Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Century Cook Book
Author: Ronald, Mary
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Century Cook Book" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive/American Libraries.)



Transcriber's Note

Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. A list of corrections
is found at the end of the text. Inconsistencies in spelling and
hyphenation have been maintained. A list of inconsistently spelled
and hyphenated words is found at the end of the text. Oe ligatures
have been expanded. Illustrations have been moved and placed near
the paragraph that they illustrate whenever possible



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK



[Illustration: SQUARE-CORNERED DINNER-TABLE WITH FOURTEEN COVERS.
DECORATIONS IN WHITE. (SEE PAGE 18.)]



  THE
  CENTURY COOK BOOK


  BY

  Mary Ronald


  _This book contains directions for cooking in its various branches,
  from the simplest forms to high-class dishes and ornamental pieces;
  a group of New England dishes furnished by Susan Coolidge; and a few
  receipts of distinctively Southern dishes. It gives also the etiquette
  of dinner entertainments--how to serve dinners--table decorations,
  and many items relative to household affairs._


  "NOW GOOD DIGESTION WAIT ON APPETITE
  AND HEALTH ON BOTH"
                           --_Macbeth_


  [Illustration]


  NEW YORK
  THE CENTURY CO.
  1901



  Copyright, 1895, by
  THE CENTURY CO.


  THE DEVINNE PRESS.



_"To be a good cook means the knowledge of all fruits, herbs, balms and
spices, and of all that is healing and sweet in field and groves, and
savory in meats; means carefulness, inventiveness, watchfulness,
willingness and readiness of appliance. It means the economy of your
great-grandmothers and the science of modern chemists. It means much
tasting and no wasting. It means English thoroughness, French art and
Arabian hospitality. It means, in fine, that you are to be perfectly and
always ladies (loaf-givers) and are to see that every one has something
nice to eat."_--RUSKIN.



_APHORISMS--BRILLAT-SAVARIN._


_Les animaux se repaissent; l'homme mange; l'homme d'esprit seul sait
manger._

_Dis moi ce que tu manges, je te dirai ce que tu es._

_Le Créateur, en obligeant l'homme à manger pour vivre, l'y invite par
l'appêtit et l'en récompense par le plaisir._

_La table est le seul endroit où l'on ne s'ennuie jamais pendant la
première heure._

_La découverte d'un mets nouveau fait plus pour le bonheur du genre
humain que la découverte d'une étoile._

_L'ordre des comestibles est des plus substantiels aux plus légers._

_L'ordre des boissons est des plus tempérées aux plus fumeuses et aux
plus parfumées._

_On devient cuisinier mais on naît rôtisseur._

_Attendre trop longtemps un convive retardataire est un manque d'égards
pour tous ceux qui sont présent._

_Celui qui reçoit ses amis, et ne donne aucun soin personnel au repas
qui leur est préparé, n'est pas digne d'avoir des amis._

_La maîtresse de la maison doit toujours s'assurer que le café est
excellent, et le maître, que les liqueurs sont de premier choix._



TIME TABLE.


BOILING.

MEATS.
                                 Time.
  Mutton       per pound     15 minutes.
  Potted Beef   "    "       30 to 35 min.
  Corned Beef   "    "       30 minutes.
  Ham           "    "       18 to 20 min.
  Turkey        "    "       15 minutes.
  Chicken       "    "       15    "
  Fowl          "    "       20 to 30 min.
  Tripe         "    "       3 to 5 hours.


FISH.
                                Time.
  Codfish      per pound     6 minutes.
  Haddock       "    "       6    "
  Halibut       "    "       15   "
  Blue          "    "       10   "
  Bass          "    "       10   "
  Salmon        "    "       10 to 15 min.
  Small Fish    "    "       6 minutes.

  Lobster                    30 to 40 min.


VEGETABLES.

  Potatoes                   20 to 30 min.
  Asparagus                  20 to 25  "
  Peas                       15 to 20  "
  String Beans               20 to 30  "
  Lima     "                 30 to 40  "
  Spinach                    15 to 20  "
  Turnips                    30 minutes.
  Beets                      30 min. or more.
  Cabbage                    20  "
  Cauliflower                20  "
  Brussels Sprouts           10 to 15 min.
  Onions                     30 to 40  "
  Parsnips                   30 to 40  "
  Green Corn                 20 to 25  "

  Macaroni                   20 minutes.
  Rice                       15 to 20 min.


BAKING.

MEATS.
                                            Time
  Beef, ribs, rare             per pound,  8 to 10 min.
    "    "    well done             "      12 to 15 "
    "    "    boned & rolled        "      12 to 15 "
  Round of Beef                     "      12 to 15 "
  Mutton, leg, rare                 "      10 minutes.
    "      "   well done            "      15    "
    "     loin, rare                "      8     "
    "     shoulder, stuffed         "      15    "
    "     saddle, rare              "      9     "
  Lamb, well done                   "      15    "
  Veal,  "    "                     "      18 to 20 min.
  Pork,  "    "                     "      20 minutes.
  Venison, rare                     "      10    "
  Chicken                           "      15    "
  Goose                             "      18    "
  Fillet, hot oven                         30 minutes.
  Braised Meats                            3 to 4 hours.
  Liver, whole                             2 hours.
  Turkey, 8 lbs                            1-3/4 "
     "    very large                       3     "
  Birds, small, hot oven                   15 to 20 min.
  Ducks, tame                              45 minutes.
    "    wild, very hot oven               15    "
  Partridge                                35 to 40 min.
  Grouse                                   20 to 25  "


FISH.
                                       Time.
  Large Fish                        1 hour, about.
  Small  "                          20 to 30 min.

                                      Time.
  Bread                             1 hour.
  Biscuits                          20 minutes.
  Cake                              20 to 45 min.
  Custards, very slow oven          1 hour.


BROILING.
                                       Time.
  Steak, 1 inch thick               8 to 10 min.
    "    1-1/2 "  "                 10 to 15 "
  Mutton Chops, French              8 minutes.
    "      "    English             10   "
  Spring Chicken                    20   "
  Quail                             8 to 10 min.
  Grouse                            15 minutes.
  Squabs                            10 to 15 min.
  Shad, Bluefish, Trout             15 to 25  "
  Small Fish                        5 to 10   "



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

           4 gills   = 1 pint.
           2 pints   = 1 quart.
           4 quarts  = 1 gallon.
           16 ounces = 1 pound.

  1/2 kitchen cupful = 1 gill.
  1 kitchen cupful   = 1/2 pint or 2 gills.
  4 kitchen cupfuls  = 1 quart.

  2 cupfuls of granulated sugar   } = 1 pound.
  2-1/2 cupfuls of powdered sugar }

  1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar = 1 ounce.
  1 heaping tablespoonful of butter } = 2 oz. or 1/4 cupful.
  Butter size of an egg             }
  1 cupful of butter = 1/2 pound.
  4 cupfuls of flour } = 1 pound.
  1 heaping quart    }
  8 round tablespoonfuls of dry material = 1 cupful.
  16 tablespoonfuls of liquid = 1 cupful.


PROPORTIONS

  5 to 8 eggs to 1 quart of milk for custards.
  3 to 4 eggs to 1 pint of milk for custards.
  1 saltspoonful of salt to 1 quart of milk for custards.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla to 1 quart of milk for custards.
  2 ounces of gelatine to 1-3/4 quarts of liquid.
  4 heaping tablespoonfuls of cornstarch to 1 quart of milk.
  3 heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder to 1 quart of flour.
  1 even teaspoonful of baking-powder to 1 cupful of flour.
  1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 pint of sour milk.
  1 teaspoonful of soda to 1/2 pint of molasses.
  1 teaspoonful of baking-powder is the equivalent of 1/2 teaspoonful
    of soda and 1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.

  For other proportions, see page 340.
  For measuring, see page 77.



PREFACE


In France various honors are awarded to cooks. Accomplished _chefs de
cuisine_ are by compliment called _cordon-bleu_, which is an ancient and
princely order. A successful culinary production takes the name of the
inventor, and by it his fame often lasts longer than that of many men
who have achieved positions in the learned professions. Cooking is there
esteemed a service of especial merit, hence France ranks all nations in
gastronomy.

Although definite honors are not conferred on cooks elsewhere, good
cooking is everywhere appreciated, and there is no reason why it should
not be the rule instead of the exception. In large establishments it may
be said to prevail, but in many moderate households the daily fare is of
a quality which satisfies no other sense than that of hunger, the
hygienic requirements and esthetic possibilities being quite unknown or
disregarded. This is what Savarin designates as feeding, in
contradistinction to dining.

The author believes that the women of to-day, because of their higher
education, have a better understanding of domestic duties; that hygiene,
economy, system, and methods are better understood and more generally
practised. Children are not only more sensibly clothed, but they are
more wholesomely fed, and households are directed with more intelligent
care.

It is hoped that this book will inculcate a desire to learn the simple
principles of cooking for the benefits which such knowledge will give,
and that it will be of material assistance to any woman who wishes to
establish and maintain a well-ordered cuisine. Receipts are given for
simple and inexpensive as well as elaborate and costly dishes, and they
are intended to be of use to the inexperienced as well as to the trained
cook. The rules are given in precise language, with definite measurement
and time, so that no supervision by the mistress will be required for
any receipt given the cook.

At the head of each chapter are given the general rules for the dishes
included in that class. Economy, practicability, and the resources of
the average kitchen have been constantly borne in mind.

The illustrations, it is believed, will aid materially in serving
dishes, as they complete and demonstrate the receipts. Many of them are
given to attract attention to very simple dishes, which might be
selected as suited to one's convenience, but which might otherwise be
overlooked in a hasty perusal of the text. The pictures are from
photographs of dishes, many of which are not too difficult for a novice
to undertake.

The author has fortunately been able to secure from Susan Coolidge a
number of receipts of New England dishes; also a few distinctively
Southern dishes from an equally experienced Southern housekeeper. These,
she hopes, will enable many who have strayed from home to enjoy again
the dishes associated with other times and places.

Much care has been taken to give a complete alphabetical index, so that
anything in the book can be quickly found, even if the ordinary
classification is not understood.

The chapters on etiquette, serving, etc., are meant to aid those young
housekeepers who, from lack of observation or experience, find
themselves at a loss to remember small details when the responsibility
of an entertainment falls upon them for the first time.

The author, in speaking of this book to friends, has had various
questions asked and suggestions given, by which she has endeavored to
profit. Some of the questions have been the following:

"Have you given receipts suitable for a family of two or three?"

"Have you given expedients, so if articles called for in the receipts
are not at hand others may be substituted?"

"Is your book only for rich people?"

"Is it not a mistake to use French names, which many do not understand?"
etc., etc.

In deference to the last suggestion, she has explained the meaning of
certain classes of dishes known only by the French names, and which
would lose character if translated. A soufflé, for instance, has no
special significance when called "inflated," but the word soufflé
defines the class of dishes which are inflated, and is so generally
understood that it is almost an Anglicized word.

The terms Soufflés, Pâtés, Timbales, Hors-d'oeuvres, Entrées, etc., are
as distinctive as Stews, Hashes, Creams, etc.; hence there seems no
other way than to learn the culinary nomenclature as one partakes of the
dishes.

The author strongly urges the trial of new dishes, and breaking away
from the routine of habit. The preparation of so-called fancy dishes is
very simple. A little attention given to ornamentation and garnishing,
making dishes attractive in appearance as well as taste, will raise the
standard of cooking without necessarily increasing the expense.



CONTENTS


PART I

                                                                   PAGE
  DINNER-GIVING AND THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNERS                          1
  MANNER OF SERVING DINNERS                                          10
  LAYING THE TABLE                                                   13
  TABLE DECORATIONS                                                  17
  COURSES                                                            24
  THE HOME DINNER                                                    27
  SERVING THE INFORMAL DINNER                                        29
  LUNCHEON                                                           31
  THE FIVE O'CLOCK TEA                                               33
  A HOMILY ON COOKING                                                35
  COOKING AS A PLEASURE AND AN ACCOMPLISHMENT                        38
  TO TRAIN A GREEN COOK                                              40
  ECONOMICAL LIVING                                                  44
  WASTEFULNESS                                                       50
  HOW TO UTILIZE WHAT SOME COOKS THROW AWAY                          51
  EMERGENCIES                                                        55
  THINGS TO REMEMBER                                                 58
  CARE OF UTENSILS                                                   61

PART II

  CHAPTER
  I       METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED                               67
  II      SOUPS                                                      84
  III     FISH                                                      112
  IV      MEATS                                                     145
  V       POULTRY AND GAME                                          179
  VI      VEGETABLES                                                200
        { FARINACEOUS FOODS USED AS VEGETABLES                      222
  VII   { MACARONI                                                  224
        { CEREALS                                                   227
  VIII    A GROUP OF RECEIPTS FROM A NEW ENGLAND KITCHEN            229
        { DISTINCTIVELY SOUTHERN DISHES                             246
  IX    { VERY INEXPENSIVE DISHES                                   249
        { MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS                                    257
  X       EGGS                                                      261
  XI      SAUCES                                                    275
        { ENTRÉES                                                   292
  XII   { TERRAPIN, FROGS' LEGS                                     311
        { MUSHROOMS                                                 314
  XIII    ASPIC JELLY, FANCY MOLDING, SUPPORTS                      321
  XIV     CHAFING-DISH RECEIPTS                                     329
  XV      BREAD                                                     338
  XVI   { SANDWICHES AND CANAPÉS                                    364
        { CHEESE AND CHEESE DISHES                                  369
  XVII    SALADS                                                    374
  XVIII   COLD DESSERTS                                             386
  XIX   { HOT DESSERTS                                              421
        { PUDDING SAUCES                                            444
  XX    { PIES                                                      450
        { PUFF PASTE                                                457
  XXI   { CAKE                                                      462
        { ICING AND DECORATING CAKES                                483
  XXII    ICE-CREAMS, WATER-ICES, PARFAITS, MOUSSES, PUNCHES        488
  XXIII   BOILING SUGAR AND MAKING CANDIES                          510
  XXIV    FRUITS, COOKED AND FRESH                                  529
  XXV     COMPOTES, PRESERVING AND CANNING, PICKLES                 535
  XXVI    BEVERAGES                                                 548
  XXVII   WINES                                                     560



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK



THE CENTURY COOK BOOK


PART I

DINNER-GIVING AND THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNERS

        "To feed were best at home;
    From thence, the sauce to meat is ceremony,
    Meeting were bare without it."--_Shakspere_


A dinner party may be considered as holding the highest rank
among entertainments. In no other social function is etiquette
so strictly observed. There are prescribed rules for the
form of the invitation, the manner of assigning each guest
his place at the table, the manner of serving the dinner,
etc.; and when these rules are followed there need be no
embarrassments.

                                              [Sidenote: The Company.]

It should always be remembered that the social part of the
entertainment is on a higher plane than the gastronomic one,
though the latter must by no means be slighted. A sentiment
expressed by the wit who said, "A fig for your bill of fare,
give me a bill of your company," is generally felt, and a
hostess should bring together only such people as she believes
will be mutually agreeable.

The idea, given by Goldsmith in his "Retaliation," of
looking upon one's friends as so many pleasant dishes, is
offered as a suggestion. He says:

    If our landlord supplies us with beef and with fish,
    Let each guest bring himself, and he brings the best dish:
    Our Dean shall be venison, just fresh from the plains;
    Our Burke shall be tongue, with a garnish of brains;
    Our Will shall be wild fowl of excellent flavour,
    And Dick with his pepper shall heighten the savour;
    Our Cumberland's sweetbread its place shall obtain,
    And Douglas is pudding, substantial and plain;
    Our Garrick's a salad, for in him we see
    Oil, vinegar, sugar, and saltness agree:...
    At a dinner so various--at such a repast,
    Who'd not be a glutton, and stick to the last?

                                     [Sidenote: The Host and Hostess.]

The hostess should give her instructions for the details of
the entertainment so explicitly that on the arrival of the
guests she will have no care other than their pleasure.

If she is nervous, has wandering eyes, or shows constraint,
it affects sensibly the ease of her guests. The spirit of
pleasure is infectious, and upon the demeanor of the hosts
the success of the evening largely depends. Much tact may be
shown in placing the right people together at the table. If
one is a great talker let the other be a good listener; if
one is dogmatic let the other be without positive views, and
so on; for as every one is happiest when appearing well, it
is wise to consider the idiosyncrasies of the guests.

'T is a great point in a gallery how you hang your pictures;
and not less in society how you seat your party.

                                               [Sidenote: The Guests.]

The part of the hosts is thus well defined; but the guests, too,
have their obligations, and in recognition of the compliment
of being included in an entertainment where the number of
guests is limited to very few, each one should make exertion
to be agreeable, as a dull dinner companion is a recognized
misfortune. At a dinner there is time, not given at most
other forms of entertainment, for rational and sustained
conversation, and this may be turned to durance vile if one
victimizes by egotism or caprice the person who without
power of withdrawal is assigned to his or her society for
perhaps two hours or more. Also, if one finds oneself neighbor
to some person for whom one has a personal antipathy, it
must not be allowed to interfere with the general pleasure;
and should such a situation occur, there is nothing to do
but to make the best of it, and conceal from the hostess
the mistake she has unwittingly made--

    And do as adversaries do in law,
    Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends.

Under these circumstances the discovery may possibly be
made that an unfriendly person is more agreeable than was
supposed, and a pleasanter relationship may be established.

                                                     [Sidenote: Time.]

Two hours is the extreme limit of time that should be given to
a dinner; one hour and a quarter, or a half, is preferable.
Eight courses served quickly, but without seeming haste,
require as much time as most people can sit at the table
without fatigue. Last impressions are as enduring as first
ones, so it is important not to surfeit, for

  When fatigue enters into so-called pleasure, failure begins.

Judgment shown in combination of dishes, the perfection of
their preparation, careful serving, and taste in adornment,
are elements of refinement that far outweigh quantity and
ostentation.

                                              [Sidenote: Temperature.]

The temperature and ventilation of the dining-room should
be given careful attention. The best of spirits and the
brightest wit will flag in an overheated, ill-ventilated
room. It is not always easy to maintain a fresh atmosphere
where as many guests are seated as the size of the room
permits, but at least the room can be well aired before the
dinner is served. Windows opened a very little from both
the top and bottom in an adjoining room, with a careful
adjustment of screens to protect those who are sensitive to
drafts, will do much to keep the air fresh, and will have a
sensible effect upon the comfort and mental activity of the
company.

                                           [Sidenote: The Invitation.]

Invitations are sometimes sent out a month or three weeks in
advance, but ordinarily two weeks is sufficient time to
secure the guests one wishes to entertain. Courtesy requires
a dinner invitation to be answered at once, certainly within
twelve hours, but better in less time. This enables the
hostess to fill the vacancy in case the invitation is
declined. Unconventional people are sometimes unmindful of
this obligation, but as a rule those who are accustomed to
entertaining recognize the importance of a prompt reply, and
answer a dinner invitation immediately.

It is well, when convenient, to send the invitation as well
as the reply by hand, so that there may be no uncertainty of
prompt delivery; to send either of them by post is, however,
permissible.

The answer should be definite, and where a man and his wife
are invited, if one of them is unable to accept, the invitation
should be declined for both. An invitation should be precise
in expression, therefore the prescribed form given below
should be exactly followed. It does not belong to the order
of social notes; it is simply a formal invitation, and an
acceptance should be of the same character. Any deviation
from the prescribed form is uncalled for and likely to cause
criticism. In declining the invitation, however, it is
considered more gracious to answer the formal note informally,
and, by stating the reason, show that the regret is not
merely a perfunctory expression.

Verbal invitations or replies should never be given for
formal entertainments. R. S. V. P. should not be put on a
dinner invitation. Every well-bred person knows an answer is
necessary, and it is a reflection upon good manners to assume
that no reply would be given if the request for it were
omitted.

It is important also that the reply should repeat, in the
same words as the invitation, the date and hour of the
dinner, so, if any mistake has inadvertently been made, it
may be corrected, thus establishing an exact understanding.

A dinner engagement is the most exacting of any social
obligation, and no greater discourtesy can be shown than to
break it except for serious cause.

                                       [Sidenote: Form of Invitation.]

  _Mr. and Mrs. James J. James
     request the pleasure of
       Mr. and Mrs. Smith's
  company at dinner, on Monday,
    December twenty-third, at
         eight o'clock._

  _99 West A Street,_
  _Dec. 1st._

Envelop addressed to Mrs. John B. Smith.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                                    [Sidenote: Reply.]

   _Mr. and Mrs. John B. Smith
       accept with pleasure
       Mr. and Mrs. James's
   kind invitation to dinner on
  Monday, December twenty-third,
         at eight o'clock._

  _66 West B Street,_
  _Dec. 1st._

Envelop addressed to Mrs. James J. James.

       _Mr. and Mrs. John B. Smith
  regret that they are unable to accept
           Mr. and Mrs. James's
       kind invitation to dinner on
      Monday, December twenty-third,
            at eight o'clock._

  _66 West B Street,_
  _Dec. 1st._

  OR,

      _Mr. and Mrs. John B. Smith
     regret that owing to a previous
  engagement they are unable to accept
          Mr. and Mrs. James's
      kind invitation to dinner on
     Monday, December twenty-third,
            at eight o'clock._

  _66 West B Street,_
  _Dec. 1st._

       *       *       *       *       *

Where an invitation is meant to be informal, a social form of
note with formal phraseology is often sent, thus:

  _My dear Mrs. Smith_:

  _Will you and Mr. Smith dine with us informally on Thursday
   evening, December twenty-third, at eight o'clock?_

  _Sincerely yours_,
  _Mary James._

  _99 West A Street,_
  _Dec. 1st._

This form of invitation is sometimes misleading to strangers,
as the word "informal" is open to different interpretations.

These dinners are generally quite as formal as the others,
and require the same toilet.

A woman's dinner dress should be décolleté, and for a man
evening dress is always _de rigueur_.

                                                    [Sidenote: Dress.]

The butler wears a dress suit with white tie. The footman, or
second man, wears the livery of the family, or, in default
of that, a coat of dark color, with brass buttons, and a
bright-colored striped waistcoat.

The dining-room maid wears a plain black dress, a white apron
that covers completely the front of her skirt, a linen collar
and deep cuffs, and a small white cap, with or without strings,
but no crown. Everything in a well-ordered household is
supposed to be clean, including the hands of the domestics,
and the use of white gloves is not permissible. First-class
butlers and footmen do not wear mustaches.

                                                  [Sidenote: Arrival.]

Guests are expected at the hour mentioned in the invitation,
and should be as near that time as possible. In large cities,
where distances are great and exact time difficult to calculate,
a little grace is allowed, but the hostess is not expected
to wait longer than fifteen minutes for a tardy guest. It
is considered a breach of etiquette to be late, and the
assumption is, when this occurs, that the delay is unavoidable
and will be indefinite, and so the other guests should not be
inconvenienced.

At large dinners a gentleman finds in the dressing-room, or a
servant passes to him before he enters the drawing-room, a
tray holding small addressed envelops. He selects the one
bearing his own name, and finds on an inclosed card the name
of the lady he is to take to the table. The letter R or L in
the corner of the card denotes whether he will find his place
on the right or left of the table from the entrance. If he
does not know the lady, he should tell the hostess, so that
he may be presented to her. The hostess stands near the door
to receive her guests, and such introductions follow as can
conveniently be made. If general introductions are omitted,
guests are expected to act as though acquainted, and speak to
whomever they may be near. This rule holds good for all
entertainments in some countries, but Americans continue
a reserve except at dinners, where barriers to ease and
pleasure must not exist. The hostess does not knowingly bring
together people who object to meet one another, but in such
an event the acquaintanceship need not extend beyond the
evening, and good breeding requires a courteous recognition
of the friends of the hostess while under her roof.

                                             [Sidenote: Announcement.]

The butler keeps count of the arrival of expected guests, and
announces dinner shortly after all are in the drawing-room.
In case of a tardy guest he waits for the hostess to order
the dinner served. He then enters the room, and, looking at
the host or hostess, says, "Dinner is served," or "Madam is
served," or simply bows to the hostess.

                                               [Sidenote: Precedence.]

The host then offers his right arm to the lady who is to sit
at his right, and leads the way into the dining-room; the
other couples follow in any order that is convenient. The
hostess, with the gentleman she honors with the seat at
her right, are the last to leave the drawing-room. If a
distinguished man is present, it is to him this courtesy is
shown. Except in official and diplomatic circles, there is no
other rule of precedence. If the President of the United
States or a royal personage were being entertained, the
hostess with this dignitary would then precede the others.

At each cover is laid a card on which is distinctly written
the name of the person who is to occupy that place. Confusion
is thus avoided in seating the guests. It has been a fashion
to have these cards artistic and elaborate in design, but
at present plain gilt-edged cards stamped with the family
crest or monogram are more generally used.

                                                [Sidenote: Departure.]

When the dinner is finished, the gentlemen return to the
drawing-room with the ladies, and then withdraw to the
smoking-room for half an hour. Shortly after their return to
the drawing-room the guests take their leave. If guests of
honor are present, they are the first to go.



MANNER OF SERVING DINNERS


The custom of serving dinner _à la Russe_ (dishes passed) has
supplanted the form known as the English style, where the
joints are carved on the table. This is for good reason, as
the host cannot well fulfil his social part if he has to do
the carving; therefore, unless on very informal occasions,
when the number of servants may be insufficient, the carving
is done on the side-table, or the garnished dishes are cut in
the kitchen. The portions, whether carved or otherwise, are
placed on dishes to be passed, and should be so arranged that
each guest may remove a part easily and without destroying the
symmetry of the whole. This need not preclude attractive
garnishing, but such complicated constructions as are sometimes
seen, which embarrass one to find how to break them, should be
avoided.

Sometimes a dish is placed on the table to be shown, and
then removed to be served.

                                       [Sidenote: Passing the Dishes.]

The dishes are presented on the left side. Those of the
first course are passed first to the lady sitting on the
right of the host, and then in regular order to the right
around the table. The dishes of each following course are
started at some distance from the place where the preceding
one was presented. In this way the same person is not left
always to be served last.

                                       [Sidenote: Number of Servants.]

At least one servant is needed for every six persons,
otherwise the service will be slow and tedious, and the
portion placed on one's plate becomes cold before the
accompaniments of sauce or vegetable can be passed.

Many dishes may be garnished with the vegetable or sauce,
thus obviating in a measure this difficulty. For large dinners
two or more dishes should be arranged to pass on opposite
sides of the table, so that every one may be served at about
the same time. Plates, vegetable, and other large dishes are
held in the hand of the servant. Small dishes, like hors
d'oeuvres, bonbon dishes, etc., are passed on a tray.

                                                    [Sidenote: Wines.]

When the wines are served, the servant should name the wine
offered, so that it may be refused if not wanted; the glasses
should not be filled entirely full.

                                                   [Sidenote: Plates.]

When a plate is removed it should be immediately replaced by
another one holding a fork or any piece of silver or cutlery
which is needed for the next course.

Plates should be removed with the left and replaced with the
right hand.

Care should be taken that plates for the hot dishes are
warm, but not hot, and that for the cold dishes they are not
lukewarm.

The plate holding the shell-fish is placed upon the one
already on the table; this under plate is used also to hold
the soup plate, but double plates are not again used until
the end of the dinner, when the dessert plate holding the
finger-bowl plate is put on. In case a hot sweet dish is
served, the double plates, being intended for ices, fruits,
and bonbons, are not put on until after that course. Silver
serving-dishes are much used; lacking these, all the china
used in the same course should match when possible.

                                                    [Sidenote: China.]

                                            [Sidenote: Care of China.]

A different set of plates may be used with each course. In the
matter of china the greatest latitude of taste and expense is
possible, some china being more valuable than its weight in
silver. When handsome china is being used, which demands great
care in handling, it is well to have a table in the pantry
reserved for its use, where it can be carefully piled and left
until the following morning to be washed. With daylight and
ample time, it can be given the care it might not receive if
washed after the fatigue and late hours of a long dinner. This
need not necessarily mean leaving a disordered pantry for the
night, although that would be of less consequence than the
extra risk of having valuable china nicked or broken. The same
care is recommended for handsome glass.

                                       [Sidenote: Clearing the Table.]

Before the dessert is served, all the plates, the small
silver, the salt- and pepper-boxes, the hors d'oeuvres,
and such glasses as will not be again used are removed; the
crumbs are then taken off, a silver crumb knife and a plate
being used for this purpose. The dessert and finger-bowl
plates are then put on. Under the finger-bowl is placed a
small fancy doily, and beside it on the same plate such
small silver as will be needed. If peaches, or any fruit
which will stain, are to be served, a fruit doily should
also be given at this time and laid beside the place. The
finger-bowl should be filled one third with water, and have
a thin slice of lemon, a scented leaf, or a flower floating
in it.

                                              [Sidenote: The Service.]

The service should be entirely noiseless, and the machinery
of the household as invisible as possible. There should be
no rattling of china or silver, no creaking boots, or heavy
tread, or audible speech among the servants.

                                      [Sidenote: Ordering the Dinner.]

When entertaining one should not attempt more than one is sure
of being able to attain, bearing in mind the capabilities of
the cook and the range, and remembering that the quality of
the dishes rather than the number of them is what pleases.
Experiments should be made at times when failure is of less
consequence. In arranging the menu, each course should be in
pleasing contrast to the preceding one, and in the same course
only such dishes should be served as go well together. Butter
is not served at dinner.



LAYING THE TABLE


                                                [Sidenote: The Table.]

A round or square table five feet across is a convenient size
for ordinary use, giving ample room for six people, and
leaving space for decoration. Large round tops are made to fit
over extension-tables, which will seat from twelve to twenty
or more people; and when the size of the room will permit,
this is the pleasantest form of table for entertainments, and
best lends itself to decorative effects, giving to each person
a complete picture of the table and of the company assembled.

                                                [Sidenote: The Linen.]

A thick cotton material, which is made for the purpose, for
interlining between table and cloth, is the first requisite in
laying the table, and should always be used. It protects the
polished surface of the table from injury, gives a more
brilliant whiteness to the cloth, and prevents any noise when
placing the china and silver upon the table. The linen should
be as fine as the purse will allow. Handsome linen will give
elegance to a table where ornamentation is very simple. It
should be ironed without starch, or with a very little if it
is not sufficiently heavy to take polish without it. It
should be folded perfectly square, so that the lines will be
straight, and should be of spotless and dazzling whiteness.
With this as a basis, there will be no difficulty in making
an attractive table.

In the way of linen, much taste may be shown in the ornamental
pieces used in the center of the table. These may be of any
shape or size desired, from a small square to a long scarf.
They may be of embroidered linen, drawn-work, lace, plain
silk or satin; but wash materials are preferable, and effects
of color, when desired, can be obtained in the embroidery
or linings. The attractiveness of these pieces depends on
their daintiness. The fashion of a center-piece of linen
is, however, a passing one, as they are not at present so
generally used.

                            [Sidenote: The order of laying the Table.]

After the interlining has been spread, the cloth should be
laid with great care, making the center fold run perfectly
straight with the room, and the cross fold again exactly
divide the table at right angles to the other crease. By these
straight lines, everything else is gaged. The fancy linen
piece is next laid, and its center must coincide with that of
the cloth. If the piece is square, it sometimes has better
effect to place the points on the long lines of the cloth,
giving it a diamond shape; this, however, is a matter of
fancy. The center ornament is then placed on the exact point
where the folds of the cloth cross in the middle of the table.
The plates are next put in position, attention being given to
the decoration on the china, if it be a monogram that it is
right side up, if flowers that they are in natural position,
etc. Where there are an uneven number of covers it is better
to place the plates at equal distances around the table,
without regard to the place of the hostess being opposite to
that of the host. In other cases, the plates at the head and
foot of the table, and those on the sides, should be directly
opposite each other. Under no circumstances must the plates be
omitted. On the left of the plates place the forks; three or
four may be put on and laid in the order in which they will be
used. Three knives (one of them being a silver knife for the
fish course) and the oyster fork are placed on the right of
the plate; the soup spoon may go in front of the plate or with
the knives on the right; the bowls of the forks and spoons
should be right side up, the edges of the knives turned toward
the plate.

[Illustration: DIAGRAM OF TABLE.

  A. Plates.
  B. Plant, Flowers, Fruit, Lamp, or ornamental piece of silver.
  C. Compotiers, holding cakes, fruit, or flowers.
  D. Candlesticks or Candelabra.
  E. Salt and Pepper Boxes.
  F. Water and Wine Glasses.
  G. Bonbons, or Hors d'OEuvres, or Carafes.
  H. Bonbons, or Hors d'OEuvres.]

[Illustration: DETAIL OF ONE COVER.]

                                           [Sidenote: The Decoration.]

After the plates and small silver and cutlery are in position,
the decorating of the table should proceed as far as possible.
The position for everything can be best determined after the
plates are laid. The perishable articles, that cannot be put
on until the last moment, can usually have their position
located by the compotiers or the bonbon dishes which will hold
them. Uniformity is not required in having two or four of
these dishes to match, but such ornamental holders as are used
must be placed in uniform positions, so as to balance and
harmonize. Any deviation from this rule, or neglect of the
small details in placing the table furniture, will give the
effect of a disordered table.

                                                   [Sidenote: Lights.]

The candlesticks, or candelabra, as the case may be, should be
so placed as not to obstruct the views across the table. This
may be determined by two persons taking seats on opposite
sides of the table, viewing each other from different places,
and moving the candelabra until the right position is found,
which usually will not be more than an inch or two either way.
It is well to give attention to this matter, as comfort is
much disturbed and conversation interrupted from shutting out
by this kind of screen the different persons at the table.
Before being placed on the table candles should be fitted
firmly and straight in their sockets, be lighted for a few
minutes, and then the wicks should be cut and the shades
fitted squarely upon the holders. This will prevent smoking,
dripping and other annoyances that may occur if it is not
done. Shade-holders that fit the top of the candle are very
objectionable and dangerous, but those that clasp the candle
below the heated part give little trouble.

Salt- and pepper-boxes are placed at the corners of the table,
or within easy reach of every two people if more than four are
used. If carafes are used the same rule is observed. After the
decoration of the table is completed as far as possible, the
glasses are put on. There is danger of their being broken if
put on before. They are placed in uniform groups at the right
of the plates: the water glass nearest the plate, and the
wine-glass to be first used nearest the edge of the table.
Port and Madeira glasses are not put on until the time for
serving those wines, which is at the end of the dinner.

The napkin, folded in triangular shape, the embroidered
monogram on top, is laid on the plate, and a piece of bread
cut two inches long and one and a half inches thick, or more
generally a dinner roll, is laid in the fold, but left in
full sight, so that it will not be shaken on to the floor
when the napkin is lifted.

                                            [Sidenote: The Sideboard.]

Everything that will be needed in serving the dinner should be
convenient to hand. The plates to be warmed should be in the
hot closet; those for the cold courses, the finger-bowls,
extra small silver and cutlery, extra rolls and cracked ice,
should be on the sideboard, so that there will be no delay in
getting them when needed.

Foot-stools placed under the table for the ladies add much
to their comfort.



TABLE DECORATION


There is wide range for individual taste and artistic
arrangement in table decoration, which is limited only by
the resources at one's command.

Pleasing effects of color are perhaps the first consideration.
Of late it has been a fashion to have one prevailing color. In
many cases this is very suitable as well as complimentary to
the guests entertained. For instance, a white dinner to a
bride, pink to young people, red to a Harvard company, or
yellow to those with Princeton affiliations.

The scheme of color is often carried through the menu as far
as possible; the dishes served corresponding in color to the
table decorations. Where this is done the colors should be
light and delicate. Dark shades are not pleasing, and suggest
the name "painted foods," which has been scornfully given to
them.

Of all colors green is the easiest to carry out, and perhaps
the most pleasing. The many shades of green give variety
and contrasts. Ferns make a light and dainty centerpiece,
and rival flowers in beauty. For the menu spinach gives
a soup, vegetable, and coloring for sauces. Green salads are
numerous. Angelica makes a decoration for desserts. Pistachio
nuts give flavor and color to ice-cream, icings, and bonbons.
A very beautiful and elaborate dinner on this scheme is
described below, which was called in the invitation "Al
Fresco," and in its design and execution well simulated an
out-door entertainment. Green is a soft, reposeful color;
red, pink, and yellow are gayer, and give a more festive
aspect. Yellow is sunny in effect, and for a yellow dinner
the color scheme may be obtained with yellow flowers, oranges,
silver-gilt compotiers, gilded china, and with light diffused
through yellow shades. For the culinary part the yolks of eggs
render important service for coloring, covering, and garnishing,
and oranges furnish many delicious dishes.

White dinners are also easy to arrange with white flowers,
silver, a profusion of cut-glass, lace shades, white grapes,
spun sugar, whipped cream, white sauces, celery, whites of
eggs, white meats, etc.

A white dinner is likely to be too severe, however, unless
carefully managed. Delicate ferns can be mixed with white
flowers without changing the effect, and a warm glow may be
thrown on the table from a center light in the chandelier,
screened with thin pink or yellow silk, and raised high, so as
not to appear as a part of the decoration. The most beautiful
pictures of snow scenes are not a dead white, but reflect the
color of the sunset or atmosphere.

Fruits and flowers typical of the season are in good taste,
and usually more pleasing than hot-house products. In the
spring, tulips, daffodils, lilies of the valley, or any wild
flowers. Goldenrod, chrysanthemums, and asters in their times.
Autumn leaves and berries later, holly and mistletoe at
Christmas, and lilies at Easter, while in the summer the
fields and lanes afford a wealth of material. At other times,
and where the purse does not permit indulgence in roses and
forced flowers, the resources lie in potted plants and fruits.
Any plant not too large, which looks fresh and healthy, will
make a pleasing centerpiece. The crotons and dracænas give
beautiful colors. A dish of growing ferns makes an attractive,
satisfactory and enduring center ornament. With care the ferns
will last a long time, and at small expense can be renewed.
Double silver-plated boxes, both square and oval, are made for
this use.

Fruits are always pleasing and give good color effects.

The success of any decoration depends largely upon the
proper lighting of the table; lacking this, beautiful
arrangements may appear commonplace or wholly lose their
effect.

The decorated dinner-table should be the especial picture of
the room, the conspicuous object of interest and beauty for
the time; therefore the light should be centered upon it and
the rest of the room form but the shadowy background. The
pleasantest light is from shaded single candles, placed at
intervals around the table, and a more brilliant light thrown
on the center of the table from the shaded drop-light of
a chandelier, or from large candelabra holding groups of
candles.

Small lamps which fit candlesticks are much used, and when
there are open windows and drafts they give much less trouble
than candles. Effects of color are largely obtained from the
use of shades. These vary in size and shape to suit the fancy
or fashion of the moment, and are made of silk, lace, or
paper; for the latter, crape papers are much used. Shades
recently brought from Paris were of translucent paper painted
by hand to imitate china. Making shades is pleasant fancy
work, and the materials are so inexpensive that one can easily
indulge in a variety of them. With a centerpiece of polished
red apples and candles with red shades, or a potted plant and
green shades, quite a definite and pleasing character may be
given to a simple dinner. High ornaments should be avoided
except they be candelabra or lamps which do not obstruct the
view across the table. It is very annoying to be forced to
look around ornaments when trying to talk to a person seated
opposite at table; such a screen effectually debars general
conversation. On large or long tables, large ornamental pieces
should be used. Those appropriate to a small table often
appear scanty and insufficient on a large one. Masses of one
color are more effective than mixtures, and a display of
abundance may be made on large tables while on small ones
daintiness is more pleasing.

Confectioner's pieces are again being used for dinner
decorations. Baskets and horns of plenty made of nougat or
pulled sugar, holding glacé fruits, and forms made of spun
sugar are in good taste, but imitations of art objects and
high pyramids, such as are used on supper tables, should be
excluded.

A pleasing decoration for a hot day may be made of a block of
ice set in a pan deep enough to hold the drippings, but placed
on something to raise it above the sides of the pan. The pan
should be concealed with moss and ferns, or flowers, arranged
around it loosely so as to partly conceal the ice also. A
hole cut through the center of the block of ice, and a flat
candle, such as are used in night lamps, placed within it,
gives a brilliant and lovely effect. The block of ice should
be cut square and weigh at least ten pounds. This decoration
is easily managed in the country, where ferns are readily
obtainable.

[Illustration: ROUND DINNER-TABLE WITH EIGHTEEN COVERS--CLOTH OF PINK
INDIA SILK COVERED WITH LACE--CENTER ORNAMENT OF FERNS--BUNCH OF PINK
ROSES IN FRONT OF EACH COVER.]

A pan filled with floating water-lilies, together with their
buds and leaves, the pan being concealed in a bed of moss and
ferns, makes also a pretty decoration for a luncheon table.
These flowers close at night, and so are only suitable for
daylight service. A table may be made beautiful by entirely
covering it with a mass of the same kind of flowers, leaving
only enough space around the edge to hold the plates and
glasses. The flowers may or may not be raised in the center of
the table, or may in any way simulate a garden-bed. When
daisies are used they should be plentifully mixed with grasses
as they are in the field. Care must be used not to make the
decoration high, or the effect will be lost; and to avoid this
the stems of the flowers, cut the desired length, can be stuck
into wet sand or moss, held in flat tins. This will hold them
firmly in place, as well as keep them fresh. An English
fashion is to have a piece of silver ornament the table,
without accessories of fruits or flowers. This severe but
elegant simplicity is perhaps a reaction from the overloading
of tables which has long prevailed.

A pink dinner given in Washington was arranged as follows: The
table was round and large enough to seat eighteen persons.
A covering of thin ivory-colored India silk over pink was cut
round to fit the table, and a frill of lace ten inches deep
fell over a ruffle of pink silk on the edge. A large square
of silk gauze embroidered in pink covered the center of the
table. A mound of maiden-hair ferns formed the centerpiece.
Around this were placed pink candles in Venetian-glass
candlesticks and shaded with full frills of lace over pink.
The bonbon dishes and all the glasses were of Venetian and
Bohemian glass. Four ornamental candy pieces were used: two
were garden hats holding glazed cherries, and a pink ribbon
tied around each hat held a large bunch of pink roses. The
other two were baskets, and held frosted grapes which were
half hidden under spun sugar. Ornamental silver was omitted,
as being out of harmony with the other decorations.

A dinner unique in its character was given a few years ago
by Lord Dufferin, the English ambassador to France. The
centerpiece was flowers, and candelabra lighted the table;
but in place of the dessert dishes which ordinarily do
ornamental service were choice bits of bric-à-brac collected
by the ambassador in various parts of the world. The curios
served as an interesting novelty, and became the subject of
conversation. A dinner given in Jamaica is described, where
orchids in profusion were suspended over the table, some on
climbing vines, and others, of such delicate form and texture
as made it seem not unnatural, appeared as though floating in
the air.

The "Al Fresco" dinner referred to above was in imitation of a
woodland scene. It was served in a dining-room the walls of
which were hung with tapestries. The ceiling decoration was
blue sky with white clouds. A profusion of palms, bay-trees,
and rubber-plants were placed about the room and screened the
side-boards. The dining-table was a mass of verdure. It was
round, seating eighteen persons. The whole center of the table
was depressed eight inches, leaving an outside rim fourteen
inches wide for the plates and glasses. The center space was
filled with growing plants, the top of the pots being on a
level with the outside rim. The pots were concealed by mosses
and loose ferns making a solid mass of green. Four tall
slender plants rose from the center, the rest was of ferns
and lycopodium with here and there a few primroses. Green
candles with fluffy green shades in glass candlesticks were
so distributed as to give sufficient light. The space left
for the dinner service was covered with light-green India
silk over canton flannel. On the back of the menu cards were
water-color sketches of forest scenes. The menu was largely
composed of products of the forest. The aspect of this dinner
was really sylvan, and the idea so well carried out that the
elaboration of it was artistically hidden. From the time of
Lucullus, dinner-givers have been striving for novelties, but
as a rule any radical departure from conventional forms is a
failure.


MENU OF THE "AL FRESCO" DINNER

_Soup_

Cream of Celery (colored green).

_Fish_

Brook Trout, Butter Sauce.

_Entrée_

Mushrooms on Crusts.

_Roast_

Saddle of Venison. Wild plum sauce. Saratoga potatoes. Green
peas served in fontage cups.

Salpicon of Fruits au Rhum.

_Game and Salad_

Quails in nests of Purée of Chestnuts. English Walnuts and
Celery mixed with green Mayonnaise in cups of molded tomato
jelly.

_Cheese_

Small balls of Cream-cheese, colored green to imitate bird's
eggs, in nests of shredded Lettuce.

_Hot Entremet_

Individual Nut Puddings (burning).

_Dessert_

Pistache Ice Cream Pralinée, molded in a ring, the center
filled with whipped cream. White cakes with green icing.
Fruits. Coffee.



COURSES


The order of the dinner service is soup, fish, flesh, fowl.
These may be supplemented to any extent with entremets and
entrées. Mets are the principal dishes. Entremets, the dishes
served between the mets. Entrées, dishes which are served
between any of the courses.

                                             [Sidenote: First Course.]

I. =Course.= Canapés of caviare, small bits of anchovy toast, or
in their season muskmelons, are sometimes served as the first
course, but ordinarily oysters or clams on the half shell is
the first dish presented. The smallest-sized shell-fish are
preferable to the large ones. One half dozen are served on
each plate and placed symmetrically on or around a bed of
cracked ice; a quarter of a lemon cut lengthwise is placed
in the center. Cayenne pepper and grated horse-radish are
passed with this course, also very thin slices of brown bread
buttered and folded together, then cut into small squares or
triangular-shaped pieces. The plates holding the shell-fish
may be placed on the table before dinner is announced; but as
there is no place to conveniently lay the folded napkin
except on the plate, it is as well not to serve the mollusks
until the guests are seated.

                                      [Sidenote: Second Course: Soup.]

II. =Course: Soup.= It is better to serve a clear soup when the
dinner is to be of many courses, as heavy soups are too
hearty. The choice of two kinds of soup may be offered. Grated
Parmesan cheese may be passed with clear soups, dice of fried
bread with cream soups, and toasted cracker biscuits with any
kind of soup. One ladleful of soup is sufficient for each
person, and a second portion is not offered. An anecdote is
told of a punctilious person who, being asked if he would be
helped again to soup, answered, "Thanks, not to-day."

Hors d'oeuvres, which are radishes, celery, olives, etc.,
are passed after the soup. Salted almonds are taken at any
time through the dinner.

                                       [Sidenote: Third Course: Fish.]

III. =Course: Fish.= Fish, if boiled or fried, is served upon
a napkin. If baked no napkin is used, and a little sauce is
spread on the dish. Boiled potatoes are served with boiled
fish, and are more attractive when cut with a potato-scoop
into small balls. Cucumbers dressed with oil and vinegar are
also served with fish.

                                   [Sidenote: Fourth Course: Entrées.]

IV. =Course: Entrées.= Entrées can be served between any of the
courses, or they may be omitted altogether; but a variety of
attractive dishes come under this head, and usually one is
served after the fish.

                                 [Sidenote: Fifth Course: Vegetables.]

V. =Course: Vegetables.= A vegetable, such as asparagus,
artichokes, cauliflower, is served at this time, although the
French reserve the vegetable until after the joint. Only one
vegetable besides potato is permitted with a meat course, and
if more are wanted they are served as a separate course.

                                             [Sidenote: Sixth Course.]

VI. =Course.= The joint with one green vegetable and potato.

                                           [Sidenote: Seventh Course.]

VII. =Course.= Frozen punch, when served, comes between the
meat and game courses. It is not passed, but a glassful
standing on a plate, with a coffee spoon beside it, is
placed before each person.

If preferred, a cheese omelet or soufflé may be used instead
of punch for this course.

                                            [Sidenote: Eighth Course.]

VIII. =Course: Game and Salad, or Poultry and Salad.= Game
is usually not passed, but the portions are laid on the
individual plates by the butler. This is done in order to
serve it as hot as possible. A small cold plate is sometimes
given for the salad; crescent-shaped plates are made for this
use. With ducks, celery and small squares of fried hominy are
served. When game or poultry is not used, cheese may be served
with the salad, or cheese-straws instead of cheese. When salad
is served with game or poultry, cheese and crackers may be
served immediately afterward as a separate course, or they may
be passed after the dessert.

                                             [Sidenote: Ninth Course.]

IX. =Course.= Sweet puddings, soufflés, Bavarian cream, etc.

                                             [Sidenote: Tenth Course.]

X. =Course.= Ice-cream or any frozen dessert. Cakes and
brandied peaches, preserved ginger, or wine-jellies may be
passed with ice-cream.

                                          [Sidenote: Eleventh Course.]

XI. =Course.= Fruit, fresh or glacé, and bonbons.

                                           [Sidenote: Twelfth Course.]

XII. =Course.= Coffee, liqueurs.

Of the courses given above, the first, fourth, fifth, and
seventh, and a choice of either the ninth or tenth, may all,
or any one of them, be omitted.

Black coffee in small cups is passed on a tray, with cream and
sugar, in the drawing- and smoking-rooms after the guests have
left the table.

Apollinaris or other sparkling water is passed later, and is
usually welcomed.



THE HOME DINNER


At the every-day or family dinner there will naturally be less
elaboration in the decoration of the table, and fewer courses,
than when the dinner is an occasion of entertainment, but so
far as the appointments reach they should be observed with the
same precision and care. The dinner has always something of a
ceremonious character, being the time when the family all meet
with the leisure to enjoy one another's society after the
labors of the day are done. It is well, therefore, to attend
to the few material details which aid in making the occasion
an agreeable one. Refinements are more clearly shown at table
than elsewhere, and the influences of decorum at dinner are
more subtle than are always recognized. Let the linen be as
spotless and white, the silver and glass as polished, and the
dishes, however few, be as carefully prepared as though
guests were present. The simplest dinner so ordered will
give pleasure and satisfaction. When attention to details is
practised every day, company will cause no agitation in the
household. The refinements of the table are within the means
of the humblest. A word may also be said for manners at the
home table. The habit of fault-finding, commenting upon the
dishes and wines, correcting the mistakes of servants while
at the table, making apologies, etc., is reprehensible,
inefficacious and vulgar, and not only interrupts
conversation, but spoils the pleasure of the dinner hour. It
is always difficult, and often impossible, to improve a dish
after it is served; therefore, it is better to accept it
without remark. If the housekeeper, who is always the first to
observe faults in the service, can conceal her discomfiture,
it is but right for the others to be considerate. Faults
often pass unnoticed if attention is not called to them. Dr.
Johnson, it is said, always complained of his dinners, but
never omitted to say grace. Upon one such occasion his wife
interrupted him, saying, "Nay, hold, Mr. Johnson! Do not make
a farce of thanking God for a dinner which in a few minutes
you will pronounce uneatable."

The home table, with its every-day appointments, causing
one to blush in the event of a friend's unexpected arrival,
is not to be excused in this day of advanced women in the
nineteenth century, when higher education has at least taught
them to regard their domestic duties in the light of a science
and an art.

There are many simple dishes that can be quickly prepared
which will give the dinner a little more complimentary
character, and supply the little extra that may be needed
when more are present than were originally provided for. A
beefsteak can be virtually enlarged by serving with it a
mushroom sauce, for the mushrooms, having the same elements
of nutrition as the meat, permit the latter to be served
in smaller portions. A simple entrée, such as a dish of
macaroni, a scallop dish, a mince, with good sauce (which is
easily made where the stock pot is ever ready), a cheese
omelet, a vegetable salad, etc., etc., are suggested as a
few of the dishes, which are called by the French _plats
d'amitié_, and should enable any woman to enjoy the pleasure
of entertaining unexpected guests in a hospitable manner.



SERVING THE INFORMAL DINNER


In laying the table for an informal dinner, where the
carving is to be done on the table, a napkin to protect the
cloth is spread at the carver's place. Very pretty fancy
pieces are made for this use, but an ordinary dinner napkin
will do. This is not removed until the table is cleared for
the dessert. When the carving is done on the table, the soup
and dessert are usually served by the lady of the house, and
the salad is also dressed on the table, and then passed. So
far as the service will allow, however, it is pleasanter to
have everything passed that does not need cutting.

The vegetable dishes should never be placed on the table.
When the joint is put on the table, warm plates in a pile are
set at the left of, or before the carver, and when a portion
is served, the plate is lifted by the servant and placed
before the person for whom it is intended, without the use
of a tray. The plates placed on the table when it is laid
are used for holding the soup plates, and are not removed
until the ones holding the portions of the next course are
exchanged for them; if the succeeding course is to be passed,
warm or cold plates, as the course requires, are in turn
exchanged for them; but if the course is to be served from
the table, the places are meanwhile left without covers.
There should always be a plate before each person except in
this instance, and when the table is cleared for dessert.
Sharpening the carving-knife is a trial to the nerves of
many, and this infliction can be easily avoided by having
it done before dinner is announced. Many good carvers,
however, seem to delight in this preliminary operation and
are unconscious of committing an act of impoliteness. The
attractiveness of a dish may be wholly lost by unskilful
carving, and the appetite may be destroyed by an overloaded
plate. Where but one substantial dish is served, it is
permissible to be helped a second time. The dish can be
removed to the side-table, and the second portions helped by
the servant, if the carver does not care to be interrupted in
his own dinner after he has performed the office of cutting
the joint.

The sense of sight should always be considered, even though
it cost the trouble of replenishing a dish. No more than can
be used on one plate is served at the same time at any well
appointed table. One vegetable only, besides potatoes, is
served with the roast; if more are used, they are served as
courses separately.



LUNCHEON


The luncheon service does not differ materially from that of
dinner. Lighter dishes are usually served, entrées taking the
place of joints and roasts, and the soup or bouillon is served
in cups instead of soup plates. Grape fruit, or a fruit salad,
is often an acceptable first course.

When the table has a handsome and polished surface the cloth
may be left off if desired and a fancy square take its place.
In this case small squares may also be used under the plates
to protect the table and in such other places as needed.
Drawn-work linen squares over mahogany make an attractive
luncheon table.

When a large number of guests are being entertained at
luncheon, small tables placed in the different rooms (and on
the piazzas, if in the country) are often used, and these do
not admit of more than the slight decoration of a few flowers.
Luncheons of this kind are usually of an informal character
and secondary to some entertainment which has preceded them. A
few simple menus for luncheons are given below.

MENUS FOR LUNCHEON

  No. 1.

  Grape Fruit.
  Bouillon.
  Oyster Patties.
  Chops and Peas.
  Quail, Lettuce Salad.
  Ice-Cream.
  Cake.
  Tea.

  No. 2.

  Melon.
  Clams on Half-shell.
  Cold Salmon, Sauce Tartare.
  Filets Mignons, Sauce Béarnaise.
  Omelet Soufflé.
  Cheese.
  Coffee.

  No. 3.

  Grape Fruit.
  Bouillon.
  Shad Roe.
  { Broiled Chicken.
  { Green Peas.
  Russian Salad.
  { Ice-Cream and Jelly.
  { Angel Cake.
  Tea.

  No. 4.

  Bouillon.
  Lobster à la Newburg.
  Eggs Villeroi.
  Sweetbreads and Peas.
  French Chops, Potato Straws.
  Russian Salad of Chicken Aspic, Celery and Walnuts (see receipt).
  Plum-Pudding Glacé.
  Coffee.

  No. 5.

  Chicken Consommé.
  Lobster Chops.
  Mushrooms on Toast.
  Sweetbreads and Peas.
  Frozen Punch.
  Quails on Toast.
  { Pâté de Foie Gras en Bellevue.
  { Lettuce.
  Charlotte Russe.

  No. 6.

  Clams.
  Eggs à la Reine.
  { Planked Shad.
  { Cucumbers.

  { Broiled Squabs.
  { Vegetable Salad.
  Ice-Cream.
  Cheese.
  Fruit.

  No. 7.

  Salpicon of Fruit.
  Cream of Clams.
  Salmon Cutlets, Cucumbers.
  Curried Eggs.
  Chicken à la Poulette.
  Asparagus, Sauce Hollandaise.
  Fruit Tart.
  Chocolate Pralinée.

  No. 8.

  Little Neck Clams.
  Bouillon.
  Vol-au-Vent.
  Broiled Chicken, Peas.
  Mushrooms.
  Lobster Salad.
  Gâteau St. Honoré.
  Strawberries.

At a luncheon, given in a country house to a large party of
golfers, all the edibles, consisting of cold meats, game,
aspics, salads, and mince-pie, were placed on the side-table,
and the gentlemen served the ladies before taking their own
places at the table. The servants came into the room only
to remove the plates. This gave a very social and lively
character to the meal, which all enjoyed for its informality.

Entertainments of this kind may often be practicable, as the
question of service sometimes debars one from entertaining
many guests at a time.



THE FIVE O'CLOCK TEA


A cup of tea at this time of the afternoon is usually
gratefully accepted, and one is disappointed if it is made so
badly that it is not drinkable. The young lady who presides at
the tea table at an afternoon reception has sometimes a
difficult task if the tea is not prepared with a bag (as
directed on page 550), but for the unceremonious social cup of
tea with the friend who drops in at this hour it is easy to
have it just right. After the proper preparation of the tea
(as directed on page 549), the attractiveness of the table and
the delicacy of the china are the next things to be desired.
Tea does not taste as well taken from a coarse, large, or
heavy cup. The taste and refinement of the hostess are easily
recognized in this very unceremonious, but very social,
function. The cloth may be as elaborate as one wishes, but it
must above all be spotless, unwrinkled and dainty. The cups
may all differ from one another, but each one should be small
and thin, and the steaming kettle, which lends cheerfulness to
the occasion, should be highly polished, whether it be silver,
brass, or copper. A dry biscuit or a thin piece of bread and
butter is usually offered with the tea. Fresh unsalted butter
is preferable, but any of the fine butters may be used. The
butter is spread very evenly on the loaf; the bread sliced
very thin and doubled like a sandwich. It may be cut into any
shape desired, such as strips, diamonds, or triangles. It is
attractive stamped into circles with a biscuit-cutter of about
the size of a silver dollar. Three kinds of bread may be
used--white, graham, and Boston brown bread, and all may be
served on the same plate. This simple dish is carried into
the esthetics in some English houses, where the bread and
butter is described as tasting of roses, violets, clover, or
nasturtiums. The flavor is obtained by shutting the fresh
butter in a tight jar with the blossoms for several hours.
Butter very readily absorbs flavors and odors, indeed it is
the medium used for extracting perfumes in the manufacture of
those articles. The flavored butter is spread in the ordinary
way on the bread, which has been treated also to a bath of
flowers. Butter sandwiches must be exceedingly thin and
shapely, and have no suggestion of mussiness. They should be
laid in a folded napkin to keep them fresh. Any sweet wafers
may also be used, but as this is not a meal, nothing should be
offered which will take away the appetite for dinner, which
follows shortly afterward.



A HOMILY ON COOKING


It is a trite saying that a thing worth doing at all is worth
doing well, but, from the inefficiency of the large number of
domestics who hold the office of cook, and from the acceptance
of careless work by so many families, it would seem that the
truism is not regarded in reference to cooking. Since it is
upon the kitchen that the health and comfort of the family so
greatly depend, is it not a duty, and would it not be a
pleasure, for the mistress of every house to understand the
science of cooking as well as the arts which give other
attractions to the house? A knowledge of its fundamental
principles would give her a sense of independence and power,
which knowledge is proverbially said to do. If she were
familiar with the nature of the yeast plant, and the action of
heat as applied in boiling, broiling, and frying, if she could
make a sauce and clear a soup, her family would be relieved
from the affliction of sour bread, burned meats, and muddy
soup. An ordinary kitchen servant can do these simple things
well, if she is once told how, and this basis would be a guide
in other work, and a safeguard against many failures. There is
no such thing as luck in cooking. Laws govern the chemical
changes which take place, and can always be relied upon. Water
will boil at 212°, and cannot be made hotter by violent
boiling in an open vessel. Frying can be properly done only
when the fat is smoking hot. Broiling can be properly done
only over, or under, hot and bright coals. For baking, the
oven must be of the right temperature. The same thing cooked
in the same way will always be the same, and failure comes
simply from neglect of the rules. It is as easy to have good
cooking as bad; the former requires only the elements of care
and intelligence. With very little trouble, dishes may be made
to please the sight as well as the taste. The difference
between the elegance and refinement of one table and the
vulgarity of another often lies merely in the manner of
dishing and serving. Again, the step from plain to fancy
cooking is very short. A simple and tasteful arrangement,
or combination, of materials prepared in the ordinary way
will make an ornamental dish. Minced chicken pressed into
a ring mold to give it shape, and the center filled with
a mushroom sauce, will make a more appetizing dish than if
placed carelessly together with no regard to symmetry. Potatoes
pressed into a fancy mold, a part of the center removed, and
the space filled with chopped seasoned meat, will give a
chartreuse, and no thought of hash suggested. A jelly with a
flower in the top, or of two colors, will make a decorative
piece for the table. Uniformity in size and shape of potatoes,
chops, pancakes, slices of bread or anything that is served on
the same dish, gives a pleasing sense of order and care, which
is as marked as the proper arrangement of the table furniture.
It is in little things only that fancy differs from plain
cooking, but as soon as a cook comprehends the value of the
appearance of dishes she is sure to think of their perfection
in every other way.

There is a popular prejudice against fried foods, and a belief
that abstaining from them will cure us of our dyspepsia, but
if articles are properly fried they should contain no more
grease than the boiled one does of water. Smoking fat has such
a high degree of heat, that certain articles are better
cooked by frying than by any other method. Minced meat, rolled
into the form of croquettes and fried, assumes a different
character both in taste and rank from the minced meat heated
in other ways. If the croquettes are coated with egg and
crumbs and immersed in smoking hot fat, as the rule directs,
the egg is instantly hardened, and no fat can be absorbed
through it. That which covers the outside is evaporated by
draining and drying in a hot place. The napkin on which the
croquettes are served will not be stained if they are rightly
fried. Saratoga chips can be handled with a glove without
soiling it. We need not be a nation of dyspeptics from eating
pie when the French are not from eating puff-paste, or from
hot breads when the English are not from plum pudding and pork
pies. It is from the manner of preparing our foods that we
suffer. Cooking has not been one of the virtues of our new
country, as we have been satisfied to get our cooks from
France and Ireland, but if intelligent American housewives
will take interest and pleasure in this important department,
which is delegated to their care, some of the serious trials
of life will be overcome, and emancipation from many petty
cares and annoyances will follow.



COOKING AS A PLEASURE AND AN ACCOMPLISHMENT


The common sayings about waste in American kitchens, dyspeptic
results of American cooking, etc., reflect the opinion held by
other nations of our culinary art, and though the judgment may
be too severe, it has been pronounced, and should remind us of
our shortcomings.

It seems, however, as though a new era were now dawning.
Cooking-schools are established in large cities, cooking
lectures are given everywhere and are well attended. The
nutritive values of different foods and the chemistry of
cooking are studied. This, and the recognition of the fact
that health proceeds largely from the diet, seem to indicate
that there has been an awakening of interest in the subject of
gastronomy. In this day of fads, it will soon be discovered
also that pleasures lie in this line of work. Fancy cooking
has an interest quite as engaging as other occupations of
diversion. Fine cooking utensils, gas-stoves, and modern
conveniences, make the well-appointed kitchen as attractive
as the laboratory or workshop. Trying a new dish has the
same interest as any other experiment. The construction of
ornamental pieces is as interesting as other fancy work.
Making puff-paste, ice-creams, fancy molding of desserts and
salads, boiling sugar, etc., are in reality simple processes,
and with very little practice found to be as easy to prepare
as dishes which from familiarity have come to be called plain
cooking. Skill and dexterity of hand may be enjoyed in boning,
trussing, and larding, and taste shown in decorating with
truffles and other articles, in molding with flowers and
fruits, in icing cakes, in spinning sugar, and in making
bonbons. The pleasure of decorating the table and adorning the
dining-room will be found secondary to that of preparing
artistic dishes when that art has once been learned.

The gas-stove obviates the objection, formerly existing, of
one's being subjected to excessive heat while cooking. At a
cost of about $2.00 a stove can be bought which will stand
on a table anywhere, and answer all ordinary purposes of
boiling and frying. More expensive ones, fitted with ovens
and other appliances, answer the requirements of all kinds
of cooking.

When the preparation of a new or a fancy dish comes to be
looked upon as a pastime instead of a task, there may be
discovered in America Savarins and Béchamels. We have already
had a Sam Ward, but to the women should belong the honor of
raising our standard of cooking, and though they need not
agree with the terrible sentiment expressed by Margaret
Fuller, that a woman to have influence must cook or scold,
still it must be conceded that the former accomplishment will
enable her to wield a potent scepter. Perhaps, however, the
strongest word to be said in favor of every mistress of
a house knowing how to cook is the usefulness of it. The
difficulty of getting trained cooks at reasonable wages, the
caprices of the class, whose consciences do not prevent their
leaving at the moment when their services are most needed, and
the many occasions that arise when a knowledge of cooking is
of the greatest comfort and service, make it difficult, for
those who know how to cook, to comprehend how any one can
keep house without this knowledge, or how, with the inferior
service generally rendered, the pleasures of hospitality
can be enjoyed, or the comfort of a well-ordered culinary
department experienced.



TO TRAIN A GREEN COOK


If one is obliged to accept the service of inexperienced
cooks, or of women who claim to be plain cooks, but in reality
know nothing of the right ways of preparing anything, it is
often necessary to do more or less teaching or supervising.
Often it would be found easier to begin at the beginning, and
teach an entirely green girl who has intelligence and a desire
to learn, than it is to correct careless habits or bad methods
already formed. A formula for teaching a green cook is given
below for the benefit of any who care to avail of it.

_First._ Impress the necessity of clean utensils, being
particular that every saucepan used is perfectly clean on
the outside as well as the inside.

_Second._ Have all the utensils of one kind kept together in
definite places, and insist that each one is returned to its
place as soon as it has served its use, thus establishing
system.

_Third._ When sugar, butter, spices, or any articles are
taken out for use, have the boxes returned to their places
as soon as the desired quantity is removed.

_Fourth._ Do not allow any accumulation of soiled utensils
waiting for a general cleaning-up. A great deal of time and
work can be saved, and an orderly kitchen maintained, by
washing things as you go along so far as possible at odd
moments, and also in not using an unnecessary number of
dishes.

_Fifth._ Explain about exact measurements. Insist upon the
use of the tin measuring-cup (see page 77).

_Sixth._ Have a time-table giving time per pound for cooking
meats, fastened in a convenient place against the wall, for
easy reference.

_Seventh._ Have all meats weighed and wiped off with a wet
cloth before proceeding to cook them.

_Eighth._ At all times give attention to right management of
the fire; be especially careful not to have coal piled above
the grate, nor to let the top of range become red-hot. Shut
off drafts before the coal is burned out, and have the ovens
clean and at the right temperature.

_Ninth._ Have everything dished neatly, and garnished
simply.

_Tenth._ No matter how simple the dish, insist that it be
attractive in appearance, and that every dish placed on the
table show the care of the cook in its preparation; for
instance, have every piece of toast of the same size and
shape, evenly browned and carefully arranged on a hot plate.

To instil strict care in every detail is a most important
point in forming a good cook.


DISHES RECOMMENDED FOR FIRST LESSONS.

  To make beef stock for soups, page 88.
  To boil potatoes, page 201.
  To boil rice, page 222.
  To make a white sauce, page 277.

With one half the sauce make cream potatoes, add a little
onion juice to the other half, and add to it meat minced very
fine, making a creamed mince. Serve it on moistened toast; or
make creamed chicken and serve a border of rice around it.
When making a roux, and a white sauce is understood, it is
easy to show the variations of it, such as to cook onion or
vegetables with the butter before the flour is added; or to
brown the flour if a brown sauce is wanted; or to use stock
instead of milk, thus making a Béchamel sauce; or to add an
egg to white sauce, making a poulette sauce, etc.

To poach eggs: Serve them on toast cut uniformly and
moistened. Place symmetrically on dish and garnish with
parsley; or, spread the toast with creamed mince, place a
poached egg on each piece, and put a spot of pepper on the
center of the yolk.

To make coffee, page 551.

To broil a steak, page 156.

To boil a leg of mutton, caper sauce, pages 163 and 164.

To roast beef and baste frequently, roast potatoes in the
same pan, pages 146 and 204.

To draw and truss a chicken, pages 180 and 183.

To clear the beef stock for clear soup, page 86.

To make common stock, page 87.

To make potato soup, page 103.

To clarify drippings, page 74.

To try out all other fat, page 74.

To dry bread and roll it into crumbs, page 51.

To make bread and bread biscuits, page 340.

To make rice pudding, page 433.

To make bread pudding, page 434.

To make plain cornstarch pudding, page 397.

A compote to serve with cornstarch pudding, page 535.

Cottage pudding, sabayon sauce, pages 435 and 446.

Cup cake, page 470.

Cookies, page 481.

Plain pie-crust, page 451.

Baked apple-dumplings, hard sauce, pp. 429 and 448.

Some variations of cornstarch pudding, page 398.

Plain wine-jelly, page 415.

When a woman has learned to do these few simple things
perfectly, she will have no difficulty in following any
ordinary receipt, and having a knowledge of the first
principles of cooking, can then advance to more elaborate
dishes.

Frying should not be attempted until she can roast, broil,
and bake.

Croquettes of various kinds can then be made; to mold them
uniformly requires a little practice--the care of the fat
and the right degree of heat are the essential things to
emphasize in frying.

In one month a woman of ordinary intelligence, with the
desire to learn, should be able to make perfectly, and serve
attractively, enough simple dishes to supply the family
table with sufficient variety, without troubling the
mistress to plan and think for her.

An insistence upon system and exactness will insure immunity
from failures.



ECONOMICAL LIVING


A very pleasant book called "$10.00 Enough" explains how a
family of two lived well on that sum per week, including house
rent and wages of one servant. Mrs. Rorer says $2.00 per head a
week is a liberal allowance. Articles are published giving
directions for living on ten cents a day; also of dinners for
six people costing twenty-five cents. In examining these
formulæ it is evident that in order to accomplish this very
small cost of living, one must first understand the comparative
values of foods, so as to select those which at low prices
furnish the necessary nourishment, and secondly, to be able to
cook them in such a way as to make them acceptable; in fact the
rule holds good, however high the scale of living, that the
proper cooking of food counts for more than the cost of it. The
cheap and the expensive articles can be equally spoiled in the
cooking; while the cheap ones, well cooked, are more esteemed
than the high-priced ones poorly prepared. The first thing
excluded from the list of cheap nutritive foods is white bread.
Refining the flour to the whiteness of the so-called best
qualities takes out most of its nutritive elements, while the
lower grades or brown flours retain the gluten, and make a
bread which is preferred when one becomes familiar with it.
Beans, peas, and corn-meal have an important place on the list
of accepted foods. They supply the wastes of the system and
afford a hearty meal. Meat, which is the most expensive food,
has come to be regarded here as a necessity, but in the old
countries the classes who perform the hardest labor consider it
only as a luxury, and seldom use it oftener than once a week.
Often the cost of living is more in the waste than in the
actual consumption of food. Another needless and unwise expense
is buying more than is required, providing for three persons
enough for six; and still another extravagance is in buying
articles which are out of season. For instance, in the spring
veal is a very cheap meat; in the autumn it is the most
expensive one, but, at the right times, one may indulge in
sweetbreads, calf's head, calf's brains, and liver. In its
season game is frequently abundant and reasonably cheap. The
idea prevails that, in order to have variety, it is necessary
to buy whatever the market offers, whereas variety may be
attained by variation in the ways of cooking, in serving with
different sauces, and with different accompaniments, and in
arranging the menu so that one course is in pleasing contrast
to the preceding one, thus avoiding surfeit.

Many pieces of meat of the best quality are sold at low
rates because not in shapes to be served as boiling or
roasting pieces. These serve well for entrées and made-up
dishes; other pieces, which are tough, but well flavored,
can by slow cooking be made as tender as the prime cuts,
such as a round of beef braised.

On page 249 will be found a number of menus and receipts for
very inexpensive dinners.

                                                [Sidenote: Mushrooms.]

Mr. Gibson, in an interesting article on "Mushrooms,"
published in "Harper's Magazine" for August, 1894, calls
attention to the vast amount of wholesome and nutritious food
that lies at the door of every country dweller. City people
pay at least a dollar a pound for mushrooms, which are served
at the finest dinners, and are considered as among the best
articles for use in high-class cooking. Therefore, why should
they be scorned or overlooked by those who can have them for
the gathering? Neglect to use them seems equal in wastefulness
to the practice of some country butchers, who throw away
calves' heads, brains, sweetbreads, fresh tongues, etc.,
because the people have not learned their value. A French
family who moved into a western town reported that the cost of
living there was nominal, because the foods which they most
prized, not being recognized as belonging on the list of
comestibles, were given away by the butchers as food for dogs.
Mushrooms are very distinctive in feature, and by the aid of
descriptions given in books and colored charts, one can easily
learn the edible varieties which grow in his neighborhood. By
taking no risks in eating those not perfectly recognized,
there is no danger of being poisoned. It is not thought
difficult to learn varieties of the rose, nor to discriminate
between the poison and the innocuous ivy. The form, color, and
habitat of mushrooms make them equally easy to recognize. Care
should be taken, however, to avoid any mushroom which is old
or partly decayed, as its condition then is analogous to that
of putrid meat. In their season the edible fungi grow in great
profusion; they are nitrogenous, containing the same nutritive
elements as meat, and well serve as a substitute for it,
giving a pleasant change to the limited bill of frugal fare.
Mr. Gibson speaks of them as beefsteaks. They seem from
circumstances, therefore, to have a place in the dietary of
the poor as well as the rich. Receipts for cooking mushrooms
are given on page 314.

It is sometimes thought to be an extravagance to serve a roast
to a small family, because so much meat is left over. When
there is no way known of presenting it again except as cold
meat or as hash, it may indeed be disagreeable to have the
same meat served four times. A good cook, however, served
turkey acceptably at four dinners to a family of three persons
in this way:


FIRST DAY'S DINNER

  10 lbs. turkey at 16 cents per lb.                    $1.60
  1 quart sweet potatoes boiled                           .10
  2 quarts apples (of which she used three for baked
    apple dumplings, sabayon sauce, page 446)             .15
  1 egg                                             .03
  1 lemon                                           .02
  1/2 cup sugar                                     .01
                                                     --   .06
                                                           --
    Cost of first day's dinner                          $1.91


SECOND DAY'S DINNER

  2 lbs. codfish boiled                                   .20

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE (page 281).

  2 eggs                                            .06
  1/4 lb. butter                                    .08
  1/2 lemon                                         .01
                                                     --   .15
  6 croquettes made of one cupful of turkey meat          .00

SAUCE TO MIX THEM

  1/2 cup milk                                      .01
  1/2 tablespoonful butter                          .01
  1 egg                                             .03
                                                     --   .05

  1/2 tablespoonful flour (see croquettes, page 293)
  1 pint cranberries                                      .09
  Sweet potatoes left from day before, cut in strips and
    browned (see page 206)                                .00

BROWN BETTY PUDDING

  Apples from day before                             .00
  Molasses and crumbs                                .05
                                                      --  .05
                                                           --
    Cost of second dinner                                 .54


THIRD DAY'S DINNER

  Soup made from carcass of turkey                   .00

CHICKEN SOUFFLÉ (page 190).

  1 cup turkey meat                                  .00

SAUCE TO MIX IT

  1 tablespoonful butter                             .02
  1 cup milk                                         .04
  3 eggs                                             .09
  Other ingredients                                  .02
                                                      --  .17

BAKED MACARONI

  1/2 lb. macaroni                                   .04
  Cheese                                             .05
                                                      --  .09

COTTAGE PUDDING

  1 egg                                              .03
  1/2 cup sugar                                      .01
  1/2 cup milk                                       .02
  1 tablespoonful butter                             .03
  Baking powder                                      .01
                                                      --  .10

CHOCOLATE SAUCE (page 447).

  3 oz. chocolate                                    .08
  1/2 cup sugar                                      .02
                                                      --  .10
                                                           --
    Cost of third day's dinner                            .46



FOURTH DAY'S DINNER

  1 codfish steak, 1 lb.                             .10
  4 smelts for garnishing                            .10
                                                      --  .20

CHARTREUSE OF CHICKEN (page 190).

  1 cup rice                                         .04
  White sauce                                        .07
  What is left of turkey including giblets           .00
  Boiled potatoes                                    .05
  Scalloped tomatoes                                 .15
  Salad of water-cresses                             .05
  Bread pudding                                      .10
                                                      --  .46
                                                           --
    Cost of fourth day's dinner                           .66

  First day                                    $1.91
  Second day                                     .54
  Third day                                      .46
  Fourth day                                     .66
  Extras for bread, seasonings, etc.             .30
                                                ----
  Total                                             $3.87
  Average per day                      96-3/4 cents.

The turkey in this case gave three cupfuls of chopped meat
after the dinner of the first day. Any kind of meat can be
made into the same dishes, and will be liked if the meat is
chopped very fine, is well seasoned, and made creamy by
using enough sauce.



WASTEFULNESS


As a rule the family life of America does not represent
opulence, yet it has become a familiar saying that a French
family could live on what an American family throws away.
Again, it is said that in American kitchens half the provisions
are spoiled and the other half wasted. There is no need
to-day of being open to such accusations. At small expense
a woman can have the benefit of lessons in cooking-schools,
and should not be accepted as a cook until she has some
knowledge of the duties, and is qualified to bear that name.
The gage of a woman's rank in her profession can be definitely
determined by what she wastes or utilizes, and the high wages
paid a first-class cook are often saved by the intelligent
use she makes of all her materials. Many of her best entrées
are but a combination of odds and ends which another cook
would throw away. Her delicious sauce, which gives a very
ordinary dish that requisite something which makes it highly
esteemed, may be but the blending of many flavors obtained
from little scraps.

The waste in foods need be so small as practically to have
no waste material; not a crumb of bread, a grain of sugar, a
bit of butter, a scrap of meat or fat, a piece of vegetable
or leaf of salad, but can be utilized with profit. The soup
pot is a receptacle for everything too small for other uses,
and from this source can be drawn seasonings which will give
richness and flavor to innumerable dishes, which are greatly
improved by using stock instead of milk or water in their
preparation.



HOW TO UTILIZE WHAT SOME COOKS THROW AWAY


                                                    [Sidenote: Bread.]

Trim such pieces of cut bread as will do for toast into
uniform shape and serve at the next breakfast. Smaller
pieces cut into croûtons (page 81) for garnishing or for
soup. Save unshapely pieces for bread pudding, Brown Betty,
or stuffings. Save every scrap of bread for crumbs, to use
for breading croquettes, chops, scallop dishes, etc. It is
well to have two kinds of crumbs, using the white ones for
the outside of fried articles, as they give a better color.
To prepare the crumbs, separate the crumb from the crusts of
bread and dry each of them slowly, on separate tins, on the
shelf of the range. When dry, roll, sift and place them in
glass preserve-jars until wanted.

                                                      [Sidenote: Fat.]

Clarify all beef fat and drippings, the grease which rises
on soup stock, and fat from poultry, and keep in a clean jar
or tin pail for use in frying; it is preferable to lard (see
"frying," pages 72 and 59). Mutton, turkey, and smoked meat
fat has too strong a flavor to be used for frying, but save
it with other fat that may be unsuitable for frying, and
when six pounds are collected make it into hard soap (page
259).

Use the marrow of beef bones on toast for a luncheon entrée
(page 159), or use it with bread to make balls for soup
(page 94).

Grill wings and legs of fowls that are left over (page 188)
for luncheon, or stuff the legs as directed (page 188). If
the sinews are removed from the legs when the fowl is drawn,
as directed (page 180), the meat of the leg will be as good
as that of the second joint.

Use a ham bone for improving bean soup. Use the carcasses of
fowls and the bones from roasts for making soup.

Try out chop bones and other meat taken from the plates for
soap fat.

                                             [Sidenote: Tough Pieces.]

Chop the tough ends of steak very fine, season, and form
them into balls or cakes, sauté or broil them, and serve for
breakfast or luncheon (see "Hamburg steaks," page 151).

                                 [Sidenote: Small Pieces, Cold Meats.]

Cut pieces of white meat into dice or strips, mix it with a
white sauce, turn it into a flat dish, make a border of
pointed croûtons, sprinkle over the top a little chopped
parsley, and garnish with hard-boiled egg; or mix the meat
with aspic jelly in a mold and serve cold with salad.

Mix dark meats of any kind with a brown sauce, and garnish
with lettuce leaves, hard-boiled eggs, and croûtons. Any
kind of cold meat may be chopped and used in an omelet, or
combined with rice and tomatoes for a scallop. For cold
mutton see "Ragoût of Mutton" (page 165).

                                                     [Sidenote: Eggs.]

Save egg-shells to clear soup, jellies, or coffee. Boiled
eggs that are left return to the fire and boil them hard to
use for garnishing, to mix with salad, or to make golden
toast (page 270) for luncheon. Cold poached eggs can be
boiled hard and used in the same way. Cold fried or
scrambled eggs can be chopped and mixed with minced meat,
and will much improve it.

When an egg is opened for the white alone, drop the yolk
carefully into a cup, cover the cup with a wet cloth, and
keep it in the ice-box until wanted. When whites are left
over make a small angel cake (page 467), angel ice cream
(page 497), kisses (page 475), or cover any dessert with
meringue, or serve a meringue sauce (page 448) with the next
dessert, or make a meat soufflé without yolks (page 190).

                                    [Sidenote: General Odds and Ends.]

Everything too small to utilize in other ways put in the
soup pot, and from this can be drawn sauces and seasoning
for minces, scallops, etc., that will often be better than
specially prepared stock.

                                                  [Sidenote: Cereals.]

Oatmeal, hominy, cracked wheat, and other cereals which
are left over can be added next day to the fresh stock, for
they are improved by long boiling and do not injure the new
supply, or such as is left can be molded in large or in small
forms, and served cold with cream, or milk and sugar. In warm
weather cereals are nicer cold than hot. Cold hominy and mush,
cut into squares and fried, so that a crisp crust is formed
on both sides,--also hominy or farina, rolled into balls
and fried,--are good used in place of a vegetable or as a
breakfast dish.

Any of the cereals make good pancakes, or a small amount
added to the ordinary pancake batter improves it.

Cold rice can be added to soup, or made into croquettes, or
used in a scallop dish, or mixed with minced meat and egg
and fried like an omelet. Cold rice pudding can be cut into
rounded pieces with a spoon and served again on a flat dish;
this may be covered with whipped cream or flavored whipped
white of egg.

                                               [Sidenote: Vegetables.]

A small amount of vegetables left over may go into the soup,
or may be mixed with a ragoût. Peas, tomatoes, or beans can
be put in an omelet. A number of vegetables mixed together
can be used for a salad. Cauliflower broken into flowerets,
covered with white sauce, and sprinkled with grated cheese,
makes "cauliflower _au gratin_," a dish which is much liked.

The coarse stalks and roots of celery make a good vegetable
dish when cut in pieces and boiled, or they make a good
cream-of-celery soup. The leaves are valuable in the soup
pot for flavor; also are useful for garnishing.

                                                [Sidenote: Sour Milk.]

Sour milk makes cottage cheese, or makes good biscuits.

For uses of stale cakes see page 411.

For jellies left over see page 418.

                                                   [Sidenote: Fruits.]

When fruits show signs of deterioration, stew them at once
instead of letting them decay. See compotes. Stew apple
parings and cores to a pulp and strain; this will make a
jelly which, spread on apple tart, greatly improves it.

Boil lemon and orange peels in sugar, and dry as directed,
page 527, for candied peels.

                                                   [Sidenote: Cheese.]

Grate cheese which becomes dry and use for _gratin_ dishes
or soups; or it can be served with crackers the same as
though in its original shape.



EMERGENCIES


There is to-day such a variety of well-preserved foods that
a store-closet provided with these articles may be almost
the equivalent of a full larder. With such a resource the
housekeeper can meet without embarrassment the emergencies
that may arise in any household, however well ordered. In
the country, where tradespeople are difficult to reach, it
will be especially useful at such times. The articles sealed
in glass jars seem the most wholesome, and are sometimes so
well preserved as to be a very good substitute for the fresh
ones. Salted meats and fish are distinctive foods, which are
occasionally very acceptable, and the dessicated foods are
beyond suspicion of unwholesomeness. A few suggestions are
offered of how to utilize some of the articles which can be
recommended. Many of the soups are excellent; chicken gumbo is
particularly good. Extract of beef can be quickly made into
soup, beef-tea, or aspic jelly (page 322). Canned salmon and
chicken, either of them, can be heated and covered with a
white sauce, or be used for salad, or the salmon may be
broiled and covered with a maître d'hôtel sauce (page 286).

Potted meats spread on toast make excellent canapés for luncheon
(page 368). Shrimps make a salad, or in a chafing-dish can be
prepared _à la Newburg_ (page 333). Of the salted and smoked
meats are ham, bacon, dried tongue, chipped beef, codfish,
smoked salmon, and mackerel, all of which are much esteemed as
breakfast dishes, and may be offered at luncheon or supper.
Of the vegetables, string-beans and flageolets make good
salads. Asparagus makes a good extra course served alone.
Tomatoes, the cheapest of all, and perhaps the most useful,
will make soup, sauces, a scallop dish, or may be added to an
omelet, macaroni, or rice. Pilot bread, toasted bread in
slices, and rusks make delicious cream-toasts for luncheon
or supper. Noodles or macaroni boiled plain for a vegetable,
or mixed with any sauce, tomatoes, or cheese. Cheese is
useful for canapés (pages 368-371), cheese soufflé (page
370), macaroni, etc. There are varieties of plain and fancy
cracker biscuits which can be used in the place of cake.
Plum-puddings wrapped in tin-foil will keep indefinitely.
The canned whole apples can be used for dumplings (page 429)
or pies. California apricots or cherries around a form of
plain boiled rice, hominy, or other cereal, make a dessert;
peaches make a shortcake (page 443); jams make delicious tarts,
or, served alone with cracker biscuits, are a sufficient
dessert for luncheon. Plain boiled rice may be used as a
vegetable in place of potatoes; or, sweetened and mixed with
a few raisins, or served with stewed prunes, makes a dessert.

There are prepared flours from which biscuits may be quickly
made; prepared buckwheat which makes good pancakes for supper
or for breakfast. A few cans of condensed milk should be in
the store-room for use in case of real necessity only; it
answers very well for puddings, sweet dishes, or chocolate.

Outside the store-room supplies, eggs furnish a variety of
dishes quickly prepared. Eggs _à l'aurore_, or _Bourguignonne_,
omelets with peas, tomatoes, mushrooms, minced meat, etc., are
for luncheon, and cheese omelets, sweet omelets, and soufflés
for dinner dishes.

It is well to have fondant (page 513) in close jars ready
for icing cakes or for bonbons, candied fruits for sweets or
for ornamenting desserts, ginger and brandied peaches to
serve with ice-cream. Lady-fingers are easily made, and will
keep in a cracker-box indefinitely. If these are at hand, a
Charlotte russe is quickly made, and is one of the simplest
and most acceptable light desserts.

There are olives, gherkins, and chow-chow for _hors d'oeuvres_.
There are catsups and condiments in variety to make barbecues
(page 331), or to make cold meats acceptable.

The growing plant, the globe of gold fish, the bird-cage
partly concealed with branches, may be utilized for table
decoration. As circumstances alter cases, there are many
expedients to which a housekeeper may resort in supplying
deficiencies which might not be in rule, were the occasion a
formal one. The chafing-dish on the luncheon or supper-table,
or a dish more appropriate to a different meal, would not only
be excused, but perhaps give to an embarrassing occasion the
pleasant feature of informality.



THINGS TO REMEMBER


                                                     [Sidenote: Eggs.]

A dash of salt added to the whites of eggs makes them whip
better.

Not a speck of the yolk must get into the whites which are
to be whipped.

Fold the whipped whites into any mixture rather than stir
them in, as the latter method breaks the air cells.

Break eggs one at a time into a saucer, so any can be
rejected if necessary and the mixture not be spoiled.

Add a tablespoonful of water to an egg used for crumbing in
order to remove the stringiness.

Use a double boiler for milk.

                                                     [Sidenote: Milk.]

Milk is scalded when the water in the lower pan boils.

A pinch of bi-carbonate of soda mixed with tomato before
milk or cream is added prevents the milk from curdling.

With sour milk, or molasses, use soda instead of baking
powder.

                                                   [Sidenote: Butter.]

Milk and butter should be kept in closely covered vessels,
as they readily absorb flavor and odor from other articles.

Butter added slowly in small bits to creamy mixtures, or
sauces, prevents a greasy line forming.

                                                   [Sidenote: Crumbs.]

Crumbs grated directly from the loaf give a more delicate
color than dried crumbs to fried articles.

Dried crumbs absorb more moisture, and are better for watery
dishes.

Crumbs spread over the tops of dishes should be mixed evenly
with melted butter over the fire; this is a better method
than having lumps of butter dotted over the crumbs after
they are spread.

When the sauce bubbles through the crumbs on top of a
scallop dish, the cooking is completed.

                                                    [Sidenote: Meats.]

Meat should not be washed. It can be cleaned by rubbing with
a wet cloth, or by scraping with a knife.

Drippings are better than water for basting meats.

Meats should not be pierced while cooking.

Soak salt fish with the skin side up over night. Change the
water several times.

To skim sauces, draw the saucepan to the side of the fire,
throw in a teaspoonful of cold water, and the grease will
rise so that it can be easily taken off.

A few drops of onion juice improve made-over meat dishes;
not enough need be used to give a pronounced onion flavor.

                                                [Sidenote: Drippings.]

The skimming from soups, drippings from any beef roasts,
and trimmings from any beef, serve the same uses as lard,
cottolene, or butter.

                                              [Sidenote: Onion Juice.]

To extract onion juice, press the raw surface of an onion
against a grater, move it slightly, and the juice will run
off the point of the grater.

                                            [Sidenote: Chopping Suet.]

Chop suet in a cool place, and sprinkle it with flour to
prevent its oiling and sticking together. Remove the membrane
before chopping it.

                             [Sidenote: Chopping or Pounding Almonds.]

Add a few drops of rose-water to almonds to prevent their
oiling when chopped or pounded.

To loosen grated peel, or other articles, from the grater,
strike the grater sharply on the table.

                                                   [Sidenote: Mixing.]

When mixing a liquid with a solid material, add but little
liquid at a time and stir constantly to prevent lumping.

When adding cornstarch, arrowroot, or any starchy material
to hot liquid, first mix it with enough cold water, or milk,
to make it fluid; pour it in slowly and stir constantly
until it becomes clear.

                                                 [Sidenote: Gelatine.]

Soak gelatine in a cool place for an hour in cold water or
milk. It will then quickly dissolve in hot liquid and have no
odor. If jellied dishes do not stiffen, add more gelatine;
boiling down will not effect the purpose.

                                                    [Sidenote: Molds.]

Grease molds evenly with butter or oil, using a brush. Lumps
of butter on the side of molds leave an uneven surface on
the article cooked or molded in them. Molds for jellies are
not greased.

Invert a dish over a mold before turning it, so that the
form will not break; also, place it in exactly the right
spot before lifting off the mold.

                                                [Sidenote: Strainers.]

It is desirable to pass all liquid mixtures through a
strainer to make them perfectly smooth.

                                      [Sidenote: To keep Dishes Warm.]

To keep dishes warm until time of serving, place the
saucepan in a pan of hot water.

                                                [Sidenote: Flavoring.]

Any flavoring is added after the mixture is cooked,
excepting for baked dishes. Wine increases the taste of
salt, therefore, where wine is used for flavoring, very
little salt should be put in until after the wine is used,
when more can be added if necessary.

Dishes which are to be frozen need an extra amount of
sweetening.

                                                  [Sidenote: Raisins.]

Flour raisins before adding them to a mixture in order to
prevent their settling to the bottom.

                                                   [Sidenote: Baking.]

Never slam the oven door, or jar any rising material while
it is baking.

Anything being cooked for the second time needs a hot oven.



CARE OF UTENSILS


A very essential thing in doing nice cooking is to have clean
utensils. The pans of a careless cook are encrusted outside
and frequently inside with dry, hard grease, which ordinary
washing will not remove; the broilers are black with burned
grease, and the ovens are in the same state. If one sees this
condition of things, or finds a woman putting a saucepan on
the hot coals, one needs no further commentary on her work.
The saying "You can judge a workman by his tools" is very true
in this case. No good cook will abuse her utensils, or expect
to get well-flavored sauces from saucepans which are not
immaculately clean. To keep utensils clean, it is necessary to
wash them thoroughly, after they are used, with soda to cut
the grease, and with sapolio to scour off any blackened spots.
Sand or ashes may be used on the outside of iron pots. The
outside as well as the inside of every utensil should be
clean, and never be allowed to approach that state where
only scraping will clean them. When utensils do reach that
unwholesome condition, the coat of burned and blackened grease
can be removed only by boiling in a strong solution of sal
soda for an hour or more, using a large boiler which will hold
enough water to entirely cover them. After the grease is
softened, it can be scraped off, the articles then scoured
with sand, ashes, or sapolio.[61-*] This is a good day's work
for a charwoman, which will change the aspect of things in the
kitchen, and may awaken a pride for cleanliness where it has
not before existed.

                                 [Sidenote: Tins, Sieves, Woodenware.]

Tins should be well dried before being put away, or they will
rust. Sieves should not be washed with soap, but cleaned with
a brush, using soda if necessary. Wooden ware should not be
put near the fire to dry, or it will warp or crack.

                        [Sidenote: Arrangement of Utensils in Closet.]

An orderly arrangement of utensils in the kitchen closet will
greatly facilitate quick work. Everything of the same class
should be in the same group: Saucepans and gridirons hung on
hooks, measuring-cups, iron spoons, and strainers also hung in
a place very convenient to hand. Molds and baking tins should
be placed where they will not get bent or jammed. Practise
strictly the system of a place for everything and everything
in its place.

                                            [Sidenote: Supply-Closet.]

                                             [Sidenote: Refrigerator.]

Order in the supply-closet is also necessary. Have a number
of tin boxes, and of glass preserve-jars of different sizes, to
hold everything large and small in the way of food supplies.
Stand them in rows, each one plainly labeled, that no time may
be lost in searching for the article needed. The cost of these
receptacles is small, while their use is not only a great
convenience, but also a protection from dust and insects.
A closet so kept is also easily supervised. In every large
and well-ordered kitchen perfect order and system prevail.
Were it not so, a hopeless confusion would soon ensue. In
small households the same nicety can be the rule, and if the
mistress makes a weekly inspection, order will soon become a
tradition of the household, and be maintained without demur.
The refrigerator must be kept scrupulously clean and dry to
insure wholesome food, and its waste-pipe kept freely open.
This should not be connected directly with the general waste-pipe
of the house. Cases of diphtheria have been directly traced
to this cause. There should be a free use of soda in washing
out the refrigerator to keep it free from taint. As butter
and milk readily absorb the flavors of other articles they
should be kept by themselves, or with only the eggs, in the
small compartment. Lemons or other fruit are particularly to
be excluded. Fish may be laid directly on ice, the skin side
down; but beefsteaks or other uncooked meats lose flavor if
placed in direct contact with ice.

                                           [Sidenote: Coal and Range.]

Proper care of the range and intelligent use of the coal are
also essential factors of success in cooking. If the drafts
are left open too long, the greatest heat is often lost
before cooking begins. If they are closed the moment the
coal is kindled, the heat will remain steady for a long
time. When the coals look whitish, they are becoming
exhausted and beginning to fall to ashes, and this condition
arrives quickly when rapid combustion takes place from open
draughts. Piling the coal above the level of the fire-box is
another error generally practised by ignorant cooks. The
heat does not increase from the depth of coal, but from the
breadth of surface. Piling up the coal, in a mound which
nearly touches the top of the range, results in heating the
iron red-hot, warping the lids out of shape, destroying the
saucepans, and very likely burning the food. No articles
cooked on top of the range require excessive heat, and are
usually spoiled by too rapid cooking.

                                                    [Sidenote: Ovens.]

When the ovens do not bake on the bottom or on the top, it
means a layer of ashes shuts off the heat. The ashes are
easily removed from the top, but to lift the plate from the
bottom of the oven and clean it out requires a cold range,
so this is often neglected or not understood, while the cook
wonders why the bread will not bake on the bottom, and why
the cake is spoiled.


FOOTNOTES:

[61-*] It can also be easily removed by soaking in a solution of
Babbitt's lye--one tablespoonful to several gallons of water.--M. R.



PART II

RECEIPTS



CHAPTER I

METHODS OF COOKING EXPLAINED


BOILING

                                                [Sidenote: Simmering.]

There is an erroneous impression that articles cook faster
when the water is boiling violently, but this is not the case;
the ebullition is caused by the escaping steam, which is lost
heat, and the water at this time is at 212° (except in high
elevations), however fast or slow it may be boiling. If,
however, a little sugar or salt is added to the water it
increases its density, and the heat rises to 224° before the
steam escapes. The heat can be raised also by covering the
pot and confining as much of the steam as possible. Where
violently boiling water is recommended, as for rice and green
peas, the object is not greater heat, but to keep the grains
and peas separated by the turbulence of the water. There is
waste of fuel in unnecessarily fast boiling, and economy can
be easily practised here, especially where gas is used, as the
boiling point, once reached, can be maintained with but little
heat. Where the juices and color are to be retained, the
articles are put into already boiling salted water. The
albumen on the surface is then at once coagulated and the
juices shut in. Where the object is to extract the juices, as
for soups, they must be cut into pieces so as to expose more
surface, and put into cold water, and the heat of the water
gradually raised to the simmering point only. The slow, long
cooking obtained in simmering water best destroys the fiber of
meat, and tough pieces cooked in this way are made tender. To
render tough pieces tender, the meat is first put into boiling
water in order to fix the albumen on the surface, the heat
then reduced, and the cooking done at the simmering point,
which is 185°. Hence, water at different stages of heat is
used, according to the object in view, and the result is as
definite as that of the different degrees of heat in an
oven, so this point should not be considered as of little
importance.

The flavor of meats and vegetables is volatile, and much of
it can be carried off by escaping steam, as is demonstrated
by the odors which sometimes pervade the house. To prevent
the latter, and also to make the article tender and retain
all its flavor, the pot should be covered and the water kept
at the simmering point only.

                                               [Sidenote: Vegetables.]

                                                     [Sidenote: Meat.]

                                                     [Sidenote: Fish.]

An exception to this rule is made in the cases of cabbage
and cauliflower. These strong-flavored vegetables will be
much less objectionable when cooked in rapidly boiling water
in open vessels (see page 212). Green vegetables should be
boiled in open vessels, as high heat destroys their color.
All meats should be well tied and skewered, to keep them in
good shape while boiling, and, when possible, be placed with
the bone side up, so if any scum settles it will not spoil
the appearance of the dish. For fish a little vinegar should
be put into the water, as it hardens the meat and helps to
prevent its falling apart (see page 113).

Salt water is used where the object is to keep the flavors in,
fresh water where it is to draw them out as in soup, where the
salt is not added until the cooking is completed. The rule of
not piercing meat, thus letting out its juices, applies to
boiling as well as to other methods of cooking. Fifteen
minutes to the pound is the rule for mutton or tender meat, a
much longer or indefinite time for tough meat.

Ham is done when the skin peels off easily.

The scum should be taken off the pot when boiling meat.

Milk boils at 196° and easily burns, therefore it is safer to
use a double boiler for anything containing milk. When using a
double boiler, the liquid in the inner pan is scalded when the
water in the outside vessel boils.


BAKING

                                           [Sidenote: Asbestos paper.]

The baking of many articles is a more important matter than
the mixing. There are no definite tests for ovens, therefore
one has to learn by experience and careful watching the
capabilities or faults of the ovens used. A common trouble is
from not having them thoroughly cleaned of the ashes which
settle under the ovens and prevent the heat reaching the
bottom part. It is usual to have them hotter on the fire side.
In this case it is necessary to turn frequently the articles
being baked, or, where this cannot be done, to interpose a
screen to protect them from burning. Asbestos paper, which is
now sold at very low cost at house-furnishing stores, is a
convenient thing to place against the side of the oven, or on
the shelf of the oven if the excessive heat is on top. A tin,
or a piece of brown paper, will, however, ordinarily serve the
purpose. Directions for baking bread and cake are given at the
heads of those chapters.

To lower the heat of an oven, if closing the damper is not
sufficient, open the lid of the range over the oven a little
way. Sometimes a pan of cold water put on the shelf of the
oven will effect the purpose. When baking meats, the oven
should be very hot at first, and after the meat is seared
the heat should be lowered, so the cooking will be done
slowly.


ROASTING

Roasting is done before the fire, and should not be confused
with baking, which is done in the oven. Roasted meats have a
distinctly better flavor than baked ones. The latter are
likely to taste of smoke unless the oven is frequently opened
for basting, as few of them are sufficiently ventilated to
free them of smoke and steam. Baking is the method generally
employed in small households, but where the grate of the range
is sufficiently large, and the front can be exposed, it will
be found no more trouble to roast than to bake the meats, and
the improvement will well repay the trouble of changing a
habit. Tin ovens (Dutch ovens) are made for this use, with a
clockwork to turn the spit, so the only care is to baste,
which has to be done in either case, and to keep the fire
bright, which is done by adding a few coals at a time if
necessary.

The meat should at first be placed near the coals to sear
the outside, and then be drawn back where it will cook at
lower heat.


BROILING

Meat cooked by broiling is exposed to a greater heat than
in any other manner of cooking, and to prevent its burning,
requires constant watching. Meats for broiling are cut thin,
and much surface is exposed, therefore they must be at once
exposed to intense heat to sear the surface and retain the
juices. Frequent turning not only prevents burning, but
gives slower cooking and also prevents the grease dripping
into the fire, making a smoke which destroys the flavor of
the meat. The rule for broiling is to have bright coals
without flame, drafts open to carry off smoke, and meat
turned as often as one counts ten (see broiling beefsteak,
page 156). In this way the result will be satisfactory, the
meat will be puffed and elastic from the confined steam of the
juices, will have a seared crust, and the rest evenly cooked
through and of the same color. When the puffed appearance
of broiled meats begins to disappear it means the moisture
is evaporating through the crust, which will leave it hard
and dry.

Chops wrapped tight in oiled paper before being broiled are
especially good (see page 166). The paper will not burn if
turned as directed above.

Although broiling with a double wire-broiler over or under
bright coals is the approved way, it can be accomplished in
a hot pan when coals are not accessible. In this instance a
frying-pan is heated very hot, then rubbed with suet to
prevent the meat from sticking, and the meat is turned
frequently as in the other method. This manner of broiling
is recommended only as an expedient, as hot iron does not
give the same result as hot coals.


BRAISING

Meat cooked by braising is shut in a closely-covered pot with
a few slices of salt pork (laid under the meat to prevent its
sticking to the pot), a mixture of vegetables, cut into dice,
a little soup stock or water, and a bouquet of herbs, and
cooked slowly in the confined steam. This method of cooking
tough or dry meats makes them tender and of good flavor.
Braised dishes are much esteemed.


FRICASSEEING

Meat cooked in this way is first sautéd to keep in its
juices, then stewed until tender and served in a white or
brown gravy, made from the liquor in the pot in which the
meat is stewed. Toasted bread and sometimes dumplings are
served with it. In the latter case it is called a pot-pie.


SAUTÉING

A little fat is put in a shallow pan; when this is hot, the
articles to be cooked are laid in and browned on both sides.
This manner of cooking is by many miscalled frying, and is
largely responsible for the disrepute of frying, as sautéd
articles are likely to be greasy and indigestible.


FRYING

                                          [Sidenote: Heating the fat.]

                           [Sidenote: To extinguish fire from grease.]

                                               [Sidenote: Spattering.]

                                  [Sidenote: Color of fried articles.]

Frying is cooking by immersion in very hot fat. The success of
frying depends upon the fat being sufficiently hot, and enough
fat being used to completely cover the articles cooked in it.
A kettle for frying should be kept for that purpose alone, and
started with enough fat to fill it two thirds full. Olive-oil,
lard, cottolene, drippings, or any mixture of them, serve the
purpose. When properly used but little fat is consumed, and
the pot can be easily replenished with the right quantity for
its next use. Each time, after using the fat, a slice of raw
potato should be dropped in to clarify it; it should then be
strained through a cloth and returned to the pot, be covered
when cold, and set away until again wanted. This fat can be
used for potatoes, and anything which is coated with egg and
crumbs. If fish without this coating are fried in it, it will
then be unsuitable for other purposes. A pot of fat will
with care last for months, but should be clarified as often
as necessary (see below). When the fat is to be used, the
frying-kettle should be placed on the range an hour before
the time it is needed. It will then become gradually hot, and
at the right moment can be quickly raised to the smoking heat
needed for frying. It takes some time for fat to reach this
temperature; and if this preparatory measure is not taken, a
cook, when hurried, is likely to use it before the right
heat is attained, or to place it on the open fire, which is
attended with great danger. Many persons are seriously burned
from this imprudence. When fat boils over and takes fire, the
best extinguisher is ashes. If the cook's clothes take fire,
the best thing to do is to wrap the skirts together and roll
on the floor until assistance comes. With ordinary care there
need be no accidents. Dropping grease on the range or clothes
can be avoided by holding a tin plate under the frying-basket
when removing it from the kettle. When the articles to be
fried are prepared, the wire basket should be dipped into the
fat to grease it, the articles laid in, a few at a time,
without touching one another, the basket hung on an iron or
wooden spoon, and slowly lowered into the fat. Too many
articles must not be put in at the same time, or the heat of
the fat will be too much reduced. Spattering is caused by
water contained in the articles being turned to steam and
throwing out the fat; hence, one reason for making them very
dry and of lowering them gradually into the fat. When fat is
sufficiently hot it at once sears the outside of everything
placed in it, and forms a crust through which the grease
cannot penetrate and be absorbed by the food. Egg and crumbs
are used for the purpose of thus encrusting the outside of
made dishes, like croquettes. The mistake should not be made
of leaving articles too long in the fat; a lemon color, which
is the one desired, is quickly attained. When lifted from the
fat, the basket should be held for a few minutes, or until
through dripping, over the kettle, which is the hottest place
to be found, the articles then placed on a brown paper without
touching one another, and set in the open oven, or on the hot
shelf, until perfectly dry. If so treated the grease will
evaporate, and the articles become so free from it as not to
leave a mark on the napkin on which they are served. Articles
properly prepared and fried in this manner can be no more
unwholesome than meat which is basted with drippings. The fat
should be given time to again rise to the smoking heat before
a second basketful of articles is immersed. When frying
articles which take a little time to cook, the pot should be
drawn to a cooler part of the range, after the first few
minutes. The coating will then be formed, and the cooking can
proceed more slowly, and the articles will not brown too much
before they are cooked. Croquettes, being made of cooked meat,
need to remain in the fat only long enough to color and become
heated.

[Illustration: FRYING KETTLE AND BASKET.

  1. Frying Kettle.
  2. Wire Basket and Iron Spoon for lifting the Frying Basket. (See
     page 72.)]


TO CLARIFY FAT

                                             [Sidenote: Bubbling fat.]

When fat becomes discolored and unfit for use, stir into it
when melted one half teaspoonful of baking soda and a quart of
water. Let it boil for a little time, take off the scum that
rises, and set the pot aside until cold. Remove the cake of
grease, scrape off all the impurities, put it again on the
fire, where it will melt but will not be agitated, and let it
remain undisturbed until all the water has evaporated and the
remaining impurities have settled to the bottom; then pour off
the clear grease. When fat bubbles it means there is water in
it, not that it is hot.


TO TRY OUT SUET AND OTHER FATS

Cut the fat into pieces, place it in a shallow pan over
moderate heat until the fat is melted, then strain it through
a cloth. There will be no odor from the fat if not placed
where it becomes too hot. All kinds of fats are good for
frying except mutton fat, turkey fat, and fat from smoked
meats; these can be used for making soap, as directed on page
259.


TO PREPARE ARTICLES FOR FRYING BY COVERING THEM WITH EGG AND
CRUMBS

                                               [Sidenote: The Crumbs.]

All scraps of bread should be saved for crumbs, as directed on
page 51, the crusts being separated from the white part, then
dried, rolled, and sifted. The brown crumbs are good for the
first coating, the white ones for the outside, as they give
better color. Where a very delicate color is wanted, bread
grated from a stale loaf or rubbed through a coarse sieve
gives better results; the fresh crumbs need not be very fine.
Cracker crumbs give a smooth surface and are better for
oysters than bread crumbs, but for most things bread crumbs
are preferable. For meats a little salt and pepper, and for
sweet articles a little sugar, should be mixed with the
crumbs. Crumbs left on the board should be dried, sifted, and
kept to be used again.

                                                  [Sidenote: The Egg.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Molding.]

The whole egg is generally used. The white alone will serve,
but not the yolk alone, as it is the albumen which is needed.
The albumen quickly coagulates when put into the hot fat, and
forms a coating through which the grease will not penetrate.
To one egg is added one tablespoonful of water, so as to make
it thin enough to run and remove the stringiness of the egg;
these are beaten lightly together, but should not be foamy, as
bubbles break and leave holes for the grease to enter. Where
delicate color is wanted, it is better to use the white of the
egg only and fresh crumbs. Turn the crumbs on to a board; roll
the articles first in the crumbs to dry them well, then place
them in the beaten egg one at a time, and with a spoon pour
the egg over and moisten them thoroughly; return them to the
board, and completely cover them with crumbs. Soft, creamy
mixtures like croquettes require delicate handling, and are
easier to manage if first made into a ball,--molding them into
shape being left until the second crumbing, at which time they
can be rolled into cylindrical form and the ends flattened by
dropping them lightly on the board. They will keep their shape
better if, after being prepared, they are allowed to stand an
hour or more before being fried. (See croquettes, page 293.)

[Illustration: 1. PIECE OF MEAT LARDED. 2. LARDING NEEDLES.
3. LARDOONS.]


LARDING

                                         [Sidenote: Cutting lardoons.]

Larding is simply drawing small pieces of salt pork through
the surface of meat. It is easily done, and so much improves
lean, dry pieces of meat as to well repay the trouble. The
pork for larding is best cut lengthwise with the rind, and
that nearest the rind is the firmest. Cut it into slices, one
quarter inch thick, and then into strips one quarter inch wide
and two inches long. The lardoons can be made firmer by
placing them on ice, but ordinarily this is not necessary. The
larding needle holding a lardoon is pressed through the
surface of the meat, taking a stitch about a quarter inch deep
and an inch long, then drawn through, leaving the lardoon
projecting on both sides. The stitches should be taken at
regular intervals, so as to appear ornamental, and when all
the lardoons are in they should be cut even. For birds or
small pieces, the lardoons would of course be cut of a size to
suit the needle used.


DAUBING

Daubing is cutting through the entire thickness of the meat
in several places and inserting lardoons of salt pork. The
cut is made with a thin, sharp knife.


BONING

                                                    [Sidenote: Fowls.]

                                                    [Sidenote: Meats.]

Cutting the meat free from the bones, leaving the meat whole,
is called boning. This is easily done with a sharp-pointed
knife, and requires but little practice to accomplish
successfully. Directions for boning fowls are given on page
181. Boned fowls are usually made into galantine, but they are
also good when stuffed and pressed into natural shape, or to
imitate a duck or a rabbit and served hot. The butcher will
remove the bones from joints of meat when requested. Boned
meats make an agreeable change, and in the case of shoulder
pieces make them suitable to serve as roasts (see pages 163
and 168). Chops with the bones removed, the tail ends wrapped
around the meat and secured with wooden toothpicks or with
small skewers until cooked, resemble in form filets mignons.


MEASURING

                                            [Sidenote: Measuring-cup.]

Exact measurements are an important factor in the success of
cooking, therefore a definite understanding of what a cupful
or a spoonful means is requisite. A cupful means one half
pint. A tin cup holding this amount is as necessary as a quart
measure in every kitchen. They can be bought for ten cents
apiece in any house-furnishing store. A spoonful of butter,
lard, sugar, or flour means a rounding spoonful, as much
rising above the spoon as is held in the bowl. A spoonful of
salt or spices means only as much as the bowl holds, the top
being smoothed off with a knife.[77-*] One half spoonful means
the half of the contents of the bowl divided lengthwise. A
heaping spoonful means as much as the spoon can be made to
hold. A table giving comparative weights and measures is given
on page 387.

[Illustration: MEASURING CUP AND SPOONS.

  1. Tin measuring cup holding one half-pint.
  2. Spoonful of salt, pepper or spices.
  3. One half spoonful.
  4. Spoonful of flour, sugar, or butter.
  5. Heaping spoonful. (See page 77.)]


