  Carolina, 435
  Chestnut-backed, 437
  Hudsonian, 436
  Long-tailed, 435
  Mexican, 435
  Mountain, 435
  Oregon, 435
  Plumbeous, 435

Chondestes grammacus grammacus, 342
  strigatus, 342

Chordeiles acutipennis texensis, 268
  virginianus virginianus, 266
    "  chapmani, 266
    " henryi, 266
    " sennetti, 268

Chuck-will's widow, 263

Ciconiidæ, 118

Cinclidæ, 419

Cinclus mexicanus unicolor, 419

Circus hudsonius, 204

Cistothorus stellaris, 428

Clangula clangula americana, 99
  islandica, 99

Coccyges, 241

Coccyzus americanus americanus, 244
          " occidentalis, 246
  erythrophthalmus, 246

Cœreba bahamensis, 385

Cœrebidæ, 385
  minor minor, 244
    " maynardi, 244

Colaptes auratus auratus, 258
          " luteus, 259
  cafer collaris, 259

Colaptes cafer saturatior, 259
  chrysoides, 262
  rufipileus, 262

Colinus ridgwayi, 175
  virginianus, 175
    " floridanus, 175
    "  texanus, 175

Columba fasciata fasciata, 192
         " vioscæ, 192
  flavirostris, 192
  leucocephala, 192
  squamosa, 192

Columba, 192

Columbæ, 192

Columbidæ, 192

Colymbidæ, 11

Colymbus auritus, 13
  dominicus brachypterus, 15
  holbœlli, 11
  nigricollis californicus, 13

Compsothlypis americana americana, 390
  americana usneæ, 390
  nigrilora, 391

Conuropsis carolinensis, 241

Coot, 136
  European, 136

Cormorant, 79
  Baird's, 82
  Brandt's, 82
  Double-crested, 79
  Farallon, 81
  Florida, 81
  Mexican, 81
  Pelagic, 82
  Red-faced, 82
  Violet-green, 82
  White-crested, 81

Corvidæ, 300

Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos, 312
  brachyrhynchos pascuus, 312
  corax principalis, 311
         " sinuatus, 311
  cryptoleucus, 311
  ossifragus, 312

Cotingidæ, 280

Cowbird, 314
  Dwarf, 315
  Red-eyed, 315

Cracidæ, 191

Crake, Corn, 135
  Spotted, 133

Crane, Little Brown, 127
  Sandhill, 129
  Whooping, 127

Creciscus jamaicensis, 134
  coturniculus, 134

Creeper, Brown, 430
  California, 430
  Mexican, 430
  Rocky Mountain, 430
  Sierra, 430

Crex Crex, 135

Crossbill, 327
  Mexican, 327
  White-winged, 327

Crotophaga ani, 241
  sulcirostris, 243

Crow, 312
  Carrion, 199
  Fish, 312

Page 455

  Florida, 312

Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni, 232
  acadica acadica, 232
    " scotæa, 232

Cuckoo, Black-billed, 246
  California, 246
 Kamchatka, 246
  Mangrove, 244
  Maynard's, 244
  Yellow-billed, 244

Cuculidæ, 241

Cuculus canorus telephonus, 246

Curlew, Bristle-thighed, 160
  Eskimo, 160
  Hudsonian, 159
  Long-billed, 159

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus, 313

Cyanolæmus clemenciæ, 271

Cyanocitta cristata cristata, 303
            " florincola, 303
  stelleri stelleri, 303
    " annectens, 306
    " carlottæ, 306
    " diademata, 303
    " frontalis, 303

Cyanosylvia suecica robusta, 448

Cyanthus latirostris, 279

Cypseloides niger borealis, 268

Cyrtonyx montezumæ mearnsi, 178

Dafila acuta, 94

Daption capense, 67

Darters, 77

Dendragapus obscurus obscurus, 178
             " fuliginosus, 178
             "  richardsoni, 179

Dendrocygna autumnalis, 113
  bicolor, 113

Dendroica æstiva æstiva, 392
           " rubiginosa, 392
           "  sonorana, 292
  auduboni auduboni, 395
    " nigrifrons, 395
  bryanti castaneiceps, 394
  castanea, 398
  cærulea, 396
  cærulescens cærulescens, 394
    " cairnsi, 394
  chrysoparia, 402
  coronata, 395
  discolor, 407
  dominica albilora, 401
  dominica dominica, 401
  fusca, 399
  graciæ, 401
  kirtlandi, 404
  magnolia, 396
  nigrescens, 402
  occidentalis, 404
  palmarum palmarum, 405
    " hypochrysea, 405
  pensylvanica, 398
  striata, 399
  tigrina, 391
  townsendi, 403
  vigorsi, 405
  virens, 403

Dichromanassa rufescens, 123

Dickcissel, 368

Diomedea albatrus, 59
  immutabilis, 60
  nigripes, 59

Diomedeidæ  59

Dipper, 419

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 314

Dotterel, 161

Dove, Bermuda Ground, 195
  Blue-headed Quail, 196
  Ground, 195
  Inca, 196
  Key West Quail, 196
  Mexican Ground, 195
  Mourning, 193
  Ruddy Quail, 196
  White-fronted, 195
  White-winged, 195
  Zenaida, 194

Dovekie, 34

Dowitcher, 144
  Long-billed, 145

Dryobates arizonæ, 252
  borealis, 252
  nuttalli, 252
  pubescens pubescens, 251
    "  gairdneri, 251
    "  homorus, 251
    "  medianus, 251
    "  nelsoni, 251
    " turati, 251
  scalaris bairdi, 252
    "  lucasanus, 252
  villosus villosus, 250
    " auduboni, 250
    " harrisi, 250
    "  hyloscopus, 250
    "  leucomelas, 250
    "  monticola, 250
    "  picoideus, 250

Duck, Black, 90
  Florida, 90
  Harlequin, 101
  Labrador, 101
  Lesser Scaup, 98
  Masked, 106
  Mottled, 91

Page 456

  Ring-necked, 98
  Ruddy, 106
  Rufous-crested, 95
  Scaup, 97
  Wood, 95

Dumetella carolinensis, 420

Dunlin, 149

Eagle, Bald, 217
  Golden, 215
  Gray Sea, 217
  Northern Bald, 217

Ectopistes migratorius, 193

Egret, 122
  Reddish, 123
  Snowy, 122

Egretta candidissima candidissima 122

Eider, 103
  King, 104
  Northern, 102
  Pacific, 103
  Spectacled, 102
  Steller's, 102

Elanoides forficatus, 201

Elanus leucurus, 201

Empidonax difficilis cineritius, 294
  difficilis difficilis, 293
  flaviventris, 293
  fulvifrons pygmæus, 296
  griseus, 296
  hammondi, 295
  minimus, 295
  trailli trailli, 294
    " alnorum, 295
  virescens, 294
  wrighti, 295

Ereunetes mauri, 151
  pusillus, 150

Erismatura jamaicensis, 106

Erolia ferruginea, 149

Eudromias morinellus, 161

Eugenes fulgens, 271

Euphagus carolinus, 322
  cyanocephalus, 322

Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, 150

Falco æsalon, 221
  columbarius columbarius, 220
    " suckleyi, 220
  fusco-cærulescens, 221
  islandus, 218
  mexicanus, 219
  peregrinus anatum, 220
    " pealei, 220
    "  peregrinus, 219
  richardsoni, 220
  rusticolus rusticolus, 218
    " gyrfalco, 218
    " obsoletus, 219
  sparverius sparverius, 222
    " peninsularis, 222
    " phalœna, 221
  sparveroides, 222
    " tinnunculus, 221

Falcon Aplomado, 221
  Peale's, 220
  Peregrine, 219
  Prairie, 219

Finch, Aleutian Rosy, 327
  Black Rosy, 328
  Brown-capped Rosy, 328
  California Purple, 325
  Cassin's Purple, 326
  Gray-crowned Rosy, 328
  Guadalupe House, 326
  Hepburn's Rosy, 328
  House, 326
  McGregor's House, 326
  Purple, 325
  San Clemente House, 326
  San Lucas House, 326

