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´╗┐Title: The Burning of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania
Author: Schneck, B. S. (Benjamin Shroder), 1806-1874
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *


Since the appearance of the first edition of this work, kind friends and
strangers from abroad have been prompted to send contributions for the
sufferers of our town, sometimes specifying who shall be the recipients,
sometimes leaving it discretionary with myself, and sometimes designating
the particular denomination of Christians to whose most needy members the
gifts should be applied. In order to afford an opportunity to _all_, to
avail themselves of such methods as may be most acceptable, I will here
say, that contributions to the General Relief Committee may be sent to the
Treasurer, _G. R. Messersmith_, Esq., Cashier of the Bank of Chambersburg.

Those wishing to make the pastors of the different churches (all of which
have suffered very greatly) to be the almoners of their bounty, can send
as follows:

     First Reformed Church, Rev. P. S. Davis.

     Second   "       " (German), Rev. B. S. Schneck.

     Presbyterian, Rev. S. J. Niccolls.

     Lutheran, German (without a pastor). Money can be sent to Rev. F. W.

     Methodist, Rev. Mr. Barnhart.

     United Brethren in Christ, Rev. J. Dickson.

     Roman Catholic, Rev. John Gerdeman.

     Bethel (Church of God), Mr. W. G. Mitchell.



  Single copies sent by mail, free of postage, at the usual
    retail price,                                             40 & 60 cts.
  By the dozen, in cloth,                                            $5 40
  (If sent by express, the receiver pays charges--if by mail,
    72 cents per dozen copies added to the above price,) or           6 12
  By the dozen, in paper,                                             3 60
  Postage per dozen copies, 40c.,                                     4 00
  By the hundred, in cloth,                                          40 00
  "   "     "     in paper covers,                                   26 67

_No books given on commission._

Agents wishing to canvass particular sections or counties, can apply to
the author at Chambersburg.

_Agents wanted_ for a number of counties in the eastern and western
portion of Pennsylvania, and also for Ohio, Indiana, etc.

A _German_ edition, in a condensed form, will shortly leave the press,
which will retail at 30 cents in paper, and 50 cents in cloth.

  By the dozen, in paper,                                            $2 70
  Postage per dozen copies,                                             30
  By the dozen, in cloth,                                             4 50
  Postage,                                                              60
  By the hundred, in paper,                                          20 00
  "   "     "     in cloth,                                          33 33


The following are a few of the notices given by the public press to this
work in its first edition:

"It is invaluable as the only account of the most fiendish act of the war
that is in a form to be preserved."--Colonel A. K. MCCLURE, in the
Chambersburg "_Franklin Repository_," Sept. 28, 1864.

"To readers of every class we take great pleasure in commending this
truthful narrative as a valuable contribution to the history of the
war.... The incidents of the burning are detailed by Dr. Schneck with a
vividness which makes his account of that barbarous transaction as graphic
as it is authentic."--Editor of Washington "_National Intelligencer_,"
Oct. 6.

"The source from which it proceeds carries with it sufficient authority as
to the correctness of its statements. It will be read generally with
interest and will doubtless receive a large circulation."--"_German
Reformed Messenger_," Oct. 5.

"This little book should be read by every Pennsylvanian. The scenes
therein so simply and yet so touchingly depicted, have no parallel for
horror in any war among civilized nations except our own."--Pittsburg
"_Evening Chronicle_," Oct. 14.

"I rejoice that this little book has met so rapid a sale, though I
anticipated nothing less, as it is certainly one of the most thrilling
narratives I have ever read. I shall send for a number of copies to be
distributed here."--Rev. Dr. W. B. SPRAGUE, Albany, N. Y., in a letter to
the author, Nov. 1, 1864.

       *       *       *       *       *


Burnt by order of General Early, July 30, 1864.]




An Eye-Witness and a Sufferer.

With Corroborative Statements from the
Rev. J. Clark, Hon. A. K. Mcclure, J. Hoke, Esq., Rev. T. G. Apple,
Rev. B. Bausman, Rev. S. J. Niccolls, and J. K. Shryock, Esq.

In Letters to a Friend.

Second Edition, Revised and Improved,
With a Plan of the Burnt Portion of the Town.

Lindsay & Blakiston.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by
Lindsay & Blakiston,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States
for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Stereotyped by J. Fagan & Son.

Printed by Sherman & Co.


The first edition of this work having been exhausted in a single month, my
worthy and enterprising publishers have encouraged the preparation of a
second without delay.

It is hardly necessary to say, that the first edition was prepared under
exceedingly unfavorable circumstances. Mind and body were in a state of
exhaustion. For a month, and longer, the hours of each day were so much
taken up with new and exciting cares and duties, as to unfit one in great
measure for either mental or physical effort. Hence the unpretending
little book was ushered into existence with a felt sense of its

An honest effort at improvement has been made in the present edition. No
small portion of redundant matter has been left out, thus affording room
for various statements which were not at hand before. I may here direct
special attention to the masterly "Vindication of the Border" by Mr.
Apple, the spirited contribution from the facile pen of Mr. Bausman, and
the excellent article by Mr. Shryock. I have with forethought chosen to
introduce other witnesses, besides myself, to testify in regard to the
matter in hand, rather than to have the public rely upon my testimony

The list of names, with the amount of losses by those who owned houses,
were to have been omitted in this edition; but so numerous were the
protests from valued friends against such a course, that it has been
allowed to remain. The space occupied by these details has, however, been
reduced nearly one half, partly by employing smaller type, and partly by
condensing the matter.

The engraving prefixed to the present edition, representing the burnt
portion of the town, will, it is hoped, be acceptable to the reader. A
steel plate engraving of the ruins of the town would have been given, if
any satisfactory representation in so small a compass could have been
furnished. But the judgment of the artist decided against its feasibility,
and in favor of that herewith presented.[1]

B. S. S.

CHAMBERSBURG, Oct. 31st, 1864.




Your request to give you a succinct and, as far as may be, detailed
account of the terrible calamity with which our town was visited on the
30th day of July, is received. You are pleased to say, that not only my
long residence in the place, but the fact that I had, as on former
occasions, so also during the present one, remained at home, gives me a
right to speak on the subject, without fear of cavil or sneer from those
who are ready, either from ignorance or something worse, to misrepresent
the facts in the case, or apply the ill-timed weapons of ridicule and
sarcasm against statements which have appeared in print.[2] Passing by
your other remarks, which I may be permitted to set down as emanating from
personal partiality, I shall proceed to give you, as perfectly as I can,
and as briefly as the subject will allow, a somewhat detailed account of
the terrible disaster, with an honest endeavor to avoid all special
pleading and overdrawn statements, dealing only in simple matters of fact,
as far as I have been able to gather them, either from personal knowledge
or unquestionable authority.

The Military Situation on the Border.

Before proceeding directly to the narration of the terrible catastrophe,
it may be well to glance at the military situation on our border. This
seems the more necessary from the fact, that a very large portion of the
public prints have been misled into the belief, and consequently have
unwittingly led their readers to believe that, "if the citizens of
Chambersburg had turned out to resist the enemy, the burning and pillage
of the town could have been averted," inasmuch as the rebel force,
according to some statements, was very trifling, "scarcely numbering two
hundred men." You, my dear friend, are laboring under this erroneous
belief yourself. Allow me, therefore, to turn your attention to the
following facts, which are well established, and which can be corroborated
by any amount of evidence.

General Couch, the commander of this military division, had under his
control a company of about one hundred men at Mercersburg, sixteen miles
southwest from here, and a section of a battery of artillery in this
place. This was the entire military force in the Cumberland Valley, under
the control of our military commander, at the time. Several Pennsylvania
regiments which had previously been organized for the defence of the
border, through the efforts of our vigilant Governor, had been summoned
by the General Government to Washington and the Potomac Army. One hundred
men and two small cannon--that was all.

But you ask: "Was not General Averill near enough to have prevented the
rebels from executing their nefarious design upon your town? and, if so,
why did not General Couch inform him of the situation of affairs, and urge
him forward?" The answer is at hand. General Couch _did_ attempt to inform
General Averill in time of the fact that the enemy, with a force about
three thousand strong, had crossed the Potomac west of Williamsport, and
was moving by way of Mercersburg and St. Thomas directly on Chambersburg.
Averill was encamped one mile from Greencastle (ten from Chambersburg) on
Friday night, July 29. The first two messengers with despatches from
General Couch, could not find him. The third messenger succeeded
accidentally in finding him after midnight in a field. Averill only now
discovered that he had been flanked by the enemy, and expressed himself
greatly surprised and chagrined to the messenger at this state of things.
Whether he was to blame, it is not for me to say. It is sufficient for my
purpose just now to know that, beyond two small cannon and one hundred
men, we were _without any military protection_. And could the few hundred
citizens of the place, most of them without firearms, be expected to make
a resistance against such a force, and with six cannon planted on the
hills overlooking the town? To ask the question is to answer it.

In reading over the two preceding paragraphs it occurred to me that the
impression might have been made on your mind, that I wished to find fault
with the General Government for removing from us all military protection
on our border. I have no wish to do so in this letter. I am no military
man, and hence am not so positive in my opinions as many other men, who
are doubtless far more capable of forming a judgment in such matters. I
merely mention the simple facts as they are patent to all who had the best
opportunities of knowing the true state of things. So, too, in regard to
both the Generals named. There is, since the burning of our town, a very
strong feeling of disapprobation in our community and elsewhere against
both, especially against General Couch. I cannot as yet share this
feeling. I know how apt we are, especially when smarting under severe
personal losses or grievances, to look around for some object upon which,
or some person on whom, to lay the blame. For my part, I would rather err
on the side of charity than on the side of unjust fault-finding and
denunciation. I prefer, until better advised, to endorse the views of my
friend Colonel A. K. McClure, himself one of the sufferers, and well
posted in such matters. He says:

"General Averill possibly might have saved Chambersburg, and I know that
General Couch exhausted himself to get Averill to fall back from
Greencastle to this point. I do not say that General Averill is to blame,
for he was under orders from General Hunter, and not subject to General
Couch. He had a large force of the enemy in his front, and until it is
clearly proved to the contrary, I must believe that he did his whole

These two sentences are guardedly worded. "General Averill _possibly_
might have saved Chambersburg." The enemy, under McCausland, Bradley
Johnson, and Gilmore, let it be recollected, had at least three thousand
cavalry, with artillery at command, eight hundred of the latter being in
town, the rest within supporting distance. Johnson's command occupied the
high eminence one mile west of the town with a battery. No better position
could have been desired. They were flushed at the prospect of plunder and
pillage; their horses were fresh and sleek; their men resolute and
defiant. On the other hand, Averill and his men had been worn out and
jaded by long and heavy marches in Western Virginia for a number of
consecutive weeks. Their horses were run down, and many of them ready to
die, so that two hundred and fifty of these last could not be taken any
farther, but were left here to recruit. It is therefore only _possible_,
scarcely probable, that, even if Averill's force of less than two thousand
five hundred men had been here, a successful resistance could have been
made under these circumstances. But Averill and his men were not here
until several hours after the work of destruction was accomplished, and
the enemy, gloating over his vengeful deeds, was miles away on the Western
Turnpike, towards McConnellsburg.

Judge then, dear sir, how keenly we must feel the unjust reproaches heaped
upon us by professed friends, after our houses are in ruins, our goods
despoiled, and our hearts saddened at every step we take in beholding
continuous squares of desolation in our once beautiful town. And
reproaches _for what_? Because a picket guard of one hundred soldiers and
a small number of citizens did not successfully resist more than three
thousand[3] veteran cavalrymen, with cannon eligibly planted to lay waste
the town without even coming into it. That commanding position once
gained by the enemy, and the town was at his mercy, no matter what force
of cavalry or infantry might have been in Chambersburg.

Reproaches--and from _whom_ and _whence_? From certain newspaper editors
of New York; that same New York, which, with its population of half a
million, could not quell its rabble mob last year, without having a part
of the Potomac Army brought thither to guard some of the very newspaper
offices from which those reproaches upon a helpless town in a neighboring
State are now so unjustly heaped; those identical newspapers which have
ever and anon sent forth paragraphs of bitter invective against
Pennsylvania in general, and Chambersburg in particular, for the "ill
treatment of the New York militia" at the hands of our citizens.[4] New
York is a great State, and counts its noble and good men by hundreds of
thousands; but like every large State with large towns and cities, she
also counts her thousands of depraved creatures in human shape. And I
speak from personal knowledge, for they were quartered for weeks near my
late residence, when I say that of all the soldiers who were in this
community since the commencement of this war, none have left behind them
such a bad moral odor as have many of these men. Drunkenness, wanton
destruction of property, thieving, fighting and stabbing each other, (in
some cases to death outright,) were frequent occurrences. And yet such men
are not only allowed to vilify and abuse the people whom their misconduct
has outraged, but certain New York sheets take up their cause and pour
forth wormwood and gall upon the town, the community, and the State. Let a
virtuous public pronounce its verdict.