STIRRING AND BEATING

These two methods should not be confused. The object of
stirring is to mix the materials. The spoon is held on the
bottom of the dish, and the materials rubbed and pressed
together as much as possible. It is not essential to always
stir one way. The object of beating is to get air into the
mixture to make it lighter, which is done by continuously
lifting it up in the same way; therefore a beaten mixture
must not be stirred, or the imprisoned bubbles of air will
be broken and the result of the beating lost.


HOW TO STONE OLIVES

With a sharp-pointed knife cut through the olive to the
stone on the blossom end and pare off the meat, turning the
olive around three times, keeping the knife at not too sharp
an angle close to the stone. The meat will then be in one
curled piece, which can be pressed into its original shape
again.


HOW TO CUT BACON

Place the bacon on a board with the rind down. With a very
sharp knife slice the bacon very thin down to the rind, but
do not try to cut through it. When enough slices are cut,
run the knife under, keeping it close to the rind, and the
slices will be free.

[Illustration: CUTTING BACON. (SEE PAGE 78.)]


HOW TO EXTRACT ONION JUICE

Cut an onion across and press it against a coarse grater,
moving it a very little; the juice will then run off the
point of the grater.


CARAMEL

Caramel is used to color soup, gravies, etc., and serves
also as a flavoring for desserts. It must be used with care
for coloring, as it also sweetens. The flavor of caramel
depends upon the degree to which the sugar is cooked before
the water is added. It grows stronger as it becomes browner.

Put one half cupful of granulated sugar and two tablespoonfuls
of water into a granite-ware saucepan, stir until the sugar
has melted, then let it cook without stirring until it has
turned dark brown, but not black, then add one half cupful of
hot water, and let it simmer until the sugar is dissolved and
cooked to a thin syrup.


TO MAKE ROUX

Put one tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan. When it
bubbles add one tablespoonful of flour and let them cook
together for a few minutes, stirring all the time. If it is
to be used as thickening for a white sauce or soup, do not
let it color. If for brown soup or sauce, let it become
brown. This amount is sufficient to thicken one cupful of
milk or of stock, to make a sauce, or to thicken one pint or
more of soup.

Roux can be prepared and kept in jars ready for use. The
proportion of equal quantities of butter and flour is usually
taken, and is the rule, but in some cases double the flour is
used. The flour cooked in this way gives a better result than
when rubbed with the butter and stirred into the liquid.
Cooking flour in hot fat seems to more surely burst the
starch-grains, which removes the raw taste it is likely to
have if cooked only in the boiling liquid.


TO MARINATE

Make a mixture in the proportion of three tablespoonfuls of
vinegar to two of oil, one teaspoonful of salt, one quarter
teaspoonful of pepper, one bay-leaf, one teaspoonful onion
juice, and a sprig of parsley. Put it on a flat dish and
lay any cooked or raw meat in the marinade for an hour or
more before using, turning the pieces often. Enough flavor
is absorbed to much improve meats or fish to be used for
salads, fish to be fried or boiled, and other cases given in
receipts. The onion juice may be omitted if desired.


SALPICON

A salpicon is a mixture of cooked meats, which are cut into
dice and combined with a sauce, mushrooms, and truffles.
Chicken, sweetbreads, and tongue mixed with mushrooms and
truffles and moistened with a Béchamel sauce, is a combination
often used. Salpicon is used in timbales, patties, and
vol-au-vent. A mixture of fruits seasoned with sugar and wine
is also called a salpicon.


SEASONING AND FLAVORING.

                                               [Sidenote: Condiments.]

The savoriness of a dish can often be much enhanced by
adding a few drops of Worcestershire sauce, of mushroom or
tomato catsup, of kitchen bouquet, by a few celery seeds, a
bay-leaf, or a sprig of some dried herb. A little tarragon
vinegar or a few capers will often much improve a salad.

                                                  [Sidenote: Almonds.]

                                              [Sidenote: Orange peel.]

A half dozen chopped almonds will greatly improve a bread
pudding or any other simple dessert. A few shreds of candied
orange peel will give a delicious flavor to puddings, sauces,
and cake.

A flavor of almonds, orange- or rose-water, sherry, or
maraschino, will be an agreeable change from vanilla, and
much more wholesome.

Some cooks feel they are called upon to do fancy cooking if
expected to use a bay-leaf or an almond; others feel a receipt
is extravagant or impracticable if it calls for anything in
the line of flavors beyond salt and pepper, lemon juice,
vanilla, or raisins; but there is no more extravagance in
using different condiments than in using always the same,
or those which from habit have established themselves in
the favor of every housekeeper. None of the condiments are
expensive, and so little is used at a time that one bottleful
lasts a long time. All the flavoring extracts are the same
price, and the expense of a few almonds is only nominal,
therefore it is a pity not to have a variety of such articles
in the dresser, and give variety to dishes by at least the
very simple means of changing flavors. A cottage pudding
with a little shredded orange peel, nuts, or cocoanut in it,
or with a chocolate, wine, or méringue sauce, will be an
agreeable change from the plain pudding with hard sauce. The
same may be said of a corn-starch or a rice pudding, of a
custard, and of many other things.


CROÛTONS AND CROUSTADES

Croûtons or crusts are used in pea, bean, and all cream
soups, for garnishing all kinds of stewed dishes, and for
any dish with which toast would be acceptable. When cut
large and filled they are called croustades.

To make croûtons or croustades, cut bread into the desired
shape and sauté the pieces in hot butter, or dip them in
melted butter and toast them carefully in the oven, turning
frequently, so they will be evenly colored; or they may be
fried in smoking-hot fat. They should be crisp and dry and
the color of amber.

They are made of various sizes and shapes to suit the uses
they are to serve. For soups the bread is cut into cubes one
quarter inch square or into fancy shapes; for garnishing meat
dishes they are cut into diamonds, squares, triangles, and
circles; for sippets to eat with boiled eggs, into strips one
half inch wide and four inches long; for poached eggs, into
circles four inches in diameter.

                                                [Sidenote: For Soups.]

To make croûtons for soup, cut bread into slices one quarter
of an inch thick, take off the crust, then cut it into strips
one quarter of an inch wide and then across into even squares;
or with vegetable cutters cut the sliced bread into fancy
shapes.

                                                [Sidenote: Triangles.]

For triangles, cut a slice of bread one half inch thick,
then into strips one and a quarter inches wide, then into
pieces two or three inches long, then diagonally across.

                                         [Sidenote: Pyramidal Pieces.]

For pyramidal pieces, cut the bread into one inch squares
and cut diagonally across the cube. When used for garnishing
they may be moistened a little on one side with white of
egg, and will then stick to the dish sufficiently to hold in
place. A circle of pyramidal pieces makes a good border to
inclose minced meat, creamed fish, etc.

                                                  [Sidenote: Circles.]

Circles for poached eggs are cut with a biscuit cutter three
inches in diameter, and may be toasted in the ordinary way
if preferred.

                                                    [Sidenote: Boxes.]

For boxes cut bread from which the crust has been removed
into pieces two and a half inches thick, two and a half
inches wide and three and a half inches long, then with a
pointed knife cut a line around the inside one half of an
inch from the edge and carefully remove the crumb, leaving a
box with sides and bottom one half inch in thickness. The
boxes may be cut round if preferred, using two sizes of
biscuit cutters. They are browned the same as other
croûtons, and are used for creamed spinach, creamed chicken,
creamed fish, etc.

A five cent square loaf of bread cuts to good advantage.

[Illustration: CROÛTONS AND CROUSTADES. (SEE PAGE 81.)

  1. Sippets to use with boiled eggs.
  2. Pyramidal Pieces for Borders.
  3, 4, 6. Bread Boxes.
  5. Triangles for Garnishing.
  7. Croustade for Poached Egg, Creamed Meats, etc.
  8. Croûtons for Soups.]


CHARTREUSE

Chartreuse is a liqueur made by the monks of the French
monastery of Grande Chartreuse; but a class of dishes has
also been given this name, where two or more foods are used
one of which conceals the others. The story goes that on
fast days the monks were thus able to indulge in forbidden
food, and savory viands were hidden under cabbage or other
severely plain articles. Chartreuses are made by lining a
mold with rice, a vegetable, or a forcemeat, and filling the
center with a different food. Two vegetables are sometimes
so combined, but more often game or meats are inclosed in
rice and served with a good sauce. (See illustration facing
page 190.)

                                              [Sidenote: En Bellevue.]

Fruits are made into chartreuses by inclosing them in
blanc-mange or puddings. When meats are molded in aspic
jelly they are called "En Bellevue" as in this case they are
not concealed.

[Illustration: SOME USEFUL UTENSILS.

  1, 2. Small Pointed Knives for Vegetables, Boning, etc.
  3. Fluted Knife for cutting potato straws, or cutting vegetables into
     fancy shapes.
  4. Tuller Knife. Useful for pastry and all work done on a board.
  5. Broad-bladed Knife or Spatula.
  6. Saw.
  7. Bread or Cake Knife.
  8, 9. Small Wooden Spoons.]


FOOTNOTES:

[77-*] Cooking schools have recently adopted the rule of using
even spoonfuls for every spoon measurement. This ensures great
exactness.--M. R.



CHAPTER II

SOUPS


As nothing is easier than making good soups, they should be
the first lesson in cooking.

They are one of the most nutritious and inexpensive foods
presented, and have a very wide range, extending from the
clear, transparent soups, through many degrees of consistency,
color and material, to the heavy varieties which contain
enough nourishment for a meal in themselves. The pot-au-feu as
managed in the families of the French peasantry furnishes
their chief source of diet. The pot on the fire receives every
bit of nutritious material of every kind; by slow cooking the
juices and flavors are extracted, and a savory combination is
made which is both pleasant to the taste and satisfying to the
hunger.

The stock-pot should be on every range, and its contents
ever ready to be drawn upon, not only for soup, but for
sauces, and for flavoring the numerous dishes which can be
enriched and improved by stock.[84-*]

The many kinds of soups are variations of the few kinds of
stock.

                                 [Sidenote: Brown Stock, see page 88.]

The brown stock is made from beef, or from beef, veal, and
fowl combined, and mixed vegetables.

                                 [Sidenote: White Stock, see page 99.]

White stock is made of veal and chicken together, or from
veal alone, seasoned with onion, celery, white pepper, and
salt, nothing being used which will give color.

                   [Sidenote: Chicken Consommé or Broth, see page 98.]

Chicken stock is made from the fowl alone, and seasoned with
celery, white pepper, and salt.

                                [Sidenote: Cream Soups, see page 105.]

Cream soups are made without stock, the basis being
vegetables boiled and mashed to a purée by being pressed
through a colander or sieve, then mixed with cream or milk
and seasoned to taste.

                                               [Sidenote: Soup Meats.]

The meats used for soups are: the lower or tough part of the
round, the shin, and the neck pieces of beef, the knuckle of
veal, and fowls. Mutton is not used except for mutton broth.
A very little ham is sometimes used; game also gives good
flavor.

Bones contain gelatine and cause the stock to jelly when
cold.

                                          [Sidenote: Soup Vegetables.]

The soup vegetables are onions, carrots, turnips, and
celery. They are cut into small pieces and are sometimes
fried before being added to the soup pot.

                                              [Sidenote: The Bouquet.]

Parsley wrapped around peppercorns, cloves, bay-leaves and
other herbs, excepting sage, and tied, makes what is called
a bouquet. In this shape the herbs are more easily removed.

                                              [Sidenote: Proportions.]

The proportions are one quart of cold water to a pound of
meat, and to four quarts of water one each of the vegetables
of medium size, named above, two sticks of celery, and a
bouquet containing one root of parsley with leaves, one
bay-leaf, twelve peppercorns, six cloves,--one sprig of
thyme, and sweet marjoram if desired.

                             [Sidenote: The order of preparing Soups.]

In making good soup the first essential is a perfectly clean
pot. I would emphasize the word clean. First have the pot
thoroughly washed with soda and water to remove any grease,
then scoured with sapolio to take off any bits of burned or
hardened matter.

The meat should be wiped clean with a wet cloth and carefully
examined to see if there are any tainted spots, then cut into
pieces about one and a half inches square (except in the case
where a round of beef is used, which is to be removed when
tender and served as bouilli). The meat and bones must be put
into cold water in order to extract the juices, and never be
allowed to boil. Slow cooking best effects the object desired
(see article on boiling, page 67). After the meat has stood
fifteen minutes in cold water, put it on the fire, cover,
and let it come slowly to the simmering-point, then place
on the back of range to simmer for six hours or more. An
hour before the cooking is completed, add the vegetables,
cut into small pieces. When the soup is to be served clear,
it is well to remove the scum as it rises, but this is not
essential, for much of it comes off when the soup is strained,
and perfectly clear soup requires clarifying in any case. The
French receipts all say remove the scum, but as it is a
nutrient part of the meat, unless clearness is desired, it
seems better to let it remain during the period of cooking.

                                      [Sidenote: Removing the Grease.]

When the soup has simmered five or six hours, it should be
strained into an earthen bowl and left to cool uncovered.
Under no circumstances let it stand in the pot after it is
cooked. The grease will rise to the top and form a cake
which can be easily removed when cold. Any little particles
which may stick to the jelly may be wiped off with a cloth
wet in hot water. Where a quantity of stock is made at one
time, it is well to strain it into two or even three bowls;
the grease forms an air-tight cover and will help to keep it
from souring. Stock should be made the day before it is to
be used in order to let the grease rise and the floating
particles settle, but where it is needed at once, the grease
that cannot be skimmed off with a spoon can be absorbed by
passing tissue paper over it carefully.

                                               [Sidenote: Clarifying.]

Soup can be made perfectly clear by taking the jellied stock
from which every particle of grease and sediment has been
removed, and stirring into it, while cold, the slightly-beaten
white and crushed shell of one egg to each quart of stock. It
must be stirred constantly until the soup is hot enough to
coagulate the albumen, by which time it has thoroughly mixed
with and imprisoned the fine particles which cloud the liquid.
Let it boil violently for five minutes, then let it stand five
minutes longer on the side of the range to settle. Strain
through a fine cloth laid on a sieve. Let it drain through
without pressing. In some cases a small bit of lemon rind used
with the egg in clearing gives a pleasant flavor to the soup.
After clearing it will ordinarily need to be heated again
before serving. In high-class cooking, soups are cleared
with chopped raw meat or chicken, which adds to, instead of
detracting from the richness of the soup. The albumen of egg
does not materially affect the quality of the soup, and is
recommended for general practice.[87-*]

                                                 [Sidenote: Coloring.]

If a deeper color is wanted, it may be obtained by adding
a very little caramel (see page 78) or a few drops of a
preparation called "Kitchen Bouquet." Artificial coloring,
however, is not so good as that obtained by browning the
vegetables and part of the meat before adding them to the soup
pot. (See brown stock, page 88.)

                                                    [Sidenote: Names.]

The meat soups are called broths, bouillon, or consommé,
according to their richness.

The purées are thick soups made with or without stock, the
basis being mashed vegetables or meat pounded to a paste.

                                               [Sidenote: Meat Stock.]

Stock made of meat alone will keep better than where
vegetables are used. In warm weather it is well to have it
so prepared.


COMMON STOCK (POT-AU-FEU)

For this stock pieces of fresh or cooked meat are used, also
all odds and ends, chicken bones, gravies, cooked or raw
vegetables, etc. Water in which fish or vegetables (excepting
cabbage or potatoes) have been boiled may or may not be used.
They are put together cold and are simmered for five or six
hours, then strained through a colander into an earthen bowl
and left to cool uncovered. Clear soup should not be attempted
with this stock, but it is good to combine with vegetables for
vegetable soup, or with other mixtures like rice, bits of
meat, chicken, gumbo, etc., for soup and to use for sauces and
seasoning.


BEEF OR BROWN STOCK

  8 lbs. of shin of beef.
  8 quarts of cold water.
  1 medium-sized carrot.
  1 medium-sized turnip.
  1 parsley root and leaves.
  1 onion.
  1 stick of celery.
  12 peppercorns.
  6 cloves.
  1 tablespoonful of salt.

Rub with a wet cloth the outside of the shin of beef, which
has been well broken by the butcher. Take the meat from the
bones and cut it into small pieces. Put aside a half pound
of the meat. Place the rest of the meat and the bones in a
perfectly clean pot with the cold water, and let it stand
fifteen to twenty minutes, or until the water is red; then
place them on the fire and let them come slowly to the
simmering point. Meanwhile, place in a sauté-pan some of the
marrow from the bones, or a tablespoonful of drippings. When
the fat is hot put in the half pound of reserved meat and
cook it until it is well browned. When the water in the pot
has begun to simmer, put in the browned meat and rinse the
sauté-pan with a few spoonfuls of water so none of the value
of the browned meat will be lost. This will give good color
and also flavor to the soup. Place the pot where the water
will simmer only, and leave it to cook for six hours, or
until the meat is cooked to shreds and its nutriment fully
extracted. Add the vegetables, which have been well washed,
scraped, and cut into pieces, one hour before the cooking is
completed, and add the salt just before removing the stock
from the fire.

If a clear soup is not desired, the care to keep it below
the boiling point is not essential. (See note, page 87.)

When the stock is done strain it through a close cloth or a
fine sieve into an earthen bowl, and let it cool without
covering.

When ready to serve, remove the grease, clear it if desired
for transparent soup, add more pepper and salt to taste.


FOR MACARONI, NOODLE, VERMICELLI, VEGETABLE OR PRINTANIÈRE,
JULIENNE, TAPIOCA, AND CROÛTE-AU-POT SOUPS,

Take as much of the beef stock as will be needed, allowing
one half pint for each person, remove all the grease, heat
it, and season to taste. Just before serving add any of the
above articles, which must have been boiled separately. The
soup will then have the name of the ingredient used.

                                                 [Sidenote: Julienne.]

Julienne does not differ from the vegetable soup except in
the form given the vegetables. For julienne, the outside or
deep yellow of the carrot, turnip, and celery are cut, with
a knife which comes for the purpose, into thin, thread-like
pieces about two inches long. The shredded vegetables must
be boiled before being added to the soup, and care used to
prevent their breaking or becoming too soft to hold their
form, or they may be fried in butter until tender. Green
peas, asparagus tips, and flowerets of cauliflower may also
be added. (See illustration facing page 92.)

                                              [Sidenote: Printanière.]

Any vegetables may be used for vegetable soup, but judgment
should be shown in the combination. They may be made ornamental
by being cut into fancy shapes with cutters, or into balls
with a small potato scoop, or they may be cut into dice.

[Illustration: PRINTANIÈRE AND JULIENNE SOUP VEGETABLES. (SEE PAGE 89.)

  1, 2, 3. Cutters used for cutting vegetables for Printanière Soup.
  4. Vegetables prepared for Printanière Soup.
  5. Knife for cutting vegetables into Julienne.
  6. Julienne.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Tapioca.]

Pearl tapioca boiled to clearness makes a very pretty
thickening to clear soup.

                                            [Sidenote: Croûte au Pot.]

Small pieces of toast or thin shavings of stale bread are added
to the tureen just before serving to make the _croûte-au-pot_.
The soup should be served before the bread dissolves or gets
very soft.

For julienne, tapioca, and _croûte-au-pot_, the soup should
be perfectly clear and a deep amber color.

                                      [Sidenote: Garnishes for Soups.]

Other garnishes which may be added to soups are: Force-meat
balls (see page 92); yolks of hard-boiled eggs; egg balls
(see page 92); royal custard (see page 92); fried croûtons
(see page 81); noodles (see page 93); dumplings (see page
170); thin cross-cuts of celery; thin slices of lemon, one
for each plate; grated Parmesan cheese (passed); macaroni
cut into pieces one eighth of an inch thick, making rings;
sweet potato balls (see page 94); marrow balls (see page
94); green pea timbale (see page 94); harlequin slices (see
page 94); with consommé, a poached egg for each portion.


THICKENING FOR SOUPS

Roux (see page 79) makes the best thickening for soups which
are not clear, using brown or white roux according to the
color of the soup. Thin the roux with a little soup, so it
will be smooth before adding it to the soup kettle. Roux added
to pea, bean, and potato soups prevents their separating.

A thickening of eggs is made as follows: Beat two or three
yolks and dilute them with a half a cupful of cream or milk
or cold soup. Stir in a few spoonfuls of the hot soup to
warm it. Remove the soup from the fire and stir in slowly
the egg mixture, return it to the fire to cook the egg, but
do not let it boil, or it may curdle.

Clear soups are sometimes thickened by using one teaspoonful
of arrowroot to a quart of soup. Mix the arrowroot with a
little of the cold soup, turn it into the hot soup, and cook
until it becomes clear. A clear soup so thickened may be
flavored with sherry.


FOOTNOTES:

[84-*] It is not meant to imply that the stock-pot should never be
removed from the range and that articles should be added at any time.
When the nutriment is extracted from one collection of materials, the
stock should be strained off, the pot thoroughly cleaned, and a new
stock started as soon as enough materials have again accumulated.--M. R.

[87-*] It will be difficult if not impossible to make a perfectly clear
and brilliant soup from stock where bones have been used, if the stock
has been subjected to boiling heat. Boiling dissolves the lime in the
bones, and this gives a cloudiness which clarifying will not entirely
remove.--M. R.



GARNISHES FOR SOUPS


=ROYALE=

A CUSTARD TO SERVE WITH CONSOMMÉ

  2 yolks.
  1 entire egg.
  1/3 teaspoonful of salt.
  Dash of cayenne.
  1/2 cupful of beef stock.

Beat the eggs well, but not to a froth. Add one third of a teaspoonful
of salt and one half cupful of clear beef stock. Pour the mixture into a
small pan or flat dish, so it will be about one half inch deep. Set the
pan into another one containing hot water and place them in a very
moderate oven, so that the custard will set without bubbles and without
browning on top. Let the custard become perfectly cold. Without removing
it from the pan, cut it into cubes one half inch square, or into fancy
forms, with vegetable cutters.

These pieces should be placed carefully in the consommé after it is in
the tureen, allowing three or four pieces to each portion of soup.


=FORCE-MEAT BALLS=

Chop any cooked meat very fine, season highly with salt, pepper, thyme,
onion juice, lemon juice, and herbs if desired; add enough yolk of egg
to moisten and bind the meat. Mold into balls one half inch in diameter,
roll the balls in flour, and poach them in boiling water, or they may be
fried in butter.

Force-meat balls may also be made of raw meat prepared as for timbale
paste (see page 297).

[Illustration: RADISHES CUT TO IMITATE ROSES.]


=EGG BALLS=

Rub to a paste, with a wooden spoon, the yolks of hard-boiled eggs;
season with salt, pepper, and butter; add enough raw yolk to bind the
paste; form it into balls one half the size of a natural yolk; roll them
in white of egg and then in flour, and poach the balls in boiling water
for a few minutes.

Three yolks will make five balls. One ball is enough to allow to each
portion of soup.


=NOODLES=

Several dishes may be made from noodles.

To three eggs (slightly beaten) mixed with two tablespoonfuls of water
and a little salt, add enough flour to make a stiff dough; work it well
for fifteen or twenty minutes, adding flour when necessary. When it is
smooth and elastic, cut off a small piece at a time and roll it as thin
as a wafer. It can be rolled very thin by placing a cloth under it.
Sprinkle the thin sheet with flour, and roll it into a rather tight
roll. With a sharp knife cut it, from the end,--into threads, if for
soup; if to use as a vegetable, into ribbons one quarter inch wide. Let
them dry an hour or more. They will keep the same as macaroni.

[Illustration: NOODLES. (SEE PAGE 93.)

  1. Sheet of Noodle Paste.
  2. Noodles for Soup.
  3. Noodles to serve as vegetable.
  4. Noodle Balls.
  5. Sheet of Noodle Paste Rolled.
  6. Paste cut from Roll.
  7. Noodle Paste cut for Balls before being fried.]


=NOODLES SERVED AS A VEGETABLE=

Throw a few noodles at a time into boiling, salted water; boil them
until they are done, separating them carefully with a fork to prevent
their matting together. Skim them out when done, and keep them on a warm
dish on the hot shelf until enough are cooked. Season with butter. Put
them in the dish in which they are to be served, and sprinkle over them
bread crumbs browned in hot butter to a golden color. This dish may be
served with fish, with meat, or as a course by itself. Noodles may also
be cooked like macaroni, with cheese.


=NOODLE BALLS=

Take some of the noodle paste made as directed above. Roll it as thin as
possible, then place it on a floured napkin and roll until it is as thin
as paper; fold it double, and cut it into circles one quarter inch in
diameter, using a small vegetable cutter or pastry bag tube. Fry them in
smoking hot fat, tossing them in the frying basket so that they will
color evenly. They will puff into balls and color in one minute. Drain
and place them on paper on the hot shelf. Sprinkle them on the soup
after it is in the tureen, or better pass them, as they soften very
quickly.


=MARROW BALLS=

Melt a tablespoonful of marrow and strain it through a cloth, or fine
sieve, into a bowl; beat it till creamy, then add an egg and beat again
thoroughly. Season with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg. Add to this
mixture as much soft bread as it will moisten. Roll it into small balls
and poach in boiling water. Place them in the soup just before serving.


=SWEET POTATO BALLS=

Mash some cooked sweet potatoes, season with butter, salt, pepper, and
nutmeg, and a little grated cheese. Moisten with beaten egg; roll into
small balls and poach in boiling water. Put the balls into the soup the
last thing before serving.


=GREEN PEA TIMBALE FOR SOUP=

Mix one half cupful of mashed green peas with one tablespoonful of soup
stock and three whites of eggs; season with salt, pepper, and a little
nutmeg. Beat well together and place in a small mold or flat tin. Set
the mold into hot water and place in slow oven until the mixture is set.
When it is firm, unmold, cut into small cubes, and put them in the soup
just before serving.


=HARLEQUIN SLICES=

Cut into small squares some cooked carrots, turnips, and string beans.
Arrange them in timbale cups, mixing the vegetables together; fill the
cups up with royale mixture. (See above.) Set them into hot water and
cook in slow oven until the custard is firm. Unmold when cold, and cut
with a sharp knife into slices one eighth of an inch thick. Place these
in the soup just before serving.



BROTHS


=CHICKEN BROTH=

  1 fowl.
  4 quarts of cold water.
  1/2 cupful of rice.
  Salt and pepper.

Clean the fowl carefully; wash it with a wet cloth; cut it into pieces
and remove the fat. Place the joints in a saucepan with a quart of water
to each pound of fowl. Let it simmer until the meat is tender; then
remove the breast; after four hours take it off and strain it through a
sieve. Let the soup stand until the grease rises; then carefully remove
it, and put the soup again in the saucepan; add the breast of the
chicken, cut into dice, and the half cupful of rice; salt and pepper to
taste, and cook until the rice is tender.


=CLAM BROTH=

  12 large hard-shelled clams for 1 pint of broth.

Boil the clams and juice for twenty minutes; strain and let it stand to
settle; strain it again carefully into a saucepan, and let it boil up
once; season with butter and pepper--no salt--and serve in cups with
whipped cream on top.

To open the clams and obtain the juice, place the clams, after they have
been carefully washed with a brush and clear water, in a saucepan; add
two tablespoonfuls of hot water; cover and let them steam until the
shells open; then strain off the liquor.


=MUTTON BROTH=

The neck or shoulder-pieces may be used for broth. The meat should be
cut into pieces and the fat removed. To each pound of meat add one
quart of cold water; simmer for four or five hours; strain it into an
earthen bowl; when ready to serve, remove the grease, and add to each
quart of stock one stick of celery, two tablespoonfuls of rice, salt and
pepper to taste, and boil until the rice is soft.

The water in which a leg of mutton has been boiled will make a good
mutton soup, but is not rich enough for a broth to be served to an
invalid.

=Broth Made Quickly for Invalids.= Broth may be made quickly by chopping
lean meat to a fine mince. To a pound of meat add one pint of cold
water; let soak for fifteen minutes; then let slowly boil for half an
hour; season and strain.



SOUPS


=BOUILLON=

(3 PINTS. TIME, 5 HOURS)

  3 lbs. of beef cut from under side of round and chopped to a mince.
  3 quarts of cold water.
  1 onion.
  1/2 carrot.
  1 sprig of parsley.
  2 sticks of celery.
  1 bay-leaf.
  2 cloves.
  6 peppercorns.
  1 teaspoonful of salt added just before taking the soup off the fire.

Take three pounds of beef cut from the lower part of round, remove all
the fat, and chop the meat to a fine mince. Place the chopped meat in a
saucepan with three quarts of cold water, and let it stand one hour;
then put it on the fire, cover, and let it come slowly to the
boiling-point, taking off any scum that rises. Then place it where it
will only simmer. After it has simmered for four hours add the
vegetables cut into dice, and the spices, and let it simmer one hour
longer. Strain into an earthen bowl and let it cool without covering.
This stock will not jelly, as no bones are boiled with it.

When ready to use remove grease, season, if necessary, with pepper and
salt, and put into saucepan with three fourths of a pound of lean meat
chopped fine, and the white of one egg. Stir until it boils; let it boil
for fifteen minutes. Lay a fine cloth on a sieve and strain through it
the bouillon without pressing. It should be perfectly clear and of the
color of amber. It can be served in cups. A little sherry may be added,
if liked, when served at afternoon teas.


=CONSOMMÉ=[98-*]

  4 lbs. lower part round of beef.
  4 lbs. knuckle of veal.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  6 quarts of cold water.
  1 large onion.
  1/2 carrot.
  3 stalks of celery.
  1 tablespoonful of salt.
  2 sprigs of parsley.
  15 peppercorns.
  3 cloves.
  1 inch square of cinnamon.
  A little thyme.
  A little marjoram.
  A little summer savory.
  2 bay-leaves.

Cut the beef into pieces one inch square. Remove the veal from the bone,
and cut it also into small pieces. Put one tablespoonful of butter into
a very clean soup-pot with the pieces of meat, and stir over a hot fire
until the meat is browned, care being taken that it does not burn; then
add one quart of water, and let it cook until a glaze has formed on the
bottom of the kettle, which will take about one hour. Then add five
quarts of cold water and let it come slowly to the boiling-point. Set
the soup-pot back on the fire and let the soup simmer for six hours.
Remove the scum from time to time as it rises. One hour before the time
for removing the soup add to it the vegetables, which have been cut fine
and browned in one tablespoonful of butter. Add also the herbs and
spices, and one tablespoonful of salt. When it has simmered six hours,
strain it through a fine cloth, laid on a sieve, into an earthen bowl,
and let it cool without covering. A fowl added to this receipt will give
the soup a more delicate flavor. If used it should be put in the pot at
the time the five quarts of water are added. The veal-bone may also go
in at this time; but the soup will not be so clear if the bone is used.
If a chicken is used it may be removed from the stock when tender and
used for other purposes.


FOOTNOTES:

[98-*] This receipt gives a perfectly clear brilliant soup after it is
clarified. If no bones are used it can be boiled slowly without injury
instead of being simmered. The stock will not always jelly.--M. R.


=OX-TAIL SOUP=

  2 ox-tails.
  1 onion.
  1 tablespoonful of drippings or of salt pork.
  4 quarts of cold water.
  1 stick of celery.
  1 root of parsley.
  3 cloves.
  6 peppercorns.
  1 tablespoonful of salt.

Cut the ox-tails into pieces, separating them at the joints. Sauté the
onion and the ox-tails in the drippings to a delicate brown. Put the
meat in the soup-pot with four quarts of cold water. Let it come to the
boiling-point; add the vegetables and spices, and simmer for four hours,
then add the salt. Strain, take off the grease. Select some of the
pieces of ox-tail, one piece for each portion, and place them in the
tureen with the soup. Ox-tails are gelatinous and make a smooth soup.


=WHITE STOCK=

  1 knuckle of veal.
  1 fowl.
  Bouquet of herbs.
  1 onion.
  2 stalks of celery.
  1 small turnip cut into dice.
  1 small carrot cut into dice.

Cut the meat from the bone. Wash the skin of the fowl (see page 180).
Allow one quart of cold water to each pound of meat and bone. Place all
in a kettle. Cover and let simmer four or five hours. Strain into an
earthen bowl, and let cool uncovered.

White stock may be made of veal alone. If a fowl is used, the breast and
second joints may be removed when tender, and used for other dishes
(croquettes, soufflé, imperiale, etc.). A part of the veal may also be
removed, and used for veal loaf (see page 171).


=WHITE SOUP=

  1 pint of white stock.
  1 pint of milk or cream.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  Salt and pepper to taste.
  Chicken, veal, or celery (cut into small dice), or rice.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.

Put one pint of milk or cream into a double boiler; add to it one pint
of white stock, and a white roux made of one tablespoonful of butter and
one tablespoonful of flour cooked together, but not browned. Dilute the
roux to smoothness with a little of the cold milk before adding it to
the soup. Let it come to the boiling-point. Season to taste, and strain
into the tureen; then add one tablespoonful or more of chicken breast,
veal, or celery (cut into small dice), or rice. If desired, two or more
of these may be used, and the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, pressed through
a sieve, sprinkled over the top. This quantity gives but one quart of
soup; enough to serve to four people.


=CHICKEN CONSOMMÉ, OR STOCK=

Place a fowl, cut into pieces, in four quarts of cold water; let come
slowly to the boiling-point; then draw it to the side of range and
simmer for three hours. At the end of this time add one slice of onion,
two sticks of celery, one tablespoonful of salt, one saltspoonful of
pepper, and simmer one or two hours longer; strain into earthen bowl,
and let cool without covering.

This stock may be cleared the same as beef stock, and served in cups for
luncheon. It may also be mixed with gelatine, cleared, and used for
aspic, in Russian salads, jellied chicken, etc. (see page 323).

The meat from the breast and second joints may be removed from the
stock-pot, when tender, and reserved for timbales, croquettes, patties,
etc.

If this soup is not rich enough, it can be reduced by opening the lid of
the pot, after it has simmered the required time, and allowed to boil
uncovered until as rich as desired.


=PLAIN CHICKEN SOUP=

  1 fowl.
  4 quarts of water.
  1 cupful of rice.
  1 slice of onion.
  2 sticks of celery.
  1 sprig of parsley.

Place the fowl, cut into pieces, in a saucepan with four quarts of cold
water; when it comes to the boiling-point, draw it aside and let it
simmer for three hours; then add one thick slice of onion, two sticks of
celery, one sprig of parsley, and one cupful of rice, and simmer for
another hour; strain and let the soup stand until the grease can be
taken off the top. Remove the meat, bones, and vegetables from the
strainer, and press the rice through the sieve; stir this into the soup;
season with salt and pepper, and heat again before serving; a little
cream may also be added. This soup is also good thickened with a little
roux or with corn-starch. For the latter, take two tablespoonfuls of the
cold stock; stir into it one tablespoonful of corn-starch; then stir it
into the soup, and let cook for ten minutes to take away the raw taste
of the starch, and to make it clear. Pieces of the breast cut into dice
may also be added.


=VEGETABLE SOUP=

To one quart of common stock add one pint of parboiled mixed vegetables
cut into small dice. Simmer until the vegetables are tender but not
pasty. Season with salt, pepper, and one teaspoonful of sugar.

Serve without straining.


=TOMATO PURÉE=

Put into a granite-ware saucepan a quart of canned or of fresh tomatoes;
add a pint of water or of stock;--the soup will be better if stock is
used;--add also one bay-leaf, a sprig of parsley, a stick of celery, six
peppercorns, and a teaspoonful of sugar; simmer until the tomato is
thoroughly soft. In another saucepan put a tablespoonful of butter; when
it is hot add a sliced onion, and fry, but not brown it; then add a
tablespoonful of flour, and cook, but not brown the flour. To this roux
add enough of the tomato to dilute it, and then mix it well with the
rest of the tomato, and season with salt. Pass the whole through a fine
sieve or strainer. Heat it again before serving, and sprinkle over the
top small croûtons.


=SPLIT-PEA OR BEAN SOUP=

  1 cupful of split peas, or
  1 cupful of dried beans.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  2 quarts of water.
  1/2 teaspoonful of sugar.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  Salt and pepper to taste.

Let the peas or beans soak over night in three quarts of cold water. Put
the soaked peas or beans into a saucepan with two quarts of water and a
ham-bone, if you have it, otherwise it may be omitted. Let simmer for
four or five hours, or until the peas or beans are perfectly soft. (Add
more water from time to time, if necessary.) Then pass them through a
sieve; add to the pulp enough stock, or milk, or water to make a soup of
the consistency of cream. Put it again into a saucepan on the fire;
season, and add a roux made of one tablespoonful of butter and one
tablespoonful of flour cooked together; dilute the roux to smoothness
with a little of the soup before adding it to the pot.

The roux will hold the particles of peas or beans in suspension. Without
it they are liable to precipitate.

An onion may be boiled with the peas or beans if desired.

Serve croûtons on the soup, or pass them.


=BLACK-BEAN SOUP=

  2 cupfuls of black beans.
  Brown stock.
  Brown roux.
  Bouquet of herbs, made of a sprig of parsley, a sprig of thyme, one
    clove.
  4 peppercorns, 1 onion.
  Egg balls.
  Thin slices of lemon.
  Force-meat balls.
  White of hard-boiled egg.
  1/4 cupful of sherry or red wine.
  Salt and pepper to taste.

Soak two cupfuls of black beans over night. Put the soaked beans into a
saucepan with a bouquet of herbs, and cover them with cold water. Let
them boil slowly until tender, which will take several hours, adding
more water if necessary. When the beans are very soft remove the
bouquet, drain off the water, and pass the beans through a purée sieve.
Add to the pulp enough brown stock to make a soup of the consistency of
thin cream. Place it again on the fire and add a brown roux made of one
tablespoonful of butter and one tablespoonful of flour, cooked together
until brown; dilute it to smoothness before adding and cook it with the
soup for five minutes. This will prevent the soup from separating.
Season with salt and pepper. Strain it through a sieve into the tureen;
then add thin slices of lemon, egg balls, and force-meat balls, allowing
one of each to each portion of soup; add also the white of one
hard-boiled egg cut into small dice, and one quarter of a cupful of
sherry or red wine.

This resembles mock-turtle soup.


=CALF'S-HEAD OR MOCK-TURTLE SOUP=

Make a brown roux by putting in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter,
let it brown, add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and let that brown; then
add, slowly at first, one and a half or two quarts of water in which a
calf's head has been boiled, white wine instead of vinegar being used in
the boiling (see boiled calf's head, page 175). Add three or four
strained tomatoes and simmer for one half hour. Skim off any fat and
season with salt and pepper. Add some pieces of boiled calf's head cut
in pieces one half inch square, a few egg balls, two or three
tablespoonfuls of sherry, and a few very thin slices of lemon.


=FISH STOCK=

Put into the soup-pot a tablespoonful of butter or of drippings. Add a
tablespoonful each of chopped onion, carrot, and turnip. Fry them
without browning, then add fish-bones, head, and trimmings, a stalk of
celery, sprigs of parsley and of thyme, a bay-leaf, a tomato or a slice
of lemon. Cover with water, and simmer them for an hour or more. Season
with salt and pepper. Strain.

When this stock is used for soup, make a roux of one tablespoonful each
of butter and flour, add a cupful of milk or cream, and add this amount
to each pint of the fish stock.


=OYSTER SOUP=

Scald a quart, or twenty-five, oysters in their own liquor. As soon as
they are plump, or the gills curl, remove them (oysters harden if
boiled). Add to the liquor a cupful of water. Make a roux of one
tablespoonful each of butter and flour, dilute it with the liquor, and
when it is smooth add a cupful of scalded milk or cream. Season with
pepper, salt, if necessary, and a dash of cayenne or paprica; then add
the oysters, and as soon as they are heated serve at once. In oyster
houses finely shredded cabbage with a French dressing is served with
oyster soup, and is a good accompaniment when served for luncheon.
Oysters should be carefully examined, and the liquor passed through a
fine sieve before being cooked, in order to remove any pieces of shell
there may be in them.


=CLAM SOUP=

Remove the clams from the shells as soon as they have opened (see clam
broth, page 95). Put them in a warm place, until the juice is prepared.
Add a cupful of hot milk to a quart of juice, and thicken it with a roux
made of one tablespoonful of butter and one tablespoonful of flour; then
add the clams, chopped fine, season, and bring the soup again to the
boiling-point and serve. Two spoonfuls of whipped cream served on each
plateful of soup is an improvement to the dish.



CREAM SOUPS


=ONION SOUP=

(A VERY SIMPLE SOUP QUICKLY MADE)

Slice two or three large onions; fry them in a tablespoonful of butter
or drippings until they are soft and red, then add three tablespoonfuls
of flour, and stir until it is a little cooked. To this add slowly a
pint of boiling water, stirring all the time, so it will be smooth.

Boil and mash three good-sized potatoes. Add to them slowly a quart of
scalded milk, stirring well so it will be smooth. Add the potato and
milk mixture to the onion mixture. Season with salt and pepper. Let it
get very hot, and pass it through a strainer into the tureen. Sprinkle
over the top a little parsley chopped very fine, and a few croûtons. The
soup will be better if stock is used instead of water to dilute the
onion mixture.


=POTATO SOUP=

Boil and mash three or four potatoes.

Make a roux of one tablespoonful of butter, one half tablespoonful of
flour, and one teaspoonful of chopped onion, letting the onion cook in
the butter a few minutes before adding the flour. When the roux is
cooked add to it a pint of milk, making a thin, white sauce. Add this to
the mashed potato and pass the whole through a strainer. Return it to
the fire for a few minutes to heat and blend it. Season it with salt and
pepper.

Sprinkle on the soup, when it is in the tureen, a teaspoonful of chopped
parsley and a few croûtons.

If the soup is too thick, add a little more milk or a little hot water.
The roux prevents the milk and potato from separating, and also gives it
smoothness. The soup can be made richer by using more milk, and stirring
into it, just before serving, the beaten yolks of two eggs. This soup
may also be made of sweet potatoes.


=TOMATO BISQUE=

  1/2 can of tomatoes.
  1 quart of milk.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of corn-starch.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 saltspoonful of pepper.
  1 saltspoonful of soda.
  Dash of cayenne.

Stew the tomatoes until very soft; then pass them through a fine sieve
or strainer. Put the strained tomatoes into a granite-ware saucepan, and
add one saltspoonful of soda; when it has ceased foaming add the butter,
a small piece at a time; if put in all at once it will show an oily
line; add salt, pepper, and cayenne.

Put the milk into a double boiler, and stir into it a tablespoonful of
corn-starch which has been mixed with a little of the cold milk, to make
it smooth; let it scald for ten minutes, or long enough to cook the
corn-starch; then pour the milk into the tomatoes, beat well together,
and serve at once.

It is better not to add the milk to the tomatoes until just ready to
serve, for fear of curdling.


=CREAM OF ASPARAGUS; CREAM OF GREEN PEAS; CREAM OF STRING BEANS; CREAM OR
SPINACH; CREAM OF CORN; CREAM OF CELERY=

These soups are very delicate, and are much esteemed. They are all made
in the same way. The vegetable is boiled until soft, and is then pressed
through a sieve. A pint of the vegetable pulp is diluted with a quart of
stock (the stock may be veal, beef, or chicken broth). It is thickened
with a roux made of one tablespoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls
of flour, seasoned with pepper and salt, and is then strained again, so
it will be perfectly smooth. It is replaced on the fire, a cupful or a
half cupful of cream added, and the whole beaten with an egg-whip to
make it light, and is served at once very hot. The French thicken cream
soups with egg-yolks. In this case two yolks would be used for the above
quantity. The beaten yolks are diluted with the cream, and cooked only
just long enough to set the egg. It would curdle if allowed to boil.
Butter is needed for seasoning, and where eggs are used it should be
added in small bits before the cream and eggs. Where roux is used for
thickening, there is enough butter in the roux.


=CREAM OF CLAMS=

  25 large clams.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  1-1/2 pints of milk.
  Small slice of onion.
  Dash of nutmeg.
  Salt and pepper.
  1/2 pint of cream.

Wash the clam shells thoroughly with a brush and clear water.

Put them into a pot on the fire with one half cup of boiling water;
cover and let steam until the shells open; take out the clams and let
the liquor settle; then strain it carefully, and set aside; remove the
clams from the shells; chop them, pound them in a mortar, and press as
much of them as possible through a purée sieve. Put the milk into a
double boiler with the slice of onion. Put the butter into a frying-pan,
and when it bubbles, stir into it the flour, and let it cook a few
minutes, but not brown; add enough of the milk slowly to make the roux
liquid; then add it to the milk in the double boiler, first having
removed the slice of onion; add a dash of nutmeg and of pepper, then the
cream; when ready to serve, stir in the clam pulp and one pint of the
clam liquor; taste to see if salt will be needed. After the clams are
added to the milk, leave it on the fire only long enough to get well
heated; if boiled, the milk will curdle. Beat a moment with an
egg-whisk to make foamy. If the mixture is too thick, it may be diluted
with milk or cream.

This is good for luncheon, served in small cups, the top covered with a
spoonful of whipped cream.


=CREAM OF OYSTERS=

Scald a quart of oysters in their own liquor. Remove the oysters; chop
and pound them in a mortar, then press as much of them as possible
through a purée sieve.

Make a roux of one tablespoonful of butter and a heaping tablespoonful
of flour. Dilute it with the oyster juice. Add the oyster pulp; season
it with pepper, salt, and paprica, and keep it hot until ready to serve.
Just before serving add a half pint of whipped cream, and beat it well
into the soup.[108-*]


FOOTNOTES:

[108-*] Any soup made of milk will be greatly improved by adding a
cupful of hot cream just before serving.

A little fish stock improves clam or oyster cream soup.


=SOUP À LA REINE=

Put a chicken into three quarts of water. Simmer it slowly for two
hours, or until the chicken is very tender. A half hour before removing
it add a half pound of rice and a bouquet containing one root of
parsley, one sprig of thyme, a thin slice of onion, and a stick of
celery. Boil it until the rice is soft, then strain through a colander.
Let the broth cool and remove the grease. Remove the white meat from the
bones of the chicken, put it with the rice in a mortar, and pound both
to a pulp. Pass the pulp through a purée sieve, moistening it with a
little stock to make it pass through easier. When ready to serve, add
the purée to the stock, season with salt and pepper, and heat it
thoroughly without boiling. Just before sending it to the table add a
half pint of hot cream.

If desired the soup can be thickened with a little roux, or with fifteen
blanched almonds chopped and pounded to a paste, using a little cream to
prevent the almonds from oiling.


=BISQUE OF LOBSTER=

Put into a mortar equal parts of boiled lobster meat and boiled rice;
pound them to a pulp; then add enough broth to dilute it; season with
salt and paprica. Pass it through a sieve. Heat it without boiling, and
then add enough Béchamel sauce to make it the consistency of cream soup;
lastly, add to each quart of soup a quarter of a pound of lobster
butter, adding a little at a time, and stirring until the butter is
melted. Instead of the lobster butter, plain butter may be used, and the
coral of the lobster, dried and pounded to a powder, stirred in at the
same time. Serve croûtons with the bisque.


=LOBSTER BUTTER=

After the meat is removed from the lobster, take all the rest (except
the lady, woolly gills and intestine), including the shell, and put it
into a mortar with twice its weight of butter. Pound it to a pulp; then
place it in a saucepan on the fire, and cook until the butter is melted.
Strain it through a cloth. Beat the strained butter until it is cold. If
not a deep enough color, add a very little cochineal.



CHOWDERS


=POTATO CHOWDER=

  6 good-sized potatoes.
  1/4 lb. salt pork.
  1 onion.
  1 tablespoonful butter.
  1 tablespoonful flour.
  1 pint milk or cream.
  1 pint water.
  1 tablesp'ful chopped parsley.
  1 teaspoonful salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful pepper.

Cut the potatoes into dice, cut the pork into small pieces, and put it
with the sliced onion into a frying pan, and fry until a light brown.

Put into a kettle a layer of potatoes, then a layer of onions and pork,
and sprinkle with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley. Repeat this until
all the potatoes, pork, onions, and parsley are in. Pour over them the
grease from the pan in which the pork and onions were fried. Add one
pint of water, cover, and let simmer twenty minutes. Scald the milk in a
double boiler, and add it to a roux made of the flour and butter. Add
this to the pot when the potatoes are tender, and stir carefully
together, so as not to break the potatoes. Taste to see if the seasoning
is right. Serve very hot.

This is a good dish for luncheon, or for supper in the country.


=FISH CHOWDER=

  3 lbs. fresh fish.
  3 large potatoes.
  1 large onion.
  1/2 lb. salt pork.
  1 pint milk.
  3 ship crackers.
  Pepper and salt.

Cut the fish, the potatoes, and the onion into slices. Cut the pork into
half-inch dice. Put the pork and the onion into a pan and sauté them a
light brown. Place in alternate layers in a large saucepan first
potatoes, then fish, then pork and onion; dust with salt and pepper, and
continue in this order until all the materials are used. Cover the whole
with boiling water and let the mixture simmer for twenty minutes. Scald
a pint of milk or of cream, take it off the fire and add one and a half
tablespoonfuls of butter and three broken ship crackers or the same
quantity of water biscuits. Arrange the fish mixture in a mound on a
dish, cover it with the softened crackers, and pour over the whole the
hot milk.


=CLAM CHOWDER=

  50 clams.
  1 medium-sized onion.
  6 oz. salt pork.
  3 large potatoes.
  1 teaspoonful salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful pepper.
  1 tablespoonful butter.
  2 tablespoonfuls flour.
  1 pint of milk or cream.
  1 saltspoonful of mace.
  1 saltspoonful of thyme.
  3 ship crackers.

Put the clams, with their own liquor, into a saucepan on the fire. When
they have boiled three minutes, remove the clams and return the liquor
to the fire. Cut the pork into slices. Chop an onion and fry it with the
pork until both are browned. Then stir in two tablespoonfuls of flour.
When the flour is cooked, add slowly the clam liquor, a dash of mace and
thyme, and salt, if necessary; then add three parboiled potatoes cut
into dice, and cook until the potatoes are tender. When ready to serve
add a pint of milk or cream, the clams cut into pieces, and a quarter of
a pound of broken ship crackers or any hard water cracker.



CHAPTER III

FISH


                                                  [Sidenote: Cooking.]

                                                [Sidenote: Freshness.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Dressing.]

It is essential that fish should be perfectly fresh,
thoroughly cleaned, and carefully cooked. If underdone it is
not eatable; if cooked too long it loses flavor and becomes
dry. The sooner it is cooked after being taken from the water,
the better. When fresh, the eyes are bright, the gills red,
the flesh firm and odorless. Ordinarily the fishman removes
the scales and draws the fish before delivering it; but if
not, this should be done at once, and the fish thoroughly
washed, but not allowed to soak in water, then wiped dry and
put into the refrigerator, on the ice, the skin side down, but
not in the same compartment with butter, milk, or other foods
which absorb flavors.

                                      [Sidenote: Keeping Frozen Fish.]

Fish that are frozen should be laid in cold water until
thawed, but not allowed to remain in the water after they
become flexible.

                                                 [Sidenote: Trimming.]

The head and tail should be left on, and the fins trimmed,
of any fish which is to be served whole.

                                                [Sidenote: The bones.]

When the fillets only are to be used, the head and bones may
be used for a fish soup.

                    [Sidenote: To skin, bone, and remove the fillets.]

To separate a fish, cut through the skin all around, then,
beginning at the head, loosen the skin and strip it down. By
putting salt on the hand a firmer grasp may be obtained, and
with the aid of a knife the skin can be removed without
tearing the flesh. After the skin is taken off from both
sides, slip the knife under the flesh, and keeping it close
to the bone, remove the fillets. The fillets may then be cut
into two or more pieces according to the size of the fish,
care being used to have them of uniform size and shape.

Fillets taken from small fish and from flounders or other
flat fish are sometimes rolled and held until cooked with
small skewers. Wooden toothpicks serve this purpose very
well.

Fish containing many bones are not suitable for fillets.


TO CARVE FISH

Run a knife down the back, cutting through the skin. Remove
the fins. Then cut into even pieces on one side. When these
pieces are served, remove the bone, and cut the under side
in the same way.


TO BOIL FISH

Add one teaspoonful of salt and one tablespoonful of vinegar
to every two quarts of water, and use sufficient water to
entirely cover the fish. The salt and vinegar serve to whiten
and harden, as well as to season the meat. A bay-leaf and soup
vegetables in the water improve the flavor of cod and some
other fish. The fish must not be put into cold water, as that
extracts the flavor; nor into boiling water, as that breaks
the skin and gives it a ragged appearance. Lower the fish
gradually into warm water, let it come quickly to the boiling
point, then draw to the side of the range, where it will
simmer only, until done.

                                                     [Sidenote: Time.]

Allow ten minutes to the pound after the water has begun to
simmer.

                                               [Sidenote: The Kettle.]

A fish kettle, with strainer, is requisite for boiling a
fish whole. A plate held in a piece of cheese cloth may be
used for smaller pieces. When the fish is done the strainer
should be lifted out carefully and placed across the kettle
until the fish is well drained.

                                     [Sidenote: To boil a fish whole.]

A boiled as well as a baked fish is more attractive served
upright as if swimming. To hold it in this position, place a
carrot inside the fish to give it roundness and stability, and
prop it on both sides with pieces of carrot or turnip. The
head must be wrapped with cord or a strip of cheese cloth to
keep it from losing shape, and the whole held in position by
strings going around the strainer (see illustration). If a
fish is too large for the kettle, it may be cut into halves or
thirds, and when cooked laid carefully together on the dish
and garnishing placed over the cuts.

[Illustration: FISH PREPARED TO BOIL IN UPRIGHT POSITION. (SEE PAGE
114.)]

                                                  [Sidenote: Serving.]

Boiled fish is served on a napkin, and garnished with
parsley. This may be so arranged as to conceal any defects.

                                                [Sidenote: Garnishes.]

Slices of lemon, slices of hard-boiled eggs, chopped pickle,
or capers may also be used for garnishing. Boiled potato
balls may be served on the same dish.

                                                   [Sidenote: Sauces.]

Boiled fish needs a rich white sauce. Drawn butter, egg,
Hollandaise, or Béchamel sauces are generally used.

[Illustration: SLICES OF CODFISH BOILED OR SAUTÉD AND RESTED AGAINST A
WEDGE-SHAPED BREAD SUPPORT AND GARNISHED WITH BOILED OR FRIED POTATO
BALLS, WATER-CRESS, AND LEMON.]



FISH


=COURT BOUILLON=

Court bouillon is used for boiling fresh-water fish or others which are
without much flavor. It may be prepared beforehand, and used several
times, or the vegetables may be added at the time the fish is boiled.

  Fry in 1 tablespoonful of butter,
  1 chopped carrot,
  1 chopped onion,
  1 stalk of celery.

  Then add 2 quarts of hot water,
  1 cup of vinegar or wine,
  3 peppercorns,
  3 cloves,
  1 bay-leaf,
  1 teaspoonful of salt.


=BAKED FISH=

After the fish is carefully washed and dried, put in the stuffing, and
sew up the opening with a trussing needle; then cut three gashes in each
side of the fish, and lay a lardoon of salt pork in each cut. Next, run
a trussing needle, holding a double white cotton cord, through the head,
the middle of the body, and the tail. Draw the fish into the shape of
the letter S, and tie the cord firmly. In order to cook evenly, it is
better to have the fish upright, and by trussing as directed it will
hold that position. Dredge the fish with salt, pepper, and flour, and
lay it on slices of larding pork in a baking pan. Place also over the
back slices of pork. Allow fifteen minutes to each pound, and baste
frequently. The pork should supply sufficient liquid for basting; if
not, add a very little water. The fish can be more easily removed if a
baking sheet is used in the bottom of the pan. (See illustration facing
page 118.)

Serve with a brown sauce. Garnish with lemon and parsley.

Haddock, bluefish, shad, and bass are good for baking.

[Illustration: FISH PREPARED TO BAKE. (SEE PAGE 115.)]


=STUFFINGS FOR BAKED FISH=

Put a large tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan. When melted stir
into it

  1 cupful of cracker or dry bread crumbs,
  1 teaspoonful of chopped onion,
  1 teaspoonful of chopped capers,
  1/4 teaspoonful salt,
  1/4 teaspoonful pepper,
  1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

If a moist stuffing is preferred, add one quarter cupful of milk, stock
or water.


=BREAD STUFFING=

Fry a tablespoonful of chopped onion in a tablespoonful of butter. Add a
cupful or more of stale bread, which has been soaked in hot water, then
pressed dry. A tablespoonful each of chopped parsley, suet, and celery,
one quarter teaspoonful each of salt and pepper, and a dash of powdered
thyme (if liked). When it is well mixed, remove from the fire and add an
egg.


=TO BROIL FISH=

Fish to be broiled are split down the back. After being washed and well
dried, they should be rubbed with oil or butter, or the skin floured, to
keep from sticking. The broiler should be made hot and greased with a
piece of salt pork before the fish is laid on. The hot wires will sear
the lines which should always show on broiled dishes. The fire must be
clear and hot for small fish, more moderate for large ones, so the
outside may not be burned before the inside is cooked. When there is
danger of this, the broiler may be laid on a pan in the oven to complete
the cooking. The broiler should be turned as often as the cook counts
ten, and as the skin burns easily, it must be carefully watched. When
done, the wires should be carefully raised from both sides so as not to
break the meat, and the fish turned on to a hot dish and spread with
butter, salt, and pepper, or better, a maître d'hôtel sauce. This sauce
makes a more evenly distributed mixture. A wreath of water-cresses laid
around the fish makes a good garnish, and is an acceptable accompaniment
to any broiled dish. Lemon is also used for garnish and flavor.

Shad, bluefish, and mackerel are most frequently cooked in this way.


=TO SAUTÉ FISH=

Small or pan fish, and fish cut into slices, are often sautéd. After the
fish is washed and dried, dredge it with salt and pepper, and roll in
flour, then dip in egg and roll in bread crumbs, cracker dust, or in
corn-meal. Put into a frying-pan a few pieces of salt pork, and after
sufficient grease has tried out, lay in the fish; or one tablespoonful
of lard and one tablespoonful of butter may be used instead of the fat
pork. Butter burns, and should not be used alone. The grease must be
very hot, and only enough of it to cover the bottom of the pan one
eighth of an inch deep. Turn the fish with a broad knife or pancake
turner, and with care to not break the meat. When cooked an amber color
it is ready to turn.

Slices of halibut should be marinated (see page 79) before being coated
with flour. Lay the fish or slices overlapping each other on a hot dish.
Serve with quarters of lemon, and garnish with parsley. (See
illustrations facing pages 114 and 124.)


=TO FRY FISH=

Fish to be fried are first well washed and dried, then dredged with
salt, pepper, and flour, then dipped in egg, and rolled in bread or
cracker crumbs. The fish should be completely incased in the egg and
crumbs, leaving no opening for the grease to enter. The same rule
applies to frying fish as to other articles (see page 72). They must
have entire immersion, and the fat smoking hot.


=TO FRY SMELTS=

Smelts, after being washed, dried, and sprinkled with salt and pepper,
are dipped in egg, then rolled in bread or cracker crumbs. The head and
tail pinned together with a small skewer, or wooden tooth-pick (to be
removed after they are fried), makes them into rings, and is a pretty
way of serving them either by themselves or for garnishing other fish
dishes. Cook only as many as will cover the bottom of the frying-basket
at one time (see rules for frying, page 72). Dress the smelts on a
folded napkin, and serve with Mayonnaise or with Tartare sauce.

[Illustration: SMELTS FRIED IN RINGS. (SEE PAGE 117.)]


=FRIED SMELTS ON SKEWERS=

Use medium sized smelts, clean carefully, and wipe them dry. Dredge them
with salt and pepper; dip them in egg and roll them in crumbs. String
three or four on each skewer, the skewer passing through the eyes. Place
them in a frying-basket, a few at a time, and immerse in very hot fat.
Prepare at a time only as many as will go in the frying-basket. The time
given to rolling them is only as long as required for the fat to regain
the right degree of heat. Dress on a napkin and serve with Mayonnaise,
Tartare sauce, or quarters of lemon.


=BROILED SMELTS=

Split the smelts down the back and remove the bone. Lay them on a hot
broiler, which has been rubbed with suet, to prevent sticking. Broil
over hot coals for two minutes on each side. Put into a dish some
Béchamel sauce, and lay the broiled fish on the sauce, or they may be
spread with maître d'hôtel sauce. Serve at once while very hot.


=FRIED FILLETS OF FISH=

Remove fillets as directed on page 112. Dip them in salted milk, roll in
flour, then in egg and fresh bread crumbs. Fry as soon as prepared in
hot fat. Fillets may also be cooked by sautéing. Arrange the fillets on
a napkin or hot dish, overlapping each other. Serve with Béarnaise,
Mayonnaise or Tartare sauce.


=WHITEBAIT=

Wash the whitebait with great care, and dry well by rubbing them in a
napkin. Roll them in flour, using enough to entirely cover them. Toss
them on a sieve to shake off the loose flour. Place them in a fine wire
basket, and immerse in smoking hot fat for one minute, or just long
enough to give them a light amber color. The fish are so small, it takes
but a moment to cook them, and there is danger of burning them by
leaving them in the fat too long. They should be crisp and dry. Only
enough to make one layer on the bottom of the basket should be fried at
once. Too many will cool the fat, and also will stick together. The fat
must be brought to the right degree of heat before putting in the second
basketful. They should be floured only just before going into the fat.
The flour becomes damp if it remains on the fish for any time, and they
will then neither take color nor become crisp. Turn them on to a paper,
sprinkle with salt, and keep them in a warm oven until all are cooked.
Have a hot dish with a folded napkin on it standing on the warming
shelf. Place the whitebait between the folds of the napkin, and serve
immediately. They cool rapidly, and should not be cooked until just in
time to serve. They are easily prepared, and very nice when crisp and
hot, but will not be right unless care is given to the small details.

Serve with quarters of lemon.

[Illustration: WHITEBAIT. (SEE PAGE 118.)]


=BOILED HALIBUT STEAKS=

Lay two chicken halibut steaks into a shallow stew pan, sufficiently
large to allow them to lie side by side. Cover them with court bouillon
or with hot water, and add a slice of carrot, onion, piece of celery,
bay-leaf, four cloves, six peppercorns, and juice of half a lemon. Let
simmer until done. Or they may be put into a baking pan, with a little
water, covered with another pan or greased paper, and steamed in the
oven until cooked. Lift out the slices with a skimmer and broad knife,
and with care not to break them; lay them on a hot dish, one a little
overlapping the other.

Garnish with boiled potato balls, and serve with egg or with Hollandaise
sauce. (See illustration facing page 124.)


=HALIBUT--TURKISH STYLE=

(RECEIPT GIVEN AT ONE OF MRS. RORER'S LECTURES)

Place on the bottom of a baking pan two or three slices of onion, then a
cutlet of halibut, and put a tablespoonful of butter cut into small bits
over the top of the fish. Cut three skinned tomatoes into quarters,
slice a sweet green pepper into ribbons, and put the tomatoes and pepper
on the fish. Put the pan on the shelf of the oven to cook first the
vegetables, but do not let it remain there long enough to discolor or
change their shape; then remove it to the bottom of the oven, baste it
well, and finish the cooking. When done place it carefully on a hot
dish, and pour over it the juice from the pan. The fish should retain
its whiteness, and the vegetables their color, giving a very pretty as
well as delicious dish.


=SCALLOPED FISH=

  2 pounds halibut or any white fish, boiled with
  1 slice onion,
  1 stalk celery,
  1 sprig parsley,
  6 peppercorns,
  4 cloves,
  1 bay-leaf,
  Juice of one-half a lemon,
  1 cupful white sauce,
  Mashed potato.

Boil two pounds of fish in court bouillon until tender enough to flake.
Make a white sauce of one tablespoonful butter, one tablespoonful flour,
one cupful of milk, salt, pepper, and cayenne. (See white sauce, page
278.) Boil four medium-sized potatoes, mash them, and season with one
half teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and a
little cream or milk; beat them until light, then add the whites of four
eggs beaten stiff.

Fill a baking dish one half full of the flaked fish, pour over it the
white sauce, and cover the top with potato, leaving the potato rough and
irregular. Place in the oven for fifteen minutes, or until browned.
Cream may be substituted for the white sauce, and enough used to
moisten well the fish. Shells or individual cups may be used instead of
a baking dish.


=SCALLOPED FISH AU GRATIN=

Make a Béchamel sauce (see page 279). Take some seasoned mashed potato,
and mix with it one beaten egg. Make with the potato a border around a
flat dish. In the center of the ring of potato spread a layer of sauce,
over this a layer of flaked cod fish, then another layer of sauce and
fish, cover the top with sauce, sprinkle it with bread crumbs and grated
cheese (parmesan or dairy), and a few pieces of butter. Bake in a hot
oven until browned, and serve in the same dish. The potato border may be
made ornamental by pressing the potato through a pastry bag with tube,
the same as is used for potato roses (see page 202). The potato will not
hold its form unless egg is mixed with it.

White sauce may be used instead of Béchamel, but is not quite as good.
One layer of fish in large flakes, covered with sauce, crumbs, and
cheese, and browned with a border of boiled potato balls laid around
regularly, is also a good way of serving it when a small quantity is
needed.


=FISH CHOPS=

  1 pound or 1 pint of fish.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.
  1/2 teaspoonful of onion juice.
  1 cupful of milk or cream.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  2 rounded tablespoonfuls flour.
  Yolks of two eggs.
  1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley.

Put in a double boiler one cupful of cream or milk; when scalded, stir
into it the butter and flour rubbed together, and cook for five minutes.
Remove from the fire and mix in, stirring all the time, the beaten yolks
of two eggs, put again on the fire, and stir until thickened.

Take one pound or pint of shredded boiled fish, sprinkle over it one
teaspoonful of salt, one half teaspoonful of pepper, one tablespoonful
of chopped parsley, ten drops of lemon juice. Mix the seasoned fish with
the white sauce, then spread it on a dish and set aside for several
hours to cool and stiffen. It will not be difficult to mold if it stands
long enough. Take a tablespoonful of the mixture in the hands, and mold
into the form of chops, round at one end and pointed at the other; roll
the chops in crumbs, then in beaten egg, then in coarse bread crumbs
grated from the loaf (see croquettes, page 293). After the chops are
molded let them stand for a time to stiffen before frying. Place them in
a basket four at a time, and immerse in hot fat until an amber color.
Place on a paper to dry. When all are done pierce a small hole in the
pointed end with a fork, and insert a sprig of parsley. Dress on a
napkin, and serve with tomato, Béarnaise, or Hollandaise sauce. Any kind
of fish may be used for the chops. (See illustration facing page 130.)

[Illustration: FISH CHOPS. (SEE PAGE 121.)]

[Illustration: FISH CHOPS.]


=FILLETS BAKED WITH CUSTARD OR TOMATOES=

Remove the fillets from any white fish, dredge them with salt and
pepper, and lay them in a baking pan, one on top of the other. Beat two
eggs, and add to them

  2 cupfuls of milk,
  1 saltspoonful of salt,
  1 saltspoonful of pepper,
  1 saltspoonful of nutmeg,
  3 soda crackers rolled to powder.

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into the pan with the fish, and set it
in the oven. When the butter is melted, add one half the milk mixture,
and baste the fish with it frequently. When the custard becomes set add
a little more of the milk, and continue the operation until the fish is
cooked. Lift the fish carefully from the pan with a pancake turner and
broad knife. Place it on a hot dish, and pile on the top the flakes of
custard. Instead of the milk mixture tomato may be used if preferred.

To one half can of tomato add

  1 teaspoonful of salt,
  1/2 teaspoonful of thyme,
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper,
  1 slice of onion,
  1 bay-leaf,
  3 cloves.

The whole of the tomato mixture may be put in the pan as soon as the
butter is melted.


=COLD FISH=

Any kind of fish which is good boiled may be served cold, and in summer
is often more acceptable in this way. Bass, trout, halibut, salmon, and
bluefish are recommended. Serve with cold Béarnaise, Mayonnaise, or
Tartare sauce. Garnish with lettuce leaves or water-cresses, and
hard-boiled eggs.


=FISH PUDDING=

  1 pound or pint boiled halibut.
  1/2 cupful of cream or milk.
  1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1/2 tablespoonful of flour.
  1-1/2 teaspoonfuls salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful pepper.
  1/2 teaspoonful onion juice.
  2 eggs.

Pound the fish in a mortar until it is thoroughly mashed, then rub it
through a purée sieve; season the fish pulp with salt, pepper, and onion
juice. Put the butter into a saucepan when melted, add the flour, and
cook for a few minutes, then add slowly the cream or milk, stirring
constantly until well scalded; then add the fish pulp, take from the
fire, add the beaten eggs, and mix thoroughly.

Butter well a border or ring mold holding a pint or little more; put in
the mixture, pressing it well against the sides to remove any air
bubbles. Cover the mold with a greased paper, and set in a pan of warm
water covering one half the mold. Place in moderate oven for thirty
minutes, and do not let the water boil. Place the form of fish on a hot
dish, fill the center with boiled potato balls (see page 203), pour over
the potato balls some Béchamel or some white sauce, sprinkle chopped
parsley over the top. Serve with the fish a generous amount of Béchamel
or of white sauce. This is a very good dish.


=FISH TIMBALE=

Cut one pound of very fresh white uncooked fish into small pieces, put
it in a mortar, and pound until the fiber is well separated from the
meat, then press it through a purée sieve. To every cupful of fish pulp
add one tablespoonful of bread crumbs soaked in milk or cream until soft
and then pressed through a sieve; add also the beaten yolk of one egg,
ten drops of onion juice, one teaspoonful of salt, one quarter
teaspoonful of pepper, and a dash of nutmeg. Beat all well together and
for some time, to make it light; then for every cupful of pulp beat in
lightly the whites of two eggs whipped very stiff. Put the mixture into
a well buttered mold, filling it only three quarters full, set it into a
pan of warm water, covering three quarters of the mold, cover the mold
with a greased paper, and place in a moderate oven for twenty minutes.
Do not let the water boil. Turn the timbale on to a hot dish, and pour
around, but not over it, a Béchamel or a tomato sauce. This is a very
delicate fish dish, and is particularly good when made of shad.


=FISH DISH FOR A PINK LUNCHEON=

Cut halibut or any firm white fish into cutlets three quarters of an
inch thick, two inches wide, and three inches long. Dredge with salt,
pepper, and paprica. Lay them in a pan so they do not touch, cover with
salted water, cover the pan, and let them steam in the oven for ten or
fifteen minutes until cooked, but remove while they are still firm
enough to retain shape. Pound the trimmings of the fish in a mortar,
pass it through a sieve, and to one half cupful of the fish pulp add a
thickening made as follows: put a dessert-spoonful of butter in a
saucepan on the fire; when it is melted add a dessert-spoonful of flour,
cook for a minute without coloring, add three tablespoonfuls of cream or
milk, a quarter teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper, remove it from
the fire. Stir in the half cupful of fish pulp and one beaten egg; color
it a delicate pink with a few drops of cochineal, beat the whole until
light, and spread the cutlets of fish with this mixture one quarter inch
thick; smooth it carefully on top and sides with a wet knife. Place the
pieces in a pan, cover, set it into another pan containing hot water,
and let steam in the oven for ten or fifteen minutes. Range the pieces
standing on end around a socle of rice or hominy (see page 326); mask
the top of the socle with prawns, or with parsley, or with water
cresses, and a few pink roses or pink carnations. Serve with Hollandaise
sauce, colored green or pink.

The pink cutlets may be garnished with capers, or with a thin slice of
pickle cut into fancy shape with cutter.

[Illustration: FISH STEAKS SAUTÉD OR BOILED, GARNISHED WITH POTATO
BALLS, WATER-CRESS, AND LEMON.]

[Illustration: CREAMED FISH IN SHELLS.]


=ROLLED FILLETS OF FLOUNDER=

Select flounders of uniform size, and large enough to make two strips
about two and a half inches wide on each side, each fish giving four
fillets. Marinate them, or else dredge with salt and pepper, and dip
into butter. Roll them, beginning at the broad end, and fasten with a
wooden tooth-pick. Egg and bread-crumb them, and fry in hot fat for
seven minutes. Fry only four at a time, that the fat may not be too much
cooled when they go in. Remove the skewer carefully, and serve with
rémoulade, Tartare, or tomato sauce.

[Illustration: TURBANS, OR ROLLED FILLETS OF FISH. (SEE PAGE 125.)]


=SHAD=

Shad may be broiled, and spread with maître d'hôtel sauce; stuffed and
baked, and served with brown sauce; or it may be boiled and served with
Hollandaise, Béchamel, or egg sauce.


=PLANKED SHAD=

Have a hardwood board one and a half or two inches thick. Split the shad
as for broiling, place it on the board with the skin side down, and
fasten with a few tacks; place the board before the fire, and roast
until done; rub it from time to time with a little butter. The plank
should be well-seasoned, and be heated before placing the shad on it, or
it will impart the flavor of the wood to the fish.

A substitute for this mode of cooking is to put into a baking-pan a
tablespoonful of drippings; when very hot lay in the shad with the skin
side up, place it under the coals, and when the skin is puffed and
blistered it is done. Turn it onto a hot dish, dredge with salt and
pepper, cover with bits of butter, and serve with quarters of lemon.


=BROILED SHAD ROE=

Wash and dry the roe with care not to break the skin, place it on a well
greased broiler, and rub it with butter once or twice during the time of
broiling; cook to a nice brown, place it on a hot dish, and cover with a
maître d'hôtel sauce.

Garnish the dish with a wreath of water cresses. This makes a good fish
course for luncheon. Shad roe may also be cooked in a sauté-pan, using
one half butter and one half drippings or lard.


=SHAD ROE CROQUETTES, NO. 1=

Put the roes from two fishes into boiling salted water, and simmer for
fifteen minutes; when cool, remove the skin, and mash them with a fork,
so the little eggs will be separated but not broken: scald one cupful of
cream or milk, and stir into it one tablespoonful of butter and two
tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed together. Take the paste on a spoon, and
stir it in the cream until dissolved. Remove from the fire, and add the
beaten yolks of two eggs and the seasoning--one tablespoonful of chopped
parsley, juice of one half a lemon, dash of nutmeg, salt, pepper, and
cayenne to taste. Place again on the fire, and stir until the sauce is
thickened; then add the mashed shad roe, pour the mixture on a dish, and
set away to cool for several hours. Form it into small croquettes, egg
and bread-crumb them, using crumbs grated from the loaf; fry in hot fat
until an amber color. Dress on a folded napkin, garnish with parsley,
and serve with Mayonnaise, Tartare, or Béarnaise sauce.

=SHAD ROE CROQUETTES, NO. 2=

Put shad roes into salted boiling water, and simmer for fifteen minutes;
remove with care not to break the skin, and place in cold water; when
cold, dry them, and with a sharp knife cut them into pieces two inches
thick; dredge them with salt, pepper, and lemon juice, dip them in
beaten egg, roll in grated white bread crumbs, place in a wire basket,
and fry in hot fat. Dress on a napkin, and serve with Tartare or
Béarnaise sauce.


=SALT MACKEREL=

Soak the mackerel for twelve hours or more, with the skin side up, and
change the water several times. Simmer it for fifteen or twenty minutes;
and, if convenient, have in the water one teaspoonful of vinegar, one
bay-leaf, one slice of onion, and a sprig of parsley. When tender, place
carefully on a hot dish, and pour over it a cream sauce; or the soaked
fish may be broiled, and spread with butter, pepper, lemon juice, and
chopped parsley.


=CREAMED MACKEREL=

Soak the mackerel for twenty-four hours, then lay it in a shallow
stew-pan, and cover with milk or cream. Simmer for fifteen minutes.
Remove the fish carefully, and place it on a hot dish. Add to the milk
or cream in the stew-pan one tablespoonful each of butter and flour
rubbed together. Stir until a little thickened, and the flour cooked;
add a little pepper and chopped parsley, and pour the sauce over the
fish.


=SALT CODFISH=

Soak the codfish several hours, changing the water three times. Simmer
it for 20 minutes or until it is tender. Take out carefully all the
bones. Make a white sauce of one tablespoonful each of butter and flour,
and one cupful of milk; add to it, off the fire, two beaten yolks.
Return to the fire, and stir in one cupful of shredded codfish. Taste to
see if it needs seasoning with salt and pepper. Serve it on slices of
toast, or place it in center of dish, and surround it with triangular
croûtons.


=CLUB HOUSE FISH BALLS=

Boil the quantity of codfish that will be needed, changing the water
once, that it may not be too salt. While the fish is hot, pick it very
fine, so that it is feathery; it cannot be done fine enough with a fork,
and should be picked by hand. At the same time have hot boiled potatoes
ready. Mash them thoroughly, and make them creamy with milk and a
good-sized lump of butter. To three cupfuls of the mashed potatoes take
one and one half cupfuls of fish. The fish should not be packed down.
Beat one egg lightly, and stir into the other ingredients; season to
taste. Beat the mixture well together and until light, then mold it into
small balls, handling lightly, and before frying, roll the balls in
flour. Fry them in smoking hot fat until a golden color.[128-*]


FOOTNOTES:

[128-*] This mixture can be spread on a pan, then marked into squares,
and baked in the oven. This method makes it a more wholesome dish for
those who are unable to eat fried preparations.--M. R.


=BROILED SARDINES ON TOAST=

Drain sardines from the can. Lay them on a broiler over hot coals for
two minutes on each side. Have ready hot toast cut the right size to
hold three of the fish. Arrange them neatly on the toast, and moisten
with a little heated oil from the can.


=FRESH FISH BALLS=

To one cupful of flaked boiled fish add a cream sauce made of one
tablespoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, and one half cupful
of milk.

Let the sauce be very stiff, so it leaves the sides of the pan; mix it
well with the fish, and when hot add two beaten eggs, pepper, and salt.
Drop the mixture, which should be like thick batter, from a spoon into
very hot fat.

It will puff, and be very light.


=SALMON=

Put salmon into hot water to preserve its color, and simmer in
acidulated water or in court bouillon, as is the rule for all fish. The
middle cuts are preferable where a small quantity only is needed. The
head piece makes a pretty cut, but is not profitable to buy, as the head
adds materially to the weight. Where a large fish is to be used for a
supper or cold dish, it may be cut in halves or sections (see page 114)
if too large for the fish kettle. Cold salmon can be elaborately
garnished with aspic, colored mayonnaise, shrimps, gherkins, capers,
etc.


=CANNED SALMON=

The canned salmon is very good, and makes a palatable emergency dish. It
can be prepared quickly, as the fish is already cooked. It may be
broiled, and spread with maître d'hôtel butter, or it can be served on
toast with cream dressing; or a white sauce can be made, and the fish
put in it to heat; or the fish may be heated in water, and served as
cutlets with Béarnaise sauce.


=SALMON CUTLETS=

Prepare salmon cutlets the same as boiled halibut steaks (page 119), or
cut them in half heart or chop shapes, roll them in egg and bread
crumbs, and fry in hot fat. Arrange them in a circle overlapping one
another, and serve with Béarnaise, Hollandaise or Tartare sauce.


=BROILED SLICES OF SALMON=

Marinate the slices for one hour. Broil on both sides; baste with
butter, so that they will not brown. Place them on a hot dish, and
sprinkle with salt, pepper, lemon juice, and chopped parsley. Serve with
them a Béarnaise sauce or quarters of lemon.


=SLICES OF SALMON WITH MAYONNAISE=

Simmer two slices of salmon in court bouillon until done; remove
carefully so as not to break them. When perfectly cold cover one side of
them with a smooth layer of mayonnaise made with jelly (see page 290),
and colored a delicate green. Arrange a row of sliced gherkins or of
capers around the edge. Place a wedge-shaped socle of bread in the
middle of a dish, and fasten it to the dish with white of egg, so that
it will be firm; rest the slices against it; conceal the side of socle
with garnish of fresh lettuce leaves. Place a bunch of parsley or
water-cress or if convenient a bouquet of nasturtium blossoms, in the
hollow center of the fish. Use hard-boiled eggs cut in halves for
further garnishing.

This makes a handsome supper dish for card or theater party. It should
be kept in a cool place until ready to serve.


=FILLETS OF SALMON FOR GREEN LUNCHEON=

Cut salmon into pieces three quarters of an inch thick and two and a
half inches square, trim them carefully, and flatten with heavy knife so
they will be uniform. Lay them in a baking-pan so they do not touch,
cover them with salted water, and simmer them in the oven for about
twenty minutes, or until well cooked, but still firm. Take them out
carefully, skin and dry them, and when cold marinate them. Make a jelly
mayonnaise (see page 290), using a little tarragon vinegar; color it
green; cover the fillets with the green mayonnaise while it is soft
enough to become perfectly smooth, and set them away in a cool, dry
place. When ready to serve place the fillets on the top of a socle made
of hominy, and ornamented on the sides with green beans and balls of
carrot, or green peas (see illustration page 322). Arrange a macédoine
of vegetables (see page 216) around the base of the socle. Serve with it
a mayonnaise dressing. One pound of salmon will cut into nine cutlets.


=CROUSTADE OF SHRIMPS=

Make a sauce the same as for lobster filling (see page 140), and
substitute potted shrimp meat for the lobster. Serve in croustades of
rice. This is a good luncheon dish, and easily prepared.



SHELL-FISH, LOBSTERS, CRABS


=OYSTERS=

Oysters are out of season during the months of May, June, July, and
August. The rule is to use oysters only in the months that have the
letter r in the name.

                               [Sidenote: How to serve on half-shell.]

When served raw, the small varieties are the best. They are left on the
deep half of the shell. Six are allowed for each person. They should be
arranged regularly on the plate around a little ice broken fine, the
valve side toward the center of plate, and in the center of the circle a
quarter of a lemon. A few sprigs of parsley or cress under the lemon
makes a pretty garnish. Black and red pepper are served with raw
oysters, and also very thin slices of buttered brown bread.

                                               [Sidenote: Precaution.]

Oysters served raw should be very fresh. It is therefore not desirable
to use them in this way when one lives inland. To prevent the chance of
any bits of shell getting into oyster dishes, they should be washed;
each oyster being taken on a fork and dipped into water. As they are
largely composed of water, this will not injure their flavor. The juice
should be strained through a coarse sieve.

Cracker crumbs are better than bread crumbs for mixing with oysters.

                                                  [Sidenote: Cooking.]

Oysters require very little cooking. They are put over the fire in their
own liquor, and removed the moment they are plump or the gills are
curled. More cooking than this makes them tough.


=FRIED OYSTERS=

Drain the oysters. Roll each one first in cracker crumbs, then in egg
mixed with a little milk, and seasoned with pepper and salt, then again
in the cracker crumbs. Use first the crumbs, as the egg will not
otherwise adhere well to the oyster. Place them in a wire basket, and
immerse in smoking hot fat. As soon as they assume a light-amber color
drain, and serve immediately.

Oysters should not be fried until the moment of serving, for they are
quickly cooked and it is essential to have them hot.

Pickles, chow-chow, horse-radish, cold-slaw, or celery salad are served
with fried oysters, and may be used as a garnish or be served
separately.


=OYSTERS À LA VILLEROI=

Prepare a _Villeroi_ sauce (see page 280). Heat the oysters in their own
liquor until plump, then remove and wipe them dry. Place them on a pan
turned bottom side up, leaving a space around each one. With a spoon
cover each oyster with the thick sauce, and set them away for several
hours to cool and harden; then trim them to good shape. Take one at a
time on a broad knife or spatula, and, holding it over a dish containing
beaten egg, coat it well with egg; then cover it with fresh bread crumbs
and draw the coating around the whole oyster. Place the rolled oysters
in a wire basket, and immerse in hot fat until an amber color. Dress
them on a folded napkin, and serve with a Béchamel sauce, or with the
same sauce with which they are coated, diluted with stock or oyster
juice. A little chopped truffle and mushrooms improve the sauce.


=BROILED OYSTERS=

Dry the oysters. Heat the broiler well, and grease it by rubbing it with
a slice of salt pork or with suet. Dip the oysters into melted butter,
or into oil, and lay them on the broiler. Broil them on both sides for
a few minutes over bright coals. Have ready some toast cut into uniform
shapes and moistened with oyster juice. On each croûton place three or
four oysters, and pour over them a little melted maître d'hôtel sauce.


=PANNED OYSTERS=

Heat a baking-pan very hot. Put into it a tablespoonful of butter; then
the oysters, which have been well drained. Let them cook in hot oven
until browned. Have ready some toast cut into even pieces; soften them
with some liquor from the pan; place three or four oysters on each
piece, and pour over them the liquor from the pan, which should be
reduced if too watery. Sprinkle with a little parsley chopped very fine.


=ROASTED OYSTERS=

Wash the shells well with a brush and cold water. Place them in a pan
with the deep half of shell down. Put them into a hot oven, and bake
until the shell opens. Remove the top shell carefully so as not to lose
the liquor. Arrange them on plates, and on each oyster place a piece of
butter and a little pepper and salt. If roasted too long the oysters
will be tough.


=OYSTERS À LA POULETTE=

  25 oysters.
  1 cupful of oyster juice.
  1 cupful of milk or cream.
  Yolks of 3 eggs.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  4 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  1 scant teaspoonful of salt.
  1 saltspoonful of pepper.
  Dash of cayenne pepper.
  Dash of nutmeg.

Scald the oysters in their liquor until plump. Put into a saucepan two
tablespoonfuls of butter; when melted stir in carefully the flour, and
cook, but not brown. Stir in slowly the oyster juice; when perfectly
smooth add the milk or cream and the seasoning. Take it off the fire,
and when a little cooled stir in the beaten yolks. Place again on the
fire, and stir until thickened; then pour it over the oysters on a hot
dish. Place a border of triangular-shaped croûtons around the dish, and
serve at once. Do not add the cream and eggs to the sauce until time to
serve, so that there may be no delay, as this dish is not good unless
hot, and if kept standing the sauce will curdle. The sauce should be of
the consistency of cream.


=SCALLOPED OYSTERS=

Place in a shallow baking-dish a layer of oysters; over this spread a
layer of bread or cracker crumbs; sprinkle it with salt, pepper, and
bits of butter; alternate the layers until the dish is full, having
crumbs on top, well dotted with bits of butter. Pour over the whole
enough oyster juice to moisten it. Bake in a hot oven fifteen or twenty
minutes, or until browned; serve it in the same dish in which it is
baked. Individual scallop-cups or shells may also be used, enough for
one person being placed in each cup.


=OYSTER FILLING FOR PATTIES=

For one dozen oysters,

  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 cupful of milk or cream.
  Yolks of 2 eggs.
  Dash of cayenne.
  Dash of mace.

Scald the oysters in their liquor; drain and cut each one into four
pieces with a silver knife. Put the butter into a saucepan, and when
melted add the flour; cook, but not brown; then add the milk or cream,
and stir until smooth; add the seasoning, and remove from the fire. When
a little cooled add the beaten yolks, stirring vigorously; place again
on the fire, and stir until thickened; then add the pieces of oysters.
The filling should be soft and creamy, and the patty cases should be
heated before the filling is put in.

This mixture is improved by using an equal quantity of oysters and
mushrooms, either fresh or canned, and should be highly seasoned. It may
be served in bread-boxes (see page 82), or in crusts prepared by
removing the crumb from rolls, then browning them in the oven. Minced
oysters and clams in equal parts, with some of their juice used in
making the sauce, also make a good filling.

The same mixture may be made into croquettes, in which case two
tablespoonfuls of flour instead of one are used, also a few more
oysters, and the sauce is allowed to become thicker (see croquettes,
page 292).


=CLAMS=

Clams are served raw on the half shell during the months that oysters
are out of season. Little Neck clams are best for this purpose, and the
smaller they are the better. The manner of serving them is the same as
for raw oysters. As many as ten or twelve are allowed for each person.


TO OPEN CLAMS

To remove clams from the shells when wanted for cooking, wash the shells
well with a brush and clear water. Place them in a saucepan or pot with
a very little hot water; cover the pot, and let them steam until the
shells open; strain the liquor through a fine cloth, or let it cool and
settle; then pour it off carefully in order to free it from sand the
shells may have contained.


=CREAMED CLAMS=

Scald the clams in their own liquor. If opened by steaming, they are
sufficiently cooked. Chop them into fine dice and measure. To each
cupful of chopped clams add one cupful of thick cream sauce. For one
cupful of sauce put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter; when
melted, stir in one tablespoonful of flour; cook, but not brown it; then
add slowly one half cupful of clam liquor and one half cupful of milk or
cream; season with pepper, and salt if necessary. Let it cook until a
smooth, thick cream, stirring all the time; add the clams only just
before serving. Pour the mixture over small pieces of toast laid on the
bottom of the dish.


=ROASTED CLAMS=

Clams are roasted in the same manner as oysters (see page 133).


=CLAM FRITTERS=

Mix chopped clams with fritter batter (see page 426), using clam liquor
instead of water in making the batter, and have the batter quite thick.
Drop the mixture from a tablespoon into hot fat, and fry until an amber
color.


=SCALLOPS=

Scallops are dried with a napkin, then rolled in cracker dust, then in
egg and crumbs, and immersed in hot fat for a minute, or just long
enough to take a light color. Mix salt and pepper with the crumbs.


=LOBSTERS=

Lobsters are in season from March to November. They are in the market
all the year, but during the off months they are light and stringy.
Their size increases with their age; therefore a small, heavy lobster is
better than a large one.

They are unwholesome if boiled after they are dead. If bought already
boiled, their freshness may be judged by the tail, which should be
curled and springy. If it is not curled up, or will not spring back when
straightened, the lobster was dead when boiled, and should be rejected.

Lobsters may be killed just before being boiled by running a pointed
knife into the back through the joint between the body and tail shells.


TO BOIL A LOBSTER

Have in a kettle enough water to entirely cover the lobster. Before it
becomes very hot take the lobster by the back and put it into the warm
water head first. This smothers instead of scalding it to death, and
seems the most merciful way of killing it. A lobster treated in this way
does not change position, and seems to have been killed instantly.
Cover the pot. When it boils, add one tablespoonful of salt, and boil
for thirty minutes. It will be tough and stringy if cooked longer.


TO OPEN A LOBSTER

After the lobster is cold, break apart the tail and body; twist off the
claws; remove the body from the shell; shake out the green, fatty
substance and the coral, and save them to mix with the meat. Remove the
stomach, which lies directly under the head, and is called the "lady";
remove also the woolly gills; break open the body, and take out the
small pieces of meat which lie under the gills; break open the claws and
remove the meat. With scissors or a knife cut the bony membrane on the
inside of the tail; remove the meat in one piece, and open it to remove
the intestine, which runs the entire length of the tail-piece. The
intestine is sometimes without color.


TO BROIL A LOBSTER

With a sharp knife cut quickly down the back, following a line which
runs down the middle of the shell. The fishman will ordinarily do this,
and it is as quick and merciful as any way of killing. The lobster may
be killed, if preferred, by running a knife into the back as directed
above, and then opened with a heavy knife and mallet. Remove the
stomach, or lady, and the intestine. Lay the two pieces on the broiler,
with the shell part down, and broil over a moderate fire for thirty
minutes or longer. Spread a little butter over it when half done, to
keep it moist; spread butter, salt, and pepper over it when done; open
the claws with a nut-cracker or mallet, and serve immediately.


TO BAKE A LOBSTER

Split the lobster open in the same way as for broiling. Remove the
stomach, or lady, and the intestine; lay the two pieces in a baking-pan;
spread over the top of each salt, pepper and butter, and sprinkle with
bread crumbs; bake about forty minutes in a hot oven; during the baking
baste it twice by pouring over it a little melted butter. Baked and
broiled lobsters are considered a great delicacy.


=LOBSTER FARCI=

  2 cupfuls of boiled lobster meat.
  1 cupful of milk or cream.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  Yolks of 3 hard-boiled eggs.
  2 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs.
  1 tablespoonful of salt.
  1 tablespoonful chopped parsley.
  1/4 nutmeg.
  Dash of cayenne pepper or of paprica.

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter; when it bubbles add one
tablespoonful of flour; cook, but not brown; add one cupful of milk
slowly, and stir until smooth; then remove it from the fire; add the
salt, the pepper, the parsley, the yolks mashed fine, and lastly the
lobster meat cut into pieces one half inch square. (Use a silver knife
to cut lobster.) Be careful, in mixing, not to break the meat. Have the
shell from which the meat was taken carefully washed and dried, leaving
on the head; cut out neatly the inside shell of the tail-piece, and fit
the two parts of the shell together. As the shell contracts in cooking,
it is well to trim off a little from the sides of the body shell in
order to leave an opening wide enough to admit a spoon in serving. Put
the meat mixture into the shell. Cover the top with the bread crumbs,
which have been moistened with one tablespoonful of butter. Place it in
the oven for a few minutes to brown. If the meat of two lobsters is
used, the shells of both may be used, or the two tail-shells may be
fitted into one body shell, which will then hold all the meat.

[Illustration: LOBSTER FARCI.]


=LOBSTER CHOPS=

The mixture for chops is prepared in the same manner as for farci,
except that the meat is cut a little finer. After it is mixed with
the white sauce, spread it on a platter to cool; when sufficiently cold,
mold into the form of chops. Then dip in egg, roll in fresh bread crumbs
(see croquettes, page 293), and immerse in hot fat until fried to an
amber color. The chops will mold better if the mixture is left for some
time to harden. The chops may also stand for some hours before being
cooked. Tin forms are made for molding chops, but they are easily shaped
without them if the mixture has stood long enough to stiffen. After they
are fried, make a little opening in the pointed end, and insert a small
claw.

Serve the chops on a napkin, and garnish with lemon and parsley.

[Illustration: LOBSTER CHOPS, SERVED STANDING.]

[Illustration: LOBSTER CHOPS.]


=LOBSTER À LA NEWBURG=

One and a half cupfuls of boiled lobster meat cut into pieces one inch
square.

  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  3/4 cup of Madeira or sherry.
  1 cupful of cream.
  Yolk of two eggs.
  1 truffle chopped.
  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
  Dash of cayenne or paprica.

Put the butter in a saucepan; when it has melted add the lobster meat,
the chopped truffle, the salt, and the pepper; cover and let simmer for
five minutes; then add the wine, and cook three minutes longer.

Have ready two yolks and one cupful of cream well beaten together; add
this to the lobster, shake the saucepan until the mixture is thickened,
and serve immediately. This dish will not keep without curdling, and
should not be put together until just in time to serve. The lobster may
be prepared and kept hot. The rest of the cooking, from the time the
wine goes in, requires but five minutes, so the time can be easily
calculated. If the mixture is stirred the meat will be broken; shaking
the pan mixes it sufficiently. This is a very good dish, and easily
prepared; but it will not be right unless served as soon as it is
cooked. The quantity given is enough for six people. Crab meat may be
used in the same way.


=LOBSTER STEW=

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter and one teaspoonful of
chopped onion. Before it takes color add one tablespoonful of flour, and
cook, but not brown. Then add slowly one cupful of water in which the
lobster was boiled, one cupful of milk, and one cupful of good stock.
Add the lobster meat, and when it has become thoroughly hot remove the
meat and place it on the dish on which it is to be served, arranging it
in the shape of a lobster as far as possible. Cut the tail-piece into
thick slices, without changing its position. Season the sauce with salt,
pepper and cayenne, and pour it over the meat. Place around the edges
triangular croûtons, and garnish with head, small claws, and tail.


=LOBSTER FILLING FOR PATTIES=

  1 cupful of lobster meat cut into dice.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  Dash of cayenne.
  2 yolks.

Put the butter into a saucepan; when melted add the flour, and cook a
few minutes, but not brown; add slowly the milk or cream, and stir until
perfectly smooth. To this white sauce add the two yolks beaten, and stir
them in off the fire; then add the meat, season, and replace on the fire
until sufficiently thickened. Mix carefully with a wooden spoon, so as
not to break the meat. The filling should be very creamy. The salpicon
given below may be used for filling, if preferred.


=SALPICON OF LOBSTER=

  1 tablespoonful of lobster meat cut into dice.
  6 mushrooms.
  1 truffle.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 teaspoonful of flour.
  1/4 cupful of white stock.
  1/4 cupful of cream.
  Salt and cayenne.

Put one level tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan, and when melted
add one level tablespoonful of flour; cook, but not brown; add slowly
the stock, and stir until perfectly smooth; then add the cream; after it
begins to thicken add the lobster meat, the chopped truffle, and the
mushrooms cut into dice. Season highly with salt and cayenne or paprica.
Let simmer for five minutes. This must be creamy, but not too soft. It
can be served as filling for patties or potato croustades, or may be
served in paper boxes. This amount makes about a cupful of salpicon,
which is enough for six patties.


=CRABS=

Crabs are in season during the months of May, June, July, and August.
They may be had at other times, but are then light and stringy.
Soft-shell crabs are best in July and August. Like lobsters, crabs must
be bought while alive, and boiled in the same way. Put them head first
into hot water. After five minutes add one tablespoonful of salt, and
boil for thirty minutes.

When cold remove the shells, the stomach, which is just under the head,
the gills, and the intestine. Take out the meat carefully.


=DEVILED CRABS=

  12 crabs.
  1 cupful of cream or milk.
  1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 tablespoonful chopped parsley.
  1 teaspoonful salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful paprica or dash of cayenne.
  1/2 teaspoonful of lemon juice.
  Yolks of 4 hard-boiled eggs.

To obtain enough meat to fill nine shells, use twelve crabs. After they
are boiled remove the meat with care, breaking it as little as possible.

Put into a double boiler the cream; when it is scalded add to it the
flour and butter, which have been rubbed together; stir until smooth and
thickened; then add the mashed yolks, the seasoning, and the crab meat.
Mix well together, and taste to see if more seasoning is needed. Deviled
crabs need to be highly seasoned. A little mustard may be used, if
desired. Have the shells carefully washed and dried, and fill them with
the mixture, rounding it well on top, and pressing it close to the edges
of the shells, so that in frying none of the fat may enter. Smooth the
top, and let stand until cold. Beat one egg with one tablespoonful of
water, and, holding a shell over this, baste it with the egg, letting it
run over the whole top, including the shell; then sprinkle with white
bread crumbs. Put two at a time into a frying-basket, and immerse in
very hot fat. It will take but a minute to color them. They may be
browned in the oven, if preferred, in which case the egging is omitted,
and a few pieces of butter are placed on top of the crumbs.


=STUFFED CRABS WITH MUSHROOMS=

  Meat of 6 crabs.
  Mushrooms cut into dice the same quantity as of the crab meat.
  1 cupful of cream or milk.
  1 slice of onion.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful of paprica, or dash of cayenne.
  1/2 teaspoonful of lemon juice.
  Yolks of 4 hard-boiled eggs.

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, and one slice of onion
chopped fine; before it becomes brown, add one tablespoonful of flour;
cook, but not brown; and add slowly one cupful of milk or cream. Stir
until smooth and thickened; then add the mashed yolks, the seasoning,
the crab meat, and the chopped mushrooms. This mixture should not be
very soft. Fill the shells with it, and finish the same as deviled
crabs.


=SOFT-SHELL CRABS=

Wash the crabs carefully; lift up the flap, and remove the sand-bag
(stomach), gills, and intestine; dry them well, and dredge with salt and
pepper. Roll in flour, and sauté them in butter. Have a generous amount
of butter in the frying-pan, and sauté them on both sides; when done
place them on a hot dish. To the butter in the frying-pan add a little
lemon juice. Strain this over the crabs, and sprinkle them with parsley
chopped very fine.

Soft-shell crabs may also be fried, in which case they are first dipped
in milk, then covered with fine bread-crumbs, and immersed in hot fat.

They may also be broiled over a slow fire, and when done covered with
maître d'hôtel sauce. The preferable way of cooking them is by the
method first given.


=OYSTER-CRABS=

After they are carefully washed and dried, dip them in milk, then roll
them in flour, and fry them for one minute in hot fat.

Serve them on a hot napkin with quarters of lemon, or they may be served
in fontage cups, or in paper boxes, or in shells. (See also
oyster-crabs, page 310.)


=CRABS ST. LAURENT=

  1 cupful of boiled crab meat (6 crabs).
  2 tablespoonfuls grated Parmesan cheese.
  2 tablespoonfuls white wine.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1/2 cupful stock.
  1/2 cupful cream or milk.
  1/2 teaspoonful salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful pepper.
  Dash of cayenne.

Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter; when melted add the
flour; cook, but not brown; add slowly the stock, and stir until
perfectly smooth; then add the cream, and when thickened, add the salt
and pepper, then the crab meat and the cheese; simmer for a few minutes,
and add the wine; spread this mixture over pieces of buttered toast cut
in squares or circles; sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese, and place
on each piece a small bit of butter; set in the oven for three minutes;
serve very hot on a napkin garnished with parsley. This dish may be
prepared in a chafing-dish, in which case the mixture must be placed on
the toast and served directly from the chafing-dish.

Boiled halibut may be substituted for the crab meat.


=CRAB STEW=

  1/2 dozen crabs.
  1 quart milk.
  Yolks of 4 eggs boiled hard.
  1/2 lemon.
  1 nutmeg.
  2 tablespoonfuls butter.
  1 tablespoonful flour.
  1 dessert spoonful mustard.
  1/2 teaspoonful salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful red pepper.

Mash the hard-boiled yolks fine, and rub into them the butter, flour and
mustard.

Put the milk into a double boiler; when it is scalded stir in the
mixture of egg, etc.; season, and just before serving stir in the crab
meat, and add one cupful of sherry. Place in bottom of a deep dish a few
thin slices of lemon and turn the stew over them.



CHAPTER IV

MEATS


                                             [Sidenote: Slow cooking.]

Long, slow cooking breaks down the fiber of meat, and so makes
it more tender. Whatever method of cooking is employed, this
fact should be remembered. Many of the tough pieces are the
most nutritious ones, and can by slow cooking be made as
acceptable as the more expensive cuts.

                                                   [Sidenote: Juices.]

In order to shut in the juices, meat should at first be
subjected to a high degree of heat for a short time. A crust
or case will then be formed on the outside by the coagulation
of the albumen, after which the heat should be lowered, and
the cooking proceed slowly. The same rule holds for baking,
where the oven must be very hot for the first few minutes
only; for boiling, where the water must be boiling and covered
for a time, and then placed where it will simmer only; for
broiling, where the meat must be placed close to the coals at
first, then held farther away.

Tough meats are better boiled, because a lower degree of
heat can be maintained and slower cooking insured.

                                        [Sidenote: Degree of cooking.]

Dark meats should be served underdone or red; the white
meats thoroughly cooked, but not dried.

                                                [Sidenote: Dry meats.]

Dry meats are improved by being larded.

                                                 [Sidenote: Cleaning.]

Clean meat by wiping it with a wet cloth, but do not put it
in water.

                                                [Sidenote: Seasoning.]

Salt and pepper draw out the juices; therefore do not put
them on meat before cooking, or until after the meat is
seared, unless the meat is to be covered at once with egg
and crumbs, or with flour.

Do not pierce the meat with a fork while cooking, as it
makes an outlet for the juices. If necessary to turn it, use
two spoons.


=TO ROAST BEEF=

Time for cooking rib roast rare eight to ten minutes per pound; time for
cooking rolled roast rare, ten to twelve minutes per pound.

To roast beef on a spit before the fire is unquestionably the best
method of cooking it; but as few kitchens are equipped for roasting
meats, baking them in the oven is generally practised, and has come to
be called roasting. Beef should be well streaked with fat, and have a
bright-red color. Place the meat to be baked on a rack which will raise
it a little above the bottom of the pan. Dredge the whole, top and
sides, with flour. Place in a corner of the pan a half teaspoonful of
salt and a quarter teaspoonful of pepper. Do not let them touch the raw
meat, as they draw out the juices. Put into the pan also two
tablespoonfuls of drippings. Place it in a very hot oven for fifteen or
twenty minutes, or until the meat is browned; then shut off the drafts
and lower the temperature of the oven, and cook slowly until done; baste
frequently; do not put water in the pan, as it makes steam, and prevents
browning. A roast has a better appearance if the ribs are not too long.
They may be cut off and reserved for the soup pot, or broken and doubled
under.

Serve it standing on the ribs, and cut the slices in line with the ribs.

For a rolled roast, remove the bones, roll it, and tie securely into
good shape; when cooked, cut the cords and run through a fancy skewer
holding at the head a slice of lemon or piece of carrot cut into
ornamental shape. This piece of beef stands on the dish like a cylinder,
and should be cut across horizontally.

If the beef is cooked as directed it will have one quarter of an inch
of seared meat; the rest will be of a uniform red color all through. If
cooked in too hot an oven the center will be raw, while an inch or two
of the outside will be much overdone, hard, and tasteless. (See
illustration facing page 152.)

[Illustration: ROLLED RIB ROAST OF BEEF GARNISHED WITH POTATOES ROASTED
IN SAME DISH WITH THE BEEF. FANCY SKEWER GARNISHED WITH SLICES OF TURNIP
AND CARROT, RUN INTO THE SIDE TO HOLD IT TOGETHER. (SEE PAGE 146.)]


=YORKSHIRE PUDDING=

Put two cupfuls of flour into a bowl, and mix in one half a teaspoonful
of salt. Beat up three eggs, and stir them into the flour; then add two
cupfuls of milk. Stir until the mixture is smooth, then turn it into a
pan containing a little of the drippings from the roast beef. Let the
batter be only one inch deep in the pan. Bake thirty to forty minutes.
Cut the pudding in squares, and place it around the roast beef.


=ROUND OF BEEF=

Ten to twelve minutes per pound.

The cut from the upper side of the round is a good roasting piece. It
should be cooked very slowly after it is browned in order to make it
tender. The under side of the round should be cooked _à la mode_, or
braised.


=BRAISED BEEF=

Take one half cupful of salt pork, one half cupful each of carrot,
turnip, onion, and celery, all cut into dice. Mix them together and
spread them on a baking pan, reserving one half cupful for the top of
the meat. On the bed of vegetables place a piece of beef cut from the
upper or under side of the round, weighing five or six pounds. Dredge it
with flour. Place it in hot oven to brown for twenty to twenty-five
minutes. Then add two cupfuls of stock or water; a bouquet of herbs,
consisting of parsley, six peppercorns, three cloves, one bay-leaf;
spread the one half cupful of vegetables over the meat; add a half
teaspoonful of salt to the pan, cover it closely with another pan,
reduce the heat of the oven, and cook very slowly for four or five
hours.

Double pans are made which are especially good for braising, where the
steam should be confined as much as possible, and the basting is done
automatically. These pans should not be used for baking meats. If very
close fitting pans are not used, the water must be renewed when
necessary, and basting done frequently. The success of this dish depends
upon slow cooking. Strain the sauce from the pan, season with salt and
pepper; pour a little of the sauce over the meat; serve the rest in a
sauce-boat. It is very like a Spanish sauce. The vegetables may be
served around the meat if desired. This way of cooking can be done in a
pot if more convenient, and is then called a pot roast.


=BEEF À LA MODE=

Use six or seven pounds of the upper round of beef for this dish. (It is
very good cold when properly cooked.) The success depends upon very slow
cooking. The vegetables give it a distinctive flavor.

Make several deep incisions into the meat with a thin, sharp knife, or
with a steel. Press into them lardoons of salt pork about half an inch
square, and two or three inches long. This is called daubing, and the
butcher will ordinarily do it if requested. Put trimmings of pork, or
two tablespoonfuls of drippings, into the bottom of a large iron pot.
When it is hot, put in the meat, and brown it on all sides by turning it
to the bottom of the pot. This will take about half an hour. Next dredge
it with flour, and brown that also. Then put a small plate under the
beef to lift it a little off the bottom of the pot, and prevent its
burning. Fill the pot with enough boiling water to half cover the meat.
Add a half cupful each of sliced onions, carrots, and turnips, and a
sprig of parsley. Cover the pot very tight, so the meat will cook in
steam; and simmer it for four or five hours. Add more boiling water when
necessary. When the meat is done, place it on a hot dish. Place some of
the vegetables around and over it. Make a gravy as follows: put into a
saucepan a tablespoonful of butter; when it bubbles, add a tablespoonful
of flour, and stir until it is browned; then add a cupful of liquor
strained from the pot in which the beef was cooked. If there is not a
cupful of liquor in the pot, add enough hot water to make that quantity.
Season with pepper and salt. This will resemble a Spanish sauce. It can
be poured over the meat, or served separately.


=BOUILLI=

This dish is prepared usually from the meat used in making soup. Take a
piece from the lower side of round; trim, and tie it into good shape;
place it in the soup pot with cold water, allowing one quart of water to
each pound of meat. Let it come slowly to the boiling point, and then
let it simmer for four hours. After it has cooked two hours add a whole
carrot, onion, and turnip, parsley, celery, six peppercorns, three
cloves, one teaspoonful of salt. The meat will be tender if cooked very
slowly, and not allowed to boil; but having been put into cold water,
its juices will be extracted. Therefore the water is used as soup, and
the meat will depend on a good sauce for flavor. Any rich brown sauce
will do. Tomato or horseradish sauce is recommended. Cut the vegetables
into fancy shapes with cutters, or into dice, and place them on the dish
around the meat.


=FILLET OF BEEF=

Time, thirty minutes in hot oven.

The fillet is the tenderloin of beef, and is taken from the underside of
the sirloin cut. Remove, taking care not to make the meat ragged, the
sinewy skin and the muscle from the top, and most of the fat from the
other side. Fold the thin end under, trim it into good shape. Lard it
plentifully, letting the whole upper surface be perforated with fine
lardoons. Place in a small baking pan thin slices of larding pork, over
the pork place a layer of chopped onion, carrot, turnip and celery; lay
the tenderloin on top. Pour in the pan a cupful of stock, add one half
teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and a bouquet of
parsley, one bay-leaf, and two cloves. Bake in a hot oven for thirty
minutes, and baste frequently. The fillet should be rare. Remove it when
done; strain off the gravy, and skim off the grease. Put into the same
pan a tablespoonful each of butter and of flour; stir until they are
browned; then add slowly the gravy strained from the pan; if not enough
to give a cupful, add enough stock to make that measure. Stir until it
boils; then add a canful of mushrooms (which have been drained), and let
them simmer for five minutes; not longer, or the mushrooms will harden.
Taste to see if the seasoning is right. Add a half teaspoonful of
kitchen bouquet to make it brown. The sauce should be of the consistency
of cream. A half cupful of Madeira or of sherry may be used in place of
the mushrooms if preferred. Spread the sauce on the serving dish, and
lay the fillet on it. Arrange the mushrooms top side up, evenly around
the fillet. In carving cut the fillet diagonally, instead of straight
across; and put a little gravy in the center of each slice. The time for
cooking is always thirty minutes, for the weight is in the length, and
not in the thickness of the meat.


=HOW TO BUY A FILLET=

A profitable way to obtain a fillet is to buy a large cut of the
sirloin, remove the tenderloin, and have the top cut into two or more
roasting pieces. Beef will keep for some time, and the butcher will hold
it until called for. In this way it will cost twenty-two to twenty-five
cents per pound, while, if bought by itself, it would be from eighty
cents to one dollar per pound.

For a moderate sized family it may seem too much beef to buy at one
time; but it is the one kind of meat that can be served very often, and
there is no waste. It is good hot or cold, warmed over or hashed. The
suet is the best fat for frying purposes, and the bones make good soup.
Part of the sirloin piece can be cut into steaks, and one of the
roasting pieces rolled to give variety. The flank can be made into
Hamburg steaks, or into soup. If judiciously cut there will be little
left over to cook again.


=COLD ROAST BEEF=

Roasted and braised beef are both quite as good cold as hot, and in
summer are sometimes preferable cold. Serve with cold beef a vegetable
salad when it is used for dinner. Make the salad of string beans,
asparagus, or a macédoine of vegetables. For a supper dish, the rolled
rib roast can be made very attractive by garnishing it with aspic jelly
cut into fancy forms. Place a large star of the jelly on top, and small
timbale forms of jellied vegetables, and broken jelly on the dish around
the meat; or a simpler garnishing can be made with lettuce leaves,
tomatoes stuffed with mayonnaise, or celery, etc. Use lettuce with any
of the salads. Have a fancy skewer stuck in the side.


=SCALLOPED MEAT=

Spread in a baking dish alternate layers of bread-crumbs, meat chopped
very fine, a sprinkling of chopped parsley and onion, pepper and salt.
When the dish is nearly full, pour over enough white sauce to moisten it
well; cover with crumbs and bits of butter. Set in oven until browned.
Soup stock or tomatoes may also be used for moistening a scallop. If
uncooked meat is used, it will require longer cooking (one hour in slow
oven), and more liquid used, so that it will not get too dry. The coarse
ends of steak can be utilized in this way. A scallop made of raw meat
and tomatoes makes a good luncheon dish.