Flamingo, 115

Flicker, 258
  Gilded, 262
  Guadalupe, 262
  Northern, 259
  Northwestern, 259
  Red-shafted, 259

Florida Cœrulea, 124

Flycatcher, Acadian, 294
  Alder, 295
  Arizona Crested, 286
  Ash-throated, 286
  Beardless, 296
  Buff-breasted, 296
  Coues's, 291
  Crested, 285
  Derby, 284
  Fork-tailed, 280
  Gray, 296
  Hammond's, 295
  Least, 295
  Lower California, 287
  Flycatcher, Mexican Crested, 286
  Olivaceous, 287
  Olive-sided, 290
  San Lucas, 294
  Scissor-tailed, 281
  Sulphur-bellied, 285
  Traill's, 294
  Vermilion, 296
  Western, 293
  Wright's, 295
  Yellow-bellied, 293

Fratercula arctica arctica, 22
            " naumanni, 23

Page 457

  corniculata, 23

Fregata aquila, 86

Fregatidæ, 86

Fregetta grallaria, 71

Frigate Bird, 86

Fringillidæ, 324

Fulica americana, 136
  atra, 136

Fulmar, 62
  Giant, 62
  Pacific, 63
  Rodgers's, 63
  Slender-billed, 63

Fulmarus glacialis glacialis, 62
          " glupischa, 63
  rodgersi, 63

Gadwall, 91

Gallinæ, 175

Gallinago delicata, 143
  gallinago, 140
  meda, 143

Gallinula galeata, 136

Gallinule, Florida, 136
  Purple, 135

Gannet, 76

Gavia adamsi, 18
  arctica, 18
  immer, 18
  stellata, 19
  pacifica, 19

Gaviidæ, 17

Gelochelidon nilotica, 50

Geococcyx californianus, 243
  beldingi, 413
  trichas arizela, 412
    " trichas, 412
    " arizela, 412
    " ignota, 412
    " occidentalis, 412
    " sinousa, 412

Geotrygon chrysia, 196
  montana, 196

Glaucidium gnoma californicum, 239
            " gnoma, 239
  hoskinsi, 239
  phalænoides, 240

Glottis nebularia, 152

Gnatcatcher, Black-tailed, 442
  Blue-gray, 441
  Plumbeous, 441
  Western, 441

Godwit, Black-tailed, 152
  Hudsonian, 152
  Marbled, 151
  Pacific, 152

Golden-eye, 99
  Barrow's, 99

Goldfinch, 329
  Arkansas, 331
  Black-headed, 331
  Lawrence's, 331
  Pale, 331
  Willow, 331

Goose, American White-fronted, 108
  Barnacle, 112
  Bean, 108
  Blue, 107
  Canada, 109
  Cackling, 109
  Emperor 112
  Greater Snow, 107
  Hutchins's, 109
  Ross's, 108
  Snow, 107
  White-cheeked, 109
  White-fronted, 108

Goshawk, 205
  Mexican, 214
  Western, 207

Grackle, Boat-tailed, 323
  Bronzed, 323
  Florida, 323
  Great-tailed, 324
  Purple, 323

Grassquit, 368
  Melodious, 368

Grebe, Eared, 13
  Holbœll's, 11-12
  Horned, 12-13
  Least, 15
  Pied-billed, 15-16
  Mexican, 15
  Western, 11

Greenshank, 152

Grosbeak, Alaska Pine, 325
  Black-headed, 365
  Blue, 366
  California Pine, 325
  Evening, 324
  Kadiak Pine, 325
  Pine, 324
  Rocky Mountain Pine, 325
  Rose-breasted, 365
  Western Blue, 366
  Western Evening, 324

Grouse.
  Canada Ruffed, 182
  Columbian Sharp-tailed, 187
  Dusky, 178
  Franklin's, 180
  Gray Ruffed, 182
  Oregon Ruffed, 182
  Prairie Sharp-tailed, 187
  Richardson's, 179

Page 458

  Ruffed, 180
  Sharp-tailed, 187
  Sooty, 178

Gruidæ, 127

Grus americana, 127
  canadensis, 127
  mexicana, 129

Guara alba, 117
  rubra, 117

Guillemot, Black, 28
  Mandt, 29
  Pigeon, 29

Guiraca cærulea, 366
         " lazula, 366

Gull, Bonaparte's, 48
  California, 45
  Franklin's, 48
  Glaucous, 40
  Glaucous-winged, 42
  Great Black-backed, 43
  Heerman's, 46
  Herring, 44
  Iceland, 41
  Ivory, 39
  Kittiwake, 39
  Kumlien, 42
  Laughing, 47
  Little, 49
  Mew, 46
  Nelson, 42
  Pacific Kittiwake, 40
  Point Barrow, 41
  Red-legged Kittiwake, 40
  Ring-billed, 45
  Ross's, 49
  Sabine's, 49
  Short-billed, 46
  Siberian, 44
  Slaty-backed, 43
  Vega, 45
  Western, 44

Gymnogyps californianus, 198

Gyrfalcon, 218
  Black, 219
  Gray, 218
  White, 218

Hæmatopodidæ, 170

Hæmatopus bachmani, 171
  frazari, 171
  ostralegus, 170
  palliatus, 170

Haliæetus albicilla, 217
  leucocephalus leucocephalus, 217
   "  alascanus, 217

Halocyptena microsoma 68

Harelda hyemalis, 100

Hawk, Black Pigeon, 220
  Broad-winged, 213
  Cooper's, 205
  Cuban Sparrow, 222
  Desert Sparrow, 221
  Duck, 220
  Florida Red-shouldered, 209
  Harlan's, 209
  Harris's, 207
  Krider's, 208
  Marsh, 204
  Mexican Black, 213
  Pigeon, 220
  Red-bellied, 211
  Red-shouldered, 209
  Red-tailed, 208
  Richardson's Pigeon, 220
  Rough-legged, 214
  Sennett's White-tailed, 212
  Sharp-shinned, 204
  Short-tailed, 213
  Sparrow, 222
  San Lucas Sparrow, 222
  Swainson's, 212
  Western Red-tail, 208
  Zone-tailed, 211

Heath Hen, 186

Heleodytes brunneicapillus affinis, 424
            " couesi, 423
            " bryanti, 424

Helinaia swainsoni, 386

Helmitheros vermivorus, 386

Helodromas ochropus, 155
  solitarius solitarius, 154
    "  cinnamomeus, 155

Herodias egretta, 122

Herodiones, 115

Heron, Anthony's Green, 125
  Black-crowned Night, 126
  European, 122
  Frazar's Green, 125
  Great Blue, 121
  Great White, 121
  Green, 124
  Little Blue, 124
  Louisiana, 123
  Northwestern Coast, 121
  Snowy, 122
  Ward's, 122
  Yellow-crowned Night, 126

Heteractitis incanus, 156

Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina, 324
  vespertina montana, 324

Himantopus mexicanus, 139

Hirundinidæ, 372

Hirundo erythrogastra, 373

Page 459

Histrionicus histrionicus, 101

Honey Creeper, Bahama, 385

Hummingbird, Allen's, 277
  Anna's, 275
  Black-chinned, 273
  Blue-throated, 271
  Broad-billed, 279
  Broad-tailed, 276
  Buff-bellied, 279
  Calliope, 278
  Costa's, 275
  Lucifer, 278
  Morcom's, 278
  Reiffer's, 278
  Rivoli's, 271
  Ruby-throated, 273
  Rufous, 276
  White-eared, 279
  Xantus's, 279

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis, 123

Hydrochelidon leucoptera, 57
  nigra surinamensis, 56

Hylocichla aliciæ aliciæ, 443
            " bicknelli, 443
  fuscescens fuscescens, 443
    "  salicicola, 443
  guttata auduboni, 445
    " guttata, 445
    " mustelina, 442
    " nanus, 446
    " pallasi, 446
  ustulata swainsoni, 445
    " ustulata, 443

Ibididæ, 117

Ibis, Glossy, 118
  Scarlet, 117
  White, 117
  White-faced Glossy, 118
  Wood, 118