Let me illustrate what kind of "defenders" these two regiments of New York
militia were. On their arrival in the town, and whilst marching through it
on their way to camp, about one mile south from here, some of the men
received the hearty cheers of our citizens with sneering remarks about the
necessity of coming "all the way from New York to protect Pennsylvania!"
Just as if the protection of the border was not at the same time a
protection of other States--perhaps, in certain contingencies, even of New
York. But mark the sequel. They went to camp the same day of their
arrival, with liberal supplies of everything. The border was known to be
imperiled a second time, and a large portion of our citizens were armed
and marched out with these regiments. During the night our scouts brought
information to camp that the rebels were moving from the Potomac this way.
And now a scene of confusion ensued which beggars description. In the
greatest conceivable consternation, these "defenders" made for
Chambersburg in "double-quick," and took seats in the cars, "homeward
bound." Two interesting little circumstances, in connection with this
_allegro_ movement, must be added, of which hundreds of our citizens were
eye-witnesses. The first is, that these "defenders," in their hasty
retreat, did not forget to provide for themselves as _safe_ a retreat as
possible. To this end they ordered our citizen soldiers to keep in the
rear--in military phrase, "to cover their retreat" until the militia-men
had reached the cars in safety! The other little circumstance is, that in
their hasty retreat, they left the whole of their camp equipage behind. At
daylight the following morning you might have seen a score of wagons from
the town returning with loads of tents, boxes, trunks, packages, and all
sorts of military fixtures, and conveying them to the cars, in which they
were sent as far as Shippensburg, by military orders. As the militia
thought proper to hasten on farther to the north instead of protecting
their own property, the wary rebels took unmolested possession of the
whole of it on the same day!

I think you will agree with me in the remark that these men had not much
capital to boast of in the way of bravery, although Pennsylvanians should
not perhaps complain, when these "defenders" did no worse for _us_ than
they did for _themselves_, namely, beat a hasty retreat, and leave all
their valuables to the enemy, even before they had a sight of him.

I would not have troubled you with this unpleasant chapter, if it were not
necessary, in order to understand the animus of the splenetic course of
the papers referred to. These editors, under the pretext of "defending the
citizens of New York," have most unaccountably, unjustly, and without the
shadow of provocation, except it be the desolation and ruin of hundreds of
homes and hearths, assailed and sneered at a deeply afflicted community,
which has poured out of its former means to the soldiers of our armies at
home and abroad without stint and with cheerful alacrity, and by night
and by day watched and ministered at the sick and dying beds of our
soldiers without distinction of nation or State.

Yours, &c.



You are aware that the late incursion of the enemy was not the first visit
we had from our Southern "friends." In the fall of 1862 we had Stuart's
cavalry raid, and in 1863 the invasion by Lee's army. Since the first of
July of the present year, up to the time of McCausland's advent, the
entire community, especially the farmers, were kept in constant
uneasiness. Twice before had they been robbed of horses, wagons, and
grain. The wheat harvest had just commenced, and now the enemy was again
on the border. During the first three weeks of July, the farmers felt it
necessary to remove their most valuable personal property. Merchants
packed up and sent away, at least a portion of their goods, eastward. But
in each case the rebels did _not_ come, and some degree of apathy in the
community was the result. But this did not last long. On the morning of
July 29th, unmistakable evidence of the crossing of squads of rebel
cavalry over the Potomac, reached us. The citizens of Chambersburg, with
very few exceptions, remained. Indeed, early in the evening we were
assured that a considerable force of our troops were on their way from
Harrisburg, which, however, like many previous assurances, telegrams, and
rumors, was not realized. Our scouts soon reported the near approach of
the rebels, and by three o'clock on the morning of Saturday, the 30th, the
citizens who had gone out with their arms and a section of the battery,
having satisfied themselves of the overpowering strength of the enemy,
fell back to town. Three shells were now thrown over the town by the
rebels from the hills beyond, and as these did not elicit any reply, eight
hundred and thirty-one of their number came to town, their skirmishers
simultaneously investing every street and alley, gradually moving forward,
and then halting until the signal or forward command was again given. We
were once more in subjection to rebel rule. The centre of the town was
filled with them. They called together several of the citizens who were on
the street, requesting them to collect some of the prominent inhabitants,
with a view to entering into negotiations. To this end the Court-House
bell was rung. The summons to the citizens was very partially obeyed. It
was felt that nothing could be done by negotiation, and that they must
submit to pillage--the most they anticipated. The few who did come
together were approached by Captain Fitzhugh, one of McCausland's staff,
who produced and read a written order, signed by General Jubal Early,
directing the command to proceed to Chambersburg, demand a tribute of
$100,000 in gold, or $500,000 in Northern currency, and, on the failure to
secure this sum, to proceed to burn the town, in retaliation for the
burning of six or eight houses specified as having been burned in certain
counties in Virginia by General Hunter. The citizens stated that it was
utterly impossible to pay the sum named either in gold or currency, and
that the demand could not be made in good faith. They further remonstrated
against the monstrosity of burning a whole town of six thousand
inhabitants, in retaliation for the six or eight houses named. So utterly
incredulous were they as to the threat being actually carried out, that
they expressed their incredulity without reserve. Captain Fitzhugh replied
with a clinching oath, that these orders would be carried out very
quickly. He immediately issued his orders to his men, a barrel of kerosene
and matches were secured, and in less than twenty minutes the town was
fired in a dozen places, and they continued the incendiary work for about
one hour. I may here say, that most of the store-goods had been removed,
and a few prominent citizens had left, but that no families, women, or
children had departed. The burning was executed in a most ruthless and
unrelenting manner.[5]

"A squad of men would approach a house, break open the door, and kindle a
fire, with no other notice to the inmates, except to get out of it as soon
as they could. In many cases, five, ten, fifteen minutes were asked to
secure some clothing, which _were refused_. Many families escaped with
only the clothing they had on, and such as they could gather up in their
haste. In many cases they were _not allowed to take these_, but were
threatened with instant death if they did not cast them away and flee.
Sick and aged people had to be carried to the fields. The corpse of at
least one person who had recently died, was hastily interred in the
garden, and children, separated from their parents, ran wildly screaming
through the streets. Those whose stupor or eagerness to save something,
detained them, emerged with difficulty from the streets filled with the
sheeted flames of their burning homes. I should say here, that no
provocation had been given; not a shot was fired on them in entering the
town, and not until the full crisis was reached, did desperation, in a few
instances, lead to desperate acts.

"As to the result, I may say that the entire heart or body of the town is
burned. Not a house or building of any kind is left on a space of about an
average of two squares of streets, extending each way from the centre,
with some four or five exceptions, where the buildings were isolated. Only
the outskirts are left. The Court-house, Bank, Town Hall, German Reformed
Printing Establishment, every store and hotel in the town, and every mill
and factory in the space indicated, and two churches, were burnt. Between
three and four hundred dwellings were burned, leaving at least twenty-five
hundred persons without a home or a hearth. In value, three-fourths of the
town was destroyed. The scene of desolation must be seen to be
appreciated. Crumbling walls, stacks of chimneys, and smoking embers, are
all that remain of once elegant and happy homes.

"As to the scene itself, it beggars description. My own residence being in
the outskirts, and feeling it the call of duty to be with my family, I
could only look on from without. The day was sultry and calm, not a breath
stirring, and each column of smoke rose black, straight, and single; first
one, and then another, and another, and another, until the columns blended
and commingled; and then one vast and lurid column of smoke and flame
rose perpendicularly to the sky, and spread out into a vast crown, like a
cloud of sackcloth hanging over the doomed city; whilst the roar and the
surging, the crackling and crash of falling timbers and walls, broke upon
the still air with a fearful dissonance, and the screams and sounds of
agony of burning animals, hogs, and cows, and horses, made the welkin
horrid with sounds of woe. It was a scene to be witnessed and heard once
in a lifetime."

To you and other friends, more or less familiar with Chambersburg, it will
be interesting to specify a little more particularly the localities which
have been laid waste. Beginning on East Market street, the one leading
from Gettysburg to Pittsburg, directly through the centre of the town from
east to west, the burning commenced simultaneously with the Court-house
and Mansion-house (Printing Establishment of the German Reformed Church).
Facing the west from the Franklin railroad, the first building to the
right is the residence of the Misses Denny, in a somewhat isolated
position. This stands in its freshness and beauty, solitary and alone.
Passing down two squares to the centre of the town, not one building and
only two or three stables or barns remain on either side of this street of
private residences, my own with all of my library and manuscripts, among
the number. Passing further on westward for more than three squares in
length, to the top of "New England Hill," five or six more or less
isolated houses remain. The large Franklin Hotel, the Arcade Buildings,
John B. Cook's houses and tannery, Riley's Hotel, the late Matthew
Gillan's large dwelling, J. M. Wolfkill's store and dwelling, G. W.
Brewer's and Mrs. Joseph Chambers's beautiful residences, are among the
many valuable properties on this street, in ruins.

Then from North Main street (the street from Carlisle to Greencastle),
beginning with Mr. Benjamin Chambers's new residence, at the Falling
Spring, and Mr. W. G. Reed's, on the corner, and from here on every house
on both sides up the square, on to the centre, across it to Queen street,
and up to Washington street, with the exception of Rev. Dr. Fisher's, Mr.
Reineman's, Lehner's, and Feltman's dwellings, every house, shop, stable,
&c., is gone. This street, as you know, contained more than three-fourths
of all our stores, ware-rooms, and shops of business. Then comes Queen
street, at the intersection of Second street, beginning at Brandt's (now
Brown's) hotel, which was only partially destroyed, sweeping every
building (except Mrs. Brandt's dwelling), on both sides down to the creek,
over two squares, including Dr. Culbertson's, N. Snider's, Barnard
Wolff's, Mr. Wallace's, and other valuable dwellings and stores. Between
eleven and twelve squares of the best part of the town are, therefore, in
ruins, among them houses of many, inhabitants, whom you knew in former
years as among your dearest friends, and in comfortable or affluent
circumstances, many of them now reduced to penury and want.

After I had written the preceding pages, I found a minute and well-written
statement of the subject now in hand in the "Franklin Repository," of this
place, of August 24. I take pleasure in giving the following extracts from
the same, instead of my own, as the matter was evidently prepared with
judgment and care, under the supervision of its editor, Colonel McClure.
He says:

"It seems inexplicable to persons and journals at a distance that General
Couch, a Major-General commanding a department, with his border repeatedly
invaded, should have no troops. The natural inclination is to blame the
commander, for it is reasonable to suppose that he would endeavor to have
an adequate command, and also that ample authority would be given him to
have sufficient force. Just where the blame belongs, we do not choose now
to discuss; but we do know that it was no fault of General Couch that he
was unable to defend Chambersburg. He organized a Provost Guard regiment,
some twelve hundred strong, expressly for duty in his department; the men
were enlisted under a positive assurance, based on the order authorizing
the organization, that they were to be kept on duty in the department.
They were ordered to General Grant after the battles of the Wilderness. He
organized six regiments of one hundred days' men before the advent of
McCausland, and they were ordered to Washington as soon as they were ready
to move. We are assured that Governor Curtin, fully two weeks before the
burning of Chambersburg, formally pledged the State to make provision for
arming, organizing, and paying the entire militia force of the border for
home defence, if the General Government would simply give the uniforms;
and we believe that General Couch pressed it upon the Washington
authorities to uniform the entire force of the southern counties, assuring
them that the people were willing to defend themselves if encouraged by
granting them uniforms, so as to save them from inhuman butchery, but it
was denied. We do not speak advisedly as to General Couch's correspondence
with the Washington authorities; we give no statements at his instance, or
based upon information received from him or his officers; but we do write
whereof we know, when we say that every effort was made to carry these
measures into effect, and that they were not sanctioned at Washington.
While we do not assume to fix the responsibility of this terrible
disaster, we do mean that it shall not fall upon a commander who was shorn
of his strength and left helpless with his people.

The Rebels Enter Chambersburg

"The rebels having been interrupted in their entrance into the town until
daylight, they employed their time in planting two batteries in commanding
positions, and getting up their whole column, fully three thousand strong.
About 4 o'clock on Saturday morning they opened with their batteries and
fired some half a dozen shots into the town, but they did no damage.
Immediately thereafter their skirmishers entered by almost every street
and alley running out west and southwest; and finding their way clear,
their cavalry, to the number of eight hundred and thirty-one, came in
under the immediate command of General McCausland. General Bradley Johnson
was with him, and also the notorious Major Harry Gilmore.

Plundering Promptly Commenced.

"While McCausland and Gilmore were reconnoitring around to get a deal with
the citizens for tribute, his soldiers exhibited the proficiency of their
training by immediate and almost indiscriminate robbery. Hats, caps,
boots, watches, silverware, and everything of value, were appropriated
from individuals on the streets without ceremony; and when a man was met
whose appearance indicated a plethoric purse, a pistol would be presented
to his head with the order to "deliver," with a dexterity that would have
done credit to the freebooting accomplishments of an Italian brigand.

Tribute Demanded.

"General McCausland rode up to a number of citizens and gave notice that
unless five hundred thousand dollars in greenbacks, or one hundred
thousand dollars in gold were paid in half an hour, the town would be
burned; but no one responded to his call. He was promptly answered that
Chambersburg could not and would not pay any ransom. He had the Court
House bell rung to convene the citizens, hoping to frighten them into the
payment of a large sum of money, but no one attended. Infuriated at the
determination of our people, Major Gilmore rode up to a group of citizens,
consisting of Thomas B. Kennedy, William McLellan, J. McDowell Sharpe, Dr.
J. C. Richards, William H. McDowell, W. S. Everett, Edward G. Etter, and
M. A. Foltz, and ordered them under arrest. He said that they would be
held for the payment of the money, and if not paid he would take them to
Richmond as hostages, and also burn every house in town. While he was
endeavoring to force them into an effort to raise him money, his men
commenced the work of firing, and they were discharged when it was found
that intimidation would effect nothing.