=HAMBURG STEAKS=

Chop one pound of lean raw meat very fine, remove all the fiber
possible. To the mince add

  1/2 tablespoonful of onion juice.
  1/2 teaspoonful salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful pepper.
  Dash of nutmeg.
  1 egg.

Form it into small balls, and flatten; dredge them with flour, and sauté
them in butter. Place them on a hot dish, and spread with maître d'hôtel
butter; or make a thick brown sauce by adding a tablespoonful of flour
to the butter used in the sauté pan. Let it brown; then add slowly a
little soup stock. Season with salt and pepper, and lemon juice, or
Worcestershire sauce. Drop a teaspoonful of sauce on each cake without
spreading it. Garnish with water-cresses. These steaks can be made from
the end pieces of steaks, or from the round.

When made for invalids, the best meat is used. They are seasoned only
with salt and pepper, and broiled just enough to be thoroughly heated.
Another way to serve them is to make them the size of English muffins;
on the upper side make a depression or hollow, broil or sauté them, and
place them on a baking dish; spread them with maître d'hôtel butter, and
drop an egg in the hollow top of each one. Put them in the oven just
long enough to set the white of the egg. Place a dash of pepper on the
center of the yolk, and serve at once very hot.


=BEEF PIE=

Lay in a pie dish a few thin slices of onion; then a layer of cold
cooked beef cut very thin. Dredge with a little flour, pepper, and salt;
fill the dish with these articles in alternate layers, and add any cold
gravy there may be at hand. Scald and peel enough tomatoes to cover the
top of the dish; have them of uniform size, and place them close
together. Spread over them some bread crumbs, salt, pepper, and bits of
butter. Place the dish in the oven, and cook until the tomatoes are
tender.

Mutton or veal may be used in the same way.


=WARMED-OVER BEEF (CHAFING-DISH)=

Cut the beef into small thin slices, and trim off the fat. Put into a
stew pan one tablespoonful of butter, and one tablespoonful of flour.
When cooked, and a little browned, add slowly one cupful of stock, one
teaspoonful each of Worcestershire sauce and mushroom catsup. Season
with salt and pepper to taste. Add the slices of beef, and let them
become thoroughly hot. Then place in the center of a hot dish, and
pour the sauce over them. Garnish with croûtons, and serve with it
farina balls (see page 223). Tomato catsup may be substituted for the
Worcestershire sauce. When this dish is to be prepared in a
chafing-dish, the sauce may be made beforehand; the heating and mixing
only being done over the lamp, and croûtons alone served with it. Any
kind of meat or fish may be used in this way.


=INSIDE FLANK=

Take the piece of meat called the inside flank; wipe it clean with a wet
cloth; carefully remove the skin and fat and lay it flat on a board;
moisten three quarters of a cupful of crumbs with stock; add one
teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, one teaspoonful
onion juice or one half onion chopped fine, one tablespoonful chopped
parsley. Spread this mixture on the meat evenly; then roll and tie it
with white twine; turn in the ends to make it even and shapely.

Cut into dice an onion, turnip, and carrot, and place them in a
baking-pan; lay the rolled meat on the bed of vegetables; pour in enough
stock or water to cover the pan one inch deep; add a bouquet made of
parsley, one bay-leaf and three cloves; cover with another pan, and let
cook slowly for four or five hours, basting frequently. It can be done
in a pot just as well, and should be covered as tight as possible; when
cooked, strain off the vegetables; thicken the gravy with brown roux and
serve it with the meat. Long, slow cooking is essential to make the meat
tender. If cooked too fast it will not be good.

A thin steak cut from the round may be cooked the same way, and a little
ham chopped fine may be added to the stuffing. The cost of this dish is
not more than eighteen to twenty-five cents, and is enough for four or
five persons.


=RAGOUT OF BEEF=

Cut two pounds of the upper round of beef into inch squares; dredge them
with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour. Put into a saucepan some
butter and some drippings, or a little suet, and let it try out, using
enough only to cover the bottom of the saucepan; when the grease is hot,
turn in the pieces of meat, and let them cook until well browned on all
sides. Watch, and turn them as soon as browned; then draw the meat to
one side of the pan, and add a tablespoonful of flour; let the flour
brown, and add a cupful of stock or water, and stir until it comes to
the boiling-point; then add a teaspoonful of salt, a half teaspoonful of
pepper, one half teaspoonful of kitchen bouquet; one carrot cut into
blocks, and one tablespoonful of onion; cover the saucepan, and let it
simmer (not boil) for an hour. Just before serving add two
tablespoonfuls of sherry or of Madeira. Serve a border of rice around
the ragout.



BEEFSTEAK


Some one has said, "There is as much difference between
beefsteaks as between faces; and a man of taste can find as
much variety in a dinner at the Beefsteak Club as at the
most plentifully-served table in town."

                                                [Sidenote: Thickness.]

                                                   [Sidenote: Sauces.]

The difference between a thick and a thin steak is particularly
marked--the former seems like an altogether different dish
from the latter. Some may like their steak well done, but it
is not a taste to be commended. A perfect steak should be cut
one and a half inches thick, and cooked so that on both sides
it has a crust one eighth of an inch thick of browned meat,
the rest being an even red color. It should be puffed and
elastic from the confined steam of the juices. When the steak
is over-cooked the steam and the juices have escaped, leaving
the meat dry and tasteless. The three best sauces which are
served with steak are first the maître d'hôtel and then the
Béarnaise and mushroom sauces. Tough beefsteaks can be made
more tender by pounding them; but a better way is to brush
them on both sides with a mixture of one tablespoonful of
vinegar and two tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter. The
steak should then stand two or more hours before being cooked.
It is the fiber of meat which makes it tough, and this fiber
is soluble in acetic acid, which is found in vinegar. Broiling
under the coals is better than over them when possible, as all
smoke is then avoided.



=TO BROIL A BEEFSTEAK=

Time: one inch thick, eight minutes; one and a half inches thick, ten
minutes.

Trim a steak into good shape, taking off the end-piece to be used in
some other form, as it is not eatable when broiled; take off superfluous
fat; make the surface smooth by striking it with the broad blade of
knife; heat the broiler very hot. Take a piece of the fat, trimmed off
the meat, on a fork and grease the broiler well; lay on the steak with
the outside or skin edge toward the handle, so the fat may run on the
meat. Place it close to the hot coals and count ten slowly; turn it and
do the same; this is to sear the outside and keep the juices in; then
hold it farther from the coals to cook more slowly, and turn it as often
as you count ten, counting about as fast as the clock ticks. If turned
in this way very little fat will run into the fire, and it also cooks
slowly, giving an even color all through. The flame from fat does not
injure the meat, but the smoke must be avoided. Wrap a napkin around the
hand holding the broiler to protect it from the heat. A steak ought not
to be less than an inch, but should be one and a half to one and three
quarters inches thick. Allow eight to ten minutes for cooking according
to the thickness. One two inches thick will take fourteen to eighteen
minutes. A steak should be rare but not raw, should have a uniform red
color, and be full of juice.

When done it will be puffed between the wires of broiler, and will offer
a little resistance to the touch. If experience does not enable one to
judge in this way, remove the broiler to a dish on the table, and make a
small clean cut on one side. Do not at any time pierce the meat with a
fork. Sprinkle it with salt and pepper, and spread with maître d'hôtel
butter. If the steak has to stand a few minutes before serving, which
should be avoided if possible, dredge it at once with salt and pepper,
but do not spread with the maître d'hôtel butter until just before
sending it to the table. The heat of the meat must melt the butter, and
the parsley should look fresh and bright. Steak, as well as all broiled
articles, should be garnished with slices of lemon and with water-cress.

Fried potato-balls, straws, puffed, or Saratoga potatoes may be served
on the same dish.


=CHATEAUBRIAND=

The Chateaubriand is cut from the center of the fillet; but a good
substitute is a tenderloin steak cut two inches thick, the bone removed,
and the meat then turned so as to make a circle. Flatten it by striking
with broad blade of knife or a cleaver. Broil slowly as directed above
for eighteen minutes. Serve with maître d'hôtel butter, mushroom, or
olive sauce, placing the mushrooms or olives on top of the steak, the
sauce under it. (See illustration facing page 152.)

The Chateaubriand may also be roasted or braised.

[Illustration: A BONED TENDERLOIN STEAK MADE TO IMITATE A CHATEAUBRIAND
GARNISHED WITH WATER-CRESS AND LEMON. (SEE PAGE 157.)]


=MIGNON FILLETS=

Cut slices from the end of the fillet of beef about five eighths of an
inch thick. Press and trim them into circles; dredge with salt and
pepper; sauté them in butter; spread Béarnaise sauce on a hot dish, and
lay the mignon fillets on it, or lay the fillets on croûtons of the same
size as the fillet, and place on top of each one a small spoonful of
peas, string-beans, or macédoine of vegetables.


=CORNED BEEF=

Put corned beef into cold water; using enough to cover it well; let it
come slowly to the boiling-point; then place where it will simmer only;
allow thirty minutes or more to each pound. It is improved by adding a
few soup vegetables the last hour of cooking. A piece from the round is
the best cut, and should have a layer of fat. If cooked very slowly as
directed, it will be tender and juicy.

If the piece can be used a second time, trim it to good shape; place it
again in the water in which it was boiled; let it get heated through;
then set aside to cool in the water and under pressure, a plate or deep
dish holding a flat-iron being set on top of the meat. The water need
not rise above the meat sufficiently to wet the iron. When cooled under
pressure the meat is more firm and cuts better into slices.

Cabbage is usually served with hot corned beef, but should not be boiled
with it. The receipt given on page 212 is recommended, and if that
method is followed, there will be no odor from the cooking, and the
objection to this very good dish will be removed.


=CORNED BEEF HASH=

Chop cooked corned beef, using some of the fat. Do not make it too fine;
chop some cold boiled potatoes (not fine); mix the two together in equal
proportions; season with salt, pepper, and onion juice, if liked.

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a frying-pan with as much milk, stock,
or hot water as will be required to moisten the hash; add the chopped
meat and potatoes; mix them together with care to not mash the potatoes;
cover and cook slowly for half an hour, or until a crust has formed on
the bottom of the pan; then turn it on to a hot dish, like an omelet.
Hash should not be like mush, but the meat and potato quite distinct,
and as both ingredients have been already cooked they need only to be
well heated and incorporated with the seasoning.


=HASH=

Unless for brown hash, or corned beef hash, potato is not used. Chop the
meat to a fine mince. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a frying-pan
with one slice of onion; remove the onion when cooked, and add one
tablespoonful of flour, and let it brown, thus making a brown roux, if
the hash is to be made of beef or mutton. Do not let it brown if it is
to be used for veal or chicken hash. To the brown roux add slowly a
cupful of stock or hot water; then a cupful and a half of minced meat;
season with salt and pepper; stir until well incorporated, and serve at
once on toast. To a white roux add slowly a cupful of milk; then add one
and a half cupfuls of veal or chicken chopped fine; season with salt and
pepper. Cut toast into large circles with a biscuit-cutter. Spread them
with a thick layer of mince, and on this place a poached egg, neatly
trimmed to the same size as the toast. It can be cut with the same
cutter, or it may be poached in a muffin-ring (see page 263).

Put a dash of pepper on the center of yolk. Garnish with parsley. This
makes a very presentable breakfast or luncheon dish.


=BROWN HASH=

Cut lean meat into small dice; cut also cold boiled potatoes into dice
of the same size; mix them together, and place in a small baking-pan;
dredge with salt and pepper, and dot plentifully with bits of butter.
Put into hot oven to brown; stir them often so all sides will brown
alike, and do not let them become too dry.


=MARROW-BONES=

Have the bones cut into pieces two or three inches long; scrape and wash
them very clean; spread a little thick dough on each end to keep the
marrow in; then tie each bone in a piece of cloth and boil them for one
hour. Remove the cloth and paste, and place each bone on a square of
toast; sprinkle with red pepper and serve very hot. Or the marrow-bone
can be boiled without being cut, the marrow then removed with a spoon
and placed on squares of hot toast. Serve for luncheon. (See
illustration facing page 152.)

[Illustration: MARROW-BONES SERVED ON ROUND SLICES OF TOAST. (SEE PAGE
159.)]



MUTTON


                           [Sidenote: The cuts and cooking of Mutton.]

Mutton should be hung for some days before being used. The leg
may be either boiled or roasted; the saddle always roasted;
the shoulder boned, stuffed and roasted; the chops broiled,
and the neck stewed. Except where it is stewed, mutton should
be cooked rare. Mrs. Brugière recommends pounding the leg of
mutton before cooking it. The roasted leg or the saddle are
the only forms of mutton permissible to serve at a ceremonious
dinner. The strong taste of mutton is in the fat. Therefore
trim off a part of the fat from the outside, and when baking
it in the oven set the joint on a rack in the pan, so it will
not cook in the fat.

                          [Sidenote: Vegetables to serve with Mutton.]

                                 [Sidenote: Anecdote of Charles Lamb.]

Certain vegetables have by experience been found to go well
with certain meats. Of these turnips have been established
as the accompaniment of mutton. This has been amusingly
emphasized by an anecdote told of Charles Lamb. On an occasion
when riding in a stage coach, he was much annoyed by a Scotch
farmer, who was a fellow passenger, asking him questions about
the crops. "And pray, sir," asked the farmer, "how are turnips
t' year?" "Why," stammered Lamb, "that will depend upon the
boiled legs of mutton."

Turnips and carrots cut into dice, boiled separately, then
mixed and covered with white sauce, also make a good vegetable
dish for boiled mutton. Caper sauce is always served with it.

Another anecdote is given as a suggestion for an expedient
in case the mutton is too underdone (boiled mutton should be
red, but not black). An English nobleman, on being shown a
Dutch picture representing a man in a passion with his wife
because the mutton was underdone, exclaimed, "What a fool
the fellow is not to see that he may have a capital broil."

With roasted mutton may be served baked turnips stuffed with
seasoned bread-crumbs soaked in cream. It is a Russian dish.
Bananas cut in two, rolled in egg and crumbs, and fried like
croquettes, are also recommended for roast mutton. Mint
sauce and green peas are usually served with spring lamb.


=ROAST LEG OF MUTTON=

Time ten minutes per pound (rare); fifteen minutes per pound (moderately
well done).

Cut the bone short, place in a hot oven for twenty minutes; then add one
cupful of hot water; baste frequently. Allow ten minutes to the pound
for cooking rare. When ready to serve conceal the bone with a frill of
paper, or a few leaves of parsley.


=ROAST LOIN OF MUTTON=

Have the joints cracked entirely through, so there may be no trouble in
carving. Remove the fat and kidney. Allow nine minutes to the pound;
roast the same as the leg.


=ROAST SADDLE OF MUTTON=

The saddle is the back of the animal. If split it would be called the
loin, and when cut gives the chops. It does not furnish very much meat
for a roast, so requires to be a large cut. It is esteemed for its
handsome appearance, as well as for its flavor. Remove the skin from the
top, also the fat and kidneys from the under side. The suet on the top
can be lightly cut in points, and a little raised to make decoration.
Roll the flaps under, and tie into a well rounded shape. If a large
saddle is used, the tail is left on. It should be cooked in a hot oven,
basted frequently, and cooked rare, allowing nine minutes to the pound.
In carving cut slices the length of the saddle, and parallel to the back
bone; then slip the knife under, and separate them from the rib bones.
After the top is carved, the saddle is turned, and the tenderloin, which
lies on the under side, is cut in the same way.

Serve currant jelly with the saddle of mutton.


=ROLLED LOIN (CROWN ROAST)=

Have the butcher cut a full loin, split the bone between the chops, trim
the rib bones as for French chops, and chop them off to a uniform
length; then roll the loin backward into a circle, and tie securely.
Have a thick slice of larding pork wrapped around each bone, so it will
not burn while cooking. Baste frequently while roasting, and allow nine
minutes to the pound. Serve with Saratoga or other fancy fried potatoes
in the basket-like top formed by the bones. Place a frill of paper on
each bone.

[Illustration: CROWN ROAST. A RACK OF MUTTON, THE CENTER FILLED WITH
SARATOGA POTATOES. (SEE PAGE 162.)]

[Illustration: CROWN ROAST PREPARED FOR COOKING.]


=SHOULDER OF MUTTON STUFFED=

Have the butcher carefully remove the blade from the shoulder, and fill
the space with a mixture made of

  1 cupful of bread-crumbs.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 tablespoonful chopped parsley.
  1 dozen oysters.
  Juice of 1 lemon.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  1 egg.

Sew up the opening, roast in the oven with a little water in the pan;
allow fifteen minutes to the pound, and baste frequently. Serve with the
gravy from the pan, after the grease is carefully poured off. More
oysters may be used, or they may be omitted altogether. A stuffing may
be made of chopped meat, celery, onion, mushrooms, crumbs, egg, and
seasoning of salt and pepper.

A stuffed shoulder can be pressed into a shape to resemble a fowl or a
duck, and garnished so as to make an ornamental dish.

[Illustration: BONED AND STUFFED SHOULDER OF MUTTON. (SEE PAGE 163.)]


=BOILED MUTTON=

Time fifteen minutes to the pound.

Put the mutton in just enough boiling water to cover it, and put on the
lid of the pot. After fifteen minutes draw it aside, and let it simmer
for the required time. Thirty minutes before removing the meat add some
soup vegetables. They will give flavor to the meat, and enrich the
water, which may be used for soup the next day. Cut the carrot and
turnip in half inch thick slices, and stamp with a fluted cutter, so the
rims will be scalloped. Place the meat on a hot dish, and rub lightly
over it enough of the white sauce (to be used for the caper sauce) to
make the surface white and smooth. Sprinkle with chopped parsley or
capers. Take the sliced vegetables, cut a hole in the center, and string
them alternately on the bone, which will protrude at each end. This will
give the effect of skewers, conceal the bone, and make the dish more
presentable.

Serve with caper sauce.


=CAPER SAUCE=

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan; when melted, add a
tablespoonful of flour; cook for a few minutes, but not brown; then add
one cupful of water in which the mutton was boiled; season with salt and
pepper, strain, and add one heaping tablespoonful of capers.


=RAGOUT OF MUTTON OR LAMB=

One and one half pounds of the neck of mutton or lamb cut into pieces
one inch square.

  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 onion.
  1 carrot.
  1/2 can of peas.
  1-1/2 cupfuls of water or stock.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  Sprig of parsley.
  1 bay-leaf.
  1 clove.

Put the butter into a frying-pan; when melted add the flour, and let
brown. Then add the carrot and onion cut into dice, and the mutton.
Cook, stirring frequently, until all are browned, using care that they
do not burn; it will take about twenty minutes. Then add the stock or
water, and the seasoning, having the herbs in a bouquet, so they can be
removed. Cover closely, and let simmer for two hours. Add the peas ten
minutes before removing from the fire.


=RAGOUT OF COLD BOILED MUTTON=

  2 cupfuls of cold boiled mutton cut in inch squares.
  1 onion sliced.
  1 cupful of stock or water in which mutton was boiled.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1/2 can of peas.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  1 head of lettuce.
  Farina balls.

Put all the ingredients, except the lettuce and farina balls, into a
saucepan together; cover closely, and simmer very slowly for one hour;
stir occasionally, but with care not to break the meat or peas. When
ready to serve, taste to see if the seasoning is right, and pour on a
hot dish. Lay around the edge, and close to the meat, the crisp leaves
of one head of lettuce, and the farina balls (see page 223). This way of
utilizing cold mutton will be found very good. The garnishing makes it a
presentable dish, and is a good accompaniment in place of other
vegetables.

[Illustration: RAGOUT OF MUTTON GARNISHED WITH FARINA BALLS AND LETTUCE.
(SEE PAGE 165.)]


=IRISH STEW=

Cut the neck of mutton into pieces two and one half or three inches
square. Put them into a saucepan with one tablespoonful of butter, and
let them brown; stir frequently so they do not burn. When browned add
enough water to cover them well, and two or three onions cut into
pieces. Cover closely and let simmer two hours. Then add more water if
necessary, some parboiled potatoes cut in two, and a few slices of
carrot, salt, and pepper to taste; cover and let cook one hour more. A
teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce is an improvement. The gravy must be
quite thick, so too much water must not be used. The potatoes should be
very soft, but not broken.


=MUTTON CHOPS=

Loin chops should be cut one and one fourth inches thick, and the fat
trimmed off, leaving them round; or the end pieces may be pared off
thin, wrapped around the chops, and fastened with a skewer, making the
chop into the form of a circle.

The breast chops are cut a little thinner, the bones scraped and cut
into even lengths. They are called French chops when the bones are bare.
Whichever kind of chops are used, they should be all of uniform size and
shape.

Broil the chops over or under hot coals, turning the broiler as often as
you count ten slowly, using the same method as in broiling steak. When
the meat offers a little resistance and is puffy, it is done. If cooked
too long the chops will be hard and dry. If properly seared at first the
juices are shut in, and the inflation is caused by the confined steam
from the juices. It will take eight to ten minutes to broil chops which
are one inch thick. When done sprinkle over them a little salt and
pepper and butter. Dress them on a hot dish in a circle, the chops
overlapping.

Green peas, string-beans, or any small vegetable, or fancy-fried
potatoes, such as balls, straws, Saratoga, etc., may be served on the
same dish, and placed in the center of the circle, or around the chops.
Spinach or mashed potato pressed into form of socle may be used, and the
chops rested against it, the bones pointing up or slanting. Paper frills
placed on the ends of the bones improve their appearance.

[Illustration:
  THREE KINDS OF MUTTON CHOPS.

  1. English Mutton Chop.
  2. French Chop.
  3. Boned and Rolled Chop.
  (See page 165.)]


=CHOPS IN PAPER CASES=

Put into a frying-pan some slices of salt pork; when tried out, lay in
neatly trimmed and seasoned lamb or veal chops; let them sauté until
half cooked; remove the chops, and to the pan add a tablespoonful of
onion chopped fine; when the onion is cooked add a cupful of stock and a
cupful of mixture containing minced veal or chicken, a little ham, and
mushrooms, chopped parsley, and truffles if convenient; salt and pepper
to taste. Put a spoonful of this sauce on a well-buttered or oiled
paper, cut in heart-shape; lay the chop on the sauce, and on the chop
put another spoonful of the sauce. Fold the paper over, and plait the
edges together so as to completely enclose the chop. Lay the enclosed
chops on a buttered dish, and place them in the oven for ten minutes;
serve on the same dish very hot. Chops can also be broiled in
well-greased paper, and with a little care it is easily done without
burning the paper. Heavy writing paper should be used; the fire should
be moderate, and the chops turned frequently. They are served in the
papers, and are very good, as they hold all the juices of the meat.


=CHOPS À LA MAINTENON=

Put one tablespoonful of butter in a frying-pan; when hot add one
tablespoonful of flour; let the flour cook a few minutes; then add four
tablespoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, one teaspoonful of parsley, one
half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of pepper; moisten with three
tablespoonfuls of stock; mix well together and set aside to cool. Have
six French chops cut one inch thick. With a sharp knife split the chops
in two without separating them at the bone; spread the mushroom mixture
between the opened chops; press the edges well together, and broil for
eight minutes; serve with an olive sauce.


=SPRING LAMB=

Spring lamb is best when two months old. It must be used when fresh, and
must be thoroughly cooked, but not dried. It is divided into the fore
and hind quarters, the whole of either not being too much to serve at
one time; the former are less expensive than the latter, but the meat is
equally sweet and good. Roast it in a hot oven with a little water in
the pan; allow fifteen to eighteen minutes to the pound, and baste
frequently; serve with it mint sauce, and green peas or asparagus tips
for vegetable.

When using a fore quarter, have the bones well cracked, so that in
carving it may be cut into squares, or have the shoulder blade removed.
A very good dressing may be made on the table as follows: cut around the
shoulder bone; lift and place under it two tablespoonfuls of butter,
the juice of one lemon, one teaspoonful of salt, one half teaspoonful of
pepper. Press the pieces together, and let stand a minute to melt the
butter before carving.



VEAL


The flesh of veal should be pink and firm, the bones hard. If it has a
blue tinge and is flabby, it has been killed too young, and is
unwholesome. Like lamb, it must be used while perfectly fresh and be
thoroughly cooked. It contains less nourishment than other kinds of
meat; also, having less flavor, it requires more seasoning. Veal is
frequently used as a substitute for chicken. It can be made into
croquettes and salads very acceptably.


=ROAST FILLET OF VEAL=

The fillet is cut from the upper part of the leg, and should be four to
six inches thick. Only one good fillet can be cut from the leg. Press
and tie it into good round shape. Lay a few slices of larding pork over
the top. Place it in very hot oven for fifteen minutes; then lower the
heat; baste frequently with water from the pan; allow eighteen to twenty
minutes to the pound. It must be thoroughly cooked, but not dried.
Remove the slices of pork from top a half hour before it is done, so it
may brown. The bone may be removed from the fillet before cooking, and
the space filled with stuffing made of crumbs, sweet herbs, pepper and
salt, and a little chopped salt pork. Thicken the gravy in pan to serve
with the fillet.


=STUFFED SHOULDER OF VEAL=

Twenty to twenty-five minutes per pound.

Have the blade removed, and fill the space with a stuffing made of bread
crumbs, thyme, marjoram, lemon juice, chopped salt pork, salt and
pepper, and an egg; also chopped mushrooms, if desired. Sew up the
opening, press and tie it into good shape, and roast the same as the
fillet. The stuffing may also be made of minced veal cut from the
knuckle, highly seasoned.


=FRICANDEAU OF VEAL=

The fricandeau is the most choice cut of veal. It is taken from the
upper round of the leg, and is one side of the fillet. As it destroys
that cut, it commands the highest price. It should be cut four inches
thick, and is usually larded and braised. Place it in a baking-pan on a
layer of sliced salt pork, and chopped carrot, onion, and turnip. Add a
bouquet of herbs, a cupful of stock, and enough water to fill the pan
one and a half inches deep. Cover closely, and let cook in moderate
oven, allowing twenty minutes to the pound; baste frequently. Remove the
cover for the last half hour, so the meat may brown. Strain the gravy
from the pan to serve with it.


=VEAL CUTLETS=

Leave the cutlet whole or cut it into pieces of uniform size and shape;
dredge with salt and pepper; dip in egg and cover with bread crumbs or
with flour; sauté cutlets in drippings, or in a frying-pan after slices
of salt pork have been tried out. Cook until well browned on both sides;
then place them on a hot dish and moisten the top with a little lemon
juice; or, omitting the lemon juice, serve with them a tomato or a
Béarnaise sauce, or make a gravy by adding a little flour to the grease
in the pan, and diluting to right consistency, after the flour is
browned, with stock or water. If the gravy is used, put it in the bottom
of the dish and place the cutlets on it.


=A PLAIN POT-PIE=

Cut veal, chicken, or beef into pieces; put them with strips of pork
into boiling water and cook until tender; season with salt, pepper, and
butter. There should be enough liquid to make a generous amount of
gravy. When the stew is ready cook the dumplings, and place them on the
same dish around the stew. If suet dumplings are used, they must be
placed in the pot as soon as it boils in order to cook them a sufficient
length of time. It is better to cook either kind of dumplings in a
separate pot with plenty of water, and not remove them until the stew is
dished and ready to be sent to the table.


=DUMPLINGS WITH BAKING POWDER=

  2 cupfuls of flour.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
  1 cupful of milk.

Mix the flour, salt, and baking powder well together, then stir in
quickly the milk. Have the dough quite soft. Drop the batter from a
spoon into the stew, or into boiling water; or, if preferred, make the
dough just consistent enough to roll, and cut it into squares. The stew
must not be allowed to stop simmering after the dumplings are in; and
they must be served immediately after being taken from the pot, or they
will fall. It will take ten minutes to cook them.


=DUMPLINGS WITH SUET=

  1 cupful of chopped suet.
  2 scant cupfuls of flour.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 cupful of cold water.

Mix together lightly the flour, suet and salt; then with a knife stir in
quickly the water. The dough must be soft, but not sticky. Put it on a
board, and roll it lightly to one inch thickness, and place it on the
boiling stew in one cake. The stew must not stop boiling for a moment,
or the dumpling will fall. Cook for one hour. The dough may be rolled
into balls if preferred. When the dumpling is put in, draw the pot
forward where it will heat quickly, and not arrest the boiling. When it
is thoroughly hot, place it where it will simmer continually during the
hour of cooking. If this rule is observed, it will be light and spongy.
Where cooked meat is used, which does not require such long cooking, the
dumplings may be boiled in water.

This mixture can be used for fruit and for roly-poly puddings (see page
443).


=JELLIED VEAL=

Wipe a knuckle of veal clean with a wet cloth; have it well broken. Put
it in a saucepan with two quarts of water, or enough to cover it. Tie in
a piece of cheese-cloth one tablespoonful each of chopped onion, carrot,
and turnip, a little parsley and celery, three cloves, and a blade of
mace. Put it in the pot. Boil slowly until the veal falls from the bone;
then strain it, and put the liquor again in the saucepan; season it with
salt, pepper, and a little lemon juice. Reduce it to one quart by
boiling with the cover off the saucepan. Cut two hard-boiled eggs into
thin slices, and with them ornament the bottom of a plain mold; a brick
ice-cream mold, or a small tin basin will do. Put a very little of the
liquor in to fix the ornament, but not enough to float the egg slices.
When set add a little more of the liquor, enough to make a layer of
jelly one quarter of an inch thick. When that is set fill the mold with
the veal, and place slices of boiled egg between the layers of meat.
Around the sides of the mold lay in slices of egg. Then pour in as much
of the liquor as it will hold, and set away to harden. This makes a good
cold dish to use with salad.

[Illustration: JELLIED VEAL DECORATED WITH SLICES OF HARD-BOILED EGG.
GARNISHED WITH LETTUCE.]


=VEAL LOAF=

  3 pounds of veal.
  1/2 pound of ham, or
  1/4 pound of salt pork.
  2 eggs.
  1 cupful of fine bread or cracker crumbs.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.
  1 teaspoonful of onion juice.
  1/2 teaspoonful of ground mace.
  1/2 teaspoonful of allspice.

Chop the veal and ham very fine, mix into it the other ingredients, and
mold it into a loaf; or press it into a mold or tin to form a loaf; then
turn it on a baking dish. Baste it with beaten egg, and sprinkle it with
bread crumbs. Cook in moderate oven for two hours, basting it several
times with melted butter and water. This dish is to be served cold.


=VEAL SCALLOP=

Chop veal to a fine mince. Put into a baking-dish alternate layers of
veal and bread crumbs, sprinkling the meat with salt and pepper, the
crumbs with bits of butter. Over the top pour a white sauce made of one
tablespoonful each of butter and flour, and one cupful of milk. Spread
over it a layer of crumbs, and put in the oven to brown.

Rice may be used instead of the crumbs, and tomatoes instead of the
white sauce.


=LIVER AND BACON=

Cut the liver into slices one half inch thick; lay them in boiling water
for a few minutes, then dry and cover them with flour and a little
pepper and salt. Lay in a hot frying-pan very thin slices of bacon. When
tried out enough for the bacon to be crisp, remove it and put the slices
of liver in the same frying pan. Cook until thoroughly done, but not
dried. Remove the liver, and to the fat in the pan add a spoonful of
flour; when the flour is brown, add enough water slowly to make a thick
sauce. Pour the sauce over the liver, and place the bacon around it.
Liver is generally cut thin, but it will be found much better when cut a
half inch or more thick. The bacon should be cut thin, and cooked
quickly; the liver cut thick, and cooked slowly.


=BROILED LIVER=

Slice the liver. Let it soak in hot water a few minutes to draw out the
blood. Dry it, rub it with butter, and broil five to eight minutes,
turning it constantly. It should not be cooked until dry. When done,
spread it with butter, and serve at once.


=BRAISED LIVER=

Use a calf's or lamb's liver.

Lard it in two or three rows. Cut into dice one carrot, one turnip, one
onion, a stalk of celery, and the bits left from the lardoons of salt
pork; put them in a baking pan, and on this bed of vegetables place the
larded liver. Add two cupfuls of stock or hot water, and a bouquet of
one sprig of parsley, one bay-leaf, and two cloves. Cover with another
pan, and cook in moderate oven for two hours; baste occasionally. Serve
with the vegetables from the pan, on the same dish, placed around the
liver. Pour over the liver a sauce made as follows: Put in a saucepan
one tablespoonful of butter; when melted, add one tablespoonful of
flour, and stir until browned; then add slowly the strained liquor from
the pan. If there is not enough to make one cupful, add water to make
that quantity. Season with salt and pepper, and add, if convenient, one
tablespoonful each of Worcestershire sauce and mushroom catsup.


=STEWED KIDNEYS=

Beef, calf or lamb kidneys may be used. Be sure they are very fresh.
Remove the fat and white center, then soak them for one hour in salted
water. Cut them in slices one half inch thick, cover the slices with
flour, and sauté them for five minutes in one tablespoonful of butter.
Add to the frying-pan one thin slice of onion and one half cupful of
water, and simmer for ten minutes, not longer. The kidneys will be tough
and hard if cooked too long. Just before serving, add one quarter cupful
of sherry; salt and pepper to taste. One tablespoon of Worcestershire
sauce may be used instead of the sherry.


=TRIPE=

Soak the tripe for several hours, then scrape it thoroughly clean, put
it in salted water, and simmer it for three or four hours, until it is
like jelly. Drain off the water, and put the tripe aside until ready to
use. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; when hot add a
tablespoonful of flour, and cook for a few minutes, but do not brown.
Then add slowly one cupful of milk, and stir until smooth. Add a half
teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and a half teaspoonful of onion
juice; then add one cupful of the boiled tripe. Stir until the tripe is
heated, and serve immediately.


=CALF'S HEART=

Wash the heart, but do not let it soak, or stand in water. Fill it with
a stuffing made of minced meat or of bread, either one of them seasoned
with onion, sage, thyme, marjoram, pepper and salt, and an egg to bind
it. Bake it for two hours, basting it frequently with water from the
pan. When the heart is cooked remove it, and add to the pan a
tablespoonful of flour; stir until it has browned. Then, if there is not
enough liquor in the pan, add to it just enough water to make a thick
sauce. Strain this over the heart, and serve on the same dish some
boiled and browned onions.


=BEEF'S TONGUE=

If a smoked tongue is used, soak it over night. Put it in cold water,
and let it come to the boiling point. Then simmer for four hours, or
until tender.

Boil a fresh tongue in salted water one and a half hours. A few soup
vegetables may be added to the water if convenient. Before putting it in
the water, trim it carefully, and skewer it into good shape. When it is
boiled remove the skin. If it is to be used cold, replace the skewer,
put it again in the water in which it was boiled, and let it remain
there until cold; then cover it with a meat glaze colored red. If served
hot, pour over it a white sauce, and garnish with parsley and sliced
pickle; or serve with it a piquante sauce. Spinach is a good vegetable
to serve with tongue.


=HOT SLICED TONGUE=

Make a piquante sauce (see page 283). Lay slices of boiled tongue cut
one half inch thick into it, and let them remain until well heated.
Arrange the hot slices in a circle, the slices overlapping, and pour the
sauce in the center. Garnish with capers, slices of hard-boiled eggs,
and gherkins; or make a form of spinach by pressing into a bowl
well-chopped and seasoned spinach. Turn it on the center of a dish, and
lay the slices around or against it. Serve with piquante or with pickle
sauce.


=COLD TONGUE=

Lay thick slices of tongue in a circle, the pieces overlapping. Place in
the center a bunch of nasturtium blossoms and lettuce leaves. Serve with
Tartare or cold Béarnaise sauce.


=JELLIED TONGUE=

Cut tongue into slices. Lay them together to look like a solid piece,
and place them in a square or brick-shaped mold. Sprinkle a few capers
in the bottom of the mold before putting in the tongue. Have the mold
only large enough for the tongue to fit in easily, but be held in place.
Fill with aspic jelly (see page 321).


=BOILED CALF'S HEAD=

Have the head split open, and the gristle about the nose and eyes, and
the eyes and ears, removed by the butcher. Wash thoroughly the head;
remove the tongue and brains; parboil the brains, and set them aside
with the tongue to use on another occasion (see page 307). Blanch the
head by putting it into cold water; when it comes to the boiling point,
pour off the hot water, and cover it with cold water. When cold, rub it
with lemon. Put it into boiling water, enough to cover it; add two
tablespoonfuls of vinegar or white wine, twelve peppercorns, one
bay-leaf, one onion, one carrot, and a sprig of parsley. Cover the pot,
and let boil for two hours, or until tender, but not ready to fall
apart. When done, take out the bones carefully, and lay the meat on a
baking dish in compact shape. Rub over the top with egg, sprinkle it
with bread crumbs and bits of butter, and set in the oven to brown.
Serve with it a Poulette or an Allemande sauce.

Put any of the meat left over after being served in this manner into a
mold; fill it up with water in which the head was boiled; season to
taste. This will make a jellied meat very good to use with salad.

The water from the pot will make a good soup. (See mock turtle soup.)
Four separate dishes can be made from one head, viz.: boiled calf's
head, cold jellied calf's head, mock turtle soup, tongue and brains,
with white, Poulette, or Vinaigrette sauce.


=CALF'S HEAD WITH VINAIGRETTE SAUCE=

After the calf's head is boiled as directed above, take it from the
water, remove the meat, and press it into a square mold or tin, and let
it get entirely cold. It can then be cut into uniform pieces. When ready
to serve, heat some of the liquor in which the head was boiled, cut some
long slices from the form of cold calf's head, lay them in the hot
liquor to become hot only. Remove them carefully, and place them on a
hot dish. Pour over them a Vinaigrette sauce. (For sauce, see page 307.)



PORK


Salt pork and bacon should be kept always at hand; the former for
larding, spreading in thin slices over baked meats, poultry, and birds,
and various other uses as directed in many receipts. Bacon is an
appetizing accompaniment to many breakfast dishes. Fresh pork is used
only in cold weather, and must be thoroughly cooked.


=ROAST PORK=

The roasting pieces are the leg, loin, spare-rib, and shoulder. If the
skin is left on cut it through in lines both ways, forming small
squares. Put a cupful of water in the pan with the meat; bake in a
moderate oven, allowing twenty to twenty-five minutes to the pound. Pork
must be thoroughly cooked. Serve with apple sauce or fried apples.


=FRIED APPLES=

Cut slices one half inch thick across the apple, giving circles. Do not
remove the skin or core.

Or cut the apples in quarters, leaving on the skin and removing the
core. Sauté the apples in butter or drippings until tender, but not soft
enough to lose form.

Serve the fried apples on the same dish with pork as garnishing.


=PORK CHOPS=

Cut pork chops not more than one half inch thick. Trim off most of the
fat, dredge them with flour, and sauté them until thoroughly cooked, and
well browned. It will take about twenty-five minutes. Serve with fried
apples.


=BOILED HAM=

Soak the ham over night, or for several hours. Thoroughly wash and
scrape it. Put it into cold water; let it come to the boiling point;
then simmer, allowing twenty minutes to the pound. Pierce the ham with a
fine skewer. If done the skewer can be withdrawn easily without
sticking. Let the ham partly cool in the water; then remove and draw off
the skin. Sprinkle the top plentifully with cracker crumbs and brown
sugar, or brush it with egg. Press into it a number of whole cloves, and
set it in the oven a few minutes to brown. Or the ham may be left white,
and dotted with pepper, a clove stuck in the center of each spot of
pepper. Soup vegetables and a bouquet of herbs boiled with a ham improve
its flavor. A ham boiled in cider is especially good. Trim the meat
around the bone, and conceal the bone with a paper frill or vegetable
cut into shape of rose. Ornament the ham with dressed skewers, or with
parsley and lemon.

[Illustration: COLD HAM COVERED WITH CHAUDFROID SAUCE AND DECORATED WITH
TRUFFLES TO IMITATE BRANCHES--ORNAMENT ON TOP A HALF-OLIVE SURROUNDED
WITH SLICES OF PICKLE--A PIECE OF THE HAM-SKIN LEFT ON THE BONE END AND
THE EDGE OF THE SKIN DECORATED WITH TRIANGULAR AND DIAMOND-SHAPED PIECES
OF TRUFFLE--PAPER FRILL ON HAM-BONE--DISH GARNISHED WITH LETTUCE,
WATER-CRESS, OR PARSLEY.]


=BAKED HAM=

Soak and prepare the ham as directed above. Let it simmer for two hours;
then remove it and take off the skin, and bake it in a moderate oven for
two hours; baste it frequently, using a cupful of sherry, two spoonfuls
at a time, until all is used; then baste with drippings from the pan.
When done, cover it with a paste made of browned flour and brown sugar
moistened with sherry, and replace in the oven for a few minutes to
brown.


=BROILED HAM AND EGGS=

Cut the ham very thin. If very salt, place it in boiling water for a few
minutes. Then dry and broil it over hot coals for three or four minutes.

Put a few pieces of salt pork into a frying pan. When tried out, add the
eggs, one at a time, from a saucer. Baste the top of the eggs with fat
from the pan. Let them brown a little on the edges, but not blacken, and
serve them around the slices of ham.

Boiled ham may be broiled. If so, cut it into thin, small pieces, and
after broiling it, place on each piece a fried egg.


=HAM AND EGGS À L'AURORE=

Chop fine some cold boiled ham. Boil six or eight eggs very hard (see
page 262). With a sharp knife cut them in quarters lengthwise. Remove
the yolks, and press them through a coarse sieve or strainer; lay the
white segments in warm water. Make a white sauce, using two
tablespoonfuls of butter; when melted, add two tablespoonfuls of flour,
and let cook for a few minutes; then add slowly two cupfuls of milk.
Stir constantly, and when a smooth, consistent sauce, season with salt
and white pepper.

Moisten the chopped ham with a little of the sauce, and place it on the
fire just long enough to become well heated. Stir constantly so the
sauce will not brown. Make a smooth, rounded mold of the ham in the
center of a hot dish. Pour over it the white sauce. Sprinkle thickly
over the top the yolk crumbs; then range evenly around it the white
segments of the eggs.


=BACON=

Cut bacon very thin, as shown on page 78. Lay the slices on a hot
frying-pan. When clear turn them over. Tip the pan a little, so the fat
will run to one side. If not wanted crisp and dry, turn the slices
before they look clear, and remove before all the fat is tried out.



CHAPTER V

POULTRY AND GAME


CHICKENS

To judge the age of a chicken, touch the end of the
breastbone. If it is still cartilaginous, and bends easily
from side to side, the meat of the chicken will be tender.
If the cartilage has hardened to bone, the bird is over a
year old, and should be used only for the purposes which
fowls serve. The skin of the chicken should be firm, smooth
and white; the feet soft, the legs smooth and yellow, the
spurs small, the eyes bright and full, the comb red. On
young chickens there are pin-feathers; on fowls, there are
long hairs. The dry-picked chickens are preferable to those
which are scalded. It is not easy to find all the conditions
right in our markets, which are mostly supplied with frozen
poultry, and one is obliged to rely very much on the honesty
of the poulterer. Chicken, to be perfectly wholesome and
good-flavored, should be drawn as soon as killed; but here
again we are subject to the customs of our markets, and are
obliged to buy poultry which has not only been killed, but
undrawn, for an indefinite time. It is presumable, however,
that poultry sent to market is frozen shortly after being
killed, and it does not deteriorate while frozen. It should
be drawn at once after it comes to the kitchen, without
waiting for the time to prepare it for cooking.


TO CLEAN AND DRAW POULTRY

                                                  [Sidenote: Washing.]

                                       [Sidenote: Drawing the Sinews.]

First, remove any pin-feathers; then singe off the hairs.
This is done best over an alcohol flame. Put one or two
tablespoonfuls of alcohol into a plate or saucer and ignite
it. (Wood alcohol is inexpensive, and besides serving this
purpose very well may be used also in the chafing-dish and
tea-kettle lamps.) If alcohol is not at hand, use lighted
paper, but take care not to smoke the chicken. Hold the fowl
by the head and feet, and turn it constantly, exposing every
part to the flame. After singeing, wash the outside of the
chicken thoroughly with a cloth and bowl of water. The skin
will become several degrees whiter when freed from dust and
the marks of much handling. Do not place the chicken in the
bowl of water, or at any time allow the meat to soak, as that
will extract its flavor. After the chicken is drawn, it should
only be wiped out with a wet cloth. If it is properly drawn
there will be nothing unclean to wash away from the inside.
After the skin of the chicken is cleaned, cut off the head,
cut the skin down the back of the neck, turn it over while you
remove carefully the crop and windpipe, and cut off the neck
close to the body, leaving the skin to fold over the opening.
Next take the leg, bend it back slightly, and carefully cut
the skin on the joint, just enough to expose the sinews
without cutting them; run a skewer or fork under them, one at
a time, and draw them out; five or eight of them can be easily
removed after a little practice. The one on the back of the
leg is particularly large and strong. These sinews are very
tough and almost bony after cooking, especially in turkeys,
but if they are removed the meat of the drumstick is quite as
good as that of the second joint. After the sinews are drawn,
break the leg off at the joint, the sinews hanging to it. Cut
a small opening under the rump; run a finger around close to
the body to loosen the entrails. Do the same at the neck
opening. Carefully draw them out, in one solid mass, without
any part being broken; cut around the vent to free the large
intestine. If by any mischance the gall or intestines should
be broken, the inside of the chicken must be washed at once;
otherwise only wipe it out with a wet cloth, as directed
above. Cut the oil sack away from the rump. Cut the gall
carefully off the liver; cut the outer coat of the gizzard and
draw it carefully away from the inner sack, leaving the sack
unbroken. Open the heart and wash away the clot of blood. The
heart, liver, and gizzard are the giblets. All poultry and
birds are dressed in the same way.

[Illustration: LEG OF CHICKEN WITH SINEWS DRAWN. (SEE PAGE 180.)]


TO BONE A FOWL

Wash and singe the fowl; take off the head and legs, and
remove the tendons as directed for drawing. When a fowl is to
be boned it is not drawn. The work of boning is not difficult,
but requires care and a little practice. The skin must not be
broken. Use a small pointed knife; cut the skin down the full
length of the back; then, beginning at the neck, carefully
scrape the meat away from the bone, keeping the knife close to
the bone. When the joints of the wings and legs are met, break
them back and proceed to free the meat from the carcass. When
one side is free, turn the fowl and do the same on the other
side. The skin is drawn tightly over the breast-bone, and care
must be used to detach it without piercing the skin. When the
meat is free from the carcass, remove the bones from the legs
and wings, turning the meat down or inside out, as the bones
are exposed, and using care not to break the skin at the
joints. The end bones of the wings cannot be removed, and the
whole end joint may be cut off or left as it is.



=ROASTED BONED CHICKEN=

Spread the boned chicken on a board, the skin side down; turn the flesh
of the legs and wings right side out, and stuff them with forcemeat into
shape. Equalize the meat as well as possible, placing the mignon
fillets, or little strips of white meat next the bone, over the dark
meat, etc.; dredge with salt and pepper. Make a roll of the stuffing or
forcemeat, and lay it in the chicken. Draw the skin up, and sew it
together securely. Turn it over, place the legs and wings into the
position of a trussed fowl, press the body into natural shape, and tie
it securely; or it may be pressed into the form of a duck or rabbit.
Cover with slices of salt pork, and roast in oven, allowing twenty
minutes to the pound; baste frequently. Remove the pork the last fifteen
minutes, dredge with flour, and let it brown. Serve with a giblet or
tomato sauce.


=BRAISED BONED CHICKEN=

To braise the chicken prepared as above, roll it lightly in a piece of
cheese cloth, tying the ends well. Put in a saucepan the bones of the
chicken, a slice of carrot and onion, a bouquet containing parsley, one
bay-leaf, three cloves, twelve peppercorns, celery if convenient, and a
knuckle of veal. Add enough water to cover the bed of vegetables and
bones; lay in the chicken; cover the pot, and let it simmer for four
hours.


=JELLIED BONED CHICKEN=

A braised boned chicken may be served hot, or it may be set aside to
cool, then jellied as follows: Strain the water in which the chicken was
braised, and let it cool; then remove the grease and clarify the liquor;
season it highly. If veal has been used, and the liquor jellies, it may
be used as it is. If veal has not been used, add gelatine soaked in cold
water, observing the proportion of one box of gelatine to one and a half
quarts of liquor. Mask a mold with jelly (see page 323); when the jelly
is set, put in the chicken, and add enough liquid jelly to entirely
cover it. Or, on the bottom of the mold make a decoration of either
truffles, ham, capers, gherkins, or any combinations suitable; fix it
with a thin layer of jelly; when hardened, add enough more to make a
layer of jelly one quarter of an inch thick, and when that is hardened
lay in the chicken, and surround it with the liquid jelly (see molding
jellies, page 324). Garnish the dish on which the jellied chicken is
served with lettuce, and serve with it a Mayonnaise, Béarnaise, or
Tartare sauce.

When the chicken is to be jellied, use enough water in the braising pot
to give three pints of liquor after the cooking is done.


=FORCEMEAT, FOR STUFFING BONED FOWLS=

Use the meat of another fowl, or veal, or pork, or a mixture. Chop them
fine, and add to the minced meat one cupful of bread or cracker crumbs
and, if convenient, a little chopped boiled ham or tongue, and a few
lardoons of pork. Season with the following articles, and moisten the
whole with stock:

  1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley.
  1 teaspoonful of onion juice.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  1 teaspoonful thyme.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.

If veal is used, take it from the knuckle, and use the bone in the
braising pot, as it will give a good jelly.


=TO TRUSS A FOWL=

When the fowl is wiped, singed, and drawn as by directions given above,
put in the stuffing if it is to be used; place a little in the opening
at the neck, the rest in the body, and sew up the opening. Draw the skin
of the neck smoothly down and under the back, press the wings close
against the body, and fold the pinions under, crossing the back and
holding down the skin of the neck. Press the legs close to the body, and
slip them under the skin as much as possible. Thread the trussing
needle with white twine, using it double. Press the needle through the
wing by the middle joint, pass it through the skin of the neck and back,
and out again at the middle joint of the other wing. Return the needle
through the bend of the leg at the second joint, through the body and
out at the same point on the other side; draw the cord tight, and tie it
with the end at the wing joint. Thread the needle again, and run it
through the legs and body at the thigh bone, and back at the ends of the
drumsticks. Draw the drumstick bones close together, covering the
opening made for drawing the fowl, and tie the ends. Have both knots on
the same side of the fowl. When cooked, cut the cord on the opposite
side, and by the knots it can easily be drawn out. (See illustration.)

[Illustration: TRUSSED CHICKEN. (SEE PAGE 183.)]

[Illustration: BACK OF TRUSSED CHICKEN.]


=ROASTED CHICKEN=

A roasted chicken may be stuffed or not. If stuffing is used it should
only half fill the chicken. Truss it as directed above, or use skewers,
doubling a cord across the back and around the ends of the skewers to
hold them in place. A roasted or boiled chicken is not presentable,
which has not been securely fastened into good shape before being
cooked. Dredge the chicken with salt and pepper, and place it on slices
of salt pork in a baking pan; add a very little water, and bake in hot
oven, allowing fifteen minutes to the pound; baste frequently. White
meat must be well cooked, but not dried. Fifteen minutes before it is
done, rub it over the top and sides with butter, dredge it with flour,
and replace it in the oven until it becomes a golden brown and looks
crisp. Draw out the trussing cords, and garnish with parsley. Serve with
it a giblet sauce. Do not use a tough chicken for roasting; one a year
old is about right. A roasting chicken may be larded if desired.


=STUFFING FOR FOWLS=

Moisten a cupful of bread-crumbs with a tablespoonful of melted butter;
season highly with salt, pepper, thyme, chopped parsley, and onion
juice; or put in a saucepan a tablespoonful of butter and fry in it one
minced onion; then add one cupful of soaked bread, the water being
pressed out, one half cupful of stock, one teaspoonful of salt, one half
teaspoonful each of pepper and thyme, and one half cupful of celery cut
into small pieces. Stir it until it leaves the sides of the pan.


=CHESTNUT STUFFING=

Shell a quart of large French chestnuts. Put them in hot water and boil
until the skins are softened; then drain off the water and remove the
skins. Replace the blanched chestnuts in water, and boil until soft.
Take out a few at a time, and press them through a colander or a potato
press. They mash more easily when hot. Season the mashed chestnuts with
a tablespoonful of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter of a
teaspoonful of pepper. Some cooks add a tablespoonful of chopped
parsley, and moisten it with a little stock. Some add, also, a few bread
crumbs. The dressing is best seasoned only with butter, salt, and
pepper.


=GIBLET SAUCE=

Boil the giblets until tender; chop them, but not very fine; add a
tablespoonful of flour to the pan in which the chicken was roasted; let
it brown, stirring constantly; add slowly a cupful of water in which the
giblets were boiled; season with salt and pepper; strain and add the
chopped giblets; serve in a sauceboat. The liver is a tidbit, and should
be roasted and served with the chicken, instead of being used in the
sauce.


=BOILED CHICKEN=

A chicken too old to roast is very good when boiled. Truss the chicken
firmly. It is well also to tie it in a piece of cheese-cloth, to keep it
in good shape. It may be stuffed or not. Boiled rice seasoned with
butter, pepper, and salt, or celery cut in small pieces, is better to
use for boiled chicken than bread stuffing.

Put the chicken into boiling salted water and simmer, allowing twenty
minutes to the pound; when done, remove the cloth and cords carefully,
spread a little white sauce over the breast, and sprinkle it with
chopped parsley. Garnish with parsley, and serve with it egg, oyster, or
Béarnaise sauce.


=BRAISED CHICKEN=

A fowl too old to roast may be made tender and good by braising, and
present the same appearance as a roasted chicken.

Prepare it as for roasting, trussing it into good shape. Cut into dice a
carrot, turnip, onion, and stalk of celery; put them in a pot with a few
slices of salt pork, and on them place the fowl, with a few pieces of
salt pork laid over the breast; add a bouquet of parsley, one bay-leaf,
three cloves, six peppercorns, also a teaspoonful of salt, and a pint of
hot water. Cover the pot closely and let simmer for three hours. If any
steam escapes, a little more water may have to be added. When done, rub
a little butter over the breast, dredge with flour, and place in the
oven a few minutes to brown. Strain the liquor from the braising pot,
season to taste, and if necessary thicken with a little brown roux;
serve it with the chicken as sauce.


=BROILED CHICKEN=

Young spring chickens only are used for broiling. Split them down the
back, remove the entrails and the breast bone, wipe them clean, sprinkle
with salt and pepper, and rub them with soft butter. Place them on a
broiler over a slow fire, the inside down; cover with a pan, and let
cook for twenty to twenty-five minutes. Turn, to let the skin side brown
when nearly done. Place them on a hot dish, and spread them with maître
d'hôtel butter; garnish with parsley or watercress and thin slices of
lemon.


=FRICASSEE=

Cut a chicken into eleven pieces: two drumsticks, two second joints, two
wings, two breasts, three back pieces.

Put the pieces in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter or
drippings; let them brown slightly on both sides, but use care that they
do not burn; when a little colored, add enough boiling water to cover
them; add a bouquet of herbs, salt and pepper, and a few slices of salt
pork. Simmer until tender. Arrange the pieces neatly on a dish, using
the best ones outside, and pour over them a gravy made as follows:
Strain the liquor from the pot and take off the fat. Make a white roux
of one tablespoonful of butter and two of flour; add to it slowly a
cupful of the liquor from the pot; season to taste; remove from the
fire, and when a little cool add a cupful of cream or milk beaten up
with two or three yolks of eggs. Place again on the fire until the eggs
are a little thickened, but do not let it boil, or they will curdle. A
tablespoonful of sherry may be added, if liked, or a half can of
mushrooms. A border of rice may be placed around the chicken, or
softened toast used under the chicken.

To make a brown fricassee, sprinkle the pieces of chicken, after they
are simmered until tender, with salt, pepper, and flour, and place them
in the oven to brown. Make a brown instead of a white roux, and omit the
cream or milk.


=FRIED CHICKEN=

Cut a tender chicken in pieces; dip the pieces in water; sprinkle them
with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour; sauté them in a
tablespoonful of lard or butter, browning both sides; then remove and
add to the pan a tablespoonful of flour; cook it for a minute without
browning, stirring all the time, and add a cupful of milk or cream; stir
until it is a little thickened; strain; mix into it a tablespoonful of
chopped parsley. Place the sauce on the serving-dish and arrange the
pieces of chicken on it.


=CHICKEN FRITTERS=

Cut cold cooked chicken or turkey off the bones in as large pieces as
possible; sprinkle with salt and pepper; dip them in fritter batter
(see page 426), and fry in hot fat until a golden brown. Place the
pieces when fried on a brown paper until all are done; dress them on a
folded napkin, and serve with a Béarnaise, Mayonnaise, or Tartare sauce.

The pieces may be rolled in egg and bread crumbs instead of being dipped
in batter, if preferred.


=STUFFED CHICKEN OR TURKEY LEGS=

Carefully remove the tendons from the drumsticks as directed in drawing
(page 180); remove the bone, all but about an inch and a half at the
small end, and remove any remaining sinews. Stuff the leg with a
forcemeat made of chicken or veal chopped very fine, and use with it the
liver and a little strip of larding pork; season it with salt, pepper,
and chopped parsley, and moisten it with one egg. Draw the skin over the
end and sew it closely together, keeping the shape as natural as
possible. Lay the stuffed legs in a baking-pan; cover with boiling
water, and simmer an hour, or until tender; remove them from the water,
press them into shape, and let cool. When cold, take out the stitches,
dredge with salt and pepper, roll in beaten egg and bread crumbs, and
fry in hot fat until browned; or broil them on both sides four minutes,
if chicken; six minutes, if turkey legs; or they may be sautéd in
butter. They may be deviled by rubbing them with mustard and a little
red pepper before coating with the eggs and crumbs. Serve them arranged
like chops, the bones masked with paper frills.

If preferred, the bones may be entirely removed, and the leg flattened
to look like a cutlet. This can be done by placing them under a weight
to cool after being boiled. Serve with an olive, Béarnaise, Tartare, or
any sauce preferred.


=GRILLED BONES=

Take the wings, second joints, and drumsticks of cold cooked chicken;
dip them in melted butter, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and broil
them until they are very hot and well browned.


=CHICKEN À LA VIENNE=

Split a small spring chicken down the back, as for broiling; remove the
breast bone; then cut it into four pieces, giving two breast and two leg
pieces, cut off the pinions; marinate the pieces in oil, vinegar,
pepper, and salt; then roll in flour, and fry in hot fat, one piece at a
time; drain and place on paper in the open oven until all are done. They
should be a light golden color. Place a paper frill on the leg and wing
bones, and dress them on a folded napkin. Serve with Tartare sauce; or
arrange the pieces overlapping on a dish, and garnish with four lettuce
leaves holding Tartare sauce.


=CHICKEN, BALTIMORE STYLE=

Split a small spring chicken down the back as for broiling; remove the
breast-bone and cut off the pinions. Cut into four pieces; dredge with
salt and pepper; dip them in egg and fresh crumbs. Place them in a pan,
and pour over each piece enough melted butter to moisten it; then roast
in the oven eighteen to twenty minutes. Make a cream sauce, taking one
cupful of Béchamel sauce, and adding to it a half cupful of cream and a
half tablespoonful of butter. Pour this sauce on a dish, and place the
pieces of chicken on it. Garnish with slices of fried bacon.


=CHICKEN IMPERIAL=

Cut the breast from a chicken, retaining it in shape on the bone. Remove
the skin, and lard the breast on each side with four lardoons. Place it
in a deep saucepan; cover with stock or boiling water, and simmer for
thirty to forty minutes, or until tender. Then remove from the water,
and place in oven for ten minutes to take a very light color. Make a
sauce as follows:

Put into a saucepan one half cupful of the stock in which the breast was
boiled, and one half cupful of cream. Let it come to the scalding point;
season with salt and pepper and one tablespoonful of chopped parsley.
Remove from fire, and stir in slowly two yolks and two tablespoonfuls
of milk beaten together. Stir constantly until thickened, but do not let
boil, or the egg will curdle. Strain and pour it around the breast. The
breast should be carved diagonally, giving three pieces on each side.

[Illustration: CHICKEN IMPERIALE AND STUFFED LEGS. (SEE PAGES 188 AND
189.)]


=CHICKEN BREASTS WITH POULETTE SAUCE=

Remove the breasts from several chickens; cut them lengthwise, each
breast giving four pieces. Simmer them in salted water until tender.
Make a Poulette sauce (see page 280), and pour over the breasts piled on
a dish. Sprinkle with parsley chopped very fine. Use a generous amount
of sauce.


=CHICKEN CHARTREUSE=

Mix one cupful of cooked chicken minced very fine with

  1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley,
  1/2 teaspoonful of onion juice,
  1/4 teaspoonful of salt,
  2 tablespoonfuls of tomato juice,
  1 beaten egg,
  Dash of pepper.

Grease well a charlotte russe or pudding mold; line it one inch thick
with boiled rice. Fill the center with the chicken mixture, and cover
the top with rice, so the chicken is entirely encased, and the mold is
full and even. Cover and cook in steamer for forty-five minutes. Serve
with it a tomato sauce; pour a little of the sauce on the dish around
the form, not over it.

[Illustration: CHARTREUSE OF CHICKEN GARNISHED WITH SLICE OF HARD-BOILED
EGG AND PARSLEY. (SEE PAGES 83 AND 190.)]


=CHICKEN SOUFFLÉ=

  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1 cupful of minced chicken.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  3 eggs.
  10 drops of onion juice.
  Dash of pepper.

Make a white sauce by putting the butter in a saucepan or double boiler.
When melted add the flour, and cook a moment without browning. Then add
slowly the milk, and stir till smooth. Season with salt, pepper,
parsley, and onion juice. There should be one cupful of the sauce.
Remove from the fire, and stir in the beaten yolks of three eggs; then
add a cupful of chicken chopped fine. Stir the mixture over the fire a
minute until the egg has a little thickened; then set aside to cool. Rub
a little butter over the top, so it will not form a crust. When time to
serve beat very stiff the whites of the three eggs, and stir them
lightly into the cold chicken mixture. Put it into a pudding dish, and
bake in hot oven for twenty minutes. Serve at once in the same dish.
This is a soufflé, so the whites of the eggs must not be added until it
is time for it to go into the oven, and it will fall if not served
immediately after it comes from the oven. This dish may be made with any
kind of meat. Chicken soufflé may be baked in paper boxes, and served as
an entrée.


=CHICKEN LOAF=

Boil a fowl until the meat falls from the bones. Strain, and put the
liquor again in the saucepan; reduce it to one and a half pints, and add
one quarter box of soaked gelatine. Lay a few slices of hard-boiled egg
on the bottom of a plain mold; fill the mold with alternate layers of
white and dark meat of the chicken. Season the liquor, and pour it over
the meat in the mold, and set it away to harden; it will become a jelly.
It is a good dish to use with salad for luncheon or supper.


=CHICKEN CHAUDFROID=

Cut cold cooked chicken into as neat and uniform pieces as possible;
remove the skin; make a chaudfroid sauce as directed on page 281. Mix
the sauce thoroughly, and let it cool enough to thicken, but not harden.
Roll each piece of chicken in this sauce until well coated. Range the
pieces without touching in a pan, the ends resting on the raised edge;
place the pan on ice until the sauce is set. Make a socle (see page 326)
of bread or rice; rub it with butter, and mask it with chopped parsley.
Arrange the pieces of chicken around the socle, resting them against
it; then with a brush coat them over lightly with clear chicken aspic
which is cold, but still liquid. Ornament the top of socle with a star
of aspic, or with a bunch of nasturtium, or other blossoms or leaves.
Garnish the dish with aspic, with flowers, or leaves; or, if socle is
not used, pile the pieces in pyramidal form and garnish. Serve with it a
Mayonnaise, Béarnaise, or Tartare sauce; or some of the chaudfroid sauce
diluted.


=CHICKEN MAYONNAISE=

Cut cold cooked chicken into pieces; remove the skin, and trim the
pieces into good shape. Cover each piece with jelly Mayonnaise (page
290), and leave them in a cool place until the Mayonnaise has set. Trim
them and dress them around an ornamented socle or a mound of salad, or
lay each piece on a leaf of lettuce. Garnish with aspic or with flowers.
Use a green, white, or yellow Mayonnaise; and keep in cold place until
ready to serve.


=ENGLISH CHICKEN PIE (COLD)=

Take two tender chickens, and cut them up as for frying. Put them into a
large saucepan with two and a half quarts of water; add a bouquet made
of sweet marjoram, basil, parsley, three bay-leaves, sprig of thyme, and
small blade of mace. Let them simmer until well cooked. Add to the pot
when the chicken is about half done one half pound of bacon cut into
small pieces like lardoons. Wash the bacon before adding it. A quarter
of an hour before removing the chicken add the half of a small can of
truffles cut into slices.

Boil eight eggs very hard, and cut them in slices. Arrange on the bottom
of an earthen dish a layer of egg slices and truffles, then a layer of
chicken meat; alternate the layers until the dish is two-thirds full.
Return the bones and coarse pieces of meat to the pot, and reduce the
liquid one third. Strain, cool, and remove the grease. Return the stock
to the fire, add a quarter box or one half ounce of soaked gelatine.
Pour this over the chicken. When it has jellied and is ready to
serve, place on the top a crust of puff paste, which has been cut to fit
the dish, and has been baked separately.


TURKEY

The rules given for dressing and cooking chickens apply also
to turkeys. Turkey can be substituted for chicken in any of
the receipts given. A young turkey will have smooth black
legs and white skin.

                                       [Sidenote: General Directions.]

Fifteen minutes to the pound is the time allowed for
roasting or boiling a young turkey; for an old one more time
will be required. They should have slow cooking and frequent
basting. After a turkey is trussed, wet the skin; dredge it
well with salt and pepper, and then with a thick coating of
flour. This will give a crisp brown crust.


=TURKEY GALANTINE OR BONED TURKEY=

Select a young fat hen turkey. Bone it as directed, page 181; spread the
boned meat on the table, the skin side down. Equalize the meat as well
as possible by paring it off at the thick parts, and laying it on the
thin parts. Leave the legs and wings drawn inside; lay a few lardoons of
salt pork on the meat lengthwise. Make a forcemeat of another fowl or of
veal, or of both chicken and veal. Chop it to a very fine mince, and
pound it in a mortar to make it almost a paste. Season it with salt and
pepper, savory, marjoram, thyme, and sage--about a half teaspoonful each
of the herbs--one teaspoonful of onion juice, a half cupful of cold
boiled tongue cut into dice, some truffles cut into large pieces.
Moisten it with stock and mix thoroughly. It will take three or four
pounds of meat, according to the size of the turkey, to make sufficient
stuffing. Spread the forcemeat on the boned turkey, having the tongue,
truffles, and a few pieces of both the white and dark meat of the turkey
well interspersed through it. Roll up the turkey, making it as even as
possible, and sew it together; then roll it in a piece of cheesecloth
and tie it securely at both ends and around the roll in several places.

Place the galantine and the bones of the fowl in a kettle, with an
onion, carrot, celery, bouquet of herbs, and a tablespoonful of salt.
Cover it with boiling water, and let simmer three or four hours; then
remove it from the fire; let the galantine remain in the water for an
hour; then take it out, cut the strings which bind it in the middle,
draw the cloth so it will be tight and smooth, and place it under a
weight until perfectly cold. A baking-pan holding two flatirons will
answer the purpose. Remove the cloth carefully, set the galantine in the
oven a moment to melt the fat, and wipe it off with a cloth; trim it
smooth; then brush it over with glaze (see page 277), or rub it over
with beaten egg and sprinkle with crumbs and brown in the oven; or,
cover it with a chaudfroid sauce, and ornament it as shown in
illustration. The ornament of cut truffles is applied by taking each
piece on a long pin and placing it on the chaudfroid before it is quite
set. When perfectly set it is brushed over lightly with a little liquid
jelly. Galantine of chicken or game is made in the same way, except that
in small pieces they are not flattened by being put under a
weight.[194-*]

A galantine is always used cold. Garnish with aspic. The water in which
it was boiled--strained and cleared--may be used for the aspic. Use a
box of gelatine to one and a half quarts of liquor.

[Illustration: GALANTINE OF TURKEY COVERED WITH CHAUDFROID SAUCE AND
DECORATED WITH TRUFFLES. (SEE PAGES 193, 281 AND 326.)]


FOOTNOTES:

[194-*] A rectangular-shaped galantine may be obtained by pressing it
into a bread-tin to cool. It should then be trimmed and incased in
aspic, using the same or a slightly larger bread-tin of the same shape.
See Molding, page 323.--M. R.


=ROAST GOOSE=

Green geese about four months old are the best, as they get very tough
when much older. If there is any doubt about the age of the goose, it
is better to braise than to roast it. It can be browned after it is
braised, and have the same appearance as if roasted. Dress and truss a
goose the same as a turkey; singe and wash the skin well; flatten the
breast bone by striking it with a rolling-pin. Stuff it only partly full
with mashed potato highly seasoned with onion, sage, salt, and pepper,
or with a mixture of bread, apples, onions, sage, salt and pepper, and a
little butter. Dredge the goose with salt, pepper, and a thick coating
of flour; put a little water in the pan and baste frequently. Allow
eighteen minutes to the pound for a young goose, twenty-five minutes for
an older one. Serve with goose apple sauce and a brown giblet gravy.


=TAME DUCKS=

Prepare the same as geese. Stuff with the same mixture or with celery.
Roast ducklings in a hot oven twenty minutes, if liked rare; thirty
minutes if they are to be cooked through. Old ducks require an hour to
cook, and should be basted frequently. Pekin ducks, a breed of white
ducks raised in quantities on Long Island, are especially esteemed.



GAME


=CANVASBACKS AND REDHEAD DUCKS=

Carefully pick, singe, and wipe the outside. Draw them, leaving on the
head, so as to distinguish them from ordinary game. Cut an opening at
the neck, and through it draw the head and neck, letting the head emerge
at the back between the drumsticks, and tie it securely in place. Do not
wash the inside. If carefully drawn they will not need it. Cut off the
wings at the second joint. Truss the ducks neatly. Sprinkle with salt
and pepper inside, and a teaspoonful of currant jelly may also be put
inside. Place them in a baking-pan with a little water, and bake in a
very hot oven from fifteen to eighteen minutes; baste frequently.

Wild ducks should be very rare and served very hot, on hot plates. Each
duck makes but two portions, as the breast only is served. Serve with
duck small pieces of fried hominy and currant jelly.

The Canvasback is superior in flavor to any other species of wild duck,
and is much esteemed. They have a purple head and silver breast, and are
in season from September to May. The "Redhead" closely resembles in
flavor the "Canvasback," and often is mistaken for it.


=SALMI OF DUCK OR GAME=

Cut the game into neat pieces; put them in the oven for five minutes to
start the juices. Put in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, one
half pound of bacon or salt pork cut into dice, one tablespoonful each
of chopped onion and carrot, twelve peppercorns, one saltspoonful each
of salt, thyme, and sage, and any coarse pieces of the game. Cover with
a greased paper and let cook to a glaze; then add a tablespoonful of
flour, and let it brown; then two cupfuls of stock; simmer for thirty
minutes; strain; add one quarter cupful of Madeira and the pieces of
game; cover and let simmer another thirty minutes.

This dish needs long, slow cooking and careful watching. Garnish with
croûtons and truffles.

The truffles should be added to the salmi a few minutes before it is
removed from the fire. If cooked game is used for the salmi, simmer for
ten minutes only after the pieces are added to the sauce.


=POTTED PIGEONS (Dark Meat)=

Unless pigeons are young they should be braised or stewed in broth.
Truss them carefully; place slices of bacon on the bottom of a stew-pan;
lay in the pigeons side by side, their breasts up; add a carrot and
onion cut into dice, a teaspoonful of sugar, and some parsley, and pour
over enough stock or boiling water to cover them. Cover the pot closely.
Let them simmer until they are tender, adding boiling water or stock
when necessary. Serve each pigeon on a thin piece of moistened buttered
toast.


=ROAST PIGEONS OR SQUABS=

Do not roast pigeons unless they are young and tender. After they are
well trussed, or tied into shape, tie thin slices of bacon over the
breasts, and put a little piece of butter inside each pigeon. Boast them
about fifteen minutes; baste them with butter.

Or split the pigeons in two through the back and breast, cover with thin
slices of salt pork, and roast them in the oven. Thicken the gravy in
the pan with a little cornstarch. Season and moisten with it slices of
toast on which the half pigeons will be served.


=PRAIRIE-CHICKEN OR GROUSE ROASTED (Dark Meat)=

Grouse, like all game, should not be too fresh. Wash them on the outside
only, the same as directed for chicken (page 181). Put a little butter
inside each bird and truss them into good shape. Roast them in a hot
oven twenty-five to thirty minutes, basting them frequently with melted
butter. Five minutes before removing them dredge them with flour. Boil
the liver of the grouse, pound it with a little butter, pepper, and salt
to a paste; spread it over hot buttered toast moistened with juice from
the pan. Serve the grouse on the toast. Prairie-chickens have dark meat,
and many epicures declare that they should be cooked quite as rare as
canvasback ducks and that their flavor when so served is unsurpassed.
Young prairie-chickens have a much lighter meat and need not be so rare.


=QUAILS ROASTED (White Meat)=

Draw the birds carefully. Wipe them inside and out with a damp cloth; do
not wash them more than this. Truss them carefully, letting the legs
stand up instead of down, as with a chicken. Tie around each one a thin
slice of pork or bacon. Bake in a hot oven fifteen to twenty minutes.
Baste frequently, having in the pan a little butter, hot water, salt,
and pepper. Serve on slices of toast moistened with juice from the pan.


=QUAILS BROILED=

Split them down the back. Broil over hot coals four minutes on each
side. Baste them while broiling with a little butter. When they are done
spread them with butter, salt, and pepper; place them on slices of
slightly moistened toast, and stand them in the oven a few minutes to
soak the butter.


=SNIPE AND WOODCOCK (Dark Meat)=

Draw the birds carefully. Wipe inside and out with a wet cloth, but do
not wash more than this, as it takes away their flavor. Cut off the
feet, and skin the lower legs, which can be done after holding them a
minute in scalding water. Skin the head, and take out the eyes. Press
the bird well together; draw around the head, and run the bill like a
skewer through the legs and body. Wrap each one in a thin slice of pork
or bacon, and bake in a hot oven for ten minutes; baste with butter.
Chop or pound the hearts and livers to a paste. Season with salt,
pepper, onion juice, and butter. Spread the paste on slices of toast
just large enough to hold one bird. Place the croustades in the oven to
become very hot. Pour over them the juice from the dripping-pan holding
the birds. Place the birds on the toast, and serve at once. Garnish the
dish with water-cress. The croustades are better fried than toasted.


=ROASTED AND BROILED PARTRIDGE (White Meat)=

Dress and truss the partridge the same as a chicken. Lard the breast, or
cover it with a slice of salt pork. Put into the baking-pan with the
bird one tablespoonful of butter, and two of boiling water. Roast in a
hot oven about forty minutes, basting frequently.

The partridge has white meat, and so needs to be thoroughly cooked, but
not dried. Place the bird on a hot dish, and around it on the same dish
a border of coarse bread-crumbs, which have been thoroughly mixed in a
saucepan with a tablespoonful of melted butter. Serve in a sauce-boat a
white sauce or a bread sauce. If the partridge is to be broiled split it
down the back, rub it well with butter, place the inside next the coals;
cover and broil for twenty-five minutes. Keep it well moistened with
butter, and turn it to brown on the skin side a few minutes before done.
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve on buttered toast.


=VENISON=

Venison is prepared and cooked the same as mutton. The roasting pieces
are the saddle, and haunch or leg. It should be cooked underdone,
allowing ten minutes to the pound. Serve with it currant jelly sauce and
salad.


=VENISON STEAK=

A venison steak is cooked in the same manner as a beefsteak. A little
melted currant jelly is served on the same dish, or as a sauce (see page
287).[199-*]


FOOTNOTES:

[199-*] The steak should be moistened with the sauce so it will have a
glazed appearance.



CHAPTER VI

VEGETABLES


                                       [Sidenote: General Directions.]

The simplest way of cooking vegetables is usually the best;
but all kinds need seasoning or to be served with a sauce.
They should be cooked only until tender. The time depends
upon their freshness. The same vegetable sometimes takes
twice the time to cook when wilted. They should be well
washed in cold water to remove all dust and insects, and if
wilted, should stand some time in it to refresh them. Green
vegetables are put into salted boiling water, and cooked
rapidly in an uncovered saucepan. This will preserve their
color. Overcooking destroys both their color and appearance.
When done they should be removed from the water at once and
be well drained before the seasoning is added.

                                                  [Sidenote: Serving.]

One vegetable only besides potato is served with a meat
course, but cauliflower, stuffed tomatoes, asparagus, green
corn, egg-plant, artichokes, or mushrooms may be served as a
separate course.

                                         [Sidenote: Canned Vegetables]

When using canned vegetables, turn them onto a sieve or
colander, and let water from the faucet run over them in
order to remove the taste of the can which they sometimes
have.

[Illustration: VEGETABLE CUTTERS.

  1. Plane for cutting Saratoga Potatoes.
  2. Potato Press for making potato rice.
  3. Fluted knives for potato straws or fluted slices, and for potato
     curls.
  4. Potato scoops for cutting balls.]


=BOILED POTATOES=

Wash the potatoes well; take off only a thin paring, and drop them at
once into cold water to prevent their discoloring. Have them of uniform
size, or cut the larger ones into pieces the size of the small ones, so
they will all be cooked at the same time, for after a potato is cooked
it rapidly absorbs water and becomes soggy. If the potatoes are old or
withered, put them on to cook in cold water; if fresh and firm, put them
into boiling salted water, and boil slowly about thirty minutes, or
until they can be easily pierced with a fork. Then at once drain off
every drop of water; shake them in the pot a moment to expose all sides
to the air; sprinkle with a little salt; cover the pot with a double
cloth, and place it on the back of the range for a few minutes to
evaporate all the moisture. If treated in this way the potatoes will be
dry and mealy.

Violent boiling is likely to break the outside surface and make them
ragged in appearance.

New potatoes are boiled with the skins on.


=MASHED POTATOES=

After the potatoes are boiled and dried as directed above, mash them at
once over the fire and in the same pot in which they were boiled, so
that they will lose no heat. Season them with salt, butter, and cream or
milk; heat the milk and butter together; add them slowly, and beat the
potatoes well with a fork or an egg-beater until they are very light and
white. Turn them into a hot dish. Do not smooth the top.


=POTATO CAKES=

Mashed potato left over may be used for cakes. Add an egg to a cupful
and a half of potato and beat them well together until light; form it
into cakes or balls; roll them in flour and sauté in butter, or spread
the mixture in a layer one inch thick; cut it into strips or squares and
sauté; or put it into a well-buttered border mold; cover with greased
paper, and bake for half an hour in a moderate oven. Let it stand in
the mold for ten minutes; then turn onto a dish, and fill the center
with any mince or with creamed fish. Mashed potato without egg will not
hold its form when molded.


=POTATO RICE=

Press well-seasoned mashed potatoes through a colander or a potato press
onto the center of a dish, leaving the little flakes lightly piled up.
Serve chops or minced meat around the mound of potato.


=POTATO SOUFFLÉ=

To two cupfuls of smooth, well-seasoned, and quite moist mashed potatoes
add the yolks of two eggs. When a little cooled stir in lightly the
whites of two eggs beaten very stiff. Put the whole into a pudding-dish,
and brown it in a quick oven.


=POTATO ROSES=

To two cupfuls of well-seasoned mashed potatoes, add the yolks of two
eggs and white of one, and beat them well together. Place it in a pastry
bag with a tube having a star-shaped opening (see illustration), and
press it through. As the potato comes from the tube, guide it in a
circle, winding it around until it comes to a point. The little piles of
potato will resemble roses. Touch them lightly with a brush dipped in
egg, and place a bit of butter on each one. Put them in the oven a
moment to brown slightly. The edges touched by the egg will take a
deeper color. Potato roses make a good garnish for meat dishes.

[Illustration: POTATO ROSES. (SEE PAGE 202.)]


=POTATO CROQUETTES=

To two cupfuls of well-seasoned mashed potatoes add the beaten yolks of
two eggs, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one and a half
tablespoonfuls of butter (if none has been used in seasoning), a dash of
cayenne and nutmeg; stir over the fire until the potato leaves the sides
of the pan. When cold, form it into small croquettes, roll them in egg
and bread-crumbs and fry them in hot fat to an amber color. Serve on a
napkin (see frying croquettes, page 294). The croquette mixture may be
made into balls enclosing minced meat. When used in this way serve with
it a white sauce.


=POTATO BALLS=

With a potato scoop (see illustration) cut balls out of peeled raw
potatoes, and drop them in cold water for half an hour. Put them into
salted boiling water and boil for fifteen minutes, or until tender;
drain off the water; cover with a cloth and let stand on the back of the
range until dry. Serve them on a napkin, or pour over them white sauce,
and sprinkle with parsley, or use them as a garnish. The pieces of
potato left from cutting the balls can be boiled and mashed, so there is
no waste.


=POTATO OMELET=

Cut cold boiled potatoes into dice a quarter of an inch square; mix them
with enough white sauce to well moisten them.

Place a tablespoonful of butter in a frying-pan; when the butter is hot,
put in the potatoes and sauté them until browned on the bottom, loosen
them from the pan, and turn them like an omelet onto a flat dish; or
this preparation may be put in a baking-dish, sprinkled with crumbs and
grated cheese, then put in the oven to brown, and served in the same
dish.


=CREAMED POTATOES=

Cut cold boiled potatoes that are a little underdone into dice or into
slices one eighth of an inch thick. Put them in a saucepan with enough
milk or cream to cover them, and cook until the potatoes have absorbed
nearly all the milk; then to every two cupfuls of potato add one
tablespoonful of butter, one half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper,
and, just before serving, a teaspoonful of parsley chopped very fine; or
a white sauce may be made, using cream, if convenient, and the potatoes
placed in it just long enough to heat them; or a cream sauce may be
poured over hot boiled potatoes; then sprinkle with parsley.


=BROILED POTATOES=

Peel and cut the potatoes lengthwise into slices one quarter of an inch
thick. Broil them on both sides over moderate heat until tender; spread
each slice with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Serve very
hot.

Or, use cold boiled potatoes. Dip each slice in melted butter; sprinkle
with pepper and salt and broil three minutes on each side.


=BAKED POTATOES=

Select large potatoes of uniform size and shape. Wash and scrub them
with a brush. Bake them in a hot oven about an hour, or until soft;
press them to see if done, but do not pierce them with a fork; when soft
break the skin in one place, and serve at once on a napkin. They become
watery if kept.


=STUFFED POTATOES=

Select potatoes of equal size and shape, wash and scrub them well and
bake them. While they are still hot cut a piece off the top of each, and
with a spoon scoop out the potato, leaving the skin unbroken. Mash and
season the potato, using a little hot milk and beating it well to make
it light. Fill the potato skins with the mashed potato, letting it rise
a little above the top of the skin. Place a piece of butter on the top
of each, and put them in the oven to get well heated and slightly brown
the tops; or cut the baked potatoes in two, lengthwise, and when the
skins are filled, smooth the potato even with the skin; brush them with
egg and set in the oven to glaze. (See illustration.)

[Illustration: STUFFED BAKED POTATOES. (SEE PAGE 204.)]


=POTATOES BAKED WITH MEAT=

Pare the potatoes, and place them in the dripping-pan with the meat one
hour before the meat is to be removed. Baste them with the drippings,
and turn so all sides will be browned.


=LYONNAISE POTATOES=

Put one and a half tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying-pan. When melted
add a scant tablespoonful of chopped onion; let it slightly color, then
add two cupfuls of cold boiled potatoes cut into dice. Stir until the
potato has absorbed all the butter, and become slightly browned; then
sprinkle with salt, pepper, and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Mix
well, and serve very hot.


=FRIED POTATOES=

Cold boiled potatoes are sliced, then put into a sauté-pan with butter,
and cooked until browned on both sides. If rolled in flour they will
form a crisp crust. Raw potatoes are sliced or cut into any shape, and
put into cold water for half an hour. They are then well dried on a
napkin, and immersed in hot fat until done. Too many must not be put in
the basket at once, as it cools the fat (see frying, page 72). Fry them
to an amber color; then drain, and place them on a paper in the oven
until all are done. Serve them at once, as they lose their crispness if
kept.


=FRIED POTATO BALLS AND STRAWS=

To make balls use a potato scoop; press it well into the potato before
turning it. To make straws cut the potato into slices lengthwise, and
then into strips, making each one about one eighth of an inch thick.

Slices or strips cut with a fluted knife are good forms for fried
potatoes. Fry the potatoes in hot fat, using a basket. Fancy fried
potatoes are used to garnish any broiled meat dish. There are many kinds
of cutters to give different shapes to potatoes.


=SARATOGA POTATOES=

Cut the potatoes with a plane into slices as thin as paper if possible.
Let them soak in cold water for a little time to wash out the starch;
then put them into fresh water with a piece of ice to thoroughly chill
them. Drain a few of the slices at a time, dry them on a napkin; put
them in a frying basket and immerse them in smoking-hot fat. Keep them
separated, and remove as soon as slightly colored. Turn them into a
colander to drain, and sprinkle them with salt. When the second lot are
fried turn those in the colander onto a paper in the open oven, and so
on until all are done. Saratoga potatoes should be perfectly dry and
crisp. They may be used hot or cold, and will keep for some time in a
dry place. If wanted hot, place them in the oven a moment before
serving.


=PUFFED OR SOUFFLÉ POTATOES=

Peel the potatoes; cut the sides square, and trim off the corners, so as
to give an oval shape. With one even cut slice them one eighth of an
inch thick the length of the potato; they must be all the same size and
shape. Soak them in cold water for half an hour; dry them on a napkin,
and fry them in fat which is only moderately hot until they are soft,
but not colored. Remove and place them on a sieve to drain and cool.
Then immerse them in hot fat, when they will puff into balls. Toss the
basket, and remove any that do not puff. Sprinkle with salt, and serve
them on a napkin, or as a garnish. Holland potatoes best suit this
purpose; it is impossible to get the same result with most of the other
varieties.


=SWEET POTATOES=

Wash and scrub the potatoes; put them in boiling water, and cook until
they can be pierced with a fork; then pour off the water. Cover the pot
with a cloth, and draw it to the side of the range to let the potatoes
steam for ten minutes. Peel them before serving.


=BAKED SWEET POTATOES=

Wash and scrub the potatoes without breaking the skin. Bake until soft;
then break the skin in one place, and serve at once.


=BROWNED SWEET POTATOES=

Cut cold boiled potatoes into slices one quarter of an inch thick.
Sprinkle them with salt and pepper; spread with butter, and sprinkle
with sugar. Place them in a hot oven to brown.


=SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES=

Follow the rule for potato croquettes given on page 202.


=SWEET POTATO PURÉE=

Mash thoroughly the boiled potatoes, and season them well with salt,
pepper, and butter; add enough hot milk to moisten them. Serve it the
same as mashed white potato; or put it in a pudding-dish, brush the top
with egg, and brown it in the oven. Serve with it a tomato sauce, and
use as a luncheon dish. Either boiled or baked potatoes may be used.


=STEWED TOMATOES=

If fresh tomatoes are used remove the skins by placing them in boiling
water a few minutes; they will then peel off easily. Cut them in pieces,
and stew in a granite-ware saucepan until tender. To one quart of
tomatoes add one teaspoonful each of salt and sugar, one quarter
teaspoonful of pepper, and a tablespoonful of butter. Thicken with a
teaspoonful of cornstarch wet in cold water, or with one half cupful of
cracker or bread-crumbs.


=SCALLOPED TOMATOES=

Season a can of tomatoes with one teaspoonful of salt, and one quarter
teaspoonful of pepper. Spread a shallow baking dish with a thin layer of
bread-crumbs; pour in the tomatoes, sprinkle over them a tablespoonful
of sugar, and a few drops of onion juice. Cover the top with a cupful of
bread-crumbs which have been moistened with a tablespoonful of melted
butter. Bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes. Serve in the same dish.


=STUFFED TOMATOES=

Select large, firm tomatoes; do not remove the skins; cut a small slice
off the stem end, and scoop out the inside. Fill them with a stuffing
made as follows: Put one tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; when hot
add one tablespoonful of onion chopped fine. Let it color slightly; then
add three quarters of a cupful of any minced meat, chicken, or livers,
one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one cupful of bread-crumbs, the
pulp taken from the tomatoes, one teaspoonful of salt, one quarter
teaspoonful of pepper, and also an egg if desired. Stir it over the fire
until it is consistent. Dust the inside of the tomatoes with salt and
pepper, and fill them, letting the stuffing rise half an inch above the
tomato, and place a piece of butter on it. The above amount of stuffing
is enough for eight tomatoes. Cut slices of bread one half inch thick
into circles the size of the tomatoes; dip them quickly in water, and
place in a baking-pan. Place a tomato on each piece of bread, and bake
in oven about fifteen minutes, or until the stuffing is browned. A brown
sauce may be served with this dish. The meat may be omitted from the
stuffing if desired. If convenient it is better to use oil instead of
butter with tomatoes.


=ROASTED TOMATOES=

Peel the tomatoes; cut a piece off the top, and remove a little of the
pulp. Put a piece of butter or a few drops of oil in each one; dust with
salt and pepper, replace the top, sprinkle it with crumbs, pepper, and
salt. Put a small piece of butter or a little oil on each one, and place
on a slice of bread. Bake in oven fifteen to twenty minutes.


=BROILED TOMATOES=

Cut the tomatoes horizontally in two; leave the skins on. Place them on
a broiler with the skin side down; dust with salt and pepper, and broil,
without turning, over a moderate fire fifteen to twenty minutes, or
until tender. Lay them on a hot dish, and spread each piece with either
butter, oil, maître d'hôtel sauce, hot Mayonnaise or Béarnaise; or the
tomatoes may be cut into thick slices, covered with oil, and then
broiled, turning frequently.


=TOMATO FARCI=

Cut the tomatoes in halves; place them in a frying-pan, the open side
down, in one half inch deep of hot fat. Move them about until they are
cooked a little tender. Then lift them carefully without breaking, and
place them side by side in a baking-dish. Pour a little sweet oil around
them; sprinkle with chopped garlic, and parsley, salt, pepper, and
cayenne. Bake in hot oven fifteen to twenty minutes. Serve in same dish.


=GREEN PEAS=

The flavor of peas, and also the time required for cooking them, depends
very much upon their freshness. Put them into salted boiling water, and
do not cover the saucepan; boil ten to twenty minutes, or until soft
enough to be easily mashed. Drain off the water, and season with pepper,
salt, and butter. Mix in the seasoning carefully with a fork, so as not
to break the peas. Sometimes a little sugar improves them. Use plenty of
water in boiling, and do not let them be overcooked, as this is as bad a
fault as having them underdone. When canned peas are used turn them onto
a sieve, and rinse them off with cold water (this will remove the taste
of the can, which they sometimes have); add the seasoning, and let them
become thoroughly heated. They do not require any more cooking.


=PURÉE OF PEAS=

Boil the peas until very tender; mash and press them through a sieve.
Place them again in the saucepan, and stir into them enough hot milk,
pepper and salt, to well moisten and season them; add also some butter,
and a very little sugar.

Dried peas may be used in this way, but require soaking and long
boiling. The purée makes a pretty garnish pressed through a pastry bag
like potato roses (see page 202), or into a fancy border around a dish.

[Illustration: FORMS OF PURÉE FOR GARNISHING. (SEE PAGES 209, 210, AND
217.)]


=STRING BEANS=

Remove carefully all the strings; cut the beans into one-quarter inch
pieces, laying a number together, and cutting them at one time; or cut
each bean lengthwise into four strips, and lay them evenly together.
Place them in salted boiling water, and boil uncovered until tender;
drain off the water, and season with salt, pepper, and butter, or mix
with them just enough white sauce (page 277) to coat them well.


=FLAGEOLETS=

If the dried beans are used soak them several hours in cold water; then
throw them into salted boiling water, and boil until tender, but not
soft enough to break. Use plenty of water in boiling them, and drain
well. Season with butter, salt, and pepper. If cooked right the beans
will be glossy. They are good also as a purée, the same as purée of peas
(see page 209).


=LIMA BEANS=

Put them into salted boiling water, and cook until tender, then drain
off the water. Moisten them with butter, and season with salt and
pepper; and add, if convenient, a little hot cream, or cover with white
sauce.


=SPINACH=

Put a half peck of spinach into cold water to freshen; pick it over
carefully, removing all the wilted and yellow leaves. Pass it through
five changes of water to free it from grit. Put it in a saucepan; enough
water will cling to it for the cooking. Cover the saucepan; stir
occasionally so it does not burn. After fifteen minutes add a
tablespoonful of salt, and cook five minutes longer; then turn it into a
colander to drain; when it is dry chop it very fine. Put into a saucepan
one and a half tablespoonfuls of butter, and one tablespoonful of flour.
After they are a little cooked add a teaspoonful of salt, dash of
pepper, and the spinach. Cook five minutes; then add a half cupful of
cream or milk, and cook another five minutes. Stir constantly, to
prevent burning. Taste to see if the seasoning is right. Serve either in
a vegetable dish, or in the center of a dish with chops around it, or in
bread boxes as shown in illustration; or press the spinach into
individual timbale molds, place each form on a square of toast, and
garnish the top of each one in imitation of a daisy by placing in the
center some of the yolks of hard-boiled eggs which have been pressed
through a sieve, and around this center a circle of the whites of the
eggs chopped fine; or a thick slice of hard-boiled egg may be pressed
into the top of each mold.

[Illustration: SPINACH SERVED IN CROUSTADES OR BREAD-BOXES.]


=SPINACH SOUFFLÉ=

Take a cupful of spinach which has been prepared as directed above (any
that is left over can be utilized in this way); mix with it the beaten
yolk of an egg, and stir it over the fire until the egg is set. Let it
cool. When ready to serve stir into it lightly the well-beaten whites of
three eggs. Fill individual china cups or buttered paper boxes half
full, and place them in a hot oven for ten to fifteen minutes. Serve at
once. Like any soufflé, it will fall if not sufficiently baked, or if
not served very promptly.


=CHARTREUSE OF SPINACH OR OF CABBAGE=

Boil a large carrot and turnip; cut them into slices lengthwise three
eighths of an inch thick, then into strips of the same width. Butter
well a tin basin, with slightly flaring sides, or a plain mold. Ornament
the bottom with hard-boiled egg, or with fancy pieces of the vegetables.
Around the sides of the mold place close together alternate strips of
the carrot and turnip. If the mold is well buttered they will easily
hold in place. Fill the center with spinach or with seasoned chopped
cabbage, and press it down so it is quite firm; smooth the top and cut
off the strips of vegetable so that they are even. Heat the chartreuse
by placing the mold in a pan of hot water and putting both in the oven
for a few minutes. Turn the chartreuse on a flat dish to serve. A white
or a vinaigrette sauce goes well with this dish. Birds, veal cutlets,
chops, chicken, or sweetbreads may be placed on top of the chartreuse if
desired.

[Illustration: CHARTREUSE OF SPINACH. (SEE PAGES 83 AND 211.)

Border of alternate strips of carrot and turnip. Top circles of carrot
and turnip.]


=ASPARAGUS=

Scrape the stalks; let them stand in cold water for half an hour; tie
them again into a bundle and make them uniform in length; put them into
salted boiling water and cook about twenty minutes or until tender, but
not so soft as to be limp. Place the asparagus on buttered toast and
remove the string. Serve with the asparagus, but separately, plain
melted butter, a white, or a Hollandaise sauce. Cold boiled asparagus is
served as a salad with plain French dressing (see page 375) or with cold
Béarnaise sauce.


=ASPARAGUS TIPS=

Cut the asparagus stalks into pieces about an inch long, and as far down
as tender. Cook them in salted boiling water. Drain and stir into them
just enough white sauce to well coat them.



CABBAGE


                                                  [Sidenote: Cabbage.]

                                              [Sidenote: Cauliflower.]

                                         [Sidenote: Brussels sprouts.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Kohlrabi.]

Four vegetables are the result of the cabbage plant by
cultivation. As the rose changes its character under the
hand of the floriculturist, so it is with cabbage at the
hand of the gardener. First is the cabbage, which is the
leafy bud that stores up food for a flower the next year.
Second, the cauliflower, which is a cluster (corymb) of
forced cabbage flowers. Third, Brussels sprouts. The leaves
are picked off, and small buds form along the stem; and
fourth, kohlrabi, which is the leaves turned into a fleshy
tuberous-like vegetable. In these results two of the phases,
cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, are much esteemed, and are
given rank with the best vegetables, while cabbage and kohlrabi
have little favor, and are considered coarse and vulgar foods.
The cabbage, however, if properly cooked, will be found an
exceedingly palatable vegetable, which very closely resembles
cauliflower.



=BOILED CABBAGE=

If this receipt is exactly followed, this much-despised vegetable will
be found very acceptable, and its odor will not be perceptible through
the house. Cut the cabbage into good-sized pieces, take off the outside
leaves, and cut away the hard core. Wash it well in two changes of
water, and place the pieces, open side down, on a colander to drain.
Have a very generous amount of water in a large saucepan or pot; let it
boil violently; add a tablespoonful of salt and one quarter teaspoonful
of baking soda; put in the cabbage, one piece at a time, so as to check
the boiling as little as possible. Let it cook for twenty-five minutes
uncovered and boiling rapidly all the time. Push the cabbage under the
water every five minutes. Turn it into a colander and press out all the
water. Put into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, a heaping
teaspoonful of flour, one half teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper;
add slowly one half cupful of milk, and stir till smooth; then add the
cabbage. Cut it into large pieces with a knife, and mix it lightly with
the sauce. If the cabbage is free from water the sauce will adhere to it
and form a creamy coating.

This receipt of Catherine Owen has been found most satisfactory.


=CABBAGE WITH CHEESE=

(_Very Good._)

Boil the cabbage as directed above. Press out all the water and chop it.
Make a white sauce of one tablespoonful each of butter and flour, one
cupful of milk, one half teaspoonful of salt, dash of cayenne (see page
277). Spread a layer of cabbage on the bottom of a pudding-dish; cover
it with white sauce; then add a layer of grated cheese. Make a second
layer of cabbage, sauce, and cheese; cover the top with a layer of
crumbs moistened with butter, and place it in the oven. When the sauce
bubbles through the crumbs it is done. Serve in same dish.


=SWEDISH CABBAGE=

Slice the cabbage into thin shreds as for cold slaw; cook it in a
generous amount of rapidly boiling water for fifteen minutes; then drain
off the water; cover it with milk; add salt, pepper, and a bit of mace,
and cook until tender, and until the milk has boiled away so that it
only moistens the cabbage. Add a piece of butter, and serve.


=HOT SLAW=

Cut the cabbage into thin shreds as for cold slaw. (Use a plane if
convenient.) Boil it until tender in salted fast-boiling water. Drain it
thoroughly, and pour over it a hot sauce made of one tablespoonful of
butter, one half teaspoonful of salt, dash of pepper and of cayenne, and
one half to one cupful of vinegar, according to its strength. Cover the
saucepan and let it stand on the side of the range for five minutes, so
that the cabbage and sauce will become well incorporated.


=BRUSSELS SPROUTS=

Remove any wilted leaves from the outside of the sprouts, and let them
stand in cold salted water from fifteen to twenty minutes, so that any
insects there may be in them will come out. Put the sprouts into salted,
rapidly boiling water, and cook uncovered fifteen or twenty minutes, or
until tender, but not until they lose their shape. Drain them thoroughly
in a colander; then place them in a saucepan with butter, pepper, and
salt, and toss them until seasoned; or mix them lightly with just enough
white sauce to coat them.


=CAULIFLOWER=

Trim off the outside leaves and cut the stalk even with the flower. Let
it stand upside down in cold salted water for fifteen or twenty minutes
to take out any insects there may be in it. Put it into a generous
quantity of rapidly boiling salted water and cook it uncovered about
twenty minutes or until tender, but not so soft as to fall to pieces.
Remove any scum from the water before lifting out the cauliflower. If
not perfectly white, rub a little white sauce over it. Serve with it a
white, a Béchamel, or a Hollandaise sauce; or it may be served as a
garnish to chicken, sweetbreads, etc., the little bunches being broken
off and mixed with white sauce.


=CAULIFLOWER AU GRATIN=

Break the boiled cauliflower into small flowerets. Place them in a
pudding-dish in alternate layers with white sauce and grated cheese.
Cover the top with crumbs moistened with butter, and bake until the
sauce bubbles through the crumbs.


=EGG-PLANT=

Cut the egg-plant into slices one quarter of an inch thick, after
removing the skin. Sprinkle the slices with salt. Pile them one upon
another on the back of a dish. Place on them a plate holding a weight;
let it stand one hour to express the juice. Dip the slices in egg and
crumbs, or in egg and flour, and sauté on both sides in lard or
drippings.


=STUFFED EGG-PLANT=

Boil an egg-plant twenty to thirty minutes, or until tender. Cut it in
two lengthwise, and take out the pulp, using care not to break the skin.
Mash the pulp, and season it with butter, salt, and pepper; replace it
in the skins; sprinkle with bread-crumbs moistened in butter, and place
in the oven to brown.


=STUFFED PEPPERS=

Use green sweet peppers of uniform size. Cut a piece off the stem end,
or cut them in two lengthwise, and remove the seeds and partitions. Put
them in boiling water for five minutes to parboil. Fill each one with a
stuffing made of equal parts of softened bread-crumbs and minced meat
well seasoned with salt, butter, and a few drops of onion juice. Place
them in a baking-dish with water, or better stock, half an inch deep,
and bake in a moderate oven for half an hour. Serve them in the same
dish if a suitable one is used; if not, remove them carefully to another
dish.


=CHESTNUT PURÉE=

Remove the shells; boil ten minutes; then drain and remove the skins.
Put them in boiling salted water, and cook until tender; then drain,
mash, and press them through a colander. Season with butter, salt, and
pepper; moisten with cream, or milk, or stock.


=CELERY STEWED=

Cut the celery into pieces one inch long. Boil in salted water until
tender; drain and mix with a white sauce.


=CELERY AU JUS=

Cut heads of celery into pieces six inches long, leaving them attached
to the root; remove the coarse branches, and trim the roots neatly.
Parboil it for five minutes. Make a brown roux, using two tablespoonfuls
each of butter and flour, one teaspoonful of salt, and one quarter
teaspoonful of pepper, and dash of nutmeg. Add two cupfuls of stock when
the roux is well browned; and in this, place the bunches of celery;
cover and cook very slowly for twenty-five minutes. Remove the celery,
and place it evenly on a dish. Strain the gravy; pour it around or over
the celery.


=CARROTS AND TURNIPS=

Cut carrots and turnips into dice one quarter of an inch square, or with
a small potato scoop cut them into balls. Boil them separately in salted
water; drain and mix them carefully together. Stir lightly into them
enough white sauce to moisten them well.


=MACÉDOINE OF VEGETABLES=

Cut a carrot and turnip into half inch dice, or with small
vegetable-cutters cut them into fancy shapes or into small balls. Mix
them in about equal proportions with green peas, flageolet beans,
string-beans cut into half inch lengths, and small pieces of
cauliflower. The vegetables should be boiled separately and well drained
before being put together, and when prepared should be mixed lightly so
as not to break them, and seasoned with butter, pepper, and salt, or be
moistened with a Béchamel or a cream sauce. The macédoine may be used as
a garnish for meat, or can be served separately in a vegetable dish.
This mixture of vegetables may also be used for a salad. Sometimes the
vegetables, instead of being mixed together, are placed in separate
piles around the meat or on a flat dish, and then give a good effect of
color.


=DRIED BEANS=

BOILED, BAKED, PURÉE, CROQUETTES

Wash the beans, and soak them over night. Boil them slowly until tender,
changing the water several times. They are improved in flavor by boiling
with them a small piece of salt pork, a bay-leaf, and onion. If they are
to be baked remove them from the water when the skin will break easily;
put them in a pipkin or bean pot, bury in them a piece of salt pork with
the rind scored; sprinkle with salt and pepper. Pour over them a
tablespoonful of molasses, and enough salted water to cover them. Cover
the pot closely, and place it in a slow oven to cook for six to eight
hours.

For a purée, boil the beans until tender; mash them through a colander.
Season with butter, salt, and pepper; and add enough cream or stock to
make them the right consistency. This is called "Purée Bretonne." To use
it for a garnish, press it through a pastry bag into forms like potato
roses (see page 202), or put it into small fontage cups (see page 300),
or on thin pieces of toast the size of a silver dollar. To make
croquettes add a beaten egg to the purée, form it into small croquettes,
roll them in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat.


=BEETS=

Wash beets well, but do not break the skin, or they will lose their
color in boiling. Cook for one hour if young, for two to three hours if
old. When done throw them into cold water, and remove the skins. Season
with butter, salt, and pepper. Serve them whole if small; cut into
slices if large.


=SUMMER SQUASH=

Wash; cut into small pieces; cook in salted boiling water for twenty
minutes, or until tender. Drain thoroughly; mash, and press out all the
water. Season with butter, pepper, salt, and cream if convenient.


=PARSNIPS=

Boil the parsnips one hour, or until tender; throw them in cold water,
and remove the skins. Cut them in slices lengthwise one quarter of an
inch thick. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Dip in melted butter; then
roll in flour, and sauté on both sides until browned. Or mash the boiled
parsnips; season, and stir into them one tablespoonful of flour and one
egg to bind them; form into small cakes, and sauté in drippings until
browned on both sides.


=CUCUMBERS=

BOILED, STUFFED

Boiled: Peel the cucumbers, and cut them lengthwise into quarters. Boil
them in salted water until tender. Make a white sauce (page 277), using
cream instead of milk, if convenient. Place the well-drained cucumbers
in the sauce, to be heated through; then sprinkle with chopped parsley,
and serve.

Stuffed: Select large cucumbers of uniform size. Cut them in two
lengthwise. With a spoon remove carefully the seeds, and fill the place
with a stuffing made of equal parts of minced chicken, or any meat, and
soft crumbs, seasoned, and moistened with one egg and a little stock.
Round it over the top, and sprinkle with crumbs. Place the pieces in a
pan with enough stock to cover the pan one half inch deep. Cook in a
moderate oven one hour, or until the cucumbers are tender; replenish the
stock in the pan if necessary. Remove them carefully to a hot dish.
Thicken the gravy in the pan with a little cornstarch, and pour it
around, not over them. This dish can be served as an entrée.


=LETTUCE STEWED=

Wash the lettuce carefully to remove the dust and any insects. Take off
the wilted leaves, and cut the root even with the head. Tie the top
together. Lay the heads side by side in a baking-pan; add enough stock
to cover the pan one and a half inches deep. Cover, and place in a
moderate oven to simmer for one half hour, or until the lettuce is soft;
renew the stock if necessary. Lift the lettuce out with a fork, putting
it under the middle; let it drain, and lay it double, as it will be over
the fork, in a row on a hot dish. Season the gravy in the pan with
butter, salt, and pepper; thicken it with cornstarch, or with a beaten
egg, and serve it with the lettuce.


=ONIONS=

Put them in salted boiling water, and cook until tender; drain, and pour
over them a white sauce, or melted butter, pepper, and salt. If browned
onions are wanted for garnishing place them, after they are boiled
tender, in a pan; sprinkle with salt, pepper, and a little sugar; and
put them in a hot oven to brown.


=STUFFED SPANISH ONIONS=

Peel the onions. Scoop out from the top a portion of the center. Parboil
them for five minutes, and turn them upside down to drain. Fill them
with a stuffing made of equal parts of minced chicken, or meat, and soft
bread-crumbs, chop fine the onion taken from the center, and add it to
the mixture. Season it with salt and pepper, and moisten it with melted
butter. Fill the onions heaping full, and sprinkle the tops with crumbs.
Place them in a pan with an inch of water; cover, and let cook in an
oven for an hour, or until tender, but not so long as to lose shape.
Take off the cover the last five minutes, so they will brown very
slightly.


=CORN ON THE EAR=

Strip off the husk and silk. Put into boiling water; cover, and boil ten
to fifteen minutes. Do not salt the water, as it hardens the hull.


=CORN MOCK OYSTERS=

Cut down through the center of the grains, each row of green corn on the
ear and with the back of a knife press out the pulp, leaving the hulls
on the ear. To a pint of the pulp add two beaten eggs, one teaspoonful
each of butter and salt, a dash of pepper, and enough flour to bind it.
Roll it into small cakes, and sauté them in butter; or it may be dropped
from a spoon into hot fat, making fritters. These may be made of canned
corn, in which case use a little milk and sugar.


=CANNED CORN=

Turn it into a sieve, and let a little water run over it from the
faucet. Put it into a shallow baking dish; add to one canful of corn one
tablespoonful of butter, one half cupful of cream or milk, one half
teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of pepper. Place in the oven to brown
the top, and serve in the same dish.


=SUCCOTASH=

Mix equal parts of corn, cut from the ear, and any kind of beans; boil
them separately; then stir them lightly together, and season with
butter, salt, and pepper and add a little cream if convenient.


=ARTICHOKES=

Cut the stems off even with the leaves; remove the hardest bottom
leaves, and cut off the top ones straight across, leaving an opening.
Take out the inside, or choke. Wash well, and place upside down to
drain. Put them into boiling water for half an hour, or until the leaves
pull out easily; drain well, and serve on a napkin. They should be cut
with a sharp knife into halves or quarters, and served with white,
Béchamel, or Hollandaise sauce. The bottom and the base of the leaves
only are eatable.


=ARTICHOKE BOTTOMS=

Remove all the leaves and choke. Trim the bottoms into good shape. Boil
them in salted water until tender. Serve with Béchamel or Hollandaise
sauce. Or cut the leaves close to the bottom, and divide it into
quarters. Cook, and serve the same way.

Canned artichoke bottoms can be procured, which are very good.



CHAPTER VII

FARINACEOUS FOODS USED AS VEGETABLES


RECEIPTS FOR MACARONI AND CEREALS


=TO BOIL RICE=

Wash the rice well, and drain it. It must be washed in several waters,
and until the floury coating, which is usually on rice, is all removed.
This flour makes it pasty, and holds the grains together. Have a large
saucepan of salted boiling water. Place it on the hottest part of the
range, so it will boil violently. Sprinkle in the rice slowly, so as not
to stop the boiling, and let it cook for fifteen to twenty minutes
uncovered. At the end of fifteen minutes take out a few grains. If they
are soft when pressed between the fingers, they are done. Then drain off
every drop of water; sprinkle with salt; cover the pot with a napkin,
using one thickness only--and set it on the side of the range to steam
and become perfectly dry. Or the rice may be turned into a colander to
drain, then placed in the open oven to dry. Use a large amount of water
in proportion to the rice. Have it violently agitated all the time to
keep the grains separated. Do not cook it too long, and do not stir or
touch it while cooking. The cloth will not prevent the moisture
escaping, and will help to keep it warm while it is drying. If these
simple rules are observed, each grain will be separate and dry. Do not
cover the dish in which it is served. Rice cooked in this way can be
served in the place of potatoes.


=RICE AND TOMATO=

To a cupful of boiled rice add a half cupful of strained tomato sauce,
which has been well seasoned with butter, salt, pepper, and bay-leaf.
Toss them together, or mix lightly with a fork so as not to mash the
grains. Serve as a vegetable.


=PARCHED RICE=

Boil rice as directed above, so each grain will be separate. Let it get
cold, then separate the grains lightly with a fork on a flat dish. Put
into a frying-pan just enough butter to cover the bottom of the pan;
when it is hot add a little of the rice at a time, and sauté it to a
delicate color. Shake the pan constantly to keep the grains separated.
Remove the rice as it is done, and spread on a paper to dry in an open
oven. The rice should not be greasy when served. This makes a good rice
dish to serve as a vegetable with broiled meats.


=FARINA BALLS=

  1/2 cupful of farina.
  2 cupfuls of milk.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  Dash of cayenne.
  5 drops of onion juice.
  Yolk of 1 egg.

Cook the milk and farina in a double boiler for twenty to thirty
minutes. Wet the farina with a little cold milk before stirring it into
the boiling milk, so it will be smooth; add the salt, and cook to
stiffness, or until the milk has evaporated, then add the cayenne, onion
juice, and beaten yolk of egg. Stir well to mix, and to cook the egg;
pour it onto a dish. When cold roll it into balls one inch in diameter;
roll the balls in crumbs, then in egg (the white and yolk with one
tablespoonful of water, beaten only enough to break), and again in white
crumbs. Fry them in hot fat for one minute, or to a light amber color.
Be sure the balls are completely coated with egg and crumbs, or they
will break in frying. Any cold cereals can be used in this way. They
make a very pretty dish. Serve on a napkin, or to garnish a meat dish.