Icteria virens virens, 413
         " longicauda, 413

Icteridæ, 314

Icterus melanocephalus auduboni, 319
  bullocki, 322
  cucullatus nelsoni, 320
    " sennetti, 320
  galbula, 321
  parisorum, 320
  spurius, 321

Ictinia mississippiensis, 202

Ionornis martinicus, 135

Iridoprocne bicolor, 373

Ixobrychus exilis, 120
  neoxenus, 120

Ixoreus nævius meruloides, 448
         " nævius, 448

Jabiru, 119

Jabiru mycteria, 119

Jacana, Mexican, 172
  spinosa, 172

Jacanidæ, 172

Jæger, Long-tailed, 37
  Parastic, 37
  Pomarine, 36

Jay, Alaska, 309
  Arizona, 307
  Belding's, 307
  Black-headed, 306
  Blue, 303
  Blue-eared, 307
  Blue-fronted, 303
  California, 307
  Canada, 308
  Couch's, 308
  Florida, 306
  Florida Blue, 303
  Gray, 311
  Green, 308
  Labrador, 309
  Long-crested, 303
  Oregon, 309
  Pinon, 313
  Queen Charlotte, 306
  Rocky Mountain, 309
  Santa Cruz, 307
  Steller's, 303
  Texas, 307
  Woodhouse's, 306
  Xantus's, 307

Junco aikeni, 348
  Arizona, 350
  Baird's, 351
  bairdi, 351
  Carolina, 350
  Guadalupe, 351
  hyemalis hyemalis, 349
  hyemalis carolinensis, 350
    "  mearnsi, 350
    "  connectens, 349
    "  montanus, 350
    "  oreganus, 349
    " pinosus, 349
    " thurberi, 349
insularis, 351
  mearnsi.
  Montana, 350
  Oregon, 349
  phæonotus dorsalis, 350
    " palliatus, 350
  Pink-sided, 350
  Point Pinos, 349
  Red-backed, 350
  Shufeldt's, 349
  Slate-colored, 349

Page 460

  Thurber's, 349
  Townsend's, 350
  townsendi's, 350
  White-winged, 348

Kestrel, 221

Killdeer, 165

Kingbird, 281
  Arkansas, 283
  Cassin's, 284
  Couch's, 283
  Gray, 283

Kingfisher, Belted, 247
  Ringed, 247
  Texas, 249

Kinglet, Dusky, 441
  Golden-crowned, 439
  Ruby-crowned, 440
  Sitka, 441
  Western Golden crowned, 440

Kite, Everglade, 202
  Mississippi, 202
  Swallow-tailed, 201
  White-tailed, 201

Kittiwake, 39
  Kittiwake, Pacific, 40
  Red-legged, 40

Knot, 146

Lagopus evermanni, 184
  lagopus lagopus, 183
    " alleni, 183
  leucurus leucurus, 185
    "  peninsularis, 185
  rupestris, 183
    " atkhensis, 184
    " nelsoni, 184
    " reinhardi, 184
    "  townsendi, 184
  welchi, 184

Laniidæ, 376

Lanius borealis, 376
  ludovicianus ludovicianus, 376
  anthonyi, 376
    " excubitorides, 378
    " gambeli, 378

Lanivireo flavifrons, 382
  solitarius alticola, 383
  cassini, 382
  lucasanus, 383
  plumbeus, 382
  solitarius, 382

Lapwing, 161

Laridæ, 38

Lark, California Horned, 298
  Desert Horned, 298
  Dusky Horned, 299
  Horned, 297
  Hoyt's Horned, 299
  Island Horned, 299
  Montezuma Horned, 299
  Pallid Horned, 297
  Prairie Horned, 298
  Ruddy Horned, 298
  Scorched Horned, 298
  Sonora Horned, 299
  Streaked Horned, 299
  Texan Horned, 298

Larus affinis, 44
  argentatus, 44
  atricilla, 47
  brachyrhynchus, 46
  californicus, 45
  canus, 46
  delawarensis, 45
  franklini, 48
  glaucescens, 42
  hyporboreus, 40
  heermanni, 46
  kumlieni, 42
  leucopterus, 41
  marinus, 43
  minutus, 49
  nelsoni, 42
  occidentalis, 44
  philadelphia, 48
  schistisagus, 43
  vegæ, 45

Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera, 195

Leucosticte, atrata, 328
  australis, 328
  griseonucha, 327
  tephrocotis tephrocotis, 328
    " littoralis, 328

Limicolæ, 137

Limosa fedoa, 151
  hæmastica, 152
  lapponica baueri, 152
  limosa, 152

Limpkin, 129

Lobipes Lobatus, 137

Longipennes, 35

Longspur, Alaska, 333
  Chestnut-collared, 334
  Lapland, 333
  McCown's, 334
  Smith's, 334

Loon, 38-17-20-18
  Black-throated, 18
  Pacific, 19
  Red-throated, 19
  Yellow-billed, 18

Lophodytes cucullatus  88

Lophortyx californica, 177
           " vallicola, 177
  gambeli, 177

Page 461

Loxia curvirostra minor, 327
       " stricklandi, 327
  leucoptera, 327

Lunda cirrhata, 22

Machetes Pugnax, 156

Macrochires, 262

Macronectes giganteus, 62

Macrorhamphus griseus griseus, 144
               " scolopaceus, 145

Magpie, Yellow-billed, 300

Mallard, 88

Man-o'-War Bird, 86

Mareca americana, 92
  penelope, 91

Marila affinis, 98
  americana, 95
  collaris, 98
  marila, 97
  valisineria, 97

Martin, Cuban, 372
  Purple, 372
  Western, 372

Meadowlark, 317
  Rio Grande, 317
  southern, 319
  Western, 319

Megalestris skua, 36

Megaquiscalus major major, 323
               " macrourus, 324

Melanerpes erythrocephalus, 256
  formicivorus formicivorus, 256
    "   angustifrons, 257
    "   bairdi, 257

Meleagridæ, 178

Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, 191
           "  merriami, 190
           "  osceola, 191
           "  silvestris, 190

Melopelia asiatica, 195

Melospiza melodia caurina, 355
           " cooperi, 355
           " clementæ, 355
           " fallax, 354
           " graminea, 355
           " heermanni, 354
           " insignis, 355
           " juddi, 355
           " kenaiensis, 355
           " melodia, 354
           " merrilli, 355
           " montana, 354
           " morphna, 354
           " pusillula, 355
           " rivularis, 355
           " rufina, 355
           " samuelis, 354
  georgiana, 356
  lincolni lincolni, 356
            " striata, 356

Merganser, 87
  Hooded, 88
  Red-breasted, 88

Mergus americanus, 87
  serrator, 88

Merlin, 221

Micropalama himantopus, 145

Micropallas whitneyi, 240

Micropodidæ, 268

Mimus polyglottos, 420
       " polyglottos, 420
       " leucopterus, 420

Mniotilta varia, 385

Mniotiltidæ, 385

Mockingbird, 420
  Western, 420

Molothrus ater ater, 314

" obscurus, 315

Motacilla alba, 418
  ocularis, 418

Motacillidæ, 418

Murre, 29
  Brunnich's, 31
  California, 30
  Pallas's, 31

Murrelet, Ancient, 26
  Craveri's, 28
  Kittlitz, 27
  Marbled, 27
  Xantus, 27

Muscivora forficata, 281
  tyrannus, 280

Myadestes townsendi, 442

Mycteria americana, 118

Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens, 286

Myiarchus cinerascens pertinax, 287
  crinitus, 285
  olivascens, 287
  magister magister, 286
  nelsoni, 286

Myiochanes pertinax pallidiventris, 291
  richardsoni richardsoni, 293
    " peninsulæ, 293
  virens, 291

Myiodynastes luteiventris, 285
  Nannus alascensis, 428
  meliger, 428
  niemalis helleri, 428
    " niemalis, 427
    " pacificus, 428

Netta rufina, 95

Nettion carolinense, 92
  crecca, 92

Nighthawk, 266

Page 462

  Florida, 266
  Sennett's, 268
  Texas, 268
  Western, 266

Noddy, 57

Nomonyx dominicus, 106

Nucifraga columbiana, 313

Numenius americanus, 159
  borealis, 160
  hudsonicus, 159
  phæopus, 160
  tahitiensis, 160