Burning of Chambersburg.

"The main part of the town was enveloped in flames in ten minutes. No time
was given to remove women or children, the sick, or even the dead. No
notice of the kind was communicated to any one; but the work of
destruction was at once commenced. They divided into squads and fired
every other house, and often every house, if there was any prospect of
plunder. They would beat in the door with iron bars or heavy plank, smash
up furniture with an axe, throw fluid or oil upon it, and ply the match.
They almost invariably entered every room of each house, rifled the
drawers of every bureau, appropriated money, jewelry, watches and any
other valuables, and often would present pistols to the heads of inmates,
men and women, and demand money or their lives. In nearly half the
instances they demanded owners to ransom their property, and in a few
cases it was done and the property burned. Although we have heard of a
number of persons, mostly widows, who paid them sums from twenty-five to
two hundred dollars, we know of but few cases where the property was saved
thereby. Few houses escaped rifling--nearly all were plundered of
everything that could be carried away. In most cases houses were entered
in the rudest manner, and no time whatever was allowed for the families to
escape, much less to save anything. Many families had the utmost
difficulty to get themselves and children out in time, and not one-half
had so much as a change of clothing with them. They would rush from story
to story to rob, and always fire the building at once in order to keep the
family from detecting their robberies. Feeble and helpless women and
children were treated like brutes--told insolently to get out or burn; and
even the sick were not spared. Several invalids had to be carried out as
the red flames licked their couches. Thus the work of desolation continued
for two hours; more than half of the town on fire at once, and the wild
glare of the flames, the shrieks of women and children, and often louder
than all, the terrible blasphemy of the rebels, conspired to present such
a scene of horror as has never been witnessed by the present generation.
No one was spared save by accident. The widow and the fatherless cried and
plead in vain that they would be homeless and helpless. A rude oath would
close all hope of mercy, and they would fly to save their lives. The old
and infirm who tottered before them were thrust aside, and the torch
applied in their presence to hasten their departure. In a few hours, the
major portion of Chambersburg, its chief wealth and business, its capital
and elegance, were devoured by a barbarous foe; three millions of property
sacrificed; three thousand human beings homeless and many penniless; and
all without so much as a pretence that the citizens of the doomed town, or
any of them, had violated any accepted rule of civilized warfare. Such is
the deliberate, voluntary record made by General Early, a corps commander
in the insurgent army.

Incidents of the Burning.

We find it impossible to make room for all the many touching incidents
which occurred in the burning of the town. The house of Mr. James Watson,
an old and feeble man of over eighty, was entered, and because his wife
earnestly remonstrated against the burning, they fired the room, hurled
her into it and locked the door on the outside. Her daughters rescued her
by bursting in the door before her clothing took fire. Mr. Jacob Wolfkill,
a very old citizen, and prostrated by sickness so that he was utterly
unable to be out of bed, plead in vain to be spared a horrible death in
the flames of his own house; but they fired the building. Through the
superhuman efforts of some friends he was carried away safely. Mrs.
Lindsay, a very feeble lady of nearly eighty, fainted when they fired her
house, and was left to be devoured in the flames: but fortunately a
relative reached the house in time, and lifting her in a buggy, pulled her
away while the flames were kissing each other over their heads on the
street. Mrs. Kuss, wife of the jeweller on Main Street, lay dead; and
although they were shown the dead body, they plied the torch and burned
the house. Mrs. J. K. Shryock had Mrs. Kuss's sick babe in her arms, and
plead for the sake of the dead mother and sick child to spare that house,
but it was unavailing. The body of Mrs. Kuss was hurriedly buried in the
garden, and the work of destruction went on. When the flames drove Mrs.
Shryock away with the child, she went to one of the men and presenting the
babe, said, "_Is this revenge sweet?_" A tender chord was touched, and
without speaking he burst into tears. He afterwards followed Mrs. Shryock,
and asked whether he could do anything for her; but it was too late. The
houses of Messrs. McLellan, Sharpe and Nixon, being located east of the
Franklin Railroad, and out of the business part of the town, were not
reached until the rest of the town was in flames, and the roads were
streaming with homeless women and children. Mr. McLellan's residence was
the first one entered, and he was notified that the house must be burned.
Mrs. McLellan immediately stepped to the door, and laying one hand on the
rebel officer, and pointing with the other to the frantic fugitive women
and children passing by, said to him: "_Sir, is not your vengeance
glutted? We have a home and can get another; but can you spare no homes
for those poor, helpless people and their children? When you and I and all
of us shall meet before the Great Judge, can you justify this act?_" He
made no reply, but ordered his command away, and that part of the town
was saved. Mr. Holmes Crawford, an aged and most worthy citizen, was taken
into an alley while his house was burning, and his pockets rifled. He was
thus detained until it was impossible for him to get out by the street,
and he had to take his feeble wife and sit in the rear of his lot until
the buildings around him were burnt down. Father McCullom, Catholic priest
of this place, was robbed of his watch. Colonel Stumbaugh was arrested
near his home early in the morning, and, with a pistol presented to his
head, ordered to procure some whiskey. He refused, for the very good
reason that he had none and could get none. He was released, but
afterwards re-arrested by another squad, the officer naming him, and was
insulted in every possible way. He informed the officer that he had been
in the service, and that if General Battles was present, they would not
dare to insult him. When asked why, he answered, "I captured him at
Shiloh, and treated him like a soldier." A rebel Major present, who had
been under Battles, upon inquiry, was satisfied that Colonel Stumbaugh's
statement was correct, ordered his prompt release, and withdrew the entire
rebel force from that part of Second Street, and no buildings were burned.
Mr. John Treher, of Loudon, was robbed by the rebels of $200 in gold and
silver, and $100 in currency. Mr. D. R. Knight, an artist, started out to
the residence of Mr. McClure when he saw Norland on fire, and on his way
he was robbed of all his money by a squad of rebels. He reached the house
in time to aid in getting the women away. Rebel officers had begged of
him, before he started, to get the women out of town as fast as possible,
as many rebel soldiers were intoxicated and they feared the worst

Colonel McClure's beautiful residence, one mile from the centre of the
town, was evidently marked out for destruction, for no other house between
it and the burnt portion of the town was fired. The Colonel was known as a
prominent man in National and State affairs, and, after the raid of
General Jenkins and the succeeding invasion by General Lee's army, he had
spoken of Jenkins and his men in no complimentary terms in the paper of
which Colonel McClure is chief editor. And although no house in the
community was more coveted by rebel officers to be quartered in than his,
and for the reason, doubtless, that every comfort and luxury could be had
in it, and although Mrs. McClure had, with her well known generosity and
kindness of heart, ministered to the necessities and comforts of the sick
and wounded insurgents, which were left during General Lee's invasion, for
which she has since received the most touching acknowledgments from some
of them--yet, his property was doomed, irrevocably doomed to be burnt.
Captain Smith, son of Governor Smith of Virginia, with a squad of men,
passing by all the intervening houses, entered the devoted mansion with
the information to Mrs. McClure, then and for some time before an invalid,
that the house must be burned by way of retaliation. Ten minutes were
given her in which to leave the house, and in less than ten minutes the
flames were doing their work of destruction, and Mrs. McClure and the
other members of the family at home, started on foot, in the heat of one
of the hottest days I have ever known, in order to escape the vengeance of
the chivalry. Whilst the flames were progressing in the house as well as
the large and well-filled barn, the Captain helped himself to Mrs.
McClure's gold watch, silver pitcher and other valuables. The gold watch
and other articles were easily concealed, but the silver pitcher was
rather unwieldy, and could not be secreted from profane eyes as he rode
back through town from the scene of his triumph. He resolved, therefore,
to give a public display of his generosity. He stopped at the house of the
Rev. James Kennedy, and handed the pitcher to his wife, with the request,
"Please deliver this to Mrs. Colonel McClure, with the compliments of
Captain Smith."

Humane Rebel Officers.

Fiendish and relentless as were McCausland and most of his command, there
were notable exceptions, who bravely maintained the humanities of war in
the midst of the infuriated freebooters who were plying the torch and
securing plunder. Surgeon Abraham Budd was conversing with several
citizens when the demand for tribute was made, and he assured all present
that the rebel commander would not burn Chambersburg. In the midst of his
assurances, the flames burst forth almost simultaneously in every part of
the town. When he saw the fire break out, he wept like a child, and
publicly denounced the atrocities of his commander. He took no part in it
whatever, save to aid some unfortunate ones in escaping from the flames.
Captain Baxter, formerly of Baltimore, peremptorily refused to participate
in the burning, but aided many people to get some clothing and other
articles out of the houses. He asked a citizen, as a special favor, to
write to his friends in Baltimore and acquit him of the hellish work.
Surgeon Richardson, another Baltimorean, gave his horse to a lady to get
some articles out of the burning town, and publicly deplored the sad work
of McCausland. When asked who his commanding officer was, he answered,
"Madam, I am ashamed to say that General McCausland is my commander!"
Captain Watts manfully saved all of Second street south of Queen, and with
his command aided to arrest the flames. He said that he would lose his
commission rather than burn out defenceless people; and other officers and
a number of privates displayed every possible evidence of their humanity.
After the rebels had left, the following note was received by Rev. S. J.
Niccolls, Presbyterian pastor, written on an envelope with a pencil:


     Please write my father and give him my love. Tell him, too, as Mrs.
     Shoemaker will tell you, that I was most strenuously opposed to the
     burning of the town.

     B. B. BLAIR,
     Chaplain, and son of Thomas P. Blair, Shippensburg, Pa.

That there was a most formidable opposition to burning the town in
McCausland's command was manifested in various ways. In the morning before
daylight, when McCausland was at Greenawalt's, on the turnpike west of
Chambersburg, a most boisterous council was held there, at which there
were earnest protests made to McCausland against burning anything but
public property. McCausland was greatly incensed at some of his officers,
and threatened them with most summary vengeance if they refused to obey
orders.[6] Many, however, did openly disobey, and went even so far as to
give the utmost publicity to their disobedience.

The Order to Burn Chambersburg.

Captain Fitzhugh exhibited to J. W. Douglas, Esq., an attorney of this
place, a written order, with the name of Jubal A. Early to it, directing
that Chambersburg should be burned, in retaliation for the burning of six
houses in Virginia by Hunter. The burning of Chambersburg was therefore by
an order from one of the corps commanders of General Lee's army, instead
of the work of a guerrilla chief, thus placing the responsibility squarely
upon the shoulders of General Lee. We have in support of this the
statement of Rev. Mr. Edwards, Episcopal clergyman of Hagerstown, who was
taken as a hostage after Chambersburg had been destroyed. He was brought
to General Early's headquarters at Williamsport, and there paroled to
effect his exchange. General Early there informed him that he had directed
Chambersburg to be burned, in retaliation for the destruction of property
in Virginia by Grant, Meade, and Hunter, and that the account was now


Several of the thieves who participated in burning Chambersburg were sent
suddenly to their last account. An officer, whose papers identify him as
Major Bowen, 8th Virginia cavalry, was conspicuous for his brutality and
robberies. He got too far south of the firing parties to be covered by
them, and in his desire to glut his thievish propensities, he was
isolated. He was captured by several citizens, in the midst of his brutal
work, and was dispatched promptly. When he was fired at and slightly
wounded, he took refuge in the burning cellar of one of the houses, and
there, with the intense heat blistering him, he begged them to spare his
life; but it was in vain. Half the town was still burning, and it was
taxing humanity rather too much to save a man who had added the boldest
robbery to atrocious arson. He was shot dead, and now sleeps near the
Falling Spring, nearly opposite the depot.

Mr. Thomas H. Doyle, of Loudon, who had served in Easton's battery,
followed the retreating rebels towards Loudon, to capture stragglers. When
beyond St. Thomas he caught Captain Cochran, quartermaster of 11th
Virginia cavalry, and as he recognized him as one who had participated in
the destruction of Chambersburg, he gave him just fifteen minutes to live.
Cochran was armed with sword and pistols, but he was taken so suddenly by
Mr. Doyle that he had no chance to use them. He begged piteously for his
life, but Mr. Doyle was inexorable; the foe who burns and robs must die,
and he so informed him peremptorily. At the very second he shot the thief
dead, and found on his person $815 of greenbacks, all stolen from our
citizens, and $1750 of rebel currency. His sword, belt, and pistols were
brought to this place by Mr. Doyle.



Allow me in this letter to send you part of an article which appeared in
the German Reformed Messenger of September 7, in vindication of the
border. It is from the pen of the Rev. T. G. Apple, of Greencastle, in
this county. Mr. Apple is a corresponding editor of that paper, and one of
the most cool, honest, and sagacious writers within the range of my
acquaintance. The article referred to is as follows:

A Vindication of the Border.

