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Title: Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez. Vol II
Author: Ross, John, Sir, 1777-1856
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez. Vol II" ***

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Transcriber's note:
Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have
been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.
Accents on foreign names have been added where necessary. An
abbreviation key for the tables was added on pages 411 and 412, as
they were too large in the original to be read easily in this format.
The "ERRATA" of the "errata list" have been corrected in the text.
The transcriber's note at the end of this e-book lists the other
corrections that have been made.



MEMOIRS
AND CORRESPONDENCE

OF

ADMIRAL
LORD DE SAUMAREZ.

FROM

ORIGINAL PAPERS IN POSSESSION OF THE FAMILY.


BY SIR JOHN ROSS, C.B. K.S.A. K.C.S. F.R.A.S.
CAPTAIN IN THE ROYAL NAVY.



IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

LONDON:
RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET,
Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty.
1838.

LONDON:
PRINTED BY SAMUEL BENTLEY,
Dorset Street, Fleet Street.


CONTENTS
OF THE SECOND VOLUME.


  CHAPTER I.

  News of the Battles of the 6th and 12th of July reach
  England.--Rejoicings on the occasion, particularly described in a
  letter from Mrs. Saumarez.--Promotion of Lieutenant Dumaresq.--Letters
  from Earl St. Vincent, Mr. Tucker, and others.--Remarks on the conduct
  of the Governor and Garrison at Gibraltar.--State of the crew of the
  Cæsar.--Ship refitted.--Appointments of officers to the St. Antoine,
  and other vacancies.--Correspondence with the Spanish Governor at
  Cadiz on the subject of red-hot balls.--Accusation refuted.--Letters
  from Lord Keith, Sir John Warren, and Captain Dixon.--Squadron off
  Cadiz reinforced.--Sir James resumes the blockade of Cadiz.--His
  proceedings.--Remarks on the result of the two Actions.         Page 1


  CHAPTER II.

  Despatches arrive from England.--Sir James superseded by Sir Charles
  Morice Pole.--Remarks and correspondence on the subject.--The
  St. George and four sail of the line arrive.--Blockade of Cadiz.--Sir
  James continues as second in command.--His appointments not
  confirmed.--Injustice of his treatment.--Letters from various
  persons.--The Cæsar arrives at Gibraltar.                           23


  CHAPTER III.

  Preliminaries of peace.--Sir James created a Knight of the
  Bath.--Remarks on that Order.--Ceremony of investiture.--Action
  of the Pasley and Rosario.--Sir James receives the thanks of both
  Houses of Parliament.--Speeches of Earl St. Vincent, Lord Nelson,
  and Mr. Pitt.--The freedom of the city of London,--and a
  sword.--Address from Guernsey and Jersey.--Silver vases.--Inscriptions
  thereon.                                                            36


  CHAPTER IV.

  Sir James disappointed in not returning home.--Extract of a letter to
  his brother.--The French send ships to the West Indies.--Squadron
  detached after them.--Death of General O'Hara.--Sir James receives
  orders to superintend the evacuation of Minorca.--Arrival of H.R.H.
  Duke of Kent.--Sir James arrives at Minorca.--Definitive treaty of
  peace.--Proceedings there.--Island given up to Spain.--The Cæsar
  arrives at Gibraltar.--Proceeds to England.--Anchors at Spithead.   56


  CHAPTER V.

  Commencement of Hostilities with France.--Sir James hoists his Flag at
  Sheerness.--Proceeds to Guernsey.--Flag in the Grampus.--Anecdote
  of Captain Caulfield.--Sir James visits Jersey, &c.--Diomede arrives
  as Flag ship.--The Admiral examines the Defence of the Island.--Loss
  of La Minerve.--Attack and Bombardment of Granville.--Cerberus
  gets aground.--Narrow Escape from a Shot.--Public and Private
  Letters.--Blockade of the Coast.--Loss of the Shannon and
  Grappler.--Conclusion of 1803.                                      72


  CHAPTER VI.

  Sir James continues in the command at Guernsey.--Proceedings of his
  Squadron.--Letter from Lord Nelson, dated two days before he was
  killed.--Capture and destruction of La Salamandre.--Sir James's
  benevolent conduct at Guernsey.                                     84


  CHAPTER VII.

  Sir James is called into active service.--Joins the Channel Fleet
  as second in command.--Shifts his Flag from the San Josef to the
  Prince of Wales.--His decisive conduct.--Anecdote of the Prince of
  Wales' Men.--Change of Ministry.--Sir James leaves the Channel Fleet,
  and returns to Guernsey.--Is offered the Command in the East
  Indies.--Letter on that occasion.                                   91


  CHAPTER VIII.

  State of Affairs in Sweden.--Alarm of the King.--Sir James selected
  to command the Baltic Fleet.--Correspondence with Lord Mulgrave.--Sir
  John Moore's Expedition.--Arrives at Gothenburg.--Capture and
  destruction of a Danish seventy-four.--Sir John Moore goes to
  Stockholm.--Is arrested, and escapes.--Expedition returns to
  England.--Disposition of the Fleet.--Sir James proceeds to
  Carlscrona.--Rescue of Romana's Army.--Sir James proceeds to
  the Gulf of Finland.--Capture and Destruction of the Russian
  seventy-four, Sewolod.--The combined Swedish and English Fleet off
  Baltic Port.--Reconnoitres the Russian Fleet in the harbour, and
  determines to attack them.--Prevented by change of winds.--Proceeding
  off Baltic Port.--Letter to the Emperor of Russia.--Fleet returns to
  Carlscrona.                                                         98


  CHAPTER IX.

  Sir James at Carlscrona.--Arrangements.--Author left in Sweden.--Letter
  from the Swedish Admiral.--Sir James leaves Carlscrona.--Arrives
  at Gothenburg.--Makes arrangements for the protection of the
  Trade.--Leaves Rear Admiral Keats in Command.--His departure from
  Sweden, and arrival in the Downs.--Proceeds to the Admiralty, and
  receives their Lordships' high approbation.--Proceedings of the
  Fleet.--Revolution in Sweden.--Sir James reappointed to the command
  in the Baltic.--His correspondence with Mr. Foster.--Official notice
  of the Duke of Sudermania being elected King of Sweden.--He confers
  upon Sir James the Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword.          126


  CHAPTER X.

  Blockade of the Russian fleet.--Swedes' expedition, under Admiral
  Puké and General Wachtmeister, sails,--is unsuccessful. Private
  correspondence with Mr. Foster.--Armistice and Peace with
  Russia.--Peace with Denmark.--Proceedings of the Fleet.--State
  of affairs in Sweden.--Fleet returns to Carlscrona, and subsequently
  to England.                                                        164


  CHAPTER XI.

  Sir James's third year in the command of the Baltic Fleet. Proceeds
  to Gothenburg and Havre.--Correspondence with Mr. Foster, Admiral
  Krusenstjerna, and others.--Swedes shut their ports.--Death of
  the Crown Prince.--Murder of Count Fersen.--Restrictions of the
  Swedish commerce.--Sir James's judicious conduct in that and in
  several disputes.--Election of Bernadotte, and his entry into
  Sweden.--Correspondence on the subject.--Sir James returns to
  England, and receives the approbation of the government and the
  nation.                                                            187


  CHAPTER XII.

  Buonaparte declares he will conquer a "Maritime Peace."--Illness
  of George III.--Prince of Wales Regent.--Sir James obtains leave
  of absence.--The Victory sent to Lisbon with troops.--Attack on
  Anholt.--Gallant defence of the garrison.--Sir James continues in
  the Baltic at the request of ministers.--Letters respecting
  Anholt.--Letters from the Duke of Brunswick and answers
  thereto.--Arrival in Sweden of Sir James.--Letters to Mr. Yorke and
  Admiral Reynolds.--Negotiations on the sequestration of English
  ships at Carlscrona.--Conference with Baron Tawast.--Written document
  from the Baron unsatisfactory.--Letter from the Admiralty.--Sir James
  remonstrates with the Swedish Government.--Evasive answer.--Further
  correspondence.--Value of sequestered property.--Capture of two
  Danish privateers.--Gallant conduct of Lieut. St. Clair and Mr.
  Purcell.--Determination of Russia not to accede to the terms of
  France.--The Crown Prince places implicit confidence in Sir
  James.--Arrival of Mr. Thornton.--He is smuggled into the city of
  Gothenburg.--Amicable confirmation of the Ghent treaty.--Situation
  of the fleet.--Sir James's letter.--Disaster of the St. George
  and convoy.--Admiral Reynolds's letter.--Arrival of St. George at
  Wingo.--Sailing of the fleet.--St. George and Hero's convoy put
  back.--Sail again.--Melancholy wrecks of the St. George and
  Defence.--Captain Pater's narrative.--Remarks.--Loss of the Hero
  and convoy.--Proceedings of the Victory.--Remarks on crossing
  the North Sea.--Sir James arrives at Spithead.                     222


  CHAPTER XIII.

  State of Europe in 1812.--Critical situation of Sweden and
  Russia.--Advance of Buonaparte.--Sir James Saumarez resumes the
  command in the Baltic.--Attack on Anholt prevented.--Proceedings of
  the advanced squadron Arrival of the Victory at Gothenburg.--Capture
  and destruction of a Danish frigate and two brigs.--Captain Stewart's
  gallant conduct.--Official letters.--Capture of a ship in Pillau
  Roads.--Lieut. Jones's gallant conduct.--Official letters.--Peace with
  Russia.--Correspondence with Mr. Thornton and Earl Cathcart, who is
  appointed Ambassador to the Court of St. Petersburg.--Proceedings of
  the hostile armies on the frontiers of Russia.--Admiral Byam Martin
  sent to co-operate.--Siege of Riga.--Diversion made by Admiral
  Martin in Dantzig Bay.--Capture and destruction of four French
  privateers.--Ratification of peace with Russia and Sweden.--Sir
  James named Knight Grand Cross of the Sword of Sweden.--His Swedish
  Majesty's letter and the answer.--Emperor Alexander sends the Russian
  fleet to England.--Defeat of the French at Polosk, Borodino,
  Moscow.--Retreat of Buonaparte.--Archangel fleet arrives.--Earl
  Cathcart.--Mr. Saumarez's tour to Åbo and St. Petersburg, and return
  to the Admiral with despatches.--Afflicting news from England.--Sir
  James's conduct on that occasion.--He is relieved by Sir George
  Hope.--Returns to England.--Strikes his flag.                      271


  CHAPTER XIV.

  State of the Continent after the defeat of Buonaparte.--Sir James's
  services in the Baltic no longer required.--Retires from service,
  but not from public life.--His various occupations.--His claims for
  a Peerage disregarded.--Correspondence and observations thereon.--His
  residence in Guernsey.--Visit to Oxford.--Letter from Lord
  Nelson.--Captain Miller's monument.--Political opinions.--Letter from
  Earl St. Vincent.--Is appointed to the command at Plymouth.--Speech
  of Earl Grey.--Receives a visit from Lord Exmouth.--Strikes
  his flag.--Claims for a Peerage again disregarded.--Returns
  to Guernsey.--His reception there.--Death of George IV.--Accession
  of William IV.--Is created Baron de Saumarez.--Letter from Lady de
  Saumarez.--His reception at the Island of Guernsey, and rejoicings
  there.                                                             297


  CHAPTER XV.

  Political opinions and conduct of Lord de Saumarez.--Death of his
  second son.--His letter on that occasion.--Anecdotes of his carriage
  being robbed.--Of Sweden.--The King of Sweden presents him with his
  portrait.--Count Wetterstedt's letter and Lord de Saumarez's
  answer.--Lord de Saumarez's last illness and death.--His Christian
  fortitude.--His professional character.--Moral and religious
  character.--Remarks and conclusion.                                315


  ADDENDA.

  Memoir of Sir Thomas de Saumarez.                                  332

  Memoir of Captain Philip de Saumarez.                              348


  APPENDIX.                                                          369

  INDEX.                                                             421



  LIST OF PLATES.


  Portrait of Lord de Saumarez                           _Frontispiece_.

  Battle of the 12th July 1801 in the Straits of Gibraltar        Page 6

  Harbour of Rogerwick, showing the positions of the
  English, Swedish, and Russian fleets, 31st August 1808             115



  ERRATA.


  Page 130, l. 4, _for_ "Eurthalms" _read_ "Eartholms."

       182, l. 8,  --   "Stedriegh" _read_ "Stedinck."

       184, l. 3,  --   "remaininig" _read_ "remaining."

       187, l. 5,  --   "Krusensbyerna" _read_ "Krusenstjerna."


  APPENDIX.

       396, _for_ "T. Manzell" _read_ "T. Mansell."

       397,  --   "Michaer," _read_ "Michael."



THE LIFE

OF

LORD DE SAUMAREZ.



CHAPTER I.

1801.

     News of the Battles of the 6th and 12th of July reach
     England.--Rejoicings on the occasion, particularly described in
     a letter from Mrs. Saumarez.--Promotion of Lieutenant
     Dumaresq.--Letters from Earl St. Vincent, Mr. Tucker, and
     others.--Remarks on the conduct of the Governor and Garrison at
     Gibraltar.--State of the crew of the Cæsar.--Ship
     refitted.--Appointments of officers to the St. Antoine, and
     other vacancies.--Correspondence with the Spanish Governor at
     Cadiz on the subject of red-hot balls.--Accusation
     refuted.--Letters from Lord Keith, Sir John Warren, and Captain
     Dixon.--Squadron off Cadiz reinforced.--Sir James resumes the
     blockade of Cadiz.--His proceedings.--Remarks on the result of
     the two Actions.


The news of the splendid victory of the 12th of July was received in
England with enthusiasm. After it became known that the squadron under
Sir James Saumarez had been so materially damaged at Algeziras, it was
thought impossible that the ships could have been prepared to meet
the enemy in so short a time. The Admiral's despatches, subsequently
to the first battle, stated that an overwhelming force had been sent
to Algeziras from Cadiz; and, consequently, the news of his subsequent
triumph over so great a superiority of force struck every person with
astonishment.

[Illustration]

The Louisa brig, Lieutenant Truscott, having on board Lieutenant
Dumaresq, arrived off Mount's Bay on the 30th July. This officer
landed with Sir James's despatches, and immediately proceeded to
London. He was received at the Admiralty by Earl St. Vincent in the
most gratifying manner. Mr. Addington, then prime minister, sent an
express to Sir James's youngest brother at Brighton, requesting his
presence in London; and, on his arrival, he in the handsomest manner
presented him with a situation of trust and importance in the island
of Ceylon, with a salary of two thousand pounds per annum. Lieutenants
Dumaresq of the Cæsar, Jackson of the Superb, and Lillicrap of the
Venerable, were promoted to the rank of commanders.

The extraordinary public sensation which this important and unexpected
victory created, is described in the following letter from Mrs.
Saumarez of Newington, (Sir James's sister-in-law,) to whom Lieutenant
Dumaresq paid a visit on leaving the Admiralty.

     London, 5th August 1801.

     MY DEAR SIR JAMES,

     It is impossible to express the admiration and enthusiasm which
     your late despatches have excited in the breasts of all ranks
     of people. You are now the theme of every conversation, the
     toast of every table, the hero of every woman, and the boast of
     every Englishman. When Dumaresq waited on Lord St. Vincent, his
     lordship squeezed his hand in the greatest rapture, exclaiming,
     "I knew it,--I knew it,--I knew the man,--I knew what he could
     do! It is the most daring thing that has been done this war. It
     is the first thing.--I knew it would be so!" He then gave
     Dumaresq his commission, and wrote a letter of congratulation
     to Lady Saumarez, which he charged Phil. Dumaresq to deliver
     with his own hand. I trust they are now both together; and,
     after staying there one day, Phil. is to return to town.

     Lord St. Vincent also sent Dumaresq to Mr. Addington, who
     received him in the most gracious manner. He told Phil.
     everything that man could say in terms of approbation; and
     justly added, that, however the multitude might estimate and
     admire the last action, yet the first, in his own mind, and in
     the minds of men who understood the matter, was equally
     deserving of praise, and would have fixed their approbation of
     Sir James's conduct, even though he had failed in his second
     attempt. At the same time he owned, that the exertions made by
     the men after the first action, in order to meet the second,
     were beyond conception or example. Indeed, they must surpass
     Mr. Addington's conception, since even Lord St. Vincent told
     Dumaresq that it was far beyond what he himself could imagine.
     In short, my dear Sir James, you have been achieving a deed
     that has held you up to the contemplation of mankind, and that
     secures you the gratitude of your country.

     You will, no doubt, soon receive very distinguished marks of
     the royal and the national favour. In the mean time you will be
     delighted, equally with ourselves, to find that the stream of
     prosperity, beginning to flow towards you, has already involved
     your brother Nicholas, who was sent for yesterday from
     Brighton, in order to wait on Mr. Addington to-morrow morning.
     It can be for no other purpose than to make his fortune. God
     knows the poor fellow has suffered enough on your account! for
     we had the rascally French despatches full ten days before we
     received yours; and, when we did receive the first account,
     your brother Richard was not satisfied. He feared the business
     was not done, and his mind dwelt upon it with anxiety. At last,
     on the 1st of August, and not before, all our fears were
     removed; and yesterday we received the news that Mr. Addington
     had sent for Nicholas.

     Indeed, Sir James, you have electrified your whole circle of
     friends in a masterly manner; for the very great success you
     experienced at last, came with double effect upon those who had
     greatly feared for you at the first: and, let me add, that not
     only your actions, but your letters also, are very much
     admired, and, I think, most deservedly.

     Dumaresq is just like yourself,--unassuming and unaffected. He
     had been with us an hour with his commission in his pocket,
     without telling us of it; and it was only accidentally that we
     discovered he had been promoted.

     And now, my dear Sir James, let me speak like an _old woman_. I
     tremble for you. Had you only dangers and difficulties to
     encounter, I should not fear; but now you are going to be
     overwhelmed with wealth, titles, fame, adulation, and
     distinction; with everything, in short, that can make a man
     forget himself;

          "And Satan, wiser than he was of yore,
          Now tempts by making rich, not making poor!"

     Now, if in such a situation you can retain the two pillars of
     your Christian faith, namely, humility and patience, you will
     then be the first of human characters. Alas! how seldom it is
     that we see the characters of the hero and the philosopher
     blended in one! When the head monopolises the spirits, the
     heart often wants courage; and, if the heart is strong, the
     head is weak. But, as no part of you has yet betrayed signs of
     weakness, endeavour to preserve yourself the same in future as
     you have been in the past, however your fortunes may alter.

     God bless you, my dear brother! and God bless also Captain
     Brenton, and all the heroes that are with you, and bring you
     safe back again to enjoy the favours of your grateful country!
     M---- is here very happy. She sent to the Bank yesterday for
     money, and requested to have cash instead of notes. She was
     refused of course, at first; but when Mr. Brock said, that,
     upon his honour, the money was for Sir James Saumarez's
     _sister_, the guineas made their appearance immediately. I give
     you this as a specimen of what people think of you. Two
     engravers have called on us for your picture; and I have
     written to Lady Saumarez to let them have it. I hope her
     ladyship and Captain Dumaresq are now in high chat.

     I remain, dear brother,
     Ever truly yours,
     M.S.

     P.S. Richard desires his love; but you have deprived him of
     sleep.

     As you could think on Mrs. Pope at the time you were
     undertaking the most desperate attempt that ever was made, you
     may probably find time to inquire for Horace T. who is now at
     Gibraltar hospital mending two broken thighs. He is the son of
     Mrs. T. whom you have met at our house. She keeps a ladies'
     school next door to us; and, could you serve her son, you would
     help the widow and the fatherless, and please me at the same
     time.

The following letters from Earl St. Vincent, and his secretary Mr.
Tucker, will demonstrate the high estimation in which the victory of
the 12th of July was held at the Admiralty.

     Admiralty, 5th August 1801.

     MY DEAR SIR,

     I have to acknowledge your letters of the 30th June, 5th, 6th,
     7th, 9th, 13th July, and to congratulate you most heartily on
     the career of glory you and your gallant squadron have run in
     the course of those periods. The hardy enterprise of the 6th
     merited complete success; but all who know the baffling winds
     in the Bay of Gibraltar can readily account for the event of
     it. The astonishing efforts made to refit the crippled ships in
     Gibraltar Mole surpasses everything of the kind within my
     experience; and the final success in making so great an
     impression on the very superior force of the enemy crowns the
     whole. I have great satisfaction in reporting to you that I
     have received the most gracious and full approbation of his
     Majesty this morning of your whole conduct, and that of every
     officer and man under your command, and I hear nothing but
     praise and admiration from every quarter.

     We wait impatiently the arrival of Vice-admiral Pole from the
     Baltic to detach a powerful reinforcement to you, and we are
     not without hopes that four ships of the line are on their
     passage from Cork to join you before Cadiz, or at Gibraltar.

     Having, from the moment of your departure, felt the most
     perfect confidence that everything would be performed for the
     honour and success of his Majesty's arms within the reach of
     human power, I have only to add my anxious wish that another
     opportunity will present itself, ere long, for a further
     display of that talent and intrepidity from which the country
     has, upon so many occasions, received important benefits.

     I have the honour to be,
     With the most perfect regard and esteem,
     Very sincerely yours,
     ST. VINCENT.

     To Sir James Saumarez.


     Admiralty, 10th August 1801.

     DEAR SIR,

     I congratulate you from my heart and soul, and assure you that
     I rejoice most sincerely in the glorious events you have
     achieved. I but feebly express what I feel on this occasion. It
     has been your good fortune, sir, to bear so large a part in
     accomplishing the most glorious actions of this eventful war,
     that you can scarcely have had an opportunity of witnessing
     their immediate effect on the public mind; but, be assured, in
     no instance has there been more lively admiration expressed of
     the intrepidity and indefatigable zeal of our navy, than has
     been shown by all ranks, of your most gallant enterprises, even
     before the account of your first action was received; and I am
     sure you will excuse me for adding the tribute my noble lord
     paid on that occasion, who, when he read the French account
     that they had taken the Hannibal, exclaimed, "We may have lost
     a ship, but I well know the man and the men who are there, and
     I'll pledge my life the nation has lost no honour!" The instant
     despatch of the ships from Ireland will prove that it was not
     conceived possible for you to have so soon refitted the
     squadron, which has been the subject of great admiration and
     surprise.

     The noble and liberal conduct of the squadron in admitting the
     Pompée and Hannibal to partake of their prize-money is an
     honourable and beautiful contrast to the bickerings which have
     arisen lately respecting joint captures, and must ensure
     success to every claim that can be made out; but I am afraid we
     shall not be able to find a precedent for anything beyond
     head-money being given for ships which have been blown up in
     action.

     B. TUCKER.

We shall now return to the proceedings at Gibraltar, where we left the
squadron of Sir James Saumarez, after the glorious battle of the 12th
July.

The extreme degree of excitement and enthusiasm, sharpened by revenge,
which supported the gallant crew of the Cæsar, and enabled them to
perform such prodigious labour during the last seven days, had now
subsided. The incessant fatigue which they had endured, both of body
and mind, their long abstinence from their natural sleep, and the
sudden change from bustle to inactivity, threw the whole of the men
into such a state of languor and debility, that they were found lying
on the bare planks of the deck, having sunk exhausted, and incapable
of making any exertion. This state of stupor continued several hours;
some days, indeed, elapsed before many of them regained their usual
strength and spirits. At length, however, the men again began to
refit the ship, and prepare for resuming the blockade of Cadiz.

Nothing could surpass the attention, kindness, and hospitality of the
governor and garrison of Gibraltar, who were, by the signal defeat of
the combined squadron, happily relieved from a state of siege.
Invitations from every quarter were given; but Sir James, who was
averse to adulation, declined all except those of the governor, which
he considered it his duty not to refuse. No time was lost in sending
the men who were saved from the unfortunate Real Carlos to Algeziras;
and Sir James entered into a correspondence with the governor, and
subsequently with the commander-in-chief at Cadiz, for an exchange of
prisoners, which, as the circumstances were now different from those
which lately existed, was acceded to without waiting for the
permission of the Minister of Marine at Paris. Consequently the whole
of the Hannibal's men were sent to Gibraltar, in exchange for the crew
of the San Antonio, which ship was surveyed, taken into the service,
and commissioned. On this occasion the following promotions took
place.

Commander the Hon. Geo. H.L. Dundas, of the Calpé, was appointed
captain of the San Antonio, now called the St. Antoine; Lieut.
Lamburn, first of the Cæsar, to command the Calpé; Mr. Beard, master's
mate of the Cæsar, to be lieutenant of the St. Antoine, to which ship
the purser and warrant officers of the Thames, also, were appointed.
Mr. Champion, secretary to Sir James, was made purser of the Thames,
while warrant officers were selected from the class of petty officers
in the Cæsar; Mr. John Brenton was appointed to fill the vacancy of
lieutenant in the Cæsar; Lieutenant Janvrin was made first lieutenant
of the St. Antoine; and the other vacancies for lieutenants were
filled up from the other ships, viz. Messrs. Curry and Hillier of the
Pompée, T. Dowel of the Venerable, E. Donovan of the Superb, and Mr.
J. Crawfurd, master of the El Carmen, were made acting lieutenants to
the said ships; while the marine officers of the Hannibal, Lieutenant
(now Colonel) Connolly, and Lieutenant Dunford, were also transferred
with the marines of that ship to the prize. All these appointments
were transmitted to, but not confirmed by, the Admiralty, excepting
Captain Dundas, and Captain Dumaresq, who was subsequently appointed
to the Calpé.

As the correspondence between Sir James and the Spanish
commander-in-chief is highly creditable to both, and as it clears up a
doubt which may still exist, we give an exact copy from the original
letters, which were exchanged by a flag of truce.

     H.M.S. Cæsar, off Cadiz, 17th August 1801.

     Having been informed that reports were circulated in Spain,
     ascribing the destruction of the two first-rates, Real Carlos
     and San Hermenegildo, in the engagement of the 12th July last,
     to red-hot balls from his Majesty's ships under my command, I
     take this present opportunity to contradict, in the most
     positive and formal manner, a report so injurious to the
     characteristic humanity of the British nation, and to assure
     your Excellency that nothing was more void of truth. This I
     request you will be pleased to signify in the most public way
     possible. To assuage, as far as lay in my power, the miseries
     that must necessarily result from a state of warfare, has ever
     been my strenuous endeavour, and such will be the rule of my
     conduct in carrying on the blockade of Cadiz, or any other
     service committed to my charge.

     I beg your Excellency to accept the renewal of my respectful
     regard; and I have the honour to be,

     With the highest consideration,
     Your Excellency's most obedient and most humble servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To his Excellency Don Joseph de Mazzaredo, Commander-in-chief
     of his Most Cath. Maj. ships, Cadiz.

The flag of truce, which had been sent into Cadiz with some
passengers, taken in a small vessel, and with the above letter,
returned with the following answer, of which we give a verbatim copy,
as a specimen of a foreigner's English:

     ESTEEMED SIR,

     The reports which have been current, that the burning of the
     two royal ships, on the nights of the 12th and 13th, arose from
     the use of red-hot balls, which were fired at them, have
     existed only among the ignorant public, and have not received
     credit from any persons of condition, who well know the manner
     of combating of the British navy. At the same time they give
     the greatest credit to the assertion of your Excellency that
     nothing could be more foreign from the truth, and the
     characteristic humanity of the British nation. I have myself
     experience of the particular conduct of your Excellency,
     conformable to your personal character, and to that of your
     late commander-in-chief, his Excellency Lord St. Vincent, in
     the manner in which, in the last blockade of Cadiz, he
     reconciled with the duties of a state of war those attentions
     and considerations to alleviate miseries not connected with the
     great object, and to secure that good intelligence and
     friendship with which two powers may suspend for a time
     treating each other as enemies; and I have no doubt that such
     will always be the rule of your Excellency's conduct.

     In my particular circumstances, with an obligation to reside in
     this capital, as Captain-general of the Marine department, the
     correspondence in any urgent case of a flag of truce might
     suffer delay; and it would be convenient for your Excellency to
     address yourself directly to Don Joseph Herryar,
     Commandant-general of the province and army of Andalusia, qui
     (who) resides in Cadiz.

     I will avail myself of every occasion to assure your Excellency
     of the esteem and consideration which I profess for your
     person.

     God grant you may live a thousand years!
     Your most obedient servant,
     JOSEPH MAZZAREDO.
     Isle of Leon, 17th August 1801.

The following reply was sent by Sir James to the Spanish Admiral:

     Cæsar, off Cadiz, 18th August 1801.

     SIR,

     I have received the honour of your Excellency's letter, by
     which I am extremely happy to find the reports of the Real
     Carlos and San Hermenegildo having been destroyed by red-hot
     balls from the squadron under my orders have only been credited
     by the ignorant public, and not by persons of higher condition
     in Spain. But as such reports, if permitted to gain ground
     without being contradicted, must tend to irritate the minds of
     the public, and occasion an animosity between the two nations
     that ought not to exist, I trust your Excellency will be
     pleased to comply with my request in causing the formal
     disavowal of it to be publicly notified.

     The very flattering manner in which your Excellency is pleased
     to express yourself at my endeavours to alleviate the miseries
     attendant on a state of warfare during the former blockade of
     Cadiz, under the orders of the Earl of St. Vincent, afford me
     infinite satisfaction. It is by pursuing similar conduct that I
     hope to deserve the approbation of the King my royal master,
     and that of the English nation.

     I shall comply with your Excellency's desire in order to
     accelerate the communication of flags of truce, that they in
     future be addressed to his Excellency the Governor-general of
     the province of Andalusia.

     I beg your Excellency to accept my sincere and fervent wishes
     for your health and every possible happiness, and my assurance
     of the sentiments of most perfect regard with which I have the
     honour to be

     Your Excellency's most obedient
     and most humble servant,
     JAS. SAUMAREZ.

     To his Excellency Don Joseph Mazzaredo, &c. &c. &c.

We need only add that Sir James's request was complied with, and that
several communications were subsequently made by flags of truce for
the exchange of prisoners, by which the sufferings on both sides were
much alleviated.

       *       *       *       *       *

News of the battle of Algeziras, and of the loss of the Hannibal,
having reached the Admiralty through the French papers, their
lordships despatched a vessel with orders to Captain Tyler of the
Warrior, who with six sail of the line was cruising off Ireland, to
proceed with his squadron to reinforce Sir James Saumarez off Cadiz.
These ships, viz. the Warrior, Captain Tyler; Defence, Lord H. Paulet;
Bellona, Captain Bertie; Russell, Captain Cuming, all of seventy-four
guns, and Eling, schooner, joined Captain Stirling of the Pompée on
the 9th; who, with Captain Keats in the Superb, had resumed the
blockade. Intelligence of this reinforcement was sent to Sir James at
Gibraltar.

A claim was made for prize-money, by Captain C. Duncan of the
Portuguese frigate Carlotta, but was not admitted; because, having
been informed that peace had been made between Portugal and France,
Captain Duncan had refused to take any part in the action, and had
been requested by Sir James merely to carry his despatches to Lisbon.

The Cæsar being refitted, Sir James made two attempts to join his
squadron off Cadiz; but it was not until the 15th of August that he
reached his station, having, in the mean time, twice visited Tangier.
The Thames had been sent with despatches to Lord Keith, who had
ordered the Généreux, Captain Manly Dixon, to leave Mahon, and join
the squadron off Cadiz; but this officer having heard of the second
action, and conceiving it would be unnecessary, did not join, but
wrote a letter, of which the following is an extract.

     H.M.S. Généreux, Minorca, E.N.E. 50 leagues, 24 July 1801.

     This evening, being distant from the west end of Minorca, on my
     passage to join you, I fell in with the brig with your second
     letter, addressed to the senior officer at Mahon; and taking
     the same into consideration, and the great advantage which your
     glorious and most brilliant action with the French and Spanish
     squadrons must give you over the enemy off Cadiz, I judged it
     best for his Majesty's service to return to my station at
     Mahon, and act conformably to the last orders I received from
     Sir John Warren,--which were, to hold the Généreux in constant
     readiness to join him on his appearance off that port.

     I beg leave to congratulate you, and the captains of your
     squadron, on the great success which has attended your first
     dash at the enemy in their strong position off Algeziras, and
     the very important consequence of it.

At the same time Sir James received the first of the following letters
from Lord Keith, who had not yet received the accounts of the second
battle:

     Foudroyant, Bay of Aboukir, 4th August 1801.

     SIR,

     I yesterday received your letters of the 7th and 9th ultimo, by
     the Delight, from Minorca. The letter has given me much
     concern, in consequence of the unfortunate issue of your
     gallant endeavours. I am still in hopes that it will not turn
     out so favourably for the enemy, and that some of their ships
     will be lost.

     You will know, before this reaches you, that Cairo is
     evacuated. The greatest part of its garrison is now embarked.
     When that is accomplished, I see nothing to prevent our
     beginning to attack Alexandria; and I am sanguine that it
     cannot hold out long: but, until it is in our power, I can
     detach nothing from blockading that port, and covering this
     immense fleet of transports, store-ships, victuallers, &c.
     which have no other protection. Besides, the army cannot exist
     without our protection.

     Sir John Warren sailed from hence on the 12th May. I have since
     heard from him, at sea and at Malta; and I have lately
     understood that he was off Cape Spartavento, where he may have
     heard of Gantheaume's squadron; but his ultimate orders are for
     Mahon, at which place he must now be with seven ships of the
     line. The Athenian must now be ready to join, from Malta.
     Should the enemy sail up the Mediterranean, Carthagena or
     Toulon must be their first rendezvous, where you will be able
     to observe them, when joined to Sir John; and, from all
     information, their objects of attack must be confined to
     three,--Egypt, Turkey in Europe, or Sicily, in the event of a
     renewal of hostilities: and to those objects I recommend the
     strictest attention; because, after the island of Minorca is
     sufficiently reinforced, it may be left, for a longer time than
     before, without very much danger: but I must recommend that the
     strictest secrecy is observed on my intended operation, and
     that frequent information is transmitted to me.

     Were the enemy once collected at any one point, I could venture
     to detach from hence; but, unsettled as they are at present,
     it would be a measure of much danger. The ships last from
     England sail very ill; and, if met with, would be taken. The
     Hector, Ajax, and La Diane, lately ran foul of each other at
     sea, and are not yet in a state to act.

     It will be proper to keep the cruisers active off Carthagena,
     Barcelona, and Crette, whence the enemy must derive their
     supplies; and whichever port the enemy's squadron goes into,
     must be blockaded _de facto_; and any vessels that attempt to
     enter, after due warning, must be detained. I beg to mention
     that the anchorage of Alendia Bay is good. If not better
     defended than I have known it to be, the batteries might be
     destroyed by a few soldiers from General Fox: a position there
     covers both sides of the island. The idea of an attack on
     Maracoa, or Algiers, I discredit: at the first place their army
     would be lost; at the second they could not trust their fleet
     in so open a bay even for a week.

     I hope you will send to the Admiralty copies of all your
     letters to me on points of service, whilst I am at such a
     distance from you.

     I have the honour to be,
     Sir,
     Your most obedient humble servant,
     KEITH.

     Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart.
       &c. &c. &c.


     Foudroyant, Aboukir Bay, 17th August 1801.

     SIR,

     I have had the honour of receiving your letter of the
     19th ultimo, acquainting me with the measures which you
     had adopted for opposing the return to Cadiz of the combined
     French and Spanish squadrons lately anchored in
     Algeziras Bay; and with the fortunate result of your attack
     on them, with an inferiority of force that little encouraged
     an expectation of so distinguished an advantage.
     I beg to offer to you my sincere congratulations on the successful
     issue of an enterprise, so honourable to yourself;
     and request you will accept the tribute of my perfect approbation
     of the ardent zeal and determined resolution
     which animated you on that important occasion; and that
     you will communicate my full satisfaction and approbation
     to all the captains and officers, seamen and marines, of the
     ships of the squadron under your orders, who, by so eminently
     distinguishing themselves, have merited and obtained
     yours.

     I have the honour to be,
     Sir,
     Your most obedient humble servant,
     KEITH.

     To Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart.
       &c. &c. &c.


     (Same date.)

     SIR,

     I have to acknowledge the receipt of the various enclosures in
     your letters of the 19th July; and approve of the exertions to
     resume the station before Cadiz with the ships of your
     squadron, which, I have reason to believe, has been seasonably
     reinforced by the Généreux.

     The Honourable Captain Dundas shall receive an appointment for
     the San Antonio, which, I have no doubt, the repeated
     meritorious conduct of that young officer will induce their
     lordships to confirm; and I shall have pleasure in paying
     attention to the other officers, to whom you have given acting
     orders, when a compliance with their lordships' commands, and
     an attention to prior engagements, shall enable me so to do.

     I have the honour to be your obedient servant,
     KEITH.

     To Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart.
       &c. &c. &c.

Sir James, at the same time, received the usual order, dated 3rd
August, to place himself under the orders of Lord Keith; by which it
was supposed that his lordship had no right to share, as
commander-in-chief, for the prizes antecedently taken by the squadron.
This question, however, was decided in favour of his lordship.

The Bellona, Penelope, and Mermaid successively joined the squadron;
and the latter, having a convoy from Lisbon, was despatched with it to
Malta. The Audacious and Bellona were sent to Gibraltar to refit; and
subsequently the Penelope, to be hove down. Sir James received letters
from Mr. Frere, at Lisbon, by the Phaeton, Captain Morris, informing
him of the conclusion of peace between Portugal and France; and of a
report that some of the enemy's ships had escaped from Brest, which
was however contradicted by despatches of later date from the Channel
fleet, and from England. The enemy's designs had been completely
frustrated, and vessels employed in the commerce of Great Britain
proceeded to their various destinations without molestation. The
Phaeton was also despatched up the Mediterranean with a convoy, and
with information of importance for Lord Keith, from Mr. Frere. By the
return of the Thames, Sir James received from Sir John Warren, whose
absence from Toulon had permitted Admiral Linois' squadron to escape,
the following letter, dated,

     Renown, Port Mahon, 18th August, 1801.

     SIR,

     I have the honour of informing you of my arrival here with the
     squadron under my command, being ordered by the
     commander-in-chief on this part of the station, and to assist
     and communicate with anything stationed without the Straits'
     mouth.

     I received, with much satisfaction, the intelligence of your
     zealous and gallant efforts with the squadron under your orders
     in the several actions you have had with the enemy, the result
     of which has proved so successful and honourable to all who
     assisted in them.

     I therefore beg leave, sincerely, to offer you my
     congratulations on this occasion; and trust you have received
     the stores sent from this dockyard, and the supernumeraries
     which were conveyed in the Mermaid.

     I am sorry to add that the Swiftsure was captured by Gantheaume
     in her passage with some merchantmen, on the coast of Barbary;
     and that the enemy were fortunate enough to carry her into
     Toulon.

     I have the honour to remain,
     Your obedient humble servant,
     J.B. WARREN.

     To Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart.
       &c. &c. &c.

The ports of Cadiz and St. Lucar were now declared to be in strict
blockade, which was rigidly enforced, in order to prevent supplies
being thrown in for the repairs of the damaged fleet; and serious
disputes frequently took place between the French and Spaniards in
these harbours.

Although the battles of the 6th and 12th of July were not in magnitude
to be compared to those of the Nile and Valentine's day, they were to
the nation actually of no less importance, by having put an end to the
well-laid plan of Buonaparte for the destruction of our commerce and
the reinforcement of his army in Egypt, which Gantheaume had
unsuccessfully attempted.

Peace having been made between France and Spain, it was agreed that
the fleet of the latter nation, partly manned with French crews and
officers, should be joined by Linois' squadron from Toulon, and then
proceed off Lisbon, which they were to sack, and destroy or capture
the British merchant-ships lying there with rich cargoes; then, being
reinforced by the Brest fleet, they were to pass the Straits of
Gibraltar, and with an overwhelming force steer direct for Alexandria,
where they were to land such a body of troops as would raise the
siege, and drive the English out of Egypt. This would certainly have
succeeded had the squadron under Linois not encountered that of Sir
James, which led to the total defeat of their combined fleets, and to
the abandonment of the grand plan: events which may be said to have
brought about the conclusion of peace, first, with Portugal, and
subsequently with Great Britain, as it was found impossible to
relieve, or reinforce, the French army in Egypt before the
capitulation of Alexandria, and the final expulsion of that army. But
the reader will be surprised to find that the meritorious services of
Sir James, although fully acknowledged, were not so fully rewarded.



CHAPTER II.

1801.

     Despatches arrive from England.--Sir James superseded by Sir
     Charles Morice Pole.--Remarks and correspondence on the
     subject.--The St. George and four sail of the line
     arrive.--Blockade of Cadiz.--Sir James continues as second in
     command.--His appointments not confirmed.--Injustice of his
     treatment.--Letters from various persons.--The Cæsar arrives at
     Gibraltar.


Since the signal defeat of the French and Spanish combined squadrons
on the 12th of July, Sir James had passed seven most anxious weeks
without having received any communication from England.[1] His
sufferings on that account, and his impatience for letters, as well
from his family as from the Admiralty, were, according to his own
admission, more intolerable than he had ever experienced.

     [1] The letters, which have already appeared, were received on
     the 31st of August.

The enemy's force at Cadiz being now so inferior, even to the squadron
he at first commanded, he was enabled to send the Audacious and
Bellona to refit at Gibraltar; while he detached the Warrior and the
Phoebe to cruise off Lisbon, and other smaller vessels in different
directions. He never doubted that he should be continued in the chief
command; and his hopes of the pleasing intelligence had been raised to
the highest pitch, when the long-expected despatches arrived. His
surprise and mortification, therefore, may be imagined, when, on
opening the very first letter from the Admiralty, he found himself
superseded by a senior officer, on a plea which had no just
foundation, namely, _the increase of the enemy's force at Cadiz_!
whereas, on the contrary, that force had not only been decreased by
the loss of two of its largest ships, but _all_ the rest had been so
materially damaged in the late actions as to be rendered for the
present unserviceable.

As might be expected, Sir James felt so indignant at this, to say the
least of it, ill-timed arrangement, that he considered it a duty he
owed to his character to express his feelings strongly in a respectful
answer to this communication, both to the Board, and to Earl St.
Vincent; which produced an explanation, in which it appeared that the
Admiralty, having determined to make Cadiz a separate command from
that of the Mediterranean, it became necessary to employ two
flag-officers. Sir James being the last on the list, none could be
found junior; and they were, therefore, under the necessity of
appointing a senior officer.

As it could not be disputed that the Admiralty had a right to make the
dispositions for which they alone were responsible, the correspondence
in which Sir James's services were acknowledged, and wherein regret
was expressed by their lordships at the necessity they had been under
of appointing a senior officer, ended in a satisfactory manner; and
Sir James was contented to remain as second in command under
Vice-admiral Pole, who arrived on the 31st August, in the St. George,
to assume the chief command of the squadron.

Two of the letters which Sir James received on this occasion have been
given in the preceding chapter, in order to show the reception which
the intelligence of his victory met with in England. The following are
copies of the official letters alluded to, and also of some private
letters, which express his feelings on the occasion.

     Admiralty, 2nd August 1801.

     SIR,

     I received, yesterday, by Captain Ferris, and immediately
     communicated to my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, your
     letters of the 5th, 6th, 9th, and 10th instant, acquainting me,
     for their lordships' information, that, having received
     intelligence of three French line-of-battle ships and a frigate
     having anchored off Algeziras, you had proceeded through the
     Straits, with the squadron under your orders, for the purpose
     of attacking them, which you had accordingly done on the
     morning of the 6th; but that the Hannibal having unfortunately
     taken the ground, and all the endeavours you had exerted with
     the Cæsar and Audacious having proved ineffectual, you had been
     compelled to withdraw from the attack, and to leave the
     Hannibal in possession of the enemy; transmitting, at the same
     time, a list of the killed and wounded, with a copy of a letter
     you had received from Captain Ferris, giving an account of his
     proceedings: and, in answer thereto, I have received their
     lordships' commands to acquaint you that, although your
     endeavours to destroy the enemy's ships, above-mentioned, were
     unsuccessful, they cannot too much applaud the spirit and
     activity with which the attack was conducted; and that, however
     they may regret the loss of the Hannibal to his Majesty, their
     lordships have the satisfaction of knowing that you, and all
     the officers and men employed under your command, have
     faithfully and zealously discharged your duty, and although by
     unfortunate circumstances a ship has been lost, as well as the
     lives of many gallant officers and men, the national character
     has in no degree suffered from the disaster.

     Their lordships have the fullest confidence that every exertion
     will be made for repairing the damage which the ships now with
     you have sustained; and have commanded me to inform you that
     you may rely on their taking measures immediately for
     reinforcing you, and for sending such supplies of stores as the
     squadron may be likely to require.

     I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant,
     EVAN NEPEAN.

     To Sir James Saumarez, Bart.


     Admiralty Office, 4th August 1801.

     SIR,

     After I had closed my despatch of the 2nd instant, Lieutenant
     Dumaresq arrived, and delivered to me your letters of the 13th
     and 14th of last month: the former, giving information that
     the three French ships of the line and, a frigate, at
     Algeziras, having been joined by five Spanish and one French
     sail of the line, with other smaller vessels, had sailed on the
     morning of the 12th with his Majesty's late ship Hannibal, for
     Cadiz; that, by the great exertions of the officers and men of
     the squadron, you had been able to proceed to sea at the same
     time, with all the ships under your orders, except the Pompée,
     in pursuit of the enemy; and that, after a partial action, two
     Spanish ships of a hundred and twelve guns had been blown up,
     and one French ship of seventy-four guns had been taken by his
     Majesty's ship Superb: the latter transmitting a letter which
     you had received from Captain Keats, of the last-mentioned
     ship, containing an account of his proceedings on that
     occasion.

     I lost no time in laying your said despatches before my Lords
     Commissioners of the Admiralty; and I have received their
     lordships' commands to express to you their highest approbation
     of the gallantry and good conduct which were displayed by you,
     and the captains, officers, and men under your orders, in
     engaging and defeating so superior a force of the enemy; and to
     desire that you will signify to them, particularly to Captains
     Hood and Keats, in the strongest terms, the sense their
     lordships are pleased to entertain of their meritorious
     services on this important occasion.

     Their lordships have commanded me further to inform you that,
     in consequence of the favourable mention you have made of the
     services of the Honourable Captain Dundas and Lieutenant
     Dumaresq, they have been pleased to promote the former to the
     rank of post-captain, and the latter to command the Calpé.

     I am, sir, your obedient humble servant,
     EVAN NEPEAN.

     To Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart. &c. &c. &c.


     Admiralty Office, 14th August 1801.

     SIR,

     My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having judged it
     necessary, from the present circumstances of the war, and
     preparations now making by the enemy in Cadiz, to augment the
     squadron serving on the coasts of Portugal and Spain bordering
     on the Atlantic, and to place the ships and vessels on that
     station under the command of Vice-admiral Pole, I have received
     their commands to acquaint you of this arrangement, and to
     enclose their orders to you, to put yourself, and the ships
     with you, under the Vice-admiral's command.

     So many objections occur to the allowing a force of the extent
     necessary to be so employed, with only one flag-officer, that
     their lordships have felt themselves reduced to the necessity,
     from your standing on the list, of sending a senior officer to
     you; which, on considering the proofs you have given of your
     zeal and ability, and the advantage which the public has so
     recently derived from your very distinguished services, they
     would, if possible, have avoided.

     I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant,
     Evan Nepean.

     To Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart.
       &c. &c. &c.

The enclosures mentioned in the above letters being the usual official
order for Sir James to put himself under command of Vice-admiral
Charles Morice Pole, need not be inserted; nor the consequent order
from that officer to Sir James. The squadron was now augmented by four
sail of the line; namely, the St. George, 98 (flag-ship), Captain
Nichols; Dreadnought, 98, Captain Vashon; Russell, 74, Captain
Cuming; and Powerful, 74, Sir Francis Laforey: and on the 10th of
September the St. Antoine, Audacious, Zealous, and Bellona joined;
which, with the Cæsar, Superb, Venerable, Spencer, and Pompée, made
twelve sail of the line.

The subjoined extract of a letter which Sir James wrote to his brother
Richard, is sufficiently expressive of his feelings:

     2nd September 1801.

     Nothing can be more strongly penned than the letters, both
     public and private, which I have received. If I had destroyed
     thirty sail of line-of-battle ships, they could not have been
     in a higher strain of praise and admiration. But is it not
     surprising they should cease there? Not a syllable is said of
     the first lieutenant, or anything intended for myself. Your
     letter seemed to make certain of it, and you fully expect that
     a peerage will be conferred on me at the meeting of Parliament,
     with the grant of a suitable pension. I cannot but feel
     surprised that Phil. Dumaresq should have been detained so long
     in London, and not be charged with the smallest hint on the
     subject, which almost makes me fear my services will be
     disregarded in the same manner I experienced after the Nile.

     I declare to you that on no service wherein I have been engaged
     have I found any situation equally arduous as that of
     Algeziras, nor have known any in the naval history of my
     country. Its consequences have been equal to the most complete
     victory; for, with seven sail, of which my squadron was
     composed, we have frustrated two important expeditions, the
     naval force of which consisted of sixteen sail of the line.

     I have been encouraged to expect this mark of distinction by
     all on this station, and I cannot express my feelings should it
     not be conferred. I shall, however, follow my sister's advice
     of "patience and humility" in either instance, and I trust to
     my resignation should the injustice be done to me.

     With regard to Mr. Pipon, he cannot do better than follow
     Captain Martin in a line-of-battle ship as first lieutenant; it
     will not prevent my exertions to serve him: but judge of the
     injustice to those officers who have shared in this and several
     other battles with me, to place a stranger over their heads.

     The Cæsar will, I hope, in a short time, be ordered to England;
     and I have written to be permitted to proceed in her, which I
     trust will be complied with.

     Is it not hard I should have been deprived of Lady Saumarez's
     letters? It is, however, a consolation to know that she was in
     good health so late as the 14th, by a letter to Captain
     Dumaresq.

The loss of Lady Saumarez's letters, which had been sent unfortunately
to Plymouth, where the squadron which sailed from Portsmouth did not
touch, as was expected, added greatly to Sir James's disappointment;
as did also the information that Mr. Lamburn, who had been appointed
to the Calpé, was to return to the Cæsar, being superseded by Captain
Dumaresq; and that _none_ of the appointments of the warrant-officers
to the St. Antoine were confirmed. It was, from these facts,
sufficiently evident that Sir James, in his honourable desire to
benefit those under his command, particularly Captains Hood and
Keats, had materially injured his own interest by permitting these
officers to make their own reports of the action at which he was
present commanding, and taking part. By thus omitting to give himself
and his own ship the full share of credit due to both, he actually
threw his officers and himself so completely into the back-ground,
that people were led to believe the Cæsar and the Admiral had little
or nothing to do with the battle. It is to this, and not to any
disinclination of Earl St. Vincent to reward Sir James, that his
services were on this occasion unrewarded,--the success being, by
these documents, attributed entirely to the Superb and Venerable; in
contemplation of which, the heavy responsibility, the ardent zeal, the
determined resolution Sir James had evinced, and, above all, the
important advantages gained to the nation by that victory which his
bravery and perseverance had obtained, were entirely overlooked. We
may justly ask, were the merits of the first lieutenant of the Superb,
which, in conjunction with the Cæsar, made an easy capture of the San
Antonio, and with a trifling loss,[2] greater than those of the first
lieutenant of the flag-ship, which was engaged far more severely at
Algeziras, who exerted himself most zealously in refitting the ship,
besides assisting in the capture of the French ship? Yet the promotion
was only given to the first lieutenants of the Venerable and Superb,
although the former ship would probably have been taken had it not
been for the Cæsar, and the latter was not in the action of Algeziras
at all! These circumstances, and the fact that his appointments to the
St. Antoine were not confirmed, seem to have given Sir James more
concern than even the total neglect of his own meritorious services.

     [2] It was reported that the San Antonio had struck before the
     Cæsar came up, but this cannot be true; because, when the Cæsar
     came up, both ships were still before the wind, firing at each
     other, and the Cæsar had her cross-jack-yard shot away.

Taking into account every circumstance regarding the actions of the
6th and 12th July,--the severity of the former, the intermediate
exertions, the professional skill, the daring and the tact displayed
in the latter, and the complete discomfiture of the enemy's
well-arranged plans for the destruction of our commerce at Lisbon and
the subsequent relief of their army in Egypt,--this victory was equal
to, if not greater in importance than, either the battles of St.
Vincent or the Nile, for the former of which Jervis was created an
earl, and Nelson a baron for the latter, immediately on the arrival of
the news in England. Yet after a lapse of several months, after
praises had been heaped upon Sir James, after the thanks of both
houses of parliament had been voted to him for the fifth time, after
his eminent services had been acknowledged by every large corporation,
and generally throughout the kingdom--after the highest encomiums had
been pronounced on him by Earl St. Vincent and Lord Nelson,--instead
of a peerage, which he as richly deserved as either of the other two,
he was decorated only with the red riband.

We shall close this subject for the present by giving an extract from
a letter Sir James wrote to his friend Sir Thomas Troubridge, after
his correspondence with the Admiralty on the subject of his being
superseded had ended, and subsequently to his correspondence with the
Navy Board on his having commissioned the St. Antoine to employ the
crew of the Hannibal, which had been exchanged.

     Cæsar, 7th October 1801.

     I leave it to you to decide whether I had not just cause for
     additional disappointment to find no notice taken of the
     services of the squadron by the promotion of any of the
     officers; and what I must feel at this moment to find Mr.
     Lamburn sent back, and the lieutenants of the Superb and
     Venerable alone promoted. I cannot but view it as a great
     injustice done me, and I am sorry to say it mortifies me more
     than I can express.

     With regard to the St. Antoine, allow me to bring to your
     recollection under what circumstances she was commissioned. At
     that time I was ignorant of any part of our force having been
     withdrawn from the Baltic, or that any ships could be spared
     from the North Sea or the Channel fleet, and consequently could
     not expect but that a very small, if any, reinforcement could
     be ordered to join me; and to have left an efficient ship,
     which, with the Hannibal's ship's company, could be brought
     forward for service in so short a time, I should have deemed
     myself very reprehensible, All the appointments were made in
     the most fair and impartial manner; and I solemnly declare that
     the sole view to the good of his Majesty's service was what
     actuated the whole of my proceedings, which I am certain Hood
     will also declare. I am truly grieved at the manner the
     warrant-officers I appointed to that ship are ordered to be
     superseded, and I shall feel it as long as I live.

     Believe me, my good friend, my heart is incapable of harbouring
     so heinous a vice as ingratitude, and I shudder at the thought
     of being taxed with it: but when I consider the treatment I
     have received on this occasion, I feel it difficult to support
     myself; and what adds to my distress is, to find by your
     private note of the 19th that I am likely to remain longer in
     this country. Let me assure you that I shall ever retain a
     grateful sense of the many and uniform proofs of your
     friendship for me, which I can truly say are not misplaced;
     there being no one among your numerous friends who can have a
     more true regard and sincere esteem for you than myself.

     J.S.

Sir James continued with the squadron under Sir Charles Pole, employed
on the blockade of Cadiz, until the 14th November 1801, when he went
in the Cæsar, in company with several other ships to Gibraltar.

The following letter from General O'Hara gave Sir James the first news
of the capitulation of Cairo, and the death of Sir Ralph Abercrombie,
on the 21st of August

     Gibraltar, 30th August 1801.

     If you have seen either the Hebe or Mendovia, you are
     acquainted with the success in Egypt; and, if you have not, the
     enclosed Gibraltar Chronicle will inform you of all those
     particulars: and when we consider the great disparity of
     numbers between English and French, particularly detailed in
     the Chronicle, we must conclude ourselves greatly indebted to
     good fortune for having got well through that very arduous
     enterprise.

     As the French troops, who capitulated, are nearly double the
     number of our people employed on that service, I cannot help
     having apprehensions till they are fairly embarked, and we are
     quit of them; for it is impossible to trust that scoundrel race
     if they can reap any advantage by breaking their faith. I am
     sorry to find, from several reports, that our great men don't
     draw together very well; I mean the chiefs of our army. It
     should seem we have more reasons than one to lament the loss of
     Sir Ralph Abercrombie,--the cause of clashing parties between
     Scotch and Irish, which is too commonly the case in our
     service; and I am afraid something of that sort now and then
     arises in the navy. I send you, likewise, our Chronicle of last
     Friday, because you will there see the honours that have been
     paid to the French officers for the action at Algeziras, as
     well as the one of the 13th. You will there perceive that the
     French Formidable was attacked by four English ships of war! It
     is quite wonderful what improbable lies those rascals do
     propagate.

Sir James found at Gibraltar H.M.S. Renown, Sir John Borlase Warren,
whose flag he saluted.



CHAPTER III.

1801.

     Preliminaries of peace.--Sir James created a Knight of the
     Bath.--Remarks on that Order.--Ceremony of investiture.--Action
     of the Pasley and Rosario.--Sir James receives the thanks of
     both Houses of Parliament.--Speeches of Earl St. Vincent, Lord
     Nelson, and Mr. Pitt.--The freedom of the city of London,--and
     a sword.--Address from Guernsey and Jersey.--Silver
     vases.--Inscriptions thereon.


The fleet, with the exception of a small squadron off Cadiz, had
returned to Gibraltar on the news that preliminaries of peace were
signed. This was the consequence of the surrender of Alexandria to his
Majesty's arms, and the final expulsion of the French from Egypt; on
which account general rejoicings had taken place. But that which most
strongly excited feelings of joy and exultation in the garrison and
inhabitants of Gibraltar was, the information that his Majesty had
been graciously pleased to honour Sir James Saumarez with the red
riband and star of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath,--a
distinction which, at this time, was very limited, and conferred only
on those who had highly distinguished themselves in battle. There was
then only one class, designated by the letters K.B.; but, in 1815, the
order was, under certain regulations, extended to three classes. The
former Knights of the Bath (K.B.) were made Grand-Crosses, (G.C.B.);
the second, Commanders of the Bath, (K.C.B.); and the third,
Companions of the Bath, (C.B.); by which the value of the original
order has been much depreciated. The honour of knighthood, however, of
whatever description, depends greatly on the brilliancy of the deed
which it is intended to commemorate; and, certainly, on no occasion
has it been destined to perpetuate the memory of a victory more
splendid or more important than that achieved by Sir James. As the
ceremony, both on account of the peculiar circumstances under which it
took place, and the intense interest which Sir James's late actions
had created, was of the most imposing nature, we shall give the reader
the fullest account of it which we have been able to collect.

     Gibraltar, 16th November 1801.

     The following is the purport of garrison orders issued this day.

     The Governor having been honoured with a commission from his
     Majesty, empowering him to invest Rear-admiral Sir James
     Saumarez, Bart. with the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, the
     royal standard will be hoisted, at gun-firing to-morrow morning,
     on the flagstaffs at Waterport and Europa. None of the working
     parties are to be employed. The whole of the troops off guard in
     the garrison will be formed on the Great Parade, under arms,
     with their colours, and two deep, exactly at twelve o'clock. The
     troops will march by their right to the Convent, when they will
     line the streets from thence to the South Port, and from the
     Barrier to the Grand Parade. They will be formed in the street
     precisely at a quarter before one o'clock, and at one o'clock
     the procession will move from the Convent in the following
     order,--viz.

     ORDER OF PROCESSION.

     Ensign Bruce, town-adjutant.
     Music,--5th regiment.
     One hundred seamen, with warrant-officers.
     A captain and two subalterns of the royal artillery,
     with four field-pieces drawn by artillery soldiers.
     Town-major and garrison quarter-master.
     Judge-advocate and chaplain.
     Mr. Ross, ord. store-keeper; and Mr. Pownall, N. officer;
     Mr. Sweetland, commissary; and Mr. Cutforth, agent victualler.
     Dr. Pym and Dr. Weir.
     Rev. Mr. Frome and the chaplain of the Cæsar.
     First division of Officers of the squadron,
     youngest first.
     First division of Captains in the royal navy, and
     Field-officers--youngest first.
     Major Bellew and Major Geraghty.
     Lieut.-colonel Leyborne and Lieutenant-colonel Basset.
     Lieutenant-colonel Ballingal and Captain Oliver.
     Sir Francis Laforey, Bart. and Sir Thomas Williams.
     Captain Taylor and Captain Vashon.
     Music,--Banffshire band.
     Mr. Raleigh.
     The Commissioner's secretary,
     bearing a crimson velvet cushion, with the commission.
     The Governor's aides-de-camp.
     The Governor as the King's commissioner.
     The secretary to Sir James Saumarez, bearing on a velvet
     cushion the insignia of the Order of the Bath.
     Captain Linzee and Captain Brenton, esquires.
     SIR JAMES SAUMAREZ, BART. the knight elect, supported by
     Major-generals Stewart and Barnett.
     B. major and aides-de-camp to the Major-generals.
     Second division of Captains in the royal navy, and
     Field-officers,--eldest first.
     Captain Darby and Captain Bertie.
     Sir R. Barlow and Right Hon. Lord H. Paulet.
     Captain Thompson and Captain Cartier.
     Lieut.-colonel Grant, Lieut.-colonel Zouch, and Major Bury.
     Music,--Cambrians.
     Second division of Staff.
     Captain Mouat and Mr. Wooden.
     Mr. Consul Budd and Mr. F. Raleigh.
     Lieutenant Crawford and Mr. Stones.
     Dr. White and Dr. Vaughan.
     Mr. Keys and Mr. J. Bolton.
     Mr. Edward Bolton and Mr. Thomas Bolton.
     Music,--Argyleshire.
     One hundred marines commanded by a captain.
     Second division of the Officers of the squadron,
     eldest first.
     Drums and fifes.
     The grenadiers.

     The regiments and corps will present arms, and the officers
     salute the King's commissioner as he comes on the right of each
     corps successively. The colours will also salute, and drums beat
     a march.

     As soon as the grenadiers have passed the royal marine
     artificers, the latter will form in two lines or four deep, and
     march in column in their rear; the 5th regiment will likewise
     fall in and march in the rear of the royal marine artificers;
     and each other corps will in succession fall in and march to the
     Grand Parade, where they will form in a semicircle, the centre
     of which will be the throne. The diameter will be occupied by
     the seamen royal artillery, grenadiers, and marines.

     When the procession has arrived opposite to the centre of the
     Parade, it will move down towards the Royal Pavilion; the seamen
     marching to the right flank of the diameter, the marines to the
     left, and the guns to the left and right of the seamen and
     marines, and the grenadiers on the right and left of the
     Pavilion.

     The music will play "See, the conquering hero comes!" until the
     procession arrives opposite to the Royal Pavilion, when they
     will play "Rule Britannia." As soon as the knight is seated,
     the music will play "God save the King;" and immediately after
     the ceremony, the grenadiers will fire a volley, followed by a
     salute of one round from the four field-pieces, which will be
     the signal for a salute, from the Sea-line Walls, of
     sixty-three guns, viz. twenty-one guns from the Saluting
     Battery, twenty-one from the South Bastion, and twenty-one from
     Jumper's Battery and those to the southward. Whilst the salute
     is firing, the troops will file off from the Parade, and return
     to their former position in the streets; and, after the salute,
     the procession will move back to the Convent.

     In this manner the procession moved on to the Grand Parade,
     where, in front of the Royal Pavilion, a chair of state was
     raised on three steps, covered with crimson velvet and rich
     gold lace. Over the chair a canopy richly embroidered with
     gold, and a floor-cloth of the same. Before this chair, but on
     the right and left sides, two other chairs were placed, covered
     also with crimson velvet and gold lace; over these were two
     banners, with the arms of the commissioner upon the right, and
     of the knight elect on the left chair. The first division of
     the procession having drawn up on the right, the King's
     commissioner, the knight elect, the general officers, and their
     suite facing to the King's state, and the rear division halting
     and drawing up on the left side of the front of the Pavilion,
     the whole made three reverences to the King's state, the music
     playing. Then the ensigns of the order, and the commission,
     were laid on the table before the sovereign's state; at which
     time General O'Hara and Sir James Saumarez sat down in their
     respective chairs, the music playing "God save the King." The
     general officers and suite divided, falling back on each side
     to leave the front open to the King's chair. After a short
     pause, General O'Hara standing up, Sir James Saumarez also
     rising from his chair, they both advanced before the table;
     turned about, and made three reverences to the King's state.
     General O'Hara then directed his secretary to read the King's
     commission. Sir James Saumarez's secretary attending with a
     riband, presented it to General O'Hara, who, as soon as the
     commission was read, received the riband, with which he
     invested Sir James Saumarez; making at the time the following
     short speech.

     "It is most gratifying to me that, in obeying his Majesty's
     commands, I perform this highly honourable duty so near the
     scene of your heroic achievements, and before troops who were
     witnesses of your distinguished conduct and eminent valour."

     To this, Sir James replied in a short complimentary speech
     suitable to the occasion.

     After the salute, the commissioner and Sir James Saumarez stood
     up, and walked to the front of the Pavilion, made three
     reverences to the King's state, and the procession returned to
     the Convent.

     The number and martial appearance of the troops; the multitude
     of spectators of both sexes, and of all nations and countries,
     who crowded the surrounding heights, and the lower part of the
     mountain that overlooks the sands; the roar of the cannon from
     our batteries, and from the shipping in the bay; the presence
     of those brave seamen and marines, so worthy of the gallant
     chief under whose command they fought; but, above all, the
     proximity of Algeziras and the Straits, and the train of ideas
     awakened by the sight of those places where the new knight, but
     a few months before, had entitled himself to the honourable
     tokens of gratitude now bestowed by his King and country; every
     circumstance contributed to render this scene one of the most
     solemn and most affecting that it may be the lot of men to
     behold.

     Of the knight himself nothing needs be said in this garrison.

     "Dans les murs, hors des murs; tout parle de sa gloire."

     _Corneille._


     The following irregular stanzas on the occasion were written
     extempore by an officer of the royal navy.

     Ye valiant martial bands, all hail!
       Britannia's sons, renowned in arms;
     Dreadful in war when foes assail,
       Rejoiced when peace resumes her charms:

     Salute th' auspicious day with warlike strains,
       Which thus a King's munificence displays;
     When Saumarez his just reward obtains,--
       Unfading laurels, and unenvied praise!

     And thou, oh vet'ran, not unknown to fame!
       Thou chief, well chosen to confer the meed!
     Be thine the honour of a spotless name,
       And thine the conscience of each virtuous deed!
     Long may'st thou live to share thy sov'reign's smiles,
     Whom Heav'n preserve to bless his subject isles!


     The salutes from the batteries being returned, the ceremonies
     ended and other festivities commenced.

Sir Charles Morice Pole being informed by the governor of Cadiz that
the preliminary treaties of peace had been acceded to by Spain, and
that hostilities had ceased between the two nations, proceeded to
England on the 11th of November, leaving the chief command to Sir
James Saumarez; who, pursuant to orders, proceeded to Gibraltar Bay
with the following ships, Cæsar, Dreadnought, Spencer, Vanguard,
Defence, Bellona, Zealous, Warrior, Trial, Powerful, and St. George;
which, besides the four ships belonging to the squadron of Sir John
Warren, were present on this occasion. This formidable squadron having
been replenished with provisions, remained at Gibraltar for further
orders.

On the 27th of November, Lieutenant Wooldridge, of the hired armed
brig Pasley, arrived with her prize the Spanish privateer Rosario,
which he captured, after a gallant action, on the 30th October, in
which the former had four killed and six wounded, while the latter had
twenty-one killed and thirteen wounded, in a crew of ninety-four
men,--forty more than the Pasley. Lieutenant Wooldridge, who so
gallantly concluded the hostilities on this station, was, at the
recommendation of Sir James, promoted to the rank of commander.

The next arrival from England brought the gratifying intelligence that
the thanks of both Houses of Parliament had been unanimously voted to
Sir James, and the captains, officers, and crews of his squadron. The
following account is rendered more interesting by the part taken on
this occasion by his late Majesty, then Duke of Clarence, Earl St.
Vincent, and Viscount Nelson, in the House of Lords, and by Mr. Pitt
in the House of Commons.

     _30th October 1801.--House of Lords._

     The First Lord of the Admiralty (_Earl St. Vincent_) rose to
     move the thanks of the House to Admiral Sir James Saumarez for
     his gallant and spirited conduct in his late actions with the
     united fleets of France and Spain, in which he had destroyed
     two Spanish men-of-war and taken a ship belonging to France.
     His lordship, with much feeling, stated the particulars of the
     engagement in the Bay of Algeziras, in which, notwithstanding
     the loss of one of his Majesty's ships, owing to a matter which
     Sir James could not prevent, that meritorious officer displayed
     the most dauntless courage and energy: that in the first
     engagement the fleet of Sir James was much crippled and
     disabled; but that, nevertheless, he made such wonderful
     exertions to repair his damages, that he was soon afterwards
     enabled to pursue the French and Spanish fleets, and to engage
     them with the most decisive success, although greatly his
     superiors in numbers and weight of metal. The gallant
     achievement, he declared, surpassed everything he had met with
     in his reading or service; and when the news of it arrived, the
     whole Board, at which he had the honour to preside, were struck
     with astonishment to find that Sir James Saumarez, in so very
     short a time after the affair of the Bay of Algeziras, had been
     able, with a few ships only, and one of them disabled,
     especially his own, to come up with the enemy, and, with
     unparalleled bravery, to attack them, and obtain a victory
     highly honourable to himself, and essentially conducive to the
     national glory.

     His lordship said, the merit of the brave Admiral spoke so
     strongly for itself, that it would be unnecessary for him to
     take up more of their lordships' time respecting it. He should
     also move the thanks of the House to the captains who served
     under Sir James; but he could not forbear to give his highest
     applause to the captains whose conduct was so gallant and
     successful on that day. There was no invidious distinction in
     this. Every captain on that service, he was persuaded, would
     have done his duty in the same signal manner had he been
     fortunate enough to get into action. But it was not less his
     duty to notice the conduct of these gallant officers, on whom
     the fortune of the day fell, and who contributed to make the
     event so glorious by their conduct. Lord St. Vincent then
     formally moved the thanks of the House to Rear-admiral Sir
     James Saumarez.

     _Lord Viscount Nelson_ immediately rose to support the
     character and conduct of Sir James Saumarez, on which his
     noble friend had just expressed himself in such handsome terms.
     He said he was under particular obligations to that gallant
     officer, who had been second in command under him in one of his
     most important and successful engagements; that in the action
     in Algeziras Bay he was persuaded Sir James would have achieved
     his object, and carried the enemy's ships into Gibraltar, but
     for the failure of the wind; an accident which the Admiral
     could not prevent, and which enabled the enemy to haul their
     ships so close within the shore as to defeat his purpose.
     Nothing dismayed or dispirited, however, with the unfortunate
     event of that attempt, Sir James made wonderful exertions to
     put his few ships into a condition to sail after a fleet of the
     enemy and to attack them, though their fleet consisted of ten
     ships, and Sir James had but five, and his own ship greatly
     disabled. The glorious result their lordships well knew. But he
     was not surprised at the matchless intrepidity and skill of his
     gallant friend when he considered the professional school in
     which he had been bred, viz. the late Lord Howe, Lord Hood,
     Lord Bridport, and his noble friend the noble earl who sat next
     him. (Earl St. Vincent, feeling the full force of the
     compliment, made the noble and gallant lord a very low bow.)
     From such masters he could not but have learned everything that
     was courageous, spirited, and magnanimous. His lordship added
     some further panegyrics; and, after apologising to the House
     for having intruded on the time of their lordships, concluded
     by saying it was with the greatest satisfaction he voted for
     the thanks of the House to that meritorious officer.

     _Earl St. Vincent_ next moved the thanks of the House be given
     to Captains Hood and Keats, and such of the officers as
     principally distinguished themselves in the two engagements in
     the Bay of Algeziras and off Gibraltar. The _Duke of Clarence_
     rose, and said he should have given his testimony in an ample
     manner, both of the gallant officer Sir James Saumarez, and the
     captains who had the good fortune to be in the action, if the
     noble lord at the head of the Admiralty and the hero of the
     Nile had not been present to do them greater justice than his
     praise could afford. He could not, however, give a silent
     assent to the motion. He rose now, as a professional man, to
     express his entire concurrence with every syllable that had
     fallen from his two noble friends in commendation of the
     gallant Sir James Saumarez, and to declare the satisfaction he
     felt in the thanks of the House being voted, to those brave
     officers Captain Hood and Captain Keats, for their
     distinguished conduct in the two engagements. They were both as
     deserving officers as any in his Majesty's service; but he
     could speak more particularly to the merit of Captain Keats,
     having served under him for four years and a half during a
     former war as midshipman in the same watch. He was persuaded,
     whenever the country should be engaged in another war, Captain
     Keats would eminently distinguish himself.

     The motion was agreed to, _nemine dissentiente_; as were
     likewise two other motions, made of course in applause of the
     men serving in the fleet of Sir James Saumarez, and to request
     that gallant Admiral to communicate the sense the House
     entertained of the other officers, seamen, and marines.

In the House of Commons Mr. Pitt said he would make a motion in which
he was sure he was anticipated by the expectations of the House and of
the public: it was for the thanks of the House to Rear-admiral Sir
James Saumarez. On the merits of the gallant Admiral, and those who
served under him, there could, he was sure, be no difference of
opinion. He was equally sure that there was no difference of opinion
respecting the merit of Sir James Saumarez in the attack which he made
upon the French squadron in Algeziras Bay a few days previously to the
signal advantage which he obtained over the combined squadrons of
France and Spain, and for which he would now, he trusted, receive the
thanks of the House. It was impossible for him, in making this motion,
not to advert to the attack, in which the zeal and ability of the
commander, and the spirit and intrepidity of the officers who served
under him, were so eminently displayed. That attack failed; but the
failure was owing, as Sir James Saumarez stated, to the failure of the
wind and a sudden calm which came on. It was the misfortune of the
gallant Admiral on that day to lose one of the ships under his
command; but the officers and crew of that ship defended her until
they had lost half their numbers. Sir James Saumarez was not
disheartened, as must always be the case with men of true courage and
vigour. He waited for an opportunity to make amends for his failure;
that opportunity offered; and he availed himself in a manner worthy of
him who had been the companion of, and sharer in the glory of, Lords
St. Vincent and Nelson on the 14th of February and in the Bay of
Aboukir. These events were still so fresh in the memory of every man
that it would be unnecessary for him to enlarge on them. He should
therefore conclude with moving

     That the thanks of the House be given to Rear-admiral Sir James
     Saumarez, Bart. and Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the
     Bath, for his alacrity and zeal in pursuing, and for his able
     and gallant conduct in the successful attack on, the combined
     squadrons of the enemy in the Straits of Gibraltar on the 12th
     and 13th days of July last, by the squadron under his command.

     In like manner the thanks of the House were voted to the
     captains, officers, seamen, and marines, _nemine
     contradicente_; as also that the Rear-admiral should
     communicate the same, and that the Speaker do send the
     resolutions to Sir James Saumarez.

The thanks of the House of Lords were conveyed to Sir James in the
following letter from the Lord Chancellor, dated 30th October 1801:

     SIR,

     I have the honour to obey the commands of the House of Lords in
     transmitting the enclosed resolutions.

     In communicating these resolutions, whilst I obey their
     lordships' orders, I cannot but feel most highly gratified by
     the opportunity which the discharge of this duty affords me of
     expressing to a person to whom the country is so deeply
     indebted the personal interest and veneration with which I have
     the honour to be, &c.

     ELDON, C.

To which Sir James returned the following answer:

     Cæsar, Gibraltar, 6th January 1802.

     MY LORD,

     I yesterday had the honour of your lordship's letter,
     transmitting to me the resolutions of the House of Lords on the
     victory obtained by the squadron under my orders, on the 12th
     and 13th of July last, at the entrance of the Straits of
     Gibraltar.

     Having on four occasions been honoured with the thanks of their
     lordships when commander of a line-of-battle ship in different
     general actions, this very high mark of distinction cannot but
     be more particularly gratifying to my feelings when entrusted
     with the command of his Majesty's squadron; and I am at a loss
     to express the deep sense I entertain of so flattering an
     instance of their lordships' approbation.

     I shall have great satisfaction in conveying to the captains,
     officers, and men under my orders the vote of the august House,
     expressive of the sense their lordships are pleased to
     entertain of their general conduct.

     In returning my most particular thanks for the very polite and
     obliging manner in which your lordship has been pleased to
     signify the resolutions of the House of Lords, I beg to assure
     you of the profound respect and veneration with which I have
     the honour to be, &c.

     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To the Right Honourable Lord Eldon, &c. &c. &c.

From the Speaker of the House of Commons Sir James at the same time
received the following letter:

     Palace-yard, 31st October 1801.

     SIR,

     In obedience to the commands of the House of Commons, I have
     the honour of transmitting their vote of thanks for your
     alacrity and zeal in pursuing, and able and gallant conduct in
     the successful attack on, the combined squadron of the enemy in
     the Straits of Gibraltar, on the 12th and 13th days of July
     last, by the squadron under your orders; and also their thanks
     to the captains and officers of that squadron, and their
     acknowledgment and approbation of the services of the seamen
     and marines.

     I feel the highest personal satisfaction in transmitting these
     resolutions to an officer who has on so many occasions done
     distinguished honour to his country, and to a service in which
     the nation feels the most important and anxious concern, and in
     the character of which I must individually be much interested.

     I have the honour to be,
     With the highest respect and esteem,
     Sir, your most obedient humble servant,
     JOHN MITFORD, Speaker.

     Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, &c. &c. &c.

The next flattering compliment which Sir James received was of a more
substantial nature, and not less honourable, being the thanks of the
lord mayor, aldermen, and commons of London with the freedom of the
city, &c. accompanied by a sword, value one hundred guineas. The
resolutions were conveyed to Sir James in the following letter from
Sir John Eamer, then lord mayor:

     Mansion House, 2nd December 1801.

     SIR,

     I feel a peculiar satisfaction in having the honour of
     transmitting to you the unanimous thanks of the lord mayor,
     aldermen, and commons of the city of London, in common council
     assembled, for the very important services you have rendered
     your country, as expressed in their resolutions; agreeable to
     which I have the honour to request you will have the goodness
     to communicate to the officers, seamen, and marines under your
     command the unanimous thanks of this court for their bravery
     and uncommon exertions displayed in those memorable
     engagements.

     On your return, sir, to this country, I shall be proud in
     having the opportunity of presenting you with the sword so
     deservedly voted to you, with the freedom of this great city,
     in which we shall have the honour of having your name enrolled
     amongst us; and I trust you will permit me to nominate you as a
     brother-liveryman in the worshipful company of salters, of
     which I have the honour to be a member.

     I have the honour to be,
     With the highest esteem and respect,
     Sir, your most obedient servant,
     JOHN EAMER, Mayor.