Nutcracker, Clark's, 313

Nuthatch, Brown-headed, 432
  Florida White-breasted, 431
  Pygmy, 432
  Red-breasted, 432
  Rocky Mountain, 431
  Slender-billed, 431
  San Lucas, 431
  White-breasted, 431
  White-naped, 433

Nuttallornis borealis, 290

Nyctanassa violacea, 126

Nyctea nyctea, 237

Nycticorax nycticorax nævius, 126

Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli, 265

Oceanites oceanicus, 71

Oceanodroma furcata, 68
  homochroa, 70
  kædingi, 69
  leucorhoa, 69
  macrodactyla, 69
  melania, 70
  socorrœnsis, 70

Ochthodromus wilsonius, 168

Odontoglossæ, 115

Odontophoridæ, 175

Oidemia americana, 104
  deglandi, 105
  fusca, 105
  perspicillata, 105

Old-squaw, 100

Olor buccinator, 114
  columbianus, 114
  cygnus, 114

Oporornis agilis, 410
  formosus, 410
  philadelphia, 411
  tolmei, 411

Oreortyx picta picta, 176
          " confinis, 176
          " plumifera, 176

Oreospiza chlorura, 361

Oriole, Arizona Hooded, 320
  Audubon's, 319
  Baltimore, 321
  Bullock's, 322
  Scott's, 320
  Sennett's, 320

Orchard, 321

Oreoscoptes montanus, 419

Ortalis vetula mccalli, 191

Osprey, 225

Octocoris alpestris alpestris, 297
           " actia, 298
           " adusta, 299
           " articola, 297
           " giraudi, 298
           " hoyti, 299
           " insularis, 299
           " leucolæma, 298
           " merrilli, 299
           " occidentalis, 299
           " pallida, 299
           " praticola, 298
           " rubea, 298
           " strigata, 299

Otus asio aikeni, 234
      " asio, 233
      " bendirei, 233
      " cineraceus, 234
      " floridanus, 233
      " kennicotti, 233
      " macfarlanei 234
      " maxwelliæ, 233
      " mccalli, 233
  flammeolus flammeolus, 234
    "   idahoensis, 234
  Trichopsis, 234
  Xantusi, 234

Ouzel, Water, 419

Oven-bird, 407

Owl, Aiken's Screech, 234
  Arctic Horned, 235
  Barn, 227
  Barred, 229
  Burrowing, 238
  California Pygmy, 239
  California Screech, 233
  Dusky Horned, 235
  Dwarf Horned, 237
  Dwarf Screech, 234
  Elf, 240
  European Hawk, 237
  Ferruginous Pygmy, 240
  Flammulated Screech, 234
  Florida Barred, 229
  Florida Burrowing, 239
    " Screech, 233
  Great Gray, 231
  Great Horned, 235
  Hawk, 238
  Hoskin's Pygmy, 239

Page 463

  Kennicott's Screech, 233
  Lapp, 232
  Long-eared, 227
  MacFarlane's Screech, 234
  Mexican Screech, 234
  Northern Spotted, 231
  Northwestern Saw-whet, 232
  Pacific Horned, 235
  Pygmy, 239
  Richardson's, 232
  Rocky Mountain Screech, 233
  Saw-whet, 232
  Screech, 233
  Short-eared, 229
  Snowy, 237
  Spotted, 237
    "      Screech, 234
  Texas Barred, 231
  Texas Screech, 233
  Western Horned, 235
  Xantus's Screech, 234

Oxyechus vociferus, 165
Oyster-catcher, 170
European, 170
Black, 171
Frazar's, 171
Pagophila alba, 39
Paludicolæ, 127
Pandion haliætus carolinensis, 225
Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi, 207
Parauque, Merrill's, 265
Paroquet, Carolina, 241
Parrot, Thick-billed, 141
Partridge, Alaska Spruce, 179
  Canada Spruce, 179
  Hudsonian Spruce, 179
Passer domesticus, 335
Passerculus beldingi, 337
  princeps, 337
  rostratus rostratus, 338
    "  guttatus, 337
    "  santorum, 338
  sandwichensis sandwichensis, 337
    "  alaudinus, 337
    "  bryanti, 337
    "  savanna, 337
Passerella iliaca fuliginosa, 357
             "   iliaca, 357
             "   insularis, 357
             "   megarhyncha, 357
             "   schistacea, 357
             "   stephensi, 357
             "   townsendi, 357
             "   unalaschensis, 357

Passeres, 280

Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi, 340
                 "  occidentalis, 340
  caudacutus, 340
  lecontei, 340
  maritimus fisheri, 341
             "   macgillivrai, 342
             "   maritimus, 341
             "   peninsulæ, 341
             "   sennetti, 341
  nelsoni nelsoni, 341
    "  subvirgatus, 341
  nigrescens, 342

Passerina amœna, 366
  ciris, 367
  cyanea, 366
  versicolor versicolor, 367
    " pulchra, 367

Pediœcetes phasianellus phasianellus, 187
  phasianellus campestris, 187
    " columbianus, 187

Pelagodroma marina, 71

Pelecanidæ, 83

Pelecanus californicus, 85
  erythrorhynchos, 83
  occidentalis, 85

Pelican, White, 83
  Brown, 85
  California Brown, 85

Pelidna alpina alpina, 149
          " sakhalina, 149

Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus, 434
             " occidentalis, 435
             " septentrionalis, 435
  carolinensis agilis, 435
    "       carolinensis, 435
  cinctus alascensis, 436
    "  gambeli, 435
  hudsonicus hudsonicus, 436
    "  littoralis, 436
  rufescens barlowi, 437
    "  neglectus, 437
    "  rufescens, 437
  sclateri, 435

Perisoreus canadensis canadensis, 308
             "  capitalis, 309
             "  fumifrons, 309
             "  nigricapillus, 309
  obscurus obscurus, 309
    "  griseus, 311

Petrel, Ashy, 70
  Black, 70
  Black-capped, 67
  Bulwer's, 67
  Fisher's, 67
  Fork-tailed, 68
  Guadalupe, 69
  Kæding's, 69
  Leach's, 68

Page 464

  Least, 68
  Pintado, 67
  Scaled, 67
  Socorro, 70
  Storm, 68
  White-bellied, 71
  White-faced, 71
  Wilson's, 71

Petrochelidon fulva, 372
  lunifrons lunifrons, 372
  melanogastra, 373

Peucæa æstivalis æstivalis, 352
        " bachmani, 352
  botterii, 352
  cassini, 353

Peucedramus olivaceus, 391

Pewee, Western Wood, 293
  Large-billed Wood, 293
  Wood, 291

Phæthon americanus, 72
  æthereus, 73
  rubricaudus, 73

Phæthontidæ, 72

Phainopepla, 376
  nitens, 376

Phalacrocoracidæ, 78

Phalacrocorax carbo, 79
  auritus auritus, 79
    "  albociliatus, 81
    "  cincinatus, 81
    "  floridanus, 81
  vigua mexicanus, 81
  pelagicus pelagicus, 82
    "  resplendens, 82
    "  robustus, 82
  penicillatus, 82
  urile, 82

Phalænoptilus nuttalli nuttalli, 264
               " californicus, 264
               " nitidus, 264

Phalarope, Northern, 137
  Red, 137
  Wilson's, 138

Phalaropodidæ, 137
Phalaropus fulicarius, 137
Phaleris psittacula, 25
Phasianidæ, 188
Phasianus torquatus, 188
Pheasant, Ring-necked, 188
Philacte canagica, 112
Philohela minor, 140
Phlœotomus pileatus pileatus, 255

Phœbe, 287
  Black, 289
  Say, 289

Phœbetria palpebrata, 60
Phœnicopteridæ, 115
Phœnicopterus ruber, 115
Pica pica hudsonia, 300
  nuttalli, 300

Pici, 249

Picidæ, 249

Picoides americanus americanus, 253
          " dorsalis, 254
          " fasciatus, 254
  arcticus, 253