"We have lived in the most exposed portion of the Pennsylvania border ever
since the commencement of the war, and therefore feel that we have some
right to speak in its vindication. It is very easy and somewhat natural
for persons living away from the scene of danger to say what they would do
under certain circumstances, if their homes were invaded. But for those
who are willing to give the subject a little calm thought, the following
considerations ought to be sufficient to show the error into which many
seem to have fallen:

"1. The border counties are required, whenever a call is made, to make up
their quotas for the national army. Their men are sent away to fight for
the maintenance of the Government. Can it be expected, then, that these
counties, after filling their quotas and paying their taxes, will be able
still to turn out and maintain in the field an additional force,
sufficient to protect them from invasion? Is not the Government pledged,
after it has taken their men and their money, to afford them protection,
so far as it has ability? And have not these border counties a right to
expect such protection? Is not the State under obligation to use all its
power to afford protection to the remotest portion of its territory, so
long as it demands the support of all its citizens?

"2. It has generally been conceded in the North, during this war, that
what is called _bushwhacking_ is contrary to the rules of war. A private
citizen has no right to enjoy that protection and immunity which is
accorded him by the armies, and then take his gun and shoot down a
soldier. This, we think, is conceded, and it has been urged all along that
private citizens who do so deserve summary execution. Suppose now that
private citizens should employ violence against rebel soldiers, is it not
plain that they would expose themselves to the vengeance of the rebel
army, and that the end of it would be a war of savage butchery on both
sides, a war of destruction and desolation? Would it not invite to pillage
and arson and murder?

"3. But even if this had been attempted in the cases of invasion that have
occurred, it would have been of no avail. Take the recent case of the
capture and burning of Chambersburg. General Averill was not far from the
place, with twenty-five hundred cavalry, when a detachment of Early's
corps, under McCausland, entered and burned it. If, then, General Averill
felt himself too weak to interfere to prevent the rebels from entering the
town, what could the unarmed citizens of such a place, without any one to
lead them, have been able to do? It has been said by papers that ought to
know better, that two or three hundred rebels captured and burned the
town. Is it not to be supposed that General Couch would know what could be
done, and when he despaired of being able to hold the town and left it,
would it not have been sheer madness for the citizens to have provoked the
rebel soldiery to shoot them down in the streets, without being able to
effect anything?

"Besides it must be remembered that the citizens of Chambersburg did not
know, and had no right to expect, that the rebel force intended burning
their town before they entered it. As unarmed private citizens they
submitted to what could not be averted, and expected to be treated
according to the rules of war, under which private citizens are protected
from personal injury by soldiers.

"That farmers should send away their horses, and merchants their goods, at
the approach of the enemy, is not only natural, but eminently wise and
proper. Allowing them to remain at home, without the ability to defend
them from capture, would be giving aid and comfort to the enemy.

"As against New York, the city whose leading papers have been vilely
slandering the border counties of Pennsylvania, the case would seem to
need no explanation or vindication. It is still remembered how that city
found it necessary to have regiments from our armies to come to their
rescue in putting down a riot caused by opposition to the draft. It is
known, too, how anxiously they clamor for the Government to provide ample
defences for their harbor against some rebel iron-clad that might slip in
unawares and destroy their city. If New York needs monster guns to protect
it from the enemy, is it wrong for Pennsylvania to expect arms and men to
be furnished by the Government, to protect her borders from invasion?

"As to the kind of philanthropy that would thus vilify and slander a town
lying in ashes, and its inhabitants houseless and homeless, what terms can
characterize it? It is not only unchristian but inhuman. These things are
past, but they are not forgotten.

"Chambersburg had a right to claim help in its calamity, not as a charity,
but as a right. But in these times rights are not always accorded. Some
sections have to suffer more than others, who do fully as much in men and
money to support the government. This is to be expected. Let us try at
least to be just in our judgment."

The following is from the graphic pen of the Rev. B. Bausman, late pastor
of the German Reformed congregation here, now of the city of Reading,
likewise a corresponding editor of the paper referred to, and author of
"Sinai and Zion," an interesting volume of Travels in the Holy Land. Mr.
B. hastened to the scene of ruin as soon as the telegraph informed him of
the fearful calamity. After a suitable introduction, he furnishes the
following incidents and reflections:

"Persons were fired upon, who attempted to extinguish the flames. A rebel
soldier threatened a young man to 'blow his brains out' if he would not
let the fire burn. With a revolver in hand, his sister rushed out of an
adjoining room, her eyes flashing with a more terrible fire than that of
rebel kindling: 'Begone, thou brutal wretch!' said the heroine, as she
aimed with precision at the rebel's head, who scampered away in a terrible

"Three sides around a lady's home (Mrs. Denig's) are on fire. The fourth
is enclosed with an iron fence. An attempt to cross the fence burns her
palm into crisp. She sits down in the middle of her narrow lot. Around her
she folds a few rugs, dipped in water, to shelter her person against the
heat. An old negro crouches down by her side, and helps to moisten the
rugs. Her face, though covered, is blistered by the intense heat. Now and
then God sends a breath of wind to waft the hot air away, and allows her
to take breath. Virtually, it was a martyrdom at the stake, those two
hours amid the flames. Only after she was rescued did the sight of her
ruined home open the fountain of tears. 'Don't cry, missus,' said Peter,
the old negro; 'de Lord saved our lives from de fire.' In a few hours two
thousand people are scattered through the suburbs of the town, in the
fields, on the cemetery, amid the abode of the dead. A squad of rebels
seized a flag, which a lady happened to have in her house. With some
difficulty, she wrested it from their grasp, folded it around her person,
and walked away from her burning house, past the furious soldiery,
determined that the flag should become her shroud ere it should fall into
the hands of the foe.

"Never was there so little saved at an extensive fire. Sixty-nine pianos
were consumed. The most sacred family relics, keepsakes and portraits of
deceased friends, old family Bibles, handed down from past generations,
and the many objects imparting a priceless value to a Christian home, and
which can never be replaced, were all destroyed.

"In the dim moonlight we meditated among the ruins. Chimney-stacks and
fragments of walls formed the dreary outline of ruined houses. Not a light
was left but the fitful glowing of embers, amid the rubbish that fills
the cellars. The silence of the grave reigns where oft we have heard the
voice of mirth and music, of prayer and praise. Now and then some one
treads heavily along in the middle of the street; for the pavements are
blocked up with fallen walls.

"Here we must pause a moment. More than fifty years ago, a happy young man
brought his bride into yonder house, now in ruins. One room sufficed, on
the second floor. A happier pair could not be found in the halls of
affluence. The first day they said: 'We will build an altar here.' Around
it they daily knelt. In 1812, the husband tore himself away from his
weeping bride, to drive the British foe from our soil. From that day to
this, his heart was aglow with the fire of Christian patriotism. Children
were born to them, and children's children. By industry, thrift and piety,
they acquired a competent fortune, meanwhile giving much to Christ and His
kingdom. Their children, too, they gave to Him. The first room continued a
sacred 'upper room.' There were portraits, books and family keepsakes of
fifty years' gathering. Mementos of sorrow and joy were treasured up
therein. Some years ago, the once happy bride, then an aged matron, died.
Her death was like the falling of a great shadow on a sun-lit home. By
this time the silvery locks of age adorned the brow of the bridegroom.
Sorrow had made his home doubly sacred; trials riveted his heart to it.
Still he prayed and read his old family Bible in the room where first he
built the altar. With what a cheerful, buoyant spirit he bore the burdens
of age! Under this room was a store, with a considerable quantity of
powder. The fire is already hissing around the kegs. Still he lingers in
his dear chamber, as if preferring death there to safety elsewhere. The
violence of friendship forces him away just before the fatal explosion.
Every domestic memorial, which piety and affection have gathered for more
than half a century, are in the ashes. Two cases these, out of three
hundred. Thousands of domestic and social ties bind the members of
communities and of families together. To tear up and sunder all in a few
hours, and cut hundreds of hearts loose from the moorings of past
generations--who can fathom such a sorrow!

"The Rev. P. S. Davis, who lately entered upon the pastorate of the First
Reformed Church, sustained a serious loss. A great portion of the clothing
of his family and his manuscripts, the literary fruits of an earnest,
laborious ministry, were consumed. Dr. Schneck vainly contended with the
flames. His cozy, substantial house, with all that it contained--the
costly relics borne home from two European tours, his valuable library,
all his manuscripts, precious domestic keepsakes and furniture--all are a
heap of undistinguishable ruins. To begin the world anew at his time of
life, presents a cheerless prospect. Dr. Fisher's is one of the four
fortunate homes that were saved in the burned district."



In your last letter, you ask me what are the feelings of our people,
especially the immediate sufferers, under the severe stroke which has
befallen them; whether desponding or otherwise, and whether the spirit of
"retaliation for the bitterly severe losses and deprivations does not
largely manifest itself among them."

In regard to the first, I am enabled to say, that during the whole course
of my life, I have not witnessed such an absence of despondent feeling
under great trials and sudden reverses of earthly fortune, never such
buoyancy and vigor of soul, and even cheerfulness amid accumulated woes
and sorrows, as I have during these four weeks of our devastated town. And
I leave you to imagine the many cases of extreme revulsion from
independence and affluence to utter helplessness and want. The widow and
fatherless, the aged and infirm, suddenly bereft of their earthly all, in
very many instances, even of a change of clothing. Large and valuable
libraries and manuscripts, the accumulations of many years; statuary,
paintings, precious and never-to-be-replaced mementoes--more valuable than
gold and silver--gone forever. And yet amid all these losses and the
consequent self-denial and the necessity of adapting themselves to another
and almost entirely different state of things, to which the great majority
of the people were subjected, you seldom see a sad or sombre countenance
on the street or elsewhere. Exceptions there are doubtless, traceable in
part to feeble physical constitution, in part also to an inordinate love
of and dependence upon transitory objects. But in a general way the
sufferers by this wholesale devastation are among the most patient,
unmurmuring, cheerful, hopeful people I have ever known. God really seems
to have given special grace in a special time of need. When, on the
morning after the burning and pillage (God's sweet day of rest) I
attempted to preach to an humble flock of Germans, whom I serve once a
Sabbath, a godly woman belonging to the little congregation wept nearly
during the whole service. On the way to my lodging-place, I overtook her
and found her still in tears. Fearing I had been misinformed as to her
safety from the recent calamity, I asked for the cause of her grief. "I
weep for _others_, my dear pastor," she replied, "and not altogether and
entirely for others either, for I fear me that if _my_ little all had been
burnt before my eyes, I should not have had grace to bear up as you and
the rest are enabled to do." And then with an outburst of irrepressible
emotion, she added: "And you can yet exhort us to forgive these our
enemies, and not murmur and repine under all this, as not only you
yourself but others have said, we should do. It's _this_ that makes me

I freely confess that I have never experienced in my own case, nor in the
case of others, even under comparatively light and trifling losses and
deprivations, such resignation, such quiet, gentle submission, and such
calm endurance, amid the loss of all things, as in this instance. To such
an extent have been these manifestations, that persons from neighboring
towns, and strangers from a distance who in great numbers have visited the
place, almost universally remark upon it. A highly intelligent and pious
woman in a remote part of the county, a few days after the burning, called
at the house in which a number of the homeless ones were kindly cared for.
The large dining-table was surrounded by those who, a few days before,
were in possession of all the comforts and many of the luxuries of life.
Pleasant and cheerful conversation passed around the board. The visitor
alone seemed sad and out of tune. Tears stood in her eyes as she looked
around upon us. "I am amazed beyond measure at you all," she said. "I
expected to see nought but tears, hear only lamentations and sighs, and
here you are as I have seen and known you in your bright and happy days,
calm, serene, and even cheerful!" When one of our number replied, that no
tear over the losses sustained had yet been shed by herself, but many
tears at the numerous tokens of Christian sympathy and generous aid from
far and near to relieve the immediate necessities of the sufferers, she
added, "God be thanked for your words; they flow like precious ointment,
deep down into my heart. Oh, what a commentary on the promised grace of
God!" And we all felt, I am sure, that among the many gifts of our
heavenly Father, not the least was

           "A cheerful heart,
     That tastes those gifts with joy."

And in regard to the feeling of revenge, so natural to the human heart, I
have been gratifyingly disappointed. Among the heaviest sufferers, by far
the largest proportion have not only expressed themselves decidedly
opposed to the spirit of retaliation, but have used their best efforts to
dissuade our soldiers from carrying their threats into execution when an
opportunity should offer. They have gone farther, and have drawn up a
petition in which they earnestly implore the Government in Washington to
prevent to the utmost anything of the kind on the part of our army. They
believe it to be morally wrong, no matter what may be the provocation from
the other side, and have always condemned the destruction of private
property by our troops in the South, whenever isolated instances of the
kind were reported. They believe, moreover, with our wise and judicious
Governor, that retaliation "can do no good to our own people, but a great
deal of harm, because we have more towns, villages, flouring and other
mills to be destroyed in three counties than our enemies in the Southern
States have in fifteen or twenty counties."

Such a wholesale, premeditated, and cruel work of destruction as the
burning of Chambersburg, was never perpetrated by Union troops, and when
Richmond papers have said so, they have said what the facts in the case
did not warrant. It must be admitted, however, that in too many instances,
Union troops did destroy private property unnecessarily and wantonly. We
hope in God it will never be done again. We trust our commanding officers
in the army will not allow passion to set aside moral principle, military
rule, and military honor. Within sight of our charred and desolated homes,
we implore and beseech them not to bring reproach upon our Government,
trample upon all law and order, inaugurate cruel barbarity instead of
civilized warfare, and be guilty of such accumulated horrors as have been
enacted here. And yet all this, and much more, will follow with unerring
certainty, if the immoral, dishonorable, and unmilitary spirit of
retaliation is carried into effect. God in mercy forbid it!

