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Title: My Diary in Serbia: April 1, 1915-Nov. 1, 1915
Author: Stanley, Monica M.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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MY DIARY IN SERBIA

April 1, 1915--Nov. 1, 1915

    [Illustration: The Author--MONICA M. STANLEY.
    _Frontispiece._]



MY DIARY IN
SERBIA

April 1, 1915--Nov. 1, 1915

By
MONICA M. STANLEY
_Attached to the "Stobart Field Hospital" in Serbia_


ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOS


LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL,
HAMILTON, KENT & CO., LIMITED



COPYRIGHT.

First issued, Feb., 1916.



To
My very dear Aunt
ELIZABETH STANLEY
this book is
Dedicated



PREFACE


Brave Serbia has not been forgotten in her hour of need by the women
of England. For the Women's Imperial Service League, with Mrs. St.
Clair Stobart as directress, went out to Serbia under the ægis of the
Serbian Relief Fund, after arduous work out in Antwerp and after at
Cherbourg. Mrs. Stobart decided that ours should be a Field Hospital
owing to typhus and other fever raging in the country.

We left on April 1, 1915, on the Admiralty transport _Saidieh_ for
Salonica. The staff consisted of Mrs. St. Clair Stobart as directress,
Mr. J.H. Greenhalgh as treasurer, a secretary, seven women doctors,
eighteen trained nurses, four trained cooks, one dispenser, one
sanitary inspector, an English chaplain and fourteen orderlies, of
which some were chauffeurs.

The Field Hospital was perfectly equipped; everything we took with us.
We had over sixty tents, 300 beds, with every necessary for them;
bales of clothes for wounded and the civil population; the kitchen
requisites, with four excellent cooking stoves with ovens; several
portable boilers for hot water; large tanks for cold water; laundry
equipments; medical stores; over £300 of food-stuffs; X-ray; all
sanitary necessaries; motor ambulances. Our Field Hospital was to be
at Kragujevatz; the tents were soon pitched and well arranged.

We had the following tents: one for X-ray, operating theatre; one to
receive the patients; a large mess tent for patients and one for
staff; one for linen--laundry; two kitchens--one for patients and one
for staff; dispensary; food stores; a recreation tent for the staff,
and one for the doctors; then there were lavatory and bath tents; the
rest were wards and for the staff to sleep in. Our Hospital was soon
full. I was the head of the kitchen departments, and I looked after
the catering and food stores. I was very happy with my staff, in spite
of the work being hard and the hours long, but we knew that we were
doing good to our fellow-countrymen.

Mrs. Stobart and the doctors found that the civil population was
suffering terribly owing to the war, as there was a scarcity of
doctors and no proper hospitals to send them to; and as we were trying
to stamp out all disease before fighting started again, it was decided
that we should have some roadside dispensaries and a civil hospital
for all the worst cases. Arrangements were made that Dr. May should
return to England to raise funds for more equipments. We also wanted
more doctors, nurses and cooks. It did not take long before everything
was forthcoming. Seven dispensaries were started and excellent work
was accomplished in quite a short time. Over one hundred people
attended the dispensaries most days, and over eleven thousand of the
poor suffering population were soon relieved from their pain and
suffering.

                                               MONICA M. STANLEY.



SERBIA'S GREAT NEED


Mrs. St. Clair Stobart with Mr. Greenhalgh, doctors, nurses, and
orderlies, were to have left for Serbia on Saturday, March 27. On
Friday the unit met at 39, St. James' Street to have their photos
taken, then at 4.30 a service at St. Martin's-in-the-Field, conducted
by the Rev. Percy Dearmer. We had two hymns, a nice address; a
collection was taken of just over £12 for our unit. After the service
we went to a farewell tea at Lady Cowdray's, 16, Carlton Terrace. Lady
Muir Mackenzie and several others from the Women's Imperial Service
League were there. Sir T. Lipton, who had just arrived home, told us
of his experiences in Serbia, with all the horrors and hardships. Lady
Cowdray presented the unit with a Thermos flask each, as a parting
gift. Lady Muir Mackenzie gave each a Tommy's cooker, which I found
most useful. We heard that the Admiralty had again put off our unit,
and that half of us only could leave on the following Wednesday or
Thursday. The following Monday we had orders from Mrs. Stobart that
nineteen of us would leave on April 1 with her (the heads of the
departments, with one or two other members). We also heard that Dr.
and Mrs. Dearmer were going with us, the former as Chaplain to visit
the sick and wounded, and his wife as an orderly to our unit.



MY DIARY IN SERBIA


                                       Thursday, _April 1, 1915._


Nineteen of the unit left for Serbia. We met at Euston station at
9.30. The train left at 10.30 a.m. for Liverpool. We had crowds of
friends to see us off. All the equipments for our Field Hospital had
gone the previous Saturday by the _Torcello_ from the East Indian
Docks by the Admiralty transport. We are taking out sixty-three tents;
the large ones hold fifteen to twenty patients. We have 300 beds and
all other equipments to fit up a Hospital, with over £300 worth of
food-stuffs.