[Illustration: FARINA BALLS. (SEE PAGE 223.)]


=FRIED HOMINY=

Cut cold boiled hominy into slices one half inch thick, then into pieces
of uniform size. Roll in flour, and sauté on both sides, or dip them in
egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat.


=FRIED CORN MUSH=

Pour well-boiled cornmeal mush (page 228) into a bread-tin or dish with
straight sides, so it will cut in even slices. Make the mush the day
before it is to be used, so it will have time to harden. Cut it in
pieces one half inch thick, and into any shape desired, but have the
pieces uniform. Roll each one in egg and flour, and fry in hot fat; or
they may be rolled in milk, then in flour, and sautéd in butter. They
should have a crust on both sides. It is good served as a vegetable with
game, or as a breakfast dish with or without syrup.



MACARONI

                                       [Sidenote: General directions.]

The best macaroni is smooth, has a fine, close grain and clear
yellow color. It is made of flour and water only, and when
cooked needs the seasoning of a good sauce. It is generally
mixed with cheese, but tomato, cream, or Béchamel sauces make
at good combination. When macaroni is to be boiled in long
pieces to be used for timbales, hold the pieces in a bunch,
and lower them gradually into hot water. They will quickly
soften, and can be turned into a circle in the saucepan. They
must be removed when tender, and not cooked until they lose
form. When done drain off the hot water, and pour on cold
water for a few minutes; then lay them straight on a cloth.

[Illustration: BEAN POT.]



SPAGHETTI

                                             [Sidenote: How to serve.]

Spaghetti is a small and more delicate form of macaroni. It
is boiled until tender in salted water and is combined with
cheese and with sauces the same as macaroni, and is usually
left long. It makes a good garnish.


=BAKED MACARONI, WITH CHEESE=

Take as much macaroni as will half fill the dish in which it is to be
served. Break it into pieces two and a half to three inches long. Put it
into salted boiling water, and boil twelve to fifteen minutes, or until
the macaroni is perfectly soft. Shake the saucepan frequently to prevent
the macaroni from adhering to the bottom. Turn it into a colander to
drain; then put it into a pudding-dish with butter, salt, and grated
cheese. If much cheese is liked, it may be put into the dish in two
layers, alternating the seasoning with the macaroni. Cover it with milk,
and bake until the milk is absorbed and the top browned. A tablespoonful
or more of melted butter should be used to a half pound of macaroni. The
macaroni called "Mezzani," which is a name designating size, not
quality, is the preferable kind for macaroni dishes made with cheese.


=MACARONI AU GRATIN=

Boil the macaroni as directed above. Drain it in a colander; then return
it to the saucepan with butter and grated cheese. Toss over the fire
until the butter is absorbed and the cheese melted. Serve at once before
the cheese has time to harden.

A mixture of Parmesan and of Swiss cheese is often liked; the former
strings when melted; the latter becomes liquid.


=MACARONI WITH TOMATO OR OTHER SAUCES=

Boil the macaroni as directed above; drain it in a colander; then return
it to the saucepan, and mix it with tomato sauce, with cream sauce, or
with Béchamel sauce; toss until they are well mixed; serve in a
vegetable dish or as a garnish.


=MACARONI WITH MINCED MEAT=

Mix boiled macaroni with minced chicken or any meat, and moisten with
white or brown sauce. The meat should be minced very fine. This makes a
good luncheon dish.


=RECEIPT FOR MACARONI=

(FROM MRS. MASPERO.)

Put the macaroni into salted boiling water, and cook it twelve to
fifteen minutes, or until it is tender. Do not let the water boil
violently, as this breaks the macaroni. When it is cooked, drain off all
the water, and cover the hot macaroni with grated cheese (Parmesan and
Gruyère mixed). With two forks mix lightly the cheese with the macaroni.
Turn it into the hot serving-dish, and pour over it the sauce given
below. Serve at once.


=SAUCE FOR MACARONI, FOR RISSOTTO, AND FOR POLENTA=

Put into a saucepan one and a half tablespoonfuls of butter. Add a small
onion chopped fine and a half clove of garlic. Cook until all are
browned; then add three tablespoonfuls of water in which the macaroni
was boiled, and a teaspoonful of beef extract. Add, also, three or four
soaked mushrooms, and let it simmer for five minutes.

This amount of sauce is enough for a pound of macaroni.

The mushrooms given in this receipt are the dried cèpes, which can be
bought by the pound at Italian groceries. They are the best, after the
fresh mushrooms, to use for sauces. They should not be cooked longer
than five minutes to give their best flavor.


=SAUCE FOR MACARONI No. 2=

(MRS. MASPERO.)

Make a sauce as directed for No. 1, using in place of the beef extract a
cupful of chopped round of beef, and a cupful of tomatoes.


=SAUCE FOR MACARONI No. 3=

(MRS. MASPERO.)

When roasting an upper round of beef stick into it six cloves, a clove
of garlic, and a few lardoons of pork. Sprinkle it well with salt and
pepper. After the beef is roasted, turn the juice from the pan over the
macaroni and cheese.


=POLENTA=

(MRS. MASPERO.)

Make a cornmeal mush; boil it for a long time, until it is firm and
hard. Cut it in slices or leave it in one piece. Pour over it sauce No.
1 given above.


=RISSOTTO=

(MRS. MASPERO.)

Boil rice until tender, but not soft. The Italian rice must be used, as
it does not get soft like the Carolina rice; when the rice is done,
drain off the water and steam it dry; then add, while the rice is still
on the fire, some mixed grated Parmesan and Swiss cheese. Turn them
together lightly until the cheese has softened, then put it into the hot
serving-dish, and cover with sauce No. 1 given above.



CEREALS


OATMEAL PORRIDGE

Oatmeal is ground in different grades of coarseness, and some
brands are partly cooked before they are put up for sale;
therefore the time for cooking varies, and it is better to
observe the directions given on the packages. Oatmeal requires
to be cooked until very soft, but should not be mushy. The
ordinary rule is to put a cupful of meal into a quart of
salted boiling water (a teaspoonful of salt), and let it cook
in double boiler the required time. It is well to keep the pan
covered until the oatmeal is cooked, then remove the cover and
let the moisture evaporate until the oatmeal is of the right
consistency. It should be moist enough to drop but not run
from the spoon. It should be lightly stirred occasionally to
prevent its sticking to the pan, but carefully so as not to
break the grains.

If carefully cooked, the sides of the pan will not be
covered with burned oatmeal, and so wasted.

Oatmeal is very good cold, and in summer is better served in
that way. It can be turned into fancy molds or into small cups
to cool, and will then hold the form and make an ornamental
dish.



=CRACKED WHEAT=

Add to three cupfuls of water a half teaspoonful of salt; when it boils
add a half cupful of cracked wheat, and let it cook uncovered until the
water is nearly evaporated; then add three cupfuls of hot milk; cover
and cook until the wheat is soft; then uncover and cook to the right
consistency. It should be quite moist. Stir it carefully from time to
time while it is cooking, but with care not to break the grains.

Turn into molds to harden, and serve cold with sugar and milk.


=CORNMEAL MUSH=

Sprinkle with the hand a pint of cornmeal into rapidly boiling salted
water, stirring all the time. Cook for half an hour; or mix the cornmeal
with a pint of milk and teaspoonful of salt and turn it slowly into a
quart of boiling water; cook for half an hour, stirring constantly. This
may be eaten cold or hot, with milk, with butter and sugar, or with
syrup. When cold it can be cut into slices and browned on both sides in
a sauté-pan, and used as a vegetable dish, or as a breakfast dish, and
may be eaten with syrup.



CHAPTER VIII

A GROUP OF RECEIPTS FROM A NEW ENGLAND KITCHEN

(SUPPLIED BY SUSAN COOLIDGE)


Many of the receipts in this little "group" have never
before appeared in print. They are copies from old
grandmother and great-grandmother receipt-books, tested by
generations of use, and become, at this time, traditional in
the families to which they belong. They are now given to the
public as examples of the simple but dainty cooking of a
by-gone day, which, while differing in many points from the
methods of our own time, in its way is no less delicious.


=SPLIT PEA SOUP=

Soak one quart of split peas in lukewarm water for three hours. Pour off
the water and boil the peas in three and a half quarts of salted water
till they are thoroughly soft. Rub through a colander, and throw away
whatever does not pass through. This will keep several days.

Take out the quantity needed for dinner (allowing a generous quart to
three persons); boil in it a small piece of pork, onion, and a little
white pepper and salt; strain and serve very hot, with small cubes of
fried bread dropped into the tureen.


=BLACK BEAN SOUP=

  1 quart of black beans.
  4 quarts of water.
  The bone of a boiled ham.
  6 cloves.
  4 peppercorns.

Boil on the back of the range for twelve hours; rub through a colander
and set away to cool.

This should make soup for two dinners for a family of six. When served,
add a glass of wine to each tureenful, two or three slices of lemon, and
cubes of bread fried in butter.


=CLAM SOUP=

Boil a quart of clams in their own liquor till they are tender; then
chop them fine and return to the broth.

Stir together until smooth two tablespoonfuls of butter and one and a
half of flour, and with them thicken the soup. Add very carefully a pint
of milk, stirring to avoid curdling, and add two tablespoonfuls of
butter, with pepper and salt, after taking the mixture from the fire.


=CLAM CHOWDER=

Cut one half pound of salt pork into slices, and fry them brown; chop
two small onions, and cook them with the pork. Stew separately a quart
of tomatoes, canned or fresh, and a quart of sliced potatoes. When all
are done, put them together with one quart of clams and their juice. Add
three pints of water, salt, pepper, a little thyme, a very little flour
for thickening, and a handful of small whole crackers. Stew all together
for half an hour, and serve very hot.


=FISH CHOWDER=

Three pounds of fresh codfish well boiled and the bones carefully
removed. Two onions chopped fine and fried with half a pound of salt
pork, cut into small dice. Six potatoes cut small, a pint of water, a
little salt and white pepper. Stew for twenty minutes, thicken slightly
with a little flour; add a pint and a half of milk, and let all boil up
once, stirring thoroughly. Put a handful of oyster crackers into a hot
tureen, and pour the mixture over them.


=BROWNED OYSTERS=

Take thirty large oysters (about three pints); wash them in their own
liquor. Add to one pint of milk three tablespoonfuls of the oyster
liquor, well strained, a very little mace, and a bit of butter about the
size of an English walnut, and make the mixture scalding hot. Rub two
tablespoonfuls of flour perfectly smooth with a little of the milk; pour
in and stir until the whole is thick. Then drop in the oysters; cook
five minutes or so, till they are well plumped out, and add a little
salt, white pepper, and a tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Serve
on a platter on slices of buttered toast.


=FISH AND OYSTERS=

Make a pint or more of white sauce, with flour, butter, and hot milk,
carefully stirred till smooth and thick. Pick to fine bits two quarts of
cold boiled codfish, and add one pint of oysters chopped fine. Fill a
well-buttered pudding-dish with alternate layers of the fish and oysters
and white sauce, sprinkling a little salt over the layers of cod. Cover
the top of the dish with fine bread-crumbs and small bits of butter;
baste with a little cold water, and bake till the top is browned.


=SCALLOPED OYSTERS=

Three pints of oysters; a quart of sifted bread-crumbs. Place a layer of
crumbs in the bottom of a rather deep baking-dish, then a layer of
oysters, and sprinkle with salt and white pepper. Repeat the process
till the dish is filled. Cover the top with crumbs and a layer of soft
bread broken into bits and placed round the edge of a circle of small
oyster crackers. Wet the whole with half a pint of soup stock and a
quarter of a cup of oyster liquor. Cover the top generously with butter
cut into fine bits. Pour over the whole a glass of sherry, and bake an
hour.


=PICKLED OYSTERS=

Scald the oysters in their own liquor, with a little water added, till
they are plump. Skim them out, and drop into a bowl of cold water; rinse
well and put them in glass jars.

Scald an equal quantity of the liquor and vinegar with whole peppers,
mace, and salt, and when perfectly cold fill the jars up with it. These
will keep two or three weeks.


=FRICASSEED OYSTERS=

Drain a quart of large oysters from their liquor, and place them in a
covered saucepan with a quarter of a pound of good butter. Set them on
the back of the range, and let them simmer gently till the oysters are
well plumped out.

Put the oyster liquor in another saucepan with three tablespoonfuls of
powdered cracker, and a little pepper. When the oysters are done, remove
them from the butter with a fork, and place them on toasted crackers on
a hot platter. Add the butter in which they have been cooked to the
oyster broth. Let it boil up once. Stir in half a pint of cream, and
pour over the oysters.


=STEWED LOBSTER=

Cut a boiled lobster weighing four pounds into small pieces. Thicken a
half pint of milk with a teaspoonful of flour and a tablespoonful of
butter; add a teaspoonful of dry mustard, and a little salt and pepper.
Stew the lobster in this till it is quite tender, and lastly add a
tablespoonful of vinegar.


=FISH BALLS=

MAINE

Soak over night three quarters of a pound of boneless codfish.

In the morning shred the fish (uncooked) very carefully with a silver
fork till it is fine. Add to it a dozen potatoes of medium size, freshly
boiled, mashed, and rubbed through a sieve, two beaten eggs, a
tablespoonful of butter, a little hot milk or cream, and a sprinkling of
white pepper.

Mold into round balls, and drop into very hot fat.


=CODFISH AND CREAM=

Shred two thirds of a bowlful of salt codfish, wash it several times
with fresh water, drain off the water, and put it into a saucepan with a
pint of sweet cream and half a pint of sweet milk. Let it come nearly,
but not quite, to the boiling point. Beat together one egg, a
tablespoonful of flour, and two tablespoonfuls of sweet milk; add it to
the fish, and stir continually until it is done. Put the mixture in a
hot dish, and add a large spoonful of butter, stirring it thoroughly.


=OYSTERS ON A CHAFING-DISH=

Put into the chafing-dish four or five tablespoonfuls of the oyster
liquor; add salt, white pepper, and a tablespoonful of butter, and stir
till it is scalding hot. Drop the oysters in, a dozen at a time, and
cook till they are plump and tender; then skim out and place on slices
of hot buttered toast; add more oysters as required.


=PILAU=

One half pint of rice; one pint of stock; one half can of tomato. Soak
the rice in cold water for an hour. Pour off the water, and put the
rice, with the stock and one quarter of a white onion, in a double
boiler. Stew till the rice absorbs the stock.

Stew the tomato thoroughly, and season with butter, salt, and pepper.
Mix it with the rice.

Sauté in butter to a light color jointed chicken, slightly parboiled, or
slices of cold cooked chicken or turkey. Make a hole in the rice and
tomato, put in the chicken and an ounce of butter, and stew all together
for twenty minutes. Serve on a platter in a smooth mound, the red rice
surrounding the fowl.


=SPICED SHAD=

Scale the fish, cut off the heads and tails, and divide them into four
pieces.

Chop four or five small onions, and sprinkle a layer on the bottom of a
stone jar; on this place a layer of fish, packing closely. Spice with
black and cayenne pepper, cloves, allspice, whole peppers, and a little
more onion. Then add another layer of fish, and so on till the jar is
full. Arrange the roe on top, spice highly, and fill the jar with the
strongest vinegar procurable. Place thick folds of paper on the jar
under the cover, and bake for twelve hours. The vinegar will dissolve
the bones, and the fish can be sliced for a tea-table relish.


=PORK AND BEANS=

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Soak a pint of small white beans over night.

In the morning pour off the water, pour on a pint of cold water, and set
at the back of the range to simmer slowly for three quarters of an hour.

Place the beans in a bean-pot with half a pound of scored salt pork in
the middle, half a teaspoonful of dry mustard, salt, white pepper, and a
half pint of white sugar. Add water from time to time, as it grows dry,
and bake twelve hours.


=A RÉCHAUFFÉ OF COLD MUTTON=

Have the mutton cut very neatly and carefully into slices.

Add to a half pint of gravy or stock a little white pepper, a quarter of
a teaspoonful of dry mustard, a quarter of a teaspoonful of curry
powder, and three large tablespoonfuls of currant jelly. When this is
scalding hot, add a glass of sherry. Have ready a hot platter with
slices of toast. Put the sliced mutton into the sauce long enough to
heat through, but not to cook for a moment. Take the slices out with a
fork, and place them on the toast; last of all pour the boiling gravy
over all, and serve instantly. This preparation will be found
delicious--it robs the second-day-of-the-mutton of its terrors.


=CORNED BEEF=

If a round of corned beef is to be eaten cold, as is often the case, it
should be carefully and slowly boiled, and left in the pot till the next
day. The soaking in the water in which it has been boiled has the
effect of making the beef delightfully delicate and tender, and a little
less salt in its flavor. No one who has tried this method will be
content with any other.

If the beef is to be served hot, what is left can be reheated, and left
to cool for the next day's use in the liquor.


=A BEEFSTEAK PIE=

CONNECTICUT

Three pounds of lean rump steak cut thick. Cut it into strips three
inches long, and an inch wide. Put it to stew in enough boiling water to
not quite cover the meat, and simmer very slowly for half an hour. Add a
tablespoonful of parsley chopped fine, a large teaspoonful of sweet
thyme, half a teaspoonful of white pepper, and a quarter of a pint of
sliced onions. Stew together till the meat is perfectly tender. Rub
smooth a tablespoonful of corn starch, and stir it with the gravy until
it becomes of the consistency of cream; add a little salt and a
tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Place the meat in a deep
pudding-dish with alternate layers of cold ham sliced thin and sliced
hard-boiled eggs--seven or eight eggs will be required. Add a little
grated nutmeg; cover with paste, and bake half an hour.


=EASY CHICKEN SALAD=

Take a two-pound can of Richardson & Robbins's compressed chicken;
remove the skin, and cut the chicken into small dice.

Add twice as much celery cut into small pieces, salt to taste, and
marinate the whole with a mixture of three tablespoonfuls of vinegar to
nine of oil. Have it very cold, and just before serving pour over it a
Mayonnaise made by the following receipt. This quantity is enough for
twenty-five persons.


=CREAM DRESSING=

Rub together in a china bowl a large tablespoonful of butter, four
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, a half teaspoonful of salt, and a half
teaspoonful of dry mustard.

Place the bowl in a saucepan full of boiling water over a spirit lamp,
or on the range. Stir the mixture carefully till very hot, to prevent
the butter from oiling. When hot add two well-beaten eggs; stir till
thick, then pour in a half pint of cream, stir, remove from the fire,
and allow it to get perfectly cold.

Cold sweet-breads are excellent served with this cream Mayonnaise.


=MACARONI À L'ALBI=

Break a dozen stems of large macaroni into pieces four inches long, and
stew carefully, till tender, in consommé or white soup stock.

Place in a dish layers of the macaroni sprinkled with salt, pepper, and
of Gruyère cheese grated fine. Cover the top with a thick layer of
grated cheese, on that a layer of fine bread-crumbs, and on that bits of
butter cut fine. Bake just long enough to brown the top thoroughly.


=CORN PUDDING=

Scrape with a knife two dozen ears of green corn, cutting each row
through the middle. Add one pint of milk, half a pound of butter, three
eggs, the whites and yolks beaten separately, a little salt, and white
pepper. Stir the yolks into the milk and corn, pour into a baking-dish,
stir in the whites, and bake an hour and a half.


=THIN INDIAN BREAD=

VERMONT

Mix together two cupfuls of meal, a tablespoonful of lard, and a
teaspoonful of salt; scald with boiling water. Thin it with a large
cupful of cold milk and two well-beaten eggs. Spread thin on a large
buttered pan, and bake till brown in an oven only moderately hot.


=GRAHAM GEMS=

  One pint of milk.
  One pint of graham flour.

Place on top of the range a frame of "iron-clad" gem-pans to get very
hot. Stir the milk and meal together lightly, not trying to make the
batter very smooth. Drop a bit of butter into each hot pan, and while it
sizzles pour in the batter, and instantly set in the oven; bake twenty
minutes. The heat raises the batter to lightness, and the butter gives a
savory crust to the little cakes.


=COLONIAL HOE-CAKES=

CONNECTICUT

Stir Indian meal and water together into a thickish paste. Spread
thickly on a new wooden spade, or on the top of a new barrel, and set on
end before an open fire to slowly toast, turning the cake when the outer
side is brown. No preparation of Indian meal has quite the flavor of
this.


=RHODE ISLAND JOHNNY-CAKE=

For this, Rhode Island meal, ground between stones, is required. Take
one pint of meal and one teaspoonful of salt, and scald thoroughly with
boiling water till it is a stiff, smooth batter. Thin with cold milk
till about the consistency of sponge-cake batter, and drop in
tablespoonfuls on a hot buttered griddle. When the under side is brown,
turn the cakes and brown the other side. Eat with butter.


=BOSTON BROWN BREAD=

One pint of yellow cornmeal, scalded with a small quantity of boiling
water, just enough to wet it thoroughly. Let it stand ten minutes. Then
add enough cold water to make a soft batter. Add one quarter pint of
brewer's yeast, one quarter pint of molasses, one pint of rye meal, one
half teaspoonful of salt, and one saltspoonful of soda. Beat it well
together, and set it to rise over night. When light, stir it
thoroughly, put it into a buttered tin, sprinkle a little flour over the
top, and set it to rise again. Bake about two hours. It is excellent cut
into slices and toasted.


=DABS=

CONNECTICUT

A pint of cornmeal, thoroughly scalded with hot water. Rub into it a
dessertspoonful of butter, two eggs beaten very light, a wineglassful of
cream or milk, and a little salt. Butter a tin pan, and drop the mixture
from a spoon upon it. Bake in a moderate oven.


=CREAM OATMEAL=

Boil oatmeal for an hour as for breakfast use. Rub it through a fine
sieve, add a little milk, and cook it very slowly in a double boiler for
half an hour longer. When perfectly smooth, add a little salt and cream.

This is the most delicate preparation of oatmeal that an invalid can
take.


=ZEPHYRS=

Prepare a thin mush of Indian meal, water, and salt, and boil till
smooth. Drop this batter into iron-clad pans, made very hot and
buttered, and bake till brown.


=SQUASH PIES=

Pare and cut into pieces a Hubbard squash, and steam it till, thoroughly
soft; then rub it through a coarse sieve.

To a quart of the squash, which should be as thick and dry as chestnuts
when prepared for stuffing, add three quarters of a pint, heaping full,
of granulated sugar, the peel and juice of a large lemon, half a nutmeg
grated, a tablespoonful of powdered ginger, about as much powdered
cinnamon, a small teaspoonful of salt, six drops of rose-water, half a
pint of cream, and four beaten eggs. Stir thoroughly, and add about
three pints of scalded milk. The mixture should be tasted, and a little
more sugar, or lemon, or spice added if required.

Line a deep tin pie-dish with paste, lay a narrow strip around the edge,
and fill the dish with the mixture. Bake till the filling is set. This
quantity will make four pies.


=PUMPKIN PIES (About Four Pounds)=

MASSACHUSETTS

Pare a small pumpkin, about four pounds, and take out the seeds. Steam
till soft, and strain through a colander.

Beat in three eggs, three tablespoonfuls of molasses, two tablespoonfuls
of ground cinnamon, one of ginger, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and two
quarts of hot milk. If more sweetening is needed add a little sugar.
Bake with an under crust only. This receipt will make five pies.


=EASY PIE-CRUST=

Three quarters of a pint of lard, three quarters of a pint of butter,
three quarters of a pint of iced water with a teaspoonful of salt
dissolved in it, a pint and a half of flour sifted twice through a fine
sieve.

Put the lard and flour into a bowl (leaving out a little flour for
rolling), and very lightly rub them together with the tips of your
fingers. Pour in the salted water, and stir with a knife till the flour
and lard are well mixed. Pour out onto the paste-board (over which a
very little flour should be sifted), and beat the mixture with a rolling
pin, doubling and folding, and putting the dry particles in the middle,
till the whole becomes a smooth, firm paste.

Roll this into a narrow oblong, as far as possible rolling from you.
Divide the butter, which should be very cold and hard, into three parts,
and put one third on the paste with a knife, cutting it into little
bits. Fold the sheet of paste over into a roll, and again roll out into
an oblong. Add the second third of butter in the same way. Roll once
more, put on the last third of butter, again fold into a roll, and cut
the paste in two, putting one half on top of the other half.

Cut portions off from the end of the double roll, and with them line the
pie dishes, rolling them very thin. This quantity of paste will make
four or five pies. Care should be taken not to increase the quantity of
flour. The pie-crust will be found tender and delicate, though not so
elegant as puff-paste; and to make it ready for use in the pie-dishes
should not take more than a quarter of an hour.


=A BOILED INDIAN PUDDING=

CONNECTICUT

  One quart of milk.
  One pint of meal.
  Five tablespoonfuls of West India molasses.
  Two tablespoonfuls of suet chopped fine.

Scald the milk, and pour it over the meal; add the other ingredients.
Put the pudding into a mold or bag, and boil four hours.

Hot maple molasses and butter are eaten with this pudding.


=A BAKED INDIAN PUDDING=

  Three and a half quarts of sweet milk.
  Three heaping tablespoonfuls of cornmeal.
  One half pint of molasses.
  One teaspoonful of salt.
  Ginger to taste.

Boil one quart of the milk; add to it molasses, butter, salt, and spice,
and lastly the meal stirred smooth with a little cold milk; scald the
whole together, and turn into a well-buttered baking-dish. When it
begins to crust over, stir it all up from the bottom, and add a pint of
cold milk. Repeat the process every half hour, or oftener if the pudding
browns too fast, till the five pints are used; then let it bake till
done--six hours in all. Serve hot with a sauce of grated or granulated
maple sugar stirred into rich cream, and kept very cold till needed.


=ORANGE INDIAN PUDDING=

CONNECTICUT

Put four heaping tablespoonfuls of Indian meal in a bowl, and mix in
half a pint of molasses and a teaspoonful of salt. Boil three pints of
milk; pour it scalding hot on the meal, stirring carefully till
perfectly smooth and free from lumps. Butter a deep pudding-dish; cover
the bottom thickly with fragments of dried orange-peel; pour in the
mixture, and, last of all, pour gently over the top a tumblerful of cold
milk. Bake four hours and a half in a hot oven. Eat with thick cream.


=BLUEBERRY PUDDING=

RHODE ISLAND

Line a deep pudding-dish with slices of buttered bread. Fill this with
alternate layers of whortleberries or blueberries, and granulated sugar.
Squeeze the juice of a lemon over the whole. Cover the top with slices
of bread buttered on both sides. Place a plate over the dish, and bake
for an hour and a half, setting the dish in a pan of hot water.

Take the pudding from the oven, spread over the top a meringue of white
of egg beaten lightly with sugar in the proportion of a tablespoonful of
sugar to one egg, and return it to the oven just long enough to lightly
brown the meringue. The pudding should be eaten hot with hard wine
sauce.


=A PEACH PUDDING=

Line the bottom of a deep pudding-dish with thick slices of stale sponge
cake soaked in sherry. Fill the dish with fresh peaches, sliced, and
well sprinkled with sugar. Spread over the top a meringue similar to
that described for whortleberry pudding, and leave it in the oven just
long enough to brown.

Set the dish on the ice, and serve very cold. It is eaten with cream.


=CHERRY BREAD=

Fill a deep pudding-dish with alternate layers of buttered bread and
sour cherries, stoned, and stewed with sugar.

Pack the dish in ice, and half freeze the mixture, which will become a
semi-jelly. It is eaten with thick cream.


=LEMON RICE PUDDING=

Boil a half pint of rice in a quart of milk till very soft. Add to it
while hot the yolks of three eggs, three large tablespoonfuls of sugar,
the grated rind of two lemons, and a little salt. If too thick, add a
little cold milk. It should be a little thicker than a boiled custard.
Turn it into a pudding-dish.

Beat the whites of the eggs very stiff with eight tablespoonfuls of
sugar and the juice of the two lemons, and brown the top delicately in
the oven. Set on ice and eat very cold.


=BERMUDA PUDDING=

Weigh two eggs, and allow the same weight in sugar and flour, and the
weight of one egg in butter. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add
the eggs beaten to a froth, and lastly the flour, in which half a
teaspoonful of Royal Baking Powder has been mixed. Stir till perfectly
smooth; then add a heaping tablespoonful of orange marmalade; pour into
a buttered mold; cover with buttered paper, and steam gently for an hour
and a half. Serve with wine sauce.


=RICE AND ORANGE-MARMALADE PUDDING=

Simmer a quarter of a pint of rice in a quart of milk till it is very
soft and thick. Add a teaspoonful of salt, four tablespoonfuls of sugar,
a little cream, and let all cool together a few minutes. Pour into a
pudding-dish and bake till set.

Spread over the pudding a thick layer of orange marmalade, and over that
a meringue, and return to the oven till the top is lightly browned.
Serve it cold.


=MOLASSES PIE=

This is a genuine New England dainty, dear to the hearts of children.
Mix half a pint of the best molasses with a tablespoonful of flour, and
add the juice of a large lemon, and the rind and pulp chopped fine. Bake
with an under and an upper crust.


=PRUNE JELLY, WITH ALMONDS=

One pound of prunes. One half box of Coxe's gelatine. Soak the prunes
over night, and stew till tender in the water in which they have soaked.
Remove the stones, and sweeten to taste.

Dissolve the gelatine in a little hot water, and add to the prunes while
hot. Lastly, add the juice of a lemon and two tablespoonfuls of blanched
almonds. Pour the jelly into molds and set it on the ice to harden. Eat
with cream.


=CLARIFIED APPLES=

Melt two cupfuls of crushed sugar over the fire, adding a little water
to keep it from burning, and dropping in a few bits of lemon-peel.

Pare eight large greening apples, and slice them very thin. Have a
saucepan full of boiling water ready, and into this put the apples and
let them cook till they are parboiled, but not soft enough to break.
Skim them out, and drop them into the boiling syrup, shaking them
continually over a slow fire till they are done. If properly prepared
the slices will be almost transparent.


=LEMON ICE=

One quart of milk. One tumblerful of sugar. Mix the two, and half freeze
in an ice cream freezer. Then add the juice and pulp of four large
lemons; stir thoroughly, and freeze firm. This is the simplest and
cheapest of frozen preparations, and for use in the country, where
materials are hard to come by, it is invaluable.


=APPLE SAUCE=

Pare, core, and quarter enough Baldwin or greening apples to fill a
small stoneware jar. Add three quarters of a pint of sugar and a quarter
of a pint of water; cover tightly. Set this in the oven of the range as
soon as the last meal of the day--dinner or supper, as it may be--is
served, and let it remain till breakfast next morning. The long, slow
cooking gives the apples a deep red color and a flavor quite different
from other preparations.


=STEWED PEARS=

Prick hard baking pears with a fork in half a dozen places, and with
them fill a small stoneware jar. Add half a pint of sugar, half a pint
of water, and a heaping teaspoonful of molasses. Cover tightly, and bake
all night as directed above.


=CRANBERRY JELLY=

Stew four quarts of cranberries in a porcelain kettle with water enough
to float them, till they are thoroughly soft and broken. Rub them
through a coarse sieve. Allow to each pint of the marmalade-like mixture
resulting a pound of sugar. Put the fruit on the fire till it boils
hard. Stir in the sugar, and as soon as it jellies, which will be in a
few minutes, remove from the fire and pour into glasses. The advantage
of this preparation of cranberries is that it keeps perfectly for six
weeks or two months, losing nothing in quality or flavor during the
time.


=HARTFORD ELECTION CAKE=

  4-1/2 pounds of flour.
  2-1/2 pounds of sugar.
  2-1/4 pounds of butter.
  1/2 ounce of nutmeg.
  1/2 pound of sliced citron.
  1/2 ounce of mace.
  A cupful of brandy and sherry mixed.
  2 pounds of raisins.
  4 eggs.

At noon, or early in the afternoon, begin making this cake. Cream the
butter and sugar, add a quart of lukewarm milk, half of the flour, and
either a half pint of brewer's yeast or a cake and a half of compressed
yeast. Beat the mixture well, cover the pan with a thick towel, and set
it in a warm place to rise.

At night, when it is very light, add the flour, spices, and eggs. Set
the pan in a moderately warm place for a second rising. Early next
morning add the fruit, the wine, the grated peel of a lemon, and half a
teaspoonful of extract of rose. Pour into pans lined with buttered
paper. Let them stand an hour or until light. This receipt makes seven
loaves, which require to bake from an hour to an hour and a half,
according to oven.

A half teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little warm water, and stirred
into the batter just before it is put into the pans, is an improvement.


=INSTANTANEOUS FROSTING=

To the white of an unbeaten egg add a cupful and a quarter of pulverized
sugar, and stir until smooth. Add three drops of rose-water, ten of
vanilla, and the juice of half a lemon. It will at once become very
white, and will harden in five or six minutes.



CHAPTER IX

PART I

DISTINCTIVELY SOUTHERN DISHES


                                             [Sidenote: The Cornmeal.]

                                                  [Sidenote: The Hoe.]

The dishes in which the South excel, and which may be called
distinctive to that section, are those made of cornmeal, of
gumbo or okra, and those seasoned with sassafras powder or
twigs. The cornmeal used in the South is white and coarse-grained
(it is called there water-ground), and gives quite a different
result from that which is finer in grain and yellow in color,
which is usually sold at the North. The hoe used for baking
corn-cakes is an article made for the purpose, and not the
garden implement usually associated with the name.



=PONE=

Sift a quart of white cornmeal, add a teaspoonful of salt; pour on
enough cold water to make a mixture which will squeeze easily through
the fingers. Work it to a soft dough. Mold it into oblong cakes an inch
thick at the ends, and a little thicker in the center. Slap them down on
the pan, and press them a little. These cakes, they say, must show the
marks of the fingers. The pan must be hot, and sprinkled with the bran
sifted from the meal. Bake in a hot oven for about twenty minutes.


=HOE-CAKE No. 1=

Make the same mixture as for pone. Spread it on the greased hoe, or a
griddle, making a round cake one quarter inch thick. Bake it on the top
of the range, turning and baking it brown on both sides.


=HOE-CAKE No. 2=

Use for these cakes, if possible, coarse water-ground white meal. Add to
a quart of meal a teaspoonful of salt; pour over it enough boiling water
to make it a soft dough; add also a little milk to make it brown better.
Let it stand an hour or longer, then work it together with the hand.
Form it into little cakes an inch thick, and bake on a greased griddle
till browned on both sides. Serve very hot. They are split and spread
with butter when eaten.


=KENTUCKY CORN DODGERS=

Mix a teaspoonful of salt with a cupful of white cornmeal. Scald it with
just enough boiling water to dampen it; then add enough cold milk to
enable you to mold it. Stir it well together, and form it into cakes
three quarters of an inch thick in the middle and oblong in shape. Use a
tablespoonful of dough for each cake. Bake them on a greased pan in a
hot oven for twenty-five minutes.


=MARYLAND BEATEN BISCUIT=

Add a teaspoonful of salt and tablespoonful of butter to a quart of
flour. Rub them together, then add a cupful of milk, and, if necessary,
a little water, making a stiff dough. Place the dough on a firm table or
block, and beat it with a mallet or rolling-pin for fully half an hour,
or until it becomes brittle. Spread it half an inch thick; cut it into
small circles, and prick each one with a fork. Bake them in a hot oven
about twenty minutes.


=SOFT CORN-BREAD=

Mix a tablespoonful of butter with two cupfuls of hot boiled hominy or
of rice; add two or three well-beaten eggs, and then add slowly two
cupfuls of milk, and lastly a cupful of white cornmeal and a dash of
salt. Turn the mixture, which should be of the consistency of pancake
batter, into a deep dish, and bake about an hour. Serve it with a spoon
from the same dish in which it is baked.


=SOUTHERN WAY OF COOKING RICE=

Wash the rice thoroughly through several waters, using the hand. Put it
into a saucepan with a pint of water and a half teaspoonful of salt to
each cupful of rice. Let it boil covered until the water has boiled
away; then draw it to the side of the range, open the cover a little,
and let it steam until thoroughly dry. Do not touch the rice while it is
cooking. This receipt is furnished by a Southern negro cook.


=GUMBO FILÉ=

(A NEW ORLEANS DISH)

  50 oysters.
  1 fowl cut into pieces.
  1/2 pound of veal cut into pieces.
  1/2 pound of ham cut into pieces.
  3 tablespoonfuls of tomato.
  1 tablespoonful of drippings.
  2 onions.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  1/4 teaspoonful of powdered thyme.
  1/4 teaspoonful of marjoram.
  Dash of cayenne.
  2 tablespoonfuls of sassafras powder.

Wash well the outside of a fowl (see page 180), and cut it into pieces.
Cut the veal and the ham into small pieces, and dredge all of them well
with flour.

Put the onions, sliced, into a pot or large saucepan with one
tablespoonful of fat or drippings, and fry until brown; then add the
pieces of chicken, veal, and ham. Turn them often, so all will brown
evenly; this will take about twenty minutes. When the meat is browned,
add two quarts of hot water; cover the pot, and let simmer for two
hours. After the first hour add the salt, pepper, thyme, marjoram, and
tomatoes. At the end of two hours, if the meat is tender, add the
oysters and the oyster juice, and let remain on the fire only long
enough to ruffle the gills of the oysters. Take from the fire, and add
two tablespoonfuls of sassafras powder, and stir until a little
thickened (do not add the sassafras until the pot is removed from the
fire).

Serve in a meat-dish with a border of boiled rice. This is a dish much
used in the South. It may be served as a chowder, with the meat and
liquor together, or may be served separately, using the liquor as a
soup.

Powdered sassafras leaves may be obtained at the grocer's.


=CHICKEN GUMBO=

Cut a chicken into pieces; roll the pieces in flour; put them into a pot
with a few slices of salt pork and one sliced onion. Sauté them a light
brown; then add four quarts of hot water, and simmer it until the
chicken is nearly cooked; then add two slices of boiled ham, two quarts
of sliced okra, one half can of tomatoes, and one pod of red pepper.
Continue to cook until everything is tender. Season with salt and
pepper, and just before serving stir in one teaspoonful of sassafras
powder. If sassafras twigs can be had they are better than the powder,
and should be added with the vegetables.

This is a favorite Southern dish. It resembles a chowder, and is so
hearty as to almost constitute a dinner in itself.



PART II

VERY INEXPENSIVE DISHES


                                           [Sidenote: Cost of living.]

The following receipts are furnished by a lady who for many
years solved the problem of providing nourishment for a
family of three persons upon a very small income. The
average expenditure each day for three meals did not exceed
twenty cents _per capita_, or four dollars and twenty cents
a week for the family; and great care was taken to secure
for this sum the greatest possible amount of nourishment. In
families where meat is not considered a daily necessity,
this price might be further reduced.

              [Sidenote: Care required in cooking cheap cuts of meat.]

It is, of course, very much easier to supply coarse qualities
of food for a low sum than refined and dainty dishes, but,
after all, it is more a matter of the care given to the
preparation than of the food itself which produces refined
results; for instance, beef, which is very nourishing, is
least suited to these requirements, because the less expensive
portions, which often contain the most nutriment, cannot be
served as daintily as either veal or mutton without a large
amount of care and trouble; this it is often difficult to give
personally, and almost impossible to secure in a low-priced
cook. Still, it is worth while for any housekeeper desirous of
obtaining the maximum nourishment at minimum cost, to try the
following receipts for using the most inexpensive portion of
beef that can be bought, _i. e._, the shin, which costs about
eight cents a pound.



=TO PREPARE SHIN OF BEEF=

Take a slice about one inch thick, cut toward the smaller end of the
shin, so that the little round bone in the center is quite small. This
is fairly manageable, and can by careful cooking be rendered as tender
as a sirloin steak. Place the slice in a stewpan, cover it with water,
add salt, and set it upon the far end of the grate for three hours,
never allowing it to boil. If by that time it is fairly tender, cover it
with vegetables cut in very small dice--carrots, turnips, and one large
onion; advance the pot nearer to the fire, and let it simmer another
hour. Push aside the vegetables, take the meat out carefully, and lay it
on the dish; pile the vegetables upon its center, then carefully thicken
the liquor, and if necessary brown it with a drop or two of burnt sugar,
and pour this gravy over the beef.


ANOTHER WAY

Take about two and a half pounds of the thicker part of the shin, place
it in an iron pot with two tablespoonfuls of drippings. Turn it as it
browns. When brown enough put it in a stew-pan; add enough water to
cover it, a large onion stuck full of cloves, and half a carrot cut into
slices. Let it simmer four hours, remove the meat and onion and carrot,
thicken the liquor, and serve in a dish large enough to allow plenty of
gravy. If, after removing the meat, the liquor appears too rich, pour
off the fat before thickening.

                                              [Sidenote: Round Steak.]

Round steak can be used instead of shin for both these
receipts, but costs just double the price. It requires far
less cooking and calls for less care, and if carefully and
slowly stewed for one hour makes a very appetizing dish.

Another very appetizing dish, much used by people of small
means in England, is beefsteak pudding, for which it is also
possible to use the shin, by stewing it beforehand, and
cutting it up when perfectly tender into small pieces; but
it is usually made of round steak as follows:


=BEEFSTEAK PUDDING=

Line a pudding-basin with a plain crust made of chopped suet and flour
mixed with water, and simply rolled out once an inch thick; cut up a
pound of round steak, and sprinkle with flour, pepper, and salt; chop a
small onion fine, put all into the lined basin, add a cup of water,
cover over with the suet crust, and tie it in a well-floured cloth. Have
a saucepan full of water boiling rapidly, and put the basin in, the
opening downwards; leave the lid off the saucepan, and let it boil two
and one half hours, adding water if it boils away. A sheep's kidney cut
up small adds richness to the gravy.

                                                    [Sidenote: Menus.]

Sometimes, where great economy must be practised, and the sum
allowed for the entire meal for three people is only sixty
cents, it is difficult to remember just such accessories in
the way of vegetables as are as inexpensive in their way as
the meat, and for this reason the following very modest menus
are offered as samples of what can be accomplished in the way
of very inexpensive dinners.



=DINNER No. 1=

POTATO BALLS, SCOTCH BROTH, TURNIPS WITH WHITE SAUCE, TAPIOCA AND APPLES

This is an excellent winter dinner.

_Scotch Broth._--Buy for four persons one pound or one and a quarter
pounds of scrag of mutton; chop it into pieces, and put it into an iron
pot with one quart of water, one large onion cut into slices, and a
small cupful of pearl barley. Let it simmer for two hours, adding a
little water if it becomes too thick. Serve boiling hot with the mutton
in it.

This is very inexpensive. The scrag of mutton costs from eight to ten
cents; the barley is eight cents a pound--about two cents' worth is
sufficient; the onion may be reckoned as one cent. It can be made a
little more costly by buying what is called the best end of the neck.
Six or eight chops would weigh the pound and a quarter required, and
would cost perhaps twelve to fourteen cents. The chops look somewhat
better than the chopped-up scrag, but the nourishing quality is as good
in the latter.

_Potato Balls._--Choose large potatoes, and with a scoop cut out small
balls; boil these and serve them sprinkled with chopped parsley.

_Turnips._--Cut into small dice, boil until tender, throw away the
water, and serve with a white sauce made of milk, flour, and a
teaspoonful of butter. Two turnips are sufficient for a dish.

_Tapioca and Apples._--Apples are cheap early in the winter. Three or
four at a cent apiece should be pared and cored, and placed in a low
baking-dish with two dessertspoonfuls of tapioca, and enough water to
cover the whole. Bake in a slow oven. By soaking the tapioca over night
a less quantity will do, say, one and a quarter spoonfuls.

N. B.--Both sago and tapioca are very economical because, when soaked
over night, they swell greatly, and they can both be cooked with water,
instead of milk, with good results.


=DINNER No. 2=

STUFFED POTATOES, VEAL WITH WHITE SAUCE, PURIFIED CABBAGE, RENNET
CUSTARD

Buy one and a quarter pounds of leg of veal at ten cents a pound; cut
the meat into dice, and place it in a stew-pan with a piece of mace and
a pint of milk. Place it back of the fire so that it will not burn, and
thicken it before serving with a teaspoonful of flour.

_Stuffed Potatoes._--Bake four large potatoes until nearly done; then
cut in half, remove the insides, beat them up with milk, replace in the
skins, and serve in a pyramid.

_Purified Cabbage._--Cut a cabbage into thin strips as if for salad;
boil it in salted water, but every time the water comes to the boiling
point throw it away for three successive times; after the third boiling
use milk instead of water, and add a little nutmeg. If nicely cooked in
this way, cabbage is as palatable and as digestible as cauliflower.


=DINNER No. 3=

STEWED CARROTS, CHOPS WITH PARSLEY SAUCE, CREAM POTATOES, APPLE
DUMPLINGS

Chops cut from the shoulder of mutton are cheaper than either neck or
loin chops, and are as good, perhaps better, for boiling. Put the chops
on in enough cold water to cover them; let them simmer for half an hour,
and at the end of that time come just to a boil; pour off the liquor
into the stock-pot, and lay the chops on a hot dish; make some white
sauce of one ounce of butter, one teaspoonful of flour, and a cup of
milk; add chopped parsley, and pour over the chops.

To stew carrots cut them in very thin rounds, lay them in a stew-pan
with enough water to more than cover. Let them boil till tender, about
one quarter of an hour; then thicken the liquor with flour, and add a
tiny bit of butter.


=DINNER No. 4=

BOILED ONIONS, CURRY, RICE, STEWED PRUNES

Curry can be made of a variety of materials. The best for the purpose
are the white meats, veal, pork, or chicken; and although curried cooked
meat is a satisfactory substitute for hash, it is not on the whole
commendable. The Indian receipt for ordinary curry is as follows:

Cut the fowl or meat into joints or fair-sized pieces; dip each piece in
curry powder, or sprinkle freely with it; cut up a large onion, and have
a clove of garlic. Put all together in a frying-pan, the bottom of which
is covered with melted butter (drippings or lard will do); fry until
thoroughly brown, turning continually. When brown, remove meat into a
stew-pan; make a gravy with flour and water (or stock) in the frying-pan
from which the meat was taken; strain it over the meat, and then add a
few drops of lemon, or a little Worcester sauce--and set the stew-pan on
the side of the stove and let it simmer for two hours. The meat should
be so tender that it can be readily separated by a fork. A knife should
never be used. Eggs make a delicious curry. Boil them hard, shell, and
cut in halves; make a curry gravy as above, and pour over them. Serve
with rice around the dish.

_Rice._--The proper way to serve rice with curry is perfectly dry, and
this is best secured by throwing a cupful (for an ordinary dish) into
water which is already boiling hard. Let it continue to boil rapidly
until the water has all boiled away, leaving the lid off. The rice will
then be almost tender, and by removing to the side of the stove the
evaporation will continue, and the rice drying off will be easily
separable grain from grain, which is the proper way. The success of this
method depends upon having plenty of water in the first instance.

_Madras_ curry is differently made, and is served dry. For it, proceed
as for the other curry by frying all the ingredients together in butter
or drippings, but when brown continue to fry until the meat is done;
then at the last moment add a sprinkling of curry powder, shake the pan,
and turn all the contents onto a hot dish. Serve with rice.


=DINNER No. 5=

BRUSSELS SPROUTS, LIVER SAUTÉ, POTATOES, RICE PUDDING

Calf's liver can be so cooked as to be both delicate and easily
digested. The German method is a very good one. Remove any outer skin,
and cut the liver into very thin slices. Have a pan with salted boiling
water and throw in the liver. It will require only about five minutes'
cooking if the slices are thin enough. Take them out, lay them on a hot
dish, and make a gravy by frying a cut-up onion and when brown pouring
in the liquor used to boil the liver, thickening with flour and browning
if necessary. Add at the last moment one half a large spoonful of
vinegar.

Liver balls may be made by using the liver left over, chopping it very
fine with an onion, some sage, or thyme (as may be preferred),
bread-crumbs and a beaten egg, and frying in hot lard.

Liver should be accompanied by a green vegetable, for which reason
Brussels sprouts are suggested. They should be cooked in salted water,
drained, and served with white sauce, flavored with nutmeg.


=DINNER No. 6=

FRIED SWEET POTATOES, BREAST OF MUTTON, CAPER SAUCE, STRING-BEANS (TEN
CENTS A CAN), APPLE PIE

Breast of mutton is the cheapest of all mutton, and being very fat, is
considered unprofitable, but by care it can be made both palatable and
economical. Buy about three pounds of breast; place it in a pan over a
slow fire until a good deal of the fat has melted, but avoid letting it
brown; pour away the fat as it melts, and when fairly free of it place
the meat in a stew-pan with an onion cut up, and enough water to cover
it, and a little thyme. Let it cook very slowly, only simmering for two
hours; then lay on a hot dish, and pour caper sauce over it. If it is
still fat skim often while simmering.


=SOME CHEAP SOUPS=

_Tomato._--Turn a can of tomatoes into a stew-pan, and let come to a
boil; fry some bread in dice, place them at the bottom of a soup
tureen, and rub the tomatoes through a colander over them; put the pulp
left in the colander back into the stewpan; add water, let it boil up,
and strain again into the tureen; stir in a teaspoonful of butter,
season with pepper and salt, and serve.

_Carrot._--Boil half a dozen large carrots until quite tender; then rub
them through a colander into a saucepan; add a pint and a half of water
to the pulp, and boil; thicken with a little flour, and add a
teaspoonful of butter, pepper and salt.

_Potato._--Boil half a dozen large potatoes; rub them through a sieve
(coarse hair is the best) into a saucepan in which there have been
placed a shredded onion, some chopped parsley, and about a cupful of
milk. Stir in the potato pulp, and thin with water. Season with pepper
and salt.

_Bean._--Soak some beans over night, boil for one hour; add an onion
when nearly soft, rub them through a colander into a tureen in which
have been already placed some onions fried in butter or lard, and add
water if too thick.

_Celery._--Take the cast-off leaves and hard ends of a bunch of celery,
and let them boil until perfectly shredded; then strain the water into
some thickened milk, and let it all come to the boiling point, but not
boil. Season with butter, pepper and salt. It is a very good addition to
this soup to break an egg into the tureen, and pour the soup upon it.

Stock can be used in any of these soups instead of water.



PART III

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS


=STERILIZED MILK=

The subject of bacteria in foods has of late become a matter of careful
scientific study, and the fact has been established that milk is one of
the most subtle of disease-carriers. Hence every careful mother, before
giving it to her children, subjects it to the sterilizing process, which
is simply raising it to the degree of heat which destroys the germs. It
is found, however, that this does not kill the spores or seeds of the
bacilli, and so the operation is but a partially successful expedient.
(To render it really sterile requires heating several times on
successive days.) It has also been found that sterilizing milk robs it
of its antiscorbutic qualities, and that children fed entirely upon it
are subject to bleeding gums and other symptoms of scurvy. Milk should
be fresh as possible, as the longer it stands the greater will be the
number of bacteria, and less rich the milk in the substances on which
they feed. The first point to emphasize in the simple process of
sterilization is perfect cleanliness. Rounded bottles should be used, as
they are easier to clean. They should be well rinsed as soon as emptied,
and left to soak in soda and water, and before use they should be
subjected to a good scrubbing with scalding water and a piece of cloth
tied onto a stick or wire. The brushes made for cleaning bottles should
be avoided, as they are more than likely to be full of germs themselves.
Turn the fresh milk into the bottles as soon as cleaned. Fill them to
within an inch of the top, and stop them with antiseptic cotton. The
sterilizing is effected by keeping the bottles in boiling water or in
live steam for at least half an hour. The water in the boiler should be
cold at first, and the heat raised gradually. This, as well as not
letting the bottles rest on the bottom of the kettle, will prevent their
breaking. Sterilizers are made which are both cheap and convenient, but
any kettle well covered will answer the purpose. The time for cooking
should be counted from the moment the water boils. Let the bottles
remain in the water until cooled, and do not remove the stopper until
the milk is to be used.


=DEVONSHIRE CREAM, No. 1=

(RECEIPT OBTAINED IN ENGLAND.)

Put a panful of milk in a cold place for twenty-four hours, or in summer
for twelve hours. Then place it on the fire, and let it come very slowly
to the scalding-point, but do not let it boil. Put it again in a cool
place for six or twelve hours, and then take off the cream, which will
be firm and of a peculiarly sweet flavor.


=DEVONSHIRE CREAM, No. 2=

Put the fresh milk on the fire, and let it very slowly come to the
scalding-point, but do not let it boil. Leave it on the fire for about
half an hour, then remove to a cold place, and let it stand for six
hours, or until the cream has all risen.

Devonshire cream is thick and clotted, and is used on fruits, mush, etc.
It will keep for some time, and is particularly delicious.


=FRESH BUTTER=

The French use for table butter that which is freshly made and without
salt. One soon learns to prefer it to the best salted butter. It is very
easy to make fresh butter, but not always easy to buy it, for it keeps
only a day at its best, and therefore the surest way of having it good
is to make it. Take a half pint of double cream; turn it into a bowl,
and with a wire whip beat it until the butter forms. This will take but
a few minutes, if the cream is of the right temperature (65°). (If very
cold, it will whip to froth as it is prepared for whipped cream.) Turn
off the milk; add some ice water, and work the butter until it is firm
and free from milk; then press it into pats, and keep it in a tight jar
on the ice until ready to use.

This amount of cream, which costs ten cents, will, if rich, give a
quarter of a pound of butter. Put some fresh grass or some clover
blossoms in the jar with the butter, and it will absorb their flavor.
(See illustration facing page 256.)

[Illustration: BUTTER PATS AND MOLDED BUTTER. (SEE PAGE 258.)

  1. Shells made with No. 5.
  2. Balls made with No. 7.
  3. Small pats made with No. 6.
  4. Rolls made with No. 7.]


=TO MAKE WHITE HARD SOAP=

Save every scrap of fat each day; try out all that has accumulated,
however small the quantity. This is done by placing the scraps in a
frying-pan on the back of the range. If the heat is low, and the grease
is not allowed to get hot enough to smoke or burn, there will be no odor
from it. Turn the melted grease into lard-pails and keep them covered.
When six pounds of fat have been obtained, turn it into a dish-pan; add
a generous amount of hot water, and stand it on the range until the
grease is entirely melted. Stir it well together; then stand it aside to
cool. This is clarifying the grease. The clean grease will rise to the
top, and when it has cooled can be taken off in a cake, and such
impurities as have not settled in the water, can be scraped off the
bottom of the cake of fat.

Put the clean grease into the dish-pan and melt it. Put a can of
Babbitt's lye in a lard-pail; add to it a quart of cold water, and stir
it with a stick or wooden spoon until it is dissolved. It will get hot
when the water is added; let it stand until it cools. Remove the melted
grease from the fire, and pour in the lye slowly, stirring all the time.
Add two tablespoonfuls of ammonia. Stir the mixture constantly for
twenty minutes or half an hour, or until the soap begins to set.

Let it stand until perfectly hard; then cut it into square cakes. This
makes a very good, white hard soap which will float on water. It is very
little trouble to make, and will be found quite an economy in a
household. Six pounds of grease make eight and a half pounds of soap.


=FLOOR POLISH=

  4 ounces of beeswax.
  1 quart of turpentine.
  Piece of resin size of hickory nut.

Cut up the beeswax and pound the resin. Melt them together. Take them
from the fire and stir in a quart of turpentine. Rub very little on the
floor with a piece of flannel; then polish with a dry flannel and a
brush.



CHAPTER X

EGGS

     There is a best way of doing everything, even if it be
     to boil an egg.--_Emerson._


The variety of purposes which eggs serve, the many ways
of cooking them, their value as a highly concentrated,
nutritious, and easily-digested food, make them one of the
most useful articles of food. To have them fresh and rightly
cooked is within the power of the simplest household. They
hold the principal place as a breakfast dish, and although the
original methods of cooking them may be limited to boiling,
baking, poaching, etc., each one of these can be varied in an
indefinite number of ways, giving a menu of eggs unlimited in
extent, and thus securing always a new way of presenting them,
if desired. Urbain Dubois has recently published a book giving
300 ways of preparing eggs. The varieties are attained mostly
by the sauces and garnishings. It is not generally understood
that sauces can be served with poached, hard-boiled, and
scrambled eggs, and also with omelets.

           [Sidenote: To judge of freshness and how to preserve eggs.]

                                              [Sidenote: How to pack.]

A fresh egg should feel heavy, sink in water, and when held to
a bright light, show a clear round yolk. If old, a part of the
substance will have evaporated through the pores of the shell,
leaving a space filled with air, which will cause it to float
on water. It will also contain dark specks. To preserve eggs
it is necessary to stop the pores of the shells with a coating
of fat or gum or wax. This will prevent the air from entering
and decomposing the nitrogenous elements of the egg. They
should be packed standing on the small end, and kept in a
cool, dark place. Another way of preserving them is to immerse
them in a saturated solution of lime.



=BOILED EGGS=

Soft-boiled eggs should have the albumen creamy, not hard. To obtain
this, slow heat is required. Hence receipt No. 1 is recommended. No. 2
gives a soft egg, but the time is difficult to determine exactly. No. 3
gives satisfactory results. To have eggs hard boil them for twenty-five
minutes. The yolks will then be dry and mealy. When done, place them in
cold water for fifteen minutes. Then roll them lightly on the table to
crush the shells, which can then be peeled off easily, leaving the
surface smooth and white. Use a sharp, thin knife for cutting them so
the pieces will be clean and smooth.


=No. 1=

Place the eggs in warm water to heat the shells so they will not crack
when put into boiling water. Let the water in the saucepan boil
violently; put in the eggs carefully, and when the water again bubbles,
remove it from the fire; cover and let the eggs remain in it for five
minutes.


=No. 2=

Put the eggs into boiling water and cook for three minutes, the water
boiling all the time.


=No. 3=

Place the eggs in cold water on the fire, and remove as soon as the
water boils.


=POACHED EGGS, No. 1=

The white of a poached egg should be a white, translucent, jelly-like
mass. To obtain this result, which makes it an easily digested food, it
must cook very slowly, the water never reaching the boiling-point. Place
in a shallow pan as many muffin-rings as you have eggs to poach. Turn in
enough boiling water to just cover the rings; add a little salt. When
the water boils, draw the pan to the side of the range, and break an egg
into each ring. It should take at least ten to fifteen minutes to cook
the eggs to the translucent state desired. Have ready even pieces of
toast one half inch thick, cut into rounds a trifle larger than the
muffin-rings. Moisten them with hot water, and spread with a little
butter. Remove the eggs carefully on a skimmer or pancake turner, and
place one on each round of toast; then lift off carefully the rings, and
place a spot of pepper in the center of each yolk. Arrange them
symmetrically on a dish, and garnish with parsley.


=FRENCH POACHED EGGS, No. 2=

These eggs, when properly cooked, are in the shape of balls, and are
used for fancy egg-dishes. Have in a deep saucepan a generous amount of
water; add a little salt and vinegar; the salt to raise the heat of the
water, the vinegar to harden the white of the egg. When the water is
violently boiling, crack the shell of the egg, and holding it close to
the water, drop the contents quickly on the point of greatest
ebullition. The egg should drop all at once, not drain into the water.
The mass will then be whole, and the violently agitated water will toss
it about, giving it a round form. When sufficiently firm to hold, remove
with a skimmer and place carefully on the bottom of an inverted tin to
drain. Poach but one egg at a time, and remove it before the yolk
hardens.


=POACHED EGG, No. 3=

Add a dash of salt to the white of an egg and whip it to a froth. Place
this in a deep saucer or cup, and place in the center the whole
unbroken yolk. Set the dish in a pan of boiling water; cover and let
cook for two minutes. This is a good way to serve an egg to an invalid.

[Illustration: POACHED EGG. NO. 3. (SEE PAGE 263.)]


=FRIED EGGS=

Place a little butter in a very clean frying-pan. When it bubbles, turn
in the eggs, one at a time, and keep the pan where the heat is not
sufficient to blacken the butter. If the eggs are wanted hard, turn and
fry them on both sides like a pancake.


=SCRAMBLED EGGS=

Beat the eggs lightly with a fork, just enough to break them. To four
eggs add two tablespoonfuls of milk, one half teaspoonful of salt, and a
dash of pepper. Put into a very clean frying-pan one half tablespoonful
of butter. When it begins to bubble, turn in the eggs, and stir them
constantly over a slow fire until they begin to set; then remove them
from the fire and continue to stir until they are of the right
consistency. The heat of the pan will be sufficient to finish the
cooking, and there will not be danger of their being overcooked. They
should be firm only, not hard. If the pan is perfectly clean, and the
butter is not allowed to burn, they will have a bright clean color.
Scrambled eggs may be varied the same as omelets, by mixing with them
any other thing desired. The extra material should be added when the pan
is taken from the fire, and stirred with the egg until it has finished
cooking. A teaspoonful of parsley, chopped fine, gives a good flavor and
simple change. A little purée of tomatoes added makes a good
combination. With minced chicken, veal, ham, fried bacon, mushrooms, or
sweetbreads, it makes a good luncheon dish. Any pieces left over will
serve the purpose, as very little is required. Garnish the dish with
croûtons and parsley.


=PLAIN FRENCH OMELET=

An omelet is the most difficult to prepare of any egg dish. It requires
some practice to give it the right shape (which is high in the center
and pointed at the ends), to have it soft inside, to give it a
smooth, slightly browned surface, a texture like scrambled eggs, and to
have everything perfect. The first essential is to have a perfectly
clean and smooth pan. It is difficult to make a smooth omelet in a pan
used for other purposes; so it is well to have one kept for this use
alone. The French do not wash the omelet-pan, but scour it smooth with
salt and vinegar when it sticks, and at other times rub it clean with a
dry cloth. Before using the pan scour it well with dry salt to give it
extra smoothness.

It is better to make several small omelets than one large one, using not
more than three or four eggs for each one. Beat the eggs just enough to
break them. The rule is twelve beats. To three eggs add a half
teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and a half teaspoonful of butter
broken into small bits. A teaspoonful of milk may be used or not. Have
the pan evenly heated and hot, but not scorching. Put in a half
teaspoonful of butter and let it run evenly over the pan, but not brown;
turn in the eggs. With a knife or fork break the cooked surface in
several places quickly, so the egg from the top may run to the bottom
and cook, or press the egg away from the sides, letting the uncooked
part run under. This must be done in the beginning so as not to make the
surface uneven. When the egg is cooked, but yet quite soft on the top,
lift the pan on one side, slip the knife under, and carefully roll the
omelet to the center. Let it cook a moment to set any egg that has run
out, and if the color is not right add a little butter, and let it run
under and slightly color the omelet. Place a hot dish over the pan and
turn them together so the omelet will fall in the right place; press it
into good shape, doubling it under on the ends if necessary. Garnish
with parsley and serve at once. Have everything ready before beginning
to cook an omelet, as it will not bear being kept while the dish is
heated, and the garnishing found.


=VARIATIONS OF THE OMELET=

  No. 1. Sprinkle a little parsley, chopped fine, over the
       top.

  No. 2. Turn tomato, Béchamel or mushroom sauce on the dish
       around the omelet; sprinkle the top with chopped
       mushrooms, if that sauce is used. Garnish with
       pointed croûtons.

  No. 3. Green omelet. Mix chopped parsley with the egg
       mixture before cooking the omelet, and do not brown
       the surface.

  No. 4. Aux Fines Herbes. Chop parsley, chives, chervil,
       and tarragon very fine. Mix them with the egg mixture
       before cooking. When the omelet is turned out, rub
       over it a little maître d'hôtel butter (see page
       286).

  No. 5. With Peas or Tomatoes. Before turning a plain
       omelet, spread it with a few green peas or tomatoes
       cooked and seasoned. Asparagus or any other vegetable
       may be used in the same way.

  No. 6. With Ham. Spread the plain omelet with ham, chopped
       fine, before turning it. Any other cooked meat may be
       used in the same way.


=BEATEN OMELET=

Beat very light the yolks and whites of three eggs separately. Season
the yolks with salt and pepper and one tablespoonful of milk; then fold
in lightly the whipped whites. Put a half teaspoonful of butter in a hot
frying or omelet pan. Let it run over the bottom and sides of the pan,
but do not let it brown. Turn in the egg mixture, spread it lightly and
evenly over the pan, and let it cook until it forms a very light crust
on the bottom; then place it in the oven about three minutes, or until
the egg is cooked through, but not hard; fold it once, and turn it onto
a hot dish. This omelet may be used the same as the French omelet in
combination with other things. Spread anything so used on the omelet
before turning it. For a sweet omelet add sugar to the yolks, and omit
the pepper. Serve at once.


=SHIRRED EGGS=

(SUR LE PLAT ... AU MIROIR ... COCOTTE.)

For this dish (sur le plat) individual china dishes are generally used,
although a dish holding several eggs will do. Butter the dishes; break
into each one an egg; sprinkle a little salt on the whites, but not on
the yolks. Place them on the shelf of the oven so the heat will be
greatest on top; baste the yolks several times while baking with a
little hot butter. This will give them a glaze. As soon as the glaze
appears remove them from the oven, and if not sufficiently cooked, stand
them for a minute on the top of the range. Care must be used not to dry
the eggs.

Several eggs cooked together in this way in a large dish, then cut into
circles with a biscuit cutter, and placed on broiled ham, stewed
kidneys, minced meat, tomato purée, or other things, are called eggs au
miroir. When baked in individual dishes, they may be varied by
sprinkling in the dish before the egg is added a little chopped ham,
chicken, mushrooms, or tomato purée, etc. When baked in little
pot-shaped dishes in the same way they are called cocottes. These may be
varied by lining the dishes with a thin layer of forcemeat or minced
meat, the eggs then dropped in and poached by standing the dishes in a
pan of water in the oven. When done, a little cream or Béchamel sauce or
tomato purée is turned over the top, and sprinkled with parsley. Serve
eggs sur le plat and cocotte in the dishes in which they are baked.

[Illustration: 1. SHIRRED EGG. 2. COCOTTE. (SEE PAGE 266.)]


=MOLDED EGGS=

(À LA POLIGNAC)

Butter well some individual timbale molds; chop some parsley very fine,
and powder the inside of the buttered molds with it. To do this, place a
teaspoonful of the parsley in a buttered mold, cover it with the hand
and shake it well; then invert the mold, and strike it on the table to
free it of all that is loose. Break into each mold an egg, letting it go
in slowly from the side so no air bubbles will be held, as they make
holes and uneven surface in the cooked egg. Sprinkle the top with salt
and butter. Place the molds in a pan of hot water, half covering them,
and poach in a moderate oven eight to ten minutes, or until firm enough
to stand, but not very hard. Serve them on a flat dish with a spoonful
of white, Béchamel, or tomato sauce under each form. This is a very
simple way of preparing eggs, and makes a good luncheon dish.

[Illustration: MOLDED EGGS À LA POLIGNAC. (SEE PAGE 267.)]


=MOLDED HAM AND EGGS=

Mince some boiled ham very fine. Moisten it with white sauce and raw
egg, just enough to make a consistent paste. Line individual buttered
timbale molds with a thin layer of the ham paste. Break an egg in the
center of each one, and poach them in the oven eight to ten minutes, as
directed for eggs à la Polignac. Place a little white or Béchamel sauce
on the serving dish; turn the eggs onto it, and put a spoonful of sauce
on the top of each one, letting it run over, and partly mask them, as
the color of the ham is not attractive. Garnish with parsley. Another
receipt for ham and eggs is given on page 178. Any other meat may be
used in the same way.


=POACHED EGGS ON ANCHOVY TOAST=

(A SUPPER DISH)

Cut toasted bread into circles; spread them with anchovy paste, and
place on each piece a poached egg prepared as directed in receipt No. 1.


=POACHED EGGS WITH ANCHOVY=

(AN ENTRÉE FOR LUNCHEON)

Cut bread into circles and toast them; spread them lightly first with
anchovy paste, then with a layer of ham or tongue chopped very fine,
seasoned well, and a little moistened with stock or white sauce. Cover
the top with whipped white of egg; place a raw yolk in the center of
each one. Bake them in the oven for one minute, or just long enough to
well heat the egg.


=POACHED EGG WITH TOMATO=

Cut bread into slices three quarters of an inch thick, then into
circles. With a smaller cutter cut half way through the bread, and
remove the center, leaving a form like a patty case. Fry them in hot fat
to an amber color; fill the centers with well seasoned tomato purée, and
place on the top of each one a French poached egg.


=EGGS À LA VILLEROI=

This dish is served as an entrée for luncheon, and is a particularly
good as well as mysterious dish, for having a soft egg inside a
croquette seems a difficult thing to get. Poach the eggs French style
(page 263), using care to have them round and just firm enough to hold
in shape. Lift them carefully on a strainer, and place them on the
bottom of an inverted pan, leaving a space between them. When they are
cold trim them, carefully removing any ragged ends of white, and wipe
them dry. Make a Villeroi sauce as directed (page 280). When it is
partly cooled, pour it with a spoon over the eggs. It should form a
thick coating. When it is cold and well set, trim each egg neatly again,
cutting away any of the sauce that has run over the pan. Have some soft,
white crumbs, grated from the loaf or rubbed through a coarse sieve, and
mixed with grated cheese. Lift an egg on a broad knife, and place it on
the crumbs. Cover it with as many crumbs as will adhere. Lift it again
on the knife into a dish containing beaten egg, and with a spoon moisten
it well with the egg. Then place it on fresh, white crumbs that are not
mixed with cheese, and cover it completely. It can now be handled with
care and turned into good shape in the crumbs. Let the breaded eggs
stand until just ready to serve, then place three or four at a time in a
wire basket, and plunge them in smoking hot fat (see frying, page 72) to
take a delicate color. Do not let them become deeper than lemon color.
Place a spoonful of Villeroi sauce on each plate, using the sauce left
from coating the eggs and thinning it with stock; place an egg on the
sauce and serve at once. Chopped truffles mixed with the sauce improves
it.


=EGGS À LA BOURGUINONNE=

Poach eggs in the French style, letting them be as soft as possible.
Butter a flat baking-dish; sprinkle it with bread crumbs and grated
cheese. Place on them carefully the poached eggs. Cover them with
Béchamel or Allemande sauce (see page 279), and sprinkle over the top
grated Parmesan cheese. Place in a hot oven to melt the cheese, and
lightly brown the top.


=EGGS À L'AURORE=

Take six hard-boiled eggs, and press the yolks through a colander. Cut
the whites into half-inch dice, mix them with a well-reduced white or
Béchamel sauce, and turn them into a flat baking-dish. Cover the top
with the mashed yolks, dot it with small bits of butter, and place in a
hot oven for a few minutes to heat, but not brown. This may be served in
individual cups or shells if desired. Chopped mushrooms mixed with the
sauce makes a good variation of the dish. Another way of serving it is
to cut the whites lengthwise into quarters or eighths, and place them in
a circle on the dish; pour the sauce in the center, leaving the points
of one end uncovered, and sprinkle over the sauce the mashed yolks. In
order not to have the dish cold when served in this way, keep the cut
whites in hot water until ready to serve. Have the dish hot, and put all
together quickly at the moment of serving. (See illustration.)

[Illustration: EGGS À L'AURORE. (SEE PAGE 270.)]


=GOLDEN CREAM TOAST=

Cut bread into even pieces; toast and butter the pieces, and moisten
them with hot water. Boil six eggs hard. Separate the whites from the
yolks; chop the whites, and press the yolks through a colander or sieve.
Make a white sauce, using one tablespoonful each of butter and flour
cooked together, and then add a cupful of cream or milk. When it is well
thickened add the chopped whites, and season with pepper and salt.
Spread this mixture on the slices of toast, and cover the top with the
mashed yolks. Sprinkle the yolks evenly over the pieces, so they look
very yellow. Serve very hot.


=CURRIED EGGS=

Boil the eggs hard; remove the shells carefully as directed (page 262),
and drop them in hot water to keep warm until ready to use. Mold some
boiled rice into a form resembling a nest. Have the rice boiled so each
grain is distinct (see page 222). Place it on the hot shelf to keep
warm. Place a teaspoonful of chopped onion in a saucepan with a
tablespoonful of butter, and cook until the onion is a light yellow, but
not brown. Add an even tablespoonful of corn starch, mixed with a half
tablespoonful of curry powder and diluted with a little cold milk or
stock, then stir in slowly one and a half cupfuls of white stock or
milk. Let it cook until the corn starch is clear; add pepper and salt to
taste, and strain it. The sauce should be a bright yellow color,
perfectly smooth, and not very thick. Wipe the eggs dry, roll them in
the sauce to get evenly coated with color, and place them in the nest of
rice. Pour in enough sauce to moisten the rice without discoloring the
outside or top edge of the rice around the eggs. (See illustration.)

[Illustration: CURRIED EGGS IN A NEST OF RICE. (SEE PAGE 271.)]


=STUFFED EGGS No. 1=

Cut hard-boiled eggs in two lengthwise. Take out carefully the yolks,
mash them, and mix them with some chicken or other meat minced fine.
Season the mixture with pepper and salt. Moisten it with a little of any
kind of sauce or gravy, and add a little raw egg. Chopped truffles and
mushrooms may be added to the stuffing if convenient. Fill the spaces in
the whites of the eggs with the mixture; smooth it even with the top;
rub a little raw white of egg over the pieces, and press two halves
together. Roll the stuffed eggs in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat to
a lemon color. Serve the eggs on a napkin, and pass with them a white,
Béchamel, tomato, or any other sauce.


=STUFFED EGGS No. 2=

Cut hard-boiled eggs in halves. Take out the yolks, leaving two
cup-shaped pieces. Mix the yolks with an equal quantity of softened
bread; season with salt, pepper, and parsley. Add a little raw egg to
bind the mixture, and fill the spaces from which the yolks were taken.
Round it on top to give the appearance of a whole yolk. Cut a little
slice off the bottom of the egg, so it will stand firm. Place them in
the oven just long enough to heat, and serve standing, on a dish covered
with white sauce.


=EGG CROQUETTES=

Cut some hard-boiled eggs into quarter-inch dice. Mix with them some
chopped mushrooms. Stir them carefully into a well-reduced Béchamel or
white sauce made as directed for croquettes (page 293). Turn the mixture
onto a cold dish to cool and stiffen. Mold into croquettes, and fry in
hot fat. See directions for croquettes (page 293).


=OTHER WAYS OF SERVING HARD-BOILED EGGS=

(LUNCHEON DISHES)

No. 1. Cut hard-boiled eggs in two lengthwise. Arrange them
symmetrically on a flat dish, and pour over them a giblet sauce made of
chicken or turkey gravy.

No. 2. Cut hard-boiled eggs into quarters. Make a ring form of boiled
rice; fill the center with the eggs; pour over them some Béchamel sauce.
Sprinkle the whole with bread-crumbs and grated cheese. Moisten the top
with melted butter, and place in the oven to brown. Serve on the dish in
which they are browned.


=TOMATOES STUFFED WITH EGGS=

Select round tomatoes of uniform size; remove the skins. Cut a slice off
the tops, and take out the seeds and soft pulp. Drop into each one a raw
egg, and replace the cover. Set the tomatoes into a buttered pan or
into a baking-dish which can be sent to the table, and place in the oven
for about ten minutes, or until the egg has set. Serve on the same dish
and with a brown or a Béchamel sauce.


=EGGS À LA REINE=

DOWN TOWN CLUB

Make croustades, three inches in diameter and half an inch thick, from
stale American bread. Dip them in good melted butter, put them on a pan
in the oven until they are a nice light-brown color; then take out the
center of each croustade and fill with foie gras. On the top of each put
a poached egg; then pour over a cream sauce, sprinkle with truffles
chopped fine, and serve immediately.


=EGGS LIVINGSTON=

DOWN TOWN CLUB. (FOR SIX PERSONS)

Take twelve raw eggs, half a pint of rich cream; beat well together, add
salt and pepper. Put the mixture in a flat saucepan well buttered, and
scramble; then add three quarters of a pint of well-cooked tomato meat
and three truffles hashed (not too fine). Dress on toast covered with
pâté de foie gras. Serve very hot.


=EGGS AU BEURRE NOIR=

Poach or fry the number of eggs desired and place them on a flat dish.
Pour over them enough brown butter sauce to well moisten them. (See page
291.)


=SPANISH OMELET=

Make a plain French omelet, using four eggs (see page 264). Just before
it is done place in the center a veal kidney, which has been well
soaked, then cut into half-inch dice and sautéd until tender in a
tablespoonful of butter. Do not cook the kidney too long or it will
toughen.

Fold the omelet and turn it onto a dish. Pour around the omelet a tomato
sauce (see page 285). Spread over the top of the omelet a sweet green
pepper, which has been boiled until tender and then cut into narrow
strips.

The sauce, the kidney and the pepper should be prepared first, as the
omelet must be served as soon as the eggs are cooked.



CHAPTER XI

SAUCES

    "There are many sauces besides hunger."


                                       [Sidenote: General directions.]

The basis of most sauces is butter and flour cooked together,
which makes a roux or thickening. If for a white sauce, the
flour is not colored; if for a brown sauce, the flour is
cooked until brown. To this basis are added the flavor and
seasoning suited to the dish with which it is to be served.
For meats, it is the flavor of meat, vegetables, spices, and
herbs; for entrées, it is the flavor of meat or chicken, and
cream; for vegetables it is butter, cream or milk, and eggs;
for fish, the same, with a little lemon-juice or vinegar to
give piquancy. The basis of pudding sauces is butter and
sugar.

                   [Sidenote: Uses and variations of the white sauce.]

Sauces are easily made, and greatly improve the dishes they
accompany. Many dishes depend upon sauces to make them
palatable, and many made-over dishes are very acceptable when
served with a good sauce. The first and most simple one to
learn is the white sauce, and this is used for very many
dishes. It is made by melting a tablespoonful of butter, and
then adding a tablespoonful of flour. To this roux is added a
half pint (one cupful) of milk for white sauce, or of cream
for cream sauce. If a cupful of stock (or half stock and half
milk) is used it becomes a Béchamel sauce; then, if a couple
of egg-yolks are added, it makes a poulette sauce, which is
the one generally used with chicken, sweetbreads, oysters,
etc.

The superiority of French cooking is largely in the variety of
their sauces, to the preparation of which much care is given.
It cannot be too strongly urged that every housekeeper will
give attention to this important branch of cooking.

                                         [Sidenote: Stock for sauces.]

Every kitchen can produce a stock made from odds and ends
unsuitable for other purposes than the stock-pot, and this
stock is most useful in preparing sauces, giving a flavor
not obtained in specially prepared stock.

A French cook keeps at hand the different essences required
to combine in sauces, such as a Mirepoix (vegetable flavor),
which is made by cutting into dice an onion, carrot, and
turnip, celery, parsley, bay-leaf and bits of meat, frying
them in fat pork or butter, then adding a little water, and
simmering an hour, or until the flavor of the vegetables is
extracted; a Spanish sauce, made by adding stock instead of
water to the fried vegetables; a veal or white stock; a
brown and a white roux, and glaze.

                                       [Sidenote: General directions.]

The flavor of vegetables can easily be obtained by frying them
in the butter used in making the roux, before the flour is
added. In preparing sauces with milk, use a double boiler, or
set a small saucepan into a larger one containing water. The
milk will be scalded when the water boils in the double
boiler. Brown sauces need long slow cooking to blend the
flavors. If the butter rises to the top add a little more
stock or milk; stir it well until it boils, and it will then
become smooth again. Do this just before serving. Have always
a small strainer at hand, and strain sauces so there will be
no lumps in them. If stock is not at hand, substitute beef
extract, which comes in jars, using it in the proportion of
one teaspoonful of extract to a cupful of hot water. In this
case fry vegetables in the roux.



=GLAZE=

Glaze is much used in high-class cooking. It gives to meats a smooth and
polished surface. Cold meats to be garnished for suppers are much
improved in appearance by being glazed. Glaze is also added to sauces to
give them richness and flavor.

To make glaze: Take good consommé of beef (or a white stock, when it is
to be used for fowls or white meat), clear it, and reduce it to one
quarter (or one quart of stock to one cupful). It will quickly boil down
in an open saucepan and become like a thick paste. It will keep some
time if closed in a preserve jar and kept in a cool place. When used,
heat it in a double saucepan and apply it with a brush.


=ROUX FOR SAUCES=

One tablespoonful of butter; one tablespoonful of flour.

Roux is used for thickening, giving body to sauces, etc. It is made by
cooking together an equal quantity of butter and flour for about five
minutes, or until the flour has lost the raw taste. When the roux is
cooked, draw the saucepan to a cooler part of the range, and add the
liquor (stock or milk) slowly, in the proportion of one cupful of liquor
to one tablespoonful each of butter and flour, and stir until smooth. If
the roux is for white sauce do not let the flour color. If for brown
sauce, let it cook until brown, but be careful that it does not burn. If
more flavor is wanted, fry a few slices of onion or other vegetables in
the butter before adding the flour. Sauces thickened in this way are
much better than those in which uncooked flour is used. In making roux
do not use more butter than flour. Where more butter is required in a
sauce, add it, in small pieces at a time, after the other ingredients
are mixed with the roux. This will prevent an oily line forming.


=WHITE SAUCE=

  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Put one tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan. When it bubbles add one
tablespoonful of flour, and cook, stirring constantly, for five minutes,
but do not let it color; draw it to a cooler part of the range and add
very slowly, stirring all the time, one cupful of cold milk, and stir
until perfectly smooth and a little thickened. Season with salt and
pepper. Most of the white sauces are simple variations from this sauce.
Water may be used instead of milk, and it is then called drawn-butter
sauce. It can be made richer by adding a little more butter, in small
pieces, one at a time, after the milk is in; also by adding the beaten
yolk of an egg. If the egg is added remove the pan from the fire and let
it cool a little before adding the egg; then cook for a minute, but do
not let it boil, or the egg will curdle.

The secret of making a good white sauce is in cooking the flour until
the starch grains have burst, which removes the raw and pasty taste one
finds where this care is not used. There is no difficulty in making it
smooth if the milk is turned in slowly, as directed above. A common way
of making this sauce is to rub the butter and flour together, and then
stir them into the boiling milk, but this does not give as good a result
as when a roux is made. The intense heat of frying butter cooks the
flour quickly, while milk boiled long enough to cook the flour is
changed in flavor. When this sauce is used as the basis of other sauces,
the amount of salt and pepper must be varied to suit the requirements of
the other ingredients.


=WHITE SAUCE FOR FISH=

Make a white sauce, using with the milk two tablespoonfuls of the water
in which the fish is boiled. Boil in the water with the fish five
cloves, three bay-leaves, one onion, eight peppercorns, and two
tablespoonfuls of salt. This will give flavor to the fish and to the
sauce.


=EGG SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH=

To a pint, or two cupfuls, of white sauce, add three hard-boiled eggs
cut into slices or small dice, and, if liked, a teaspoonful of chopped
parsley.


=CAPER SAUCE=

(BOILED MUTTON)

Add to two cupfuls of white sauce four tablespoonfuls of capers. See
also page 164.


=OYSTER SAUCE=

(BOILED FISH OR FOWLS)

Scald the oysters in their own liquor until the edges curl. Make a white
sauce using oyster-liquor instead of milk, or use half milk and half
oyster-liquor. Add the oysters just before serving. One dozen oysters
are enough for one pint of sauce.


=CELERY SAUCE=

(BOILED FOWLS)

Cut one half cupful of celery into small pieces. Boil it in salted water
until tender. Add the cooked celery to one cupful of white sauce.


=LOBSTER SAUCE=

Chop the meat of a lobster into coarse pieces. Add it to a pint of white
sauce. Add also a little of the coral (which has been dried and pounded
to a powder), and a little paprica.


=VELOUTÉ AND ALLEMANDE SAUCES=

(FISH AND VEGETABLES)

Make a white sauce (page 277), using chicken or veal stock instead of
milk.

_Allemande._ Remove the Velouté from the fire; add two yolks beaten with
one half cupful of cream or milk, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley,
and a dash of nutmeg. Put on the fire a moment to thicken, but do not
let it boil. Continue to stir for some moments after removing from the
fire.


=BÉCHAMEL SAUCE=

Make a white sauce, using for liquor one half each of rich white stock
and milk, or use stock alone. A slice of onion, carrot and turnip
should be fried in the butter before the flour is added. A richer
Béchamel is made by adding a little cream and chopped mushrooms.


=POULETTE SAUCE=

(FOR CHICKEN-BREASTS, SWEETBREADS, AND OTHER ENTRÉES)

Take a pint of white sauce made with chicken or veal stock instead of
milk. Beat four yolks with a cupful of cream. Remove the sauce from the
fire, and add it slowly to the eggs and cream, stirring all the time.
Put it again on the fire a moment to thicken; but do not let it boil, or
it will curdle. Add one tablespoonful of butter slowly, a small piece at
a time, the juice of half a lemon, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley,
and a dash of nutmeg. Serve at once. Do not put the sauce together until
it is time to serve, as it is likely to curdle after the eggs and
lemon-juice are in. Stir constantly, and for a moment after removing
from the fire.


=VILLEROI=

(TO USE FOR EGGS VILLEROI, AND FOR COATING COLD MEATS THAT ARE TO BE
HEATED AGAIN)

Put in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter and a slice of onion; fry
for a few moments, but not brown. Remove the onion, and add two
tablespoonfuls of flour; cook but do not brown the flour. Dilute with
two cupfuls of stock, and boil, stirring constantly until the sauce is
very thick. Season with one half teaspoonful of salt, one quarter
teaspoonful of pepper, a dash each of cayenne and nutmeg; remove from
the fire, and add the yolks of four eggs beaten with one half cupful of
cream or milk. Place again on the fire, and let thicken until quite
stiff and elastic. Do not let it boil after the eggs are added, or it
will curdle; stir constantly. When it is beginning to cool pour it over
the articles it is to coat, or roll the articles in it as the receipts
direct. Chopped parsley, truffles, and mushrooms may be mixed with this
sauce, if desired. The thick sauce left from coating the articles may
be diluted with stock or milk, and served with them. This amount of
sauce is sufficient to coat and to give diluted sauce for a dozen eggs
villeroi.


=HOLLANDAISE=

(BOILED FISH, ASPARAGUS, CAULIFLOWER)

In a saucepan or bowl rub to a cream one half cupful of butter; add the
yolks of four eggs, and beat well together; then the juice of half a
lemon, one half teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of cayenne; then add
slowly one cupful of hot water; mix well, and set it into a saucepan of
hot water. Stir constantly until the sauce becomes like a thick cream.
Do not let it boil. Remove from the fire, and continue to stir for a few
minutes. It should be creamy and consistent. It is one of the best
sauces to use with fish. It is also good cold with cold fish or meats.


=CHAUDFROID SAUCE=

(FOR COVERING COLD CHICKEN OR MEATS WHICH ARE TO BE SERVED COLD)

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan; when it bubbles add
two tablespoonfuls of flour. Let it cook well, but not brown; stir all
the time. Add two cupfuls of chicken or of veal stock, and stir until it
is well thickened. Season with salt and pepper. Then add a half box, or
one ounce, of gelatine which has soaked an hour in a half cupful of cold
water. Stir until the gelatine has dissolved. Strain the sauce, and let
it just begin to stiffen before using it. Put a little on ice to see if
it will be of the right firmness. If it is too stiff add a little more
stock; if not hard enough add a little more gelatine. It needs to be
only firm enough to hold its place well without running.

A yellow color can be given it by adding the yolks of three eggs just
before removing it from the fire. A brown chaudfroid, which is used for
game and dark meats, is made by browning the roux, diluting it with beef
stock; and a deeper color can be obtained with a few drops of kitchen
bouquet. This sauce, poured over boned chicken or other meats, gives
them a smooth, even surface. They can then be elaborately decorated with
truffles, making ornamental cold dishes for suppers. Before covering a
galantine with chaudfroid fill any irregularities on the surface of the
meat with a little of the sauce which has been placed on ice to set. The
surface can in this way be made perfectly even, so when the sauce is
turned over it the galantine will be smooth. (See picture, page 192.)


=BROWN SAUCE=

Put a tablespoonful of chopped onion and a tablespoonful of butter in a
saucepan on the fire. Let them both become brown; then add a
tablespoonful of flour, and brown that also. Stir all the time. Add a
cupful of beef or brown stock, and cook until the sauce is a little
thickened. Season with pepper and salt. Strain it to remove the onion. A
sauce poivrade is made by adding to the brown sauce, at the same time
that the stock is put in, a cupful of claret, two cloves, a bay-leaf, a
little thyme and parsley. In place of claret, a teaspoonful of mustard,
the juice of half a lemon, and a teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar gives a
Robert sauce.


=ESPAGNOLE=

(CHOPS, CUTLETS, CROQUETTES, AND SEASONING FOR OTHER SAUCES)

  2-1/2 cupfuls of stock or consommé.
  1 tablespoonful of gelatine.
  4 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  4 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  2 tablespoonfuls of chopped onion.
  1 tablespoonful of chopped lean ham.
  1 tablespoonful each of chopped carrot and celery.
  1 bay-leaf.
  3 cloves.
  1 piece of parsley.
  1 piece of mace.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.

Soak the gelatine in a half cupful of stock. Put the butter in a
saucepan; when hot add the chopped vegetables and ham, and let them
brown; then add the flour, and let that brown. Stir constantly so it
will not burn. When well browned add slowly the stock, then the herbs,
spices, salt, and pepper, and let cook for five minutes. Cover the
saucepan. Set it into a larger one containing hot water. Draw it to the
side of the range to simmer slowly for two hours. Then stir in the
soaked gelatine, and let stand another half hour. When ready to serve
skim off the fat and strain. If a stock made with knuckle of veal is
used, the gelatine will not be needed. It is used to give smoothness.
This is the richest of the brown sauces, and in French cooking is used
as the basis, or seasoning, for them all. If too thick dilute with
stock.


=CHAMPAGNE SAUCE (HAM)=

Put in a saucepan one cupful of champagne, two cloves, six peppercorns,
one bay-leaf, one teaspoonful of sugar. Let them infuse for five minutes
over the fire; then add a cupful of Espagnole or of brown sauce, and a
little mushroom liquor if convenient. Let it simmer for ten minutes and
strain.

Any white wine may be used instead of champagne.


=PIQUANTE SAUCE=

(BAKED FISH, ROAST AND BROILED MEATS)

  2 cupfuls of brown stock.
  4 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.
  Dash of cayenne.
  1 tablespoonful of chopped onion.
  1 tablespoonful of chopped capers.
  2 tablespoonfuls of chopped pickle.
  1 teaspoonful of sugar.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar.

Put the butter in a saucepan, and when it begins to brown add the flour,
and stir until it is well browned, but do not let it burn. Draw to a
cooler place on the range, and slowly add the stock, stirring
constantly, add salt and cayenne, and let simmer for ten minutes. In
another saucepan boil the vinegar, onion, and sugar rapidly for five
minutes; then add it to the sauce, and at the same time add the capers,
pickle and tarragon vinegar. Stir well, and let cook for two minutes to
heat the pickle. If the sauce becomes too thick dilute it with a little
water. For piquante sauce No 2, to two cupfuls of Espagnole sauce add
capers and pickles.


=SOUBISE SAUCE=

(FOR CHOPS)

Fry three or four onions until soft in a tablespoonful of butter; press
them through a strainer, and mix with a cupful of brown sauce.


=HORSERADISH SAUCE=

(ROAST OR BOILED BEEF)

Mix together two tablespoonfuls of soft white crumbs of bread and two
tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish. Cover them with cream or milk, and
let soak for two hours. Then rub them through a sieve, and add one
quarter teaspoonful of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of sugar, and two
tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Enough milk should be used to give it the
consistency of cream. This sauce will keep in a cool place for several
days.


=MUSTARD SAUCE=

(CORNED BEEF, BROILED AND ROASTED MEATS)

Make a roux of one tablespoonful of butter and one teaspoonful of flour.
Add to it

  1 cupful of stock.
  1 tablespoonful of French mustard.
  1 tablespoonful of vinegar.
  A dash of cayenne.
  1 teaspoonful of dry English mustard.
  1/2 teaspoonful salt.
  1 teaspoonful of sugar.

Cook slowly for ten minutes.


=CURRY SAUCE=

(FOR EGGS, CHICKEN, ETC.)

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan. When it bubbles add a
teaspoonful of onion-juice, and a tablespoonful of curry powder mixed
with two tablespoonfuls of flour. Let it cook a few minutes, and add
slowly two cupfuls of milk. Stir constantly.


=OLIVE SAUCE=

(DUCKS)

  1 dozen stoned olives.
  1 cupful of brown stock.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 tablespoonful each of chopped onion and carrot.
  1 clove.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  Dash of pepper.

Put the butter in a saucepan; when it bubbles add the chopped onion and
carrot and let them brown; then the flour and let that brown. Then add
slowly the stock; season with salt, pepper and one clove; let simmer for
twenty minutes and strain. Stone the olives, leaving the meat in one
piece; boil them in a little water for half an hour. Add the cooked
olives to the strained sauce, and cook for five minutes; or, dilute a
cupful of Espagnole sauce with a cupful of brown stock, and add the
cooked olives. If brown sauce is not at hand, use extract of beef from
jar (one teaspoonful of extract to one cupful of hot water). If the
sauce gets too thick dilute it with a little stock.


=TOMATO SAUCE=

(MEATS, CROQUETTES AND ENTRÉES)

  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 tablespoonful each of carrot and onion.
  1/2 can of tomatoes.
  Parsley.
  1 bay-leaf.
  3 cloves.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Put one tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; add the chopped onion and
carrot, and let slightly brown; add the flour and cook five minutes,
stirring constantly. Then add the tomatoes, cloves, bay-leaf, salt and
pepper. Cook slowly for half an hour, or until the tomatoes are soft and
reduced to right consistency. Then add a tablespoonful of butter (a
small piece at a time to prevent an oily line); strain; add more salt
and pepper if necessary.


=MUSHROOM SAUCE=

(USING CANNED MUSHROOMS)

Make a brown roux, using one tablespoonful each of butter and of flour;
add a cupful of stock and a half cupful of liquor from the can of
mushrooms. Cook for five minutes, stirring all the time; then add one
can of drained mushrooms, a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, a half
teaspoonful of salt and a quarter teaspoonful of pepper. Let the
mushrooms become well heated; then remove from the fire and stir in the
yolk of one raw egg rubbed with a teaspoonful of butter. Stir the hot
sauce until the egg is set; add a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and
serve; or a half teaspoonful of kitchen bouquet may be used and the egg
and parsley omitted.

This sauce may be served on the same dish with beefsteaks, fowls, etc.,
and the mushrooms laid evenly, top side up, around the meat as a
garnish.

It may be made a white sauce by making a white roux, using white stock
and leaving out the kitchen bouquet. The mushrooms are sometimes cut
into halves or quarters.


=MAÎTRE D'HÔTEL SAUCE=

(BROILED FISH AND STEAKS)

  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley.
  1 tablespoonful of lemon juice.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful of pepper.

Rub the butter to a cream; add salt, pepper, and parsley chopped very
fine; then the lemon-juice slowly. Spread it on broiled meat or fish;
let the heat of the meat melt the butter. The dish must not be put in
the oven after the sauce is spread, or the parsley will lose its
freshness and color. This sauce, which greatly improves as well as
garnishes broiled meat, can be mixed and kept for some time in a cool
place. Soften a little before using so it will spread evenly, and be
quickly melted by the hot meat.


=MINT SAUCE=

(SPRING LAMB)

1 bunch of mint; 1 tablespoonful of sugar; 3/4 cupful of vinegar. Rinse
the mint in cold water; chop it very fine. Dissolve the sugar in the
vinegar; add the mint and let stand for an hour, to infuse before using.
If the vinegar is too strong, dilute it with cold water. If the sauce is
wanted hot, heat the vinegar and sugar, and stir in the chopped mint
just before serving.


=BREAD SAUCE=

(PARTRIDGES, QUAIL, GROUSE)

Sift two cupfuls of dry bread-crumbs. Put on the fire a pint of milk and
a small onion sliced. When the milk is scalded remove the onion, and add
enough of the fine crumbs to thicken it. Season with a tablespoonful of
butter, a half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and of nutmeg. Put
the coarse crumbs into a pan with a tablespoonful of butter and sauté
them a light brown, stirring all the time; add a dash of paprica; serve
the fried crumbs on the dish with the game; serve the sauce in a boat.


=JELLY SAUCE=

(GAME AND MUTTON)

Melt in a saucepan one tumblerful of currant or of grape jelly; add
slowly one tablespoonful of butter. Let boil one minute; remove, and
just before serving add one tablespoonful of sherry or of red wine.


=CRANBERRY SAUCE=

(ROAST TURKEY, CHICKEN, MUTTON)

  1 quart of cranberries.
  2 cupfuls of sugar.
  2 cupfuls of water.

Pick over the berries carefully and wash in cold water. Put them in a
porcelain-lined or granite-ware saucepan, with enough water to cover
them. Cook until tender; then add the sugar, and remove as soon as the
sugar is dissolved. It may be served hot or cold. If thoroughly cooked
the skins improve the sauce. If strained and put in a mold to cool, it
becomes a jelly. If the berries are carefully selected, and boiled
slowly without being stirred, they will retain their shape, and the
sauce will be clear and transparent.


=APPLE SAUCE=

(GOOSE AND PORK)

Peel, quarter, and core six tart apples. Put them in a porcelain-lined
or granite-ware saucepan, and cover with water. Boil until tender, then
press them through a colander; add a teaspoonful of butter, a dash of
nutmeg or cinnamon, and sweeten to taste. When used with meats apple
sauce should be tart.


=BÉARNAISE=

This is a very good sauce to use either hot or cold with meats and fish.
It is very like Mayonnaise.

  Yolks of 4 eggs.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  Dash of cayenne.
  4 tablespoonfuls of salad oil.
  1 tablespoonful of hot water.
  1 tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar.

Beat the yolks; add the oil and water; stand the bowl in boiling water
and stir until the eggs thicken; remove and add salt, pepper, and
vinegar. It should be creamy and of the consistency of Mayonnaise. A few
chopped capers, olives, and gherkins make it a good Tartare sauce; and a
little tomato purée will make it a red Mayonnaise to use with cold
boiled fish.


=MAYONNAISE=

  Yolk of 1 egg.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  Dash of cayenne.
  1 cupful of salad oil.
  1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Let the oil and egg be thoroughly chilled before beginning to make
Mayonnaise. In summer it is well to stand the soup-plate in which the
dressing is being mixed in a dish of cracked ice; stir constantly with a
silver fork or a wooden spoon. Have the yolk entirely free from any
white of the egg; add drop by drop the oil. The success depends on
adding the oil slowly at first. It is well to spend half the time in
incorporating the first two spoonfuls of oil; after that it can be added
in larger quantities. After the dressing has become a little thick,
alternate a few drops of lemon-juice or of vinegar with the oil; a
little tarragon vinegar gives good flavor. If mustard is liked, add one
quarter teaspoonful of dry mustard. Add the salt and pepper last. If the
sauce curdles, take another yolk, and add slowly the curdled Mayonnaise.
A few drops of ice water or a small bit of ice added to the mixture when
it begins to curdle will sometimes bring it back.

This dressing will keep for some time in a closed jar in the ice-box.
The proportions given are right, but it is usually desirable to make a
larger quantity. With care more oil can be added to the egg, which will
give more sauce.

A very safe mixture, and one recommended for summer, is made by using
the yolk of a hard-boiled egg with a raw yolk. With this the dressing is
more quickly made and seldom curdles. Lemon-juice makes a whiter
dressing than vinegar, but it also makes it a little softer.


=WHITE MAYONNAISE=

Just before serving add to the above quantity of Mayonnaise one half
cupful of very stiff whipped cream, or the white of one half an egg
whipped very stiff.


=GREEN MAYONNAISE=

Take some green herbs, such as chervil, tarragon, chives, parsley, a
leaf of spinach, lettuce or watercress, and pound them in a mortar with
a little lemon-juice. Express the juice and add it to the Mayonnaise. It
is then called Ravigote sauce. Mashed green peas may be used to give
color and also more consistency to the sauce when it is to be used to
cover cold fish. A little vegetable green coloring can be added if the
color is not sufficiently deep, but a delicate color is preferable.


=RED MAYONNAISE=

Dry some lobster coral; pound it to a powder and rub it through a sieve;
mix it with a little lemon-juice and add it to the Mayonnaise. Use a
little carmine color if deeper shade is wanted. Or, color with
well-strained tomato purée.


=JELLY MAYONNAISE=

Instead of yolks of eggs, use aspic jelly as a medium to hold the oil;
mix the sauce the same as the ordinary Mayonnaise. Or, to a cupful of
aspic jelly (see page 321) or chicken aspic add a cupful of oil, one
tablespoonful of vinegar (one half being tarragon if convenient), a few
drops of lemon-juice, salt, pepper, and cayenne; stir together all at
once, the jelly being warmed enough to be liquid. Place it on ice and
stir until it begins to set; keep it in a cool place. This jelly softens
easily. It is used to coat fish or meats, and should be put on when a
little soft. It will then make a smooth and polished surface. Keep the
meats coated with the jelly on ice until ready to serve. It is used also
for salads in forms, or Russian salads (see receipts).


=MAYONNAISE WITH ARROWROOT=

Smooth a tablespoonful of arrowroot in cold water; stir it over the fire
until it becomes smooth, clear and firm like starch; when a little
cooled, add salt, pepper, mustard, and two or three yolks, and beat
until smooth; when cold add oil as in regular Mayonnaise. This mixture
will not curdle.


=TARTARE=

(FISH AND COLD MEATS)

To a cupful of Mayonnaise made with mustard, add one tablespoonful of
capers, three olives, and two gherkins, all chopped very fine; also the
juice expressed from some pounded green herbs, as in green Mayonnaise or
Ravigote (see above); or chop the herbs fine and mix them in the
dressing. A good Tartare sauce can be made by using tarragon vinegar
and a little onion-juice when mixing the Mayonnaise, and adding parsley
and capers, both chopped very fine, just before serving it.


=AGRA DOLCE=

(SOUR SWEET)

(AN ITALIAN SAUCE USED WITH VENISON, SWEETBREADS, CALF'S-HEAD, AND
MUTTON)

Mix together two heaping tablespoonfuls of brown sugar, one quarter bar
of grated chocolate, one tablespoonful each of shredded candied orange
and lemon-peel, ten blanched almonds shredded, one half cupful of
currants, and one cupful of vinegar. Let them soak for two hours. Then
pour it over the cooked meat, and simmer for ten minutes.

This receipt was obtained in Florence, where it is a well-known and
favorite sauce.


=BEURRE NOIR OR BROWN BUTTER SAUCE=

(EGGS, CALF'S HEAD, CALF'S BRAINS, FISH)

Put a quarter of a pound of butter in a saucepan and let it cook slowly
until it has browned, then add three tablespoonfuls of hot vinegar, one
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and a dash of pepper and of salt.



CHAPTER XII

ENTRÉES


Entrées are the dishes served between any of the regular
courses.


=CROQUETTES=

GENERAL DIRECTIONS

                                                    [Sidenote: Shape.]

                                             [Sidenote: How to serve.]

Croquettes are simply minced meat mixed with a thick sauce,
then rolled into shape and fried. Any kind of cooked meat, fish,
shell-fish, hard-boiled eggs, and some kinds of vegetables
may be served as croquettes. Croquettes may be plain, using one
kind of meat alone, or made richer by combining with it
sweetbreads, brains, mushrooms, truffles, etc. Whatever meat
mixture is used, the rules for sauce, molding, and frying are
the same. The croquettes may be shaped like cylinders, pyramids
or chops. The meat should be chopped very fine. (An "Enterprise
Chopper" is recommended.) They should be very soft and creamy
inside, and should be fried to a light golden color only. Serve
them on a napkin and garnish with parsley.

[Illustration: CROQUETTES. (SEE PAGE 292.)]


THE ENTERPRISE CHOPPER

This simple machine minces meat very fine, and is useful in making
croquettes, forcemeat for stuffings, etc. Where meat having much fiber
is put in the chopper, it soon becomes clogged. The end piece can then
be taken off, and the fiber clinging to it, which stops the holes, be
removed. In making timbales the meat put through the chopper in this
way, and then pounded, will sometimes do without being passed through a
sieve.

[Illustration: ENTERPRISE CHOPPER.]


=SAUCE FOR CROQUETTE MIXTURE=

(To this amount of sauce add two cupfuls of meat.)

  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  1 cupful of milk or cream.
  1 egg.
  1 teaspoonful of onion-juice.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  Dash of cayenne.
  Dash of nutmeg.

Put the cream or milk in a double boiler and scald it. Rub the butter
and flour together. Take this paste on a spoon and stir it in the
scalding milk until it is dissolved from the spoon, and the sauce has
become thickened and consistent. Add the seasoning; then remove from the
fire and stir in a beaten egg (the egg may be omitted if desired). Place
it again on the fire for a minute to cook the egg, but do not let it
boil, and add two cupfuls of meat minced very fine.

Pour this mixture on a flat dish, and set it away for two or more hours.
It will then be stiffened and can be easily molded. If a mixture is used
which absorbs the sauce, add more than the quantity given in receipt.
The softer the mixture, the more creamy, and therefore the better will
be the croquettes, and if allowed to stand long enough the molding will
not be difficult.


=TO MOLD CROQUETTES=

Take a tablespoonful of the mixture (this will make a croquette of the
right size; large ones are likely to crack open in frying); roll it
lightly between the hands into a ball. Have a plentiful supply of
bread-crumbs spread evenly on a board; roll the ball lightly on the
crumbs into the shape of a cylinder, and flatten each end by dropping it
lightly on the board; put it in the egg (to each egg add one
tablespoonful of water, and beat together), and with a spoon moisten the
croquette completely with the egg; lift it out on a knife-blade, and
again roll lightly in the crumbs. Have every part entirely covered, so
there will be no opening through which the grease may be absorbed. Where
a light yellow color is wanted, use fresh white crumbs grated from the
loaf (or rubbed through a purée sieve) for the outside, and do not use
the yolk of the egg. Coarse fresh crumbs are used for fish croquettes,
which are usually made in the form of chops, or half heart shape. A
small hole is pricked in the pointed end after frying, and a sprig of
parsley inserted. For lobster croquettes a small claw is used instead of
the parsley. Cracker-crumbs are used where a smooth surface is wanted.
Have all the croquettes of perfectly uniform size and shape, and lay
them aside on a dish, not touching one another, for an hour or more
before frying. This will make the crust more firm.

The white of an egg alone may be used for egging them, but not the yolk
alone. Whip the egg with the water, just enough to break it, as
air-bubbles in the egg will break in frying, and let the grease
penetrate.


=TO FRY CROQUETTES=

Let the fat become smoking hot; then test it with a piece of bread. If
the bread colors while you count forty (twenty seconds), it is right. It
is well to put the frying-pot on the fire an hour before it is needed,
so it will be hot, and ready to be raised quickly to the right degree.
After dipping the frying-basket in the fat to grease it, lay in it four
croquettes so that they do not touch one another, and immerse them in
the fat. Cook only long enough to attain a delicate color. Let them
drain a moment over the hot fat; then lift them from the basket with
the hand (if done quickly the hand will not be burned) and place on a
brown paper on the hot shelf or in the open oven until all are ready. Do
not fry more than four at one time, as more would reduce the heat of the
fat too much. Let the fat become smoking hot before each immersion of
croquettes. Hang the basket on a long iron spoon so the hand will not be
burned by the spattering fat.


=MATERIALS USED FOR CROQUETTES=


CHICKEN CROQUETTES

Chop the chicken very fine, using the white meat alone, or the dark meat
alone, or both together. Season with salt, pepper, onion-juice, and
lemon-juice. Chopped mushrooms, sweetbreads, calf's brains, tongue, ham
or truffles are used with chicken, and a combination of two or more of
them much improves the quality of the croquettes.


VEAL CROQUETTES

Veal is often mixed with chicken, or is used alone as a substitute for
chicken. Season in same manner and make the same combinations.


SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES

Cut the boiled sweetbreads into small dice with a silver knife. Mix with
mushrooms, using half the quantity of mushrooms that you have of
sweetbreads. Use two eggs in the sauce.


OYSTER CROQUETTES

Scald the oysters; cut them into small pieces with a silver-plated
knife.


LOBSTER CROQUETTES (see page 138)


FISH CROQUETTES (see pages 121 and 126)


MEAT AND BOILED HOMINY CROQUETTES

Equal proportions.


MEAT, RICE, AND TOMATO CROQUETTES

Equal proportions of meat and boiled rice: moisten with tomato purée.


MACARONI CROQUETTES

Boil the macaroni in salted water until tender; let it cool; then cut
into pieces one quarter inch long, forming rings. To a cupful of the
rings add one tablespoonful of grated cheese.

The sauces to serve with croquettes are brown, Béchamel, Poulette, and
Tomato.


=TIMBALES=

                                       [Sidenote: General directions.]

Timbales are forms of pastry or of forcemeat filled with
salpicon. They are made in individual, border, or cylinder
molds. The receipts below give the rules for making the
pastry, forcemeat, and salpicon, and the combinations. For
forcemeat, the raw meat is used, and may be used alone or
mixed with panada: in the latter case it is called Quenelle
forcemeat. Cut the meat or fish in pieces (excepting chicken,
which is scraped), and pound it in a mortar to separate the
flesh from the fiber, then press it through a purée sieve.
Do not chop the meat, as the fiber is not then so easily
separated. If the meat pulp is mixed with panada, press it
through the sieve again so the paste will be perfectly smooth
and fine. Truffles are used in decorating the molds and in the
salpicon. The little bits left from the decoration are chopped
and used in the salpicon or in a sauce.

[Illustration: HINGED MOLD AND INDIVIDUAL TIMBALE MOLDS.]

[Illustration: PURÉE SIEVE AND MORTAR.]


=TRUFFLES=

Truffles can be bought in tins, and as very little is used at a time
they are not as expensive as at first appears. To preserve truffles left
over in an opened can, drain them from the liquor and roll them in
melted paraffine or in melted suet. With the air-tight covering which
either of these things gives, the truffles can be kept in the
refrigerator for an indefinite time.


=CREAM CHICKEN FORCEMEAT=

Cut the breast from a chicken or turkey, also the white meat from the
wings; remove the skin and fat, and with a knife scrape the meat so as
to free it from the sinews. Place the scraped meat in a mortar and pound
it to a paste; incorporate into it gradually, while pounding, the white
of an egg; this will moisten it a little so it will pass more easily
through the sieve. After it is thoroughly macerated, take a little at a
time and with the pestle or spoon rub it through a sieve; it passes
through better when a little is worked at a time. Put the pulp in a
bowl, season it with salt, pepper, and a dash of nutmeg. Set the bowl on
cracked ice and stir in slowly (as you add oil to Mayonnaise) one or one
and a half cupfuls of thick cream--some mixtures take more cream than
others; stir continually, using a wire whip if convenient. When it is a
consistent paste, try it by dropping a half teaspoonful in hot (not
boiling) water and let it poach; if it is too thick add more cream, if
too thin add a little beaten white of egg. The sample should poach for
ten minutes, and when cut should be smooth and firm, but not tough.


=CREAM FORCEMEAT, No. 2.=

To one half pound of meat pulp add five ounces of butter, one whole egg,
and four yolks, or the whites alone of four eggs if used with white
meat; beat very thoroughly together; pass again through the sieve; place
on ice and beat in slowly one pint of whipped cream--three quarters of a
cupful of cream will make about the right amount after being whipped.


=FISH CREAM FORCEMEAT=

Scrape, pound, and pass through a sieve one pound of firm white fish.
Put the pulp in a bowl, season with salt, pepper and cayenne; whip into
it the whites of two eggs, and add slowly, beating all the time, about
one and a half cupfuls of cream. Poach a small piece to see if right: if
too thick add more cream, if too thin add more white of egg. A pretty
decoration for fish timbale, especially when made of salmon, is lobster
coral, dried and pounded to powder, and sprinkled on the buttered mold.
Fish timbale is usually made in a solid piece and served as a fish
course. With white fish serve a tomato sauce; with salmon a Poulette or
a cream sauce, or Mayonnaise.


=QUENELLE FORCEMEAT=

To one cupful of meat-pulp, after it is rubbed through the sieve, add
one half cupful of panada, one quarter cupful of butter, yolks of three
eggs, salt, pepper, and dash of nutmeg. Stir well together and pass
again through the sieve. Place on ice and add slowly one cupful of
cream. Try by poaching a small piece to see if it is of the right
consistency. A good white sauce or tomato purée may be substituted for
the cream in some cases. This forcemeat is used the same as cream
forcemeat.


=BREAD PANADA=

Soak the crumb of bread; express the water and place the bread in a
saucepan on the fire. Stir it to a paste with milk or stock, and
continue to stir until it leaves the sides of the pan.