In this connection, and for the purpose of showing that I am not alone in
the views expressed as regards the destruction of private property by
Union troops on the one hand, and the exaggerated or untrue statements of
the Southern press on the other, I will quote the following paragraphs
from the pen of Colonel McClure, in his paper already referred to. I
suppose his statements come as near the truth as can well be ascertained.
He says:

"Jacksonville (Florida) was fired at a single point when our troops were
retreating from it, because citizens fired on our men from the houses, and
unfortunately most of the town--composed of wooden structures--was
destroyed. The firing was in accordance with a well-recognized rule, that
civilians who shelter themselves in their houses to fire upon troops,
shall not only lose their property but suffer death. In Alexandria an
accidental fire, resulting from a party of intoxicated soldiers,
threatened the destruction of the entire town, owing to its inflammable
buildings and unfavorable winds; but it was arrested before one-third of
the village--the poorest portion of it--was burned. At the head of the
force detailed to put out the fire was Major-General Banks in person, and
by his orders and efforts the town was saved. Jackson (Mississippi) was
partially destroyed by our guns when it was defended by the rebels, but it
was not fired and burned by our troops after possession was gained.
Wrongs, even atrocities, may have been committed by individual soldiers or
isolated commands; but no such thing as deliberate and wanton burning and
robbing of houses was practised by the Union army. Colonel Montgomery
committed gross outrages on private citizens in two raids in South
Carolina, which we have never seen reason to justify; but he was deprived
of his command, or at least subordinated, and it may be dismissed, as he
should have been. Kilpatrick burned mills unwarrantably, as we have ever
believed, and other Union commanders may have done the same; but it was
some excuse that they were filled with rebel supplies. While McCausland
was on his way to Chambersburg to lay it waste, General Rousseau was
penetrating the richest part of Georgia, and not a single private house
or building of any kind was destroyed, nor were his soldiers permitted to
enter a residence on the route. When private property was near to
Government stores, which he had to fire, he detailed men to save all but
the buildings belonging to or used by the rebel government. General
Stoneman enforced the same rules rigidly in all his raids, and so did
Grierson. The Union troops have captured and occupied hundreds of rebel
towns since the war has commenced, and they have yet for the first time to
demand the freebooter's tribute, or destroy a town by order of a
commanding officer. Repeatedly have our troops been fired upon and
murdered by skulking rebels who protected themselves in their dwellings;
but in no case has a town been destroyed therefor."



After my last letter was beyond my control, I became acquainted with some
additional incidents which may interest you.

A lady, well known to me, the mother of a large family of children, was
ordered to leave the house in five minutes, as the house must be burned.
She collected them all around her to obey the cruel summons. Preparations
were at once made to fire the building in the rooms above and below, and
as the family group walked out of the large and beautiful mansion, the
children burst into loud weeping. "I am ashamed of you," said the
tenderly loving, yet heroic woman, "to let these men see you cry," and
every child straightened up, brushed away the falling tears, and bravely
marched out of the doomed home.

An elderly woman, of true Spartan grit, gave one of the house-burners such
a sound drubbing with a heavy broom, that the invader retreated, to leave
the work of destruction to be performed by another party, after the woman
had left to escape the approaching flames of the adjoining buildings.

The wife of a clergyman succeeded in preventing one of the enemy from
firing her house, by reminding him that she had fed him during Stuart's
raid in 1862, and that she also ministered to him when he was in the
hospital in this place in the summer of 1863. The man recognized her, and
frankly declared that he could not be so base as to destroy her house, now
that he remembered her kind offices. He had been wounded and made a
prisoner at the battle of Gettysburg, was brought to the hospital here,
and afterwards exchanged.

Mr. Jacob Hoke, one of our most worthy and enterprising merchants, has
furnished the following statement of facts and incidents for publication
in the Religious Telescope, of Dayton, Ohio. As his residence and store
were located in the centre of the town, he had an opportunity of
witnessing the scenes of the day to greater advantage than most others. I
may as well inclose the principal part of his article, as it explains more
fully several general statements before given, whilst, at the same time,
it brings out some points not alluded to before:

MR. EDITOR: Not having seen in any published report, a satisfactory
account of the late rebel raid on Chambersburg, and being a resident here,
and an eye-witness, I will hastily sketch what came under my own
observation, and what I have from reliable persons. In Thursday's
Philadelphia Inquirer, the correspondent at Frederick stated "that our
troops were in such numbers, and so situated, that for the first time in
the history of the war, glorious news might be expected from the
Shenandoah Valley." Very high military authority, but a few days prior to
the raid, assured us "that every ford of the Potomac was strictly watched;
that it was impossible for the enemy to cross; that if they only would
cross it would be the best thing that could happen, as they could never
get back again." In this way our community was lulled into comparative
security, until on Friday noon, July 29th, it was announced that the
rebels had crossed in considerable force at Williamsport, and also at
Cherry Run. No one could depict the scene of excitement which then
occurred. Merchants and others commenced packing, shipping, and otherwise
disposing of their valuables.

At eight o'clock in the evening General Hunter's large wagon train
commenced passing through our town toward Harrisburg, and continued
passing during the greater part of the night. At least fifteen hundred
cavalry and two hundred infantry passed through with that train as guards
and as stragglers. That these men were not stopped here by General Couch,
who did not leave town until three o'clock in the morning, is explained by
the assertion that they were under orders from General Hunter to guard his
train. That train was entirely safe after it had passed through
Chambersburg, and that body of men, judiciously posted, could, with the
artillery in town, and the citizens, have held the enemy in check until
Averill could arrive, who was then ten miles distant, and threatened in
his front by a force of rebels who, it is now evident, were only making a
demonstration to hold him until the other and heavier column under
McCausland and Gilmore, could effect their object in Chambersburg.

I sat at my window on the corner of the Diamond and saw them enter.
Skirmishers, dismounted, led the advance, followed by cavalry. They came
in simultaneously in all the streets and alleys, and called to each other
as a signal, when they reached the centre of the Diamond. In five minutes
after, a force of about five hundred cavalry filed around the Public
Square, and immediately commenced the work of plunder. The first building
broken open was Mr. Paxton's shoe and hat store; then the liquor stores
adjoining my residence. I met them at my store door and unlocked it, when
about twenty entered and commenced a thorough search. Finding it empty,
they inquired where I had my goods, to which I replied, I had shipped them
to Philadelphia. Returning from the room, I locked the door, and sat down
by it, and entered into conversation with a gentlemanly-looking man, who
informed me he was the Chaplain to McCausland's command. He gave his name
as Johnson, born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and said he was a
Methodist preacher. During our conversation an officer dismounted at my
door, tied his horse, and listened to our conversation, where he remained
until the circumstance occurred to which I shall presently refer. The
Chaplain said to me, "Do you reside in this house?" I replied
affirmatively. He then said they were rolling several barrels of
combustible matter into the Court House, near my residence; that they were
going to burn it, and I had better try to save something from our house.
Leaving these two men at the door, I ran up stairs and carried a load of
precious articles from the parlor table, consisting of a valuable family
Bible, books, photograph album, &c., to a neighbor's house, where I
presumed they would be safe. They were all burned there, however. Next, I
carried some bed-clothing to a different part of the town, and they were
saved. Returning to the house, I encountered a rebel officer in one of the
rooms. Said he: "Do you belong to this house?" On my replying in the
affirmative, he said: "My friend, for God's sake, tell me what you value
most, and I will take it to a place of safety. They are going to burn
every house in the town." I told him if that was the case, it was no use
to remove anything, as they might as well burn here as elsewhere.

By this time my wife and two other occupants of the house came down stairs
each with a carpet-bag packed with clothing. The officer followed us to
the door and entreated one of the women to mount his horse and ride him
off, as he declared he did not want him any more in the rebel service.
Another man unbuckled his sword and put it in our house, in disgust at the
scene before him. It was afterwards found among the ruins. At the door I
found the officer previously referred to, weeping bitterly. The flames
were bursting from buildings all around us. "See," said he, "this is awful
work. O God! O, my God, has it come to this, that we have to be made a
band of thieves and robbers by a man like McCausland!" I have seen many
men weep, but never did I see a strong, robust man hide from his sight,
with his handkerchief, the appalling scene, and cry at the top of his
voice, "O God! O mighty God!--See, see!"

Imagine the feelings of my family, when an hour before this, without
intending to select any particular passage of God's Word, I read the 138th
Psalm, in which the following words occur: "Though I walk in the midst of
trouble, Thou wilt revive me: Thou shalt stretch forth Thy hand against
the wrath of mine enemies, and Thy right hand shall save me." We knelt in
prayer and surrounded the breakfast-table under the conviction that it was
for the last time in that dear home. Then came the hasty snatching of
precious relics of dear departed ones, passing hurriedly from room to
room, leaving clothing, beds, furniture, library, pictures--all to the
devouring flames. In our parlor hung the photographs of several of our
bishops, with many others. These were either carried away by the rebels or
burned. At the door we encountered the incident previously narrated.
Leaving the weeping officer, we pressed through flame and smoke, amidst
burning buildings, to the suburbs of the town, where we sat down and
watched four hundred buildings in flames, two hundred and seventy-four of
which were dwelling-houses, the affrighted occupants running wildly
through the streets, carrying clothing and other articles, while screams
of anguish from lost children in pursuit of parents, the feeble efforts of
the old and infirm to carry with them some endeared article from their
blazing homes, the roaring and crackling flames, falling walls and
blinding smoke, all united to form a picture of horror, which no pen could
describe, no painter portray. For three hours the fire raged. At about 11
o'clock, the rebels left town, as Averill's scouts captured five rebels
within one mile of the town. In three hours after their exit, Averill
filed through the streets.


In our flight through the streets, the rebel officer alluded to followed
us half a square, entreating one of the women to mount and ride off his
horse, declaring that he was done with the rebel service. No sooner did he
turn away, than another rode up and demanded our carpet-bags; we ran on,
and he turned back without them. Brother Winton, while fleeing with his
wife and little children, was stopped by a cavalryman and compelled to
deliver his shoes and hat. Hundreds of robberies occurred of hats, shoes,
watches, money, &c. An old and very estimable lady, who had not walked for
three years, was told to run, as her house was on fire. She replied that
she had not walked for three years. With horrid curses, the wretch poured
powder under her chair, declaring that he would teach her to walk; and
while in the act of applying fire to his train, some neighbors ran in and
carried her away.

The burning mass appeared to converge toward the Diamond, forming fearful
whirlwinds, which at times moved eastwardly along the line of Market
street. At one time an immense whirlwind passed over where a large lot of
bedding and wearing apparel had been collected. Large feather beds were
lifted from the ground. Shirts and lighter articles were conveyed with
fearful velocity high in the air, alighting at a great distance from where
they lay. It was grand and fearful, adding to the horror of the scene. In
many cases soldiers set fire to houses, and to the tears and entreaties of
women and children they said their "orders were to burn. We will fire;
you can do as you please after we go away." An officer rode up to our
parsonage, and thus addressed Mrs. Dickson: "Madam, save what you can; in
fifteen minutes we will return and fire your house." They did not return.
Our church and parsonage were saved. The printing establishment of the
German Reformed Church was completely destroyed, with all the valuable
presses, books, the bindery, &c. Dr. Fisher estimates the loss to the
Church at over forty thousand dollars. Those of our readers who know the
town will understand the extent of this destruction from the following:

Beginning at the Presbyterian lecture-room on the north, the fire swept
every building on the west side of Main street, except four, up to
Washington street, four squares; from King street on the north, every
building on the east side of Main street up to Washington, three squares;
from the Franklin Railroad to nearly the top of New England Hill, five
squares, on both sides of the street; also eight or ten dwellings over the
top of New England Hill; from the Market-house down Queen street, both
sides, to the edge-tool factory, and several buildings on the street
running parallel with the creek, up to Market street, with many buildings
on Second street from Market, up near the Methodist Church. The Methodist,
German Reformed, and Lutheran churches saved the parts of the town in
which they were situated from being involved in the general conflagration.
The Associate Reformed and Bethel churches, the latter belonging to "The
Church of God," were burned. The Associate Reformed was used as
headquarters for drafted men; hence its destruction. The "Bethel"--so
marked on a stone in the front--was supposed by the fiends to be a negro
church. In most cases fire was kindled in beds or bureaus by matches, and
in balls of cotton saturated in alcohol or kerosene.

I saw men and officers drinking liquor as it was carried from the hotels,
the doors of which they broke open. Many were drunk. Women were insulted;
cruel taunts and threats were repeatedly made.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have thus hastily sketched the foregoing _facts, for such they are_. The
reader will remember they are written by one who lost heavily by the fire;
is now surrounded by the extended ruins; is aware of the sufferings and
heart-breakings of over two thousand men, women, and children, many of
whom have been reduced from affluence to poverty, are now dependent for
the bread they eat, the clothes they wear, and the houses that shelter
them, upon others more favored.