     To Sir James Saumarez, Bart. &c. &c. &c.


     A Common Council holden in the chamber of the Guildhall of the
     city of London, on Friday the 27th day of November 1801;

     John Eamer, Esq. Lord Mayor.

     Resolved, unanimously, that the thanks of this court be given
     to Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart. Knight of the Most
     Honourable Order of the Bath, for the very important and
     splendid victories obtained by the squadron under his command
     over a Spanish and French fleet of superior force, on the 6th,
     off Algeziras, and on the 13th July last, off Cape Trafalgar.

     Resolved, unanimously, that the freedom of this city, with a
     sword of the value of one hundred guineas, be presented to
     Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart. Knight of the Most
     Honourable Order of the Bath, as a testimony of the opinion
     this court entertain of the eminent services rendered by him to
     his country.

     Resolved, unanimously, that the thanks of this court be given
     to the several captains, officers, seamen, and marines, for
     their brave exertions on the days of the above celebrated
     victories.

     Resolved, unanimously, that the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor
     be requested to transmit the above resolutions to Sir James
     Saumarez, and to request him to communicate the same to the
     officers, seamen, and marines of his squadron.

     Resolved, unanimously, that the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor
     be requested to provide the sword on this occasion.

     Signed, by order of the Court,
     EDWD. BOXLEY.


     His Majesty's ship Cæsar, Gibraltar Bay, 6th January 1802.

     MY LORD,

     I have received the letter your lordship has done me the honour
     to write to me, transmitting the unanimous thanks of the lord
     mayor, aldermen, and commons of the city of London, in common
     council assembled, for the successful attacks made by the
     squadron under my orders upon the superior forces of the enemy,
     on the 6th and 12th of July last, off Algeziras, and at the
     entrance of the Straits of Gibraltar.

     I beg leave to return my most grateful acknowledgments for so
     flattering a mark of distinction; more particularly for the
     high honour conferred upon me in the freedom of the city of
     London, and permitting my name to be enrolled with its loyal
     and brave citizens.

     I also beg to offer my sincere thanks for the present of a
     sword, which I shall ever consider it my greatest pride to
     have been found deserving of; and I trust to use it with every
     success in the service of my King and country on any future
     opportunity requiring its being unsheathed. I shall not fail to
     communicate to the captains, officers, and men under my orders
     the resolutions you have been pleased to enclose to me; and I
     beg to express how truly gratifying it is to me to have the
     honour of being nominated a brother liveryman in the worshipful
     company of salters, of which your lordship is a member.

     I have the honour to be,
     With sentiments of the most respectful regard and esteem,
     Your lordship's most obedient
     and most humble servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, &c. &c. &c.

The inhabitants of the channel islands, justly proud of their heroic
countryman, were not behind in acknowledging the high sense they
entertained of his services. The following is a copy of the resolution
of the States of the island of Jersey:

     Aux Etats de l'île de Jersey.

     L'an Mil huit cent un, le vingt-deuxième jour d'Août, les
     Etats, à leur première tenue depuis la nouvelle de la victoire
     qu'a remportée l'Amiral Sir James Saumarez sur la flotte
     combinée de la France et de l'Espagne, dans les Passages de
     Gibraltar, ont un devoir de manifester la joie et la
     satisfaction que leur inspire cet heureux événement. Les divers
     exploits qui ont signalé les armes de sa Majesté ont toujours
     excité la plus vive allégresse dans le coeur des habitans de
     cette île. Mais ce qui relève infiniment à leurs yeux le prix
     de cette dernière victoire est la considération qu'elle est
     due à un natif de l'île de Guernesey, à laquelle ce pays se
     sent étroitement attaché par les liens d'une commune origine,
     de la proximité, de l'amitié. Cette assemblée n'a pu manquer de
     remarquer les actions éclatantes qui ont distingué la carrière
     navale de Sir James Saumarez dans sa qualité de capitaine. Elle
     voit enfin que, parvenu au premier rang, il a su y briller d'un
     nouveau lustre, et s'y acquérir de nouveaux droits à la
     reconnaissance de la patrie. On a surtout admiré l'étonnante
     célérité avec laquelle cet amiral a réparé les damages de son
     escadre après la sanglante journée d'Algeziras; l'intrépidité
     avec laquelle il a osé poursuivre une flotte doublement
     supérieure par le nombre, la grandeur, et l'équipement parfait
     des vaisseaux; la promptitude avec laquelle il a saisi le
     moment favorable de l'attaque dans l'obscurité d'une nuit
     orageuse; et finalement le succès décisif qui a couronné ces
     nobles efforts. Considérant tout ce qu'a d'honorable pour l'île
     de Guernesey d'avoir mis au jour un de ces grands hommes qui
     ont illustré leur nation en la défendant, et dont la Providence
     s'est servie pour réprimer l'insatiable ambition de l'ennemi,
     les Etats ont unanimement résolu d'offrir dans cette occasion
     aux habitans de la dite île leurs sincères et cordiales
     félicitations; et, afin de leur faire connaître la part que
     prend cette assemblée à cet événement mémorable, le greffier
     est chargé de transmettre le présent acte à Robert P. Le
     Marchant, écuyer, bailli de Guernesey, pour qu'il veuille bien
     le communiquer à ses compatriotes de la manière la plus
     convenable.

     JEAN DE VEULLE, Greff.

The address of the loyal inhabitants of the Channel islands was
followed by a liberal subscription for the wounded, and the widows and
orphans of those who fell in the actions. Large sums were also
subscribed for the same purpose in Great Britain; while the island of
Guernsey presented Sir James with a very handsome silver vase, being
the second time the high sense entertained of his services had been
thus expressed. The inscription on the first vase, which has not been
before given, is as follows:

     _Presented to Sir James Saumarez, Knt._
     of his Majesty's frigate the Crescent,
     by the subscribers to the fund for encouraging
     the capture of French privateers, in testimony
     of their sense of his gallant conduct in the
     action of the 20th October last with La Réunion,
     French frigate, of considerable force, and the
     protection thereby afforded to the
     commerce of Great Britain.
     London, 14th Nov. 1799.

On the second vase the following inscription:

     The
     Inhabitants
     of _Guernsey_
     to their gallant countryman,
     Rear-admiral
     _Sir James Saumarez, Bart. and K.B._
     whose suavity of manner and private virtues have long
     engaged their esteem and affection,
     and whose brilliant achievements have not only immortalized
     his name, but will for ever reflect lustre on his native isle,
     and add to the glory of the British empire.
     June 1802.



CHAPTER IV.

1802.

     Sir James disappointed in not returning home.--Extract of a
     letter to his brother.--The French send ships to the West
     Indies.--Squadron detached after them.--Death of General
     O'Hara.--Sir James receives orders to superintend the
     evacuation of Minorca.--Arrival of H.R.H. Duke of Kent.--Sir
     James arrives at Minorca.--Definitive treaty of
     peace.--Proceedings there.--Island given up to Spain.--The
     Cæsar arrives at Gibraltar.--Proceeds to England.--Anchors at
     Spithead.


Destined to remain with his squadron at Gibraltar, Sir James suffered
a severe disappointment in being prevented from returning home. He
occasionally visited Tetuan; and, after the preliminaries of peace
were signed, he had communication with the Spanish authorities. On the
19th of January he was surprised by the appearance of four French
line-of-battle ships in the eastward, which passed through the Straits
of Gibraltar; on which he wrote a letter to his brother, whence the
following is extracted:

     Cæsar, Gibraltar, 20th January 1802.

     I had the pleasure yesterday to receive your affectionate
     letter, by way of Malaga, which, although of an old date, was
     very acceptable. The letter it enclosed from our brother Sir
     Thomas was the first I have seen from Guernsey for several
     months. Our accounts from England extend to the 6th instant, by
     way of Lisbon. Although no public despatches have been
     received, we have reason to expect the next arrival will bring
     the news of the definitive treaty being signed; at the same
     time it is rather surprising to see the French detaching ships
     from all their ports. Yesterday, four sail of the line and a
     frigate appeared to the eastward, which unquestionably must be
     Gantheaume's squadron. I detached the Phaeton with the
     intelligence, and am preparing four ships to follow them to the
     West Indies, taking it for granted they are going to St.
     Domingo.

     I enclose a letter for Nicholas, who I hope has arrived before
     this time. It is satisfactory to be informed that Ceylon is a
     healthy situation. I hope before many years we shall see him
     amongst us in the enjoyment of good health and a competent
     fortune, for few are more deserving than he is.

     Nothing has joined from Lord Keith since my last; but I
     understand his lordship is expecting his orders of recall,
     which will leave me no chance of going to England for some
     months. I have no apprehensions of being ordered to Jamaica;
     but, if I should, I hope none of my friends will suffer
     uneasiness on my account. My chief dislike to the station would
     be its prolonging my absence from home, as, in other respects,
     I would as soon be there as in any other station whilst I
     remain employed.

     I am well pleased with the motto ("In Deo spero") you have
     substituted. It is the one I had fixed upon before; but wishing
     to have reference to the action made me adopt the other, though
     not without much consideration, as I allow it appeared as if I
     no longer had that TRUST which I hope will never forsake me in
     any event through life.

On the 21st of January Sir James detached the Warrior, Defence,
Bellona, and Zealous, of 74 guns each, to follow the French squadron
to the West Indies. These ships were placed under the command of
Captain Tyler, of the Warrior, who was senior officer, and had
directions to proceed to Jamaica and join Sir John Duckworth, the then
commander-in-chief on that station: at the same time the Phaeton,
Captain Morris, was despatched to England with the intelligence of the
above circumstances. The Leda, Captain Hope, had been sent to Cadiz to
receive for safety the specie belonging to the merchants, and to
obtain information respecting the movements of the ships in that
harbour. It was then ascertained that the French ship Duquesne, of 80
guns, had arrived there in distress, having parted from a convoy bound
to St. Domingo. She was accompanied by a French frigate; and, both
having troops on board, no doubt could be entertained of their
destination, as well as that of the squadron under Rear-admiral
Gantheaume. Several transports and troop-ships arrived from Malta and
Egypt, having on board part of the army employed on the reduction of
Alexandria, and were despatched to England.

An unexpected event now plunged the garrison of Gibraltar into deep
affliction. The gallant and highly-respected governor was seized with
a malignant illness, which terminated his life in five days. With this
mournful intelligence Sir James despatched the Penelope frigate to
England, and another frigate to Lord Keith, at Malta. The following is
a copy of his letter to Mr. Nepean on that occasion:

     SIR,

     I request you will be pleased to inform my Lords Commissioners
     of the Admiralty that I have thought it necessary to despatch
     the Penelope to England, in order that the King's ministers may
     be apprised as speedily as possible of the loss his Majesty's
     service has sustained in the death of Governor O'Hara, who
     departed this life early this morning. I cannot on this
     occasion refrain from expressing my deep concern at the loss of
     an officer from whom the naval service in particular has always
     experienced the utmost attention.

     I am, sir,
     Your obedient humble servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

General Burnet succeeded, _pro tempore_, to the command of the
garrison; and Captain Gaskill, the late governor's aide-de-camp, was
the bearer of the despatches to Government. It was about this time
that the 54th regiment, commanded by Colonel Ross, arrived from Egypt
to relieve the Cambrian Rangers, part of which went home in the
Penelope, and the remainder in the Dido, troop-ship.

The colours were hoisted half-mast on board all the ships until the
3rd of March, when General O'Hara's funeral took place; on which
occasion the boats of the squadron, joined by those of the foreign
men-of-war, rowed in procession to the Ragged Staff, while minute-guns
were fired by the flag-ship and the garrison. The solemnity of this
scene could not but be rendered more impressive by the recollection of
the investiture of Sir James with the Order of the Bath, in which the
venerable and gallant general had performed so distinguished a part
only a short time before.

This event was followed by one of the same mournful description,
namely, the death of Admiral Brenton, father to the gallant captain of
the Cæsar, a venerable and highly-respected officer. As family affairs
required Captain Brenton's presence in England, he exchanged with
Captain Downman, of the Dorothea, by mutual consent, and with
permission from the Admiral. This exchange accordingly took place on
the 17th March 1802, when Captain Downman joined the Cæsar.

On the 22nd of March Sir James received orders from Lord Keith to
proceed with the Cæsar to Minorca, for the purpose of superintending
the various duties that might become necessary on the evacuation of
that island; but as the order was grounded on a report which had
reached his lordship from Toulon and Marseilles that the definitive
treaty of peace was signed, which proved to be premature, Sir James
postponed his departure until more authentic information should
arrive, and he acquainted the Lords of the Admiralty of this
circumstance by a letter to the secretary, dated on the following day.
Lord Keith himself, however, arrived in the Foudroyant, from Malta, on
the 26th of March, and, being in expectation of orders to proceed to
England, he did not interfere with the duty of the squadron.

On the 24th of April, there being no doubt that Minorca would soon be
given up to Spain, Sir James received the following orders from Lord
Keith, appointing him to conduct that service:

     By the Right Hon. Lord Keith, &c.

     Whereas orders may be immediately expected for the evacuation
     of the island of Minorca, and as I think it indispensable that
     that service should be conducted by an officer of rank,
     ability, and experience, you are hereby required and directed
     to proceed thither in his Majesty's ship the Cæsar, to be in
     readiness to take upon you the charge and execution of that
     duty, following such directions in that behalf as I have
     already forwarded to the senior officer there, copies of the
     most material of which are herewith enclosed, and such other
     instructions as you may hereafter receive from me;
     communicating with me or with Rear-admiral Sir Richard
     Bickerton, at Malta, on all occasions when the necessity of
     the service on which you are employed may so require.--Given on
     board the Foudroyant, Gibraltar, 24th April 1802.

The following is a copy of the orders alluded to:

     In the event of orders being received by you over land, or the
     arrival of instructions by sea which may not have reached me,
     for the evacuation of the island of Minorca, you are hereby
     specially instructed to carry them into effect in the manner
     most consistent with the directions which you shall receive.
     You will enter into immediate communication with the officer
     commanding his Majesty's land forces, and co-operate with him
     on all necessary occasions for carrying the evacuation into
     effect; and you will furnish to him, and to other officers of
     rank and their families, the best accommodation of which the
     disposable room in the ships will admit. In such case it will
     be incumbent on you to obtain, without a moment's loss of time,
     an exact estimate of the tonnage that will be required as well
     for the embarkation of the troops as of the stores, &c.

The above will be sufficient to show the arduous duty Sir James had to
perform. The number of troops to be embarked at Minorca was 5,247; at
Malta, 6,529; at Elba, 418; and at Egypt, 4,631; in all, 16,845. These
were destined partly to England, and partly to Ireland; to transport
which, men-of-war and merchant-ships were collected from all quarters.

On the same day Sir James received from Lord Keith a copy of a letter
from the secretary of the Admiralty, dated 1st April 1802:

     I transmit to your lordship herewith, by command of my Lords
     Commissioners of the Admiralty, for your information, a Gazette
     Extraordinary, containing an account of the signature of the
     definitive treaty of peace at Amiens, on the 27th of last
     month, by the Plenipotentiary of his Majesty, and the
     Plenipotentiaries of France, and Spain, and the Batavian
     Republic. If no unforeseen event should happen, their lordships
     think it probable that the ratification will be exchanged in
     the course of three weeks from this time; but, whenever it
     shall take place, the earliest notice thereof shall be given to
     your lordship, &c.

The same despatch brought information that his Royal Highness the Duke
of Kent (father of her present most excellent Majesty) had been
appointed governor of Gibraltar; and, in consequence, the following
orders were issued by Lord Keith:

     Foudroyant, Gibraltar, 28th April 1802.

     General Memorandum.

     When his Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, who is expected at
     Gibraltar, arrives in this bay, the flag-officers and captains
     then at the anchorage are to attend in their boats with their
     flags and pendants hoisted, and to row in succession, the
     flag-officer or officers following the commander-in-chief, and
     the captains next, two by two, according to seniority; and, as
     soon as his Royal Highness shall have landed, the officers are
     at liberty to return to their ships.

     When the royal standard is hoisted in the boat in which the
     Prince is to land, the ship he came in is to fire twenty-one
     guns; and, as the boat passes the flag-ship, twenty-one guns
     shall be fired from all the ships commanded by post-captains,
     beginning when the Foudroyant shall have fired her second gun;
     the guards to be turned out, and the drums to beat a march, but
     the ships' yards are not to be manned.--By order of the
     commander-in-chief.

We need scarcely add that his Royal Highness was received with every
mark of respect due to his illustrious name, and to the high situation
in which he had been placed.

The Cæsar sailed from Gibraltar about the 1st of May, and on the 6th
arrived at Mahon. When Sir James entered upon his important mission,
he communicated immediately with General Clephane on the subject of
the evacuation of the island of Minorca; and measures were taken for
the embarkation of the troops and stores as soon as the ratification
of the treaty of peace arrived, which took place on the 17th of May.
Sir James at the same time received the welcome information that he
was, with the Cæsar, to carry the last division to England. It was
determined to send the Dreadnought and Généreux with the first
division of transports, consisting of ten sail, in which were the 79th
regiment and ordnance-stores, under command of Captain Cornwall
Berkeley, of the Généreux. These were to proceed to Gibraltar; but the
Dreadnought, Captain Vashon, had orders to proceed direct to England
with the second battalion of the 40th regiment, which was embarked in
that ship at the same time the troops at Porto Ferrajo and Elba
sailed on the 2nd of June. Some of the transports having returned
from Gibraltar, the embarkation continued, and the island was finally
given up on the 16th June. The orders given on this occasion, will be
perused with interest.

     Copy of articles agreed upon between Rear-admiral Sir James
     Saumarez and General Clephane, for the evacuation of the island
     of Minorca, and for delivering it to the authorities of his
     Catholic Majesty the King of Spain.

     Rear-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart, and K.B., Commanding his
     Britannic Majesty's squadron in the port of Mahon, and
     Major-general William Douglas Maclean Clephane, commanding the
     troops upon the island of Minorca, being duly authorised on the
     part of his Britannic Majesty by his royal sign manual, and Don
     Juan Miguel de Nines y Felia, &c. having communicated his power
     and authority to receive the same, have agreed to the following
     arrangements, viz.

     1st. Brigadier-general Moncreiffe is appointed to arrange with
     his Excellency the Captain-general, &c. &c. the speediest time
     for admitting his Catholic Majesty's troops by the gate at
     Ciudadela, and the troops of his Britannic Majesty will
     evacuate at the same time by the gate of Mahon.

     2nd. On the following day Major-general Clephane will be ready
     to receive his Excellency the Captain-general upon the glacis
     of Fort George, and deliver the keys thereof in due form;
     immediately after which the British troops will embark.

     3rd. The fort of Fornells, and the towers on the coast, will be
     given up in due time to the engineer, Don Raman.

     4th. Captain Framingham, Royal Artillery, will deliver up the
     ordnance and the ammunition found on the island at the time of
     the capture thereof as nearly as possible, and now collected at
     the following places, viz. Fornells, Buffera, Adaya, and Fort
     George.

     5th. The royal arsenal shall be given up in its present state.
     Two line-of-battle ships' lower-masts and bowsprits, British
     property, will be left in store until means be furnished by the
     British Government to remove them.

     6th. The papers found in the secretary's office will be
     restored.

     7th. The revenues of the island are to belong to his Catholic
     Majesty from the 23rd day of May last, that being the day
     appointed by the definitive treaty for the cession of the
     island. In consequence of the judge and other civil officers
     having been employed by the British Government, their salaries
     have been paid up to the 17th June.

     Signed and sealed at Mahon, the 14th day of June
         one thousand eight hundred and two.

     JAMES SAUMAREZ.


     Cæsar, off Port Mahon, 16th June 1802.

     SIR,

     I beg to acquaint you, for the information of my Lords
     Commissioners of the Admiralty, that the island of Minorca has
     been this day given up to the Spanish Government; and
     Major-general Clephane, with the last division of troops,
     embarked immediately after having put them in possession of
     Fort George. I shall proceed with all despatch to Gibraltar
     with his Majesty's ship Cæsar, and the Pomone, and Port Mahon
     brig; and have detached the Camelion to Barcelona, to land
     Major-general Clephane's and my despatches.

     I have detached to the island of Malta 3,250 tonnage of
     transports not required for the services of this island; and I
     have given directions to Captain Bowen, of his Majesty's
     troop-ship Alligator, to remain in Mahon harbour ten days from
     the time of the embarkation, and then proceed for Malta, and
     follow the orders of Rear-admiral Sir Richard Bickerton.

     I herewith have the honour to enclose, for their lordships'
     information, a copy of the articles agreed upon with his
     Excellency Don Juan Miguel de Nines y Felia, the Spanish
     Captain-general; and I have the satisfaction to observe that
     the utmost good order and harmony has prevailed between the
     forces of our respective nations.

     I have the further satisfaction to inform their lordships that,
     during the arduous service of embarking the numerous stores
     from Minorca, in which the seamen of the ships of war and
     transports have borne a considerable share, there has not been
     the smallest cause of complaint of any irregularity whatever
     having been committed.

     Enclosed is a return of troop-ships and transports destined for
     Ireland, which embarked the last division of troops.

     Major-general Clephane takes his passage to England on board
     the Pomone. I have to express my acknowledgments to that
     officer for the alacrity with which the embarkation of the
     various stores from the different ports of the island has been
     effected.

     I am, sir,
     Your most obedient humble servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To Evan Nepean, Esq.


     By the Right Honourable Lord Keith, K.B. Admiral of the Blue,
     and Commander-in-chief.

     Whereas I have obtained permission from the Lords Commissioners
     of the Admiralty to return to England, and have been
     authorised by their lordships to leave such directions for the
     governance of the station till their further commands are
     ascertained as I shall judge fit and proper for the execution
     of the Board; you are hereby required and directed, after my
     departure, to regulate the service in this bay, and pay
     attention to the instructions that follow, viz.--You will, on
     all proper and necessary occasions, communicate with his Royal
     Highness the Duke of Kent, governor of this garrison, and in
     particular yield all the accommodation of which ships passing
     from Minorca or Elba can admit for the reception of parties of
     the 5th regiment of foot, which are ordered to return to
     Britain from hence.

     When the Acasta returns from Malta, she is not to be detained,
     the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having expressly
     directed her return; and, as she will be able to accommodate a
     considerable number of men, I recommend that she receive part
     of the 5th regiment; and also; the Diane and Carriere, if they
     arrive here, and that you forthwith direct them to proceed.

     Captain Dundas, of the Solebay, has my orders to repair to
     Lisbon to receive for Britain part of the troops who are there;
     and the accompanying order, addressed to Captain Hope, directs
     him to proceed with the Leda on the same; service. Captain
     Beanes, of the Determinée, and Captain Provost, of the Bonne
     Citoyenne, are instructed to proceed to Britain forthwith.

     You will order the Milbrook to Lisbon with the letters from
     hence by the next Levant wind, and from thence to Spithead. The
     Pigmy will return to you with the first English mail that
     arrives in the Tagus.

     You will inform yourself, from the officers of the yard, of the
     quantity and species of stores that they may be desirous of
     sending home; and direct them to be embarked in his Majesty's
     ships and transports that are returning, in such proportions as
     can be conveniently received.

     You will allow no ships to sail for Great Britain with more
     than six weeks' provision on board, till the agent victuallers
     shall be provided with a sufficient supply for the ships that
     remain here.

     All transports, victuallers, and other vessels arriving here on
     the public account, are to be cleared with the greatest
     despatch; and, if any unnecessary delay appears on the master's
     part, you will cause protest to be made, and acquaint the
     transport board thereof.

     As it is probable that Rear-admiral Sir Richard Bickerton may
     send down troop-ships to this place for the removal of the 5th
     regiment of foot, and as some part of the regiment is already
     embarked, and more of them may be forwarded by other
     opportunities, of which you may be able to avail yourself; it
     is my direction that such troop-ships, when they arrive, as
     they are not wanted for the conveyance of the 5th regiment, may
     be either returned to Malta or sent to Lisbon for the
     embarkation of troops under the command of Lieutenant-general
     Fraser, as existing circumstances may recommend as the most
     needful to be done. You will take care that no ships pass
     without having as many men as they can receive; and you will
     have the means of completing them by separate embarkations of
     the regiment above-mentioned, observing that the destination is
     the same; and, for your better guidance in this particular, I
     enclose herewith a state of the troop-ships, with the freights
     and the destinations appointed for them.

     Till special orders are received from the Lords Commissioners
     of the Admiralty, the ships and vessels, as per list enclosed,
     are to remain upon the service of the station; and if any of
     them arrive with contrary instructions from Rear-admiral Sir
     Richard Bickerton, or Sir James Saumarez, before that was
     known, you are to retain them here accordingly.

     You will open all public despatches which may be addressed to
     me, and carry them, as far as depends upon you, into effect at
     this place. Such as are addressed to Rear-admiral Sir Richard
     Bickerton you will forward to him at Malta. Maintain a
     correspondence with him, as the officer charged with the chief
     command on the station, by all convenient opportunities, and
     follow such orders and directions as you may receive from him.

     Given on board the Foudroyant,
     Gibraltar, 15th June, 1802,
     KEITH.

     Sir Jas. Saumarez, Bart, and K.B.
     Rear-admiral of the Blue;
     and, in his absence,
     To John Aylmes, Esq. Captain of H.M.S. Dragon.

     List of ships to remain on the station till further orders:

     Kent,    Hector,   Diana,      Greyhound,    Camelion,
     Dragon,  Anson,    Narcissus,  Victorieuse,  Weazle,
     Superb,  Medusa,   Thames,     Cynthia,      Delight,
     Triumph, Active,   Maidstone,  Port Mahon,   Vincego.

     N.B. Such others as may arrive here with troops may be sent to
     the destinations of the regiments.

     Keith.

No duty on which Sir James was ever employed was executed with more
address, or more completely to the general satisfaction. The honour of
the British flag was maintained in a manner which could not be
questioned, being borne away mounted on a cannon, on which it was
embarked without the necessity of striking it, when the keys of the
fortress were delivered to the Spanish commander-in-chief, while the
Spanish standard was hoisted at the flag-staff. The greatest decorum
was preserved on both sides.

The Cæsar left Mahon on the 17th June, with the last division of the
troops, and arrived at Gibraltar on the 24th, when Sir James found
that Lord Keith had already sailed, leaving orders for him to follow
to England with the last division, which consisted of three sail of
the line and six troop-ships.

After exchanging complimentary letters with his Excellency the
Captain-general and Governor of Andalusia, Sir James took leave of his
Royal Highness the Governor of Gibraltar. He sailed on the 30th of
June, anchored at Spithead on the 23rd of July 1802, and reported in
the usual manner the arrival of the Cæsar to the Admiralty.



CHAPTER V.

1803.

     Commencement of Hostilities with France.--Sir James hoists his
     Flag at Sheerness.--Proceeds to Guernsey.--Flag in the
     Grampus.--Anecdote of Captain Caulfield.--Sir James visits
     Jersey, &c.--Diomede arrives as Flag-ship.--The Admiral
     examines the Defence of the Island.--Loss of La
     Minerve.--Attack and Bombardment of Granville.--Cerberus gets
     aground.--Narrow Escape from a Shot.--Public and Private
     Letters.--Blockade of the Coast.--Loss of the Shannon and
     Grappler.--Conclusion of 1803.


Hostilities with France were about to be resumed early in the year
1803, and Sir James was called into active service. On the 11th of
March he hoisted his flag at Sheerness, on board the Zealand, in order
to expedite the preparations that were going on in the Medway. Soon
after this, the Zealand went to the Nore. She was at that time
commanded by Captain, afterwards Admiral, William Mitchell, an officer
who had risen to the rank of Rear-admiral by his good conduct, after
having been flogged through the fleet for desertion.

The great preparations now making at St. Maloes rendered it probable
that the intention of Bonaparte was to attack the Channel Islands;
Sir James was therefore appointed to the command at Guernsey, and,
proceeding from the Nore in the Kite brig, he fell in with the
Grampus, which was destined, _pro tempore_, for his flag. Both ships
arrived at St. Pierre's roads on the 19th of May. Here the Admiral's
squadron consisted of six frigates, and six brigs and cutters, which
were chiefly employed in blockading the adjacent coast, and in
preventing the concentration of the enemy's force at St. Maloes and
Granville, the two principal places whence it appeared an attack would
be made.

The Grampus was commanded by Captain Thomas Gordon Caulfield, who had
notions of discipline peculiar to himself, with which Sir James, who
lived on shore with his family, did not interfere. The following
anecdote will serve to show that these deviations from the laws and
customs of the navy are seldom attended with success.

It was Captain Caulfield's positive instructions that no boatswain's
mate, or other petty officer, should carry a cane, the usual emblem of
their authority; and that he would not punish any man unless convicted
by the testimony of two witnesses, while the man himself might bring
others to contradict the assertion of the officer making the
complaint: in short, that the single testimony of an officer could not
be taken without a majority of evidence in its support. The ship had
just been manned by impressed seamen, and her complement was completed
from the prisons: it may therefore be supposed, that these regulations
were not calculated to bring the ship speedily into a state of
discipline. It must be remembered that the captain had not the power
of administering an oath, and, when a complaint was made, men were
soon found who would come forward, and prove, according to this
system, that the accusation was groundless; and thus the culprit
always escaped. The ship accordingly fell into a complete state of
insubordination.

On one occasion a man was brought up on the quarter-deck in a state of
intoxication, when the captain, as if he could not believe his own
eyes, thought it necessary to call two of the officers as witnesses.
The man was put into confinement; and next morning, at eight, he was
brought up to be punished at the gangway. The offender being tied up,
and the article of war under which he had fallen being read, the
captain took the opportunity of assuring his assembled crew, that when
_legally_ convicted they were sure of punishment; but that no man
should be struck.

At this moment the sentinel on the forecastle called out that "a prize
was driving towards the ship." The danger of collision was the more
imminent, inasmuch as a heavy gale was blowing at the time. The
master, who sprang forward, called aloud, "Veer away the small
bower-cable, or she will be on board of us!" The pause which had been
made in the captain's speech was broken by orders from him to veer
away the cable _quickly_. "Down, my lads, veer away!" was repeated by
every officer; but the men, not aware of the fatal consequence, and
knowing that they could not, after what the captain said, be
_started_, moved very leisurely to perform the duty, which, to save
the ship, it was absolutely necessary should be done with the utmost
alacrity. Meanwhile, Captain Caulfield, looking over the back of the
culprit, and viewing the supineness of the men, who were totally
regardless of his repeated injunctions to veer the cable _quickly_,
began to be indignant; and when the master repeated, "If you do not
veer away at once, we shall lose the bowsprit and all the masts," he
called to the officers in the waist "to start the rascals down to the
cable:" but, as it may be supposed, their unarmed endeavours would not
have been successful, had he not, as the crisis approached, jumped
down himself among the men, and, with the end of the thickest rope he
could find, become the transgressor of his own laws, of the absurdity
of which he was now so fully convinced, that he acknowledged he was
wrong, and completely reversed his system.

No ship ever had a more narrow escape of being wrecked; the prize
drifted so close to the Grampus as to carry away her spritsail yard,
and, drifting on the rocks, about three cables' length astern, was
totally lost, and every man perished, among whom were a midshipman and
four of the Grampus's crew. Had the prize, which was a large Dutch
ship, came athwart-hawse of the Grampus, both, instead of one, would
have been wrecked. No alternative was therefore left to Captain
Caulfield but the rope's end, which he employed in violation of his
own rules of discipline.

Sir James was extremely averse to innovations of this kind, and he
took occasion to point out the propriety of officers being supported
in the execution of their duty, and the danger of interfering with the
excellent laws enacted for the government of the navy.

In the Grampus, Sir James visited the island of Jersey, and, after
cruising to examine the coast of France adjacent to the islands, he
returned to Guernsey; soon after which, the Grampus, being a new ship,
was selected to convoy the East India fleet, and was relieved by the
Diomede of fifty guns, Captain Thomas Larcom, on board which ship the
flag was shifted, on the 19th of June, 1803.

As the summer advanced, the preparations of the enemy became more
formidable, and the island was minutely examined by Sir James. The
following anecdote may serve to prove how much officers may be
mistaken as to the natural defences of a sea-coast.

Some differences of opinion having arisen respecting the possibility
of the enemy landing on the south side of Guernsey, where the land is
high, it was proposed to put the question to the test by actual
experiment. Sir James, and the Governor (Sir John Doyle), accordingly
proceeded to the spot with the boats of the squadron. On arriving at
the alleged inaccessible position, Sir James proposed that the seamen
should be landed, and ordered to ascend what appeared to be a
precipice; when, to the astonishment of the General, the whole body of
men mounted to the top with apparent ease: it was consequently found
advisable to fortify that, as well as other points which had been
before deemed unnecessary.

About this time (3rd of July) the Minerve, Captain Brenton, one of Sir
James's squadron, stationed off Cherbourgh, got aground in a fog, from
a mistake of the pilot, and, after a gallant resistance, was taken by
the enemy. The account of this unfortunate circumstance is so fully
detailed in Captain E.P. Brenton's work, that it need only be
mentioned here as having given great concern to the Admiral, who had
the highest regard for his former companion in arms.

A considerable flotilla of armed vessels, destined for the invasion
either of the Channel Islands or of England, had assembled at
Granville; and Sir James, having shifted his flag from the Diomede to
the Cerberus of thirty-two guns, Captain W. Selby, sailed with a
small squadron, consisting of the Charwell, eighteen, Captain Phil.
Dumaresq; the Kite, eighteen, Captain Philip Pipon; the Terror and
Sulphur bombs, Captains McLeod and Hardinge; Esling, Lieutenant
Archbold; and Carteret, Lieutenant Burgess.

On the 14th September, the frigate having anchored as near as the tide
would admit, and the other ships taking their stations, the
bombardment began on the harbour of Granville, and lasted from eleven
till five in the afternoon. On the 15th another attack of the same
kind was made with more effect, as will be seen by the following
official letter to the Secretary of the Admiralty, dated

     Cerberus, off Granville, 15th Sept. 1803.

     I beg you will be pleased to inform my Lords Commissioners of
     the Admiralty, that, having been joined by the Terror bomb on
     the 8th instant, and the Sulphur on the 12th, I embarked on
     board the Cerberus, and sailed from Guernsey roads the
     following morning, with the Charwell and Carteret cutters in
     company.

     It blowing a strong breeze from the eastward, it was not until
     Tuesday evening I was enabled to get off Granville; when,
     having had an opportunity to reconnoitre the enemy's
     gun-vessels and other craft within the pier, and the different
     batteries by which they were protected, I anchored the Cerberus
     as near the shore as the tide would admit, having only sixteen
     feet at low-water. At eleven, the Terror came up, but, having
     grounded, it was not until two o'clock that Captain Hardinge
     was able to place his ship in the position assigned; this he
     now did in a most judicious manner, and opened a brisk fire
     from his two mortars; which was returned from the mortar and
     gun-batteries on the heights near the town, and also from some
     guns on the pier, and the gun-vessels placed in the entrance.

     From the number of well-directed shells thrown from the Terror
     into the pier and parts of the town, I am persuaded they must
     have done very considerable damage. The fire was kept up till
     after five o'clock, when I thought it advisable to recall the
     Terror, and anchored with this ship and the Charwell a short
     distance from the town. The Sulphur bomb, whose bad sailing
     prevented her from beating up, joined shortly after, and also
     anchored. The loss on this occasion was two men wounded by
     splinters on board the Terror.

     A few shells were thrown in the evening, but the tide prevented
     the ship getting sufficiently near to be attended with much
     effect.

     This morning the squadron was under sail before dawn of day,
     and all circumstances concurred to enable them to take their
     respective stations with the utmost precision. The two
     mortar-vessels opened a brisk and well-directed fire soon after
     five o'clock; which was unremittingly kept up till half-past
     ten, when the falling tide rendered it necessary to withdraw
     from the attack. Twenty-two gun-vessels, that had hauled out of
     the pier, drew up a regular line, and kept up a heavy fire,
     jointly with the batteries around the port, without doing much
     execution.

     The Cerberus, after getting under sail, grounded on one of the
     sand-banks, and remained about three hours, before she floated:
     nine of the gun-boats, perceiving her situation, endeavoured to
     annoy her, and kept up a heavy fire upon her for some time; but
     were silenced by the Charwell and Kite, and also by the fire of
     the Sulphur and Terror bombs, and by the carronade launch of
     the Cerberus, under the orders of Lieutenant Mansell, assisted
     by the Eling and Carteret, which obliged them to take shelter
     in their port.

     In the performance of this intricate service, I cannot too
     highly applaud the zeal and persevering exertions of all the
     officers and men under my orders; and I should not do justice
     to the merits of Captain Selby, were I not to acknowledge the
     able assistance I have received from him since I had the honour
     of being in his ship: the steadiness and good conduct of all
     the officers and men in the Cerberus, during the time the ship
     was aground, do them infinite credit. The various services in
     which Capt. McLeod of the Sulphur, and Hardinge of the Terror,
     have been employed this war, are already sufficiently known:
     but I will venture to assert, that in no instance can they have
     displayed greater zeal and gallantry than on the present
     occasion. Great praise is due to Lieutenants Macartney and
     Smith, and the parties of artillery embarked on board the
     respective bomb-vessels.

     It is not possible to ascertain the damages the enemy has
     sustained; but, as a very few of the shells missed taking
     effect, they must have been very considerable.

     JAS. SAUMAREZ.

During the period the Cerberus was aground the tide fell six feet, and
at one time she was in the greatest danger of upsetting; the topmasts
were immediately struck, and the vessel shored up by the lower yards
and spare spars. While heeling over more than forty-five degrees, the
bottom of the ship was exposed to the shot of the enemy, and was
struck in several places. Sir James himself had a very narrow escape
from a shot, which grazed his legs as he was standing on the gangway
with the purser and the secretary, whose dismay and quick retreat from
so dangerous a situation only produced a smile from the Admiral, who
would not listen to proposals subsequently made to him for quitting
the Cerberus while in that situation. The coolness with which he gave
his orders, and his presence of mind on this trying occasion, tended
materially to save the ship, by exciting the officers and men to exert
themselves; while the most perfect order was maintained under
circumstances which often cause disorder and confusion.

The Cerberus received no material damage in the bottom from being
aground: she was soon repaired, and returned with the squadron to
Guernsey on the 17th, when the flag was again hoisted in the Diomede.

We subsequently learned that the flotilla at Granville was so much
damaged as to delay its arrival at Boulogne, which was its ultimate
destination, until a late period of the year; and that many of the
vessels were lost in and near the Race of Alderney, on their passage,
by a storm in which they were overtaken.

The following is extracted from a letter which Sir James wrote to his
brother, describing this action:

     Cerberus, off Granville, 15th Sept. 1803.

     You will be glad to find that, thanks to Providence, the
     business of Granville has gone off as well as possible,
     although we have not succeeded in entirely destroying the
     enemy's gun-vessels. I have to regret that, in the execution of
     my orders, many of the harmless inhabitants of the town, and
     their dwellings, must have suffered very considerably; having
     bombarded it nearly four hours on Wednesday, and six hours this
     morning, with scarcely any intermission.[3] This ship (the
     Cerberus) was for three hours on shore, and the tide left her
     six feet less than she drew. She was at the same time assailed
     by some of the enemy's gun-boats, but without great mischief. A
     shot was very nearly taking off both Mr. Champion and myself:
     how our legs escaped is inconceivable, having come through the
     part of the quarter-deck close to which we were standing.

     Our friends Dumaresq and Pipon were in company, the former
     having joined early this morning. I am quite exhausted with
     fatigue, having had no rest since I left the island. Lady S.
     was unapprised of what was going forward, as well as yourself;
     but you must approve of the motives which urged me to conceal
     it from you. I am on my return to the island, which I hope to
     reach to-morrow evening.

     [3] Before commencing the bombardment, Sir James sent in a flag
     of truce, to inform the governor of it, and requesting that he
     would send the women, children, and inoffensive inhabitants
     away from the scene of action.

The blockade of the French coast between Havre-de-Grace and Ushant,
which was intrusted to Sir James, was kept up with rigour; and the
Channel islands put into such a state of defence, as to defy all the
projects of the enemy. In the performance of this service, the Admiral
had to regret the loss of the Shannon, which was wrecked on the 10th
December in a gale, under the batteries of Cape La Hogue; and of the
Grappler, which was lost on the 31st, at the Isles de Choisey: the
crews of both these vessels were saved, but made prisoners.

The Diomede was sent to refit at Portsmouth; and, at the end of 1803,
Sir James's flag was flying on board the Cerberus, while he lived at
his own residence on shore with his family, carrying on the duty as a
port-admiral.



CHAPTER VI.

1804 to 1806.

     Sir James continues in the command at Guernsey.--Proceedings of
     his Squadron.--Letter from Lord Nelson, dated two days before
     he was killed.--Capture and destruction of La Salamandre.--Sir
     James's benevolent conduct at Guernsey.


The year 1804 is remarkable in the annals of the empire for the
extraordinary exertions made by the First Consul of France to collect
a powerful flotilla at the ports between Flushing, Cherbourg, and
Boulogne, with the avowed intention of invading England. The vessels
so collected were intended to convey the "Army of England," as it was
called by Bonaparte, across the channel. We have already mentioned the
fate of the Granville flotilla, after the attack made on it by Sir
James. Early in this year it was discovered that one of the vessels
belonging to it, a brig of 200 tons, had been driven on shore in the
Bay of Dillette, adjacent to Alderney; that the enemy had succeeded in
drawing her up to repair, and that she was nearly ready for launching.
The commander of the Carteret cutter, who first discovered this,
having represented it to Captain Bennet of the Tribune, (senior
officer of the detachment which Sir James had placed off Cherbourg,)
proposed to take advantage of the first nocturnal spring-tide, either
to launch her, if ready, or to destroy her. The Carteret was
accordingly reinforced by two midshipmen and ten men from the Tribune;
a landing was effected, and the guard defeated: but the brig was found
to have a plank out on each side of the keel, and she was therefore
destroyed. This service was performed with the loss of one of the
Carteret's men, Mr. Parker (a midshipman), and two men of the Tribune;
while the enemy's loss was five killed and ten prisoners, who were
afterwards released.[4]

     [4] It is worthy of remark, that the French commanding officer,
     who was killed, had in his pocket a watch belonging to the
     commander of the Carteret, of which he had been robbed when
     taken prisoner in 1800.

The Diomede, of fifty guns, having been refitted at Portsmouth,
returned to take Sir James's flag. Her former commander, Captain
Thomas Larcom, died at Portsmouth; and Captain Hugh Downman, who had
succeeded Captain Brenton in the Cæsar, was, at Sir James's request,
appointed his flag-captain. The Cerberus was sent to refit at
Portsmouth, and on her way thither she captured a gun-boat.

During the years 1804 and 1805 the following vessels were taken and
destroyed by the squadron:

     31st January.--The Hydra and Tribune captured four gun-boats.

     17th March.--The Loire captured the Brave of St. Maloes, of
     sixteen guns and 110 men.

     18th March.--The Tartar lugger captured the Jeune Henri,
     twelve, and 64 men.

     -- April.--The Sylph destroyed several gun-vessels in the Race
     of Alderney, in which she had one man killed and two wounded.

     The Hydra captured a privateer off Cherbourg.

     On the 9th October, the Albicore, Captain Henniker, destroyed
     five French gun-vessels near Grosnez de Flamanville, without
     any loss in men, although considerably damaged in the rigging
     and hull.


In the course of this eventful year, Sir James kept up a constant
correspondence with his friend Lord Nelson, whose glorious career was
now near its close. Availing himself of the opportunity of a vessel
from Guernsey bound to Gibraltar, he sent his lordship a supply of
wines and other good things which that fertile island produces,
together with newspapers, &c. These reached the Victory only a few
days before the memorable battle of Trafalgar; and Lord Nelson's
answer, which we here transcribe, was dated only three days before the
action, and is probably the last but one ever written by him.

     Victory, off Cadiz, Oct. 18th, 1805.

     MY DEAR SIR JAMES,

     You may rely upon it that, when I can, I will remove Lieutenant
     Fisher of the R.M. into a frigate; at present, I fear the
     frigates are full, and the line-of-battle ships empty: but in
     whatever manner, my dear Sir James, I may be able to meet your
     wishes, I desire you will let me know. Our friends at Cadiz are
     ready to come forth, and I hope they will not again escape me:
     the career of the Rochfort squadron, I think, has been several
     days stopped by Sir Richard Strachan, but I wish his force had
     been more equal to the contest. I have to thank you for your
     great attention about my wine, and for recommending me some
     excellent champagne. I beg my most respectful compliments to
     Lady Saumarez; and, believe me ever, my dear Sir James, your
     most faithful and obliged friend,

     NELSON & BRONTE.

     To Sir James Saumarez, Bart. & K.B.

     Since writing my letter, I have to thank you for your packet of
     newspapers and your letter of October 1st; nothing could
     possibly be more acceptable. I hope we shall see Bonaparte
     _humbled_. The Guernsey vessel has made a very valuable
     recapture of a vessel loaded with cloths, bound to Lisbon.

     Your's faithfully,
     Nelson & Bronte.

The above was probably finished on the 19th, the day on which the
Penelope frigate left the fleet with despatches for England,--the last
his lordship ever sent.

During the year 1805 Sir James continued in the command at Guernsey,
having his flag in the Diomede, and occasionally on board a frigate in
her absence. The preparations of the French for invasion, which were
continued with unremitting vigour, made this station of more
importance than it would otherwise have been. Spain, having declared
war early in January, joined Napoleon in the grand object of invading
England; and it was calculated, including the Dutch fleet, that the
united force, which could be ready in the month of April, would amount
to seventy-five sail of the line, fifty frigates, and 2,300 smaller
vessels; and that the invading army would consist of 200,000 men.

It was evident that, without a junction of all his naval forces in the
British Channel, Napoleon had no chance of being able to make a
descent on the adjacent coast; and, to effect this, it was necessary
to draw off a part of our blockading fleets. With this view the Toulon
fleet went to the West Indies, whither it was pursued by Nelson; and,
after an action with the squadron under Sir Robert Calder, it entered
the port of Cadiz. The effectual blockade of that port and of Brest,
together with the interruptions his flotilla met with in its progress
towards Boulogne, defeated Napoleon's plans; and the Channel islands,
which were now in a complete state of defence, continued unmolested.
The only losses on this station were the capture of two gun-brigs,
after a very gallant defence, by a flotilla of very superior force,
off Granville; and the Pigmy cutter, which was wrecked near Jersey.

The memorable battle of Trafalgar at once put an end to all the
speculations of the ruler of France. The projected invasion was now
impossible; and, consequently, the force which had been requisite for
the station Sir James occupied, was no longer necessary. The Diomede,
of fifty guns, and several other vessels, were withdrawn, and Sir
James shifted his flag to the Inconstant. The year 1805 terminated
without any other remarkable occurrence.

During the year 1806 the enemy's convoys were proceeding in a westerly
direction; the victualling the French fleet at Brest, which had
considerably increased, being the principal object, the squadron under
Sir James was actively employed in intercepting these convoys. On the
9th of September the Constance, Captain Burrowes, fell in with Le
Salamandre, French frigate store-ship, of twenty-six guns; and,
assisted by the Strenuous and Sharpshooter, drove her on shore under a
battery; and, believing her destroyed, returned to Jersey. It was,
however, ascertained that she was floated off; and, returning to St.
Maloes, repaired her damages. On the 12th of October, when again
attempting to make her passage, she was attacked by the Constance,
Sheldrake, and Strenuous, and having taken shelter under the fort of
Equi, in the Bay of Brehat, the engagement, in which the gallant
Captain Burrowes was killed, became severe. Le Salamandre, after
running on shore, was compelled to strike, and was taken: but the
wind began to blow hard directly on the land; the Constance parted
her cables, which had been damaged by the shot from the batteries, and
drove on shore. It became therefore necessary, after taking out the
men, to burn both the Constance and the prize. In this affair ten men
were killed, and twenty-three wounded, exclusive of thirty-six men
made prisoners in the unsuccessful attempt to save the Constance. The
captain (M. Saloman) of the Salamandre and twenty-nine men were
killed; but of the wounded there is no account, excepting of nine, who
were among the prisoners taken on board the Sheldrake. Captain
Thicknesse, of that sloop, was made post-captain on this occasion.

Nothing else worthy remark, connected with the subject of this memoir,
happened during the year 1806: and Sir James had now enjoyed the
society of his family and friends at his native island for three
years; during which time his mind was not only actively employed in
the performance of his duty as commander-in-chief on this important
station, and in rendering his native island more capable of defence,
but also in the establishment and support of its charitable
institutions.



CHAPTER VII.

1807.

     Sir James is called into active service.--Joins the Channel
     Fleet as second in command.--Shifts his Flag from the San Josef
     to the Prince of Wales.--His decisive conduct.--Anecdote of the
     Prince of Wales' Men.--Change of Ministry.--Sir James leaves
     the Channel Fleet, and returns to Guernsey.--Is offered the
     Command in the East Indies.--Letter on that occasion.


Early in the year 1807 Sir James was called into more active service.
The enemy's fleet at Brest had again become formidable. Earl St.
Vincent was appointed to command the Channel fleet, and immediately
applied for Sir James to be second in command. To make him eligible
for this, he was promoted to the rank of Vice-admiral; and on the 7th
of January he received orders to hoist his flag, blue at the fore, on
board the San Josef, of 112 guns. As the noble Earl was unable from
ill health to keep the sea in the Hibernia, his flag-ship, the whole
responsibility fell on Sir James.

The San Josef, one of the finest ships in the navy, had been taken in
the battle of the 14th of February 1797; and, having since that
period been almost constantly employed, was in need of a thorough
repair. In February she became so leaky, that Sir James was obliged to
shift his flag into the Prince of Wales, Captain Bedford, and send the
San Josef into Plymouth to be repaired; and, it being ascertained that
it would take more than a year before she could be ready, the officers
and men were turned over to the Ville de Paris, which was ordered to
fit for his flag.

Sir James's activity in blockading the enemy was unremitting. The
fleet consisted of twenty-seven sail of the line, nine of which were
three-deckers. It was his custom, every day that the weather
permitted, to stand towards the Black Rocks in a line of battle, and
off in a line of bearing, always communicating with the in-shore
squadron.

On one occasion, while the weather had been thick for several days,
the signal was made from the Hibernia for the enemy's fleet to
leeward. The English fleet bore up in chase; and, although the Prince
of Wales was the worst-sailing ship in the fleet, by carrying a great
press of sail she became the headmost. The wind was from the west, and
the fleet was standing in for Brest, the French coast being a lee
shore. Captain Bedford, who was not so well acquainted with the coast
as Sir James, represented the danger that the fleet was running into,
as it was blowing hard at the time; when Sir James replied, "There is
good anchorage in Douvarnenez Bay," and continued his course: but it
was soon after discovered that the strangers were the Plantagenet and
in-shore squadron, and the fleet was still able to weather Ushant.

Captain Bedford, who, like other promoters of a religious feeling on
board ship, was liable to be imposed upon by hypocrites, had on board
the Prince of Wales a set of individuals among the seamen, who, taking
advantage of his desire to encourage piety among the crew, ingratiated
themselves so far by their outward manifestations as to induce him to
appropriate a convenient berth in the ship, where they might sing
psalms and perform other devotional exercises unmolested. This place
virtually served as a depôt for the hypocrites, who had for a long
time unsuspectedly committed divers acts of depredation. Just before
the ship went into port, either to refit or replenish the water and
provisions, the secretary's gold watch disappeared, as well as a
considerable sum of money; and the complaint being made by him to the
Admiral, the latter commanded the captain to call all hands on deck,
and make a strict search for the stolen property.

The men being reported on deck by the officer who had charge of the
lower decks, Captain Bedford said, "Where shall we begin to search?"
to which the lieutenant replied, "My cabin, sir; then your's; and
then the _religious berth_." This answer drew forth a rebuke for even
_suspecting_ these "good Christians," as the captain emphatically
called them. The examination was however persisted in: the officers
went to the berth, the keys were demanded, and could not be found; but
an iron crow-bar was effectually substituted; and the whole of the
missing property, besides many other stolen articles, were discovered
in the chests of these miscreants, to the surprise and mortification
of the worthy Captain Bedford, who did not fail immediately to make
his report to the Admiral then on the quarter-deck.

Before punishment of criminals takes place in a flag-ship, it is usual
for the captain to carry the particulars to the Admiral. It was the
practice of Sir James Saumarez to examine these reports minutely, and
convince himself of the necessity of the punishment before giving it
his sanction; which was always done with that painful reluctance so
natural to his humane disposition. In this instance, however, his
feelings of indignation were more than usually roused: he emphatically
said, "Captain Bedford, I desire that you will immediately give each
of these wretches such a punishment as will effectually put a stop to
this unparalleled wickedness."

We need scarcely add that his orders were implicitly obeyed; and such
was the indignation of the crew, that there was no necessity for
urging the boatswain's mates to do their duty, while Sir James, who
never could witness punishment without extreme pain, retired to his
cabin. He did not fail, however, to point out to every one how much
the offence of theft had been aggravated by being committed under the
cloak of religion, for which no punishment within the limited power of
the captain could be too severe.

A change of ministry having taken place, Lord Gardner was appointed to
command the Channel fleet; and, as his lordship chose the Ville de
Paris for his flag, Captain Conn and the other officers were turned
over to the Hibernia: three of Lord St. Vincent's officers were
superseded; and Sir James joined his new flag-ship at sea. During the
summer, when the wind came from the westward, and blew strong, the
fleet bore up for Torbay. On one of these occasions Sir James showed
much decision. The captains and officers of the fleet had sent their
chronometers on shore to be cleaned and regulated, not expecting that
there would be much occasion for them: it happened, however, that the
fleet was blown off the coast by a strong north-east wind, which
lasted more than a week. During this the ships, by chasing and
performing various evolutions, had lost the reckoning, which differed
from the true position by the chronometer of the Hibernia, which
happened to be the only one in the fleet. After the easterly wind, a
heavy westerly gale came on; and before Ushant could be made, the
weather became thick, and the signal was made to bear up for Torbay,
and at the same time for the longitude.

Sir James had now to decide: if the reckoning was right, the course by
chronometer would have wrecked the fleet in Bigberry Bay; and if the
chronometer was right, the course by reckoning would have carried the
fleet on the Bill of Portland. Under these circumstances Sir James
carefully examined both, and at once decided on following the course
by chronometer; and the fleet safely anchored in Torbay in the middle
of the night.

Lord Gardner took a house near Brixham, and Sir James continued for
some time to carry on the duty as usual; till at length Lord Gardner
apprised Sir James that he had applied for his old friend, Sir John
Duckworth, to be his second in command: on which Sir James wrote to be
superseded; and in August, the same year, he struck his flag, to
rehoist it on board the Inconstant at Guernsey. His old flag-ship was
during the winter prepared for him, and in February 1808 he proceeded
to Guernsey.

During this period, war with Russia broke out. Affairs in the north
wore a serious aspect, and it was evident that the Baltic must soon
become the seat of war.

Sir James received the following letter from Lord Mulgrave, offering
him the command in the East Indies, which was the most lucrative
station; but prize-money was always a secondary consideration with
the Admiral. He declined accepting the offer, as will be seen by his
answer.

     Admiralty, January 23rd, 1808.

     MY DEAR SIR,

     Sir Edward Pellew having expressed a wish to be relieved from
     the command in the East Indies, I am desirous (before I think
     of another arrangement) to learn whether that station would be
     agreeable to you; in which case I should have great
     satisfaction in giving you that appointment.

     I have the honour to be, with sincere regard and the highest
     esteem, Dear sir,

     Your most obedient and faithful servant,
     MULGRAVE.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, K.B. &c.


     Guernsey, 30th January 1808.

     MY DEAR LORD,

     I am honoured with your lordship's private and confidential
     letter, and I cannot sufficiently express my grateful
     acknowledgements for the obliging manner in which your lordship
     has been pleased to propose to me the command in the East
     Indies, which I should be most happy to profit by, did the
     state of my health hold out any prospect of my fulfilling so
     important a trust with satisfaction to myself or to the benefit
     of my country. I am therefore, though reluctantly, compelled to
     decline this mark of your lordship's kindness.

     I have the honour to be, &c. &c.
     James Saumarez.

     To Earl Mulgrave.



CHAPTER VIII.

1808.

     State of Affairs in Sweden.--Alarm of the King.--Sir James
     selected to command the Baltic Fleet.--Correspondence with Lord
     Mulgrave.--Sir John Moore's Expedition.--Arrives at
     Gothenburg.--Capture and Destruction of a Danish
     seventy-four.--Sir John Moore goes to Stockholm.--Is arrested,
     and escapes.--Expedition returns to England.--Disposition of
     the Fleet.--Sir James proceeds to Carlscrona.--Rescue of
     Romana's Army.--Sir James proceeds to the Gulf of
     Finland.--Capture and Destruction of the Russian seventy-four,
     Sewolod.--The combined Swedish and English Fleet off Baltic
     Port.--Reconnoitres the Russian Fleet in the harbour, and
     determines to attack them.--Prevented by change of
     winds.--Proceeding off Baltic Port.--Letter to the Emperor of
     Russia.--Fleet returns to Carlscrona.


The success of Buonaparte in Austria and Prussia, by which he was
enabled to force Denmark to join him against Great Britain, and which,
in the preceding year, led to the capture of Copenhagen and to the
possession of the Danish fleet, had now induced Russia to accede to
the proposal of declaring England to be in a state of blockade: Sweden
alone remained faithful. The preparations for invasion which were
making at St. Petersburg having alarmed King Gustavus Adolphus, the
most earnest solicitations were made for a large naval and military
force to be sent from England for its protection. A fleet was
accordingly ordered on that important service, and Sir James Saumarez
was selected as the commander-in-chief best qualified to undertake it.

The Victory, which had been thoroughly repaired after the battle of
Trafalgar, was commissioned at Chatham early in March, by Captain
Philip Dumaresq, for Sir James's flag, which was soon after hoisted:
Rear-admirals Sir Samuel Hood, R.G. Keats, M. Dixon, and A. Bertie,
were placed under his command. The fleet consisted of sixteen ships of
the line; and, including frigates, sloops, and gun-vessels, the number
amounted to sixty-two sail.

     Admiralty, February 20th, 1808.

     DEAR SIR,

     I am in daily expectation of receiving accurate intelligence of
     the present state of the naval arsenal at Cronstadt. In the
     event of this information being as satisfactory as I have
     reason to hope, it is my intention to send a squadron into the
     Baltic, consisting of not less than twelve or thirteen sail of
     the line. If your health should be such as to admit of your
     taking the command of this fleet, I know of no arrangement
     which I can make that would be so satisfactory to myself, as to
     intrust the important service of attempting to destroy the
     Russian fleet, and of affording protection to his Majesty's
     firm and faithful ally, the King of Sweden, to your direction.
     It will not be necessary that you should come immediately to
     England, (in the event of your undertaking the command,) as
     all the necessary preparations may be forwarded beforehand; and
     your coming immediately over might tend to excite a premature
     suspicion of the object we have in view. I have not yet opened
     this project to any officer, but those on whom I have fixed my
     views to assist you, are Rear-admirals Sir Samuel Hood and
     Keats, who, besides their great professional merits, have the
     additional advantage of being well acquainted with the Baltic.

     I have the honour to be,
     With great truth and regard,
     My dear sir,
     Your very faithful and obedient servant,
     MULGRAVE.


     Guernsey, 27th February 1808.

     MY LORD,

     I have had the honour to receive your lordship's private and
     secret letter of the 20th instant, and I feel most deeply
     impressed with the very obliging manner in which your lordship
     has been pleased to offer me the command of the squadron
     proposed to be sent to the Baltic. Although it is with great
     diffidence that I undertake a trust of so high and great
     importance, having ever made it the principle of my life to go
     upon any service where my exertions for my king and country
     would be deemed most useful, I cannot for a moment hesitate to
     comply with the commands of your lordship, and I shall hold
     myself in readiness to proceed from this station whenever
     called upon; requesting your lordship will have the goodness to
     allow me sufficient time to make such arrangements as may be
     required in London, previous to my going upon the proposed
     service. The two officers selected to co-operate with me, are
     possessed of the highest merit; and, of all others, those I
     should have been happy to apply for, had they not been
     previously appointed. I shall be obliged to your lordship to
     mention the ship intended for my flag, as also such further
     information as may be judged necessary for me to know, with the
     probable time that I may be required to go to London; all which
     shall be held by me in the strictest confidence.

     I have the honour to be,
     With the highest regard,
     My dear lord,
     Your faithful and most obedient servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

The ships composing this force proceeded to Gothenburg (the general
rendezvous) as they were ready to sail. The Victory arrived in April,
and was followed by an expedition consisting of 10,000 troops,
commanded by the gallant Sir John Moore, who arrived on the 17th of
May.

In the mean time, the body of French and Spanish troops, which, as
part of the army of Marshal Bernadotte, had marched to the shores of
the Belt, were obliged to halt, in consequence of the interposition of
the English fleet; and the Danish 74, Prince Christian Frederick, was
taken and destroyed, after a gallant resistance, by the Stately, 64,
Captain George Parker, and the Nassau, 64, Captain R. Campbell. On the
other hand, the Russians, who had laid siege to Sweaborg, in the Gulf
of Finland, which was justly called the Gibraltar of the North, had
induced the governor, Admiral Count Cronsted, to sign a capitulation,
that, if not relieved by the 6th of May, which was next to an
impossibility, the fortress was to be delivered up, and as a
compensation he was to receive an estate of great value in Russia. The
reason which has been assigned for this act of treachery was, that,
having refused to meet the English fleet under Lord Nelson, he had
been superseded in command of the fleet at Carlscrona, and removed to
Sweaborg, as a kind of banishment.

This unfortunate event paralyzed the plans of the King of Sweden; and
Sir John Moore was sent for to Stockholm. As the King of Sweden would
not give permission to land any of the troops which were on board the
transports at Gothenburg, excepting a part of the cavalry, their
detention was irksome; and the Admiral waited with much anxiety for
the return of the General, when he heard of his having been arrested,
or, at least, detained by order of the king at Stockholm. In a few
days, however, Sir John made his appearance on board the Victory; when
it was found that his Swedish Majesty had made several absurd
propositions to him, such as an attack on Copenhagen and upon
Cronstadt, for which his force was inadequate, especially since the
arrival at the former place of several regiments of French and Spanish
troops, and at the latter of the flotilla taken at Sweaborg. As Sir
John declined to undertake these expeditions, he was ordered to
remain at Stockholm until he had received instructions from England
respecting the disposition of his troops. Thus circumstanced, Sir John
begged permission to send his aide-de-camp, Col. Graham, (now Lord
Lynedoch,) to the Admiral with despatches; which being granted, he
changed coats with the aide-de-camp, proceeded to Gothenburg himself,
leaving the colonel in his stead, and arrived safely on board the
Victory, to the great joy of Sir James, who was no less alarmed for
Sir John's safety, than puzzled as to what measures would be most
advisable to effect his release from unwarrantable confinement.

The following extract of a letter from Sir James to his brother,
written from Gothenburg, will afford the best account that can be
given of the state of affairs at the time he arrived there:

     14th May 1808.

     I fear you will be disappointed at the little information I can
     give you; it will, however, be satisfactory to know that none
     of the enemy's troops have, as yet, been enabled to cross the
     Sound, or get a footing on any part of Sweden. The Danes have
     about 30,000 troops in the island of Zealand; and at Funen and
     Holstein there are about 30,000 French, Spaniards, and Dutch:
     but the Sound and Belts are so closely watched, that it will be
     very difficult for any number of vessels to escape our
     different cruisers stationed to intercept them.

     The Swedish troops on the frontiers of Norway, under the orders
     of General Armfeldt, have had several skirmishes with the
     Danes, which have in general proved very favourable to the
     former; but nothing of importance has yet taken place, owing to
     the roads being almost impassable from the depth of snow and
     ice, which, even at this advanced season, cover them. Last
     Wednesday, accounts were received from Stockholm, of the
     surrender of Sweaborg! It was the more unexpected from the
     garrison having withstood two assaults, in which the Russians
     are said to have lost a great number of men. This event decides
     the fate of Finland. Sweaborg was considered a fortress of
     great importance.

The following extract, on the subject of Sir John Moore's detention
and escape, shows the state of affairs up to his departure from
Gothenburg on the 1st of July:

     Victory, 30th June 1808.

     You will have been surprised at the length of time we have been
     detained here, and particularly so when I inform you that the
     troops are returning to England, owing principally to this
     government not choosing to accede to the terms upon which it
     was proposed they should be employed in this country. It is
     truly to be lamented that so much delay should have taken
     place, and so much time lost, when their services might have
     been so well employed elsewhere. Between ourselves, much
     irritability has been shown by the King of Sweden in the
     different conferences Sir John Moore has had with him. Finding
     Sir John earnest in his intentions to return to England, he
     sent one of his officers to signify to him, he was not to leave
     Stockholm till his pleasure, which, of course, was considered
     as putting him under an arrest, a most unprecedented measure,
     and an outrage certainly offered to a friendly nation. Sir
     John, however, took a favourable opportunity to get away from
     Stockholm, and arrived here last evening.

     I trust and hope this will not lead to a rupture between the
     two countries; but so unwarrantable and violent a proceeding
     cannot easily be settled. I own to you, I never formed any
     expectation that the troops would be of essential service in
     this country. They were too few in number to act separately;
     and it would not have been right to commit them with the
     Swedish army, at the will and disposal of the monarch.

Sir James writes thus to his son; Sir John Moore's expedition being
still at Gothenburg.

     Victory, Gothenburg, 23rd May 1808.

     I trust that we shall be enabled to defend Sweden during the
     summer; but, when winter sets in, we shall be compelled to
     withdraw our ships from the Baltic: this will expose the
     country to the attack of the enemy from Zealand and the ports
     on the south of the Baltic. The Swedes are a brave and upright
     people; they are faithful to their prince, and are very averse
     to any change in their government, and still more so to French
     principles. I have been twice on shore; but being near ten
     miles from Gothenburg, makes it inconvenient: it is a place of
     great trade; at this time, at least twelve hundred sail of
     vessels of different nations are in the port.

The above is a sufficient proof of the good opinion Sir James had
formed of the Swedish character, and which, he often said, he never
had occasion to alter.

Sir James was now placed in one of the most anxious and arduous
situations which it was possible to imagine. He had to protect the
commerce of both nations in a dangerous and intricate navigation, with
which his ships were but little acquainted, opposed on every side by
Russians, Prussians, French, Danes, and Norwegians. It was requisite
that his forces should be most judiciously disposed; and great tact
and firmness were indispensable to conduct affairs under the existing
circumstances. His conduct on this, as well as on every former
occasion, was such as to deserve and obtain the high approbation of
the government, and the people of both Great Britain and Sweden. The
first letter Sir James received from Gustavus Adolphus was written in
French, of which the following is an exact copy:

     Château de Stockholm, le 6 Mai 1808.

     MONSIEUR L'AMIRAL,

     J'ai ordonné à mon aide-de-camp général de la marine, le
     Vice-amiral Baron de Rayalin de se rendre en Sconie, pour se
     concerter avec vous sur les opérations des flottes Swedoise et
     Anglaise contre l'ennemi commun. Il est indispensable de
     déployer la plus grande activité et energie proportionnées au
     danger; le Baron Rayalin vous montrera un plan à cet effet, que
     j'ai arrêté, et dont communication a été faite au Ministre de
     sa Majesté Britannique, resident auprès de moi, qui'il a du
     vous envoyer. Je suis persuadé que vous saisirez avec plaisir
     cette occasion pour remplir à ce que l'honneur et le devoir
     vous prescrivent. Et sur ce je prie Dieu qu'il vous ait,
     Monsieur l'Amiral, en sa sainte et digne garde; etant votre
     bien affectionné,

     GUSTAF ADOLPH.

     A l'Amiral commandant les forces navales de sa
     Majesté Britannique, dans le Sund.

Baron Rayalin having, with this letter, transmitted his _exposé_ of the
situation of the Swedes since the capture of Sweaborg and the recapture
of Gothland, states that the Russians and Swedes had each eleven sail of
the line: it was agreed that the Swedish fleet should be reinforced by
two ships, the Centaur of 74 guns, Rear-admiral Sir Samuel Hood, and the
Implacable 74, Captain Byam Martin, and take a position at Hango-udde, a
small, ill-fortified harbour at the north-west point of Finland, round
which the Russian flotilla must pass to attack Åbo and Åland; and that
the English commander-in-chief should employ the rest of his fleet in
blockading the enemy's coast from the Gulf of Finland to Norway,
including the coasts of Prussia, Pomerania, Denmark, the Belt, and
Sound, for the protection of commerce and the defence of the kingdom of
Sweden.

These matters being arranged, Sir James left Gothenburg on the 2nd of
July, in the Victory; and, passing through the Great Belt, visited the
different stations where ships were to be placed. Having taken
possession of the small island of Spröe, he proceeded to Carlscrona, the
principal naval arsenal of Sweden, and arrived there on the 10th July.

The ensuing extract of a letter from Sir James to a friend, on leaving
Gothenburg, will be read with interest, as it will throw some light on
the important and difficult line of conduct he had to pursue on this
occasion.

     Victory, off Gothenburg, 2nd July 1808.

     You will, I am persuaded, feel much concern at the untoward
     circumstances that have occurred, and the impossibility that
     must now exist of the troops being of any service in this
     country. Every arrangement is made for their sailing the moment
     the wind will enable the transports to get out of the harbour;
     and I shall proceed at the same time for the entrance of the
     Sound, off Helsinburg, which is the station whence I can most
     easily communicate with the different detachments, and at the
     same time receive the despatches from England.

     The only part for me to act in the present state of things, is
     to uphold the honour of the country, and, as far as lies in my
     power, keep up the friendly intercourse that has hitherto been
     maintained with our only ally.

     In what light the business will be taken up at home it is
     impossible for me to say. It is certain that a most flagrant
     outrage has been offered by the King of Sweden in the detention
     of Sir John Moore; and how far his Majesty can justify himself
     in the eye of our government for so great an insult to an
     officer of Sir John's rank, entrusted with the command of an
     army, ordered from England for the defence of Sweden, and who
     went to Stockholm to confer in a confidential manner on the
     measures to be adopted for putting the orders he had received
     into execution, is at present difficult to conceive.

     He had doubtless, in his own opinion, good grounds for having
     taken so strong a measure, but which scarcely can be admitted
     when the whole transactions that may have led to it are known
     to our government. This misunderstanding is the more to be
     lamented at this time, that unanimity with our ally was the
     only point on which we could form our expectations of success;
     besides the advantage that the enemy may take of it, and the
     ridicule they will of course throw upon it.

     Sir John Moore has been embarked with me since his return,
     besides General Hope. The former takes his passage on board the
     Audacious, which convoys the transports to Yarmouth.

During the months of June and July, Sir James had much correspondence
with the ex-King and Queen of France, the Duchess d'Angoulême, and his
old friend the Duc d'Havre. Some difficulty attended their transport
to England; the Euryalus only being allowed to proceed on that
service, and the suite of his majesty, and the royal family amounting
to above a hundred persons. The correspondence, however, does not
possess sufficient interest to dwell further on it; suffice it to say,
that Sir James gave them all the assistance and accommodation in his
power, and that they had left Carlscrona before the Victory arrived.

About this time Admiral Cederström, who had vanquished the Russians at
Gothland, was called to Stockholm, and Rear Admiral Nauckhoff was
appointed in his stead, with whom Sir James exchanged letters of
congratulation. The King had gone to Åland; and, as no more was said
about the affair of Sir John Moore, things went on smoothly: Baron
Rayalin accompanied the King, and Mons. Gullenstolpè acted as
adjutant-general of the marine.

The Swedish fleet now consisted of eleven sail of the line and five
frigates, which were reinforced by the Centaur and Implacable; and
proceeded to the station before agreed on.

Towards the end of July, Sir James was aware of the refractory conduct
of the Spanish troops, under the Marquis of Romana, in the island of
Funen, where they had been arrested in their progress to Zealand by
the appearance of the English fleet. Rear Admiral Keats was ordered to
communicate, if possible, with Romana, who was known to be disaffected
since the news had reached him of the revolution of affairs in Spain,
and to offer every assistance to rescue the troops under his command.
It was a great satisfaction to Sir James, that, on the arrival of the
next packet, he found he had anticipated the desire of government,
from whom he received instructions to the same intent, after Sir
Richard had been detached.

The address and tact which Rear-admiral Keats displayed on this
occasion is well known. As soon as he had succeeded in rescuing the
Marquis of Romana, by seizing on the vessels at Nyborg, and
transporting his troops to the defenceless island of Langeland, he
despatched a vessel to Sir James, who immediately sailed from
Carlscrona, leaving behind Captain Hope, who went home in consequence
of the illness and subsequent demise of his wife, Lady Jemima, and
made all sail for the Belt. On this occasion Sir James gave a proof of
the decision of his character, which could not but make a deep
impression on all who were present.

The Victory, about sun-set, had doubled Dars Head, forming with the
opposite point in Zealand the entrance of the Great Belt from the
eastward. The wind was fresh and directly adverse, when Mr. Squire,
master of the fleet, acquainted the Admiral that the ship must anchor
for the night, as he could no longer take charge as pilot. Sir James,
who had examined the chart, and could see no great risk in working as
far as Femeren, where the channel became narrow and the soundings more
regular, demanded his reason; which being unsatisfactory, he sent for
Mr. Nelson, the master, and Mr. Webb, the north-sea pilot, but neither
would undertake the charge, or give any satisfactory reason. Sir James
immediately ordered the one master into the starboard, and the other
into the larboard main channels, to see that the lead was correctly
hove; and having directed the Cruiser brig, then in company, to keep
right a-head, he kept the ship under sail till midnight, when she had
worked up tack by tack to Femeren, a distance of six leagues. He was
thus enabled to reach Sir Richard Keats's division on the following
day in time to concert measures for the removal of Romana's army to
Gothenburg.

The conduct of these inferior officers could only arise from a desire
to make themselves appear of importance, especially in the absence of
the captain of the fleet; and their messmates could not but rejoice at
their failure, as it brought them sooner to the scene of action.

On the 14th of August, when the Victory arrived off the battery near
the centre of Langeland, an officer was despatched to the
head-quarters of the Marquis, who embarked on board that ship on the
following morning, and before night the whole of his troops were
afloat; the Marquis was then removed to the Superb, and the convoy
proceeded to Gothenburg, under the orders of Sir Richard Keats. It was
much to be regretted that the fine regiment of Asturias could not be
rescued; but, having reached Copenhagen, they were disarmed by the
Danes and French the moment the intelligence of Romana's rescue was
known.

The following extract of a letter from Sir James to his brother gives
an interesting account of the rescue of Romana's army:

     Victory, off Langeland, 21st August 1808.

     I returned to the Belt from Carlscrona, in consequence of
     information from Admiral Keats, which reached me on the 6th,
     that an overture had been made by a Spanish officer for their
     troops to be withdrawn from these islands. The following day
     the Musquito joined me from the Admiralty, with directions upon
     that subject, and to make trial if any thing could be done;
     fortunately, duplicates were sent to Admiral Keats, which he
     received in the Belt.

     On the 14th, having been detained by contrary winds, I received
     accounts from Admiral Keats, that they had been withdrawn from
     the island of Funen, and landed on Langeland. I joined last
     Thursday, and the same evening an express reached me by the
     Mosquito, with the information that the Russian fleet from
     Cronstadt had sailed, and had been seen off Hango Udde, the
     station occupied by the Swedish squadron; these last having
     gone within the small islands to complete with water. Judge of
     my anxiety, particularly having detached those ships to join
     them, under Sir S. Hood, who received the advice at Carlscrona,
     in the Centaur, and was on the point of sailing to join the
     other two ships, who had proceeded some days before. I trust
     they will find their way to join the Swedes in safety; but it
     is an anxious moment.

     I am proceeding with this ship and the Mars to endeavour to
     fall in with them; all the other ships here have the Spanish
     troops embarked on board them, and on board several small
     vessels taken at Nyborg. It certainly is of the greatest
     importance to have succeeded in withdrawing so large a portion
     of the Spanish army, upwards of 9,000. About 4,000 are left in
     Zealand and Jutland.

     I hope it will not have led to any disaster. I have guarded
     against any to the utmost of my power, but we cannot answer for
     events; and in the course of my service I have never
     experienced greater anxiety than since I have been on this
     station: first, with regard to the expedition and the business
     of Sir John Moore, which for a time paralysed all the naval
     operations, and certainly might have been attended with the
     worst consequences. We must however hope for the best, and
     trust all will turn to good.

Added to the despatches acknowledging this letter, was the following
private note from Lord Mulgrave:

     Admiralty, August 25th, 1808.

     MY DEAR SIR JAMES,

     I cannot let despatches go from the Admiralty without conveying
     to you my hearty congratulations on the important event of the
     deliverance of so large a body of the Spanish troops.
     Rear-admiral Keats has conducted this service with admirable
     talent, zeal, and judgment. We have a report here that the
     Russian fleet has put to sea; and are in anxious hope that they
     may have fallen in your way. The enemy's fate and the public
     interests cannot be in better hands than yours.

     I am, dear Sir James, with great truth,
     Yours very sincerely,
     MULGRAVE.

This service being completed, Sir James hastened back to the Baltic,
and, arriving off Carlscrona, received additional intelligence of the
position of the Russian fleet. Taking along with him the Mars,
Goliath, and Africa, Salsette, Rose, and Ariel, he proceeded to the
northward; and, passing between Gothland and Sweden, made for the Gulf
of Finland, expecting to fall in with the Centaur and Implacable at
certain places of rendezvous. He was not a little disappointed at not
finding them, even at Hango Udd. On the 30th of August he fell in
with the Swedish frigate Camilla, Captain Troile, who came on board,
and gave him the first information of the action which had taken place
between the two fleets; it appeared that the Sewolod, a Russian
seventy-four, which had been disabled by the Implacable, had been
taken and burned by that ship and the Centaur, and that the Russian
fleet had been pursued into Rogerwick, (or Port Baltic,) where they
might be successfully attacked.

This joyful news was communicated to the squadron, and every ship was
instantly cleared for action. The signals were successively made to
bear up, let out reefs, and make more sail. The pilot at the same time
informed the Admiral that he had been often in Rogerwick, which is a
bay in the south side of the Gulf of Finland, formed by the islands of
East and West Roge and the main, and that he could easily take the
fleet in.

At two o'clock, the Swedish fleet,[5] consisting of ten sail of the
line and three frigates, together with the Centaur and Implacable,
were seen at anchor off Rogerwick; a plan of which is given, showing
the position of both fleets. The general signal was made to prepare
for battle; but the Centaur telegraphed that "you must anchor in
thirty-five fathoms," in reply to the Admiral's signal to weigh: this
having been repeated, the signals were made to anchor, furl sails, &c.