=FLOUR PANADA=

Put a little water, milk or stock in a saucepan; add a little butter and
salt, and stir in as much flour as will absorb the liquid. Stir
constantly until it leaves the sides of the pan.


=TO MOLD AND COOK TIMBALES=

Rub the mold well with butter; ornament it with truffle, tongue, ham, or
hard-boiled egg. Cut the truffle, or other article used for the
decoration, in very thin slices and stamp it into fancy shapes with a
cutter, or cut it with a knife. Arrange the pieces in some design on
the mold; they will stay in place if the mold is well buttered. Put in
the forcemeat carefully with a knife, press it well against the sides to
force out any air-bubbles, and have a care not to displace the
decoration. If the timbale is to be filled with salpicon, make a layer
of the forcemeat from a quarter to three quarters of an inch thick,
according to the size of mold, using enough to give stability to the
form when unmolded; make it a little thicker at the base than at the top
and leave a smooth surface inside; fill it with the salpicon and cover
the top with forcemeat, pressing from the sides towards the center; draw
the knife across the top so it will be smooth and even, and stand
straight and firm when unmolded. Stand the mold or molds in a pan of
water, covering them one half or a little more. Cover them with a
greased paper and let them poach in a slow oven ten to fifteen minutes
for small, and twenty minutes for large molds. If the center feels firm
to the touch they are done. The water must not be allowed to boil; slow
cooking is necessary to have them tender. Let the molds stand a minute
in the water, then invert on a cloth to let the moisture drain off, and
unmold them on the dish on which they are to be served.

[Illustration: INDIVIDUAL TIMBALES.

TIMBALES OF ANY FORCEMEAT; DECORATION OF TRUFFLES.]


=SALPICON=

Cooked veal, chicken, game, sweetbreads, calf's brains, livers, fish,
oysters, lobster, mushrooms, truffles, tongue, etc., when cut into dice
and mixed with a rich sauce is called salpicon. It is used for filling
timbales, vol-au-vent, patties, croustades, etc. It may also be served
in paper boxes, or shells, or fontage cups. It may be made of one kind
of meat, but is usually a mixture of two or more, with mushrooms and
truffles. The meats are cut into small dice and warmed with a sauce
which goes well with the meats used. The sauce must be reduced until
quite thick, and enough of it used to make the mixture very creamy. For
dark meat use an Espagnole, brown or mushroom sauce; for white meat,
Béchamel, Allemande or Poulette sauce.

[Illustration: CHICKEN TIMBALE--FILLING OF SALPICON; DECORATION OF
TRUFFLES.]


=FONTAGE CUPS=

(USED FOR OYSTER-CRABS, SALPICON, CREAMED SWEETBREADS, ETC.)

Make a batter of one half cupful of flour, yolk of one egg, one quarter
teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of salad oil, and enough milk or
water to make the batter thin. Let it stand for an hour or two. Beat it
well together, and have the batter very smooth; strain it if there are
any lumps. Have a pot of hot fat; place the fontage iron in the fat
until it is thoroughly hot, then dip it in the batter, and hold it there
a moment until a coating of batter has adhered; place it again in the
hot fat until the cup is cooked a delicate color, and can be detached
from the iron. Repeat the operation until all are made, and keep them in
a warm dry place until used. This amount of batter will make twelve
cups.

[Illustration: FONTAGE IRON AND CUPS. (SEE PAGE 300.)]


=PAIN DE VOLAILLE=

Make a chicken cream forcemeat (see page 297). Butter individual timbale
molds, decorate them with truffles, fill with forcemeat, and poach ten
to fifteen minutes in slow oven. Serve with an Allemande sauce.

Or, line the molds with forcemeat; fill them with salpicon made of the
dark meat of the chicken and mushrooms; mix with Espagnole or a good
brown sauce; cover the top well with forcemeat, and poach as directed.

Or, use a charlotte russe mold; line it a half inch thick with
forcemeat, and use the same salpicon, adding small egg balls or
quenelles, a few pieces of tongue, and a truffle chopped very fine.

Or, use a border mold for the forcemeat, and fill the center of the
ring, when unmolded, with the salpicon.


=QUENELLES=

These are quenelle forcemeat formed into small balls, the balls rolled
in flour and poached, then used in salpicon; or, with two tablespoons,
the forcemeat may be molded into egg-shaped pieces, poached in hot
salted (not boiling) water, and ranged on a socle; or they may be
placed on a dish in a circle. The two latter forms of quenelles are
served with a sauce as an entrée. Fish quenelles with tomato sauce make
a very good dish. Large quenelles for decorating dishes may be made by
molding the forcemeat into fancy shapes with a knife on buttered white
paper (the paper will become detached while they are poaching). The
quenelles may be ornamented with truffles or tongue, using white of egg
to make the decoration adhere. Use salted water for poaching them, and
do not let it boil.


=PALMETTES=

Press forcemeat into rings or cutlet molds; partly poach them. Unmold,
roll in egg and crumbs, and fry in hot fat. Serve with a sauce.


=CELESTINES À LA MAINTENON=

Take some quenelle forcemeat (see page 298). Add to it a little juice
from a can of truffles, one truffle chopped fine, two tablespoonfuls of
mushrooms chopped fine, and a few bits of ham, or tongue. Mix well
together, and stir in enough cream to make it quite soft. Butter some
cutlet molds, or some rings. Fill them with the mixture; smooth them
with a knife, and place them on the bottom of a large saucepan. Pour
enough boiling water to cover them carefully on the sides of the pan, so
it will go into the pan without defacing the forcemeat; let them poach
for five minutes without the water boiling. The cutlets will leave the
molds, and rise to the top. Lift them out with a skimmer, and place on
an inverted pan to cool. When perfectly cold, dry them lightly with a
napkin, and cover each one with Villeroi sauce (see page 280). Set aside
to let the sauce harden. Sprinkle with bread-crumbs; moisten with egg
and cover with fresh crumbs grated from the leaf. Use a broad knife to
handle them with when crumbing. Fry in hot fat, like croquettes, to an
amber color. Serve with Béchamel or Poulette sauce.


=BOUDINS ROUENNAIS=

Line well-buttered individual molds with a cream forcemeat made of veal
or chicken; fill the center with a forcemeat made of duck or any game.
Cover the top with a white forcemeat, and smooth it off even with the
mold. Poach them for ten minutes. Unmold, and let them cool; then cover
with egg and fresh bread-crumbs, and fry in hot fat to an amber color.
Serve with them an Espagnole or a brown sauce.


=MACARONI TIMBALE=

Cook until tender in salted water long pieces of spaghetti, or fine
macaroni. Put it into the water slowly, and it can then be turned so it
will not break. Lay the pieces straight on a napkin to cool. Butter well
a dome-shaped mold. Wind the spaghetti around the mold, holding it in
place, as you proceed, with a layer of forcemeat. Fill the center with
boiled macaroni and cheese, mixed with a well-reduced Béchamel sauce; or
fill the timbale with a salpicon of sweetbreads and mushrooms. Make the
layer of forcemeat thick enough to give the timbale stability. Cover it
with a greased paper, stand it in a pan of hot water, and poach in a
slow oven for thirty minutes. This timbale may also be made in
individual molds.

[Illustration: MACARONI TIMBALE. (SEE PAGE 302.)]

[Illustration: SPAGHETTI TIMBALES. (SEE PAGE 302.)]


=HONEYCOMB TIMBALE=

(A VERY SIMPLE LUNCHEON DISH)

Boil in salted water large-sized macaroni. When cold cut it into pieces
one quarter of an inch long, making rings. Butter a plain dome-shaped
mold, and cover it with the rings. Fill the mold with minced uncooked
chicken, turkey, or veal, mixed with cream sauce. Add three or four eggs
to the creamed mince just before putting it into the mold. Unless the
eggs are added, it will not have stiffness enough to hold in shape.
Cover the mold with a greased paper. Place it in a pan of hot water, and
poach in a slow oven for thirty minutes.

This timbale may also be made of any cooked meat as follows: Put the
meat through an "Enterprise" chopper. Make a sauce, using two
tablespoonfuls each of butter and flour, a cupful of milk, and a cupful
of stock. After the liquid is added to the roux put in a slice of onion
and two dried mushrooms, one teaspoonful of salt, and one quarter
teaspoonful pepper. Let it cook until a little thickened. Add half the
strained sauce to the minced meat. Stir it over the fire until the meat
is heated; remove from the fire, add two beaten eggs, and turn it into a
a quart timbale mold, which is lined with macaroni in any of the forms
given in illustrations. Cover the mold with a greased paper. Place it in
a pan of hot water, and poach for twenty minutes. Serve the rest of the
sauce with the cooked timbale.

[Illustration: HONEYCOMB TIMBALE. (SEE PAGE 302.)]


=A SIMPLE TIMBALE OF HALIBUT=

Take a half pound of uncooked halibut. Cut it into fine pieces, pound it
in a mortar, and pass it through a sieve. Mix a cupful of white
bread-crumbs with a half cupful of milk, and stir until it makes a
smooth paste; remove it from the fire, add the fish pulp, a half
teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of paprica. Then beat in lightly, a
little at a time, the whipped whites of five eggs. Fill buttered timbale
molds with the mixture, and place them in a pan of hot water in a
moderate oven for twenty minutes. This will fill a quart mold, or eight
individual molds. Serve with a white or with a tomato sauce.

[Illustration: FISH TIMBALE DECORATED WITH SLICES OF CUCUMBER PICKLE.]


=PASTRY TIMBALE=

Make a paste, using to one pound of flour three quarters of a pound of
butter, four yolks, one half teaspoonful of salt, and one and a half
cups of water. Work it well, roll it one quarter of an inch thick,
cover, and set it aside for one hour. Butter a timbale-mold, and line it
with the paste. If ornamentation is wanted, cut some noodle paste into
fancy forms. Arrange the pieces in some design on the bottom and sides
of the mold, and brush them with a little water before putting in the
paste. With a cutter or knife stamp out a circle in the paste on the
bottom of the mold, but do not remove it. Then with a buttered paper
cover the whole inside surface of the paste. Fill the center with flour.
Cover the top with buttered paper, buttered side up; then a layer of
paste, and press it to the paste of the sides. Set it aside for half an
hour. Bake it in a hot oven for fifty minutes. Unmold, take off the
circle which was cut in the paste; remove the paper and flour. Brush the
timbale all over, inside and out, with yolk of egg, and place it in the
oven to brown. Fill it with salpicon.


=POTATO AND FISH TIMBALE=

(FOR LUNCHEON OR BREAKFAST)

Butter a plain mold. Sprinkle it with white bread-crumbs. Fill it with
mashed potato which has been seasoned and mixed with two or more egg
yolks and some grated cheese. Bake it for forty minutes in a moderate
oven. With a pointed knife cut around the top one and a half inches from
the edges; lift off the piece, and with a spoon scoop out the potato,
leaving a lining one and a half inches thick. Brush the inside with egg,
and place it again in the oven to dry and brown. Fill the center with
creamed fish; replace the top piece, and fill the cut with potato so as
to confine the fish. Place a dish over the top, invert the mold, and let
it stand a few minutes. It will then come out of the mold. Serve with a
white sauce.


=VOL AU VENT=

Prepare a puff paste (see page 458). Roll it one and a half inches
thick. Cut a circle six to six and a half inches in diameter, using as
guide a pie-tin or cardboard, if a regular cutter is not at hand. Place
it with care on a baking-tin, and cut a smaller circle around the top,
one and a half inches from the edge, and two thirds through the paste.
Paint over the top with yolk of egg, and bake it in a hot oven for
thirty minutes. Do not open the oven door for the first fifteen minutes.
When baked, lift off the inside circle. Cut out the uncooked paste,
paint it over with white of egg, and place it again in the oven to
brown. Keep the crust hot until ready to serve. Then fill with salpicon,
and replace the cover, or small circle of paste.


=PATTIES=

Prepare patty shells as directed in puff paste receipt (page 460). Fill
them with oysters (see page 134), with lobster (see page 140), or with
any salpicon.


=RISSOLES=

Roll puff paste one eighth of an inch thick. Place on it at intervals of
three inches from the edge and five inches apart, a teaspoonful of
salpicon, or of creamed minced meat. Moisten with a wet brush the paste,
and fold it over the balls of meat. With the finger press the paste
together lightly around the meat, inclosing it like a small pie. Then
with a patty or biscuit-cutter stamp out the rissoles in shape of
half-circles, the ball of meat being on the straight side, and a border
of paste an inch or more wide on the rounded side. Egg and bread-crumb
them or not, and fry in hot fat. Serve on a folded napkin.


=TO PREPARE SWEETBREADS=

Soak the sweetbreads in cold water for an hour or more. Change the water
several times, so that all the blood will be extracted, and leave the
sweetbreads very white. Put them on the fire in cold water, and simmer
(not boil) for twenty minutes. Then immerse them again in cold water.
This is to parboil and blanch them. Remove all the pipes, strings, and
fibers it is possible to do without breaking the sweetbreads to pieces.
When half cold tie each one in a piece of cheese-cloth, drawing it
tightly into an oval form, and place them under a light weight until
cold. They will then be smooth and a uniform shape, and may be larded
with fine lardoons if desired. Use a silver knife for cutting
sweetbreads.


=BAKED SWEETBREADS=

Take parboiled larded sweetbreads, and place them on slices of salt pork
in a baking-pan. Add enough stock to cover well the pan. Cook them in a
hot oven for twenty minutes, basting frequently. Serve with a brown or
with a mushroom sauce.


=BRAISED SWEETBREADS=

Place in a baking-pan a bed of vegetables cut in small dice, and a few
pieces of salt pork. Lay parboiled sweetbreads on it. Add enough water
or stock to cover the vegetables. Close the pan tight, and cook for
forty to forty-five minutes. Uncover the pan the last fifteen minutes to
let the sweetbreads brown. Paint them with glaze. Strain the liquor from
the pan; thicken it with a brown roux, and serve it on the dish under
the sweetbreads.


=SAUTÉD SWEETBREADS=

Cut the parboiled sweetbreads in slices and sauté them in butter; serve
with green peas.


=FRIED SWEETBREADS=

Roll the sweetbreads (either whole or cut in slices) in egg and crumbs;
let them stand for a time, then fry in hot fat; dress them on a folded
napkin and serve with them a Béchamel sauce. They may also be dipped in
fritter batter and fried.


=SWEETBREADS À LA POULETTE=

Simmer the sweetbreads for thirty or forty minutes; blanch them, then
cut or break them in pieces and place them on a dish. Pour over them a
Béchamel or a Poulette sauce. Mushrooms and chopped truffles may be
added if desired.


=CHAUDFROID OF SWEETBREADS=

Simmer the sweetbreads until cooked; blanch and tie them in cloth as
directed above, or place them in muffin-rings under pressure until
cold; cover them with a Chaudfroid sauce (see page 281). Place fancy
bits of truffle on the top lightly, and when the sauce has set, paint it
over with liquid aspic. Arrange them on a socle or on a mound of salad,
and serve with them a Mayonnaise sauce and lettuce.


=CALF'S BRAINS=

Soak the brains for an hour in cold water; then simmer in water
containing a tablespoonful of vinegar for twenty minutes; an onion,
thyme, bay-leaf, salt and peppercorns in the water also will improve the
flavor of the brains; place again in cold water to blanch; remove the
skin and fibres, and cook by any of the receipts given for sweetbreads.
The boiled brains may also be served with any of the following sauces
poured over them: a plain white sauce; a white sauce with chopped
mushrooms; a white sauce seasoned with mashed yolks of hard-boiled eggs,
a little mustard, tarragon vinegar and chopped parsley, and a
tablespoonful of chopped pickle added just before serving; a Vinaigrette
sauce; a Hollandaise sauce; a tomato sauce; or a sauce made of browned
butter and a dash of vinegar.


=MARINADE OF BRAINS=

Boil the brains; remove the skin and veins; cut them into pieces the
size of half an egg; let them stand an hour in a marinade of oil,
vinegar, onion, pepper and salt; then wipe and dip them into fritter
batter and fry in hot fat. Arrange them on a napkin and serve with
tomato sauce.


=CALF'S HEAD À LA VINAIGRETTE=

Place pieces of hot boiled calf's head in the center of a dish; split
the tongue in two and lay it across two sides of the dish, and the
brains on the opposite sides; garnish with parsley and serve with a
Vinaigrette sauce, or with a Piquante sauce.

=Vinaigrette Sauce= (COLD): Three tablespoonfuls of oil, one tablespoonful
of vinegar, one teaspoonful each of grated onion, chopped parsley, and
capers, one saltspoonful each of salt and pepper.


=FALSE TERRAPIN=

Cut boiled calf's head (see page 175) into pieces one inch square; break
into pieces the boiled brains. Make a brown roux; add to it water in
which the calf's head was boiled, in the same proportion as for white
sauce; season with salt, pepper, and cayenne, and add a cupful of cream;
then put in the pieces of meat, three or four chopped hard-boiled eggs,
a few small egg balls, and a glass of sherry; serve very hot; there
should be a half more sauce than meat.


=CALF'S HEAD À LA POULETTE=

Cut boiled calf's head into pieces one inch square; heat them in hot
water; drain and pile them in the center of a hot dish; sprinkle over
them a few small egg balls, and pour over the whole a Poulette sauce,
using for the sauce water in which the calf's head was boiled in the
place of chicken stock.


=OYSTER CASES=

Line buttered paper cases, or china individual cups, with a layer of
fish quenelle forcemeat (page 298), or with the fish preparation given
in receipt for fish pudding (page 123); scald some oysters in their own
liquor until the gills curl; cut each oyster into four pieces and fill
the center of the cup with them; pour over them a tablespoonful of
Béchamel sauce, made with oyster-liquor in place of stock; cover the top
with forcemeat, brush it over with butter and bake in a moderate oven
for fifteen minutes.

Cases of other combinations may be made in the same way; using mashed
potato for the lining and any creamed meat for filling; or use hominy or
rice with chicken, mushrooms, etc.


=LIVER LOAF, OR FALSE PÂTÉ DE FOIE GRAS=

Cut a calf's liver in pieces; pound it in a mortar and press it through
a sieve; add to one cupful of liver pulp one quarter cupful of flour
panada, one teaspoonful each of butter and salt; one half teaspoonful
of pepper; dash each of cayenne and of nutmeg and allspice, and two
eggs. Mix well together and pass it again through the sieve. Put the
mixture into a well-buttered pint mold; place it in a pan of hot water
in the oven for forty-five minutes or more. An ice-cream brick-mold
makes a loaf of convenient shape. It may be served hot with a brown
sauce; but is better cold with salad, or used like pâté de foie gras. A
loaf of any game may be made in the same way. The loaf may be made very
ornamental by decorating it with pieces of truffle, ham, and white of
hard-boiled eggs cut into diamond shapes and fitted together to look
like blocks. To arrange this decoration use two molds of the same size;
butter one of them and apply carefully the decoration; line the other
with thin slices of larding pork and cook the liver or game mixture in
it; when it is cold remove the pork, and this will leave it small enough
to fit into the decorated mold. Fill the space between them with aspic
jelly and let it become well set before unmolding the form.


=CHICKEN LIVERS=

Cut the gall carefully off the livers; dry them with a cloth and cut
them in two or more pieces. Place them in a frying-pan with a
tablespoonful of butter, and sauté until cooked, or about five minutes.
Turn them often, so they will not burn, and dredge them with a little
flour; add one cupful of Espagnole, or of brown sauce, and one half
cupful of Madeira; season with salt and pepper and let simmer slowly for
ten minutes. If the color is not dark enough, add a few drops of caramel
or of kitchen bouquet; serve with croûtons around the dish, or in a
croustade, or in fontage cups.


=STUFFED MUSHROOMS=

Take off the stalks from one pound of fresh mushrooms, peel the cups,
using a silver knife, and drop them into cold water to keep them white
(if exposed to the air they discolor). If they have to stand for some
time put a little lemon-juice in the water; scrape the stalks, chop
them and put them into a saucepan with one tablespoonful of butter and
one half onion sliced; cook slowly for ten minutes, then add one
tablespoonful of flour and cook that five minutes; add one cupful of
stock and one half cupful of bread crumbs; season with salt, pepper, and
a dash of cayenne. Fill the cups of the mushrooms with this mixture;
sprinkle with crumbs and place them on circles of toasted bread one
quarter of an inch thick and the size of the mushroom. Bake in moderate
oven for fifteen minutes.


=CHICKEN PURÉE=

Chop cooked chicken very fine; pound it to as much of a paste as
possible; season with salt and pepper; mix it with half its quantity of
Chaudfroid sauce (see page 281). Coat a mold with jelly (see page 323),
and fill it with the mixture, which must be cold and beginning to set;
when it has hardened, turn it onto a dish; garnish with lettuce and
serve with it a Mayonnaise or a Béarnaise sauce. Game may be used in the
same way. Ornamented individual timbale cups may also be used for
molding the purée.


=OYSTER-CRABS=

Put into a saucepan two tablespoonfuls of butter and a gill of water,
one teaspoonful of lemon-juice, a little salt and white pepper. When the
liquid is warm, put a few of the crabs in at a time and cook until they
begin to whiten, then skim them out and keep them in a warm place until
all are cooked. The liquid must only simmer; if it is too hot the crabs
will break open. The crabs should be just moistened with the sauce in
which they are cooked. Serve in croustades, or in fontage cups (see page
300).


=ENTRÉE OF OYSTER-CRABS=

Use for this entrée individual shirred-egg dishes. Cut slices of bread
one inch thick; with a biscuit-cutter stamp it into circles one inch
smaller than the egg dish, and with a smaller cutter stamp out the
center, making rings of the bread one inch thick, one inch wide, and
one inch smaller than the egg dishes. Place the bread rings in the
dishes and moisten them with cream; fill the space outside the rings
with oyster-crabs cooked as directed above; spread one layer of crabs in
the center of each ring and on them break an egg. Cover the whole with
Béchamel sauce and sprinkle the top with grated Parmesan cheese. Place
this in a hot oven just long enough to set the egg.



TERRAPIN, FROGS' LEGS


TERRAPIN

                                                   [Sidenote: Counts.]

Terrapin measuring six inches or more across the bottom
shell are called "counts." The largest do not exceed ten
inches; the average size is seven inches, and weight three
to five pounds. The counts vary in price from seventeen to
eighty dollars a dozen, according to size and weight.

                                            [Sidenote: Diamond backs.]

The terrapin which are most esteemed, and which command the
highest price, are the "Diamond Back," from the Chesapeake
Bay. Probably it is the wild celery of this region which gives
the especially prized flavor to the terrapin as well as to the
Canvasback ducks taken there. Good terrapin, however, are
taken in Long Island waters and all along the sea-coast.

                                                   [Sidenote: Season.]

Terrapin burrow in the mud as soon as cold weather approaches
and remain there until May, during which time they grow fat.
They are caught during their season of hibernation, and are
kept in cool, dark places packed in sea grass until wanted;
the season for eating them being from December to April.
Terrapin taken during the summer are rank in taste and unfit
for food, and are confined in pens and fed on celery.

The female terrapin is the most prized on account of its
eggs, terrapin-eggs, as served in the stew, being considered
a great delicacy.

                                                  [Sidenote: Cooking.]

The Maryland style of cooking terrapin is one of the most
esteemed. A simple way is that of the Southern negro, who
places the "bird," as he calls it, over hot coals or in the
oven until cooked, when the under shell comes off, and,
removing only the gall, he eats the whole of the contents from
the inverted upper shell, seasoning with butter, pepper, and
salt. Before hibernating, the terrapin empties the stomach and
is consequently clean, but a fastidious taste prefers to have
the terrapin thoroughly washed, and the entrails and lights as
well as the gall-sack removed.

                                                 [Sidenote: The gall.]

It is of the greatest importance that the gall should be
very carefully removed, for, if the sack be punctured or in
any way injured, so that the liquid touches the liver or
meat, its disagreeable bitter taste will infect the entire
dish.


=TO PREPARE TERRAPIN=

Drop the live terrapin into hot water, and let it remain until the skin
can be removed from the head and feet. Then remove, wash in several
changes of water, take off the skin from the head and feet by rubbing it
with a cloth, and return it to fresh scalding water to cook until
tender. This is shown by pressing the feet between the fingers. They
should be done in forty-five minutes to an hour. If a longer time is
required, the terrapin is probably not a good one, and the meat will be
stringy. Remove as soon as tender. When cold, cut off the nails, remove
the shells, take out very carefully the gall-sack from the liver, the
entrails, lights, heart, head, tail and white muscles. Separate the
pieces at the joints, divide the meat into pieces an inch and a half
long, and do not break the bones. Place the meat, cut into pieces, the
terrapin eggs and the liver in a pan, cover with water, and boil again
until the meat is ready to drop from the bones.


=STEWED TERRAPIN, MARYLAND STYLE=

Mash the yolks of eight hard-boiled eggs and mix them with two
tablespoonfuls of best butter, rubbing them to a smooth paste. Put a
pint of cream in a double boiler; when it is scalded, stir in the egg
and butter until smooth; season with salt, white and cayenne pepper, a
dash of nutmeg and allspice. Add a quart of terrapin prepared as
directed above, and simmer for ten minutes, or until the terrapin is
well heated. Just at the moment of serving add two tablespoonfuls of
sherry or madeira; serve very hot. Terrapin is often served in
individual metal cups made for the purpose, so as to insure its being
hot; but with care to have all the dishes hot, the stew need not be
allowed to get cold when served in ordinary deep plates.


=TERRAPIN À LA NEWBURG=

Put in a saucepan one quart of terrapin (prepared as directed, page
312), a half pint of cream, and a tablespoonful of best butter. Let it
cook a few minutes; then draw it aside, and add the yolks of five eggs
beaten with a half pint of cream. Stir until the eggs are thickened; but
do not let it boil, or it will curdle. Season with salt, white pepper
and paprica. At the moment of serving, add two tablespoonfuls of sherry.
Like all Newburg dishes this must be prepared only just in time to
serve, or it will curdle.


=FRIED FROGS' LEGS=

Dip the skinned frogs' legs in milk; sprinkle with salt and pepper, and
roll them in flour. Immerse in smoking hot fat until cooked to a
delicate color. Serve on a napkin.


=FROGS' LEGS À LA POULETTE=

Sauté the skinned frogs' legs in butter; cook some fresh mushrooms in
the pan at the same time if convenient. Place on a hot dish with the
mushrooms, and pour over them a Poulette sauce (see page 280).



MUSHROOMS

(SEE ALSO PAGE 45)


When one has learned to distinguish a few varieties of the
edible fungi, a delicious acquisition to the menu will be
enjoyed.

The author will not assume the responsibility of instructing how
to distinguish the esculent mushrooms. There are books and
colored charts which give explicit and reliable descriptions,
and with these one can easily learn to know a few of them.
Accidents are usually the result of carelessness or recklessness,
many of the poisonous mushrooms being so attractive in appearance
as to invite favor.

Mushroom hunting is akin in pleasure to botanizing, geologizing,
or the gathering of any natural history specimens. It is not
always easy to reject the many unfamiliar kinds.


                                            [Sidenote: How to gather.]

In gathering mushrooms they should be cut, not pulled, and
laid in the basket with the gills up, so the spores will not
be lost. If the stem is perforated with fine holes it means
that worms have bored it, and it should be rejected.

                          [Sidenote: The three most common varieties.]

The most common varieties are the Agaracini--those having gills;
the Boleti--those having pores; and puff-balls (Lycoperdaceæ).
All the puff-balls are edible, and those of the Boleti which
have no tinge of red on the pore surface; but especial care
must be used with the Agaracini, for it is said that all
deaths from mushroom-poisoning have come from the Amanita,
which is a genus of the gilled species, and is very common
and abundant.

                                              [Sidenote: The Amanita.]

                                       [Sidenote: Antidote to poison.]

The safeguard to other species of poison varieties is their
bitter and acrid taste. This warning the poisonous Agaric
does not give, but it has the distinguishing feature of a
cup or volva at the base of the stern. This cup is some
times below the ground, and should be carefully sought; and
where any doubt is felt, the specimen should be rejected.
The antidote to this poison, as given by Mr. Gibson, is one
sixtieth grain doses of atropine in hypodermic injections.

Authorities on mushrooms advise the amateur to first
acquaint himself with the Amanita family.

"Dr. W. A. Curtis found in North Carolina thirty-eight
edible species of Agaricus, eleven of Boletus, nine of
Polyporus, seven of Hydnum, and thirteen of Clavaria."

The popular tests of the cap peeling, or the mushroom
blackening a silver spoon when cooking, are worthless.

                                                [Sidenote: Freshness.]

                                           [Sidenote: Nourishment in.]

Mushrooms are very short-lived, and are quickly attacked by
insects and worms, and so rendered unfit for use. They also
decay quickly, and should be rejected if not entirely sound.
Many cases of illness are the result of this unfit condition.
The same would be the case if unwholesome meat were eaten, but
good meat is not condemned on that account. Mushrooms contain
the same nutritive value as meat, and rank second to it in
nitrogenous elements. They vary in flavor and in delicacy as
much as vegetables.



=COOKING MUSHROOMS=

The simplest way of cooking mushrooms is usually the best, and this may
be broiling, sautéing in butter, or stewing in a little cream sauce.
These simple ways may be varied by seasoning with sherry, Madeira, or
lemon-juice. Any meat stock may be used to stew them in, but many of the
mushrooms are very juicy, and their flavor must not be lost by diluting
them with too much liquor. They may be cut in pieces when used for
sauces. When dried and powdered they make an excellent seasoning for
sauces. Dried cèpes may be bought at grocers', and are very useful to
stew in sauces.

It is better to cook mushrooms as soon as they are peeled, and to rinse
them only as much as is necessary, as they lose some flavor by soaking.
When they are to be used for garnishing, they are thrown into water with
lemon-juice, one tablespoonful of juice to a quart of water, and are
afterward boiled in the same water; this keeps them white. The water
they are boiled in should be saved to use in sauces. Again, they may be
put into a saucepan with butter and lemon-juice, and cooked (stirring
frequently) for about five minutes. They are then covered to keep them
moist and white until ready for use. Lemon-juice keeps them white, but
the flavor of the mushroom is somewhat destroyed by it, and so it is not
recommended for general practice. The French peel the caps with a fluted
knife to make them more ornamental, but it is a difficult operation, and
does not repay the trouble.

"Mr. George Augustus Sala, in a discourse on 'Dinners Departed,' refers
to the famous à la mode beef, served in the days of old at the 'Thirteen
Cantons,' in Blackmore Street, Drury Lane, and of which Soyer was very
fond. The dish was remarkable for its rich sauce, the concoction of
which was a close secret. However, the former proprietor of the old
eating-house confided the receipt to Mr. Sala. Thus: 'It was simply made
from a particular mushroom, which he called "morella," and which I infer
was the Morchella esculenta, described in botanical works. These
mushrooms were gathered in the fields round about the metropolis,
dried, reduced to powder, and then used to thicken the sauce and enhance
the flavor of à la mode beef.'"


=THE FAIRY RING CHAMPIGNON=

(MARASMIUS OREADES)

This is one of the most common and easily recognized mushrooms, and in
their season enough for a sauce may be gathered in almost any dooryard.
The difference between the real and the false fairy is easily
distinguished, the former having the gills wide apart, and a little
mound rising in the center of the cap, while the "false" have the gills
close together and usually a depression in the center of the cap.

If the "fairies" are dry when gathered soak them in water for a little
while, and then sauté or stew them. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a
saucepan; when it bubbles add a teaspoonful of flour, and cook the flour
a few minutes, but not brown it; then add a half cupful of water or of
milk, stir until smooth, and add a pint of the "fairies." Simmer for
fifteen minutes, season with salt and pepper. Pour this over softened
buttered toast or over meat; use water to make the sauce if they are
used with meat, and milk if served on toast; or cook them by sautéing
them in a little butter, and serve them on softened toast.


=THE AGARICUS CAMPESTRIS=

This mushroom is one and two third inches in diameter; has a white or
cream colored cap and purplish pink gills, the gills becoming brown at a
later stage. When once learned they are unmistakable. It is a highly
esteemed variety, and grows abundantly in meadows and pastures, but
never in the forest. It is the mushroom generally found for sale in the
markets.

Cut off the stem near the cup, peel them, and lay them with the gills up
on a dish and sprinkle them with salt. After a little time they will be
quite moist; then stew them in a sauce, the same as given above for the
"fairies." They may also be sautéd in butter, or be broiled. To broil,
lay them on a fine wire broiler; turn the gills first to the coals for a
few minutes; then turn the other side, and place a piece of butter on
each one. Serve on toast. The fire for broiling mushrooms should not be
very hot or bright.


=AGARICUS PROCERUS=

Remove the scurf spots, and broil the same as given above. Use plenty of
butter. Serve on a dish with meat or on toast, as preferred.


=AGARICUS RUSSULA=

This mushroom is of various colors. It is found in woody paths and
clearings. It is particularly subject to the attack of worms, and must
be carefully scrutinized. The noxious Russulas have a bitter taste, and
in appearance resemble closely the esculent ones, so care is required to
discriminate them. Wash them well, peel, and broil as directed for the
Campestris. Lay them under a broiled steak, so they will absorb the
juices of the meat.


=COPRINUS COMATUS AND COPRINUS ATRAMENTARIUS=

These grow in masses in barnyards, gardens or any rich earth, and in
decomposition become a soft black paste. They should be gathered at the
white or pink stage. Fry them in butter or stew them with butter and a
little milk or cream. They are very juicy, and do not need much liquor
added to stew them.


=THE BOLETI=

This species is of a distinctly different character from the Agaracini
or gilled mushrooms. The cap is more solid, being filled with a mass of
vertical tubes or pores. Some Boleti are as large as six to eight inches
in diameter, one of them making a meal for several people. Any of this
class which have any tinge of red on the under surface should be
rejected.

Remove the skin and pores, and either sauté the caps in butter, or dip
them in fritter batter, or egg and crumb them, and fry in smoking-hot
fat. They may also be stewed in a white sauce, but they are very juicy,
and need but little extra liquor. These mushrooms must be carefully
examined for insects, as they are quickly attacked.


=PUFF BALLS=

All are edible when gathered at the white stage. Cut them in slices one
half inch thick. Either sauté them in butter, or dip them in beaten egg,
and fry in hot fat or cook on a griddle. Season with pepper and salt.


=MORCHELLÆ ESCULENTÆ=

These mushrooms resemble none but those of the same genus, and all of
them are edible. They are hollow, the exterior resembles a honey-comb,
and they are found in open woods and at the base of trees on lawns.
Great use is made of all the Morels in the French kitchen, and they are
much prized by epicures.

Morels are usually stuffed with chicken, veal, or other meat, chopped
very fine and highly seasoned. The stem is opened to admit the
forcemeat, then pressed together again. Lay them on slices of bread, and
bake in a moderate oven for ten minutes, or until tender; baste them
with butter while cooking, and sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Wash
the Morels well before stuffing them.


=HYDNUM CAPUT MEDUSÆ=

Cut the fungus into pieces, and simmer it in a little water; season with
butter, salt, and pepper, and add a little cream. When cooked, pour the
mixture over croûtons, or sauté the pieces in butter; add a little
sherry just before removing from the fire, and serve on softened toast.


=CLAVARIA=

Separate the branches, and stew in white sauce; or sauté them in butter,
seasoning with lemon-juice, salt, and pepper.


=TO DRY MUSHROOMS=

Place them in a saucepan, and cook with gentle heat until the moisture
they give is evaporated; then place them on a hot shelf until they are
thoroughly dry. Pound them to powder in a mortar, and place the powder
in well-closed preserve jars.


=SCALLOPED MUSHROOMS=

Make a roux of one tablespoonful each of butter and flour. Add two
cupfuls of chicken broth or of white stock; add the chopped stalks of a
pint of mushrooms; reduce the sauce one half; add a tablespoonful of
chopped parsley, pepper, and salt. Turn this sauce into a shallow
baking-dish. Press into it as many mushrooms as will fit into the dish,
placing them close together, with the gills up. Put a piece of butter on
each one; sprinkle the top with crumbs, and place in the oven for five
to eight minutes. Serve in the same dish.


=MUSHROOMS À LA POULETTE=

Stew the mushrooms in a little water with a tablespoonful of butter;
season with pepper and salt. When ready to serve, add a little milk or
cream; remove from the fire, and stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs;
replace on the fire for a minute to thicken the eggs, and serve at
once.



CHAPTER XIII

ASPIC JELLY, FANCY MOLDING, SUPPORTS


                                                     [Sidenote: Uses.]

Aspic is very useful in the preparation of cold dishes, and
much care should be given to having it perfectly clear and
well flavored. The second one of the two receipts given
below is so simple that the most inexperienced cook can
easily make it. With aspic, cold meats and salads can be
made into most attractive dishes; and it is well worth while
to learn and ornamenting with it. (See opposite pages 326,
328.)


=ASPIC=

  1 fowl.
  1 shin of beef.
  1 knuckle of veal.
  4 cloves.
  1 bay-leaf.
  2 onions.
  1 carrot.
  1 stock of celery.
  1 turnip.
  1/2 package Cox's gelatine.
  1 cupful of sherry or Madeira.

Put the chicken, beef, and veal in a pot. Cover them well with cold
water, and let simmer for five or six hours, with the pot covered
closely. An hour before removing from the fire, add the carrot cut into
dice, the cloves, and bay-leaf. Fry in butter the onions and celery (cut
into pieces) to a dark brown, and add them to the stock at the same
time. Remove from the fire, strain, and add one half package of gelatine
(which has been soaked for an hour in one cupful of water) and one
cupful of sherry or Madeira. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved. Set
away until the next day. There should be two quarts of jelly. If it is
not solid enough to stand, more gelatine may be added at the time of
clearing. Boiling down jelly will not make it more firm.


=TO CLEAR ASPIC=

Remove all the grease from the top of the jelly, and wipe it off with a
cloth wet in hot water, so every particle of grease will be removed.
Stir into the cold jelly the beaten whites and the shells of three eggs
(do not froth the egg). Put it on the fire, and continue to stir until
it boils. Let it boil for five minutes; then strain it through a double
cloth. If not perfectly clear, strain it a second time. Let the jelly
drain through the cloth without pressure.


=QUICK ASPIC=

Put into a saucepan one and a half cupfuls of cold water, a
tablespoonful each of chopped carrot and celery, a slice of onion, sprig
of parsley, one bay-leaf, and three cloves; add also one teaspoonful of
beef extract (obtained in jars) dissolved in one cupful of hot water.
Cover, and let simmer for half an hour; then add one half box of Cox's
gelatine, which has been soaked in one half cupful of cold water for one
hour. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved. Season with salt and pepper.
A tablespoonful of sherry improves the flavor. If a deeper color is
wanted add a few drops of kitchen bouquet or of caramel. Strain through
a double cloth. If it is for molding it can be used at once, as there is
no grease to be removed. If for garnishing, turn it into a shallow pan
to set. It can be stamped or cut into fancy shapes more easily if cooled
in layers of the right thickness. Gelatine added to a good, clear
consommé will give the same results. Observe always the proportion of
one box, or one and a half ounces, of gelatine to one and a quarter
quarts (five cupfuls) of liquor. This simple method of making aspic is
very quick, and is entirely satisfactory.


=CHICKEN ASPIC OR JELLY=

Boil a fowl as directed for chicken stock (page 100), or boil a chicken
or knuckle of veal, as directed for white stock (page 99). Let the stock
cool, take off the grease, then clarify the stock. If veal has been
used, no gelatine will be needed. If chicken only has been used in
making the stock, add to each quart of hot clarified stock three
quarters of a box of Cox's gelatine which has been soaked one hour in a
half cupful of cold water. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved. This
will make a very clear, light-colored jelly, good for molding, salads,
chicken, etc.


=ASPIC CROÛTONS=

When jelly is to be used for garnishing, pour it into a square shallow
pan one and a half inches deep. When it has thoroughly set, turn it onto
a slightly dampened napkin spread on a board in a cool place. Dip a
knife into hot water. Wipe it dry, and cut the jelly in strips the same
width as the thickness of the jelly, then cut it straight across, making
squares, or diagonally across, making diamonds, or into triangles. These
croûtons will stand upright, and can be used for borders. If it is to be
laid flat on the dish the strips need be cut only one quarter of an inch
thick, and can be stamped with cutters into fancy shapes. Small molds
may also be used for getting fancy forms of aspic. (See illustration
facing page 328.)

[Illustration: ASPIC CUT INTO ORNAMENTAL SHAPES FOR GARNISHING COLD
DISHES.]


=TO CHOP JELLY=

Place the jelly on a cold plate, and with a knife cut it very slowly
until it is of the right size. The chopped jelly is used to cover the
top of meats, or to place like a wreath around it on the dish. It may be
either fine or coarse, but each piece should be separate and distinct,
and can be kept so if cut slowly in a cool place, and not allowed to
become warm.


=TO MOLD JELLY=

(SEE ILLUSTRATIONS)

Where the mold is to be only coated with jelly, first paste a piece of
paper over the top of the mold; when it is firm, cut an opening in the
paper, and pour in some cold, but liquid, jelly; and turn the mold on
ice slowly, so that every part may be coated. Pour off any of the jelly
that has not adhered to the sides; remove the paper, and lay in the
material which is to fill the center of the mold. This method is
employed where only a thin coating of jelly is required. Where it is to
be an inch or more in thickness it is better to use a double mold as
explained below.

When molding jelly have a pan of cracked ice, and set the mold into it.
The jelly will then quickly harden. The mold must be perfectly firm and
upright, or the jelly will not stand straight when unmolded. Do not oil
or grease a mold used for jelly. (See illustrations facing pages 326 and
386.)

[Illustration: 1. SMALL MOLDS FOR ASPIC. 2. MOLD WITH PAPER PASTED OVER
THE TOP FOR COATING THE MOLD. (SEE PAGE 323.)]


=TO UNMOLD JELLY=

Dip the mold quickly into warm (not hot) water; wipe it dry, place the
dish over the top of the mold, and turn them over together. If the jelly
fails to slip out, rub the mold with a cloth wrung out of hot water. It
takes only a low degree of heat to melt jelly, and if too much is used
the fine points and edges will be destroyed. Do not unmold jelly until
it is time to serve it. Do not shake the mold in trying to get it free,
or the jelly is liable to break.


=TO ORNAMENT MOLDS=

Lay whatever fancy pieces are used for the decoration carefully in place
on the bottom of the mold. With a spoon add only enough jelly to moisten
them; if too much is used, the pieces will float out of place. Let the
jelly harden and fix the decoration; then add as much as will make a
layer one half inch thick; let that set; then place the material which
is to fill the center. If it is a bird, or anything in one piece, add a
little jelly to fix it in place; then fill up the mold. If the material
is a soft substance, set in the double mold (see below); or, if one is
not at hand, add a few spoonfuls at a time of the filling, leaving a
space of one half an inch around the sides, and fill this with jelly.
Proceed in this way until the mold is full, having the top covered
with jelly, so that when unmolded it will form a complete case. If
ornament is used on the sides of the mold, arrange the decoration when
the mold is filled to the right height, dip the pieces in jelly to make
them adhere, and cover them very slowly at first, so they will not float
off. When the filling is to be in alternate layers with jelly, proceed
in the same way, adding one layer at a time, and letting each one harden
before the next is placed. The mold should not be moved while being
filled; one layer should not become too hard before the next one is
added, and no dampness must settle on them. Any of these causes will
make the jelly liable to separate when unmolded. If the mold is placed
on ice, as directed, the jelly hardens quickly, and the filling is soon
accomplished.


=DOUBLE MOLDS=

For salads, and also in many cases for sweet jellies, it is easier to
use a double mold. If one is not at hand two Charlotte Russe molds may
be substituted, or any two molds or tins of the same shape, one of which
is an inch smaller than the other. Place the larger one on ice, and pour
into it enough jelly to make a layer on the bottom the same thickness as
the width of space between the two molds. When it is set, place the
smaller mold, filled with ice, on it; and fill the space between the two
with jelly. When that has set, remove with a spoon the ice from the
small mold, and pour in carefully a little warm water. It can then be
easily lifted out. Be careful not to have the water too warm. Fill the
space left by the small mold with the material to be used, leaving a
space on top to cover with jelly--to encase it. Another way of molding
jellies double, besides using the double mold and the method given above
in ornamenting molds, is to fill the mold entirely with jelly, and when
it has hardened, scoop out with a teaspoon, heated in hot water and
wiped dry, enough of the center to give the space desired. This has to
be done very carefully, as there is danger of the sides falling in. (See
page 386.)


=DECORATIONS FOR MEAT JELLY=


DAISY DESIGN

Cut a hard-boiled egg into slices one eighth of an inch thick. With a
pastry-bag tube or a small round vegetable-cutter stamp circles from the
yolk. Cut the white strips diagonally, so they form diamond-shaped
pieces. Lay a round piece of yolk in the mold, and the white pieces
around it to simulate a daisy; place small pieces of parsley beside it,
and use the stem of parsley for the stem of the daisy. This decoration
fits very well in a Charlotte Russe mold, or in individual molds. Make
two or three daisies on the large mold, only one on the small ones.

[Illustration: DAISY DESIGN FOR ASPIC JELLY FORMS. (SEE PAGE 326.)

  1. Yolk of hard-boiled egg.
  2. White of hard-boiled egg.
  3. Parsley leaves.
  4. Parsley stems.]

[Illustration: SLICE OF WHITE OF HARD-BOILED EGG CUT INTO PETALS.]

[Illustration: SLICES OF TONGUE IN ASPIC (EN BELLEVUE). (SEE PAGE 83.)

DECORATED WITH HARD-BOILED EGG IN DAISY DESIGN. (SEE PAGE 326.)

DISH GARNISHED WITH OLIVES CUT IN HALVES.]


BERRY DESIGN

Use capers, grouped like berries, along the stem. Use water-cress for
leaves and parsley for stems. This design, being dark, looks well in
chicken or veal jelly.

[Illustration: BERRY DESIGN FOR ASPIC. (SEE PAGE 326.)

  1. Capers.
  2. Parsley or water-cress.
  3. Parsley stems.]


TO DECORATE WITH TRUFFLES

Slice the truffles very thin; stamp them into any form desired. Take
each piece on a long pin, and place it in a well-buttered mold; or for
jelly molds dip them in cold jelly, and they will then adhere to the
sides of the mold. Arrange the pieces symmetrically in any design. If
the truffle is cut in strips, make geometrical forms. Some dishes may be
ornamented after they are unmolded by dipping the pieces of truffle in
cold but liquid jelly, and then applying them. The latter is the method
used for chaudfroid dishes, which are usually much ornamented. (See
illustration facing page 320.)

Green peas, carrots, beets, pickles, string-beans, radishes, parsley,
etc., in combinations, can be made into various designs.

[Illustration: VEGETABLES AND TRUFFLES CUT AND ARRANGED IN DESIGNS FOR
DECORATING MOLDS, MOLDED DISHES, OR CHAUDFROID DISHES. (SEE PAGE 326.)

  1. Vegetables.                     2. Truffles.]


=SOCLES=

Socles are stands on which to raise birds, chops, or other articles
above the dish to give them a better appearance, and allow more
garnishing. They are also used as supports against which to rest
larger pieces of meat, fish, tongue, etc., to keep them in place.
Elaborate socles of various shapes are made of tallow by caterers, but
these are not practicable for ordinary cooks to undertake, and they are
also in questionable taste. The simple supports given below are easily
made, and well repay the trouble, especially for cold dishes. They
should be stuck to the dish with white of egg, so they will be firm. The
simplest way of making a socle is to take a loaf of stale bread, remove
the crust, and cut the crumb to the desired shape. Then spread it with
butter, and cover it with parsley chopped very fine. If to be used for a
hot dish, immerse the bread in hot fat until it takes a golden brown.
Another simple socle can be made of hominy. Fill a well-buttered
cake-tin or plain mold with boiled hominy. When cold it will retain the
form of the mold. If desired, the sides of the mold can be ornamented
with vegetables of different colors cut into fancy shapes. (See
picture.)

[Illustration: SOCLES OR SUPPORTS FOR CHOPS, BIRDS, ETC. FORM MADE OF
RICE, HOMINY OR WHITE CORN MEAL MOLDED IN A TIN BASIN. (SEE PAGE 326.)

  1. Green string beans.
  2. Balls of carrot or beet cut in halves, or slices stamped into small
     rounds.
  3. Parsley stalk.
  4. Balls of carrot, large green peas or capers.
  5. Slices of string beans.]

[Illustration: BLOCKS OF BREAD FOR SUPPORT OF MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, GAME,
ETC.]

[Illustration: BONED BIRDS IN ASPIC AROUND SOCLE.

The boned birds are molded in fluted individual molds and decorated with
hard-boiled egg in daisy design as directed on page 326. Dish garnished
with parsley.]

[Illustration: BONED BIRDS IN ASPIC, THE SAME AS PRECEDING CUT, SERVED
ON FLAT DISH AND GARNISHED WITH PARSLEY.]


=RICE SOCLE OR CASSEROLE=

Boil rice with three times its quantity of water, and a little butter,
until it is very soft; then mash or pound it in a mortar until it
becomes a smooth, elastic paste. Press the paste into a plain buttered
mold or pan of the size desired for the socle, and place a weight on it
so it will be compact and firm when cold. Unmold, and with a pointed
knife, a turnip cut wedge-shape, and a butter-stamp, mold the sides to
fancy form. Brush it over with yolk of egg, and place a moment in the
oven to brown; or it may be ornamented the same as the hominy supports,
with vegetables cut into fancy shapes. (See illustrations.) If wanted
for a casserole, scoop out carefully a hollow in the center, and fill
with chicken or any creamed meat, or with vegetables.


=POTATO CASSEROLE=

To a quart of seasoned mashed potato add four or six egg yolks. Stir it
over the fire to dry it well; then with the hands or a knife mold it
into a hollow cylinder or into a cup-shaped form; brush it over with
yolk of egg, and place it a moment in the oven to brown. Fill the center
just before serving with any minced meat, or with birds, chops,
sweetbreads, or any creamed dish. The casserole may also be formed by
pressing the potato into a mold which opens (see illustration), or any
mold with fluted or plain sides, which, when buttered, will let the
potato slip out; then egg and brown as before.


=A POTATO SUPPORT FOR HOT MEATS=

Add slowly to two cupfuls of well-mashed sweet or white potato, beating
all the time over the fire, one cupful of hot milk, a tablespoonful of
butter, one quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, a teaspoonful of salt,
and lastly, three beaten eggs. Butter well a plain mold of the shape
desired; sprinkle over it as many bread-crumbs as will stick to the
butter; turn in the purée of potatoes, place the mold in a pan of water,
and bake for thirty minutes. Turn the molded potato in the centre of a
dish, and arrange chops or birds around and against it.


=CROUSTADES OF BREAD=

Take a loaf of bread two days old, which was baked in a round or a
square tin; pare off the crust, and carve it with a sharp-pointed knife
into vase or cup-shape. Fry it in hot fat to gold color. Paint the
inside with white of egg to prevent its soaking up the sauce of the
filling. Fill with mushrooms, chicken livers, creamed chicken or any
salpicon. Do not put the filling in until ready to serve, and heat the
croustade before adding it.


=ROLL CROUSTADES=

Cut off the tops of rolls, or of home-made biscuits of any size. Remove
the crumb from the inside; butter the rolls inside and out, and set in
the oven to brown. Fill with any creamed meat or salpicon.



CHAPTER XIV

CHAFING-DISH RECEIPTS


=CHAFING-DISH COOKING=

The chafing-dish, although a time-honored utensil, has
recently had a renaissance. To-day it is not more valued
for the convenience than for the fun of it. Amateurs and
epicures alike find pleasure in brewing and stewing over the
alcohol lamp; in preparing a luncheon dish, or a novelty for
"tea;" but, best of all, at the midnight hour the chafing-dish
does its best though most disastrous service, for matutinal
headaches have been called the desserts, and just deserts of
late suppers.

                              [Sidenote: Kind of chafing-dish to use.]

The chafing-dish with double pan (the lower one to hold hot
water) is the preferable one, because dishes may be kept
warm in the hot water, and also because articles cooked with
milk are liable to burn if cooked directly over the flame.

For safety from fire and staining, the chafing-dish should
stand on a large metal tray, and the lamp should not be
filled too full. Wood alcohol, which is much cheaper than
high-proof spirits, answers just as well the purpose of
heating, but has an unpleasant odor.

                                            [Sidenote: Russian bowls.]

The various articles to be used in the preparation of the
dish should be put into Russian bowls, and the bowls placed
on a Japanese tray. These bowls are of wood, and are made of
all sizes. They do not break, they make no noise, and are
ornamental: the last is a consideration which recommends
them, other things being equal, where fancy work is being
done. The preliminary preparation of the foods should be done
in the kitchen, rather than before the party assembled to
assist in the cooking operation with their advice, praise, and
appetite.

                                            [Sidenote: Wooden spoons.]

Wooden spoons, which come in all sizes, are also desirable to
use, as they do not become hot, do not scratch the dish, and
are noiseless. Articles prepared in the chafing-dish are
served directly from it, therefore garnishing has no part, but
toast or croûtons go well with most of the preparations, and
these can be toasted or reheated on an asbestos pad placed
over the flame. The water-pan containing hot water should
be placed under the cooking-pan as soon as the flame is
extinguished. It will keep the dish warm, and serve as a
bain-marie (the utensil employed in large kitchens for keeping
dishes hot until time for serving). Two chafing-dishes are
almost a requisite where no other fire than the lamp is to be
called upon, but with this _batterie de cuisine_ a supper can
be easily and quickly prepared without one half of it spoiling
while the other half is being made ready--the toast and hot
water, for instance.

                         [Sidenote: Dishes suitable for chafing-dish.]

The dishes most suitable for chafing-dish cooking are stews,
eggs, and cheese. Stews can be modified in a great variety
of ways, the barbecue being a favorite one. The simplest way
of cooking in a chafing-dish is to put a little butter in
the dish, and when it bubbles add oysters, mushrooms or any
article which makes its own liquor; this lacking, a little
water or milk is added, and seasoning to taste.

Canned chicken, tongue, salmon, crabs, and shrimps make good
dishes and are easily prepared. Paprica, a kind of red pepper,
is especially good for use in chafing-dish cookery instead of
cayenne.



=PANNED OYSTERS=

For twenty-five oysters, put in a chafing-dish one tablespoonful of
butter. When it is melted, add the juice of half a lemon and one
teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Then add the oysters, which should be
well drained. Cook, stirring carefully, until they are plump and the
gills a little frilled--no longer. Season with salt and pepper, and
serve at once on toast. The oysters exude enough juice to soften the
toast. Or let the butter brown in the chafing-dish, then add the oysters
and cook until plump or the gills are curled. Then add a wineglassful of
sherry or Madeira. Season with salt and pepper and serve at once. When
wine is used, omit the lemon and parsley, and do not season until after
the wine is added, as wine augments the flavor of salt. Have ready some
toasted bread and pour the oysters over it; or cut the toast into small
squares, stir them into the oysters and serve directly from the
chafing-dish.


=OYSTER STEW=

Put a tablespoonful of butter in the chafing-dish; add a heaping
tablespoonful of flour, and cook a few minutes, stirring all the time so
it will not color. Add a cupful of milk slowly and stir until it begins
to thicken; then add the oyster liquor (have the liquor strained so it
will be free from pieces of shell), and lastly the oysters; season with
salt and pepper and a little celery salt if liked. As soon as the edges
of the oysters curl they are done, and the cooking must be arrested, or
they will become tough.


=CREAMED OYSTERS AND CLAMS=

See receipt for creamed clams (page 135). This receipt can easily be
prepared in the chafing-dish. Also oysters à la Poulette given on page
133.


=BARBECUE OF FISH=

Marinate one pound of any cold boiled white fish in one tablespoonful of
oil, one tablespoonful of vinegar, one slice of onion, pepper and salt.
Leave the fish in as large pieces as possible. Put in a chafing-dish
three tablespoonfuls of tomato catsup, three tablespoonfuls of sherry,
three tablespoonfuls of butter. Put the butter in first, and when melted
add the catsup and wine and then the fish. Baste the fish with the
liquor until it is thoroughly heated, and it is then ready to serve.
Thin slices of cooked cold beef, veal, or ham may also be cooked in this
way.


=EGGS WITH TOMATOES=

Put into the chafing-dish a cupful of canned tomatoes, and cook until
they begin to soften; then season with one tablespoonful of butter, salt
and pepper to taste. Add two beaten eggs, and stir constantly until they
begin to thicken. Then extinguish the flame, and the heat of the dish
will be sufficient to complete the cooking. Stir constantly until they
are of the consistency of scrambled eggs. Serve at once, or they will
separate.


=TOMATOES AND RICE=

Put into a chafing-dish a half cupful of tomatoes; add a bay-leaf, a few
drops of onion-juice, pepper and salt to taste. Let them cook until
tender, then remove the bay-leaf and stir in as much boiled rice as can
be well coated and moistened with the tomatoes. Serve with cracker
biscuits.


=CREAMED DISHES=

(EGGS, CHICKEN, OR VEAL)

Use the double pan with water. Make a white sauce by putting in the
chafing-dish one tablespoonful of butter; let it bubble, then stir in
one tablespoonful of flour; let it cook a few minutes, but not brown;
then add a cupful of milk slowly, stirring all the time until it is a
little thickened. Season with pepper and salt. Lay in carefully thick
slices of hard-boiled egg. As soon as they are heated, place them on
slices of toast softened with hot water, and pour the thickened sauce
over them. For chicken or meat, season the sauce with a few drops of
onion-juice, a little chopped celery if convenient, salt, pepper, and
paprica. Have the chicken in good-sized pieces, or meat in thin slices,
and leave them in the sauce only long enough to become well heated;
canned chicken or turkey may be used. Any kind of meat can be minced and
used in this way, in which case the sauce should be made with half milk
and half stock. If stock is not at hand extract of beef (one teaspoonful
to a cupful of boiling water) may be substituted. With chicken or
oysters, the yolk of an egg is added just before it is removed, which
makes it "à la poulette."


=DISHES À LA NEWBURG=

These are favorite chafing-dish preparations, and may be made of
lobster, crabs, shrimps, soft-shelled clams, chicken, or cold boiled
halibut. Lobster: Take the meat of one boiled lobster, put it in a
chafing-dish with a tablespoonful of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, a
dash of cayenne or of paprica. Stir lightly with a fork for three
minutes, or until the lobster is well heated; then add a wineglassful of
sherry or of Madeira, cook for another three minutes, and then add the
beaten yolks of three eggs, diluted with a half pint of cream. Stir the
mixture constantly for a minute, or just long enough to set the egg. If
cooked too long it will curdle; serve at once. Prepare the dishes à la
Newburg with a double pan. For soft-shell clams use only the soft half
of the clam. For chicken use the white meat cut into inch squares. For
halibut leave the pieces large, and break them as little as possible.


=TERRAPIN=

The prepared terrapin which comes in cans is the best for the
chafing-dish, and needs only to be heated and seasoned to taste.

=CHICKEN LIVERS WITH MADEIRA=

Put a tablespoonful of butter in the chafing-dish; add the livers cut
into pieces; cook them directly over the flame, turning them
constantly, and dredge them while cooking with a tablespoonful of flour.
It will take about five minutes to cook them; add a cupful of stock, and
a few drops of kitchen bouquet. Then place the pan in the double pan
containing water already hot; add to the livers a half cupful of Madeira
and a few stoned olives; season with salt, pepper, and paprica after the
wine is in; cover and let it simmer for ten minutes. Serve with
croûtons.


=CRAB TOAST=

Put into the chafing-dish a tablespoonful of butter; when it is melted,
add a tablespoonful of chopped celery, a teaspoonful of flour, a half
cupful of cream or milk, and a canful of crab meat. Stir until the
moisture is nearly evaporated; add a tablespoonful of sherry, salt and
pepper, and paprica to taste; spread on toasted biscuits, or on thin
slices of toast.


=SMELTS À LA TOULOUSE=

  12 smelts.
  1/2 cupful of white wine.
  3 tablespoonfuls of liquor from the mushroom can.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1 dozen canned mushrooms.
  1 truffle.

Cut down the back of the smelts, and remove the bone; close the fish,
and lay them in the chafing-dish with the wine and mushroom liquor taken
from the can. Cook until done, which will take five or six minutes.
Remove and place the smelts on a hot dish. Mix with the liquor in which
they were boiled one cupful of stock; rub together the butter and flour,
and stir this in also, leaving it on the spoon until by stirring it is
dissolved. (This method prevents its getting lumpy.) Then add the
chopped mushrooms and chopped truffle. Season with salt and paprica or a
dash of cayenne. Cook, stirring all the time until the sauce is creamy;
then pour it over the fish. Serve with croûtons.

This is a good supper dish.


=MEATS=


VENISON

Put a tablespoonful of butter in a chafing-dish. When it is very hot,
lay in a piece of venison steak; let it cook a minute on both sides. Use
spoons for turning the meat, so as not to pierce it. When the surfaces
are seared, add a glassful of currant jelly, and baste the venison
constantly with the liquid jelly until cooked rare. Extinguish the
flame, and cut and serve the meat from the chafing-dish.


MUTTON

Lay a slice of mutton cut from the leg into a hot chafing-dish; turn it
constantly, using two spoons, until it is cooked rare. Extinguish the
flame, and cover the meat with a maître d'hôtel sauce (page 286). If
preferred, spread it with currant jelly or with plum sauce; or prepare
it the same as venison, with a little butter, and, instead of jelly, add
a half canful of tomatoes, and finish the cooking in the same way.
Season with a little onion-juice, pepper, and salt.


BEEF

A small steak can be pan-broiled in the same way. For beef a maître
d'hôtel sauce must be used. A Delmonico steak or a small porterhouse
steak, with the bones removed, are the best cuts to use.

Any meat cooked in the chafing-dish should have all the fat trimmed off,
so that there will be less odor.


WELSH RAREBIT AND GOLDEN BUCK

Receipts for Welsh Rarebit and Golden Buck are given on pages 371 and
372.


=FONDUE=


BRILLAT-SAVARIN

Savarin gives this receipt, which he says is taken from the papers of a
Swiss bailiff. He says: "It is a dish of Swiss origin, is healthy,
savory, appetizing, quickly made, and, moreover, is always ready to
present to unexpected guests."

He relates an anecdote of the sixteenth century of a M. de Madot, newly
appointed Bishop of Belley, who at a feast given in honor of his
arrival, mistaking the fondue for cream, eat it with a spoon instead of
a fork. This caused so much comment that the next day no two people met
who did not say: "Do you know how the new bishop eat his fondue last
night?" "Yes; he eat it with a spoon. I have it from an eye-witness."
And soon the news spread over the diocese.


RECEIPT

"Weigh as many eggs as you have guests. Take one third their weight of
Gruyère cheese, and one sixth their weight of butter. Beat the eggs well
in a saucepan; add the cheese, grated, and the butter. Put the saucepan
on the fire and stir until the mixture is soft and creamy; then add
salt, more or less, according to the age of the cheese, and a generous
amount of pepper, which is one of the positive characters of the dish.
Serve on a hot plate. Bring in the best wine, drink roundly of it, and
you will see wonders."


=PINEAPPLE CANAPÉS=

Split in two some square sponge-cakes, which can be bought at the
baker's for two cents each. Put a little butter in the chafing-dish.
When it is hot put in the slices of cake, and brown them a little on
both sides. Lay the slices on a plate, and spread each one with a layer
of canned chopped pineapple. Turn the juice from the can into the
chafing-dish. Moisten a teaspoonful of arrowroot with cold water, stir
it slowly into the hot juice, and continue to stir until it becomes
thickened and clear. Pour the sauce over the slices of spread cake. If
more than a cupful of juice is used, add more arrowroot in proportion.
Any kind of fruit, and slices of sponge cake or of brioche, can be used
instead of the square individual cakes. Strawberries, raspberries, or
peaches make good sweet canapés.


=CHOCOLATE MADE WITH CONDENSED MILK=

Fill the cups to be used about one third full of condensed milk; add a
heaping teaspoonful of instantaneous chocolate, which is chocolate
ground to a fine powder. Mix them well together; then fill the cup with
boiling water, and stir until the chocolate and milk are dissolved. No
sugar is needed, as the milk is sweetened to preserve it.



CHAPTER XV

BREAD


                                          [Sidenote: The yeast plant.]

Yeast is a minute plant, and like other plants must have the
right conditions of heat, moisture, and nourishment in order
to live or to nourish. It will be killed if scalded, or if
frozen, as any other plant would be; therefore, as we depend
upon the growth of this little plant for raising our bread,
we must give its requirements as much care as we do our
geraniums or our roses. The yeast plant takes its nourishment
from sugar. This is found in flour. It converts this sugar
into carbonic acid gas and alcohol, and the pressure of this
gas causes the mixture in which it is generated to become
inflated, or to "rise."

[Illustration: FORMS OF GROWTH OF THE YEAST PLANT.]

                                             [Sidenote: Making bread.]

In mixing bread, we put the yeast into warm (not hot) water;
this we mix with flour, thus supplying the moisture and
nourishment required. We put this mixture in a warm place to
force the growth of the plant. When the dough has become
sufficiently inflated we put it into the oven and raise the
heat to a degree which kills the plant and fixes the air
cells, and our bread is done.

                                                    [Sidenote: Yeast.]

In cities, where fresh compressed yeast can be obtained, it
is not worth while to prepare one's own. Where this cannot
be had, the dry yeast-cakes often give satisfactory results,
but are not as reliable as a liquid yeast, which in the
country it is often necessary as well as desirable to make.


=DICK BENNET'S RECEIPT FOR YEAST=

Peel nine good-sized potatoes, and boil them with a large handful of
loose hops tied in a thin muslin bag. Use enough water to cover them
well. When the potatoes are tender strain off the water. Mash the
potatoes, return them to the water in which they were boiled, and mix
them well together. Add two tablespoonfuls of flour, one half cupful of
granulated sugar, and one tablespoonful of salt. Cook it for a few
minutes, adding sufficient flour to make a thin batter. Set it aside
until lukewarm; then add a yeast-cake, or a cupful of liquid yeast. Mix
it well and place in a stone jar. Let it stand for twelve hours in a
warm place. Stir it three times during this period. Place a weight on
the lid of the jar, and set it in a cool place.


=YEAST RECEIPT No. 2=

  6 grated raw potatoes.
  1 cupful of brown sugar.
  1/2 cupful of salt.
  2 quarts of flour.

Mix these together, and add enough water to make a batter as thick as
that used for griddle cakes.

Pour two quarts of boiling water on as many hops as one can hold in the
hand. Let them boil for five minutes. Strain off the water, and while
hot add it to the batter. When it is lukewarm add a cupful of yeast, or
a yeast cake. Let it stand several hours in a warm place until it rises,
or the top is covered with bubbles. Then place in glass preserve jars,
and keep in a cool place. Use a granite-ware saucepan and a wooden spoon
when making yeast, in order to keep a good color.


=WHAT TO DO WHEN YEAST IS NOT OBTAINABLE TO START THE FERMENTATION IN
MAKING YEAST=

Mix a thin batter of flour and water, and let it stand in a warm place
until it is full of bubbles. This ferment has only half the strength of
yeast, so double the amount must be used.


=PROPORTIONS OF RAISING MATERIALS TO USE, AND OTHER ITEMS=

One cake of compressed yeast is equal to one cupful of liquid yeast.

Baking-powder is a mixture of soda, cream of tartar, and cornstarch, or
rice flour.

Use one level teaspoonful of baking-powder to each cupful of flour.

Use one even teaspoonful of soda and two full teaspoonfuls of cream of
tartar to a quart of flour.

When sour milk is used, take one even teaspoonful of soda to a pint of
milk, and omit the cream of tartar.

When molasses is used, omit the cream of tartar, and use one teaspoonful
of soda to each cupful of molasses.

Mix powders with the flour, and sift them together, so as to thoroughly
mix them.

Mix dry materials in one bowl and liquids in another; combine them
quickly, and put at once into the oven.

The oven for baking bread should be hot enough to brown a teaspoonful of
flour in five minutes. For biscuits it should brown in one minute.

Rolls brushed with milk just before baking will have a brown crust.

Rubbing the crust with butter just before it is taken from the oven will
make it crisp.


=GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BREAD=

                           [Sidenote: Time required for making bread.]

Bread is often mixed the night before it is to be baked, and
left to rise from eight to ten hours; but the whole process
of bread-making, from the mixing to the serving, can be done
in two and a half hours if sufficient yeast is used. In hot
weather it is desirable to complete the work in a short
time, in order to prevent fermentation or souring, which
occurs if left too long a time. Four hours and a half is
ample time for the whole process, using the ordinary amount
of yeast; two hours for the mixing and rising of the sponge
or dough; one half hour for the kneading and molding; one
hour for the loaves to rise in the pans, and one hour for
the baking.

                                        [Sidenote: Raising the bread.]

A thin batter called a sponge may be made at night, and the
rest of the flour added in the morning, or the dough may be
mixed and kneaded at night and only molded into loaves in
the morning; but a better way, especially in summer, is to
set the bread early in the morning and have it baked by
noon. It needs to rise twice, once either in the sponge or
in the dough, and again after it is molded into loaves. The
old way of letting it rise three times is unnecessary, and
increases the danger of souring. If the dough gets very
light before one is ready to work it, it should be cut away
from the sides of the pan and pressed down in the center
with the knife. This liberates some of the gas and retards
the fermentation. This can be done several times. If it
rises too high it will collapse, which means souring, but
before that it loses its best flavor, and so should not be
allowed to more than double its bulk.

                                 [Sidenote: Proportions of materials.]

The proportions of flour, liquid, and yeast cannot be
exactly given, as flour of different qualities and degrees
of dryness will absorb more or less liquid, and the amount
of yeast to be used depends both upon the time allowed and
the temperature.

Two cupfuls of liquid will take six to seven cupfuls of
sifted flour, and this will make two small loaves. One half
a compressed yeast cake will raise this amount in two hours
if kept in a warm place. The other ingredients for this
quantity are one teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of
sugar, and one tablespoonful of butter, lard, or cottolene,
if shortening is desired.

Bread made with milk instead of water, and with shortening, is
more tender than when water alone is used. Boiled potatoes are
sometimes added, and give a more moist bread.

                                                   [Sidenote: Mixing.]

Dissolve the yeast in a part of the tepid water; in the
rest of the water mix the salt, sugar, and butter, add the
dissolved yeast, and then stir in enough flour to make a soft
dough which will not stick to the hands. If the flour is cold
warm it. If milk is used, scald it, then allow it to become
tepid before mixing it with the yeast. Place the pan in a warm
place free from draughts. When the dough is to be made into
rolls or fancy forms, it needs to be a little stiffer than for
loaves.

                                          [Sidenote: Making a sponge.]

A sponge is a thin batter made by mixing only a little flour
with the other ingredients. This is left to stand until
filled with large bubbles. The rest of the flour is then
added, to make the dough.

When bread is to be made in a short time, it is better to
set a sponge instead of making a dough at first; for in this
way the second rising will be a little quicker.

                                       [Sidenote: The crust on dough.]

When a dough is mixed and set aside to rise, cover the pan
with several thicknesses of cloth to exclude the air and so
prevent a crust forming on the top. It helps also to keep
the dough at an even temperature. If a crust forms it is
difficult to mix it in so thoroughly that it does not leave
hard spots and lines in the bread. There is a bread-pan made
with close-fitting cover, which is recommended.

                                     [Sidenote: Kneading and molding.]

When the dough is made, it should be kneaded for twenty to
thirty minutes. Turn it from the pan onto a board, and work
it by drawing it forward with the fingers and pushing it
away with the balls of the hands, turning it all the time.
This stretches the gluten and changes it from a sticky paste
to a smooth, elastic substance. Use as little flour on the
board as possible, and work it until it no longer sticks.
The more it is worked the finer will be the grain, and the
less flour used the better will be the bread.

                                                   [Sidenote: Baking.]

When dough is made at the first mixing, return it to the pan
after it is kneaded and let it rise to double its size (not
more), and then work it down, mold it into loaves, and let
it rise a second time in the baking-pans. When a sponge is
made, knead the dough when the flour is added to the sponge,
and put it at once into the baking-pans.

Divide the dough evenly and shape it to the pans as well as
possible, filling the pans only half full. Cover and set
them in a warm place free from draughts. When they have
doubled (not more) in size, put them in the oven. The loaf
rises a little more in the oven. If it is too light, it is
likely to fall, which means it has soured, and for this
there is no remedy. The loaf in the pan should rise in one
hour.

                                                 [Sidenote: The fire.]

                                                     [Sidenote: Time.]

Care in baking is even more essential than care in mixing and
raising the bread. Test the oven by putting in a teaspoonful
of flour. If it browns the flour in five minutes the heat is
right. Have the fire prepared so it will not need replenishing
during the hour required for the baking. The bread rises after
it goes in the oven, and is likely to rise unevenly if the
oven is hotter on one side than the other; therefore it should
be watched and turned carefully if necessary. At the end of
ten to fifteen minutes the top should be browned, and this
will arrest the rising. If the oven is too cool, the bread is
likely to rise so much as to run over the pan, or to have a
hole in the center. If the oven is too hot it will make a
crust too soon, the centre be underdone, and the crust be too
thick. One hour is the time required for baking the ordinary
sized loaf.

                          [Sidenote: Care of bread after it is baked.]

When the bread is taken from the oven turn it out of the
pans and support the loaves in such a way that the air will
reach all sides. If the loaves stand flat the bottom crust
will become moist. If wrapped in cloth it will do the same
and give a soft crust, which, however, some prefer to have.
It should not be put in the bread-box until entirely cold.

                                       [Sidenote: Baking bread rolls.]

For baking rolls the rule is different from that for bread.
Rolls should rise, to be very light, more than double their
original size, and the oven be hot enough to form a crust at
once. It should brown flour in one minute and bake the rolls
in fifteen to twenty minutes.

                                                    [Sidenote: Flour.]

The ordinary white flour of best quality is nearly all
starch, the nourishing parts of the wheat having been mostly
all removed by the bolting to make it white. The whole wheat
flour makes a much more nourishing and health-giving bread,
and when the habit of eating it is once formed, bread made
of the white flour is no longer liked.

                                                     [Sidenote: Pans.]

                             [Sidenote: Different shapes for variety.]

There is a variety of bread-pans giving loaves of different
shapes to be used for different purposes. Besides the square
tin which gives the ordinary square loaf, there is a sheet
iron rounded pan open at the ends. The dough for this pan is
made into a long roll a little thicker in the middle than at
the ends. It gives the shape of the Vienna loaf. After the
bread has risen cut it across the top in three diagonal
slashes with a sharp knife; when it is nearly baked brush over
the top with a thin boiled cornstarch, and it will further
resemble the Vienna loaf. For dinner bread, there is a pan a
foot long of two flutes, about two inches each across and open
at the ends; for this roll the dough long and round, or make
two smaller rolls and twist them together; bake in a hot oven
like biscuits. This gives a long, round crusty loaf like the
French bread. A pan of small flutes is used for dinner sticks
or finger rolls, giving a pencil of bread three quarters of an
inch thick and five inches long. Bread made in different
shapes gives a pleasant variety and often seems like a different
article when baked so as to give more or less crust.

[Illustration: BREAD AND ROLL TINS.]


=WATER BREAD No. 1=

(TWO SMALL LOAVES)

  2 cupfuls of tepid water.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 compressed yeast cake.
  6 to 7 cupfuls of flour.

For mixing, kneading, and baking, see general directions given at head
of chapter.


=WATER BREAD No. 2=

(TWO SMALL LOAVES)

  2 cupfuls of tepid water.
  1/2 cake of compressed yeast.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  6 to 7 cupfuls of flour.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar.
  1 tablespoonful of butter, lard, drippings, or cottolene.

For mixing, kneading, and baking, see general directions given at head
of chapter.


=MILK BREAD=

Make the same as Water Bread No. 2, but use milk in place of the water,
or use half milk and half water.


=POTATO BREAD=

Add one medium-sized mashed boiled potato to the sponge of any of the
foregoing receipts. Potato gives a more moist bread, which retains its
freshness longer.


=RECEIPT FOR ONE LOAF OF BREAD OR ONE PAN OF BISCUITS TO BE MADE IN TWO
HOURS=

  1 cupful of scalded milk.
  1/4 cupful of butter.
  3 yeast cakes.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  White of one egg.
  3 to 4 cupfuls of flour.

Make a sponge; let it stand in a warm place in a pan of warm water until
full of bubbles; then add the flour, knead it for twenty minutes, mold
into loaf, and let it rise in the baking-pan until double in size, and
bake.


=BREAD MADE WITH BAKING-POWDER=

Add to four quarts of flour a teaspoonful of salt and six teaspoonfuls
of baking-powder. Sift them three times so as to thoroughly mix them,
and then add slowly a quart of cold water, or enough to make a dough of
the right consistency. Mold it quickly into four loaves, and put at once
into a moderate oven for one and a quarter hours.


=BREAD MADE OF WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR=

Dissolve a yeast cake in two tablespoonfuls of tepid water. Put into a
bowl a pint of milk; add to it a pint of boiling water, and let it stand
until it is lukewarm; then add the dissolved yeast, a teaspoonful of
salt, and enough whole wheat flour to make a thick batter. The batter
should drop, but not run off the spoon. Beat this batter with a spoon
for fifteen minutes. It becomes quite soft and liquid by beating. Add
enough more flour to make a dough; turn it onto the board and knead it a
few minutes; return it to pan, and let rise for three hours, or until
light. Mold it into small loaves; let it rise again, and bake in
moderate oven thirty to forty-five minutes.


=GRAHAM BREAD=

Dissolve a half teaspoonful of soda in a cupful of lukewarm water. Put a
tablespoonful of butter into a tablespoonful and a half of molasses,
and let them warm until the butter is melted. Add to it the dissolved
soda and water, and a half teaspoonful of salt. Stir this mixture into a
cupful of light white bread sponge, and add enough Graham flour to make
a stiff batter, or very thin dough. Turn into a greased pan. Let it rise
until even with the top of the pan, and bake in a moderate oven an hour
or an hour and a quarter. Use a spoon, and not the hands, for mixing
Graham flour. A little white flour may be mixed with the Graham flour if
a lighter colored and dryer bread is preferred.


=GLUTEN BREAD=

Pour a pint of boiling water into a pint of milk; add a teaspoonful of
butter and a teaspoonful of salt. Let it stand until it is lukewarm;
then add a well-beaten egg, a quarter of a yeast-cake dissolved, and
enough gluten to make a soft batter. Cover and stand in a warm place to
rise; then add enough gluten to make a soft dough, and knead it well.
Form it into four loaves, and let rise again. Bake for one hour.

Gluten bread requires less yeast and less time to rise than ordinary
bread.


=BOSTON BROWN BREAD=

  2 cupfuls of white cornmeal.
  2 cupfuls of yellow cornmeal.
  2 cupfuls of Graham flour or of rye meal or of white flour.
  1 cupful of molasses.
  2 cupfuls of milk (one of them being sour milk, if convenient).
  2 cupfuls of boiling water.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of soda.

Mix well the flour, meal, and salt; add to them the boiling water. Mix
the sweet milk and molasses together, and add them to the scalded meal.
Dissolve the soda in the sour milk, and add it last. Turn the mixture
into a covered cylindrical mold or into a covered pail, and steam it for
three hours; then uncover and bake in the oven for half an hour. Slices
of this bread toasted, buttered, and covered with cream make a good
breakfast or luncheon dish.


=TOAST=

Cut the bread in even slices one quarter of an inch thick. Cut off the
crust and trim the pieces into even and uniform shape. There is no waste
in this, as the scraps of bread can be dried and crumbed. If the bread
is fresh, let it dry a few minutes in the oven. Place it on a wire
toaster, and turn often until well dried through; then hold it over the
coals a minute to take an even golden color. Toast requires careful
watching, or it will burn or be unevenly colored. Toast should not be
served until the moment it is required. A few pieces only should be
served at a time, and the plate should be hot. If wrapped in a napkin,
or piled up, it quickly becomes damp and loses its crispness. If a soft
toast is wanted, color the bread at once without drying it; the center
will then be only heated. Toast used under game or meats is made dry,
buttered, and sprinkled with salt; then softened with a little boiling
water.


=MILK TOAST=

Make a dry toast; spread it with butter, and sprinkle it with salt.
Place it in the dish in which it is to be served, and pour over it a
little boiling water; cover it, and place in the oven a few minutes to
steam and soak up the water. It should have enough water to entirely
soften it, but not lose its shape. Put one teaspoonful of butter in a
saucepan. When it bubbles, stir in a teaspoonful of flour, and let it
cook a minute without coloring. Add slowly, stirring all the time, one
cupful of milk. Cook until it is slightly thickened; add a saltspoonful
of salt. Pour this thickened milk over the softened toast just before
serving. Bread for milk toast should be cut in even slices one half inch
thick, thoroughly dried in toasting, evenly colored, and steamed until
tender. When cream is used, it is scalded and poured over the softened
toast.


=PANADA=

Split Bent's water biscuits in two; sprinkle salt or sugar between them,
and place together again; or, use two large soda biscuits, or pilot
bread, or Passover bread. Place them in the dish in which they will be
served; pour over enough boiling water to cover them. Cover the dish,
and place it in the open oven, or on the hot shelf, until the biscuits
have become soft like jelly; pour off any water that has not been
absorbed, using care not to break the biscuits. Sprinkle again with salt
or sugar. A little cream or hot milk can be added if desired.


=PULLED BREAD=

Break off irregular pieces of the crumb of fresh bread, and dry it in a
very slow oven until lightly colored. The inside of fresh biscuits left
over can be treated in this way, and will keep an indefinite time. They
should be heated in the oven when served, and are good with chocolate,
or coffee, or bouillon. The crusts of the biscuits may be used as cups
for creamed meats or vegetables, or for eggs.


=ZWIEBACK=

Cut rusks into slices one half inch thick, and dry them in a very slow
oven until dried through, and of a deep yellow color. Slices of Vienna
bread can be used in the same way.


=BREAD FRITTERS=

Take pieces of raised bread-dough the size of an egg, drop them into
smoking hot fat, and fry to a gold color, the same as doughnuts. Drain
and serve on a napkin for breakfast, or sprinkle them with powdered
sugar and ground cinnamon mixed, and serve them for luncheon.


=BREAD ROLLS=

For one panful of biscuits take as much raised bread-dough as will make
one loaf of bread. Use any kind of bread-dough, but if no shortening has
been used, add a tablespoonful of butter to this amount of dough. Add
also more flour to make a stiffer dough than for bread. Work it for ten
minutes so as to give it a finer grain. Cut it into pieces half the
size of an egg, roll them into balls, and place in a pan some distance
apart. If enough space is given, each roll will be covered with crust,
which is the best part of hot breads. If, however, the crumb is
preferred, place them in the pan near enough to run together in rising.
Let the biscuits rise to more than double size, and bake in a quick oven
twenty to thirty minutes.

When removed from the oven rub the crusts with a little butter, and wrap
the rolls in a cloth until ready to serve. This will give a tender
crust. If a deep color is liked, brush the rolls with milk or egg before
placing them in the oven. A glaze is obtained by brushing them with
sugar dissolved in milk when taken from the oven, then replacing them in
the oven again for a moment to dry.


=CRESCENTS=

Add to bread-dough a little more sugar, and enough flour to make a stiff
dough. Roll it to one eighth inch thickness. Cut it into strips six
inches wide, and then into sharp triangles. Roll them up, commencing at
the base; the point of the triangle will then come in the middle of the
roll. Turn the points around into the shape of crescents. Place on tins
to rise for half an hour, brush the tops with water, and bake until
lightly colored. When taken from the oven brush the tops with thin
boiled cornstarch water, and place again for a minute in the oven to
glaze.


=BRAIDS AND TWISTS=

Take any bread- or biscuit-dough. Roll it one inch thick, and cut it
into strips one inch wide. Roll the strips on the board to make them
round. Brush the strips with butter. Braid or twist the strips together,
making them pointed at the ends, and broad in the middle. Let them rise
a little, but not so much as to lose shape, and bake in a quick oven.
Glaze the tops the same as directed above for crescents.


=CLEFT ROLLS=

Make the dough into balls of the size desired. After the rolls have
risen cut each roll across the top with a sharp knife about an inch
deep. If cut twice it makes a cross roll. Glaze the tops as directed for
crescents, or brush them with milk and sugar.


=LUNCHEON AND TEA ROLLS=

  2 quarts of flour.
  3 cups of boiled milk.
  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 cupful of butter.
  Whites of 2 eggs.
  1/2 yeast cake.

Boil the milk, dissolve in it the sugar and salt, and add the butter to
melt it. When this mixture becomes tepid, add the beaten whites of the
eggs and the yeast, dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of water; then stir
in the flour, and knead it for twenty to thirty minutes; cover it well,
and put it aside in a warm place free from draughts to rise over night.
If to be used for breakfast, mold the rolls to any shape desired; let
them rise to more than double their size, and bake for thirty minutes.
If they are to be used for luncheon, cut down with a knife the raised
dough in the morning, and keep it in a cool place until an hour and a
half before the time for serving the rolls; then mold, raise, and bake
them. If they are to be used for tea, do not set the dough until
morning. In summer allow four and a half hours for the whole work, the
same as directed for bread on page 340.


=PARKER HOUSE ROLLS=

  2 quarts of flour.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter, or lard, or cottolene.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 pint of milk.
  1/3 compressed yeast cake.
  1/2 cupful of sugar (scant).

Put the salt into the flour, and work in the shortening thoroughly.
Dissolve the yeast in one cupful of warm water. Scald the milk, and
dissolve the sugar in it after it is taken off the fire. When the milk
is lukewarm, mix the yeast with it. Make a hollow in the center of the
flour, and pour into it the milk and yeast mixture. Sprinkle a little of
the flour over the top. Cover the pan well, and leave it to rise. If
this sponge is set at five o'clock, at ten o'clock stir the whole
together thoroughly with a spoon. Do not beat it, but stir it well, as
it gets no other kneading. In the morning turn the dough onto a board,
work it together a little, and roll it evenly one half inch thick. Lift
the dough off the board a little to let it shrink all it will before
cutting. Cut it into rounds with a good-sized biscuit-cutter. Place a
small piece of butter on one side, and double the other side over it, so
the edges meet. Let them rise for two hours, and bake in a quick oven
for twenty minutes. If the rolls are to be used for luncheon, cut down
the dough in the morning and keep it in a cool place until the time for
molding them. If for tea, set the sponge in the morning, using one half
cake of compressed yeast.[352-*]


FOOTNOTES:

[352-*] Place the rolls far enough apart in the pan to give room for
them to rise without running together.


=TEA BISCUITS MADE WITH BAKING POWDER=

  4 cupfuls of sifted flour.
  3 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.

Add the salt and baking-powder to the flour and sift them. Rub in the
butter well. With a fork stir in lightly and quickly sufficient milk to
make a soft dough. The dough must be only just stiff enough to roll.
Flour the board well, turn the dough onto it, and lightly roll it to a
half inch thickness. Cut it into small circles, brush the tops with
milk, and bake in a quick oven for twenty to thirty minutes.


=BISCUITS MADE WITH SOUR MILK=

  1 quart of flour.
  1 teaspoonful of soda.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 tablespoonful of butter or lard.
  Milk.

Mix the soda and the salt with the flour, and sift them several times so
they will be thoroughly mixed. Rub in the butter evenly. Stir in
lightly with a fork enough sour milk to make a dough just stiff enough
to roll. The dough can be left very soft if the board is well floured
and the rolling-pin is used very lightly, patting the dough rather than
rolling it. Roll it out quickly an inch thick. Cut it into small rounds.
Bake in a quick oven twenty to thirty minutes. The dough can be rolled
half an inch thick, and two rounds placed together with a small bit of
butter between. They are then called twin biscuits. These biscuits may
be made of sweet milk, in which case two rounding teaspoonfuls of cream
of tartar must be used with the soda and mixed with the flour.


=CORN BREAD No. 1=

  2 cupfuls of flour.
  1-1/2 cupfuls of cornmeal (yellow or white).
  1/2 cupful of sugar.
  1 saltspoonful of salt.
  3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
  1-2/3 cupfuls of milk.
  1 tablespoonful of butter or lard melted.
  2 eggs.

Mix the flour, meal, salt, and baking-powder together thoroughly. Beat
together the eggs and sugar; add the butter, then the flour mixture, and
lastly mix in quickly the milk and turn into a flat pan to bake. Sour
milk can be used instead of sweet milk, in which case a teaspoonful of
soda dissolved in a quarter of a cupful of hot water is used, and
baking-powder is omitted.


=CORN BREAD No. 2=

  1 cupful of fine cornmeal sifted.
  1-1/2 cupfuls of milk.
  2 eggs.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.
  1 teaspoonful of sugar.

Scald the milk and pour it onto the sifted meal. Let it cool, then add
the melted butter, salt, sugar, baking-powder, and yolks of the eggs.
Stir it quickly and thoroughly together, and lastly fold in the whites
of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in a flat pan in a hot oven
for thirty minutes.


=PUFFS OR POP-OVERS=

  2 cupfuls of milk.
  2 cupfuls of flour.
  2 eggs (whites and yolks beaten separately).
  1 teaspoonful of salt.

Mix the salt with the flour. Mix the beaten yolks with the milk, and add
them slowly to the flour to make a smooth batter. Lastly fold in the
whipped whites. Put the batter at once into hot greased gem-pans,
filling them half full, and put into a hot oven for thirty minutes.
Serve at once, as they fall as soon as the heat is lost.


=GRAHAM GEMS=

  2 cupfuls of Graham flour.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1 cupful of water.
  2 eggs.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar.

Mix the dry ingredients together; beat the eggs separately. Mix the milk
with the salt and sugar; add the water, then the flour, and lastly fold
in the whipped whites, and put at once into very hot greased gem-pans,
filling them half full. Bake in a hot oven thirty minutes.


=CORN GEMS=

(MADE OF CORN FLOUR)

  2 eggs.
  1 cupful of corn flour.
  1/2 cupful of white flour.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.

Break the yolks of the eggs; add to them milk, salt, and melted butter;
mix them well together, then add the two kinds of flour. Beat the whites
of the eggs to a stiff froth; when they are ready, add the baking-powder
to the flour mixture and then fold in lightly the whipped whites. Turn
at once into warm gem-pans, a tablespoonful of batter into each one, and
bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes. This receipt can be used for any
kind of flour.


=MUFFINS No. 1=

  2 cupfuls of flour.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1 level tablespoonful of butter.
  2 eggs (beaten separately).
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  2 even teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.

Mix thoroughly the baking-powder and salt with the flour. Stir the milk
and yolks together; add the butter, melted; then the flour, and lastly
fold in the whipped whites. Turn into hot gem-pans, and bake at once in
a very hot oven for fifteen to twenty minutes. Serve immediately.


=RAISED MUFFINS=

  1 pint of milk, scalded.
  1/2 compressed yeast-cake.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  About 2-1/2 cupfuls of flour.

Scald the milk, and add the butter, sugar and salt. When it has become
lukewarm, add the yeast dissolved in a quarter cupful of lukewarm water.
Stir in enough flour to make a drop batter, cover it well, place it in a
warm place free from draughts, and let rise over night. In the morning
stir it down, grease some muffin-rings, place them on a hot greased
griddle, fill the rings half full of batter. It will rise to the top.
Turn the muffins with a pancake turner and bake them on both sides until
a thin brown crust is formed. Two eggs may be added to the batter in the
morning if desired. If so, beat the yolks and whites separately and add
the whites last.


=ENGLISH MUFFINS OR CRUMPETS=

Use the receipt for raised muffins, omitting the sugar and eggs. Do not
bake them so much. Turn them before the crust becomes brown. When cold,
pull them apart and toast them.


=SALLY LUNN=

This is the same as the receipt for Muffins No. 1, using three eggs
instead of two, and baking it in a cake-tin instead of gem-pans. In this
form it is served for luncheon or for tea.


=WAFFLES=

  2 cupfuls of flour.
  1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.
  1-1/4 cupfuls of milk.
  1 tablespoonful of butter, or lard, or cottolene.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  3 eggs beaten separately.

Mix the flour, baking-powder, and salt thoroughly together. Mix the
yolks with the milk; then the melted butter, the flour, and lastly the
beaten whites. Have the waffle-iron very clean; let it be thoroughly
heated on both sides. Rub it over with a piece of salt pork, or with a
piece of butter tied in a clean rag. Close the iron, and turn it so the
grease will cover every part. Put enough batter into each section of the
iron to fill it two-thirds full. Shut the iron, and cook the waffles a
minute or longer on each side. Serve the waffles hot, using with them
syrup or powdered sugar mixed with ground cinnamon.


=HOMINY CAKE=

Stir into one cupful of boiled hominy while it is still hot a
teaspoonful of butter, one saltspoonful of salt, and the yolks of two
eggs well beaten; add slowly a cupful of milk, and then a half cupful of
fine cornmeal; lastly, fold in the whipped whites of two eggs. Bake in a
flat tin in a hot oven for twenty to thirty minutes. Cold boiled hominy
left over can be used for this dish by heating it with enough water to
moisten it.


=OAT CAKE=

Mix oatmeal, which is ground fine, with a little salt and enough water
to make a stiff dough. Roll it on a floured board to one eighth inch
thickness, and bake it in one sheet in a slow oven without browning,
until dry and hard. It should be gray in color. When done, break it into
irregular pieces. This is a Scotch dish, and in Scotland is made with a
fine oat flour, which is difficult to obtain in this country.


=BRAN BISCUITS=

  1 pint of bran.
  1/2 pint of flour.
  1/2 pint of milk.
  6 tablespoonfuls of molasses.
  1 even teaspoonful of baking soda.

Mix the bran, flour, and soda together, mix the molasses and milk
together, and add the flour mixture. Bake in gem-pans. Two of these
biscuits eaten at each meal act as a laxative and cure for constipation.
The receipt is furnished by a physician.


=BREAD STICKS=

Any bread-dough may be used, though that with shortening is preferred.
After it is kneaded enough to be elastic, cut it into pieces half the
size of an egg, roll it on the board into a stick the size of a pencil
and a foot long. Lay the strips on a floured baking-tin or sheet. Let
them rise a very little, and bake in a moderate oven, so they will dry
without browning. Serve them with bouillon or soups, or with tea.


=RUSKS=

  1 cupful of milk scalded.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
  2 eggs.
  1/2 cake of compressed yeast.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  Flour.

Make a sponge (see directions at head of chapter), using the milk, salt,
and yeast. When it is full of bubbles, add the butter, sugar, and
well-beaten eggs. Stir in enough flour to make a soft dough. Knead it
for twenty minutes. Let it rise to double its bulk; then mold it into
balls the size of half an egg. Place them rather close together in a
baking-tin, and let them rise until very light. When they are ready to
go into the oven, brush over the tops with sugar dissolved in milk, and
sprinkle the tops with dry sugar. Bake in a hot oven about half an hour.
Rusks must be well kneaded and be very light before being baked. A part
of the dough set for bread may be made into rusks by adding to it an
egg, sugar, and butter.


=DRIED RUSKS=

Cut rusks that are a day old into slices one half inch thick, and dry
them in a slow oven until a fine golden color.


=BATH BUNS=

  4 cupfuls of flour.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1/2 cupful of sugar.
  1/4 cupful of butter.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/2 nutmeg grated.
  1/2 compressed yeast-cake.
  3 eggs.

Mix the salt, sugar, and grated nutmeg with the flour. Scald the milk
and melt the butter in it. Dissolve the yeast in a quarter cupful of
lukewarm water. When the scalded milk has become lukewarm, add to it the
dissolved yeast and the eggs, which have been well beaten, the yolks and
whites separately; then add the flour. Use more flour than given in the
receipt, if necessary, but keep the dough as soft as possible. Knead it
on a board for twenty minutes. Let it rise over night in a warm place,
well covered. In the morning turn it on to the molding-board, roll it
and rub it lightly with butter, then fold it several times, cut it into
pieces the size of a large egg, and mold it into balls. The folding is
to make it peel off in layers when baked, but may be omitted if desired.
Press into the side of each bun, after it is molded, a piece of citron
and lump of sugar wet with lemon-juice. Place the buns in a baking-tin
and let them rise to more than double their size. Brush the tops with
egg diluted with water to give a brown crust. Bake in a moderate oven
for half an hour. When baked, brush over the tops with sugar dissolved
in milk, and return to the oven for a few minutes to glaze. Sprinkle a
little powdered sugar over the tops as soon as they are removed from the
oven.


=COFFEE CAKE=

Take two cupfuls of bread sponge, add one egg well beaten, a half cupful
of sugar, a tablespoonful of butter, and a cupful of tepid water. Mix
them well together, then add enough flour to make a thin dough. Let it
rise until double in size. Turn it on a board, and roll it out an inch
thick. Place it in a baking-tin, cutting it to fit the tin, and let it
rise again until light. Just before placing it in the oven, spread over
the top an egg beaten with a teaspoonful of sugar. Sprinkle over this
some granulated sugar, and a few split blanched almonds. If preferred,
the dough may be twisted and shaped into rings instead of being baked in
sheets. This cake, which is a kind of bun, is, as well as bath buns, a
good luncheon dish to serve in place of cake; or either of them, served
with a cup of chocolate, makes a good light luncheon in itself.


=BRIOCHE=

Brioche is a kind of light bun mixture much used in France. It has many
uses, and is much esteemed. It will not be found difficult or
troublesome to make after the first trial. The paste once made can be
used for plain brioche cakes, buns, rings, baba, savarins, fruit
timbales (see page 406), cabinet puddings, etc.

  1 cake of compressed yeast.
  1/4 cupful of lukewarm water.
  1 quart of flour.
  7 eggs.
  3/4 pound of butter.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  2 teaspoonfuls of sugar.

Dissolve the yeast-cake in a quarter of a cupful of lukewarm water. Stir
it so it will be thoroughly mixed, then add enough flour to make a very
soft ball of paste. Drop this ball into a pan of warm water (the water
must not be hot, or it will kill the yeast plant). Cover, and set it in
a warm place to rise, which will take about an hour. This is for leaven
to raise the brioche. The ball of paste will sink to the bottom of the
water at first, but will rise to the top later, and be full of bubbles.

Put the rest of the flour on a platter, and make a well in the center of
it. Into this well put the butter, salt, sugar, and four eggs. Break the
eggs in whole, and have the butter rather soft. Work them together with
the hand, gradually incorporating the flour, and adding two more eggs,
one at a time. Work and beat it with the hand until it loses its
stickiness, which will take some time. When the leaven is sufficiently
light, lift it out of the water with a skimmer, and place it with the
dough. Work them together, add one more egg, the last of the seven, and
beat it for a long time, using the hand. The longer it is beaten the
better and the finer will be the grain. Put the paste in a bowl, cover,
and let it rise to double its size, which will take four to five hours;
then beat it down again, and place it on the ice for twelve or
twenty-four hours. As beating and raising the paste require so much
time, the work should be started the day before it is to be used.

After taking the paste from the ice, it will still be quite soft, and
have to be handled delicately and quickly. It softens more as it becomes
warm.


=TO MAKE A BRIOCHE ROLL WITH HEAD=

Take up carefully a little of the paste, and turn it into a ball about
three inches in diameter; flatten it a little on top, and with a knife
open a little place on top, and lay a small ball of paste into it. Let
it rise to double its size, and bake in a moderate oven for twenty to
thirty minutes. If a glazed top is wanted, brush it over with egg yolk
diluted one half with water, before putting it in the oven. Serve hot or
perfectly fresh.


=TO MAKE A BRIOCHE CROWN OR RING=

Roll the paste into a ball, roll it down to a thickness of half an inch,
keeping the form round. Cut it several times through the middle, and
twist the paste into a rope-like ring. Let it rise, brush the top with
egg, and bake in a well-heated oven for about half an hour.


=TO MAKE BUNS=

Roll the paste into small balls, glaze the tops when ready to go into
the oven, and bake about twenty minutes.


=BRIOCHE FOR TIMBALE, OR CABINET PUDDINGS=

When the brioche is to be used for timbales, or cabinet puddings, turn
the paste into a cylindrical mold, filling it half full. Let it rise to
the top of the mold, and bake in a hot oven for about half an hour.


=PANCAKES=

The batter for pancakes should be smooth, and thin enough to run freely
when turned onto the griddle. In order to have all the cakes of the same
size an equal quantity of batter must be used for each cake. It should
be poured steadily at one point, so the batter will flow evenly in all
directions, making the cake perfectly round. An iron spoonful of batter
makes a cake of good size; but if a larger one is wanted, use a ladle or
cup; for if the batter is put on the hot griddle by separate spoonfuls,
the first becomes a little hardened before the second is added, and the
cake will not be evenly baked, or have so good an appearance. Lastly,
the baking is of great importance. The cakes must be well browned on
both sides, the color even and uniform on every part. To effect this the
griddle must be perfectly clean and evenly heated. A soap-stone griddle
is the best, as it holds the heat well, and as it requires no greasing.
The cakes baked thus are by some considered more wholesome. The griddle
should stand on the range for some time before it is needed in order to
get thoroughly and evenly heated. Where an iron griddle is used, it
should also be given time to become evenly heated, and while the cakes
are baking it should be moved so the edges may in turn come over the
hottest part of the range. It must be wiped off and greased after each
set of cakes is baked. A piece of salt pork on a fork is the best thing
for greasing, as it makes an even coating, and too much grease is not
likely to be used. An iron griddle is often allowed by careless cooks to
collect a crust of burned grease around the edges. When in this
condition, the cakes will not, of course, be properly baked. The griddle
should be hot enough to hiss when the batter is turned onto it. Serve
the cakes as soon as baked, in a folded napkin on a hot plate. Two
plates should be used, so while one is being passed the next griddleful
may be prepared to serve.


=PLAIN PANCAKES=

Stir two cupfuls of milk into two beaten eggs; add enough flour to make
a thin batter. Add a half teaspoonful of salt and a heaping teaspoonful
of baking-powder. Sour milk can be used, in which case omit the
baking-powder and add a half teaspoonful of soda. The baking-powder or
soda should not be put in until just before beginning to bake the cakes.
The cakes will be lighter and better if the eggs are beaten separately,
and the whipped whites added the last thing.


=FLANNEL CAKES=

  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar.
  2 eggs.
  2 cupfuls of flour.
  Milk.
  1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.

Rub the butter and sugar to a cream, add the beaten eggs, then the
flour, in which the baking-powder has been sifted. Add enough milk to
make a smooth, thin batter.


=RICE PANCAKES=

Make the same batter as for plain cakes, using half boiled rice and half
flour. Any of the cereals--hominy, oatmeal, cracked wheat, etc.--can be
used in the same way, utilizing any small quantities left over; a little
butter is sometimes added.


=BREAD PANCAKES=

Soak stale bread in hot water until moistened; press out the water. To
two cupfuls of softened bread, add two beaten eggs, a teaspoonful of
salt, a half cupful of flour, and enough milk to make a thin, smooth
batter; add, the last thing, a teaspoonful of baking-powder, or use soda
if sour milk has been used in the batter.


=CORNMEAL PANCAKES=

Pour a little boiling water on a cupful of cornmeal, and let it stand
half an hour. Add a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of sugar, one
egg and two cupfuls of flour. Add enough milk to make a smooth batter,
and a teaspoonful of baking-powder just before baking. Instead of white
flour rye meal may be used: one cupful of rye to one of cornmeal, a
tablespoonful of molasses instead of the sugar, and soda in place of
baking-powder.


=BUCKWHEAT CAKES=

Scald a cupful of yellow meal in a quart of boiling milk. Add a half
teaspoonful of salt; when cold add a quarter of a compressed yeast-cake,
and enough buckwheat flour to make a soft batter. Beat it well together.
Let it rise over night. In the morning stir in a tablespoonful of
molasses and a teaspoonful of soda. Although the above method is the old
and better way, these cakes can be made in the morning, and
baking-powder used instead of yeast; in which case divide the batter,
and add the baking-powder, one half at a time.


=ADIRONDACK PANCAKES=

Bake several pancakes as large as a plate. Butter, and cover them with
maple syrup. Pile them one on another, and cut like a pie.



CHAPTER XVI

SANDWICHES


=SANDWICHES AND CANAPÉS=

Sandwiches are usually the chief reliance for cold lunches,
and are always acceptable if well made and attractively
served. Where they are to be kept some time, as in
traveling, they should be wrapped in oiled or paraffin
paper, for this will keep them perfectly fresh.

Sandwiches may be made of white, Graham, or brown bread, or of
fresh rolls, and may be filled with any kind of meat, with
fish, with salads, with eggs, with jams, or with chopped nuts.

                                                   [Sidenote: Shapes.]

They may be cut into any shapes, the square and triangular
ones being the usual forms, but a pleasant variety may be
given by stamping them with a biscuit-cutter into circles,
or by rolling them, and these forms are recommended for
sandwiches made of jams or jellies, as it gives them a more
distinctive character.

                                  [Sidenote: How to prepare the meat.]

The meat used in sandwiches should be chopped to a fine mince,
seasoned with salt and pepper, mustard, if desired, and
moistened with a little water, stock, cream or milk, or with a
salad dressing, using enough to make the mince spread well.
Fish can be pounded to a paste, then seasoned. Potted meats
can also be used. Slices of anything that has a fibrous
texture make the sandwich difficult to eat, and as knives and
forks are not usually at hand when sandwiches are served, it
is desirable to make the primitive way of eating as little
objectionable as possible.

                                                   [Sidenote: Butter.]

The butter for sandwiches should be of the best, and should
be soft enough to spread easily without tearing the bread.
The butter may sometimes be worked into the meat paste. What
are called "sandwich butters" are frequently used. They are
made by rubbing the butter to a cream, combined with anchovy
paste, with mustard, with chopped parsley and tarragon, with
pâté de foie gras, etc.

These butters are used to spread the bread for meat
sandwiches, using with the butter any flavoring that will go
well with the meat.

[Illustration: BREAD-AND-BUTTER SANDWICHES.

Made of White, Graham, and Boston Brown Bread. (See page 364.)]

                                                    [Sidenote: Rolls.]

When rolls are used for sandwiches, they should be very
fresh, should be small, and have a tender crust. The finger
rolls are good for the purpose, also Parker House rolls,
when made in suitable shape. Graham bread makes excellent
sandwiches.

                                 [Sidenote: How to prepare the bread.]

Bread for sandwiches should be of fine grain and a day old. A
five-cent loaf cuts to good advantage. The crust should be cut
off, and the loaf trimmed to good shape before the slices are
cut. The crusts and trimmings can be dried for crumbs, so they
are not wasted, and no butter is lost in spreading bread which
will afterward be trimmed off. When the bread is ready, the
butter should be spread on the loaf, and then a slice cut off
evenly one eighth of an inch thick. The next slice will have
to be cut off before being spread, in order to have it fit
exactly the preceding piece. After the first slice is covered
with the filling, lay the second slice on it. In many cases
the second slice of bread does not need spreading with butter.
Cut the sandwich to the desired shape. One cut across the loaf
will make two square, or four triangular, sandwiches.

                                          [Sidenote: Meat sandwiches.]

Poultry, game, ham, beef, and tongue can be prepared as
directed above, or they may be mixed with a French or a
Mayonnaise dressing. Chicken pounded to a paste, then well
mixed with a paste made of the yolks of hard-boiled eggs
mashed, a little milk or cream, and a little butter, then
seasoned with salt, pepper, and a few drops of onion-juice,
makes a delicious chicken sandwich.

                                          [Sidenote: Fish sandwiches.]

Anchovies, sardines, or any fresh boiled fish may be used
for sandwiches. It is better pounded to a paste. Moisten
sardines with a little lemon-juice.

Fresh fish should be well seasoned with salt and pepper, and
moistened with a white or any other sauce, or with Mayonnaise.
A little chopped pickle may be added. Shad roe, mashed with a
fork to separate the eggs, and seasoned in the same way, makes
excellent sandwiches.

NOTE.--Sandwiches of any kind which are left over are good
toasted, and can be served at luncheon.--M. R.


=EGG SANDWICHES=

  No. 1. Cut hard-boiled eggs into slices; sprinkle with
       salt and pepper plentifully, and spread the bread
       with butter mixed with chopped parsley.

  No. 2. Lay the sliced eggs between crisp lettuce leaves,
       and spread the bread with butter, then with
       Mayonnaise.

  No. 3. Chop the hard-boiled eggs fine. Mix with Mayonnaise
       and spread on the buttered bread, or mix them with
       well-seasoned white sauce.


=SALAD SANDWICHES=

  No. 1. Lay a crisp lettuce leaf sprinkled with salt
       between buttered thin slices of bread; or spread the
       bread with Mayonnaise, then with lettuce or with
       water-cress.

  No. 2. Chop chicken and celery together fine; mix it with
       French or with Mayonnaise dressing.

  No. 3. Chop lobster meat; mix it with any dressing; cut
       lettuce into ribbons; cover the bread with the
       lettuce; then a layer of lobster; then with lettuce
       again.

  No. 4. Mix chopped olives with Mayonnaise; serve with
       afternoon tea.


=SPANISH SANDWICHES=

Spread buttered Graham bread with mustard; then with a layer of cottage
cheese; and then with a layer of chopped olives mixed with Mayonnaise.


=CHEESE SANDWICHES=

  No. 1. Cut American cheese in slices one-eighth of an inch
       thick, or about the same thickness as the bread.
       Sprinkle it with salt, and have the bread well
       buttered.

  No. 2. Cut Gruyère cheese in thin slices. Lay it on the
       bread, sprinkle it with salt and pepper; then add
       French mustard.

  No. 3. Grate any cheese. Rub it to a paste with butter,
       and spread the bread; dust with salt and pepper. Cut
       into strips and serve with salad.

  No. 4. Mock Crab. Rub to a smooth paste one tablespoonful
       of butter, two tablespoonfuls of grated cheese, a
       saltspoonful each of salt, paprica, and dry mustard,
       a little anchovy paste, and a teaspoonful of vinegar.
       Spread between thin slices of dry toast.


=RAW BEEF SANDWICHES=

Scrape the raw beef; spread it between thin slices of plain bread.
Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place the sandwiches on a toaster, and
hold them over the coals until well heated. Serve them hot.


=SWEET SANDWICHES=

  No. 1. For Æsthetic Sandwiches, see chapter "Five O'clock
       Tea," page 33.

  No. 2. Spread thin slices of bread with any jam, or with
       fruit jelly, or with any preserved fruit, or with
       chopped canned fruit. Cut them into circles, or roll
       them as directed above.

  No. 3. Spread very thin buttered slices of Boston brown
       bread with chopped walnuts, or with chopped almonds,
       or with both mixed, or with salted nuts chopped.


=CANAPÉS=

Canapés are slices of bread toasted or fried in hot fat, or dipped in
butter, and browned in the oven. The slices are then covered with some
seasoned mixture. They are served hot, and make a good first course for
luncheon. The bread is cut a quarter of an inch thick, then into circles
two and a half inches in diameter, or into strips four inches long and
two inches wide. They are sometimes used cold, and are arranged
fancifully with different-colored meats, pickles, eggs, etc.


=CHEESE CANAPÉS=

Cut bread into slices one quarter inch thick, four inches long and two
inches wide. Spread it with butter, and sprinkle it with salt and
cayenne or paprica. Cover the top with grated American cheese, or with
grated Parmesan cheese, and bake in the oven until the cheese is
softened. Serve at once, before the cheese hardens.


=HAM CANAPÉS=

Cut bread into slices a quarter inch thick, then with a small
biscuit-cutter into circles; fry them in hot fat, or sauté them in
butter. Pound some chopped ham to a paste; moisten it with cream or
milk. Spread it on the fried bread; dust with cayenne, sprinkle the top
with grated Parmesan cheese, and place in a hot oven until a little
browned.


=ANCHOVY CANAPÉS=

Spread strips of fried bread with anchovy paste. Arrange in lines, on
top, alternate rows of the white and yolks of hard-boiled eggs chopped
fine.


=SARDINE CANAPÉS=

Spread circles of fried bread with a layer of sardines pounded to a
paste. Arrange on top, in circles to resemble a rosette, lines of
chopped hard-boiled egg and chopped pickle.


=CANAPÉ LORENZO=

  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  1 slice of onion.
  1 cupful of stock.
  1 cupful of crab meat.
  1 tablespoonful of milk.
  2-1/2 tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese.
  2-1/2 tablespoonfuls of Swiss cheese.
  Salt, pepper, and cayenne.

Put in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, and fry in it one slice
of onion chopped fine, but do not brown; then add one tablespoonful of
flour and cook, but do not brown; add the stock slowly, and when smooth
add the cooked crab meat. Season highly with salt, pepper, and cayenne,
and let simmer for six or eight minutes.