Pigeon, Band-tailed, 192
  Passenger, 193
  Red-billed, 192
  Scaled, 192
  Viosca's, 192
  White-crowned, 192

Pinicola enucleator alascensis, 325
          " californica, 325
          " flammula, 325
          " leucura, 324
          "  montana, 325

Pintail  94

Pipilo aberti, 361
  consobrinus, 360
  erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus, 358
  erythrophthalmus alleni, 358
  fuscus albigula, 360
  crissalis crissalis, 360
  fuscus mesoleucus, 360
  crissalis senicula, 361
  maculatus arcticus, 358
    "  clementæ, 360
    "  magnirostris, 360
    "  megalonyx, 360
    "  montanus, 358
    "  oregonus, 360

Pipit, 418
  Meadow, 418
  Red-throated, 419
  Sprague's, 419

Piranga erythromelas, 369
  hepatica, 370
  ludoviciana, 369
  rubra rubra, 370
    " cooperi, 370

Pisobia aurita, 147
  bairdi, 148
  damacensis, 149
  fuscicollis, 148
  maculata, 147
  minutella, 148

Pitangus sulphuratus derbianus, 284

Planesticus confinis, 447
  migratorius achrusterus, 447
    "  migratorius, 446
    "  propinquus, 446

Page 465

Plataleidæ, 115

Platypsaris aglaiæ albiventris, 280

Plautus impennis, 32-33

Plectrophenax hyperboreus, 333
  nivalis nivalis, 332
    " townsendi, 332

Plegadis autumnalis, 118
  guarauna, 118

Plover, Black-bellied, 161
  European Golden, 163
  Golden, 163
  Little Ringed, 166
  Mongolian, 167
  Mountain, 168
  Pacific Golden, 163
  Piping, 166
  Ringed, 166
  Semipalmated, 165
  Snowy, 167
  Upland, 156
  Wilson's, 168

Podasocys montanus, 168

Podilymbus podiceps, 15

Polioptila cærulea cærulea, 441
            " obscura, 441
  californica, 442
  plumbea, 441

Polyborus cheriway, 224
  lutosus, 224

Polysticta stelleri, 102

Poœcetes gramineus gramineus, 335
          " affinis, 335
          "  confinis, 335

Poor-will, 264
  Dusky, 264
  Frosted, 264

Porzana carolina, 133
  porzana, 133

Prairie Chicken, 185
  Attwater's, 186
  Lesser, 187

Priocella glacialoides, 63

Priofinus cinereus, 66

Procellariidæ, 61

Progne cryptoleuca, 372
  subis subis, 372
    " hesperia, 372

Protonotaria citrea, 386

Psaltriparus melanotis lloydi, 438
  minimus minimus, 437
    " californicus, 438
    " grindæ, 438
  plumbeus, 438

Psittaci, 241

Psittacidæ, 241

Ptarmigan, Allen's, 183
  Evermann's, 184
  Kenai White-tailed, 185
  Nelson's, 184
  Reinhardt's, 184
  Rock, 183
  Townsend's, 184
  Turner's, 184
  Welch's, 184
  White-tailed, 185
  Willow, 183

Ptychoramphus aleuticus, 24
  Puffin, 22
  Horned, 23
  Large-billed, 23
  Tufted, 22

Puffinus assimilis, 65
  auricularis, 65
  borealis, 64
  creatopus, 65
  cuneatus, 66
  gravis, 64
  griseus, 66
  lherminieri, 65
  opisthomelas, 65
  puffinus, 64
  tenuirostris, 66

Pygopodes, 10

Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicanus, 296

Pyrrhula cassini, 325

Pyrrhuloxia, Arizona, 364
  sinuata sinuata, 364
    " peninsulæ, 364
    " texana, 364
  San Lucas, 364
  Texas, 364
  California, 177
  Chestnut Bellied Scaled, 177
  Gambel's, 177
  Mearn's, 178

Quail, Mountain, 176
  Plumed, 176
  San Pedro, 176
  Scaled, 176
  Valley, 177

Querquedula cyanoptera, 93
  discors, 93

Quiscalus quiscula quiscula, 323
           " aglæus, 323
           "  æneus, 323

Rail, Belding's, 131
  Black, 134
  California Clapper, 131
  Carribean Clapper, 132
  Clapper, 132
  Farallon, 134
  Florida Clapper, 132
  King, 131
  Louisiana Clapper, 132

Page 466

  Virginia, 133
  Wayne's Clapper, 132
  Yellow, 131

Rallidæ, 131

Rallus beldingi, 131
  crepitans crepitans, 132
    " saturatus, 132
    " scotti, 132
    " waynei, 132
  elegans, 131
  longirostris caribæus, 132
  obsoletus, 131
  virginianus, 132

Raptores, 198

Raven, 311
  Northern, 311
  White-necked, 311

Recurvirostra americana, 139

Recurvirostridæ, 139

Redhead, 95

Redpoll, 329
  Greater, 329
  Greenland, 328
  Hoary, 328
  Holbœll's, 329

Redstart, 415
  Painted, 417

Red-wing, Bahama, 316
  Bicolored, 317
  Florida, 316
  Northwestern, 316
  San Diego, 316
  Sonora, 316
  Thick-billed, 316
  Tricolored, 317

Regulus calendula calendula, 440
         "  grinnelli, 441
         "  obscurus, 441
  satrapa olivaceus, 440
    " satrapa, 439

Rhodostethia rosea, 49

Rhynchophanes mccowni, 334

Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha, 241

Riparia riparia, 374

Rissa brevirostris, 40
  tridactyla tridactyla, 39
    "  pollicaris, 40

Road-runner, 243

Robin, 446
  Southern, 447
  San Lucas, 447
  Western, 446

Rostrhamus sociabilis, 202

Rough-leg, Ferruginous, 215

Ruff, 156

Rynchopidæ, 58

Rynchops nigra, 58

Sage Hen, 188

Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus, 424
  guadeloupensis, 424

Sanderling, 151

Sandpiper, Aleutian, 146
  Baird, 148
  Buff-breasted, 158
  Curlew, 149
  Green, 155
  Least, 148
  Pectoral, 147
  Pribilof, 147
  Purple, 146
  Red-backed, 149
  Semipalmated, 150
  Sharp-tailed, 147
  Solitary, 154
  Spoonbill, 150
  Spotted, 158
  Stilt, 145
  Western, 151
  Western Solitary, 155
  White-rumped, 148

Sapsucker, Northern Red-breasted, 255
  Red-breasted, 255
  Red-naped, 254
  Williamson's, 255
  Yellow-bellied, 254

Saxicola œnanthe œnanthe, 448
          "  leucorhoa, 448

Sayornis nigricans, 289
  phœbe, 287
  sayus, 289

Scardafella inca, 196

Scolopacidæ, 140

Scolopax rusticola, 140

Scoter, 104
  Surf, 105
  Velvet, 105
  White-winged, 105

Scotiaptex nebulosa lapponica, 232
            " nebulosa, 231

Seed-eater, Sharpe's, 368

Seiurus aurocapillus, 407
  motacilla, 409
  noveboracensis noveboracensis, 409
    " notabilis, 409

Selasphorus alleni, 276
  platycercus, 276
  rufus, 277

Steophaga picta, 417
  ruticilla, 415

Shearwater, Allied, 65
  Audubon's, 65
  Black-tailed, 66
  Black-vented, 65
  Cory's, 64

Page 467

  Greater, 64
  Manx, 64
  Pink-footed, 65
  Slender-billed, 66
  Sooty, 66
  Townsend's, 65
  Wedge-tailed, 66

Sheldrake, Ruddy, 93

Shoveller, 94

Shrike, California, 378
  Island, 378
  Loggerhead, 376
  Northern, 376
  White-rumped, 378

Sialia currucoides, 450
  mexicana anabelæ, 450
    " bairdi, 450
    "  occidentalis, 450
  sialis sialis, 448
    " fulva, 448

Siskin, Pine, 332

Sitta canadensis, 432
  carolinensis carolinensis, 431
    "   aculeata, 431
    " atkinsi, 431
    " lagunæ, 431
    " nelsoni, 431
  pusilla, 432
  pygmæa pygmæa, 432
    " leuconucha, 433