     [5] See Appendix, for a list of the English, Swedish, and
     Russian ships.

     [Illustration: Harbour of Rogerwick, showing the positions of
     the English, Swedish, and Russian fleets.]

Sir Samuel Hood, the Swedish Admiral and captain of the fleet, now
came on board; what occurred at this consultation is only known to
themselves. Subsequently, Sir James went on board the Rose; but it was
then too late to reconnoitre the enemy. Next day (31st August) was
spent also in consultation; and on the 1st of September the Victory
and Goliath got under weigh, and stood in to the entrance of the
harbour; and, having silenced a battery on the west side with one
broadside, the Admiral had, for the first time, a good view of the
position of the enemy's fleet, and was convinced that they might have
been attacked. He immediately made known his determination to attack
them on the following day, and orders were accordingly issued to that
effect; the Author was sent on board the Swedish Admiral's ship, not
only with these orders, but to remain on board to explain signals, and
assist in bringing the Swedish fleet into action. Captain Martin, of
the Implacable, was appointed acting captain of the fleet, and Captain
Pipon succeeded him.

In the mean time, the Russians sent on board an officer with a flag of
truce, on pretence of treating for exchange of prisoners: when he came
on board the Victory, he addressed Capt. Dumaresq in the French
language, saying that he did not understand English. Soon after
which, the Author, happening to come on deck, recognised in this
officer Mr. Skripeetzen, his old shipmate on board the Penelope; where
he had been two years a signal midshipman; and, before that, as many
on board the Leviathan. Of course he could speak and understand
English perfectly, and he had actually his signal-book in his pocket.

This discovery afforded no small amusement. It was now evident that he
came on board to make _useful observations_, and his object was
completely obtained. The officers took him below, and showed him the
ship clear for action, each deck having a thousand extra shot added to
the usual number; on some of which the sailors had been exercising
their wit by writing in chalk, "Post-paid"; "Free, George
Canning";[6]--jokes which Mr. Skripeetzen did not seem to relish; and
he quitted the ship evidently confused and mortified.

     [6] The lamented Mr. Canning was then secretary of state for
     foreign affairs; and it was a seaman of the Victory of the same
     name that _franked_ the shot: sailors having an idea that to
     stop a letter post-paid, or franked, is _death by the law_.

The hopes of the Admiral and his officers were now raised to the
highest pitch; every preparation had been made, and the dawn of day of
the 2nd September was waited for with anxious expectation. The wind,
which in the evening had been favourable for the enterprise,
unfortunately veered to the southward before day-break; and, as it
was directly against going in, an attack was impossible. As this
hard-hearted gale continued for eight days, all hopes of being able to
attack the enemy vanished.

The enemy in the mean time moored his ships in a compact line, with
booms moored outside; and, having marched six thousand troops from
Revel, threw up strong batteries on each side, so that his position
was soon rendered impregnable.

Sir James now sent, by a flag of truce, the following letter to the
Emperor Alexander:

     His Britannic Majesty's ship Victory, off Baltic Port,
     17th September 1808.

     SIRE,

     Your imperial Majesty is probably uninformed of the events that
     have recently taken place in the southern parts of Europe.
     Spain has succeeded in rescuing herself from the usurpation and
     tyranny of the ruler of France. Portugal has also extricated
     herself from the baneful hands of the enemy of all independent
     states; the whole of the French forces in that country having
     been compelled to surrender to the British army under Sir
     Arthur Wellesley. It is to be hoped that those events will
     induce the powers of the Continent to unite with Great Britain
     to restore that peace so highly to be desired for the welfare
     of mankind.

     Knowing it to be the object most at heart of my gracious
     sovereign, and that of his Majesty's ally, the King of Sweden,
     should your imperial Majesty be impressed with the same
     sentiments, nothing will afford me greater happiness than to
     have the honour of imparting them to my government, and to
     desist from further hostile operations, upon condition that
     your Majesty will give orders to your forces to desist from
     hostilities against England and her ally, and to withdraw your
     forces from Swedish Finland.

     I have the honour to be,
     With the most profound respect,
     Your imperial Majesty's
     Most devoted and most obedient humble servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ,
     Vice-admiral and commander-in-chief of his
     Britannic Majesty's ships in the Baltic.

     To his imperial Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias.

This appeal to his imperial Majesty unfortunately did not reach St.
Petersburg until the day after the Emperor Alexander had left it, on
his journey to meet Buonaparte at Erfurth; and, in consequence, Sir
James received the following answer from the Russian Admiral
Tchitchagoff, the minister of the Marine:

     St. Petersburg, 12/27 Sept. 1808.

     MONSIEUR,

     La lettre que votre excellence a adressé à sa Majesté
     l'Empereur m'est parvenu à mon retour à St. Petersburg
     conjointement à celle que m'a écrit Monsieur Thornton. Sa
     Majesté n'étant plus dans sa capitale depuis quelque jours, je
     me suis empressé de la lui expédier.

     Pendant mon séjour au Port Baltique, ayant appris que votre
     excellence desiroit savoir si l'échange de nos équipages pris
     sur le vaisseau Le Sewolod, contre des sujets de sa Majesté
     Britannique ou Swedoise pourroit avoir lieu, je suis bien-aise
     de lui annoncer que des ordres ont été donnés au general en
     chef commandant en Finlande de rendre un nombre égal, et rang
     pour rang, des sujets de sa Majesté Swedoise contre les
     prisonniers Russes faits dans le dernier combat.

     En priant votre excellence de vouloir bien transmettre la
     ci-jointe au ministre de sa Majesté Britannique, Monsieur
     Thornton, je dois la prévenir que je n'ai point reçu les
     gazettes que ce dernier m'avoit annoncés dans sa lettre.

     Je saisis avec empressement cette occasion pour assurer votre
     excellence de la considération la plus distinguée avec laquelle
     j'ai l'honneur d'être, De votre excellence,

     Très humble et très obéissant serviteur,
     P. DE TCHITCHAGOFF.

     A son Ex. Mon. le Vice-amiral Saumarez.

The letters addressed to Mr. Thornton, being to the same effect, need
not be given. The exchange of prisoners took place at a subsequent
period.

A negociation now ensued between the Russian and British
commanders-in-chief, for permission that the blockaded fleet should
return to St. Petersburg unmolested, on condition that a part should
be given up by the former. In answer to this proposition, his Swedish
Majesty requiring that the whole should be given up, and Sir James's
demand being for both the three-deckers and half the remainder, the
negociation was broken off, and fire-ships were fitted out as the only
chance of destroying them.[7] In the mean time, the Thunder and
another bomb-ship, covered by the Goliath and Salsette, continued to
throw shells into the fortress, and on one occasion a magazine was
blown up; but the fleet was too far within the harbour for the shells
to reach them, or to prevent their extending a barricade of booms to
prevent the approach of fire-ships. The Erebus and a brig having
however been prepared, an attempt was made on the 20th September; but
failed, owing to the rise of the moon before the vessels could
approach.

     [7] The Erebus sloop and Baltic, besides a brig, were converted
     into fire-ships.

The following is an extract from a letter written by Sir James to his
brother:

     Victory, off Port Baltic, 31st August 1808.

     I have been disappointed in the expectations I so ardently
     formed when I wrote you last Monday. We arrived off Hango Udd,
     expecting all night to fall in with the Russian fleet; but at
     daylight a Swedish frigate joined, with the information that
     the Swedish squadron, with the Centaur and Implacable, had
     sailed on the 25th in pursuit of them, and chased them into
     this harbour; the Centaur and Implacable had cut off their rear
     ship, which was set on fire after her crew had been taken out.

     I anchored at two yesterday afternoon, and had the satisfaction
     to find Sir S. Hood with the Swedish squadron at anchor,
     watching the enemy's squadron in the harbour, who have been
     occupied in fortifying themselves in the best manner; and I
     fear nothing can be attempted with any prospect of success,
     _from what I am informed_.

     I most sincerely lament not to have been in time to join our
     ally, as most probably not a Russian would have escaped. My
     great consolation is, that not a moment has been lost; and,
     when it is considered that I was off here in only eight days
     from the time I left the Belt, it will appear almost
     surprising, particularly with the north winds we experienced.

     Sir S. Hood and Captain Martin are beheld by the Swedes with
     adoration for their heroic attack on the enemy's ship; had the
     Swedes sailed as well as the Russians, not one would have
     escaped.

It was after this letter had been despatched that Sir James
reconnoitred the enemy in the Victory; and, consequently, determined
on an attack.

On the 23rd of September, Captain Bathurst, of the Salsette, and
Captain Trolle, of the Camilla, being sent to ascertain the position
of the Russian fleet, reported that they were so completely
barricaded, that any further attempt with fire-ships would be
fruitless; Sir James ordered the Erebus and Baltic to be restored to
their former condition, the brig having been burnt in the attempt.

In addition to the scurvy, which made its appearance in the Swedish
fleet early in the month of July, the crews were now attacked with a
malignant epidemic, which daily became more fatal; those who had been
affected by scurvy, being predisposed to catch the infection of the
fever, were invariably carried off. A Swedish ship of the line and two
frigates had been loaded with the sick from the different ships, and
sent to Carlscrona. As the month of September advanced, it was
evident that the Swedish fleet could not keep longer at sea; and that,
if a reinforcement did not arrive from England, the blockade must soon
be raised. Lemon-juice, sugar, &c. as well as medical assistance, was
sent to the Swedes, but too late to have the desired effect.

Sir James, having anchored the Swedish ships farther out, persevered
as long as it was possible, and the fleets rode out two heavy gales of
wind in that exposed situation; while the Russian ships lay moored,
with yards and topmasts struck, in the position given as second in the
diagram (page 116).

The Swedish army in Finland had fought with great bravery, but were at
length overpowered by numbers; Åbo, the capital of Finland, was in the
end taken, and that valuable country for ever lost to Sweden. The
King, and subsequently the remains of his army, retreated to
Stockholm, and the campaign terminated decidedly in favour of Russia.

After what has been stated, it will not excite surprise that Sir James
should have had some anxiety about the opinion of the public, as will
be seen by the following short extract, dated 26th September, &c.

     I am anxious to hear what will be said of the occurrences here,
     although I am conscious of having acted for the good of my
     country to the utmost in my power; and I trust the whole of my
     conduct since my first coming upon the station will be
     entirely approved of by government: it is very possible there
     may be those who will be disposed to find fault, however
     unjustly.

It will be seen hereafter, that this apprehension was not ill-founded.

Before the arrival of the Victory and squadron off Rogerwick, Sir
Samuel Hood had despatched his first lieutenant with the intelligence
of the capture and destruction of the Russian seventy-four, Sewolod,
and of the position of the Russian fleet. This officer was, of course,
the bearer of many letters, which described the enemy's ships to be in
a situation easily to be attacked, when the commander-in-chief should
arrive. The expectations of the nation, from the known prowess of Sir
James Saumarez, were therefore raised to the highest pitch. When the
information subsequently reached England that he had not attacked
them, it is not to be wondered at that blame should be attached to him
by the public, who could not be aware of the existence of those
circumstances which frustrated his intentions; and so long did this
impression last, that it was only in 1834 that the Author explained
the causes to his late Majesty, who had always been impressed with the
idea that it was Sir James, and not the Swedish Admiral and Sir Samuel
Hood, that objected to the attack; though certainly the very reverse
was the fact. There can be no doubt that, if Sir James had been
authorised to take command of the Swedish fleet, he would, even
against the opinion of Sir Samuel, have attacked the enemy's fleet on
the 31st of August; and, as the wind changed on the following morning,
he would have been able to carry off all his prizes without any
difficulty. We have ever since lamented that the attempt, as planned
by Sir James, was not promptly made.

The official description of the action with the Russian fleet will be
found in the Appendix; as also Sir James's correspondence with his
Swedish Majesty on the subject.

As it was hoped that some shift of wind would enable us to attack the
enemy, we remained in a state of anxiety for three weeks. In the
interim, intelligence was received of the success of the British arms
in Spain, and of the expulsion of the French from Portugal. Sir James,
in consequence of this information, and of the opinions before
mentioned, and seeing that the enemy could neither be attacked nor
blockaded any longer, weighed anchor on the 30th of September, and in
company with the Swedes proceeded to Carlscrona, where he arrived on
the 9th of October.



CHAPTER IX.

1808, 1809.

     Sir James at Carlscrona.--Arrangements.--Author left in
     Sweden.--Letter from the Swedish Admiral.--Sir James leaves
     Carlscrona.--Arrives at Gothenburg.--Makes arrangements for the
     protection of the Trade.--Leaves Rear Admiral Keats in
     Command.--His departure from Sweden, and arrival in the
     Downs.--Proceeds to the Admiralty, and receives their
     Lordships' high approbation.--Proceedings of the
     Fleet.--Revolution in Sweden.--Sir James reappointed to the
     command in the Baltic.--His correspondence with Mr.
     Foster.--Official notice of the Duke of Sudermania being
     elected King of Sweden.--He confers upon Sir James the Grand
     Cross of the Order of the Sword.

On Sir James's arrival at Carlscrona, he was received with every mark
of attention and respect by Admiral Puké, the governor, and other
authorities. The sick, amounting to 3,000, were landed from the
Swedish fleet; and their hospitals were visited and supplied, as far
as possible, with medicine from the English, while they on the other
hand received fresh provisions, vegetables, and water.

Arrangements being made for the protection of the commerce, and
convoys, which were to sail as long as the sea was open, Sir James,
and the Swedes themselves, aware of the inefficiency of the Swedish
ships of war compared with the English, and desirous that they should
be in a better state to co-operate next season, complied with the
request of Admiral Nauckhoff, to leave the Author with them during the
winter, to assist in their operations of refitting, &c.

On his leaving Carlscrona, Sir James received the following farewell
letter from that officer:

     His Swedish Majesty's ship Gustaf IV. Adolf,
     20th October 1808.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to acknowledge your excellency's letter of
     the 18th of this month, in which your excellency has been
     pleased, in the most polite and flattering terms, to mark your
     satisfaction with the co-operation of the Swedish squadron, and
     the conduct of the commanders of the ships under my orders.

     It is impossible for me to express the sentiments of esteem and
     gratitude for the unremitting and zealous exertions with which
     your excellency on every occasion has been pleased to promote
     the interest of my sovereign and country. His Majesty, my royal
     master, will be duly informed of the valuable services rendered
     to him and to the Swedish nation by your excellency, and the
     gallant flag-officers, captains, and others under your command;
     and I shall certainly regard your excellency's appointment to
     the command of the British fleet in these seas, as a most
     convincing proof of the inviolable friendship which his only
     but most faithful and powerful ally the King of Great Britain
     entertains for him, and for the promotion of Swedish interests.

     I beg your excellency will be pleased to convey my best thanks
     to every admiral, captain, and officer under your excellency's
     command, for all the attention and the very active zeal which
     they have on every occasion displayed. The care and attention
     which the worthy Dr. Jameson, and the surgeon Mr. Duke, have
     given to the sick, will ever be remembered with sentiments of
     sincere gratitude.

     I have the honour to remain,
     With the highest regard and consideration,
     Your excellency's
     Most obedient and very humble servant,
     NAUCKHOFF, Rear-admiral.

Admiral Nauckhoff struck his flag on the 15th of November; at which
time the mortality and sickness had been so great, that only three
frigates could be manned to assist in the protection of the trade.

Sir James left Carlscrona on the 25th October, and, passing through
the Great Belt, reached Gothenburg on the 29th of November. Here he
remained in the Victory until the 3rd of December, during which
interval he made the necessary arrangements for the protection of the
trade in that quarter; and, leaving Rear-admiral Keats in the Superb,
and, under his command, the Orion and two smaller vessels, he
proceeded to the Downs, where he landed on the 8th, and appeared at
the Admiralty on the 9th current. Their lordships were pleased to
signify their high approbation of every part of his conduct, as far as
the naval operations were concerned; but they considered his address
to the Emperor of Russia a stretch of power. Of this the public will
judge. Sir James did no more, in fact, than propose an armistice,
which is undoubtedly the province of every commander-in-chief. It is
indeed true that Buonaparte, who was at Erfurth when the Emperor
Alexander received his letter, made this the basis of a deceitful
overture for peace, in order to gain time, and thereby puzzle the
ministers a little; but this circumstance can never be held out as a
reason for preventing a commander-in-chief at a great distance from
home concluding an armistice, when he is confident it would be
beneficial to the cause on which he is engaged.

In the mean time, the Russian fleet, with the exception of two ships,
which were lost on the passage, succeeded in returning to Cronstadt.
It was said that Admiral Henikoff, who commanded, was degraded in
consequence of his conduct in not engaging the Swedish fleet.

The mortality continued at Carlscrona among the seamen until the cold
weather set in about Christmas, when it was calculated that the Swedes
had lost a number nearly equal to the original crews of their ships,
including sixty-four officers; among whom were fourteen of the rank of
captain (lieut.-col. in their service).

The Orion sailed with the first convoy in November, which she carried
successfully through the Belt. The next ship was the Africa, which,
after seeing her convoy through the Malinö channel, was attacked by
Danish gun-boats in a calm, and suffered so severely as to oblige her
to return to Carlscrona. The Mars, Orion, and two bombs, made an
unsuccessful attack on Eurtholms; but the last convoy which left
Carlscrona, under the Salsette, Magnet, and two Swedish sloops of war,
was the most disastrous undertaking of all. They sailed on the 23rd
December, after the winter set in with unusual severity. A storm
coming on from the northward, brought the already-formed ice down on
the convoy. The Magnet (Captain Morris) was wrecked, with several
others; the rest, with the Salsette and two Swedish armed ships, were
carried back into the Baltic; and, excepting the Salsette, none of
them were ever heard of.

The gallant Captain Bathurst, who afterwards fell gloriously at
Navarin, after suffering severe hardships by being frozen out the
whole winter, during which his ship was drifted twice round the island
of Bornholm, was able to approach Carlshamn in March, and was cut into
that harbour by the Swedes, who afforded him every assistance. The
Swedish armed ships were lost by being carried by the ice on a
sandbank in sight of the Salsette, which had then only four feet water
to spare; the former, immediately they struck, turned bottom up, and
all hands perished, being instantly covered with the ice. The
thermometer, in January 1809, sank to forty-five degrees below zero;
the Sound and Belt were completely frozen over, and many passed
between Sweden and Denmark on horseback over the ice.

The Author did not escape the infection at Carlscrona, but was one of
the first who recovered, and was sent for by the King to Stockholm; it
was, however, the middle of February before he could undertake the
journey.

There were at one time nineteen packets due from England.

Things in Sweden began to take a different turn. The conduct of the
King in disgracing his guards, because, after beating three times
their number of Russians in Finland, they were obliged to retreat, and
could no longer defend Åbo, the capital of that province, rendered him
unpopular; and a conspiracy was formed, at the head of which was
Aldercreutz, the general who had been in Finland, in conjunction with
Aldersparre, who commanded the western army, which was secretly set in
motion for Stockholm from the frontiers of Norway, and had arrived at
Orebro before reports of its progress reached the King.

On the night of the 8th of March, his Majesty issued orders for all
the troops to get under arms at daylight; and on the morning of the
9th he demanded the specie from the bank, intending to set off with it
to Scania. The ministers and officers of state were summoned to the
council; and others, among whom was the Author, were required to
attend his levee at nine o'clock, which was the moment fixed on by the
conspirators, who entered, and told the King that he must not leave
Stockholm. Drawing his sword, his Majesty made a pass at one of the
conspirators: in the mean time the General seized the _staff of
power_,[8] and ordered the others to seize the King, which they
immediately obeyed by forcing him into the next room. They forgot,
however, when they locked the door, that there was a private entrance,
out of which the King immediately escaped, and appearing on the
staircase, below which the Author was standing, he called loudly for
help. Some of the conspirators, however, with great presence of mind,
called to the soldiers on duty, "The King is mad;" on which they again
secured him, and in the evening he was removed to Drottningholm, where
his family resided.

     [8] In Sweden the high officers of state carry a staff, which
     is in fact their commission; therefore the staff of power was
     that of the commander-in-chief of the army, which the King
     always kept; but, when seized by another, he lost the power,
     every person by the law of Sweden being obliged to obey whoever
     is in actual possession of this staff.

The conspirators then went to his uncle the Duke of Sudermania, and,
having represented the state of the King, requested he would assume
the reins of government, to which he readily assented; and a
proclamation was forthwith issued, declaring that Gustaf IV. Adolf was
unable to govern the nation, and that his uncle had assumed the royal
authority in his stead.

This proclamation made no sensation, and things went on as if nothing
had happened.

The new regent and government were of course anxious to have the
matter set favourably before the government of England; and, in order
to prove that the King was actually deranged, the regent submitted to
the Author a paper found in the dethroned King's desk, certainly in
his own handwriting, in which he described himself as the "Man on the
white horse" in the Revelations, and declared that he must fight a
battle under the walls of Copenhagen, which would give peace to
Europe.

The Author, who had only a few days before been named aide-de-camp and
adjutant to the fleet, had no longer any command, and therefore
demanded his passports, which were granted: but, understanding that he
was to be arrested at Orebro, he left Stockholm two hours sooner than
the stated time of his departure, and by pretending that he was a
Swedish officer who had despatches for Count Rosen at Gothenburg, and
that the English officer was some hours behind, he escaped through the
western army, after being questioned and examined by Aldersparre. He
at length arrived safe on board the Superb, which had cut out of the
ice into Wingo Sound; and, being immediately forwarded by a packet,
reached London in only nine days, where he found Sir James Saumarez
preparing to resume his command.

It has been seen that, after Sir James's arrival in London, he was
offered the chief command in the East Indies, which he declined
chiefly because he did not consider his health equal to it; but he was
not allowed to remain long idle. A squadron of the enemy's ships
having escaped the vigilance of the Brest blockading fleet, Sir James
was ordered to hoist his flag in the Mars, and proceed to sea in
search of them: but their return into port before his squadron could
be reported ready, did away with the necessity of his following them;
and the affairs in Sweden rendering more necessary than ever, that an
officer of his rank, character, and abilities should be sent to the
Baltic, he was reappointed to that important command.

In the mean time Captain Searle was appointed to the Victory,
Vice-captain Dumaresq, who had left her in consequence of a severe
family affliction. The former was sent to Corunna, and was one of the
fleet which brought home the remains of the army of the gallant but
unfortunate Sir John Moore. On her return, Captain Dumaresq returned
to the ship, as also Captain Hope, in his former situation; and Sir
James's flag was hoisted in April at the Nore, whence she sailed soon
after. His instructions were to proceed to Gothenburg, and take under
his command all his Majesty's ships and vessels employed and to be
employed in the Baltic: he was to consider the protection of the trade
his principal object; to watch the Russian fleet, and attack it if
possible. In the present state of Sweden no precise instruction could
be given: but he was to preserve as long as possible an amicable
intercourse with the Swedes; to use every means in his power to
encourage and protect the trade of his Majesty's subjects with Sweden;
to be cautious not to give offence to its government, and to afford
protection to such Swedish vessels as might require it; to keep up the
supply of water and provisions in the fleet, so as not to be dependent
on the supplies from Swedish ports; and finally, to guard against the
admission of the infectious disease which was at that time prevalent
in Sweden.

The Victory arrived at her station on the 6th May, when a
correspondence took place between Sir James and Mr. Merry, the British
minister and chargé d'affaires. Sir James informed the latter that the
Alexandria was ordered to take his excellency to England if required,
which offer was accepted by Mr. Merry. Mr. Augustus Foster was left as
chargé d'affaires, who announced his appointment in a letter to Sir
James, dated Stockholm, 7th May. He describes the state of Sweden to
be most unsettled and perplexing, but that no change had taken place
in regard to her relations with England.

The following is a continuation of the correspondence between Sir
James and Mr. Foster:

     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 11th May 1809.

     SIR,

     Having arrived at this anchorage on the 4th instant, and
     Rear-admiral Sir Samuel Hood being parted for England, in
     consequence of the ill state of his health, I opened your
     letter addressed to the Rear-admiral, dated 7th instant,
     informing him of your being appointed his Majesty's chargé
     d'affaires in the absence of Mr. Merry.

     I have the honour to inform you that I shall feel highly
     gratified by any communication you may be pleased to make to me
     relating to his Majesty's service, and which may be interesting
     for my knowledge as commander-in-chief in these seas; and I
     shall be happy in conveying to you any information in my power,
     which may be connected with his Majesty's service.

     His excellency Mr. Merry sailed yesterday for England, on board
     his Majesty's ship Alexandria. From him I received such
     information as he possessed to the period of his leaving
     Stockholm. I propose to detach Rear-admiral Dixon, who joined
     me the 9th instant in the Temeraire, to relieve Sir Richard G.
     Keats; and I propose to continue here for some time longer for
     the more speedy communication with England, as well as to
     receive what you may do me the honour to write to me; giving
     you due notice previously to my proceeding for the Baltic.

     The accounts rumoured of the pretended defeat of the Austrians,
     I trust, will not prove correct; and we must not be surprised
     at the circulation of exaggerated accounts of the success of
     Buonaparte in the present state of affairs on the continent and
     in the northern parts of Europe.

     I have the honour to be,
     With great truth and respect,
     Sir, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To A. Foster, Esq. his Britannic Majesty's
     chargé d'affaires, Stockholm.


     Stockholm, 15th May 1809.

     SIR,

     Scarcely had the letter which I wrote to your excellency late
     last night been received by the person who set out with it this
     morning, when a note reached me from Baron de Lagerbjelke,
     minister for foreign affairs _ad interim_ of this government,
     to inform me of his having important communications to make to
     me, and appointing an hour for a conference with me this
     forenoon.

     The object of this conference was to expose to me the critical
     position in which Sweden is placed at this moment, from her
     desire to remain in amity and maintain her commercial
     intercourse with Great Britain, of which, as he was pleased to
     express himself, she was on the point of becoming the victim;
     and to ask of me to explain to you the full extent of her
     dangers, in the confidence that you would give her all the
     assistance in your power which her perilous situation requires,
     without waiting for instructions for the purpose from his
     Majesty's government; it not being the interest of England that
     this country should be conquered by Russia, although the same
     alliance no longer existed between his Majesty and the Swedish
     government. Buonaparte has evaded the repeated solicitations
     of Sweden to take into his own hands the management of the
     negociation for a peace, which this country is willing to enter
     into with all her enemies; and has referred her for the terms
     of such a peace entirely to the court of St. Petersburg. This
     court, meanwhile, has manifested the most marked discontent at
     the delays which have already taken place in the negociation;
     and has insisted, as a preliminary condition to the treating
     for peace, that this country should enter into the alliance
     against Great Britain. She has also declared the kind of
     armistice concluded by her generals at an end; and Baron
     Schwaren, who had been sent on a mission to St. Petersburg,
     which place he left the 24th ultimo, returned here on the 6th
     instant, bringing intelligence of very formidable preparations
     which are making in Finland for the immediate invasion of this
     country, while the Russian army at Torneo has been considerably
     reinforced.

     Baron de Lagerbjelke gave me the assurances of the Duke of
     Sudermania, that every effort shall be made on the part of
     Sweden to repel the meditated attack of Russia, and that his
     Royal Highness is determined not to yield to the conditions of
     peace proposed by her, as long as he has the means of defending
     himself; but he proposes that your excellency should on your
     part aid him in his defence, by displaying first a part of the
     fleet under your command in the Sound and on the coast of
     Denmark, to deter the Danes from making an attack on the
     southern provinces of Sweden, while the troops and sailors
     necessary for the defence of this part of the kingdom shall be
     withdrawn from these shores. Secondly, that you should engage
     to send such a force into the Baltic sea as to render it
     dangerous for the Russians to make any attempt with ships of
     the line against the harbours, or to carry an invading force
     against the coast of Sweden. And thirdly, that by detaching
     sloops of war, brigs, and frigates in the direction from
     Norrköping and Stockholm, as far as Gefle, you should strew
     such a force in those seas as to intimidate the Russian General
     in Finland from embarking his troops on board the flotilla at
     Åbo, for the purpose of attacking at once the centre of this
     kingdom. Such are the paucity of means, and so few the troops
     which this government can assemble for the defence of Sweden
     against so powerful an enemy, that the invasion cannot in all
     probability but succeed, unless your excellency can send the
     aid the King desires.

     On the supposition that you might act in consequence of the
     above-mentioned representation of this government, I observed
     to Baron de Lagerbjelke, that, from the remoteness of the seas
     in the neighbourhood of Åland and Gefle, it was very probable
     that many of your officers might be unacquainted with them, and
     thereby risk being thrown into situations of danger; on which
     he observed, that through the means of his father, the minister
     of marine, he should take care that pilots should be sent out
     to meet you whenever it was ascertained that any of the ships
     under your command were coming into these seas. The navigation
     of the Gulf of Bothnia promises now to be open in ten days or a
     fortnight; and therefore this government hopes, in case you
     should accede to their wishes, that as little time as possible
     may be lost in the execution of them.

     Three Swedish frigates, as Baron de Lagerbjelke gave me to
     understand, have been ordered round from Carlscrona to cruise
     off these coasts; and 106 gun-boats, hemmemas, and other
     vessels, are at present in or near the water; but the want of
     men from the mortality of the last winter is severely felt, and
     can only be supplied from the south, in case you think fit to
     coincide with the views of this government.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart, and K.B.
       &c. &c. &c.

This was the first communication which had been made by the Swedish
government since Gustaf IV. Adolf was deposed, and his uncle had
accepted the regency with full powers. By this _exposé_ it appears
that their first act after the revolution was to try to make peace
singly with Buonaparte, which was of course refused; because the
Swedes could give him nothing in return, and shutting the ports
against Great Britain was a preliminary that could not be dispensed
with. There was no alternative therefore but to apply to England for
protection against their inveterate enemies the Russians, who had
already possessed themselves of all Finland, and were preparing for
the invasion of Sweden. Mr. Foster added the following private opinion
on the state of affairs, which now became so interesting:

     Stockholm, 15th May 1809.

     SIR,

     I have written you a long public letter upon the wishes of this
     government for your co-operation in the defence of Sweden. My
     private opinion is, that the Swedes, in addition to their
     desire to maintain their commercial relations with us, (which
     of course they wish should be still carried on, though by
     secret understanding,) entertain the design of preventing the
     Russians from interfering in their interior concerns; they also
     hope the French may be ultimately victorious against Austria,
     as they suppose they will not be inclined to the confirming of
     Russia in her conquest of Finland; which considerations make
     this government so backward in accepting the terms proposed by
     Russia. In the mean time they are in a most deplorable state,
     and cannot, I believe, collect 10,000 men: without your
     assistance they must perish or yield; with your aid it will be
     but a respite, I dare say, but perhaps of use for the Swedes.

     The news of to-day is rather better: on the Tagliamento it
     would appear the Austrians are victorious; and in Poland, where
     Colonel Marfeld is said to have cut off some Russians, marched
     on Warsaw, and to be about besieging Dantzic: these latter want
     confirmation. The French, I fear, have crossed the Inn, but
     with great loss.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart. and K.B.
       &c. &c. &c.

To the above letters Sir James returned the following satisfactory
answer, which decided the plan of his operations for this year:

     Victory, Wingo Sound, Gothenburg, 18th May 1809.

     SIR,

     I have just received the honour of your letter of the 15th
     instant, by the messenger Mears, acquainting me with the
     particulars of a conference you had with Baron de Lagerbjelke
     on the present critical state of Sweden, in consequence, as he
     was pleased to state to you, of her desire to remain in amity,
     and maintain her commercial relations, with Great Britain; and
     requesting you to explain to me the full extent of her danger,
     in the confidence that I should give all the assistance in my
     power which her perilous situation required, without waiting
     for instructions from his Majesty's government. Also informing
     me of the formidable preparations making in Finland for the
     immediate invasion of Sweden.

     The assurances made to you through Baron de Lagerbjelke, on the
     part of the Duke of Sudermania, that every effort will be made
     to repel the meditated attack of Russia, and that his Royal
     Highness has determined not to yield to the conditions of peace
     proposed to him, as long as he has the means of defending
     himself, will decide me in employing the fleet under my command
     in the best manner in my power for the defence of Sweden; for
     which purpose an adequate force will be stationed in the Sound
     and on the coast of Denmark, to intimidate the Danes from
     making any attack on the southern provinces of Sweden; and a
     squadron of line of battle ships will be employed in the Baltic
     to watch the Russian fleet, and prevent any attempt on their
     part to carry an invading army against the coast of Sweden from
     the side of Finland.

     As the attention of the Swedish marine will be principally
     confined to the defence of Stockholm, and the coast within the
     Gulf of Bothnia, it is to be presumed that, with proper
     exertion, they will be perfectly adequate to that service; and
     as three Swedish frigates have been ordered to cruise on that
     station, with other armed vessels, and one hundred and six
     gun-boats, no doubt can be entertained of their being for the
     present sufficient to repel the enemy; and I shall readily
     order such further part of the force under my command, as can
     be spared from other services, to co-operate in that quarter.
     The important transactions going on in the southern coast of
     the Baltic, in which the interest of Sweden is materially
     concerned, require a considerable part of the force under my
     orders for that particular service; but I have the honour to
     assure you, that every effort will be exerted for the
     protection and security of Sweden against any attack of the
     enemy.

     You will be pleased to take the necessary measures that orders
     may be given for his Majesty's ships to be supplied with water,
     and such necessaries as they may stand in need of, at
     Carlscrona and other Swedish ports; and pilots when they
     require them.

     I have the honour to be, &c.
     JAS. SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq. &c. &c. &c.


     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 18th May 1809.

     SIR,

     I have replied to your public letter as fully as I can consider
     myself warranted, without having received any special
     instructions on the subject from his Majesty's government; but,
     considering it to be the intention to maintain the terms of
     amity with Sweden so long as it can be done consistently, and
     prevent the country from falling a prey to the common enemy, I
     trust to be right in using my efforts for that purpose; and I
     hope to receive the sanction of ministers on the measure I am
     adopting. I shall proceed for the Baltic the moment it lies in
     my power; but the late prevailing calms and adverse winds have
     prevented the arrival of the ships on their way to join me, and
     no accounts later than the 5th from London have reached this
     place. I sent, three days since, a small detachment of ships to
     take possession of Anholt, where supplies of water could be
     obtained, and which would also be a proper place for convoys to
     resort to in the event of exclusion from the Swedish ports.
     Any information you can favour me with respecting the state of
     the Russian fleet at Cronstadt will be highly desirable, and
     also the probable time they may be enabled to put to sea from
     that port.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To Augt. Foster, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

As the next letter from Mr. Foster gives an account of the Russian
forces and other interesting particulars, we have given it a place
here, which makes any further account of the situation of Sweden
unnecessary.

     Stockholm, 14th May 1809.

     SIR,

     I received this evening the letter which your excellency did me
     the honour to write to me, dated the 11th instant, in answer to
     one which I had written to Rear-admiral Sir Samuel Hood on the
     7th.

     I take the opportunity of a private conveyance to have this
     forwarded to you at Gottenburg; and I beg to assure you that no
     efforts shall be wanting on my part to procure information
     which may be interesting to you as commander-in-chief in these
     seas, and to convey it to you as speedily as possible.

     Our relations with Sweden have not changed materially since Mr.
     Merry's departure. Indeed, this government has had no stated
     form hitherto; though now the Duke of Sudermania is empowered
     to treat for peace, or to continue war. The Russians have a
     disposable force of near 20,000 men in Finland, and 105
     gun-boats, and are building more, which creates alarm here; and
     it has been strongly insinuated by several of the officers of
     government here to me, that nothing could be more grateful to
     them than such movements of the fleet under your command, sir,
     as would overawe the Danes, while they should deter the
     Russians from attempting invasion on the Bothnia coasts of this
     country; or which, by giving them security in Scania, would
     enable them to draw their forces this way.

     Captain Tillard will sail on the 20th instant, with about
     eighteen or nineteen merchant-ships under his convoy.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     Vice-admiral Sir Jas. Saumarez, Bart, and K.B.

Sir James soon after received a letter in the French language from
R.A. Nauckhoff, containing the same _exposé_ and request as Baron
Lagerbjelke had made. He concludes with the following additional
particulars:

     Les états du Royaume de Swede ont déclaré par un acte formel,
     le 12 de ce mois, que le Roi ci-devant, aussi que son fils, a
     perdu tout le droit au trône ou à la couronne de Swede pour
     jamais: c'est la mauvaise conduite dans le gouvernement, dont
     tout le Royaume est mis en misère, qui a causé le malheur de ce
     Roi et sa famille. Le Duc Charles est, en attendant, Regent
     avec tout le pouvoir du Roi, et il sera fait et déclaré pour
     Roi de Swede aussitôt que les états ont eu le tems pour faire
     une autre forme de regence. Dans le moment on apporte la
     nouvelle que les Autrichiens ont totalement battu l'armée de
     Napoleon. Si cela se manifeste, je n'en doute pas que cela
     causerat des grands changemens chez les puissances du Nord.

The attack on the island of Anholt, for which Sir James had previously
obtained the sanction of government, was completely successful. The
detachment consisted of the Standard, sixty-four, Captain Hollies; the
Owen Glendower, thirty-six; Avenger, Rose, Ranger, sloops; and Snipe,
gun-boat: this was reinforced by the marines of the Victory, under
Captain Peter Jones, who particularly distinguished himself.

The governor, having been summoned, refused to surrender; when the
marines of the squadron were immediately landed, under Captain
Nicolls, who was senior officer, and who soon stormed their batteries,
and obliged the governor to surrender at discretion.[9]

     [9] Sir James, before leaving Wingo Sound, sent Captain Acklom
     home with the following letter, and a detailed account of the
     capture of the island, which will be found in the Appendix:

     Victory, Wingo Sound, 24th May 1809.

     MY DEAR LORD,

     It is with great satisfaction I have the honour to inform your lordship
     of the capture of the island of Anholt, which, although not a very
     productive island, will prove of great importance for the purposes as
     stated in my public letters, more particularly when excluded from the
     ports of Sweden. Captain Acklom is a very deserving officer, who has
     been on the station all the winter; being known to his grace the Duke of
     Portland, he flatters himself with the hope of promotion.

     Lieutenant Daniel Ross, acting on board the Kangaroo, is an old follower
     of mine, and a most deserving man. I shall feel greatly obliged to your
     lordship for his promotion.

     I hope to be enabled to sail for the Baltic this evening; but the late
     calms and baffling winds have proved against us, and delayed the ships
     getting through the Belt.

     I have, &c. &c. &c. JAS. SAUMAREZ.

     The Right Hon. Lord Mulgrave.

The objects of this capture were to obtain a supply of water, a
rendezvous for convoys, and the destruction of a retreat for
privateers. Sir James appointed Captain Nicolls governor of Anholt,
which was confirmed by the Admiralty. Rear-admiral Sir Samuel Hood
returned to England on account of ill health, and was replaced by
Rear-admiral Pickmore, who was stationed in the Belt under
Rear-admirals Keats and Manly Dixon; while Rear-admiral Bertie was
stationed at Helsingburg: the former three having the care and
directions of convoying the fleets of merchant ships through the Belt;
the latter through the Sound and Malmö channel. Sir James, in passing
through the Great Belt, visited the station at the island of Spröe,
and afforded protection to a numerous convoy of merchant ships passing
at that time, and trading under neutral colours, under a licence from
the English and the Swedish governments.

After touching at Ystad, Sir James arrived at Carlscrona on the 4th of
June: from Ystad, he wrote the following letter to Mr. Foster:

     Victory, Great Belt, 29th May 1809.

     SIR,

     I had the honour yesterday morning to receive your letter of
     the 19th, inclosing one from Admiral Nauckhoff addressed to me,
     and also the copy of General Wrede's report on the state of the
     north. I have been detained by adverse currents and calms since
     my departure from Gottenburg; but think myself fortunate in
     having been as early as Admiral Dixon, who sailed eight days
     before me, and with whom I fell in yesterday evening off
     Langeland.

     The Danish force of gun-boats in the Belt has been considerably
     increased since last year. The Melpomene frigate was attacked
     by several in the night of the 23rd, and had four men killed
     besides about twenty wounded. Captain Warren, in having drawn
     their attention, succeeded in preserving a numerous convoy at
     anchor near Langeland, which seemed to have been the principal
     object for which they came out. The Ardent having very
     injudiciously landed a party of men on the island of Ramsoe,
     for the purpose of procuring a supply of wood and water, they
     suffered themselves to be surprised, and about eighty men were
     made prisoners.

     I am hastening with all despatch towards Carlscrona, and I hope
     to have the honour of hearing from you in my way off Ystad. I
     think it right to mention, _in confidence_, that I shall not
     have more than six sail of the line of battleships with me,
     until I can be joined by those that may be on their way from
     England.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq. his Majesty's chargé
     d'affaires, Stockholm.


     Victory, off Ystad, 30th May 1809.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to acquaint you with my arrival off Ystad
     this afternoon, and that I have received your letter of the
     23rd instant, informing me of the satisfaction expressed by the
     Swedish minister, M. de Lagerbjelke, at my compliance with the
     request of the Swedish government in affording them all the
     assistance in my power; and that Vice-admiral Stedinck had
     promised to take the necessary steps for the fleet under my
     command being supplied with water and necessaries, as well as
     pilots; and also informing me of the exertions used by the
     Swedish marine for the defence and security of the country.

     As it may be necessary for convoys to pass through the Malmö
     channel, I trust you have represented the expediency of the
     co-operation of the Swedish gun-boats stationed there; and I
     request you will please to signify to the Swedish government
     that all the protection in my power to afford the trade of
     Sweden, shall be granted to them.

     I am proceeding with all despatch off Carlscrona, where I hope
     to have the honour of hearing further from you: as I shall
     probably proceed from Carlscrona off Dalarö, you will permit me
     to have such letters or despatches as may arrive for me at
     Gottenburg from England to be addressed to your care. I have,
     &c. &c. &c.

     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq. his Majesty's chargé
     d'affaires, Stockholm.

     P.S. A boat, spoken with this morning (30th May) from Stettin,
     reports that Colonel Schill had taken possession of Stralsund.

Sir James, while off Ystad, had the honour of receiving on board
Prince William of Orange, who was the bearer of news which had great
effect in deciding the Swedes in their choice of the line of policy to
be pursued at this critical period. This account, which is detailed in
Sir James's next letter to Mr. Foster, led to a correspondence which
showed the nature of his opinion as to the integrity of the Swedes.

     Victory, off Ystad, 3rd June 1809.

     SIR,

     I have the greatest satisfaction in transmitting to you the
     copy of a bulletin, detailing a statement of the important
     victory gained by the Archduke Charles over Buonaparte on the
     21st and 22nd of May. It was delivered to me by his highness
     Prince William of Orange, who, with two attendants, arrived on
     board the Victory yesterday from Colberg, on his way to
     England. There is every reason to hope this victory will have
     been followed up by other important successes, which will
     decide the other states in uniting with Austria to extirpate
     the tyrant of the human race. I am proceeding to Carlscrona,
     where I trust to find letters from you; and, in the present
     critical state of affairs with this country, I hope to be
     forgiven for again repeating my anxious wish to have the honour
     of hearing from you as frequently as possible.

     Admiral Bertie, who is stationed off Helsinburg, wrote to me
     that he has made repeated applications through Mr. Consul
     Fenwick for pilots, but has not been able to procure any: as
     this is an object of great importance, I request you will
     represent it to the Swedish government. He also mentions his
     suspicions that a better understanding exists with the Danes,
     from the frequent flags of truce, and also from some prisoners
     having been exchanged from Denmark, which he states as a
     circumstance very unusual.

     Sir R.G. Keats also informs me, that two ships of the line and
     a frigate are fitting with expedition, intended, as is
     reported, to transfer troops to the eastward; but he adds that
     it was also rumoured that the ports of Sweden are expected to
     be shut against us even before the 14th. Although I feel the
     greatest confidence that there can exist no intention on the
     part of Sweden to deceive, we cannot be too much on our guard
     with that government, should they find it necessary to enter
     upon terms with either Russia or Denmark.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq. his Majesty's chargé
     d'affaires, Stockholm.


     Confidential.

     Stockholm, June 9th, 1809.

     SIR,

     I thank you for, and sincerely congratulate you on, the
     interesting news which you have been so obliging to send me
     from off Ystad. It is complete and glorious indeed, and will
     add to the other reasons I shall entertain for thinking that
     this government cannot mean to deceive us. Their situation is
     certainly a very delicate one; but, till now, I have no reason
     to complain of any insincerity on the part of the Swedes. Be
     assured that, if I had, I should instantly despatch notice of
     it to you. I do not like to venture writing general opinions by
     the common post, and therefore I have appeared perhaps to write
     to you too little at length hitherto. The post is also very
     tardy, or you must have received letters from me of the 23rd
     ultimo; one of the 30th must also be lying for you at Ystad. I
     shall now make a practice of writing to you by every post, as
     you very naturally will be glad to hear even negative news.
     Admiral Bertie's suspicions are very natural for him to
     entertain, but I really believe entirely unfounded.

     The situation of Norway (which, I will confide to you, seems
     more critical for Denmark than for Sweden,) will account for so
     many couriers passing. The desire of peace, openly manifested
     by this country, accounts for their allowing such passage,
     which has for some time been permitted in return for the
     passage through Denmark being allowed to Swedish officers. As
     to a better understanding being supposed to exist with the
     Danes, I had occasion to inquire on this subject the day before
     yesterday of M. d'Engeström, who is the new minister for
     foreign affairs here, and who assured me that the Danish
     government was even so pettish as to prevent the passage of the
     Hamburgh Gazette for some time back. The Russian government has
     demanded the exclusion of our ships from Swedish ports, and on
     this and other conditions have agreed to receive Baron Stedinck
     as negotiator: this they have informed me of, and at the same
     time of their intention to negotiate upon this point, and to
     gain further time. Delay is what they covet in appearance, and
     what in reality appears to be their interest to desire until
     the campaign in Germany is decided; for on it depends most
     probably the portion they will lose of territory, and the
     question even of their independence as regards their conduct
     towards us.

     In the character of the Duke of Sudermania, who was created
     King on Thursday the 6th, I confess also that I place much
     confidence, more perhaps than in that of his ministers. His
     conduct has been loyal and frank, nor does he seem to exhibit
     that pliability in principles too common among this nation.

     I have not time to copy the enclosure which I send you on the
     subject of pilots, which Vice-admiral Stedinck has just written
     out before me, as the post goes in an hour and a half; nor
     shall I perhaps have time to write to Admiral Bertie as I could
     wish, this being post-day for England.

     Two ships of the line and a frigate are arrived off Dalarö,
     with 2,000 some hundred troops, and 500 sailors; and
     twenty-four gun-boats set out the day before yesterday from
     here: fourteen more follow to-morrow or next day. A camp is to
     be formed at Upsala of 10,000 or 12,000 men; they mean to treat
     armed at least, which shows spirit. A Baron Taube has been sent
     to St. Petersburg to ask for passports for Baron Stedinck: he
     went the day before yesterday, and cannot be back under fifteen
     days.

     The Russians are now said to have only about eighty-six
     gun-boats at Åland, but 11,000 men, and to be taking measures
     to defend themselves against you: one of the ships of the line
     is going back to Carlscrona; and a frigate, the Freya, I think.
     The report that the Swedish harbours would be shut against us
     on the 14th, must be attributed to the fears of the merchants,
     I suppose, who are nervous in such a precarious state of things
     as the present.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez.


     Victory, off Carlscrona, 15th June 1809.

     SIR,

     I yesterday had the honour to receive your letter of the 9th
     instant, and although I was before perfectly convinced of the
     good disposition of the present government of Sweden towards
     our country, and of the sincerity of the Duke of Sudermania's
     intentions, I could not do otherwise than make you acquainted
     with the surmises of the two officers next in rank to me in the
     fleet. Your letter has perfectly removed any doubts that would
     have existed upon the subject, and I should place the same
     dependence in the Swedes as at the time of our alliance with
     them: the longer they are enabled to protract the negotiation
     with the Russian government, the more favourable will be the
     conditions of peace they are likely to obtain, as Russia will
     lose much of her ascendancy should Buonaparte be defeated by
     the arms of Austria.

     The different accounts I receive from the Continent state that
     the French army has been very considerably reduced by the late
     actions, and that it is considered to be in a most critical
     situation. A messenger, who arrived yesterday on board the
     Victory, charged with despatches from Mr. Bathurst, informed me
     that, subsequently to the brilliant victory of the 23rd, there
     had been several actions, though of less importance; they had
     all terminated in favour of the Austrian troops. The messenger
     left Baden on the 4th instant; and described in the strongest
     terms the high spirits of the whole army, and the hopes formed
     that the next action would prove decisive, and annihilate the
     French.

     I shall have great pleasure in transmitting to you any accounts
     I may receive of importance; and I return you my sincere thanks
     for the Gazette you did me the favour to enclose to me in your
     letter of the 6th. I beg leave to congratulate you on the
     splendid success that has attended the army in Portugal.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAS. SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq. chargé d'affaires, &c.
     Stockholm.

On the approach of the Victory off the harbour of Carlscrona, the
Admiral wrote the following complimentary letter to Admiral Puké, who
was then commander-in-chief and senior admiral in the Swedish service:

     His Majesty's ship Victory, off Carlscrona, 4th June 1809.

     SIR,

     It is with the highest satisfaction that I have the honour to
     inform your excellency of my arrival off Carlscrona, being in
     my way up the Baltic, with part of the fleet under my command,
     for the defence of Sweden against the attack of the Russian
     fleet, and that I shall use every possible effort to preserve
     the good understanding that has for so many years subsisted
     between our respective nations.

     I shall be thankful to your excellency for any information you
     will be pleased to honour me with that can tend to the
     advancement of the great and good cause in which we are
     engaged; and I am happy in profiting by the present opportunity
     to transmit an official bulletin which I received last Friday,
     giving an account of a most important victory over the French
     army, commanded by Buonaparte in person. This glorious event,
     it is to be hoped, will unite the powers in the northern parts
     of the Continent totally to extirpate the atrocious tyrant, who
     has been so long the scourge of the human race.

     I have the honour to be,
     With sentiments of the highest regard and consideration,
     Sir,
     &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Vice-admiral Puké, &c. &c. &c.
     Carlscrona.

To which Admiral Puké returned the following answer:

     Carlscrona, 7th June 1809.

     SIR,

     I felicitate myself very much on being so happy as to have
     occasion of renewing with your excellency the acquaintance I
     was favoured with the last year. Your excellency's flattering
     letter of the 4th instant gave me a very agreeable remembrance
     of it; and I may give my hearty acknowledgments therefore, as
     also for the news your excellency was pleased to annex.

     The post arrived a short time ago from Stockholm, and did not
     contain any thing of importance, but that matters stand well.
     The German mail has not come, and, in general, the news was so
     contradictory that nobody knew what to believe.

     All our forces on the southern coast being in the necessity to
     be drawn up to the northern parts of the country for repelling
     the attack of the Russians, the coasts on this side will be
     without sufficient defence. It is only in your excellency I may
     fix my confidence, convinced as I am by the good intelligence
     that subsists between both nations, and his Britannic Majesty's
     benevolence towards Sweden, your excellency will not omit to
     protect, as far as possible, the trade from Gothenburg and
     through the Baltic, and prevent all hostile enterprises.

     I should wish to have some of such gun-brigs as your excellency
     can allow, and other small vessels, to send up to the Finnish
     Gulf, where they would be of no little service.

     I include myself in your excellency's friendship, which I shall
     be very proud to possess; and wish no better than that your
     excellency, with all your brave officers and men, with their
     usual success, may frustrate the enemy's projects against us.
     It is with these sincere sentiments,

     I have the honour to remain, &c.
     JOHAN AF PUKÉ.

At Carlscrona Sir James received intelligence of the fate of the
unfortunate Major Schill, who had taken possession of Stralsund; but
whose corps of 6,000, as well as himself, were surprised by a large
body of Danish and Dutch troops and cut to pieces. These accounts, and
a demand for bomb vessels to assist the Swedish flotilla, were sent to
the Admiralty.

In consequence of a solicitation from Baron Stedinck, the Swedish
Minister of Marine expressed the high satisfaction of the Duke Regent
at the arrangement Sir James had made, not only for the protection of
the coasts of Sweden on the south, east, and west, but for his
undertaking to proceed up the Gulf of Finland, to prevent the sailing
of the Russian fleet, with his own powerful squadron.

On the 6th of June, the Duke of Sudermania was elected King by the
States, and took the title of Charles XIII, on which occasion due
notice was given to the Admiral both by Mr. Foster and the Swedish
Minister for Foreign Affairs, Baron Engeström. At this time everything
seemed to go well on the Continent, and the period of the new King's
accession to the throne was thought a proper epoch to sue for peace
with Russia. This, however, was not done without the knowledge of Mr.
Foster, to whom assurances were given that the alliance with England
should not be broken; and in this the King subsequently showed great
firmness. An officer was sent to demand passports for Baron Stedinck,
who was to be the negotiator, and who actually proceeded to the Gulf
of Finland. But the Emperor of Russia, acting under the influence or
fear of Buonaparte, made the shutting of their ports against the
English a preliminary concession before he would either grant a
passport to the negotiator, or a cessation of hostilities. The
attempt, which was indeed intended to gain time until the war between
Austria and France was decided, totally failed, and nothing was left
but to prosecute the war.

An attack on Åland, which had been meditated, was abandoned; and the
plan now was to cut off a division of the Russian army, which had
advanced to Urneo, in West Bothnia, for which extraordinary exertions
were made. In the meantime the Russians, amounting to 11,000, with 84
gun-boats, had, in dread of the approach of the Admiral's fleet,
fortified themselves strongly in Åland, which could not safely be
approached by ships of the line.

Prince William of Orange, who had brought the intelligence from
Colberg of the fate of Major Schill, and been hospitably received on
board the Victory, wrote the following letter, which Sir James
received off Carlscrona:

     MONSIEUR,--Arrivé à Gothenburg, je m'empresse de remercier
     votre excellence de toutes ses bontés pour nous, et des
     facilités qu'elle nous a procurées pour continuer notre voyage.
     Je prends la liberté de joindre ici une lettre à M. Schroeder
     qui en renferme une autre à ma mere à Berlin; priant votre
     excellence de la faire parvenir à Colberg si elle en a
     occasion, je lui en aurai une grande obligation. Je suis avec
     une parfaite consideration,

     De votre excellence, le très devoué Serviteur,
     GUILLAUME, PRINCE D'ORANGE.
     Gothenburg, 6 Mai 1809.

     Monsieur le Vice-amiral Saumarez.

The Victory left Carlscrona on the 20th June, having ten sail of the
line in company, and proceeded to the Gulf of Finland, in order to
blockade the Russian fleet at Cronstadt. Sir James chose a position at
the small island of Nargue, near Revel, as the most convenient place:
on passing Landsort, at the entrance of Stockholm, he sent the Rose
with letters, and to receive any which Mr. Foster might have for him.

The coronation of the new King was to take place on the 29th June. It
was the intention of his Majesty to invite Sir James to assist at that
ceremony, had he anchored at Dalerö, the anchorage for ships of the
line near the entrance of the river of Stockholm; but the Admiral had
proceeded without anchoring, and on that day was off Hang Udd.

On arriving at Nargue Island, which had a Russian governor, but no
fortification, Sir James found a large quantity of wood prepared for
transportation to Revel, which was very acceptable to the fleet; but
the water was not plentiful. The inhabitants of this island, who are
fishermen and speak the Swedish language, are inoffensive people; and
the Admiral, on his arrival, signified that it was not his intention
to molest them.

A correspondence was established between Mr. Foster and Sir James by
means of small vessels; and he was informed from time to time of the
progress of the negotiation with Russia, which was now going on, but
which, as we have already stated, entirely failed. It was proposed
that Baron Platen, one of the most talented men in Sweden, should
proceed to the Victory to confer with Sir James, and decide on some
plan of co-operation against the common enemy. Having received this
proposal from Mr. Foster, Sir James sent the Rose to convey the Baron
to the Victory.

Captain Mansell, of the Rose, was the bearer of the following letter:

     Victory, off Nargue Island, 11th July 1809.

     SIR,

     By the Mary cutter, which arrived yesterday, I received your
     letters of the 2nd and 4th inst. marked _private_ and
     _confidential_; and I return you thanks for the important
     communication you have been pleased to make to me of the
     rejection by Russia of the proposed armistice with Sweden, and
     of the intended plan of the latter to transport a force to Wasa
     to co-operate with General Wrede, and endeavour to force the
     Russian troops in West Bothnia to capitulate, which I sincerely
     hope will be attended with the desired success.

     I have not seen Baron Platen yet; but, should he put in
     execution his intention of running to the squadron, I shall
     readily attend to any proposal he makes to me respecting a
     small part of the force under my orders being stationed off the
     Åland Haf, although the services in the Gulf of Finland occupy
     all the forces I can muster.

     I remember to have had the honour of making the Baron's
     acquaintance, who appeared to me to be a clever and
     well-informed man. Be pleased to convey to him the information
     that, should he honour me with a visit, Captain Mansell has my
     directions to receive him on board, and that I shall be happy
     to concert with him any measures he may suggest for the defence
     of Sweden.

     You will be happy to hear of the success that has attended a
     detachment of this fleet under the command of Captain Martin,
     of the Implacable, in an attack on the Russian flotilla, by the
     boats of that ship, the Bellerophon, Melpomene, and Prometheus,
     under the orders of Lieutenant Hawkey, who succeeded in
     boarding and carrying off six gun-boats, besides one sunk, and
     a convoy of vessels, fourteen in number, which were also
     captured, laden with stores and provisions for the Russian
     troops. It is with concern I have now to state the loss of
     Lieutenant Hawkey, who conducted that attack; and Lieutenant
     Stirling of the Prometheus, Mr. Mountenay, a midshipman,
     besides ten men killed and thirty-seven wounded.

     The Implacable and Melpomene had, previously to this, nearly
     captured a large Russian frigate off Högland; but she escaped
     to Aspö, and, with four other ships of war, proceeded between
     the rocks to Frederickshamn. On the following day they captured
     nine vessels laden with naval stores belonging to the Emperor,
     which they fell in with in Narva Bay.

     I anchored here last Sunday in expectation of procuring a
     supply of wood and water; of the former I found an abundance,
     which had been ready prepared for the Emperor's troops at
     Revel, but was disappointed in being able to obtain but a small
     supply of water.

     I am in anxious expectation of receiving favourable accounts
     from the armies. If Napoleon can but be defeated, the cause of
     Sweden will be materially benefited, and the Emperor of Russia
     kept within proper bounds.

     I am, &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

One of the first acts of his Swedish Majesty after his coronation was
to put into execution the intention of the former sovereign, by
conferring on Sir James the Grand Cross of the honourable military
order of the Sword for his past meritorious service. This was
communicated to him in the handsomest manner; but the honour could not
of course be accepted without the permission of his own sovereign,
which, on application, was most graciously accorded.

The news of the triumph of the British squadron over the Russian
flotilla occasioned great rejoicing in Sweden, and inspired the nation
with new spirit and courage: congratulations were sent from all
quarters. Baron Platen sailed in the Rose from Dalerö on the 20th, and
came on board the Victory on the morning of the 23rd under a salute of
seven guns.

In a letter to Mr. Foster, Sir James says:

"Since the attack upon the gun-boats, not a vessel has been seen upon
the coast; and I hope effectually to prevent any supplies getting to
the Russian troops in Finland excepting over land, which must tend to
retard all their operations exceedingly.

"I have had this day (23rd July) a great deal of conversation with
Baron Platen upon the actual state of affairs, and I feel perfectly
disposed to give every assistance which the too limited means (owing
to the various services required for my whole force) will admit. He
informs me that the service is not likely to be of any continuance.

"I have ordered the Tribune, with the Rose and a gun-brig, to cruise
in Åland Haf. The Tribune is a frigate of the largest class, which I
can ill spare at present. Captain Reynolds will be directed to
communicate with you, and I request you will furnish him with all such
information as he may occasionally profit from.

"Baron Platen has brought me the decorations of Commander of the Grand
Cross of the order of the Sword, a mark of distinction I by no means
considered my services to have merited; and I feel sensibly this
instance of attention from the King of Sweden. The choice fixed upon
for successor to the throne is likely to lead to important events, as
it is probable the Prince of Holstein will have influence enough in
Norway to attach that country to Sweden, which would make up for the
loss of Finland."



CHAPTER X.

1809.

     Blockade of the Russian fleet.--Swedes' expedition, under
     Admiral Puké and General Wachtmeister, sails,--is
     unsuccessful.--Private correspondence with Mr.
     Foster.--Armistice and Peace with Russia.--Peace with
     Denmark.--Proceedings of the Fleet.--State of affairs in
     Sweden.--Fleet returns to Carlscrona, and subsequently to
     England.


The part of the campaign which depended on Sir James Saumarez, namely,
the blockade of the Russian fleet, which consisted of thirteen sail of
the line,--the protection of the coast of Sweden and of the trade of
both nations,--was completely successful. Not so, however, the efforts
of the Swedes: they indeed fought most bravely; and, if any fault
could be found with their general, it was that he was too courageous.
The force of the Russians was too great for their Swedish opponents;
and every attempt made by the latter was in vain, notwithstanding
Baron Platen's wishes were acceded to. Admiral Puké, on receiving his
appointment, left Carlscrona in a ship of the line, and, arriving off
Dalerö, wrote the following letter to Sir James:

     His Majesty's ship Adolf Frederick, off Dalerö, 2d Aug. 1809.

     SIR,

     I do myself the honour to inform your excellency that his
     Swedish Majesty has most graciously been pleased to intrust to
     me the command of his sea and land forces, who are to act on
     the coasts and in the Gulf of Bothnia against the common enemy
     of our respective nations; and I beg to assure your excellency
     that nothing could afford me more pleasure than receiving your
     commands, if ever I can be of the smallest use to your
     excellency. I submit to your excellency's own judgment if it
     should not be useful to the common service to have respective
     officers, who are acquainted with the languages, placed aside
     of the commanders-in-chief. For my part, I should find it very
     agreeable if Lieutenant John Ross, who served last year on
     board the Swedish Admiral's ship, would be permitted to resume
     the same employment on board of this. He is so well acquainted
     with the Swedish language and customs, that I flatter myself he
     would have no objection to this proposition.

     If winds permit, I intend to depart to-morrow with two ships,
     one frigate, six galleys, fifty gun-boats, and some transports,
     carrying 7,000 troops, and proceed up the Gulf in order to
     debark this army on a proper place, so that they might fall in
     the back and destroy the enemy's troops, who at present occupy
     the province of West Bothnia. Vice-admiral Baron Cederstrom
     will remain with one hundred gun-boats and some galleys to
     protect the Swedish coasts opposite Åland. The Camilla frigate
     is left cruising in the Åland Haf, to act in conjunction with
     the British force stationed there by the orders of your
     excellency.

     I should think it very useful for the service we are upon if a
     British frigate and some sloops of war could be stationed at
     Revel, in order to prevent the enemy from sending any
     reinforcement to Åland; and also if your excellency should
     proceed further up in the Gulf of Finland with the British
     squadron, and make such demonstrations as would contribute to
     keep the enemy in uncertainty of an attack on either of the
     coasts in the Gulf. He would thereby be obliged to disperse his
     forces, which in the present case would be of the greatest
     utility for the service.

     I submit all this to your excellency's invaluable judgment, and
     have the honour to remain, with the highest esteem and
     consideration,

     Sir,
     Your excellency's
     Most obedient and most humble servant,
     JOHN AF PUKÉ, Admiral.

     His Excellency Vice-admiral Saumarez,
     Commander-in-chief, &c.

The Swedish councillor of state, Baron Platen, who had been sent to
communicate with Sir James, remained only a few days on board the
Victory, when it was agreed that the Swedish flotilla should be
reinforced, so that there could be no doubt left of its superiority to
that of the Russians. The following correspondence will demonstrate
the amicable feeling produced by the interview.

     Stockholm, 2d August 1809.

     SIR,

     It is with great pleasure I have the honour to return my best
     thanks for all the numberless civilities bestowed on me during
     my last visit. I should be vain were I to consider these as
     paid to me personally; they were given in honour of my King and
     country, so powerfully protected by your excellency, for which
     his Majesty has ordered me to express his highest gratitude.
     In reference to the operations in the common cause, as well as
     to some other matters, I have written to Captain Hope, to whom
     I sent several charts and drawings. I hope he will make out
     what I mean, though I cannot express my ideas as I wish in a
     foreign language.

     Part of the expedition to the north is already under way, and
     the rest will to-morrow set off under the command of Admiral
     Puké. May the Almighty crown the undertaking with success, and
     soon send them back again! Perhaps something might be effected,
     before bad weather puts a stop to operations, with the small
     fleet. Till now, every event seems favourable to the
     expedition; and the knowledge of the chief makes me confident
     that what is possible will be done. How much will Sweden be
     indebted to your excellency for having so powerfully promoted
     the business by combined measures.

     I rejoice in the opportunity this gives me to assure your
     excellency of the high esteem wherewith I am for ever,

     Sir, &c. &c. &c.
     B.V. PLATEN.

     P.S.--It is by the order of his Majesty that I have the honour
     to announce to your excellency that Lieutenant Ross has been
     created a Knight of the order of the Sword, on the particular
     request of the Admiral Puké.


     Victory, Gulf of Finland, 12th August 1809.

     SIR,

     With the greatest pleasure I have received the letter your
     excellency has done me the honour to write, and I have to
     express my sincerest regret at not having been able to enjoy
     for a longer time your valuable company on board the Victory;
     but when I considered how precious every hour must be to your
     excellency at this important epoch, I could not prevail upon
     myself to offer the least delay to your departure, however
     happy it would have made me to postpone it for some days
     longer.

     I hope soon to have the satisfaction to be informed that the
     expedition has been crowned with the most complete success; and
     should the proposed enterprise against Åland be adopted, I
     trust to be able to reinforce the detachment under the orders
     of Captain Reynolds, and contribute, as far as my means will
     admit, to an expedition that has the security of Sweden for its
     object.

     I return you my sincere thanks for the charts you have been
     pleased to send to Captain Hope, and for the attention your
     excellency has bestowed on the welfare of the squadron in
     directing that the ships may be supplied with fresh provisions
     from the island of Gothland, should they require it.

     The unremitted marks of friendship and regard shown to the
     fleet under my command in the different ports in Sweden have
     excited my highest gratitude, and I have not failed to express
     the same to my government.

     I shall take the earliest opportunity to signify to Mr. Ross,
     who is at this time absent from the squadron on a particular
     service, the distinguished mark of favour his Majesty the King
     of Sweden has been pleased to confer upon him for his services.

     I have the honour to be, &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.[10]

     His Excellency Baron de Platen, Stockholm.

     [10] It has been already mentioned that a reinforcement was
     granted to Admiral Puké's expedition; but Lieutenant John Ross
     being at that time acting in command of his Majesty's sloop
     Ariel, and detached on a particular service, the request that
     he might be again appointed as adjutant to the Swedish fleet
     could not be complied with. The following letters from Sir
     James to Mr. Foster are given to show the progress of affairs
     at that time, and how dependent the Swedes were on the issue of
     undertakings in other quarters.


     Victory, Gulf of Finland, 19th August 1809.

     SIR,

     I received by the Mary your letter of the 10th, with the papers
     to the 1st instant from London. I hope the next accounts will
     convey the pleasing information of the complete success of the
     expedition under Lord Chatham, and that so powerful a blow in
     favour of the common cause will induce Austria to renew
     hostilities against Bonaparte. I shall also be happy to hear
     that the expedition to the Gulf of Bothnia has been terminated
     by the expulsion of the whole of the Russian force from Sweden.
     Nothing has transpired in these quarters since my last letter.
     From what I am informed, great discontent prevails in Russia at
     the conduct of Bonaparte with respect to Poland.

     In my last letter from England, orders have been given for the
     vessels that conveyed the Spanish troops from the Danish
     islands to Gottenburg to be restored. This looks as if peace
     was about to take place between Sweden and Denmark; and I am
     informed by Mr. Merry it was a condition demanded by Denmark
     previously to preliminaries being entered into.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq.
       &c. &c. &c.


     Victory, Gulf of Finland, 22nd August 1809.

     SIR,

     I return you many thanks for the letters and despatches you
     have been pleased to forward to me, and which, with your letter
     of the 19th, reached me yesterday evening. It becomes of so
     great importance that I should receive my several
     communications as speedily as possible, that I lose no time in
     hastening the cutter back to Dalarö, and I shall be obliged to
     you to transmit my letters for England that I send by her.

     I have this morning received a letter from Berlin, dated the
     30th ultimo, from a person who had recently left the Austrian
     head-quarters. It was expected that hostilities would be
     renewed at the expiration of the armistice, and measures were
     ordered to be in readiness for that purpose. I also understand
     that information of this being the intention of the Emperor has
     been transmitted to government, and also to Lord Chatham,
     commanding the expedition. I therefore hope we may yet see a
     favourable termination of the campaign.

     With respect to Sweden, I am really anxious to be informed what
     are the intentions of ministers relative to that country, as
     also if there exists any probability of their concluding peace
     with Russia and the other powers.

     On receiving the account of the insurrection on the
     Earthholmes, I sent immediate orders to his Majesty's ships
     that might be at Carlscrona to use their endeavours to take
     possession of them, and I have detached a ship of the line upon
     that service. It is an island of great importance, and I
     sincerely hope it will fall into our hands. I also hope to
     receive accounts of the expedition from Sweden having succeeded
     to its fullest extent, and request you will be pleased to
     transmit to me the earliest accounts that may arrive. I am
     rather surprised at not having heard from the detachment under
     Captain Reynolds.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq.
       &c. &c. &c.

Admiral Puké, having been reinforced by the Tribune, Rose, Hearty,
and some gun-boats, proceeded safely to his destination at West
Bothnia. In every attack on the Russian flotilla he had the advantage,
and he eventually landed General Count Wachtmeister with 7,000 troops
near Umeö. It appears that this general did not take up the best
position for preventing the escape of the Russian general Kaminski,
who, notwithstanding the bravery of the Swedish troops in the battle
of Umeö, succeeded in effecting a retreat on a reinforcement, and at
length compelled the Swedish general to propose an armistice on the
terms dictated by Russia. This led to a peace, by which Russia
obtained the whole of Finland and West Bothnia as far as Umeö.

The terms would no doubt have been still worse had not the English
fleet remained in the Gulf, for there was nothing else to prevent the
Russians from taking possession of Stockholm. It will be manifest,
from the following correspondence, that, under circumstances of heavy
responsibility, Sir James remained to a very late period for the
defence of Sweden and the protection of the commerce of that country
and England.

     Stockholm, 2d Sept. 1809.

     SIR,

     I had the honour to receive yesterday your excellency's letter,
     dated 28th ultimo. Despatches and letters have been lying here
     for you some days: in those which came yesterday you will find
     the official account of the surrender of Flushing. I am sorry
     not to be able to give you such satisfactory intelligence as I
     could wish of the operations of the Swedes, who have failed to
     cut off the retreat of the enemy, although they have gained
     considerable advantages. I enclose to you the Swedish Gazette,
     as I think you have an officer on board who can read it.

     I delivered to Baron Platen your message. He is, however, quite
     despondent as to the possibility now of an attack upon Åland.
     Count ----, it really appears, might have taken a stronger
     position, so as to prevent the escape of Kaminski. The time
     that will now be lost in his pursuit being fatal, renders
     future operations equally so.

     The Baron means to write to you, and I shall detain the King's
     messenger Meares; whom, not having anybody else to send, I am
     obliged to despatch to Dalerö until this letter is ready.

     The negotiation at Frederickshamn, as far as I can understand,
     is proceeding slowly. The demands of Russia continue
     peremptory, as before, upon the cessions required. On the
     article respecting us, some propositions of a modifying nature
     have been offered by the Russians; such as though the general
     preliminary for excluding from Swedish ports is still insisted
     on, that colonial goods, salt, and raw produce of various
     kinds, amounting to almost every thing that is not actually
     prohibited by the Swedish laws, shall be considered as
     exceptions. But on the question of the ships, and particularly
     of the ships of war of Great Britain, I am afraid, in the
     present state of things, that Sweden will not obtain a peace
     without a stipulation for their exclusion.

     Under this conviction I have addressed myself to Baron
     Engerstrom, representing to him the danger that his Majesty's
     ships might be exposed to in keeping the seas at the perilous
     season of the year if no ports were open to them; and I
     requested of him to give me early intelligence if Sweden were
     disposed to consent to this article, and as to when it might be
     put into execution. The Swedish minister gave me the most
     solemn assurances that he would not fail to communicate to me
     full time enough if this country should be obliged to enter
     into such stipulations; and observed that, although necessity
     might oblige them to act against their wishes, yet that they
     would _always be honest_. He likewise remarked that preliminary
     conditions were not at any rate to be put in force until the
     peace was ratified; and that, before that event should take
     place, arrangements were to be entered into relative to the
     ceded provinces, which would necessarily cause a very
     considerable delay; so that he would not look upon a final
     arrangement with Russia as being likely to ensue before the
     winter should set in, and render navigation impracticable.

     The Swedish minister has frequently remarked to me, that, even
     if a treaty should be signed by which Sweden should bind
     herself to exclude us from her ports, such an obligation could
     only extend to those that were capable of defence; but that
     there were innumerable inlets and harbours which were not
     commanded by cannon, and which of course could not be included.
     One of the propositions to be put forward will, I have reason
     to think, be grounded upon this state of the coasts; and it
     will be offered to close the large harbours, mentioning them by
     name, leaving the rest open. I should be glad to know what you
     think of these speculations of the Swedish cabinet on so
     interesting a point. If the Earthholmes are taken, I suppose
     you will not be very anxious about them. I forward to you two
     German papers from Mr. Fenwick, and two of Pelletier's papers,
     which you may like to see, and have an occasion to forward to
     Mr. Drusina. The Hamburg Gazette says the armistice is broken
     in Germany, and there are reports of two battles.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez.


     Victory, Gulf of Finland, 8th Sept. 1809.

     SIR,

     I had the honour to receive yesterday your letter of the 2nd
     inst., and I am truly concerned to find the success of the
     Swedish expedition has been so very inadequate to what was
     reasonably to have been expected, and that the delay in
     endeavouring to cut off the retreat of the Russian troops will
     render it too late to make the intended attack upon Åland. The
     terms persisted in by Russia appear to be very severe; but I
     apprehend Sweden will be obliged to make the most of them, from
     the slender means she has of defending herself during the
     winter months, when the country will be exposed to danger of an
     invasion. It is a fortunate circumstance that the navigation
     has been so long protracted as to enable the trade to proceed
     hitherto out of the Baltic, and as considerable delay must
     still take place before the peace can be ratified, it will
     afford sufficient time for the ships that are loading in the
     Russian ports to assemble at Carlscrona before the exclusion
     can be enforced. The period agreed upon for the last convoy to
     sail from Carlscrona was fixed to the 15th Nov., till which
     time, at least, we must hope the ports will be open, both to
     ships of war and the trade. Should you think it advisable, it
     might be mentioned to the Swedish minister (Baron Engerstrom)
     that if the stipulation of exclusion is absolutely insisted
     upon, that it is hoped that it will not be put in force till
     the winter is too far advanced to admit any ships sailing from
     the ports of Russia.

     It will be proper to know from Baron Engerstrom if the notice
     that was signified in the spring, of not allowing more than
     five or six pendants at a time at Carlscrona or other ports in
     Sweden, is insisted upon at present, in order that I may
     regulate myself accordingly. At the same time, as tempestuous
     weather in going down the Baltic, or other circumstances, may
     render it advisable for the whole squadron to enter Carlscrona,
     I would wish orders to be given for that purpose, and that the
     pilots may be directed to go out to ships making the signal. I
     shall be obliged to you to let me know by the return of this
     vessel the determination of the Swedish government upon this
     point.

     It is my wish to remain in the Gulf of Finland as long as is
     possible, consistent with the safety of his Majesty's ships;
     but as the equinoctial gales may soon be expected, and as it
     will become indispensable to withdraw the ships, particularly
     those stationed in Makelato Bay, I could wish to be informed
     whether it becomes of importance to Sweden for the squadron to
     remain in this sea any longer, and which I also request you
     will let me know, by the return of the vessel that conveys
     this, with as little delay as possible. I forward some papers I
     yesterday received from Pillau; you will find the armistice has
     been prolonged for a fortnight with fourteen days' warning, but
     it was expected hostilities would re-commence the middle of the
     present month.

     I sincerely congratulate you upon the surrender of Flushing. I
     hope we shall soon hear that the other objects of the
     expedition have been accomplished, particularly as far as
     regards the capture or destruction of the enemy's ships in the
     Scheldt. I delivered to Captain Ross the Cross of the Order of
     the Sword, which was enclosed to me by Count de Mörner. He will
     be happy to avail himself of this signal mark of distinction,
     on receiving his Majesty's gracious permission. Permit me to
     request your having the goodness to forward the enclosed to
     Count Mörner.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Augt. Foster, Esq.
       &c. &c. &c.


     Stockholm, Sept. 7th, 1809.

     SIR,

     Your private letter of the 5th inst. has reached me with
     extraordinary despatch. By this time you will, I trust, have
     had mine of the 2nd: I have nothing to add to the statement I
     then made to you of the appearance of affairs in Sweden, except
     that an armistice has been offered by General Kaminski, which
     will probably be accepted. Platen is in great despondency, and
     says he never will be sanguine about anything again. The
     generals have certainly not done as they might. As far as the
     council and the navy were concerned, all was well combined, but
     the army was ill posted, and Wachtmeister has shown that he has
     but a very poor head. Unless the Russians are disposed to
     change sides, the negotiation at Frederickshamn is not likely
     to be benefited by these events. You must calculate on this
     country yielding, if the ministers are pressed strongly, to the
     terms demanded. I see no means they have of resisting. It is a
     mutilated land, and the resources that remain are ill managed,
     while the debt is rapidly increasing.

     Baron de Platen desires me to say he will send you the plan you
     demanded of St. Petersburg by the next opportunity; it is
     copying, and not quite ready. I have the honour to send to you
     a couple of the last French papers. Lieut. Allen delivered to
     me your letter, and I shall endeavour to get him a seat in the
     messengers' carriage to-morrow night.

     I should be glad to know when you think of quitting the Gulf
     with the fleet, and how soon the navigation becomes dangerous.
     If an armistice between the hostile armies in West Bothnia
     takes place, in all probability the squadron in Åland's Haf
     will be no longer necessary there.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez.