Put into another saucepan one tablespoonful of butter; when melted, add
one tablespoonful of flour and cook, but not brown; then add the milk
and stir in the cheese, and let cook just long enough to soften the
cheese. Remove from the fire and let cool; then form the cheese mixture
into six balls. Have ready six slices or circles of buttered toast, or
bread fried in butter, and cover them with a layer of the crab mixture,
and in the center of each piece place a ball of the cheese. Place in a
hot oven for five minutes.

This is a good supper dish, and may be made of lobster, fish, or
chicken.

Serve with water-cress.


=CHEESE AND CHEESE DISHES=

                                                [Sidenote: Varieties.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Serving.]

Among the best cheeses are Stilton, Cheshire, Camembert,
Gorgonzola, Rocquefort, Edam, Gruyère, and Parmesan. The
Parmesan is a high-flavored, hard Italian cheese, and is
mostly used grated for cooking. Our American dairy cheeses are
much esteemed, and are largely exported to foreign markets;
but as they have no distinctive names, it is difficult to
find a second time any one that is particularly liked. The
Pineapple cheese is the only one that differs radically from
the other so-called American cheeses. The foreign cheeses are,
nearly all of them, very successfully imitated here. Cheese is
served with crackers, wafer biscuits, or with celery after the
dessert, or with salad before the hot dessert. Any of the
cheese dishes, such as soufflé, ramekins, omelets, etc., are
served before the dessert. Cheese straws are used with salad.
Cheeses small enough to be passed whole, like Edam, Pineapple,
etc., have the top cut off, plain or in notches, and are
wrapped in a neatly plaited napkin. The top is replaced after
the service, so as to keep the cheese moist. A Stilton or
Chester cheese is cut in two, and one half, wrapped in a
napkin, served at a time. Rocquefort and Gorgonzola are served
in the large slice cut from the cheese and laid on a folded
napkin. American dairy cheese is cut into small uniform
pieces. The soft cheeses, Brie, Neuchâtel, etc., are divested
of the tinfoil and scraped before being passed. They are
placed on a lace paper. Fresh butter, wafer biscuits, and
celery are passed with cheese.


=CHEESE SOUFFLÉ=

  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1 heaping tablespoonful of flour.
  1/2 cupful of milk.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  Dash of cayenne.
  3 eggs.
  1 cupful of grated cheese.

Put into a saucepan the butter; when it is melted stir in the flour and
let it cook a minute (but not color), stirring all the time; add one
half cupful of milk slowly and stir till smooth, then add salt and
cayenne. Remove from the fire and add, stirring constantly, the beaten
yolks of three eggs and the cupful of grated American or Parmesan
cheese. Replace it on the fire, and stir until the cheese is melted and
the paste smooth and consistent (do not cook too long, or the butter
will separate). Pour the mixture on a buttered dish and set away to
cool. When ready to use, stir into it lightly the well-beaten whites of
the three eggs; turn it into a pudding-dish and bake in a hot oven for
twenty to thirty minutes. Do not open the oven door for ten minutes; do
not slam the oven door; do not move the soufflé until after fifteen
minutes; serve it at once when done. Like any soufflé, it must go
directly from the oven to the table, or it will fall.


=CRACKERS AND CHEESE=

Split in two some Bent's water biscuits; moisten them with hot water and
pour over each piece a little melted butter and French mustard; then
spread with a thick layer of grated cheese; sprinkle with paprica or
cayenne. Place them in a hot oven until the cheese is soft and creamy.


=CHEESE CANAPÉS=

Cut bread into slices one half inch thick; stamp them with a biscuit
cutter into circles; then, moving the cutter to one side, cut them into
crescent form; or, if preferred, cut the bread into strips three inches
long and one and one half inches wide; sauté them in a little butter on
both sides to an amber color. Cover them with a thick layer of grated
cheese; sprinkle with salt, pepper, and dash of cayenne. Fifteen minutes
before the time to serve, place them in the oven to soften the cheese.
Serve at once very hot; or, cut some toasted bread into small triangles;
spread with a little French mustard; dip in melted butter; then roll in
grated cheese; sprinkle with salt, pepper, and dash of cayenne, and
place in a hot oven for a few minutes to soften the cheese. Serve at
once on a hot dish.


=WELSH RABBIT=

  1 pound of cheese.
  1/2 cupful of ale or beer.
  Dash of cayenne.
  1/2 teaspoonful of dry mustard.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  Slices of toast.

Grate or cut into small pieces fresh American cheese. Place it in a
saucepan or chafing-dish with three quarters of the ale. Stir until it
is entirely melted; then season with the mustard, salt, and pepper, and
pour it over the slices of hot toast, cut in triangles or circles.
Everything must be very hot, and it must be served at once, as the
cheese quickly hardens. Some use a scant teaspoonful of butter (more
will not unite), a few drops of onion-juice, and the beaten yolks of two
eggs, added just before serving. The egg makes it a little richer and
prevents the cheese hardening so quickly. Milk may be used instead of
ale to melt the cheese, in which case the egg should also be used. If
any of the cheese fondu is left, it can be heated again with the rest of
the ale for the second helping.


=GOLDEN BUCK=

Make Welsh rarebits as directed above, and place on each one a poached
egg (see page 263).


=CHEESE STRAWS=

Mix with one cupful of flour one half cupful of grated Parmesan cheese,
a dash of cayenne, one half teaspoonful of salt, and the yolk of one
egg; then add enough water to make a paste sufficiently consistent to
roll. Place it on a board and roll to one quarter inch thickness. Cut it
into narrow strips and roll so each piece will be the size and length of
a lead pencil. Place them in a baking-tin and press each end on the pan
so they will not contract. Bake to a light brown in a moderate oven.
Serve with salad. These straws will keep for several days, and should be
heated just before serving.


=CHEESE STRAWS No. 2=

Take bits of puff paste; roll them to one half inch thickness; cut them
into strips one inch wide and three inches long; sprinkle them with
grated cheese and bake; or, the pastry may be rolled to one quarter inch
thickness; then spread with cheese, doubled over, and then cut into
strips, leaving the cheese between two layers of paste.


=CHEESE PATTIES=

Make some small round croustades as directed (page 82). Dip them in
butter and toast them in the oven to a delicate color. Fill the centers
with a mixture of two ounces of grated cheese, one half tablespoonful of
butter, one tablespoonful of milk, a little salt and pepper. Place the
croustades again in the oven to melt the cheese. Serve very hot.


=COTTAGE CHEESE=

Place a panful of milk which has soured enough to become thick, or
clabbered, over a pan of hot water. Let it heat slowly until the whey
has separated from the curd; do not let it boil, or the curd will become
tough; then strain it through a cloth and press out all the whey; stir
into the curd enough butter, cream, and salt to make it a little moist
and of good flavor. Work it well with a spoon until it becomes fine
grained and consistent, then mold it into balls of any size desired.


=FONDUE=

See page 335.



CHAPTER XVII

SALADS


                                         [Sidenote: Drying the salad.]

Nearly all the meats, vegetables, and fruits may be served as
salads. The essential thing is to have the salad fresh and
cold; and if green, to have the leaves crisp and dry. If any
water is left on leaves, the dressing will not adhere to them,
but will run to the bottom of the dish, and both the salad and
the dressing will be poor. All greens should be carefully
washed in cold water to free them from dust and insects, and
to make them crisp. After they have stood fifteen to twenty
minutes in cold or ice water, free them from moisture by
swinging them in a wire basket, or dry, without bruising, each
leaf carefully with a napkin. The dressing is added only at
the moment of serving, as the salad wilts if allowed to stand
after the dressing is added. The green salads are the most
simple of any, and are especially worthy the little care
required to make them perfect.

                                         [Sidenote: Cutting the meat.]

Meat of any kind used for salads should be cut into dice, but
not smaller than one half inch, or it will seem like hash. It
should be marinated before being mixed with the other parts of
the salad. Meat mixtures are usually piled in cone-shape on a
dish, the Mayonnaise then spread over it, and garnished with
lettuce, capers, hard-boiled eggs, gherkins, etc.

                                               [Sidenote: Marinating.]

TO MARINATE.--Take one part of oil and three of vinegar, with
pepper and salt to taste; stir them into the meat, and let it
stand a couple of hours; drain off any of the marinade which
has not been absorbed, before combining the meat with the
other parts of the salad. Use only enough marinade to season
the meat.

French dressing is used with green vegetable salads, and
either Mayonnaise or French dressing with potato and tomato
salads.

                                              [Sidenote: Fish salads.]

Lettuce, water-cress, fetticus, sorrel, or other leaf salads
are better with French dressing. A boiled fish can be served
whole as a salad for suppers or luncheons, or in hot weather
as a fish course for dinner. It may be covered, all but the
head and tail, with a thick coating of green or red jelly
Mayonnaise (see page 290), and elaborately decorated with
capers, olives, gherkins, hard-boiled eggs, and lettuce.
Salmon, blue fish, bass, or any firm fish, serves this purpose.
Fish may also be cut into cutlets of equal size and shape,
and covered with jelly Mayonnaise garnished in the same way.

Nasturtium blossoms make a good garnish, and also add a good
flavor to green salads.


=MAYONNAISE=

The receipts for Mayonnaise are given on pages 288-290. White
Mayonnaise, instead of that having the color of the eggs, is the fancy
of to-day. The yolks will whiten by being stirred before the oil is
added, and lemon-juice, used instead of vinegar, also serves to whiten
the dressing; so it is not always necessary to add whipped cream,
although the cream gives a very delicate and delicious Mayonnaise. The
jelly Mayonnaise is used for molded salads, and will be found very good,
as well as useful, for the class of salads served at suppers, etc.


=FRENCH DRESSING=

This dressing is the most simple, and the best one to use with green
salads for dinner. The proportions are one tablespoonful of vinegar to
three of oil, one half teaspoonful of salt, and one quarter teaspoonful
of pepper. Mix the salt and pepper with the oil; then stir in slowly the
vinegar, and it will become white and a little thickened, like an
emulsion. Some like a dash of paprica or red pepper. When intended for
lettuce salad it is much improved by using a little tarragon vinegar
with the wine vinegar. More oil may be used if preferred, but the
mixture should be so blended as to taste of neither the oil nor the
vinegar.


=LETTUCE SALAD=

Use only the tender leaves. Let them stand half an hour in cold water to
become crisp. Rub the inside of the salad bowl lightly with an onion.
Wipe the lettuce leaves perfectly dry without bruising them, and arrange
them in the bowl in circles, the heart leaves in the center. Sprinkle
over them a teaspoonful of mixed tarragon, parsley, and chives, chopped
fine; pour over the French dressing, and toss them lightly together.
French lettuce salads always have chopped herbs mixed with them, and
they are a great improvement to the salad. If all of them are not at
hand, any one of them may be used alone. The salad should be put
together only just before being served, or its crispness will be lost.
Nasturtium blossoms, small radishes cut into flowers, or a few white
chicory leaves may be used with plain lettuce salad.


=WATER-CRESS AND APPLES=

Prepare the water-cress the same as lettuce, letting it become crisp in
cold water, then drying it thoroughly. Mix it with French dressing. A
few thin slices of sour apple with water-cress makes a good salad to
serve with ducks.

A chopped hard-boiled egg sprinkled over the top of water-cress is a
good garnish, and improves the salad.

[Illustration: SALAD OF WATER-CRESS GARNISHED WITH RADISHES CUT TO
RESEMBLE ROSES.]


=CELERY SALAD=

Wash and scrape the tender stalks of celery, cut them into one quarter
inch pieces, or into straws two inches long, or cut them in pieces
one and a half inches long, and slice them in small strips nearly to the
end; place them in ice-water for a few minutes to curl them. Mix the
celery with either French or Mayonnaise dressing, and garnish with
lettuce leaves or celery tops.


=CUCUMBER AND TOMATO SALAD=

Slice cucumbers and tomatoes into pieces of equal thickness, and lay
them alternately around a bunch of white lettuce leaves. Pass separately
either a French or Mayonnaise dressing, or both.


=CUCUMBER SALAD TO SERVE WITH FISH=

Peel the cucumbers, and place them in cold water to become crisp. Do not
use salt in the water, as is sometimes recommended, as it wilts and
makes them indigestible. Cut the cucumbers in two lengthwise, and lay
them, with the flat side down, on the dish on which they are to be
served. Slice them without destroying their shape, and pour on them a
French dressing.

[Illustration: CUCUMBERS CUT IN HALVES LENGTHWISE AND THEN SLICED TO
SERVE WITH FISH.]


=STRING-BEAN SALAD=

Cut each bean in four strips lengthwise; lay them evenly together and
boil in salted water until tender. Remove them carefully and drain. When
they are cold and ready to serve, pile them on a flat dish, trim the
ends even, and pour over them slowly a French dressing. Garnish with
parsley, white chicory leaves or nasturtium leaves.

[Illustration: STRING-BEAN SALAD.]


=BEAN SALADS=

Boiled navy beans, flageolets, or Lima beans may be mixed with French or
Mayonnaise dressing, and garnished with hard-boiled eggs and parsley.


=CAULIFLOWER SALAD=

Break the vegetable into flowerets; season with salt, pepper, and a
little vinegar and oil. Pile them in a pyramid on a dish, and pour over
them a white Mayonnaise. Arrange around the base a border of carrots or
beets, cut into dice or fancy shapes, to give a line of color. Place a
floweret of cauliflower on the top of the pyramid.


=MACÉDOINE SALAD=

This salad is composed of a mixture of vegetables. The vegetables are
boiled separately; the large ones are then cut into dice of equal size.
The salad is more attractive when the vegetables are cut with fancy
cutters or with a small potato-scoop. Peas, flageolets, string beans,
flowerets of cauliflower, beets, celery roots, asparagus points,
carrots, and turnips--all, or as many as convenient, may be used. Mix
them lightly with French dressing or with Mayonnaise. If the latter,
marinate them first. Be careful not to break the vegetables when mixing
them. Arrange lettuce leaves like a cup, and place the macédoine in the
center.


=POTATO SALAD=

Boil the potatoes with the skins on; when cold remove the skins and cut
them into slices three eighths inch thick, or into dice three quarters
inch thick, or cut the potatoes into balls with a scoop; sprinkle them
with a little grated onion and parsley, chopped very fine. Turn over
them a French dressing. They will absorb a great deal. Toss them lightly
together, but do not break the potatoes, which are very tender. A
Mayonnaise dressing is also very good with marinated potatoes. A mixture
of beets and potatoes with Mayonnaise is also used. Garnish with
lettuce, chopped yolk of hard-boiled egg and capers. In boiling potatoes
for salad, do not steam them after they are boiled, as they should not
be mealy. New or German potatoes are best for salad.


=COLD SLAW=

Shred a firm cabbage very fine. Mix it with a French dressing, using an
extra quantity of salt, or put into a bowl the yolks of three eggs, one
half cupful of vinegar (if it is very strong dilute it with water), one
tablespoonful of butter, one half teaspoonful each of mustard and
pepper, and one teaspoonful each of sugar and salt. Beat them together,
place the bowl in a pan of boiling water, and stir until it becomes a
little thickened. Pour this while hot over the cabbage, and set it away
to cool.


=HOT SLAW=

Place shredded cabbage in a saucepan with enough salted boiling water to
cover it. Boil it until tender, but not so long as to lose shape; turn
it onto a sieve and drain it well in a warm place. Pour over the drained
cabbage a hot Béarnaise sauce.

Cabbage salads are good to serve with fried oysters, meat fritters, or
chops.

The boiled cabbage, cold, may be used with French dressing.


=TOMATO SALADS=

To remove the skins from tomatoes, place them in a wire-basket, and
plunge them into boiling water for a minute. This is better than letting
them soak in the water, which softens them if left too long.


=No. 1.=

Select tomatoes of the same size and shape; peel, and place them on ice
until ready to use; then cut each one in two and place on each piece a
teaspoonful of Mayonnaise. Dress them on a bed of lettuce leaves; or,
slice the tomatoes without breaking their form, place each one on a leaf
of lettuce, cover the tomato with Mayonnaise, and sprinkle over a little
parsley chopped fine; or scoop out a little of the center from the stem
end and fill it with dressing.

An attractive salad is made of the small yellow tomatoes which resemble
plums. Remove the skin carefully; let them get thoroughly cold; then
pile them on a dish the same as fruit, garnish with leaves of lettuce,
and pour over them a French dressing.


=No. 2. STUFFED TOMATOES=

Select round tomatoes of equal size; peel and scoop from the stem end a
part of the center. Place them on ice until ready to serve; then fill
them with celery cut fine and mixed with Mayonnaise. Let it rise above
the top of the tomato. Put a little Mayonnaise on small lettuce leaves,
and place a stuffed tomato on the dressing in the center of each leaf.
Arrange them in a circle on a flat dish. Tomatoes may be stuffed in the
same way with chopped veal, celery and veal or chicken, celery and
sweetbreads, or chopped hard-boiled eggs and shredded lettuce.

[Illustration: TOMATOES STUFFED WITH CELERY AND MAYONNAISE STANDING ON
LETTUCE LEAVES.]


=No. 3. TOMATOES AND EGGS=

Prepare the tomatoes as above; partly fill them with Mayonnaise, and
press into each one the half of a hard-boiled egg, letting the rounded
top rise a little above the tomato. Serve on lettuce as above.


=No. 4. MOLDED TOMATOES=

Select small round tomatoes. Stuff them in any way directed above, but
do not let the filling project beyond the opening. Place individual
molds on ice. Small cups will do; pour in one eighth of an inch of clear
aspic or chicken aspic (see page 323); when it has set, place in each
one a tomato, the whole side down; add enough jelly to fix the tomato
without floating it. When that has set, add enough more to entirely
cover it (see Fancy Molding, page 323). Turn each molded tomato onto the
plate on which it is to be served, and arrange around it a wreath of
shredded lettuce. Pass Mayonnaise dressing separately.


=No. 5. TOMATO JELLY=

  1/2 can or 2 cupfuls of tomatoes.
  3 cloves.
  1 bay-leaf.
  1 slice of onion.
  1/2 teaspoonful of thyme.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of sugar.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.
  1/4 box or 1/2 ounce of Cooper's gelatine, soaked in 1/2 cupful of water.

Boil together the tomatoes, spices, and onion until the tomato is soft;
then add the soaked gelatine, and stir until the gelatine is dissolved;
then strain and pour it into a border or ring-shaped mold to set. Serve
with the center of the jelly-ring filled with celery cut into pieces,
into straws, or curled, and mixed with Mayonnaise. Form outside the ring
a wreath of shredded lettuce.

This jelly may also be molded in a solid piece and surrounded by the
celery. (See illustration opposite page 384.)

[Illustration: TOMATO JELLY MOLDED IN RING, THE CENTER FILLED WITH
CURLED CELERY AND MAYONNAISE--LETTUCE CUT INTO RIBBONS AROUND THE
OUTSIDE. (SEE PAGE 381.)]


=CELERY AND WALNUT SALAD=

Mix with the celery, cut into small pieces, one third the quantity of
English walnut meats broken in two, and enough Mayonnaise to well
moisten it. Garnish with lettuce.


=SWEETBREADS WITH CELERY=

Cut cold cooked sweetbreads into dice and mix with an equal quantity of
celery. Cover with Mayonnaise and garnish with lettuce.


=EGG SALAD No. 1=

Cut hard-boiled eggs (see page 262) into thick slices or into quarters.
Use a sharp knife so the cuts will be clean. Arrange each portion on a
leaf of lettuce partly covered with Mayonnaise, and arrange the lettuce
in a circle on a flat dish, the stem of the leaf toward the center of
the dish. Place a bunch of nasturtium flowers or a bunch of white
chicory leaves in the middle. (See illustration.)

[Illustration: SALAD OF SLICED HARD-BOILED EGGS ARRANGED ON LETTUCE
LEAVES, THE STALK ENDS OF THE LEAVES MEETING IN THE CENTER OF THE DISH.]


=No. 2=

Cut hard-boiled eggs in two, making the cut one third from the pointed
end. Remove the yolks without breaking the whites; mash them and mix
with chicken, chopped fine, and enough Mayonnaise to bind them. Fill the
large half of the egg with the mixture, rounding it on top like a whole
yolk. Invert the small pieces of white. Cut the pointed ends of both
pieces flat, and stick them together with raw white of egg. Place the
vase-shaped eggs on a flat dish, and fill the spaces with shredded
lettuce. Pass Mayonnaise, as that put in the yolks will not be
sufficient. (See illustration.)

[Illustration: SALAD OF STUFFED EGGS GARNISHED WITH LETTUCE CUT INTO
RIBBONS. (SEE PAGE 381.)]


=ORANGE SALAD=

Use for this salad sour oranges; if these cannot be obtained, strain
over sweet oranges after they are sliced a little lemon-juice. Cut the
oranges in thick slices, remove the seeds carefully, arrange them in
rows, and turn over them a dressing made of one tablespoonful of
lemon-juice to three of oil, with salt, and cayenne, or paprica to
taste. Serve with game.

Grape fruit may be used the same way, and walnut meats used with either.


=CHICKEN SALAD=

Cut cold cooked chicken into dice one half inch square, or into pieces
of any shape, but not too small. Use only the white meat, if very
particular as to appearance, but the dark meat is also good. Veal is
sometimes substituted for chicken. Wash and scrape the tender stalks of
celery. Cut them into small pieces, and dry them well. Use two thirds as
much celery as chicken. Marinate the chicken as directed at the head of
chapter. Keep it in a cold place until ready to serve; then mix with it
the celery, and add lightly a little Mayonnaise. Place the mixture in a
bowl, smooth the top, leaving it high in the center; cover it with
Mayonnaise. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs, the whites and yolks chopped
separately; also with sliced pickle, stoned olives, capers,
lettuce-leaves, celery-tops, etc. Arrange any or all of these in as
fanciful design as desired. Shredded lettuce may be used instead of
celery if more convenient.


=LOBSTER SALAD=

Cut the boiled lobster into one inch pieces or larger. Marinate it, and
keep in a cool place until ready to serve; then mix with it lightly a
little Mayonnaise. Place it in the salad bowl; smooth the top, leaving
it high in the center. Mask it with a thick covering of Mayonnaise.
Sprinkle over it the powdered coral of the lobster. Place on top the
heart of a head of lettuce, and around the salad a thick border of crisp
lettuce-leaves, carefully selected.

Shad roe, canned salmon, or any firm white fish mixed with Mayonnaise,
and garnished with lettuce, may be served as a salad.


=OYSTER SALAD=

Scald the oysters in their own liquor until plump and frilled. Drain,
and let them get very cold and dry. If large oysters, cut each one with
a silver knife into four pieces. Just before serving mix them with
Mayonnaise or Tartare sauce, and serve each portion on a leaf of
lettuce. Celery may be mixed with oysters, and served the same way.


=BOUILLI SALAD=

Cut beef that has been boiled for soup into half-inch dice. Marinate it,
using a little grated onion with the marinade. Mix it lightly with some
cold boiled potatoes cut into half-inch dice, and some parsley chopped
fine. Pour over it a French dressing, or Mayonnaise. Garnish with
hard-boiled eggs and lettuce.


=RUSSIAN SALAD=

Fill the outside of a double mold with clear aspic jelly (see page 321),
and the center with a macédoine of vegetables, or with celery, or with
any one vegetable. Marinate the vegetables; then mix them with
Mayonnaise made with jelly instead of eggs (see page 290). Cover the top
with jelly so the vegetables will be completely enclosed (see directions
for double molding, page 325). Turn the form of salad on a flat dish,
and garnish with shredded lettuce.

[Illustration: RUSSIAN MACÉDOINE SALADS WITH ASPIC. PINK AND WHITE
OUTSIDE, CENTER FILLED WITH CELERY, PEAS AND BEANS, MIXED WITH CHICKEN
ASPIC.

  1. Turnip.
  2. Beet.
  3. Truffle.
  4. Red beets.
  5. Slices of hard-boiled egg.
  6. Olives.
  7. Turnip.
  8. Beet.
  9. Turnip.]


=INDIVIDUAL RUSSIAN SALADS=

Ornament the bottom of small timbale-molds with carrot cut into fancy
shape in the center, and a row of green peas around the edge. Add
enough clear aspic or chicken jelly to fix them, then fill the mold with
jelly; when it has hardened, scoop out carefully with a hot spoon some
of the jelly from the center, and fill the space at once with a
macédoine of vegetables mixed with jelly Mayonnaise as above. Serve each
form on a leaf of lettuce. Pass Mayonnaise separately.

NOTE.--Molds of salad in aspic may be elaborately decorated with rows of
different-colored vegetables, or they may be arranged in layers like the
aspic of pâté.

Individual salads, when served for suppers, buffet lunches, etc., may be
placed around graduated socles in a pyramid. Decorations of capers and
parsley, also of truffles and tongue, are suitable for Russian salads.

[Illustration: INDIVIDUAL SALADS.

  1. Pâté de foie gras and aspic jelly in layers. Daisy decoration made
     of hard-boiled egg.
  2. Russian Salad decorated with green peas or capers.]


=ASPIC OF PÂTÉ EN BELLEVUE=

Ornament the bottom of individual timbale molds with a daisy design made
of hard-boiled egg as directed, page 326; fix it with a little jelly;
then add a layer of jelly one quarter inch thick, and a layer of pâté de
foie gras alternately until the mold is full. Any forcemeat may be used
in the same way. Turn the molds onto a flat dish and surround them with
shredded lettuce, or place them on an ornamented socle. Pass Mayonnaise.
(See illustration facing page 328.)

[Illustration: PÂTÉ DE FOIE GRAS EN BELLEVUE. SLICES OF PÂTÉ ALTERNATING
WITH ASPIC--MOLDED IN INDIVIDUAL TIMBALE MOLDS. FORMS STANDING ON RICE
SOCLE DECORATED WITH TONGUE AND PICKLE--GARNISHED WITH BUNCH OF RED
CARNATIONS.]


=CHICKEN ASPIC WITH WALNUTS=

Make a clear chicken consommé (see page 100). To one and one half
cupfuls of the consommé add one half box of Cox's gelatine soaked for
one half hour in one half cupful of cold water. Ornament the bottom of a
quart Charlotte mold with a daisy design with leaf, as given page 326.
Add a layer of jelly one quarter inch thick, and then fill the outside
of double mold with jelly. (See double molding, page 325.) Fill the
center with one and a half cupfuls of celery cut rather fine, and one
half cupful of English walnuts, broken to same size as the celery.
Mix them with a dressing made of

  3 tablespoonfuls of melted chicken jelly.
  2 tablespoonfuls of oil.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of vinegar.
  1/2 teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar.
  1/4 teaspoonful of pepper.

Cover the top with jelly, so as to completely enclose the celery
mixture. Turn it onto a flat dish, and place around it a wreath of
shredded lettuce. This is a very delicious salad, and well repays the
trouble of preparation.


=BIRD'S-NEST SALAD=

Rub a little green coloring paste into cream cheese, giving it a
delicate color like birds' eggs. Roll it into balls the size of birds'
eggs, using the back or smooth side of butter-pats.

Arrange on a flat dish some small well-crimped lettuce leaves; group
them to look like nests, moisten them with French dressing, and place
five of the cheese balls in each nest of leaves. The cheese balls may be
varied by flecking them with black, white, or red pepper.

The nests may be made of shredded lettuce if preferred.



CHAPTER XVIII

COLD DESSERTS


UTENSILS

Illustration No. 1, Egg-beaters.--No. 1, Dover beater; Nos.
2 and 3, Wire Whips; No. 4, Daisy beater.

[Illustration: No. 1. EGG WHIPS.

  1. Dover Beater.
  2. Wire Spoon.
  3. Wire Whip.
  4. Daisy Beater.]

Illustration No. 2, Jelly Molds.--No. 1, Two Charlotte Russe
molds to use for double molding; No. 2, cylindrical mold for
Charlottes, Bavarians, cornstarch, etc.; Nos. 3 and 4, ring
molds.

[Illustration: No. 2. JELLY MOLDS.

  1. Two Charlotte Molds for double molding.
  2. Cylindrical Mold.
  3, 4. Ring Molds.]

Illustration No. 3.--No. 1, jelly mold packed in ice ready
to be filled; No. 2, smaller mold to fit inside for double
molding.

[Illustration: No. 3. JELLY MOLDS.

  1. Mold packed in ice for fancy molding.
  2. Smaller Mold of same shape to fit into No. 1 for double molding.
     (See page 325.)]

Illustration No. 4.--Pastry bag and tubes.

[Illustration: No. 4.

PASTRY BAG AND TUBES.]

Illustration No. 5.--Paper for filtering fruit juices.

[Illustration: No. 5.

PAPER FOR FILTERING FRUIT JUICES.]

Illustration No. 6.--No. 1, lace papers to use under cake,
puddings, jellies, individual creams, bonbons, etc.; also
for timbales; No. 2, paper boxes and china cups to use for
individual soufflés, biscuits, glacé oranges and grapes,
creamed strawberries, and cherries; also for creamed chicken,
and fish, salpicon, etc.

[Illustration: No. 6.

LACE PAPERS, PAPER BOXES, AND CHINA BOX.]

The china cups are useful for the latter purposes.

The rectangular paper boxes are easily made. For boxes 3-1/4 x
1-3/4 inches, cut heavy unruled writing paper into pieces
5-3/4 x 7-1/4 inches; fold down an edge two inches wide all
around; fold it back again on itself, giving a border one inch
broad. Cut the corners at the black line, as shown in diagram,
and fold the box together. The ends will fit under the folds,
and hold the box in shape. A little more stability may be
given the box by taking a stitch at each corner, and letting
the thread run around the top of the box under the flap.

[Illustration]


WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

           4 gills   = 1 pint.
           2 pints   = 1 quart.
           4 quarts  = 1 gallon.
           16 ounces = 1 pound.

  1/2 kitchen cupful = 1 gill.
  1 kitchen cupful   = 1/2 pint or 2 gills.
  4 kitchen cupfuls  = 1 quart.

  2 cupfuls of granulated sugar   } = 1 pound.
  2-1/2 cupfuls of powdered sugar }
  1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar = 1 ounce.
  1 heaping tablespoonful of butter } = 2 oz. or 1/4 cupful
  Butter size of an egg             }
  1 cupful of butter = 1/2 pound.
  4 cupfuls of flour } = 1 pound.
  1 heaping quart    }
  8 round tablespoonfuls of dry material = 1 cupful.
  16 tablespoonfuls of liquid = 1 cupful.


PROPORTIONS

  5 to 8 eggs to 1 quart of milk for custards.
  3 to 4 eggs to 1 pint of milk for custards.
  1 saltspoonful of salt to 1 quart of milk for custards.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla to one quart of milk for custards.
  2 ounces of gelatine to 1-3/4 quarts of liquid.
  4 heaping tablespoonfuls of cornstarch to 1 quart of
  milk.
  3 heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder to 1 quart
  of flour.
  1 even teaspoonful of baking-powder to 1 cupful of
  flour.
  1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 pint of sour milk.
  1 teaspoonful of soda to 1/2 pint of molasses.


MATERIALS

                                                 [Sidenote: Gelatine.]

Cooper's gelatine costs eight cents a box, holding two
ounces. Unless perfectly transparent jelly, without
clarifying, is required, it serves as well as the more
expensive brands. Cox's gelatine costs fifteen cents a box,
containing one and one half ounces. It is clear, and needs
only to be strained to make a transparent jelly.

Isinglass comes in thin sheets, is very clear, and makes a
brilliant jelly. It costs ten cents an ounce, and there are
eight and one half sheets of the white, thirteen sheets of
the red, to an ounce.

For dissolving and proportions, see page 412.

                                                [Sidenote: Chocolate.]

Unsweetened chocolate costs about thirty-eight cents a
pound. It is usually divided into squares weighing one ounce
each. Sweetened chocolate costs about fifty cents per pound,
and is usually divided into bars, each weighing a little
less than one and a quarter ounces.

                                        [Sidenote: To melt chocolate.]

Break the chocolate into pieces, and put them into a dry pan
on the fire, where the heat is moderate. The chocolate melts
quickly, and must be carefully watched, or it will burn. Add
a few spoonfuls of milk to melted chocolate to dissolve it
before adding it to custards.

                                             [Sidenote: To whip eggs.]

Do not let a particle of the yolk get into the whites. Add a
little salt, and they will whip more quickly. The "daisy
beater," with the handle bent, as shown in illustration, is
an excellent one for whipping eggs. Hold it flat, and whip
with an upward motion.

                                               [Sidenote: Sweetening.]

One tablespoonful of powdered sugar to the white of one egg is
the right proportion for sweetening meringue. Add but one
spoonful of sugar at a time, place it on the side of the dish,
and beat it in gradually from below. This will destroy the
air-cells less, and leave the egg lighter than sprinkling the
sugar over the top.

                                            [Sidenote: To whip cream.]

To whip cream, see page 408.

                                                     [Sidenote: Milk.]

Milk is scalded when the water in the outside double kettle
boils.

                                                  [Sidenote: Raisins.]

Raisins are more easily stoned if soaked a few minutes. Roll
raisins and currants in flour before adding them to cake or
puddings. If added the last thing they will then hold in
place, and not sink to the bottom.

                                               [Sidenote: Thickening.]

Use arrowroot to thicken fruit juices. It cooks perfectly clear,
and does not destroy the color or cloud the transparency of
the fruit.

                                                [Sidenote: Flavoring.]

Where essences or wine flavorings are used they are put in the
last thing, and after the mixture is cooked. For cold desserts
the mixture should be partly or entirely cold before adding
them.

                                                  [Sidenote: Molding.]

In molding mixtures be careful that bubbles of air do not
form on the sides of the molds, as they leave holes and
destroy the smoothness and beauty of the form. This can be
prevented by pouring the mixture very slowly into the center
of the tin.


FLAVORS

Vanilla has long held first place in American cooking as
flavoring, but is no longer highly esteemed, and by many it
is considered injurious. The essences of fruits, flowers,
and nuts are preferable. They cost twenty cents per bottle
of two ounces.

                                                 [Sidenote: Liqueurs.]

Cordials or liqueurs give by far the most delicate and
pleasant flavor to jellies, creams, and many other desserts.
They are rich syrups of different flavors, and contain only
enough spirits to preserve them. Maraschino has the flavor of
bitter cherry, curaçao of orange-peel, noyau of peach-kernels
or nuts. They cost about $1.50 per bottle, holding nearly a
quart, and last so long a time that the expense of using them
is really not greater, if as much, as for vanilla, which costs
twenty-five cents for two ounces.

                                                    [Sidenote: Wines.]

Kirsch, rum, and sherry are also much used in high-class
cooking, and, like the liqueurs, need not be excluded from use
on the score of temperance. The slight flavor they impart to
cooked dishes does not suggest the drink or create a taste for
liquors. Wine augments the flavor of salt, and so the latter
should be used sparingly until after the flavoring is added.

                                    [Sidenote: Eau de Vie de Dantzic.]

Eau de Vie de Dantzic is made of brandy, is highly flavored,
and contains gold-leaf. It is used for jellies, making them
very ornamental. There is seldom enough gold-leaf in it,
however, and more should be added. A book of gold-leaf costs
less than fifty cents.

                                             [Sidenote: Vanilla bean.]

In French cooking the vanilla bean is generally used instead
of the extract. The bean is split and infused in the liquid.
Half of one bean is sufficient to flavor one quart, but its
use is not always economical, as one bean costs twenty cents.
It is said the Tonquin bean, which is much less expensive,
very closely resembles the vanilla bean in flavor and can be
substituted for it.

                                           [Sidenote: Vanilla powder.]

Vanilla powder is used for ice-creams.

                                            [Sidenote: Vanilla sugar.]

Vanilla sugar is better than the extract of vanilla for
meringues, whips, etc., where a liquid is not desirable.

                                         [Sidenote: Flavoring sugars.]

Flavoring sugars can be made as follows:

                                            [Sidenote: Vanilla sugar.]

Cut one ounce of dried vanilla beans into pieces and pound
them in a mortar with one half pound of granulated sugar to
a fine powder. Pass it through a fine sieve. Pound again the
coarse pieces that do not go through at first. Keep it in a
well-corked bottle or preserve jar.

                                             [Sidenote: Orange sugar.]

Cut from six oranges the thin yellow rind, or zest, taking
none of the white peel. Let it thoroughly dry, then pound
it in a mortar with a cupful of granulated sugar and pass
it through a fine sieve. Keep it in an air-tight jar. One
tablespoonful of this sugar will flavor a quart of custard.
The Mandarin orange makes a good flavor.

                                              [Sidenote: Lemon sugar.]

Another way is to rub cut loaf-sugar against the peel of an
orange or lemon. As the sugar breaks the oil sacs and absorbs
the zest, scrape it off, dry, and pass it through a fine
sieve.

                                               [Sidenote: Rose sugar.]

Make the same as orange sugar, using two cupfuls of dried
rose leaves to one of sugar.

                                  [Sidenote: Orange and lemon syrups.]

Orange and lemon syrups are made by pounding the thin yellow
rinds with a little tepid water to a pulp, then adding it to
cold syrup at 32° (see page 513), and letting it infuse for
an hour or more. Strain and keep in air-tight jars.

                                         [Sidenote: Pistachio flavor.]

Pistachio flavor can be obtained, when it is not convenient to
use the nuts, by first flavoring with orange-flower water,
then adding a very little essence of bitter almond.

A peach leaf, infused with milk when it is scalded for
custard, will give the flavor of noyau.

                                                  [Sidenote: Caramel.]

Caramel (see page 78). This gives a very delicate and
agreeable flavor to custards, cream and ices.

                          [Sidenote: Preserved orange and lemon peel.]

Candied orange and lemon peel cut into shreds is good in
custards and cakes. To prepare it, boil the peel in water
until tender, then in sugar and water until clear; let it
stand in the syrup several hours, then drain and dry. It
will keep indefinitely in a closed jar.


COLORING

Vegetable coloring pastes, which are entirely harmless, can be
obtained for twenty-five cents a bottle. The green and the
red, or carmine, are the colors generally used for icings,
creams and jellies. The orange is used for orange-cake icing
and candies. Very little should be used, as the colors should
be delicate. To guard against using too much it is well to
dilute it with a little water and add only a few drops at a
time to the mixture.

The various shades of red to pink are obtained by using more
or less carmine.

                                             [Sidenote: Fruit juices.]

Fruit juices impart both color and flavor. They should be
filtered (see page 415) before using, or they give a muddy
color.


GARNISHING

To decorate cold sweet dishes, use fancy cakes, icings,
fruits either fresh, candied, compote or glacé; jellies
or blanc-mange molded, or made into a layer and then cut
into fancy shapes. Spun sugar (see page 515) makes a fine
decoration, and can be formed into nests, wreaths, balls, or
simply spread irregularly over a dish.

                                [Sidenote: Candied California fruits.]

The candied California fruits are very useful and beautiful
for both cold and hot desserts. They cost sixty to eighty
cents a pound, and are not expensive, as but little is used at
a time, and they keep indefinitely in closed jars. Cherries
are used whole, the other fruits are cut into pieces.

                                                 [Sidenote: Angelica.]

Angelica is also very effective for decoration. A piece
costing twenty cents will go a long way. It is cut into
thin strips and then into diamond-shaped or triangular
pieces, and used to simulate leaves. The combination of
cherries and angelica is especially pretty.

                                                 [Sidenote: Currants.]

A mold sprinkled with currants makes a good garnish for hot
or cold puddings.

                                      [Sidenote: Raisins and almonds.]

Raisins and almonds also make an effective garnish for
either hot or cold desserts.

                                                     [Sidenote: Nuts.]

Almonds, pistachio nuts, filberts, English walnuts and
chestnuts are employed in many ways, as see receipts.

                                            [Sidenote: Fresh flowers.]

Fresh flowers and green leaves may be used with good effect
on many cold dishes. Pink roses lend themselves particularly
to this purpose. Violets, pansies, geraniums, sweet-peas and
others are often appropriate. Nasturtiums with salad are
good for both decoration and flavor. (See opposite pages
328, 410, 492.)

                                           [Sidenote: Colored sugars.]

Colored sugars and small candies called "hundreds and
thousands" are used to sprinkle over icings, méringues,
creams and whips. To color sugar sift coarse granulated
sugar, spread the coarse grains on stiff paper, and drop on
it a few drops of coloring fluid. Roll it under the hand
until evenly tinted, then leave to dry on the paper. Keep in
corked bottles.

                                                   [Sidenote: Sauces.]

Sauces for cold sweet dishes are custards, whipped cream,
canned or preserved fruit, fresh fruit juices, or purées. The
purées are crushed fruit sweetened to taste (with syrup at 30°
if convenient). They are improved with a little flavoring of
Maraschino, kirsch, curaçao, or with orange or lemon juice.
Peach is improved in appearance if slightly colored with
carmine.

                                            [Sidenote: Canned fruits.]

Canned fruits are now very inexpensive, and many of them are
fresh in taste as well as appearance. They are useful in a
variety of desserts, and often suit the purpose as well as
fresh fruits.


THE STORE-CLOSET

                                 [Sidenote: Garnishing and flavoring.]

The various articles needed for garnishing, flavoring, etc.,
should be kept in glass preserve jars, and labeled. The
store-closet, once furnished with the requisites for fancy
dishes, will tempt the ordinary cook to a higher class of
work, and contribute to the desirable end of presenting
dishes that please both sight and taste, and so raise the
standard of every-day cooking. It is very easy to garnish a
dish or decorate a mold, and the habit once formed will lead
to more ambitious attempts.


=CUSTARDS=


BOILED CUSTARD NO. 1

  2 cupfuls, or one pint, of milk.
  Yolks of 3 eggs.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.
  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

Boiled custard is the basis of many puddings, ice-creams and sauces. It
requires care to get it just right, for the cooking must be arrested at
the right point; a moment too soon leaves it too thin, a moment too long
curdles and spoils it. It should have the consistency of thick cream,
and be perfectly smooth. It is safer to make it in a double boiler.
Bring the milk to the scalding-point without boiling; then take from the
fire, and pour it slowly into the eggs and sugar, which have been beaten
together to a cream; stir all the time; replace on the fire, and stir
until the custard coats the spoon, or a smooth creamy consistency is
attained; then immediately strain it into a cold dish, and add the
flavoring. If vanilla bean, peach leaves, or lemon zest are used for
flavoring, they can be boiled with the milk. If by accident the custard
begins to grain, arrest the cooking at once by putting the saucepan in
cold water; add a little cold milk, and beat it vigorously with a Dover
beater. Five egg yolks to a quart of milk will make a good boiled
custard, but six or eight make it richer. It is smoother when the yolks
only are used, yet the whole egg makes a good custard, and in the
emergency of not having enough eggs at hand a little corn-starch may be
used.

Boiled custard may be flavored with vanilla, almond, rose, maraschino,
noyau, caramel, coffee, chopped almonds, grated cocoanut, or pounded
macaroons. The cocoanut makes a delicious custard, but must be rich with
eggs and stiff enough to keep the cocoanut from settling to the bottom.


BOILED CUSTARD NO. 2.

Make a boiled custard (see preceding receipt), using a pint of milk,
three egg yolks, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, dash of salt, and any
flavoring preferred. Let it get entirely cold; just before serving mix
in lightly the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth. This will
give a sponge-like texture, and make a very delicate custard. As the
whites are not cooked it will not keep long after they are added.
Ornament the top with bits of jelly on small pieces of the whipped egg.


=FLOATING ISLAND=

Whip the whites of two or three eggs very stiff; add a tablespoonful of
powdered sugar (see page 389) to each egg; flavor with essence of
almond, and add a few chopped almonds. Turn it into an oiled
pudding-mold which has a fancy top; cover and place it in a saucepan of
boiling water to poach for twenty minutes. Leave enough room in the mold
for the meringue to swell. Let it stand in the mold until cold; it will
contract and leave the sides. When ready to serve, unmold the meringue
and place it on boiled custard served in a glass dish.

[Illustration: FLOATING ISLAND. (SEE PAGE 395.)]


=CHOCOLATE CUSTARD=

Make a boiled custard No. 1, using the whites as well as the yolks of
the eggs; add one bar of melted chocolate (see page 388). Mix thoroughly
and strain into cups.


=BAKED CUSTARD=

Use the same proportions as for boiled custard. Beat the eggs, sugar,
and salt together to a cream; stir in the scalded milk; turn into a
pudding-dish or into cups; grate a little nutmeg over the top; stand it
in a pan of hot water, and bake in a moderate oven until firm in the
center. Test by running a knife into the custard. If it comes out clean,
it is done; if milky, it needs longer cooking; but it must be carefully
watched, for it will separate if cooked too long.

A custard, to be smooth and solid, must be baked very slowly. The holes
often seen in baked custard are caused by escaping bubbles of steam,
which rise through the mixture when the heat reaches the boiling-point.


=CARAMEL CUSTARD=

Put a cupful of granulated sugar into a small saucepan with a
tablespoonful of water; stir until melted; then let it cook until a
light brown color (see caramel, page 78). Turn one half the caramel into
a well-buttered mold which has straight sides and flat top, and let it
get cold. Into the rest of the caramel turn a half cupful of hot water,
and let it stand on the side of the range until the caramel is
dissolved. This is for the sauce.

Stir four yolks and two whole eggs, with three tablespoonfuls of sugar,
and one half saltspoonful of salt, to a cream, but do not let it froth;
add a pint of scalded milk and a half teaspoonful of vanilla. Strain
this into the mold onto the cold hardened caramel. Place the mold in a
pan of hot water, and bake in a very moderate oven until firm in the
center; test by running in a knife (see baked custard), and watch it
carefully. The water in the pan must not boil, and the oven should be so
slow that it will take at least an hour to cook the custard. It will
then be very firm and smooth. Unmold the custard when ready to serve. It
will have a glaze of caramel over the top, and some will run down the
sides. Serve the caramel sauce in another dish. This dish is
recommended.


=CHOCOLATE CREAM CUSTARD=

Use the same proportions as for caramel custard. Add one and one half
ounces of melted chocolate (see page 388). Strain it into a buttered
mold, and bake slowly the same as caramel custard. Unmold when cold, and
serve with or without whipped cream.

Both the caramel and the chocolate cream custards may be baked in
individual timbale-molds, if preferred.


=RENNET CUSTARD=

Sweeten and flavor the milk; heat it until lukewarm; then turn it into
the glass dish in which it is to be served. Add to each quart of milk a
tablespoonful of liquid rennet (which comes prepared for custards), and
mix it thoroughly. Let it stand where it will remain lukewarm until a
firm curd is formed; then remove carefully to a cold place. If jarred
the whey is likely to separate. Brandy or rum make the best flavoring
for this custard, but any flavoring may be used. It may be served
without sauce, but a whipped cream, colored pink, improves it, and also
takes away the suggestion of soured milk which curds give.


=CORN-STARCH PUDDINGS=


(NO. 1.) A PLAIN CORN-STARCH PUDDING

  1 pint of milk.
  2 heaping tablespoonfuls
  of corn-starch.
  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
  Whites of 3 eggs.
  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Beat the eggs to a stiff froth. Dissolve the corn-starch in a little of
the cold milk. Stir the sugar into the rest of the milk, and place it on
the fire. When it begins to boil, add the dissolved corn-starch. Stir
constantly for a few moments. When it becomes well thickened, stir in
the beaten whites of the eggs, and let it remain a little longer to cook
the eggs. Remove from the fire; flavor with vanilla, and turn it into a
mold.[397-*]

This pudding is quickly and easily made. It gives about a quart of
pudding, or enough to serve six to eight persons. It may or may not be
served with a custard made of the yolks of the eggs, but it requires a
good sauce and flavoring, or it is rather tasteless. Several variations
of this receipt are given below.


FOOTNOTES:

[397-*] Corn-starch has a raw taste unless it is thoroughly cooked.
After the mixture has thickened it can be left to cook in a double
boiler for half an hour without changing its consistency, and this
length of time for cooking is essential to its flavor. A mold of corn
starch should not be very firm, but have a trembling jelly-like
consistency. The eggs may be omitted from above receipt if desired, but
the pudding will not be as delicate.--M. R.


(NO. 2.) CORN-STARCH WITH CANNED FRUIT

When the corn-starch is sufficiently set to hold the fruit in place,
stir into it lightly one half can of well-drained fruit (cherries,
raspberries, strawberries, or any other fruit), and turn it into a mold
to harden. Serve the juice of the fruit with it as a sauce.

[Illustration: CORNSTARCH PUDDING MOLDED IN RING MOLD WITH WHITE
CALIFORNIA CANNED CHERRIES AND CENTER FILLED WITH CHERRIES.]


(NO. 3.) COCOANUT PUDDING

When the corn-starch is removed from the fire, and partly cooled, add
half a cocoanut grated. Mix it well together and turn into a mold; serve
with a custard or, better, with whipped cream. Sprinkle sugar over the
half of the grated cocoanut not used, and spread it on a sieve to dry.
It will keep for some time when dried.


(NO. 4.) CHOCOLATE PUDDING

When the corn-starch is taken from the fire and flavored, turn one third
of it into a saucepan, and mix with it one and a half ounces or squares
of chocolate melted, a tablespoonful of sugar if unsweetened chocolate
is used, and a half cupful of stoned raisins. Let it cook one minute to
set the chocolate. Turn into a plain cylindrical mold one half of the
white corn-starch. Make it a smooth, even layer, keeping the edges
clean; then add the chocolate; smooth it in the same way; then add the
rest of the white corn-starch, making three even layers, alternating in
color; after each layer is in wipe the sides of the mold so no speck of
one color will deface the other. (See illustration.)

[Illustration: CORNSTARCH PUDDING IN LAYERS. (SEE PAGE 398.)]

[Illustration: CORNSTARCH PUDDING WITH PANSIES MOLDED IN A LAYER OF
JELLY ON TOP--GARNISHED WITH PANSIES.]


=CORN-STARCH CHOCOLATES=

(VERY SIMPLE, AND QUICKLY MADE)

Scald a pint of milk and four tablespoonfuls of sugar; add an ounce of
chocolate shaved thin, so it will dissolve quickly; then add two
heaping tablespoonfuls of corn-starch which has been diluted with a
little of the cold milk. Stir over the fire until the mixture is
thickened, add a half teaspoonful of vanilla, and turn it into small
cups to cool and harden. Unmold the forms when ready to serve, and use
sweetened milk for a sauce. By using a little less corn-starch, this
mixture will be a smooth, thick custard, and may be served in the cups.


=BLANC-MANGE, OR WHITE JELLY=

  1/2 box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine.
  3-1/2 cupfuls of milk.
  3/4 cupful of sugar.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla, or other flavor.

Scald three cupfuls of milk with the sugar; then add and dissolve in it
the gelatine, which has soaked for one half hour in a half cupful of
milk. Remove from the fire, add the flavoring, and strain into a mold.
Blanc-mange may be flavored with any of the liqueurs, and it may have
incorporated with it, when stiffened enough to hold them suspended,
chopped nuts or fruits, or raisins, currants, and citron.


=PLUM PUDDING JELLY=

  1/2 box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine soaked 1/2 hour in 1 cupful of cold
    water.
  1-1/2 ounces of chocolate.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  1 pint of milk.
  1 cupful of raisins stoned.
  1/2 cupful of currants.
  1/4 cupful of sliced citron.

Dissolve the sugar in the milk, and put it in a double boiler to scald.
Melt the chocolate on a dry pan; then add a few spoonfuls of the milk to
make it smooth, and add it to the scalded milk. Remove from the fire,
and add the soaked gelatine. Stir until the gelatine is dissolved; then
strain it into a bowl. When it begins to set, or is firm enough to hold
the fruit in place, stir in the fruit, which must have stood in warm
water a little while to soften. Flavor with one half teaspoonful of
vanilla, or a few drops of lemon. Turn it into a mold to harden. Serve
with it whipped cream, or a sauce made of the whipped white of one egg,
one tablespoonful of powdered sugar, a cupful of milk, and a few drops
of vanilla.



BAVARIAN CREAMS


                                    [Sidenote: General remarks about.]

BAVARIAN CREAMS are very wholesome, light, and delicious
desserts. They are easily made, and are inexpensive, as one
pint of cream is sufficient to make a quart and a half of
bavarian. They are subject to so many variations that they
may be often presented without seeming to be the same dish.
Bavarian creams may be used for Charlotte Russe.

GENERAL RULES.--Have the cream cold; then whipped, and
drained (see whipping cream), and do not add the whipped
cream to the gelatine mixture until the latter is beginning
to set.

                                              [Sidenote: How to make.]

Have the gelatine soaked in cold water one hour. It will
then quickly dissolve in the hot custard.

Do not boil the gelatine.


=PLAIN BAVARIAN CREAM=

  1 pint of cream whipped.
  1 pint of cream or milk.
  1/2 cupful of sugar.
  Yolks of 4 eggs.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.
  1/2 box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine soaked in one half cupful of water.
  1/2 vanilla bean, or 1 teaspoonful of vanilla extract.

Whip one pint of cream, and stand it aside to drain. Scald one pint of
cream or milk with the vanilla bean split in two; remove it from the
fire, and turn it slowly, stirring all the time, on the yolks, which
have been beaten with the sugar and salt to a cream. Return it to the
fire a moment to set the egg, but take it off the moment it begins to
thicken. Add the soaked gelatine and flavoring (if the bean has not been
used). Stir until the gelatine has dissolved, then pass it through a
sieve. When it is cold, and beginning to set, whip it a few minutes
with a Dover beater and then mix in lightly the whipped cream, and turn
it into a mold to harden. Avoid using any of the cream which has
returned to liquid. This cream should have a spongy texture.


=CHOCOLATE BAVARIAN=

Use the receipt given above for plain Bavarian. Melt two ounces of
chocolate, and dissolve it in a little milk; add this to the custard
mixture before the gelatine.


=ITALIAN CREAM, OR BAVARIAN WITHOUT CREAM=

Make a custard of one pint of milk, the yolks of three eggs, and three
tablespoonfuls of sugar; add a dash of salt. When it is cooked enough to
coat the spoon, add an ounce of gelatine, which has soaked for half an
hour in some of the cold milk. As soon as the gelatine is dissolved,
remove from the fire, and when it begins to stiffen fold in carefully
the whites of three eggs whipped to a stiff froth, and turn it into a
mold to set.


=FRUIT BAVARIAN=

Mash and press through a colander any fresh or canned fruit. If berries
are used, press them through a sieve to extract the seeds. Sweeten to
taste, and flavor with a little orange and lemon-juice, curaçao, or
maraschino. To a pint of fruit juice or pulp add a half box or one ounce
of gelatine, which has soaked an hour in one half cupful of cold water,
and then been dissolved in one half cupful of hot water. Stir the fruit
and gelatine on ice until it begins to set, otherwise the fruit will
settle to the bottom. Then stir in lightly a pint of cream whipped and
well-drained, and turn it into a mold to harden. Strawberries,
raspberries, pineapple, peaches, and apricots are the fruits generally
used. With fruits it is better to use a porcelain mold if possible, as
tin discolors. If a tin one is used, coat it with jelly as directed on
page 323, using a little of the dissolved gelatine (sweetened and
flavored) prepared for the fruit.


=RICE BAVARIAN, OR RIZ À L'IMPÉRATRICE=

Put into a double boiler one and one half pints of milk and a few thin
cuts of lemon-zest; when it boils stir in one half cupful of well-washed
rice and a saltspoonful of salt. Cook until the rice is perfectly
tender. The milk should be nearly boiled away, leaving the rice very
moist. Then add or mix in carefully a half cupful of sugar and a quarter
of a box, or one half ounce, of gelatine, which has soaked in half a
cupful of cold water for one hour, and then melted by placing the cup
containing it in hot water for a few minutes. When the mixture is partly
cold add three tablespoonfuls each of maraschino and of sherry, or of
sherry alone, or of any other flavoring. When it is beginning to set,
stir in lightly one half pint or more of well-whipped cream, and turn it
into a mold. This is a very white dish, and is a delicious dessert. It
may be served alone, or with orange jelly cut into croûtons, or with
orange compote (see page 536), or with plain or whipped cream.


=BAVARIAN PANACHÉE=

Make a plain Bavarian; flavor with vanilla; divide it into three parts
before the cream is added. Into one third stir one ounce of melted
chocolate. Into another third mix two tablespoonfuls of pistachio nuts
chopped fine, and color it green (see page 392). Arrange the three parts
in layers in a mold, beginning with the white, and stir into each one,
after it has begun to set, and just before putting it into the mold, a
third of the whipped cream. By keeping it in a warm place the Bavarian
will not set before it is wanted, and it can then be made to set quickly
by placing it on ice.


=BAVARIAN EN SURPRISE=

Line a mold with chocolate Bavarian one inch thick. Fill the center with
vanilla Bavarian mixed with chopped nuts, or line the mold with vanilla
Bavarian, and fill with fruit Bavarian (see double molding, page 325).


=DIPLOMATIC PUDDING=

This is molded in a double mold, and made of very clear lemon, orange,
or wine jelly for the outside, and a Bavarian cream for the inside. With
candied fruits make a design on the bottom of the larger mold (see
molding, page 325); fix it with a very little jelly, then add enough
more to make a half or three quarter inch layer of jelly. When it is set
put in the center mold. Make a layer of fruit and a layer of jelly
alternately until the outside space is filled, using fruits of different
colors for the different layers or stripes. When it is set, remove the
small mold, and fill the space with Bavarian, using a flavor that goes
well with the one used in the jelly--maraschino with orange; sherry,
noyau, or almond with lemon.


=DIPLOMATIC BAVARIAN=

Take six lady-fingers; open, and spread them with apricot, or with peach
jam. Place them together again like a sandwich. Moisten them with
maraschino, and cut them in one inch lengths. Boil until softened a half
cupful of stoned raisins and a half cupful of currants; drain them, and
moisten them with maraschino. Make a plain Bavarian flavored with
kirsch. When it is beginning to set and ready to go into the mold, mix
it lightly with the cake and fruit, and turn into a mold to harden.


=CHARLOTTE RUSSE=

                                                    [Sidenote: Forms.]

Charlotte Russe is simply a cream mixture, molded, with cake
on the outside. It is easily made and always liked. Charlotte
pans are oval, but any plain, round mold, or a kitchen basin
with sides not too slanting, or individual molds may be used.

                                       [Sidenote: General directions.]

First place on the bottom of the pan an oiled paper which is
cut to fit it neatly; then arrange lady-fingers evenly around
the sides, or instead of lady-fingers use strips of layer
sponge cake, No. 1 (page 466), or of Genoese (page 467). Cut
the strips one or one and a half inches wide, and fit them
closely together. Fill the center with any of the mixtures
given below, and let it stand an hour or more to harden.

[Illustration: CHARLOTTE RUSSE MADE WITH LADY FINGERS.]

                                            [Sidenote: Ornamentation.]

                                       [Sidenote: Cake in two colors.]

                                      [Sidenote: Icing in two colors.]

                                       [Sidenote: Decorating the top.]

A sheet of cake cut to fit the top may, or may not, be used.
If cake is used it is better to place it on the Charlotte
after it is unmolded and the paper removed. The layer cake
should be one quarter or three eighths of an inch thick only.
Charlottes can be ornamented in many ways, and made very
elaborate if desired. A simple decoration is obtained by
having the strips of cake in two colors, alternating the
upper, or browned, with the under, or white, side of the cake.
For the top, cut a piece of cake to the right shape. Then cut
it transversely, making even, triangular pieces, with the
width at the base the same as the side strips. Turn over each
alternate piece to give the two colors (see illustration); or,
ice the strips and the top piece of cake with royal icing (see
illustration) in two colors. Let the icing harden before
placing it in the mold. Have the sides, as well as the bottom,
of the mold lined with paper. Arrange the strips in the mold
with the colors alternating. Instead of using cake for the
top, some of the filling mixture can be put into a pastry-bag,
and pressed through a tube over the top in fancy forms.
Meringue or whipped cream may also be used for decorating the
top.

[Illustration: CHARLOTTE RUSSE WITH CAKE ARRANGED IN STRIPS OF TWO
COLORS. (SEE PAGE 404.)]

[Illustration: CHARLOTTE RUSSE WITH STRIPS OF CAKE ICED IN TWO COLORS.
(SEE PAGE 404.)]

[Illustration: CHARLOTTE RUSSE MADE OF ONE LAYER OF CAKE--TOP DECORATED
WITH DOTS OF ICING.]


=CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 1=

Whip a pint of cream to a stiff froth. Soak a half ounce of gelatine in
three tablespoonfuls of cold water for half an hour; then dissolve it
with two tablespoonfuls of boiling water. Add to the whipped cream a
tablespoonful of powdered sugar (or a little more if liqueurs are not
used for flavoring), and two dessertspoonfuls of noyau or other liqueur,
or a teaspoonful of vanilla. Then turn in slowly the dissolved gelatine,
beating all the time. When it begins to stiffen turn it into a mold
which is lined with cake.


=CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 2=

Beat well together two yolks of eggs and a half tablespoonful of sugar.
Scald a half cupful of milk, and stir it into the beaten yolks; add a
dash of salt, and return it to the double boiler. Stir it over the fire
until it coats the spoon, thus making a plain boiled custard. Add to the
hot custard a level tablespoonful of Cooper's gelatine, which has soaked
for half an hour in four tablespoonfuls of cold water; stir until the
gelatine is dissolved, then strain it into a bowl, add two
tablespoonfuls of sherry (or use any flavoring desired) and the whipped
whites of two eggs; beat until it just begins to thicken, then mix in
lightly a pint of cream whipped to a stiff froth, and turn into the
mold.


=CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 3 (Fruit)=

Soak an ounce of gelatine in a half cupful of cold water for half an
hour. Make a syrup of one cupful of sugar, a half cupful of lemon-juice,
and two cupfuls of orange-juice. When it has become a light syrup, turn
it slowly onto the beaten yolks of four eggs, beating all the time.
Return it to the double boiler, and cook until it is a little thickened,
then add the gelatine. When the gelatine is dissolved, strain and beat
until it is cold; add the whites of four eggs, and beat until it
stiffens, then turn it into the mold. A pint of whipped cream may be
used instead of the whipped whites of the eggs if convenient. In place
of orange and lemon-juice, any fruit may be used. Stew the fruit until
tender, add enough sugar to sweeten, and cook it to a light syrup; then
press the fruit through a sieve, and to two and a half cupfuls of fruit
syrup or of fruit pulp add the four eggs, and proceed as directed for
the orange filling.


=CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING, No. 4=

Use any of the plain or fruit Bavarian creams.


=CHARLOTTE RUSSE FILLING No. 5=

Use whipped jelly plain, or whipped jelly with fruits, called macédoine
of fruits (see page 417).


=TIMBALE OF BRIOCHE=

Bake a brioche (see page 359) in a cylindrical mold. Cut a straight
slice off the top about one inch thick; replace the cake in the tin, and
carefully pick out the center of the loaf, leaving a thickness of one
inch of the brioche. Spread the inside with a layer of jam. Put in a
saucepan the liquor from a can of apricots or peaches. Stir into it two
tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, moistened with a little water, and stir
over the fire until the juice is thickened and clear. Fill the center of
the brioche with the drained fruit, mixed with blanched almonds and
raisins; pour over it the thickened syrup, replace the cover. When set
turn it onto a dish; spread the outside with a little jam, and sprinkle
with chopped blanched almonds. This makes a very simple and wholesome
sweet.


=CHARLOTTE PRINCESSE de GALLES=

Take eight Carlsbad wafers of oblong shape. Stand them on end around the
outside of a cylindrical mold, and carefully stick the edges together
with sugar cooked to the crack, or with royal icing (see page 483). Make
the octagon as regular as possible. When the edges are well set place it
on a foundation either of puff-paste or of layer cake cut to the shape
of the form. Ornament it with dots of royal icing pressed through a
pastry-bag and tube onto the edges. Just before serving fill the center
with whipped cream, or with czarina cream, or with whipped jelly and
fruits, or whipped jelly and meringue, or with any of the mousses. The
wafers quickly loose their crispness, so the form must not be filled
until the moment of serving.

A filling may also be made for this Charlotte of any of the Charlotte
Russe mixtures, molding them in a form smaller than the form of wafers,
and when unmolded the ornamental form placed over it, and whipped cream
piled on top. In this way the wafers will not be softened.

[Illustration: CHARLOTTE PRINCESSE DE GALLES. (SEE PAGE 406.)]

[Illustration: CHARLOTTE PRINCESSE DE GALLES MADE OF ROLLED GAUFFRES.
(SEE PAGE 406.)]


=STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE=

Cut large firm strawberries in two lengthwise; dip them in liquid
gelatine, and line a plain mold, placing the flat side against the
mold. If the mold is on ice the jelly will harden at once, and hold the
berries in place. Fill the center with Charlotte filling No. 1, or with
Bavarian cream, or with pain de fraises.


=GÂTEAU ST. HONORÉ=

This is a combination of puff-paste, cream cakes, glacé fruits, and
whipped cream. It is said to be the triumph of the chef's art, yet one
need not fear to undertake it when one has learned to make good pastry
and to boil sugar. It is an ornamental, delicious dessert, and one that
can be presented on the most formal occasions. First: Roll thin a very
short or a puff-paste, so when baked it will be one quarter of an inch
thick only. Cut it the size of a layer-cake tin; place it on a dampened
baking-tin, and prick it with a fork in several places. Second: make a
cream-cake batter (see page 474); put the batter in a pastry-bag with
half inch tube, and press out onto and around the edge of the paste a
ring of the batter. With the rest of the batter make a number of small
cakes (two dozen), forming them with the tube into balls one half inch
in diameter. Brush the ring and balls with egg, and bake in a quick
oven; then fill them with St. Honoré cream (see below). Third: boil a
cupful of sugar to the crack, and glacé some orange sections and some
white grapes (see glacé fruits, page 516). Fourth: with some of the
sugar used for the fruits stick the small cream cakes onto the ring,
making an even border; on top of each cake stick a grape, and between
them a section of orange. Place a candied cherry on each piece of
orange, and one below it, if there is room. Other candied fruits and
angelica may be used also, if desired, and arranged in any way to suit
the fancy. Fifth: make a St. Honoré cream as follows: scald one cupful
of milk in a double boiler; turn it slowly onto the yolks of six eggs,
which have been well beaten with one and one half tablespoonfuls of
corn-starch and a cupful of powdered sugar. Return to the fire until it
begins to thicken or coats the spoon, then remove, and flavor with one
teaspoonful each of vanilla and noyau, and stir in lightly the whites of
eight eggs beaten very stiff. Cook it one minute to set the whites,
beating all the time. When cold, turn it into the gâteau. Whipped cream
may or may not be piled on top of the St. Honoré cream.

[Illustration: GÂTEAU ST. HONORÉ. (SEE PAGE 407.)]


=CROQUENBOUCHE OF MACAROONS=

Oil the outside of a dome-shaped mold. Beginning at the bottom, cover it
with macaroons, sticking the edges of the macaroons together with sugar
boiled to the crack, or with royal icing (see page 483). Just before
serving turn it off the mold, and place it over a form of plain or fruit
Bavarian cream, which has been hardened in a smaller mold of the same
shape. There should be an inch or more of space between the two, the
outer one covering the other like a cage.

A croquenbouche can also be made of little cakes cut from a layer cake
with a small biscuit-cutter, and iced in two colors with royal icing, or
with glacé oranges, or with chestnuts. The latter are difficult to make,
but are very good with ice-creams.



WHIPPED CREAM


                                       [Sidenote: General directions.]

                                              [Sidenote: Temperature.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Texture.]

                                          [Sidenote: Time for adding.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Draining.]

One half pint of double or very rich cream costs ten cents,
and may be diluted one half, giving a pint of cream as called
for in the receipts. Cream should be placed on the ice for
several hours before it is whipped. It is essential to have it
very cold, otherwise it will not whip well; and also, if rich
cream, it will form particles of butter. If not lower than 60°
it will all go to butter. Place the bowl containing the cream
in a larger bowl containing cracked ice, and with a cream
churn, Dover beater, or wire whip, whichever is convenient,
whip it to a stiff froth; continue to whip until it all
becomes inflated. If the cream is cold it will take but a few
minutes. This gives a firm, fine-grained cream, which is used
for Bavarians, mousses, ice-creams, etc. When a lighter and
more frothy cream, called syllabub, is wanted for whips and
sauces, dilute the cream more, and remove the froth from the
top of the cream as it rises while being whipped, and place it
on a fine sieve over a bowl to drain. That which drips through
the sieve replace in the whipping-bowl to be again beaten. The
flavoring and sweetening are added after it is whipped for the
first method; but it is better to add it before for the
latter, as mixing breaks down the froth. Whipped cream, like
beaten whites of eggs, added to gelatine or custard mixtures,
gives them a sponge-like texture. It should be drained, and
added only when the mixtures are cold and ready to be molded
or frozen. It is then cut in lightly, not stirred. Some
judgment must be used about diluting the cream, and it must
stand several hours on ice to insure success.

Cream whipped by the first method is the one recommended for
all purposes. When it is added to other things, any liquid
cream that may have dripped to the bottom of the bowl should
not be put in.


DESSERTS OF WHIPPED CREAM

Preserves and jams served with whipped cream make an
excellent dessert.


=WHIPS=

Flavor a pint of cream with a dessertspoonful of maraschino, kirsch, or
rum, or with a teaspoonful of essence of vanilla, rose, or almonds, or
flavor it with black coffee. Color it pink, or green, or leave it white.
Sweeten with three scant tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Whip it to a
stiff froth and drain. Let it stand on ice until ready to use; then with
a spoon pile it high on a glass dish. If the cream is white sprinkle it
with colored pink and green sugar mixed (see page 393). Or, skim off the
foam which first rises, placing several spoonfuls of it on a sieve to
drain. Color the rest a delicate pink, and whip it until it all becomes
firm and of fine grain. Turn this into a glass dish, and with a spoon
place the white froth upon it.


=CZARINA CREAM=

  1 pint of cream.
  1/4 box of gelatine.
  1/3 cupful of sugar.
  1/4 cupful of blanched almonds.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  1/2 teaspoonful of rosewater.
  4 tablespoonfuls of sherry.

Put a bowl containing the cream on ice; whip it to a stiff froth; add
slowly the sugar, then the gelatine (which has first been soaked an hour
in one quarter cupful of cold water, and then dissolved by placing the
cup in hot water), beating all the time. Add the vanilla and rosewater,
and enough green coloring (see page 392) to give it a delicate color.
When it begins to stiffen add the sherry, and lastly the almonds chopped
fine. When the cream is quite firm put it in round paper boxes, and
sprinkle over the top a little colored sugar, or chopped pistachio nuts
and granulated sugar mixed. Let it stand an hour or more on ice before
serving.


=CHESTNUT PURÉE WITH CREAM=

Boil a pound of shelled English chestnuts a few minutes; then drain, and
remove the skins. Boil them again until tender; drain, and mash them
through a purée sieve; sweeten, flavor with vanilla, and moisten them
with a little cream. Put the purée in a saucepan, and stir over a slow
heat until dry; then press it through a colander or potato-press onto
the dish in which it is to be served. Form it into a circle, using care
not to destroy the light and vermicelli-like form the colander has given
it. Serve whipped cream in the center of the ring.


=CHESTNUTS WITH CREAM=

After removing the shells and skins from some English chestnuts, boil
them until tender in water, then in sugar and water, until clear. Let
them lie in the syrup until cold; then drain, and pile them on a dish.
Boil the syrup down to a thick consistency, and pour it over the nuts.
Serve cold with whipped cream.



USES FOR STALE CAKE


=PINE CONES=

With a biscuit-cutter, cut slices of stale cake or bread into circles.
Moisten them with sherry, maraschino, or merely with a little hot water.
Chop some fresh or canned pineapple into small pieces, and pile it on
the cakes. With a knife press each one into the form of a cone or small
pyramid. Place them in a shallow tin close together, but not touching.
Put the pineapple liquor into a saucepan, and thicken it with arrowroot
(which has first been wet with water), using a teaspoonful to a cupful
of liquor. Cook until the arrowroot becomes clear and begins to stiffen;
then pour it slowly over the cones. It will cover them with a jelly.
When cold, trim them carefully so the base of each one will be round,
and lift them carefully from the tin.


=CAKE WITH CUSTARD=

Spread slices of stale cake or cottage pudding with jam; place them in a
glass dish, and cover with boiled custard; or first moisten the cake
with sherry, then cover with custard.


=TRIFLE (Esther)=

Slice in two six square sponge cakes (layer cake cut in squares will
do), spread with jam or jelly (a tart jelly is best), and put them
together like sandwiches. Moisten them in a mixture of one third brandy
and two thirds sherry. Put them in a glass dish, and pour over them a
custard made of one pint of milk, three eggs, and three tablespoonfuls
of sugar; put together as directed for boiled custard No. 2 (page 395).
Blanch and cut in fine strips one half cupful of almonds, and stick them
into the top cakes standing upright. Cover all with a half pint of
whipped cream, and sprinkle the top with hundreds and thousands (see
page 393), or with colored sugar (see page 393).


=BANANA TRIFLE (Martha)=

  1/2 cupful of milk.
  1/2 cupful of water.
  1 heaping teaspoonful of cornstarch.
  1 even teaspoonful of sugar.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.
  2 bananas.
  6 lady-fingers.
  1/2 pint of cream, or the whipped white of one egg.

Slice the bananas, and lay them in a glass dish in alternate layers with
four lady-fingers split in two. Put the milk and water in a saucepan;
add the sugar, salt, and the corn-starch diluted in a little cold water.
When it has thickened pour it over the bananas, and let it stand until
cold and ready to serve; then cover the top with whipped cream, or if
that is not convenient use the whipped white of one egg sweetened with
one tablespoonful of sugar. Split and break in two the remaining
lady-fingers, and place them upright around the edge.



SWEET JELLIES


With different flavors, colors, and combinations, a great
variety of attractive desserts can be made with gelatine.
They are inexpensive, require no skill, and the work is
accomplished in a very few minutes.

                      [Sidenote: Points to observe in making jellies.]

_Points to Observe in Making Jellies._--Have jellies
perfectly transparent and brilliant. Use the right
proportions, so the jelly will hold its form, but not be too
solid. Mold the jelly carefully.

                                               [Sidenote: Dissolving.]

_Dissolving._--Gelatine should be soaked in cold water in a
cold place (one cupful of water to a box of gelatine) for one
or more hours; then dissolved in a little hot water, or added
to the hot mixture. Treated in this way it will dissolve
quickly, and be free from taste or smell. If soaked in warm
water in a warm place it will have a disagreeable taste and
odor, requiring much flavoring to overcome.

It does not need cooking. If the jelly is not sufficiently
firm, add more gelatine; boiling down will not effect the
purpose.

                                              [Sidenote: Proportions.]

_Proportions._--Observe the quantity of gelatine stated on the
box, as some brands do not contain two ounces. Two ounces will
take one and three quarter quarts of liquid, including that
used for soaking and flavoring. The directions given on the
boxes usually give the proportion of one ounce to a quart of
liquid, but this will not insure a jelly which will stand
firm, and it is safer to use less liquid.

For this amount two cupfuls of sugar will give about the
right sweetening, but must be modified to suit the flavoring
used. In summer, or if the jelly will have to stand any
length of time after it is unmolded, it is better to use but
one and one half quarts of liquid to two ounces of gelatine.

                                           [Sidenote: To clear jelly.]

_Clarifying._--Most of the brands of gelatine are already
clarified, and need only to be passed through a sieve to
remove the lemon-zest and any particles of gelatine that
may not have dissolved. Any fruit juices used should be
passed through a filter-paper (see below) before being added
to the jelly: straining the jelly once or twice through
a felt or flannel will usually give perfectly limpid and
beautiful jelly. When, however, they need to be clarified,
or a particularly brilliant jelly is required, stir into
the mixture when it is cool the whites of two eggs, well
broken but not too much frothed; add also the shells; stir
it over the fire until it boils; let it simmer a few minutes
and strain it, twice if necessary, through a bag, without
pressure. A piece of flannel laid over a sieve or strainer may
be substituted for a bag if more convenient.

                                [Sidenote: Molding for fancy jellies.]

_Molding for Fancy Jellies._--Place the mold in a bowl
containing cracked ice; the jelly will then quickly harden,
and the process of fancy molding not be tedious. Have the mold
perfectly even, so the jelly will stand firm and straight
when unmolded; also, do not move the mold while filling, as
jarring or shaking is likely to separate the layers and cause
them to fall apart. Have the jelly mixture cold, but not ready
to set, or it will take in bubbles of air and cloud the jelly.
Pour in one layer at a time and let it harden before adding
the next. Do not, however, let it become too firm or gather
moisture, or it will not unite, and also will be clouded. (See
picture facing page 386.)

                            [Sidenote: To mold with fruit or flowers.]

To suspend a bunch of grapes in the center of a form, first
pour into the mold a layer of jelly one half inch deep; let it
harden; then place on it, and arrange in good shape the bunch
of grapes, leaving one half inch or more space around the
sides; pour in another half inch of jelly, but not enough to
float the grapes; when that has set, cut with scissors the
grape stem in many places, so it will fall apart when served;
then fill the mold with jelly. Any fruits, or flowers, can be
put in in the same way, care being used to add at first only
just enough jelly to fix the ornament; otherwise it will
float out of place. Plain jellies are more transparent when
molded in forms having a cylindrical tube in the center, like
cake-tins. The space left can be filled with whipped cream or
with fruits, which gives a pretty effect. (See picture.)

[Illustration: JELLY WITH A ROSE MOLDED IN IT AND GARNISHED WITH ROSES.
(SEE PAGE 414.)]

[Illustration: JELLY WITH A BUNCH OF GRAPES MOLDED IN IT. (SEE PAGE
414.)]

                                           [Sidenote: Double molding.]

_Double Molding_ (see page 325) can be used with good effect
in sweet jellies in combination with whipped jelly, Bavarian
creams, fruit jellies, etc.

                                                [Sidenote: Unmolding.]

_Unmolding._--See page 324.

                                                  [Sidenote: Serving.]

_Serving._--Jellies are improved by serving with them
whipped cream, custard, or purée of fruits. It may be poured
around, not over, the jelly on the same dish. When a sauce
is not used, have a lace paper under the jelly. Jelly is
more attractive when served on a flat glass dish.

                                            [Sidenote: Fruit jellies.]

For fruit jellies it is well to use a china mold, or else
coat the tin one with clear jelly (see page 323), as tin is
likely to discolor it.

                                  [Sidenote: To clarify fruit juices.]

_To Clarify Fruit Juices._--Pass the fruit juice through
filter-paper laid in a funnel. If filter-paper is not at hand,
soak unsized paper to a pulp. Wash it in several waters;
press it dry; and spread it on a small sieve or in a funnel,
and drain the juice through it. If orange, lemon, or other
fruit juices are first clarified, it will often obviate the
necessity of straining the jelly. (See illustration facing
page 388.)


=WINE JELLY=

  1/2 box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine.
  1/2 cupful of cold water.
  2 cupfuls of boiling water.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  Juice of 1 lemon.
  3/4 cupful of sherry, or 3 parts sherry, 1 part brandy.

Soak the gelatine in one half cupful of cold water for one hour or more.
Put the boiling water, the sugar, and a few thin slices of lemon-peel in
a saucepan on the fire. When the sugar is dissolved, add the soaked
gelatine, and stir until that also is dissolved; then remove, and when
it is partly cooled add the lemon-juice and the wine. Strain it through
a felt or flannel, and turn it into the mold. If the jelly has to be
clarified do it before adding the wine. Any wine or liqueur can be used
for flavoring. This will make one quart of jelly.


=LEMON JELLY=

  1/2 box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine.
  1/2 cupful of cold water.
  2 cupfuls of boiling water.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  Juice of 3 lemons, filtered.
  Thin slices of lemon-rind.

Put together as directed for wine jelly.


=ORANGE JELLY=

  1/2 box, or 1 ounce, of gelatine.
  1/2 cupful of cold water.
  1 cupful of boiling water.
  Juice of 1 lemon.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  2 cupfuls of orange-juice, filtered.

Combine the same as directed for wine jelly.

A stronger flavor and color of orange can be obtained by soaking with
the gelatine the grated yellow rind of one or two bright-skinned
oranges. In this case the juice need not be filtered, for the mixture
will have to be passed through flannel. Putting it through several times
gives a clearer and more brilliant jelly.


=COFFEE JELLY=

Use the receipt given for wine jelly, using three quarters of a cupful
of strong filtered coffee instead of wine, and omitting the lemon; mold
in a ring, and fill the center with whipped cream; or, if this is not
convenient, use any mold, and serve with it sweetened milk.


=CHAMPAGNE JELLY=

  1/2 box of Cox's gelatine soaked in 1/2 cupful of cold water.
  1 cupful of boiling water.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, filtered.
  1 cupful of champagne.

Combine the same as wine jelly, and do not add the champagne until the
jelly is cold. This will give one and a half pints of jelly. It is very
clear and transparent, and well suited to fancy molding.


=CHAMPAGNE JELLY WITH FLOWERS=

Place on ice a broad round mold (a basin will serve the purpose);
arrange, on a very thin layer of jelly, some pink rose petals in rosette
form, or to simulate an open rose; add carefully a very little jelly
with a spoon to set the decoration; when it has hardened, add a very
little more, and so continue to do until the petals are half enveloped;
then place in right position some angelica cut in diamond shaped pieces
to simulate leaves; add a little jelly at a time until the mold is full.
The petals will be bent out of shape if the jelly is not added very
slowly. When unmolded place around it some green rose-leaves and a
few loose pink rose-petals. A little rose-water or essence should be
used with the champagne to flavor the jelly. Violets and angelica can be
used in the same way, or a spray of roses with leaves can be put in a
deeper mold, and when secured in position the stems cut the same as
directed for molding grapes.

When flowers are used they must be very fresh.

[Illustration: PINK JELLY GARNISHED WITH PINK CARNATIONS.]


=WHIPPED JELLY OR SNOW PUDDING=

Make a wine or lemon jelly (page 415). Place it in a bowl on ice; when
it is cold, but before it begins to harden, beat it with a Dover beater
until it becomes white and a mass of froth. Turn it into a mold to
harden. Serve with it a sauce made of boiled custard, or any preserve
that will go well with the flavoring, or a compote of orange or any
fruit.


=JELLIES WITH FRUITS (Macédoine)=

Berries or any fresh fruits, peeled and quartered, may be placed in
layers, or irregularly through the entire mold, or a mixture of fruits
may be used in the same way, when it is called a macédoine. The jelly
may be clear or whipped. Strawberries, raspberries, currants (red and
white), cherries, peaches, plums, pears, apricots, and pineapples are
suitable for this use. Preserved or canned fruits well drained may also
be used. Candied fruits are especially good, but should be cut into
pieces, and softened in maraschino. Jellies to be used with fruits are
best flavored with kirsch or maraschino.


=RUSSIAN JELLIES=

For these double molds are used (see page 386).

No. 1. Make the outside layer of any transparent jelly. When hard remove
the inner mold and fill the space with the same jelly whipped until
foamy. No. 2. The outside a transparent jelly, the inside one of
different flavor and color, such as champagne and maraschino colored
pink, orange and strawberry, lemon and coffee. No. 3. The outside
champagne jelly, the inside whipped jelly mixed with macédoine of
fruits. No. 4. The outside wine or maraschino jelly, the filling pain de
fraises (see page 419). No. 5. The outside fruits in clear jelly, the
inside Bavarian cream. No. 6. Maraschino jelly, center Bavarian cream
mixed with crushed peaches or with apricot jam.


=RIBBON JELLY=

Make a plain jelly; divide it into three parts; flavor one with
maraschino; the second with strawberry-juice, and deepen the color with
a little carmine (see page 392); the third with orange, noyau, or any
other flavor, and whip it until foamy. Put it into mold in layers,
beginning with the lightest.


=ITALIAN JELLY=

Make a plain blanc-mange (see page 399). Let it set in a layer one half
inch thick; cut it into small circles, diamonds, or fancy shapes with
cutters. Arrange these pieces in some design around or inside a mold of
transparent jelly (see molding jellies, page 324). The blanc-mange may
be colored pink, green, or yellow, and gives a very pretty effect.


=DANTZIC JELLY=

This is a very clear, ornamental jelly, the gold-leaf giving it the
appearance of Venetian glass, and is good in individual molds to serve
with ices. Use the receipt for wine jelly, omitting the wine and making
the amount of liquid right by using more water; clarify or strain it
several times to make it very brilliant; when it is cold add two
tablespoonfuls each of eau de vie de Dantzic (see page 390) and brandy.


=WHAT TO DO WITH JELLY LEFT OVER=

Add a little lemon-juice, and beat the jelly until it becomes entirely
white, which will take some time; turn it again into a mold to set. If
there is not enough jelly for this, cut the jelly into fine dice with a
knife as directed for cutting aspic on page 323, and beat into it
lightly an equal quantity of meringue. This should be prepared in a cold
place.


=PAINS AUX FRUITS, OR JELLIED FRUITS=

PAIN DE FRAISES (STRAWBERRIES)

Crush the berries to a pulp; sweeten to taste, and add a little
flavoring, either orange and lemon juice, maraschino or Curaçao. To a
pint of the pulp add a half box, or one ounce, of Cooper's gelatine,
which has soaked an hour in one half cupful of cold water, and then been
dissolved in one half cupful of hot water. Stir until it begins to set;
then turn it into a china mold to harden. The mold may be ornamented
with blanched almonds split in two, and arranged in star shapes. When a
tin mold is used for fruits, it is well to coat it first with plain
jelly (see page 323), as tin sometimes discolors fruit juices. A little
carmine may be used to heighten the color of red fruits. Raspberries,
cherries, peaches, apricots, plums, pineapples, or oranges can be used
in the same way. This gives a very good dessert with little trouble.
Serve with cream.


=SUPRÊME OF STRAWBERRIES=

Make a pain de fraises; place it on the outside of a double mold (see
page 325), and fill the center space with whole berries, or with any
other fruit or mixture of fruits, such as white grapes and oranges, etc.
Serve it very cold with whipped cream.


=PAIN DE RIZ AUX FRUITS=

(RICE WITH FRUITS)

Make a rice Bavarian (see page 402); mix with it a few chopped blanched
almonds. Put it in a cylindrical mold in layers with pain de fraises
(strawberries) or raspberries, keeping the red layer thinner than the
white one; or mold it in a double mold, using the jellied fruit for the
center or for the outside.


=PAIN DE RIZ À LA PRINCESSE=

Decorate a mold with candied cherries and angelica; line it with rice
Bavarian, and fill the center with fresh or canned pineapple chopped and
jellied. The jelly may be clear or whipped or mixed with whipped cream.


=PAIN D'ORANGES=

(ORANGES)

Take off the peel and divide into sections eight to ten oranges; run a
knife between the skin and pulp and remove it carefully. Place the bare
but unbroken pulp on a sieve to drain; roll each piece in powdered
sugar, and lay them overlapping in a ring around a cylindrical mold; fix
and cover them with clear jelly flavored with kirsch or maraschino.
Arrange them in the same way around the outside of a double mold. Fill
the center with orange Bavarian, using the juice drained from the pieces
to flavor the Bavarian. Serve it with orange quarter cakes (see page
478) around the dish.


=PAIN DE PÊCHES=

(PEACHES)

No. 1. Make a jelly of peaches the same as rule given above for
strawberries; color it with a little carmine, giving it a delicate pink
shade; garnish the mold with blanched almonds and angelica, and fill it
with the jellied peach-pulp. No. 2. Cut peaches in quarters or halves,
and arrange them in a double mold with blanched almonds to look like the
pits; fill the center with peach Bavarian.


=PAIN DE MARRONS=

(CHESTNUTS)

Make a purée of boiled chestnuts; sweeten and flavor with vanilla; add
to one pint of purée one ounce of dissolved gelatine; when beginning to
set add a few spoonfuls of whipped cream; cover a mold with thin coating
of jelly (see page 323), and fill outside of double mold with very brown
chocolate Bavarian (see page 401); fill the center with the jellied
chestnuts.



CHAPTER XIX

HOT DESSERTS

=SOUFFLÉS=


                                          [Sidenote: General remarks.]

The preparation of soufflés is exceedingly simple, the only
difficulty being in serving them soon enough, as they fall
very quickly when removed from the heat. They must go directly
from the oven to the table, and if the dining-room is far
removed from the kitchen the soufflé should be covered with a
hot pan until it reaches the door. The plain omelet soufflé is
the most difficult. Those made with a cooked foundation do not
fall as quickly, but they also must be served at once. In
order to insure the condition upon which the whole success of
the dish depends, it is better to keep the table waiting,
rather than suffer the result of the omelet being cooked
too soon. Have everything ready before beginning to make a
soufflé, and see that the oven is right. In adding the beaten
whites "fold" them in, that is, lift the mixture from the
bottom, and use care not to break it down by too much mixing.


=OMELET SOUFFLÉ=

  Whites of 6 eggs.
  Yolks of 3 eggs.
  Grated zest of 1/2 lemon.
  3 rounded tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, sifted.
  1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Whip the whites of the eggs, with a pinch of salt added to them, to a
very dry stiff froth. Beat to a cream the yolks and the sugar, then add
the lemon. Fold in the beaten whites lightly (do not stir) and turn the
mixture into a slightly oiled pudding-dish. If preferred, turn a part of
it onto a flat dish, and with a knife shape it into a mound with a
depression in the center. Put the rest into a pastry-bag, and press it
out through a large tube, into lines and dots over the mound; sprinkle
it with sugar and bake it in a very hot oven eight to ten minutes. Serve
at once in the same dish in which it is baked (see soufflés above). The
flavor may be vanilla, or orange if preferred.


=VANILLA SOUFFLÉ=

  1 cupful of milk.
  2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  4 eggs.

Put the milk into a double boiler with the salt; when it is scalded add
the butter and flour, which have been rubbed together. Stir for ten
minutes to cook the flour and form a smooth paste; then turn it onto the
yolks of the eggs, which, with the sugar added, have been beaten to a
cream. Mix thoroughly, flavor, and set away to cool; rub a little butter
over the top, so that no crust will form. Just before time to serve,
fold into it lightly the whites of the eggs, which have been beaten to a
stiff froth. Turn it into a buttered pudding-dish and bake in a moderate
oven for thirty to forty minutes; or, put the mixture into buttered
paper cases, filling them one half full, and bake ten to fifteen
minutes. Serve with the soufflé foamy sauce (page 445). This soufflé may
be varied by using different flavors; also by putting a layer of crushed
fruit in the bottom of the dish, or by mixing a half cupful of
fruit-pulp with the paste before the whites are added. In this case the
whites of two more eggs will be needed to give sufficient lightness.
Serve at once after it is taken from the oven.


=CHOCOLATE SOUFFLÉ=

  3 ounces of chocolate.
  1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar.[423-*]
  2 rounded tablespoonfuls of flour.
  1/2 cupful of milk.
  Yolks of 3 eggs.
  Whites of 4 eggs.
  1 rounded tablespoonful of butter.

Melt the butter in a small saucepan; stir into it the flour and let it
cook a minute, but not brown, then add slowly the milk and stir until
smooth and a little thickened; remove it from the fire and turn it
slowly onto the yolks and sugar, which have been beaten to a cream; mix
thoroughly and add the melted chocolate (see page 388); stir for a few
minutes, then set it away to cool; rub a little butter over the top so a
crust will not form. When ready to serve, stir the mixture well to make
it smooth and fold into it lightly the whites of the eggs, which have
been whipped until very dry and firm. Turn the mixture into a buttered
tin, filling it two thirds full. Have the tin lined with a strip of
greased paper which rises above the sides to confine the soufflé as it
rises. Place the tin in a deep saucepan containing enough hot water to
cover one half the tin. Cover the saucepan and place it where the water
will simmer for thirty minutes, keeping it covered all the time. Place
the tin on a very hot dish and serve at once. Cover the top with a hot
tin until it reaches the dining-room if it has to be carried far.


FOOTNOTES:

[423-*] If unsweetened chocolate is used, add about three more
tablespoonfuls of sugar or to taste, and a teaspoonful of vanilla.


=PRUNE SOUFFLÉ=

  1/2 pound of prunes.
  3 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar.
  4 eggs.
  1 small teaspoonful of vanilla.

Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar to a cream, add the vanilla,
and mix them with the prunes, the prunes having been stewed, drained,
the stones removed, and each prune cut into four pieces. When ready to
serve fold in lightly the whites of the eggs, which have been whipped to
a stiff froth, a dash of salt having been added to the whites before
whipping them. Turn it into a pudding-dish and bake in a moderate oven
for twenty minutes. Serve it as soon as it is taken from the oven. A few
chopped almonds, or meats from the prune-pits, may be added to the
mixture before the whites are put in if desired.


=APPLE SOUFFLÉ=

Boil some peeled and cored apples until tender; press them through a
colander; season to taste with butter, sugar, and vanilla. Place the
purée in a granite-ware saucepan and let it cook until quite dry and
firm. To one and one quarter cupfuls of the hot reduced apple purée add
the whites of four eggs, whipped very stiff and sweetened with three
tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Mix the purée and meringue lightly and
quickly together and turn it into a pudding-dish; smooth the top into a
mound shape; sprinkle with sugar and bake in a slow oven twenty to
twenty-five minutes. This soufflé does not fall. Serve with a hard, a
plain pudding, or an apricot sauce.


=FARINA PUDDING=

This is a very wholesome, delicate pudding, and is especially
recommended. The receipt gives an amount sufficient for six people.

  2 cupfuls of milk (1 pint).
  4 tablespoonfuls of farina.
  3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
  3 eggs.
  Grated rind of 1/2 lemon.

Put the milk and lemon-zest into a double boiler; when it reaches the
boiling-point stir in the farina and cook for five minutes; then remove
from the fire and turn it onto the yolks and sugar, which have been
beaten together until light; stir all the time. Let it become cool but
not stiff; when ready to bake it, fold in lightly the whites of the eggs
beaten to a stiff froth, a dash of salt added to them before beating.
Turn it into a pudding-dish and place the dish in a pan containing
enough hot water to half cover it. Bake it in a moderately hot oven for
twenty-five minutes. Serve at once, or, like other soufflés, it will
fall. Serve with it a sabayon No. 2, or a meringue sauce (pages 446 and
448).



SWEET OMELETS


These desserts are quickly made, are always liked, and serve well in
emergencies.


=ORANGE OMELET=

  3 eggs.
  3 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar.
  1 orange, using the grated rind and 3 tablespoonfuls of juice.

Beat the yolks of the eggs with the sugar to a cream; add the grated
zest of the rind and the orange juice; then fold in lightly the beaten
whites of the eggs. Have a clean, smooth omelet or frying-pan; put in a
teaspoonful of butter, rubbing it around the sides as well as bottom of
the pan. When the butter bubbles, turn in the omelet mixture and spread
it evenly. Do not shake the pan. Let it cook until it is a delicate
brown and seems cooked through, but not hard. Fold the edges over a
little and turn it onto a flat hot dish; sprinkle it plentifully with
powdered sugar; heat the poker red hot and lay it on the omelet four
times, leaving crossed burnt lines in the form of a star. This ornaments
the top and also gives a caramel flavor to the sugar.


=JAM OMELET=

Make a French omelet as directed on page 264, using four to six eggs;
omit the pepper and add a little powdered sugar. When the omelet is
ready to turn, place in the center two tablespoonfuls of any jam
(apricot is particularly good) and fold. Turn the omelet onto a hot dish
and sprinkle it with sugar.


=RUM OMELET=

Make either a French omelet, or a beaten omelet, using a little sugar
and omitting the pepper. Place the dish holding the omelet on a second
and larger dish to prevent accident from fire. When ready to place on
the table pour over the omelet a few spoonfuls of rum or brandy and
light it. It is better not to touch the match to it until it is on the
table.


=SWEET PANCAKES=

  3 eggs.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of sugar.
  1/2 cupful of flour.
  1/2 tablespoonful of oil.

Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately; mix them together and
add the salt, sugar, and one half the milk; stir in the flour, making a
smooth paste; then add the rest of the milk, and lastly the oil; beat
well and let it stand an hour or more before using. Bake on a hot
griddle in large or small cakes as desired; spread each cake with butter
and a little jam or jelly, then roll them, sprinkle with sugar, and
serve at once. Any pancake batter can be used. Those made of rice or
hominy are good. The batter can be made of a consistency for thick or
thin cakes by using more or less milk. Currant or tart jelly is better
to use than a sweet preserve.



FRITTERS


With fritter batter a number of good desserts are made, which, if
properly fried, will be entirely free from grease, and perfectly
wholesome.


=FRITTER BATTER=

  2 eggs.
  1 tablespoonful of oil.
  1 cupful of flour.
  1/2 cupful of cold water.
  1 saltspoonful of salt.
  If for sweet fritters, 1 teaspoonful of sugar and 1 tablespoonful of
    brandy.

For clam or oyster fritters use one tablespoonful of lemon juice or
vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, and the liquor of the clams or
oysters instead of water.

Stir the salt into the egg-yolks; add slowly the oil, then the brandy
and the sugar; the brandy may be omitted if desired, and if so, use two
tablespoonfuls of oil instead of one. When well mixed stir in slowly the
flour, and then the water, a little at a time. Beat it well and set it
aside for two hours (it is better to let it stand longer); when ready to
use, stir in the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. The batter
should be very thick and of the consistency to coat completely the
article it is intended to cover. If not soft enough add the white of
another egg.


=APPLE FRITTERS=

Cut firm apples crosswise into slices one quarter of an inch thick. With
a biscuit-cutter stamp them into circles of uniform size; sprinkle them
with orange sugar (see page 391), and moisten them with brandy. Let them
stand to soak for ten minutes, then dry one or two at a time on a
napkin; dip them in batter, using care to have them completely coated,
and drop them into hot fat (see frying, page 72). Fry to an amber color;
lift them out on a skimmer and dry on paper in an open oven until all
are fried; then roll them in sugar and serve on a folded napkin, the
slices overlapping. Fry only two at a time, so they can be kept well
apart. Serve with a sauce flavored with brandy or sherry.


=PEACH OR APRICOT FRITTERS=

Cut the fruit in half; sprinkle with sugar moistened with maraschino,
and roll them in powdered macaroons before dipping them in the batter.
Fry as directed above. Well-drained canned fruit may also be used for
fritters.


=ORANGE FRITTERS=

Cut the oranges in quarters; take out the seeds and run a knife between
the pulp and peel, freeing the orange and leaving it raw. Roll them in
powdered sugar and dip in batter before the sugar has time to dissolve;
fry as directed for apple fritters.


=FRITTERS MADE OF BISCUIT DOUGH=

Make a biscuit dough as given on page 352; turn it on a floured board
and let it rise until light, then roll it one eighth of an inch thick
and cut it into circles with a fluted patty-cutter. Put a teaspoonful of
jam in the center of a circle. Wet the edges and cover with a second
circle; press the edges lightly together and fry in hot fat.


=BALLOONS=

Put a cupful of water in a saucepan; when it boils add one tablespoonful
of butter; when the butter is melted add one cupful of flour and beat it
with a fork or wire whip until it is smooth and leaves the sides of the
pan. Remove from the fire and add three eggs, one at a time, beating
vigorously each one before adding the next. Let it stand until cold.
When ready to serve, drop a spoonful at a time into moderately hot fat
and fry for about 15 minutes. Take out on a skimmer and dry on brown
paper. The batter will puff into hollow balls. If the fat is very hot it
will crisp the outside too soon and prevent the balls from puffing. Fry
only a few at a time, as they must be kept separated. Sprinkle with
powdered sugar and pile on a folded napkin. Serve with lemon sauce made
as follows.

Lemon sauce: Strain the juice of one and a half lemons; add one cupful
of powdered sugar, then a half cupful of boiling water.


=BATTER PUDDING=

  1 cupful of milk.
  1 heaping tablespoonful of butter.
  1/2 cupful of flour.
  3 eggs.

Put the milk in a double boiler; when hot add the butter. Let the milk
boil; then add the flour, and beat it hard until it leaves the sides of
the pan; then remove from the fire and stir in gradually the eggs, which
have been well beaten, the yolks and whites together, and a dash of
salt. Continue to beat the batter until it is no longer stringy. Turn it
into a warm greased pudding-dish, and bake in a moderate oven thirty to
thirty-five minutes. It should puff up like a cream cake, and have a
thick crust. Serve as soon as it is taken from the oven, or it will
fall. The batter may stand some time before baking if convenient. It may
be baked in gem-pans fifteen to twenty minutes if preferred. Serve with
plain pudding or hard sauce.



DESSERTS MADE OF APPLES


=SNOW APPLE PUDDING=

Fill a pudding-dish half full of apple purée or sauce, well seasoned
with butter, sugar, and nutmeg. Pour over it a batter made of one and a
half cupfuls of flour mixed with two heaping teaspoonfuls of
baking-powder, one half teaspoonful of salt, and a tablespoonful of
chopped suet or of lard. Moisten it with about three quarters of a
cupful of milk, or enough to make a thick batter. It should not be as
stiff as for biscuits. Cook in a steamer about three quarters of an
hour, and serve at once with a hard, foamy, sabayon, or any other sauce.
The top will be very light and white. This quantity is enough to serve
six people.


=BROWN BETTY=

In a quart pudding-dish arrange alternate layers of sliced apples and
bread-crumbs; season each layer with bits of butter, a little sugar, and
a pinch each of ground cinnamon, cloves, and allspice. When the dish is
full pour over it a half cupful each of molasses and water mixed; cover
the top with crumbs. Place the dish in a pan containing hot water, and
bake for three quarters of an hour, or until the apples are soft. Serve
with cream or with any sauce. Raisins or chopped almonds improve the
pudding.


=BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS=

Make a short pie-crust; roll it thin and cut it into squares large
enough to cover an apple. Select apples of the same size; pare them;
remove the core with a corer, and fill the space with sugar, butter, a
little ground cinnamon, and nutmeg. Place an apple in the center of each
square of pie-crust; wet the edges with white of egg and fold together,
the points meeting on the top; give the edges a pinch and turn, making
them fluted. Bake in a moderate oven about forty minutes, or until the
apples are tender, but not until they have lost their form. If
preferred, the crust may be folded under the apple, leaving it round. It
must be well joined, so the juices will not escape. Brush the top with
egg, and ten minutes before removing from the oven dust them with a
little sugar to give them a glaze.

Serve with hard sauce.

[Illustration: BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS. (SEE PAGE 429.)]


=APPLE CHARLOTTE=

Cut bread into slices one quarter inch thick; then into strips one and a
half inches wide, and as long as the height of the mold to be used; cut
one piece to fit the top of mold, then divide it into five or six
pieces. Butter the mold; dip the slices of bread into melted butter, and
arrange them on the bottom and around the sides of the mold, fitting
closely together or overlapping. Fill the center entirely full with
apple sauce made of tart apples stewed until tender, then broken into
coarse pieces, drained, and seasoned with butter and sugar. A little
apricot jam can be put in the center if desired; chopped almonds also
may be added. Cover the top with bread, and bake in a hot oven about
thirty minutes. The bread should be an amber color like toast. Turn it
carefully onto a flat dish. Serve with a hard sauce or any other sauce
preferred.


=APPLES WITH RICE, No. 1=

Boil half a cupful of rice with a saltspoonful of salt in milk until
tender; sweeten it to taste; drain it if the milk is not all absorbed;
press it into a basin; smooth it over the top; when it has cooled enough
to hold the form, turn it onto a flat dish. This will be a socle, and
should be about one and a half to two inches high. Pare and core as
many apples as will stand on the top of the socle; boil them slowly
until tender in sugar and water; remove them before they lose shape.
Boil the sugar and water down to a thick syrup. Arrange the apples on
the top of the rice, and pour over them a little of the thickened syrup;
then fill the center of each apple with jam; place a candied cherry on
each one, and a pointed piece of angelica between each apple. The syrup
should give enough sauce, but Richelieu sauce is recommended instead.
Serve hot or cold.

[Illustration: STEWED APPLES ON A RICE SOCLE--GARNISHED WITH CANDIED
CHERRIES AND ANGELICA. (SEE PAGE 430.)]


=APPLES WITH RICE, No. 2=

Boil the rice as above; sweeten it and flavor it with a few drops of
orange-flower water, almond, or other essence, and mix into it a few
chopped blanched almonds. Turn it onto a flat dish, and press it into a
mound or cone. Cut some apples of uniform size in halves, cutting from
the stem to the blossom; remove the core with a vegetable scoop (see
illustration), and pare off the skin carefully; stew the apples slowly
until tender, but still firm enough to hold their shape; before removing
them add a few drops of carmine to the water, and let them stand until
they have become a delicate pink; then drain and place them evenly and
upright against the form of rice. Put some meringue in a pastry-bag, and
press it in lines or dots around the apples and over the top of the
rice, making it as ornamental as desired. Dust it with sugar, and place
for one minute in the oven to slightly color the meringue, but not long
enough to dry the surface of the apples. Serve with whipped cream, with
fruit sauce, Richelieu sauce, or wine sauce.

Whipped cream may be substituted for the meringue, in which case place
the apples overlapping one another around the rice in wreath shape;
flatten the top of the rice, and pile the whipped cream on it. Another
form may be made by putting the rice in a border-mold to shape it,
filling the center of the rice with a well-seasoned apple purée, and
finishing as directed above.

[Illustration: STEWED APPLES CUT IN HALVES AND ARRANGED AROUND A RICE
SOCLE--GARNISHED WITH MERINGUE. (SEE PAGE 431.)]


=APPLES WITH CORN-STARCH (Felice)=

Pare and core as many apples as will be used, having them of uniform
size. To a quart of water add one half cupful of sugar and the juice of
half a lemon; boil the apples in this until tender, but remove them
before they lose shape; drain and place them in regular order on the
dish in which they are to be served. Boil the water down one half; then
stir into it one tablespoonful of corn-starch or arrowroot moistened in
a little water; let it cook until the starch is clear; remove from the
fire; flavor with lemon, almond, kirsch, or anything preferred; let it
stiffen a little; then pour it over the apples; sprinkle with sugar and
place in the oven a moment to brown, or, omitting the browning, sprinkle
them with green and pink sugar (see page 393), or stick them full of
split almonds.


=FLAMING APPLES=

Pare and core the apples; stew them in sugar and water until tender, but
still firm enough to hold their shape. Remove them carefully to the
serving-dish; fill the centers with apricot or raspberry jam; boil down
the liquor to a thick syrup and pour it over the apples; just before
serving pour over them a few spoonfuls of rum or brandy, and light it
with a taper after it is on the table. Serve with fancy cakes.


=BAKED APPLES=

(FOR BREAKFAST)

Select apples of equal size; wash and polish them; remove the core.
Place them in a baking-tin a little distance apart, and put a little
water in the bottom of the pan. Bake in a moderate oven about thirty
minutes; baste frequently, so they will not burn or blacken. Serve with
sugar and cream.


=BAKED APPLES=

(FOR LUNCHEON)

Pare and core the apples; fill the centers with butter and sugar. Let
them bake in a pan with a little water until tender, but still in good
shape; baste frequently, letting them become only slightly colored.
After removing from the oven sprinkle them with granulated sugar and a
little powdered cinnamon or nutmeg.


=TAPIOCA PUDDING=

Arrange evenly in a buttered dish six apples which have been pared and
cored. Any other fruit may be used--canned peaches are good. Soak a
cupful of tapioca in hot water for an hour or more; sweeten and flavor
it to taste and pour it over the fruit. Bake in a moderate oven for an
hour.

[Illustration: PUDDING MOLDS.]



RICE PUDDINGS


=PLAIN RICE PUDDING No. 1=

In a pudding-dish holding a quart, put two heaping tablespoonfuls of
well-washed rice; fill the dish with milk, and add a half teaspoonful of
salt. Let it cook in the oven for half an hour, stirring it two or three
times. Take it out and add two tablespoonfuls of sugar and a scant
teaspoonful of vanilla; also a half cupful of stoned raisins if desired.
Grate nutmeg over the top; return the dish to the oven and cook slowly
for two hours or more; as the milk boils down, lift the skin at the side
and add more hot milk. The pudding should be creamy, and this is
attained by slow cooking, and by using plenty of milk.


=RICE PUDDING No. 2=

Scald a pint and a half of milk; add a tablespoonful of cornstarch which
has been moistened with a little of the cold milk; cook it for a few
minutes; then remove it from the fire and stir in three cupfuls of
boiled rice, a cupful or more of sugar to taste, and the beaten yolks of
two eggs. Return it to the fire and cook it until thickened, stirring
constantly but carefully. Turn it into a dish, cover the top with
meringue, and place it in the oven for a few minutes to brown.


=RICE AND RAISINS=

Mix with two cupfuls of boiled rice a half or three quarters cupful of
raisins. The rice should be boiled as directed on page 222, and the
raisins should be soaked in hot water until plump, and the seeds
removed. Press the mixture into a bowl to give it shape, and turn it
onto a flat dish. Grate nutmeg over the top. Serve with sweetened milk a
little flavored with vanilla or almond, or only nutmeg.

For Lemon Rice Pudding, see page 242.

For Rice and Orange Marmalade Pudding, see page 242.



BREAD PUDDINGS


=BREAD PUDDING No. 1=

  2 cupfuls of milk.
  1 cupful of bread-crumbs or broken bread.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar.
  2 egg-yolks.
  1 egg-white.
  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  1 saltspoonful of salt.

Soak the bread in the milk until softened; then beat it until smooth and
add the rest of the ingredients excepting the white of egg. Turn it into
a pudding-dish, place this in a pan of hot water, and bake in a slow
oven fifteen to twenty minutes, or only long enough to set the custard
without its separating. Cover the top with a layer of jam or with tart
jelly, and place in the center a ball of meringue made with the white of
one egg; dust with sugar, place in the oven a moment to brown the
meringue, and then put a piece of jelly on the top of the meringue.
Serve hot or cold. The jelly and meringue answers as a sauce.


=BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING=

Cut stale bread into thin slices; remove the crusts, dip them in melted
butter, and arrange them in a small bread or square cake-tin in even
layers, alternating with layers of stoned raisins. When the mold is
full, pour over it a mixture made of one pint of milk, the yolks of two
eggs, and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Use only as much as the bread
will absorb. Bake in a moderate oven twenty to thirty minutes. Turn it
onto a flat dish and serve with it a plain pudding sauce. The bread
should be dry and crisp and hold the form of the mold.


=BREAD TARTS=

Cut bread into slices a quarter of an inch thick, then with a
biscuit-cutter about three inches in diameter stamp it into circles.
Moisten the circles of bread with milk, but do not use enough to cause
them to fall apart; then spread them with any jam or preserve and place
two together like a sandwich. Place them in a frying-pan with a little
butter, and sauté them on both sides to a delicate color. Sprinkle with
powdered sugar and serve very hot. A sabayon or other sauce can be
served with them if convenient, but it is not essential.

For other bread puddings see Blueberry Pudding and Cherry Bread, page
241.



CAKE PUDDINGS


=COTTAGE PUDDING=

  1 cupful of flour.
  1 heaping teaspoonful of baking-powder.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1/2 cupful of sugar.
  1/2 cupful of milk.
  1 saltspoonful of salt.
  1 egg.

Mix the baking-powder with the flour and sift them. Rub the butter and
sugar together to a cream and beat into it the egg; then add the milk,
in which the salt has been dissolved. Add the flour; beat well together
and turn into a cake-tin having a tube in the center. Bake about
twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven. Turn it onto a flat dish,
leaving it bottom side up. The chocolate sauce given below is
recommended, but any other sauce may be served with it.

Chocolate sauce: Melt three ounces or squares of Baker's chocolate on a
dry pan (see page 388); add one half cupful of sugar and one half
cupful of boiling water. Stir until well dissolved and smooth, then add
one quarter teaspoonful of vanilla.


=CANARY PUDDING=

Take the mixture for Genoese cake, which is three eggs, and their weight
respectively of sugar, butter, and flour; cream the butter and sugar;
then beat in, one at a time, the three eggs; add lightly the sifted
flour. Butter a covered pudding-mold; decorate it with raisins, or
sprinkle it all over with currants; fill it half full of the mixture;
cover and steam for one hour, or put it in individual timbale-molds and
bake for twenty minutes. Serve with wine or fruit or Richelieu sauce.


=SUET PUDDING=

  1 cupful of molasses.
  1 teaspoonful of soda.
  1 cupful of milk
  3-1/2 cupfuls of flour.
  1 cupful of stoned raisins.
  1 cupful of suet, chopped fine.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.

Mix the salt, flour, and suet together. Mix the molasses and milk; add
the soda and then as much of the flour mixture as will make a stiff
batter (not dough), then add the raisins floured, and fill a covered
pudding-mold half full; steam for three hours. Serve with foamy, wine,
or brandy sauce.