Sittidæ, 431

Skimmer, Black, 58

Skua, 36

Skylark, 297

Snakebird, 77

Snipe, European, 140
  Great, 143
  Wilson's, 143

Solitaire, Townsend's, 442

Somateria dresseri, 103
  mollissima borealis, 102
  spectabilis, 104
  v-nigra, 103

Sora, 133

Sparrow, Acadian Sharp-tailed, 341
  Alameda Song, 355
  Aleutian Song, 337
  Bachman's, 352
  Baird's, 338
  Belding's, 337
  Bell's, 351
  Black-chinned, 348
  Black-throated, 351
  Botteri's, 352
  Brewer's, 346
  Brown's Song, 355
  Bryant's, 337
  Cassin's, 353
  Chipping, 345
  Clay-colored, 355
  Dakota Song, 355
  Desert, 351
  Desert Song, 354
  Dusky Seaside, 342
  English 335
  Field, 348
  Florida Grasshopper, 340
  Forbush's, 356
  Fox, 356
  Gambel's, 343

Golden-crowned, 343
  Grasshopper, 338
  Gray Sage, 352
  Harris's, 342
  Heermann's Song, 354
  Henslow's, 340
  Ipswich, 337
  Kadiak Fox, 357
  Kenai Song, 355
  Laguna, 353
  Large-billed, 338
  Lark, 342
  Leconte's, 340
  Lincoln's, 356
  Louisiana Seaside, 341

Macgillivray's Seaside, 342
  Merrill's Song, 355
  Mountain Song, 354
  Nelson's, 341
  Nuttall's, 343
  Oregon Vesper, 335
  Pine Woods, 352
  Rock, 353
  Rufous-crowned, 353
  Rufous-winged, 353
  Rusty Song, 354
  Sage, 352
  Samuel's Song, 354
  San Benito, 338
  San Clemente Song, 355
  San Diego Song, 355
  San Lucas, 338
  Santa Barbara Song, 355
  Savannah, 337
  Scott's, 353
  Scott's Seaside, 341
  Seaside, 341
  Sharp-tailed, 340
  Shumagin Fox, 357
  Slate-colored Fox, 357
  Song, 354
  Sooty Fox, 357
  Sooty Song, 355
  Stephen's Fox, 357

Page 468

  Swamp, 356
  Texas, 357
  Texas Seaside, 341
  Thick-billed Fox, 357
  Townsend's Fox, 357
  Tree, 345
  Vesper, 335
  Western Chipping, 346
  Western Field, 348
  Western Grasshopper, 338
  Western Henslow's, 340
  Western Lark, 342
  Western Savannah, 337
  Western Tree, 345
  Western Vesper, 335
  White-crowned, 343
  White-throated, 345
  Worthen's, 348
  Yakutat Song, 355

Spatula clypeata, 94

Speotyto cunicularia floridana, 239
          " hypogæa, 238

Sphyrapicus ruber ruber, 255
             " notkensis, 255
  thyroideus, 255
  varius varius, 254
    " nuchalis, 254

Spinus notatus, 331
  pinus, 332

Spiza americana, 368

Spirella atrogularis, 348
  breweri, 346
  monticola monticola, 345
    "  ochracea, 345
  passerina arizonæ, 346
    "  passerina, 345
  pallida, 346
  pusilla pusilla, 348
    " arenacea, 348
    " arizonæ, 346
  wortheni, 348

Spoonbill, Roseate, 115

Sporophila morelleti sharpei, 368

Squatarola squatarola, 161

Starling, 314

Starnœnas cyanocephala, 196

Steganopodes, 72

Stegonopus tricolor, 138

Stelgidopteryx serripennis, 374

Stellula calliope, 278

Stercorariidæ, 35

Stercorarius longicaudus, 37
  parasiticus, 37
  pomarinus, 36

Sterna aleutica, 54
  anætheta, 56
  antillarum, 55
  caspia, 50
  dougalli, 54
  elegans, 51
  forsteri, 53
  fuscata, 55
  hirundo, 53
  maxima, 51
  paradisæa, 54
  sandvicensis acuflavida, 52
  trudeaui, 52

Stilt, Black-necked, 139

Stint, Long-toed, 149

Strigidæ, 227

Strix occidentalis caurina, 231
        " occidentalis, 231
  varia allogilva, 231
    " alleni, 229
    " varia, 229

Sturnella magna magna, 317
           " argutula, 319
           " hoopesi, 317
           " neglecta, 319

Sturnidæ, 314

Sturnus vulgaris, 314

Sula bassana, 76
  brewsteri, 75
  cyanops, 74
  leucogactra, 75
  nebouxi, 74
  piscator, 75

Sulidæ, 74

Surf Bird, 169

Sunia ulula ulula, 237
       " caparoch, 238

Swallow, Bahama, 374
  Bank, 374
  Barn, 373
  Cliff, 372
  Cuban Cliff, 373
  Mexican Cliff, 373
  Northern Violet-green, 374
  Rough-winged, 374
  San Lucas, 374
  Tree, 373

Swallow-tailed Kite, 201

Swan, Trumpeter, 114
  Whistling, 114
  Whooping, 114

Swift, Black, 268
  Chimney, 269
  Vaux's, 270
  White-throated, 270

Slyviidæ, 433

Sylthliboramphus antiquus, 26
  Tachycineta thalassina lepida, 374
               "  brachyptera, 374

Page 469

Tanager, Cooper's, 370
  Hepatic, 370
  Western, 369
  Scarlet, 369
  Summer, 370

Tangaridæ, 369

Tangavius æneus involucratus, 315

Tattler, Wandering, 156

Teal, Blue-winged, 93
  Cinnamon, 93
  European, 82
  Green-winged, 92

Telmatodytes palustris, 429
              " griseus, 429
              " marianæ, 429
              " paludicola 429
              " plesius, 429
              " palustris, 429

Tern, Aleutian, 54
  Arctic, 54
  Black, 56
  Bridled, 56
  Cabot's, 52
  Caspian,  50
  Common, 53
  Elegant, 51
  Forster's,  53
  Gull-billed,  50
  Least,  55
  Roseate, 54
  Royal, 51
  Sooty,  55
  Trudeau's,  52
  White-winged Black,  57

Thalassidroma pelagica,  68

Thalassogeron culminatus,  60

Thrasher, Bendire's, 422
  Brown, 421
  California, 422
  Crissal, 423
  Curve-billed, 421
  Desert,  423
  Leconte's, 423
  Mearns's, 422
  Palmer's, 422
  Sage, 419
  San Lucas, 422
  Sennett's, 421

Thrush, Alaska Hermit, 445
  Audubon's Hermit, 445
  Bicknell's, 443
  Dwarf Hermit, 446
  Gray-cheeked, 443
  Hermit, 446
  Olive-backed, 445
  Northern Varied, 448
  Red-winged, 446
  Russet-backed, 443
  Varied, 448
  Willow, 443
  Wood, 442

Thryomanes bewicki bairdi, 426
  bewicki bewicki, 426
   " calophonus, 426
    " charienturus, 426
    " cryptus, 426
    " spilurus, 426
  brevicauda, 426
  leucophrys, 426

Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus, 425
  ludovicianus lomitensis, 425
    "  miamensis, 425

Tiaris bicolor, 368
  canora, 368

Titlark, 418

Titmouse, Ashy, 434
  Black-crested, 433
  Bridled, 434
  Gray, 434
  Plain, 434

Tufted, 433

Totanus flavipes, 153
  melanoleucus, 153

Towhee, 358
  Abert's, 361
  Anthony's, 361
  Arctic, 358
  California, 360
  Canon, 360
  Green-tailed, 361
  Guadalupe, 360
  Large-billed, 360
  Mountain, 360
  Oregon, 360
  San Clemente, 360
  San Diego, 360
  San Lucas, 360
  Spurred, 358
  White-eyed, 358

Toxostima bendirei, 422
  cinereum cinereum, 422
    "  mearnsi, 422
  crissale, 423
  curvirostre curvirostre, 421
    "  palmeri, 422
  lecontei lecontei, 423
  lecontei arenicola, 423
  longirostre sennetti, 421
  redivivum, 422
  rufum, 421

Tree Duck, Black-bellied, 113
  Fulvous, 113

Tringa canutus, 146

Page 470

Trochilidæ, 271

Troglodytes aëdon aëdon, 427
             " parkmani, 427

Troglodytidæ, 423

Trogon ambiguus, 246
  Coppery-tailed, 246

Trogonidæ, 246

Tropic Bird, Red-billed, 73
  Red-tailed, 73
  Yellow-billed, 72

Troupial.