     P.S.--I send you a paper of the 26th, a day later than
     any here, which I have got from the packets having been
     detained a day in Harwich. I hope you will be able to
     send the French papers to Mr. Drusina. I beg to submit
     the suggestion of the advantage of as frequent a return of
     the despatch vessel to Dalero, at this period, as is convenient
     to you.

     The armistice between France and Austria appears to
     have been prolonged, some say twenty-eight days, some
     eighteen: it is said proposals have been made to us. I can
     think of none that would be palatable.


     Stockholm, 15th Sept. 1809.

     SIR,

     On the day before yesterday Mr. Reynolds delivered to me your
     letters of the 8th and 9th inst, as also a despatch containing
     three letters addressed to me from Pillau, for which I beg to
     return you my best thanks. I had already taken occasion, some
     days back, to prepare Baron d'Engeström for the moment, when,
     in consequence of the lateness of the season, a formal
     notification might be made to him, on your part, of the
     impossibility of your much longer keeping the seas you are in;
     and I lost no time in soliciting an interview of the Swedish
     Minister for the purpose of obtaining from him the information
     which you desire in your letter above mentioned.

     I stated to his excellency that you were anxious to know
     whether it became of importance to Sweden that the squadron
     under your orders should remain in the sea in which it is any
     time longer. I laid stress upon the circumstance that the only
     object which you now had in remaining in the Gulf of Finland
     was the defence of Sweden, and to cover the expedition in West
     Bothnia; and I did not fail to remark upon the season being
     advanced, and the dangers to which his Majesty's ships might be
     exposed by a longer stay in the Gulf of Finland, though at the
     same time I thought it advisable to dwell upon the sincere wish
     which I was sure you had to do everything in your power, short
     of endangering the safety of the fleet, that might be judged
     desirable by the Swedish Government for the further defence of
     this country.

     Baron d'Engeström asked to consult his sovereign upon the
     answer to be made, and yesterday he appointed an hour in the
     evening for me to wait upon him. I had previously written to
     him in the morning a letter of which the enclosed is a copy,
     from the warmth with which he assured me that at all events,
     and under whatever stipulations, peace might be made between
     Sweden and her enemies. His Majesty's ships under your command,
     to whose efforts Sweden was so much indebted, should have no
     reason to dread the result, or your excellency have cause to be
     anxious, lest an article for the exclusion of British ships
     from the Swedish ports should be suddenly enforced, even if
     Sweden were finally to be under the necessity of agreeing to a
     treaty containing it. I was afraid that the Swedish Minister
     might labour under the mistake of imagining that a suspicion of
     such a state of things being likely to take place, might
     possibly be connected with your desire to withdraw from the
     Gulf of Finland at the present moment, and I therefore judged
     it advisable, without making an official note of it, to write
     the letter, a copy of which I enclose, and which I hope will
     meet with your approbation.

     On seeing the minister I found he was fully sensible of the
     motives by which you were guided; he thanked you for the
     assistance you had given to Sweden on the part of his
     sovereign, who, he said, was penetrated with the delicacy of
     your conduct to this country. If you could not keep your
     station in the narrow Gulf of Finland, he hoped that you might
     be able to remain at least in the Baltic, until the accounts
     from Fredericksham should become more decided; and as to the
     squadron in Åland Haf, he observed, that Admiral Puké was soon
     expected, when the service of that squadron would no longer be
     wanted; he wished it to remain till then, which would be a few
     days longer.

     As I had demanded, in conformity with your desire, if the
     regulation of last spring, which limited the number of his
     Majesty's pendants that might be in Carlscrona or other ports
     of Sweden, was still to be considered in force, he answered me,
     that with respect to the ships under your orders, any number of
     them, or all, might enter into Carlscrona or any other port,
     and procure what they stood in need of; and he offered to give
     me a written engagement to that effect, which I expressed a
     desire to have, and it is for that I wait in order to despatch
     the Hero.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez,
       &c. &c. &c.


     Stockholm, Sept. 16th, 1809.

     SIR,

     Lieut. Reynolds having been so long detained, without entering
     into particulars, I shall only mention that peace is on the
     point of being signed between Sweden and Russia; an officer
     arrived yesterday from Fredericksham, and on the 18th or 20th
     the signature is expected. The exclusion of British ships and
     merchandise is one of the articles; but those under your
     command, and the merchant ships now in the Baltic or at
     Gottenburg, M. d'Engeström has assured me, are to be excepted
     from its operations.

     I have the honour to enclose to you a copy of the note which I
     have this moment received from the Swedish minister, in answer
     to the propositions you had made. The minister remarked to me,
     that though he should not mention it in the note, yet that he
     trusted you, in using the ports of Sweden, would be cautious of
     committing the government of Sweden. Both he and Baron Platen
     are desirous that you should still keep the sea near the Gulf
     of Finland, in order to influence their negotiation; certain
     British goods are still to be admitted. I shall despatch a
     messenger to Captain Reynolds the moment Admiral Puké arrives.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez,
       &c. &c. &c.


     Victory, off Nargen, 19th Sept. 1809.

     SIR,

     I had the honour yesterday evening to receive your letters of
     the 15th and 16th inst., enclosing the copy of one you had
     written to Baron d'Engeström, and of that minister's answer to
     your letter. It affords me great satisfaction to find that the
     Swedish government have so readily acquiesced in the
     representation you were pleased to make to them of the
     expediency of the squadron leaving the Gulf of Finland, in
     consequence of the present advanced state of the season, and
     also of the ready concurrence with the proposal that all the
     squadron, if required, should be admitted into the ports of
     Sweden, without adverting to the number that had been
     previously limited.

     I request you will do me the honour to assure Baron
     d'Engeström, that I shall not withdraw the squadron from this
     station until the weather renders it indispensable for the
     safety of his Majesty's ships, and that, on my leaving the
     Gulf, I shall order a detachment to cruise between Daggerort
     and the Swedish coast, should it be further required. It is a
     fortunate circumstance that the preliminaries of peace were so
     far advanced as not to give a pretext for their being hastened
     by the squadron having been withdrawn from the station, and it
     affords me singular satisfaction to find that the government
     appears so strongly impressed with the measures that have been
     pursued for the welfare of Sweden.

     I shall detach vessels as frequently as possible to maintain
     the correspondence, and I beg to express my sincere
     acknowledgments for the punctuality you have shown in
     permitting me to hear from you by all opportunities that have
     offered.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To Augt. Foster, Esq.
     &c. &c. &c.


     Stockholm, 1st Oct. 1809.

     SIR,

     According to your desire I shall not detain Lieut. Reynolds. I
     have the honour to acknowledge the receipt from him of your
     letters of the 24th, 25th, 26th, and 28th ult., with their
     enclosures, which I have delivered as directed. I have given in
     charge to him your letters which came by the last two mails,
     bringing our accounts from London to the 19th ult. Another may
     be expected to-morrow or next day, as the wind was fair at
     Gottenburg; and according to your wish I shall forward whatever
     may come to your address by express to Carlscrona. I return you
     my best thanks for the newspapers and letter from Koningsburg
     and Pillau, which you were so good as to forward to me.

     I have now received the assurances of the Swedish government
     that British ships of every kind will be received into the
     Swedish ports until after the 12th of November, the time fixed
     by them for putting into execution the stipulations contained
     in the 3rd article of their treaty of peace with Russia. This
     article does not at all refer to the departure from Swedish
     ports of British ships, and therefore I conclude, as I am
     indeed warranted by the declarations of the ministry here, that
     the sailing of convoys from Sweden may continue up to any
     period of the year, but the English flag may not enter any port
     of the country after the 12th of November; you will, of course,
     be best able to judge how this will agree with your
     arrangements.

     I had several days ago spoken to Admiral Stedinck about orders
     to the pilots to be ready at Carlscrona in case you should want
     any number of them, and I received his assurances that every
     necessary direction should be instantly given to that effect.
     The Mercurius has sailed with the Duke of Brunswick's chests. I
     understand a Swedish brig is off Dalerö to give convoy. The
     Hearty is not, owing to contrary winds. I shall inquire about
     the periods when convoys will be required, and let you know the
     results.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez.


     Stockholm, 1st October 1809.

     SIR,

     I think it right you should be informed that the opposition
     here have raised some outcry on the invitation made to you to
     enter Carlscrona. I can perceive even that some of the members
     of the government do not wish your stay there to be long, for
     fear of their being committed, and I really believe, that
     provisions were collected for you in Gothland, in order to
     diminish the necessity of it: finding such to be the case, I
     intimated to Baron Platen, whose frankness and openness on all
     occasions I have the greatest cause to commend, that I would
     write to you, and that I was sure you would find means to avoid
     entering Carlscrona at all, if you heard that any ill-founded
     and unjust suspicions were entertained of your intentions, on
     which he conjured me not to do so; that on the contrary he
     wished you would come in, and that it would have the happiest
     effect if you were to stay there with a fleet a few days, and
     prove to the ill-minded that British honour was to be trusted.

     I cannot but think so too, and therefore I was very glad to
     find that it was your intention to take at least some ships
     into Carlscrona. The fleet, of transports coming from England
     with the Russian seamen, described in the German papers as a
     formidable fleet, has also created some alarm among the
     ill-informed. Harassed and torn as this country has been, it is
     perhaps excusable that the people should be fearful and nervous
     to excess, as to the situation of the small remaining resources
     which they possess.

     I hope to have the honour to hear from you from Carlscrona, and
     that your excellency has had everything you wished there.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart. K.B.

During the time the fleet lay at Nargen roads the ships were not
molested by the Russians, who had marched 15,000 men to defend Revel.
The poor inhabitants on the island were liberally paid for everything
that was supplied to the fleet; some valuable trees were cut down, and
the empty transports which had brought out stores and provisions were
partly loaded with them.

On the 28th of September it became no longer necessary to blockade the
Russians, who had now concluded an armistice; Denmark had done the
same. Sir James, therefore, proceeded to Carlscrona with three sail of
the line only, the remaining ships being distributed in other places
where anchorage could be found.

During the summer, Rear-admirals Bertie and Manley Dixon had been
stationed to protect convoys, the former in the Sound, and the latter
in the Belt. Nothing of any consequence happened except the capture of
eighty men, who were surprised by a powerful body of Danes on the
small island of Romsöe, where they had been to procure wood and water.
The Minx gun-brig was taken off the coast of Norway. Anholt was placed
in a state of defence, and garrisoned by a detachment of marines from
England.

Having entered the harbour on the 5th October, Sir James wrote the
following letter to Mr. Foster, which states a circumstance of rather
a delicate nature, wherein he displayed both tact and prudence.

     Victory, at Carlscrona, 7th October 1809.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to acquaint you of my arrival at Carlscrona
     on Wednesday evening, with three sail of the line only, having
     thought it most advisable to order the others to the Belt and
     off Gottenburg. The permission to admit any number of ships was
     received by Vice-admiral Baron Palmquist as I was coming into
     the harbour, and every possible attention has been manifested
     by the Vice-admiral and all the other Swedish officers towards
     the squadron, which I cannot represent in too strong terms. A
     circumstance of rather an untoward nature has occurred, with
     which I think right to make you acquainted, in case any
     explanation should be required. I was informed that with the
     order to admit any number of his Majesty's ships, Admiral
     Palmquist was also directed to invite me and the captains of
     the squadron to dinner on this day, being the anniversary of
     the King's birth-day. Knowing that government have not as yet
     acknowledged the present sovereign, it would have been improper
     for me to appear on so public an occasion: I accepted the
     invitation, intending to excuse myself as I might find
     necessary. On Baron Palmquist returning my visit yesterday he
     noticed it was the anniversary of his sovereign's birth-day. I
     have this morning sent him a note to excuse myself the honour
     of dining with him, on the footing that my official duties
     would not permit it.

     Admiral Pickmore, Captain Hope, and all the captains dine with
     the Baron. I did not think it proper to prevent this, after the
     great attention paid upon every occasion to the officers of the
     squadron. The motive I have before mentioned must prevent the
     salutes that usually take place on similar occasions.

     I enclose to you a despatch which I received from Pillau
     yesterday, and a German paper I received by the same
     opportunity. It was generally believed that hostilities would
     be renewed on the 5th inst.

     The period of my remaining here is not yet fixed, but I shall
     have the pleasure of informing you the moment I can decide.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To Augt. Foster, Esq.
       &c. &c. &c.

Nothing could surpass the kindness of the Swedes at Carlscrona, and
Sir James left them after a stay of a few weeks with sincere regret.
He proceeded through the Belt, affording protection to a large convoy,
and visiting the different stations. The order not to admit any
British ships of war or merchantmen after the 15th of November, was
dated on the 25th October; but it was considered on both sides as a
matter of form, it being notorious that the Swedes could not prevent
English men-of-war from entering any of their ports if they chose; but
out of delicacy to them, and that there should be no cause of
complaint for not fulfilling the treaty, Sir James did not occupy any
of their fortified harbours, and as little as he could the others. He
touched at Gottenburg to give his final directions about the convoys,
and at Christmas arrived and struck his flag in the Downs. Having
received the high approbation of the Lords of the Admiralty for his
judicious conduct under such extraordinary circumstances, and for the
protection so successfully afforded to the trade, he returned to his
native island, to enjoy for a few months the society of his family and
friends.



CHAPTER XI.

1809-1810.

     Sir James's third year in the command of the Baltic
     Fleet.--Proceeds to Gothenburg and Havre.--Correspondence with
     Mr. Foster, Admiral Krusenstjerna, and others.--Swedes shut
     their ports.--Death of the Crown Prince.--Murder of Count
     Fersen.--Restrictions of the Swedish commerce.--Sir James's
     judicious conduct in that and in several disputes.--Election of
     Bernadotte, and his entry into Sweden.--Correspondence on the
     subject.--Sir James returns to England, and receives the
     approbation of the government and the nation.


We must now revert to the state of affairs in the central continent of
Europe, on which the fate of Sweden so materially depended.
Buonaparte, having withdrawn the greatest part of his troops from
Spain, had planted his eagles at Vienna, and, after the battles of
Aspern and Wagram, had obliged the Emperor of Austria to sue for
peace, which was concluded on the 14th October 1809; by this the whole
sea-coast had been ceded to France, and Prussia was recompensed for
her neutrality by the cession of a part of Galicia; while Joseph
Buonaparte was declared King of Spain, and acknowledged as such by the
Emperor of Austria, who consented to the union of his daughter, the
Arch-duchess Maria Louisa, with Buonaparte, as soon as he had divorced
his wife Josephine, an event which took place in December.

Meanwhile, the ruler of France had proclaimed himself mediator of
Switzerland, and declared that every port in Europe should be shut
against British commerce. Early in 1810 he began to unfold his designs
upon Holland, which, he gradually occupied and annexed to France,
obliging his brother Louis to resign his throne. He subsequently took
possession of the mouths of the Scheldt, the Meuse, the Rhine, the
Weser, and the Elbe. Rome, Holland, Valais, and the Hanse Towns, with
a population of thirty-eight millions, were added to France; while
Hanover was given to the kingdom of Westphalia.

That the politics of Sweden should have undergone a change in
consequence of the extraordinary success of Buonaparte, can hardly
excite surprise; but another untoward circumstance took place, which
seemed to militate against a continuation of an alliance with Great
Britain, namely, the untimely death of the Danish prince, who had been
unanimously elected to succeed Charles XIII, and who, having acted in
Sweden as Crown Prince since the 21st of January 1810, had endeared
himself to the nation as well by his amiable disposition and the
admirable regulations he had made, as by his conduct in Norway, while
opposed to the Swedes, particularly in forbearing to attack them from
Norway, where he commanded a Danish army during the revolution. It had
been falsely and unfortunately circulated that he had been poisoned by
Count Fersen, then Riks-Marskall (prime minister) of Sweden. On the
arrival of the remains of the deceased prince at Stockholm, the Count
fell a victim to the indignation of the lawless and infuriated
populace. The following is an authentic account of that lamentable
event.

     21st June 1810.

     All Stockholm was in an uproar! At noon, the corpse of the
     lamented Crown Prince entered the city by Horngatan, escorted
     by only a company of dragoons, and preceded by several members
     of the court, and finally by Riks-Marskall Fersen, Fabian
     Fersen, and Doctor Rossi. On entering the street, the mob began
     to insult the Riks-Marskall, and soon after to throw stones and
     other missiles. When the windows of his carriage were broken,
     the mob gave a loud hurrah. The people now followed the
     carriage into Nygatan, opposite the inn called Bergstratska
     Husset, into which Count Fersen jumped, already covered with
     blood, but followed by the infuriated mob, who first tore off
     his order riband and threw it into the street; then, having
     stripped him naked, they threw him out of the window into the
     street. Here the mob proceeded to beat him with clubs, and
     trample on him, until death put an end to his sufferings. In
     the mean time, General-adjutant Silversparre and Aldercreuts
     rode through the street, and in vain talked to the people;
     they had no troops, and the assistance came too late, being
     only in time to preserve the lifeless body being torn to
     pieces.

     The fury of the mob being now satiated, and the soldiers having
     fired a few shots among them, they began to disperse, but not
     before many were killed and wounded, and it is believed that
     the remainder of the suite which attended the lamented Prince
     at his death would have shared the same fate as Count Fersen,
     had the military not arrived in time to save them. The body of
     Count Fersen was with difficulty carried off on a sledge. In
     the night the windows of Count Ugglas and several others were
     broken, and it was not until some days that tranquillity was
     restored.

Buonaparte had now sent peremptory orders to enforce his commands that
the port of Sweden should be shut against British commerce, but it was
evident that these orders could never be carried into effect, unless
they had a superiority by sea. The principal ports might, indeed, be
nominally shut, but Sweden could neither prevent the British navy from
entering her numerous unfortified harbours by her own army, or support
troops sufficient for the purpose of defending them. It was therefore
only necessary to make a show of compliance, in order to satisfy the
despotic ruler of France, who had absurdly declared Great Britain to
be in a state of blockade.

It was under these delicate circumstances that Sir James resumed the
command of his Majesty's fleet in the Baltic, and having rehoisted
his flag on board the Victory on the 11th March 1810, he proceeded to
Hawke Roads, which is the outer roadstead to Gottenburg, and was
followed by Rear-admirals Reynolds, Dixon, and Morris. Before leaving
England, Sir James had communicated with Lord Mulgrave, then first
Lord of the Admiralty, on the relative situation of the two countries;
and as it was the wish of his Majesty's ministers to avoid, as long as
possible, committing any hostile act against Sweden, they confided in
the tact of Sir James to pursue the course which he judged most
advantageous to the interests of commerce, and at the same time to
uphold the honour and naval superiority of the nation. The Swedes had
already a sufficient knowledge of the British Admiral's high
character, and our government could not have afforded them a more
decisive assurance of their desire to remain on amicable terms with
them than by sending Sir James with extraordinary powers to act
according to circumstances. On the one hand, they knew that in all
matters of a delicate nature they could place the utmost reliance on
his word, and that they were treating with a person quite incapable of
deception or intrigue; on the other, they were aware that if coercion
became necessary, he would act with decision, and baffle every evasive
manoeuvre.

The following correspondence with Mr. Foster and others, with some
occasional remarks, will convey to the reader some idea of the
important and difficult situation in which Sir James was placed.

     Victory, Hawke Road, 21st May 1810.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to acquaint your excellency of my arrival
     here with part of the squadron under my command, and of my
     intention to proceed into the Baltic as soon as the wind will
     permit. It will afford me the highest satisfaction to renew a
     correspondence from whence I derived such great benefit during
     the time I was employed upon this station last year; and
     although the unfortunate exclusion of British ships from the
     ports of Sweden will render it more difficult at this time, I
     hope it will not be the means of entirely depriving me of the
     honour of hearing from your excellency. As I propose calling
     off Ystad, on my getting into the Baltic, I shall detach a
     vessel to that place for any letters you may have done me the
     honour to write.

     I have, &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

The Victory arrived off Ystad on the 6th June, when Sir James received
the following letter from Mr. Foster:

     Stockholm, 25th May 1810.

     SIR,

     I hasten to reply to the letter which you have done me the
     honour to write from Gottenburg, and to return you my best
     thanks for the communication of your arrival off the Swedish
     coast. It is with great pleasure that I renew a correspondence
     which, as you are kind enough to say, was of benefit to you
     last year, and from which I certainly derived most important
     assistance, and the highest satisfaction.

     I am afraid, however, that the opportunities of writing to you
     will be few. Ystad, from its neighbourhood to Denmark, seems to
     be too much exposed to observation, for this government to wink
     at the correspondence passing that way. It has been hinted to
     me, however, that it might proceed without difficulty through
     the small town of Sölvitzborg on the frontiers of Blekingen and
     of Scania, and I write to Mr. Fenwick by this day's post to
     recommend his making arrangements for the purpose.

     Mr. Consul Smith has transmitted to me a copy of an article in
     your printed instructions, which he says you allowed him to
     make known at Gothenburg, and which, if acted upon, will strike
     at the coasting trade of this country in a manner that I
     scarcely think was contemplated by Government. Indeed it
     appears to me, particularly when I consider the previous notice
     that has regularly been given in Sweden, where measures have
     been taken against his Majesty's interests, that it will be
     liable to the imputation of unfairness, if acted upon
     immediately, vast quantities of Swedish shipping, which was
     sent to sea in the confidence of security from capture, being
     exposed to its operation. I was in hopes that I should have
     heard from you on the subject, and I cannot but flatter myself
     that his Majesty's Government will have forwarded to me
     explanations respecting it.

     The Danes have annoyed the Swedish trade so considerably, that
     I understand strong representations will be made on the subject
     at Copenhagen, and possibly some retaliation may take place
     from this side of the water, if they do not cease their
     proceedings.

     I trust you will have the goodness to let me know if it is your
     intention to order the capture of Swedish ships of all kinds
     which shall be proceeding from one port of Sweden to another.

     I am, &c.
     A. FOSTER.

Sir James had made known at Gothenburg the article in his instructions
referred to in Mr. Foster's letter, for the express purpose of giving
the Swedes timely notice of the step Government had found it necessary
to take; and being still in hopes that the order would be rescinded,
he had not given directions to his squadron to act upon it, although
it appeared from a communication of the same date from Mr. Foster that
his recall was required by Buonaparte, and that his stay at Stockholm
could not exceed six weeks.

The following is Sir James's reply to Mr. Foster:

     Victory, off Ystad, 7th June 1810.

     SIR,

     I had the honour to receive both your letters, dated 25th ult.,
     on my arrival at this place yesterday evening, and I request
     you will accept my best thanks for them. I was much surprised,
     before I sailed from Hawke Road, to find from Mr. Consul Smith
     that you had not received from Government any communication
     relative to the restrictions upon the trade of Sweden, having
     taken it for granted, at the time I received instructions upon
     the subject, that intimation of it would have been made to you
     by the same conveyance. I trust that you have before this
     received explanations respecting it, and that they will prove
     as satisfactory to the government of Sweden as the
     circumstances will admit.

     I have hitherto acted on that part of my instructions with the
     utmost moderation; but, in conformity to these instructions, it
     will not be in my power to desist in future from allowing the
     cruisers to make captures of such Swedish vessels as they fall
     in with, who are not provided with licences from England. The
     depredations by the Danish armed vessels have determined me to
     give orders to his Majesty's ships stationed off Kioge Bay not
     to admit any vessels to enter the Sound, which I have signified
     to our Government.

     The place you have been pleased to point out for the
     correspondence in future is perfectly well adapted, more
     particularly from its vicinity to Hano Bay, the rendezvous
     which I have appointed for the trade, and where I propose to
     proceed on receiving despatches which I daily expect from
     Gothenburg: I shall therefore hope to have the honour of
     hearing from you next by way of Sölvitzborg.

     The information I have received from Mr. Fenwick of the
     lamented death of the Crown Prince must have thrown this
     Government under very considerable embarrassment, and possibly
     may lead to some change in the politics of the country.

     I request you will favour me with any information you receive
     relative to the Russian fleet, as it will in a great degree
     decide the time when I may proceed towards the Gulf of Finland.
     It is with great satisfaction I have the honour to inform you
     that the numerous convoys that have sailed from Gothenburg have
     all cleared the Belt without loss, and the two homeward bound
     convoys are, I hope, by this time far on their way. The one
     under protection of the Edgar and Saturn was off Romsöe last
     Sunday, and the one which sailed more recently was yesterday
     off Dars Head.

     I hope the time is yet very distant, but I trust you will be
     pleased to signify to me the proposed period of your leaving
     Sweden. I will give directions for one of the ships under my
     orders to convey you and suite to Yarmouth, or any other port
     you prefer.

     I have, &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

The Author, then lieutenant of the Victory, was despatched to
Sölvitzborg, where he made arrangements with the authorities for the
correspondence between the Admiral and Mr. Foster, and also for a
supply of fresh beef and vegetables for the fleet, which occupied the
Roads of Hano, where the convoys assembled, the merchants having built
store-houses on the island of Hano, previously inhabited by a few
fishermen. The convoys at anchor there consisted of ships under
various neutral flags, which had licences from Government. These
entered St. Petersburg and every port in the Baltic with British
manufactures or colonial produce, returning with timber, hemp, tallow,
&c. the produce of Russia and Prussia. As soon as they had accumulated
to about 500, and the wind came fair, they sailed from Hano under
convoy to the Belt, where a strong force was always kept to protect
them from the attacks of the Danish gun-boats. The tyrannical decrees
of Buonaparte were thus rendered null and void on this part of the
Continent.

The following letter from Mr. Foster to Sir James exhibits in strong
terms the alarm excited in Sweden by the communication of the
Admiral, while it points but the excellent policy of his not acting
under the circumstances upon his instructions.

     Stockholm, 31st May 1810.

     SIR,

     The situation in which this country has been placed by the
     publication of your orders to capture Swedish ships employed in
     the coasting trade, has created such an alarm that even private
     individuals are afraid to take their passage in the packet
     boats, between Sweden and Stralsund, without they have letters
     from me. Among the rest a M. de Bon, a merchant of my
     acquaintance, who is shortly to proceed to Germany in order to
     be married to a young lady, the sister of a friend of mine, has
     urged me to ask if your excellency means to include the
     Stralsund packet-boat in your general orders for capture, or if
     he can safely hire a vessel to take him there. Any information
     you can give me on the matter will be very agreeable to me.
     Swedish subjects are of course free from being made prisoners,
     as we are not declared at war with Sweden; but my assertion of
     the fact is not considered here of sufficient satisfaction
     without a particular letter to the commanders of his Majesty's
     ships.

     I beg you will let me know if you can allow a young Swedish
     officer to serve on board any of the ships under your command,
     as application has been made to me on the subject.

     Admiral Puké is directing all his attention to the defence of
     Carlscrona; sailors and soldiers have been sent there from
     hence, the latter belonging to the Queen's German regiment, in
     some transports, which it is feared may be captured by some of
     your cruisers. I had the honour to write to you twice by the
     medium of this Government.

     Mr. Jacobi will deliver to you a letter which Mr. Millander, a
     merchant of this place, has requested I would forward to your
     excellency.

     I have the honour to be, &c.
     A. Foster.

The letter conveyed by Mr. Jacobi respected his making a settlement in
Gothland, which might be of use to the Admiral. This, however, became
unnecessary, in consequence of the occupation of Hano, where supplies
were plentifully obtained. Hano was also more convenient for convoys,
and for communicating with England, &c.

Several letters passed between the Admiral and Mr. Foster on the same
subject; at length Rear-admiral Krusenstjerna was deputed to
communicate verbally what could not be committed to paper. This
officer pointed out the harbour of Matwick, only a few leagues to the
northward of Hano, as the situation most suitable for the collection
of convoys under the circumstances. This, being surveyed, was found to
be safe and capacious. It was formed by a number of small islands,
while it was impossible for any power, unless with a superior naval
force, to molest the ships in the harbour.

On the 6th of June directions to rescind the orders to capture Swedish
ships were given. These reached Sir James in a week, after which
things went on smoothly and agreeably, no captures of any consequence
having been made during the time the order was in force. Buonaparte,
finding that his views of restricting British commerce were
frustrated, insisted that the British minister should quit Stockholm;
and Mr. Foster, having only forty hours' notice, arrived at Gothenburg
on the 14th June. Here he wrote the following letters to Sir James,
which will show the state of affairs, and the propriety of the steps
the Admiral had hitherto taken.

     Gothenburg, 14th June 1810.

     SIR,

     I should have written from Stockholm to inform you of my being
     obliged to quit that capital; but the Swedish minister's
     letters to me, conveying the wish of the Government that I
     should depart, gave me but forty hours to prepare myself, and I
     had scarcely time for any other occupation than that of getting
     ready during so short a period. I left Stockholm on the morning
     of the 8th inst. and arrived at Gothenburg this evening. I am
     anxiously waiting to receive orders from home, in order to take
     my departure.

     The Swedish Government has now notified in London its intention
     to shut the ports of Sweden to his Majesty's packet-boats;
     therefore, I expect from day to day that an order will arrive
     for their exclusion. Captain Honeyman of his Majesty's ship
     Ardent has been kind enough to offer me a passage on board the
     Chanticleer, if she can be detained a few days, and I shall
     very willingly and thankfully accept of the offer.

     Baron d'Engeström considered my departure, and the cessation
     of the correspondence between England and Sweden, as a
     necessary consequence of the treaties of peace lately concluded
     by this country, and therefore as not likely to produce any
     change in the present relations with Great Britain; indeed they
     have both long been announced as being to take place. The
     communication, therefore, will still be winked at, as I have
     reason to believe, by the Swedish Government, but it must be
     done privately.

     I have, &c. &c.
     AUGT. FOSTER.

The next letter was dated Gothenburg, 16th June; and after reiterating
the above and acknowledging a despatch from Sir James, he adds,--

     I am sincerely rejoiced at the modifications which have been
     made of your original instructions how to act towards the
     Swedes, and I have great satisfaction in telling you that, even
     previously to my leaving Stockholm, your conversation with Mr.
     Brinkman had been reported to the Swedish minister, and the
     language you had held, and your moderate conduct subsequently,
     in regard to their trade, had made upon his mind the most
     favourable impressions. Both he and the rest of the cabinet of
     Stockholm seemed convinced that you had executed your orders
     with as much mildness and consideration for this country as
     could possibly be expected.

The following is Sir James's reply to these letters:

     Victory, Hano Bay, 20th June 1810.

     SIR,

     I have received the honour of your letters dated the 14th and
     16th inst., informing me of your sudden departure from
     Stockholm, of which I had been previously apprised by Admiral
     Krusenstjerna. However deeply I must regret being deprived at
     this crisis of your important communications, I hope your
     arrival in England will be the means of furnishing Government
     with information relative to the state of Sweden, of which they
     could not otherwise have been in possession.

     The instructions I have received, containing the modifications
     upon the coasting trade of this country, have given me infinite
     satisfaction; and I am happy to find, from what you have been
     pleased to mention on the subject, that the moderation with
     which I have acted has been highly approved of by the Swedish
     Government.

     Having written my last courier to Captain Honeyman, senior
     officer in Hawke Road, directing him to appropriate one of the
     ships upon the station to convey you and your suite to
     Yarmouth, or any other port you desired, I trust he will be
     able to accommodate you to your satisfaction.

     With my best wishes for your speedy and safe passage.

     I have, &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To his Excellency Augt. Foster, &c. &c. &c.

The following farewell letter, written by Mr. Foster to Sir James on
leaving Sweden, gives a more decided opinion on the state of Sweden
than has hitherto been offered. It concludes the correspondence.

     The politics of Sweden have necessarily undergone a great
     change. The death of the Crown Prince has completed the
     disasters of the nation, and such is its present state of
     weakness and discouragement, that I cannot consider the Swedes
     as having any longer a shadow of independence. Their exposed
     local situation, will prevent their taking any offensive
     measures of hostility against us; the futility of any effort of
     the sort prevents its being exacted from them by Buonaparte;
     but I have recommended strongly to the merchants here, who have
     British property, to place it under neutral cover, and by no
     means to expose themselves in any way through a want of proper
     precaution. I have had the satisfaction to find they have
     attended to my advice.

     Give me leave, sir, to repeat my best thanks for the
     communications you continued to honour me with during my
     residence in Sweden, and to assure you that I am, with great
     regard and esteem,

     Sir, &c. &c.
     A. Foster.

     To his Excellency Admiral Sir James Saumarez.

Some false reports having been circulated that the cruisers under the
orders of Sir James had captured several Swedish ships bound to
England and other ports, from which the English flag was not excluded,
the Right Hon. Charles Yorke, then first Lord of the Admiralty, wrote
a private letter to Sir James accompanying the modification of the
order already alluded to, and directing that any captures made under
its operation might be restored. To which communication Sir James made
the following reply:

     Victory, 20th June 1810.

     SIR,

     I have this morning received the honour of your letter on the
     subject of the trade of Sweden, in which you are pleased to
     observe that the Marquess of Wellesley had communicated to you
     that he had received information that some of the ships under
     my orders have detained and captured some ships from a Swedish
     port destined to the port of London, to which I beg leave to
     state that the information must have been incorrect, the
     detention or capture of any vessel of that description being
     contrary to the orders I have given to the cruisers on this
     station, and no report having been made to me of any having
     been detained. I beg further to observe, that to every
     application made to me by any of the merchants, I gave my
     decided opinion that Swedish ships trading to England, or to
     those countries where Swedish produce was admitted, were not
     liable to detention, and that they would not be molested by the
     cruisers under my orders. Knowing the extreme distress that
     Sweden must suffer from the interruption of her coasting trade,
     I acted upon the instructions I received with the utmost
     possible moderation, consistent with the tenor of those
     instructions. They were not acted upon until I had an
     opportunity of communicating with the Consul at Gothenburg, and
     some of the principal merchants, who appeared perfectly
     satisfied with the indulgence I allowed to the trade of Sweden
     under the existing circumstances, and the same has been
     signified to me by the Swedish Government, who have expressed
     themselves satisfied with the mildness and consideration with
     which I have uniformly acted to this country. I shall therefore
     feel most sensibly, if any unfavourable cases have been made by
     misstatements upon any part of my conduct since I came upon
     this station. There being no immediate appearance of the
     Russian fleet putting to sea, I propose to remain here some
     time longer, for the greater facility of communicating with
     England, as well as for accelerating the trade from this
     rendezvous.

     I have the honour to be, with great regard, &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To the Right Hon. C. Yorke.

Everything being now adjusted to the satisfaction of both Governments,
the trade was carried on by means of licences to the ports in Russia
and Prussia, while the Swedish coasters and packets met with no
interruption. The Swedes began to look for a successor to the throne
to fill the place of the late lamented Crown Prince. The candidates
were the King of Denmark, the Prince of Oldenburg, and the French
General Bernadotte, the Prince of Ponte Corvo. The last was proposed
by Count Mörner, to whom he had shown much kindness when a prisoner.
In order to secure his election he sent over a large sum of money by
means of the Swedish Stralsund packets, which performed their voyage
unmolested; and the first intimation of this event was obtained by the
author about the 15th of August, when he met the waggons loaded with
specie on their route from Ystad to Stockholm. Soon after which he was
informed that Admiral Krusenstjerna was to arrive at Carlsham on the
20th, and he accordingly met him with Sir James's assurance, that he
would be received on board the Victory and permitted to depart after
having made his communication to the Admiral.

This will be best explained by Sir James's public despatches to the
first Lord of the Admiralty, of which the following is a copy.

     Victory, Hano Bay, 21st Aug. 1810.

     SIR,

     Admiral Krusenstjerna has done me the honour this morning to
     come on board the Victory, with a verbal communication which he
     has been charged to make to me from the King of Sweden relative
     to the election of an heir apparent to the throne. After
     expressing to me the regard and confidence of his Swedish
     Majesty for my services to Sweden, Admiral Krusenstjerna
     signified to me that he was desired by his Swedish Majesty to
     communicate to me his Swedish Majesty's intentions to maintain
     the harmony and good understanding that subsist between the
     respective nations, in which the interest of Sweden is so
     particularly concerned. In order to the maintenance of that
     harmony, as well as for the existence of Sweden, it was
     indispensable that the Government should be headed by a person
     who was independent, and not liable to submit to the will of
     others. He was directed to inform me that of the four persons
     who have been proposed to be successor to the throne of Sweden,
     the Prince of Augustenburg had declined the acceptance of that
     distinction, in favour of his Majesty the King of Denmark, but
     who, from political circumstances, was _not_ considered
     eligible. The Prince of Oldenburg had also been mentioned, but
     insuperable objections also arose to prevent the choice fixing
     upon his Serene Highness. The Prince of Ponte Corvo, through
     the medium of the Swedish minister at Paris, had offered
     himself a candidate for the high situation, and was the person
     recommended by the King of Sweden to the Diet now assembled at
     Orebro, to be successor to the late Crown Prince.

     Admiral Krusenstjerna was also instructed to signify to me that
     the Prince of Ponte Corvo, in offering himself for this
     distinction, had professed his firm intentions, as far as
     depended on him, to maintain the relative situations between
     England and Sweden, and that his proposing himself was without
     the participation of Buonaparte. He further mentioned that he
     was of all others the person who would have the firmness to
     oppose the intentions of Buonaparte, or his agents and
     ministers, in the intercourse with other countries.

     The Admiral was further directed to signify to me that the King
     of Sweden earnestly hoped that this communication would be
     acceptable to the King, my august sovereign, and that it would
     be considered as an additional proof of his earnest wish to
     preserve the harmony and friendship that have so long subsisted
     between the two nations.

     I requested that Admiral Krusenstjerna would put down in
     writing the substance of the communication he had to make to
     me, which he declined, being contrary to the instructions he
     had received. I have, however, stated the particulars of the
     whole communication, as nearly as I possibly can from memory.

     I have the honour to be, &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To the Right Hon. C. Yorke, &c. &c. &c.

The Swedish Government, aware that objections would probably be made
by the English ministers to the election of a French general in the
service of Buonaparte, as successor to the throne of Sweden, had so
managed that the above communication should not be made until too late
for any remonstrance. The following message from the King to the Diet
had been delivered, and their decision was expected before Admiral
Krusenstjerna could return to Orebro.

"His Royal Majesty Charles XIII, King of Sweden, &c. Our most gracious
proposition and message to the Diet now assembled respecting the
election of a successor to the Crown of Sweden," &c.

     Orebro, 10th August 1810.

     At this crisis the States of Sweden having met, and since the
     last Diet more than three months having elapsed, every good
     Swede must have reflected on his situation. After great
     misfortunes and innumerable troubles, the kingdom appeared to
     be a little calm. Three treaties of peace which have taken
     place have unfortunately diminished the territory of Sweden. A
     noble Prince at the side of the throne, by his virtue, talents,
     and abilities, promised new regulations and orders, which the
     King and the people had already forwarded. His manner of
     appointing the army gives an excellent proof of the good choice
     made by our native country; but a great national misfortune
     occurred, by which our hopes were destroyed.

     His Royal Majesty dwelt on that hope, and overwhelmed with
     grief, his sorrowful heart beheld Sweden's last misfortune. The
     Crown Prince, Carl August, is no more, and a cloud has overcast
     the joyful and bright days of our native country. With a heart
     rent by sorrow and affliction, his Royal Majesty has assembled
     the Diet, on this occasion to repair the loss. His Royal
     Majesty sees on our side endless disputes and disturbances
     throughout the realm. His Royal Majesty's years are far
     advanced, and he wishes to employ his last days for his
     people's repose. He will be happy when he has seen his people
     unanimous, and their swords sheathed, and the laws and
     constitution kept sacred; then he will end his days happily,
     and at the present time will give them a proof of his love for
     his native country by proposing a successor to the throne,
     whose talents, virtues, and abilities are universally admitted.

     With the utmost tenderness for the welfare of his subjects, he
     now recommends a prompt decision on the choice of an heir to
     the Crown, and offers to the voice of his people, as his
     choice, the Prince of Ponte Corvo, whose name is brightened by
     his glorious deeds and laurels of honour, and whose
     unparalleled services deservedly obtained them. His renowned
     knowledge as a statesman has astonished every body; his
     mildness and compassion, even to an enemy, have gained him the
     respect and affection of all ranks. Separated from the
     misfortunes which have hitherto attended Swedish warriors, we
     must judge of the Prince with the most tender sensations, and
     with them he will use the sword. Indeed, all the circumstances
     have convinced his Royal Majesty, and having maturely
     considered the nation's public and secret affairs, his Royal
     Majesty recommends him to be elected as his heir.[11]

     [11] Translated from the Swedish by Lieutenant J. Ross.

According to this recommendation the Prince of Ponte Corvo was elected
on the 21st of August, the very day on which the communication was
made by Admiral Krusenstjerna, but, as it was reported, not without
opposition by the friends of the son of the deposed King, Gustavus
the IVth, Adolphus, and it was even said that had the numbers on each
side been counted the majority would have been in his favour.

After Sir James had sent off the despatch of the 21st, he had another
conference with the Swedish Admiral, who then returned with Sir
James's assurance that the conference should be faithfully reported.
On the 22nd he sent off another courier with a despatch, of which the
following is an extract:

     Victory, Hano Bay, 22nd August 1810.

     SIR,

     Having heard the various motives assigned by Admiral
     Krusenstjerna for the election of the Prince of Ponte Corvo to
     be the successor to the Crown of Sweden, I observed to him that
     I extremely regretted that this communication had not been made
     in time to enable me to obtain the sentiments of my Government,
     previous to the election taking place. That it was probable the
     election of a general officer in the service of the most
     inveterate enemy that England had to oppose would be highly
     obnoxious to his Majesty's Government, and I earnestly urged
     him to entreat the King of Sweden to delay the election until I
     could receive a return to the letters I would immediately send
     to England by an express. I repeatedly pressed this point to
     Admiral Krusenstjerna, who intimated that the election would be
     decided before he could return to Orebro, as it was understood
     to take place during the present week.

     On his observing that Prince Ponte Corvo was the only one of
     the four candidates that could be accepted by Sweden, and
     requesting me who, in my opinion, ought to be elected, I
     immediately replied that I considered the son of the deposed
     monarch, Gustavus Adolphus, was the person who naturally
     presented himself as the most proper successor to the throne of
     Sweden, and that the age and state of health of the reigning
     monarch led to the expectation that he would live until the
     Prince became of age. He stated that the King at this time
     required the aid and assistance of a military character,
     possessed of strength of mind and energy to govern the country,
     and who also would have the spirit to maintain her in her
     foreign relations, and in resisting the power of Russia and
     France, which he said Bernadotte had faithfully promised to do.

     Admiral Krusenstjerna expressed repeatedly his confidence in my
     reporting the communication in the most favourable terms to his
     Majesty's ministers, adding, that on this would greatly depend
     the light in which it would be considered. I uniformly replied,
     that was not in my power, but that his Swedish Majesty might be
     assured of my transmitting a faithful report of what he had
     done me the honour to communicate.

In a Postscript to this letter, which was addressed to the Right Hon.
Charles Yorke, he says,--

     Lieutenant Ross of the Victory, who went on shore with the
     Swedish Admiral, was requested to inform me, that he had
     omitted to mention, that the Prince of Ponte Corvo had promised
     to invest all the property he possessed, said to amount to
     eight millions sterling, in Sweden, as a pledge of his
     intentions to maintain the country in her foreign relations.

The next packet from England brought the accounts of Sir James's
promotion to the rank of Vice-admiral of the Red, and also the
confirmation of several appointments made by the Admiral on the station.
We may now mention the answer given by Mr. Yorke to the two last
despatches, although dated on the 18th of September. After acknowledging
the receipt of them, communicating the election of Bernadotte as
successor to the Crown of Sweden, he says,--

     These interesting papers, which confirmed accounts that had
     been previously received of this extraordinary transaction,
     have been communicated to the King's ministers. I have at
     present only to express to you my sense of the prudent and
     proper manner in which you appear to have conducted yourself on
     this occasion in your conversation with the Swedish Admiral,
     and to acquaint you that the earnest desire entertained by his
     Majesty's Government of preserving the relations of peace and
     amity with Sweden, as long as possible, remains unalterable.

About this time two untoward events took place, which threatened a
commencement of hostilities between the two nations. The one was the
attack of the Hero's boats on a Danish privateer lying in the Swedish
harbour of Marstrand, in which a midshipman was killed, and others
wounded; and the second was the conduct of Captain Acklom, of the
Ranger, in spiking the guns of the Swedish armed schooner Celeritas.
On these, however, concessions were made on both sides; Captain
Newman, of the Hero, was wrong in attacking an enemy's vessel under
the guns of a Swedish fortress without apprising the Governor of his
intention, while the Governor was no less so in giving protection to
an enemy's vessel which came there with the avowed intention of
attacking the Hero's convoy. Capt. Acklom, though not justified in his
proceeding, did it under the impression that she was affording
protection to an illicit trade, and to French vessels fitting in
neutral ports; while on the other hand it was notorious that such
trade was carried on.

To return to the correspondence. The following letter was received
from the Swedish Admiral, dated

     Orebro, 29th August 1810.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to inform your excellency of my arrival at
     this town on the 24th, and that on the following day I was
     introduced to his Majesty, who graciously permitted me to
     relate the contents of the conference with your excellency,
     which I had the honour to hold on the 21st. His Majesty, of
     whose particular regard I have been intrusted verbally to
     assure your excellency, expressed to me even on this occasion
     his most sincere wishes and his firm resolution to maintain, as
     much as will depend on him, the moderate system and good
     harmony which still subsist between our respective nations.

     The election of a successor to the Swedish throne was executed
     on the 21st, three days before my return. I do myself the
     honour to enclose for your excellency's information a true copy
     of the act of election. The obligation therein prescribed the
     successor to turn over to the religion of this country, and to
     resign all his foreign titles and employments, will, I hope,
     serve as a proof to convince your excellency that no French
     interest can have directed or imposed upon the free choice of
     the representatives of the nation. The Prince of Ponte Corvo is
     really; in my private opinion, the only man who, at the head of
     the Swedish Government, will be capable to oppose the despotic
     influence of Buonaparte and his agents, to maintain the
     independence, and promote the true interest of the Swedish
     nation.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     M.P. KRUSENSTJERNA.

The rest of the correspondence related to the adjustment of the
differences before mentioned. Sir James was satisfied with the
declaration on the part of the Swedish Government that no protection
should be afforded to Danish and French armed vessels, while on the
other hand the Swedes were satisfied with Sir James's disapproval of
the conduct of Captains Newman and Acklom, requesting that no further
notice might be taken of these officers. In like manner were adjusted
the differences occasioned by the legal capture of a vessel loaded
with drugs and medicines, and another with oil and tallow from St.
Petersburg; the former had been sent to England, but was released, the
latter was given up on security being pledged for her cargo, which was
eventually repurchased by the owners: on all these occasions the
author was employed confidentially.

Sir James now rendered a great service by prevailing on Government to
allow the trade of Sweden and Swedish Pomerania to remain unmolested,
on condition that French armed vessels should not be fitted out at
Stralsund and other ports on that coast; he also granted licences for
ships to import medicines and grain into Sweden, without which the
country must have been reduced to great misery.

The Russian fleet, which consisted of about eight sail of the line,
made no disposition of moving from Cronstadt; it was therefore
unnecessary for the fleet to proceed to the Gulf of Finland, and Sir
James directed the whole of his attention to the protection of the
commerce, in which he completely succeeded by the judicious
arrangements and the disposition of the naval force under his command.

Towards the close of the season, and in compliance with the wishes of
the Admiralty, he despatched three sail of the line to England, and
left Hano Bay in the Victory on the 10th of October, only two days
previously to the return of Admiral Krusenstjerna, a circumstance much
regretted by both.

On arriving in the Belt, with a convoy of no less than a thousand sail
homeward bound, it was intimated that the French Prince of Ponte
Corvo, the newly elected successor to the throne, was at Nyborg, and
permission to cross the Belt was demanded and obtained from the
Admiral for his yacht to pass unmolested, which he did on the 14th of
October at the time this immense fleet was at anchor off Spröe. A
scene so novel to a French general, and so interesting to his Royal
Highness under the present circumstances, could not but make a deep
impression, while it conveyed some idea of the wealth and power of the
British nation; and he has subsequently told the author that it was
the most beautiful and wonderful sight he had ever beheld, being one
of which he had never formed an idea. The day was very fine; the fleet
was anchored in a close compact body, with the Victory in the centre,
bearing the Admiral's red flag at the fore, surrounded by six ships of
the line, and six frigates and sloops disposed for the complete
protection of the convoy.

The yacht, with a Swedish flag containing the Crown Prince, passing
within a mile of the Victory, was distinctly seen, and escorted by
some barges from the men-of-war until past the whole of the ships; the
convoy soon after weighed anchor, when the Royal stranger had the
pleasure of seeing them all under sail and proceeding to their
destination, regardless of the enemies who occupied the adjacent
shores.

The Victory arrived at Gothenburg on the 18th October, and thence
despatched the large convoy to England. On Sir James's arrival he
received despatches informing him of the probability of the
Franco-Dutch fleet at the Scheldt attempting, if they escaped the
north sea fleet under Admiral Pellew, to force their way into the
Sound; at the same time it was not yet certain that the Russian ships
at Archangel would not try to effect a passage into the Baltic. Sir
James therefore found it necessary to concentrate his force in Hawke
Roads, and felt confident that he could still protect the trade, if
not prevent the superior fleet from entering the Sound, to Copenhagen.

An event now took place which occasioned considerable embarrassment,
namely the escape of the deposed King of Sweden, Gustavus IV,
(Adolphus) who got on board the Tartarus, from Riga, and, after
calling at Matvick, came through the Belt and arrived at Gothenburg
before Sir James could have an answer from Government as to his
permission to go to England, which was his avowed intention. Sir
James, after paying his respects to him, complied with his urgent
request to be sent in the Tartarus to England, and Sir James, without
waiting longer, ordered Captain Mainwaring to take his Majesty to
Yarmouth. The Swedes were much pleased at this, as they dreaded the
consequences of his remaining long on board an English ship of war at
Gothenburg. His arrival and residence in England need not be further
referred to: the anxiety of the Swedes on his account was soon
relieved by the intelligence that it was not the intention of
Government to interfere in his behalf, or with the internal Government
of Sweden.

The new Crown Prince arrived safely at Stockholm, and contrary to the
expectation of every officer on board the fleet, excepting Sir James,
gave manifest proofs of his independence of French influence, and of
his intentions to cultivate the friendship of Great Britain, although
he could not be pleased that the Swedish Government Stock, into which
he had placed so large a sum when at a high rate, fell again to par,
as it was before. It would appear, however, that Buonaparte, who had
given his sanction to the advancement of Bernadotte with great
reluctance, was displeased at the beginning with his conduct, and he
consequently gave an order for the confiscation of all British
property in the Swedish harbours. Notwithstanding the earliest
information of this decree was given by the Swedes, a considerable
number of shipping and merchandise came under it, and Sir James having
withdrawn his force from within the Baltic, owing to the lateness of
the season, it was no longer in his power to rescue it in that
quarter; but he had still a sufficient force in Hawke Roads, and
might, had he been compelled to retaliate, have totally destroyed the
city of Gothenburg.

On this occasion the author was sent to communicate with Count Rosen,
the worthy governor of that city, whose word and honour could be fully
depended on, and he received his solemn assurances that it was not the
intention of the Swedish Government to act upon the declaration which
it had been forced to make, contrary to the wishes of the Swedish
nation, and particularly offensive to the Crown Prince. He had
represented to Government the incalculable injury which the British
Admiral, with the force still at Hawke Roads, might do to the city and
the commerce, and recommended that every facility should be given to
the English merchants to cover and remove their property.

The following are the declarations and explanation of them given by
Count Rosen.

     1st. The Swedish Government declares war, it is true, against
     Great Britain; but it is not said that _any measures_ of active
     hostility are to be had recourse to.

     2nd. Should it be found that there are any British merchant
     ships in Swedish ports they are to be _detained_ (no mention is
     made of confiscation or even sequestration). It will be
     recollected that the declaration of the 24th April prohibited
     the entry of British vessels, and we believe there are none in
     Swedish ports.

     3rd. It is declared that there is a sufficient quantity of
     colonial produce now in Sweden for the internal consumption of
     the country; no more shall be allowed to be imported, nor
     shall any be exported from Sweden _to the Continent_; but
     nothing is said of the trade with the islands or with America,
     nor is it stated that a fresh supply shall not be imported when
     the stock at present on hand is consumed, and we apprehend that
     it will be difficult to fix the precise quantity necessary for
     the home consumption, without leaving any surplus for
     exportation. It is understood that the communication with
     England will be continued, but it is necessary it should be
     done with caution, and the Government recommends it should be
     weekly, and that the mails and passengers should be landed at a
     place to be pointed out.

Count Rosen assured the Admiral, both through the author, Consul
Smith, and others, that he was instructed by the Swedish Government to
inform Sir James Saumarez that it was not their intention to follow up
the declaration by any act of hostility.

Having received these assurances, Sir James, notwithstanding that the
officers with whom he was surrounded were of a different opinion,
conceived he could rely on the sincerity of the Swedes, and determined
that, at all events, he would not commit the first hostile act. With
his usual moderation he therefore remained quiet at anchor until he
had given time to the merchants to do all that could be done, and then
prepared to leave Sweden without firing a shot against her.

In the mean time Sir James received the approbation of Government for
his judicious, firm, and moderate conduct, which was fully
acknowledged on all sides to have been hitherto the means of
preserving peace and good will between Sweden and England. Mr. Yorke
says in his last letter,--

     I embrace this opportunity of expressing the high approbation
     of the Board, as well of the steps you have taken for receiving
     and sending to England the King of Sweden (Count Gottorp) as of
     those for collecting such a force in Hawke Roads for the
     purpose of checking the enemy.

Admiral Krusenstjerna concludes his farewell letter to Sir James in
the following words:

     I am perfectly persuaded that my Royal sovereign will enjoy the
     greatest satisfaction in accepting the assurances your
     excellency has been pleased to communicate, of his Britannic
     Majesty's intentions to preserve the harmony and good
     understanding that exist between both nations, intentions
     which, for the benefit and prosperity of both countries, it has
     been an object of his Swedish Majesty's earnest wishes and most
     studious endeavours to inspire in the British Government. The
     zealous support which your excellency has been pleased to give
     for promoting this great interest, entitles your excellency to
     the GRATITUDE of the Swedish nation and the most distinguished
     regard from its sovereign. It is with sentiments of the most
     perfect esteem and consideration that I have the honour to be,
     &c.

     P.K.

Sir James had now received accounts from England that the enemy's
fleet in Holland had moved up the Scheldt for the winter, and that
the Russians had abandoned their project of bringing their ships from
Archangel. Peace had been made between Russia and the Porte, and their
troops were withdrawing towards Poland. The Victory sailed from
Gothenburg on the 28th of November, and on the 3rd December arrived
safely in the Downs, whence Sir James proceeded to London to receive
the thanks of his Majesty's ministers and the nation for his zealous,
able, judicious, and temperate conduct, and for the important services
he had rendered to his country during this eventful period.



CHAPTER XII.

1811.

     Buonaparte declares he will conquer a "Maritime
     Peace."--Illness of George III.--Prince of Wales Regent.--Sir
     James obtains leave of absence.--The Victory sent to Lisbon
     with troops.--Attack on Anholt.--Gallant defence of the
     garrison.--Sir James continues in the Baltic at the request of
     ministers.--Letters respecting Anholt.--Letters from the Duke
     of Brunswick and answers thereto.--Arrival in Sweden of Sir
     James.--Letters to Mr. Yorke and Admiral
     Reynolds.--Negotiations on the sequestration of English ships
     at Carlscrona.--Conference with Baron Tawast.--Written document
     from the Baron unsatisfactory.--Letter from the Admiralty.--Sir
     James remonstrates with the Swedish Government.--Evasive
     answer.--Further correspondence.--Value of sequestered
     property.--Capture of two Danish privateers.--Gallant conduct
     of Lieut. St. Clair and Mr. Purcell.--Determination of Russia
     not to accede to the terms of France.--The Crown Prince places
     implicit confidence in Sir James.--Arrival of Mr. Thornton.--He
     is smuggled into the city of Gothenburg.--Amicable confirmation
     of the Ghent treaty.--Situation of the fleet.--Sir James's
     letter.--Disaster of the St. George and convoy.--Admiral
     Reynolds's letter.--Arrival of St. George at Wingo.--Sailing of
     the fleet.--St. George and Hero's convoy put back.--Sail
     again.--Melancholy wrecks of the St. George and
     Defence.--Captain Pater's narrative.--Remarks.--Loss of the
     Hero and convoy.--Proceedings of the Victory.--Remarks on
     crossing the North Sea.--Sir James arrives at Spithead.


The beginning of the year 1811 was remarkable, as being the period at
which the tyrant of France had arrived at the summit of his career. He
had seized upon Hamburg and every other place on the Continent,
whence a seaman could be procured, and had declared that with one
hundred and fifty sail of the line he would humble the navy of England
and conquer a "Maritime Peace." The disasters of 1810, that ended with
the loss of his Majesty's ship Minotaur, and a large convoy on the
Haake Sands, and the illness of his Majesty George the Third, which
terminated only with the life of that excellent Monarch, threw a damp
on the spirits of the nation, and caused a suspension of all Royal
functions until the appointment of the Regency, on which his Royal
Highness the Prince of Wales took the reins of government at one of
the most eventful periods that ever occurred in the history of the
empire.

Sir James, immediately after his communications with the Admiralty and
the Ministers, applied for and obtained leave of absence. His ship,
the Victory, with seven sail of the line under Sir Joseph Yorke, was
employed in transporting troops to Lisbon, which was surrounded by
Massena's army; but she returned in time to receive Sir James's flag,
which was hoisted on the 2nd of April.

The island of Anholt, which had been garrisoned by seamen and marines
under the command of Captain James W. Maurice, of the Royal Navy, was
attacked on the 23rd of March by a body of Danish troops, amounting to
1600 men; but they were so well received by the Governor and his
brave crew (for the island was on the establishment of a vessel of
war) that they were forced to capitulate, with the loss of their
leader Major Melstedt, two officers, and 500 of their people in
killed, wounded, and prisoners; while Capt. Baker, of the Tartar, and
Captain J.P. Stewart, of the Sheldrake, chased and took several of
their gun-boats employed on that expedition.

Sir James had finished his three years in the Baltic, the time
generally prescribed for an Admiral commanding-in-chief to remain on
one station, and it was now his turn to have a command in the
Mediterranean, which was considered more lucrative; but his conduct
during his command in the Baltic had so completely gained the
confidence and good-will of the Swedes, and it had now become of such
importance to keep them, with such a general as Bernadotte at their
head, on good terms, that he was requested to continue on that most
important command, as the only chance of accomplishing the desirable
object of a Northern coalition. Nothing could be more delicate or more
difficult than the situation in which Sir James was now placed, for
while it required firmness to uphold the dignity of the empire which
he represented, as the only diplomatic functionary as well as
commander-in-chief in the North, tact, wisdom, and forbearance were
equally indispensable. These qualities Sir James possessed in a
superlative degree, and the Author, who from his knowledge of the
Swedish language was employed confidentially on all the communications
which subsequently took place, can testify that it is to the wise
policy of the Admiral that the nation owes the success of these
negociations. It is the opinion of Swedish and Russian diplomatists
that had Sir James not been employed, the Northern Coalition, which
was so fatal to the ambitious views of Buonaparte, never would have
taken place; and for such a service no reward which it was in the
power of Government to bestow on him would have been too great. There
can be no doubt, had the lamented Perceval not met with an untimely
end by the hand of an assassin, that he would at the close of 1812
have been rewarded by the Peerage which was so long unaccountably
withheld.

Sir James was still in London when he received the statement of the
discomfiture of the Danish attack on Anholt, a particular account of
which may be seen in James's Naval History.

The following letters on this gallant affair, which have not yet been
published, will be perused with interest.


     London, 10th April 1811.

     MY DEAR SIR,

     I most heartily congratulate you on the brilliant success of
     the brave garrison under your command in having repulsed an
     attack of the enemy's select troops, consisting of as many
     thousands as the whole band opposed to them amounted to
     hundreds, and by the gallantry and intrepid conduct of your
     valiant heroes, succeeded in taking a greater number of
     prisoners than your whole collected force. Mr. Yorke having
     signified to me that he should write to you, I can only assure
     you that this gallant affair is the theme of every one's
     praise, and has excited the admiration of all, and I have no
     doubt but your services upon this occasion will be duly
     appreciated by the Admiralty. I have great pleasure in adding
     that Lieutenant Baker is made a commander, and that Captain
     Torrens and Lieut. Fisher are recommended to his Royal Highness
     the Prince Regent for Brevet rank.

     I have, &c. with high regard,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     Captain Maurice, Governor of Anholt.

In Captain Maurice's letter the Danish force was estimated at 4,000
men, but it does not appear that their numbers exceeded 3,000,
including the crews of the gun-vessels. Sixteen hundred men only were
landed, and the defence which these made was highly creditable to
them. It has therefore been justly said, that "if the British gained
honour by their victory, the Danes lost none by their defeat." The
unexpected arrival of the Tartar frigate and Sheldrake sloop turned
the scale; the Danish gun-boats being unable to cope with that naval
force, abandoned the brave troops they had landed as soon as the
frigate and sloop were discovered. Before the fleet left England, Sir
James received the following letter from his Serene Highness the Duke
of Brunswick:

     Great George Street, London, 6th April 1811.

     SIR,

     I take the liberty to recommend to your kindness Major
     Nordenfeldt, who is gone to Germany on private affairs of my
     family. I imagine that the difficulties he has met with in
     returning to England are the cause of his having been more than
     six months absent. If circumstances should allow him to pass
     from Colberg to this country, I request your interference on
     his behalf, and that you would have the goodness to communicate
     to him the inclosed order of Government[12] for landing either
     at Portsmouth or Yarmouth.

     I am, &c.
     William, Duke of Brunswick.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez.

     [12] The order alluded to was from the Treasury to the Customs,
     desiring the officers to transmit the effects of the Duchess of
     Brunswick to London under the office seal.


To this letter Sir James wrote the following answer:

     St. James's Place, London, 6th April 1811.

     SIR,

     I have received the honour of your Serene Highness's letter
     respecting Major Nordenfeldts, and inclosing one from Mr.
     Harrison of the Treasury, which I shall have great pleasure in
     delivering to Major Nordenfeldts, should I meet with him on his
     way from Colberg, and I shall also use my endeavours to
     facilitate his means of returning to England.

     I have the honour to be,
     With the highest respect, &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To his Serene Highness the Duke of Brunswick.

The deposed King of Sweden, after having spent the winter in England,
was embarked on board the Horatio to return to the Continent, but
choosing to remain longer than necessary on board that ship, Sir James
wrote instructions how to act respecting him; but he had fortunately
disembarked before Sir James's arrival in the Baltic. He sailed from
the Downs on the 28th of April and arrived at Gothenburg on the 2nd of
May 1811, where he was received joyfully by the Swedes, although they
could not publicly give vent to their feelings.

On Sir James's arrival he wrote the following letter to the Admiralty:

     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 3rd May 1811.

     I have the honour to acquaint you with my arrival here
     yesterday morning, after a short passage of only four days from
     the Downs. Admiral Reynolds arrived here with the detachment
     from Hosley Bay ten days before, and Admiral Dixon yesterday
     evening. The weather proving unfavourable, I have received no
     communication from Gothenburg, except by a letter from Mr.
     Consul Smith, informing me that, on his having signified my
     arrival to the Governor, he immediately despatched a courier to
     Stockholm, agreeably to orders he had received from thence, and
     that when the courier reached Stockholm, it would determine the
     commander-in-chief Count Essen's journey to Gothenburg, which
     had been postponed until the account of my arrival was
     received.

     The Consul adds, that everything was very tranquil hitherto,
     and that I should see him soon on board the Victory. I
     received letters from Mr. Fenwick informing me that the Danes
     were fitting out more than double the number of privateers and
     armed vessels than they did last year, intending, if possible,
     to obstruct the passage of the convoys through the Belt. This
     is a service that I fear will be attended with much hazard and
     difficulty, if the trade is carried on to any considerable
     extent.

     The island of Anholt is threatened with a second attack, and
     will require stationary force for its protection.

     I am, &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To the Right Hon. C. Yorke, &c. &c. &c.

On the 4th of May Sir James received the alarming intelligence that
the cargoes of both goods and colonial produce at Carlshamn, were
ordered by the Governor of Carlscrona to be discharged and conveyed up
the country. Admiral Puké had also ordered three of the largest
merchant ships to be fitted as block ships for the additional defence
of Carlshamn, which was considered as a bad omen.

No one, excepting Sir James, doubted that this was an act of
hostility, and that a retaliation on our part would speedily take
place. The Admiral, however, judged that it was only to keep quiet the
French agents. He accordingly forbore to proceed to hostilities, and
wrote the following letter to Mr. Yorke:

     Victory, Wingo Sound, 11th May 1811.

     SIR,

     I received two days ago the enclosed from Mr. Fenwick,
     informing me of the unloading of the cargoes on board the
     neutral vessels at Carlshamn, and that the British goods and
     colonial produce had been conveyed up the country. Although Mr.
     Fenwick appears under very considerable alarm at the
     circumstance, I do not believe it to have been with any hostile
     views against our commerce, although it certainly requires
     explanation, and I have written to Mr. Smith upon the subject.

     I expected to have received some communication from Stockholm,
     in consequence of the courier which was despatched upon my
     arrival; but nothing has as yet reached me. This is rather a
     dubious crisis, and I trust soon to be better informed of the
     sentiments of the Swedish Government towards us; at the same
     time, I have no reason to believe they are more hostile than
     last year.

     I have the honour to be, &c.
     Jas. Saumarez.

     To the Right Hon. C. Yorke, &c. &c. &c.

At the same time Sir James wrote the following letter to Rear-admiral
Reynolds, who had been ordered to Hano, the place of rendezvous, which
is only six leagues from Carlshamn.

     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 11th May 1811.

     MY DEAR REYNOLDS,

     This will be delivered to you by Mr. Wilkinson, the gentleman I
     mentioned to you on leaving the Victory: he proposes
     establishing himself upon Hano Island for the furtherance of
     commercial arrangements, and as he is well known as a person of
     respectability, I beg leave to introduce him to your friendly
     offices.

     I have not been able as yet to obtain any explanation of the
     extraordinary circumstance that has taken place at Carlshamn,
     and I am as yet uninformed whether it has been a business of
     the merchants only, or by direction of the Government. As soon
     as I can receive any information, I shall write to you by a
     courier; in the mean time, we cannot act with too great
     moderation in the present state of affairs.

     Believe me,
     With the highest regard, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To Rear-admiral Reynolds, &c. &c. &c.

Meanwhile Sir James, instead of making any hostile demonstration, most
readily complied with the request of Count Rosen, the Governor of
Gothenburg, to grant him a licence for a vessel to sail to Lubeck for
medicine and drugs for the use of Sweden, and enclosed him passports
for Baron Stedinck for the purpose of allowing two vessels to proceed
to St. Petersburg, to convey his excellency from thence to Stockholm.
He concludes his letter thus: "I take this opportunity to express the
satisfaction it affords me to have it in my power to comply with your
wishes," &c. (14th May) making no mention of the affair at Carlshamn.

On the 17th Mr. Smith came on board the Victory, being desired by
Count Rosen to inquire whether, in the event of differences between
Sweden and Norway, the hostile measures of Sweden would be opposed by
Sir James, to which he replied that he was not authorised to make any
opposition to such an attack, but that he did not consider himself
justified in supporting it without having instructions from
Government; at the same time Sir James received information by an
officer who had been some time a prisoner at Christian Sand,
representing that place as open to an attack in order to capture the
merchant vessels therein, as well as the flotilla.

It was evident that the Swedes were very intent on the possession of
Norway, either by negotiation or otherwise; but it was questionable
whether such an addition would be advisable. Sir James was of opinion
that if Norway could be rendered independent of Denmark or of any
other country, it was not improbable that the inhabitants of that
country would accede to proposals to that effect, if assured of the
support of our Government and the advantage of our trade to them. Sir
James both personally and by letter, previously to his coming on
board, had expressed to Mr. Smith that the sequestration of the
British property at Carlshamn had been by no means satisfactorily
explained, and requested that an account of this apparently
unjustifiable measure should be speedily given, assuring them that
nothing short of the full restitution of the property would be
accepted, and requiring that his strongest remonstrances should be
transmitted to Stockholm without delay. The consequence was the
appearance of the Baron Tawast, who came with a flag of truce
ostensibly to treat for the exchange of prisoners, but virtually to
explain the affair of Carlshamn. The usual articles for the cartel
were exchanged, ratified, and published, and need not be inserted
here; but the true mission of the Swedish general will be best
understood from the following letter, which Sir James wrote
immediately after the conference.

     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 23rd May 1811.

     SIR,

     I request you will please to inform the Lords Commissioners of
     the Admiralty that Major-General Baron Tawast,
     commander-in-chief of the Swedish forces at Gothenburg and the
     coast adjacent, in the absence of his excellency Count Essen,
     having yesterday come on board his Majesty's ship Victory,
     under a flag of truce, for the purpose of entering into an
     arrangement with me for the exchange of prisoners, and other
     points connected with the present state of affairs between our
     respective nations, informed me, that he was instructed to
     communicate to me, in the most confidential manner, that it was
     the earnest wish of the Swedish Government to keep up the most
     amicable terms with Great Britain; and that it was not
     intended, under any circumstances, to commit any acts of
     hostility whatever; that the supplies of water and fresh
     provisions for the use of the squadron should be facilitated
     both at Hano Bay and Gothenburg, for which purpose picquets
     should be withdrawn from the points the most convenient for
     these articles to be received; that the correspondence, both by
     post or by courier, should be continued unmolested; and that,
     in the event of any British subjects being made prisoners on
     any part of the coast, they would be immediately liberated, for
     which purpose the cartel intended to be ratified had been
     proposed. That the appearance of any hostile measure was only
     intended for demonstration, and in order to elude the
     vigilance of French spies, who might be dispersed in the
     country.

     With respect to the late transaction at Carlshamn in landing
     the cargoes from the Russian or Danish vessels, it was in
     retaliation for the Swedish property sequestered last year in
     the ports of those nations, but that the measure was not
     intended to operate against merchandise belonging to British
     merchants under any other flag, the whole of which would be
     secured, and the underwriters, _secretement_, indemnified for
     the value of the cargoes that were insured in England.

     I strongly represented to Baron Tawast that the merchandise and
     colonial produce on board the Russian vessels were positively
     the property of British merchants trading to the Baltic, under
     licences from one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of
     State, and which had been left in one of the ports of Sweden
     upon the strength of the declaration made to me in the month of
     November last year, that the property of British merchants
     would be secured to them, notwithstanding the imperious
     necessity which Sweden had been under of declaring war against
     England; and that his Majesty's Government would doubtless
     expect the same to be restored; or that the merchants would be
     indemnified for the full value of the cargoes landed from the
     vessels under the Prussian flag; and I requested him to put in
     writing what were the real intentions of the Swedish Government
     upon that subject; but this he positively declined, nor would
     he allow Mr. Consul Smith, who was present when this discussion
     took place, to insert any part of it in writing. I signified to
     Baron Tawast, for the information of the Swedish Government,
     that it was far from my intention to commit any act of
     hostility against Sweden, and that I was confident it was the
     wish of my Government to keep upon an amicable footing as long
     as circumstances would possibly admit; that I received
     instructions to allow the coasting trade of Sweden to pass
     unmolested, and that I had reason to hope it might be extended
     to the ports in Swedish Pomerania, on which the Baron laid so
     great a stress, but that I was very apprehensive that the late
     measures adopted against the British property at Carlshamn, and
     the want of more satisfactory explanations than he appeared
     instructed to make to me upon that subject, could not fail
     being very ill received by my Government.

     Baron Tawast was particularly solicitous that the communication
     which he made to me should be considered in the strictest
     confidence, and expressed his hopes that the whole of the
     conference would be kept a profound secret, which I assured him
     I should take particular care to signify in the statement I
     transmitted for the information of Government.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     Jas. Saumarez.

     To J.W. Croker, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

On the 24th May, the Author being sent confidentially by the Admiral
to insist on some written document to explain the views of the Swedish
Government in the sequestration of British property at Carlshamn, he
obtained a promise, in presence of Mr. Smith, that the demand should
be complied with after the arrival of the Stockholm post that evening;
and accordingly on the following day the Baron Tawast transmitted what
he termed the substance of his verbal communication with Admiral
Saumarez.

     1. That the ships under Prussian colours loaded with colonial
     produce were detained as reprisals for Swedish ships detained
     and confiscated in Prussian ports.

     2. That the same step has been taken with the Danish ships, in
     consequence of their having captured vessels belonging to
     Sweden.

     3. That Sweden has been forced by imperious demands to
     confiscate all colonial produce found at Carlshamn under
     whatever flag, that the cargoes are put into safe stores, and
     that the ships are permitted to depart paying nothing, and that
     these steps are taken to avoid great inconvenience and to hope
     for better times.

     4. We engage to indemnify all merchandise insured in England,
     therefore, only those merchants who have neglected to insure
     will lose.

     5. Colonial produce belonging to Swedish subjects will not be
     seized or confiscated.

     6. Ships having made false declarations, and found loaded with
     warlike stores, will be confiscated, as also in time of peace.

     7. It is engaged to give every possible facility for watering
     and supplying the English fleet with provisions: the same shall
     be given to Admiral Reynolds at Hano.

The above explanations stating the substance of the conference,
according to Baron Tawast, being by no means satisfactory to Sir
James, and indeed at variance with what he had inferred from it, he
wrote the following letter to Mr. Smith:

     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 25th May 1811.

     SIR,

     I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date,
     enclosing Baron Tawast's explanations of the late transactions
     at Carlshamn. With regard to the first article, it does not
     appear that any indemnification is held out for the property
     landed from the vessels under the Prussian flag at Carlshamn,
     which is represented as an act of retaliation for similar
     cargoes, belonging to Sweden, having been confiscated in the
     Prussian ports. Neither does the 4th article hold out any
     indemnification but to such property as may have been insured
     in England, it stating that the loss would fall only upon those
     merchants who have neglected to insure their cargoes. I request
     you will be pleased to report to Baron Tawast, what I had
     before the honour of stating to him, that Government will
     naturally expect that the British merchants will be indemnified
     for whatever property belongs to them which has been landed
     from vessels in Sweden, trading under licences from one of his
     Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, at the same time
     informing him that I shall transmit by the earliest opportunity
     to Government, under strict secrecy, a copy of the document you
     enclosed to me, and you will also be pleased to express to him
     my acknowledgments for the facility with which the supplies are
     proposed to be conveyed to the squadron at this anchorage and
     in Hano Bay.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To J. Smith, Esq. Gothenburg.

Sir James at the same time enclosed the document to the Secretary of
the Admiralty, as a confidential communication to the Board. He also
wrote a private letter to Mr. Yorke, which we prefer inserting, as it
gives a more full and explicit detail of all the circumstances of the
transaction, and because it is an answer to the following letter from
him which precedes it, and which was received by Sir James at that
moment.

     Admiralty, 21st May 1811.

     SIR,

     I had the honour to receive your letters of the 3rd, 4th, and
     11th inst. and am glad to hear that the first divisions of your
     squadron made so favourable a passage to their rendezvous in
     Wingo Sound. The four ships with Linzee, which have been ready
     for some days, have been detained by the strong easterly winds;
     and though they sailed from St. Helen's the day before
     yesterday, I should not wonder to hear that they have put back
     again. Impetueux is getting forward, and we shall send her to
     you as soon as we can spare her from the reserve. Fisguard
     ought to be ready, but is to call at Deal for M. de Begenhas,
     Minister from Portugal to Russia, whom you will have the
     goodness to land as well as you can at Gothenburg, that he may
     find his own way forward.

     I think we ought not to listen for a moment to any Swedish
     projects on Norway; my own opinion is that Bernadotte is
     playing us false, and at any rate I, for one, should dread to
     see a consolidation of the Swedish and Norwegian power, such as
     it is, in his, or indeed in any hand.

     Since the arrival of the accounts of the landing the cargoes at
     Carlshamn, and the accompanying measures, considerable distrust
     appears to prevail here about alternate views of the Swedish
     Government. A little more time will develop their plans in all
     probability; in the mean time it seems very desirable that the
     bulk of your efficient force should remain where it is (in the
     Sleeve) to be ready to receive the requisite orders. Admiral
     Young has taken his station off West Cassel, and has fifteen
     sail of the line. Enemy, eleven in the Scheldt, three in Texel,
     and two at Helvoet. When the Impetueux joins, you will have
     eighteen, which is as many as we shall be able to give you for
     some time at least.

     The public letters will have apprised you of the views of the
     Board of Trade and of the Government in the several points on
     which it was important that you should be informed. The Swedes
     should be gently but steadily convinced that it is in our power
     to resent this ill usage, and to turn the consequence of
     perfidy on the inventors; but the evil day should be postponed
     as long as possible and every practicable chance should be
     given them of remaining in the right path.

     Accounts have been received this morning from Oporto via
     Bristol in eight days, which give us reason to suppose that
     Massena has had a good beating near Almeida on the 3rd, 4th,
     and 5th inst., and has been obliged to retire towards
     Salamanca, with the loss of four thousand killed, and seven
     hundred prisoners. The British loss is stated at twelve
     hundred. It is very probable, as when the last accounts came
     away a battle was shortly expected.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     C. Yorke.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart., K.B. &c. &c.


     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 28th May 1811.

     DEAR SIR,

     I have received the honour of your letter of the 21st, and I
     beg to assure you that I shall pay particular attention to that
     part of it which relates to the measures to be pursued with
     this country. With the exception of the affair at Carlshamn,
     which took place previously to my arrival, nothing has occurred
     to cause any interruption to the same intercourse as was held
     last year. The usual supplies are continued, and the places
     pointed out whence they can be most readily received. There
     certainly appears great prevarication on the part of the
     Swedish Government relative to the property landed from the
     neutral vessels at Carlshamn; and in an object of such
     importance, I beg to suggest the expediency of one or two
     persons, duly authorised by the merchants and underwriters
     concerned in the Baltic trade, repairing to Stockholm for the
     purpose of asserting their claims, and seeing how far this
     Government may be disposed to indemnify them for the property
     sequestered. The sooner such a measure is adopted the better,
     as should it be delayed, and any alteration take place betwixt
     the two Governments, the whole will be lost. From what passed
     between Baron Tawast and myself, I have reason to believe that
     Sweden would accede to this proposal.

     In my letter to the Board I have recommended that the two bomb
     vessels that were intended for this station, should be
     expedited; their appearance alone would have the best effect in
     intimidating the Swedes to a compliance with our just demands.
     I am in hourly expectation of seeing the ships from Spithead;
     the addition of the Impetueux will, I hope, make us
     sufficiently strong in line-of-battle ships, but two or three
     good frigates are much required.