=FARINA PUDDING (Boiled)=

Stir into three cupfuls of boiling milk one cupful of farina, and cook
for ten minutes. Rub together one tablespoonful of butter and two
tablespoonfuls of sugar; add the yolks of three eggs, the grated rind of
one lemon and twenty-five chopped blanched almonds. Stir this mixture
into the farina after it is a little cooled; lastly add the whites of
three eggs beaten to stiff froth. Boil this pudding in a covered mold
for one and a half hours. Serve with any pudding sauce.


=CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDING=

  3/4 pound of suet chopped very fine; mix with it, while chopping, a
      tablespoonful of flour.
  3/4 pound of raisins seeded.
  3/4 pound of currants.
  3/4 pound of sugar.
  3/4 pound of fresh bread-crumbs.
  Grated zest of one lemon.
  1/4 pound candied orange-peel and citron cut into thin shavings.
  1/2 teaspoonful each of ground cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and allspice.

Mix the dry materials together thoroughly, and then add six eggs, one at
a time, and one half cupful of brandy; add another egg if too stiff, and
more crumbs if too soft. Wet a strong cloth in cold water, wring it dry,
butter it, and dredge it well with flour; turn the mixture into the
center and draw the cloth together over the top, leaving room for the
pudding to swell a little, and tie it firmly; give it a good round
shape. Put it into a pot of boiling water, having it completely covered
with water; cover the pot and boil four to five hours. Do not let the
water fall below the pudding, and in adding more let it be hot, so as to
not arrest the boiling. After it is removed from the water let it rest
in the bag for ten minutes to harden a little, then cut the string and
turn it carefully onto a dish. Cut a small hole in the top of the
pudding and insert a paper bonbon case (see page 386); trim it so it
does not show. Pour rum or brandy onto the dish and also into the paper
box on top; place it on the table and touch it with a lighted taper.
Serve with a brandy sauce. The amount given will serve twelve to
fourteen persons. The mixture may be divided and boiled in small
puddings if it is too much to use at one time. It will keep for a long
time, and the puddings can be warmed when used. Slices of cold plum
pudding may be steamed and served with a sauce; or they may be rolled in
egg and crumbs and fried in hot fat, and be served as fruit croquettes.


=FIG PUDDING=

  1/2 cupful of chopped figs.
  1/2 cupful of chopped suet.
  2 cupfuls of white bread-crumbs.
  1/2 cupful of sugar.
  1 cupful of milk.
  1/4 cupful of flour.
  1/2 cupful of chopped almonds.
  4 eggs.
  1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.
  3 tablespoonfuls of noyau or other flavor.

Flour the figs and suet. Soak the bread-crumbs in the milk, add the
sugar, then the egg-yolks, and beat it well; then add slowly, stirring
all the time, the figs, suet, almonds, flour mixed with the
baking-powder, flavoring, and lastly the whites of the eggs beaten very
stiff. Turn it into a covered pudding-mold, filling it three quarters
full; steam for three hours. This mixture will fill twelve individual
molds. If the small molds are used, place a star of angelica in the
bottom of each one and cover it with a thin layer of boiled rice; then
fill three quarters full with the pudding mixture; place them in a pan
of hot water, cover with a greased paper, and poach on top of the range
for one and one half hours. This pudding can have brandy poured over and
lighted the same as the plum pudding. Serve with a syrup sauce flavored
the same as the pudding.


=CABINET PUDDING No. 1=

Ornament the bottom of a well-buttered mold with citron and raisins.
Cover them with slices of cake; then fill the mold nearly full with
alternate layers of fruit and cake, arranging the fruit on the edges of
the fruit layers so it will be even and symmetrical. Make a custard
mixture of a pint of milk, three egg-yolks, and three tablespoonfuls of
sugar. Pour it slowly into the mold, so the cake will be thoroughly
soaked, and set it in a pan of water. Bake it in a slow oven for an
hour, or until the custard is set. Unmold the pudding, and serve with it
a wine sauce.


=CABINET PUDDING No. 2=

Cut a half pound of candied fruits into dice, using cherries, apricots,
plums, limes, etc.; also some candied orange-peel shredded. Butter well
a plain cylindrical mold; sprinkle over the bottom a thin layer of the
fruit, then a layer of cake (genoese, or sponge layer cake, see page
466). Fill the mold to within an inch of the top with alternate layers
of fruit and cake, using also some macaroons. Leave always some fruit on
the sides of the mold. Then turn in slowly a custard mixture made of one
pint of milk, the yolks of five eggs, and two and one half
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Let it stand a few minutes for the cake to
absorb the liquid; then place the mold in a pan of hot water, and poach
in a slow oven for one hour. This pudding is usually served hot, but may
be served cold. Serve with Sabayon, Richelieu, or Bischoff sauces. (See
pudding sauces.)


=CABINET PUDDING No. 3 (Royale)=

Take a loaf of brioche (see page 359 and 361) baked the day before in a
cylindrical mold. Cut it into slices one half inch thick. Cut with a
small patty-cutter a round piece from the center of all but two of the
slices. Cut the crust from the outside, taking as little as possible.
Spread each slice with apricot jam, and sprinkle with chopped almonds.
Butter the mold well, and replace the slices, using on the bottom one
which has not had a hole cut in the center. When all but the last slice
are in, fill the well in the center with mixed canned fruits well
drained, using pineapple, apricots, a few candied cherries, and chopped
almonds; then pour in a custard mixture made of one pint of milk, four
yolks of eggs, two and a half tablespoonfuls of sugar. Let the brioche
absorb the liquid; then cover with the second whole slice, and pour over
that, too, some of the custard mixture. Place the mold in a pan of hot
water, and poach in a slow oven for one hour. Let it stand a little
while in the mold after it is cooked. When ready to serve, unmold,
spread the whole outside with apricot jam, and sprinkle with chopped
almonds. Serve with apricot sauce or any other sauce.


=CABINET PUDDING No. 4=

Cut slices of bread one half inch thick to fit a mold. Fill the mold
with alternate layers of bread and chopped drained pineapple (fresh or
canned). Pour in a custard mixture made of one pint of milk, yolks of
three eggs, and three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Bake in a slow oven for
one hour (as directed above), or until the custard is set. Serve with a
sauce made of the juice of the fruit diluted and thickened with a little
arrowroot, then sweetened and flavored (with kirsch if liked), and a few
shredded almonds.


=SAVARINS=

Butter some individual timbale-molds, sprinkle them with chopped
almonds, fill them half full of brioche paste (see page 359), let the
paste rise to the top of the molds, and then bake in a hot oven for
about twenty minutes. When baked, cut off the top even with the mold,
and turn them out. Pour over them a hot syrup made of one cupful of
sugar and three quarters of a cupful of water boiled for ten minutes (or
to 30°), and flavored with four teaspoonfuls of kirsch. Other flavors
may be used if preferred. Let the savarins absorb enough of the hot
syrup to be well moistened, but not so much as to lose their firmness.
Drain and serve them hot. Or incorporate into the paste before molding a
little shredded candied orange-peel. Soak them, when baked, in syrup
flavored with orange or curaçao, and cover them with an orange fondant
icing (see page 485), and serve cold.


=BABA=

Into three cupfuls of brioche paste mix one cupful of currants, raisins,
and chopped citron, which have soaked for an hour in maraschino. Half
fill buttered baba-molds (which are cups holding about one half pint);
let it rise to top of mold, which will take about three quarters of an
hour. It must not rise in too warm a place, or the butter will separate.
Bake them in a moderate oven one half hour. Let them absorb hot syrup at
30°, flavored with kirsch or sherry.



CUSTARDS


=CRÊME PARISIENNE=

This is the same as caramel custard (page 396), except that it is served
hot. Butter well a flat mold or basin, ornament the bottom with a few
candied cherries and angelica, pour over them caramel which is not
browned deeper than an amber color, and do not use enough to float the
fruits. Let it cool before adding the custard mixture. When it is baked,
let the mold stand in the hot water until the moment of serving.


=FRIED CREAM=

  1 pint of milk.
  1/2 cupful of sugar.
  1/2 teaspoonful of butter.
  Yolks of 3 eggs.
  2-1/4 tablespoonfuls of cornstarch.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Put the milk into a double boiler with the salt and a piece of cinnamon
or lemon-zest. When it is at the boiling-point add the sugar; then the
cornstarch and flour, which have been moistened in cold milk. Stir until
thickened; remove, and turn it over the beaten yolks of the eggs. Place
it on the fire again for a few minutes to set the eggs. Add the butter
and flavoring, and strain it onto a flat dish, or biscuit-tin, making a
layer three quarters of an inch thick. Let it stand until perfectly cold
and firm (it may be made the day before it is used); then cut it into
pieces three inches long and two inches wide. Handle the pieces
carefully, using a broad knife-blade. Cover each one with sifted
cracker-crumbs, then with egg, and again with crumbs; be sure they are
completely covered. Fry the pieces in hot fat to an amber color; lay
them on a brown paper in the open oven to dry, sprinkle them with sugar,
and serve on a folded napkin. The crust should be crisp, and the center
creamy, the same as a croquette. If the pudding stands long enough
before being fried, it will not be difficult to handle. Have the fat
smoking hot, and do not fry too long. This dish is recommended, as it is
particularly good, and very easy to make.



SHORT CAKES


=STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE=

  4 cupfuls of sifted flour.
  3 heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 teaspoonful of butter.
  1 teaspoonful of lard.
  Milk.
  2 quarts of strawberries.

Sift the baking-powder and salt with the flour, rub in the shortening;
then with a fork stir in lightly and quickly sufficient milk to make a
soft dough--too soft to roll. Turn it into a greased tin, and bake in a
hot oven for thirty minutes. Watch to see that it rises evenly. Unmold,
and leaving it inverted, cut a circle around the top, within one inch of
the edge; lift off the circle of crust, and with a fork pick out the
crumb from the center, leaving about three quarters of an inch of
biscuit around the sides. Spread the inside of the cake with butter, and
then fill it with crushed strawberries, which have been standing half an
hour or more mixed with sugar enough to sweeten them. Turn off the juice
from the berries before filling the cake. Replace the circle of crust,
and cover the whole cake, top and sides, with meringue, heaping it
irregularly on the top. Use a pastry-bag if convenient to give the
meringue ornamental form. Place it in the oven a moment to slightly
color the meringue. Arrange a few handsome berries on the top. Serve the
strawberry-juice as a sauce. Whipped cream may be used instead of
meringue, if convenient. Shortcake, to be good, should be freshly made,
and served as soon as put together.


=CURRANT SHORTCAKE=

Make a biscuit dough as directed for strawberry shortcake above, using
half the quantity. Turn it into a pie-tin to bake. While it is still hot
cut the edges and pull it apart with forks (do not cut it). Turn the
crumb sides up; butter them and cover each one with a thick layer of
crushed currants, which have been standing at least two hours with
enough sugar to sweeten them. Place one layer on the other, cover the
top with meringue, and ornament it with a few currants in lines or
arranged in any way to suit the fancy. This is a delicious shortcake,
the acid of the currants giving it more character than strawberry
shortcake.


=STRAWBERRY CAKE=

Make two layers of Genoese (page 467) or of sponge cake No. 1 (page
466); cover them with whipped cream, and arrange whole strawberries
close together over the entire top; place one layer on the other, and
serve at once. The cream moistens the cake if it stands long.

Shortcakes are good made of peaches or pineapple, using the biscuit
mixture.


=ROLY-POLY PUDDING=

Make a biscuit dough, and roll it out a quarter of an inch thick; spread
it with any kind of berries (whortleberries or blackberries are best).
Then roll it, and tie it in a cloth, leaving room for the pudding to
expand, and boil or steam it for an hour. Serve with any sauce.


=FRUIT PUDDING=

Beat two eggs; add a cupful of milk, three teaspoonfuls of baking-powder
and enough flour to make a stiff batter; then stir in as much fruit as
it will hold (cherries, whortleberries, strawberries, or raspberries are
the best fruits to use). Turn the mixture into a pudding-mold large
enough to give room for the pudding to expand, and boil it for an hour.
Serve with it plain pudding sauce, Sabayon, or a fruit sauce.


=BAKED INDIAN PUDDING=

  1/4 cupful yellow meal.
  Scant half cupful of molasses.
  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.
  1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  3 cupfuls of milk.
  1 egg.
  1/4 cupful of water.
  Dash of nutmeg.

Put two cupfuls of milk, a quarter cupful of water, and the salt, on the
fire; when it boils stir in the meal, and let it cook five minutes,
stirring all the time; then remove from the fire, and add the rest of
the milk mixed with the molasses, the butter, the beaten egg, and the
nutmeg (or ginger, if preferred), and turn it into a baking-dish. Bake
it in a slow oven for three hours. This quantity makes a pint and a half
of pudding.

NOTE.--Some small bits of candied orange-peel sprinkled on
the bottom of the dish before the batter is put in give a
delicious flavor to the pudding.



PUDDING SAUCES


Pudding sauces are quickly made. They call for but few materials, and,
like other sauces, often give the whole character to the dish. Serving
the same pudding with a different sauce, makes it a different dish;
therefore it is well to vary as much as possible the combinations.
Farina pudding can be served with almost any of the sauces given below.
Cake, cornstarch, rice, apple, or bread puddings can also be served with
almost any sauce, if the flavorings are the same, or such as go well
together. Hot puddings can be served with cold sauces. Jellies, creams,
and blanc-manges can be served with whipped cream, the fruit sauces, or
the whipped egg sauces.

Stewed prunes or compote of orange are good to serve with plain boiled
rice, or with sweetened hominy, farina, or cerealine molded in cups.


=PLAIN PUDDING SAUCE No. 1 (Hot)=

  3/4 cupful of sugar.
  2 cupfuls of boiling water.
  1 teaspoonful of butter.
  Zest of lemon.
  1 tablespoonful of cornstarch.
  Flavoring to taste of vanilla or any essence, or brandy, rum, or wine.

Dilute the corn-starch with a little cold water, and stir it into the
boiling water; add the sugar and stir until the starch becomes clear;
then add the butter and flavoring. If the sauce becomes too thick,
dilute it with a little boiling water; the whipped white of one egg may
be added, but is not essential.


=PLAIN PUDDING SAUCE No. 2 (Cold)=

Stir a heaping teaspoonful of corn-starch, which has been moistened with
a little cold milk, into a pint of boiling milk, and stir for five
minutes, or until it is well cooked; add three quarters of a cupful of
sugar, and remove from the fire. When the mixture is cold flavor it, and
just before serving beat in the whipped whites of two eggs and serve at
once.


=RICH PUDDING SAUCE=

(FOR FRUIT PUDDINGS OR CROQUETTES)

  3 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  3 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar.
  2 tablespoonfuls of hot water.
  1/2 cupful of sherry.
  Juice of 1/2 lemon.
  2 egg yolks.
  Dash of nutmeg.

Cream the butter; add the sugar, and cream again thoroughly; then add
the yolks and beat until light; add the hot water and the nutmeg. Place
it in a saucepan of hot water, and beat, adding slowly the lemon-juice
and the wine. The sauce should be foamy.


=FOAMY SAUCE=

(STEAMED AND BAKED PUDDINGS)

  1/2 cupful of butter.
  1 cupful of powdered sugar.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  1/4 cupful of boiling water.
  2 tablespoonfuls of sherry.
  1 egg white.

Cream the butter and sugar; add the vanilla and wine, and beat them
well. Just before serving stir in the boiling water; add the whipped
white of one egg, and beat until foamy.


=BRANDY, RUM, OR KIRSCH SAUCE=

(FRUIT OR PLUM PUDDINGS)

Put in a saucepan two cupfuls of water with one cupful of sugar. When
the sugar is dissolved and the water boils, add slowly a heaping
tablespoonful of corn-starch or arrowroot diluted with a little cold
water; stir until the corn-starch is clear; then remove from the fire,
and add two tablespoonfuls of the liquor. Serve it hot.


=SABAYON No. 1=

  4 egg-yolks.
  4 tablespoonfuls of wine.
  4 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar.

Beat in a small saucepan the eggs and sugar to a light cream; add the
wine. When ready to serve, place the saucepan in another one containing
hot water, and beat until the sugar is melted and the egg beginning to
thicken.


=SABAYON No. 2=

Put one cup of sugar, one half cup of sherry, and one egg all together
in a saucepan and whip over the fire until it is a little thickened.


=SYRUP SAUCE=

Put two cupfuls of sugar and three tablespoonfuls of water into a
saucepan on the fire, and stir until the sugar is dissolved; then let it
boil without touching until it is a light syrup, and remove from the
fire; add a teaspoonful of butter and flavoring, which may be fruit
juice, liqueur, brandy, or flavoring extract.


=FRUIT SAUCES=

Canned fruits, preserves, or jams make good sauces for blanc-mange,
corn-starch, rice, or boiled puddings.

The juice of canned fruit, boiled and thickened a little with arrowroot,
and flavored or not with liqueur or essence, makes a good hot sauce.


=APRICOT SAUCE=

Dilute one half cupful of apricot jam with one half cupful of hot water;
sweeten if necessary; strain and flavor with vanilla or one teaspoonful
of Madeira or maraschino.


=PURÉE OF FRUIT SAUCES=

Strawberries, raspberries, peaches and apricots make excellent pudding
sauces. Mash the fruit and press it through a colander or coarse sieve;
sweeten to taste; serve hot or cold; if hot, let it come to the
boiling-point and thicken with arrowroot, using one teaspoonful to a
cupful of purée.


=PINEAPPLE SAUCE=

Chop the pineapple (fresh or canned) fine; sweeten and thicken with
arrowroot. Serve with fritters, corn-starch, rice, or batter puddings.


=BOILED CUSTARD SAUCE=

  Yolks of 2 eggs.
  1 cupful of milk.
  2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
  1/4 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Beat the yolks and sugar to a cream; pour over them the scalded milk;
return to the fire to cook the eggs, but let it only slightly thicken;
remove; add the flavoring and beat with a wire whip to make it light and
foamy. When served with plum pudding add rum or brandy to flavor it.
Almonds chopped fine improve it for hot puddings.


=CHOCOLATE SAUCE=

Put a half cupful each of sugar and water in a saucepan and let boil
five minutes. Let the syrup cool, then stir it slowly into four ounces
of unsweetened chocolate melted; add one half teaspoonful of vanilla.
Let it stand in a pan of hot water until ready to serve; then add one
half cupful of cream or of milk.[447-*]


FOOTNOTES:

[447-*] This sauce should be smooth and of the consistency of heavy
cream. If it is to be used with ice-cream, omit the cream or milk and
make it of the right consistency with water. See also page 435.--M. R.


=BISCHOFF SAUCE=

Put in a saucepan one cupful of white wine, one cupful of hot water, and
sugar to taste; add the zest of one half of an orange and one half of a
lemon; let it come to the boiling-point; remove from the fire; take out
the orange and lemon peel and add one half cupful of seedless raisins,
one tablespoonful of shredded almonds, and a tablespoonful of finely
shredded candied orange and lemon peel; cover and let stand a half-hour.
When ready to serve let it again come to the boiling-point. Serve with
cabinet puddings.


=RICHELIEU SAUCE=

Put one cupful of sugar into a saucepan with one cupful of boiling
water; let it boil five minutes; add one teaspoonful of arrowroot
moistened with a little water, and cook until clear; then remove from
fire. Flavor with one tablespoonful of kirsch and add two tablespoonfuls
of shredded almonds and candied cherries cut into small pieces.


=MERINGUE SAUCE=

Whip the whites of two or three eggs to a very stiff froth. Take as many
tablespoonfuls of sugar as you have egg-whites; add a little water and
let it cook to the ball (see page 512), or so that when dropped into
water it will roll into a ball between the fingers. Turn this hot syrup
slowly onto the whipped eggs, beating all the time; then beat it over
the fire for a minute where the heat is moderate. This is called Italian
meringue. Remove it from the fire and add a little lemon-juice or kirsch
to take away the excessive sweetness; or a little currant jelly can be
used, also grated orange-peel and shredded candied peel; serve it at
once. This is a good sauce for soufflés or light puddings.


=HARD SAUCE=

Beat together one half cupful of butter and one cupful of sugar until
they are very white and light; flavor with vanilla, wine, or brandy. The
success of this sauce depends upon its being beaten a long time. It may
be varied by beating with it the yolk of an egg, or adding the whipped
white of an egg after the butter and sugar are beaten. Let it stand on
ice to harden a little before serving.


=STRAWBERRY SAUCE=

Make a hard sauce as directed above; add the whipped white of one egg
and a cupful of strawberries mashed to a pulp. Any fruit-pulp may be
added in the same way and makes a good sauce for fruit puddings.


=COCOANUT SAUCE=

Make a hard sauce as directed above; add the yolks of two eggs; when it
is very light and creamy add the whipped whites and a cupful of grated
cocoanut.


=COLD JELLY SAUCE=

Stir a half glassful of grape, currant, or any jelly until smooth; then
beat into it lightly the whipped whites of two eggs. Serve with any
light pudding or with jelly.



CHAPTER XX

PIES AND PUFF-PASTE


                                                  [Sidenote: Seasons.]

The American pie is perhaps the most ridiculed of all dishes.
It has, however, great popularity and undoubted merits. Were
the crust, especially the under one, always right, it would
remove the most salient point of criticism. The tart pies,
made with puff-paste, are a temptation to the most fastidious
taste. The mince pie, probably the most indigestible of all,
is the one universally accepted as a treat, and seldom refused
by the scoffer. Pies have their seasons, like other good
things, the apple pie being the only one served the year
round. The berries and fruits, each one in their time, make
most acceptable and delicious pies and tarts, while rhubarb
introduces the spring, and pumpkin announces the autumn. In
this day of canned and dried fruits the season need not
be so strictly observed, but fresh fruits will always be
preferable to preserved ones, and tradition goes far to hold
the place for pumpkin pie at Thanksgiving, and mince pie at
the Christmas feasts.


=PIES=

PLAIN PASTRY FOR PIES

  1 quart of flour.
  1 cupful of butter.
  1 cupful of cold water.
  1 teaspoonful of salt.
  Or use one-half butter and one half lard or cottolene.

This quantity gives enough for three or four pies. Cottolene makes good
pastry. The shortening may be mixed, but the flavor is better where
butter alone is used. The richness of pastry depends upon the amount of
shortening used.

Sift the salt and flour together, reserving a little flour for the
board. With a knife, cut the butter into the flour. Add the water a
little at a time, and mix it in lightly with the knife; turn it onto the
board, and roll it twice--that is, after it is rolled out once, fold it
together and roll it again. If the paste is wanted richer for the top
crust, put bits of butter over the paste when rolled; fold and roll it
again several times. Fold the paste, and put it in the ice-box for an
hour before using, keeping it covered. In making pastry everything
should be cold, the handling light, and the hands used as little as
possible. Paste will keep several days in a cool place, but should be
rolled in a napkin, so it will not dry and form a crust.

_To Put a Pie Together._--Roll the paste one eighth inch thick, and a
little larger than the tin. Dust the pan with flour; place the paste on
it, letting it shrink all it will. Lift it from the sides to fit it into
place, and press it as little as possible. Cut a narrow strip of paste,
and lay around the edge; moisten it so it will stick. Brush the top of
the bottom crust with white of egg, so the filling will not soak in and
make it heavy. Put in the filling, and cover with another sheet of
pastry. Moisten the top of the strip of pastry so the top crust will
adhere to it; this gives three layers around the edge. Trim and press
them lightly together. Cut several slits in the top crust to let the
steam escape in cooking.

A thin piece of paste cut into fancy shape can be placed in the center
for ornament if desired.


=PASTRY FOR TARTS OR OPEN PIES=

  2 cupfuls of flour.
  3/4 cupful of butter.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar.
  Yolks of 2 eggs.
  Water.

Sift the flour, salt, and sugar together. Cut in the butter as directed
above. Mix in the beaten yolks, then enough water to make a paste which
is not very stiff; roll it two or three times, then wrap it in a cloth,
or cover it closely, and put it in the ice-box for an hour. This gives
enough paste for four small tart pies like those shown in illustration.


=TART PIES=

(APRICOT, PLUM, APPLE, BERRY)

Roll the paste one eighth of an inch thick, lay it on a deep pie-dish;
let it shrink all it will, and use as little pressure as possible in
fitting it to the tin. Cut the paste an inch larger than the dish, and
fold it under, giving a high twisted edge. Prick the paste on the bottom
in several places with a fork. Lay over it a thin paper, and fill the
tart with rice, dried peas, beans, cornmeal, or any dry material
convenient. Brush the edge with egg, and bake it in a moderate oven.
When done remove the rice, or other filling, and the paper. Brush the
bottom with white of egg. This will insure a dry under crust. If
apricots or peaches are to be used, peel and cut them in halves, lay
them evenly over the tart with the center side up.

Place the half of a blanched almond in each one to represent the pit.
Put the juice of the fruit into a saucepan on the fire; if there is no
juice use a cupful of water. Sweeten to taste, and when it boils add to
each cupful of juice one teaspoonful of arrowroot dissolved in a little
cold water, and let it cook until clear; then pour it around the fruit,
but not over it, as the fruit should lie on top and show its form. Place
in the oven only long enough to cook the fruit tender. If canned fruit
is used, cook the juice and arrowroot until a little thickened and
clear; then pour it around the fruit, and let cool. It will not need to
be put in the oven.

When plums or cherries are used, remove the pits carefully, and place
the fruit close together, with the whole side up. For apple tarts, cut
the apples in even quarters or eighths; stew them in sweetened water,
with a little lemon-juice added, until tender. Lay them overlapping in
even rows or circles in the tart. To a cupful of water in which the
apples were stewed add a teaspoonful of arrowroot, and cook until clear;
pour it over the apples, sprinkle with sugar, nutmeg, and cinnamon. With
berries, the fruit may be stewed or not before being placed in the tart;
then strips of paste are laid across it, like lattice-work, and the
paste brushed with egg. Bake long enough to cook the fruit and the
strips of paste. When cold place a fresh berry on each piece of crust
where it crosses; or place a drop of meringue on the crusts, and the
berries in the openings.

The California canned fruits, costing thirty-five cents, make very good
pies. One can of fruit will make two pies. Tart-rings are better to use
than pie-tins, as the sides are straight. Place them on a baking-sheet,
or tin, before lining them with pastry.

[Illustration: TART RINGS AND CRUSTS.

  1, 2. Tart Rings.
  3. Crust baked in ring No. 1.
  4. Crust filled with rice as prepared for baking. (See page 452)]

[Illustration: TART PIES.

  1. Pie filled with quarters of apples arranged in rows.
  2. Pie filled with apricots cut in halves--a blanched
       almond in the center of each piece. (See page 452.)]


=ORANGE PIE=

  Juice and grated yellow rind of 1 orange.
  2/3 cupful of milk.
  3 eggs.
  1 cupful of granulated sugar.
  1 tablespoonful of flour.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Beat the yolks and the sugar together; add the flour, the milk, and the
grated rind and juice of the orange. Place it on the fire in a double
boiler, and stir until it is a little thickened; then pour it into an
open or tart pie, and bake thirty minutes. The crust of the pie should
be brushed with white of egg before adding the thickened mixture. The
tart crust may be first baked, as directed above, if preferred. Cover
the top with meringue made with the whites of the eggs and sweetened
with three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pile it on irregularly, or press it
through a pastry-bag into fancy shapes. Place it in the oven a moment to
brown. A little more flour may be used if the pie is wanted more solid.


=A PLAIN APPLE PIE=

Fill a pie with apples sliced thin, using enough to make the pie at
least an inch thick when done. Add a little water to the apples, and
cover with a top crust which is a little richer than the under one. This
is done by rolling out a part of the same paste, covering it with bits
of butter, folding it together, and rolling it again, repeating the
operation two or three times. Cut a few slits in the paste to let out
the steam while cooking. Brush the top with beaten yolk of egg.

When the pie is baked, and while it is still hot, lift off carefully the
top crust; add sugar, nutmeg, and a little butter, and mix them well
with the apples. Replace the top crust, and dust it with powdered sugar.
Apple pies seasoned in this way are better than when seasoned before
being baked.


=PUMPKIN PIE=

Cut a pumpkin into small pieces; remove the soft part and seeds. Cover
and cook it slowly in its own steam until tender; then remove the cover
and reduce it almost to dryness, using care that it does not burn. Press
it through a colander. To two and one half cupfuls of pulp add two
cupfuls of milk, one teaspoonful each of salt, butter, cinnamon, and
ginger, one tablespoonful of molasses, two eggs, and sugar to taste. Add
the beaten eggs last and after the mixture is cold. Pour it into an open
crust and bake slowly forty to fifty minutes. Squash pies are made in
the same way, but are not the same in flavor, although they are often
given the name of pumpkin pies.


=MINCE PIE MIXTURE=

  3 pounds of lean boiled beef chopped fine, or half beef and half
    boiled tongue.
  1-1/2 pounds of suet chopped fine.
  3 quarts of apples chopped not very fine.
  1 quart of stoned raisins.
  2 cupfuls of cleaned currants.
  1/4 pound of citron cut into thin slices.
  1 cupful of candied orange and lemon peel shredded.
  1 teaspoonful each of cloves, allspice and cinnamon.
  Grated zest and juice of two oranges and two lemons.
  2 nutmegs grated.
  1 tablespoonful of salt.
  1 cupful of molasses.
  3 cupfuls or sugar.
  3 cupfuls of brandy.
  1 cupful of sherry.
  1 cupful of cider.

Mix the meat and suet together; then add all the dry ingredients and
then the liquids. Pack in an earthen jar. It should stand several days
before using, and will keep an indefinite time.

The pies should be made of good puff paste for the upper crust and tart
paste for the under one, the edge having three layers as directed on
page 451. The filling of mince meat should be one and a half inches
thick. Paint the top crust with egg and trace with a pointed knife some
simple design on it, cutting the paste very slightly. Bake for one hour
and a quarter. Glaze the top by sifting a very little powdered sugar
over it a few minutes before removing it from the oven.


=CREAM PIE=

  3 eggs.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.
  1 cupful of flour.

Sift the flour and baking-powder together; beat the yolks and sugar
together; add the flour and lastly the whipped whites of the eggs. Bake
this cake mixture in two layers, and place between them when cold, and
just before serving, a thick layer of whipped cream. Have the top piece
covered with a boiled icing, or use between the cakes a cream filling
made as follows:

CREAM FOR FILLING.

  2-1/2 cupfuls of milk.
  2 tablespoonfuls of flour.
  3/4 cupful of sugar.
  1 egg.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla.

Scald the milk; turn it onto the beaten egg; return it to the fire; add
the flour moistened with a little milk, and the sugar, and stir until
thickened. Let it cool before adding it to the cake. Serve with whipped
cream if desired.


=COCOANUT PIE=

Line a tin basin which is two inches deep with pie paste, and bake it as
directed for tart pies (page 452). Make a custard of one pint of milk,
three egg-yolks, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and two tablespoonfuls
of corn-starch. Scald the milk and turn it onto the yolks and sugar
beaten together; return it to the fire; add the corn-starch moistened
with cold milk, and stir until well thickened; add one half teaspoonful
of vanilla, and the whites of two eggs whipped to a froth; cook one
minute to set the egg, then remove, and when nearly cold and stiffened
stir in the half of a grated cocoanut. Brush the bottom of the baked
pie-crust with white of egg; cover it with a thin layer of grated
cocoanut and turn in the thickened custard. Cover the top with meringue
made with the white of one egg. Return it to the oven one minute to
color the meringue. Let the pie stand long enough to get firm and cold
before serving. If the grated cocoanut is not added until the custard
has stiffened, it will not sink to the bottom.


=CRANBERRY PIE=

Chop one cupful of cranberries and a half cupful of seeded raisins
together into small pieces; add to them a cupful of sugar, a half cupful
of water, a tablespoonful of flour, and a teaspoonful of vanilla. Bake
with an upper and under crust. This resembles cherry pie.


=WASHINGTON PIE=

Make two round layer cakes, of sponge or of Genoese cake; spread between
them a layer of pastry cream or of chocolate filling. Dust the top with
powdered sugar in crossed lines to imitate strips of pastry.

_Pastry Cream_--Boil with a pint of milk or water five tablespoonfuls of
sugar; add two tablespoonfuls of corn-starch, the yolks of five eggs,
and a tablespoonful of butter; stir until thickened, add flavoring, and
when partly cool spread it on the cake.

_Chocolate Filling_--Mix a half cupful of milk and a cupful of sugar,
and stir until the sugar is dissolved; then add an ounce of shaved
chocolate, and the beaten yolks of two eggs; stir until it is thickened;
flavor with one half teaspoonful of vanilla, and let it partly cool
before spreading it on the cake.



PUFF-PASTE


It is a mistake to consider the making of puff-paste too difficult for
any but an experienced cook to undertake. No one need hesitate to
attempt it, and if the few simple rules are strictly observed there will
be success. The materials are few and inexpensive, and within the
compass of the most moderate household. If light, good pastry can be
substituted for the sodden crust of the ordinary pie, it will be found
not only more palatable, but far more digestible and wholesome.
Confections of puff-paste can be served on all occasions, and always
make an acceptable dish, whereas ordinary pastry is excluded from any
but the most informal service.


=GENERAL RULES=

The most important rule for making puff-paste, and the secret of
success, is to have cold paste and a hot oven. It is well to have a
marble slab to roll it on, but this is not positively essential. A
warm, damp day should be avoided. The paste will keep on ice for a day
or two before it is baked, and for several days in a dry place after it
is baked, and if placed in the oven for a few moments just before
serving, it will have the same crispness as when just baked. If there is
no room colder than the kitchen to work in when mixing the paste, stand
by an open window or in a current of air, for it is necessary to keep
the paste cold during the whole time of preparing it. Use pastry flour
if convenient (Plant's St. Louis Flour). It can be obtained at all
first-class grocers. It has a very fine grain, and can easily be
distinguished from ordinary flour by rubbing a little between the thumb
and forefinger.


=RECEIPT FOR PUFF-PASTE=

  1/2 pound or 1 cupful of butter.
  1/2 pound or 2 cupfuls of flour.
  1/2 teaspoonful of salt.
  1/4 to 1/2 cupful of ice-water.

1st. Put the butter in a bowl of ice-water, and work it with the hand
until it becomes smooth and flexible; then place it in a napkin and
knead it a little to free it from moisture. Pat it into a flat square
cake, and place it on the ice until ready to use.

2d. Sift the flour and salt together on a board or marble slab; reserve
a little flour to be used for dusting the slab. Make a well in the
center, and pour in a part of the water. Work in the flour, and use
enough water to make a smooth paste. The exact amount of water cannot be
given, as at certain times the flour absorbs more than at others. Gather
in all the crumbs, and work the paste as you would bread dough until it
becomes smooth. Roll it in a napkin, and place it on ice for fifteen
minutes, that it may become thoroughly cold.

[Illustration: THREE PANS ARRANGED FOR CHILLING PUFF PASTE--THE UPPER
AND UNDER ONES HOLDING CRACKED ICE, THE CENTER ONE HOLDING THE PASTE
WRAPPED IN A NAPKIN.]

3d. Sprinkle the slab lightly with flour. Roll the cold paste into a
square piece; place the cold butter in the center, and fold the paste
over it, first from the sides and then the ends, keeping the shape
square, and folding so the butter is completely incased, and cannot
escape through the folds when rolled. This must be absolutely guarded
against at all times, and can be prevented if the paste is rolled evenly
and folded properly. Turn the folded side down, and with a rolling-pin
roll it lightly away from you into a long, narrow strip, keeping it as
even as possible. Fold it over, making three even layers of paste. This
is called "giving it one turn"; then roll the folded strip again, and
fold as before. This must be repeated until it has had six turns, which
is as many as it should receive to give it its greatest lightness. After
each turn, if it shows signs of softening, otherwise after each two
turns, wrap the paste in a napkin, and place it in a pan, which should
be placed between two other pans containing cracked ice, and let it
remain there twenty to thirty minutes. Great care must be used in
rolling the paste to keep the edges even, so that the layers will be
even, and to roll lightly and always away from you, so as not to break
the air-bubbles which give the lightness to the paste. The rolling is
made easier by lightly pounding as well as rolling the paste. After each
folding press the edges gently with the rolling-pin to shut in the air,
and turn the paste so as to roll in a different direction. The paste
should slip on the slab. If it does not, it sticks, and must be put on
the ice at once. When it has had six turns cut it into the desired
forms, and place again on the ice for twenty to thirty minutes before
putting it in the oven. The trimmings, put together and rolled, make a
good bottom crust for tart bands, or a top crust for mince pies.

The baking of puff-paste is as important a matter as the rolling. The
oven must be very hot, with the greatest heat at the bottom, so the
paste may rise before it begins to brown; therefore put it on the bottom
of the oven and lay a paper on the shelf for a few minutes. Do not open
the door for the first five minutes. It is essential to have the oven
very hot. It must not, however, scorch the paste, and if it scorches
open the draughts at once, and place a basin of ice-water in the oven to
lower the temperature. The amount given in this receipt makes about six
pâté shells or one vol-au-vent case.


=PÂTÉ SHELLS=

Roll puff-paste which has had six turns to a quarter-inch thickness; cut
it into circles with a fluted or plain cutter two and a quarter inches
in diameter. It should be icy-cold when cut, for if it sticks on one
side it will not rise evenly. From one half the circles cut a hole in
the center with a cutter one inch in diameter. Moisten the edges of the
whole circles, and place on them the rings. Brush over the top with egg.
(This is to glaze them, and the egg must not touch the edges.) Place
them on the ice for half an hour, then bake in hot oven for twenty
minutes. Bake the small circles cut from the center on a separate tin,
as they do not require as much time; when baked pick out from the center
any uncooked paste. Use the small pieces for covers after the cases are
filled. If preferred, roll the paste one half inch thick, and with the
small cutter cut half-way through the paste. When baked lift off the
inner circle, and remove the uncooked paste from the interior.

[Illustration: PÂTÉ SHELLS.]


=TART BANDS=

Make a good short paste, using the receipt for tart paste. Roll it one
eighth inch thick, and cut it into a circle six inches in diameter,
using a basin for guide. Wet the edges and lay around it a band of
puff-paste cut in a strip one and one half inches wide and one quarter
inch thick. Place the strip neatly and carefully around the edge, using
care not to press it; cut the edges that are to join in a sharp diagonal
line, and moisten them so they will adhere. Prick the bottom crust in
many places with a fork to prevent its puffing up; brush the top of the
band with egg, but do not let the egg touch the edges; let it rest on
ice for half an hour, then bake in hot oven thirty to forty minutes.

When ready to serve fill it with jam, preserves, purée, or any other
mixture used for tart pies.

These tarts are very good, and can be served where pies would not be
admissible.


=MILLEFEUILLES=

Roll puff-paste turned six times to the thickness of one half inch; cut
it with a pastry wheel into pieces three inches long and one inch wide.
Brush the tops of the pieces with egg, and sprinkle them with sugar. Let
them stand on ice one half hour, and then bake in a hot oven for twenty
minutes, or until well browned; these are served in place of cakes. Or,
cut the paste three and a half inches long and two inches wide, and when
baked place two pieces together with a thin layer of apricot jam between
them, and cover the top with meringue. These are served as a dessert
dish for luncheon.


=TARTLETS=

Cut puff-paste into rings the same as for pâté shells. Use tart paste
for the under crust. After they are baked fill the center with
pineapple, with any preserves, or with apple purée covered with apricot
jam.


=PAGANINI TARTLETS=

Roll puff-paste one eighth inch thick; cut it with a pastry wheel into
squares of three and a half to four inches. Turn the points together in
the middle, and press them down lightly. Bake; then put a spoonful of
jam in the center of each, and cover the jam with meringue; place them
in the oven a moment to brown.


=TO GLAZE PASTRY=

Take an egg and one tablespoonful of water, and beat the egg enough to
break it, but not enough to make it froth. The yolk alone may be used
with the water, but the white alone will not give it color. Brush it
lightly over the pastry, using a brush or quill-feather, and dust it
with a very little sugar. This will give a brown and polished surface to
the pastry.

When two layers of pastry are to be stuck together, brush the top of one
with water, and lay the other on it before baking them.



CHAPTER XXI

CAKE


                                                   [Sidenote: Baking.]

The most difficult part of cake-making is the baking. Unless
the oven is right, the cake will be a failure, no matter how
carefully it may have been mixed.


RULES

Have everything ready before beginning to mix the cake.

Have the weights and measures exact.

                                                     [Sidenote: Fire.]

Have the fire so it will last through the baking, and the
heat of the oven just right (see below), for on this the
success of the cake mostly depends.

Do not mix the cake until the oven is entirely ready for it
to go in.

Sift the flour before measuring it.

If baking-powder or cream of tartar is used, sift it with
the flour.

Mix in an earthen bowl with a wooden spoon.

Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately.

Grease the tins with lard, as butter blackens.

For some cakes it is better to line the pans with paper.

                                                    [Sidenote: Fruit.]

When fruit is used, roll it in flour, and add it the last
thing.

If the fruit is wanted in layers, add it while the mixture
is being poured into the tins.

                                                     [Sidenote: Salt.]

Add one quarter teaspoonful of salt to all cakes.

                                             [Sidenote: Sugary crust.]

If a sugary crust is wanted, sprinkle the top with sugar
before the cake is baked.

                                        [Sidenote: Cause of cracking.]

If the cake cracks open as it rises, too much flour has been
used.

                                            [Sidenote: Uneven rising.]

If it rises in a cone in the center, the oven is too hot.

                                                  [Sidenote: Beating.]

Beating eggs and butter makes them light, beating flour
makes it tough; hence the rule to add it last.

                                      [Sidenote: Adding white of egg.]

When the whipped whites are added do not stir, but turn or
fold them in lightly, so as not to break the air-cells.

                                         [Sidenote: Pans, how filled.]

In filling the pans let the mixture be a little higher on
the sides than in the middle.

                                   [Sidenote: Soda and baking powder.]

When molasses is used, baking-powder (also cream of tartar)
must be omitted, and soda alone used for raising the cake.

                                              [Sidenote: Equivalents.]

One teaspoonful of baking-powder is the equivalent of one
teaspoonful of cream of tartar, and one half teaspoonful of
soda.


HOW TO BEAT EGGS

                                                   [Sidenote: Whites.]

                                                    [Sidenote: Yolks.]

Place the whites on a flat dish, being careful that not a
particle of the yolk gets in. Add a pinch of salt, and with
a daisy beater held flat whip the whites with an upward
motion to a stiff, dry froth. It will take but a very few
minutes if the eggs are fresh and cold. Put the yolks in an
earthen bowl, and with a wooden or silver spoon beat them
until a lemon color. If sugar is used add it at this time,
and stir until the whole becomes light and creamy.


HOW TO LINE TINS WITH PAPER

Turn the tin bottom side up, lay over it the paper, and
crease the circle for the bottom. Cut the paper in several
places down to the circular mark, fold it around the pan,
and cut away the paper that doubles over. Grease the paper,
and fit it neatly inside the pan, leaving an inch of paper
rising above the edge.

[Illustration: CAKE TINS AND BAKING SHEET.]


HOW TO GREASE PANS

                                            [Sidenote: Flouring tins.]

Warm the pan, and with a brush spread evenly the lard or
cottolene. For flat tins to be used for small cakes, brush
them lightly with oil; then with a paper or cloth rub them
dry, and sprinkle with flour. Jar them so the flour will
completely cover them; then turn over the tins, and strike
them against the table. All the superfluous flour will fall,
leaving the tins lightly coated with flour. This will give a
clean surface to the bottom of the cake.


HOW TO BAKE CAKE

                                                  [Sidenote: Rising.]

                                                    [Sidenote: Time.]

The oven should be only moderately hot at first, so that the
cake can get heated through, and can rise before forming a
crust; the heat should then be increased, so that when the
cake has been in the oven one half the time required for
baking a light crust will be formed. It should rise evenly,
and be smooth on top. When it rises in a cone in the center
it is because the oven is too hot, and a crust has formed on
the edges before it has had time to rise. Sometimes it rises
on one side, showing the oven is hotter on one side than
the other, in which case it should be turned or a screen
interposed; but it must be done with the greatest care. Moving
or jarring the cake before the air-cells are fixed is almost
sure to cause it to fall. Do not open the oven door for the
first five minutes, and then open and shut it very gently,
so as not to jar the cake. Cake takes from fifteen minutes
to an hour to bake, according to its kind and thickness. A
hotter oven is needed for a thin cake than for a thick one.
It is done when it shrinks from the pan, and makes no singing
noise; or when a broom straw run into it comes out clean and
smooth. Be sure the cake is done before removing it from the
oven. Let it stand a few minutes in the tin, and it will then
come out easily. Always handle the cake carefully.

                                       [Sidenote: Tests for the oven.]

The following test for the oven is given by Miss Parloa. Put
in a piece of white paper. If at the end of five minutes
the paper is a rich yellow color, the oven is right for
sponge-cake; if light yellow, it is too cool; if dark brown,
too hot. For pound or butter-cakes, it should be light yellow
at the end of five minutes. For gingerbreads and thin rolled
cakes, it should be dark brown.


MIXING SPONGE-CAKES

Cream the yolks and sugar together. Add the flavoring and
water; then fold in the beaten whites, and lastly the flour,
sprinkling it in, and lightly folding, not stirring it in.
If baking-powder is used, it is mixed with the flour.


MIXING CAKE MADE WITH BUTTER

Rub the butter until it is light and smooth. Add the sugar,
and stir until creamy. If there is too much sugar to mix
with the butter, beat one half with the yolks of the eggs.
Add the beaten yolks to the creamed butter and sugar. (If
only a little butter is used melt it, and add it to the
yolks and sugar.) Next add the flavoring, and then the milk
and flour alternately, until all are in. Beat the batter a
few minutes to give it fine grain; then fold in the whipped
whites of the eggs lightly. If fruit is used, flour and add
it the last thing. Turn it into the pans, and put it at once
into a moderate oven.[465-*]


FOOTNOTES:

[465-*] Cake made with butter needs to have the dough quite thick with
flour, as the butter when melted acts as a wetting.


=SPONGE-CAKE No. 1=

  6 eggs.
  3 cupfuls of sugar.
  4 cupfuls of flour.
  1 cupful of cold water.
  2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.
  Juice and grated rind of 1 lemon.
  1/4 teaspoonful of salt.

In this cake the beaten whites are added last. The baking-powder mixed
with the flour is added to the yolks, sugar, and flavoring. This is a
good cake to use for layer-cakes or rolls. It is sufficient for two
loaves.


=SPONGE-CAKE No. 2=

Weigh any number of eggs; take the same weight of sugar and one half the
weight of flour; the grated rind and juice of one lemon to five eggs.
For mixing this cake, see the directions given above; the mixture should
be very light and spongy, great care being used not to break down the
whipped whites. The oven should be moderate at first, and the heat
increased after a time. The cake must not be moved or jarred while
baking. The time will be forty to fifty minutes, according to size of
loaf. Use powdered sugar for sponge-cake. Rose-water makes a good
flavoring when a change from lemon is wanted. Almonds chopped fine mixed
in the cake, and also orange rind grated over the cake before it is
frosted, are good.


=SPONGE-CAKE No. 3=

  10 eggs.
  1 pound of powdered sugar.
  1/2 pound of flour.
  Juice and grated rind of 1/2 lemon.

Beat the yolks and sugar together for at least half an hour. It will not
be right unless thoroughly beaten; add the lemon, then the whites beaten
very stiff, and the flour last; sprinkle the top with sugar. Put it at
once into a moderate oven. This is a moist cake and has a thick crust.


=WHITE SPONGE, OR ANGEL CAKE=

  Whites of 6 eggs.
  3/4 cupful of granulated sugar.
  1 cupful of flour.
  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  1/2 teaspoonful of cream of tartar.

Put the cream of tartar into the flour and sift it five or six times;
sift the sugar twice. Put a pinch of salt with the whites of the eggs
and whip them very stiff; add the sugar to the whipped whites, placing
it on the end of the platter and gradually beating it in from below; add
the flour in the same way, and lastly add the flavoring. Do not stop
beating after the mixing is begun, and keep the mixture light. Bake it
in a perfectly bright ungreased pan, or one lined with paper; a pan with
a tube in the center is best. Bake in a moderate oven thirty to forty
minutes. Do not move or jar it while it is baking. Try it with a
broom-straw before removing it from the oven, and do not let it get too
deeply colored. Let it stand in the pan a few minutes, then loosen it
around the sides, and it will fall out. Turn the cake upside down and
ice the bottom and sides if desired. The usual receipt is double the
above quantities, eleven eggs being used, but this one gives a cake
large enough to serve six people, and as it should be used while it is
very fresh, it is better not to make more than enough to serve once. It
can be made with five eggs and is very good, but not quite as spongy. Do
not cut the cake, but break it apart with two forks.[467-*]


FOOTNOTES:

[467-*] If baked too fast this cake will be tough. It is well to set the
cake-pan in a pan of water in the oven.


=SUNSHINE CAKE=

Make the same as angel cake, adding the beaten yolks of two eggs before
putting in the flour.


=GENOESE CAKE=

Three eggs, and the same weight of butter, of sugar, and of flour. Beat
the butter and sugar together until very light and creamy; add one
saltspoonful of salt and flavoring (one half teaspoonful of vanilla or
almond, or one tablespoonful of brandy); then add the eggs one at a
time and beat each one well before adding the next. Beat the mixture for
fifteen to twenty minutes; then stir in lightly the sifted flour and
turn it into a pan, filling it three quarters full. This cake can be
used for layers, rolls, canary pudding, or can be cut into small forms
for fancy cakes. Bake slowly about forty minutes.


=JELLY ROLLS=

Make a layer of Genoese, or of sponge-cake No. 1. Put the mixture on the
layer tins in spoonfuls, placing it around the edges; then with a broad
knife smooth it over toward the middle, making it as even as possible.
Another way is to press it through a pastry bag in lines onto the tins.
The layers should be only one half inch thick when baked, and the crust
should not be hard. As soon as it is removed from the oven, and before
it has had time to cool, cut off the hard edges, spread it with currant,
or any jelly or jam, and roll it up evenly; then roll it in a paper and
tie, so it will cool in a round, even shape.


=LAYER CAKES: CHOCOLATE, VANILLA, COFFEE=

Bake Genoese or sponge-cake No. 1 (one half the receipt will give three
layers) in round layer tins, using three for each cake; when baked
spread two of them with filling and pile them one on the other. Trim the
outside with a sharp knife so it will show a white even edge instead of
crust. Cover the top with a soft royal icing made of confectioners'
sugar and flavored the same as the filling.


=CREAM FILLING=

Beat well together the yolks of five eggs, one half cupful of sugar, and
one heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch; dilute it with two cupfuls of
boiling milk, and stir it over the fire until thickened; then remove,
add the flavoring, and let it cool. If coffee flavoring is wanted, use
one half black coffee and one half milk. If chocolate, melt three or
four ounces and add it to the custard.


=CHOCOLATE FILLING=

Melt four ounces of chocolate; dilute it with three tablespoonfuls of
milk, and then add a cupful of sugar mixed with a well-beaten egg, and
stir until thickened.


=ORANGE CAKE=

  Whites of 9 eggs.
  2 cupfuls of granulated sugar.
  3 heaping cupfuls of flour sifted three or four times.
  1 cupful of butter.
  1 cupful of milk.
  2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.
  1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice.

Cream the butter; add the sugar, and beat for ten minutes; add the milk,
and then add alternately the whipped eggs and the flour, the
baking-powder having been sifted with the flour; add the lemon-juice
last, and mix all lightly. Bake in layer tins; spread the layers with
orange filling and frost the top with royal icing flavored with
orange-juice and a little lemon.


=ORANGE FILLING=

Beat the whites of two eggs to a stiff froth. Boil one and one quarter
cupfuls of sugar with one half cupful of water to the small ball (see
page 512). Pour the boiling sugar in a very fine stream onto the whipped
whites, beating hard all the time. Add the grated rind and juice of one
orange and continue to beat until it is cold and the sugar is stiffened
enough to place between the cakes without running.


=PISTACHIO CAKE=

Make three layers of cake after the receipt given for orange cake. Make
a cream filling as directed for layer cakes. Flavor it with
orange-flower water and a little bitter almond, to give the flavor of
pistachio (see page 391), and color it a delicate green. Frost the top
with a soft royal icing (page 484) made of confectioners' sugar; color
it a delicate light green and sprinkle the top with chopped pistachio
nuts. This cake is rather soft and creamy, and should not be cut before
going on the table.


=PLAIN CUP CAKE=

  1/2 cupful of butter.
  1-1/2 cupfuls of sugar.
  1 cupful of water or milk.
  3 cupfuls of flour.
  2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
  4 eggs.
  Juice and rind of 1 lemon.

Beat the butter and sugar to a cream; add the beaten yolks; then add
slowly the water and three quarters of the flour. Beat it a long time
until very smooth and light; then add the lemon and the rest of the
flour in which the baking-powder is mixed; beat well together, and
lastly add the whipped whites of the eggs. Bake in gem-pans, putting a
tablespoonful of the mixture into each pan. Raisins may be added to this
cake, or two ounces of melted chocolate may be used instead of the
lemon-juice, making it chocolate cake; or it may be made into spice
cakes by using two tablespoonfuls of molasses with enough water to give
one cupful of liquid; add also one half teaspoonful each of ground
cloves, cinnamon, and allspice, and a few currants if desired; use one
teaspoonful of soda instead of the baking-powder if molasses is used.
Bake in a moderate oven about one half hour, and see that the cakes rise
evenly and are of the same size. Turn them out of the pans bottom side
up, and frost the bottom and sides with royal icing while they are still
warm. For chocolate or spice cakes, use chocolate icing.

[Illustration: PLAIN CUP CAKES ICED AND SMALL PIECE OF ANGELICA PLACED
IN CENTER OF EACH CAKE.]


=GOLD-AND-SILVER CAKE=

Use the receipt given for plain cup cake. Divide the materials; use the
whites of the eggs with one part, the yolks and one whole egg with the
other. Bake in separate tins; cut before serving; arrange the slices
with the two colors alternating on a lace paper.


=MARBLE CAKE=

Make a mixture as directed for plain cup cake; divide it into three
parts; color one with carmine, another with melted chocolate (one
ounce), and leave the third one white. Do this quickly, so the
baking-powder will not lose its force before going into the oven. Pour
the mixtures into a tin, alternating the colors twice; they will run
together and make a mottled cake.


=RICHER CUP; OR, 1, 2, 3, 4 CAKE=

Use one cup of butter, two of sugar, three of flour, and four eggs, and
one half teaspoonful of vanilla. Mix as directed for butter-cake
mixtures (page 465).


=POUND-CAKE=

Use one pound each of butter, sugar, and flour; ten eggs; one quarter
teaspoonful of mace and one half cupful of brandy. Mix as directed for
butter-cake mixtures. Divide it into two loaves and bake in tins lined
with paper forty to fifty minutes in a moderate oven. This cake may be
filled with sliced citron and raisins if desired, or may have nuts mixed
with it, making a nut cake, or some nuts may be sprinkled over the top
before it goes in the oven.


=WHITE CAKE=

  Whites of 6 eggs.
  3/4 cupful of butter.
  1-1/4 cupfuls of powdered sugar.
  2 cupfuls of flour.
  Juice of half a lemon.
  1/4 teaspoonful of soda.

Sift the soda with the flour three times; cream the butter and add the
flour to it; whip the eggs to a stiff froth and add the sugar, then beat
them gradually into the butter and flour, and add the lemon-juice. When
it is thoroughly mixed and smooth put it into a biscuit or flat tin, so
it will make a layer one and a half inches thick when done. Bake it in a
moderate oven; while it is still warm spread it with royal icing (see
page 483). Before the icing fully hardens, mark two lines down the
length of the cake, dividing it into three sections, then across in even
lines, giving slices one inch broad and about two and a half inches
long; to do this hold over it a straight edge and mark it with the back
of a knife. Put into a pastry bag some of the frosting, made a little
stiffer with sugar, and place two dots of icing on each slice. This
cake may be made with baking-powder, using one teaspoonful and mixing it
in the usual way. It will then be a lighter cake and should be baked in
a loaf; the first gives a firm, fine-grained cake.


=PLAIN FRUIT CAKE=

  1 {3/4 cupful of butter.            }
    {2 cupfuls of granulated sugar.   } Cream these together well.

  2 {3 eggs.

    {1 teaspoonful of allspice.
  3 {1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.
    {1/3 teaspoonful of ground cloves.
    {1/4 teaspoonful of ground mace.

  4 {1 cupful of milk with 3/4 teaspoonful of soda dissolved in it.

  5 {3 cupfuls of sifted flour with 1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar
       mixed in it.

  6 {1 cupful of sliced citron.
    {2 cupfuls of raisins.

Mix the materials in the order given, beating well each one before the
next is added; add part of the flour and the milk at the same time, then
the rest of the flour. Flour the fruit and add it last. More fruit can
be used if desired. This will make one large or a dozen small cakes.
Bake in a moderate oven about one hour if in one cake.


=BROD TORTE=

  9 eggs.
  2-1/2 cupfuls of sugar.
  2 cupfuls of bread-crumbs--Graham preferred.
  2 teaspoonfuls of ground cinnamon.
  Citron size of small egg.
  3/4 cupful of blanched almonds.
  Grated rind of one lemon.
  1/4 cupful of brandy or rum.
  2-1/2 ounces of chocolate.
  1 teaspoonful of ground allspice.

Put into a bowl the bread-crumbs, dried and pounded fine, the citron and
almonds both chopped fine, the spices and lemon-rind and the
chocolate grated fine; mix them thoroughly and evenly together. In a
second bowl put the yolks of the nine eggs and whites of five with one
and one half cupfuls of sugar. Beat them until quite stiff. In a third
bowl put the whites of four eggs; beat them to a stiff froth; then stir
in the remaining cupful of sugar. Now gradually and lightly mix the dry
ingredients of bowl No. 1 with No. 2; then add the whites from No. 3.
Lastly, add the brandy or rum, and quickly put it into the oven to bake
for three quarters of an hour. Cover with chocolate icing, and decorate
with lines of white icing.

[Illustration: ICED CAKE DECORATED WITH CANDIED CHERRIES CUT IN HALVES,
ANGELICA CUT INTO TRIANGULAR PIECES, AND A SCALLOPED LINE OF ICING.]

[Illustration: CAKE COVERED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AND ORNAMENTED IN
CENTER WITH LINES OF WHITE ICING.]

[Illustration: CAKE ORNAMENTED WITH A MEDALLION IN CENTER FORMED BY A
RING OF CANDIED PLUMS CUT IN QUARTERS AND STOOD ON EDGE. THE CENTER OF
THE CIRCLE IS COVERED WITH BOILED ICING AND DECORATED WITH CANDIED
CHERRIES AND ANGELICA. THE CAKE OUTSIDE THE MEDALLION IS BRUSHED WITH
WHITE OF EGG AND THEN COVERED WITH BLANCHED ALMONDS CUT IN THIN SLICES.]


=FRUIT CAKE=

  1 pound of flour.
  1 pound of sugar.
  1 pound of butter.
  1/2 pound of candied citron (sliced).
  4 pounds of currants.
  4 pounds of raisins (stoned and chopped).
  9 eggs.
  1 tablespoonful of ground cinnamon.
  1 tablespoonful of mace.
  1 tablespoonful of nutmeg.
  3 gills of brandy.

Mix the fruit together and flour it; mix the spices with the sugar.
Cream the butter and sugar; add the beaten yolks, then the whipped
whites and the brandy, then the flour, and lastly the fruit. Put the
mixture in two large tins lined with double paper, and bake in a
moderate oven for three hours. If preferred, add the sliced citron in
layers as the mixture is poured into the pans. One pound of chopped
almonds may be substituted for one of the pounds of currants. This cake
will keep any length of time, therefore the quantity may not be too
great to make at one time.



CREAM CAKES AND ÉCLAIRS


These are made of cooked paste, and are very easy to prepare. The cream
cakes differ from the éclairs only in form and in not being iced.


=CREAM CAKES=

  1 cupful of water.
  1 tablespoonful of sugar.
  2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
  1-1/2 cupfuls of flour (pastry flour preferred).
  3 to 4 eggs.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Put the water, sugar, salt, and butter in a saucepan on the fire. When
the butter is melted remove; add to it the flour, and beat until it is a
smooth paste; return it to the fire, and stir vigorously until the paste
leaves the sides of the pan; then remove; let it partly cool, and then
add the eggs, one at a time, beating each one for some time before
adding the next. When all are in, beat until the batter is no longer
stringy. It should be consistent enough to hold its shape without
spreading when dropped from the spoon on a tin. Three eggs make it about
right unless they are very small or the flour very dry. The batter is
better if it stands for an hour or two before being used; but this is
not essential. Put the mixture into a pastry-bag with a tube of one half
inch opening; press the batter through into balls one and a half to two
inches in diameter. A spoon can be used, but does not give the cakes as
good shape. Brush the tops with egg. Put them in a slack oven and bake
slowly for about forty minutes. They will feel light when done, and be
puffed very high. Oil and flour the pans or baking-sheets as directed on
page 464. When the puffs are cool make an incision in the side and fill
with cream filling as given for layer cakes, page 468. The whipped
whites of the eggs may be added to this filling if it is wanted thinner
and lighter.

These cakes are good made very small, filled with jam and a little
whipped cream, and the tops dipped in sugar boiled to the crack, then
sprinkled with chopped burnt almonds.


=CHOCOLATE, VANILLA, AND COFFEE ÉCLAIRS=

Make a mixture as for cream cakes; put it into a pastry-bag with a tube
of three eighth inch opening. Press the batter onto tins (floured as
directed for cream cakes) in strips three and one half inches long, and
a little distance apart, the same as lady-fingers. Egg the tops and bake
in a slack oven about thirty minutes. Cut open one side and fill with
cream filling made the same as for cream cakes. Make a chocolate icing
No. 2 (page 485); dip the éclairs into it, covering them one half. For
vanilla or coffee éclairs use fondant icing, page 485. Flavor the
filling with vanilla or coffee, the same as the icing.


=CAROLINES=

Make small éclairs two inches long, using a tube with opening no larger
than a pencil. When baked run a wooden skewer through them, leaving an
opening at each end, so the filling will go all the way through. Put the
filling in a bag, and press it through the carolines. Cover the top with
fondant icing. Have the filling flavored with coffee.



FANCY SMALL CAKES


=MERINGUES AND KISSES=

Add a half saltspoonful of salt to the whites of three eggs; beat them,
and add gradually, while whipping, three quarters of a cupful of
powdered sugar. Continue to beat until the mixture is smooth and firm
enough to hold its shape without spreading when dropped in a ball; add
the flavoring of lemon-juice or any essence. Place the meringue in a
pastry-bag and press it through a tube into balls of the size desired
onto strips of paper laid on a board that will fit the oven. With a wet
knife flatten down the point on top left by the tube, and sprinkle them
with sugar. Put them into a very slack oven, and let them dry for at
least an hour; then remove from the papers and either press in the
bottoms or scoop out the soft center and turn them over to dry inside.
If small kisses, it is better to give them plenty of time to dry, so
none of the center has to be taken out. They can be removed to the warm
shelf if the oven is giving them too much color. They should be only
slightly colored on top and dried all the way through. For large
meringues to be filled with cream, use one and a half tablespoonfuls of
meringue for each piece. Make them an oblong shape. Place them in an
oven hot enough for cake and watch them closely until they have formed a
light-colored crust; then remove and take out the soft center or press
in the bottom, and turn them over to dry inside. These meringues may be
dried like the kisses, but take longer time, as they are larger. When a
board is not at hand the papers holding the meringues may be laid in
biscuit-tins, a second tin placed like a cover over the top, and set on
the shelf over the range for several hours. This serves very well where
the fire is too great for the ovens to be cool. There is no difficulty
in making meringues if the eggs are sufficiently whipped. They soon
become stiff when whipped after the sugar is in. They must be dried
rather than baked. If the meringues stick to the paper turn them over,
slightly moisten the paper, and it will soon come off. Make kisses small
and stick two together with white of egg. When very small they are good
with a little jam or jelly between them. Large meringues can be filled
with ice-cream or with whipped cream just before serving them, and two
placed together.

One quarter cupful of powdered sugar is needed for the white of each
egg.

[Illustration: 1. SMALL KISSES. (SEE PAGE 475.)

2. MADELEINES--ROUND, SQUARE, DIAMOND-SHAPED, AND CRESCENTS, EACH ONE
ICED AND GARNISHED WITH PIECE OF ANGELICA CUT THE SAME SHAPE AS THE
CAKE. (SEE PAGE 477.)]


=LADY-FINGERS=

  6 eggs.
  1/2 pound or 1-1/4 cupfuls of powdered sugar.
  1/4 pound or 1 cupful of sifted flour.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

  Flavoring of vanilla, lemon, or orange-flower water.

Beat the yolks and sugar to a light cream; add the flavoring. Stir in
lightly the flour and then the whites of the eggs whipped very firm; the
salt is added to the whites before being whipped. Have a sheet of paper
on the baking-pan or sheet. Place the mixture in a pastry-bag, and press
it through a tube having an opening one half to three quarter inch
wide. Have the strips four and a half inches long. Cut off the paste
from the tube with a knife so the ends will be clean; dust them with
sugar and bake in a moderate oven ten to twelve minutes, or until a
light crust has formed. The crust should not be colored. When done,
stick two together, using white of egg.

_For Biscuit Balls._--Drop the mixture in balls one half inch in
diameter, and bake the same as fingers. Stick two together with a little
jam between them.


=MACAROONS=

  1/2 pound of almonds.
  Whites of 4 eggs.
  1-1/4 cupfuls of powdered sugar.

Pound the blanched almonds to a paste, adding a teaspoonful of
rose-water to keep them from oiling; add also the sugar, a little at a
time, while pounding the almonds; add a few drops of almond essence and
the whipped whites of the eggs; beat thoroughly together. Drop the
mixture in balls one half inch in diameter on strips of paper, using a
pastry-bag. If not stiff enough to hold their shapes without spreading,
add one tablespoonful of flour.


=COCOANUT BALLS OR CONES=

Grate a cocoanut; add to it half its weight of sugar; then stir in the
whipped white of one egg. Boll the mixture into balls or cones, and bake
in a moderate oven twenty to thirty minutes. If the mixture is too soft
to hold its shape, add a very little flour.


=MADELEINES No. 1=

Make two thin layers of Genoese cake (page 467), flavored with brandy;
place them together with a thin layer of jelly or jam between them. Cut
the cake into fancy shapes, such as diamonds, squares, circles, and
crescents, having them not more than one and a quarter to one and a half
inches in diameter, and the same in thickness. Ice them with fondant
(see page 485), flavored with ram, kirsch, or maraschino, or vary the
flavor for the different shapes; or, make the cakes of one layer one and
a quarter inches thick, and ice them on top and sides with royal icing
or with fondant, making it of different colors, pink, green, chocolate,
white, and flavor to correspond. Place in the center of each cake a
currant, bit of candied cherry, piece of angelica, or almond.


=MADELEINES No. 2=

Take a sponge-cake No. 1, or a Genoese cake mixture, and make it a
little stiffer with flour (enough batter can usually be saved from layer
cake to make a few fancy cakes). With a spoon or pastry-bag drop it in
balls one half inch in diameter; bake, and place two together with a
little jam or jelly between them. Cover them with soft royal icing; have
them all of the same color. If green, use pistachio flavor as directed,
page 391, and sprinkle the tops with chopped pistachio nuts; if white,
with almonds; if pink, leave them plain, and flavor with rose.


=LITTLE POUND-CAKES=

Use the Genoese mixture with a few currants added, or the plain
pound-cake mixture. Bake in small tins one and a half inches in
diameter; take care that they rise evenly so they are flat on top. Ice
the top only with any kind of icing.

[Illustration: 1. SMALL POUND CAKES AND TINS IN WHICH THEY WERE BAKED.
  2. ORANGE-QUARTER CAKES AND BAKING TIN. (SEE PAGE 478.)
  3. SHELL-SHAPED GENOESE CAKES AND BAKING TIN.]


=ORANGE QUARTERS=

Use the Genoese or any butter-cake mixture, making it quite stiff with
flour; flavor it with lemon- and orange-juice, and add a little of the
grated rind of orange. Drop a small tablespoonful of the cake mixture at
intervals into the tin made for this cake (see illustration), and bake
in a moderate oven; cover the wedge-shaped sides of the cakes with soft
royal icing flavored and colored with orange-juice.


=ALMOND WAFERS=

Take one tablespoonful each of flour and powdered sugar and one half
saltspoonful of salt. Sift them well together. Beat the white of one
egg just enough to break it, and add as much of it to the flour and
sugar as it will take to make a creamy batter; flavor with a few drops
of almond essence. Grease the pans lightly and flour them as directed on
page 464. Drop a half teaspoonful of the paste on the pan, and with a
wet finger spread it into a thin round wafer. Bake it in a very moderate
oven until the edges are slightly browned, then, before removing from
the oven door, lift each wafer, and turn it around a stick. They stiffen
very quickly, and the rolling must be done while they are hot.


=VENETIAN CAKES=

  1/2 cupful of butter.
  1/2 cupful of powdered sugar.
  1-1/2 cupfuls of pastry flour.
  1 cupful of almonds.
  1 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  Yolks of 3 eggs.

Cream the butter and sugar together until very light; add the yolks well
beaten; then the almonds blanched and cut in strips; mix; add the
vanilla and stir in lightly the flour. The dough should be rather soft.
Take a small piece at a time, drop it in powdered sugar, and roll it
between the hands into a ball one inch in diameter. Put a piece of
pistachio nut on the top. Place the balls a little distance apart on
floured pans (see page 464), and bake in a moderate oven ten to fifteen
minutes, or to a pale color. They will flatten in baking and have the
shape of macaroons.


=GAUFFRES=

This receipt was obtained in Paris, and makes the little cakes one sees
for sale at all the French fêtes, and also on the sea-beaches, where the
vender calls so cheerily, "Voici les plaisirs." They are baked in a kind
of small waffle-iron. The plaisirs are rolled as soon as taken from the
iron.

Add a dash of salt to the whites of six eggs, and whip them to a stiff
froth. Put a half pound of flour in a bowl, and add enough water to make
a thin batter; flavor it with vanilla, then add the whipped whites of
the eggs. Bake one gauffre to see if the batter is of the right
consistency. It should be very thin, and water can be added until it is
right. Have the iron hot, and grease it well with butter or oil. Pour in
the batter, and let it run evenly into all the grooves; close the iron,
and bake on both sides over hot coals. The iron must be very clean,
smooth, and well greased, or the gauffres will stick. Dredge them with
powdered sugar as soon as baked.

[Illustration: GAUFFRE IRON. (SEE PAGE 479.)]



JUMBLES, COOKIES, AND PLAIN CAKES


=JUMBLES=

Beat to a cream one cupful of butter with two cupfuls of sugar. Add
three eggs, the yolks and whites beaten separately; then the flavoring.
Stir in lightly enough flour to make a paste just firm enough to roll
thin. Cut it into circles, and with a smaller cutter stamp out a small
circle in the middle, leaving the jumbles in rings. Place them in a
floured pan, brush the tops with white of egg, and sprinkle with pounded
loaf sugar. The sugar should be in small lumps. Bake in a moderate oven
to a light color.


=SAND TARTS=

Make the mixture given for jumbles. Cut it into squares or diamonds,
place them in floured pans, brush the top with white of egg. Sprinkle
with granulated sugar mixed with ground cinnamon. Place a piece of
blanched almond in the center of each one.


=ROLLED JUMBLES=

Make a mixture as directed for jumbles, using only enough flour to make
a thin batter. Drop a teaspoonful of batter for each cake on a floured
pan. In the oven it runs out into a thin cake, so leave plenty of room
for the batter to spread. As soon as the edges begin to brown lift the
cakes, and at the oven door roll them around a stick. Leave them in the
oven a few moments longer to dry.


=PLAIN COOKIES=

  1 cupful of butter.
  2 cupfuls of sugar.
  1 cupful of milk.
  2 eggs.
  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla.
  Flour.
  2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.

Mix in the order given. Use enough flour to roll the dough thin. Cut it
into circles, and bake in a moderate oven. Brush the tops with white of
egg, and sprinkle them with sugar. Caraway seeds may be mixed with the
dough, or sprinkled over the tops if liked. For soft cookies do not roll
the dough so thin. Stamp them out with a fluted cutter, and remove them
from the oven as soon as baked, not leaving them to dry as for crisp
cookies.


=GINGER SNAPS=

Put a half cupful of butter and a cupful of molasses on the fire; as
soon as the butter is softened remove them, and add a half cupful of
brown sugar, a teaspoonful of ginger, and a teaspoonful of soda
dissolved in a little hot water; then mix in enough flour to make a
stiff dough. Roll it very thin, and stamp it into circles.


=CRULLERS=

Beat three eggs together; add four tablespoonfuls of sugar and four
tablespoonfuls of melted butter or lard; then enough flour to make a
dough stiff enough to roll. Roll it a quarter of an inch thick. Cut it
into pieces three and a half inches long and two inches broad. Cut two
slits in each piece, and give each one a twist. Fry the crullers in hot
fat, the same as doughnuts.


=DOUGHNUTS=

  2 eggs.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  1 cupful of milk.
  4 tablespoonfuls of melted butter.
  Flour enough to make a soft dough.
  1 saltspoonful each of salt and ground cinnamon.
  1/2 teaspoonful of soda and 1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar, or
      1 teaspoonful of baking-powder.

Roll the dough one inch thick. Cut it into small circles, or rings, or
strips and twist them. Drop the cakes into smoking hot fat, and fry to
light brown; drain, and roll them in powdered sugar while still warm.


=BREAD CAKE=

Take a piece of raised bread-dough large enough for one loaf. Mix into
it one tablespoonful of butter, one cupful each of sugar, raisins, and
currants; one half teaspoonful each of ground cinnamon, cloves, and
allspice. Let it rise, which will take some time, and bake the same as
bread.


=ONE-EGG CAKE=

Cream together a half cupful of butter and a cupful of sugar. Add a
cupful of milk, and one beaten egg; then two cupfuls of flour mixed with
two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder. Bake in a moderate oven.


=WARREN'S CAKE=

  2 eggs.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  1 cupful of flour.
  1/2 cupful of hot water.
  2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.

Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs together well, add the sugar, then
the flour, in which the baking-powder is mixed, and lastly the water.
Put it into the oven at once.


=MOLASSES WAFERS=

Mix well together one cupful of butter, one cupful of sugar, two cupfuls
of molasses, and two cupfuls of flour. Drop a few spoonfuls into a pan,
in different places, and put it in the oven; it will melt and run
together. Let it bake until it begins to harden on the edges; then
remove, cut it into squares, and while it is still hot and soft roll
each piece around a stick.


=SOFT GINGERBREAD=

  1 cupful of molasses.
  1 tablespoonful of butter.
  1 tablespoonful of boiling water.
  2 to 3 cupfuls of flour.
  1 teaspoonful each of ginger, ground cloves, cinnamon, and soda.
  1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

Add the melted butter to the molasses, then the spices. Dissolve the
soda in the boiling water, and stir it into the molasses. Add enough
flour to make a very soft dough--too soft to roll. Bake in a biscuit-tin
lined with paper, in a moderate oven, for thirty-five minutes. Mix it
quickly and put it into the oven at once.


=MOLASSES CAKE=

Put together two cupfuls of New Orleans molasses and one cupful of
butter, and heat them enough to soften the butter; remove from the fire,
and add a teaspoonful each of powdered ginger and cinnamon, and one half
teaspoonful of cloves, then three well-beaten eggs. When it is well
mixed add alternately, in small quantities, three cupfuls of flour and
one cupful of boiling water in which have been dissolved three
teaspoonfuls of baking soda.



ICING AND DECORATING CAKES


=ROYAL ICING=

Place the white of an egg in a bowl or plate. Add a little lemon-juice
or other flavoring, and a few drops of water. Stir in powdered sugar
until it is of the right consistency to spread. While the cake is still
warm pile the icing on the center of the cake, and with a wet knife
smooth it over the top and sides of the cake. It will settle into a
smooth and glossy surface. If the icing is prepared before the cake is
ready, cover it with a wet cloth, as it quickly hardens. If it becomes
too stiff add a few drops of water, and stir it again. Color and flavor
as desired. One egg will take about a cupful of sugar, and will make
enough icing to cover one cake. If a little more is needed add a little
water to the egg, and it will then take more sugar. When icing is
wanted for decorating a cake, beat the whites to a froth, then beat in
the sugar instead of stirring it, and continue to beat until it is firm
enough to hold its form. Stirring more sugar into the unwhipped whites
will make it firm enough for decorating, but the whipped icing is
better. Put it into a pastry-bag with small tube, or into a paper
funnel, and press it through into any shapes desired. A good icing is
made of milk and sugar alone.


=ROYAL ICING WITH CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR=

Make this icing the same as the other, using confectioner's sugar, which
is finer than the powdered sugar, and use a little water with the egg.
This makes a soft, creamy icing; the more water used, the softer it will
be. If beaten instead of stirred it will become firm enough to hold in
place without so much sugar being used, but in this way it dries sooner
and is not so creamy. This is a good icing for layer cakes, fancy cakes,
and éclairs.


=BOILED ICING No. 1=

Put a cupful of sugar into a saucepan with one quarter cupful of boiling
water and a half saltspoonful of cream of tartar; stir till dissolved,
then let it boil without stirring until it threads when dropped from the
spoon. Turn it in a fine stream onto the white of one egg whipped to a
stiff froth. Beat the egg until the mixture becomes smooth and stiff
enough to spread, but do not let it get too cold. Pour it over the cake.


=BOILED ICING No. 2=

Boil sugar as directed above to the soft ball; then remove from the
fire, add the flavoring, and stir it until it looks clouded, and turn it
at once over the cake.


=CHOCOLATE ICING No. 1=

Melt in a dry saucepan some chocolate; dilute it with a little water and
add enough powdered or confectioner's sugar to make it of the right
consistency. Use it while warm, as chocolate quickly hardens. Flavor it
with vanilla.


=CHOCOLATE ICING No. 2=

Melt in a dry pan four ounces of Baker's chocolate, or of cocoa. Boil
one and three quarter cupfuls of sugar with a cupful of water till it
threads when dropped from the spoon, the same as for boiled icing. Turn
it slowly onto the chocolate, stirring all the time. Use this icing for
dipping éclairs and small cakes, and for layer cakes. Chocolate icing
loses its gloss when at all stale.


=CHOCOLATE ICING No. 3=

Melt one ounce of chocolate; dilute it with two tablespoonfuls of milk;
add two tablespoonfuls of sugar and a quarter teaspoonful of butter;
stir till smooth and spread on the cake.


=ICING FOR SMALL CAKES=

Stir into confectioner's sugar enough syrup of thirty degrees (see page
513) to dissolve it; add fruit-juice or liqueur to flavor it. When ready
to use, heat it, stirring all the time, and stand it in a pan of hot
water while the cakes are dipped into it.


=COFFEE ICING FOR ÉCLAIRS=

Make the same as the one given above, using very strong coffee or coffee
essence to color and flavor it. Use enough sugar to make a soft flowing
icing, and dip the cakes into it while it is hot.


=FONDANT ICING=

This is the best of all icings. It is soft and glossy, and is used
especially for small cakes and éclairs. If the fondant is already made,
it gives very little trouble. To make fondant see page 514. It will keep
in tight preserve jars any length of time. Fondant does not work so well
after it has been melted two or three times, therefore it is better to
take only the amount to be used for one flavor or color at a time. Place
it in a cup and stand it in a pan of boiling water. Stir the fondant
constantly while it is melting, or it will become a clear liquid. It
will soften at a low degree of heat; add the flavoring and coloring and
dip the cakes into it. If it becomes too hard, add a few drops of syrup
at thirty-four degrees (see page 513). When liqueurs are used for
flavoring, add a drop or two at a time only, or they will dilute it too
much. Should this occur, add a little more fondant to the cup.
Maraschino, curaçao, kirsch, orange-flower water, rose, almond, and
coffee essences make good flavorings for fancy-cake icings.


GARNISHING CAKES


WITH POWDERED SUGAR

                                      [Sidenote: In lines or squares.]

The simplest of all garnishings is to sprinkle the cake with
powdered sugar; strips of paper can be laid over the cake
before it is dusted, so as to give lines or squares of white
over the top; stencils for this purpose are easily cut,
giving circles or diamonds.


WITH CHOPPED NUTS

                      [Sidenote: Almonds, walnuts, or pistachio nuts.]

Brush the cake with white of egg and then sprinkle with nuts
chopped or sliced fine; or the cake may be lightly coated
with a red jelly or jam, and then sprinkled with chopped
nuts.


WITH COLORED SUGARS

Cover the cake with royal icing, and before it hardens
sprinkle it with red and green colored sugar (see page 393).
It may be put on in dots or sprinkled evenly over the whole.


WITH TWO COLORS

Loaf cake may be iced in sections of alternate colors. To do
this, place a strip of stiff paper upright between the colors
while spreading them, and remove it carefully as soon as the
icing is on. This will give a clean, sharp line. Cakes iced
with chocolate or with boiled icing may be ornamented with
fine lines of royal icing.



TO DECORATE IN DESIGNS


                            [Sidenote: To practise elaborate designs.]

Place royal icing in a pastry bag having a tube with small
opening. Press the icing through slowly, following any design
one may have in view. Points may be pricked in the flat icing
at regular intervals as a guide. It requires some practice to
acquire the facility for making very elaborate designs, but
straight lines, dots, and circles around the cake are easy to
make, and with these a great variety of combinations can be
made. Tubes of various-shaped openings are made to give
different forms to the icing pressed through them. If one
cares to practise making fancy decorations, draw a design on a
paper or slab and follow the lines with icing; scrape off the
icing when it is done, and repeat the operation until familiar
enough with the design to be able to make it without a guide.



CHAPTER XXII

FROZEN DESSERTS


ICE-CREAMS, WATER-ICES, PARFAITS, MOUSSES, FROZEN FRUITS,
PUNCHES, AND SHERBETS

Frozen desserts are the most acceptable of any that can be
presented in the summer-time, and at any season they are
served and expected at dinner entertainments.

                          [Sidenote: Comparative trouble and expense.]

The trouble of making them is not greater than that of
making any dessert of the same class, and the expense no
more than any dessert using the same amount of eggs and
cream; thus a plain ice-cream is the same as a custard, a
mousse the same as whipped cream, etc.

Parfaits are especially delicious creams, and as they
require no stirring while freezing are very quickly and
easily made. The freezing of ice-creams which require
stirring is accomplished in twenty to twenty-five minutes,
and is much easier work than beating eggs for cake. In fact,
the whole process of making ice-creams is easier than that
of making cake, but the latter is so generally practised
that nothing is thought of it. It will be the same with
ice-cream if the habit is once formed. They have the
advantage over hot desserts that they require no attention
at dinner-time.


CLASSIFICATION OF ICE-CREAMS

Philadelphia ice-creams are cream sweetened, flavored, and
stirred while freezing.

French ice-creams are custards of different degrees of
richness stirred while freezing.

Parfaits, biscuits, and mousses are whipped cream, with or
without eggs, frozen without stirring.

Water-ices are fruit-juices sweetened with sugar syrup,
stirred while freezing.

Punches and sherbets are water-ices with liquors mixed with
them either before or after they are frozen.

                                             [Sidenote: Fancy creams.]

These creams, in different degrees of richness and with
different flavorings, give an infinite variety, and their
combinations and forms of molding give all the fancy ices.


GENERAL RULES FOR MAKING ICE-CREAMS--TO PREPARE ICE-CREAM
MIXTURES

                                                [Sidenote: The cream.]

Unless the cream is to be whipped it should be scalded, as it
then gives a smoother and better ice; otherwise it has a raw
taste. It is scalded as soon as the water in the outside
kettle boils. If the cream is too much cooked it will not
increase in bulk when stirred, therefore do not boil the
cream. When whipped cream is used it should be very cold,
whipped to a stiff, firm froth with a wire whip, and the
liquid which drains from it should not be used. (See whipping
cream, page 408.)

                                                [Sidenote: The sugar.]

Ices are much better when the sugar is added in the form of
syrup. (See sugar syrup, page 503; and boiling syrup, page
513.) Frozen fruits are smoother when sweetened with syrup,
and water-ices should be made of a thick syrup diluted with
fruit-juice to 20° on the syrup gauge.

                                                  [Sidenote: Custards]

In custard creams the milk should be scalded, and when a
little cool stirred into the beaten yolks (the whites of the
eggs are not generally used). The whole is then placed on
the fire, and stirred continually until it coats the spoon
no longer. The flavoring is then added, and it is beaten
until cold. This makes it light and smooth, and increases
its bulk.

                                    [Sidenote: Biscuits and parfaits.]

For biscuits and parfaits the custard is made of sugar syrup
and yolks of eggs cooked together until it coats the spoon,
and is then beaten until cold.

                                                 [Sidenote: Freezing.]

                                                     [Sidenote: Time.]

_Freezing._--Put the ice in a strong cloth or bag, and pound
it quite fine. The finer the ice the quicker will be the
freezing. Snow may be used in place of ice. Use one part of
rock salt (fine salt will not do) to three parts of ice. Rock
salt can be had at feed-stores when not found at grocers'.
Place the can in the freezing pail with the pivot of the can
in the socket of the pail, have the cover on the can, and a
cork in the opening on top. Hold the can straight, and fill
around it three inches deep of ice; then an inch of salt.
Alternate the layers of ice and salt, observing the right
proportions, until the packing rises to within an inch of the
top of the can; pack it down as solid as possible. See that
the can will turn, and be careful not to lift it out of the
socket. Take off the top of the can; put in the paddle,
placing the pivot in the socket at the bottom; then pour
in carefully the ice-cream mixture, which must be perfectly
cold. Adjust the tops and crank, and turn it for twenty to
twenty-five minutes, by which time the cream should be frozen.
The crank turns harder when the mixture has stiffened, and it
is not necessary to look in order to know it is frozen. If the
cream is frozen too quickly it will be coarse-grained. To have
it fine-grained it must be turned constantly, and not frozen
in less time than twenty minutes.

                           [Sidenote: Adding fruit, nuts, cream, etc.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Ripening.]

_Packing._--When the cream is frozen take off the crank and
the top of the pail. Wipe carefully the top of the can, and
see that the ice and salt are well below the lid, so none
will get into the cream; lift off the top, take out the
paddle, and with a spoon or wooden spatula work down the
cream. If fruit, whipped cream, or anything is to be added to
the cream, put it in at this time and work it well together.
If the cream is to be molded, remove and place it in the
molds; if not, smooth the top, and make the cream compact with
a potato masher. Replace the top, put a cork in the opening of
the lid, draw off the water in the pail by removing the cork
from the hole in the side of the pail, add more ice and salt.
Cover it with a heavy cloth, and let it stand until ready
to use. The cream ripens or becomes blended by standing,
so should be made before the time for serving. Look at it
occasionally to see that the water does not rise above the
opening of the can. If properly watched, and if the packing is
renewed as required, the cream can be kept for any length of
time.

                                                  [Sidenote: Molding.]

                                               [Sidenote: Precaution.]

_Molding Ice-Creams._--Put the frozen ice-cream into the
mold, filling it entirely full; press it down to force out
any air bubbles. Rub butter around the edge where the lid
fits on. Lay a wet thin paper over the top, and put on the
lid. Fill the edges around the lid with butter or lard. This
will harden, and make the joints tight. Too much care cannot
be taken to prevent the salt water leaking into the mold.
Imbed the mold in ice and salt for from one to six hours.
Mousses require four to six hours, and parfaits two to three
hours. Watch to see that the water does not rise above the
lid of the mold, and draw it off when necessary.

[Illustration: ICE-CREAM MOLDS IN BRICK FORMS AND INDIVIDUAL LEAD
MOLDS.]

                                                    [Sidenote: Bombs.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Panachée.]

                                               [Sidenote: Neapolitan.]

                                        [Sidenote: Individual creams.]

                                             [Sidenote: Freezing box.]

_Fancy Molding._--When two or more kinds of creams are to be
combined in the same mold, first place the mold in ice and
salt; line it an inch or more thick with one kind of cream,
and fill the center with a cream of different flavor and
color. These are called bombs. Or, place two or more kinds in
even layers. Where two colors are used they are panachée; if
three, they are neapolitan. If the colors are to run in
vertical strips, which is desirable in pyramidal molds, cut a
piece of stiff paper or cardboard to the shape of the mold;
fill each side with a different cream, and then withdraw the
paper. Arrange layers of creams so that when unmolded the most
solid one will be at the bottom, as it has the weight of the
others to sustain; for instance, do not put water-ices or
parfaits under French creams. Biscuits are put into paper
boxes, and individual creams into lead molds. The latter must
be thoroughly chilled, then filled according to fancy or color
suitable to the form. They are then closed, and put into a
freezing-box, or into a pail, the joints of the pail tightly
sealed with butter, and packed in ice and salt. A freezing-box
with shelves is desirable to have for these creams, but a
lard-pail answers very well for a small number of molds, as
the lid fits over the outside, and so can be made tight. Molds
packed in this way require to stand longer than those which
come in direct contact with the ice and salt.

                                               [Sidenote: Decorating.]

The individual creams have to be frozen very hard, and when
unmolded should be brushed with a little color to simulate
the fruit or flower they represent. Thus, a peach or a pear
would be of French cream, which is yellow in color, and the
sides brushed with a little diluted cochineal to give pink
cheeks, and a piece of angelica stuck in to represent a
stem. A flower would be molded in white cream, and the
center made yellow. A mushroom stem would be dipped in
powdered cocoa, etc.

Individual creams are perhaps too difficult for an amateur
to undertake, and hardly repay the trouble when so many
ornamental creams are more easily made.

                                                [Sidenote: Unmolding.]

_To Unmold Creams._--Dip the mold into cold water; wipe it dry
and invert it on the dish. If it does not come out at once let
it stand a moment, or wring a cloth out of warm water, and
wipe quickly around the mold. This must be done quickly, or
the sharp edges of the molded cream will be destroyed. With
parfaits and mousses it is better not to use a hot cloth, as
they melt very easily. It destroys the attractiveness of ices
to have the dish swimming in melted cream, or to have the mold
soft and irregular in shape, which partial melting produces.
Hence the unmolding of creams requires great care.

_Ornamental Creams._--A plain ring-mold of ice-cream in any
color can be made an ornamental cream, by filling the center
with berries or with whipped cream for sauce. The whipped
cream may be colored to give pleasing contrast. For instance,
a white ice-cream-ring filled with pink whipped cream and a
few pink roses laid on one side of the dish, or a ring of
pistachio ice-cream filled with white whipped cream or with
strawberries, and a bunch of green leaves laid on one side of
the dish.

[Illustration: ICE-CREAM MOLDED IN A RING MOLD, THE CENTER FILLED WITH
WHIPPED CREAM COLORED PINK, AND THE DISH GARNISHED WITH PINK ROSES AND
LEAVES.]

                                              [Sidenote: Melon cream.]

A melon mold may be lined with pistachio ice-cream, the center
filled with pink ice-cream mixed with a few small chocolates
to represent seeds, or with French ice-cream, which is yellow,
and mixed with blanched almonds. The surface of the melon when
unmolded is sprinkled with chopped browned almonds to simulate
a rind. This dish may be garnished with leaves.

                                               [Sidenote: Spun sugar.]

Spun sugar can be employed to ornament any form of cream. It
may be spread over or be laid around it, and makes a beautiful
decoration.

_Individual Creams_, representing eggs or snow-balls, can
be served in a nest of spun sugar. Glacé grapes or oranges
can be arranged on the same dish with individual creams
representing peaches and pears, the whole lightly covered with
a little spun sugar.

                                             [Sidenote: Combinations.]

Individual ice-creams, representing roses, can be held by
artificial stems, stuck into a rice socle, with natural
roses and leaves interspersed, giving the effect of a
bouquet.

Individual creams are also served in baskets of nougat or of
pulled candy. The baskets can be ornamented by tying a bunch
of roses with a ribbon on the handle.

Individual creams representing strawberries are served on flat
baskets, or piled on a flat dish and trimmed with natural
leaves.

Forms of ice-cream representing animals and vegetables are
in questionable taste, and are not recommended.

Attention is called to the following creams given in the
receipts, which are especially good:

The coffee and the chocolate pralinée.

The white ice-cream, plain or mixed with candied or
preserved chestnuts, or with candied fruits cut into dice.

The maple parfait, which is quite new.

Fruit ice No. 2. Chocolate mousse.

Maraschino, curaçao, and noyau make delicious flavorings for
cream.



RECEIPTS FOR ICE-CREAMS AND ICES


=VANILLA ICE-CREAMS=

NO. 1. PHILADELPHIA ICE-CREAM

  1 quart of cream.
  1/2 pound, or 1 cupful, of sugar.
  1 vanilla bean or 1 tablespoonful of vanilla extract.

If the cream is very rich dilute it with a little milk, or the ice-cream
will be too rich, and also it may form fine particles of butter while
being stirred. Put the cream and the sugar into a double boiler and
scald them; when they are cold add the flavoring. If a vanilla bean is
used it should be infused with the cream when it is scalded. Freeze and
pack as directed in general directions, page 490.

NOTE.--Plain vanilla ice-cream is very good served with hot
chocolate sauce. Page 447.

NO. 2. AMERICAN ICE-CREAM (VERY PLAIN)

  1 quart of milk.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  3 whole eggs,
  1 tablespoonful of vanilla.

Scald the milk. Beat the eggs and sugar together; stir the scalded milk
into them slowly; replace on the fire in a double boiler and stir
constantly until the custard coats the spoon; do not let it boil, or it
will curdle. Beat it for a little while after taking it off the fire.
When it is cold add the flavoring, and freeze it as directed at head of
chapter.

Cream will improve this mixture, even if it be only a few spoonfuls.
More eggs, also, will give a richer ice-cream. When the cream is frozen
remove the dasher, press the cream down with a potato-masher to smooth
the top and make it compact, and leave it in the freezer until time to
serve. A few raisins, thin slices of citron, or a little fresh or
preserved fruit may be mixed in when the dasher is removed, and will
much improve the cream.

NO. 3. FRENCH ICE-CREAM

  1 pint of milk.
  1 pint of cream.
  1 cupful of sugar.
  6 egg-yolks.
  1 tablespoonful of vanilla extract or of powder, or 1 vanilla bean.

Scald the pint of milk in a double boiler. (It is scalded when the water
in the outside kettle boils). Beat the yolks and sugar together until
light and smooth. Stir the scalded milk slowly into the beaten eggs and
sugar. Put this into a double boiler and cook, stirring constantly until
it thickens enough to coat the spoon. Do not let it boil or cook too
long, or it will curdle. If a vanilla bean is used it should be cut in
two lengthwise and infused with the scalded milk. Remove the custard
from the fire; add the cream and the flavoring and stir until it is
partly cooled. When cold freeze it as directed at head of chapter.

NOTE 1.--This makes a solid, fine-grained cream. It can be made with one
quart of cream instead of half milk, and eight to ten eggs may be used
instead of six. The richness depends upon the amount of cream, and the
solidity upon the number of yolks used.

NOTE 2.--With the whites of the eggs make an angel cake, or keep them
until next day, and make an angel cream (page 497), or an angel parfait
(page 505).


=CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM=

Use either of the receipts given for vanilla creams, according to the
richness and quality of cream desired; add to the custard while it is
hot four ounces of melted chocolate. To melt the chocolate break it into
small pieces; place it in a small saucepan on the side of the range
where the heat is not great. When it is melted add a very little milk or
custard to dilute and smooth it before adding it to the ice-cream
mixture. Freeze and pack as directed at head of chapter.


=CARAMEL ICE-CREAM No. 1=

  1 pint of milk.
  1 pint of cream.
  3 whole eggs.
  1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of scraped chocolate.
  Caramel.

Scald the milk; add it slowly to the beaten eggs; add the chocolate, and
cook in a double boiler, stirring constantly until the custard coats the
spoon; then add the hot caramel. When the mixture is perfectly cold add
the cream, whipped, and freeze. See general directions.

To make the caramel, put a cupful of sugar with a half cupful of water
into a saucepan; stir until the sugar is dissolved; then, without
touching, let it cook until a golden color--not longer, or it will
blacken. This is the caramel stage, and registers on the thermometer
345° (see page 512).


=CARAMEL ICE-CREAM No. 2=

Add the hot caramel to any of the mixtures given for vanilla creams,
omitting the sugar and vanilla. The caramel supplies both sweetening and
flavoring. It must be mixed with the custards while hot, as it quickly
hardens, and will not then dissolve.


=COFFEE ICE-CREAM No. 1=

To any of the receipts given for vanilla cream add a half cupful of
black coffee, and omit the vanilla.


=COFFEE ICE-CREAM No. 2=

  1 quart of milk.
  1 quart of cream.
  1/2 cupful of very black coffee.
  1-1/2 cupfuls of sugar.
  1/2 ounce of isinglass soaked for half an hour in a little of the
      cold milk.

Scald the milk; add the coffee and isinglass and sugar. When it is cold
add the cream, whipped, and freeze.


=WHITE OR ANGEL ICE-CREAM=

  Whites of 6 eggs.
  1 cupful of powdered sugar.
  1 pint of cream.
  Italian meringue made of the whites of 2 eggs and 1 tablespoonful of
    hot syrup.
  2 tablespoonfuls of noyau or of orange-flower water.

Break the whites of the eggs, but do not beat them to a froth; stir into
them the cupful of powdered sugar, and then add the cream. Place it in a
double boiler, and stir until it is scalded, but do not let it boil;
remove from the fire and stir until it is cold, to make it light. When
it is cold add the flavoring, and freeze. When it is frozen remove the
dasher, stir in the Italian meringue, turn it into a mold, and pack in
ice and salt for two or three hours. This cream requires a little longer
to freeze than the other creams.


=ITALIAN MERINGUE=

Whip the whites of eggs to a stiff froth; beat into them slowly some
boiling syrup cooked to the ball. This cooks the eggs enough to prevent
their separating. The syrup is made by boiling sugar and water until,
when a little is dropped into cold water, it will form a ball when
rolled between the fingers.


=RICE ICE-CREAM=

Cook a cupful of rice until very soft. Have the juice of a lemon in the
water in which the rice is boiled. When the rice is steamed dry, cover
it with a thick sugar syrup and let it stand for an hour or more. Drain
off the syrup, add a half pint of cream, whipped (this may be omitted if
preferred); stir this into vanilla cream No. 1 or 3, or with angel
ice-cream after it is well frozen. Mold and pack in ice and salt for one
or two hours.


=PISTACHIO ICE-CREAM=

Blanch two ounces of pistachio nuts; this is done by pouring over them
boiling water: after a few minutes the skins can be easily removed.
Pound the nuts in a mortar to a smooth paste, using a little cream to
prevent their oiling. Add this quantity of nuts to one quart of vanilla
cream mixture No. 3; color it green, the shade of green peas; flavor
with a little orange-flower water, then freeze. When nuts are not
obtainable, the flavor of pistachio can be produced with orange-flower
water and a very little bitter almond.


=NEAPOLITAN ICE-CREAM=

This cream is molded in brick form in three layers of different flavors
and colors. Make a cream after the receipt for vanilla cream No. 3,
using eight or ten yolks, as it should be solid and of fine grain; omit
the vanilla flavoring. Have a pail packed in ice; when the cream is
frozen, remove one third of it to the pail and stir in quickly a little
vanilla, using the vanilla powder if convenient; put this into the
brick-shaped mold, also packed in ice, and smooth it down to an even
layer. Take from the freezer one half of the cream remaining in it and
put it into the pail; stir into it one ounce of melted chocolate diluted
and made smooth with a little cream or milk. Place the chocolate cream
in an even layer on the layer of vanilla cream. To the cream remaining
in the freezer add an ounce of pistachio nuts, prepared as directed in
receipt for pistachio cream; color it green and add it to the mold for
the third layer. Seal the joints of the mold with butter to make it very
tight, as directed for molding, page 491. Pack in ice and salt for
several hours. The molding of this cream must be done quickly, but with
care to have the layers even. Strawberry ice is often used for one of
the layers instead of chocolate cream.


=NESSELRODE PUDDING=

  1 cupful of French chestnuts.
  1 cupful of granulated sugar.
  Yolks of 3 eggs.
  1/2 pint of cream.
  1/4 pound of mixed candied fruits.
  1 cupful of almonds.
  1/2 can of pineapple (drained).
  1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of maraschino, or 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry.
  1/2 teaspoonful of vanilla sugar, or 1/4 teaspoonful of vanilla extract.

1. Remove the shells from the chestnuts; put them in boiling water for
three minutes, then into cold water, and take off the skins. Boil the
blanched chestnuts until tender. Take one half of them and press them
through a sieve. They will go through more easily while hot.

2. Blanch the almonds; chop them fine and pound them.

3. Cut the candied fruits and the chestnuts into dice; pour over them
the maraschino and let them stand until ready to use.

4. Put into a saucepan on the fire a cupful of granulated sugar and one
quarter cupful of boiling water; stir until the sugar is dissolved, then
let it cook slowly for five minutes, making a sugar syrup.

5. Beat the yolks of three eggs until light. Pour onto them slowly,
stirring all the time, the sugar syrup; place them on the fire and stir
constantly until the mixture is enough thickened to coat the spoon and
has the consistency of thick cream. Remove it from the fire, turn it
into a bowl, and beat it until it is cold. When it is cold add a half
pint of cream, the mashed chestnuts, the pounded almonds, and the
vanilla flavoring, and freeze it. When it is frozen remove the lid of
the freezer, add the fruits, replace the lid, and turn the freezer for
another five minutes. Put the cream into a fancy mold and pack in ice
and salt until ready to use. Serve with it whipped cream, or the sauce
given below for plum pudding glacé flavored with maraschino. This makes
a quart of cream, and, being very rich, is enough to serve to ten
persons.

Gouffé gives the receipt for this pudding, which he says he obtained
from the chef of Count Nesselrode. He omits the grated almonds, and uses
stoned raisins and currants instead of candied fruits. When the cream is
half frozen he adds a half pint of whipped cream. The raisins and
currants are boiled until plump and added after the cream is frozen, but
before it is packed.


=PLUM PUDDING GLACÉ=

Make a chocolate ice-cream as directed on page 496, using the French
ice-cream mixture. Have a scant three quarters of a pound of mixed
fruit, composed of seeded raisins and currants boiled until plump, thin
slices of citron, a few candied cherries and apricots if convenient.
Pour over them a little sherry and let them stand long enough to be a
little softened. When the cream is frozen, drain the fruit and mix it
into the cream, turning the dasher for a few minutes to get it well
mixed and again hardened. Place it in a melon mold and pack in ice and
salt. This will make about two quarts of cream. Serve with a sauce
placed around it on the same dish. The sauce may be whipped cream
flavored with a little kirsch or brandy, or a sauce made as follows.


=SAUCE FOR PLUM PUDDING GLACÉ OR FOR NESSELRODE PUDDING=

Beat the yolks of two eggs with two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar to
a cream. Stir it over the fire in a double boiler until the egg is a
little thickened, but not hard. Continue to beat the egg until it is
cold. It will then be light and creamy; add a tablespoonful of brandy,
or of kirsch, or of rum, or of maraschino; and then mix in lightly a
half pint of cream whipped to a dry, stiff froth.


=TUTTI-FRUTTI=

Make a French vanilla ice-cream, page 495. Cut into small dice four
ounces each of candied cherries, apricots, and plums; and other fruits
may be used if desired. Let them soak until a little softened in
maraschino, or kirsch, or sherry. When the cream is frozen, stir in the
salpicon of fruit, drained; replace the lid of the freezer and turn it
for five minutes. Turn it into a fancy mold and pack in ice and salt
until ready to use. The angel ice-cream, page 497, may be used instead
of the vanilla No. 3 if preferred. Serve with the Tutti-Frutti a sauce
of whipped cream flavored with kirsch, maraschino, or sherry.


=FRUIT ICE-CREAMS=

  No. 1. Berries, or any kind of larger fruit cut into small
       pieces, may be added to any of the vanilla creams
       after they are frozen. Remove the paddle of the
       freezer, mix the fruit in well, then mold and pack in
       ice and salt for one or two hours. The fruit will
       become too solid if packed for a long time.

  No. 2. Crush any fruit or berries to a pulp. Sweeten it to
       taste with a thick sugar syrup (32° on the syrup
       gauge). Freeze the same as any ice cream, and pack in
       ice and salt if molded. This makes a delicious ice.
       Sugar may be used instead of syrup for sweetening,
       but the latter gives a better result.

  No. 3. Using canned fruit. Strain the liquor from the
       fruit; sweeten it if necessary with sugar or with
       syrup. Mix it with an equal quantity of cream, and
       freeze. When it is frozen add the drained fruit. Mix
       it well together. Mold and pack in ice and salt for
       one or two hours. The fruit will become hard if it is
       packed too long. Preserved strawberries are a
       particularly good fruit to use for ice-cream.

NOTE.--Strawberries, raspberries, cherries, peaches, apricots, plums,
pineapple, bananas, and oranges are the fruits generally used for ices
and creams.


=FRUIT PUDDINGS=

  No. 4. Line a mold one or one and a half inches thick with
       vanilla ice-cream; fill the center with fresh
       strawberries, raspberries, whortleberries, peaches,
       bananas, or any fruit. Cover the top with cream. Pack
       in ice and salt for two hours. The fruit may be mixed
       with whipped cream, if convenient, when it is put in
       the center of the mold. Whipped cream may also be
       served as a sauce with this cream.


=NUT ICE-CREAMS=

Vanilla ice cream No. 3, also angel ice-cream, is good with chopped nuts
mixed with it after it is frozen and before it is packed. Boiled
chestnuts cut into small pieces, chopped English walnuts, filberts,
pecan nuts, or almonds may be used. Almonds should be blanched, chopped,
and browned; and a caramel or an almond flavoring is better than vanilla
for the cream when almonds are used.



PARFAITS


This class of ice-creams is very easily made, as they are not stirred
while freezing. The yolks of eggs are cooked with sugar syrup to a thick
smooth cream, then flavored and beaten until cold and light, and mixed
with drained whipped cream. They are then simply put into a mold and
packed in ice and salt for three or four hours, according to size of
mold. They are not solid like the custard ice-creams, but have a
sponge-like texture. They should not be frozen too hard. It is because
they have no water in them to crystallize that they do not require to be
stirred while freezing.


=SUGAR SYRUP=

Put two cupfuls of sugar and a half cupful of water into a saucepan on
the fire. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, then let it cook slowly
without touching it for about ten minutes, or until it is a clear syrup.
The syrup can be made in larger quantities and kept in preserve jars
ready for use. To keep well it should be boiled to a rather thick
consistency, or should register 32° on the syrup gauge. For parfaits it
should be thinner or register 20°. For water ices it should register 32°
(see boiling sugar, page 513).

In using syrups by measure, articles may be too much sweetened if the
right degree is not designated; but if one has not a syrup gauge the
sweetening must be determined by taste. All classes of ice-creams are
better sweetened with syrup than with sugar. It seems to give them more
smoothness and delicacy.


=VANILLA PARFAIT=

Beat the yolks of eight eggs until light; add one cupful of syrup. Place
the mixture on a slow fire and stir constantly until the eggs have
thickened enough to make a thick coating on the spoon. Turn it into a
bowl and beat it with a whip until it is cold; it will then be very
light. If a vanilla bean is used for flavoring, infuse it with the
syrup; if the extract is used add a teaspoonful of it to the custard
when it is taken from the fire. When the custard is cold add a pint of
cream whipped to a stiff froth. (If any liquid has drained from the
cream do not let it go in.) Stir these lightly together; turn the
mixture into a mold holding three pints. Pack in ice and salt for four
hours. Make the joints of the mold very tight as directed for molding at
head of chapter.

This cream can be varied by using different flavorings in place of the
vanilla: a tablespoonful of curaçao or of noyau, two ounces of chocolate
melted and smoothed with a little cream, etc., etc.


=MAPLE PARFAIT=

This is made the same as the vanilla parfait, using maple syrup in place
of the sugar syrup, and omitting the vanilla flavoring. Maple syrup may
be made by adding water to maple sugar and cooking it to the right
consistency.


=PARFAIT AU CAFÉ AND CAFÉ PRALINÉ=

Put the yolks of five eggs into a saucepan; beat them light; add three
tablespoonfuls of sugar syrup and four tablespoonfuls of strong black
coffee. Stir the mixture over a slow fire until it is enough thickened
to make a thick coating on the spoon. Turn it into a bowl and beat it
until it is cold and light. If making coffee praliné, add three
tablespoonfuls of praline powder (see below). Mix in lightly a pint of
cream whipped to a stiff froth. If any liquid has drained from the cream
do not let it go in. Turn the mixture into a mold holding three pints
and pack in ice and salt for four hours.


=CHOCOLATE PARFAIT AND CHOCOLATE PRALINÉ=

Put the yolks of five eggs into a saucepan; beat them until light; add
three tablespoonfuls of sugar syrup. Cook over a slow fire, stirring
constantly until it makes a thick coating on the spoon. Turn it into a
bowl; add two ounces of melted unsweetened chocolate and beat until it
is cold and light. If making chocolate praliné, add three tablespoonfuls
of praline powder; stir in lightly a pint of cream whipped to a stiff
froth. If any liquid has drained from the cream do not let it go in.
Pack in ice and salt for four hours. This makes three pints of cream.


=PRALINE POWDER=

Put one and a half cupfuls of sugar and a half cupful of water into a
saucepan on the fire; stir until the sugar is well dissolved; then add a
cupful of shelled almonds and a cupful of shelled filberts without
removing the skins. Let it cook, without touching, until it attains a
golden color, the caramel stage. Turn it onto a slab or oiled dish. When
it is cold pound it in a mortar to a coarse powder. Keep the praline
powder in a close preserve jar ready for use.


=ANGEL PARFAIT=

Whip the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth. Put a half cupful of
sugar and a half cupful of water into a saucepan on the fire. Stir until
the sugar is dissolved, then let it cook slowly, without touching, to
the ball, or until a little dropped into cold water will form a ball
when rolled between the fingers. Pour three tablespoonfuls of the
boiling-hot syrup slowly onto the whipped whites, beating constantly.
Add a teaspoonful of vanilla, or of maraschino, or of sherry, or of
noyau, or any other flavoring. When the Italian meringue is cold, add a
pint of cream whipped to a stiff froth. Do not let any liquid that has
drained from the cream go into the mixture. Mold and pack in ice and
salt for four hours.


=IMPERATRICE OF RICE PUDDING GLACÉ=

Boil a scant half cupful of rice in milk and water as directed for
boiling rice, page 222, so each grain will be separate; but it must be
quite soft, so boil it half an hour. This will make a cupful of rice
when boiled. Whip half a pint of cream to a stiff froth; mix into it
four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar and one tablespoonful of noyau or
any flavoring desired; mix the rice lightly with the whipped cream. Turn
it into a mold, and as quickly as possible pack it; leave it in the ice
and salt for three hours.

This gives about a quart of cream.


=PARFAITS OF CHESTNUTS, CANDIES, FRUITS, FRESH FRUITS, OR BERRIES=

Make a vanilla parfait as directed, page 503. When the mixture is ready
to go in the mold add a cupful of boiled chestnuts, or marrons glacé, or
of mixed candied fruits cut into dice. Roll them in powdered sugar so
each piece will be dry and separate and not sink to the bottom. Stir
them in quickly and pack the mold as quickly as possible after the fruit
is mixed in. When fresh fruits or berries are used crush the fruit;
strain off the juice; add enough powdered sugar to the pulp to make it
of the same consistency as the whipped cream. Pack in ice and salt for
three hours.


=BISCUITS GLACÉ=

Make a syrup of one cupful of sugar and a quarter cupful of water. Beat
the yolks of four eggs; add to them three quarters of a cupful of syrup
and a half cupful of cream or milk. Place the mixture on the fire and
cook, stirring constantly until it makes a thick coating on the spoon.
Turn it into a bowl; place it on the ice, and beat it until it is cold
and quite stiff and light; then fold in lightly a pint of cream whipped
to a stiff froth. If any liquid has drained from the cream do not let it
go in. For flavoring infuse a vanilla bean with the syrup, or add a
teaspoonful of vanilla extract, or of maraschino, or any flavoring
desired, to the custard when it is taken from the fire. Put the mixture
into paper boxes; sprinkle over the top some chopped browned almonds or
some macaroons rolled to crumbs, and pack. Tin boxes containing a
framework of shelves are made for holding individual ices while
freezing, but a tin lard-pail can be used if necessary, placing a sheet
of paper between each layer of boxes. Securely seal with butter the lid
of the pail and pack in ice and salt for four or five hours.