Tryngites subruficollis, 158

Tubinares, 59

Turdidæ, 442

Turdus musicus, 446

Turkey, Florida, 191
  Merriam's, 190
  Rio Grande, 191
  Wild, 190

Turnstone, 169
  Black, 170
  Ruddy, 169

Tympanuchus americanus americanus, 185
  americanus attwateri, 186
  cupido, 186
  pallidicinctus, 187

Tyrannidæ, 280

Tyrannus dominicensis, 283
  melancholicus couchi, 283
  tyrannus, 281
  verticalis, 283
  vociferans, 284

Uria lomvia lomvia, 30
      " arra, 31
  troille troille, 29
    " californica, 30

Urubitinga anthracina, 213

Vanellus vanellus, 161

Veery, 443

Verdin, 439
  Cape, 439

Vermivora bachmani, 387
  pinus, 387
  celata celata, 389
    " lucescens, 389
    " sordida, 390
  chrysoptera, 388
  luciæ, 388
  peregrina, 390

Vermivora rubricapella gutturalis 389
           " rubricapella 389
  virginiæ, 388

Vireo, Anthony's, 384
  atricapillus, 383
  Bell's, 384
  belli belli, 384
  belli pusillus, 385
  Bermuda, 384
  Black-capped, 383
  Black-whiskered, 378
  Blue-headed, 382
  Cassin's, 382
  griseus bermudianus, 384
    " maynardi, 383
    " micrus, 384
  Gray, 385
  Hutton's, 384
  huttoni huttoni, 384
    " obscurus, 384
    " stephensi, 384
  Key West, 383
  Least, 385
  Mountain, 383
  Philadelphia, 380
  Plumbeous, 382
  Red-eyed, 380
  San Lucas, 383
  Small White-eyed, 384
  Stephens's, 383
  vicinior, 385
  Warbling, 380
  Western Warbling, 382
  White-eyed, 383
  Yellow-green, 380
  Yellow-throated, 382

Vireonidæ, 378

Vireosylva calidris barbatula, 378
  flavoviridis, 380
  gilva gilva, 380
    " swainsoni, 382
  olivacea, 380
  philadelphica, 380

Vulture, Black, 199
  California, 198
  Turkey, 199

Wagtail Alaska Yellow, 418
  Swinhoe's, 418
  White, 418

Warbler, Alaska Yellow, 392
  Audubon's, 395
  Bachman's, 387
  Bay-breasted, 398
  Black and White, 385
  Blackburnian, 399
  Black-fronted, 395
  Black-poll, 399
  Black-throated Blue, 394
  Black-throated Gray, 402
  Black-throated Green, 403
  Blue-winged, 387
  Cairns's, 394
  Calaveras, 389
  Canada, 415

Page 471

  Cape May, 391
  Cerulean, 396
  Chestnut-sided, 398
  Connecticut, 410
  Dusky, 390
  Golden-cheeked, 402
  Golden Pileolated, 415
  Golden-winged, 388
  Grace's, 401
  Hermit, 405
  Hooded, 414
  Kennicott's Willow, 439
  Kentucky, 410
  Kirtland's, 404
  Lucy's, 388
  Lutescent, 389
  Macgillivray's, 411
  Magnolia, 396
  Mangrove, 394
  Mourning, 411
  Myrtle, 395
  Nashville, 389
  Northern Parula, 390
  Olive, 391
  Orange-crowned, 389
  Palm, 405
  Parula, 390
  Pileolated, 414
  Pine, 405
  Prairie, 407
  Prothonotary, 386
  Red-faced, 417
  Sennett's, 391
  Sonora Yellow, 392
  Swainson's, 386
  Sycamore, 401
  Tennessee, 390
  Townsend's, 403
  Virginia's, 388
  Wilson's, 414
  Worm-eating, 386
  Yellow, 392
  Yellow Palm, 405
  Yellow-throated, 401

Water Thrush, 409
  Grinnell's, 409
  Louisiana, 409

Water Turkey, 77

Waxwing, Bohemian, 375
  Cedar, 375
  Wheatear, 448
  Greenland, 448

Whimbrel, 160

Whip-poor-will, 263
  Stephens's, 264

Widgeon, European, 91

Willet, 155
  Western, 156

Wilsonia canadensis, 415
  citrina, 414
  pusilla pusilla, 414
    " chryseola, 415
    " pileolata, 414

Woodcock, 140
  European, 140

Woodpecker, Alaska Three-toed, 254
  Alpine Three-toed, 254
  Ant-eating, 256
  Arctic Three-toed, 253
  Arizona, 252
  Batchelder's, 251
  Cabanis's, 250
  California, 257
  Downy, 251
  Gairdner's, 251
  Gila, 258
  Golden-fronted, 258
  Hairy, 250
  Harris's, 250
  Ivory-billed, 249
  Lewis's, 257
  Narrow-fronted, 257
  Nelson's Downy, 251
  Northern Hairy, 250
  Northern Pileated, 256
  Nuttall's, 252
  Pileated, 255
  Queen Charlotte, 250
  Red-bellied, 257
  Red-cockaded, 251
  Red-headed, 256
  Rocky Mountain Hairy, 250
  San Lucas, 252
  Southern Downy, 251
  Southern Hairy, 250
  Texas, 252
  Three-toed, 253
  White-headed, 253
  Willow, 251

Wren, Alaska, 428
  Aleutian, 428
  Baird's, 426
  Bewick's, 426
  Bryant's Cactus, 424
  Cactus, 423
  Cañon, 425
  Carolina, 425
  Dotted Cañon, 425
  Florida, 425
  Guadalupe, 426
  Guadalupe Rock, 424
  House, 427
  Kadiak Winter, 428

Page 472

  Lomita, 425
  Long-billed Marsh, 429
  Marian's Marsh, 429
  Seattle, 426
  Rock, 424
  San Clemente, 426
  Short-billed Marsh, 428
  San Diego, 426
  San Lucas Cactus, 424
  Texas, 426
  Tule, 429
  Vigors's, 426
  Western House, 427
  Western Marsh, 429
  Western Winter, 428
  White-throated, 424
  Winter, 427
  Worthington's Marsh, 429

Wren-tit, 437
  Pallid, 437

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, 315

Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens, 308

Xema sabini, 49

Xenopicus albolarvatus, 253

Yellow-legs, 153
  Greater, 153

Yellow-throat, Belding's, 413
  Florida, 412
  Maryland, 412
  Pacific, 412
  Rio Grande, 413
  Salt Marsh, 412
  Western, 412

Zamelodia ludoviciana, 365
  melanocephala, 365

Zenaida zenaida, 194

Zenaidura macroura carolinensis, 193

Zonotrichia albicollis, 345
  coronata, 343
  leucophrys leucophrys, 343
    " gambeli, 343
    " nuttalli, 343
  querula, 342

[Illustration: 474.]



Page 473

[Illustration: 475]

Birds of Eastern North America

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

The Bird Book of the year. It is authentic. The author KNOWS birds. He
has studied them for thirty years--in the hand, for plumage, and in
their haunts, for habits. He has studied them in their homes and has
photographed hundreds as they were actually feeding their young. Besides
being able to write about these things in an interesting and instructive
manner, he is classed as one of the foremost bird artists in America.
This rare combination of Artist-Author-Naturalist has produced, in
"Birds of Eastern North America," the ultimate bird book.

The technical descriptions aided by the pictures give perfect ideas of
the plumage of adults and young.

The descriptive text gives the important and characteristic features in
the lives of the various species.