     I beg to offer you my sincere congratulations on the continued
     success of the army under Lord Wellington, and I trust the
     accounts from Spain will prove equally splendid.

     With the highest regard,
     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     The Right Hon. Chas. Yorke.

     P.S.--I have received no further accounts from Mr. Smith
     relative to the rupture between Russia and France, which makes
     me apprehend that the reports have not been confirmed.

It now became Sir James's duty to make a strong remonstrance to the
Swedish Government. Anticipating the worst, he had made dispositions
of the force under his command, which were at least sufficient to
ensure respect. This was well known to Baron Tawast, whose visit was
probably, in addition to other objects, to ascertain whether or not
resistance could be effectually made in the event of hostile measures
being taken. The following is the remonstrance alluded to.

     His Britannic Majesty's ship Victory, Wingo Sound,
     30th May 1811.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to inform your excellency that intelligence
     having been received by his Majesty's Government, that the
     cargoes belonging to British subjects, and that have been
     insured to a considerable amount in England, embarked in
     vessels belonging to Prussia, Denmark, Mecklenburg, and other
     States, have been landed in Sweden by order of the Swedish
     Government, under pretext of making reprisals for the Swedish
     property said to have been confiscated in Prussia and
     Denmark,--I have been directed to remonstrate in the strongest
     manner against measures so deeply affecting the interest of his
     Majesty's subjects, and at the same time to signify to the
     Swedish Government that I cannot permit such proceedings, under
     whatever pretext they may be disguised, and that if acts of so
     injurious a tendency are persevered in, I shall be obliged to
     depart from that indulgent course I have hitherto pursued
     towards Sweden.

     In requesting your excellency will be pleased to make known the
     above communication to your Government, I beg to renew the
     assurances of the perfect consideration with which I have the
     honour to be, Sir, &c.

     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To his Excellency M. General Baron de Tawast,
     Commander-in-chief, &c. Gothenburg.

Baron Tawast's reply to this letter was a simple assurance that no
hostile act was intended, and that the Swedish Government had been
compelled to act as it had done. He had no doubt but eventually the
English merchants would be indemnified, and he trusted that Sir James
would not insist on sending his remonstrance to Government as he had
no doubt that Baron Von Essen, who was expected in a few days, would
explain all to his satisfaction, and that a rupture would thereby be
avoided. The same assurances were given to Mr. Consul Smith, but their
proceedings had so evidently the appearance of gaining time that Sir
James firmly insisted that his remonstrance should be transmitted to
Government through the medium of Baron Essen, and in reply to a note
from Consul Smith and Baron Tawast he wrote the following:

     Victory, in Wingo Sound, 6th June 1811.

     SIR,

     I request you will signify to Baron Tawast, that I can have no
     objection to the letter I had the honour to address to him on
     the 30th ultimo being communicated to the Swedish Government
     through the means of his Excellency Count Essen; but having
     received directions from England to make the remonstrance it
     contained on the very unexpected measures adopted against the
     property of the British, I hold it my indispensable duty to
     require that it should be transmitted to the Government at
     Stockholm.

     It could never be expected by this country that England would
     pass with indifference a measure so seriously affecting the
     interests of British merchants; and Government will naturally
     expect some satisfactory explanation upon the subject. Those
     made to me by Count Rosen and Baron Tawast have been
     transmitted without delay, and I hope those in reply to the
     remonstrance I have made by order of Government will prove of a
     satisfactory nature.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To J. Smith, Esq., Gothenburg.

     P.S.--You will be pleased to signify to his Excellency Count
     Rosen and General Baron Tawast, that I have not replied to the
     confidential communications they have done me the honour to
     make, as you would more fully convey to them any sentiments
     upon the subject to which they relate, and at the same time
     express to them my most ardent hope that the amicable
     intercourse that has existed between both countries, may not be
     interrupted by the present unfortunate altercation.


     His Britannic Majesty's ship Victory, in Wingo Sound,
     6th June 1811.

     Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez has the honour to signify to M.
     General Baron Tawast that he has lost no time in transmitting
     to his Government the note his excellency has been pleased to
     address to him on the 4th inst. in reply to his letter of the
     30th ultimo, remonstrating by order of his Government against
     the late measures pursued in Sweden upon the British property
     landed from the neutral vessels in the Swedish ports, and which
     Baron Tawast was requested to communicate to his Government.

     Notwithstanding the reasons assigned by Baron Tawast for
     wishing to delay transmitting to Stockholm the remonstrance
     above mentioned, the Vice-admiral thinks it his indispensable
     duty (having received instructions from his Government to that
     effect) to request that it should be communicated either
     through the means of his Excellency Count Essen, or direct to
     the Ministers at Stockholm, according as Baron Tawast may judge
     most advisable; and the Vice-admiral hopes that the reply from
     the Swedish Government will be of a nature to convince England
     of the uprightness of its intentions in the proceedings
     adverted to, and that the amicable course hitherto pursued will
     meet with no further interruption.

     The Vice-admiral requests Baron Tawast will receive the
     assurance of his perfect consideration.

At the same time Sir James sent a detail of his proceedings to the
Admiralty, with a disposition of the fleet, which was now prepared for
the worst. He recommended that proper persons should be sent to Sweden
for the purpose of making claims for the merchants and underwriters,
and he also desired that bomb-vessels might be sent to him, which
would show that his remonstrance was serious. By letters from Mr. Foy
at Stockholm, and from Mr. Consul Fenwick at Helsingburg, Sir James
learnt that the amount of property confiscated at Carlshamn amounted
to 500,000_l._, about half of which was insured; that the measure of
confiscation was very unpopular in Sweden, but that every one relied
on his moderation and forbearance. From this time forward the
situation of Sweden was extraordinary beyond precedent, as fully
represented in the following extract of a letter which the Swedish
Admiral Krusenstjerna subsequently wrote to the Author:

     I know nothing, says he, of politics, but I find our situation
     very singular. Our _friends_ the French and Danes express their
     friendship to us with unremitted zeal in capturing and robbing
     from us our merchant vessels, whilst our _enemies_ the English
     let them pass unmolested from one port to another. We did not
     suffer by one hundred times as much from these two nations, the
     time we were at war against them, as we do now when they call
     themselves our friends and allies.

The Danes, not content with attacking ships passing through the Sound
and Belt, had the audacity to send their privateers to the coast of
Sweden, only eight leagues to the southward of Wingo, where the
Victory was at anchor. Information being given of their position, a
small one was surprised and taken without resistance by two of the
Victory's boats under Lieutenants Ross and Brenton. In September,
accounts were obtained that two of superior force had taken a position
among the small islands ten leagues to the southward of Gothenburg,
when Lieut. D.L. St. Clair and Mr. E. Purcell, midshipman, were
detached from the Victory in search of them. The Danes, not
calculating on the prowess of British officers and men, left their
vessels in a small creek, probably as a decoy, landed their guns, and
planted them on an eminence which commanded them, and on the approach
of the Victory's boats had promised themselves the capture of a part
of the crew and the boats of the English commander-in-chief. But
Lieutenant St. Clair, to the astonishment of the enemy, pushed
directly for the battery, and ascending the hill gallantly stormed and
carried it at the point of the sword, the Danes having fled on the
approach of the assailants. Few prisoners were made, but both
privateers were taken and carried to the Victory on the following
morning.

Sir James duly appreciated the bravery of these officers, and having
represented their gallant conduct to the Lords of the Admiralty,
Lieut. St. Clair was promoted to the rank of commander, and
subsequently employed in the Baltic and coast of Spain. Mr. Purcell,
who had particularly distinguished himself, was made Lieutenant, and
is now a Captain of the Royal Navy.

Sir James's remonstrances had at length the desired effect. After
several confidential interviews which the Author had with Count Rosen,
it was agreed that the Count should come privately on board the
Victory, to explain everything to the commander-in-chief, which he did
on the 25th of June. The following letter to Mr. Yorke will show the
happy result of Sir James's wise conduct and well-timed firmness in
this important crisis.

     Victory, Wingo Sound, 26th June 1811.

     DEAR SIR,

     If I could have had any further doubts upon my mind relative to
     the sincerity of the intentions of this Government, they have
     been perfectly removed by the conversation I had yesterday with
     Count Rosen, who came on board the Victory, by desire of the
     Crown Prince, in consequence of my remonstrance upon the affair
     at Carlshamn, as will appear by my public letter. Count Rosen
     assured me that it was the earnest desire of the Crown Prince
     to render Sweden independent of France whenever he could do so
     consistent with her security, but they are so apprehensive
     that, in the event of the difference between Russia and France
     being settled, Bonaparte will bring that country to act against
     Sweden, they dare not openly avow that sentiment. I informed
     Count Rosen that so long as Sweden acted up to the system he
     mentioned to be intended towards England, I had every reason to
     believe that his Majesty's Government would be satisfied with
     it; but that if it should be deviated from, I had the
     authority, and they might be assured I would exert the utmost
     in my power to resent any aggression on the part of Sweden,
     with which he was perfectly satisfied, and informed me that he
     would communicate to the Crown Prince precisely what I stated
     to him. There have been very serious commotions in Scania on
     account of the conscriptions, wherein several of the peasantry
     have lost their lives, and about three thousand guards under
     the Prince, and a strong body of troops, have been ordered to
     that province to restore order. I have had the honour to
     receive your letter of the 14th by the Impetueux, and since
     that one of the 8th, with a commission for Mr. Delisle, for
     which I beg to return my thanks.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To the Right Hon. Chas. Yorke, &c. &c. &c.

Soon after this letter was despatched, Sir James received information
that Russia had determined not to accede to the terms of Bonaparte,
and that a rupture was likely to take place; the situation of Sweden,
therefore, became every day more critical. She had now to determine
whether she would throw herself into the arms of France for
protection, or still depend on England for independence, Had
hostilities actually commenced, the former would, doubtless, have been
her decision, and it is impossible to say what might have been the
consequences. On the one hand the restoration of Finland was the
probable result of an alliance with France, while the whole force of
Russia was employed in repelling the invaders; and on the other hand,
Norway might be added, as an indemnification for the loss of
Pomerania.

Trusting in the honour of the British Admiral, the Crown Prince of
Sweden did not hesitate to place the most implicit confidence in Sir
James. The negotiation for a treaty of peace, and for a coalition
against the tyrant of France, only wanted the presence of an
accredited Plenipotentiary to make it complete.

The Oberon sloop of war arrived with an officer of distinction, who
proceeded through Sweden to the Continent, and soon after several
Russian noblemen arrived from St. Petersburg with despatches of
importance. The despatches received by the Oberon contained
instructions respecting the affair of Carlshamn; and notwithstanding
the opinions and assurances of Sir James to the contrary, the
Ministers continued to suspect the Crown Prince of Sweden to be
insincere. Being, however, still desirous of remaining at peace with
Sweden, Sir James continued his friendly and courteous policy. The
bomb-ships he sent for had arrived, and his force, both within and
without the Baltic, being formidable, gave Sweden a good excuse for
not proceeding to hostilities, although she had declared war.

Sir James having declared that he "would not fire the first gun,"
things went on as usual, and the restrictions which he found necessary
to put on the Swedish trade, to prevent supplies being thrown into
Norway, was also a good proof to Bonaparte that Sweden was not
favourable to England. During this summer the Tartar frigate was
lost, and two gun-brigs were captured by the Danes, from whom several
privateers and gun-boats were taken, and an exchange of prisoners was
made. At length it was communicated that war between France and Russia
was inevitable, and Sweden having refused to permit French troops to
pass into Norway, ostensibly for the invasion of Scotland, determined
to join England; but it was advisable to keep this state of affairs a
profound secret.

In the mean time the negotiations for an offensive and defensive
alliance continued, and were ready for ratification when the Oberon
arrived with Mr. (now Sir Edward) Thornton. This ship, on leaving
Portsmouth, was supposed to be bound for the West Indies, and letters
were actually on board her for the Leeward Islands; but on opening her
sealed orders, Capt. Murray, her commander, found he was destined for
Gothenburg, and that he was to have no communication on his passage
with any other ship. Being unacquainted with the coast of Sweden, and
having no pilot on board, his ship unfortunately ran on shore in a
thick fog; the guns were thrown overboard, and every exertion made in
vain to get the ship off. It is scarcely possible to describe the
anxiety of Mr. Thornton (who had been hitherto supposed to be a
passenger for the West Indies) until the morning gun of the Victory
informed them that their ship was on the rocks to the northward of
Wingo Beacon, over which the flag of the Victory (white at the fore)
could be plainly distinguished, and in an hour afterwards he was safe
in the Admiral's cabin.

The utmost caution was still necessary in communicating with Count
Rosen, and so strictly were the orders given by the commandant of the
castle complied with, that several attempts to get Mr. Thornton on
shore were unsuccessful. He was at length smuggled into the fort as a
servant of the Author, who had, from his knowledge of the Swedish
language, no difficulty in passing the gates as a Swedish officer.
Thus were all differences happily adjusted: it was determined to keep
up the appearance of war without committing any act of hostility on
either side.

We shall now turn to the situation of the fleet. Admiral Reynolds had
been stationed at Hano, which is near Matvick, where the convoys
assembled, and which were with very little loss protected through the
Belt. On the 9th of November, the St. George sailed from Hano with the
last homeward bound convoy, which had been put back by a gale on the
1st.

The account of the disasters that befel this unfortunate fleet, which,
as a prelude to the losses which afterwards took place, must be
interesting to every reader, will be best given from the lamented
Admiral's own report to Sir James, which has not before appeared in
print.

     St. George, off Nystad, bearing N.N.E. 1/4 E., 19th November
     1811.

     SIR,

     It gives me inexpressible concern to inform you of the sad
     disaster which has befallen his Majesty's ship St. George,
     bearing my flag. I have already detailed to you, sir, the gale
     of the 1st instant, which caused the merchant ships to return
     to Matvick for shelter, and transmitted you convoy lists of one
     hundred and twenty sail, which sailed from Hano Bay with us on
     the 9th instant, besides twelve more which had no instructions.

     On the evening of the 10th we had severe weather, and anchored
     between Moen Island and Dars Head. On the morning of the 12th
     we weighed, and (the wind heading us before dark) anchored off
     Nystad with the convoy pretty well collected. At the close of
     the evening of the 15th, the weather was remarkably fine, but
     about ten at night it began to blow strong with a heavy, swell
     from W.S.W., and we veered to a cable and half on the small
     bower. The gale increasing, we veered to two cables, and should
     probably have rode the gale out safe had not a large ship of
     the convoy drove athwart hawse and parted our cable. The best
     bower was immediately let go, and veered to two cables, which
     did not check her. We then let go the sheet anchor and gave her
     two cables on that also, but she would not look at it. By this
     time we had shoaled our water from ten to eight fathoms, and
     the fury of the gale increasing, we continued to shoal into
     seven and six fathoms, when the pilots and officers advised the
     cutting away the masts as the only means of saving the ship and
     the lives of the people. I resisted their advice for some
     time, in hopes that a favourable lull might bring the ship up;
     but when she had drifted into a quarterless five, and still
     driving before a tempest of wind and rain, I ordered the axe to
     be laid to the mast, and soon after they were over the side:
     the ship struck violently several times, and the rudder was
     torn away with a tremendous crash. About four in the morning
     the strength of the gale abated, and her shocks were less
     violent. Every officer and man in the ship were now employed
     erecting jury-masts, hoping that by lightening her we should be
     able to float her off; and at daylight I telegraphed Captain
     Pater of the Cressy to prepare us a Pakenham rudder; and it
     still blowing too strong for boats to come to us, I made
     signals for the Rose and Bellete to anchor a cable's length
     from us and from each other, upon our larboard bow, that when
     it moderated we might send hawsers to them to endeavour to
     heave us off. Nystad now bore N.N.E. 1/2 E. distant about five
     miles, and Skielbye church E.N.E., and the ship lay in four
     fathoms water. On the 16th we were busily employed rigging
     jury-masts. Towards the evening it moderated, and about four in
     the morning of the 17th we had the cheering happiness to find
     she had swung to her anchor. The hands were instantly turned to
     the capstan, and we hove short on the sheet cable. The night
     signal was then made for the assistance of boats, and having
     happily succeeded in warping her into deep water, we made sail
     (with which we steered her) with a fine breeze from the
     eastward, and anchored near the convoy in eleven fathoms.

     I have much pleasure in acquainting you, sir, that the officers
     and ship's company merit my warmest praise for the constant
     exertions and cheerful obedience with which they conducted
     themselves throughout this distressing scene. Captain Guion
     was unwearied and indefatigable, and his abilities could never
     have been better shown than on this trying occasion. It is no
     small consolation to me that in the awful moment of the masts
     going over the side, and throughout the whole terrific gale,
     not a man was hurt.

     I have now, sir, to acquaint you that out of one hundred and
     twenty sail which were at anchor here when the gale began, only
     seventy-six are now remaining; twelve are seen wrecked upon the
     Danish coast and in the enemy's possession; two ran foul of
     each other, and both went to the bottom, and in the midst of
     the gale several of the smaller vessels were observed
     dismasted, and the sea making an entire breach over them; it is
     much to be feared they foundered at their anchors. Many
     remaining here are so much disabled that I doubt whether they
     will be able to proceed with us, although they have had every
     assistance from his Majesty's ships which could be given them.

     I am happy, sir, to tell you that the St. George has her
     jury-masts rigged, and her rudder hung, and is in every respect
     as complete to proceed with the convoy (the first favourable
     wind) as hands can make her in our present situation.

     Before I conclude this narrative, permit me to insert my public
     acknowledgments of the prompt and timely assistance I received
     from every Captain of his Majesty's ships under my orders,
     which accelerated our equipment much sooner than otherwise
     could be expected.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     R.C. REYNOLDS.

     Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart. K.B.
       &c. &c. &c.

     James received the above letter on the 29th of November, when
     he despatched a vessel with the disastrous intelligence to
     England. In his answer to Admiral Reynolds we find the
     following paragraph:

     Greatly as I lament the severe injury sustained on board the
     St. George, and the melancholy loss of so many vessels of the
     convoy by the tempestuous weather, I am fully persuaded that
     every possible means, which judgment and skill could dictate,
     were employed by you for the safety of his Majesty's ships and
     the preservation of the convoy under such perilous
     circumstances, and I highly applaud the good conduct manifested
     by the officers and men of the St. George during the whole of
     so trying an occasion, and the alacrity and exertions displayed
     by them in having jury-masts erected during the continuance of
     the gale, which reflects the highest credit on Captain Guion,
     for the good order and discipline preserved in the ship. I also
     feel great satisfaction in observing your marked approval of
     the prompt and ready assistance you received from all the
     Captains of his Majesty's ships and vessels under your orders.

Accounts from Captain Dashwood informed Sir James that thirty out of
the fifty-six vessels supposed to be lost had reached Matvick with the
loss of their anchors and cables, and that he would take them under
his convoy as soon as they could be got ready to sail.

Admiral Reynolds received assistance from Admirals Dixon and Bertie,
who were stationed in the Belt, and the St. George with her convoy
reached Wingo Sound in safety on the 2nd of December. As the season
was so far advanced, it was proposed to leave the St. George at
Gothenburg during the winter, but Admiral Reynolds entreated that he
might be permitted to navigate the ship to England, which, he said in
hearing of the Author, was "as fit to make her passage with the
assistance of another ship of the line as any in the fleet." Sir James
did not accede to his wishes until he had also taken the opinion of
Capt. Guion; and it was at length determined that she should be
attended by the Cressy, Capt. Pater, and the Defence, Capt. Atkins,
while the Hero, Capt. Newman, took charge of the convoy.

During the stay of the fleet in Wingo Sound, court-martials were held
on the Commanders and crews of the Manly and Safeguard gun-brigs,
which had been captured by the Danes, and the crews exchanged; also on
the boatswain of the Anholt Island, which had been considered a ship,
but as the pendant had not been flying in the island, doubts had
arisen in the minds of the members of the court, and reference was
made to the Admiralty, with a request that the law officers of the
Crown might be consulted as to the legality of holding a naval
court-martial on the accused.

The St. George had topmasts as lower masts, and top-gallant masts as
topmasts. Her temporary rudder was well fitted and secured. The
Cressy, which had towed her from the Belt, was ordered to take her
again in tow. Everything was prepared for the departure of the whole,
but the wind and weather continued unfavourable, and Sir James again
repeated his wish that the St. George should remain instead of the
Ardent, into which Sir George Hope had hoisted his flag, having orders
to remain in Wingo Sound until the Pyramus, Captain Dashwood, and
Ranger, Captain Acklom, should arrive with the last convoy, which
Captain Dashwood subsequently succeeded in bringing safely through the
Sound, much to his credit, at that late season of the year.

On the 18th of December the wind came from the N.E. when the whole
fleet weighed and made sail. The first squadron consisted of the
Victory, Vigo, Dreadnought, Orion, Mercury, and Snipe; the second
comprised the St. George in tow of the Cressy, the Defence, and
Bellete, and the third the convoy under the Hero and the Grasshopper;
but the wind coming too far to the northward to enable the convoy to
weather the Scaw, the signal was made from the Victory for it to
return into port. At sunset on the 19th the St. George was seen well
to windward of that dangerous headland; but it appeared that she, with
her division, bore up during the night, when the wind came to the
westward of north, as will be seen by the following account of the
proceedings of H.M.S. Cressy, given officially to Sir James by Captain
Pater.

     Narrative of the circumstances relating to the St. George since
     parting company with the Victory, on the 19th December 1811.

     On the night of the 19th December, lost sight of the Victory,
     Dreadnought, Vigo, and Orion. On the 20th at half past eight
     A.M. signal from the St. George to wear; at ten A.M. the St.
     George cast off the tow rope; moderate breezes and hazy
     weather; hauled up to the S.E. to get soundings on the Jutland
     shore, in order to round the Scaw the better. During the night
     fresh breezes and hazy weather; a strong current from the S.W.
     setting to the N.E. swept the squadron close to Salö beacon, on
     the Swedish coast. On the morning of the 21st light airs and
     hazy, a strong current setting about north at the rate of three
     miles per hour: very great difficulty in keeping the ships from
     falling on the rocks, they not being further than three miles
     off, with a heavy swell right on, and no wind to command the
     ships, or stem the current. Telegraph from the St. George to
     the Cressy about half past eleven, A.M. "What shall we do this
     night?" Cressy's answer, "In a few minutes I will give my
     opinion." At three quarters past eleven, A.M., telegraph from
     Cressy to St. George, "Anchor in Salö if possible." About noon
     got a Swedish pilot from Salö, brought by the Bellete. At one
     P.M. a strong breeze sprung up from N.N.E. and N.E. St. George,
     Cressy, Defence, and Bellete made sail (close-reefed the
     topsails, reefed courses, top-gallant masts struck) to the
     westward, and continued our course all night through the
     Sleeve. St. George steered and sailed very well about five
     knots per hour. At ten A.M. on the 22nd, saw the land on the
     lee beam, distance eight leagues; made the same known to the
     St. George. At half-past eleven made the signal to the St.
     George for the Holmes, bearing S.S.W. distance six or seven
     leagues. At four P.M. Bovenbergen bore south about seven
     leagues; stood to the westward all night; moderate weather,
     wind about N. or N. by W. On the 23rd, at nine A.M., Cressy to
     the St. George by signal, "Shall I take you in tow?" answered
     with the negative flag: observed one of her rudder guys gone,
     and the people repairing it. Wind had shifted to N.W. by W. the
     squadron wore about seven hours thirty minutes A.M. and stood
     to the N.E., with a view to open the Sleeve, the weather
     appearing to indicate a gale of wind from that quarter. At ten
     A.M. strong gales and squally with rain; St. George
     close-reefed courses and topsails, then stood to the N.E. At
     half-past eleven P.M. very strong gales split our foresail; St.
     George took in topsails and courses. At one P.M. strong gales;
     St. George set her foresail. At half-past two P.M. strong and
     heavy squalls of wind and rain from the N.W. with a heavy sea;
     observed the St. George to labour very much and roll very deep.
     St. George shortened all sail except the mizen-staysail and
     try-sail; St. George drifting to leeward so much as to oblige
     us to bear up three or four times in a watch, each time one
     mile, or three quarters at least, in order to keep to leeward
     of her; the land of Bovenbergen on her lee bow about three
     points, the Holmes right a head of her. The wind had at four
     P.M. shifted to the N.N.W.; the land on her lee beam, nine
     leagues, was that part of Jutland a few miles to the southward
     of Bovenbergen. At eight o'clock the Horn Reef, bearing S.S.W.
     distance forty miles; at this time a tremendous heavy sea was
     setting on the shore in the direction of E.S.E. At six lost
     sight of the Bellete; the last sight we had of the Defence she
     was standing with her head in shore, E.N.E. under storm
     mizen-stay-sail and try-sail. At nine P.M. the gale still
     increasing; St. George, as before, drifting about N.E. or N.E.
     by E. with storm mizen-stay-sail and try-sail only, appearing
     from some cause to be unable to wear, as she never attempted
     it, although it was the most safe and profitable tack to be
     upon, there being no possibility of getting off on the larboard
     tack, but on the contrary must inevitably go on shore; this I
     particularly remarked with great anxiety and concern from three
     o'clock that afternoon, and was constantly in expectation of
     his wearing, and carrying what sail he could on the starboard
     tack, in order, if possible, to clear the Horn Reef: although
     the clearing of the reef might be doubtful, it was the only
     chance left, and would at least have given him a longer drift;
     but from his not doing so, I am of opinion _his masts had
     complained and were unable to carry any more sail_, as well as
     the rudder, which certainly wanted securing. At ten P.M. as no
     steps were taken by the St. George to wear, and finding from
     our soundings and reckoning we were only nine leagues from the
     land on our lee beam, that we could not possibly clear the land
     on the larboard tack, and having drifted so far to the
     eastward, it became a doubt whether we should be able to clear
     the Horn Reef, and that there was no time to lose, on which to
     resolve either to cut away all our masts and try to hold on by
     our anchors, after having run into shoal water, which we have
     reason to believe was nearer than our reckoning gave us. Had we
     taken such a step our success would have been very doubtful,
     although we might previously have cut away our masts, and made
     the ship a complete wreck for that purpose, as we had only two
     bower anchors and two cables on each, (the bower cables in each
     being half worn,) no spare anchor to trust to, the sheet anchor
     being broken in the shank, and only an old worn-out bower cable
     (kept to be surveyed) which was bent to it. The Defence, I
     believe, was differently situated in this respect; but that is
     a mere conjecture. Thus the situation of the Cressy was very
     alarming, which had most sensibly struck every individual on
     board; the officers particularly, who had been so strongly
     impressed with our perilous situation for some time before,
     lamenting and verbally stating to me their opinion of our
     inability and impossibility of being able to render any service
     to the St. George, even in any way whatever, risk the Cressy as
     much as I would. I desired them all to consult and let me know
     their opinion in writing, which they did in the accompanying
     hasty scrawl: No. 1, delivered about ten o'clock, and No. 2,
     about quarter before eleven. Their sentiments and opinion being
     the same as my own on the subject, namely, that we could not be
     of any service to the St. George or to any person on board,
     whatever might be her fate under the existing circumstances,
     and that our destruction was certain if we lost any time in
     getting on the other tack,--I then (after having ordered every
     thing to be ready to cut away our masts) embraced the
     alternative to wear and carry sail to save the ship, which I
     did at half-past ten P.M. and passed close to the St. George
     with our reefed fore-sail only, in order to induce him to wear,
     and give him the opportunity of signifying his wish for me to
     remain with him, if he did not approve of what we did, which he
     might have done by four lights, in a diamond signal No. 30, or
     by firing three guns, also night signal No. 30, "Keep your wind
     on the larboard tack." Heavy and severe as the gale was, there
     was considerable light, as we had a moon; although not seen,
     yet it enlightened the atmosphere so as to enable us to see
     every mast, sail, or any object that was above her hammocks: we
     were so close in passing, that we could in moderate weather, at
     such a distance, have conversed with great ease; and were about
     a quarter of an hour in passing her; so that his not making any
     signal, and his still keeping the St. George's head on the same
     tack, I considered I had his approbation to use every endeavour
     to clear the land and save the ship from being wrecked on the
     lee shore.

The remainder of Captain Pater's narrative need not be given, as it
relates only to the proceedings in his own ship, and his arrival in
the Downs on the 30th December; neither need we give the opinions
alluded to, as they are a repetition of that of the Captain, and
signed by the five lieutenants, the master, the pilot, and the purser.
The first account of the wreck of the St. George and Defence was
received by a flag of truce, sent by the Danish General Tellequist
from Randers, that on the night between the 23rd and 24th of December,
a few miles to the southward of the Holmes, the fatal catastrophe took
place. The Danish commander-in-chief, after expressing much sympathy
and feeling on the sad disaster, informs Captain Maurice that the
bodies of Captain Atkins and other officers had been found and
interred with military honours, but they had not then discovered the
body of the Admiral. It appeared from the account of the survivors,
eighteen in number, (twelve belonging to the St. George and six to the
Defence,) that the St. George struck about one o'clock on the morning
of the 24th, and soon afterwards the Defence, a short distance to the
northward of her. The anchors in both ships were immediately let go,
and the masts cut away; the St. George came for a short time head to
wind. About four she parted in the middle; the sea making a fair
breach over the ships, many of the crew were washed overboard, while
others were killed or frozen to death where they had tied themselves
to the weather-railing, among whom were the Admiral and his young and
gallant friend Captain Guion. It is related that one tremendous sea
struck the Defence with such inconceivable force that it lifted the
spare anchor out of its berth, threw it upon end, and in its fall it
killed about thirty men! The fury of the waves had swept all before
them; two of the men were saved in a little Norway yawl belonging to
the Author, which his lamented friend Captain Guion had offered to
take home for him, and which was the only boat that reached the shore;
some were saved on the poop of the St. George when torn from her about
five o'clock.

Captain Atkins and Mr. Royston, Secretary to the Admiral, were both
picked up by the Danes ere life was quite extinct, but all the
kindness and humane endeavours of that hospitable people failed in
keeping up animation. It was affirmed by the survivors of the Defence,
that on the Cressy wearing, the master went to Captain Atkins, and
reported that the St. George must inevitably be wrecked, and that
destruction would also attend the Defence if she did not follow the
Cressy! To this Captain Atkins said, "Has the Defence's signal been
made to part company?" and being answered in the negative, he replied,
"Then I will not leave him." Such heroic sentiments, however worthy of
the gallant Captain, cannot be justified when it was impossible to
render assistance, and the sacrifice not only of his own men, but the
valuable lives of seven hundred others, must have been the well-known
consequence.

Captain Pater's conduct became the subject of a court-martial, by
which he was honourably acquitted. Could he by staying longer with his
Admiral have rendered him any relief he never would have quitted him,
nor did he do so until it became his bounden duty to preserve his own
ship and the gallant crew he commanded.

From the testimony of the survivors of the St. George, who arrived on
board the Victory in April 1812, we learnt that the St. George lost
all her jury-masts and rudder before midnight, that she was many hours
in nine fathoms water, and that the anchors were not let go until she
struck the ground. We do not mean to argue on the probability, if she
had anchored, that she would have brought up or rode out the gale, but
after masts and rudder were gone, surely there was a chance. We
mention it to call the attention of those who may be at some future
period in a similar situation, and as a circumstance which appears by
the following extract of a letter to have struck Sir James, who had
often successfully depended on his anchors under trying occasions.

     After a minute perusal of Captain Pater's narrative, I cannot
     but express my serious apprehension for the safety of the St.
     George upon so dangerous a coast and under such perilous
     circumstances; at the same time there still exists a hope that
     she may have been brought up at her anchors, and weathered the
     severity of the gale, of which I fervently pray their lordships
     may soon receive information.

We have dwelt longer on the mournful subject than we intended to do,
in consequence of opinions having been entertained that Sir James had
not consulted Admiral Reynolds and Captain Guion on the subject of the
return of the St. George from Gothenburg, and that therefore some
blame might be attached to him as commander-in-chief. Now, we are not
only able from personal knowledge to contradict these reports, but to
assure our readers that the opinions of these experienced and gallant
officers were actually taken, and likewise those of Captains Pater and
Atkins, immediately on the arrival of the ship at Gothenburg. The
fleet having been detained at Wingo Sound by storms and westerly winds
until the 18th, Admiral Reynolds repeatedly entreated Sir James to
permit the ship to cross the North Sea, and in a conversation the
Author had with Captain Guion, there was in his opinion not the
smallest doubt of her capability of performing the voyage. So well did
she sail that she beat many of the ships of the convoy that sailed at
the same time, and on the morning of the 19th she was still in sight
of the squadron. The loss of the Hero and her convoy, on the Hawk
Sands off the Texel, took place on the same disastrous night, and with
no less fatal consequences.

It appears from letters received from Sir George Hope, that this
convoy returned to Wingo Sound in obedience to signals from the
Victory, but sailed on the 21st with the same breeze, which induced
the St. George to leave Salö. She succeeded in getting out of the
Sleeve, and having a fair N.W. gale, unfortunately shaped her course
too far to the eastward. Captain Newman and all the crew, excepting
about forty men, perished.

The account of this event, having been published by Capt. Brenton and
other naval historians, need not be further dwelt on. The loss of the
three ships and convoy, as well as that of the Saldanha, in which not
less than five thousand men perished, was made a question in the
House of Commons, when Mr. Yorke, first Lord of the Admiralty, touched
on the mournful subject with so much feeling that it drew forth an
elegant and well-merited expression from Mr. Whitbread, who observed,
that "the calamities were the effect of misfortune alone, and that it
was a consolation to reflect that no blame could be imputed to any
one."

Although Sir James was conscious that such was really the case, it
need scarcely be added that his mind was deeply affected when the
melancholy news arrived, nor could he for many months conceal his
affliction.

The last convoy under Captain Dashwood of the Pyramus, arrived safely.
Instead of passing through the Belt as intended, he availed himself of
a strong S.S.W. wind, and boldly pushed through the Malmö Channel, led
by the Ranger, Captain Acklom, who so much distinguished himself on
this occasion as to gain his promotion to the rank of post-captain as
a reward for his services.

This convoy consisted of one hundred and twenty sail, leaving only
twelve vessels at Carlshamn, which were a part of the St. George's
convoy that could not obtain anchors and cables. They were off
Falsterbo on the 20th of December, when the wind, which had been
northerly, shifted to the S.W.; on the 23rd they reached Elsineur
Roads, and on the 28th Gothenburg, whence they sailed in company with
Rear-admiral Hope in the Ardent, who had thus finished the service of
the Baltic for the season.

Colonel Dornberg, who had been employed on the Continent
confidentially, had ascertained that Prussia would be forced to join
France against Russia, therefore the Government transports with arms
intended for their assistance were sent back, and formed part of the
Hero's unfortunate convoy.

The Victory, after parting with the St. George, was detained by
baffling winds and thick weather. Fortunately on the 21st good
altitudes of the sun were obtained for the chronometers, and thereby
the situation of the fleet was determined before the storm began on
the 22nd: at noon it blew a strong gale from N.W. (by compass);
Leostoff bore N. 31, W. 203 miles, the Texel S. 136 miles; but an
allowance of two points was made for what was called _indraft_, and
the course steered was S.W. by W. On the 23rd the storm increased with
inconceivable violence: the Victory was scudding under close-reefed
main-top-sail. At noon the signal was made for longitude, when it
appeared that the reckoning of the whole fleet was much to the
westward of the Victory, particularly the Vigo, no less than
eighty-four miles; but none of the ships had observations for the
chronometers, and therefore the commander-in-chief determined on
running by the reckoning of his own ship; and had he not done so, the
whole fleet would have shared the fate of the Hero in the same spot!
At ten P.M. soundings were struck on the broad fourteen, which cleared
up all doubts on the subject; on the next day the gale moderated, the
fleet passed the Gallopere light and anchored to stop tide; on
Christmas-day passed down Channel, and in the evening anchored in St.
Helen's.

I may here observe with propriety, that I have since found the
deviation from the true course, which by pilots and masters of ships
had been attributed to _indraft_, &c. was occasioned entirely by the
_deviation_ of the magnetic needle when steering to the S.W. the point
on which the attraction found in almost every ship was, by a series of
experiments, established to be, from one to two points; (see Ross's
voyage 1818;) while it is notorious that if the ship was standing N.E.
the opposite point, it had been always found that not only no
allowance for _indraft_ was necessary, but that the error in the
reckoning was on the opposite way; and we therefore conclude that many
ships have been lost for want of making the necessary allowance for
the _deviation_ of the compass in steering across the North Sea, in a
storm from N.W.

A correspondence was carried on with the Captains of this squadron
without leading to any satisfactory reason for the extraordinary
errors in the reckonings of each ship, and it is mentioned here to
warn those who may be in a similar situation, and to induce them to
obtain the errors of their compasses, for which plain rules have been
given, if they are not provided with Professor Barlow's apparatus.

On the arrival of the Victory at Spithead, Sir James applied for leave
of absence, and arriving in town received the unqualified approbation
of Ministers, and of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, for his
wise and firm conduct on this critical situation of affairs in the
Baltic, and for the important service he had rendered the country in
maintaining peace, and in supporting the dignity of the Crown and the
best interests of the community.



CHAPTER XIII.

1812.


     State of Europe in 1812.--Critical situation of Sweden and
     Russia.--Advance of Buonaparte.--Sir James Saumarez resumes the
     command in the Baltic.--Attack on Anholt
     prevented.--Proceedings of the advanced squadron.--Arrival of
     the Victory at Gothenburg.--Capture and destruction of a Danish
     frigate and two brigs.--Captain Stewart's gallant
     conduct.--Official letters.--Capture of a ship in Pillau
     Roads.--L. Jones's gallant conduct.--Official letters.--Peace
     with Russia.--Correspondence with Mr. Thornton and Earl
     Cathcart, who is appointed Ambassador to the Court of St.
     Petersburg.--Proceedings of the hostile armies on the frontiers
     of Russia.--Admiral Byam Martin sent to co-operate.--Siege of
     Riga.--Diversion made by Admiral Martin in Dantzig
     Bay.--Capture and destruction of four French
     privateers.--Ratification of peace with Russia and Sweden.--Sir
     James named Knight Grand Cross of the Sword of Sweden.--His
     Swedish Majesty's letter and the answer.--Emperor Alexander
     sends the Russian fleet to England.--Defeat of the French at
     Polosk, Borodino, Moscow.--Retreat of Buonaparte.--Archangel
     fleet arrives.--Earl Cathcart.--Mr. Saumarez's tour to Åbo and
     St. Petersburg, and return to the Admiral with
     despatches.--Afflicting news from England.--Sir James's conduct
     on that occasion.--He is relieved by Sir George Hope.--Returns
     to England.--Strikes his flag.


The state of Europe at the commencement of this year left no doubt
that a severe struggle for independence was approaching. It was
evident that under the pretence of conquering a maritime peace,
Buonaparte's ambition was nothing short of continental empire; his
armies had been gradually advancing, and, under various pretexts,
taking possession of every fortress in Prussia, and towards the
frontiers of Russia. Supposing himself in a position to enforce the
ruinous demands which he well knew could not be granted, he looked
forward with confidence to the subjugation of Russia, after which
Sweden would become an easy conquest. Alexander saw that the existence
of his empire depended on the exertions he was now compelled to make,
and before the conclusion of the last year, his intentions of
resistance were secretly made known both to the British and Swedish
cabinets. It was now deemed fortunate that the wise and temperate
policy of Sir James had been the means of forming that coalition,
which was subsequently the saving of Europe.

So important did Government consider the continuation of Sir James as
commander-in-chief in the Baltic, that while in London, at Tunbridge
Wells, and other places where he resided, the whole of the
correspondence passed through him, and as the spring advanced he was
again entreated to finish the good work he had begun. As his force was
now to consist of only ten sail of the line, he did not judge a
Captain of the fleet to be necessary; but Rear-admirals Byam Martin
and J.N. Morris were at his request appointed to serve under him, and
it may be truly added that two officers better qualified to support
his plans could not have been found.

Early in the spring, Captain Dashwood, who had so highly distinguished
himself in carrying a valuable convoy through the Sound at the close
of last year, was sent with a squadron of sloops to afford protection
to the island of Anholt, which was again threatened by the Danes, but
on the appearance of this detachment, the attempt, if ever intended,
was abandoned. On this service the Fly sloop was unfortunately lost on
Anholt Reef.

In April, Rear-admiral Morris was despatched with the advanced
squadron and arrived at Wingo Sound about the middle of April, having
been previously informed of the state of affairs in Sweden, and
instructed to keep up the appearance of hostility without committing
any positive act; in the mean time a fleet of line of battle ships was
fitting out at Carlscrona, and strict orders were issued that in the
event of their putting to sea they were not to be molested by his
Majesty's ships. A correspondence was entered into with the Danish
auditor-general respecting the exchange of prisoners, in which a
demand was made for the release of all the Danish prisoners in lieu of
all English, which would have been ten to one in favour of Denmark;
but the chief object was the release of a Danish officer, who, after
having struck his colours, attempted to destroy his ship, contrary to
the laws and usages of war, and who had been detained in consequence.
This request was at first refused, but in consequence of the kind
treatment of the unfortunate crews who suffered shipwreck, and who
were unconditionally liberated, the exchange took place.

Sir James hoisted his flag in the Victory on the 14th of April, and on
the 28th sailed from the Downs. On the 3rd May he arrived at
Gothenburg, having then under his command ten sail of the line, seven
frigates, and fourteen smaller vessels. Admiral Morris, with a strong
detachment, passed through the Belt to Hanö, where he carried on the
service relating to convoys, and the prevention of troops being sent
across the Belt to the Danish islands, which were no doubt intended to
menace Sweden into compliance with the demands and views of
Buonaparte.

This campaign commenced with several brilliant naval actions, among
which the following is most worthy of being recorded. During the
spring the Danes had succeeded in stationing a large frigate and six
large brigs on the coast of Norway, for the purpose of attacking our
convoys in passing through the Cattegat, which, in order to protect
the trade, had obliged Sir James to station the Dictator of sixty-four
guns, and three brigs, off that part of the coast. The result cannot
be more fully given than in the following extract of Captain Stewart's
letter to Sir James:

     H.M.S. Dictator, Sleeve, 7th July 1812.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to inform you, that yesterday evening being
     off Mardoe, with the Podargus, Calypso, and Flamer, the
     mast-heads of the squadron were seen over the rocks, and
     Captain Robilliard of the Podargus, in the most handsome
     manner, volunteered to lead the squadron in to attack them, he
     having a man on board acquainted with the place; and as neither
     the pilots nor masters of either of the ships conceived
     themselves equal to the charge, I did not hesitate to accept
     his kind offer, well knowing the British flag would meet
     nothing but honour in such hands.

     In the entrance of the passage the Podargus unfortunately took
     the ground, by which circumstance I was deprived of the
     valuable and gallant services of her commander during the
     remainder of the day, and was in consequence obliged to leave
     the Flamer to her assistance; but in Captain Weir, of the
     Calypso, I found everything that could be wished for, which in
     a great measure made up for the loss I had sustained in the
     Podargus and Flamer.

     By this time, seven hours thirty minutes P.M. we had arrived
     within one mile of the enemy, who were running inside of the
     rocks under a press of sail. The Calypso, which had also
     grounded for a short time, was now leading us through the
     passage, and both she and ourselves engaged with the squadron
     and numerous gun-boats; however, at nine hours thirty minutes,
     I had the satisfaction, after sailing twelve miles through a
     passage in some places scarcely wide enough to admit of our
     studding-sail booms being out, of running the Dictator's bow
     upon the land with her broadside towards the enemy (within
     hail) as per margin, (Nayaden, Laaland, Samsoe, and Kiel,)
     who were anchored with springs on their cables close together,
     and supported by gun-boats, in the small creek of Lingöe, the
     Calypso most nobly following us up. In half an hour the frigate
     was literally battered to atoms, and the flames bursting forth
     from her hatchways; the brigs had also struck, and most of the
     gun-boats were completely beaten, and some sunk.

     The action had scarcely ceased and the ship afloat, than we
     found ourselves again attacked by gun-boats, which had
     retreated on seeing the fate of their squadron, and were again
     collecting from all quarters; but Captain Weir, of the Calypso,
     having taking a most advantageous position, engaged them with
     the greatest gallantry and effect. Indeed I am at a loss how to
     express my approbation of the prompt exertion of this gallant
     and meritorious officer. The Podargus and Flamer, in the mean
     time, were warmly engaged with numerous batteries and
     gun-boats, both brigs being aground; but by the uncommon
     exertion and extreme gallantry of Capt. Robilliard, and the
     officers and crews of the brigs, they at last got afloat, very
     much cut up. On this occasion Lieut. England particularly
     distinguished himself.

     At three A.M. having got the Dictator, Calypso, and prize brigs
     in the fair way, we attempted to get out through the passage,
     when we were assailed by a division of gun-boats from behind
     the rocks, so situated that not a gun could be brought to bear
     on them from either vessel. In this situation the prize brigs
     grounded, and notwithstanding every exertion on the part of
     Lieut. James Wilkie of this ship, who was on board the Laaland,
     and had extinguished a fire on board her, which was burning
     with great fury, and Lieut. Hooper of the Calypso, in the Kiel,
     we had to abandon them complete wrecks, humanity forbidding us
     setting them on fire, owing to the number of wounded men they
     had on board.

Captain Stewart's letter concludes with the highest praise on all the
officers and men in the squadron he commanded, and subjoins a list of
nine men killed, and thirty-seven wounded and missing. The enemy
admitted that they had lost three hundred men, but it was supposed
that five hundred was nearer the number. We are sorry to record that
some of the Danish officers violated their parole and treacherously
rose on their protectors, after medical aid had been afforded them
under the sacred sanction of a flag-of-truce!

Sir James enclosed Captain Stewart's narrative in the following letter
to the Secretary of the Admiralty:

     SIR,--I have the highest satisfaction in transmitting to you,
     to be laid before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the
     inclosed letter, which I have this day received from Captain
     Stewart, of H.M.S. Dictator, detailing the particulars of a
     most gallant exploit, performed by him and the two sloops and
     the gun-brig named on the margin (Podargus, Calypso, and
     Flamer,) upon the Danish frigate Nayaden, three large sloops of
     war, and numerous gun-boats, within the Rocks of Wardoe, on the
     coast of Norway, supported by batteries on the shore; in which
     the enemy's frigate has been totally destroyed, and the sloops
     of war completely disabled, besides several of the gun-boats
     sunk. It is impossible to express in an adequate manner the
     undaunted spirit displayed by Captain Stewart, and all the
     officers and men under his orders, in this arduous enterprise,
     which, I am assured, will be duly appreciated by their
     Lordships. Captain Stewart speaks in the strongest terms of the
     gallantry and zeal of Captain Robilliard, of the Podargus;
     Captain Weir, of the Calypso; and Lieut. Thomas England, of the
     Flamer gun-brig; he also recommends Lieut. Buchanan, first of
     the Dictator, to their Lordships' favourable notice.

     I have, &c. &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     J.W. Croker, Esq.

To this their lordships expressed their high approbation, and promoted
Captain Stewart, Weir, and Lieutenant England immediately, and Capt.
Robilliard soon after, for the gallantry, zeal, and judgment they
displayed.

The following letter from Captain J. Ross, of the Briseis, gives an
account of a gallant exploit performed by the boats of that ship.

     Briseis, off Pillaw, 29th June 1812.

     SIR,

     I have the honour to inform you that, in pursuance of your
     orders, I stood in yesterday to communicate with the merchant
     vessel Urania, in Pillaw Roads, when I perceived her to be in
     possession of the French troops, and that it was intended to
     destroy her on our approach. I therefore tacked and stood off,
     judging it the most likely way to save the ship (which was
     employed by Messrs. Solly and Sons on the part of government)
     from destruction, and the remainder of her cargo from falling
     into the hands of the enemy. I resolved, however, to surprise
     her in the night. Lieutenant Thomas Jones, first of the
     Briseis, Mr. Palmer, midshipman, and eighteen men, were sent in
     the pinnace on that service. At midnight, when within pistol
     shot, they were hailed and fired upon by the enemy, who had six
     guns and four swivels on board the Urania, which was surrounded
     by craft and smaller boats; but every obstacle was overcome by
     Lieutenant Jones and his crew, who gave three cheers, boarded
     over the craft, and drove the enemy off deck into their boats
     on the opposite side, leaving behind part of their arms. The
     cable was then cut, and she was brought out, together with a
     French scout, that was employed unloading her.

     On our side I have to regret the loss of one seaman killed; the
     sergeant of the Royal Marines badly wounded; Mr. Palmer,
     midshipman, and one seaman, slightly wounded; but the enemy
     must have suffered far more severely from being exposed in
     their turn to the fire from the Urania after they had abandoned
     her.

     My pen cannot do sufficient justice to the merit of Lieut.
     Jones, who has on a former occasion received the approbation of
     the commander-in-chief, for his gallantry and zeal; but when I
     leave the plain statement of this to recommend him, I am happy
     in the conviction that his valour will be duly appreciated by
     yourself and the commander-in-chief. Lieutenant Jones informs
     me that Mr. Palmer, who has passed for Lieutenant, behaved in
     the most gallant manner, and I think him also highly deserving
     promotion.

     I have the honour, &c.
     JOHN ROSS, Commander.

     To Rear-admiral Martin, &c. &c. &c.

The above was transmitted by Admiral Martin to the commander-in-chief,
who, after expressing his admiration of the conduct of Lieut. Jones
and the rest, forwarded the letter to the Admiralty. The following
answer was received from the Secretary:

     Admiralty, 16th July 1812.

     SIR,

     I have received and laid before my Lords Commissioners of the
     Admiralty your letter of the 10th instant, transmitting a
     report from Captain Ross, of the Briseis, of the re-capture of
     the merchant ship Urania, in Pillaw Roads, by the boats of that
     sloop, under the orders of Lieutenant Jones and Mr. Palmer,
     midshipman, and I am in reply commanded to express their
     Lordships' approbation of the gallantry displayed by the
     officers and men on this service.

There can be no doubt but promotion would have followed this valiant
and successful affair, but Lieut. Jones being unfortunately obliged to
return home in consequence of pressing family affairs, and having not
rejoined his ship, lost his well-merited advancement in the navy,
while Mr. Palmer obtained his promotion.

The Briseis was subsequently appointed to carry the joyful news of
peace to Libau, where Captain Ross was received with demonstrations of
joy. The hatred the oppressed inhabitants manifested towards their
oppressors the French, who had just vacated the place, was beyond
expression; and a Russian squadron had now ventured out of the Gulf of
Finland to join in the general rejoicing.

Steps were taken by the Admiral to remove the supplies of corn and
provisions at that place, to prevent their falling into the hands of
the advancing enemy.

Rear-admiral (now Admiral Sir Byam Martin, G.C.B.) was detached in the
Aboukir, his flag-ship, and a numerous squadron and flotilla, to
assist in the defence of Riga, which, as soon as war was declared,
would be exposed to the attack of Macdonald's and Oudinot's divisions
of the French army. In the mean time, peace between Great Britain and
Russia took place on the 18th July, and this happy event was announced
to the Admiral in the following letter from Mr. Thornton, General
Suchtalen having previously arrived in Sweden with full powers from
the Emperor of Russia.

     Orebro, 17th July 1812.

     SIR,

     I have the honour of informing your excellency that I have this
     day signed a treaty of peace with the Swedish and Russian
     plenipotentiaries, and you will receive under this cover a
     packet containing those for his Majesty's principal Secretary
     of State for Foreign Affairs, which I will request your
     excellency to deliver to the care of a confidential officer, to
     be conveyed to England. Should you think that the King's
     service will not be promoted by detaching a vessel of war with
     him, I see no impropriety in the officer's sailing in the
     packet-boat and making the best of his way to England.

     I leave it to your excellency's judgment to give what publicity
     you think proper to this important intelligence. It should, I
     think, certainly be communicated to all the commanders of his
     Majesty's ships in the Baltic, for the purpose of regulating
     their conduct towards Swedish and Russian ships of war, but I
     know not that any alterations ought to be made in commercial
     arrangements until after the confirmations of the peace by
     exchange of the ratifications. I may have opportunities of
     writing again on these points.

     I have the honour to be, &c.
     E. THORNTON.

     To Admiral Sir Jas. Saumarez.

Sir James immediately despatched his nephew, Flag-lieutenant Dobree,
in the Drake sloop of war, with this important despatch, and with the
intelligence that the French army had passed the frontiers of Russia
on the 24th of June, being the first act of hostility. Lieutenant
Dobree arrived at the Admiralty on the 31st July, for which and other
services he was promoted to the rank of commander. In the mean time,
and in anticipation of this joyful event, Earl Cathcart had been
nominated as Ambassador to the Court of St. Petersburg, and had sailed
from England in the Aquilon.

Admiral Martin's arrival at Riga was extremely well-timed: his
judicious operations in concert with Generals Essen, Ems, and Lovis,
were the means of saving that city, which was in July and August
besieged by Macdonald, when General Lovis was obliged to retreat
within the walls. The suburbs were burnt rather hastily, but the
arrival of a reinforcement of both English and Russian gun-boats, not
only raised the siege, but impeded the advance of that division of the
enemy towards the great scene of action in the vicinity of Moscow.

A well-timed feint concerted by Admiral Martin on the heel of Dantzig
had the desired effect of retarding the advancement of a strong
reinforcement, so as to prevent it reaching the main army in time to
take part in the battle of Borodino. To effect this a number of small
merchant vessels were seized in the harbour of Riga, and by the prompt
exertions of British seamen were converted into transports, on board
which were embarked four hundred troops and other people of all
classes, a sufficient part of which were clothed in regimentals to
deceive a spectator. This formidable-looking armament having entered
the Bay of Dantzig under Swedish colours, created such a degree of
alarm, as to induce the troops which were marching to join Buonaparte
to halt for no less than fourteen days, during which time
proclamations in the German and Swedish languages were landed on the
coast, while demonstrations for landing troops, ostensibly for the
purpose of an attack on the city, were occasionally made, and shells
thrown into the lower forts. After a sojourn of three weeks in the bay
the borrowed ships were sent back to Riga, and the Aboukir and part of
the squadron joined Rear-admiral Morris at Hanö, where that excellent
officer had been most successfully protecting the commerce of both
nations. On the 9th of October a large convoy, which had long been
detained at Matvick and Hanö, was about to sail, when it was
ascertained that several French privateers had passed through the
canal of Kiel, in order to attack it, and the Briseis was consequently
sent in the disguise of a merchant bark in advance of the convoy. The
plan succeeded; one of the privateers came alongside of the Briseis,
and was easily captured, while the other three having taken refuge
under the batteries in Hammarhus Bay, on the N.W. side of Bornholm,
were attacked and destroyed. In this affair the Briseis had her
main-mast badly wounded. Lieutenant Jones, who commanded the boats,
particularly distinguished himself; but on his approach the enemy,
having cut their cables, and run their vessels on the rocks, they were
instantly wrecked and could not be carried off.

Sir James had detached Captain Stewart of the Dictator with several
small vessels, to the Belt, to cut off the communication with Zealand,
and in the course of this service Lieutenants Wilkie, Douell, and
Petley particularly distinguished themselves. The Attack gun-brig was
taken, and Lieutenant Craufurd, of the Wrangler, made a gallant but
ineffectual attempt to retake her. The Mars, and Courageaux, and
Orion, had the arduous duty of protecting the trade through the Belt,
and excepting on one occasion, when five merchant vessels were driven
on shore in a storm, their efforts were successful. Owing partly to
the negotiations and to the expectation that an enemy's fleet might
escape from the Scheldt, the commander-in-chief was detained at Wingo
Sound, the outer Roads of Gothenburg. The merchant ships which had
been detained at that port and Carlshamn, as also the colonial produce
and other British property, had been by his firm and temperate conduct
released and sent under licence to various ports on the Continent.

Mr. Thornton, who had been on board the Victory on the 11th of July,
had proceeded to Orebro, where he signed the treaty of peace already
mentioned; returned on the 7th of August, sailed in the Tweed for
England on the following day, but fortunately meeting with the Aquilon
to the eastward of the Scaw, he returned with Lord Viscount Cathcart;
and after a consultation with Sir James and Count Rosen, the Governor
of Gothenburg, the ambassador set out for Orebro to ratify the
coalition of the three nations against the common enemy.

An expedition was now planned for an attack on Zealand, the object of
which was to force the King of Denmark to join the coalition, and
7,000 Swedes were collected; these were to be joined by 20,000
Russians; but the latter were so tardy in their motions that the plan
was abandoned, as well as another for the descent on the coast of
Norway; but the armament itself had a good effect by detaining the
troops necessary for the defence of Denmark from joining the main
army of the French, while it gave a more serious aspect to the feint
made by Rear-admiral Martin in the Bay of Dantzig.

Soon after the ratification of peace the Swedish Monarch conferred on
Sir James the high honour of the Commander of the Grand Cross of the
Order of the Sword of Sweden,[13] which corresponds to that of the
Bath in England, and the decorations were sent in the following
handsome letter from his Majesty:

     MONSIEUR LE VICE-AMIRAL SAUMAREZ,

     Mon Conseiller intime d'Etat, le Baron de Platen, se rendant
     auprès de vous pour concerter sur des mesures à prendre contre
     l'ennemi commun, je profite avec plaisir de cette occasion pour
     vous envoyer ci-incluses les décorations de Commandeur Grand
     Croix de mon Ordre de l'Epée. Les services distingués que vous
     avez déjà rendu à mon royaume, et ceux que vous lui rendez
     maintenant, le zèle que vous avez constamment déployé pour le
     succès de nos entreprises, tous ces motifs réunis vous avaient
     acquis depuis longtems des droits à mon estime et à ma
     reconnaissance; et j'éprouve une satisfaction toute
     particulière de pouvoir vous en donner aujourdhui un gage
     solennel. Je vous félicite de l'avantage remporté le 7 de ce
     mois par une partie de votre escadre; et vous devez être bien
     persuadé, qu'il ajoute encore au prix que j'attache à vos
     efforts pour assurer la defense des côtes de la Suède. Et sur
     ce je prie Dieu qu'il vous ait, Monsieur le Vice-amiral de
     Saumarez en sa sainte et digne garde; etant votre affectionné,

     CHARLES.

     Au Château de Stockholm, le 19 de Juillet 1809.

     [13] The Order of the Sword, fourth class, was conferred on
     Captains Hope, Reynolds, Mansell, and John Ross, and the Order
     of Wasa on Dr. Jameson.

Permission to accept and wear the decorations were subsequently
granted by the Prince Regent.

The defeat of Oudinot at Polotzk, the junction of Begration and
Barclay de Tolly with the grand Russian army under Kutusoff, and the
battle of Borodino, gave a favourable turn to affairs, but not such as
to dispel every apprehension, and it was determined by the Emperor
Alexander to send the whole Russian fleet to winter in England.
Admiral Crown was expected from Archangel with eight sail of the line,
and Admiral Tait with ten, and six frigates from Cronstadt. The former
having sailed from Wingo before this had been determined on, it became
necessary for Sir James to delay his return. The Aquilon, which had
been sent through the Belt to meet Lord Cathcart at Dalerö, and convey
his lordship to Åbo, where he was to have a conference with the
Emperor Alexander, met with some damage and returned to Wingo.

Mr. James Saumarez, eldest son of the Admiral, who had accompanied his
lordship, made a tour and visited the Swedish, Finland, and Russian
capitals; he returned on board the Victory on the 9th of October, when
the afflicting intelligence arrived of the sudden death of his
sister, the eldest daughter of the Admiral, whose loss was deeply
regretted by all who knew her excellent disposition. The shock, as may
be imagined, was deeply felt by Sir James; but it will be seen by the
following correspondence that his mind was supported under this severe
trial, and much as his presence was required at home he regarded his
duty to his country to be paramount to every other consideration, and
unflinchingly remained at his post. His son (the present Lord de
Saumarez) who had just finished his education for the Established
Church, was indeed a great comfort to his suffering parent.

In a letter, dated 13th October, to the Secretary of the Admiralty, he
says,--

     There has been no ship in the Hawke Roads into which I could
     have shifted my flag, since the receipt of their Lordships'
     letter to send the Victory to Spithead, and the present
     afflicting state of my domestic concerns renders it of the
     utmost consequence that I should repair to England immediately;
     but I have suffered my private feelings to give way to the
     public service, and have to request that I may receive their
     Lordships' permission to proceed to England upon the receipt of
     this letter.

In his letter to Lord Cathcart, dated on the following day, he
writes,--

     Although the afflicting state of my domestic concerns requires
     my return to England with as little delay as possible, I
     sacrifice my private feelings to a sense of my duty to the
     public service, and I have signified to his Majesty's
     Government my intention to remain here until I receive the
     pleasure of H.R.H. the Prince Regent upon the above measures
     (respecting the Russian fleet), when I hope to receive
     permission to return to England.

Sir James having given the necessary directions to Rear-admiral Morris
for sending pilots to, and conducting the Russian fleet through the
Belt, shifted his flag to the Pyramus and despatched the Victory to
England. He was preparing to sail homewards, when to his surprise
Rear-admiral George Hope arrived to supersede him; he, however, did
not give up the command until everything was completed, and until he
had received the following despatch from Lord Cathcart:

     St. Petersburg, 26th Oct. 1812.

     SIR,

     I had the honour of receiving yesterday by the Briseis your
     letter of the 10th ult., duplicates of your two letters of the
     2nd, and triplicates of your letter of the 4th.

     I lost no time in laying the three last-named despatches before
     the Emperor, and his Imperial Majesty desired me to take the
     first opportunity of expressing his entire approbation of
     everything you have done and promised for his squadrons,
     together with his best thanks for the exertions you have made
     in meeting and assisting the squadron under Admiral Crown, to
     refit so as to pursue the voyage to the Baltic, as well as for
     supplying an officer and pilots for the passage of the Belt.

     His Imperial Majesty learned with great concern the afflicting
     loss you have sustained, and was duly sensible of the efforts
     you made for the public cause, by remaining at Gothenburg under
     the pressure of so much grief.

     Admiral Crown has afforded an example of the uncertainty of
     calculations of time and of meeting at sea, in regard to the
     sailing of men-of-war; for this squadron outstripped all the
     vessels and cruisers you sent, and, missing all the copies of
     the Emperor's orders, arrived at Sweaborg, I think, on the
     10th. The Emperor sent immediate orders for this fleet to
     prepare to return forthwith to Wingo. Vice-admiral Crown has
     sent up no details whatever to the Minister of Marine
     concerning the state of the squadron, but that minister, the
     Marquis Traversay, has sent a superior officer of known
     activity, to hasten the supply of everything necessary for
     them, and to repeat the order for the immediate sailing of the
     whole squadron, or of as many ships as can be ready; the
     remainder to follow.

     The wind being fair, it is expected that Admiral Tait is under
     sail with a division as per enclosed list, and it is probable
     he may be the first to reach you. I have not failed to
     communicate your idea in regard to the road at Dantzig to the
     Minister of Marine.

     The Snipe will sail with the last division, &c.

     I have the honour to be,
     With truth and regard,
     CATHCART.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart. K.B.

Here follows a list of one ship of one hundred guns, one of eighty,
five of seventy-four, and three frigates, under Admiral Tait; seven of
seventy-four, and three frigates, and four smaller vessels, under
Admiral Crown; and three of seventy-four, two frigates, a brig, and
four English transports, under Rear-admiral Karobka. Sir James at the
same time received details of the proceedings at Riga, which have
already been mentioned.

The following passage relative to the death of his daughter is
extracted from a letter from Sir James to his brother.

     At a time I was buoying myself up with the expectation of soon
     returning to England, and affording that consolation to my
     beloved wife and to those dear ones whom the Almighty yet
     spares us, which they so greatly need, I received despatches
     which rendered it impossible for me to leave the station; I
     most fervently implore the all-gracious Providence to enable me
     to submit to its divine decree with patience and due
     resignation.

     If I could be assured of Lady Saumarez's welfare, I should feel
     more tranquil, but I know too well the keenness of her
     feelings. The anxiety she suffers on my account will, I fear,
     put to the test her practice of those pious virtues we all know
     her to possess, and of which she sets so bright an example.
     James's presence is of the greatest comfort to me, and alone
     enables me to make my cabin supportable. He returned most
     opportunely from St. Petersburg the day on which the news of
     this affliction arrived, and it was he that communicated it to
     me. He was the bearer of Lord Cathcart's despatches, which I
     have forwarded, for I could not spare him from me.

We shall now continue the narrative of Sir James's operations at this
eventful period, when the tyrant of France received his first
effectual check, followed by the disastrous retreat of the French army
from Russia, and the liberation of Europe.

Besides twenty thousand stand of arms which had been supplied to the
Swedish army and landed at Gothenburg, the Snipe gun-brig, Lieut.
Champion, had been sent to St. Petersburg with four transports laden
with sixty thousand stand of arms. On opening the arm-chests it was
found that they contained muskets, but no bayonets, and the
indignation of the Russians at this circumstance may be better
imagined than described, when they exclaimed, "What! do the English
think we do not know how to use the bayonet?" On searching, however,
the last ship, the bayonets were found, to the inexpressible joy of
these people; and it cannot be denied that they _did_ make use of them
with fearful effect.

The Briseis was sent with the Admiral's last despatches to Lord
Cathcart, and Captain Ross had the honour of returning with the
important intelligence of the re-capture of Moscow, the defeat of
Murat, and that the French were in full retreat. The Russian fleet
had, however, sailed from Cronstadt and Sweaborg, and it was now too
late to stop them: the accounts reached London on the 8th of November,
and it was a satisfaction to Sir James that he had retained the
command until the overthrow of the invading army. Mr. Saumarez went
home in the Aquilon, but the Admiral remained in the Pyramus at
Gothenburg until the 5th of November, at which time he had delivered
the various papers and instructions to Rear-admiral Hope necessary in
giving up the command to that officer.

Before leaving Sweden he was waited on by Baron Essen, aide-de-camp to
the Crown Prince, who presented him with a splendid sword, the hilt of
which was set in diamonds, and said to be worth 2000_l._, as a
testimony of the high sense his Majesty entertained of the important
services he had rendered to Sweden and the good cause.

Among the many attached to the Court of Sweden, there was none who
expressed himself more emphatically than his excellency Baron Platen.
We shall give his letter, although it has already been published in
substance.

     At length I rejoice, my dear Admiral. You have been the
     guardian angel of my country; by your wise, temperate, and
     loyal conduct you have been the first cause of the plans which
     have been formed against the demon of the Continent. He was on
     the point of succeeding; folly and the want of confidence in
     some have made them doubt the success of the good cause. You
     have shared my anxiety, but it is now all over; two couriers
     have arrived this night from the head-quarters of the Emperor
     and the Prince. War was declared on the 24th of July; Austria
     is with us; thus, if Providence have not decided something
     against all probability, Buonaparte will be defeated, humanity
     will breathe again, and Europe be once more raised up. With
     Wellingtons, Moreaus, Bernadottes against him, what hopes! I
     shall not fail to communicate to you the first news of
     importance, for once more I must tell you, that _you_ were the
     first cause that Russia had dared to make war against France:
     _had you fired one shot when we declared war against England_,
     all had been ended, and Europe would have been enslaved. I own
     to you, also, my satisfaction that our august Prince Royal has
     conducted himself in such a manner as to leave your excellency
     no cause to repent of that which some people were pleased to
     call "credulity," but which events have proved to be wisdom.

The expressions of the worthy and truly patriotic friends, Admiral
Krusenstjerna and Count Rosen on taking final leave of the Admiral,
were no less remarkable for sincerity and gratitude. The first has
long since paid the debt of nature, universally and justly regretted;
the latter in 1834 fell a sacrifice to his humane endeavours to arrest
the progress of cholera, and both will long be remembered as two of
the saviours of their country.

The Pyramus reached Yarmouth Roads on the 10th of November, when Sir
James made immediate application to strike his flag, and had the
satisfaction of receiving in answer the following letter from the
Secretary of the Admiralty.

     Admiralty, 20th Nov. 1812.

     SIR,

     My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have been pleased to
     command me, in transmitting to you the accompanying order, to
     strike your flag and come on shore, to communicate to you their
     marked approbation of the zeal, judgment, and ability evinced
     by you during your late command in the Baltic. Your attention
     to the trade of his Majesty's subjects, and your conciliatory,
     yet firm conduct, towards the Northern Powers, have met the
     approbation of his Majesty's Government, and their lordships
     are glad to have observed that your services have been justly
     appreciated by the Courts of Sweden and Russia. I beg to add
     the personal satisfaction which I feel at being the channel of
     communicating to you this testimony of their lordships'
     approbation.

     I am, &c. &c. &c.
     J.W. CROKER.

     To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart., KB.

To this highly honourable testimonial Sir James made the following
reply:

     London, 23rd November 1812.

     SIR,

     I have received your letter of the 20th inst., transmitting to
     me the order to strike my flag and come on shore, and also
     communicating their lordships' marked approbation of my conduct
     during my late command, in terms highly gratifying to myself. I
     am also peculiarly happy to find that the conduct I held
     towards the Northern Powers during a period of the utmost
     intricacy, has been honoured by the approbation of his
     Majesty's government, whilst it was duly appreciated by the
     Courts of Sweden and Russia. I take this opportunity to express
     my sincere acknowledgments for the unremitting attention I
     received from you during the period of my late command.

     I have, &c. &c.
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To J.W. Croker, Esq.

After Sir James had arrived in London he continued to direct the
proceedings of the fleet in the Baltic, and it was not until the good
work he had begun was completely ended to the general satisfaction
that he retired from actual service.



CHAPTER XIV.

1813 to 1831.

     State of the Continent after the defeat of Buonaparte.--Sir
     James's services in the Baltic no longer required.--Retires
     from service, but not from public life.--His various
     occupations.--His claims for a Peerage
     disregarded.--Correspondence and observations thereon.--His
     residence in Guernsey.--Visit to Oxford.--Letter from Lord
     Nelson.--Captain Miller's monument.--Political
     opinions.--Letter from Earl St. Vincent.--Is appointed to the
     command at Plymouth.--Speech of Earl Grey.--Receives a visit
     from Lord Exmouth.--Strikes his flag.--Claims for a Peerage
     again disregarded.--Returns to Guernsey.--His reception
     there.--Death of George IV.--Accession of William IV.--Is
     created Baron de Saumarez.--Letter from Lady de Saumarez.--His
     reception at the Island of Guernsey, and rejoicings there.


The defeat of Buonaparte and the disastrous retreat of his army
released the countries which surround the Baltic from the oppression
to which they had been subject, and an English fleet was no longer
necessary in that sea. The enemy indeed had still possession of
Dantzig, and Denmark held out during the year 1813; but a small
squadron under Rear-admiral Sir George Hope acting now in conjunction
with Sweden, the co-operation of Russia was all that was wanted to
carry on the blockade in the Belt, and to protect the commerce.

The services of a full admiral not being required, Sir James remained
at home, chiefly in his native island. The command in the
Mediterranean, which he would have had, had he not been requested to
continue on the command in the Baltic, was occupied by Sir Edward
Pellew, which, as will be hereafter seen, was an unfortunate
circumstance.

Although retired from active warfare, it cannot be said that Sir James
had retired from public life;--he was the patron of every useful
institution, not by mere nominal sanction, but also by very munificent
pecuniary contributions. He was one of the oldest members (I believe,
President) of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, having
become a subscriber to that institution in the year 1789; he was also
president of the Royal Naval Charitable Institution, and of the Naval
and Military Bible Society, as well as a large contributor. He was,
moreover, vice-president of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and
of the Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews; patron of
the National Schools of the Bethel Union; the Provident Society; the
Church of England Sunday School; the Church of England Missionary
Society, &c. His mind and his time, therefore, were employed in a
manner no less honourable and useful than it had been in his
Majesty's service; and it does not appear that he had taken any notice
of the manifest neglect of his claims until the peace of 1814, when,
at the conclusion of the war, peerages were conferred on those
officers of the army and navy who had most highly distinguished
themselves. He now found his name omitted; while Sir Edward Pellew, an
officer junior to him on the list of admirals, who had never commanded
a ship in a general action, and who was not even a Knight of the Bath,
was raised to the dignity of baron.

Sir James could not but consider this circumstance as an injustice to
his superior claims; and we know that Sir Edward Pellew, then created
Baron Exmouth, admitted that Sir James's claims for that high honour
were far greater than his own. We may add, that every officer of his
Majesty's navy was of the same opinion. Feeling himself bound to
remonstrate, a correspondence took place between Sir James and some of
his Majesty's ministers on the subject, but without effect; and we
believe that the only reason given by them for his having been passed
over, was simply "that Sir James's flag was not flying at the
conclusion of the war," while that of Sir E. Pellew was hoisted in the
Mediterranean, where indeed Sir James _ought_ to have been, and where
he would certainly have been had he not accepted the command in the
Baltic at the request of ministers, on the especial understanding
that it was not to be prejudicial to his claims. The fact was,
however, that he had _no friends_ in power at that time; while Sir
Edward Pellew had many claims on ministers for the support he gave
them in Parliament.

It is needless to revert to the ungracious treatment he received,
which can only be accounted for by his having refused a seat in
Parliament, coupled with conditions to which his conscience would not
allow him to accede, and from his diffidence in not putting forward
his claims at an earlier period; too often the case with men who are
truly brave, but which is injurious to the service, inasmuch as it
induces a belief among the rising generation that even manifestly just
claims may be entirely neglected.

On the 4th of June 1814, when the general promotion took place, Sir
James was advanced to Admiral of the Blue, at which time his name on
the list of the navy was the fourth above Lord Exmouth.

The following is the extract of a letter from Sir James to one of the
family on the subject of the Peerage.

     London, 16th May 1814.

     "You will have seen that a Peerage has been conferred on Sir
     Edward Pellew; you may suppose that Sir John Duckworth and
     myself have taken the proper means with Lord Melville for our
     services being taken into consideration, for a similar mark of
     distinction, and there is every reason to believe we shall not
     be disregarded. I had a long interview with Lord Melville, who
     gave me to understand that he laid the subject as favourably as
     possible before Lord Liverpool. It is, I fear, very doubtful,
     but I cannot persuade myself so much injustice will be done to
     my services; and such is the opinion of all I meet."

Subsequently to this, Sir James received a letter from Lord Liverpool,
which need not be inserted, as the substance is given in Sir James's
answer, which we subjoin.

     Date not exactly known, 1814.

     MY LORD,

     I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your lordship's
     letter of this date, signifying that you have had an
     opportunity of communicating to his Royal Highness the Prince
     Regent my request for the honour of the Peerage, as well as
     some other applications for the same honour from several
     distinguished officers of the navy and army, and that your
     lordship was commanded by the Prince Regent to acquaint me that
     his Royal Highness does full justice to my services on the
     occasions to which I refer; but he feels it, nevertheless,
     quite impossible, under all the circumstances, to comply with
     my request, and that he has directed your lordship to return
     the same answer to those who have made similar applications to
     him upon the present occasion. Without presuming to inquire
     into the merits of those distinguished officers with whom your
     lordship may have been pleased to blend my services, your
     lordship will permit me to observe, that the grounds upon which
     I found my application for the Peerage, were not confined to my
     services during the whole period of the late and American war;
     but also to my services during the five years that I had the
     honour to command his Majesty's fleet upon the Baltic station
     with the fullest approbation of Government, particularly for my
     uniform conduct respecting Sweden, which prevented that nation
     from joining the common enemy against this country, and also in
     having detached a timely force to Riga under the order of
     Rear-admiral Martin, which proved the means of preventing that
     city from falling into the hands of the French, and also,
     through the exertions of that zealous and able officer,
     succeeded in checking an important branch of the enemy's army
     from penetrating towards St. Petersburg, for which important
     services I have been honoured with the thanks of his Imperial
     Majesty, communicated to me by his ambassador at this court. As
     your lordship may not have laid those interesting particulars
     regarding my services before the Prince Regent, I now most
     earnestly request you will be pleased to render me that
     justice. I owe it to myself, to my family, as well as to the
     naval service, to which I have had the honour to belong upwards
     of forty-four years, to take the proper means, with every due
     respect, that my long and most faithful services are laid
     before his Royal Highness, in the fullest confidence that they
     will be found deserving the same mark of distinction that has
     been conferred upon an officer junior to me in the list of
     admirals. I beg leave to express my unfeigned acknowledgments
     to your lordship for the polite manner in which you have been
     pleased to convey to me the sentiments of his Royal Highness.

     I have the honour to be,
     With the greatest respect,
     My Lord,
     Your most obedient and humble servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.

     To the Right Hon. the Earl of Liverpool,
       &c. &c. &c.

On Sir James's return to Guernsey, after his unsuccessful application to
ministers for a Peerage, he resumed the works of charity and benevolence
which had already done so much good to his native island. The ground on
which Sir James's church stands was his property; he made a free gift of
it to the building committee, and subscribed one thousand pounds towards
the construction of that place of public worship. He assisted in
improving the salaries of the masters and mistresses of the parochial
schools, and was principally instrumental in establishing the Sunday
school in the town parish. He founded an exhibition in Elizabeth
College, for the best classical and theological scholar. He gave three
hundred pounds in the Câtel parish, where his country seat was situate,
for the payment of a salary to the mistress of the girls' school. He
distributed at Christmas, every year, warm clothing to the poor of every
parish in the island, and, conjointly with the late dean, the Rev. Mr.
Durand, succeeded, after many fruitless attempts, in establishing a
national school at St. Peter Port. It has been justly said that he
considered the great wealth he possessed as "trust money," for which he
would have to account to that Being who had confided it to his care.

Sir James's residence being in Guernsey, where he possessed both a town
and country house, and considerable landed property, and where he found
himself surrounded by the relations both of Lady Saumarez and himself,
he was induced to visit England but seldom. After the hundred days' war,
when the Continental Sovereigns came to London, he accompanied the
Prince Regent and his august allies to Oxford, and assisted in the
ceremonies observed on that memorable visit. Had hostilities continued,
there can be no doubt that he would have had the command of the Channel
fleet, and it is worthy of remark that he was told, on making
application for the Victory as his flag-ship, that four or five
admirals, who had sought employment, had applied also for that favourite
ship, notwithstanding the Howe, Nelson, and St. Vincent, new ships of
one hundred and twenty guns, were ready for commission. Sir James having
been second lieutenant of the _same_ Victory forty-seven years before he
hoisted his flag in her, and being well aware of her excellent sailing
qualities, will account for his desire for that ship to bear his flag,
although it cannot be denied, that, having only one hundred guns, and
her metal reduced to eighteen pounders on the middle deck, she was much
inferior in force to those we have mentioned. The glorious victory of
Waterloo, however, put an end to all speculations on that subject; and
Sir James, having failed in an application for a similar reward to that
conferred on others for his meritorious services, retired again to his
native island. After Sir James and Lord Nelson had returned from the
Mediterranean subsequently to the melancholy death of Captain Miller,
they met at Sir Peter Parker's at dinner, when Sir James proposed that a
subscription for a monument to Captain Miller's memory should be raised
among the Captains who fought with his lordship at the Nile. This
proposition was immediately adopted by Nelson, who volunteered to
promote it; and the following is a letter on the subject from Nelson to
Saumarez, which we insert here because it did not come to our hands
until after the first volume had been printed.