CHAMBERSBURG, August 10, 1864.

I also append to the foregoing the following graphic letter in the
Pittsburgh Evening Chronicle, afterwards copied in the Chambersburg
Franklin Repository. It is from the pen of the Rev. S. J. Niccolls, the
esteemed pastor of the Presbyterian congregation in this place.

"So much misapprehension exists in many quarters concerning the facts
connected with the burning of Chambersburg, that it has become a matter of
justice to a wronged and suffering community to state them fully to the
public. Many things have been written concerning this calamity, true in
themselves, but disconnected from their attending circumstances, and so
the most injurious impressions have been made on the minds of those who
live remote from the border. A connected and truthful narrative of this
sad event, it is hoped, will correct these.

"The history of the past month commences with the advance of Early up the
Shenandoah, and the invasion of Maryland. The enemy, about fifteen hundred
strong, soon occupied Hagerstown, and it was believed that they intended a
raid on Chambersburg. At this time there were three hundred soldiers in
the place, under command of General Couch, the whole number available in
his department. The citizens rallied around these, and determined to
defend the town. Barricades were thrown across the streets, cannon
planted, houses occupied by sharpshooters, and every preparation made for
defence. Soon, however, the enemy fell back across the Potomac, and the
invasion was declared to be ended. The small body of troops under General
Couch were withdrawn to protect the national Capital, and we were left
defenceless. We were assured, however, that the fords of the Potomac were
well guarded, and a large army lay between us and the rebels. The very
papers in New York which now condemn us for our apathy were daily assuring
us that it was "all quiet on the Potomac," and that the enemy had fallen
back. We were soon startled from our dream of security by the announcement
that General Crooks had been defeated, and the rebels were again advancing
to invade Pennsylvania.

"We did not then take arms, because it was plain to every one that if the
forces of Crooks and Averill could not resist their advance, it would be
folly in a few citizens to attempt it. We had seen an invasion once
before, and knew what it meant. Anticipating a repetition of the scenes
of last year, the people of the county began to remove their stock and
valuables. In the midst of conflicting rumors nothing could be learned of
the movements of the enemy until Friday, July 29th. In the afternoon of
that day it was known that they had crossed the Potomac, and were
advancing rapidly on Chambersburg. We also learned from Mercersburg that
the invading force was three thousand strong, or as it afterwards
appeared, by actual count, thirty-one hundred, with six pieces of
artillery. To meet this force there were in the town one hundred soldiers,
with two pieces of artillery, and the citizens capable of bearing arms.
The number of the latter would not reach three hundred, a large portion of
the population being already in the army, and quite a number absent,
attending to the removal of their horses and valuables. The citizens who
remained were willing to defend the place, had it been deemed practicable
by General Couch; but with this small and inadequate force at his
disposal, it seemed like courting destruction for the town to attempt its
defence. A show of resistance, which none could hope would be successful,
would only give them a pretext for burning. No word could be obtained from
General Averill, who was then near Greencastle, though the most earnest
efforts were made by General Couch to obtain his assistance.

"At four o'clock A. M. on Saturday the military authorities left, and soon
after the combined forces of McCausland and Bradley Johnson were placed in
line of battle upon the range of hills commanding the town. The Eighth
Virginia regiment, numbering about five hundred men, was thrown forward
into the streets. These were detailed to burn the place....

"The scene that speedily followed is indescribable in its horrors. The
soldiers went from house to house, bursting open the doors with planks and
axes, and entering, split up the furniture to kindle the fire, or else
scattered combustible materials in the closets and along the stairways,
and then applied the torch. In a little over half an hour the whole town
was fired, so complete were their arrangements to accomplish their hellish
designs. No time was given the inhabitants to save anything. The first
warning of danger most of them had was the kindling of the fire in their
houses, and even the few articles that some caught up in their flight were
seized by the soldiers and flung back into the flames. Many such instances
have come to the writer's knowledge, that in their dark malignity almost
surpass belief. The aged, the sick, the dying, and the dead were carried
out from their burning homes; mothers with babes in their arms, and
surrounded by their frightened little ones, fled through the streets,
jeered and taunted by the brutal soldiery. Indeed their escape seemed
almost a miracle, as the streets were in a blaze from one end to the
other, and they were compelled to flee through a long road of fire. Had
not the day been perfectly calm, many must have perished in the flames.

"The conflagration in its height was a scene of surpassing grandeur and
terror. A tall black column of smoke rose up to the very skies; around it
were wrapped long streamers of flames, writhing and twisting themselves
into a thousand fantastic shapes, while through it, as though they were
prayers carried heavenward by the incense of some great altar sacrifice,
there went up on the smoky, flame-riven clouds the cries and shrieks of
the women and children. But the moment of greatest alarm was not reached
until some of the more humane of the rebel officers warned the women to
flee, if they wished to escape violence to their persons. We cannot, in
this letter, describe the scenes of the sad flight which followed.

"The ferocity of the rebel soldiers during this affair seems almost
incredible. With all their fierce passions unrestrained, they seemed to
revel in the work of destruction. An aged elder of the Presbyterian church
was taken from his house and robbed; the building was fired while his
wife, aged and infirm, was still in it. Upon his return, it was with the
utmost difficulty she was saved. Escape by the street was impossible, and
they were compelled to flee to a little garden in the rear of the house,
where they sat for hours, surrounded by fire. The rebel Gilmore forbade a
lady to remove her trunks from her house, and upon her telling him to his
face what she thought of his conduct, he drew his pistol and declared "he
would blow out her brains if she did not take that back." Many such
instances, and worse, might be recorded. There were, indeed, some among
them who acted humanely, refusing to do the work assigned them, but they
were exceptions.

"As soon as the town was thoroughly fired at all points, the rebels fell
back. On their way out they burned the residence of the County
Superintendent of Public Schools, because, as they told his family, 'he
had taught negroes.' Two hours after their departure, General Averill
entered the town, and we were once more inside the Union lines.

"Such is the story of the burning of Chambersburg. These outlines,
however, form a poor picture of the reality. The blackened ruins of this
once beautiful town must first be seen before the calamity can be
understood, and not then, for it is only by looking at it in detail, by
understanding the peculiar sadness there is in each separate loss, and
seeing the strange diversity of sorrow there is in this common woe, that
one can realize the full extent of the ruin. Eleven squares of blackened
ruins and over three millions of dollars in property consumed is the
outward estimate of the loss. But who can write the history of two
thousand people suddenly made homeless, dashed from affluence to poverty,
torn violently from the sacred associations of the past, and driven forth
houseless wanderers among strangers?

"The question is often asked, 'Who is responsible for this calamity?' Many
coldly and unhesitatingly lay it upon the citizens themselves; but surely
it is not necessary to argue that a few hundred citizens could not have
resisted successfully three thousand veteran soldiers with six pieces of
artillery. Many, too, have blamed General Couch, and false representations
have gone forth that the citizens were greatly incensed against him. The
writer of this letter has had peculiar opportunities of knowing the true
state of the case, and would ask attention to the following facts. When
General Couch took command of this department one year ago, he urged upon
the citizens the necessity of forming organizations for home defence. His
appeal was readily responded to, and all the citizens in the borough
capable of bearing arms enrolled themselves in some organization. General
Couch then made application to the War Department, asking that we might be
uniformed and enrolled in the general service, so that, if we were ever
overpowered, we would be treated as prisoners of war and not as
guerrillas. This request was denied. He then proceeded to organize a
cavalry force, from what was known as the 'six months' men,' for the
defence of the border. Many of our citizens enlisted in this force. It was
kept on the border until their term of service expired, when they
re-enlisted for three years. But their new organization was scarcely
completed, before they were taken from this department and sent to the
Army of the Potomac. General Couch then proceeded to organize the 'Provost
regiment, for special service in his department.' This was filled up to
1200 men, and then, as with the rest, taken from him by order of the
Secretary of War. These gone, scarce a corporal's guard was left under his

"Two weeks before the advance of Early up the valley, General Couch
renewed the request of last year, asking that the citizens might be armed
and enrolled; stating, also, that they were ready to attempt their own
defence. This was again denied. Then followed the request made by Governor
Curtin, and endorsed by General Couch, which is already published in the
Governor's Message. At the time of the invasion of Maryland the whole of
the available force in the Department of the Susquehanna did not exceed
three hundred men; and during the raid on Chambersburg, General Couch had
but one hundred and thirty-five men under his command. Nor is he to blame
for the smallness of this number. He had during this month of alarm
organized six regiments of one hundred days' men; but these, as soon as
equipped, were ordered to Washington by the Secretary of War. Such are the
facts in the case. We make no comments on the propriety of leaving the
border thus defenceless. Its security is perhaps a small matter compared
with the strengthening of our armies elsewhere. We only say, General Couch
is not to blame. He did everything a brave, earnest and faithful officer
could do to avert this calamity.

"Many also are under the impression that this place was disloyal, and
consequently they have no sympathy with us in our affliction. Nothing does
greater injustice to our suffering community than this. No town of its
size in Pennsylvania has fewer "sympathizers" with the rebellion than
Chambersburg. Its quotas have always been filled by volunteers, and many
of its best citizens have fallen on the field of battle. Such was and such
is the spirit of the inhabitants. The affliction into which they have
fallen is so great that, were it the result of their own neglect, common
charity should teach others to speak of them kindly. But they do not wish
to be excused; they only ask to be judged by the facts in the case. The
writer has stated such facts as he knows to be true, and subscribes his
name to them.




A gentleman has just handed me the "Lutheran and Missionary" of
Philadelphia, of August 11, in which I find the following excellent
article, which, with a few omissions, is here subjoined. It is from the
pen of our worthy townsman, Mr. John K. Shryock, who, as well as his
brother, Samuel S. Shryock, have for years carried on a large business in
the "Mansion House" as booksellers, and were among the many heavy
sufferers by the fire. After alluding to the circumstances attending the
advent of the insurgents, he says:

"I was in my house with my wife and two little children, and also a lady
whose husband was taken to Richmond last summer, her little boy, and
sister. The earliest warning we received was from the stifling smoke that
poured through the house, and from some one knocking at the door and
crying: 'If there is any one in this house, for God's sake leave, for it
is all on fire.' I gathered my family together, and left with nothing but
the clothes I had upon my person, two of the ladies not having time even
to get their bonnets. Having gotten them out of the house, I ascended the
stairs to see if any had been left behind in the haste. After having
examined all the rooms, I met two of the infuriated wretches rushing up
the stairs as I hurried down. At this time the house was filled with
blinding smoke. I locked the front door, hoping that the unwelcome
visitors would not be able to find their way out.

"I immediately hurried after my charge, and found them struggling their
way through the streets, thronged with homeless women and children, the
pavements blocked up by the rebels, who had ridden their horses in every
imaginable way to hinder the course of the fugitives. The streets were
filled with smoke and flame, and almost impassable. After we had reached a
temporary shelter, my wife returned to the scene of destruction, as a bird
to its nest, and on her way was stopped before a burning house, in which a
corpse was lying, and a little child at the point of death. The dead
woman was gotten out with difficulty, and buried in the garden without
shroud or coffin, and the child was barely rescued and placed in her arms,
when an officer in front of the house called out to his men: 'Boys,
remember Hunter!' She ran up to him, uncovered the child, and said: 'Here
is a dying baby we have saved from the house you have fired. Is your
revenge sweet?' Shocked, the fellow burst into tears, and answered, 'No,
madam.' He followed her some distance, and leaning down, asked her
earnestly, 'Madam, can't I save something for you?' Her answer was, 'No,
it is too late: I have lost all!' Warned to leave the house in which we
had taken refuge, a party of us left, but soon became separated, and I
lost my little boy, aged about ten, and did not find him till the next
day, at Shippensburg, whither he had walked, a distance of eleven miles.
The rest of us kept upon the edge of the burning town, and for three or
four hours watched the progress of the flames.

"One of the saddest sights I witnessed was the burning of the old Academy.
I watched it burn, timber by timber. Fifteen years of associations as
scholar and teacher were annihilated in the course of one short hour. My
attention was then drawn to the flag-staff in the centre of the public
square, and we all, of our party as well as others, expressed an ardent
hope that it might stand, from which the American flag might wave, even
over the ruins of the town. At noon we returned to the uninjured house of
a friend, and spent the night in gazing upon the ruins of our once happy
and beautiful town.