The illustrations--well, there are 408 PICTURES IN NATURAL COLORS; they
show practically every species, including male, female, and young when
the plumages differ, and they are perfectly made by the best process.

Bound in cloth, handsomely illuminated in gold; 464 pages (4½ × 6½); 408
colored illustrations; every bird described and pictured.

$3.00 postpaid

Color Key To N. A. Birds

By F. M. CHAPMAN and C. A. REED

This might well be called an illustrated dictionary of North American
birds, the male of each species being shown in COLOR from pen and ink
drawings. Uniform with Egg Book. 350 pages.

$2.50 net



Page 474

[Illustration 476: _From "Water Birds"_.]
[Illustration: _From "Land Birds"_.]

LAND BIRDS

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

An illustrated, pocket text book that enables anyone to quickly identify
any song or insectivorous bird found east of the Rocky Mountains. It
describes their habits and peculiarities; tells you where to look for
them and describes their nests, eggs and songs.

EVERY BIRD IS SHOWN IN COLOR, including the females and young where the
plumage differs, from watercolor drawings by the four-color process. The
illustrations are the BEST, the MOST ACCURATE, and the MOST VALUABLE
ever printed in a bird book.

"LAND BIRDS" is the most popular and has the LARGEST SALE (over 300,000
copies) of any bird book published in this country. It is used and
recommended by our leading ornithologists and teachers. 230 pages.

Bound in Cloth, 75c. net; in Leather, $1.00 net; postage 5c.

WATER BIRDS

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This book is uniform in size and scope with LAND BIRDS. It includes all
of the Water Birds, Game Birds and Birds of Prey, east of the Rockies.
Each species is ILLUSTRATED IN COLOR from oil paintings; the bird, its
habits and nesting habits are described.

The pictures show more than 230 birds in color, every species found in
our range. They exceed in number those in any other bird book. In
quality they cannot be surpassed--exquisite gems, each with an
attractive background, typical of the habits of the species.

"LAND BIRDS" and "WATER BIRDS" are the only books, regardless of price,
that describe and show in color every bird. 250 pages, neatly boxed.

Bound in Cloth, $1.00 net; in Leather, $1.25 net; postage 5c.



Page 475

[Illustration: 477.]
[Illustration.]

THE TREE GUIDE

By JULIA ELLEN ROGERS

Author of "The Tree Book"

The Tree Guide is uniform in style and size with the well known pocket
Bird Guides which have become so universally popular. It contains
illustrations (32 of them colored and many in black and white) and
descriptions of every tree east of the Rocky Mountains. The descriptions
include the range, the classification, the distinctive features such as
flowers, leaves, fruit, etc., and all other marks that lead to an easy
identification of the tree. No detail that will help the student has
been omitted and the small size of the volume, about the length and
width of the hand, makes it convenient to carry. An ideal volume for
expert naturalist or amateur for field work or even more exhaustive
study.

32 illustrations in color; many in black and white.

Cloth, net, $1.00. Leather, net, $1.25

Animal Post Cards

We have been fortunate in securing from the well known artist, Harry F.
Harvey, a number of his best paintings of our North American Wild
Animals. These have been Faithfully reproduced in NATURAL COLORS,
postcard size, and are by far, twenty-five of the best animal cards ever
published.

Ask your dealer for the "REED NATURE CARDS."

25 Animals, 25 Birds, 50 Wild Flowers.

ALL IN NATURAL COLORS

If your dealer is out of them we will fill your order (postpaid).

25 Animals for 50c; 25 Birds for 25c; 50 Flowers for 50c.

Special--The complete set of 100 accurately colored cards postpaid,
$1.00.

Send for list of Nature Books in Colors.

CHAS. K. REED WORCESTER, MASS.



Page 476

[Illustration: 478.]
Wild Flowers
East of the Rockies

BY

CHESTER A. REED

The latest flower book. In a class by itself. Original, beautiful,
compact, complete, interesting. Pictures 320 flowers, ALL IN COLOR. 450
pages.

Handsomely bound; boxed. $2.50 net; postage 15c



Page 477

American Game Birds

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

Over ONE HUNDRED SPECIES OF GAME BIRDS are faithfully depicted by the
colored pictures and the text gives considerable idea of their habits
and tells where they are to be found at different seasons of the year.

This book is prepared especially at the request of a large number of
sportsmen for a concise guide devoted solely to game birds and figuring
all species.

Remember that it is the ONLY book at any price that figures all these
game birds in their proper colors. It is the real sportsmen's guide and
companion. Nicely bound and boxed.

[Illustration: 479.]

Price 60 cents; postage 5 cents



Page 478

[Illustration: 480.]

North American Birds' Eggs

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This is the only book on the market that gives illustrations of the eggs
of all North American birds. Each egg is shown FULL SIZE, photographed
directly from an authentic and well marked specimen. There are a great
many full-page plates of nests and eggs in their natural situations.

The habitat and habits of each bird are given.

It is finely printed on the best of paper and handsomely bound in cloth.
350 pages--6 × 9 inches.

$2.50 net

Nature Studies--In Field and Wood

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

This book is destined to be one of the most important that the author
has written. Absorbingly interesting in itself, yet its greatest value
will lie in the fact that it will lead the reader to realize how blind
he has been to the many wonderful things that are happening on every
hand.

The brook, the pond, the field, the woods, the swamps and even the back
yards yield quantities of very interesting subjects for study. This book
treats entertainingly of many of these interesting creatures, but its
chief aim is to be an "awakener"--to arouse within the reader the desire
to go out and verify some of the facts given, or to do some original
investigation himself. Such studies develop the senses of perception and
observation immensely, and the one who is "alive" to what is going on
about him surely is better able to cope with all situations in life than
one who sees nothing until it is forcibly brought to his attention.

112 pages; size--5½ × 7½ in. 40 illustrations in color, and black and
white.

60c. net; postage 10c.



Page 479

[Illustration: 481]

Camera Studies of Wild Birds in Their Homes

By CHESTER A. REED, B. S.

"CAMERA STUDIES" affords everyone an opportunity for a very intimate
study of bird life. A good photograph of an event together with an
interesting description of it is the next best thing to witnessing the
event itself.

"CAMERA STUDIES" has 250 photographs of events right in birds' home.
These pictures are selected from the author's collection of over 2000
bird photographs, this being one of the best collections of pictures of
free, living wild birds in existence.

Many rare and interesting poses are faithfully shown by the camera. For
instance, a pair of adult Chipping Sparrows, standing on a branch by the
sides of their four young, are engaged in pulling apart a large worm
that was too large to be given whole.

The stories accompanying these pictures are as interesting as the
photographs and above all they are all actual facts.

300 pages, 5½ × 7½ in.; 250 photographs of living, wild birds.

Handsomely bound in Cloth, $2.00 net; postage 20c.

Western Bird Guide

This new book, a companion and uniform in size to the Bird and Flower
Guides East of the Rockies, is much more complete and shows every
species of bird, BOTH LAND AND WATER to be found IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS
and westward to the PACIFIC COAST, and from Mexico north to the Arctic
regions. EVERY BIRD IN NATURAL COLORS.

320 of them are faithfully pictured, and the text gives the more
prominent identifying features, as well as the habits, haunts and all
about their nests and eggs. 256 pages, bound and neatly boxed.

In Sock Cloth, $1.00 net; in Leather, $1.25 net; postage 5c.

CHAS. K. REED, WORCESTER, MASS.



Page 480

FIELD GLASSES

[Illustration: 482.]

FOR BIRD STUDY

or equally good for the mountains, seashore or theatre, or whenever a
large, clear image of an object is desired.

We carefully examined more than a hundred makes of field glasses, to
select the ones best adapted for bird study.

We found one make that was superior to any other of the same price and
equal optically, and nearly as well made as those costing three times as
much.

They magnify about three diameters, and have an unusually large field of
vision or angle of view, making it easy to find a bird or keep him in
sight. Price only $5.00 postpaid.

CHAS. K. REED WORCESTER, MASS.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Bird Book - Illustrating in natural colors more than seven hundred North American birds; also several hundred photographs of their nests and eggs." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home