     MY DEAR SIR JAMES,--I have written so fully to Sir Edward Berry
     on the subject of dear Miller's monument, that I can only
     repeat my words. Sir E. Berry thought that a plain monument
     would cost only 200_l._ and be sufficient to mark our esteem,
     to which I am ready to agree, provided we are to have the
     honour to ourselves. I mean we, who fought with him on the 1st
     of August 1798; but if it is judged better to admit those who
     fought with him on the 14th February 1797, then I think that a
     less sum than 500_l._ would be highly improper for such a body
     to lay out on a monument. Flaxman is to be the artist employed,
     and Mr. Davison, if he will take the trouble, the manager of
     the whole business; for permission must be obtained from the
     Chapter of St. Paul's, &c. &c.

     I wish we had all been off Brest when the squadron sailed; we
     might have had the good fortune to have seen them. The San
     Josef appears to answer very well; indeed, as far as we can
     judge at present, she is, take her altogether, the finest
     three-decker in this country. I am going, as you know, into the
     St. George, but I wish our Northern matters could be
     accommodated; however, we must face all our enemies, and, I
     trust, make them ashamed of themselves.

     I know you have a lad of the name of Bate on board; if you wish
     to part from him, I am bound to take him.

     With my best compliments to Lady Saumarez, believe me ever, my
     dear Sir James,

     Your most obliged and affectionate,
     NELSON AND BRONTE.

     To Rear-admiral Saumarez.

Although this letter has no date, it is clear that it must have been
written just before the battle with the Danish fleet at Copenhagen in
1801; and it is evident that the merit of proposing a monument to the
brave Captain Miller is due to Sir James Saumarez.

He seldom ventured an opinion on political subjects: considering
himself a "friend to the King," it did not much concern him who his
Majesty's ministers were, and his refusal to support either side was
no detriment to his advancement during war, when his high character
and skill as a naval officer ensured him an important command; but
when peace came, and his services were no longer required, he was,
like many other meritorious officers, thrown completely on the shelf.
His son, the present lord, writes thus:--

     Although Sir James was more than once offered a seat in
     Parliament, he always steadily declined it, from the idea that
     he could render better service to his country by remaining free
     from politics; or if ever the time did arrive when he might
     become a senator, he was resolved that whichever house he
     entered he would be free and unshackled.

On this subject Sir James writes a few lines to his brother when in
the temporary command of the Channel fleet:

     What you hint of a seat in Parliament has often occurred to me,
     but hitherto I should have found it an encumbrance. At some
     future period it may, perhaps, be more advisable; but you may
     rely on it that I never wish to have one without maintaining my
     independence, and being perfectly free and unbiassed by any
     party.

We are well assured that Sir James was decidedly against the Catholic
Emancipation, although after he obtained a peerage he voted for the
Reform Bill, being clearly of opinion that some reform of acknowledged
and flagrant abuses was necessary. He did not, however, intend to go
so far as many of his friends; he may be said to have nearly followed
the politics of Earl Grey, after the retirement of whom he took no
part in the affairs of the nation.

At every change which occurred in the Ministry, he sent a memorial of
his services and claims, but without effect; and it is well known that
he had a very unfruitful correspondence with the Duke of Wellington
and other cabinet ministers. It was at this period that he suffered
another indignity in being passed over, when the Major-generalship of
Marines became vacant.

The following extracts from letters from Earl St. Vincent will show
his lordship's opinions on this subject. The first is to a friend.

     Rochetts, 8th May 1821.

     I feel very much for Sir James Saumarez. I have lost no
     opportunity of stating his high pretensions, which in my
     judgment are very far superior to any other upon the list of
     flag-officers. When I gain a little more strength I shall be
     glad to see him.

The second is to Sir James,

     MY DEAR SIR,--I cannot too highly appreciate the interest you
     take in a late event, and happy shall I be to greet you upon
     the reward due to your exalted and unrivalled services, a
     manifestation of which has on no occasion been let slip by your
     old and sincere friend,

     ST. VINCENT.

On the 4th of April 1824, Sir James, then Admiral of the White,
hoisted his flag on board the Britannia as Port Admiral at Plymouth.
It was during his period of command that Earl Grey, who was fully
sensible of the unhandsome and ungrateful manner in which he had been
treated, visited Plymouth, and when his health was proposed by Sir
James at the Royal Naval Club openly announced his sentiments in the
following words:

     I rise to offer my best thanks for the manner in which the
     president (Sir James Saumarez) has been pleased to propose my
     health, and for the assent which the gentlemen present have given
     to the gallant Admiral's favourable view of me as a public
     character. I cannot but remind those about me of the merits of my
     noble friend--[then correcting himself, Earl Grey went on]--I
     wish I could call him my _noble_ friend (_noble_, I mean, in
     rank, as he is already _noble_ in mind)--I wish I could see him
     ennobled by his Sovereign, as his services entitle him to be; for
     who would deny him that honour, who recollects the career which
     he has run from Rodney's glorious day, the battles off Cape St.
     Vincent and the Nile, down to his own brilliant exploits in the
     Crescent and as commander-in-chief at Algeziras, and not say,
     that if ever a name should or would have graced the peerage, it
     should have been that of Saumarez?

Ralfe, in his Naval Biography, after alluding to the above speech,
justly remarks,--

     Were it a matter of importance to adduce further proof of the
     high opinion entertained of Sir James's abilities, we believe
     we might name nearly the whole list of Admirals; for we never
     yet conversed with a single officer who was not loud in his
     praise, and who did not think the service neglected in his
     person.

At Plymouth, Sir James received a visit from Lord Exmouth, with whom
he had had no personal communication since the time when they both
commanded frigates on the Plymouth station.

Sir James struck his flag for the last time on the 10th of May 1827,
after a most glorious career of nearly sixty years. His reiterated
claims were still disregarded.

We have now arrived at the period when the great revolution in the
affairs of the state brought Earl Grey into power, previously to
which, his late Majesty William IV. had ascended the throne; and one
of the first and most popular acts of the "Sailor King," who well knew
the merits of Sir James, was to wipe off that slur on the national
gratitude, by raising him to the peerage.

Sir James having arrived in London, had communication with Sir James
Graham, then first Lord of the Admiralty, after which he wrote as
follows:

     London, 9th September 1831.

     This morning, I had a long interview with Sir James Graham,
     who, I must say, is most favourably inclined towards me, and
     assures me that Earl Grey, with whom he has had frequent
     conversations, is equally so. I have an appointment with the
     latter to-morrow, but I do not anticipate any favourable
     result, and can only say, "God's will be done."

We need scarcely add, that his application was successful; Sir James
was raised to the long-expected and well-merited dignity of a Baron on
the first of October 1831. The following extract of a letter from Lady
Saumarez to her son, describing the arrival of the first
intelligence, we are sure will be perused with interest.

     Saumarez, 4th October 1831.

     I also remember, my dear James, that October is an eventful
     month to us all; that to-morrow is your wedding day, and Sunday
     is your birth-day,--and you may be sure we shall not fail to
     keep them both in remembrance, in our prayers and warmest
     wishes, that they may ever be numbered among those marked
     _blessed_. Our register has now to unroll a brilliant page,
     which, I trust, the same divine hand that inscribed it, will
     seal with that _stamp_.

     Wonderful it is yet to me--so suddenly, so unexpectedly, did it
     come at last! I admit there is no excuse for my incredulity,
     except that of thinking your dear father had been so strangely
     deprived of his well-earned reward through the injustice of
     _man_ on so many occasions, _because_, far better things than
     _man_ could give were in store for him. And although I did not
     doubt, if any naval Peers were created at the coronation, he
     would be one, I did not allow my thoughts to dwell upon it; and
     when the Gazette arrived without his name, I gave it up
     altogether. You may therefore judge my surprise on Wednesday
     morning, when a tap at my door announced Betty Williams, who,
     in breathless agitation, came to my bedside to say, Mr. C.
     Lefebvre was below, to inform me "Sir James was made a lord!"

     When I joined him at breakfast, an hour after, he gave me so
     many interesting particulars which he had heard, that the
     account could not be disbelieved; but the entrance of two
     letters removed every shadow of doubt. The accounts from
     England of the reception of this event everywhere, from all
     classes and parties, have no parallel; and it seems to me as
     if the dignity had been deferred to prepare it for greater
     glory and additional lustre. We must indeed, as you say, be
     more than mortals if we could be unmoved at such things; they
     are so great that we have need to pray for a humble spirit to
     keep us from being "exalted above measure,"--and to make us
     remember that this donation is an additional "talent," which we
     are bound to use by our influence and example, in the cause of
     "whatever is holy, just, and of good report."

When the intelligence was known to the inhabitants of Guernsey, that
the Admiral had been raised to the peerage, by the title of "Baron de
Saumarez of Guernsey," all classes of the community fully manifested
the pleasure they enjoyed at this signal honour; he being the first
native of that island who had taken his seat in the House of Lords. On
the 6th October, 1831, the bailiff officially announced the joyful
news in his Billet d'Etat, in the following words:

     LORD DE SAUMAREZ.

     The elevation of one of our citizens to one of the highest
     dignities of the kingdom, cannot fail to inspire us with the
     most lively gratification. His Majesty has rewarded, with the
     most distinguished honour, the eminent services which he has
     rendered to the country. Guernsey, which, besides the public
     man, recognises in him all the virtues which adorn a private
     station, ought, on this happy occasion, to testify how
     sincerely she honours his character. To mark our esteem, the
     authorities of the Bailiwick, at the head of the whole
     population, ought to crowd around him at his return and
     proffer their congratulations. I should fail in my duty to the
     States, were I to neglect affording them this opportunity.

In reply to this address, the States unanimously agreed to meet at the
court-house on the day after the arrival of Lord de Saumarez, at
eleven o'clock in the morning, and thence to repair to the residence
of their noble fellow-citizen, and felicitate him on his elevation to
the peerage.

Lord de Saumarez, after a tedious and stormy passage across the
channel, arrived at Guernsey late in the evening of Tuesday, the 25th
of October; but, notwithstanding the lateness of the hour, the pier
was crowded with people, who cheered him as he landed, and who
attended him with every demonstration of joy to the carriage which was
in waiting for him; and it was with much difficulty the people could
be prevented taking out the horses. He was very much fatigued, having
embarked at Southampton on Friday evening in the packet. On Saturday
morning, when in sight of Alderney, a gale overtook the vessel, and
the captain was obliged to bear up for Weymouth roads, where he
remained till Monday; but his lordship had not recovered the effects
of the storm: a night's rest, however, completely restored him.

On the following morning (26th October) the States assembled at the
court-house, and as soon as the names of the members were called
over, the bailiff read the address, which he had prepared, and which
was unanimously agreed to. And, after having ascertained that his
lordship was ready to receive them, the States proceeded to his
residence, where the address was delivered to him, surrounded by Lady
de Saumarez and the members of his family then in the island.



CHAPTER XV.

1832 to 1836.

     Political opinions and conduct of Lord de Saumarez.--Death of
     his second son.--His letter on that occasion.--Anecdotes of his
     carriage being robbed.--Of Sweden.--The King of Sweden presents
     him with his portrait.--Count Wetterstedt's letter and Lord de
     Saumarez's answer.--Lord de Saumarez's last illness and
     death.--His Christian fortitude.--His professional
     character.--Moral and religious character.--Remarks and
     conclusion.


After Sir James's elevation to the peerage, he came during the session
from his residence in Guernsey to London, in order to attend his duty
in Parliament, but did not join any party in politics. We have already
said that he voted for the Reform Bill, being fully convinced that
some reform was necessary; but we know that he was firmly attached to
the Constitution and to the Established Church, and he may be said to
have followed nearest to the opinions of Earl Grey, after whose
retirement from office he did not appear in Parliament. When the
Author paid his lordship a visit at Tunbridge Wells in the winter of
1833, he found him much altered, and it was but too evident that his
constitution was broken. In the summer of 1834 he had to deplore the
loss of his second son (Thomas), who died on the 4th of July, on which
mournful occasion he wrote the following letter to his son.

     In the heavy affliction with which it has pleased the Almighty
     to visit us, he has not left us without consolation; and our
     confidence in the Divine mercy, and the hope that your beloved
     brother is removed to a better world, in the enjoyment of the
     blessed, through the precious merits of our dear Redeemer, must
     tend to assuage our sorrow, and induce us to submit with due
     resignation to the divine will. It will be to me a source of
     the greatest consolation, as it must be to us all, my dear
     James, to have witnessed his meek and patient resignation
     during his severe illness. It has been to me, as yourself and
     your dear Mary will readily believe, a most distressing and
     truly painful trial; but it has pleased God to support me
     through the whole of this sorrowful time far beyond what I
     could ever have thought myself to have been equal to, and I
     trust that your dear mother and beloved brother and sister will
     continue resigned to the will of Providence.

Lord de Saumarez's amiable disposition afforded him support under
severe and unexpected losses of every description, of which the
following anecdote is a proof. In the spring of 1834 he met with a
loss on his journey to visit Sir John Orde at Beckingham, which we
will venture to say would have been borne in a very different way by
many of his brother officers. His own carriage being under repair, he
had borrowed one from the coachmaker, which could only take one trunk
behind; in this trunk the female servant, who had lived a long time in
the family, had deposited his valuable diamond star of the Order of
the Bath, together with some costly jewels and trinkets belonging to
Lady de Saumarez and her daughter. On their arrival at Sir John's
mansion at Beckingham, it was discovered, to their utter
consternation, that the trunk had been cut off by thieves and carried
away with its contents, the value of which amounted to near 1000_l._
Sir James bore the loss with the most philosophic coolness; for,
instead of finding fault with the servant for placing such valuable
articles in so hazardous a situation, with his true habitual kindness,
he used his utmost endeavours to soothe the distress she felt as
having been the unintentional cause of the loss. Information was
immediately given at the Police-office, but none of the property was
ever heard of, excepting the trunk, which was found empty in a field
by the road side.

In Sweden the name of Saumarez will be for ever spoken of with
gratitude and respect, and all strangers who visit that country are
sure in their memoirs to mention the services which he had rendered.
In Mr. Lloyd's book we find:

     To the good understanding which existed between Count Rosen and
     Sir James Saumarez, our admiral on that station, may be
     ascribed the flourishing trade which was afterwards carried on
     during a period of nominal war, and the re-establishment of
     peace between the countries which soon after followed. Of Sir
     James Saumarez the inhabitants still speak in the highest terms
     of respect and regard, for his mildness and moderation in
     command, and for the attention he invariably paid to their
     numerous applications and wants.

A tourist in Sweden writes as follows:

     Stockholm, 22nd Jan. 1832.

     To-day I shall again have the honour of dining with Count
     Wetterstedt. Many, many inquiries were made after the health
     and happiness of the gallant and amiable Lord de Saumarez,
     whose name is beloved and respected throughout the whole
     kingdom. I landed at Christiania and travelled by land within
     fifty miles of Stockholm, and even the peasantry are familiar
     with my Patron's excellent name and character, the great friend
     of Sweden.

In October 1834, Lord de Saumarez received the last mark of Royal
favour from the King of Sweden, who sent him a splendid full-length
portrait of himself, which was forwarded with the following letter
from the late highly respected Count Wetterstedt, then Minister for
Foreign Affairs at Stockholm:

     Stockholm, le 7 d'Octobre 1834.

     MILORD,

     Depuis longtems le Roi mon auguste Souverain vous avait
     destiné, Milord, son portrait en pied comme un témoignage de
     son estime des services signalés que vous avez rendus à la
     Suede dans les années 1810-12.

     Divers incidens en avaient retardé l'expédition, d'autant plus
     regrettables au Roi, que sa Majesté avait appris l'intérêt que
     vous aviez attaché à ce souvenir de sa part. L'occasion
     opportune qui se présente maintenant de pouvoir embarquer ce
     portrait à bord du bâtiment à vapeur, le Lightning, de la
     Marine Britannique, qui transporte ici Monsieur de Disbrowe, a
     été saisie par le Roi, et j'ai l'honneur de vous annoncer en
     son nom que cette expédition vient d'être effectuée.

     En faisant placer sur ce portrait cette inscription, "Charles
     XIV. Jean, à James Lord Saumarez, au nom du Peuple Suédois," sa
     Majesté s'est plue à transmettre à la posterité une preuve
     éclatante des souvenirs qui restent chez elle, et chez la
     Nation qu'elle gouverne, des vues éclairées du Gouvernement
     Britannique à une époque à jamais mémorable, et de la noble
     loyauté que vous mites, Milord, dans leur accomplissement.

     Il m'est d'autant plus agréable, Milord, d'être auprès de vous
     l'organe de ces sentimens de mon Souverain, que je trouve une
     occasion d'y ajouter ceux de la haute considération avec
     laquelle j'ai l'honneur d'être,

     Milord,
     Votre très humble et très obéissant Serviteur,
     LE CTE. DE WETTERSTEDT.

This portrait, which is the natural size of the illustrious donor,
arrived safely at Guernsey, where the Author saw it, and can affirm
that it is an excellent likeness of his Majesty, who was always
grateful for the services which Lord de Saumarez had rendered to his
adopted country. Not less so were the merchants in London, who were
preparing a splendid piece of plate, which the noble admiral did not
live to receive, but which was presented to his son, the present lord.

We now approach the last days of this great and good man. He had yet
another contest to encounter, and he entered upon it with that same
moral courage, which, being founded on his trust in the Almighty, had
hitherto enabled him to overcome every difficulty, and to face every
danger; he had yet another victory to achieve, in which he came off
more than conqueror. We are now to behold him as no longer holding
intercourse with earth, but rather standing on the confines of either
world; not indeed as preparing to meet his God, for that had been the
business of his whole life, but as ready to obey whenever his summons
came.

With the exceptions of occasional attacks of gout, which in general
were more tedious than severe, he may be considered to have enjoyed a
good state of health; but for the last three years his friends
perceived that advanced age was gradually bringing on its debilitating
effects. He was no longer able to walk with that firm commanding step,
and that erect posture of body for which he had always been noted; but
his mind retained its usual energy, and when he fell in with any of
his old companions he would converse on the deeds of his more active
life with all the vigour and animation of youth. Notwithstanding he
had nearly attained the latest of those periods assigned by the
Psalmist as the general boundary of human life, his children had still
fondly hoped that he might yet have been spared a few years; neither
had she, who for forty-eight years had been the joy and solace of his
existence, and who had watched over him with the most sincere and
devoted affection, any particular reason to think that they were so
soon to be severed. A few weeks before his death, his increasing
debility; attended with loss of appetite and inability of retaining
food, excited some slight apprehensions, which, though not sufficient
to cause alarm on the first appearance of those symptoms, led, as they
increased, to the conviction that the system was decaying.

On the 30th of September Lord de Saumarez seemed to have recovered his
usual good looks, and appeared with the cheerfulness which, when in
health, he always assumed. That day he received several friends, who
congratulated him on his convalescence; but the members of his family
who watched him most attentively, observed that he received their
congratulations with distrust, as if conscious of his declining state;
and, on their departure, calling one of them aside, he emphatically
told him, that his looks were not to be depended on, for that he
really felt ill. It is even said that he had already given directions
to his confidential servants respecting some of the last duties. On
the morrow his increased debility showed that his opinion of his own
state was but too correct, and on the next day, which was Sunday, he
awoke, after an uneasy night, under the pressure of distressing
symptoms. Finding it was too late for his family to go to church, he
requested they would read the service to him, and was afterwards much
employed in meditation. It was now apparent that he was impressed with
the belief, that the time of his departure was at hand, for he seemed
as if taking a farewell of terrestrial objects and resigning his soul
to his Maker and Redeemer.

More than once he exclaimed, "I am the resurrection and the life,
saith the Lord; he that believeth in me, though he were dead yet shall
he live, and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die."
"What comfort, _shall never die_," he repeated, in a manner which
showed the hope he himself entertained of a blessed immortality. He
was well acquainted with every page of the sacred writings, the
perusal of a portion of which, including the psalms of the day, had
for many years formed part of his regular employment, and it was now
he felt the comfort which they inspired and the support which they
afforded under the near prospect of death and the grave.

Monday brought no amendment; it was evident that nature was sinking,
and his medical attendants no longer concealed their apprehensions of
the result. Those of his family, who had the privilege of attending
him at this solemn period, while they were filled with sorrow at the
prospect of losing one so deservedly dear to them, could not
contemplate the calmness and composure with which he met the
approaching change, without feelings of the most devout admiration.

Still seeking comfort from its only true source, Heavenly themes were
the prevailing occupation of his thoughts. "The Lord," he said, "is my
light and my salvation; of whom then shall I be afraid?" He also
repeated from memory the 23rd and 34th Psalms, together with some
other parts of the holy volume. On the Thursday, which may be
considered as the last day on which he enjoyed the full power of
speech and consciousness, his tongue was still employed in magnifying
the God of his salvation: several times he repeated, "If God is for
us, who can be against us?" sometimes adding, "Who shall lay anything
to the charge of God's elect?" Once he said, "Oh, my poor mind!"--"Not
a poor mind," was the reply, "but a rich one, stored as it is with
such heavenly things:" when he meekly answered, "I have tried to make
it so."

The two following days he felt increased difficulty in breathing, and
though only able to give occasional utterance to his thoughts, the
constant joining of his hands, and the devotion of his countenance,
showed that his understanding was still able to unite in the
supplications which his family offered up in behalf of the dying
husband and parent. His recollection, however, was gradually leaving
him; for, on Lady de Saumarez approaching his bedside on the morning
of Saturday, he no longer recognised her; he appeared to be fast
passing from this world to better and everlasting habitations. It was,
as this excellent and truly Christian woman acknowledged, more than
mortal strength which enabled her to contemplate without a murmur the
separation that was so soon to take place, and which raised her mind
above the distressing scene before her, to find utterance in prayer
for herself and for the departing spirit of her husband. She was not
sensible that she was heard, till, a few moments after she had
concluded, he distinctly said, in the metrical version of the 122nd
psalm, "It was a joyful sound to hear." It is uncertain whether this
alluded to the words of the prayer just uttered, or whether the
Almighty was already pleased to vouchsafe to him, as there is reason
to believe he does to his faithful servants when approaching the great
conflict, some assurance of his salvation, by admitting him to a
distant sound of the Hallelujahs of those blessed spirits which
surround the throne. From whatever source sprung this sentence, dear
and precious must it ever be to those who loved him; for these were
the last words he distinctly pronounced,--the last sound of his voice
in this world!

The next day (Sunday) was the 9th of October, a day which had been one
of peculiar interest to him, being the birth-day of his eldest son,
who was unfortunately prevented by a weak state of health, attended
with bodily infirmity, which would not admit of his crossing the water
in the stormy weather then prevailing, from being present at the dying
bed of his beloved parent.

His breathing now became very laborious, but his lordship was
apparently at ease and free from pain. Sometimes it was thought a
degree of consciousness existed; for when at noon his second son, who
had just arrived from England, appeared in the apartment and spoke, a
slight movement of the body was perceptible. Towards night the pulse
rapidly declined, the breathing, which had been much relieved during
the day, became gradually fainter, every limb was at rest, the whole
body in repose, as if indicating the happy state of that spirit which
was about to be resigned into the hands of Him that gave it.

A few minutes before midnight, the wise Disposer of all things was
pleased to close the mortal scene; the cessation of the act of
breathing was the only sign of dissolution; and even at that moment
his countenance bore an expression no language can portray; unimpaired
by illness, or the course of nearly fourscore years, time seemed to
have restored to his features and complexion the freshness and bloom
of the prime of life. In beholding such a blissful termination of
mortal existence, we have here a happy illustration of the words of
the prophet, "The work of righteousness shall be peace, and the effect
of righteousness quietness, and assurance for ever."[14]

     [14] Isaiah, xxxii. 17.

In order to form a correct estimate of the merits of the late Lord de
Saumarez, his character should be viewed under the opposite relations
of life--professional and domestic; and very few who have belonged to
the navy, or indeed any service, have been more distinguished in
either. Rear-Admiral Sir Jahleel Brenton, Bart. &c. now Lieutenant
Governor of the Royal Hospital at Greenwich, has given us the
following sketch of his professional character, of which he must be
admitted to be the best judge, having served several years as his
captain under the most trying circumstances of his life.

     I had frequent opportunities of observing him in both
     characters, and knew not which to admire most--that perfect
     enjoyment which he seemed to possess in the bosom of his
     family; that peculiar faculty of giving and receiving happiness
     in the truly happy circle of which he was the centre--or that
     energy of character which led him with enthusiasm into active
     service, and which made the good of his country paramount to
     every other consideration. Perhaps the most weary of all
     situations, to a naval officer, is, when placed in command of a
     squadron, watching an enemy's fleet, particularly on such a
     station as that of Brest; and there my noble friend was
     severely tried, first, as a captain with a squadron under his
     orders, and afterwards as a flag officer. The rapidity of the
     tides, as well as their irregularity, and the constant heavy
     gales from the westward, render the service a most anxious one;
     and he indeed felt the full force of the responsibility; but
     the determined resolution with which he maintained his
     position, under the most threatening circumstances, gave the
     fullest assurance to the commander-in-chief, that this most
     important post was in able and sure hands. All his officers and
     crew had their regular portions of repose; but sleep to the
     officer charged with this immense responsibility was almost
     impossible during the night, and a few transient snatches of
     rest through the day, when danger could be seen or avoided,
     were all that could be obtained, and these enabled him to
     sustain the fatigue to which he was exposed.

     During the long winter nights, we could all observe the effects
     of this most trying situation upon the Admiral's appearance,
     who, having alone the responsibility for the safety of all the
     ships under his command, suffered in proportion to its amount.
     It was, at the same time, a subject of general remark, how
     every trace of fatigue and anxiety instantly vanished on the
     arrival of a letter from his family. It would have been natural
     to suppose that, deeply as he felt the happiness of home, so in
     proportion would have been his distaste for a service that
     deprived him of it; but the moment that he was assured of the
     welfare of the objects of his affectionate solicitude, his
     countenance was lighted up by the utmost gratitude to the Giver
     of all blessings, and he again devoted himself to the
     fulfilment of his arduous duties with renewed energy.

     It was frequently said by Earl St. Vincent, that when an
     officer of the navy married, he lost much of his value in his
     profession. There are, doubtless, many exceptions to that rule,
     and Sir James Saumarez was a most striking one; for I believe
     he was most powerfully stimulated to great and good actions, by
     the consideration of the share those dear to him would enjoy in
     their results. And, certainly, no energy whatever was wanting
     to get his ship, or squadron, ready for sea, or to proceed with
     the utmost despatch in the execution of his orders, however it
     might curtail the period of his domestic enjoyments; everything
     gave way to duty, and every possible degree of energy and zeal
     was brought into action for the execution of it.

     The lively sensibility, which formed so prominent a feature in
     the character of our lamented hero, was most remarkable. It was
     not only in the intercourse of private friendship and in acts
     of kindness and benevolence, that this feeling was evinced; but
     upon all occasions, public as well as private, he manifested
     how deeply his heart was engaged in events which might bear on
     the interests of his friends and his country. I well remember,
     when off the Black Rocks in April 1801, his coming on board,
     from a visit he paid to the commander-in-chief, and bringing a
     newspaper, containing an account of the landing in Egypt, and
     the attack on the Danish fleet at Copenhagen by Lord Nelson. He
     directed me to cause the hands to be turned up; but when they
     were assembled, his feelings had so completely overcome him,
     that he found it utterly impossible to read the account. Many
     instances of this peculiar depth of feeling and goodness of
     heart might be enumerated. I shall only add, that he was most
     exemplary in his conduct, and most exact in causing all the
     offices of religion to be performed on board his ship, allowing
     nothing short of the most imperative duties of the ship to
     interrupt divine service!

In conclusion, we must seriously recommend to our young readers, and
particularly to those of the Royal Navy, to whom indeed the whole
memoir is addressed, to read with attention the following remarks on
the moral and religious character of the late illustrious and noble
Admiral.

His lordship was a sincere Christian, in the most exalted sense of the
word; his religion was a strong principle, pervading every decision
and action of his long and distinguished life. It was a principle
emanating from a sound knowledge and love of scripture truth; those
who were honoured with his confidence, and who saw him at all times,
and under different circumstances, particularly in the hour of
sickness and in affliction, can testify with what earnestness he
turned to the great source of strength and consolation, with what
warmth of feeling he spoke of the redeeming mercies of God in Christ
Jesus; it was a theme to which he delighted to give utterance, and in
a way which convinced those who heard him, that it constituted the
firm, prevailing, comforting belief and support of his own mind and
heart. A friend, who visited Lord de Saumarez during a severe
illness, was deeply affected on hearing him say, that he had passed a
sleepless night, not so much from the bodily sufferings he endured as
from the painful reflection of the misery and danger of the multitudes
who were living without God in the world, particularly those who were
opposed to the gospel of Christ, and that he had earnestly prayed to
God on their behalf. It was a similar feeling which led him to employ
himself with so much zeal, and such magnificent liberality for the
erection of St. James's church in his native island: it owes its
existence mainly to him. No sacrifice appeared too great to ensure the
success of an undertaking which provided four hundred free sittings
for the use of the poor population. More recently, in the same spirit,
he became a bountiful contributor to another church, in a populous
district of the island; and his last public act was laying the
foundation-stone of that edifice. The multitudes who there saw his
benign countenance, will not quickly forget the devotion which mingled
with the performance of the ceremony. He ever liberally supported the
schools and religious institutions; but indeed his charity was
unbounded. In every case of public emergency, or of private distress,
he was a sure refuge; and the hopes entertained of his assistance and
sympathy were never disappointed. The success which attended his
Lordship in his profession, has proved that moral and religious worth,
far from unfitting men for the naval service, only qualifies them the
more for the right discharge of their arduous duties. No commander
ever possessed in a higher degree the confidence of the navy, the
respect of the community at large, and the love and veneration of
friends and relatives; and surely it is not too much to add, that this
homage was paid, not more to his professional skill and valour, not
more to the eminent services he had rendered to his king and country,
than to the Christian excellency which ever adorned his life and
actions.



ADDENDA.

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF LIEUT. GENERAL SIR THOMAS SAUMAREZ.


In adding the following memoir of this distinguished officer, who is a
younger brother of the late noble Lord, we feel confident that it will
be read with interest, his services having been in some degree mixed up
with those of his illustrious brother, in the prosecution of the
American and the late Continental war. The author having been intimately
acquainted with Sir Thomas, and having for many years kept up a constant
correspondence with him, has peculiar satisfaction in discharging this
duty of gratitude to a friend for whom he had always the highest regard
and respect, and to whom he materially owes his advancement in the
profession to which he has the honour to belong.

Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Saumarez entered the army in January 1776,
at the early age of 15 years, when he purchased a second lieutenancy in
the 23rd regiment or Royal Welsh Fusiliers. He was at the taking of New
York Island, and assisted at the storming of Fort Washington and in
capturing 3300 men.

In April 1777, he embarked on board transports with the regiment, and
proceeded to destroy all the military stores and provisions the enemy
had collected at Danburg in the province of Connecticut. He first
distinguished himself in the action fought at this place, and in the
actions of Ridgefield and Compo Point. Having obtained a lieutenancy in
1778 without purchase at Philadelphia, he soon after was selected to
serve in the company of grenadiers which was then attached to the
brigade, composed of more than fifty companies of grenadiers. He was in
the severe action fought at Monmouth, in the Jerseys, when the captain,
and more than one-third of the company to which he belonged, were killed
or wounded. His services were volunteered with the regiment to serve as
marines on board Lord Howe's fleet, destined to attack the French fleet,
under Count D'Estaing, at Rhode Island, very superior in size and weight
of metal to the British: a dreadful storm arose when the two fleets were
within gun-shot of each other, which prevented the engagement. In 1779,
he embarked and went up Hudson's River to East Chester, and Ver Plank's
Point, and was at the attack of Fort La Fayette and other fortified
places, which surrendered.

On the return of young Saumarez to New York in September 1779, he was
strongly recommended by his commanding officer to General Clinton, the
commander-in-chief, and, in consequence, was permitted to purchase a
company in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, although he was only 19 years of
age. The day following, he embarked with several regiments, under the
command of Earl Cornwallis, with the intention of attacking several
French West Indian Islands. A few days after leaving New York, a frigate
hove in sight, the captain of which gave information to Vice Admiral
Arbuthnot, that two days before he had seen a large fleet of men-of-war,
under the command of Count De Grasse, very superior in numbers to our
convoy, and that he supposed the enemy to be within a day's sail of our
ships. Upon this the Admiral made the signal for all the transports to
return as expeditiously as possible to New York, where he disembarked.

In December, our young officer embarked with many regiments, under the
command of Lieutenant General Clinton, and sailed for South Carolina, to
besiege the city of Charlestown, which surrendered on the 12th of May
1780. Soon after this, he was detached with 4000 men, under the orders
of Earl Cornwallis, and after marching upwards of one hundred miles took
possession of Camden. At this place, our little army became so sickly
that we had more than 1100 men in the hospital, which, with many
detachments, reduced our number to less than 2000 effective men. The
enemy being apprised of this, was induced to collect a force of more
than 7000 men, with the intention of attacking and capturing our little
army, under the command of General Gates. On the 15th of August, Lord
Cornwallis was informed that the Americans were within twelve miles of
Camden, and consisted of six to one in numbers more than we had to
oppose to them. Upon this, his lordship considered it was too late to
think of retreating to Charlestown, and not wishing to abandon our sick
in hospital, decided at once that, by attacking the enemy, we had a
great deal to gain and little to lose. He accordingly issued an order to
march at nine o'clock the same evening. About two hours after, the
advance guards of the British and of the Americans encountered each
other, as the enemy had begun to march precisely at the same hour: after
skirmishing some time, the firing ceased, and both armies waited most
impatiently for the dawn of day of the 16th, when they formed, and
immediately engaged; the Americans at the same time detaching troops on
both the flanks of the British, to prevent their escaping, under the
expectation of taking the whole prisoners. On the other hand, the
British marched coolly to meet the enemy, although under a very heavy
fire of cannon and musketry, until they came within twenty yards of
their opponents. Here Lord Cornwallis took off his hat, which was a
signal for the line to give three hearty cheers, advance, and, when
within a few yards of the enemy, fire a well-directed volley and charge:
this was done with such effect that the first line of the Americans ran
away and overset their reserve; the result was, that the British killed
(mostly with the bayonet), wounded, and took prisoners 300 more than
they had men in the field, took seven pieces of brass cannon, 150
waggons, full of all sorts of military stores, camp equipage, &c.

About three weeks after this action, Lord Cornwallis, upon finding the
greater number of the sick had left the hospital, issued an order for
all the officers' baggage which could possibly be dispensed with to be
destroyed immediately, as the little army was going by forced marches in
pursuit of the enemy. The troops accordingly marched seventeen
successive days, from five o'clock in the evening to eight or nine the
following morning, oftentimes with a very scanty allowance, or no
provisions, as it was through an exhausted country, without bread, (as
the corn mills had been rendered unserviceable,) except some Indian corn
used by the cattle, and this corn was taken from the fields. The troops
were without tents or any covering to shelter them from the intense heat
and heavy rains peculiar to the climate. They had to ford frequently
four or five rivers and creeks in a day; some of these were deeper than
their waist, and so rapid, that the officers and soldiers found it
requisite to tie and support each other. Under these circumstances the
men were frequently exposed to a most galling fire from the enemy,
strongly posted: if a man was wounded, he was let go down the stream and
drowned.

During a march of 1500 miles through South and North Carolina and
Virginia, the officers and soldiers were subjected to the greatest
sufferings, privations, and hardships, which, (as Lord Cornwallis
frequently observed in his despatches,) could not be possibly exceeded,
their clothes being worn out, especially their boots and shoes. They
were, moreover, almost without wine or spirits, having destroyed the
greater part when orders were issued at Camden to lessen the baggage as
much as possible, which deprived the officers of the comforts they so
much required, and which they had obtained with the greatest trouble and
expense: for this sacrifice, they never received the smallest
recompence. The officers having the rank of captain were allowed to ride
on a march, but in consequence of a requisition made to Lord Cornwallis
by Colonel Tarleton, commanding the cavalry, not only for the riding
horses, but also for all the cart horses, which were most serviceable to
mount his troopers, his lordship most reluctantly compelled every
officer to deliver the best of the horses for the cavalry. The captains
naturally lent their horses to the officers and men who might require
them from illness or otherwise; it was soon found out that they could
not be dispensed with, so that cast-off horses were substituted for
those they had been obliged to give up.

The little army being nearly exhausted with fatigue, the officers and
men became most anxious that, instead of the minor actions and
skirmishes to which they were frequently exposed, the enemy would
collect all his force and give them an opportunity to fight and end
their labours.

On the 14th of March 1781, Lord Cornwallis received intelligence that
General Green, with a force five times greater as to numbers than the
British, was within ten miles. His lordship determined to attack them
the day following, and put his little corps in motion at daybreak of the
15th of March. About noon, he fell in with the enemy most advantageously
posted, and formed in three lines; the first, which was behind rails,
kept up a most incessant fire, from four six-pounders and musquetry,
upon the British troops as they advanced upon a ploughed field, which
was very muddy from rain that fell the day before. Notwithstanding all
these disadvantages, they marched coolly to the Americans without firing
a musket until within a few yards, when they halted to fire a
well-directed volley and charged. Upon this, they had to encounter the
enemy's second and third lines, which were attacked in the same manner
and totally dispersed, leaving their four six-pounders, the only guns
they had, in the field, which were bravely taken by the brigade of
guards: these four six-pounders were soon after retaken by a charge from
Colonel Washington's cavalry, and two of these guns were ultimately
taken by Captain Saumarez, who had the command of the left wing of the
regiment from the commencement of the action, after Captain Pater, who
commanded the royal Welsh Fusiliers, was wounded in the early part of
the engagement, and the left wing had been separated from the right wing
when in pursuit of the first line of the Americans. The other two
six-pounders were also taken by Colonel Tarleton's cavalry: these four
guns were all the Americans brought into the field.

The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was very considerable. The Welsh
Fusiliers and most of the other corps of Lord Cornwallis's army had
about one third of the officers and soldiers in the field killed and
wounded, and most unhappily, during the action, the lighted paper of the
cartridges set fire to the dried leaves, so that many of the unfortunate
wounded, which could not be removed, belonging to the British and
Americans, were burnt to death. Earl Cornwallis mentioned in his
despatches, "that the conduct and actions of the officers and soldiers
that compose this little army, will do more justice to their merit than
I can by words. Their persevering intrepidity in action, their
invincible patience in the hardships and fatigues of a march of many
hundred miles, in which they have forded several large rivers and
numberless creeks, many of which would be reckoned large rivers in any
other country in the world, without tents or covering against the
climate, and often without provisions, will sufficiently manifest their
ardent zeal for the honour and interests of their sovereign and their
country."

This engagement was generally considered to be the hottest and
bloodiest, as well as the best fought throughout the war.[15] The army
marched from Guildford the 18th of March for Wilmington, where it
arrived the 7th of April. At this place the officers and soldiers
fortunately were enabled to supply themselves with a small quantity of
wine and spirits, with which they had been without for some months, also
with tea and sugar and some clothing, of which they began to be in the
greatest need, in consequence of having been compelled to destroy the
greatest part of their baggage twice for the good of the service, since
they arrived at Camden in June 1780.

     [15] The action of July 1779.

On the 25th of April 1781, he marched from Wilmington, North Carolina,
for Petersburg, Virginia, a distance of 800 miles: here he arrived on
the 20th of May, after undergoing the greatest privations and
hardships, which Lord Cornwallis deplored, and felt the distresses of
his little army so much that he became very ill with a fever, which
prevented the possibility of his lordship's sitting a horse, and made it
indispensably requisite for his being conveyed in a waggon over
mountains, rivers, and creeks.

On the 4th of July the troops marched from Williamsburg, the capital of
Virginia, for James Town, near which place there was a river three miles
wide, which the army had to cross. On the 5th, the baggage of the army
passed over the river, and some of the troops. The day following, Lord
Cornwallis received intelligence that the Marquis De La Fayette with
2000 Americans were within a short distance of the British, with the
intention of destroying the rear guard: upon this, his lordship
prevented the main body of his little corps from embarking, and placed
it in ambush behind a high hill to wait the attack of the enemy. About
four o'clock in the afternoon, the Americans began to attack the
piquets, which had orders to sustain their ground as long as possible;
in consequence, several officers and soldiers were wounded: at length
the main body of the enemy formed in front of the British, when the
latter, after receiving the repeated discharges of the former from two
six-pounders and musquetry, advanced, with the greatest impetuosity,
fired a volley and charged, which completely dispersed the Americans,
who were pursued until dark, the enemy leaving the two pieces of cannon
and more than 300 killed and wounded on the field. Another hour of
day-light would in all probability have prevented a single man of the
Americans escaping.

Earl Cornwallis was so well pleased with his little army, that in his
despatches he mentioned, that he could not sufficiently commend the
spirit and good behaviour of the officers and soldiers. On the 25th of
July the little corps marched for Portsmouth, and arrived at York Town
and Gloucester on the 9th of August, when orders were issued to fortify
both places as well as practicable. The Welsh Fusiliers were directed to
erect a redoubt on the right flank of the town, more than five hundred
yards in advance, there being a ravine between York and the position
allotted. Lord Cornwallis declared that the Fusiliers would have to
defend this post. On the 28th of September, 8000 French troops under the
command of Count Rochambeau, and 1500 American troops under General
Washington, with a large French fleet of ships of war, made their
appearance, with the avowed intention of besieging the army under Earl
Cornwallis, consisting of only 4017 men fit for duty: 1933 officers and
soldiers were wounded and sick in hospital. The night following, the
enemy broke ground within three hundred yards and continued their
approaches.

On the 6th of October, 3000 French grenadiers made a most vigorous
attempt to storm the right advanced redoubt, and were bravely repulsed
by only 130 officers and soldiers of the royal Welsh Fusiliers, and 40
marines. Two other attempts were made by the French to take the redoubt,
which proved equally unsuccessful. For the gallant defence made by the
troops in the right redoubt, they received the particular thanks of Earl
Cornwallis, and also the most flattering testimonials of approbation and
of admiration from the general officers of the army, for their intrepid
conduct during the siege, and upon all other occasions. Even the French
general officers, after the termination of the siege, gave the Welsh
Fusiliers their unqualified praises for their firmness and courage in
repulsing the three attacks made by such vastly superior numbers on the
redoubt, and could not be easily convinced that so few men defended it.
Captain Saumarez was the second officer in command in the advanced right
redoubt.

On the 19th of October 1781, the garrison of York Town capitulated. Lord
Cornwallis having ordered that one captain and three subalterns of each
regiment be required to remain with the prisoners, the captains drew
lots, when Captain Saumarez proved so unfortunate as to be the one to
remain with the regiment, in order to visit the non-commissioned
officers and soldiers very frequently; to be an eye-witness of their
treatment; to take care that the quantity and quality of the provisions
issued to them were conformable to the terms of the capitulation; to
distribute clothing and necessaries, and also to be of every other use
and benefit to them in his power. On the 29th of October, he marched
from York Town with the regiment, and arrived on the 15th November at
Winchester, in the back settlements of Virginia, where the soldiers were
confined in barracks, surrounded with a stockade. The 12th of January
1782, he marched with the regiment and a part of Lord Cornwallis's army
from Winchester, through the State of Maryland to Lancaster in
Pennsylvania, where they arrived the 28th following. The cold was so
intense during the march, which proved so harassing and fatiguing, that
many of the men were frost-bitten, and many others suffered exceedingly.

The 2nd of June 1782, Captain Saumarez and the other twelve captains[16]
taken prisoners with the army under Earl Cornwallis, were ordered by the
American Congress and General Washington to assemble at Lancaster, in
Pennsylvania; and to draw lots, that one might be selected to suffer
death by way of retaliation, when the lot fell on Sir Charles Asgill,
who was in consequence conveyed under a strong escort to the American
army, stationed in the Jerseys, the place fixed upon for his execution.
Here he remained in prison for six months, enduring the greatest
hardships, expecting daily that his execution would take place. The
manner adopted for drawing lots, was by placing the names of the
thirteen captains in one hat, and in another twelve blank pieces of
paper, beginning with the names one by one, and by each piece of paper,
until the paper was drawn upon which was written the "_unfortunate_." It
may be observed that Captain Asgill had to pass through Philadelphia,
where the Congress was assembled; and he being attended voluntarily, and
most humanely, by Major Gordon, of the 80th regiment, the senior officer
of the British troops prisoners of war, he made it his business to wait
upon the French Ambassador, and desired in the most impressive manner
his Excellency's interference with the Congress, to prevent the
execution of Captain Asgill. The Ambassador refused complying with the
entreaty, but it was thought he afterwards relented, as he was seen
going to Congress; and that his remonstrances, together with the strong
representations of the captains, who wrote and applied in the most
decided manner to General Count De Rochambeau, who commanded the French
troops in besieging York Town, had the effect of at least suspending the
sanguinary intentions of Congress and of General Washington, to put
Captain Asgill to death, until the Government and the Queen of France,
to whom application had been made to interfere in his behalf, and if
possible save his life, were ascertained. The only reason alleged for
the above transactions, was, that a rebel captain named Huddy, who was
patrolling with Americans, fell in at night with another patrol of
royalists commanded by Captain Lippencott, who was taken prisoner by
Huddy, and who, without trial or any other cause but his being a
loyalist attached to the British army, hung poor Lippencott. The
latter's brother, shortly after this most infamous occurrence, was
patrolling and took Huddy prisoner, upon which, to retaliate for the
murder of his brother, he executed Huddy. The above transactions were
made known to the thirteen captains whilst prisoners on parole, and
credited by them. They were also informed very frequently, that General
Washington had often declared, that of the two events of his life which
grieved him and that he lamented most, one was his not having done his
utmost to prevent the thirteen captains taken by capitulation drawing
lots.

     [16] Brigade of Guards:--Earl Ludlow, Sir Charles Morgan,
     Captains Eld, Greville, Asgill, and Perrin. Captain Saumarez,
     23rd, or Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Captain Coote, 37th Regiment.
     Captains Graham and Barclay, 76th Regiment. Captains Arbuthnot
     and Hathorn, 80th Regiment. Captain ----, name unknown.

Captain Saumarez being the senior officer of the British troops, during
the time they were prisoners at Winchester and at York Town, in
Pennsylvania, had the charge and superintendence of 3000 men, stationed
at each of these places during nineteen months, which caused the
greatest anxiety, and often-times the utmost distress. In consequence of
his unremitting zeal and exertions upon this arduous service for the
comfort and welfare of the soldiers under his superintendence, as well
as to prevent their deserting to the enemy, from whom they received
every enticement to do so, he was frequently offered passports and
encouragements to go to England, and abandon the soldiers, by the
American authorities; but flattering himself that he was most useful to
them, and being impelled by a sense of public duty, he voluntarily
continued a prisoner on parole, until, in May 1783, he had the
satisfaction at the end of the war of conducting the first division of
the army to New York, where upon his arrival he was honoured in
obtaining the thanks and approval for his conduct from Sir Guy Carleton,
the Commander-in-chief, and also from the Field Officers of the Royal
Welsh Fusiliers.

Soon after his arrival within the British lines, he was permitted to
embark for England. On landing at Portsmouth, he had the mortification
of hearing he had been placed on half-pay, in consequence of the army
having been reduced, although he had fought in three general actions,
several skirmishes, and two sieges, since he purchased his company in
1779. Having repeatedly offered his services, he was preferred to a
company in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in 1787, upon the augmentation of
the army, and when war was expected to take place; but was unfortunately
reduced three months after, as the peace continued. In 1789, he was
appointed to a company in the 7th or Royal Fusilier regiment, and joined
it in Scotland: soon after he embarked at Leith for Gibraltar, to join
his colonel, his Royal Highness Prince Edward, who was pleased to form a
company selected from all the bad and worst-behaved soldiers in the
regiment, and appointed Captain Saumarez to command and take charge of
them: some time after this, he was honoured with his Royal Highness's
best thanks, for the reformation he had caused in the conduct and
discipline of these men, and for doing this without corporal punishment.
The Duke was pleased to honour him with the appointment of Equerry, and
afterwards of Groom of the Chamber to his Royal Highness.

In 1791, he embarked with the regiment for Canada, and soon after this
he was permitted to go to England. In 1793, on the declaration of war
with France, he offered his services to raise a regiment, when Mr.
Secretary Dundas and Major General Thomas Dundas, the latter being
appointed to command-in-chief at Guernsey, earnestly solicited him to
accompany the Major General to the island, on account of his knowledge
of the language, the laws, and customs of the island, and of its
inhabitants; and being informed that the enemy meditated to attack it,
he was induced to accept the appointment of Major of Brigade to 2000
militia of the island: he besides voluntarily did the duty of the
quarter-master-general's department to the troops. He also had the
superintendence and examination of all strangers as they landed, which
enabled him to cause many disaffected persons and rebels from Ireland to
be apprehended: he had the selection and appointment of pilots to the
ships of war requiring them, and otherwise rendered himself as useful as
possible to the public service, without additional pay or emolument
whatever, for the space of five years, and until the arrival of 7000
Russian troops, when he was appointed assistant quarter-master-general,
and, upon four French corps arriving in the island, he was appointed
their inspector.

Mr. Secretary Dundas, and Mr. Windham, secretary at war, were pleased to
confide to him the secret correspondence with the enemy's coast, from
Havre to Brest, when he obtained intelligence of the utmost importance,
for which he repeatedly received the thanks of His Majesty's ministers.
In 1794, he was deputed to carry an address from the States of the
island, on the marriage of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent; and on
this occasion Major General Small, who was the Lieutenant-Governor and
Commander-in-chief, was pleased to recommend his services in so strong a
manner to the King's ministers, that he had the honour of being
knighted. In 1799 he was promoted to be inspector of the militia of the
island, in which situation he continued to serve until June, 1811, when
he obtained the rank of major general.[17]

     [17] In the year 1800, when the author was acting Lieutenant of
     H.M.S. Weasle, he had the misfortune to be taken prisoner in
     one of the boats, and was on the point of falling a sacrifice
     to the injustice of those in power at St. Malo, when Sir
     Thomas, who had the care of the French prisoners at Guernsey,
     being aware of his situation, sent in conjunction with the
     Governor, the late Sir Hew Dalrymple, an offer to the Prefect
     at St. Malo of forty men for his exchange, which, although it
     had not the effect of procuring his liberty, was certainly the
     cause of saving his life, at a period when the execution of a
     fellow-creature was a matter of little moment; and the author
     soon after found means to escape.

In February 1812, Sir Thomas was appointed commandant of the garrison at
Halifax, Nova Scotia; and in August 1813 he had the honour of going as
President of the Council, and to command in chief the province of New
Brunswick. In July 1814, he returned to Halifax, and soon after he
embarked for England.

Before his departure from New Brunswick, His Majesty's Council presented
him the following address:

"To his Honour Major General Sir Thomas Saumarez, late President and
Commander-in-chief of the province of New Brunswick.

     "THE ADDRESS OF HIS MAJESTY'S COUNCIL.

     "Fredericton, 6th July 1814.

     "SIR,

     "The unsettled state of the government in New Brunswick has
     long been a subject of general regret in the province, where
     the changes of President have occurred no less than nine times
     in the course of seven years. But although the period of your
     Honour's administration in particular has been short, it will
     not be soon forgotten; it has made a lasting impression on the
     minds of all such as have had opportunity to observe, and
     justly to appreciate, your vigilant and unwearied attention to
     the duties of your station, and your constant ambition, by
     every means in your power, to promote and secure the prosperity
     of the colony committed to your care. His Majesty's Council
     therefore request your acceptance of this address, not as a
     mere compliment, but as a sincere tribute of respect and
     esteem; which, together with their best wishes, they offer in
     the confident assurance that, on this occasion, they speak the
     sentiments of the province at large."

Sir Thomas Saumarez, who had long been the senior Lieutenant General in
Her Majesty's army, was advanced to the rank of General at the
Coronation of Her most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria.

Sir Thomas has almost constantly resided in his native island, and no
one has done more in promoting its improvement. Those who have visited
Guernsey with an introduction to him, and even perfect strangers, will
gratefully remember his hospitality. He was long the highly esteemed
friend of Her present Majesty's illustrious father, his Royal Highness
the Duke of Kent; and he is no less esteemed for the urbanity of his
manners and kindness of heart. The author can testify, that those who
know Sir Thomas Saumarez have a sincere and invaluable friend.


BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN PHILIP DE SAUMAREZ.

The deeds of this brave and meritorious officer, who was the uncle of
the noble Lord whose memoirs we have recorded in these volumes, would
probably have been buried in oblivion, had not some official documents
been discovered, of which we have gladly availed ourselves in presenting
to the public a more full and authentic account of his glorious career
than has hitherto been given.

Philip de Saumarez was the third son of Mathew de Saumarez of Guernsey,
and Anne Durell, born at Guernsey 17th of November 1710. At an early age
he was removed from his native isle to a grammar school at Jersey, where
he continued under the immediate patronage of his aunt, Lady de
Carteret, till the age of eleven, when with the view of making himself a
proficient in mathematics and classics, as well as of acquiring the
English language, which at that period was but partially spoken in these
islands, he was sent to Southampton, and there placed under the care of
Mr. Isaac Watts and Mrs. Kinsman. That he made considerable proficiency
in learning, and employed the short time which in those days was devoted
to education, preparatory to entering the service to advantage, may be
justly inferred, if we may judge from the style of his letters, and from
the precision and accuracy which mark the astronomical observations to
be found in his journals.

At Southampton he remained about two years and a half, when he met with
his uncle Captain James Durell, of the Royal Navy, a brave and
distinguished officer, who took him to Greenwich, with the view of
placing him in the Royal Navy, which he was soon after able to
accomplish. Mr. Philip de Saumarez commenced his naval career on the
4th of February 1726, under Captain Charles Kendal, in his Majesty's
ship Weymouth of fifty guns, then attached to the Baltic station, from
whence she returned in November. In the spring of the year 1727, she was
ordered to the Nore to attend his Majesty George II, then going to
Holland, and in the month of August she sailed for Gibraltar and the
Mediterranean station.

On the 1st December 1727, he was removed from the Weymouth to the
Gibraltar of twenty guns, commanded by the Hon. George Byng, who was
succeeded by Captain John Stanley, with whom our young officer served
till the 20th December 1729, on which day he joined Captain Byng in the
Princess Louisa, of sixty guns, and sailed under his command till the
7th July 1730, when Captain Byng, having been appointed to the Falmouth
of fifty guns, removed into the latter ship, and took Mr. De Saumarez
with him, who had now served the necessary time, and had received
flattering testimonials from his respective captains. Captain Byng
mentioning that he was deserving of promotion, he obtained leave to go
to London to pass his examination, which he did on the 17th of October
1732, at which period he had served above six years and seven months.

After passing, he immediately rejoined the Falmouth, and continued to
serve two years longer as midshipman and master's mate. He now became
extremely anxious for that promotion to which his services and excellent
conduct so justly entitled him. He therefore returned home to apply for
it, receiving a very strong certificate from Captain Byng, dated 25th
June 1734. In August following he arrived in London; and several
officers, among whom Capt. Saunders appears to be foremost, having
recommended him for promotion as a most deserving officer, he was
placed on the Admiralty list, being appointed as midshipman and
subsequently as master's mate to the Blenheim, of ninety guns, bearing
the flag of Admiral Cavendish. Having arrived at the West Indies, he was
appointed to the Dunkirk on the Jamaica station, anxiously waiting for
promotion. He was above two years in that ungenial climate, where his
health became much impaired before he received his commission. Several
letters he wrote to his friends express his extreme desire to obtain it,
as will be seen by the following short extract:

     "12th January 1737--I wish I had it in my power reciprocally to
     enhance our satisfaction by acquainting you with my
     advancement; that period has not yet arrived; fortune seems in
     regard to me to be at a stand, and I find that I am obliged to
     fill the chasm by a constant perseverance of patience: probably
     this season may prove more auspicious, and I am in hopes of
     shortly seeing some revolution to my advantage."

The season after did indeed prove the fatal effects of the climate, on
which subject he thus writes to his brother: "We have undergone a severe
season this summer, heat being excessive, attended with calms that
rendered it insupportable; this has occasioned a great mortality, and
made death quite familiar to us, it being the usual thing to attend the
funeral of the friends we conversed with the day before. Though this
made us a kind of mechanic philosophers, (if I may use the term,) I do
not observe that it contributes towards rectifying the morals of the
inhabitants here, or making us better Christians."

On the 6th of August 1737, he at last succeeded in obtaining his
long-expected promotion as lieutenant from Admiral Digby Dent,
Commander-in-chief at Jamaica. This pleasing intelligence was
communicated in a letter to Lady Carteret, dated the 10th of October
1737, which mentions that he was appointed lieutenant of the Kinsale of
forty guns, and that the Admiral signed his commission only three hours
before his death. On the 28th July, he was removed from the Kinsale by
the Commander-in-chief, but on the 22nd of August he received his
confirmation from the Admiralty to the Diamond, which confirmed also
both the former. He returned to England in October 1739, when he visited
his friends in Guernsey and Jersey, and recruited his health, which was
naturally delicate, and had been seriously impaired by the West Indian
climate; but the imperious demands of active service soon called him
away.

It was in this year that the memorable voyage round the world was
projected, and shortly after the command was given to Commodore Anson,
who had the privilege of selecting the officers who were to serve under
him on that interesting and important enterprise, when Mr. Saumarez was
chosen as second lieutenant of the Centurion of sixty guns, his own
ship; besides which the squadron consisted of the Gloucester, fifty
guns, Captain Norris; the Severn, fifty guns, Captain Legge; of the
Pearl, forty guns, Capt. Mitchell; of the Wager, twenty-eight, Captain
Kidd; and the Tryal of eight guns, Captain E. Murray; besides the
Centaur store-ship and two victuallers, the Anna and Industry Pinks.

From numberless delays injurious to the expedition, it was not before
the 17th of September 1740 that the Commodore was able to leave St.
Helen's, and proceed on his intended voyage.

As the account of the proceedings of Commodore Anson has been published
in almost every naval history as well as in the biographical memoirs of
that illustrious navigator, it need not be repeated here, and we shall
therefore confine ourselves to the part in which the conduct of Lieut.
Saumarez was conspicuous.

Lieut. Saumarez in 1741 was made acting commander of the Tryal, in the
place of Lieutenant Saunders, who was appointed to the vacancy
occasioned by the death of Captain Kidd, but who from ill-health was not
in a state to be removed from the Centurion. In this situation he
remained seven weeks, during which time he gave proofs of his consummate
skill during a period of excessively inclement weather. Captain
Saunders, on his recovery, assumed the command on the 19th February,
when he returned to the Centurion as first lieutenant.

The following account given by Lieutenant Saumarez of the action with
the Spanish Galleon, off Manilla, cannot be read without much interest.
It is dated on board the Centurion, 1742.

     "I shall run over briefly the dates of our voyage, and give you
     a rude sketch of our proceedings: to enlarge on particulars
     would exceed the limits of a letter.

     "You will recollect our squadron left England on the 18th
     September 1740. We had a tedious passage of forty-one days to
     Madeira, the usual one being ten; to this accident several
     secondary ones succeeded, as loss of time, and the season
     proper for navigating the Southern seas, and declining health
     of the men, especially the soldiers. We stayed a month at this
     island, employed in watering, and taking in our stock of wine.
     It is highly probable that we narrowly escaped a squadron of
     the enemy, which were discovered from the mountains, cruising
     off the west end of the island, and which, if the commanders
     had behaved like disciplinarians, might have intercepted us,
     and it would have fully answered the designs of the Spanish
     court if they had disabled us from pursuing our voyage, which
     must have been the consequence of an engagement. They had also
     the advantage of being double our number; but, leaving them to
     their reflections, we pursued our course, and crossed the line
     and tropic without any remarkable accidents occurring,
     excepting that fever and fluxes began to attack us, especially
     the soldiers; and in forty-four days we arrived at the island
     of St. Catherine, on the coast of Brazil, on the 19th March
     1740.

     "We stayed at St. Catherine's twenty-eight days, employed in
     recovering our sick, who lived on shore in tents, and in making
     preparations for doubling Cape Horn in a tempestuous and
     advanced season.

     "We sailed hence on the 18th of January 1741, and soon after
     began to meet with uncertain, stormy weather, in which the
     Tryal sloop lost her mainmast, and was towed by one of the
     squadron; the rest separated from us, but as our rendezvous was
     at St. Julien's, a port on the coast of Patagonia, or, as
     others term it, Terra Magellanica, in 49° 30' South, we
     rejoined them there, by which we heard of Pizarro's squadron,
     from whom we narrowly escaped off Pepy's Island. We stayed here
     eight days, employed in putting all our lumber on board the
     store-ship, and were in hopes of meeting with the Spanish
     squadron.

     "The coast here is a sulphureous and nitrous soil, abounding
     with salt lakes, but destitute of verdure, shrub, tree, or
     fresh water, and seems the seat of infernal spirits; nor indeed
     was there the trace of any animals, besides seals and birds. We
     here took in salt and refitted the sloop.

     "Captain Kidd's death made a revolution by promotion amongst
     us, and I was appointed first lieutenant of the Commodore; but
     my predecessor, to whose command the sloop descended, was taken
     dangerously ill, and became incapable of taking possession of
     his charge. I was ordered to take the command until his
     recovery; and here I must confess to you, I was sanguine enough
     to flatter myself with the same addition of good fortune, some
     favourable crisis in my behalf: but I was born to be
     unfortunate.

     "We sailed hence on the 27th of February 1741: my station was
     a-head of the squadron, to keep sounding and make timely
     signals of danger.

     "The 4th of March we discovered the entrance of the Strait of
     Magellan, and on the 7th passed through the Strait le Main,
     lying at the extremity of Terra del Fuego, between that and
     Staten Land.

     "This day was remarkably warm and favourable, and though in
     latitude 55° 50' South, we began to look on the conquest of the
     Peruvian mines and principal towns in the Pacific sea as an
     amusement, which would naturally occur. From this time forward,
     we met with nothing but disasters and accidents. Never were the
     passions of hope and fear so powerfully agitated and exercised;
     the very elements seemed combined against us. I commanded the
     sloop at the time of the separation of the ships that returned
     home, being stationed to look out for islands of ice; and had
     to endure such fatigue from the severity of the weather, and
     the duty which the nature of the service necessarily brought on
     me, that really my life was hardly worth preserving at the
     expense of such hardships. Our own ships had several miraculous
     escapes, which, in the obscurity of the night and the violence
     of the weather, often endangered foundering the sloop.

     "Having had the command of the sloop several weeks, I was at
     length superseded by her proper captain, who had recovered on
     board the Commodore's ship; and I returned to my post.

     "During this time, the scurvy made terrible havoc among us,
     especially the soldiers, who, being either infirm old men or
     raw inexperienced youths, soon lost their spirits, grew sick
     and disabled, and from the stench they occasioned, contributed
     to infect our seamen.

     "This distemper is the consequence of long voyages, and
     exhibits itself in such dreadful symptoms as are scarcely
     credible, viz. asthma, pains in the limbs and joints, blotches
     all over the body, ulcers, idiotism, lunacy, convulsions, and
     sudden death. Nor can the physicians, with all their _materia
     medica_, find a remedy for it equal to the smell of turf,
     grass, or a dish of greens. It is not my province to account
     for what is a matter of much doubt and perplexity even to the
     most learned, but I could plainly observe that there is a _je
     ne sais quoi_ in the frame of the human system, that cannot be
     removed without the assistance of certain earthy particles, or,
     in plain English, the landsman's proper aliment, and vegetables
     and fruits his only physic. For the space of six weeks we
     seldom buried less than four or five daily, and at last it
     amounted to eight or ten; and I really believe, that, had we
     stayed ten days longer at sea, we should have lost the ship for
     want of men to navigate her.

     "At length we arrived at the island of Juan Fernandez, in the
     South Sea, after having had several imminent dangers of
     shipwreck on the coast of Chili, off which the nature of our
     rendezvous required us to cruise, in hopes of rejoining the
     squadron.

     "We anchored here on the 16th June 1741, as we subsequently
     learned, just ten days after the departure of a Spanish ship of
     war, which was sent by the Admiral of these seas to gain
     intelligence, himself having cruised with his squadron of four
     sail a considerable time, in hopes of meeting with us, well
     judging the condition our ships might be in. You will be
     surprised to hear that in a sixty gun ship, on our arrival at
     this island, we mustered but seventy-two persons, including
     officers and boys, capable of appearing on deck; the rest being
     all sick, having lost 228 since our leaving England, which
     includes nine months.

     "We were joined by the Gloucester and Tryal sloop, (vide
     Anson's Voyage, p. 114,) the crews of which vessels had
     suffered still more, so that had there been an experienced
     enemy to have dealt with us, they might have made a very easy
     conquest of us all. But, 'whatever is, is right.' They gave us
     time to recover our spirits and rally our forces, for which we
     visited them afterwards and shut up their ports.

     "I shall not attempt a description of this island at present,
     but only tell you it is the most romantic and pleasant place
     imaginable, abounding with myrtle trees, and covered with
     turnips and sorrel. Its bays, teeming with all kinds of fish,
     seem calculated for the reception of distressed seamen. We
     stayed here three months, employed in refitting our ships, and
     restoring the health of the sick, and this without any loss of
     time to us, it being the winter season, in which, from April to
     September, navigation is judged unsafe by the Spaniards. In the
     beginning of this month (September) we were agreeably surprised
     by the sight of a sail, to which we immediately gave chase,
     slipping our cable; but night intervening, we lost her. We soon
     after fell in with another, who was her consort, of 500 tons,
     and much richer, having about 18,000_l._ in money on board,
     besides a cargo, which would have been valuable (being chiefly
     sugar) could we have brought it to a proper market; but in
     these parts it is a misfortune that nothing but money is truly
     valuable, having no ports whereat to dispose of anything. Here
     I commenced captain again, in the Tryal's prize, having twelve
     guns, besides swivels, with thirty men, and had a separate
     cruise ordered me with Captain Saunders. (Vide Anson's Voyage,
     p. 114.) She was a ship he had taken in the sloop, which then
     proved so leaky and disabled in her masts by a gale of wind,
     that she was sunk, and her prize commissioned in her room. As
     nothing appeared on our station, which was to leeward of
     Valparaiso, we had no opportunity of exerting ourselves. We
     next proceeded along the coast of Peru, and took two prizes,
     both very valuable to the Spaniards, the one being loaded with
     ship timber, and the other with iron bars, but to us of no
     great service; by the latter, (viz. the Nuestra Senora del
     Carmin, 250 tons of cargo, value 400,000 dollars,) we had
     information of a rich vessel in the road of Paita, bound to
     Lousuata on the coast of Mexico, the money being still in town.
     This was a chance worth pursuing; and having arrived off the
     port in the night, we sent in all the boats manned and armed,
     with fifty men, surprised and took the town with scarcely any
     resistance or loss, except one killed and one wounded on our
     side; the inhabitants abandoning their houses, and retiring to
     the neighbouring mountains.

     "This event happened on the 15th of November 1741. (Vide
     Anson's Voyage, p. 149.) We kept possession of the town two
     days and a half without any disturbance from the natives, and,
     having plundered it, set it on fire, but spared the two
     churches.

     "We found here about 30,000_l._ besides jewels; there was much
     more, but the inhabitants carried it off. We sunk two galleys
     and two snows, and carried away with us the small ship that was
     to have carried the money. We departed hence on the 16th, and
     some days after joined the Gloucester, which had been ranging
     the coast, and intercepted some vessels, though not so valuable
     as ours. We then proceeded along shore, burning some of our
     prizes, which proved dull sailers, and arrived at the island
     of Quibo, 17th December 1741, a delightful uninhabited place,
     abounding with wild deer and other refreshments. Having watered
     here with all imaginable expedition, we sailed hence on the
     19th December, with a design to cruise off Acapulco, on the
     coast of Mexico, for a rich ship that was expected from
     Manilla, on the island of Luconia, in the East Indies.

     "There is a yearly ship whose cargo amounts to an immense sum,
     and could we but have had a favourable passage thither, she
     must indubitably have been ours; but we were disappointed,
     having been seventy-nine days in effecting a passage which has
     been performed in twenty, meeting with a long series of calms
     and uncertain weather. Hence we arrived five weeks too late,
     and therefore hoped to speak her on her return, which generally
     is in March; she would then have been laden with money to
     purchase another cargo. We cruized off this port and the coast
     of Mexico two months, at a distance not to be discovered from
     the shore, and having intelligence, by a boat we took, of the
     day of her sailing, we made no doubt of her being ours. We were
     five sail in all, with our prizes, and lay at three leagues
     distance from each other, and ten from the port. During this
     time we lived on turtle, which we caught daily in our boats.
     Our squadron described a half moon, our boats being at the same
     time three leagues from the shore within us to watch the port.
     The disposition was so just and regular, it was impossible she
     could have escaped. I was so curious as to calculate my share,
     which would have amounted to 10,000_l._; but Providence
     ordained it otherwise.

     "I should have told you that that ship mounted sixty guns.
     Having cruised till our water was almost all expended, and
     having an enemy's coast whereon to replenish, we were obliged
     to depart, but left a boat behind to watch her motions. After
     many searches, we found a convenient bay for watering called
     Chequetan, where Sir Francis Drake had refitted. We sunk and
     burnt all our prizes, in order to cross the great Southern
     Ocean, and, with the Gloucester in company, go to the East
     Indies. We learned afterwards that this rich ship was detained,
     having had information from the coast of Peru of our being on
     the coast. We left Acapulco on the 6th of May 1742; and here
     begins another series of misfortunes and mortality surpassing
     the first. We had a passage of three months and a half to the
     Ladrone Islands, which is generally made in two; yet it was a
     vulgar opinion amongst our people that we had sailed so far as
     to pass by all the land in the world! Length of time and
     badness of the weather rendered both our ships leaky; this,
     joined to our mortality, the scurvy raging amongst us as much
     as ever, obliged us to destroy the Gloucester, which ship was
     ready to founder, and receive the men on board, who were all
     sick and dying. It is impossible to represent the melancholy
     circumstances wherein we were involved previous to our arrival
     at these islands. We anchored at one called Tinian,
     uninhabited, but abounding with wild cattle, hogs, fowls, and
     fruits: we could not have fallen in with a better place. I am
     convinced, had we stayed out ten days longer at sea, we should
     have been obliged to take to our boats, our leak increasing so
     fast, and our people being all infirm and disabled. We
     immediately sent all our sick on shore, and began to hope for
     better times, feeding plentifully on roast beef, when an
     accident fell out, on the 22nd September 1742, which nearly
     ruined us all.

     "My post as first officer generally confined me on board the
     Commodore, whilst most of the officers and men were on shore
     for the recovery of their health, when a storm came on and
     rose so mountainous a sea as none of us ever saw before. The
     ship was in danger of being pooped as we lay at anchor; at last
     we parted both our bower-cables and drove out to sea, with the
     sheet-anchor hanging in the hawse, a whole cable and three
     quarters of another out (excuse these barbarous sea terms), and
     narrowly escaped driving on a ledge of rocks, that was near,
     and leaving the Commodore and all the rest behind. The ship, by
     her labouring in such a troubled sea, made so much water that I
     was in doubt whether she would not have foundered; our ports
     and the guns were but ill-secured, owing to the suddenness of
     the storm, which also upset the long boat. Under these
     circumstances we drove to sea with one hundred men and boys on
     board, not knowing whether I should not at last be a captain in
     spite of my teeth. In this manner I drove seventy leagues, and
     was fifteen days before I recovered land, beating up against a
     fresh trade and the current. The Commodore, you may imagine,
     was overjoyed at my return, as were all the rest. They were
     very busy in building a vessel to carry them all to China, as
     they preferred venturing to sea in it to remaining in an
     uninhabited island, or to be exposed to the cruelty of the
     Spaniards who live in the neighbouring islands, the Commodore
     concluding that either the ship was lost, or that I should
     never be able to beat to windward. At last, after many hazards,
     we sailed on the 22nd of October 1742, and met with a tolerably
     good passage to the island of Macoa, a Portuguese settlement on
     the coast of China, where we arrived on the 11th November,
     having buried one hundred and sixty men since our leaving
     Acapulco, or four hundred and twenty since we left England,
     including Indians and negroes, whom we detained as prisoners."

Commodore Anson arrived at Macoa, and having careened and repaired the
ship, and been reinforced by some Lascars or Indian sailors, and by some
Dutchmen, he sailed from Macoa on the 1st May, giving out that he was
bound to Batavia, Captain Saunders of the Gloucester having gone to
England in a Swedish ship; but when fairly at sea he made known to his
crew that he was going to cruise off Manilla for the purpose of
intercepting the two galleons expected there, one of which he ultimately
took on the 20th June, just a month after they arrived off the station,
after a severe action, in which the galleon, which was called the Nostra
Signora Cabadonga, commanded by General Don Jeronimo de Montivo, had
sixty-seven killed and eighty-four wounded, while the Centurion had only
two killed, and a lieutenant and sixteen men wounded. Lieut. Saumarez,
who had highly distinguished himself in this action, was now made Post
Captain of the prize, which he safely conducted to Canton. She had on
board 400,000_l._ in specie, besides property estimated at 600,000_l._
which was destroyed; he had now therefore obtained his rank, and a
considerable share of prize money.

On the 7th of December 1743, they sailed from Canton, and arrived in
England, to be welcomed by their families and friends, on the 15th June
1744, after an absence of four years, wherein they had endured hardships
of every description. Captain Saumarez went to Bath for the recovery of
his health. He subsequently served in the Sandwich, York, and Yarmouth:
in the York he encountered a heavy gale, in which his superior
seamanship was severely put to the test. He was subsequently removed to
the Nottingham, of sixty guns, and on the 11th October 1747 fell in with
the Mars, a French sixty-four gun-ship, with five hundred men, commanded
by M. de Colombe, being one of the ships that had separated from
D'Anville's fleet in the storm off Newfoundland. She was returning to
Brest. The Nottingham had sixty guns and four hundred men. After an
engagement of two hours within pistol shot, in which the Mars had
twenty-three killed and nineteen wounded, she struck. On board the
Nottingham only three men were killed and nine wounded, which was
attributed to the superior seamanship of the Captain, who obtained an
advantageous position in the battle.

Captain Saumarez had been often heard to say that his highest ambition
was to fall in with an enemy of equal force, and on this occasion his
honourable feelings were completely gratified. He received
congratulations from all his friends, and particularly from the Lords of
the Admiralty, who expressed their highest approbation of the skill and
courage he displayed on this occasion; but his mild, liberal, and
generous treatment to a vanquished enemy was no less conspicuous in this
instance than his bravery; it was indeed one of the strongest traits in
his character. On this subject he received the following letter from the
Secretary of the Admiralty:--

     "The Chevalier de Crenay, late Captain of the Mars, having
     taken notice to the Lords of the Admiralty, in a letter their
     lordships received from him and his officers and company, I am
     commanded to let you know, that your civil treatment of them
     after they were taken, has been no less satisfactory to their
     lordships than your resolution and success in taking them.

     "I am, sir, &c. &c.
     "THOS. CORBETT, Sec."

A letter from Chevalier Crenay himself is written in the strongest
terms of gratitude and regard; after enumerating many civilities, he
declares that every article had been restored, even to a box of
porcelain, and that his officers and men all joined in offering their
grateful thanks. It may be added, that Captain Saumarez did all in
his power to obtain Captain Crenay's exchange. The Mars was carried
into Plymouth, and being found worthy of repair, was, from the
representation of Captain Saumarez, taken into his Majesty's service:
she was nearly 300 tons larger than the Nottingham, and found
afterwards to be an excellent ship.

Captain Saumarez' ship was speedily refitted, and on the 3rd May 1747,
he joined Lord Anson's squadron, which obtained a complete victory
over the French fleet, commanded by M. Jonquière, taking six
men-of-war and three East Indiamen. After the engagement, the
Nottingham, with two more ships, was detached to pursue the convoy,
and had the good fortune to capture four very valuable vessels from
St. Domingo.

Captain Saumarez afterwards cruised under Admiral Warren, and on the
10th of September following he was ordered to join Admiral Hawke: he
remained with that officer until the 14th October, when the Admiral
came up with a French fleet, commanded by Monsieur De l'Etendiere, off
Cape Finisterre, which he defeated, and took six of the enemy's ships;
but the Tonnant, an 80 gun ship, with the Intrepide, 74, having
escaped, Captain Saumarez, with the Yarmouth and Eagle, immediately
gave chase to them. Having come up with the Tonnant, although the
Nottingham was so unequal in size and number of guns, he gallantly
engaged her before the other two English ships joined. After about an
hour's close action, a shot from the enemy put an end to the existence
of this brave officer, who, during his whole life, had served his king
and country with honour and zeal; he died lamented by all those to
whom he was known.

The following is an extract from the Rear-admiral's despatch: "Having
observed that six of the enemy's ships had struck, and it being very
dark, and our own ships dispersed, I thought it best to bring to that
night, and seeing a great firing a long way astern of me, I was in
hopes of seeing more of the enemy's ships taken in the morning; but,
instead of that, I received the melancholy account of Captain Saumarez
being killed, and that the Tonnant had escaped in the night, with the
assistance of the Intrepide, who, by having the wind of our ships, had
received no damage that I could perceive."[18]

     [18] Ships taken:--Le Terrible; Le Monarque, 74; Le Neptune,
     70; Le Trident; Le Fougueux, 64; Le Severn, 50.

The last will of Captain Philip Saumarez is an interesting document,
inasmuch as it portrays his true character as an officer and a
Christian, impressed with the uncertainty of human life, and almost
anticipating the glorious fate which ultimately befel him; and as it
is also replete with piety, morality, gratitude, and the other virtues
which adorn the life of a hero, we shall conclude this memoir with
some extracts taken from the original, which begins thus:

     "I, Philip Saumarez, commander of H.M.S. Nottingham, from a
     reflection of the uncertainty of human life in general,
     particularly when engaged in a military profession: in order
     therefore to face death cheerfully, whenever duty or nature
     shall call upon me, I hereby dispose of whatever Providence has
     blessed me with, in the following manner:

     "To my honoured mother, I bequeath the sum of 1500_l._ to be
     paid after my father's death, and until then to remain at
     interest; if she dies before him, to be divided equally among
     my eldest brother John's children.