"The conduct of the rebel soldiery was barbarous in the extreme, though
there were many honorable exceptions. Bundles were tired upon women's
backs; ladies were forced to carry back into the houses articles of
clothing they had saved from the flames; drunken wretches danced upon the
furniture and articles of value and ornament; women's persons were
searched in the most indecent manner; oaths and foul language abounded;
aged women were locked in their rooms while their houses were on fire;
trunks were rifled after being dragged by the owners from the ruins;
promises of protection were made to be instantly broken. Everything was
done to add to the terror and confusion of the panic-stricken women and
children. Soon the hunger of the little ones added new horror to the
scene. Families were separated, and distracted fathers and mothers could
be seen everywhere, seeking amid the confusion for those that were
missing. And yet no selfishness was apparent; every one was willing to aid
and sympathize with his neighbor. No one complained, no one lost hope. A
rebel officer stopped me, saying: 'Sir, cannot a little money be raised to
satisfy that brute, McCausland; a very little money would save this end of
the town.' My answer was: 'If ten cents would do it, it would not be
forthcoming.' One rebel came running towards me, wringing his hands,
saying, 'Horrible, horrible! I did not think it could be so bad as this!'
Another told me that they had received orders, before they entered the
town, _to burn every house in it_; and yet another informed me that their
object was to effect an entrance during the night, and then burn it. In
some cases the women attempted to extinguish the fire, and were prevented
by threats and personal violence. Some were thrust from their houses,
others were struck, and in some instances pistols were drawn upon them.
One lady had a bucket of water, which she had brought to extinguish the
fire, thrown in her face. In almost every case the sick and the infirm
were _hindered_ from leaving their homes. There appeared to be a desire to
have some burned, if possible, _by accident_! One rebel, who helped a lady
to save some of her clothing, was seen led out of the town handcuffed. An
officer who suffered himself to be persuaded to save some property, said,
as he left the house he refused to fire, 'Madam, you have saved your
house, but have cost me my commission, and perhaps my life.' A negro saved
his life by dressing himself in woman's clothes, and carrying on his head
a feather bed, thereby hiding his face and hands. Little children cried to
'go home'--the home that was destroyed; old men wept over the town in
which they had lived for three-quarters of a century; citizens looked on
with dismay upon the destruction of their life-long labor and industry.
Many fled to the cemetery for refuge, and there, in the midst of death,
was one little life added to the wretched throng. The words of our
Saviour, with regard to the destruction of Jerusalem, were forced upon us:
'Let him which is on the house-top not come down to take anything out of
his house; neither let him which is in the field return back to take his
clothes. And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck
in those days!'

"The town soon became one mass of smoke and flame, which ascended straight
up to heaven, as if to call down the vengeance of God upon the
incendiaries. Here and there whirlwinds went up like gigantic corkscrews,
carrying paper and clothing high into the air, and miles into the
surrounding country, as if to bear witness of the foul outrage. I saw
more than one rebel soldier weeping like a child over the desolation he
had made. Hardened as they were to the horrors of war, this was too
terrible even for them to bear. One cried out to me in an agony of
remorse: 'Oh, I never enlisted for this!'

"For miles around, the frightened inhabitants fled, they knew not whither;
some continuing their flight until they dropped to the ground with
exhaustion. Pocket-books and watches were taken by wholesale; bundles,
shawls and valises were snatched out of women's and children's hands to be
thrown away. Cows and dogs and cats were burned to death, and the
death-cries of the poor dumb brutes sounded like the groans of human
beings. It is a picture that may be misrepresented, but cannot be
heightened. One young girl was crying; but, meeting a squad of the
marauders she controlled her tears, saying: '_They_ shan't see me cry!'
Full grown men, forgetful of themselves, sobbed over the destitution of
those they loved, and self-sacrificing women strove to comfort those of
weaker hearts, who had lost no more than themselves. We know of instances
where persons had saved money and valuables of others, with which they
had, in the excitement, been entrusted, to the exclusion of their own. In
the midst of this awful scene, the _sympathy_ and _encouragement_ we had
all along received from our loyal friends of a sister State, through the
columns of the Tribune, Times and Independent, arose before us like a
dense cloud, and, for the time, we hesitated which was most our
enemy,--New York or Virginia. Five hundred of the enemy in our streets,
two hundred as guard outside, three thousand within supporting distance;
this, too, with more than two thousand effective _United States_ cavalry
only _nine_ miles off, for hours. Oh, for one-half of the brave Franklin
County boys, that were then far away from their homes, fighting the
battles of the Union! We blame no one. Our loyalty, as strong as ever,
forbids us; but there is an awful responsibility SOMEWHERE.

"One scoundrel accepted five dollars from a frightened female, to carry
her trunk to a place of safety, _where he coolly broke it open, and helped
himself to the most valuable part of the contents_. A little dead child
was enclosed in a chest, and buried by the terrified parents in their
garden, for fear it would be burned in their house.

"A lady in delicate health was watched by one of the robbers, and allowed
to drag her trunk outside of the town; after which he searched it, and
appropriated the valuables it contained. She asked, whether that was
Southern chivalry, and received for reply: "Take that back, or I'll blow
your brains out." She did _not_ retract, and did _not_ have her brains
blown out. It was sad to see ladies escaping from their houses with
nothing but a few photographs or an album.

"In the evening of that dreadful day, it was overpowering to witness the
change in circumstances. One of our prominent citizens went with his
family to the house of his hostler; another to the residence of his negro
servant. On the next day it was a still more sorrowful sight to see
refined ladies flock to the church to draw Government rations, and receive
articles of second-hand clothing, sent up by the spontaneous charity of
persons residing along the line of the Cumberland Valley Railroad. It was
hard to eat the bitter bread of charity, but this mortification was borne
with the same heroism with which they looked upon the sacking and burning
of the dear old town. To see the grey-haired men and women, the
middle-aged, the youthful, and childhood, all represented in the destitute
but uncomplaining throng, was one of the most solemn sights the world ever
saw. Wyoming and Chambersburg will live in the history of Pennsylvania,
and the infamous names of Butler and McCausland, will be handed down to
posterity, as the types of savage barbarity.

"At 2 P. M., the Union forces advanced through the town. The citizens
cheered the dusty and jaded warriors, but no soldierly huzzas came from
_their_ parched and suffocated throats, as they rode through smoke and
flame and the intense heat of the smouldering ruins. One repeated
exclamation of, 'My God!' was all that was heard, and then, as they passed
the flag-staff, each one shouted, 'Remember Chambersburg!' And so they
exclaimed, and so they shouted, as they dashed at a trot through the town.
I may live to be an old man, but never, never shall I see such sights
again, as I saw that day in the stricken town of Chambersburg.


Aug. 6, 1864.


The following is a correct list of the buildings burned by the rebels in
Chambersburg, with their estimated value by a committee of disinterested
gentlemen appointed for that purpose:

South side of Market Street.

  Jacob Wolfkill--Two-story frame and brick building,                 $700
  Patrick Campbell's heirs--Two-story brick building,                  700
  Peter McGaffigan--Two-story building,                                600
  James C. Austin--Two-story brick building, new,                    5,000
  R. Austin--Two-story brick building,                               3,000
  William H. McDowell--Two-story stone front and brick back
    building, brick stable,                                          3,000
  James M. Brown--Two-story stone front and brick back building,
    stable,                                                          3,300
  Jacob Sellers--Two-story brick front and back building, stables,
    and ice-house, (hotel,)                                          4,000
  J. W. Douglas--One-story frame building,                             600
  Martin Brown--Frame front and log building,                        1,000
  J. A. and J. C. Eyster--Log front and back building,               1,000
  Mrs. Jordan--Two-story brick front and back building,              5,000
  L. S. Clark--Two-story frame building and stable,                  1,200
  C. M. Duncan--Two-story building, law-office, stable,              2,000
  E. Culbertson--Two-story brick building, office, stone barn,       6,000
  Mrs. Bard--Two-story brick building, and row of law offices,       6,500
  Gehr & Denny--Two three-story brick buildings, and one two-story,
    (dwellings and "Franklin Repository" office,)                    5,500
  C. M. Duncan--Three-story building, (Franklin Hotel,) three-story
    brick arcade, brick stables, &c.,                               15,000
  Aug. Duncan--Three-story brick building,                           1,500
  Henry Monks--Three-story brick building,                           1,500
  Edward Aughinbaugh--Three-story brick building,                    1,500
  Dr. William H. Boyle--Three-story brick building,                  2,000
  Mary Gillan--Three-story brick building,                           1,500
  T. J. Wright--Three-story brick building,                          1,800
  S. F. Greenawalt--Two-story brick building, stable,                3,000
  A. H. McCulloh--Two-story brick building, stone stable,            2,000
  Rev. Mr. Nelson--Two-story building, stable,                       2,000
  J. P. Culbertson--Three brick buildings,                           5,000
  Mrs. Riddle--Two-story brick building, stable,                     3,500
  E. Finfrock--Two-story building, stable,                           2,000
  W. F. Eyster & Bro.--Two buildings, (foundry,) stable,             4,000
  R. E. Tolbert--Two-story brick building, stable,                   2,000
  M. Gillan's heirs--Two three-story brick buildings, log house,
    brick stable,                                                    6,000
  Alex. Fritz--Two-story brick building,                             1,000
  Mrs. Frederick Smith--Two-story brick building,                    1,200
  J. Burkholder's heirs--Two-story brick building, barn,             2,000
  Hunter Robison--Two-story brick building, stable,                  1,200
  Jacob B. Miller--Two-story brick building,                           400
  John Bigley--Three small dwellings,                                  500
  Thomas Cook--Three wooden buildings,                                 600
  N. Pierce--Two-story building,                                     1,000
  Barnet Wolff--Two-story frame building,                              600
  J. M. Wolfkill--Two-story brick front and two back buildings,      2,500
  Jacob Shafer--Two-story brick building,                            1,000
  Richard Woods--Two-story brick building,                             800
  John King--Two-story buildings,                                      400
  Christ. Pisle--Two-story brick building,                             500
  Mrs. Elizabeth Stouffer--Two-story brick building,                 1,800
  A. Banker--Brick shop, house and barn,                             2,000
  Mrs. Butler--Two-story building and stable,                          400
  Mary Rapp--Two-story log building,                                   400
  James Nill's heirs--Two-story brick front,                           500
  Josiah Allen--Two-story brick building,                            1,000

North side of Market Street.

  C. Stauth--Two two-story log buildings,                             $800
  Samuel Brant--Two-story brick building,                              800
  John M. McDowell--Two two-story brick buildings, (hotel,)
    barn, shop, etc.,                                                3,500
  D. Trostle--Two-story brick building, and brick barn,              1,500
  Mrs. Radebaugh--Stone and frame barn,                                800
  Mrs. Jos. Chambers--Two-story brick building, stable,              5,500
  G. W. Brewer--Two-story brick building, barn,                      5,500
  Mrs. Jacob Smith--Log stable,                                        100
  John Miller--Two-story brick building, hotel, stables, shops,      8,000
  J. B. Cook--Two-story stone and four two-story buildings,
    bark-house, stable, etc.,                                        5,000
  C. W. Eyster--Two three-story brick flouring mills and two-story
    brick dwelling,                                                 15,000
  Lambert & Huber--Four-story stone and frame paper-mill and
    steam-house,                                                    15,000
  C. W. Eyster--Two-story brick building, stable,                    3,000
  S. M. Shillito--Two-story brick building,                          1,500
  James King--Two-story brick building, frame shop,                  1,200
  P. Brough--Three-story brick building,                             3,000
  John Noel--Three-story stone building, stable,                     8,000
  Court House--Three-story brick,                                   45,000
  Engine-house--Two-story brick,                                     1,000
  D. O. Gehr--Two-story brick building, and brick stable,            5,500
  B. F. Nead--Two-story brick building, brick stable,                5,000
  A. D. Caufman--Three-story brick building and stable,              4,000
  Mrs. Goettman--Two-story brick building, brick stable, etc.,       5,500
  Peiffer's heirs--Two-story stone house, (old jail,) smith-shop,
    frame shop, stable,                                              2,600
  T. B. Kennedy--Large two-story brick building, etc.,               8,000
  Rev. B. S. Schneck--Two-story stone and brick building,            3,000
  L. Humelshine--Two-story building,                                   600
  S. Etter--Two-story brick building,                                3,000
  Dr. N. Schlosser--Two-story building,                              1,000
  S. Eckert--Two-story stone and brick building,                     1,000

West side Main Street to Square.

  Benj. Chambers--Two-story brick building,                         $5,000
  W. G. Reed--Two-story brick building, stable,                      5,000
  Mrs. C. Snyder--Two-story brick building,                          3,000
  Allen Smith--Two-story brick building, stable,                     1,600
  C. Flack--Two-story building, stable,                              1,000
  J. Schofield--Two-story building, brick shop, stable,              1,600
  M. P. Welsh--Two-story brick building,                             2,500
  C. Stouffer (machinist)--Two-story brick building, stable,         3,000
  Geo. Chambers (residence)--Two-story brick building, stable,       7,000
  G. Chambers (Female Seminary)--Three-story stone building,         5,000
  G. Chambers--Two-story brick building, law office, &c.,            2,000
  A. J. Miller--Two-story stone building, &c.,                       4,500
  James Watson--Two-story brick building,                            4,500
  R. Austin--Two-story brick building,                               2,500

East side Main, from Square to King Street.

  Franklin Hall--Three-story brick building,                       $20,000
  Jacob Hoke & Co.--Two-story brick building, stable,                5,500
  Dr. Langenheim--Two-story brick building, stable,                  3,000
  Widow Montgomery (hotel)--Three story brick building, stable,      9,000
  Daniel Trostle (hotel)--Two-story brick and stone buildings,
    sheds and stable,                                                7,000
  Miss Susan B. Chambers--Brick shop, house and stable,              2,500
  A. P. Frey--Two-story building, coachmaker-shed, shop, stable,     3,000
  A. S. Hull--Two-story brick building,                              2,000
  Mrs. Geo. Goettman--Two-story building, shop,                      1,200

West side Main, from Square to Washington Street.