MOUSSES


Whip a pint of cream very stiff; turn it onto a sieve to drain for a few
minutes so it will be entirely dry. Return it to the bowl and whip into
it lightly four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar and a tablespoonful of
curaçao, of noyau, of kirsch, or of very black coffee, or a teaspoonful
of any flavoring extract, or an ounce of chocolate, melted, and diluted
with a little milk or cream, and flavor with a few drops of vanilla.
When a liqueur is used for flavoring less sugar is needed than with
coffee, chocolate, or essences. Turn the cream into a mold and pack it
in ice and salt for four hours. Garnish the dish with small iced cakes.


=FRUIT MOUSSES=

Whip a pint of cream very stiff and drain as directed above. Mix with it
a cupful of any fruit-pulp, the juice drained off and the pulp mixed
with enough powdered sugar to make it of the same consistency as the
whipped cream; a little cochineal added to strawberry or to peach mousse
gives it a better color. A little vanilla improves the flavor. Mold and
pack in ice and salt for three hours.


=GOLDEN MOUSSE (Made without Cream)=

  3 eggs.
  3 tablespoonfuls of sherry.
  1/2 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.
  1 tablespoonful of syrup with the yolks.
  2 tablespoonfuls of syrup with the whites.

Beat the yolks smooth; add a tablespoonful of syrup, and cook, stirring
constantly until the mixture makes a thick coating on the spoon. Remove
from the fire, add the sherry and lemon-juice, and beat it until it is
light and cold; whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth; pour into
them slowly two tablespoonfuls of boiling syrup cooked to the ball (see
Italian meringue, page 498); add the Italian meringue to the mixture of
yolks, put it into a mold, and pack in ice and salt for four hours. This
mousse can be flavored with a tablespoonful of kirsch, rum, or brandy
instead of sherry. A few white grapes or candied cherries laid in the
bottom of the mold before the mixture is put in, makes the dish more
ornamental.



WATER-ICES


Water-ices are made of fruit-juice sweetened with sugar syrup. Sugar may
be used, but the result is better with syrup. The liquid mixture should
register 20° on the syrup gauge, but if one is not at hand, it can be
sweetened to taste.

A good way of preparing it is to make a syrup of 32° and add enough
fruit juice to dilute it to 20°. Freeze the same as ice-cream, and pack
in salt and ice. The ices will not get so hard as creams. The following
method may also be used:


=ORANGE-ICE=

Boil a quart of water and two and one half cupfuls of sugar for ten
minutes; strain and add the juice of six oranges and one lemon. When
cold, freeze.


=LEMON-ICE=

Add to the amount of sugar and water given above the juice of four
lemons and one orange.


=STRAWBERRY-ICE=

To a quart of syrup made as given above, add a cupful and a half of
strawberry-juice.

Ices may be made of any fruit used in the same proportions.



PUNCHES AND SHERBETS


                                                  [Sidenote: Serving.]

These ices are served in glasses after the joint or last
entrée, and before the game. A quart is enough for twelve
portions.

                                                  [Sidenote: Liquors.]

Punches differ from sherbets only in having a little Italian
meringue added to them just before serving. They are simply
water-ices with liquors added. Roman Punch has a cupful or
two gills of rum added to a quart of lemon-ice. Punches
having other names are made in the same way, but have other
liquors or mixtures of liquors. These may be kirsch, kirsch
and rum, kirsch and maraschino, rum and sherry, or any other
combination desired. When champagne is used it is generally
added to orange-ice.

Strawberry, raspberry, pineapple, or orange-ices are generally
used for sherbets with liqueurs such as curaçao, maraschino,
noyau, etc., combined with kirsch, rum, or champagne.

                                    [Sidenote: Mixing in the liquors.]

The liquors can be added to the ice mixture before it is
frozen, in which case it takes them longer to freeze; (in
fact, spirits will not freeze at all, and hence these ices are
always soft, and have to be eaten with a spoon); or the
liquors may be poured over the frozen mixture and stirred in
with the paddle. Sometimes the water-ice is placed in the
glasses and a teaspoonful of the liquor or mixture of liquors
is poured over each glassful at the moment of serving.


=COFFEE PUNCH=

Mix together a quart of black coffee, a cupful of cream, three quarters
cupful of sugar; freeze, and then mix in a half cupful of brandy or rum,
and a half pint of cream, whipped, and let it stand half an hour. Stir
it well before serving.


=CAFÉ FRAPPÉ=

Mix a quart of black coffee with a quart of cream and a cupful of sugar,
or, better, sweeten with syrup. Freeze the same as ice-cream, and serve
in glasses. A little brandy may be mixed in just before serving, if
desired.


=LALLA ROOKH=

Make a vanilla cream No. 3. When it is frozen add a cupful of Jamaica
rum. Turn the dasher until it is well mixed.

Allow a cupful of rum to each quart of cream. Serve in glasses the same
as punch.



CHAPTER XXIII

SUGAR AND ITS USES


=BOILING SUGAR AND MAKING CANDIES=

BOILING SUGAR

To boil sugar is one of the niceties of cooking, but as the
uses of boiled sugar in fancy cooking are so various, it
is worth some practice to acquire the requisite skill. With
the ordinary ways of testing, it requires much experience
to tell the exact point at which to arrest the cooking,
and on this the success depends. The stages named "thread,"
"blow," "ball," etc., give the different degrees required
for different purposes. It passes quickly from one to the
other and needs careful watching and close attention. The
professional cook's method of testing it by dipping in the
fingers is not practicable for ordinary use. It is also
difficult to judge by dropping it in water unless experienced,
but with a sugar thermometer it can easily be determined with
perfect exactness and much less trouble. A sugar thermometer
costs $1.75 or $2.00, a syrup gauge costs fifty cents, and
both should be considered as necessary cooking utensils as are
molds, mortars, and other articles used in fancy cooking. For
measuring syrups, the syrup gauge is used as explained below.
Ice-creams and frozen fruits are much nicer when sweetened
with syrup instead of sugar. Water-ices and compotes to
be right must measure a certain density, and for this the
syrup gauge is employed. Fondant, one of the very useful
articles, candies, and spun sugar are easily made with the aid
of the thermometer. Eleven stages of sugar are explained
below, but it is not essential to learn exactly more than the
four which are most used, namely: the "thread" for boiled
icing, the "soft-ball" for fondant, the "crack" for glacé
fruit, and the "caramel."

[Illustration: SUGAR THERMOMETER AND SYRUP GAUGE. (SEE PAGE 510.)]

[Illustration: UTENSILS FOR BOILING SUGAR.

  1. Thermometer standing in saucepan of sugar on gas-stove.
  2. Cup of water and brush for washing crystals from side of saucepan.
  3. Wooden spatula for working sugar on marble slab to make fondant.
  4. Wooden skewer for testing sugar when thermometer is not used.
  5. Candy wire for dipping nuts or other things to be coated.]

GRANULATION

The tendency of sugar, when the water which holds it in
solution is evaporated, is to resume its original form of
crystals; to prevent this is the chief care: the liquid must
not be jarred or stirred after the sugar is dissolved. The
grains which form on the sides of the pan as the boiling
proceeds must be wiped away; this is done by dipping a cloth
or brush into water and passing it around the pan above the
sugar. If these crystals are allowed to remain, the whole mass
will become granular. Also the sugar has a great affinity for
water, and care must be used to have a dry atmosphere. No
steam from boiling kettles, etc., must be in the room, and it
is useless to attempt confections requiring the ball or crack
stages on a rainy or damp day. When the right degree is
reached, place the sugar pan in one containing cold water, to
prevent the cooking from proceeding any farther. The different
stages follow very quickly after the thread; it is therefore
well to have a moderate heat and give it undivided attention.
A very little cream of tartar (a scant half saltspoonful to a
pound of sugar) added at the beginning makes the sugar less
liable to grain. If cream of tartar is not used, a few drops
of lemon-juice should be added at the crack stage. If the
sugar passes the degree desired, add a spoonful of water and
continue the boiling. No sugar need ever be wasted unless it
becomes burned. In working the sugar, if it begins to grain
there is nothing to do but to add a little water and boil it
again.


DEGREES OF BOILING SUGAR

                                 [Sidenote: First and second degrees.]

  Small Thread, 215°.
  Large Thread, 217°.

Press a little of the syrup between the thumb and finger. A
ring will form and a fine thread be drawn out which breaks
at once and returns to the drop; for the second stage the
thread draws a little farther than the first.

                                         [Sidenote: Third and fourth.]

  Little Pearl, 220°.
  Large Pearl, 222°.

The sugar forms a thread between the fingers which stretches
long, but breaks. For the fourth it stretches without breaking.
The first four degrees are syrups.

                                          [Sidenote: Fifth and sixth.]

  The Blow, 230°.    }
  The Feather, 232°. } crystallization.

Dip in a broom-straw twisted to form a small loop at the end.
A film will fill the loop, which will blow into a bubble.

At the sixth stage fine threads will fly from the bubble.
The candy stages follow:

                                       [Sidenote: Seventh and eighth.]

  Small Ball, 236°-238°.
  Large Ball, 246°-248°.

Drop a little into cold water; for the 7th a soft ball can
be rolled between the fingers; for the 8th a hard ball.

                                          [Sidenote: Ninth and Tenth.]

  Small Crack, 290°.
  Crack, 310°.

At the 9th a little, dropped into water, will break when
cooled. At 300° it begins to assume a light color, and a few
drops of lemon-juice should be added (four drops to a pound of
sugar). At 310° it breaks off sharp and crisp, and crackles
when chewed.

                                                 [Sidenote: Eleventh.]

  The Caramel, 345°-350°


It now assumes a yellow color, and great care must be used
or it will burn. The cooking must be arrested as soon as it
is taken from the fire by holding the pan in cold water for
a minute or so. A skewer or stick is the best thing to use
for testing, as the little sugar that adheres to it will
cool quickly. Dip the stick first into water, then into the
sugar, and again into water.


SYRUPS

                                      [Sidenote: Syrup kept in stock.]

To use a syrup gauge have a glass deep enough to allow the
gauge to float. A small cylindrical glass like the one shown
in illustration is best, as it requires so little syrup that
removing and pouring it back does not arrest the boiling.
Syrups can be prepared and kept in air-tight preserve jars
until needed for use. It is well to have in stock syrup at 34°
for softening fondant when used for icing cakes, éclairs, etc.
Water-ices should register 18°-20° on the gauge when ready to
freeze. Fruits to be frozen are better when sweetened with
syrup at 32° than when sugar is used.

                             [Sidenote: Making syrup without a gauge.]

To prepare syrup without a gauge the following method can be
employed: Put into a saucepan three and one half cupfuls of
sugar and two and one half cupfuls of water. Stir it over
the fire until the sugar is dissolved. After it has boiled
five minutes, counting from the time it is actually boiling,
it will register 28°; every five minutes' additional boiling
will thicken it one degree.

At the end of 15 minutes it is 30°.

At the end of 25 minutes it is 32°.

At the end of 35 minutes it is 34°.


FONDANT

                                      [Sidenote: The uses of fondant.]

Fondant is the basis of all French cream candies. It can be
kept any length of time in air-tight preserve jars, and used
as needed for the various purposes which it serves. A great
variety of bonbons can be made of it by using different
flavors, colors, and nuts in various forms and combinations.
Some of these are given under "Candies," but each one's
taste may suggest something different. Fondant makes the
nicest icing for small cakes; strawberries with the hulls
on dipped into fondant make a delicious fruit glacé. It will
be found easy to make fondant if the directions given below
are strictly followed.


TO MAKE FONDANT

                                                  [Sidenote: Testing.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Cooling.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Working.]

Place in a copper or a graniteware saucepan two cupfuls of
granulated sugar, one cupful of water, and a scant half
saltspoonful of cream of tartar. Stir until the sugar is
dissolved, but not a minute longer. As it boils, a thin scum
of crystals will form around the edge of the pan. These must
be wiped away by wetting a cloth or brush in water and passing
it around the dish without touching the boiling sugar. This
must be done frequently, or as often as the crystals form, or
the whole mass will become granular. When large bubbles rise
it must be carefully watched and tested, as from this time it
quickly passes from one stage to another. Have a cup of
ice-water and a skewer or small stick; dip it into the water,
then into the sugar, and again into the water. If the sugar
which adheres to it can be rolled into a soft ball, it is
done. This is the stage of small-ball, and the thermometer
registers 236°-238° (see page 512). Have ready a marble slab,
very lightly but evenly rubbed over with sweet-oil. If a slab
is not at hand, a large platter will serve the purpose. The
moment the sugar is done, pour it over the slab and let it
cool a few minutes, or until, pressing it with the finger, it
leaves a dent on the surface. If stirred while too warm it
will grain. If a crust forms, every particle of it must be
taken off, or else the boiling must be done again, as it shows
it has cooked a little too long. When it will dent, work it
with a wooden spatula, keeping the mass in the center as much
as possible. Continue to stir until it becomes a very smooth,
fine, white, creamy paste, which is soft and not brittle and
can be worked in the hands like a thick paste. If the results
are not right and the mass becomes grained, the sugar need not
be wasted, but can be put in the saucepan with a spoonful of
water and boiled again. In stirring the fondant do not mix in
the scrapings unless the whole is still very soft. They can be
worked by themselves afterward. Confectioners use one part of
glucose to ten of sugar and boil to 240°.


SPUN SUGAR

                                         [Sidenote: Three requisites.]

Although spinning sugar has been called the climax of the art
of sugar work, one need not be deterred from trying it; for
with a dry atmosphere, the sugar boiled to the right degree,
and care given to prevent graining, it can be accomplished. It
is upon these three things alone that success depends. Spun
sugar makes a beautiful decoration for ice-creams, glacé
fruits, and other cold desserts. The expense of making it is
only nominal, but it commands a fancy price.


DIRECTIONS FOR SPINNING SUGAR

                                                  [Sidenote: Keeping.]

Put in a copper or a graniteware saucepan two cupfuls (one
pound) of sugar; one half cupful of water, and one half
saltspoonful of cream of tartar. Boil the sugar as directed
for fondant above, letting it attain the degree of crack, or
310°. This is the degree just before caramel, and care must be
used. When it has reached the crack, place the sugar pan in
cold water a moment to arrest the cooking, for the heat of
the pan and sugar may advance it one degree. For spinning, two
forks may be used, but a few wires drawn through a cork are
better, as they give more points. Have also two iron bars or
rods of any kind (pieces of broom handle will do), placed on a
table or over chairs so the ends project a little way; spread
some papers on the floor under them. Take the pan of sugar in
the left hand, the forks or wires in the right; dip them into
the sugar and shake them quickly back and forth over the rods;
fine threads of sugar will fly off the points and drop on the
rods. If the sugar gets too cold it can be heated again. Take
the spun sugar carefully off the rods from time to time and
fold it around molds, or roll it into nests or other forms
desired. Place the spun sugar under a glass globe as soon as
made. Under an air-tight globe with a small piece of lime it
may keep crisp for a day or two, but it readily gathers
moisture, and it is safer to make it the day it is to be used.
Do not attempt to make it on a damp or rainy day, and have no
boiling kettles in the room (see general directions for
boiling sugar, page 513).


GLACÉ ORANGES AND GRAPES

                                        [Sidenote: Causes of failure.]

Divide an orange into sections; do not break the inside
skin, for if the juice escapes in ever so small a quantity
the section must be discarded. Let them stand several hours
until the surface has become very dry. Remove grapes from
the bunch, leaving a short stem attached to each one. Boil
some sugar to 340°, or the point just before the caramel
stage (see directions for boiling sugar, page 512). Remove
the pan from the fire and place it for a moment in water to
arrest the cooking. Drop the orange sections into the sugar,
one at a time, and remove them with a candy wire or with
two forks, and place them on an oiled slab to dry. With a
pair of pincers take each grape by the small stem and dip it
into the sugar, and be sure it is entirely coated. Place
each separately on the slab to dry. If the day is damp, the
sugar not sufficiently boiled, or the fruit at all moist,
the sugar will all drain off; therefore the work must be
done only under the right conditions. Candied cherries may
be treated in this way: first wash them to remove the sugar;
let them dry, then pierce them with an artificial stem and
dip them carefully so as not to deface the stem.

[Illustration: GLACÉ ORANGES AND GRAPES IN PAPER BOXES.]

[Illustration: GLACÉ GRAPES AND ORANGES COVERED WITH SPUN SUGAR.]

[Illustration: GLACÉ GRAPES IN NEST OF SPUN SUGAR.]

[Illustration: GLACÉ GRAPES COVERED WITH SPUN SUGAR.]


CANDIES

                                   [Sidenote: To prevent granulation.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Greasing.]

When making candies observe carefully the rules for boiling
sugar. When sugar reaches the candy stage, the water has
evaporated, and the tendency is to return to the original
state of crystals. If it is jarred, or is stirred, or if the
thin line of crystals formed around the pan by the sugar
rising while boiling is allowed to remain, the whole mass
will granulate, hence, for success, it is necessary to avoid
these things. To keep the sides of the pan washed free of
crystals dip a brush in water and pass it around the pan
close to the edge of the sugar as often as is necessary; a
sponge or a small piece of cloth may be used, but with these
there is danger of burning the fingers. A very little acid
added at the crack stage also prevents graining; this is
termed "Greasing." If too much acid is used it prevents the
sugar advancing to the caramel stage, and also may cause
granulation. A few drops, only, of lemon-juice, of vinegar,
or a little cream of tartar are the acids used.

                                           [Sidenote: Making candies.]

The success of candy-making depends entirely upon boiling
sugar to just the right degree. The candy will not harden if
boiled too little. Another stage, where it hardens but sticks
to the teeth, means the boiling was arrested at the hard-ball
instead of the crack stage. Unless a thermometer is used,
a little practice seems necessary before one recognizes
the small differences upon which success depends; but the
experience once gained, it is easy to make a pound or more of
candy at slight expense. In the country, where it is often
impossible to get fresh candies, it is desirable to be able
to make them. Where fondant is already prepared and kept
in preserve jars, the cream bonbons can be quickly made.
Carameled nuts are perhaps the least trouble to make of any
candies.

                                [Sidenote: Marble slab and iron bars.]

A marble slab is almost requisite in making candy, though
greased papers and tins can be used. Candy poured upon a slab
cools quickly, has an even surface, and can be easily removed.
Four square iron bars are useful to confine the sugar. These
can be placed so as to form bays of the size suitable to the
amount of sugar used and the thickness required.


=NOUGAT No. 1 (For Bonbons)=

Blanch one cupful of almonds. Chop them and place them in the oven to
dry. They must be watched that they do not brown. Put into a saucepan
two and a half cupfuls of powdered sugar and a tablespoonful of
lemon-juice. Place it on the fire and stir with a wooden spoon until it
is melted and slightly colored. Let it stand a few minutes so it will be
thoroughly melted and not grainy, then turn in the hot almonds, mix them
together quickly, not stirring long enough to grain the sugar, and turn
it onto an oiled slab. Spread it out in an even sheet, one eighth of an
inch thick, using a half lemon to press it with. While it is still warm,
mark it off into squares or diamonds. Break it into pieces when cold.
These sheets of nougat can be lifted and pressed into molds, but it
hardens quickly and is not as easy to work as the receipt No. 2.


=NOUGAT No. 2 (For Molding)=

Put two cupfuls of granulated sugar into a saucepan with a half cupful
of water. Let it boil to the crack (310°) without stirring (see boiling
sugar, page 511), add a few drops of lemon-juice, and then turn in a
half cupful of hot chopped blanched almonds which have been dried in the
oven. Mix them together, stirring only enough to mix them and not grain
the sugar. Pour it on an oiled marble slab, and press it as thin as an
eighth of an inch or less. Cut the sheet of nougat into pieces of the
right size and press them into oiled molds. Do this while the nougat is
only just cool enough to handle, so it will be pliable. Loosen the form
from the mold while it is still warm, but keep it in the mold until
cold. The work has to be done quickly, as the nougat hardens in a few
minutes. Perhaps the first trial to make nougat forms will be a failure,
but a few trials will enable one to accomplish it.

If any pieces get broken off the molded forms, they can be stuck on
again with liquid sugar or with royal icing. Horns of plenty are
favorite forms for nougat. The molds come of different sizes. These
pieces filled with glacé fruits make very ornamental pieces. The horns
are molded in halves. When the nougat has hardened, the two pieces are
tied together, rested on a muffin ring, and royal icing pressed through
a pastry-tube into any ornamental shape along the edges. This quickly
hardens and binds the horn together. A support for the form is made from
nougat cut into strips and formed into a box-shape, open at one end.

[Illustration: HORN OF PLENTY IN NOUGAT FILLED WITH GLACÉ GRAPES.]

[Illustration: HORN OF PLENTY IN NOUGAT FILLED WITH GLACÉ ORANGES AND
GRAPES COVERED WITH SPUN SUGAR.]


=NOUGAT No. 3 (Soft White Nougat)=

Put into a saucepan the whites of three eggs whipped to a stiff froth;
beat into them one pound of heated strained honey, then add a pound of
sugar cooked to the ball, 236°. Continue beating until it attains 290°.
A little of the mixture cooled in water will then crumble between the
fingers. At this stage add a pound of sugar cooked to the crack, 310°, a
pound of whole blanched almonds, and a few pistachio nuts. Pour the
mixture into a dish lined with wafers, making the nougat one inch thick.
Cover the top with wafers, and when cold cut it into pieces three inches
long and one inch wide. To make wafers, see receipt for gauffres (page
479); but instead of baking them in the gauffre-iron, spread the mixture
as thinly as possible on an oiled paper and dry in a slow oven without
coloring.


=NOUGAT No. 4 (Bonbons)=

Blanch, chop, and dry without coloring one cupful of almonds. Melt one
cupful of powdered sugar with one teaspoonful of lemon-juice, stirring
all the time. When it is thoroughly melted and a delicate color, turn in
the hot almonds. Mix them together and turn into an oiled tin. Press
down the nougat evenly, leaving it an inch thick. Cut it in inch squares
before it becomes hard. This nougat has only enough sugar to bind the
nuts together.


=BURNT ALMONDS=

Put a cupful of brown sugar into a saucepan with a very little water.
Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Let it boil a minute, then throw in a
half cupful of almonds and stir over the fire until the sugar granulates
and is a little browned. When the nuts are well coated, and before they
get into one mass, turn them out and separate any that have stuck
together.


=SUGARED ALMONDS=

Put a cupful of granulated sugar in a saucepan with a little water. Stir
until it is dissolved, then let it cook to the ball stage without
touching except to test. Turn in a half cupful of blanched almonds and
stir off the fire until the nuts are well covered with the granulated
sugar, but turn them out before they become one mass. Boil another
cupful of sugar to the ball, turn in the coated almonds and stir again
in the same way, giving them a second coating of sugar, but not leaving
them in the pan until they are all stuck together. The nuts may be given
a third coating in the same way, if a larger size is wanted.

For pink almonds, add a little carmine to the sugar just before putting
in the almonds for the last coating. Any flavoring desired may also be
added at this time.


=MARRONS GLACÉ (Candied Chestnuts)=

Remove the shells from a dozen or more French chestnuts. Cover them with
boiling water and let them stand a few minutes until the skins can be
removed. Put them again in hot water and simmer slowly until the nuts
are tender, but not soft.

Put a cupful of sugar and a cupful of water in a saucepan and stir until
dissolved. Add the boiled chestnuts and let them cook in the syrup until
they look clear, then turn them onto a sieve, using care not to break
the nuts, and let them cool. Return the strained syrup to the saucepan
and cook it to the hard-ball stage. Remove it from the fire, add a few
drops of lemon-juice and a half teaspoonful of vanilla extract. Drop the
chestnuts into it, one at a time, turn until thinly coated, and remove
with a candy wire to an oiled paper or slab; or, when the sugar has
reached the ball stage, add a few drops of lemon-juice, let it cool a
few minutes, and then stir until it begins to whiten; then immediately
place in a pan of hot water, flavor with vanilla and stir until it again
becomes liquid, and dip the nuts as directed above.


=MARSHMALLOWS=

Soak four ounces of gum arabic in a cupful of water until it is
dissolved. Strain it to take out any black specks that may be in the
gum. Put the dissolved gum arabic into a saucepan with a half pound of
powdered sugar. Place the saucepan in a second pan containing boiling
water. Stir until the mixture becomes thick and white. When it begins to
thicken, test it by dropping a little into cold water. When it will form
a firm ball remove it from the fire, and stir into it the whites of
three eggs whipped to a stiff froth. This will give it a spongy texture.
Lastly, flavor it with two teaspoonfuls of orange-flower water. Turn the
paste into a pan covered thick with corn-starch. The layer of paste
should be one inch thick. Too large a pan must not be used, or it will
spread and make a thin layer. After the paste has stood twelve hours,
turn it onto a slab and cut it into inch squares, dust them well with
corn-starch or with confectioner's sugar, and pack in boxes. As the
paste is more or less cooked, it will be more or less stiff.
Marshmallows become harder the longer they are kept, but are best when
as soft as they can be handled.



CARAMELS


=CHOCOLATE=

Put into a saucepan a half cupful each of molasses, of white sugar and
of brown sugar, a cupful of grated chocolate, and a cupful of cream or
milk. Stir the mixture constantly over the fire until it reaches the
hard-ball stage, then add a teaspoonful of vanilla and turn it onto an
oiled slab between iron bars, or into a greased tin, having the paste an
inch thick. Mark it in inch squares and cut before it is quite cold.
Wrap each piece in paraffin paper.


=VANILLA, COFFEE, MAPLE=

Put into a saucepan one cupful of sugar and three quarters of a cupful
of cream. Stir constantly over a hot fire until it reaches the hard-ball
stage; remove from the fire, add a teaspoonful of vanilla, and turn it
onto an oiled slab between iron bars, or into greased tins, the same as
directed for chocolate caramels. For coffee caramels use a half cupful
of cream and a quarter of a cupful of strong coffee. For maple caramels
use a cupful of maple syrup in place of sugar, and omit the vanilla.



BONBONS OF FONDANT


=HARLEQUIN BALLS=

Take several small portions of fondant and color each one a different
shade Do this by dipping a wooden toothpick into the coloring matter and
then touching it to the paste. The colors are strong, and care must be
used not to get too much on the fondant, for the candies should be
delicate in color. For orange balls, color and flavor with orange-juice;
for pistachio, color green and flavor with orange-flower water and then
with bitter almond (see page 391); for pink, color with carmine and
flavor with maraschino or with rose-water; for chocolate, mix in cocoa
powder and flavor with vanilla; for white, flavor with noyau, peach, or
anything preferred. When liquid flavors are used, if the fondant becomes
too soft, mix in a little confectioner's sugar; use as little as
possible, as too much gives a raw taste. Work in the flavorings and
colors by hand, and wash the hands between each different color. After
the fondant is prepared, roll it into balls the size of filberts, then
roll them in almonds chopped fine. The nuts improve them, but may be
omitted if desired. Let the balls stand for two or more hours to harden
before putting them together. If the balls are wanted of one color on
the outside, omit the nuts and dip them in liquid fondant colored as
desired.


=NEAPOLITAN SQUARES=

Color and flavor fondant in three colors as directed above; roll it into
layers one quarter inch thick, and place the layers one on the other;
press them together lightly and cut into inch squares.


=NUT CREAMS=

Mix chopped nuts of any kind into flavored fondant, then roll into a
layer three quarters of an inch thick, and cut into squares.


=SUGAR-PLUMS=

Take small pieces of fondant, flavored and colored to taste; form it
into olive-shaped balls. Hold one in the palm of the hand, cut it half
through and press into it an almond; form the fondant around it, leaving
a narrow strip of the nut uncovered, giving the appearance of a shell
cracked open, showing the kernel. If chocolate color is used the almond
should be blanched, but with light colors the skin is left on to give
contrast. When green color is used it represents a green almond.


=CHOCOLATE CREAMS=

Roll fondant flavored with vanilla into small balls; let them stand a
few hours to harden. Melt an ounce of unsweetened chocolate, add to it
two tablespoonfuls of milk, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a quarter
teaspoonful of butter. Stir till smooth; drop the balls into it and
remove with a fork or candy wire. If the chocolate becomes too stiff,
add a few drops of syrup and heat it again.


=CREAMED NUTS AND CREAMED FRUITS=

Put one or two tablespoonfuls of fondant into a cup. Place the cup in a
basin of hot water and stir constantly until the fondant becomes soft
like cream or molasses. If it is not stirred it will go back to clear
syrup; flavor and color the liquid fondant as desired. Drop the nuts in
one at a time, turn them until well covered with fondant, lift them out
with a candy-spoon, and place them on an oiled paper, or on an oiled
slab. English walnuts, cherries, strawberries, and grapes are very good
creamed in this way. The hulls are left on strawberries, the stems on
cherries and grapes. Brandied cherries may also be creamed in the same
way. If the fondant becomes too stiff, melt it again. After it has been
melted twice it no longer works well. A few drops of syrup at 34° can
then be added. It is well to have some syrup prepared to keep in stock
for this purpose. A drop or two of liquid is sufficient to soften
fondant, and unless care is used it will be diluted too much, in which
case confectioner's sugar can be mixed in; but this gives a raw taste to
the fondant, and should be avoided if possible.


=COCOANUT CREAMS=

Grate some cocoanut fine. Mix it with as much liquid fondant as will
bind it well, and flavor with a little vanilla. Spread it in a layer one
inch thick and cut into one inch squares, or roll it into balls, and dip
the balls into melted chocolate, the same as directed for chocolate
creams, or into liquid fondant, flavored and colored as desired.


=COCOANUT CAKES=

Moisten a cupful of sugar with the milk of a cocoanut; boil it to the
soft-ball; then stir in as much grated cocoanut as the boiled sugar will
moisten; stir it only enough to mix and not granulate. Drop a spoonful
at a time on an oiled slab, making flat round cakes about two inches in
diameter. If the sugar granulates before the cakes are all spread, add a
little water and cook it again to the soft-ball.


=PEPPERMINT CREAMS=

Melt fondant as directed for creamed nuts; flavor it with essence of
peppermint. With a spoon drop the liquid fondant in even amounts upon an
oiled slab, making lozenges; or, better, turn it into starch molds (see
starch molds, below).


=CHOCOLATE PEPPERMINTS=

Dip the peppermint lozenges into liquid chocolate, as directed for
chocolate creams.


=TO MAKE STARCH MOLDS AND CAST CANDIES=

Fill a box-cover with corn-starch, having it very light and dry; shake
it down even. Press into it a die of any shape desired, making the
indentations carefully. Plaster casts are made for this purpose, but
buttons make very good dies. A smooth flat button one half inch in
diameter makes a good shape for peppermints. Molds are used for cream
drops, chocolates, or any of the flavored clear candies.

The liquid candy is dropped carefully into the molds and removed when
cold and the starch dusted off. The starch can then be stirred light and
again pressed into molds.



CANDIES MADE FROM SUGAR BOILED TO THE CRACK OR THE CARAMEL


=PEPPERMINT DROPS=

Boil a cupful of sugar to the hard-ball. Remove it from the fire; add a
half teaspoonful of essence of peppermint and stir it just enough to mix
in the flavoring and cloud the sugar. Drop it into starch molds or upon
an oiled slab, letting four drops of the candy fall in exactly the same
spot; it will then spread round and even.

These drops should be translucent or a little white. Unless care is used
the candy will grain before the drops are molded; therefore it is better
to pour it from the spout of the pan than to dip it out with a spoon.


=CARAMELED NUTS=

Boil a cupful of sugar to the crack or to the caramel, as preferred; add
a few drops of lemon-juice. Blanch a few almonds and dry without
coloring them. Drop one at a time into the sugar; turn it until well
covered without stirring the sugar; lift it out with the candy-spoon,
and place it on an oiled slab. Do not drain the nuts when lifting them
out, and enough sugar will remain to form a clear ring of candy around
each one. English walnuts, filberts, or any other nuts may be used in
the same way. They should be warmed so as not to chill the candy. The
work should be done quickly. If the sugar becomes hard before the nuts
are all done, return it to the fire to heat. Add a teaspoonful of water
if necessary, and boil it to the right degree again. If the sugar is
boiled to the crack, the candy will be without color; if boiled to the
caramel, it will be yellow.


=ALMOND HARDBAKE=

Blanch some almonds and split them in two. Dry them in a moderate heat
without coloring them. Lay them with the flat side down on an oiled
layer-cake tin, entirely covering it. Pour over the nuts enough sugar
boiled to the crack to entirely cover them. The almonds may be laid in
regular order like wreaths, or in groups like rosettes, if desired. Mark
off squares or circles on the candy while it is warm, and it can then be
broken in regular pieces when cold.


=PEANUT CANDY=

Fill a small square tin a half inch deep with shelled peanuts, leaving
the skins on. Boil some sugar to the crack or to the caramel, and pour
it over the nuts, just covering them. Cut it into two-inch squares
before it becomes quite cold.


=TAFFY=

Put into a saucepan two and a half cupfuls of sugar and a half cupful of
water; stir until it dissolves; then wash the sides of the pan, and let
it boil without touching until it reaches the soft-ball stage; add a
tablespoonful of butter and a half teaspoonful of lemon-juice, and let
it boil to the crack; add a teaspoonful of vanilla, and turn it onto an
oiled slab or a tin to cool. Mark it off into squares before it becomes
cold.


=MOLASSES CANDY=

Put into a large saucepan a cupful of brown sugar, two cupfuls of New
Orleans molasses, and a tablespoonful each of butter and vinegar. Mix
them well and boil until it will harden when dropped in water. Then stir
in a teaspoonful of baking-soda, which will whiten it, and turn it into
a greased tin to cool. When it can be handled pull it until white and
firm; draw it into sticks and cut it into inch lengths.


=CANDIED ORANGE OR LEMON PEEL=

Keep the peel of the fruit, as it is used, in a weak brine until enough
has collected to preserve. Wash it thoroughly in several waters. Let it
boil in plenty of water until tender, changing the water several times.
If the peels are fresh they need be boiled in one water only. When they
can be pierced with a straw, drain off the hot water. Let them cool, and
scrape out the white pulp with a spoon. Make enough syrup to cover the
yellow peels, using the proportion of a pound of sugar to a pint of
water. When the syrup is boiling, drop in the peels and let them cook
slowly until they are clear. Then boil rapidly until the syrup is
reduced almost to dryness, using care that it does not burn. Spread the
peels on a flat dish and place them in a warm place to dry for twelve
hours or more. When perfectly dry pack them into preserve jars. They are
cut into shreds and used in cakes, puddings, and wherever raisins and
citron are used. They are also used in pudding sauces. It is very little
trouble to make the candied peels, and they are a delicious addition to
various sweet dishes. The boiled peel can be cut into shreds before
being cooked in the syrup if preferred.



CHAPTER XXIV

FRUITS


In point of general usefulness, apples hold the first place
among fruits. Oranges also serve a great number of purposes,
and, like apples, can be depended on nearly the whole year.
Peaches and apricots, although of short season, can be so
successfully preserved that they, as well as berries, render
important service in cooking. All of these fruits are excellent
prepared as compotes, with pastry, with corn-starch, or with
gelatine, making a variety of dishes without number. In the
index will be found a list of dishes under each of these
heads. In the fruit season one is sometimes at a loss to
know how to utilize the abundance there may be at command.
Usually the fresh fruit is most acceptable at that time, but
the little trouble and slight expense of canning should make
one provident enough to secure a year's store to supply the
various purposes which cooked fruit serve.

                                              [Sidenote: Temperature.]

                                                [Sidenote: Arranging.]

Fresh fruits are always wholesome, beautiful, and inviting,
and should always have a place on every table. The practice
of leaving fruit on the sideboard in a warm room from one
meal to another is a mistake, for fruit should be fresh,
firm, and cold to be in its best condition. An exception to
this rule may be made for fruits fresh from the garden with
the heat of the sun upon them. The small fruits are much
more delicious when tasting of the sunshine, but fruits
obtained from markets are better for being chilled. Much
taste may be shown in arranging fruits for decorating the
table. They may be combined in large dishes, giving effect
of abundance, or a quantity of one kind massed together for
color-effects, or a few choice specimens of a kind placed on
separate compotiers. All the ways are good and, if the fruit
is fresh and fair, will be most attractive. Green leaves
should be combined with fruits; grape-leaves under small
groups of peaches, plums, grapes, etc., are much used by the
French, who excel in the beautiful arrangements of fruit.
White grapes, shading from those with pink tints to white
below, give pleasing effects on white dinner-tables.

                                                   [Sidenote: Apples.]

Apples should be washed and rubbed until well polished. Fine
apples so treated make an attractive centerpiece dish.

                                            [Sidenote: Illustrations.]

A few ways of preparing oranges are given in illustrations.

[Illustration: DIFFERENT WAYS OF PREPARING ORANGES.]

[Illustration: SLICED ORANGES.]

                       [Sidenote: Oranges, grape-fruit, or shaddocks.]

The grape-fruit is served at breakfast, or as a first course
at luncheon. The pulp must be separated from the thin bitter
skin which separates the sections, with a silver knife. A
little sugar is added, and sometimes a teaspoonful of sherry,
to each portion. The pulp and juice is eaten with a spoon from
the peel, one half the shaddock being served to each person,
or it may be served in small glasses. The peels prepared as
fancy baskets can be kept fresh for several days in water.

[Illustration: GRAPE FRUIT SERVED IN THE HALF PEEL.]

[Illustration: GRAPE FRUIT SERVED IN A BASKET MADE OF THE PEEL AND A
BRANCH OF HOLLY TIED TO THE HANDLE. (SEE PAGE 530.)]

[Illustration: GRAPE FRUIT SERVED IN A BASKET MADE OF THE PEEL--GERANIUM
LEAVES TIED TO THE HANDLE.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Peaches.]

Peaches should have the down taken off lightly with a soft
brush before being served. A fruit doily should be given at
the time they are passed, as peaches stain the table linen.

                                             [Sidenote: Strawberries.]

Large fine strawberries are served with the hulls on and piled
in a pyramid. Sugar is passed with them, or they may be served
on individual plates around a small mound of sugar, made by
pressing the sugar in a wineglass and then unmolding it in
the center of the plate.

                                                  [Sidenote: Berries.]

No berries should be washed. If strawberries are sandy, cold
water must be poured over them and drained off at once, but
the berries will no longer be at their best. Sugar should
always be passed, and not put over the berries before serving
them, as it extracts their juice and destroys their firmness.
They should also be served in small dishes, as they crush with
their own weight. Where a large quantity is being served,
several dishes should be used.

                                                 [Sidenote: Currants.]

A mixture of red and of white currants makes an attractive
breakfast fruit. They may be served on the stems if fine and
large clusters.

                        [Sidenote: Bananas sliced, sautéd, and fried.]

Bananas sliced and covered with whipped cream make a good light
dessert for luncheon. They may be moistened with orange-juice
or with sherry before the cream is added, if desired. Bananas
may be cut in two lengthwise, sautéd in a little butter, and
served as a vegetable or as an entrée; or they may be cut in
two, the ends cut square, so they will resemble croquettes,
then rolled in flour, and fried in hot fat to a light color,
and served as a dessert with currant jelly sauce. To make the
sauce, dilute the jelly with boiling water; add a few chopped
blanched almonds and shredded candied orange-peel. The unripe
and not fully developed banana is devoid of sweetness and when
roasted resembles a baked potato. In hot climates the natives
live mostly on bananas, and a nation is said to be cursed where
they grow, because the ease with which they get their living
makes them lazy.

                                              [Sidenote: Stewed figs.]

Soak dried figs in cold water for several hours, then stew
them slowly until plump. Drain and pile them on a dish, and
serve with whipped cream slightly sweetened and flavored
with vanilla, sherry, maraschino, or with essence of almond.
Arrange the cream in a circle around the figs.

                                       [Sidenote: Salpicon of fruits.]

Mix together lightly an equal proportion of orange-pulp,
bananas cut into half-inch dice, and grapes cut in two and
the seeds removed. Add sugar if necessary, and a little
sherry or liqueur if desired; serve in glasses or in
half-orange skins. Grape-fruit may be used in the same way;
it may also be combined with the orange salpicon. There
should be a good quantity of juice with the mixture.

[Illustration: SALPICON OF FRUITS IN ORANGE-SKIN.]

[Illustration: SALPICON OF FRUITS IN GLASS.]

                                                   [Sidenote: Melons.]

Melons are in perfection in hot dry weather. They absorb
water readily and should not be gathered after a heavy rain
storm. Small melons are cut in two, the seeds removed, a
piece of ice placed in each piece, and a half melon served
to each person. Large melons are cut in broad sections and a
generous piece served as a portion. Melons may be served at
the beginning or the end of any meal. They are usually most
acceptable as a first course. They should be thoroughly
cold.

                                            [Sidenote: Frozen fruits.]

Any of the fruits can be partly frozen and served as an ice.
Cut them into pieces, sweeten with sugar syrup, and pack in
ice and salt for an hour, but do not leave them long enough
to become stiff. Berries are of course left whole.

                                            [Sidenote: Quinces baked.]

Pare and core quinces the same as apples. Put them in a
shallow earthen dish, with enough water to fill the dish a
quarter inch deep. Place them in a moderate oven and bake
until tender, basting them often. Serve them hot with butter
and sugar as a luncheon dish.

[Illustration: PLUMS.]

                                                     [Sidenote: Nuts.]

Nuts with hard shells are cracked, the meats removed and
placed in bonbon dishes, or are piled on lace papers in
small compotiers. Almonds with paper shells are served
whole. Almonds are also served blanched. Peanuts with the
shells and skins removed, and served in bonbon dishes, are
much liked and seldom recognized as the much-despised nut.
Peanuts may be salted the same as almonds.

                                           [Sidenote: Salted almonds.]

Blanch the almonds by putting them in boiling water for a
few minutes; the skins can then be easily rubbed off. Put
the blanched nuts into a pan with a small piece of butter,
and place them in a moderate oven. Stir them frequently so
they will brown on all sides. Sprinkle them freely with salt
as soon as they are taken from the oven.

                                     [Sidenote: Salted almonds No. 2.]

Blanch the almonds, and when they are thoroughly dry pour
a tablespoonful of oil on every cupful of nuts. Let them
stand in the oil for an hour, then add a tablespoonful of
fine salt to each cupful. Stir them and place in a shallow
pan in the oven until they are colored a light brown. Stir
them occasionally while in the oven, so they will be evenly
colored. Turn them onto a paper to dry, and shake off the
loose salt before serving.

                      [Sidenote: Salted English walnuts and filberts.]

Brown them in the oven with a little butter the same as
almonds. Filberts are blanched, but walnuts do not have the
skin removed.

A mixture of salted almonds, walnuts, and filberts makes a
good combination.

Salted nuts are served at luncheon or dinner, and are eaten
at any and all times during those meals.


=SALPICON OF FRUIT PUNCH=

This is served in glasses, in place of and in the same way as frozen
punch after the roast. Cut a pineapple into small dice; remove the
bitter skin carefully from the segments of three shaddocks and cut them
into pieces. Cut in two and remove the seeds from a pound of white
grapes; mix the fruit together. Put a cupful of rum and a cupful of
sugar into a saucepan on the fire and let them come to the boiling
point, then pour them over the fruit and let stand until cold. The rum
will not penetrate the fruit so well if put on cold. Put the mixture
into a freezing-can and pack in ice and salt for several hours, or
until ready to serve. Stir the mixture together carefully every little
while.


=PUNCH OF WHITE CALIFORNIA CANNED CHERRIES=

Drain off the liquor; make a rum syrup as above; soak and freeze in the
same way.


=JELLIED FRUIT=

Cut the pulp of two oranges into small pieces; cut two bananas into
dice; cut half a dozen candied cherries into quarters; chop a dozen
blanched almonds. Mix all lightly together and turn them into a bowl or
a china mold. Soak a half ounce of gelatine in a half cupful of cold
water for an hour; dissolve it in a cupful of boiling water; add a half
cupful of sugar and stir over the fire until dissolved; then add the
juice of half a lemon, the juice which has drained from the fruit, and a
tablespoonful of sherry. Turn it into the mold slowly, so it soaks into
the fruit, and set aside to cool. Serve with cream if convenient. Any
mixture of fresh fruits may be used in the same way; raisins may be used
instead of cherries, or both may be omitted. This is a good way to
utilize fruits that are going to waste.


=FRUIT JUICES=

The juice of oranges, strawberries, currants, or any fruit makes a
delicious first course for luncheon in summer time or the fruit season,
when prepared as directed below. It is served cold in small glasses and
eaten with a spoon.

Take a quart of fruit-juice; this will require about a dozen oranges, or
two quarts of strawberries or other juicy fruit; strain it through
filter paper to make it clear (see page 415); put it in an earthenware
or porcelain-lined saucepan on the fire, and as soon as it steams, stir
in three teaspoonfuls of arrowroot moistened in a little cold water.
Cook it until clear; then add a half cupful of sugar (or more if an acid
fruit), and as soon as the sugar is dissolved turn it into a bowl to
cool. At the moment of serving put a piece of ice in each glass.



CHAPTER XXV

COMPOTES, PRESERVING AND CANNING, PICKLES


=COMPOTES=

                                       [Sidenote: For plain desserts.]

Compotes are fresh fruits stewed. They are good served with
cake as a plain dessert. In combination with rice or other
molded cereals they are a very wholesome sweet for children.

                                                  [Sidenote: Serving.]

Make a syrup of 28° (see page 513). When it is boiling drop
the fruit in, a few pieces at a time, so it will not get
broken or crushed. Let it cook until tender, but still firm
enough to hold its form. Remove it carefully with a skimmer.
Arrange the pieces in regular order, overlapping, or piled
like uncooked fruit in a glass or silver dish. After the
fruit is cooked, let the syrup boil down until thick, or
about 32°, and strain it over the fruit. Let it cool before
serving.


=APPLE COMPOTE=

Pare and core the apples; leave them whole, or cut them into halves,
quarters, or thick round slices. Boil them until tender, and finish as
directed above. Have a few slices of lemon in the syrup and serve them
with the fruit. Pieces of cinnamon and cloves boiled with the fruit give
a good flavor.

For jellied apples boil down the syrup to the jelly point. When partly
cooled pour it slowly with a spoon over the apples, so enough will
adhere to give them a glaze. The center of the apples may be filled with
a bright-colored jelly or jam.


=COMPOTE OF PEARS=

Use pears that are not quite ripe. Cut them in two lengthwise, splitting
the stem. Remove the core carefully with a scoop. Boil and serve them as
directed above.


=COMPOTE OF PEACHES OR APRICOTS=

Peel the fruit and cut it in halves. Prepare it as directed above. Mix
with the syrup some meats taken from the pits.


=COMPOTE OF ORANGES=

Peel the oranges down to the pulp, using a sharp knife. Cut them in two
crosswise. Remove with a pointed knife the core and seeds from the
center. Boil them, one or two at a time, until tender, in a syrup with a
little lemon-juice added, and be careful to keep them in good shape.
Boil the syrup down until it threads, and pour it over the oranges piled
in a glass dish. A candied cherry in the center of each one gives a
pretty garnish. Orange compote is good served plain, or with whipped
cream, with ice-creams, Bavarians, or corn-starch puddings. Mandarin
oranges make a delicious compote.

[Illustration: COMPOTE OF ORANGES GARNISHED WITH CANDIED CHERRIES. (SEE
PAGE 536.)]



PRESERVING AND CANNING


                                    [Sidenote: Sterilizing the fruit.]

                                          [Sidenote: Use of paraffin.]

                                              [Sidenote: Proportions.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Utensils.]

The success of preserving and canning depends upon heating the
fruit until all germs are destroyed, then sealing it air-tight
while still scalding hot. In this way no new germs of ferment
or mold can reach the fruit. Patent jars are generally used,
and must be put into scalding water before being filled to
prevent their breaking, and also to sterilize them. The
preserve must be put into them scalding hot, a spoon-handle
run down the sides to liberate any bubbles of air, the jar
filled to the very brim, and the top put on each one at
once after it is filled. A simple and very effectual way of
hermetically sealing fruit is to cover it with paraffin. This
can be obtained at any pharmacy. Place the paraffin in a small
saucepan on the side of the range; it melts at a low degree
of heat. When the jar or glass is filled with hot preserves
wipe the glass close to the fruit to free it of syrup. Cover
the top with a tablespoonful of liquid paraffin, and do
not move the jar until the paraffin has set; it will then
adhere closely to the glass. This will be found a very easy
and satisfactory way of sealing fruits. The paraffin when
taken off the fruit can be washed and kept to use again. In
preserving, sugar is used in the proportion of three quarters
of a pound or one pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and the
fruit is thoroughly cooked. In canning, one quarter of a pound
of sugar to a pound of fruit is used, the fruit is only
thoroughly scalded, and so retains its flavor better. Fruits
should be under rather than overripe for preserving, and only
the finest should be selected. Inferior fruit may be used for
jams. It is most abundant when at its best, and at this time
it is cheapest. A porcelain-lined kettle and wooden spoons
should be used in the cooking, and a wide-mouthed funnel is a
convenience for filling the jars.


=PRESERVED PEACHES=

The skin can easily be removed from peaches, leaving a smooth surface,
by placing them in a wire basket and plunging it for a moment into
boiling lye. The lye is made by adding two cupfuls of wood ashes to four
quarts of water. From the lye put the fruit into cold water and rinse it
several times, then rub off the skin. Cut each peach in two and place
again in cold water to preserve the color until ready to use. Place in
a porcelain-lined kettle three quarters the weight of sugar you have of
fruit. Add a very little water to dissolve the sugar. Let it boil a
minute, and take off any scum that rises. Then add as much fruit as will
float without crowding, and cook until it is transparent, but not until
it loses shape. Remove each piece separately as soon as it is cooked.
When ready to fill the jars place them carefully in a pan of boiling
water; have the tops and rubbers also in hot water. Part of the fruit
has become cooled while the rest was cooking, but, as it must go into
the jars hot, place it again in the boiling syrup, a little at a time.
Use a ladle or cup to dip out the fruit; run a spoon-handle around the
inside of the jars after they are filled to liberate any air bubbles.
Add enough syrup to fill them to overflowing, and adjust the rubber and
top on each jar as it is filled. Any juice that is left over may be
boiled down to a jelly, or it may be bottled to use as flavoring or for
sauces.


=PRESERVED PEARS=

Peel the pears; cut them in two lengthwise, splitting the stem, or they
may be left whole if preferred. Place them carefully in jars; fill the
jars with a syrup of 30° (see page 513); cover the jars without
fastening the tops. Place the jars in a boiler of warm water, half
covering them. Stand the jars on muffin-rings, slats of wood, or
something to raise them off the bottom of the boiler, or they will break
while cooking. Cover the boiler and cook the fruit until it is tender
and looks clear. Remove the jars carefully, fill them completely full,
using more hot syrup, or the contents of one of the cooked jars. Adjust
the tops and set them to cool where the air will not strike them. (See
canning.) Pears may be cooked the same as peaches, but they are such a
very tender fruit, it is better to use the method given, as the shape is
kept better in this way.


=PRESERVED PLUMS=

Preserve plums in the same way as directed for peaches or for pears.
Remove the skin from them or not. If left on it is likely to crack open
and come off if boiled too long. To prevent this, in a measure, prick
the plums in several places with a fork before cooking.


=GRAPE PRESERVES=

Press the pulp out of each grape. Boil the pulps until tender, then pass
them through a colander to remove the seeds. Mix the skins with the pulp
and juice, add as many cupfuls of sugar as there are of grapes, and boil
all together until well thickened.

Seal while hot the same as other preserves.

Green grapes are preserved by cutting each grape in halves, taking out
the seeds, then adding an equal quantity of sugar, and boiling all
together until of the right consistency.


=PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES No. 1=

Select firm, large berries and remove the hulls. To each pound of fruit
(one basketful of berries will weigh about a pound) add three quarters
of a pound of granulated sugar. Mix it with the berries, and let them
stand ten to fifteen minutes, or long enough to moisten the sugar but
not soften the berries. Put them in a granite or porcelain-lined
saucepan and let them boil slowly five to ten minutes, or until the
berries are softened: do not stir them, as that will break the berries,
and do not boil long enough for them to lose their shape. Cook one
basketful of berries only at a time. A larger quantity crushes by its
own weight. A good method is to have two saucepans and two bowls, and
leave the berries, after being hulled, in the baskets until ready to
use; then put a basketful at a time in a bowl with sugar sprinkled
through them; while one bowlful is being cooked, the bowl refilled, and
the glasses filled, the other one is ready to use. In this way no time
is lost, and the cooking is accomplished in as short a time as though
all were put into a preserving kettle together. It is well to put
strawberries into glasses. One basketful of berries will fill two
half-pint tumblers. Cover the tops with paraffin as directed above, page
537.


=PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES No. 2=

Fill pint jars with as many berries as they will hold; pour over them a
hot syrup of 32° (see page 513). After standing a few minutes they will
shrivel, and more berries should be added. Cover and cook them in a
boiler as directed for preserved pears and canning.

Strawberries require more sugar than other fruits to preserve their
color, therefore they do not can well.

Strawberries, if carefully prepared by either of the foregoing receipts,
will resemble the Wiesbaden preserves.


=RASPBERRY PRESERVE=

Raspberries are preserved the same as strawberries.


=CITRON PRESERVE=

Pare and core the citron; cut it into strips and notch the edges; or cut
it into fancy shapes. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and to
six pounds of the fruit allow four lemons and a quarter of a pound of
ginger root. Tie the ginger in a cloth, and boil it in a quart and a
half of water until the flavor is extracted; then remove it, and add to
the water the sugar and the juice of the lemons; stir until the sugar is
dissolved and the syrup is clear; take off any scum; then add the
citron, and cook until it is clear, but not soft enough to fall apart.
Can and seal while hot.



CANNING


APPLES, PEACHES, PEARS, PLUMS, CHERRIES, BERRIES, ETC.

                                              [Sidenote: Proportions.]

                                               [Sidenote: Red fruits.]

                                                  [Sidenote: Cooling.]

Canning does not differ from preserving, except in the amount
of sugar used. A quarter of a pound of sugar to a pound
of fruit is the rule, but none at all need be used, as the
fruit will keep just as well without it if it is thoroughly
sterilized by heat and immediately sealed. Fruits that require
sugar when eaten fresh need sugar in like proportion when
canned. The fruit may be boiled in a syrup of 14°, which is
made of one pound of sugar to a quart of water, and bottled
the same as when preserved, but an easier and better way is to
cook it in the jars. Pack the fruit tightly in the jars and
cover it with a syrup of 14°; red fruits need more sugar to
preserve their color, and should have a syrup of 24°, which is
one pint of water to a pound of sugar. Place the jars in a
boiler of water, half covering them; raise them off the bottom
of the boiler by standing them on muffin-rings or slats of
wood. Do not let them touch. Cover the boiler, and let them
cook until the fruit is tender; the fruit will fall a little,
so the jars will have to be filled up again; use for this the
contents of another jar, or plain boiling water; adjust and
fasten the tops at once, and place them where the air will not
strike them while cooling.

Another way is to pack the dry jars full of fruit, fasten
down the tops at once, place them in a boiler of cold water
nearly covering them, raise it to the boiling-point and cook
for an hour, and leave them in the water until cold again.
In this way they are cooked in their own juice, and are said
to retain their flavor better than where water is used.
Canned apples make a very good substitute for fresh ones for
pies, compotes and apple-sauce.


JAMS OR MARMALADES

                                                  [Sidenote: Testing.]

Use three quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit.
Place the fruit, pared and cored, in layers with the sugar in
the preserving kettle. Let it stand a few minutes to extract
some of the juice from the fruit; then place it on the fire
and cook until it becomes a thick, consistent mass. Stir it
frequently to break the fruit. When it has become tender, use
a potato-masher to crush it. When it looks clear, put a little
on a plate, and if it thickens, it is done. Put it into
tumblers and cover. This does not require to be hermetically
sealed. In making preserves it is well to reserve all the
fruit which is not perfect and make it into jam.


=QUINCE MARMALADE=

Pare, core, and cut into pieces the fruit. Put the skins and cores into
a kettle; cover them with water, and boil thirty minutes, or until
tender; strain off the water through a colander, and as much pulp as
will pass without the skins. To this add the rest of the fruit and three
quarters of a pound of sugar to each pound of fruit. Boil it until it
becomes a jelly-like mass. Mash the fruit as much as possible. It may be
colored red, if desired, with cochineal. Turn it into glasses, tin
boxes, or wooden salt-boxes. It becomes solid, and is served cut into
slices. The Russians cut it into inch squares, and serve it as a bonbon.


=ORANGE MARMALADE=

Allow the juice and grated rind of one lemon to every five oranges.
Weigh the fruit before cutting it, and allow three quarters of a pound
of sugar to a pound of fruit. Remove the peel in quarters, and boil it
in plenty of water until it is tender enough to pierce easily with a
broom-straw; then drain off the water and let it cool. Remove the seeds
and as much of the skin as possible from the pulp. Boil the pulp with
the sugar until the orange is well cooked. When the peel is cool take
one piece at a time in the palm of the hand, and with a tablespoon cut
out all the white pithy part, leaving the thin yellow rind. Place a
number of these pieces together, and with a sharp knife cut them into
thin shreds. By cutting many together in this way it is done quickly.
Add the shredded rinds to the cooked oranges and let them cook until of
the right consistency. It should be very thick, but not solid like
jelly. This is a very good marmalade, and resembles the Dundee brand.


=APPLE MARMALADE=

Make the same as directed for jams.


=BRANDY PEACHES=

Cook the fruit the same as directed for preserving peaches; but for this
purpose the peaches are left whole, the skin left on or not, as desired.
If the skins are retained they should be carefully brushed to remove all
the down; use only fine fruit. When the jars are filled, add to each
quart a half cupful of brandy, and seal; or, after filling the jars with
fruit, boil down the syrup until it is very thick, and to each cupful of
syrup add a cupful of brandy; pour it over the fruit and seal.
California brandy serves very well for this purpose.



JELLIES


CURRANT OR ANY BERRIES

To make clear jelly use only the perfect fruit. Pick it over carefully
and remove the stems. Place it in a porcelain-lined kettle and crush it
enough to give a little juice so it will not burn. Cook it slowly until
the fruit is soft, then turn it into a heavy cloth and press out all the
juice. Strain the juice several times if necessary, to make it clear.
Passing it through filter paper is recommended. Measure the juice, and
to each pint allow a pound of sugar. Put the sugar in the oven to heat,
but do not let it burn. Put the strained juice into the kettle and let
it boil twenty minutes; then add the hot sugar, and stir until the sugar
is dissolved and the juice is clear again. Pour it into glasses and let
it stand until set. Grapes and cherries do not jelly easily, and a
little gelatine added will insure success. When fruit does not jelly it
is usually because it is over ripe. The fruit should not be gathered
after a rain, nor should it be washed.


=APPLE JELLY=

Wash the apples; cut them in pieces without peeling or coring, but
remove any imperfect parts. Barely cover them with water and boil slowly
until they are tender, then strain off the liquor through cheese-cloth
without pressing. Measure the juice, and to each pint of juice allow a
pound of sugar. Put the juice in the preserving kettle and let it boil
five minutes; then add the sugar and stir until it dissolves. Continue
to boil it until a little dropped on a cold plate will jelly. It will
take twenty to thirty minutes. Turn it into tumblers and cover. This
jelly spread on the apple used in tarts improves them very much.


=CRAB-APPLE JELLY=

Make the same as apple jelly.


=QUINCE JELLY=

Make the same as apple jelly.


=SPICED GRAPES=

Prepare the grapes as for preserving, by removing the skins, boiling the
pulp, and straining out the seeds. To seven pounds of fruit (weighed
before the seeds are removed), add a cupful of strong vinegar, a cupful
of grape-juice taken from the grapes used for preserves, two ounces of
cinnamon, one ounce of cloves (tie the spices in a cloth so they can be
removed), three and one half pounds of sugar. Boil until it becomes
thick like a marmalade, which will take about an hour and a half. When
done turn it into glasses. This is good with roast meats.


=PLUM SAUCE FOR MEATS=

To each pound of Damson plums, add a half cupful of sugar, one half
ounce each of cinnamon, mace, and cloves (tie the spices in a bag).
Remove the stones from the plums and boil until it becomes thick like
jam.


=SWEET PICKLED PEACHES AND PLUMS=

Allow three and three quarter pounds of sugar to seven pounds of fruit.
Put the sugar into the preserving kettle with a quart of vinegar and two
ounces each of cloves and a stick of cinnamon. Boil them for five
minutes after the sugar is dissolved. Pare the peaches and stick a clove
into each one. Place a few at a time in the boiling syrup and cook them
until they look clear, but are not softened enough to fall apart. When
all are cooked, continue to boil the syrup until it is reduced nearly
one half and pour it over the peaches. Plums are pickled in the same
way. The skins may be left on both peaches and plums if preferred; in
which case the down must be brushed off the peaches, and the plums must
be pricked with a fork in several places to prevent the skins cracking
when placed in the hot syrup.


=PICKLED WALNUTS=

Gather the walnuts when well grown, but still soft enough to be pierced
through with a needle. Run a heavy needle through them several times and
place them in strong brine, using as much salt as the water will absorb.
Let them remain in brine for a week or ten days, and change the brine
every other day; then drain the nuts and expose them to the air until
they have turned black. Pack them in jars and cover them with boiling
hot vinegar prepared as follows: To a gallon of vinegar add an ounce
each of ginger root, mace, allspice, and cloves, and two ounces of
peppercorns; boil them together for ten minutes and strain over the
nuts. Let them stand a month before using.


=CUCUMBER OR GHERKIN PICKLES=

Gather each day the cucumbers of the size desired; rub them smooth with
a cloth and place them in brine strong enough to float an egg. They will
keep in the brine until wanted to pickle. Soak the cucumbers in water
for two days after taking them from the brine, changing the water once,
and then scald them in vinegar, or pour the boiling vinegar over them
and let them stand in it two days before using. Put into each two
quarts of vinegar an ounce of peppercorns, a half ounce each of mustard
seed and mace, a piece of horseradish, a piece of alum the size of a
pea, and a half cupful of sugar; boil them together for ten minutes
before straining it over the cucumbers. The very small cucumbers are
called gherkins.


=GREEN TOMATO PICKLE=

  1 peck of green tomatoes.
  2 quarts of onions.
  Vinegar.
  1/2 tablespoonful of cayenne.
  1/4 tablespoonful of ground mustard.
  1 teaspoonful of turmeric.
  2 pounds of brown sugar.
  1/2 pound of white mustard seed.
  1/2 ounce of ground mace.
  1 tablespoonful of celery seed.
  1 tablespoonful of ground cloves.

Slice the tomatoes and onions very thin; sprinkle a little salt through
them and let them stand over night. Drain them through a colander and
put them on to boil with enough vinegar to cover them and boil slowly
until they are clear and tender, then drain them from the vinegar. Put
into some fresh vinegar the sugar, mustard seed, mace, celery seed, and
cloves, and let them boil for a few minutes; then pour it over the
drained tomatoes, which have been mixed with the cayenne pepper, ground
mustard, and turmeric. Mix them well together; add a half bottle of
salad oil, and when cold put it in jars.


=CHOW-CHOW=

  Cut into pieces,
  1/2 peck of green tomatoes.
  2 large cabbages.
  15 onions.
  25 cucumbers.

Mix them together and pack them in layers with salt; let them stand for
twelve hours, then drain off the brine and cover them with vinegar and
water, and let them stand another twelve hours.

Drain off the vinegar and cover them with one and one half gallons of
scalding hot vinegar which has been boiled a few minutes with one pint
of grated horseradish, one half pound of mustard seed, one ounce of
celery seed, one half cupful of ground pepper, one half cupful of
turmeric, one half cupful of cinnamon, and four pounds of sugar.

Let them stand until perfectly cold, then add one cupful of salad oil
and one half pound of ground mustard. Mix them all thoroughly together
and place in jars.


=NASTURTIUM PICKLE=

Pick the nasturtium seeds green; leave a short stem on them and place
them in a weak brine for two days; then soak them in fresh water for a
day. Pack them in jars and turn over them boiling vinegar; seal and let
them stand a month before using.



CHAPTER XXVI

BEVERAGES


FILTERED WATER

                                        [Sidenote: Boiling the water.]

It is a recognized fact that many diseases are contracted
through drinking impure water, yet many are so careless as
not to take the simple means of removing this danger. It
only requires boiling the water to destroy the germs. This,
however, does not remove the foreign matter, such as decayed
vegetable growth and other substances, therefore it is well to
filter as well as to boil water. Many good filters are made
which are cheap and easy to clean. The Gate City Stone Filter
is perhaps the simplest one, being an earthen crock with a
porous stone bottom. Although all filters claim to remove
germs as well as impurities from water, it is safer to boil it
first. Bright, crystal-like water in clear glass carafes is
an ornamental addition to the table service as well as a
convenient way of serving it. If the carafes are stopped with
cotton and placed in the refrigerator for several hours, the
water will be refreshingly cool, and cracked ice, which many
do not use, in the belief that it arrests digestion, will not
be required.


TO FREEZE CARAFES

                                                  [Sidenote: Packing.]

Fill the bottles a little less than half full. The water
should be below the largest part of the bulb; stop the bottles
with cotton, and over the top of each one invert a tin cup.
Individual timbale-molds may be used. Cover the bottom of a
tub with ice and salt, place the bottles on it, leaving some
space around each one, then fill the tub with ice and salt,
the same as in packing ice-creams, and cover it. Within two or
three hours the water will become frozen. Care must be taken
that the water in the tub is never high enough to flow into
the top of the carafes. When ready to serve, wipe the frozen
carafes and fill them with ice water.


TEA

                                                [Sidenote: The water.]

You cannot have first-rate tea or coffee unless you use
freshly-boiled water. Water that has been boiled for an hour
or more lacks life, and gives a dull taste to the decoction.
Draw freshly filtered water and let it come to a hard boil
before using.

Scald the pot and immediately put into it the tea-leaves.

When the water boils hard, pour upon the tea-leaves the
required quantity of water. Shut down the cover of the
tea-pot and let it stand just five minutes before serving.

                                             [Sidenote: Proportions.]

                                                [Sidenote: Steeping.]

To give the proportions of tea and water is impossible,
as such different degrees of strength are demanded. One
teaspoonful of tea to a pint of water, steeped five minutes,
makes a weak tea. Two teaspoonfuls give the color of mahogany,
if an English breakfast tea is used. Oolong tea does not color
the water very much, so its strength cannot be as well judged
in that way. Tea, to be perfect, should not steep longer than
five minutes; it may continue to grow stronger after that
time, but the flavor is not as good, and if the leaves remain
too long in the water the tea becomes bitter.

The Russians, who are reputed to have the best tea, prepare it
at first very strong, getting almost an essence of tea; this
they dilute to the strength desired, using water which is
kept boiling in the samovar. Water removed from the kettle and
kept in a pot where it falls below the boiling-point, will not
give satisfactory results in diluting a strong infusion.

                                              [Sidenote: The tea-bag.]

Where a quantity of tea is to be used, as at receptions, it is
well to put the tea into a swiss muslin bag, using enough to
make a very strong infusion. Place the bag in the scalded pot;
add the boiling water; after five minutes remove the bag. Keep
a kettle of water boiling over an alcohol flame, and use it to
dilute the tea as needed. The tea will then be as good as
though freshly made. If, however, the leaves are allowed to
remain in the pot the tea will not be fit to use after a short
time, and no matter how much it may be diluted, it will still
have an astringent taste.

                                             [Sidenote: The tea-ball.]

Silver balls are convenient to use where one or two cups at
a time only are to be made for the friend who drops in for
the afternoon cup of tea. The ball holding the tea is placed
in the cup, water from the boiling kettle poured over it,
and the ball removed when the water has attained the right
color.

                                              [Sidenote: Russian tea.]

                                                [Sidenote: Tea punch.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Iced tea.]

Various preparations of tea are made by adding flavorings.
The so-called Russian tea is made by adding sugar and a thin
slice of lemon to each cup; tea punch by soaking the sugar
first in rum or brandy. These, however, as well as milk,
destroy the flavor of tea and change the character of the
drink. Iced tea is a very refreshing drink in summer. It is
served in glasses, with plenty of cracked ice, and should
not be made very strong, or it will become clouded when the
ice is added. Iced tea is improved by adding lemon. One
tablespoonful of lemon-juice to a glass of tea is a good
proportion.



COFFEE


CARE OF THE COFFEE-BEAN

It is generally understood that tea becomes air-drawn if not
kept closely covered. It is also desirable to keep coffee in
the same way.


COFFEE MIXTURES AND BRANDS

                                      [Sidenote: 2/3 Java, 1/3 Mocha.]

Mandhaling coffee, which is grown by the Dutch government on
the island of Sumatra, is considered the finest coffee in the
world. The finest Mocha which comes to this market contains
twenty per cent. of "Long Bean." The best-known mark of this
coffee in New York is H. L. O. G. A favorite mixture is two
thirds Mandhaling to one third Mocha. The ordinary mixture
of two thirds Java to one third Mocha is misleading, as there
are an indefinite number of inferior qualities of both "Mocha"
and "Java." The best Java comes from the port of Padang in
Sumatra, and the only true Mocha comes from Aden in Arabia.
The finest grades of Mexican, Maracaibo, Bogota, and Jamaica
coffees are highly esteemed. High grades of "Washed Rio" are
also richly flavored coffees. These high-class coffees are
difficult to get unadulterated. Another difficulty in buying
coffee is that each variety has many grades, so the only
assurance one can have of the quality received is the good
faith of the grocer with whom one deals. A practice among
grocers is to make mixtures which they sell under their own
trademark.


=TO MAKE COFFEE=

To have the coffee right is one of the difficulties of the housekeeper.
The making of coffee is a very simple operation, but the nicety and care
with which it is prepared mark the difference between the good and bad
decoction. The best quality of coffee carelessly made is not as
acceptable as that well made from an inferior bean. Coffee readily
absorbs foreign flavors. If the pot is wiped out with a soiled cloth, or
if the coffee is strained through a flannel not perfectly sweet, the
coffee betrays it. If the spout is allowed to collect a film of stale
coffee, it will ruin all the fresh coffee put into the pot. To have
perfect coffee, use an earthen or china pot, and have the water boiling
when turned onto the coffee. Like tea, the results will not be right if
the water is allowed to fall below the boiling-point before it is used.
Have the coffee ground to a fine powder in order to get its full flavor
as well as strength. There is great waste in having coffee ground
coarse. A pound will go three times as far in the former as in the
latter case, therefore a good coffee-mill is an economy in a household.
Like tea, it should also be freshly made. It seems to lose its fine
flavor if kept hot for any considerable time. Black coffee is usually
made by dripping. Any coffee is better made in that way, using less
coffee if less strength is desired, but a strong infusion diluted with
hot milk makes a better drink than weak coffee flavored with milk.


=DRIP COFFEE=

One heaping tablespoonful of coffee to a cupful, or half pint, of water
will make black coffee. Put the coffee powder into a felt bag, or on a
thick flannel laid on a strainer and pour the boiling water over it. The
flannel must be thick, and close enough to prevent the fine powder
straining through. If enough coffee is used to make it of much depth in
the strainer, the water will pass through very slowly and the coffee
will be cold, therefore have the pot hot before beginning, and stand it
in a pan of hot water while it is dripping. Coffee will not be right
unless the water is violently boiling when poured on the grounds. Serve
the coffee at once.


=BOILED COFFEE=

Put the ground coffee into the pot, pour over it boiling water; let it
come to the boiling-point; remove, and stir into it the slightly beaten
white of an egg and the crushed shell; replace it on the fire and let it
boil one minute. This is to clear the coffee of the fine particles held
in suspension. Pour a tablespoonful of cold water down the spout and
place it on the side of the range where it will be perfectly still for
five minutes, then pour off carefully the liquid coffee. Do not let the
coffee boil three minutes altogether. The aroma of the coffee is the
escaped volatile oils--all that is lost detracts just so much from the
flavor of the drink.


=ICED CAFÉ AU LAIT=

Add enough cold black coffee to milk to give it the desired strength and
flavor. Sweeten to taste and let it stand on ice until ready to serve.
Serve it in glasses instead of cups. Any coffee left from breakfast
prepared in this way makes a refreshing and acceptable drink for
luncheon in summer.


=CHOCOLATE=

Maillard's chocolate is excellent; his receipt is given below. For each
cup of chocolate use one cupful of milk and one bar of chocolate. With
Maillard's chocolate this is nearly one and a quarter ounces. Put the
cold milk into a porcelain-lined saucepan, break the chocolate into
small pieces, and add them to the milk. Place the saucepan on the fire,
and with a wooden spoon stir constantly and rapidly until the chocolate
is dissolved and the milk has boiled up once. Beat it vigorously to make
it smooth, and serve at once. More milk may be added if this is too
rich. Chocolate should not be kept standing.[553-*]

FOOTNOTES:

[553-*] Huyler's, Baker's, and other brands of chocolate may be prepared
in the same way, the proportions being regulated by the richness
desired.--M. R.


=COCOA=

Dissolve a teaspoonful of cocoa in half a cupful of boiling water; then
add a half cupful of boiling milk and boil it for one minute, stirring
vigorously all the time. Sweeten to taste.

Brioche or Bath buns are good to serve with chocolate or cocoa for a
light lunch.


=LEMONADE=

Squeeze the lemons, allowing two lemons for every three glasses of
lemonade; remove any seeds that may have fallen in, or strain the juice
if the lemonade is wanted clear. Sweeten the juice with sugar, or,
better, with sugar syrup. When ready to use, add the necessary amount of
water and a large piece of ice if served in a bowl, or put cracked ice
into the glasses if only a few glassfuls are made. Put a thin slice of
lemon or a few shavings of lemon-zest into each glass.


=ORANGEADE=

To two and one half cupfuls of orange-juice, the juice of two lemons,
and the grated rind of one orange, add two cupfuls of syrup at 32° (see
page 513), or sweeten to taste; add enough water to bring it to 11° on
the syrup gauge, or to taste; strain and place it on ice until ready to
use.


=COBBLERS=

Put a claret-glassful of claret into a tumbler; add a teaspoonful of
sugar, or sweeten to taste; fill the glass with ice cracked fine, and
add a little water if desired. Place a shaker over the glass and mix it
well; add a strawberry, raspberry, bit of pineapple, orange, or any
fruit convenient; add, also, two straws. Cobblers may be made of sherry,
Catawba, or any wine, using a quantity in proportion to the strength
desired. They are meant as light cooling drinks, and should not be
strong of wine.


=CLARET CUP No. 1=

  1 pint of claret.
  1 pint of soda.
  Juice of 1 lemon.
  1 sherry-glassful of liqueur.
  1 slice of cucumber rind.
  1 orange.
  Grapes.
  Bunch of mint.
  Large piece of ice.


=CLARET CUP No. 2=

  1 quart of claret.
  1 glassful of white Curaçao.
  1 glassful of sherry.
  1 slip of borage, or a slice of cucumber.
  1 pint of soda.
  Juice of 1 orange.

Sweeten to taste.


=CHAMPAGNE CUP No. 1=

  Juice of 1/2 lemon.
  1 teaspoonful of powdered sugar.
  1 sherry-glassful of liqueur.
  1 pint of champagne.
  1 pint of soda.
  1 slice of cucumber.
  1 slice of pineapple.
  1 orange cut in pieces.
  Bunch of mint.
  Large piece of ice.


=CHAMPAGNE CUP No. 2=

  1 quart of champagne.
  1 glassful of white Curaçao.
  1 glassful of sherry.
  Juice of 1 orange.
  1 slip of borage, or a slice of cucumber, or green celery-tops.
  1 pint of Apollinaris.


=MOSELLE CUP=

  1 quart of Braunberger or Zeltinger.
  1 pony of brandy.
  Juice of 1 orange.
  Juice of 1 lemon.
  1 slip of borage or a slice of cucumber.
  1 pint of Apollinaris.
  No sugar.


=SAUTERNE CUP=

Use brand "Graves."

To a quart of Sauterne add the strained juice of four large lemons.
Sweeten with powdered sugar to taste, add a cocktail glassful of brandy,
two thirds glassful of maraschino (noyau can be used, but it is not so
good), and a teaspoonful of Angostura bitters. Put it on ice until ready
to use, and then, not before, add a bottle of Delatour soda, also
chilled, or the same amount of soda from syphon. Lastly, add six thin
slices of cucumber and a few pieces of any fruit convenient, such as
pineapple, raspberries, strawberries, etc., and a piece of ice. Borage
is better than cucumber for cups if it can be had.


=CIDER CUP=

  1 pint of cider.
  1 sherry-glassful of sherry.
  1 sherry-glassful of brandy.
  1 liqueur-glassful of Curaçao.
  Piece of ice.
  1/2 of 1 orange sliced.
  1 yellow rind of 1 lemon.
  1 slice of cucumber.
  A dash of nutmeg.
  Sugar to taste.


=THE THORP COCKTAIL=

The following formula is for one cocktail only; the same proportions
must be observed in making any number of them. Have the glasses well
chilled before beginning, and always use sugar syrup instead of sugar
for sweetening.

  1 teaspoonful of sugar syrup.
  1 teaspoonful of orange bitters.
  5 teaspoonfuls of Old Tom gin.
  5 drops of noyau or maraschino.

Enough cracked ice to chill but not to dilute. Stir with a spoon until
thoroughly chilled and blended. The mixture must not be shaken, as that
fills it with air. Lastly, take a piece of lemon zest the size of a
ten-cent piece, hold it over the cocktail, and express a little of the
oil, then drop it in the glass.


=EGG-NOG=

Beat the yolk of one egg and a teaspoonful of sugar to a light cream;
whip the white of the egg to a stiff froth; mix them together; turn them
into a glass; add one teaspoonful of rum or brandy and as much milk as
the glass will hold. Stir or shake it well together; add more sugar and
rum if desired. Grate a dash of nutmeg over the top; whipped cream may
be used instead of milk, and will give more nourishment when it is used
for an invalid.


=MILK SHAKE=

Fill a glass two thirds full of milk; sweeten it to taste with any fruit
syrup, or with a syrup made of boiled sugar flavored with vanilla,
orange-flower water, or any liqueur; strained preserve of any kind or
liquefied jelly may be used. Fill up the glass with cracked ice and
shake together until well mixed.


=MILK PUNCH=

Add to a glass of milk a teaspoonful or more of sherry, brandy, or rum;
sweeten to taste; shake well and dust over the top a little grated
nutmeg.


=FRUIT SYRUPS=

A refreshing drink can be made of fresh strawberries, raspberries,
cherries, or currants. Cook a quart of fruit with a pint of water until
well softened; then strain and press out the juice through a heavy
cloth. When cold, sweeten and dilute to taste and serve in glasses
filled with cracked ice.


=GRAPE-JUICE=

Add a quart of water to three quarts of grapes, free from the stems; let
them come slowly to the boiling-point; then strain through a thick
cloth. Return the liquid to the fire, let it again come to the
boiling-point, and turn at once into glass jars and seal immediately.
Use a porcelain-lined kettle and wooden spoon in preparing the juice.


=RASPBERRY VINEGAR=

Put three quarts of ripe raspberries into an earthen bowl; pour over
them a quart of vinegar; at the end of twenty-four hours press and
strain out the liquor and turn it over another three quarts of fresh
ripe berries. Let it stand another twenty-four hours; again express and
strain the juice, and to each pint add a pound of sugar, and boil for
twenty minutes. Turn it into bottles, and cork when cold. When used
dilute the raspberry vinegar with three parts of water.



KOUMISS


Koumiss, which is simply fermented milk, can easily be made
at home after the receipt given below, and can then be had
sweet and is much more palatable than the acid koumiss sold
at pharmacies. It is a valuable drink or diet for invalids
with weak digestion, or for dyspeptics.

                                        [Sidenote: Driving the corks.]

                                          [Sidenote: Tying the corks.]

For making koumiss it is necessary to have strong bottles
(champagne bottles are best), and they must be scrupulously
clean. A corking machine is requisite for driving in the
corks. This is placed over the bottle; the cork, which has
steamed an hour or more in hot water until softened, is
placed in the side opening and the rammer pounded until the
cork is free from the machine. The cork must be tied down to
insure safety. A loop of twine is placed over it, then drawn
tight around the neck of the bottle, brought back, and tied
over the top of the cork.

[Illustration: UTENSIL FOR DRIVING CORKS INTO BOTTLES.]

[Illustration: METHOD OF TYING DOWN CORKS IN KOUMISS BOTTLES.]

                                        [Sidenote: The champagne tap.]

A champagne tap for drawing the koumiss is also necessary, as
it contains so much gas, it is impossible to draw the cork
without losing a good part of the contents of the bottle.

[Illustration: CHAMPAGNE TAP FOR DRAWING KOUMISS OR ANY EFFERVESCING
DRINK WITHOUT UNCORKING THE BOTTLE.]

[Illustration: SHAKERS FOR MIXING ANY ICED DRINKS.]

RECEIPT.--Fill quart bottles three quarters full of fresh milk; add to
each one a tablespoonful of fresh brewer's yeast and a tablespoonful
of sugar syrup. The syrup is made by boiling sugar and water together to
a syrup (the sugar must be used in this form). Shake the bottles for
some minutes to thoroughly mix the ingredients, then fill them nearly
full with milk and shake them again. Cork and tie them, and stand them
upright in a cool place for two and a half days; then turn them on the
side and use as needed. They should be kept in a cool, dark place, so
the fermentation will be slow, and the temperature should be about 52°,
or low enough to prevent the milk from souring.

Brewer's yeast is best and gives the koumiss the taste of beer; but
compressed yeast may be used, a fifth of a cake dissolved being added to
each bottleful of milk.



CHAPTER XXVII

WINES


The temperance movement has made great advance since the days
when it was not considered etiquette for a man to leave the
table sober, and also from recent times when men lingered at
the table after the ladies had withdrawn, to partake of strong
liquors with their cigars.

To-day there are some people who exclude wine entirely from
their table, and many others who serve it only in moderation.
It is common now to have but three kinds, such as sherry,
claret and champagne, and sometimes only one. In this respect,
therefore, one may follow his own conviction without fear of
being considered peculiar.

The usual order of serving wines is as follows:

                                              [Sidenote: White wines.]

With the first course of the dinner there should be served a
white wine of some kind, such as Niersteiner, Hochheimer,
or Liebfrauenmilch amongst the Rhine wines; Zeltinger,
Josephshöfer, or Scharzberger Muscatel amongst the Moselle
wines; Haut Barsac, Haut Sauterne, or Château Yquem amongst
the white Bordeaux wines; and Chablis, Nuersault or Montrachet
amongst the white Burgundies.

                                                   [Sidenote: Sherry.]

                                                [Sidenote: Champagne.]

                                                   [Sidenote: Claret.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Burgundy.]

                                              [Sidenote: Temperature.]

Sherry is served with soup. It should be light and dry, and
should be chilled by being placed in the ice-box for some
time before dinner. Champagne is now served with the fish
and continued all through dinner. Claret or Burgundy is
served with the game. Pontet Canet, Larose, Léoville,
Margaux, and Lafite are standard vintages amongst the
clarets. Chambertin, Clos de Tart, Clos de Vougeot and
Romanée amongst the Burgundies. Claret is sometimes, and
very properly, served at the same time as champagne, as many
people drink no other wine. In this case a higher grade of
claret or a fine Burgundy should be served with the game.
The white Bordeaux and Burgundy wines should be served cool.

Rhine and Moselle wines are best at a temperature of about
40° F.

                                          [Sidenote: Sweet champagne.]

                                            [Sidenote: Care of wines.]

                                                [Sidenote: Decanting.]

The champagne should be very dry (brut) and served very cold.
Half an hour in ice and salt before dinner will bring it to
about the right temperature. Sweet champagnes are but seldom
served nowadays, and are more appreciated, perhaps, at ladies'
luncheons than at dinners. Sweet champagne cannot be too cold
and should be frappé if convenient. Clarets and Burgundies
should stand upright on the dining-room mantelpiece for at
least twenty-four hours before they are required, in order
that the wine may acquire the temperature of the room, as well
as be prepared for decanting. Wines old in bottle will form
more or less deposit, which, if shaken up with the wine, will
injure it. After standing twenty-four hours the sediment will
fall and the wine should then be decanted (with the aid of a
candle), care being taken that no sediment passes into the
decanter.

                                                     [Sidenote: Port.]

Neither claret nor Burgundy is good the second day after
decanting. They contain too small a percentage of alcohol to
keep their flavor more than a few hours after the bottle is
opened, and what remains over from dinner should be put into
the vinegar demijohn. Ports and Madeiras are but little used
at dinners, but may still be served with the cheese at the
end of dinner, or with the dessert. A glass of port with a
biscuit at five o'clock is very popular in many quarters,
and will be welcomed by those who are afraid of tea.

                                                  [Sidenote: Madeira.]

                                                   [Sidenote: Brandy.]

                                                 [Sidenote: Liqueurs.]

A fine Madeira may be served with the soup instead of
sherry, and is the wine par excellence to drink with
terrapin. A superior quality of brandy and various liqueurs
are usually served with coffee. In buying wines it is always
best to go directly to a reliable wine merchant and take his
advice. Especially is this true when the buyer himself has
no great knowledge of the different kinds of wines. It has
been said that a man's wine merchant should stand in as
close relation to him as his lawyer or his physician.



INDEXES



ALPHABETICAL INDEX


  A

  =Agra Dolce=, 291.

  =Allemande Sauce=, 279.

  =Almonds, burnt=, 520.
     Chopping, 59.
     Hardbake, 526.
     Salted, 533.
       "     No. 2, 533.
     Sugared, 520.
        "     Wafers, 478.

  =Anchovy canapés=, 368.

  =Angel cake=, 467.
     Ice-cream, 497.
     Parfait, 505.

  =Angelica=, 392.

  =Apples=, 530.
     Baked for breakfast, 432.
       "    "  luncheon, 432.
     Compote of, 535.
     Clarified, 243.
     Charlotte, 430.
     Dumplings, 429.
     Flaming, 432.
     Fritters, 427.
     Fried with pork, 176.
     Jelly, 544.
     Marmalade of, 543.
     Pie, 454.
     Pudding, 429.
     Sauce, 243, 288.
     Soufflé, 424.
     With rice, 430.
      "    "    No. 2, 431.
      "   Corn-starch, 432.

  =Apricot Sauce=, 446.

  =Artichokes=, 220.
     Bottoms, 221.

  =Asparagus=, 211.
     Cream of, 106.
     Tips, 212.

  =Aspic jelly=, 321.
     To chop, 323.
     To clear, 322.
     Chicken, 323.
     Croûtons, 323.
     To mold, 323.
     To ornament molds for, 324.
     Quick, 322.
     Of pâté en Bellevue, 384.


  B

  =Baba=, 440.

  =Bacon=, 178.
      "   how to cut, 78.

  =Baked Apples=, 432.
     Beans, 217, 234.
     Custard, 396.
     Fish, 115.
     Ham, 177.
     Lobster, 137.
     Macaroni, 225.

  =Baking=, 69.
     Bread, 343.
     Cake, 464.
     Custards, 396.

  =Balloons=, 428.

  =Banana trifle=, 412.

  =Bananas, sliced=, 531.
     Sautéd, fried, 531.

  =Barbecue of fish=, 331.

  =Bath buns=, 358.

  =Batter pudding=, 428.

  =Bavarian creams=, 400.
     General directions for making, 400.
     Chocolate, 401.
     Diplomatic, 403.
     Fruit, 401.
     en surprise, 402.
     Italian cream, 401.
     Panachée, 402.
     Plain, 400.
     Rice, 402.

  =Beans=, 217.
     Baked, 217, 234.
     Boiled, 217.
     Croquettes of, 217.
     Dried, 217.
     Lima, 210.
     Purée of, 217.
     Salads, 377.
     Soup, 229, 256.
     String, 209.

  =Béarnaise sauce=, 288.

  =Beating=, 78.

  =Béchamel sauce=, 279.

  =Beef=, 146.
     à la mode, 148.
     Bouilli, 149.
     Braised, 147.
     Cold roast, 151.
     Corned, 157, 234.
       "     hash, 158.
     Fillet of, 149.
       "        How to buy, 150.
     Inside flank of, 153.
     Pie, 152.
     Raw sandwiches, 367.
     Ragoût of, 153.
     To roast, 146.
     Rolled roast of, 146.
     Round of, 147.
     Shin of, to prepare, 250.
     Stock, 88.
     Tongue, 174.
     Warmed over, 152.

  =Beefsteaks=, 155.
     To broil, 156.
     Pie, 235.
     Pudding, 251.

  =Beets=, 217.

  =Berries=, 531.

  =Berry Design for molds=, 326.

  =Beverages=, 548.

  =Bird's-Nest salad=, 385.

  =Bischoff sauce=, 447.

  =Biscuits, beaten=, 247.
     Bran, 357.
     Dough fritters, 428.
     Tea, 352.

  =Biscuit glacé=, 506.

  =Bisque of lobster=, 109.

  =Black bean soup=, 229.

  =Blanc-mange=, 399.

  =Blueberry pudding=, 241.

  =Boiled beans=, 217.
     Cabbage, 212, 253.
     Calf's head, 175.
     Chicken, 185.
     Cucumbers, 218.
     Custard, 394.
     Eggs, 262.
     Fish, 114.
     Ham, 177.
     Lobster, 136.
     Mutton, 163.

  =Boiling=, 67.
     Sugar, 510.

  =Bonbons=, 522.

  =Bone, to, a fowl=, 181.

  =Bones, grilled=, 188.
     Marrow, 159.

  =Boned chicken=, 182.
     Turkey, 193.
     Shoulder of mutton, 163.
     Shoulder of veal, 168.

  =Boning=, 77.

  =Boston brown bread=, 237, 347.

  =Boudins Rouennais=, 302.

  =Bouilli=, 149.
     Salad, 383.

  =Bouillon=, 97.

  =Bouquet for soups=, 85.

  =Brains, calf=, 307.
     Marinade of, 307.

  =Braising=, 71.

  =Braised beef=, 147.
     Chicken, 186.

  =Bran biscuits=, 357.

  =Brandy peaches=, 543.
     Sauce, 445.

  =Bread=, 338.
     General directions for making, 340.
     Baking, 343.
     Boston brown, 237, 347.
     Braids and twists of, 350.
     Care of, 344.
     Cake, 482.
     Corn, 353.
       "   soft, 247.
     Fritters, 349.
     Graham, 346.
     Gluten, 347.
     Made with baking powder, 346.
     Milk, 345.
     Mixing, 342.
     Pans, 344.
     Panada, 298.
     Potato, 345.
     Pulled, 349.
     Puddings, 434.
     Rolls, 349.
     Sauce, 287.
     Sticks, 357.
     Tarts, 435.
     Thin Indian, 236.
     Water, No. 1, 345.
       "    No. 2, 345.
     Whole wheat, 346.

  =Bread and Butter Pudding=, 434.

  =Brioche=, 359.
     Roll, 360.
     Crown, 360.
     For timbales, 361.
     Timbale of, 361.

  =Brod Torte=, 472.

  =Broiled Lobster=, 137.
     Oysters, 132.

  =Broiling=, 70.

  =Broth, Chicken=, 95.
     Clam, 95.
     Mutton, 95.
     Made quickly for invalids, 96.

  =Brown Betty=, 429.

  =Brown butter sauce=, 291.

  =Brown sauce=, 282.

  =Brown stock=, 88.

  =Browned oysters=, 231.

  =Brussels sprouts=, 214.

  =Buckwheat cakes=, 363.

  =Buns, Bath=, 358.
     Brioche, 360.

  =Burnt almonds=, 520.

  =Butter=, 34, 58.
     How to make, 258.


  C

  =Cabbage=, 212.
     Boiled, 212, 253.
     Hot slaw, 214.
     With Cheese, 213.
     Swedish, 213.

  =Cabinet puddings=, 438.

  =Café frappé=, 509.
     Parfait, 504.
     au lait, iced, 553.

  =Cake=, 462.
     Rules for making, 462.
     To line tins with paper, 463.
     To grease pans, 464.
     To bake, 464.
     Mixing sponge, 465.
     Mixing batter, 465.
     Angel, 467.
     Almond wafers, 478.
     Bread, 482.
     Brod Torte, 472.
     Cakes, small fancy, 475.
     Carolines, 475.
     Chocolate éclairs, 474.
     Chocolate filling for, 469.
     Cocoanut balls, 477.
     Coffee, 358
     Cookies, plain, 481.
     Cream, 474.
     Cream filling for, 468.
     Cream cakes and éclairs, 473.
     Crullers, 481.
     Cup, plain, 470.
     Cup, richer, 471.
     Doughnuts, 481.
     Éclairs, 474.
     Election, 244.
     Fruit, plain, 472.
     Fruit, rich, 473.
     Garnishing, 486.
     Gauffres, 479.
     Genoese, 467.
     Gingerbread, soft, 483.
     Gingersnaps, 481.
     Gold and silver, 470.
     Hoe, 246.
     Hoe, No. 2, 247.
     Hoe, Colonial, 237.
     Hominy, 356.
     Icing and decorating, 483.
     Jelly rolls, 468.
     Johnny, 237.
     Jumbles, cookies, plain, 480.
     Jumbles, 480.
     Layer, 468.
     Lady fingers, 476.
     Little pound-cakes, 478.
     Macaroons, 477.
     Madeleines, 477.
     Marble, 470.
     Meringues and kisses, 475.
     Molasses, 483.
     One egg, 482.
     Orange, 469.
     Orange filling for, 469.
     Orange quarters, 478.
     Pound, 471.
     Pistachio, 469.
     Sand tarts, 480.
     Sponge, 466.
     Sunshine, 467.
     Uses for stale, 411.
     Venetian cakes, 479.
     Warren's, 482.
     White, 471.
     White sponge, 467.
     With custard, 411.

  =Calf's brains=, 307.
     à la poulette, 308.
     à la vinaigrette, 307.
     Head boiled, 175.
     With vinaigrette sauce, 176.
     Soup, 103.
     Heart, 174.
     Liver, 172.

  =Canapés=, 368.
     Anchovy, 368.
     Cheese, 368, 371.
     Ham, 368.
     Lorenzo, 369.
     Pineapple, 336.
     Sardine, 368.

  =Canary pudding=, 436.

  =Candied fruits, California=, 392.

  =Candies=, 517.
     General remarks about making, 517.

  =Candy, Molasses=, 527.
     Peanut, 527.
     Taffy, 527.

  =Canned fruits=, 393.

  =Canning=, 536.

  =Canvasback ducks=, 196.

  =Caper sauce=, 164, 279.

  =Carafes, to freeze=, 548.

  =Caramel=, 78, 391, 522.

  =Carameled nuts=, 526.

  =Caramels, chocolate=, 522.
     Vanilla, coffee, maple, 522.

  =Caramel custard=, 396.
     Ice-cream, 496.

  =Carrots and turnips=, 216.

  =Casserole of rice=, 327.
     Of potato, 327

  =Cauliflower=, 214.
     au gratin, 215.
     Salad, 377.

  =Celery, cream of=, 106.
     Stewed, 216.
     au jus, 216.
     Salad, 376.
     And walnut salad, 381.
     Sauce, 279.

  =Cereals=, 227.

  =Chafing dish cookery=, 329.
     Kind of, to use, 329.
     Dishes suitable for, 330.
     Oysters in, 233, 331.
     Meats in, 335.

  =Champagne cup=, No. 1, 555.
     No. 2, 555.
     Jelly, 416.
       "    with flowers, 416.
     Sauce, 283.

  =Charlotte, apple=, 430.
     Russe, 403.
     Filling, No. 1, 404.
        "     No. 2 (With Eggs), 405.
        "     No. 3 (With Fruit), 405.
        "     No. 4, 405.
        "     No. 5, 405.
        "     Princesse de Galles, 406.
     Strawberry, 406.
     Timbale of Brioche, 406.

  =Chartreuse=, 83.
     Of chicken, 190.
     Of spinach, 211.

  =Chateaubriand=, 157.

  =Chaudfroid of chicken=, 191.
     Of sweetbreads, 306.
     Sauce, 281.

  =Cheese=, 369.
     Cottage, 373.
     Dishes, 369.
       "     General directions for, 369.
     Canapés, 368, 371.
     And crackers, 371.
     Fondue, 335.
     Golden Buck, 372.
     Patties, 373.
     Sandwiches, 367.
     Soufflé, 370.
     Straws, 372.
     Welsh Rarebit, 371.

  =Cherry bread pudding=, 241.

  =Chestnuts, candied=, (marrons glacé), 521.
     Parfait of, 506.
     Pain de marrons, 420.
     Purée, 215, 410.
     Stuffing, 185.
     With cream, 410.

  =Chickens=, 179.
     To judge of, 179.
     To clean and draw, 180.
     To bone, 181.
     To truss, 183.
     à la Vienne, 189.
     Aspic, 323.
     Aspic with walnuts, 384.
     Baltimore style, 189.
     Boiled, 185.
     Braised, 186.
     Breasts with poulette sauce, 190.
     Broiled, 186.
     Broth, 95.
     Consommé, 100.
     Chartreuse of, 190.
     Chaudfroid, 191.
     Fricassee, white, brown, 186.
     Fried, 187.
     Fritters, 187.
     Gumbo, 249.
     Imperial, 189.
     Jellied, boned, 182.
     Legs stuffed, 188.
     Livers, 309, 333.
     Mayonnaise, 192.
     Pie, English, 192.
     Purée, 310.
     Soufflé, 190.
     Soup, plain, 100.

  =Chocolate=, 388, 553.
     To melt, 388.
     Bavarian, 401.
     Caramels, 522.
     With condensed milk, 337.
     Cream, 397.
     Creams, 524.
     Custards, 395.
     Éclairs, 474.
     Filling for cake, 469.
     Ice-cream, 496.
     Icing No. 1, 484.
       "   No. 2, 485.
       "   No. 3, 485.
     Parfait, 504.
     Peppermints, 525.
     Praliné, 504.
     Pudding, 398.
     Sauce, 435, 447.
     Soufflé, 423.

  =Chops cut from shoulder=, 253.
     Fish, 121.
     Lobster, 138.
     Mutton, 165.
     In paper cases, 166.
     à la Maintenon, 167.
     Pork, 177.

  =Chow-chow=, 546.

  =Chowder, clam=, 111, 230.
     Fish, 110, 230.
     Potato, 110.

  =Christmas plum pudding=, 437.

  =Cider cup=, 556.

  =Clam broth=, 95.
     Chowder, 111, 230.
     Fritters, 136.
     Soup, 104, 230.

  =Clams=, 135.
     To open, 135.
     Cream of, 107.
     Creamed, 135.
     Roasted, 136.

  =Claret cup= No. 1, 555.
      "    "  No. 2, 555.

  =Clarified apples=, 243.

  =Clarifying fat=, 74.
     Fruit juices, 415.
     Jelly, 413.
     Soups, 86.

  =Club house fish balls=, 128.

  =Cobblers=, 554.

  =Cocoa=, 554.

  =Cocoanut balls=, 477.
     Cakes, 525.
     Creams, 524.
     Pie, 456.
     Pudding, 398.
     Sauce, 449.

  =Codfish and cream=, 233.

  =Codfish balls=, 128, 232.
     Salt, 127.

  =Coffee=, 551.
     Care of beans, 551.
     Mixtures and brands, 551.
     To make, 551.
     Drip, 552.
     Cake, 358.
     Ice-cream, 497.
     Iced (au lait), 553.
     Icing for éclairs, 485.
     Jelly, 416.

  =Cold chicken pie=, 192.
     Desserts, 394.
     Jelly sauce, 449.
     Tongue, 175.
     Fish, 123.
     Roast beef, 151.
     Slaw, 378.

  =Coloring=, 392.
     Soups, 87.
     Sugar, 393.

  =Common stock=, 87.

  =Compote of apples=, 535.
     Oranges, 536.
     Peaches and apricots, 536.
     Pears, 536.

  =Consommé=, 98, 100.

  =Cookies, plain=, 481.

  =Cooking for pleasure=, 38.

  =Corned beef=, 157, 234.
     Hash, 158.

  =Corn bread= (soft), 247.
     No. 1, 353.
     No. 2, 353.
       Canned, 220.
       Cream of, 106.
       Dodgers, 247.
       On the ear, 220.
       Mock oysters, 220.
       Pudding, 236.

  =Cornmeal mush=, 228.
     Fried, 224.

  =Cornstarch with apples=, 432.
     Pudding, plain, 397.
       With canned fruit, 398.
         cocoanut, 398.
         chocolate, 398.
     Chocolates, 398.

  =Cottage pudding=, 435.

  =Courses=, 24.

  =Court bouillon=, 115.

  =Crab-apple jelly=, 544.

  =Crabs=, 141.
     Deviled, 141.
     Crabs, oyster, 143, 310.
       Entrée of, 310.
     Soft-shell, 142.
     Stew, 144.
     St. Laurent, 143.
     Stuffed with mushrooms, 142.
     Toast, 334.

  =Cracked wheat=, 228.

  =Cranberry jelly=, 244.
     Pie, 456.
     Sauce, 287.

  =Cream of asparagus=, 106.
     Celery, 106.
     Clams, 107.
     Of corn, 106.
     Of green peas, 106.
     Of oysters, 108.
     Of string beans, 106.
     Cakes, 474.
     Chicken forcemeat, No. 1, 297.
        "       "       No. 2, 297.
     Czarina, 410.
     Devonshire, 258.
     Dressing, 235.
     Fried, 441.
     Italian, 401.
     Pie, 455.
     To whip, 408.
     Soups, 84, 105.
     Whips, 409.

  =Creamed clams=, 135.
      "           dishes, 332.
      "    mackerel, 127.

  =Creams, chocolate=, 524.
     Cocoanut, 524.
     Nut, 523.
     Peppermint, 525.

  =Crême Parisienne=, 441.

  =Croquenbouche of Macaroons=, 408.

  =Croquettes=, 292.
     Sauce for mixing, 293.
     To mold, 293.
     To fry, 294.
     Materials used for, 295.
     Bean, 217.
     Egg, 272.
     Potato, 202.
     Sweet potato, 207.

  =Croustade of shrimps=, 130.
     Bread, 328.
     Rolls, 328.

  =Croûte-au-pot=, 89.

  =Croûtons and croustades=, 81.

  =Crullers=, 481.

  =Crumbs=, 51, 75.

  =Crumpets=, 355.

  =Cucumbers, boiled=, 218.
     Pickles, 545.
     Salad for fish, 377.
     Stuffed, 218.
     And tomato salad, 377.

  =Cup cake=, 470, 471.

  =Currant jelly=, 543.
     Shortcake, 442.

  =Currants=, 531.

  =Curried eggs=, 271.

  =Curry=, 254.
     Madras, 254.
     Sauce, 284.

  =Custards=, 394.
     Baked, 396.
     Boiled, No. 1, 394.
        "    No. 2, 395.
     Caramel, 396.
     Chocolate, 395.
        "       baked, 397.
        "       cream, 397.
     Rennet, 397.
     Sauce, boiled, 447.


  D

  =Dabs=, 238.

  =Daisy designs for molds=, 326.

  =Daubing=, 76.

  =Decorating cakes=, 486.

  =Decorations for meat jelly=, 326.

  =Desserts, information pertaining to=, 386.
     Cold, 394.

  =Deviled crabs=, 141.

  =Devonshire cream=, 258.

  =Diplomatic Bavarian=, 403.
     Pudding, 403.

  =Dishes à la Newburg=, 139, 333.

  =Doughnuts=, 481.

  =Dried beans=, 217.
     Mushrooms, 320.

  =Drip coffee=, 552.

  =Drippings=, 51, 59.

  =Ducks, tame=, 195.
     Canvasbacks and redheads, 196.
     Salmi of, 196.

  =Dumplings, apple=, 429.
     With baking powder, 170.
       "  suet, 170.


  E

  =Éclairs=, 473.
     Chocolate, vanilla, coffee, 474.

  =Economical living=, 44.

  =Eggs=, 58, 261.
     à l'Aurore, 270.
     à la Bourguinonne, 270.
     à la Polignac, 267.
     à la Reine, 273.
     à la Villeroi, 269.
     au beurre noir, 273.
     au miroir, 266.
     Balls for soup, 92.
     Boiled, 262.
     Cocotte, 266.
     Croquettes, 272.
     Curried, 271.
     Fried, 264.
     Golden cream toast, 270.
     How to judge and keep, 261.
     Livingston, 273.
     Nog, 557.
     Omelet, 264.
     Poached, 263.
     On anchovy toast, 268.
     "     "      "    (entrée), 268.
     Salads, 381.
     Sandwiches, 366.
     Sauce, 278.
     Scrambled, 264.
     Shirred, 266.
     Stuffed, 271, 272.
     Sur le plat, 266.
     With tomatoes, 268, 332.
     In tomatoes, 380.
     To whip, 389, 463.
     Plant, 215.
       "    stuffed, 215.

  =Election cake=, 244.

  =Emergencies=, 55.

  =English muffins=, 355.

  =Enterprise chopper=, 293.

  =Entrées=, 292.

  =Espagnole sauce=, 282.


  F

  =False terrapin=, 308.

  =Fancy molding=, 413.
     In aspic, 324.

  =Farinaceous foods=, 222.

  =Farina balls=, 223.
     Pudding, 424.
     Boiled, 436.

  =Fat, to clarify=, 74.
     To try out, 74.
     Saving, 51.

  =Figs=, 531.

  =Fig pudding=, 438.

  =Fillet of beef=, 149.

  =Fillets of fish=, 112, 118, 125.

  =Fillets mignon=, 157.
     Of salmon, 130.

  =Filtered water=, 548.

  =Fish=, 112.
     Balls, 128, 232.
       "    fresh, 128.
     Baked, 115.
     Barbecue of, 331.
     Bones of, 112.
     To bone and remove fillets, 112.
     To boil, 113.
     Time to boil, 113.
     To boil whole, 114.
     To serve boiled, 114.
     Sauces for boiled, 114.
     Court bouillon for, 115.
     To broil, 116.
     To carve, 113.
     Cold, 123.
     Cooking, 112.
     Chops, 121.
     Chowder, 110, 230.
     Dish for pink luncheon, 124.
     Dressing, 112.
     Fillets of, 112, 118, 122, 125.
     Fillets of, baked with custard or tomatoes, 122.
     To fry, 117.
     Fillets of fried, 118.
     Freshness of, 112.
     Frozen, 112.
     Forcemeat of, 297.
     Garnishing, 114.
     Kettle, 113.
     Keeping, 112.
     Pudding, 123.
     And oysters, 231.
     Sauces for, 275.
     Sandwiches, 366.
     Scalloped, 120.
        "       au gratin, 121.
     Stock and soup, 103.
     To sauté, 117.
     Timbale, 123.
     Trimming, 112.

  =Five o'clock tea=, 33.

  =Flageolets=, 210.

  =Flaming apples=, 432.

  =Flavoring=, 60, 80.
     When to add, 389.

  =Flavors=, 389.

  =Floating Island=, 395.

  =Flounder, rolled fillets of=, 125.

  =Flowers for garnishing=, 393.

  =Floor polish=, 260.

  =Foamy sauce=, 445.

  =Fondant=, 513.
     To make, 514.
     Bonbons of, 522.
     Icing, 485.

  =Fondue=, 335.

  =Fontage cups=, 300.

  =Forcemeat, chicken, cream=, 297.
     No. 2, 297.
     Fish, cream, 297.
     Quenelle, 298.
     Balls, 92.
     For boned fowls, 183.

  =Fowls, to bone=, 181.
     To truss, 183.

  =French dressing for salads=, 375.
     Omelet, 264.

  =Fricasseeing=, 71.

  =Fricassee of chicken=, 186.
     Oysters, 232.

  =Fried bananas=, 531.
     Cream, 441.
     Corn-meal mush, 224.
     Hominy, 224.

  =Fried oysters=, 132.

  =Fritters=, 426.
     Apple, 427.
     Batter, 426.
     Biscuit dough, 428.
     Bread, 349.
     Chicken, 187.
     Orange, 427.
     Peach or apricot, 427.

  =Frogs' legs, fried=, 313.
     à la poulette, 313.

  =Frosting, instantaneous=, 245.

  =Frozen desserts=, 488.
     Remarks about, 488.
     Fruits, 501, 532.
     Punches, 508.

  =Fruit cake, plain=, 472.
     Rich, 473.

  =Fruits=, 529.
     Remarks about, 529.
     Bavarian, 401.
     Frozen, 501, 532.
     Ice-creams, 501.
     Jellied, 534.
     Juices, 534.
        "    To thicken, 389.
     Pudding, 443, 502.
     Salpicon of, 532.
        "         punch, 533.
     Sauces, 446.
     Syrups, 557.

  =Frying=, 72.
     To prepare articles for, 75.


  G

  =Galantine of turkey=, 193.

  =Garnishing=, 392.
     Boiled fish, 114.
     Cakes, 486.
     With flowers, 393.

  =Garnishes for soups=, 92.

  =Gâteau St. Honoré=, 407.

  =Gauffres=, 479.

  =Gelatine=, 60, 388.

  =Gems, corn=, 354.
     Graham, 237, 354.

  =Genoese cake=, 467.

  =Giblet sauce=, 185.

  =Gingerbread, soft=, 483.

  =Ginger snaps=, 481.

  =Glacé oranges and grapes=, 516.

  =Glaze=, 277.

  =Gluten bread=, 347.

  =Gold and silver cake=, 470.

  =Golden buck=, 372.
     Cream toast, 270.

  =Goose, roast=, 194.

  =Graham bread=, 346.
     Gems, 237, 354.

  =Grape fruit=, 530.

  =Grapes glacé=, 516.
     Juice, 557.
     Preserved, 539.
     Spiced, 544.

  =Grease, removing from soups=, 86.
     Saving, 51.

  =Green peas=, 209.
     Cream of, 106.
     Timbale of, for soups, 94.

  =Grilled bones=, 188.

  =Grouse, roasted=, 197.

  =Gumbo filé=, 248.


  H

  =Halibut steaks, boiled=, 119.
     Turkish style, 120.
     Timbale, 303.

  =Ham boiled=, 177.
     Baked, 177.
     And eggs, broiled, 178.
     à l'Aurore, 178.
     Canapés, 368.
     Omelet, 266.

  =Hamburg steaks=, 151.

  =Hard sauce=, 448.

  =Harlequin balls=, 522.
     Slices for soups, 94.

  =Hartford election cake=, 244.

  =Hash, corned beef=, 158.
     Brown, 159.

  =Heart, calf's=, 174.

  =Hoe cake=, 246.
     No. 2, 247.
     Colonial, 237.

  =Hollandaise sauce=, 281.

  =Home dinner=, 27.

  =Homily on cooking=, 35.

  =Hominy cake=, 356.
     Fried, 224.

  =Horseradish sauce=, 284.

  =Hot slaw=, 214.


  I

  =Ices=, 508.
     Lemon, 243, 508.
     Orange, 508.
     Strawberry, 508.

  =Ice-creams=, 488.
     American, 495.
     Angel, 497.
     Caramel, 496, 497.
     Coffee, 497.
     Chocolate, 496.
     Classification of, 488.
     Fancy molding of, 491.
     Freezing, 490.
     French, 495.
     Fruit, 501.
     General rules for making, 489.
     Imperatrice, 505.
     Individual, 492, 493.
     Molding, 491.
     Neapolitan, 498.
     Nesselrode, 499.
     Nut, 502.
     Ornamental, 493.
     Packing, 490.
     Philadelphia, 494.
     Pistachio, 498.
     Plum pudding glacé, 500.
     Rice, 498.
     Tutti frutti, 501.
     Vanilla, 494.

  =Iced tea=, 550.

  =Icing, boiled=, 484.
     Chocolate, 484, 485.
     Coffee for éclairs, 485.
     Fondant, 485.
     Royal, 483.
       "    with confectioners' sugar, 484.
     For small cakes, 485.
     And decorating cakes, 483.

  =Indian bread=, 236.
     Pudding, 240, 241, 443.

  =Individual salads=, 383.

  =Inside flank of beef=, 153.

  =Irish stew=, 165.

  =Italian cream=, 401.
     Jelly, 418.
     Meringue, 498.


  J

  =Jams=, 541.

  =Jam omelet=, 425.

  =Jellied chicken=, 182.
     Fruit, 534.
     Fruits (Pain aux fruits), 419.
     Tongue, 175.
     Veal, 171.

  =Jellies=, 412, 543.

  =Jelly rolls=, 468.

  =Jelly, to clarify=, 413.
     Apple, 544.
     Aspic, 321.
     Berry design for mold, 326.
     Coffee, 416.
     Cold, sauce, 449.
     Crab-apple, 544.
     Cranberry, 244.
     Champagne, 416.
         "      with flowers, 416.
     Currant, 543.
     Daisy design for mold, 326.
     Dantzic, 418.
     Decorations for meat, 326.
     Dissolving, 412.
     Italian, 418.
     Lemon,