     "To my sister Anne, 300_l._ To my sister Elizabeth, 300_l._

     "To my brother John, 1000_l._ all my silver plate, and a
     diamond ring, formerly belonging to Lady Carteret.

     "To my niece and godchild, Carteret Saumarez, my brother John's
     daughter, I bequeath 1000_l._

     "My brother Matthew Saumarez, 1500_l._ and all my books; and to
     his daughter, 500_l._

     "My brother Thomas Saumarez, 1000_l._ with all my linen,
     liquors, furniture, and apparel.

     "My brother-in-law, Philip Durell and his wife, I bequeath
     50_l._ each, their fortunes being sufficient: his wife to buy
     mourning.

     "To my aunt Durell, at Westminster, 100_l._

     "My aunt Sauvaine, 10_l._ to buy mourning.

     "Mr. Solomon Durell, 40_l._

     "To my worthy friend James Wallace, commissioner of the
     victualling office, 100_l._

     "To my steward, 30_l._ besides a suit of mourning; and to my
     other servants, 5_l._ each.

     "In case I am killed in action, or die whilst I command the
     Nottingham, to the three lieutenants a suit of mourning each,
     which I beg they will accept; and to Mr. Surroude, my chaplain,
     I bequeath the sum of 100_l._ in regard to his large family;
     and to Mr. Redley, my clerk, the sum of 30_l._ for the trouble
     of making up my accounts.

     "To Admiral Anson and Sir Peter Warren, I desire they will
     accept a mourning ring each, my executors to lay out 30_l._ in
     each ring; and to the former I recommend my brother Tom.

     "I likewise desire that 300_l._ may be laid out to purchase a
     handsome monument, made in London, to the memory of my late
     aunt, the Lady Carteret, to be erected in the church where she
     is interred, and a due epitaph, enumerating her exemplary
     virtues and life, to be inscribed on it in French and English,
     and recorded to posterity; and this I desire my brother John
     will see duly performed, as well as my other executors, with
     expedition; this piece of gratitude to her memory having been
     neglected by all her relations.

     "In case it should not be attended with any inconvenience, the
     surgeon to preserve and embalm my corpse, to be interred in a
     military manner on shore, in whatever port the ship may put in;
     and the surgeon to be presented with 30_l._ for his trouble. I
     bequeath to my brother officers, Captains Thomas Coates,
     Martyn, Keppel, Rodney, and Timothy Brett, a mourning ring of
     10_l._ value each; the same to Mr. Logie, first lieutenant of
     the Nottingham.

     "To the poor of the parish in the island of Guernsey, where I
     was born, 100_l._ to be distributed: the remainder of what
     fortune I may have to bequeath, to my honoured father. And I do
     hereby constitute and appoint my worthy friend Pussey Brook,
     Esq., James Wallace, Esq., and my eldest brother John Saumarez,
     Esq., executors of this my last will and testament, revoking
     all former wills by me heretofore made. In witness whereof I
     have hereunto set my hand and seal, at sea, this 30th day of
     June, and in the twenty-first year of the reign of our
     sovereign Lord George the Second over Great Britain, France,
     and Ireland, &c., and in the year of our Lord 1747.

     "PHILIP SAUMAREZ." (L.S.)

     "Signed in the presence of,
        Robert Richards, Master.
        Alexander Gray, Gunner."

The wishes expressed in the will of this brave officer were implicitly
complied with; his body was embalmed and sent to Plymouth by the
admiral, in the Gloucester, commanded by Captain Durell, (afterwards
Admiral Durell,) his brother-in-law, and was buried in the church at
Plymouth with military honours. A neat tablet is erected in the said
church, with the following inscription: "Near this place lies the
body of Philip Saumarez, Esq. commander of H.M.S. Nottingham. He was
the son of Matthew de Saumarez, of the Island of Guernsey, by Anne
Durell, of the island of Jersey, his wife, families of antiquity and
respectability in those parts. He was born 17th November 1710, and
gloriously but unfortunately fell by a cannon-ball, 14th October 1747,
pursuing the ships of the enemy that were making their escape, when
the French were routed by Admiral Hawke."

Out of respect to his memory, his brothers and sisters caused a plain
monument to be erected to him in Westminster Abbey, with the following
inscription:

     "ORBE CIRCUMCINTO,

     "Sacred to the memory of Philip De Saumarez, Esq., one of the
     few whose lives ought rather to be measured by their actions
     than their days. From sixteen to thirty-seven years of age, he
     served in the navy, and was often surrounded with dangers and
     difficulties unparalleled: always approving himself an able,
     active, and gallant officer. He went out a lieutenant on board
     His Majesty's ship Centurion, under the auspicious conduct of
     Commodore Anson, in his expedition to the South Seas: he was
     commanding officer of the said ship when she was driven from
     her moorings at the island of Tinian.

     "In the year 1747, being captain of the Nottingham, a sixty gun
     ship, he (then alone) attacked and took the Mars, a French ship
     of sixty-four guns.

     "In the first engagement in the following year, when Admiral
     Anson defeated and took a squadron of French men-of-war and
     Indiamen, he had an honourable share; and in the second, under
     Admiral Hawke, when the enemy, after an obstinate resistance,
     was again routed, in pursuing two ships that were making their
     escape, he gloriously but unfortunately fell.

     "He was the son of Matthew De Saumarez, of the island of
     Guernsey, Esq. by Anne Durell, of the island of Jersey, his
     wife.

                "He was born November 17th, 1710;
                    killed October 14th, 1747;
               buried in the old Church at Plymouth,
         with all honours due to his distinguished merits;
               and this monument is erected, out of
                      gratitude and affection,
                    by his Brothers and Sisters."



APPENDIX A.


The first of the De Sausmarez (Saumarez) family found on the public
records of the metropolis, is Nicholas, the son of Matthew de Sausmarez,
who in 1331 made application for a confirmation of his rights and
prerogatives as formerly enjoyed by his ancestors, and whose son Thomas
was Lord of the _Seigneurie_ of Sausmarez in the year 1481. Thomas
married Colishe, daughter of Nicholas Fonachin, bailiff of the island of
Guernsey, and had two sons and two daughters; one of whom, Michael,
inherited the estate, and was succeeded by his eldest son John, who in
1543 was jurat of the island of Guernsey, and married Margaret, daughter
of James Guille, then bailiff. John was succeeded by his son Thomas,
also a jurat of the Royal Court, who married Rebecca Hancock; and the
property descended to his son, likewise a jurat of the Royal Court, who
married Bertrand, daughter of Cardin Fautrart: he was succeeded by his
son Thomas, who married Martha Nicholi, and does not appear to have been
of any profession. His only son, Michael, who was married to Charlotte,
daughter of James le Marchant, jurat of the Royal Court in 1681, became
the next heir, and was succeeded by Matthew de Sausmarez, his only son,
who was the eleventh in the direct line since the year 1331. This
Matthew was born at Guernsey on the 4th June 1685, was colonel of
militia of the island, and married Anne, daughter of John Durell, Esq.
lieutenant-bailiff of the island of Jersey, on the 1st of January 1705.
By this, his first wife, he had--first, John de Sausmarez, who was born
on the 12th January 1706, and died 4th April 1774. He was Attorney
General in the island of Guernsey; and married first, Martha, daughter
of Daniel Delisle, Esq. of Guernsey, and the lady who repossessed the
estate, which had become the property of John Andros, in right of his
wife, Judith de Sausmarez. The second son died an infant. The third son
was Philip de Sausmarez,[19] born on the 17th November 1710. He was
first lieutenant with Commodore Anson, and commanded the Nottingham 64,
when that ship captured the Mars, French 74. Anne married Captain Philip
Dumaresq; Elizabeth, Margaret, and Magdalen, died unmarried. Matthew
Saumarez was the fourth son; he was born on the 10th October 1718; and
was the father of the late Lord de Saumarez. He was drowned on his
passage to England in March 1778. Thomas, the fifth son, born 20th April
1720, is particularly mentioned in the commencement of this work.
William, the sixth son, was born 29th April 1722, and died in the East
Indies; and Michael, the seventh and last son, was born on the 8th
October 1725, and died an infant.

     [19] See a biographical notice of this distinguished officer,
     page 348.

We now come to the brothers and sisters of the first Lord de Saumarez,
children of Matthew, the fourth son, already mentioned as remarkable for
his urbanity of manners and hospitality, particularly to strangers.

By his first wife, daughter of Thomas Dumaresq, Esq. of Jersey, Matthew
Saumarez had issue Susannah, an only child, who married Henry Brock,
Esq. of Guernsey: by his second wife, Carteret, daughter of James le
Marchant, Esq. he had a numerous family. First,--Anne, the eldest
daughter, was married to Isaac Dobree, Esq., and is now living a widow:
she has four daughters, all married. Charlotte, second daughter, married
Nicholas Peter Dobree, rector of St. Mary. Mary, the third daughter, is
unmarried. Carteret, fourth daughter, married Peter Lihou, Esq. colonel
of militia. Philip, the eldest son, was a lieutenant in the Royal Navy,
and died at Gibraltar, 1774. John, the second son, surgeon-general to
His Majesty's forces on the island, became heir to his father; he
married Judith, daughter of William Brock, Esq. sister of Harriet, wife
of Sir Thomas. James, was the third son, and first Lord de Saumarez. Sir
Thomas, the fourth son, was born at Guernsey, 1st July 1760, and entered
the army at the age of 15.[20] He married Harriet, daughter of William
Brock, Esq. of Guernsey.

     [20] See a separate notice of this distinguished officer in page 332.



APPENDIX B.

THE ACTION OFF DOGGER BANK.


"Fortitude, at Sea, 6th August 1781.

"SIR,

"Yesterday we fell in with the Dutch squadron, with a large convoy, on
the Dogger bank: I was happy to find I had the wind of them, as the
great number of their large frigates might otherwise have endangered
my convoy. Having separated the men of war from the merchant ships,
and made the signal to the last to keep their wind, I bore away with
the general signal to chase. The enemy formed their line, consisting
of eight two-decked ships; ours, including the Dolphin, consisting of
seven. Not a gun was fired on either side until within the distance of
half-musket shot; the Fortitude being then abreast of the Dutch
Admiral, the action began and continued with unceasing fire for three
hours and forty minutes: by this time our ships were unmanageable. I
made an effort to form the line, in order to renew the action, but
found it impracticable; the Bienfaisant had lost her fore-topmast, and
the Buffalo her fore-yard; the rest of the ships were not less
shattered in their masts, rigging, and sails. The enemy appeared to be
in as bad a condition; both squadrons lay a considerable time near
each other, when the Dutch with their convoy bore away for the Texel.
We were not in a condition to follow them.

"His Majesty's officers and men behaved with great bravery, nor did
the enemy show less gallantry. The Fortitude was extremely well
seconded by Captain Macartney in the Princess Amelia, but he was
unfortunately killed early in the action; Lieutenant Hill has great
merit in so well supporting the conduct of his brave Captain.

"As there was great probability of our coming into action again,
Captain Macbride very readily obliged me by taking command of that
ship, and I have appointed Mr. Waghorne, my first lieutenant, to the
command of the Artois. This gentleman, although much hurt in the
action, refused to leave my side while it lasted. Captain Græme, of
the Preston, has lost an arm.

"Inclosed, I transmit a list of the killed and wounded, and an account
of the damage sustained by the ships.

"The enemy's force was, I believe, much superior to what their
Lordships apprehended; and I flatter myself they will be satisfied
that we have done all that was possible with ours.

"I am, Sir,
"Your most obedient and most humble servant,
"H. PARKER.

"P.S. The frigates this morning discovered one of the Dutch men-of-war
sunk in twenty-two fathoms water; her top-gallant masts were above the
surface, which Captain Patton has struck and brought to me on board: I
believe she was the second ship of the line of 74 guns."

        *       *       *       *       *

          Return of killed and wounded on the action of the 5th
          of August 1781.

                             _English Fleet._

     Ships' Names.           Guns.    Men.     Killed.    Wounded.  Total.

     Fortitude                74      620        20         67       87
     Bienfaisant              64      500         6         21       27
     Berwick                  74      600        18         58       76
     Princess Amelia          74      620        19         56       75
     Preston                  50      300        10         40       50
     Buffalo                  50      450        20         64       84
                                                 --        ---      ---
                                                 93        306      399
                             _Dutch Fleet._

     Ships' Names.         Guns.     Commanders.       Killed.  Wounded.
     Admiral Generaal       74   Com. J.S. Kinsbergen    7         41
     Admiral de Ruyter      68   Rear-admiral Zoutman   48         90
     Hollandia              64   Capt. Dedel            25         45
     Erfprins               54    "    J.S. van Braak   23         42
     Batavier               54    "    J.W. Bentinck    18         49
     Admiral Piet Hein      54    "    W. van Braam      9         58
     Argo                   54    "    E.C. Staringh    11         87
     Medenblik              54    "    D.G. Rynveld     No returns.
                                                       ---        ---
                                                       141        412
                                                                  141
                                                                  ---
                                                                  553
                                                                  ---

From the most authentic accounts, however, the Dutch were known to have
lost 1,100 men, although their published report was for only half that
number.



APPENDIX C.

DUTCH ACCOUNT OF THE ACTION OFF DOGGER BANK.


"Sunday, August 5th, 1781, at break of day, between the hours of three
and four in the morning, we saw a great number of strange ships to the
N.N.W. of us; we got everything ready for an engagement: the wind was
N.E. and our course was N.W. We made the signal to form the line of
battle at a cable's length distance from each other as we advanced.
The Ajax cutter, Captain Count Wilderen, came up in the mean time to
make a report that the fleet he saw was a convoy of the enemy, which
had sailed on the 26th through the Sound, escorted by eleven English
men-of-war and four cutters. At seven o'clock the ships-of-war hoisted
their English colours, among which was a Vice-admiral's flag, and bore
down upon us, their convoy remaining to windward. I made the signal to
tack, and we came up thus in order of battle, and took our station to
the E.S.E., and ordered our merchantmen to the westward. We saw that
the eight English men-of-war that bore down upon us in a line, were
sixty, seventy-four, ninety, and one of forty guns. At eight the
English Vice-admiral being abreast to windward of me, they turned with
us, and the action began. At that instant the fire was very brisk on
both sides, and the whole line was engaged. I was constantly and very
briskly cannonaded by two large ships. The engagement lasted till
half-past eleven, and was very bloody. Our ships, mine included, were
greatly disabled, and received so much damage that they could not be
worked any longer. The English Admiral must have equally suffered, for
he wore to the eastward. At noon we took down the signal to engage,
and bore away to the westward to repair our ships as much as possible,
all being extremely crippled by the constant fire of so long an
engagement. We perceived also that the English Vice-admiral tacked
about half-past twelve with his ships, and stood to the N.W., where he
remained floating to repair also their damage. Among their ships we
saw also a three-decker, whose main topmast fell by the board.

"We found ourselves at noon in fifty-five degrees, fifty-six minutes
N. and consequently the point of Ternaus in Norway, N.N.E. 1/3 N.
thirty leagues from us. All the ships-of-war were become
unserviceable: we made the signal for the convoy to run it, with the
frigates the Medenblik and Venus, and put themselves according to
circumstances out of danger, to avoid being taken, or falling into the
hands of the enemy.

"In bearing away the Batavier, whose mizen-yard was turned upside down,
and who had lost her mizen topmasts, she almost fell on her side: one
of her officers cried out to us her captain was wounded, and the ship
so disabled she was no longer manageable. I sent two frigates to
assist and take her in tow; but before they could come up with the
Batave, she drove before the wind, and came up to us.

"Captain Kinsbergen sent a boat with Captain Abreson and Captain
Staring to report their situation, and that they were much crippled.
I told them that as soon as we should be a little refitted and able to
manage the ships, I would make the signal to return to port. Captain
Dedel made the signal of being greatly damaged; Captain Van Braam that
he was much embarrassed. I made the signal for the Zephyr frigate to
come alongside. She reported having spoken to Captain Van Braam, and
that his ship had some shots under water; I sent her off immediately
to give all possible assistance to Captains Van Braam and Dedel.

"In the mean time Captain Dedel fired guns of distress, and steered
his course southward towards the coast of Holland. I made the signal
for Captain Van Weenzel to come to speak to me, and I despatched him to
assist Captain Dedel, with orders to stay with him and to seek a port.
Between four and five P.M. I made signal to sail, upon which all the
ships near us repeated the signal to Captain Kinsbergen, and bore
away as well as they could with what they could make use of. I came
near to Captain Van Braam, who cried out to me that he had several shots
under water; that his ship made much water, but was now much
diminished by the help of the pumps. In the evening we saw all the
ships under sail with us.

"The Admiral de Ruyter has many killed and wounded, and is, as well as
the ships in general, damaged in their hull, masts, and rigging; but I
hope, with the help of God, we shall be able to gain a port of the
republic.

"I send this despatch by Count de Welderen, who can in person make a
more ample report to your Serene Highness.

"I have the honour to commend myself to the gracious protection of
your Serene Highness; and to subscribe myself with respect,

"Your Serene Highness's
"Most humble and obedient servant,
"J.A. ZOUTMAN."

"Dated on board the Admiral de Ruyter, 7th August 1781,
Kykduyn, bearing south eighteen miles from us.

"N.B. All the officers and men on board the ships displayed a constant
courage, fought like lions, as well as my own people, all of whom, I
am extremely well satisfied with, from all the information I have
received at present."



APPENDIX D.

LETTER WRITTEN BY H.S.H. THE STADTHOLDER, ADDRESSED AS FOLLOWS.


"Noble, respectable, virtuous, well-beloved, and trusty subjects!--We
have learnt with the highest satisfaction that the squadron of the
State under Rear-admiral Zoutman, although much inferior in ships,
guns, and men, to the English squadron of Vice-admiral Parker, did, on
the 5th instant, so valiantly resist its attack, that the English
fleet, after an obstinate engagement, which lasted from eight in the
morning till half an hour past eleven, was obliged to cease firing and
retire. The heroic courage with which Rear-admiral Zoutman, the
captains, officers, and subalterns, common sailors, and soldiers,
concerned in the action, and who, through the blessing of Almighty
God, so well discharged their duty during the engagement, merits our
particular approbation and praise; therefore we have thought proper,
by this present, to write, to thank publicly, in our name, the said
rear-admiral, captains, officers, subalterns, sailors, and soldiers,
by causing it to be read on board every ship which partook in the
action, and whose captains and crews fought with such valour; and that
an authentic copy of it be delivered by the secretary of the fleet to
the State, as well as to the said Rear-admiral Zoutman, as the
commander of the ships under his orders with whose conduct the said
admiral has reason to be satisfied; further testifying that we doubt
not that they, and all the officers of the state, sailors and
soldiers, will, on every occasion that may offer, give proofs that the
State wants not defenders of their dear country and its liberty; and
that the ancient heroic valour of the Batavians still exists, and will
never be extinct.

"Wherefore, noble, respectable, virtuous, and well-beloved
subjects, we recommend you to the Divine protection.

"Your affectionate friend,
"G. PR. D'ORANGE."



APPENDIX E.

BY RICHD. KEMPENFELT, REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE.


"You are with the utmost despatch to proceed with his Majesty's ship
under your command to Barbadoes, and if any ships-of-war are there,
you are to deliver to the senior officer one of those letters
addressed to the commander of any of his Majesty's ships, acquainting
him that you have one to the same purpose to the commander-in-chief,
following such directions as he may think proper to give you.

"If none of his Majesty's ships should be at Barbadoes, you are then
to inform yourself where the commander-in-chief is, and proceed with
all diligence in quest of him.

"You are carefully to avoid coming near any vessel you may see on your
passage.

"You are to communicate to all King's ships you meet with, or others
of our nation, as also to all governors of islands you may touch at,
the intelligence you are charged with, in order to its being as
speedily and generally dispersed as possible.

"RICHD. KEMPENFELT.
"Dated on board his Majesty's ship Victory,
"at sea, 15th December 1781.

"To Capt. Saumarez, H.M.S. Tisiphone."


(CIRCULAR LETTER.)

"SIR,--Having fallen in on the 12th instant (Ashurst bearing N.
sixty-one degrees E. distance fifty-three leagues) with a squadron of
the enemy's ships-of-war with about two hundred transports, having on
board 12,000 troops, 10,000 of which, the prisoners I have taken
inform me are designed for the West Indies, with such ships of the
line as are marked in the enclosed list, I have therefore thought it
expedient to despatch this intelligence to you. I am, sir, your
obedient servant,

"R. Kempenfelt."

"To the senior Officer," &c.


List of ships of the line with the French convoy (agreeing with
Admiralty intelligence).

                   Guns.
  La Bretagne       110 Capt. Mons. Le Comte de Guichen.
  L'Invincible      110.
  Le Majestueux     110  " Mons. Le Comte de Rochoin.
  Le Royal Louis    112  " Mons. de Bausset.
  Le Terrible       110.
  La Couronne        84  " Mons. de la Mothe Piquet.
       Go as far as Madeira, then to Cadiz.

  Le Triomphant     84 Capt. Le Marquis de Vaudreuil.
  Le Pégase         74.
  Le Magnifique     74.
  L'Actif           74.
  Le Dauphin Royal  70.
  Le Bien-Aimé      74.
  Le Zodiaque       74.
  Le Brave          64.
  Le Robuste        74.
       To separate off Madeira with convoy for the West Indies.

  Le Fendant        74.
  L'Argonaute       64.
  Le Hardi     } Jamaica fleet.
  L'Alexandre  }
       Bound to the East Indies with 3,000 troops.

  Le Lion          64.
  L'Indien         64.
       To go to Cadiz with de Guichen.



APPENDIX F.

ADMIRAL RODNEY'S LETTER.


"On the 5th of April I received intelligence that the enemy were
embarking their troops on board the ships-of-war, and concluded that
they intended to sail in a few days. Captain Byron of the Andromache,
an active and diligent officer, watched their motions with such
attention, that on the 8th inst. at day-light he made out the enemy's
signal of coming out and standing to N.W. I instantly made the signal
to weigh, and having looked into the Bays of Fort Royal and St.
Pierre, I made signal for a general chase, and before day-light came
up with the enemy under Dominique, where both fleets were becalmed,
and continued so for some time. The enemy first got the wind, and
stood towards Guadaloupe.

"My van division, under that gallant officer Sir Samuel Hood, received
it next, and stood after them. At nine the enemy began to cannonade my
van, which was returned with the greatest briskness. The baffling
winds did not permit part of the centre division to get into action
with the enemy's rear till half-past eleven; and then only the ship
next me in line of battle, &c. The enemy's cannonade ceased upon my
rear's approach, but not before they had done considerable damage to
the ships in the van, and disabled the Royal Oak and Montague, &c.

"The night of the 9th inst. the fleet lay-to to repair their damages.
The 10th they continued to turn to windward under a very easy sail,
the enemy continuing to do the same; and always had it in their power
to come into action, which they cautiously avoided, and rendered it
impossible for me to force them in the situation they were in, between
the Saints and the island of Dominique.

"On the 11th, the enemy having gained considerably to the windward,
and the wind blowing a fresh steady gale, I made the signal for a
general chase to windward, which continued the whole day; and towards
sunset one of the enemy's ships, damaged in the late action, falling
to leeward, the Count de Grasse bore down with his whole fleet to her
protection, which brought him so near that I flattered myself he would
give me an opportunity of engaging him next day. With that view I
threw out the signal for the form of sailing, and stood with the whole
fleet to the southward till two in the morning, then tacked, and had
the happiness, at day-light, to find my most sanguine desire was near
being accomplished, by my having it in my power to force the enemy to
battle."

Note from Lord Rodney's narrative contained in a private letter.

"The 10th of April and the 11th were employed in endeavouring to bring
the enemy to battle, and on the 11th, late in the afternoon, the enemy
bore down to protect two of their own ships, who were in danger of
being cut off. This brought them to the position the Admiral wished;
he instantly issued orders to sail during the night in the order of
sailing; to put out all lights; to stand to the southward till two in
the morning, and then the whole fleet to tack without signal. This
deceived the enemy, who had no conception that the British fleet
should be so near them at day-light: we instantly formed the line of
battle on our starboard tack, the enemy formed theirs on the larboard
tack, and had made the signal to wear; but the nearness of the British
squadron prevented its being put into execution; and the British fleet
taking the lee gage, the Admiral made the signal to engage and close."


List of the French fleet commanded by the Comte de Grasse in order of
battle 9th and 12th April, 1782.


 WHITE AND BLUE SQUADRON.

  _First Division Flag, half White half Blue at the Fore._

  Ships.             Guns.
  Le Souverain         74   Le Commandeur de Glandive.
  L'Hercule            74      "  La Clochetterie.
  L'Auguste            80      "  Bougainville.
  Le Northumberland    74      "  De Saint Cézaire.

  _Second Division, half White half Blue at the Main._

  Le Zélé[21]          74   Chev. Gras. Preville.
  Le Duc de Bourgogne  80   Commandeur Espinose.
  Le Conquérant        74    "  De la Grandière.
  Le Marseillois       74    "  Lombard.

     [21] Disabled on the night of the 11th, and returned to
     Guadaloupe.

  _Third Division, half White half Blue at the Mizen._

  L'Hector[22]         74   Com. La Vicomté.
  Le César[22]         74    "  Marigny.
  Le Magnanime         74    "  Comte le Besgue.
  Le Diadème           74.


  WHITE SQUADRON.

  _Fourth Division, White at the Fore._

  Le Glorieux[22]      74   Com. Comte d'Escar.
  L'Eveillé[22]        64    "   Rilly.
  Le Sceptre           74    "   Comte de Vaudreuil.

     [22] Taken on the 12th of April.

  _Fifth Division, White at the Main._

  Le Languedoc         80  Com. d'Arros.
  La Ville de Paris   100 {Le Comte de Grasse
                          {Com. La Villeon.
  La Couronne[23]      80   "  Comte de Mithon.

     [23] Joined at St. Kitt's.

  _Sixth Division, White at the Mizen._

  Le Réfléchi          64   Com. Chev. de Boades.
  Le S. Esprit         80    "   Marquis de Chabert.
  Le Scipion           74    "   Grimouard.
  Le Palmier           74    "   Martelli.


  BLUE SQUADRON.

  _Seventh Division, Blue at the Fore._

  Le Jason[24]         64   Com. Chev. de Villages.
  Le Destin            74    "   Goimpy.
  Le Citoyen           74    "   Comte d'Ethy.
  Le Dauphin Royal[23] 74    "   Montpéroux.

     [24] Not in the Fleet on the 12th.

  _Eighth Division, Blue at the Main._

  L'Ardent[22]         64   Com. Gourillon.
  Le Triomphant[23]    80    "   Marquis de Vaudreuil.
  Le Neptune           74    "   De Touches.
  Le Bien-Aimé[23]     74.

  _Ninth Division, Blue at the Mizen._

  Le Caton[23]         64  Com. Comte de Fremond.
  Le Brave[23]         74    "   Marquis d'Amblimont.
  La Bourgogne         74    "   Champmartin.
  Le Pluton            74    "   D'Albert de Rions.


  _Frigates attached to each Squadron._

  WHITE AND BLUE SQUADRON.

  L'Experiment         50   Com. De Langle.
  La Sagittaire        50    "   La Villebrune.
  La Résolue           32    "   La Pérouse.
  La Hypocrite         32.
  Le Cornwallis        20.
  La Concorde          36    "   Launay Tromlin.
  L'Engageante         36    "   La Taille.

  WHITE SQUADRON.

  Le Richmond          32.
  La Médée             36   Com. Marquis de Kerquiron.
  L'Iris               32.
  Le Clairvoyant       20    "   Le Grass Simeront.
  La Galathée          36.

  BLUE SQUADRON.

  La Friponne          36
  L'Astrée[24]         36
  La Cérès[24]         16
  L'Amazone            36

  Le Fier and Le Minotaure armé en flute.

     [24] Not in the fleet on the 12th.

Total, thirty-four sail of the line, two of fifty guns,
thirteen frigates, seven armed brigs, two fire-ships, and one
cutter.

The Ville de Paris had 1,300 men on board at the commencement
of the action on the 9th.

List of Swedish Officers on board the French Fleet on the 12th
April 1782.

  Le Conquérant        Lieutenant Blessing.
  Le Magnifique        Montell.
  Le Destin            Toll.
  Le Glorieux          Baron Rebinder.
  Le Sceptre           Baron Cederström.
  La Couronne          Baron Palmquist.
  La Ville de Paris    Rosenstein.
  Le Languedoc         Wergus.
  L'Auguste            Hohenhausen.
  Le Northumberland   {Nauckhoff.
                      {Tornquist.
  Le Palmier           Lieutenant Brunmark.
  Le Souverain         Baron Rayalin.
  Le Hercules          Zachan.
  L'Astrée (frigate)   Schults and Deborabur.


_Memorandum of the author made at Carlscrona in 1808._

Captain Tornquist said, that after the Russell gave the Northumberland
her first broadside, the helm was put up, and a great number of the crew
ran from their quarters; the Couronne bore up also at the same time, and
left the Ville de Paris, which had exchanged broadsides with several
ships, but was never closely engaged but by the Russell. He says that
the Barfleur did not fire a shot at the Ville de Paris.

Squadron sent under command of Rear-admiral Kempenfelt, to intercept
the French West India convoy, which had sailed from Brest, under M. de
Guichen, December 1781.

  Names.             Guns.    Commanders.
  Victory             100     {Kempenfelt, R.A. of the Red,
                              {Captain Cromwell.
  Britannia           100      Capt. James Bradby.
  Queen                98       "    Hon. F. Maitland.
  Duke                 98       "    Sir Walter Stirling.
  Ocean                90       "    George Ourry.
  Namur                90       "    John Dalrymple.
  Edgar                74     {John Elliot, commodore.
                              {Captain Thomas Boston.
  Alexander            74      Capt. Lord Longford.
  Couragueux           74       "  Honourable Charles Phipps.
  Valiant              74       "  Samuel C. Goodall.
  Agamemnon            64       "  Benjamin Caldwell.
  Medway               60       "  Henry Harmood.
  Renown               50       "  John Henry.
  Arethusa             38       "  Sir Richard Pearson.
  Monsieur             36       "  Honourable W.C. Finch.
  La Prudente          36       "  Honourable Wm. Waldegrave.
  Tartar               28       "  Robert M. Sutton.
  Tisiphone         fire-ship    James Saumarez.


  French fleet under M. de Guichen, when it fell in with Admiral
  Kempenfelt, on the 12th of December 1781.

  Names.             Guns.   Commanders.
  La Bretagne         110    Com. Le Comte de Guichen.
  Le Majestueux       110     "   Le Comte de Rocheaut.
  Le Royal Louis      110     "   M. de Beausset.
  L'Invincible        110
  Le Terrible         110
  La Couronne          84     "   Mons de la Motte Piquet.
  Le Triomphant[22]    84     "   Mons. de Vaudreuil.
  Le Pégase            74
  Le Magnifique        74
  L'Actif              74
  Le Dauphin Royal     74
  Le Bien-Aimé         74
  Le Zodiaque          74
  Le Robuste           74
  Le Fendent           74
  Le Brave[22]         74
  L'Argonaute          64
  Le Lion              64
  L'Indien             64
  L'Alexandre    armée en flute.
  Le Hardi         do.     do.

     [22] Taken on the 12th of April.

A List of the British Fleet in the action of the 9th and 12th April
1782, commanded by Sir George Bridges Rodney, Bart. K.B.

  _Red Division._

  Ships.             Guns. Men.   Commanders.            Killed. Wound.
  Royal Oak[25]       74   600     Capt. T. Burnet          8     30
  Alfred              74   600       "   W. Bayne          12     40
  Montague            74   600       "   G. Bowen          12     31
  Yarmouth[25]        64   500       "   A. Parry          14     33
  Valiant[26]         74   650       "   S.C. Goodall      10     28
                                  {Sir S. Hood, Rear-adm.}
  Barfleur            98   767    {of the Blue          }  10     37
                                  {Capt. John Knight    }
  Monarch             74   600       "   F. Reynolds       16     33
  Warrior[22]         74   600       "   Sir J. Wallace     5     21
  Bellequeux          64   500       "   A. Sutherland      4     10
  Centaur             74   600       "   I.H. Inglefield
  Magnificent[25]     74   600       "   Robert Linzee      6     11
  Prince William      64   500       "   A. Wilkinson       0      0
                                  {E. Affleck, Esq. Com.}
  Bedford             74   617    {Capt. Thomas Graves  }   0     16
  Ajax                74   550       "   N. Charrington     9     40
  Repulse[25]         64   500       "   T. Dumaresq        3     11

     [25] Came from England with Sir G.B. Rodney.

     [26] Joined the fleet off Antigua.

  _White Division._

  Ships.         Guns.  Men.   Commanders.               Killed. Wound.

  Canada           74   600  Capt. Hon. W. Cornwallis       12    23
  St. Albans       64   500   "    C. Inglis                 0     6
  Namur            90   750   "    R. Fanshawe               6    25
                             {Sir G.B. Rodney, Bart.      }
                             {  Admiral of the White.     }
  Formidable[25]   98   780  {1 Capt. Sir Charles Douglas,} 15    39
                             { Bart.                      }
                             {2 Capt. J. Symonds.         }
                             {Lord Cranstoun, Volun.      }
  Duke             98   750   Capt. A. Gardner              13    60
  Agamemnon        64   500     "   B. Caldwell             14    24
  Resolution       74   600     "   Lord R. Manners          4    35
  Prothée[25]      64   500     "   C. Buckner               5    25
  Hercules[25]     74   600     "   H. Savage                7    19
  America          64   500     "   S. Thompson              1     1

  _Blue Division._

  Russell          74   600   Capt. James Saumarez          10    29
  Prudent          64   500     "   A. Barclay      (not in action.)
  Fame[26]         74   600     "   R. Barber                3    12
  Anson[26]        64   500     "   W. Blair                 3    13
  Torbay           74   600     "   Lewis Gideon            10    25
  Prince George    98   750     "   W. Williams              9    24
                              {F.S. Francis Drake, Esq.}
  Princessa        70   577   {  Rear-adm. of the Blue }     3    22
                              {Capt. C. Knatchbull.    }
  Conqueror[26]    74   600      "   G. Balfour              7    23
  Nonsuch          64   500      "   W. Truscott             3     3
  Alcade           74   600      "   C. Thompson
  Arrogant[26]     74   600      "   S. Cornish              0     0
  Marlborough[26]  74   600      "   Tay. Penny              3    16

     [26] Joined the fleet off Antigua.


  FRIGATES ATTACHED TO EACH DIVISION.

  _Red Division._

  Ships.                  Guns.             Commanders.

  Lizard[27]                28
  Le Nymphe[27]             36              Capt. J. Ford.
  Champion (repeat signals) 24                "   A. Hood.
  Alecto, fire-ship                           "   W. Fisher.

  _White Division._

  Convert                   32              Capt. H. Hervey.
  Endymion                  44                "   E.T. Smith.
  Alarm                     32                "   C. Cotton.
  Andromache                32                "   J.A. Byron.
  Flora (to repeat signals) 36                "   S. Marshall.
  Alert, brig               14
  Sibyl                     28                "   Rodney.
  Pegasus[27]               28                "   S. Stanhope.
  Salamander, F.S.[27]
  Fortune[27]               38                "   H.C. Christian.
  Zebra[27]                 14                "   J. Boucher.

  _Blue Division._

  Germain[27]               14
  Blast, F.S.[27]
  Eurydice (to repeat)      24                "  G. Wilson.
  Santa Maria[27]           32                "  J. Linzee.

     [27] Not with the fleet in the action.


  List of officers killed and wounded on the 9th and 12th April 1782.

  Royal Oak     Mr. Gwatkin, 1st lieutenant, killed; Captain of
                the marines wounded.

  Alfred        Captain Bayne killed on the 9th.

  Montague      Mr. William Code, master, killed; Lieutenants
                Briedan and Buchan, R.M., wounded.

  Valiant       Mr. R. Wimbleton, 2nd lieutenant, killed; Mr.
                W. Brown, 5th lieutenant, Mr. Backhouse,
                master, wounded.

  Warrior       Mr. Stone, master, wounded.

  Magnificent   Captain Bagg, of marines, wounded.

  Ajax          Mr. John Elliot, 1st lieutenant, and Mr. Thomas
                Rositer, pilot, wounded.

  Repulse       Captain of marines and master wounded.

  Formidable    Lieutenant Hall killed; Captain Bell and Lieutenant
                Harris of marines wounded.

  Duke          Lieutenant Cornish, Mr. Cooper, master, Mr.
                Scott, boatswain, wounded.

  Agamemnon     Lieutenants Incledon and Brice wounded, the
                latter since dead.

  Prothée       Thomas Love, master, wounded.

  Hercules      Lieutenant Hobart killed; Captain Savage wounded.

  America       Lieutenant Colbonhill killed; Lieutenant Trelawney
                wounded.

  Anson         Captain Blair killed.

  Torbay        Lieutenant Monier, of marines, killed.

  Princessa     Lieutenants Dundas, McDonald, and Laban, of
                marines, wounded.

  Centaur       No return.

  Alcide        No return.


EXTRACT FROM THE LOG OF THE RUSSELL.

Wind, East by North.

Russell, 12th April 1782, off Dominica, E.S.E. 4 or 5 leagues.

Friday 12th, fresh breezes and fine weather. At five P.M. the Admiral
made the signal to close in the order of sailing. At six, the America's
signal to go ahead and carry a light during the night. At half-past
seven saw the flashes and heard the report of several guns to windward,
supposed to be from the French fleet. At half-past one A.M. the Admiral
made the signal to tack. At sunrise saw the French fleet to the
northward about three leagues. At half-past five the Admiral made the
signal to form a line ahead, and for the blue division to lead. At six,
the Conqueror's signal was made to chase to the N.W. At half-past six
the Admiral made the signal for the line to form N.N.E. and S.S.W, two
cables' length asunder, and for the third in command to lead; the French
fleet to windward forming the line ahead, standing to the southward. At
seven the Admiral made the signal for all cruisers to come in and to
close the line one cable's length asunder. At thirty-eight minutes past
seven the Admiral made our signal for being out of our station; forty
minutes past, the signal for the fleet to close in a line of battle;
forty-three minutes past, repeated it; our fleet in a line ahead
standing to the southward. At three quarters past seven the enemy began
firing on our van. The Admiral made the signal for action--our van began
to engage the enemy's van. Fifty minutes past seven we backed the main
topsail, and began to engage. Fifty minutes past eight, engaging the
enemy very close, backed and filled occasionally; at nine luffed up and
backed the main topsail, and raked the enemy's sternmost ships. Having
passed all their line, ceased firing, the centre and rear still engaging
as they passed the enemy. Our masts, yards, sails, and rigging, very
much damaged; the mizen-mast, dangerously wounded, struck the mizen
yard, and sent topgallant-masts and yards down upon deck, unbent the
mizen topsail, a spritsail, topsail, and a jib for a mizen. At
twenty-five minutes past nine saw the Prince George to leeward without
a fore-mast. Employed fishing the fore and mizen topsail yards, and
fitting the rigging, and shifting powder from forward to aft, and
cleared the decks up ready for action. At half-past nine wore to stand
for the enemy. At ten the Admiral made the signal for the commander of
the third post to tack and gain the wind of the enemy; the signal for
engaging flying, and the signal for the line, hauled down. At three
minutes past eleven the Admiral made the signal for the van to tack: saw
one of the enemy's ships with all her masts and bowsprit shot away; Sir
Samuel Hood's division and part of the centre still engaging the enemy's
fleet: the rear, having been broke through, bore away.


13th P.M. Body of Dominica E.S.E. 9 or 10 leagues, Wind, Noon, E.S.E.

The van and centre, engaging at forty minutes past seven, wore to the
southward. The topsail-yard being fished, set the fore topsail
standing for the enemy's fleet; people employed repairing the rigging.
At half-past one the Admiral made the Alert's signal to come within
hail. At twenty minutes past two he made the Royal Oak's signal to
take the French ship in tow that was dismasted, part of the fleet
still engaging. The Admiral made the Bedford's signal to get into her
station. One of the French ships struck to the van. Coming up with the
enemy's fleet, beat to quarters. Forty minutes past three we began to
engage some of the enemy's ships to leeward on contrary tacks. At ten
minutes past four, having passed them, ceased firing and hauled up the
courses; wore ship ahead of the Formidable two of the enemy's ships
struck their colours. At half-past four the Admiral made the
Conqueror's signal to make more sail. At a quarter past five he made
the signal to close in line of battle; set the foresail. At six bore
down, and ran under the Ville de Paris' stern, raked her, then hauled
up after her; at twenty minutes past six saw her strike her colours.
At seven P.M. the Admiral made the night-signal for the fleet to
bring-to on the starboard tack; shortened sail, hauled our wind, and
backed the main topsail, some of the fleet engaging to leeward.
During the action we had ten men killed and twenty-nine wounded; the
French fleet going away with all sail set to the N.W. At half-past
eleven, saw a ship on fire blow up.

On the 4th of March, at half-past three, the Russell struck on a rock
and damaged her rudder and stern frame; at eight weighed and run
further out. On the 5th, at four, made the signal for assistance, and
went to the Carenage. On the 6th, warped in and unhung her rudder,
sent it on shore, and found that all the lower pentles were broken
off. 11th, came out of the Carenage; fifteen men deserted; in coming
out, she again struck on a rock. Before the action, she received
twenty-three men from the Shrewsbury.

Signed on the 23rd September 1782, by
JAMES SAUMAREZ.


_Lord Rodney's Victory.--Canada's Log, 12th April 1782._

April 12th, at daylight, six, moderate and cloudy. Quarter past seven
the Admiral made the signal to call in all cruisers. At twenty-five
past seven he made the signal for the line of battle ahead a cable's
length asunder. The enemy formed a line of battle ahead on the
larboard tack, standing to the south, and we formed the line of battle
ahead on the starboard tack, and stood to the northward. At eight the
Admiral made the Russell's signal to get into her station; at five
past eight, he made the signal to close. At fifty past seven, the van
of our fleet began to engage, as did all the other ships as they came
abreast of enemy. There was a great interval in the enemy's line; our
fleet cut through to windward about twelve ships of them. At twenty
past eight the enemy's ships, as they passed, began firing at us; at
twenty-five past eight we began to engage. At twenty past nine one of
the enemy's ship's main and mizen-masts went over the stern just as
she got abreast of our quarter, and soon after our fore-mast and
bowsprit went also. At twenty-five past nine, having passed the
enemy's fleet, some of whom went to leeward of us, the Admiral made
the signal to tack. At thirty-eight past ten he hoisted signal for the
commander of the third post to make more sail; observed the Duke's
main topmast go over the side. At fifty past ten, observed the Prince
George with her fore topmast gone. We ceased firing, as did most of
the ships on both sides, except Sir S. Hood and some of the squadron
who were to windward, who exchanged a good many shots with the enemy,
as he bore down. At eleven, observed that the Admiral had hauled down
the signal for the line; at five past eleven the Admiral made the
signal to tack; wore at three quarters past eleven. We fired several
shots at the enemy, to try the distance, but finding they did not
reach, ceased firing. At fifty past eleven the Admiral made the
Conqueror's signal to tack, and made and shortened sail occasionally.
Wind, E. P.M. E.S.E. 13th (at noon) P.M., moderate and clear,
inclinable to calm. At five P.M. the Admiral made the Endymion's
signal to stay by a disabled ship in the N.W. At ten P.M. one of our
ships ahead fired a good many shots at a frigate, which had a disabled
ship of the enemy in tow; and soon after the frigate cast her off. We
fired several shots, at times, to try the distance. At twenty-three,
P.M. the Admiral made the signal that the van were at too great a
distance from the centre; the ships astern exchanged a good many shots
with the enemy as they came up with them. At fifty P.M. the Admiral
made the Alcides and Marlborough signal to make more sail; at
fifty-three, P.M. to engage close; fired several shots, at times, to
try the distance. At a quarter past one, two of our ships to windward
exchanged a good many shots with the enemy. At half-past one the
Admiral made our signal to close; twenty-five past one, we began to
engage; at fifty past one the Admiral made the signal to the Monarch
to get into her station. At twelve past two he made the Alert signal
to come within hail; half-past two he made the Royal Oak's signal to
take the ship in tow that had struck her colours. At twenty-two past
two the Admiral made the Resolution signal to tack, and we
discontinued engaging. At twenty-three past two some of our ships
upon our larboard beam began firing, as did the rest of the ships as
they came up with the enemy. At three quarters past three the Admiral
made the Repulse and Alcides signal to bear down. At four the Admiral
made the signal to veer; at seven past four the Admiral made the
Torbay signal to veer; at twenty past four a French line-of-battle
ship struck to us after engaging her eighteen minutes. At a quarter
past four the Admiral made the Repulse and Resolution signals to make
more sail; at three quarters past, Sir S. Hood steering after some
enemy's ships to the N.W. About this time the firing ceased on both
sides. At fifty past four the Admiral made the signal for the first
ships to bear down. At five we began to engage; at a quarter past five
our ships engaging as they came up; at fifty-five past five observed
another French line-of-battle ship had struck her colours. At five
past six the Admiral made the signal to the Princess and Bedford to
get into their stations. At thirty-five past six observed that the
Ville de Paris had struck her colours. At forty past six discontinued
the engagement. At seven beat the retreat. At nine, saw a ship on
fire, and another soon after blow up, all without the main topsail.
Wind, E.S.E.

(A true copy.) J. Ross.

Although in the above logs, and in several others which we have
examined at the depôt, by permission from the Lords of the Admiralty,
it does appear that the Canada was engaged with the Ville de Paris,
yet we have no doubt of the fact, having the testimonies of Sir L.
Halsted and Admiral Giffard, who were in the Canada on the 12th of
April, extracts of whose letters we subjoin, which also prove that the
Canada was not the ship that was engaging the Ville de Paris when the
Barfleur came up, and when the French Admiral struck his colours. Sir
Lawrence Halsted, in his letter to us, after giving a brief account of
the capture of the Hector, and of the Canada's previous and subsequent
attack on the Ville de Paris, relates, that the Canada, on seeing some
ships bearing down on the Ville de Paris, of which, he believes, one
was the Russell, "bore up in pursuit of a French Rear-admiral in the
Triomphant 84;" and he concludes, "I trust that that part in Lord de
Saumarez' letter is satisfactorily answered, as it is quite clear that
the Canada was not near the Ville de Paris at the time she
surrendered." Admiral Giffard, in answer to our application, says,

"I am of opinion the Canada was engaged with the Ville de Paris
earlier in the day than the Russell."

Extract of a letter from Capt. G.W.H. Knight, R.N., son of the late
Admiral Sir John Knight, K.C.B., who was captain of the Barfleur on the
12th April, 1782.

"I have never been able to lay my hand on my father's letter, wherein
he gave me some account of the 12th of April 1782, but this I
recollect quite well, that he said, 'he accompanied Sir Samuel
(afterwards Lord Hood) on board Lord Rodney's ship the day before the
battle of the 9th of April, (my father being captain of the Barfleur,
Sir Samuel's flag ship,) and on that occasion not one word was said,
or order given, for any attempt to break through the enemy's line in
the expected engagement, nor was any order afterwards given previous
to the 12th of April. That on the 9th, the van squadron, commanded by
Sir S. Hood, which was most engaged, made no attempt to break the
line, nor did the van or centre (the line being inverted) on the 12th
make any such attempt; and my father attributed the Formidable, and
those that followed her, getting through, to the circumstance of a
change of wind, which brought those ships up with the rest of the rear
of the British fleet, while it broke off the ships in the French line,
and consequently left openings.' He further said, 'that from the
density of the smoke they could see nothing, and that the first
intimation they had (the Barfleur) of passing through the enemy's line
was, from receiving fire on both sides.' He gave another reason for
supposing it was altogether accidental, which was, that no attempt
was made or order given by signal to double on the enemy, and that the
advantage gained by passing through the line was never made use of
when my father took possession of the Ville de Paris, and received
Count de Grasse's sword, and afterward conveyed him to his Admiral; no
remark was made upon any circumstance having taken place different
from the usual practice. These are the heads of what I recollect."



APPENDIX G.

  _List of the English squadron, commanded by Vice-admiral Sir J.
  Saumarez, off Port Baltic, 1st September 1803._


  Capt. B. Martin, 1 Capt.

  Ships.              Guns.    Captains.
  Victory             100     {Dumaresq.
                              {Sir S. Hood.
  Centaur              74     Webley.
  Implacable           74     Pipon.
  Goliath              74     Puget.
  Mars                 74     Lukin.
  Africa               64     Barrett.
  Salsette             32     Bathurst.
  Ariel                18     T. White.
  Rose                 18     T. Mansell.
  Cruiser              18     McKenzie.
  Erebus               18.
  Baltic               10.
  Thunder Bomb.


  _List of the Swedish fleet, commanded by Rear-admiral Nauckhoff._

  Ships.               Guns.
  Gustaf IV. Adolf     78
  Adolf Frederick      74
  Manligheten          74
  Dristigheten         74
  Tapperheten          74
  Forsigtigheten       74
  Gustaf den Tredje    74
  Fäderneslandet       74
  Uladesloff           74
  Frederick Adolf      64
  Bellona              40
  Camilla              40
  Euridice             40
  Yarramus             32
  Wänta Litet          18
  Komma Straxt         18


  _Russian Fleet._

  Ships.                Guns.          Commanders.
  Blagadod.               110          Admiral Henikoff.
  Angel Gabriel           100          Rear-admiral Müller.

  Ships.               Guns.

  Amgallen                74
  Boreas                  74
  Eagle                   74
  Michael                 74
  North Star              74
  Sewolod (taken)         74
  Argus, Hero, and Rapid  50



APPENDIX H.

  _List of the French Fleet opposed to the English, 23rd June 1795._


  Ships.               Guns.
  Le Peuple              120
  Le Nestor               80
  Le Redoubtable          80
  Le Mucius               80
  Le Tigre (taken)        80
  Le Fougueux             80
  Le Zélé                 74
  Le Formidable (taken)   74
  Le Jean Bart            74
  Les droits de l'homme   74
  L'Alexandre (taken)     74
  Name unknown            74
  Le Brave, rasé          56
  Le Scævola, rasé        56


  _Frigates._

  La Virgine              44
  La Fidelle              44
  L'Insurgente            44
  La Fortitude            44
  La Régénéré             44
  La Naute                44
  La Fraternité           44
  La Proserpine           36
  La Cocade               36
  La Dryade               36
  Le Renard               36


  _Corvettes._

  La Constance            22
  La Talente              18
  La Senseure             22
  La Papillion            18


  _List of the Fleet under the command of Admiral Lord Bridport, June 23rd
  1795, with the number of killed and wounded._

  Ships.            Guns.                           Killed.   Wound.

                           {Lord Bridport, Admiral}
  Royal George       110   {of the White.         }   --      7
                           {Captain Domett.       }
  Queen Charlotte    110   Capt. Sir A.S. Douglas     4       32
  London.             98     "   E. Griffiths         --       3

  Queen.              98    {Sir A Gardner, Bt. Vice Admiral of
                            {the White: Captain Wm. Bedford

  Prince of Wales.    98    Capt. J. Bazely.
  Prince George.      98     "   W. Edge.
  Barfleur            98     "   J. Richard Dawes.
  Prince              98     "   C.P. Hamilton

                           {Lord Hugh Seymour,      }
  Sans Pareil         80   { Rear Adm. of the Blue. }
                           { Capt. H. Browell       } 10

  Orion               74     Capt. Sir James Saumarez. 6      18
  Valiant.            74      "   Jos. Larcom (acting).

                             Killed.        Wounded.

  Orion                         6              18
  Irresistible                  3              11
  Queen Charlotte               4              32
  Sans Pareil                  10               2
  Colossus                      6              30
  Russell                       3              10
  London                        0               3
  Royal George                  0               7
                               --              ---
  Total                        31              113

The above statement shows the total numerical loss sustained by each
of the ships that were so fortunate as to get into action.



APPENDIX I.


     Orion, St Helen's Roads, 30th December 1796.

     MY LORD,

     I HAVE had it in contemplation for some time past, to lay
     before your Lordships the enclosed plan for the establishment
     of a Marine Artillery for the service of the Navy, but was
     prevented from doing it by the late prospect of a peace; at
     present, as the haughtiness of our enemies seems to have
     removed that desirable object to a distant period, and as a
     further augmentation to our forces may in consequence take
     place, it may not appear unseasonable.

     If it has the good fortune to meet with your Lordship's
     approbation, I shall think myself amply recompensed for the
     time I have bestowed upon it.

     I have the honour to be,
     My Lord,
     Your Lordship's most obedient
     And very humble servant,
     JAMES SAUMAREZ.


     A PLAN FOR FORMING A CORPS OF ARTILLERY FOR HIS MAJESTY'S NAVAL
     SERVICE.

     "In consequence of the present great increase of the royal
     navy, it becomes from time to time necessary to augment
     proportionably that very useful body of men, the Marines,--but
     that very respectable corps would be rendered of far greater
     importance to the service, were they trained up and exercised
     in the management of the great guns; for which purpose it is
     humbly submitted, that a division be established at either
     Woolwich or Deptford, to be composed of drafts from the
     divisions of Portsmouth, Plymouth, and Chatham, in order to be
     instructed in the exercise and use of artillery; and thereby
     become expert gunners when ordered to be embarked on board His
     Majesty's ships; their numbers to consist of one man to every
     four guns in each line-of-battle ship, which would compose
     about one third of their present complement. In addition to
     which, two companies should be quartered at the other three
     divisions, to complete such vacancies as occasionally would
     occur on board the fleet.

     "The great utility of this corps must appear obvious when it is
     considered that the only person supposed to be qualified and
     experienced in gunnery on board His Majesty's ships, is the
     gunner, who, too often ignorant of his own duty, is totally
     unable to instruct others. In the quarter bills of most ships,
     it is well known that a very small proportion of the marines
     are reserved for musketry, the greater part being in general
     divided on the different batteries. With what advantage would
     they not go to their quarters, after having been well practised
     and exercised as artillery-men; and how soon would not the rest
     of the ship's company become also expert gunners in emulating
     their example.

     "These men would also be found particularly useful on
     expeditions abroad, in landing or making a descent on the
     enemy's coast, when a well-served artillery is often of the
     greatest importance.

     "The officers might be appointed from the other divisions, and
     should consist of those who, from their age and services, were
     incapable of being engaged in actual duty;--they would here
     find a comfortable asylum during life, and end their days in
     the service of their country.

     "The expenses incurred by this establishment would be
     inconsiderable; and no doubt can be entertained of its proving
     a lasting advantage to His Majesty's service, and adding
     strength to the great bulwark of this country,--the Royal Navy.

     "JAMES SAUMAREZ, Orion."

     "The Right Honourable Earl Spencer,
       &c. &c. &c."


     "Admiralty, 2nd January 1797.

     "DEAR SIR,

     "I hazard a line in the uncertainty whether you may not have
     sailed before this reaches Portsmouth, to thank you for your
     paper on the establishment of a Corps of Artillery for the
     naval service. The idea is one which I have often heard
     discussed, and in many points of view a very good one; but I
     fear that there would be so many difficulties in point of
     official arrangements to overcome in carrying it into
     execution, that no very sanguine hopes can be entertained of
     its succeeding.

     "It is, however, a subject well worthy of attention, and which,
     at a less pressing moment, it may perhaps be worth while to
     renew.

     "I am,
     "Dear sir,
     "With great regard,
     "Your very obedient, humble servant,
     "SPENCER."

     "To Sir James Saumarez."



APPENDIX K.


"Madrid, 10th March 1797.

"The following account of the action with the British squadron, on the
14th day of February last, has been received by D. Juan de Langara, in
a letter addressed to his Excellency by D. Joseph de Cordova,
commander-in-chief of the Squadron, dated del Oceano, the 2nd of
March, at the entrance of Cadiz Bay.

"From the instant of my proceeding to sea, after securing the gun-boat
at Algeziras, I had the winds E.N.E. to S.E. that drove me to the
latitude of Cape St. Vincent; however, on the morning of the 14th, it
changing to the west, I steered to the E.S.E., and formed in three
separate columns, in the order of sailing with convoy. Several vessels
from the left, at nine o'clock in the morning, observing a strange
sail, I ordered the Principe de Asturias to chase; shortly after, the
St. Firmin and the Pearl frigate discovered the number to increase to
eight sail, and although the foggy weather prevented their being seen
from the Trinidad, I forced the whole squadron to a press of sail; but
counting already at ten o'clock from fifteen to eighteen of the
enemy's ships, besides several frigates, I ordered our squadron to
form immediately the line of battle, in the best manner possible, on
the larboard tack, to maintain the weather gage. In tacking, the ships
Principe, Conde-de-Regla, and Oriente, fell so much to leeward, that
they were unable to join in the line without the risk of being cut off
by the enemy, that now, but at a short distance and under a press of
sail, met us in the most regular order: in consequence, I ordered
these vessels to tack that they might fall in the rear of the line,
which, although done by the two first, could not be effected by the
Oriente, and she ran to leeward of the enemy.

"At a quarter before eleven, from the position of the squadron, the
enemy's headmost ship commenced the action with the nearest situated
to her ahead of the Trinidad, running along the whole of our rear, and
successively bearing up before the wind. The Trinidad happened to be
the last of our line, and consequently the centre and van remained out
of the action.

"The rear of the enemy sailed but slowly, and for this reason, as well
as to benefit by some means the fire from our van, I made a signal at
half-past eleven for all the ships ahead to tack, in order to come
round the enemy and attack their rear. My ordering this manoeuvre
appeared the most opportune for many weighty reasons; but,
misunderstood by the ships to which it was directed, I now looked upon
the loss of the Principe, Regla, and the whole of our rear, as
unavoidable. The favourable moment for this movement being lost, I
made a signal for the whole squadron to bear up at the same time, with
a view to contract our distance with the enemy, and to bring into
action several other ships in our centre and van. At the time of
bearing up, the Trinidad was ahead in close action with the enemy,
within musket-shot, and having been engaged by the whole English line,
was very much damaged.

"So soon as their headmost ship had passed athwart our stern, she
tacked, followed by five or six others passing our line to windward;
the remaining ten ships, that were before on our larboard side, then
bore up at the same time, and passed through our line in different
positions, and consequently remained on the other tack fighting us in
great order, with a heavy and well-directed fire: this manoeuvre
decided the action in their favour. I did not fail to guard against
this from the commencement, and anticipated it by ordering the ships
ahead to tack and gain the enemy's rear to leeward; and if the
commanders of the Principe, Regla, Oriente, and Firmin had availed
themselves of the opportunity to join six or eight ships of the van,
they would have placed the enemy between two fires, and terminated the
action in a very different manner.

"Although the Principe and Regla were not able to fall into the rear
of our line, they notwithstanding did their utmost from their
situation, engaging the enemy at the time of passing our line, till
they had obtained the weather gage. The attack of the enemy was now
principally on the Trinidad, which, from the crippled situation of her
mast and rigging, fell to leeward. By word of mouth, and by signals,
the Salvador, San Josef, Soberano, and San Nicholas were ordered to
shorten sail, and to form in our rear, which they executed with
celerity, maintaining a severe action. The van continually remaining
to windward, at two I made them a signal to shorten sail, and bear
down for a general attack.

"The Mexicano formed upon our bow about three in the afternoon, and
engaged the foremost ship of the enemy's line; they now for the
remainder of the day fixed their whole attention against the San
Josef, Mexicano, San Nicholas, and San Yisidro, which were the only
ships that bore the principal and hottest part of the action against
the whole enemy's squadron.

"In this situation it would have been highly expedient that our centre
and van should have come to our support, but it was out of my power to
intimate to them the necessity of this movement, the ships being in
want of masts, rigging, and every necessary for making signals. I
cannot refrain from giving due praise to the valour of the
above-mentioned ships formed at my stern, and expressing the gallant
manner in which they behaved during the engagement: but at length,
being dismasted and destroyed, some struck, and others left the
action. The Trinidad was attacked the whole afternoon by a
three-decker, and three ships of 74 guns, that raked her fore and aft
at pistol-shot; and notwithstanding her having upwards of two hundred
men killed and wounded, she still continued the action for a full hour
longer. Such was the dreadful situation of the Trinidad at six
o'clock, after an uninterrupted engagement, when the San Pablo and
Pelayo, that in the morning had been detached by my orders, and
crowded every sail from the moment of observing the action, now
reached the squadron.

"The reinforcement of these two ships happened at the opportune
junction of the Conde-de-Regla; the Principe arrived shortly after,
and the enemy, observing our van standing towards them, immediately
retired together, covering the captured ships San Josef, Salvador, San
Yisidro, and San Nicholas.

"No one will be surprised at the ultimate consequences of the action,
when the series of misfortunes and unforeseen events from the moment
of our seeing the enemy is considered; and further, that when
cruising, they should sail in a readier condition to form the line of
battle than could be performed by our squadron, in the order of
sailing with convoy, with the wind on our quarter. For the above
reason, scarcely were they discovered, than they formed in regular
order of battle, and so near as to oblige my forming the line hastily,
without attention to posts, or the consequences that might result from
this bad position of the ships and commanders; to which must be added,
that the Pelayo and San Pablo were ahead by order,--that the Firmin
and Oriente remained to leeward of both lines,--that notwithstanding
the exertions made by the Principe, Regla, and Firmin, they did not
enter into the line till the afternoon, the latter wanting a
foretop-mast. So that of all the ships of my squadron, only seventeen
formed in the line of battle, the St. Domingo included in the number,
loaded with quicksilver, and of very inconsiderable force. Of the
seventeen above mentioned, some were in action only at intervals, and
many did not fire a gun; resulting from the circumstance of the
enemy's line being entirely engaged against six Spanish ships, and
their defence is the more praiseworthy, as they were all in want of
men. The Trinidad remaining entirely dismasted, without the power of
making signals with flags or lights, I desired Lieutenant General D.
Juan Joachim Moreno to reestablish the line of battle close on the
larboard tack, and gave orders that jury-masts should be fixed on the
Trinidad and the Moredes frigate, to protect her to Cadiz, profiting
by the wind and the situation of the enemy at night-fall.

"I embarked in consequence, with my Major General and Adjutants, on
board the Diana frigate, and ordered several frigates along the line,
that they should observe the order given, and repair the damages with
all haste in order to return again to action. The squadron remained
the whole night on the larboard tack, with the wind at W. to W.N.W.
till six o'clock A.M. of the 15th, when I formed on the other tack,
close hauled to the wind.

"My next attention was to inquire by signal the situation of the ships
for action,--and it proved that the Concepcion, Mexicano, and Soberano
_were not in a state to renew the action_; and that the Regla,
Oriente, San Pablo, Pelayo, and San Antonio _could enter into action_,
without my being able to gain any information regarding the others.
Nevertheless I continued my course towards the enemy, that to the
number of twenty ships had been seen since eight o'clock at S.S.W. My
opinion as to the state of the ships of the squadron remaining still
indecisive, in the afternoon I desired to know _if it was advisable to
attack the enemy_; the ships Concepcion, Mexicano, San Pablo,
Soberano, San Domingo, San Ildefonso, Nepomuceno, Atlante, and Firmin
replied in the negative; the Gloriose, Pablo, Regla, and Firmin, _that
it was advisable to delay the attack_; and only the Principe,
Conquistador, and Pelayo, positively asserted that _the attach was
advisable_. From the diversity of opinion, and considering the reply
of each commander as an indication of the true state of his respective
ship, I did not think it proper to force a press of sail towards the
enemy, having likewise been informed that the Mexicano, San Domingo,
and Soberano were considerably damaged, and the Atlante in want of
men, which was general in every ship.

"At three o'clock in the afternoon the enemy was still to the E.S.E. I
directed our course S.E. and varied it at five, to S.E. 74 S. to
double Cape St. Vincent; and that every exertion should be made by day
and night to repair the ships that were not very considerably damaged,
I ordered the line at half-past eleven to close on the starboard tack.
On the 16th some of the enemy's cruisers were seen to the S.E. 74 S.
which route I followed at seven o'clock in the evening, with light
winds at S.W. with hopes to see them again the next day, supposing
their destination for Gibraltar. But at ten o'clock in the morning the
Concepcion made a signal that the enemy were at anchor on the left
side of the coast, and informed me she had seen four large ships in
Lagos Bay. Believing that all the enemy's squadron might be likewise
there, I ordered the line to form close on the starboard tack, and
then despatched the Brigida frigate to reconnoitre; she returned,
acquainting me that she had counted the whole force of the enemy at
anchor in the bay.

"The squadron remained, close in-shore the whole afternoon, and part
of the night, when the wind changing to S.E. I left it under an easy
sail.

"No regular account has been received of the killed and wounded, not
having obtained the respective returns from the commanders at the time
of writing: but it was known that in the Conde-de-Regla a cannon ball
at the commencement of the action killed the Xefe de Esquadra, Conde
d'Amblemont, and the splinters wounded the commander, Brigadier D.
Geronime Bravo, and H.D. Cadlos Sellery.

     Soberano     Killed, Captain de Fragata D. Francisco Luis,
                  Lieutenant Bernardino Antillon, and another
                  officer, name unknown.

     Mexicano     Mortally wounded, and died on the 4th day, her
                  Commander, Brigadier D. Fernando Herravay
                  Crurat.

     Trinidad     Killed, second Lieutenant D. Herculas Guchi, and
                  a Midshipman; wounded, Captain of Fragata,
                  D. Franco Alvarez, two Lieutenants de Fragata,
                  the Master, and an inferior officer."

"By advices from Brigadier D. Pebra Poneda, late Commander of the San
Josef, the following account is likewise received relating to the
captured ships:--

     San Josef    Killed, second Lieutenant D. Miguel de Doblas.--Mortally
                  wounded, Xefe de Esquadra, D. Francisco
                  Wenthysen, who lost both legs ten minutes
                  after the action commenced, and died the
                  same night; the Master D. Santiago Campomar.
                  Slightly wounded, two second Lieutenants,
                  and 152 seamen killed and wounded.

     Salvador     Killed, the Commander, Brigadier Antonio de
                  Tepes, two Lieutenants, and two other officers.
                  Wounded, Captain de Fragata D. Manoel
                  Rinz, and an inferior officer; 200 seamen
                  killed and wounded.

     San Nicholas (boarded by one of the enemy's ships that engaged
                  her.) Killed, the Commander, Brigadier
                  D. Tomas Geraldino, two second Lieutenants,
                  one Midshipman. Wounded, three Lieutenants
                  of Infantry; 120 seamen killed and
                  wounded.

     San Yisidro  Killed, one Lieutenant and an inferior officer.
                  Wounded, the Commander D. Teadoro Argunato;
                  his second, D. Telepe Tournelle, two
                  Lieutenants, and two second Lieutenants;
                  mortally, one first Lieutenant; 104 seamen
                  killed and wounded.



APPENDIX L.

LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY.


     "Vanguard, off the Mouth of the Nile,
     3rd August 1798.

     "MY LORD,

     "Almighty God has blessed his Majesty's arms in the late battle
     by a great victory over the fleet of the enemy, whom I attacked
     at sunset on the 1st of August, off the mouth of the Nile. The
     enemy were moored in a strong line of battle for defending the
     entrance of the bay of shoals, flanked by numerous gun-boats,
     four frigates, and a battery of guns and mortars on an island
     in their van; but nothing could withstand the squadron your
     lordship did me the honour to place under my command. Their
     high state of discipline is well known to you; and with the
     judgment of the captains, together with their valour, and that
     of the officers and men of every description, it was absolutely
     irresistible. Could anything from my pen add to the characters
     of the captains, I would write it with pleasure, but that is
     impossible.

     "I have to regret the loss of Captain Westcott of the Majestic,
     who was killed early in the action, but the ship continued to
     be so well fought by her first lieutenant, Mr. Cuthbert, that I
     have given him an order to command her till your Lordship's
     pleasure is known.

     "The ships of the enemy, all but their two rear ships, are
     nearly dismasted, and those two, with two frigates, I am sorry
     to say, made their escape; nor was it, I assure you, in my
     power to prevent them. Captain Hood most handsomely endeavoured
     to do it, but I had no ship in a condition to support the
     Zealous, and I was obliged to call her in.

     "The support and assistance I received from Captain Berry
     cannot be sufficiently expressed. I was wounded in the head,
     and obliged to be carried off deck, but the service suffered no
     loss by that event. Captain Berry was fully equal to the
     service then going on, and to him I must beg to refer you for
     every information relative to this victory.

     "He will present you with the flag of the second in command.
     That of the commander-in-chief being in the L'Orient.

     "Herewith I transmit you lists of the killed and wounded, and
     the lines of battle of ourselves and the French.

     "I have the honour to be, &c.
     "HORATIO NELSON."

     "To Admiral the Earl of St. Vincent, Commander-in-chief, &c.
     &c. &c. off Cadiz."

The Rear-admiral was created Baron Nelson of the Nile, and of Burnham
Thorpe, in the county of Norfolk. The thanks of both Houses of
Parliament were voted to him, the officers and crews, in the usual
manner. Gold medals were presented to each of the Captains. A pension
of 2000_l._ a year for life was settled on Nelson. The Irish
Parliament voted him 1000_l._; the East India Company 10,000_l._; the
city of London a sword, value two hundred guineas, and a sword to each
of the Captains; that to Sir E. Berry was accompanied by the freedom
of the city in a gold box. But Sir James Saumarez received no
distinguished honour, as has been usual, for being second in command,
although no one ever more highly deserved such a mark of approbation.



LIST OF THE HOSTILE FLEETS OFF THE MOUTH OF THE NILE
on the 1st of August, 1798.

_British Commanded by Sir Horatio Nelson, K.B. Rear-admiral of the
Blue._

Abbrevations used in the table below:
n/a   = not in the action
sb.sq = starboard squadron
w.m.e = where most efficient.
a. C. = assisting the Culloden.
O     = Officers
S     = Seamen
M     = Marines
Tot   = Total


  No  Ships'  | Captains    |  First     Remarks|Guns| Men|  Killed |  Wounded|Tot
      Names                     Lieuts.
                                                            O|  S| M| O|  S| M|
  1 |Culloden |T. Troubridge|Chas. Bullen |  n/a|  74| 584| 0|  0| 0| 0|  0| 0|  0
  2 |Theseus  | R.W. Miller |R. Hawkins   |  -- |  74| 584| 0|  5| 0| 1| 24| 5| 35
  3 |Alexander|A.J. Ball    |John Yule    |  -- |  74| 584| 1| 13| 0| 5| 48| 5| 72
  4 |Vanguard |{R.A. Sir H.}|Edw. Galwey  |sb.sq|  74| 589| 3| 20| 7| 7| 60| 8|105
               {Nelson.    }
               {E. Berry   }
  5 |Minotaur | Thos. Louis |C.M.
                             Schomberg    |  -- |  74| 643| 2| 18| 3| 4| 54| 6| 87
  6 |Swiftsure|B. Hallowell |J.L. Waters  |  -- |  74| 584| 0|  7| 0| 1| 19| 2| 29
  7 |Audacious|Davidge Gould|Thos. White  |  -- |  74| 584| 0|  1| 0| 2| 31| 2| 36
  8 |Leander  |T.B. Thompson|W. Richardson|w.m.e|  50| 338| 0|  0| 0| 0| 14| 0| 14
  9 |Defence  |John Peyton  |Richard Jones|  -- |  74| 584| 0|  3| 1| 0|  9| 2| 15
  10|Zealous  |Samuel Hood  |W.H. Webley  |  -- |  74| 584| 0|  1| 0| 0|  7| 0|  8
  11|Orion    |Sir J.
               Saumarez     |J. Barker    |  -- |  74| 584| 1| 11| 1| 5| 18| 6| 42
  12|Goliath  |Thomas Foley |G. Jardine   |  -- |  74| 584| 2| 12| 7| 4| 28| 9| 62
  13|Majestic |G.B. Wescott |R. Cuthbert  |  -- |  74| 584| 3| 38|14| 3|124|16|193
  14|Belle-   |H.D.E. Darby |R. Cathcart  |  -- |  74| 584| 4| 32|13| 5|126|17|197
      rophon
     Mutine   |T.M. Hardy   |--    --     |a. C.|  14|  70| 0|  0| 0| 0|  0| 0|  0
       brig

                                           Total|1066|8064|16|161|46|37|562|78|895
     Emerald.       T.M. Waller. }
     Terpsichore.   W.H. Gage    } not in the action.
     Alcmene.       W. Brown     }


_French, commanded by Admiral Gantheaume._

Abbrevations used in the table below:
A    = Admiral
R.A. = Rear Admiral


  No. Ships' Names.   Captains.              Guns.  Men.  Remarks.


  1   Le Guerrier.    J.F.T. Trullet (sen.)  74     700  Taken and burnt
                                                         by the British.
  2   Le Conquérant.  E. Dalbarde.           74     700  Taken.

  3   Le Spartiate.   M.J. Emerine.          74     700  Ditto.

  4   L'Aquilon.      H. Alex. Thevenard.    74     700  Taken and called
                                                         the Aboukir;
                                                         Captain killed.

  5   Le Peuple       P.P. Racoora.          74     700  Taken and called
      Souverain.                                         Le Guerrier.

  6   Le Franklin.    Blanquet (R.A.).       90     800  Taken and called
                                                         the Canopus.

  7  {L'Orient        Brueys             }  120    1010  Blown up: the
     {(formerly)      (A.) Gantheaume    }               Admiral and the
     {Le              (R.A.) Casa Bianca,}               whole crew,
     {Sans Culottes.  Captain.           }               excepting seventy
                                                         men, perished.

  8   Le Tonnant.     Du Petit Thouars.      80     800  Taken; her Captain
                                                         killed.

  9   L'Heureux.      J.P. Etienne.          74     700  Taken and burnt
                                                         by the British.

  10  Le Timoléon.    Trullet (jun.)         74     700  Driven on shore,
                                                         and burnt by her
                                                         own people.

  11  Le Mercure.     Cambon (acting).        74    700  Taken and burnt
                                                         by the British.

  12  Le Guillaume   {Villeneuve, (R.A.) }    80    800  Escaped; taken in
      Tell.          {Captain Sinclair.  }               1800 by
                                                         Foudroyant, Lion,
                                                         and Penelope.

  13  Généreux.       Le Joille.              74    700  Escaped; taken in
                                                         1800 by the
                                                         squadron under
                                                         Lord Nelson,
                                                         off Malta.

      La Sérieuse.    Clavele Jean Martin.    36    250  Sunk by a
                                                         broadside from the
                                                         Orion; crew saved.

      L'Artémise.     Pierre Jean Standelet.  36    250  Struck her colours, and
                                                         burnt by her crew, who
                                                         escaped in their boats.

      La Diane.       R.A. Decrès,            48    300  Escaped, but taken in
                      Capt. Soleil                       1801 off Malta.

      La Justice.     -- Villeneuve.          44    300  Escaped, but taken in
                                                         1801 at Alexandria.

                                                         Besides bombs, brigs,
                                                         gun-boats, and
                                                         batteries.
                                            ----  -----


                          Total. { French   1200  10810
                                 { British  1066   8064
                                            ----  -----
                                             134   2746

Thus it appears that the French were superior by more than a fourth to
the British, and certainly still more in weight of metal; and when the
size of the shot is taken comparatively into consideration, and that a
French eighty is equal to a British ninety-eight, the superiority in
the broadsides would be even greater.



APPENDIX M.

Letter sent by Captain ---- Gage.


     "Orion, off Pantalaria, 27th Sept. 1798.

     "MY DEAR ADMIRAL,

     "Captain Gage has this instant joined and communicated to me
     his orders to proceed off Malta for intelligence; my letter, of
     yesterday's date, with which I have charged him, so fully
     answers the purport of his mission with respect to that island
     and the Colossus, with the store ships and victuallers, that I
     have directed him to return to join you at Naples with all
     possible despatch. I shall send the Minotaur and Audacious the
     moment we are clear of the west end of Sicily.

     "The proposals to the French Garrison were first written by me,
     but it being thought advisable to send them in the French
     language, they underwent some alteration in the translation;
     but upon the whole, I hope they will be approved of. I laid a
     great stress with the Marquis, before I left him, of the
     practicability of the William Tell escaping, and wished much I
     could have left two of our ships off the island to watch her
     and the two frigates more closely. There exists no doubt of the
     Genereux being lost. I am all anxiety to hear from you to know
     that you approve of my different movements; at all risk, you
     will do me the favour to let me hear from you either at the
     Flat, or in England.


     "JAMES SAUMAREZ."

     "To Sir Horatio Nelson, &c.
        Bay of Naples."



APPENDIX N.


The Portuguese squadron consisted of the Principe Réal, Rainha de
Portugal, San Sebastian, and Alphonso Albuquerque, of 74 guns, under
the Marquis of Niza, a Rear-admiral, Captain Puysigur; Captains Stone,
Michell, and Campbell (English officers), commanded the other three;
to which were added, the Lion, 64, Captain Manley Dixon; the
Incendiary, fire-ship, George Barker (English); and the Portuguese
brig Falcao, Captain Duncan. Sir James having fallen in with them off
Malta, it fell calm, when a deputation from the principal inhabitants
of the island waited on them to request a supply of arms and
ammunition, and having informed the Commodore that the French garrison
at Valetta were subjected to great distress, and that there was reason
to believe that the appearance of the combined squadron would induce
the French to surrender, if summoned, accordingly, on the 25th of
September 1798, with the concurrence of the Marquis of Niza, a flag of
truce was sent in, with the following formal summons.