  Chambersburg Bank--Two-story brick building, stable,              $8,000
  Mrs. Gilmore--Two-story brick building and shops,                  5,500
  Jacob B. Miller--Two-story brick building, etc.,                   3,000
  Dr. Richards--Two-story brick building, stable,                    5,500
  C. Burkhart--Three-story brick building, ice-house, stable,        4,500
  J. M. Cooper--Three-story brick buildings, ("Valley Spirit"
    office,) stone stable, etc.,                                    15,000
  James L. Black--Two-story brick building, stable,                  5,000
  Dr. J. Hamilton--Three-story brick building and stable,            7,000
  John A. Grove--Frame shop,                                           250
  Jacob Hutton--Three-story brick and two brick back buildings,      4,500
  John McClintock--Two-story brick building, shop, etc.,             3,500
  Lewis Shoemaker--Two-story brick building, etc.,                   4,200
  Samuel Greenawalt--Two-story brick buildings,                      5,500
  J. Allison Eyster--Two-story brick building,                       5,000
  J. Allison Eyster--Two-story brick building,                       1,500
  J. Allison Eyster--Three-story brick buildings, brick stable,      5,000
  Wm. Heyser's heirs--Two story brick buildings, brick stable,       5,500
  Rev. S. R. Fisher--Brick stable,                                     500
  Geo. Lehner--Log stable,                                             400
  George Ludwig--Two-story brick front and five back buildings,      7,000
  C. F. Miller--Two-story brick building, &c.,                       4,500
  Adam Wolff--Two-story frame and brick building,                    1,200
  John Forbes--Two-story building, &c.,                              2,000
  John Dittman--Two-story brick building,                            2,000
  J. Deckelmayer--Two-story brick building and bakery,               3,000
  Samuel Ott--Two two-story brick buildings,                         4,000
  B. Radebaugh--One-story frame shop,                                  150
  Samuel Ott--One-story frame shop,                                    200
  B. Radebaugh--Two-story brick front building,                        600

East side Main, from Washington to Square.

  F. Spahr--Two-story brick building,                               $2,500
  Miss Hetrick--Two-story brick building,                            1,500
  John A. Lemaster--Two-story brick building,                        2,500
  Aug. Reineman--Two-story brick building,                           1,500
  Samuel M. Perry--Two-story brick front and back building,          2,000
  David L. Taylor--Two-story log (weather-boarded) front and
    frame back buildings,                                            1,500
  J. W. Taylor--Two-story brick building, stable, hay scales,
    (hotel),                                                         7,000
  George Ludwig--Two-story brick building, tin-shop, stable,         4,000
  H. H. Hutz--Two-story brick building, stable,                      6,500
  D. Reisher--Two-and-a-half story brick building, bake-house,
    stable,                                                          4,500
  M. Kuss--Two-story brick building, stone stable,                   2,500
  I. Hutton--Two-story brick building, brick shop, stable,           4,000
  John P. Culbertson--One-story frame shops,                           800
  Dr. J. Lambert--Two-story brick building, stable,                  5,500
  Mrs. R. Fisher--Two-story brick front building,                    5,000
  William Wallace (hotel)--Three-story brick building,               9,000
  D. Reisher--Two-story brick buildings, stable,                     6,000
  J. A. Eyster (Nixon's drugstore)--Two-story brick building,
    &c.,                                                             4,500
  James Eyster--Two-story brick building, brick stable,              4,500
  Eyster & Bro.--Two-story stone and brick building,                 5,500
  Eyster & Bro.--Three-story brick warehouse, stable,               10,000
  Brand & Flack--Two-story stone and brick building, warehouse,      6,500
  A. J. White--Two-story stone and brick building,                   4,500
  Hiram White--Three-story brick front, and back building,
    (new),                                                           7,500
  John Jeffries--Two-story stone and brick building, &c., stable,    3,000
  A. B. Hamilton--Two-story stone and brick buildings, stable,       6,000
  Mansion House (German Reformed Publication House)--Three-story
    brick front and back building, livery stable, &c.,              10,000
  Academy--Large three-story brick,                                  4,000

Queen--South Side.

  J. W. Reges--Two-story brick building,                            $3,000
  W. Cunningham--Two-story brick building and granary,               3,000
  John Mull--Two-story brick front and back building,                2,000
  J. T. Hoskinson--Two-story brick building,                         2,200
  Jacob Flinder--Two-story frame building,                             800
  Jacob Flinder--Two-story frame building, stable,                     700
  W. Wallace--Two-story brick building, spring-house, &c.,           4,000
  Mrs. John Lindsay--Two-story brick building,                       2,500
  Barnard Wolff--Two two-story brick buildings, warehouse,
    shop, brick stable, &c.,                                         7,500
  J. Allison Eyster--Two-story brick building,                       2,200
  Mrs. Blood--Two-story brick and two back buildings,                1,800
  Mrs. Clark--Two-story brick front and back building,               1,800
  Mrs. R. Fisher--Two-story brick building,                          2,000
  Mrs. Sarah Stevenson--Two two-story brick buildings,               2,000
  J. D. Grier--Two-story brick building,                             4,500
  Mrs. Susan Nixon--Two-story brick building,                        1,800
  Robert Davis--Two-story brick building,                            2,000
  John Cree--Two-story brick building,                               2,500
  Samuel Myers--Two-story brick front, two back buildings,           3,200
  Mrs. Porter Thompson--Two-story log building,                        600
  Mrs. George S. Eyster--Two-story brick building,                   2,500
  Andrew Banker--Two-story log building and smoke-house,             1,500

Queen--North Side.

  Huber & Co. (edge-tool factory)--Five brick and frame buildings,  $3,500
  Brick blacksmith shop,                                               600
  "Bethel" (church)--brick,                                          3,000
  G. Ludwig (brewery)--Two-story stone and brick building, &c.,      8,000
  Widow Grove (of William)--Two-story building, smoke-house,         1,500
  Thos. Carlisle--Two-story brick, and one frame building,           3,000
  Kindline's heirs--Two-story brick, two-story log and brick back
    buildings,                                                       4,000
  Widow Grove (of Alex.)--Two-story building, stable,                1,200
  John Huber--Two-story brick building, stable,                      3,000
  Abraham Huber--Two-story brick, and frame stable,                  2,000
  H. Sierer--Two-story building, wareroom, stable, &c.,              3,000
  Thos. Carlisle--Two-story brick front, and back buildings,         2,500
  W. Wallace--Three three-story brick buildings, brick stable,       8,000
  N. Snyder--Two-story brick building, wash-houses, stable,          2,500
  Dr. S. D. Culbertson--Two-and-a-half-story brick building,
    stable,                                                          4,000
  Mrs. Samuel Brand--roof slightly damaged.
  J. P. Culbertson--Two-story brick building, stable,                4,500

Second Street.

  P. Henry Peiffer--New two-story frame stable,                     $1,900
  Associate Reformed Church--One-story brick building,               3,000
  Benjamin Rhodes--Two-story log front and one-story brick back
    building,                                                        1,200
  J. Allison Eyster--One-story log shop,                               100
  Charles Croft--Log building and frame kitchen,                       800
  J. P. Keefer--Two-story brick building and kitchen,                1,500
  John Reasner--One-story log bakery,                                  150
  J. S. Brown--Roof and upper floor (hotel)                            500
  John Doebler--Two-story brick building,                          2,000
  Holmes Crawford--Two-story brick building,                         3,000
  S. F. Armstrong--Two-story brick building, stable,                 4,000
  Aug. Reineman--Three one-story frame shops, &c.,                   1,000


  Martin Cole--Two-story brick and log buildings,                   $1,500
  Philip Evans--Two-story brick building,                            1,200


  Dr. A. H. Senseny--Two one-story log buildings,                     $200
  N. Uglow--Three one-story log buildings,                             250


  George Kindline--Brick wagonmaker and blacksmith shop, brick
    stable,                                                           $800


  Widow Palmer--Frame stable,                                         $150
  Nicholas Gerwig--Frame stable,                                       100
  Henry Greenawalt--Brick stable,                                      300


  George Chambers--Three two-story brick buildings,                 $2,500
  Upton Washabaugh--Two-story building, stone brewery, granary,
    brick stables, and shed,                                         8,000
  C. Herman--Stone shop, dwelling, and stable,                         800
  A. K. McClure--House and barn ("Norland"),                         9,500
  Jacob Eby--Large brick barn,                                       2,500
  Andrew McElwaine--House,                                             400


The following is the aggregate of buildings burned:

  Residences and places of business,                                  $278
  Barns and stables,                                                    98
  Out-buildings of various kinds,                                      173
  Total buildings burned,                                              559

The aggregate valuation of the real estate, as made by a committee of
upright and disinterested citizens, consisting of Messrs. Wm. McLellan,
C. M. Burnet, Rev. Joseph Clark, D. K. Wunderlich, and John Armstrong, is
$783,950. The loss in personal property greatly exceeds that of the real
estate, but it is difficult, if not impossible, even to approach to
anything like a satisfactory estimate.

In regard to the foregoing estimates of real property, I will merely add
that they are low, generally speaking, very low. I say this, not because I
find any fault with the judicious committee of gentlemen who made those
estimates. I rather commend them for it; but for the purpose simply of
mentioning the fact that the actual loss was much greater than the figures
indicate. Thus, for instance, the Court-House is put down at $45,000,
whereas an experienced builder has stated to me it could not be rebuilt
for less than $80,000. The Mansion House (the printing establishment of
the German Reformed Church), with a stone livery stable in the rear, is
put down at $10,000, whereas $15,000 would not replace them as they were.
Colonel McClure's large and beautiful residence, with his spacious model
barn, are put down at $9,500, but they could not be restored for less than
$20,000. The banking house is put down at $8,000, but not less than
$20,000 would be required to replace it. And so with most of the
buildings. A million dollars will not suffice to restore them, and twice
as much more will not cover the losses of such personal property as money
can replace.

Many heavy sufferers are among those who had no real property, and hence
their names do not appear in the above list. Some of the large business
shops were in the front rooms of houses belonging to other persons. Thus
the Mansion House, besides containing the printing and binding
establishments of the Reformed Church, was occupied by Shryock's large
bookstore, Mr. Metcalf's dry goods store, dentists' rooms, saddler's shop,
&c. In many instances there were two, three, and even four private
families living in one house. Many families also, whose dwellings were not
burned, were nevertheless very heavy sufferers, having been plundered and
robbed of their most valuable articles of plate, jewelry, clothing, &c.
Hence it is perhaps not too much to say that the number of families who
are sufferers is more than double the number of houses, as well as that
the loss is double the amount in value, as compared with the loss of the
houses enumerated in the list.

In conclusion permit me to add, that if our border is protected hereafter,
and some reasonable assurance is given to our people that incursions by
the enemy will be rendered impossible, our town will be
rebuilt--gradually, but surely. If, however, no such assurance is given,
and no effective aid for border defence is afforded; if our people are
coolly told that the Cumberland Valley is to be "a trap in which to catch
the rebels, and which must therefore be left open," then, alas! there will
be no heart to remain and rebuild the town; but, imitating many of our
disheartened farmers, our citizens will sell out their realty and leave,
regretfully indeed; but rather than be in constant dread and apprehension,
leave they will, and allow the ruins of their houses and hearths to remain
behind them, seeking some more sheltered or sequestered spot, where they
may live and die in "quietness and peace," though it be away from the
graves of their fathers and their childhood's "sweet home."

Very sincerely yours,

B. S. S.






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[1] I take great pleasure in this connection to direct attention to a
large photographic view of the Ruins of Chambersburg, by Mr. C. L.
Lochman, of Carlisle, as the most satisfactory picture I have yet seen.
The same artist has also prepared a number of smaller pictures and a
series of _stereoscopic views_, embracing general views and the most
prominent local objects of the town.

[2] Reference is here made chiefly to the New York Herald and the Tribune,
both of which sheets have manifested a spirit towards our deeply afflicted
sufferers akin to that of our worst enemies. The Tribune, instead of
allowing itself to be corrected by the Hon. A. K. McClure, in the
Philadelphia Press, turns aside from the subject with miserable jokes, as
trivial as they are heartless. And these are our _friends_!

[3] Since the foregoing was written it has been ascertained to a
certainty, that there were three thousand men, exclusive of the eight
hundred and thirty-one who were in the town; almost as large a force as
that which, one year ago, routed Milroy's whole military force, cannon and
all, at Winchester.

[4] Among the many thousands who have been quartered and encamped here, I
have never heard of a single soldier who did not speak in the most
grateful terms of the universally kind treatment towards them from our
citizens. For proof I appeal to these thousands among the living, wherever
they may now be found.

[5] This and several following paragraphs are quoted, with a few slight
modifications, from a brief and well-written article by the Rev. Joseph
Clark, in the Philadelphia "Presbyterian" of August 6.

[6] McCausland had also insisted upon burning the town in the _night_, to
which Johnson persistently objected. Mrs. Greenawalt, a most worthy and
intelligent woman, overheard this consultation of the officers in an
adjoining room. The increased horrors which must have resulted if
McCausland had not been overruled in his determination, may be imagined.

B. S. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note:

Text in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_.

The following misprints have been corrected:
  "geting" corrected to "getting" (page 20)
  "sacrified" corrected to "sacrificed" (page 23)
  "guerillas" corrected to "guerrillas" (page 57)

Unmatched quotation marks were left as they were in the original.

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