     "Une division de l'armée de sa Majesté Britannique dans la
     Mediterranée, commandée par le Contre-Amiral Sir Horatio
     Nelson, étant arrivée devant Malte sous les ordres de Sir James
     Saumarez, et reunie à l'escadre de sa Majesté Très-fidelle,
     commandée par le Contre-Amiral le Marquis de Niza; dans le
     dessein de rétablir les habitans de l'isle de Malte et
     dépendances dans la libre jouissance de leurs isles, sommons
     conjointement la garnison Françoise de la ville et ports de
     Malte de nous remettre la ville et les ports et dépendances,
     ainsi que les vaisseaux, frégates, et batimens de quelques
     especes qu'ils soyent et qui peuvent s'y trouver, à fin que les
     habitans de l'isle de Malte puissent se mettre en possession de
     leurs villes et ports, et rentrer dans leurs droits de
     propriétés. En consequence, le Contre-Amiral Marquis de Niza,
     au nom de sa Majesté Très-fidelle la Reine de Portugal, et Sir
     James Saumarez, au nom de sa Majesté Brittanique le Roy
     d'Angleterre, s'engagent et promettent de laisser à la garnison
     Françoise la liberté de retourner en France sur les batimens
     qui leur seront procurés à cet effet, de les convoyer et
     escorter; sous la condition que cette même garnison ne servira
     pas dans cette guerre contre les deux puissances dénommées et
     leurs alliés, jusqu'au moment où elle seroit regulièrement
     changée contre les sujets des deux puissances denommées ou de
     leurs alliés. La garnison Françoise maintenant enfermée dans
     les murs de la ville de la Cité Valete doit mûrement refléchir
     aux conséquences funestes qu'entraineroit pour elle un refus à
     cette sommation, puisqu'il la laisseroit à la merci des
     traitemens que peut inspirer au peuple de l'isle de Malte la
     haine et l'animosité que leur a fait naître les mauvais
     traitemens qu'ils ont éprouvés des François; et la garnison,
     après avoir éprouvée les horreurs de la famine, seroit forcée
     de s'en remettre à la discrétion d'un peuple qui ne montrera
     que les sentimens de sa vengeance. La garnison Françoise doit
     savoir que les escadres ne cesseront de bloquer l'isle de
     Malte; qu'une autre est devant Alexandrie, employée à aider les
     forces navales et de terre du Grand Seigneur à réduire les
     troupes Françoises que la disette et les maladies ont pu
     épargner en Egypte; et qu'enfin une autre escadre est devant
     Toulon, dont il ne peut venir aucun secours.

     "A bord du vaisseau le Prince Royal, le 25 de Septembre 1798.

     "Signé, Le Chef de Division,      SIR JAMES SAUMAREZ."
     "Le Contre-Amiral,                M. DE NIZA."


     "Copie de la Réponse à la Sommation du 25 Septembre.

     "Vous avez oublié sans doute que ce sont des François qui sont
     dans Malte; le sort de ses habitans ne doit pas vous regarder.
     Quant à votre sommation, les François n'entendent pas ce style.

     VAUBOIS,

     "Le Général Commandant en chef des Iles de
     Malte and de Goza, le 4 Vendémiaire, An 7 de la
     République une et indivisible."

Sir James having the prizes under his protection, with orders to convey
them to Gibraltar, had no alternative but to proceed, leaving the
Marquis de Niza and his squadron to blockade the port; but before
leaving he supplied the inhabitants with 1500 muskets and a suitable
quantity of ammunition, to which seasonable supply the success which
attended the Maltese in their subsequent efforts to recover their
liberty was mainly attributable.


TRANSLATION OF DON MAZARREDO'S LETTER.

     "MY DEAR SIR,

     "In your letter of yesterday, you were pleased to inform me of
     the orders which you have received from his Excellency Sir John
     Jervis, to deliver the officers and prisoners who came from the
     frigates Ninfa and Helena to the person appointed by me. I name
     for this purpose Don Juan Deslobbes, lieutenant in the Royal
     Navy, who will appear before you, sir, with this credential, in
     order to treat and settle respecting the disembarkation of the
     said prisoners: he will make the proper report and give a
     receipt for them on board. I assure you, sir, that the said
     officers, or men, shall not serve in war until they shall be
     legally allowed. Of this, the officers may pledge their word of
     honour on board, or I will receive it when they appear before
     me.

     "You will imagine, sir, much better than I can express, the
     sense of gratitude which I feel in hearing of the kind
     assistance and attention which you show to the brave men who
     were wounded, and of the good accommodation which the officers
     and men in general have met with. Together with my gratitude on
     this account, do me the honour, sir, to receive the real
     estimation and respect with which I offer myself to your
     services. God guard you, sir, many years!

     "Your respectful obedient servant,
     "JOS. DE MAZARREDO.
     "Ship Concepcion, at Cadiz,
     "29th April 1797."



APPENDIX O.


James, (now the Right Honourable and Reverend Baron de Saumarez,)
eldest son of Lord de Saumarez, was born at Guernsey on the 9th
October 1789. Being brought up, almost from infancy, under the
impression that he was intended for the church, and being naturally of
a mild disposition, no idea of any other profession ever entered his
mind--a circumstance which has excited general regret and considerable
surprise in the naval service; as there can be no doubt that, instead
of being at this day rector of a small living, he would have been at
the very top of the profession of which his heroic father had been so
bright an ornament. Although of the profession which was chosen for
him, and in which his family had little interest, he has proved
himself an excellent and useful member; still it must be confessed
that there is a general feeling of disappointment among the officers
of the navy, that the eldest son of their "acknowledged chief" had not
embraced that honourable service.

In consequence of his father's frequent absence, and change of station
with his ship, it became necessary to send him to a place of
instruction at an earlier age than usual, to avoid the danger of his
being carried about from port to port,--a circumstance which could not
but be felt severely by his mother. He was accordingly placed at
Newport, in the Isle of Wight, with the Rev. George Richards, where he
remained till the commencement of 1799. It was, however, before he was
sent to school, in the year 1793, that the following occurrence took
place, which will give the reader some idea of the feelings of such a
family, under such circumstances, in time of war. The happiness that
the gallant captain felt in visiting his family when obliged to put
into port, can only be justly appreciated by the affectionate husband
and father who knows the value of such happy moments, snatched as it
were from the fatigue of service, and how great and substantial is the
relief they afford to the anxiety of a naval life! Lady Saumarez was
at this time living at Stonehouse, that she might be at hand to
receive her husband when he put into Plymouth; their eldest son was
his mother's companion. One evening, tidings were brought to her that
the Crescent had arrived and anchored in Cawsand Bay; the boy was
playing in the passage with his nurse, awaiting the appearance of his
father, when at length the short hasty rap was heard! All ran to the
door, and in the hurry of opening it the light was extinguished, and
total darkness obscured the objects of his affection; but the eager,
_parental_ tone with which the words "Where art thou, my darling boy?"
were uttered, left such an impression on the mind and feelings of the
son as never to have been forgotten.

Early in 1799, young Saumarez was removed to the Rev. Mr. Morgan's
grammar school at Bath. Mr. Morgan had the reputation of being an
excellent master to boys of any promise; it may be inferred that he
was of this denomination, as his pupil not only left the school with
an excellent character, but on his going to Harrow, in the autumn of
1801, he was immediately placed on the fourth form, which had the
privilege of being exempt from fagging. We have heard him express the
highest gratification at having been there with Lord Byron and Sir
Robert Peel, who were in the form above him.

At Harrow he employed his time so well, that he reached the head of
the school; having throughout conducted himself to the satisfaction of
Dr. Drury, and afterwards of Dr. Butler, who succeeded as head-master,
for both of whom he entertained a sincere regard.

In the year 1807 he went to Christ Church, Oxford, where, after three
years, he passed his examination for academical honours in a manner
which not only gained him great credit, but, we were told, would have
ensured him the honours of the first class if he had aimed at
obtaining them. In December 1812 he was admitted into deacon's orders
by Dr. Bathurst, bishop of Norwich; and in the year following the
Bishop of Oxford ordained him priest.

In the interval he did duty as curate of Bicester, and afterwards in
the same capacity at Benson; at both which places he so endeared
himself to the parishioners, that the late Dr. Barrington, the revered
and excellent bishop of Durham, told his father that "he had not left
a dry eye in the place." Nor was he less respected and beloved at
Ewelme, where he lived after his marriage, than he was at Staverton,
in Northamptonshire, to which place he removed, and where he resided
several years surrounded by a flock for whom he had the sincerest
regard, preferring to labour in his sacred profession as a curate than
to remain an idle servant in his Master's vineyard. His health
becoming impaired, he was on the point of quitting Staverton, when he
was appointed by Lord Eldon to the living of Huggate in Yorkshire.

His gallant father once paid him a visit at Oxford, when he was an
under-graduate of Christ Church, on which occasion he called on the
celebrated Doctor Jackson, then dean, who manifested great pleasure at
seeing Sir James; and on parting, took him by the hand, and, shaking
his full-bottomed wig, said, "Mind, Sir James, that you act up to your
instructions, and burn, sink, and destroy every Frenchman you meet
with."

On the 5th October 1814, the present Lord de Saumarez married Mary,
the amiable daughter of the late Vice-admiral Lechmere.

Thomas Le Marchant Saumarez, the second son, was born at Teignmouth,
on the 2nd September 1799, and died 2nd November following.

The Honourable Thomas Le Marchant Saumarez, third son, was born at
Guernsey, 30th October 1803; he was educated for the army, and was a
lieutenant in the seventy-first regiment. He was married, on the 1st
October 1829, to Catherine Spencer Beresford, youngest daughter of
Colonel Spencer Thomas Vassall, and died 4th July 1834, without issue.

The Honourable John St. Vincent Saumarez, the fourth son, was born at
Guernsey on the 30th May 1806; he was named after the illustrious and
distinguished Admiral Earl St. Vincent, at a time when his lordship's
friend, the heroic father, was named to command the Channel fleet.

He chose the army for his profession, in which he has served in
America, and other places, and is now a Captain in the Rifle Brigade.
Married on the 2nd July 1838, to Caroline, eldest daughter of William
Rhodes, Esq. of Bromhope Hall, and Kirskill in the county of York.

Mary Dobrée Saumarez, the eldest daughter, was born at Bath on the 7th
December 1792. This beautiful and accomplished young lady was cut off
in the twentieth year of her age, in September 1812, to the
inexpressible grief not only of her affectionate and disconsolate
parents, but of all who had the happiness to be acquainted with her
amiable and excellent qualities.

The Honourable Martha Harriett, second daughter, was born at Bath, and
is residing with her now only parent.

Carteret, the third daughter, was born at Bath the 26th November 1796,
and died young.

The Honourable Amelia, the fourth daughter, was born at Dartmouth, and
was married on the 3rd September 1822, to William Young Herries, Esq.
of Spotts, in Kirkcudbrightshire; they have one son (Alexander), who
is now ten years of age, and is the only grandchild of the illustrious
lord.



INDEX.


A.

Abercrombie, Sir Ralph, notice of his death, ii. 35.

Aboukir Bay, French fleet discovered in, i. 215.

Addenda, ii. 332.

Admiralty, communications of the Lords of, to Sir J. Saumarez
  respecting the destruction of the French squadron, i. 327;
  determination of, respecting the command of Cadiz and the
  Mediterranean, ii. 24;
  opinion of, respecting the address of Sir J. Saumarez to the
  Emperor of Russia, 128.

Ætna, Mount, description of, i. 205.

Alexander, Emperor of Russia, letter of Sir J. Saumarez to, ii. 118;
  sends the Russian fleet to England, 287.

Alexandria, remarks on the surrender of, ii. 36.

Algeziras, description of the town of, i. 340;
  battle of, 342, 348;
  controversy between different authors respecting, 353, 368;
  Spanish official account of, 375;
  French account of, 379;
  sufferings of the unfortunate men wounded in the battle off, 386;
  list of the squadrons which sailed from, on the 12th July, 1801, 419.

Allen, Captain William, his instructions to Captain Saumarez, i. 53.

American colonies, breaking out of the war with the, i. 24.

---- Congress, order of, respecting the Captains taken prisoners with
the army under Earl Cornwallis, ii. 341.

Amherst, Lord, congratulates Capt. Saumarez, upon his success in
capturing the French frigate La Réunion, i. 114.

Anholt, capture of the island of, ii. 146;
  remarks of Sir J. Saumarez concerning, _ib._;
  attack on, 223;
  gallant defence of the garrison of, _ib._;
  letters concerning, 225;
  threatened attack of, by the Danes, prevented, 273.

Anson, Com. proceeds on his intended voyage round the world, ii. 351;
  remarks respecting, _ib._;
  notice of his voyage, 356, 357;
  arrives at Macoa, 360;
  return of his squadron to England, 361.

Appendix, ii. 369.

Asgill, Capt. Sir C. account of, ii. 342.

Atkins, Captain, his death, ii. 263;
  remarks concerning, 264.

Audacious, copy of the journal of the, i. 370;
  observations upon, 373.

Augusta, description of the town of, i. 261.


B.

Baird, Mr. death of, i. 221.

Ball, Captain Sir Alexander, directs the negotiation for landing
  prisoners on parole, i. 225;
  his conversation with Sir J. Saumarez, respecting the battle of the
  Nile, 228 _n._;
  his letter to him, 275;
  account of his flattering reception at Naples, 276;
  his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, 294.

Baltic fleet, under Sir J. Saumarez, arrives at Gothenburg, ii. 101.

---- Port, see _Port Baltic_.

Bathurst, Capt. report of, relative to the position of the Russian
 fleet, ii. 122;
 account of his extreme sufferings, 130.

Bayne, Captain, death of, i. 69.

Bedford, Captain, anecdote of his men, ii. 93.

Bernadotte, General, Prince of Ponte Corvo, elected Crown Prince of
  Sweden, ii. 208;
  remarks of Admiral Krusenstjerna respecting, 213;
  his arrival in Sweden, 217;
  his implicit confidence in Sir J. Saumarez, 249.

Bertie, Rear-admiral A., commands under Sir J. Saumarez in the Baltic
  fleet, ii. 99.

Berry, Captain, sails for England, with Admiral Nelson's despatches,
  i. 234.

Black rocks, command off the, assumed by Sir J. Saumarez, i. 300;
  description of, _ib._ 302.

Blanquet, Admiral, notice of his account of the battle of the Nile,
  i. 275.

Brenton, Admiral, father of Sir Jahleel Brenton, notice of his death,
  ii. 60.

---- Capt. afterwards Sir Jahleel, appointed to the Cæsar, i. 321;
  remarks of Sir J. Saumarez respecting, 325;
  his account of the battle of Algeziras, 341;
  extract from his Naval History, 382 _n._;
  orders of Sir J. Saumarez to, 383;
  professional abilities of, 395;
  his description of the flag of Sir J. Saumarez being rehoisted in
  the Cæsar, 403;
  his account of the battle of the 12th July 1801, _ib._;
  notice of his account of the wrecks of the St. George and Defence,
  ii. 266;
  his sketch of the professional character of Lord de Saumarez, 326.

Brest fleet, escape of, i. 290;
  proceeds to the Mediterranean, 291;
  observations respecting, 304.

Bridport, Lord, account of his action, i. 151;
  his opinion of the British squadron, 152;
  of Capt. Domett, _ib._;
  joins the Channel fleet, 289;
  takes command of the fleet, 296;
  list of the fleet under his command, June 23rd, 1795, ii. 398.

Brimstone Hill, surrender of, i. 65.

Brisbane, Capt. John, orders issued by, to the squadron at Rhode
  Island, i. 38;
  division of sailors under, 41;
  returns to England in the Leviathan, 42;
  narrowly escapes shipwreck, _ib._

British heroism, anecdote of, i. 382.

---- fleet, perilous situation of the, i. 65;
  loss of men in, 81;
  loss sustained by, in the battle of Algeziras, 363;
  list of the, under Sir John Jervis, 166;
  account of the battle with the Spanish Fleet, off Cape St. Vincent,
  168; ii. 402;
  mutiny in, i. 182;
  proceedings of the, ii. 128, 184;
  rejoicings in Sweden, upon their triumph over the Russian flotilla,
  162;
  disposition of the, 244;
  list of the, commanded by Admiral Sir George Rodney, in the actions of
  the 9th and 12th April 1782, 386;
  officers killed and wounded in, 389;
  list of the, under Admiral Nelson, at the battle of the Nile, 411.

British seamen, perseverance of, i. 367.

---- squadron commanded by Sir J. Saumarez, victory of the, over the
  French and Spanish squadrons, on the 12th July 1801, i. 419.

Buonaparte, Napoleon, remarks upon his career, i. 277;
  his extraordinary exertions to invade England, ii. 84;
  observations of Lord Nelson respecting, 87;
  remarks on his success in Austria and Prussia, 98;
  notice of his marriage with the Arch-duchess Maria Louisa, 188;
  his designs upon Holland, _ib._;
  orders of, respecting the Swedish commerce, 190;
  declaration of, relating to the navy of England, 223;
  his position at the commencement of 1812, 272;
  retreat from Russia, 292.

---- Joseph, declared King of Spain, ii. 188.

Brueys, Vice-admiral de, gallant conduct and death of, i. 225.

Brunswick, William Duke of, his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 227;
  Sir James's letter in answer, _ib._

Brydone, Mr. notice of his travels through Sicily and Malta, i. 205.

Burrows, Captain, death of, ii. 89.

Byron, Captain, communicates with Admiral Rodney, respecting the
  enemy's approach, i. 67.


C.

Cadiz, squadron off, i. 178;
  bombardment of the city of, 189;
  armament preparing for sea in, 331, 333;
  squadron off, reinforced, ii. 14;
  blockade of, resumed by Sir J. Saumarez, 20.

Cæsar, log of, respecting the battle of Algeziras, extract from,
  i. 360.

Cairo, General O'Hara's notice of the capitulation of, ii. 35.

Canning, Mr. remarks relating to, ii. 117 _n._

Carl August, Crown Prince of Sweden, ii. 188;
  lamentable event at Stockholm in consequence of his death, 189.
Carlscrona, arrival of Sir J. Saumarez at, ii. 107, 125;
  mortality among the seamen at, 129;
  orders respecting the fleet of line-of-battle ships fitting out
  there, 273.

Carlsham, orders of Admiral Puké respecting the defence of, ii. 229.

Casa-Bianca, Commodore, death of, i. 225.

Catania, remarks upon, i. 261.

Cathcart, Earl, nominated Ambassador to the Court of St. Petersburg,
  ii. 282;
  sails from England, _ib._;
  letter from Sir J. Saumarez to, 289;
  his despatches to Sir James, 289.

Caulfield, Captain Thomas Gordon, anecdote of, ii. 73,

Charles XIII. Duke of Sudermania, succeeds Gustavus Adolphus as King
  of Sweden, ii. 132;
  elected King by the States, 157;
  confers on Sir J. Saumarez the grand cross of the order of the sword,
  162, 286;
  his message to the Diet, upon the death of the Crown Prince, 207;
  his letter to Sir James, 286;
  presents him with a portrait of himself, 318;
  description of, 319.

Charlestown, notice of its surrender in 1780, ii. 334.

Chatham, Lord, his letter of congratulation to Captain Saumarez, i. 113.

Cherbourg, port of, object of the French government respecting, i. 85.

Clarence, Duke of, visits Guernsey, i. 86;
  dines with Sir J. Saumarez, 87;
  his eulogiums on the conduct of Sir James in his actions with the
  united fleets of France and Spain, ii. 46;
  ascends the throne of England, 310;
  raises Sir J. Saumarez to the Peerage, _ib._

Clephane, Major-General William Douglas Maclean, his communication
  with Sir J. Saumarez, on the subject of the evacuation of Minorca,
  ii. 64;
  takes his passage to England, on board the Pomone, 67.

Clinton, Lieut.-Gen. sails for South Carolina, to besiege the city of
  Charlestown, ii. 334.

Cockburn, Capt. chased by two Spanish line-of-battle ships, i. 167.

Collins, Michael, bravery of, i. 382 _n._

Connolly, Colonel, statements of, respecting the loss of the Hannibal,
  at Algeziras, i. 356.

Continental Sovereigns, notice of their visit to London, ii. 304.

Corbett, Thomas, his letter to Capt. P. Saumarez, ii. 362.

Cordova, Don Josef de, commands the Spanish fleet, in the battle off
  Cape St. Vincent, i. 167;
  list of his fleet, _ib._;
  his account of the battle, ii. 402.

Cornwallis, Earl, order of the American Congress relative to the
  Captains taken prisoners with his army, ii. 341.

Crescent, action between the, and La Réunion, i. 101;
  force of the two frigates, 110.

Croker, J.W. Secretary to the Admiralty, letters of Sir J. Saumarez
  to, ii. 233, 278, 288, 295;
  his letter to Sir James, 294.

Crown, Adm. list of his fleet, ii. 290.

Curtis, Sir R. his arrival off Cadiz, i. 199.


D.

Dalrymple, Capt. narrow escape of, from shipwreck in the Leviathan,
  i. 42.

Danes, audacity of the, ii. 245.

Danish frigate, account of the capture of the, ii. 275.

---- troops, number of, in the Island of Zealand, ii. 103;
  account of their attack on Anholt, 223.

Dantzig Bay, diversion made by Adm. Martin in, ii. 283.

Darley, Mr. killed at the attack upon Fort Sullivan, i. 28.

Dashwood, Capt. protects the island of Anholt from the Danes, ii. 273.

Defence (Capt. Atkins), wreck of the, ii. 263.

Dixon, Rear-admiral M. placed under the command of Sir J. Saumarez, in
  the Baltic fleet, ii. 99.

Dobree, Lieutenant (nephew of Sir J. Saumarez), despatched to England
  with news of peace with Russia, ii. 282;
  promoted to the rank of commander, _ib._

Dogger Bank, battle off, i. 47;
  Dutch account of, ii. 374.

Domett, Capt. Lord Bridport's approbation of his conduct, i. 152.

Douglas, Sir Charles, his calculations
respecting the French and British fleets, i. 81.

Douvarnenez Bay, description of, i. 305, 307.

Drake, Rear-admiral, commences the engagement of the 12th of April,
  1792, i. 71.

Duckworth, Sir John, account of the expedition under, i. 278;
  application of Lord Gardner respecting, ii. 98.

Dumaresq, Mr. Philip, remarks of Sir J. Saumarez concerning, i. 350;
  despatched to England with accounts of the victory of the 12th July
  1801, 414;
  his reception at the Admiralty by Earl St. Vincent, ii. 2;
  promoted to the rank of commander, _ib._

Dundas, Hon. Geo. H.L. appointed captain of the St. Antoine, ii. 9.

Du Petit Thouars, Capt. dying commands of, i. 226.

Durham, Capt., his remarks respecting the French fleet, i. 291.

Dutch, declare war against England, i. 46;
  account of their squadron, 47;
  commencement of the action, 49;
  account of 50.

---- fleet, list of the, under Admiral Zoutman in the battle off
  Dogger Bank, ii. 373.


E.

East Indies, command in the, offered to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 96.

Eamer, Sir John, his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 50.

Engerstrom, Baron, remarks respecting, ii. 174, 178.

England, enthusiasm in, upon receiving news of the splendid victory of
  the 12th July 1801, ii. 1.

English fleet, list of the, under Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, in the
  battle off Dogger Bank, ii. 372;
  under Admiral Lord Bridport, 23rd June 1795, 398;
  number of killed and wounded in, _ib._

---- squadron, commanded by Sir J. Saumarez off Port Baltic, ii. 396.

Essen, Baron, his interview with Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 293.

Europa, British squadron assembled off, i. 405.

Europe, state of, in 1812, ii. 271.

Exmouth, Lord, see Pellew.


F.

Ferris, Capt. remarks of Sir J. Saumarez upon the bravery of, i. 351;
  his letter to Sir James, 352;
  narrative of, at his court-martial, 354;
  returns to England in the Plymouth lugger, 387.

Fersen, Count, assassination of, at Stockholm, ii. 189.

Finland, exertions of the Swedish army in, ii. 123.

Fleets, junction of the, i. 66.

Foote, Capt. E. perseverance of, i. 168.

Fort Sullivan, attack upon, i. 26.

Foster, Mr. Augustus, appointed British minister, and chargé
  d'affaires at Sweden, ii. 136;
  correspondence between, and Sir J. Saumarez, 137, 140;
  his account of the Russian forces, 144;
  of the situation of Norway, 151;
  remarks on the character of the Duke of Sudermania, 152;
  his correspondence with Sir J. Saumarez, 169 to 185, 192 to 202;
  his observations respecting the Swedish government, 199.

France, commencement of hostilities with, ii. 72.

French fleet, at anchor off Sandy Hook, i. 40;
  failure of their plans for the reduction of Rhode Island, 42;
  equipment of, under Comte de Grasse, 67;
  loss of men in, 81;
  take possession of Alexandria and Cairo, 211;
  position of, in the bay of Aboukir, _ib._;
  situation of, in the battle of the Nile, 218;
  escape of, at Brest, 290;
  proceeds to the Mediterranean, 291;
  remarks respecting, 301;
  amount of, at Bayonne, 330;
  discovered at anchor in Algeziras Bay, 342;
  loss of men in, at the battle of Algeziras, 365;
  list of the, commanded by Comte de Grasse on the 9th and 12th April
  1782, ii. 381;
  opposed to the English, 23rd June 1795, 397;
  list of the, under Admiral Gantheaume in the action off the mouth of
  the Nile, 412.

---- garrison, summoned by Sir J. Saumarez at Malta, i. 262; ii. 414.

---- government, endeavours of the, to form a naval port in the
  British Channel, i. 85.

Frenchmen, singular custom of, in battle, i. 356 _n._
French privateers, account of the capture and destruction of, ii. 284.

---- ships, comparison between, and the British, i. 81.

---- squadron, attacked in the bay of Brehat, i. 120;
  gallant action of Sir J. Saumarez with, off Guernsey, 131;
  force of, 132;
  list of the, which sailed from Algeziras on the 12th July 1801, 419.

Frere, J.H. English ambassador at Lisbon, letter of Sir J. Saumarez
  to, i. 339.


G.

Gantheaume, Admiral, list of the French fleet under, in the action off
  the mouth of the Nile, ii. 412.

Gardner, Sir Alan, remarks concerning, i. 293;
  appointed to command the Channel fleet, ii. 95;
  applies for Sir John Duckworth to be his second in command, 96.

George III, King of England, visits the squadron under Admiral Parker,
  on its arrival at the Nore, i. 51;
  inquiries of, respecting Lieutenant Saumarez, 52;
  expresses his satisfaction to Sir J. Saumarez with the manoeuvres
  of the squadron under his command, 144;
  creates Sir James a Baronet of the United Kingdom, 336;
  commissions General O'Hara, governor at Gibraltar, to invest him
  with the Order of the Bath, ii. 36;
  illness of, 223.

---- Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV. appointed Regent, ii. 223.

Gibraltar, arrival of Admiral Nelson's squadron at, i. 271;
  ball given at, _ib._;
  occurrences at, 401;
  animating scene upon the arrival of the British squadron at, 411;
  conduct of the governor and garrison at, ii. 9;
  joy of the inhabitants of, upon Sir J. Saumarez being created a
  Knight of the Bath, 36.

Goodall, Samuel Cranston, kindness of, to Mr. de Saumarez, i. 21;
  visits the Mediterranean, _ib._;
  ordered to return to England, _ib._

Gothenburg, arrival of the Baltic fleet at, ii. 101;
  of Sir John Moore, _ib._;
  of Sir J. Saumarez, 274.

Græme, Capt. returns to England in the Leviathan, i. 42;
  providential escape of, from shipwreck, _ib._;
  commands the Preston, 46;
  loses his arm in action with the Dutch, 51.

Graham, Col. (Lord Lynedoch) his successful endeavours to effect the
  release of Sir John Moore, from his confinement at Stockholm, ii. 103.

Granville, attack and bombardment of, ii. 78;
  remarks of Sir J. Saumarez respecting the inhabitants of, 82.

Grasse, Comte de, abandons his plan of attacking Barbadoes, and
  arrives at St. Kitts, i. 58;
  takes possession of part of that island, _ib._;
  reinforcement of his fleet, 65;
  equips his fleet to carry into execution the reduction of
  Jamaica, 67;
  ability displayed by, 69;
  his conversation with Captain Saumarez, 81;
  removed to the flag ship, _ib._;
  sails for England, 82;
  list of the French fleet commanded by, on the 9th and 12th April
  1782, ii. 381.

Grave, William, death of, i. 363.

Great Britain, peace declared between, and Russia, ii. 281.

Grey, Lord, visits Plymouth, ii. 308;
  his speech upon Sir J. Saumarez proposing his health, 309.

Griffith, Com. Walter, secret order of, to Lieut. Saumarez, i. 34.

Guernsey, important changes in the island of, i. 86;
  visited by Prince William Henry, (afterwards William IV. King of
  England,) _ib._;
  inhabitants of, present Sir J. Saumarez with a silver vase in
 testimony of their sense of his gallant conduct, ii. 55;
  benevolence of Sir J. Saumarez in, 303;
  his residence there, _ib._;
  his reception, and rejoicings there, 313.

---- traders, observation respecting, i. 301.

Guichen, Count de, ordered to prepare the French fleet for sea, i. 55;
  engaged in action, 56;
  power of the force under, 57;
  fleet under in 1781, ii. 385.

Guion, Capt. remarks of Rear-admiral Reynolds concerning, ii. 254;
  his death, 263.

Gustavus IV. (Adolphus) King of Sweden, his alarm at the preparations
  for invasion making at St. Petersburg, ii. 99;
  solicits a force from England for its protection, _ib._;
  orders the arrest and detention of Sir John Moore at Stockholm, 102;
  his letters to Sir J. Saumarez, 106;
  his dethronement, 132;
  removed to Drottningholm, _ib._;
  succeeded by his uncle the Duke of Sudermania, as Charles XIII,
  _ib._;
  proclamation issued respecting, 133;
  his escape and arrival at Gothenburg, 216;
  conveyed to Yarmouth, _ib._;
  remarks on his arrival in England, 217.


H.

Hamilton, Sir William, magnificent fête given by, at Naples, in honour
  of admiral Nelson, i. 276.

Harvey, Rear-admiral Henry, commands the expedition to Isle Dieu,
  i. 159;
  order of, to Sir J. Saumarez, 162;
  parts from the convoy off Brest, _ib._

Havre, Duc d', account of, i. 271, 282.

Henikoff, Admiral, commander of the Russian fleet, observations
  respecting, ii. 129.

Henryson, Lieut, appointed to command the Cæsar, i. 321.

Holland, remarks on Buonaparte's designs upon, ii. 188.

Holloway, Rear-admiral, president at the court martial of Capt.
  Ferris, i. 354.

Hood, Sir Samuel, bold manoeuvre of, i. 58;
  receives despatches from Capt. Saumarez, 60;
  decision of, 61;
  appoints Capt. Saumarez to command the Russell, 63;
  arrives at Antigua, 66;
  proceeds to St. Lucia, 67;
  endeavours to intercept a French convoy, _ib._;
  commands the van division in the action of the 9th April 1792, 68;
  his division brought into the rear, 70;
  engagement of the 12th, 71;
  chases a French ship, 78;
  rejoins the fleet off Tiberoon, 79;
  discretional orders of Sir J. Saumarez to, 410;
  his message in answer, 411;
  remarks of Earl St. Vincent, in the House of Lords respecting,
  ii. 45;
  appointed to command under Sir J. Saumarez in the Baltic fleet, 99;
  returns to England, 147.

Hope, Sir George, relieves Sir J. Saumarez at Gothenburg, ii. 293.

Hostile fleets, situation of the, in the West Indies, i. 65;
  position of the, on the 23rd June 1795, ii. 397;
  list of the, in the action off the mouth of the Nile, 411.

House of Commons, question in, relative to the wrecks of the
  St. George and Defence, ii. 267;
  remark of Mr. Whitbread respecting, _ib._

Houses of Parliament, thanks of the, voted to Sir J. Saumarez,
  i. 176; ii. 48, 49;
  express their approbation at his wise conduct in the Baltic, 270.

Howe, Earl, confirms the commission of Capt. Saumarez as post
  captain, i. 83;
  his instructions to him, 145.

---- Lady, remarks respecting, i. 291.

Hunt, J., his letter to Captain Saumarez, i. 114.


I.

Institutions, patronized by Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 298.

Ireland, distressing state of, i. 241.

Isle Dieu, expedition to, commanded by Rear-admiral Henry Harvey,
  i. 159.


J.

Jamaica, reception of Sir George Rodney at, i. 79.

Jersey, resolution of the States of, acknowledging the bravery of
  Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 53;
  visited by him, 76.

Jervis, Sir John, reinforced off Cape St. Vincent, by Capt. Saumarez,
  i. 165;
  squadron under, 166;
  account of his victory over the Spanish fleet, 168;
  letter of, to Sir J. Saumarez, 174;
  grants a pardon to James Mahoney, _ib._;
  created Earl St. Vincent, 178;
  extracts from his letters to Sir J. Saumarez, 179;
  his motives for bombarding the city of Cadiz, 189;
  letters of Capt. Saumarez to, 180, 270, 282, 306, 309;
  proceeds to Bantry Bay, 295;
  order of, to Captain Saumarez, 298;
  to Sir John Borlase Warren, 299;
  his letters to Capt. Saumarez, 303, 310, 316;
  his admiration of the conduct of Sir James in Douvarnenez Bay, 323;
  his letters to him, 326; ii. 6;
  to Earl Spencer, i. 335;
  his speech in the House of Lords respecting the gallant conduct of
  Sir J. Saumarez, in his actions with the united fleets of France,
  and Spain, ii. 43;
  moves the thanks of the House to Sir James, 44;
  also to Captains Hood and Keats, 45;
  is appointed to command the Channel fleet, 91;
  his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, 308.

Jones, Lieut. Thomas, his gallant conduct admired by Rear-admiral
  Martin, ii. 279.

Juan Fernandez, description of the island of, ii. 356.


K.

Karobka, Rear-admiral, list of ships under, ii. 291.

Keats, Capt. R.G. remarks of Sir J. Saumarez, upon his gallant conduct
  on the 12th July 1801, i. 417;
  his statement respecting the capture of the San Antonio, _ib._;
  remarks of Earl St. Vincent in the House of Lords upon, ii. 45;
  placed under the command of Sir J. Saumarez in the Baltic fleet, 99;
  ordered to communicate with Marquis Romana respecting the rescuing
  of his army, 110;
  address and tact displayed on the occasion, _ib._;
  remarks of Lord Mulgrave upon, 114;
  appointed to the command at Gothenburg, 128,

Keith, Lord, letter of Sir J. Saumarez to, i. 338;
  his letters to Sir James, ii. 15, 17, 18;
  his orders, respecting the evacuation of Minorca, 61;
  the regulation of the service in the bay of Gibraltar, 68;
  sails for England, 71.

Kempenfelt, Admiral, sails for the West Indies, i. 56;
  professional skill of, _ib._;
  orders of, to Capt. Saumarez, ii. 378;
  squadron sent under, to intercept the French West India Convoy, 385.

Kent, Edward, Duke of, appointed to succeed General O'Hara as Governor
  of Gibraltar, ii. 63;
  his reception there, 64.

Kidd, Capt. selected to accompany Commodore Anson, in his projected
  voyage round the world, ii. 351;
  notice of his death, 353.

Knight, Capt. G.W.H. (son of the late Admiral Sir John Knight,)
  extract from his letter respecting Lord Rodney's victory, 1782,
  ii. 395.

Knights of the Bath, remarks on that Order, ii. 37.

Krusenstjerna, Admiral, his observations respecting Bernadotte,
  ii. 213;
  extract from his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, 220, 245;
  his expressions of sincerity on taking leave of Sir James, 294;
  notice of his death, _ib._


L.

Larcom, Capt. Thomas, notice of his death, ii. 85.

La Réunion, surrender of, i. 103;
  number of men killed in, 111.

"Le Club de Cherbourg," capture of, i. 94.

Legge, Capt. accompanies Commodore Anson in his projected voyage round
  the world, ii. 351.

Libau, joy in, upon the arrival of Capt. Ross, with news of peace,
  ii. 280.

Lines--on the occasion of presenting a sword to Admiral Linois,
  i. 381;
  on his improvement in naval tactics, 382.

Lindsay, Mr. D. death of, i. 364.

Linois, Admiral, able manoeuvre of, i. 366;
  sword presented to, 381;
  lines on the occasion, _ib._;
  epigram, upon his improvement in naval tactics, 382;
  correspondence between him and Sir J. Saumarez respecting the
  exchange of prisoners, 385;
  letter of Sir James to, 396;
  list of the squadron which sailed under, from Algeziras, on the
  12th July 1801, i. 419.

Lisbon, return of the British fleet to, after their victory off
  St. Vincent, i. 176.

Liverpool, Lord, letter of Sir J. Saumarez to, ii. 301.

London, freedom of the city of, presented to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 51.

---- Gazette Extraordinary, containing Admiral Nelson's account of the
  victory off the Nile, ii. 409.

Louis XVI. visits the port of Cherbourg, i. 86;
  Capt. Saumarez introduced to, _ib._

Luce, Lieut, ordered to take possession of the Salvator del Mundo,
  i. 171;
  his description of the appalling state of, after her capture, 165;
  promoted to the rank of master and commander, 176.


M.

McBride, Admiral John, appoints Sir J. Saumarez to command a squadron,
  i. 119;
  letters of Sir James to, 120, 129, 131;
  his letter to Sir James, 138.

Macoa, arrival of Commodore Anson at, ii. 360.

Madrid Gazette extraordinary, statements in, relative to the battle of
  Algeziras, i. 365, 378.

Mahoney, James, pardon granted to, i. 174.

Malta, island of, account of its surrender to the French, i. 206;
  description of, 207;
  the French garrison summoned at, 262.

Manilla, account of the action with the Spanish Galleon off, ii. 352.

Maria Louisa, Arch-duchess, notice of her marriage with Napoleon
  Buonaparte, ii. 188.

Marine Artillery, plan of Sir J. Saumarez for the establishment of,
  ii. 399.

Maritime Peace, declaration of Buonaparte respecting, ii. 223.

Martin, Rear-admiral Sir Byam, appointed to serve under Sir J.
  Saumarez in command in the Baltic, ii. 272;
  letter from Captain Ross to, 278;
  detached in the Aboukir, to assist in the defence of Riga, 281;
  diversion made by, in Dantzig Bay, 283;
  joins Rear-admiral Morris at Hanö, _ib._

Maurice, Capt., letter of Sir J. Saumarez to, ii. 226.

Maxwell, Capt., observations of Sir J. Saumarez respecting,
  i. 297, 350.

Mazarredo, Admiral Don Joseph de, correspondence of Sir J. Saumarez
  with, i. 178; ii. 10;
  translation of his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, 416.

Memorandum, issued to the British squadrons by Sir J. Saumarez,
  i. 137.

Messina, Straits of, Sir J. Saumarez' remarks upon, i. 205.

Messina Faro, description of, i. 206.

Mesurier, Governor le, letter of Captain Saumarez to, i. 92.

Miells, M., account of his heroic death, i. 226.

Miller, Capt., remarks of Sir J. Saumarez respecting, i. 248;
  proposition of Sir J. Saumarez towards the erection of a monument
  to his memory, ii. 305.

Ministry, change in the, ii. 95.

Minorca, island of, given up to Spain, ii. 65.

Mitchell, Captain, afterwards Admiral William, observations
  respecting, ii. 72;
  appointed to Commodore Anson's squadron, for his projected voyage
  round the world, 351.

Moniteur, bulletin from the, i. 379.

Moore, Sir John, arrival of, at Gothenburg, ii. 101;
  his expedition, _ib._;
  is arrested at Stockholm, 102;
  escapes in disguise, 103;
  remarks of Sir J. Saumarez upon the subject, 104;
  takes his passage on board the Audacious to Yarmouth, 109.

Moreno, Vice-admiral Don Juan Joaquin, list of the Spanish squadron
  commanded by, on the 12th of July 1801, i. 419;
  orders of, to his fleet, 437.

Morris, Captain, noble constancy of, at the attack upon Fort Sullivan,
  i. 27;
  death of, 29.

---- Rear-admiral J.N. ordered to serve under Sir J. Saumarez in
  command in the Baltic, ii. 272;
  despatched with the advanced squadron, 273;
  arrives at Wingo Sound, _ib._;
  joined by Admiral Martin at Hanö, 283.

Mulgrave, Lord, his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, offering him the
  command in the East Indies, ii. 97;
  the command of the Baltic fleet, 99;
  letters of Sir James to, 97, 100, 146.

Murray, Capt. E. selected to accompany Commodore Anson, in his
  intended voyage round the world, ii. 351.


N.

Naples, description of the Bay of, i. 204.

---- King of, dinner given by, to Admiral Sir H. Nelson and his
  Captains, i. 276.

Nauckhoff, Admiral, his letters to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 127, 145;
  list of the Swedish fleet under, 1st September 1808, 396.

Naval Biography, remarks in the, upon the abilities of Sir J.
  Saumarez, ii. 309.

Nelson, Adm. Lord, engaged off Cape
  St. Vincent, i. 166;
  cruise of, 177;
  receives the grand cross of the Bath, 178;
  his letter to Captain Saumarez, 180;
  resumes the command of the advanced squadron, 189;
  sails for Teneriffe, 190;
  proceeds off Toulon, 192;
  Vanguard dismasted in a storm, 193;
  orders given by, on the junction of the squadron, 212;
  proceedings of his squadron, 213;
  discovers the French fleet in the Bay of Aboukir, 215;
  makes signal to prepare for battle, _ib._;
  for close action, 216;
  is wounded, 222;
  receives the congratulations of the captains of the fleet upon his
  great victory off the Nile, 224;
  his general memoranda to the squadron, _ib._;
  conversation with Sir J. Saumarez on board the Vanguard, 227;
  remarks respecting his despatches, 230;
  his friendship for Sir T. Troubridge, _ib._;
  presented with a sword by the captains of his squadron, 231;
  his letter to them upon receiving it, _ib._;
  orders to Sir J. Saumarez respecting ships and prizes under his
  command, 235;
  his letters to him, 238, 251;
  to Evan Nepean, 239;
  letters of Sir J. Saumarez to, 223, 252 to 260;
  remarks upon the favours conferred upon him, 272;
  his letters of approbation to Sir J. Saumarez, 274;
  his speech in the House of Lords respecting the character and
  conduct of Sir James, ii. 44;
  his letter to Sir James dated two days before his death, 86;
  remarks on the career of the Rochfort squadron, 87;
  on Buonaparte, _ib._;
  his letter to Sir J. Saumarez respecting the erection of a monument
  to the memory of Captain Miller, 305;
  remarks upon, 306;
  Gazette Extraordinary upon his victory at the Nile, 409;
  account of his being created Baron Nelson;
  pension granted to, _ib._;
  list of his fleet at the battle of the Nile, 411;
  letter to, from Sir J. Saumarez, 413.

Nepean, Evan, secretary to the Admiralty, Lord Bridport's letter to,
  i. 152;
  his official letters to Sir J. Saumarez, 162; ii. 25, 26, 28;
  letters of Sir J. Saumarez to, i. 334, 339, 349, 352;
  announcing the death of General O'Hara, ii. 59;
  the evacuation of Minorca, 66;
  letters of Admiral Nelson to, i. 239.

Nicholls, Rev. R.B. his letters of congratulation to Captain Saumarez,
  i. 114.

Nicolls, Capt. appointed governor of Anholt, ii. 147.

Nile, battle of the, i. 216;
  notice of Admiral Blanquet's account of, 275.

Niza, Rear-admiral Marquis de, his meeting with Sir J. Saumarez,
  i. 258;
  concurs in sending a flag of truce with proposals to the French
  garrison 262; ii. 414.

Norris, Capt. sails in Commodore Anson's squadron, upon his intended
  voyage round the world, ii. 351.

North Seas, squadron in the, i. 45;
  particulars of, 46;
  remarks on crossing the, ii. 269.


O.

O'Hara, General, Governor of Gibraltar, intelligence received from
  respecting the armament fitting out at Cadiz, i. 333;
  his letter to Sir J. Saumarez announcing the capitulation of Cairo,
  and death of Sir Ralph Abercrombie, ii. 35;
  commissioned by King George III. to invest Sir James with the most
  honourable order of the Bath, 37;
  ceremony of the investiture, _ib._;
  his death, 59;
  funeral, 60.

Orange, William Prince of, visits Sir J. Saumarez on board the Victory
  off Ystad, ii. 149;
  his letter to Sir James, 158.

Oxford, visit of Sir J. Saumarez to, ii. 304.


P.

Parker, Commodore Sir Peter, appointed to command a squadron, i. 24;
  commission of, to Lieutenant Saumarez, 29;
  sails in the Sandwich for England, 82;
  letter of, to Captain Saumarez, 115.

---- Admiral Sir Hyde, appointed to command the squadron in the North
  seas, i. 45;
  observations respecting his action with the Dutch, 50;
  arrives at the Nore, 51;
  visited by George III. _ib._;
  observation of, to his Majesty, 52;
  anecdotes of, 53;
  informs Captain Saumarez of the declaration of war against
  France, 90;
  fleet under in the battle off Dogger Bank, ii. 372.

Parker, (son of the admiral,) captain of the Latona, i. 46;
  his affectionate enquiries respecting his father, 50 _n._

---- Lieutenant, afterwards Admiral Sir George, takes possession of
  La Réunion frigate, i. 103;
  appointed to the rank of master and commander, 115.

Pater, Captain, his narrative of the circumstances relating to the
  St. George, ii. 258;
  his conduct debated at a court-martial, 264;
  his honourable acquittal, _ib._

Patton, Captain of the Belle Poule, i. 46;
  hauls down the pendant of the Dutch ship Hollandia, 51.

Pellew, Sir Edward, agreement between, and Sir J. Saumarez respecting
  prize money, i. 130;
  his wish to be relieved from the command in the East Indies, ii. 97;
  created Baron Exmouth, 299;
  his remarks concerning Sir. J. Saumarez, _ib._;
  visits him at Plymouth, 309.

Pelley, M. Dumanoir le, his account of the action of the 12th July
  1801, i. 428.

Pierre, French corvette, capture of, i. 192.

Pitt, Mr. remarks of, in the House of Commons respecting the battle of
  the Nile, i. 230, 272;
  his motion in the House of Commons respecting the merits of Sir J.
  Saumarez, ii. 46.

Platen, Baron, his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 166, 293;
  letter of Sir James to, 167.

Pole, Vice-admiral Sir Charles Maurice, supersedes Sir James Saumarez
  in command, ii. 25;
  proceeds to England, 42.

Ponte Corvo, Prince of, see _Bernadotte_.

Port Baltic, combined English and Swedish fleet off, ii. 115;
  command of, resumed by Sir James Saumarez, 272;
  list of the squadron commanded by Sir James off, 396.

Puké, Admiral (governor of Carlscrona), his attention to Sir J.
  Saumarez, ii. 126;
  his letters to him, 155, 165;
  Swedish expedition sails under, _ib._;
  account of, 171;
  his orders respecting the defence of Carlsham, 229.

Purcell, Mr. appointed lieutenant for his bravery in attacking the
  Danes, ii. 246.


Q.

Quibo, description of the island of, ii. 358.


R.

Ralfe, remarks in his "Naval Biography" upon the abilities of Sir
  J. Saumarez, ii. 309.

Reynolds, Rear-admiral, letter of Sir J. Saumarez to, ii. 230;
  sails in the St. George from Hano, 251;
  disasters in his fleet, 252;
  arrives at Wingo, 256;
  sailing of his fleet, 257;
  wreck of the St. George, 262;
  his death, 263.

Rhode Island, description of, i. 36.

Riga, siege of, ii. 282.

Robb, Mr. narrow escape of, in the Tisiphone, i. 59.

Rodney, Admiral Sir George, arrives at Barbadoes, i. 66;
  joins Sir S. Hood off Antigua, _ib._;
  general signal made by, 68;
  proceeds to Jamaica, 79;
  his reception there, _ib._;
  intentions of, respecting the Russell, (Capt. Saumarez,) 82;
  his letter relative to the actions of the 9th and 12th April 1782,
  ii. 380;
  list of the British fleet under, in the action, 386;
  account of his victory, 392.

Romana, Marquis, rescue of his army, ii. 110.

Rosen, Count, his assurances to Sir J. Saumarez respecting the
  intention of the Swedish government, ii. 219;
  request of, to Sir James, 231;
  his sincerity towards Sir James upon taking final leave of him, 294;
  cause of his death, _ib._

Ross, Lieut, notice of his being created a Knight of the order of the
  Sword, ii. 167;
  observations respecting, 168;
  his letter to Rear-admiral Martin, 278;
  appointed to
  carry the news of peace to Libau, 280;
  his joyful reception there, _ib._

Roxborough, P. death of, i. 364.

Royston, Mr. his death, ii. 263.

Russell (Captain J. Saumarez,) extract from the log of the, relative
  to Lord Rodney's victory, 1782, ii. 390.

Russia, commencement of war with, ii. 96;
  armistice and peace with, 171;
  determines not to accede to the terms proposed by France, 248;
  critical situation of, at the commencement of 1812, 272;
  peace declared between, and Great Britain, 281.

---- Emperor of, see _Alexander_.

Russian fleet, reconnoitred in the harbour by Sir J. Saumarez,
  ii. 116;
  his meditated attack upon, prevented by change of winds, 117;
  return of, to Cronstadt, 129;
  successful blockade of the, 164;
  list of the, 397.


S.

St. Clair, Lieut. remarks on his bravery in attacking the Danes,
  ii. 246;
  promoted to the rank of commander, _ib._

St. George, narrative of the circumstances relating to, by Capt.
  Pater, ii. 258;
  wreck of the, 263;
  testimony of the survivors concerning, 264.

St. Julien's, description of, ii. 353.

St. Malo, anecdote of an occurrence at, i. 381.

St. Petersburg, preparations for invasion in, ii. 98;
  Earl Cathcart appointed ambassador to the court of, 282.

St. Pietro, description of the town of, i. 196.

St. Vincent, account of the battle with the Spanish fleet off the
  Cape, i. 168; ii. 402.

---- Earl, see Jervis.

Salamandre, Le, capture and destruction of, ii. 89.

Salvador del Mundo, account of her capture, i. 174;
 appalling state of, 175.

San Antonio, capture of the, i. 411;
  report respecting, ii. 31 _n._

Santissima Trinidada, account of her striking her colours to the
  Orion, i. 174.

Savage, Sir John, disappointment of, i. 186;
  extreme humanity of Sir J. Saumarez towards, 187.

Saumarez, Capt. Thomas de, character of, i. 10;
  captures the French ship Belliqueux, 11.

---- Captain Philip de, death of, i. 10;
  biographical memoir of, ii. 348.

---- Matthew (father of Lord de Saumarez) his marriage, i. 12;
  receives the Duke of Gloucester upon his visiting the island of
  Guernsey, 16;
  notice of his death, ii. 370;
  of his family, _ib._

SAUMAREZ, JAMES LORD DE, birth of, i. 1;
  singular record of his ancestors, 2;
  his predilection for the navy, 17;
  enters his name on the books of the Solebay, 18;
  his talents, 19;
  his regard for Captain Goodall, 21;
  joins the Levant, 22;
  hospitality of the English families in Smyrna towards, _ib._;
  passes examination for lieutenant, 24;
  his interview with Sir Peter Parker, _ib._;
  proposes to leave the navy, 25;
  his narrow escape at the attack on Fort Sullivan, 28;
  copy of his acting commission as lieutenant, 29;
  his activity in the boats of the Bristol, 30;
  removed to the Chatham, 32;
  appointed to command the Spitfire, _ib._;
  makes sail for Rhode Island, 33;
  secret orders of Commodore Griffith to, 34;
  arduous nature of his undertakings, 36;
  different engagements of, 37;
  orders of Commodore John Brisbane to, respecting the war with
  France, 38;
  destruction of his vessel, 40;
  becomes aide-de-camp to Commodore Brisbane, 41;
  returns to England in the Leviathan, 42;
  his providential escape from shipwreck, 43;
  appointed first lieutenant of the Edgar, _ib._;
  joins the Victory, 44;
  visits London, 45;
  joins the Fortitude, _ib._;
  conducts the Preston into port, 51;
  presented to George III. 52;
  promoted to the rank of master and commander, _ib._;
  arrives at Torbay, 54;
  joins the fleet under Lord Howe, _ib._;
  sails for the West Indies with Admiral Kempenfelt, 56;
  captures a French ship in the action with the Count de Guichen,
  _ib._;
  selected to apprise Sir Samuel Hood of the approach
  of the enemy, 57;
  arrives at Barbadoes, _ib._;
  proceeds to Antigua, 59;
  escapes from two French men of war, _ib._;
  passes through the intricate channel between Neves and St. Kitts,
  60;
  proposal of, to Sir Samuel Hood, respecting the conveyance of
  intelligence to Jamaica, 61;
  his ship ordered home, _ib._;
  his fortunate exchange with Captain Stanhope, 62;
  takes command of the Russell, 63;
  restores discipline among his crew, 64;
  engaged in the action of 9th April 1792, 68;
  position of his ship, 73;
  anecdote of, 74;
  extreme sensibility of, 76;
  his conversation with Comte de Grasse respecting the loss of the
  Ville de Paris, 81;
  returns to Jamaica, 82;
  arrives in England with convoy, 83;
  is paid off at Chatham, and appointed post-captain, _ib._;
  visits London, 84;
  proceeds to Guernsey, _ib._;
  his exemplary conduct, 85;
  visits Cherbourg, _ib._;
  presented to Louis XVI. 86;
  returns to Guernsey, _ib._;
  visited by Prince William Henry, (afterwards William IV. King of
  England,) 87;
  elegant person and manners of, _ib._;
  appointed to command the Ambuscade frigate, 88;
  pays her off, and returns to Guernsey, _ib._;
  letter of, upon his marriage, _ib._;
  removes to Exeter, 89;
  commissions and pays off the Raisonable, _ib._;
  appointed to command the Crescent in the war of 1793, 90;
  receives intelligence from Sir H. Parker of war being declared
  against France, _ib._;
  ordered to reinforce the garrisons of the channel Islands, 91;
  account of his first cruise, _ib._;
  of his second, 94;
  captures a cutter, _ib._;
  sails for Plymouth with specie, 95;
  returns to Spithead, _ib._;
  orders of the Admiralty to, _ib._;
  sails for the third cruise, 97;
  visits his family while his ship is refitted, 98;
  sails for the channel islands, 100;
  action between the Crescent and French frigate La Réunion, 101;
  conveys his prize to Portsmouth, 105;
  his ship refitted, 110;
  letters of congratulation to, 113;
  obtains leave of absence, _ib._;
  is knighted for his gallant conduct, 115;
  placed under the orders of Admiral McBride, 119;
  conveys transports with troops to Guernsey and jersey, _ib._;
  his enthusiastic reception there, _ib._;
  attacks a French squadron, 120;
  narrowly escapes shipwreck, 121;
  chases some brigs off Havre, 123;
  his gallant conduct mentioned in the House of Commons, 124;
  ordered to cruise off the Lizard, 129;
  agreement between, and Sir Edward Pellew, 130;
  returns to Plymouth, _ib._;
  sails from Plymouth, 131;
  account of his action with a French squadron off Guernsey, _ib._;
  courageous scheme of, 134;
  letter of Admiral McBride to, 138;
  commands a squadron of frigates in the channel, 143;
  his interview with King George III. at Weymouth, 144;
  returns to Plymouth, 145;
  attached to the grand fleet under Earl Howe, _ib._;
  his situation in the fleet, 147;
  application to Earl Spencer, 148;
  appointed to the Orion, 150;
  attached to the Channel fleet, _ib._;
  engaged in Lord Bridport's action, 151;
  his account of, 153;
  appearance of an epidemic fever on board the Orion, 155;
  returns to Portsmouth, 158;
  his expedition to Isle Dieu, 159;
  arrives at Spithead, 162;
  proceeds to reinforce Sir J. Jervis off Cape St. Vincent, 165;
  account of his victory over the Spanish fleet, 170;
  letter of Sir J. Jervis to, 173;
  account of his engagement with and possession of the Salvador
  del Mundo and the Santissima Trinidada, 174;
  receives the thanks of both houses of parliament, 176;
  letters of congratulation to, from Earl Spencer and Lord Hugh
  Seymour, _ib._;
  sails on a cruise with Admiral Nelson, 177;
  returns to Lisbon, 178;
  receives a gold medal for his gallant conduct, _ib._;
  commands the advanced squadron off Cadiz, _ib._;
  corresponds with the Spanish Admiral Mazarredo, _ib._;
  letter from Sir J. Jervis to, 179;
  Admiral Nelson's high opinion of, 180;
  his remarks upon the Spaniards, 181;
  upon the disturbance in the channel fleet, 182;
  his seasonable admonition to one of the mutineers, 183;
  high degree of discipline in
  his crew, 184;
  humane character of, 185;
  perilous enterprise of, 187;
  resumes the command of the advanced squadron at the bombardment
  of Cadiz, 190;
  escorts a convoy to Gibraltar, 191;
  is relieved by Sir W. Parker, _ib._;
  attached to Nelson's squadron, and proceeds off Toulon, 192;
  captures the Pierre, French corvette, _ib._;
  his exertions in refitting the Vanguard at St. Pierre, 194;
  journal of, _ib._;
  the Vanguard dismasted, 195;
  his negotiation with the governor of St. Pietro, 197;
  captures a Spanish brig, _ib._;
  obtains information of the arrival of a reinforcement under Sir R.
  Curtis off Cadiz, 199;
  captures a Spanish vessel from Genoa, _ib._;
  joins Admiral Nelson with the reinforcement, 201;
  his remarks upon the "Scylla and Charybdis" celebrated by the
  ancients, 203;
  upon different volcanoes, _ib._;
  upon the Bay of Naples, 204;
  his account of Mount Strombolo, _ib._;
  of a pilot and his crew, 205;
  of "Brydone's Travels through Sicily and Malta," _ib._;
  of the city of Messina, 206;
  obtains intelligence of the surrender of the island of Malta to the
  French, _ib._;
  his remarks upon it, 207;
  his anxiety respecting the French fleet, 209;
  proceeds to Alexandria, 210;
  discovers the French fleet in Aboukir Bay, 215;
  position of, in the battle of the Nile, 216;
  is wounded by a splinter, 221;
  congratulates Admiral Nelson upon his glorious victory, 223;
  visits the Admiral on board the Vanguard, 227;
  observations of, respecting his being second in command, 228 _n._;
  his proposition on board the Orion, 231;
  ordered by Admiral Nelson to take a detachment of ships and prizes
  under his command, 235;
  journal of his tedious voyage, 236;
  sails for Gibraltar, 235;
  letters of Admiral Nelson, to, 238, 252, 274;
  his observations upon the state of Ireland, 241;
  arrives off Candia, 249;
  decides to pass through a perilous passage, _ib._;
  account of, 250 _n._;
  falls in with the Marquis de Niza's squadron, 262;
  summons the French garrison at Malta, _ib._;
  leaves Sicily, 264;
  his tedious passage, 266;
  letter of Earl St. Vincent to, 268;
  arrives at Gibraltar, 271;
  his remarks upon the Duc d'Havre, _ib._;
  letter of Captain Ball, 275;
  continues his journal, 277;
  arrives at Lisbon, 281;
  sails from thence and arrives at Spithead, 283;
  at Plymouth, 286;
  returns to his family in Bath, _ib._;
  one of the colonelcies of Marines conferred upon him, 289;
  appointed to the Cæsar, and joins the channel fleet, _ib._;
  his journal continued, 290;
  remarks upon Lady Howe, 291;
  upon the escape of the French fleet, 292;
  proceeds to the Mediterranean, 293;
  to Bantry Bay, 295;
  to Lisbon, _ib._;
  returns to Spithead, 297;
  rejoins the Channel fleet, 298;
  appointed by Earl St. Vincent to command the advanced squadron, 298;
  assumes the command off the Black Rocks, 300;
  his remarks upon the French fleet, 301;
  the Guernsey traders, _ib._;
  the Black Rocks, 302;
  letters from Earl St. Vincent to, 303, 310, 316;
  anchors at Douvarnenez Bay, 304;
  his description of the Bay, 305, 307;
  letters from Earl Spencer, _ib._, 319;
  his remarks upon the distressing state of the French in Brest, 311;
  promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, 321;
  relieves Admiral Thornborough off the Black Rocks, 322;
  receives a letter of approbation from Earl St. Vincent, 323;
  his anxiety for the safety of the Channel Islands, 324;
  remarks upon Captain Brenton, 325;
  relieved by Admiral Thornbrough, _ib._;
  receives a letter from Earl St. Vincent, 326;
  secret orders of the Admiralty to, 327;
  prepares to sail, 334;
  created a baronet of the United Kingdom, 336;
  sails from England, 337;
  arrives off Cadiz, _ib._;
  attacks a French squadron at Algeziras, 340;
  proceeds to Gibraltar, 347;
  sends a flag of truce to Algeziras, 348;
  his official account of the battle, 349;
  remarks upon the intrepid conduct of Captain Brenton during the
  engagement, 350;
  orders issued by, 351;
  letter of Captain Ferris to, 352;
  his squadron in the Mole at Gibraltar, 383;
  correspondence with Admiral Linois respecting the crew of the
  Hannibal, 385;
  despatches to Lord Keith, 387;
  private letters, 388;
  removes his flag to the Audacious, 394;
  renews his application to Admiral Linois in behalf of the
  unfortunate men on board the Hannibal, 396;
  determines to attack the combined squadron, 402;
  his flag rehoisted on board the Cæsar, 403;
  Sir J. Brenton's description of that interesting scene, _ib._;
  his squadron assemble off Europa, 405;
  action of the 12th July 1801, _ib._;
  destruction of two Spanish three-deckers, 407;
  his discretional orders to Captain Hood, 410;
  animating scene at Gibraltar, upon the arrival of his victorious
  squadron there, 412;
  remarks upon the termination of the contest, 413;
  his general memoranda given out to the squadron, _ib._;
  list of his squadron, 420;
  account of his proceedings after his arrival at Gibraltar, 426;
  enthusiasm in England upon hearing of his victory of the 12th July
  1801, ii. 1;
  letter from Mrs. Saumarez to, 3;
  Earl St. Vincent, 6;
  Mr. Tucker, 7;
  his correspondence with the Spanish governor at Cadiz, 10, 12;
  letters from Lord Keith, 15, 17, 18;
  Sir John Warren, 20;
  resumes the blockade of Cadiz, _ib._;
  remarks on the result of his two actions, 21;
  receives despatches from England, 24;
  superseded by Sir Charles Maurice Pole, 25;
  official letters from Mr. Evan Nepean, 25, 26, 28;
  remarks upon the arduous engagement at Algeziras, 29;
  upon the injustice of his treatment, 33;
  arrives at Gibraltar, 34;
  hears of the capitulation of Cairo, and the death of Sir Ralph
  Abercrombie, _ib._;
  is created a Knight of the Bath, 36;
  imposing ceremony of its investiture, 37;
  stanzas written on the occasion, 41;
  speeches of Earl St. Vincent and Lord Nelson in the House of Lords
  respecting, 44, 45;
  of the Duke of Clarence, 46;
  motion of Mr. Pitt in the House of Commons, _ib._;
  receives the thanks of both Houses of Parliament, 48;
  the freedom of the city of London and a sword, 51;
  an address from Guernsey and Jersey, 53;
  presented with a silver vase by the inhabitants of Guernsey, 55;
  his disappointment in not returning home, 56;
  detaches a squadron to follow the French ships to the West Indies, 58;
  sends intelligence to England of the death of Governor O'Hara, 59;
  receives orders to superintend the evacuation of Minorca, 60;
  observations on the arduous nature of his duty, 62;
  arrives at Minorca, 64;
  articles agreed upon between, and General Clephane, 65;
  arrives at Gibraltar, 71;
  proceeds to England, _ib._;
  hoists his flag at Sheerness, 72;
  proceeds to the command at Guernsey, 73;
  his flag in the Grampus, _ib._;
  visits the island of Jersey, 76;
  examines the defence of the island, _ib._;
  his account of the attack and bombardment of Granville, 78;
  narrow escape from a shot, 80;
  remarks upon the inhabitants of Granville, 82 _n._;
  continues the blockade of the French coast, _ib._;
  receives a letter from Lord Nelson two days before his death, 86;
  his benevolent conduct at Guernsey, 90;
  joins the channel fleet under Earl St. Vincent, 91;
  shifts his flag from the San Josef into the Prince of Wales, 92;
  his decisive conduct, 95;
  returns to Guernsey, 96;
  declines the command in the East Indies, 97;
  letters to, from Lord Mulgrave, _ib._, 99, 114;
  appointed to command the Baltic fleet, 99;
  arrives at Gothenberg, 101;
  his remarks on the detention and escape of Sir John Moore from
  Stockholm, 104, 108;
  on the Swedish character, 105;
  letter from Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, to, 106;
  arrives at Carlscrona, 107;
  his account of the rescue of Marquis Romana's army, 112;
  proceeds to the gulf of Finland, 114;
  reconnoitres the Russian fleet, and determines to attack them, 116;
  prevented by change of winds, 117;
  letter to, from the Russian Admiral Tchitchagoff, 119;
  his anxiety respecting public opinion, 123;
  returns to Carlscrona, 125;
  letters from Admiral Nauckhoff to, 127, 145;
  leaves Carlscrona, 128;
  arrives in the Downs, _ib._;
  reappointed to the command in the Baltic, 134;
  receives Prince William of Orange on board, off Ystad, 149;
  his opinion of the integrity of the Swedes, 151;
  letters from Admiral Puké, 155, 165;
  from the Prince of Orange, 158;
  proceeds to the gulf of Finland to blockade the Russian fleet, at
  Cronstadt, 159;
  the grand cross of the order of the Sword conferred upon him by Charles
  XIII. King of Sweden, 162;
  his remarks upon, 163;
  success in the blockade of the Russian fleet, 164;
  letters from Baron Platen to, 166;
  his fleet returns to England, 186;
  receives the approbation of the Lords of the Admiralty, _ib._;
  continues the command of the Baltic fleet, 191;
  proceeds to Gothenburg and Havre, _ib._;
  promoted to the rank of Vice-admiral of the red, 211;
  letter of Admiral Krusenstjerna to, 212;
  his judicious conduct in the disputes relative to the Swedish
  commerce, 213;
  interview with Gustavus IV. the deposed King of Sweden, 216;
  orders his conveyance to Yarmouth, _ib._;
  receives the approbation of Government, 220;
  letter from Admiral Krusenstjerna to, _ib._;
  his arrival in England, 221;
  obtains leave of absence, 223;
  observations respecting, 224;
  continues the command in the Baltic at the request of ministers,
  _ib._;
  receives the statement of the Danish attack on Anholt, 225;
  letter from the Duke of Brunswick, 227;
  arrives in Sweden, 228;
  his conference with Baron Tawast, 232;
  considers the written document of the baron to be unsatisfactory,
  236;
  remonstrates with the Swedish Government, 241;
  his correspondence respecting, 242;
  sends a detail of his proceedings to the Admiralty, 244;
  implicit confidence placed in him by the Crown Prince of Sweden,
  249;
  letter from Rear-admiral Reynolds to, relating the disaster of the
  St. George and Convoy, 252;
  observations upon, 255, 265;
  proceedings of the Victory, 268;
  arrives at Spithead, 270;
  receives the approbation of ministers, and of the Prince Regent,
  270;
  resumes the command in the Baltic, 272;
  appoints Rear-admirals Byam Martin, and J.N. Morris to serve under
  him, _ib._;
  arrives at Gothenburg, 274;
  letter from Captain Stewart, 275;
  from Mr. Thornton, 281;
  named Knight Grand Cross of the Sword of Sweden, 286;
  letter from the King of Sweden, _ib._;
  receives news from England of the death of his eldest daughter, 288;
  his conduct on the occasion, _ib._;
  letter from Lord Cathcart, 289;
  resigns his command to Rear-admiral Sir George Hope, 293;
  presented with a sword by the King of Sweden, _ib._;
  letter from Baron Platen, _ib._;
  returns to England, 294;
  letter from Mr. Croker, _ib._;
  retires from service, 298;
  his various occupations, _ib._;
  claims for a Peerage disregarded, 299;
  observations respecting, 300;
  resumes his works of charity, and benevolence in Guernsey, 303;
  his residence there, _ib._;
  visits Oxford, 304;
  letter from Lord Nelson, 305;
  his political opinions, 306;
  letter from Earl St. Vincent, 308;
  is appointed to the command at Plymouth, _ib._;
  sentiments of Earl Grey respecting, 309;
  receives a visit from Lord Exmouth, _ib._;
  strikes his flag, 310;
  created a Baron upon the accession of his Majesty William IV.
  _ib._;
  his reception at the island of Guernsey and rejoicings there, 313;
  political opinions and conduct, 315;
  grief on the death of his second son, 316;
  anecdotes of his carriage being robbed, 317;
  the king of Sweden presents him with his portrait, 318;
  letter from Count Wetterstedt respecting, 319;
  his last illness, 320;
  Christian fortitude, 323;
  and death, 325;
  remarks on his professional career, 326;
  his moral and religious character, 329;
  list of the English squadron under, off Port Baltic, 1808, 396;
  his plan for forming a corps of Artillery for his Majesty's naval
  service, 399;
  letter from Earl Spencer, 401.

Saumarez, Mr. John, letter to, from Lord de Saumarez, i. 423.

---- Lieut.-General Sir Thomas, letter to, from Lord de Saumarez,
  i. 325;
  biographical memoir of, ii. 332.

---- Mr. Richard, letters to, from Lord de Saumarez, i. 91, 94, 106,
  116, 121, 123, 124, 126, 127, 140, 141, 144, 147, 153, 155, 158,
  159, 160, 170, 177, 181, 388, 397, 423; ii. 29, 56, 81, 103, 112,
  121, 291.

---- Lady de, her marriage, i. 88;
  letters to, from Lord de Saumarez, 232, 283, 297, 301, 307, 308,
  311, 314, 316, 390, 426;
  her letter to her son, 311.

---- (present Lord), his tour to Åbo, and St. Petersburg, ii. 287;
  biographical memoir of, 417.

---- Thomas le Marchant, third son, notice of his death, ii. 316;
  account of, 419.

---- Mary Dobrée, eldest daughter, notice of her death, ii. 288.

Schill, Major, account of, ii. 156.

Scylla and Charybdis, remarks of Sir J. Saumarez upon, i. 203.

Seymour, Lord Hugh, his letter of congratulation to Sir J. Saumarez,
  i. 176.

Skripeetzen Mr. anecdote concerning, ii. 116.

Small, Lieut. governor of Guernsey, flattering testimonials published
  by, respecting Sir J. Saumarez, i. 135;
  his letter to the Secretary of the Admiralty, 136.

Smith, Capt. providential escape of, from shipwreck upon his return
  to England, i. 42.

---- J. letters from Sir J. Saumarez to, ii. 237, 243.

Spain, joins Napoleon in his object of invading England, ii. 88;
  Joseph Buonaparte declared King of, 188.

Spanish army, amount of, i. 330;
  loss in, at the battle of Algeziras, 365.

---- fleet, commanded by Don Josef de Cordova, engaged with the
  British fleet off Cape St. Vincent, i. 167;
  list of the, _ib._;
  opinion of Sir J. Saumarez respecting, 181.

---- galleon, account of the action with the, off Manilla, ii. 352.

---- Priests, miserable situation of, in a captured vessel, i. 200.

---- squadron, list of the, which sailed from Algeziras on the 12th
  July, 1801, i. 419.

Spencer, copy of the journal of the, i. 368;
  remarks upon, 373.

---- Earl, letters of, to Sir J. Saumarez, i. 149, 176, 288, 305, 319;
  ii. 401;
  letter of Sir James to, i. 304, 318; ii. 399.

---- Mr. death of, i. 364.

Stanhope, Capt. John, orders of, to Sir J. Saumarez, i. 57;
  returns to England on board the Tisiphone, 63.

Stanzas, written on the occasion of Sir J. Saumarez being created a
  Knight of the Bath, at Gibraltar, ii. 41.

Stevens, P. Secretary of the Admiralty, letters of Sir J. Saumarez to,
  i. 104, 109, 113, 139.

Stewart, Capt. his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 275;
  detached to the Belt, to cut off communication with Zealand, 284.

Steward, Mr. death of, i. 364.

Stockholm, arrest and escape of Sir John Moore at, ii. 102;
  accounts received from, of the surrender of Sweaborg, 104.

Strombolo Mount, description of, i. 204.

Sudermania, Duke of, see _Charles XIII_.

Sweaborg, surrender of, ii. 104;
  remarks concerning, _ib._

Sweden, state of affairs in, ii. 98;
  revolution in, 131;
  dethronement of Gustavus IV. King of, 132;
  laws in, _ib. n._;
  rejoicings in, upon the triumph of the British squadron over the
  Russian flotilla, 162;
  change of politics in, 188;
  death of the Crown Prince in, _ib._;
  peremptory orders of Buonaparte, relating to the commerce of, 190;
  election of Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo, as Crown Prince, 208;
  his arrival in, 217;
  critical situation of, in 1812, 272;
  regard of the inhabitants of, towards Sir J. Saumarez, 317;
  letter of a tourist in, 318.

---- King of, see _Gustavus Adolphus_.

Swedish character, opinion of Sir J. Saumarez upon the, ii. 105.

---- expedition sails under Admiral Puké and General Wachtmeister,
  ii. 165;
  failure of the, 171.
Swedish fleet, number of ships in the, ii. 110;
  anchors off Rogerwick, 115;
  malignant epidemic in the, 122;
  list of the, commanded by Rear-admiral Nauckhoff, 1808, ii. 396.

---- government, declaration of the, ii. 218;
  remonstrance of Sir J. Saumarez with, 241.

---- officers, joy of, upon meeting Sir J. Saumarez, i. 75;
  list of, on board the French fleet under Comte de Grasse, 1782,
  ii. 384.

Symons, Capt. narrow escape of, from shipwreck, upon his return to
  England, i. 42.


T.

Tait, Admiral, list of the fleet under, ii. 290.

Tancock, Capt. John, remarks of Sir J. Saumarez upon his meritorious
  conduct, i. 250 _n._

Tawast, Baron, conference of Sir J. Saumarez with, ii. 232;
  his written document proves unsatisfactory, 236;
  letter from Sir James to, 241, 243.

Tchitchagoff, Admiral, his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 119.

Thompson, Capt. ordered to protect the trade in the Mediterranean, i. 22;
  sails for Gibraltar, 23;
  for England, _ib._

Thornbrough, Admiral, relieves Sir J. Saumarez in his cruise off the
  Black Rocks, i. 325.

Thornton, Mr. (afterwards Sir Edward,) account of his being smuggled
  into the city of Gothenburg, ii. 250;
  his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, announcing peace between Great
  Britain and Russia, 281.

Toulon fleet, sailing of the, i. 193;
  narrow escape of, _ib._

Trafalgar, battle of, its effect upon the speculations of Buonaparte,
  ii. 88.

"Travels through Sicily and Malta," by Brydone, Sir J. Saumarez's
  opinion of, i. 205.

Trolle, Capt. his report relative to the position of the Russian
  fleet, ii. 122.

Troubridge, Capt. Sir Thomas, remarks concerning, i. 272;
  his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, 324;
  letter from Sir James to, ii. 33.

Troude, Capt. report of, to Rear-admiral Linois, i. 430.

Tucker, Mr. his letter of congratulation to Sir J. Saumarez, upon
  his victory of the 12th July 1801, ii. 7.

Tyrason, Don Miguel, made prisoner by Admiral Sir H. Nelson, i. 190.


V.

Vaudreuil, M. de, commands the squadron and fleet destined to the
  West Indies, i. 56.

Venerable, copy of the journal of the, i. 371;
  remarks upon, 373.

Vesuvius Mount, observations respecting, i. 203.

"Ville de Paris," capture of, i. 74;
  description of, 80.


W.

Wachtmeister, General Count, observations upon his conduct in the
  Swedish expedition, ii. 171.

Wales Prince of, see _George_.

War, declaration of, at the National Convention, against Great
  Britain and Holland, i. 90.

Warren, Com. Sir John Borlase, joined by the Orion, Sir J. Saumarez,
  i. 159;
  leaves Quiberon Bay for Noirmoutier, 160;
  order of Earl St. Vincent to, 299;
  his letter to Sir J. Saumarez, ii. 20.

Westcott, Capt. notice of his death, i. 232.

Wetterstedt, Count, his letter to Lord de Saumarez, accompanying the
  portrait of the King of Sweden, ii. 319.

White, Capt. Thomas, letter of Sir J. Saumarez to, i. 77.

Whitbread, Mr. remark of, in the House of Commons, relating to the
  wrecks of the St. George, and Defence, ii. 267.

William Henry, Prince, afterwards Duke of Clarence and King
  William IV. see _Clarence_.

Williams, Lieut. J. death of, i. 364.

Wingo Sound, arrival of the St. George, under Rear-adm. Reynolds,
  with her convoy in, ii. 256;
  of the advanced squadron under Rear-admiral Morris, 273.

Wooldridge, Lieut. captures the Spanish privateer Rosario, ii. 42;
  promoted to the rank of commander, 43.


Y.

Yorke, Right Hon. Charles, letters to, from Sir J. Saumarez,
  ii. 203, 205, 209, 228, 229, 240, 247.

York Town, capitulation of the garrison of, ii. 341.


Z.

Zealand, number of Danish troops in the island of, ii. 103.

Zoutman, Admiral, commands a convoy to the Baltic, i. 46;
  hoists Dutch colours, 48;
  blame attached to, 51;
  fleet under, in the battle off Dogger-bank, ii. 373;
  his account of the action, 374.



THE END.


LONDON:
PRINTED BY SAMUEL BENTLEY,
Dorset Street, Fleet Street.



Transcriber's note:
On page 373, the following printer's errors were changed in the table
of the Dutch fleet to the well-documented correct historical names:
  "Erst Prince" to "Erfprins"
  "Batavia" to "Batavier"
  "Mendenblink" to "Medenblik"
  "Brank" to "van Braak"
  "Bentick" to "Bentinck"
  "Rijnevald" to "Rynveld"
The following ship's and Officer's names were stardardized in the
tables of the French fleet:
Page 373:
  "Pegasse" or "Pegase" to "Pégase"
  "Bien Aimé" to "Bien-Aimé"
  "L'Argenault" or "Argenaut" to "L'Argonaute"
Page 381:
  (Commandeur) "La Clocheuerie" to "La Clochetterie"
Page 382:
  "Le Zèlé" or "Zéle" to "Zélé"
  "Bourgoyne" to "Bourgogne"
  "Conquerant" to "Conquérant"
  "Diademe" to "Diadème"
  "Cæsar" to "César"
  "L'Eville" to "L'Eveillé"
Page 383:
  "Resolue" to "Résolue"
  "Medée" to "Médée"
Page 384:
  "Ceres" to "Cérès"
  "Conquerant" to "Conquérant"
Page 385:
  "Mons. de Vaudrieul" to "Mons. de Vaudreuil"
  "Le Leon" to "Le Lion"
Page 386:
  "L'Hardie" to "Le Hardi"
Page 397:
  "Mutius" to "Mucius"
  "Coçade" to "Cocade"
Page 412:
  "Trulet (jun.) to "Trullet" (jun.)
  "Pieree" to "Pierre"
  "Capt. Sol.ice" to "Capt. Soleil"
  "R.A. Deérès" to "R.A. Decrès"





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