All the unit are in a dark grey uniform with large pockets, making it
most useful, and nice hats to match.

We arrived in Liverpool at 2.30 p.m. on Thursday; then collected our
luggage. We were each allowed to take one cabin trunk and a hold-all.

On reaching the docks we got on the boat _Saidieh_ for Salonika. We
left the docks at 10 o'clock, and lay in the harbour till Good Friday,
starting at 8.30 p.m. We could not leave before, we heard, owing to
messages sent to the captain. It was nice and calm Friday night, but I
did not take off my clothes and could not sleep, thinking and
wondering if any danger might come to us. The _Saidieh_ is a horrid
boat, not at all clean, and the sanitary arrangements are terrible. It
is a Greek boat of about 3,000 tons; in the usual way it carries mails
and cargo to and from Greece and Constantinople. The weather was good
as far as St. George's Channel; we could see Ireland when in the Irish
Sea; but it became rather misty, a sea fog came on, and the horn was
continually sounded.


                                       Saturday, _April 3, 1915._

The weather continues to get stormy, the boat rolls terribly; most of
the passengers are getting ill, so we get fewer and fewer to meals. At
midday the captain gave out that no passenger must take off any
clothes at night, and that boat station would be held on the upper
deck at 3 o'clock; this did not sound at all nice. At 3 o'clock we all
went on deck and had tickets given us for the lifeboats in case of
danger. Fourteen of us had tickets for No. 1 boat, two for No. 3 and
three for No. 6. We were nearly all separated at first, but I managed
to get our tickets changed. Mrs. Stobart was delighted, as of course
it was nicer for all to be together. It seems we were in great danger
till we passed the Scilly Isles. Saturday evening we were a very tiny
party for dinner. There are about 150 passengers on board, all units
going to different parts of Serbia. We have some of Dr. Berry's unit;
Mr. Wynch's unit, called the British Farmers, owing to the farmers
collecting the money for it.

    [Illustration: Map showing position of Mrs. Stobart's Field
    Dispensaries.]

I forgot to say that on Good Friday we had a short service conducted
by Mr. Wynch; we had the hymn for those at sea. There is Dr. Bevis'
unit, a Russian one, and the other units are the wounded Allies and
Admiral Trowbridge's unit.

Saturday evening some of us played bridge, two doctors, a nurse and
myself.


                             Sunday, Easter Day, _April 4, 1915._

Nearly every passenger dreadfully ill; only about ten people for
breakfast. The boat rolls most dreadfully. We could have no service. A
terrible Easter Sunday. I shall never forget it. I was kept busy all
the day. In the afternoon the only one of our unit left was overcome
with sleep, so she had to rest. The captain said that if any one was
not ill, they could consider themselves good sailors. I am more than
pleased that I have not been ill. We are having a very bad crossing;
every minute I think our end is coming. I have never been in such a
horrid boat. We have no stewardesses, only stewards, and they are
Africans--all black. The captain is English, and the first and second
mates Greeks.

The other thirty of our unit left to-day; they go from Folkestone to
Boulogne and thence by train to Marseilles, where they catch another
boat for Salonica. Owing to our leaving a day later they may arrive at
Salonica before we do.


                                         Monday, _April 5, 1915._

We are still having a terrible tossing. I have given up my berth and
am sleeping on deck. The noises at night are something terrible, all
kinds of things falling and smashing. On Saturday night I jumped up at
2.30; I thought our end had come. I went round to see what had
happened; the luggage was pitched all over the place. I have slept in
the dining saloon the last two nights. The captain told us to-day that
we could undress at night, we were out of danger of submarines, but I
shall not until we are out of the Bay of Biscay. Most of us have been
on deck to-day. I am hoping by to-morrow they will all be well again.
To-night about 12 o'clock we hope to be at Cape Finisterre. I shall be
thankful, for I have not slept since I left home; the noise on this
boat has been so terrific.

We passed Villan's lighthouse at 10 p.m. It was a lovely night and the
water lit up with phosphorus. The captain appeared at dinner this
evening, so things are getting better for us.


                                        Tuesday, _April 6, 1915._

All the sick are sitting on deck to-day, so we have not much to do.
This morning I played deck quoits with several of the passengers. I
learnt a little Serbian. We are a happy party; every one is so
friendly. We have sheep, ducks and fowls on board--all have been sick;
also two dogs. I slept on deck last night, a perfectly lovely night.


                                      Wednesday, _April 7, 1915._

The weather has quite changed; it is perfectly glorious to-day. This
morning we learnt Serbian for a little and wrote letters. This
afternoon I have been sitting in a lifeboat, with the sun streaming on
me; it was heavenly. We have just passed Portugal. I took several
photos. We passed Cape St. Vincent at 2.30 p.m. We could never have
been saved if anything had gone wrong with this boat; it is a terrible
old tub. We get to Gibraltar to-morrow, I hear, about 10 o'clock, so
this will be posted.

We have just been having Swedish drill on deck, as the doctors wish to
keep us in good health for the hard work we expect later.


                                       Thursday, _April 8, 1915._

Slept on deck last night, but always have to be up at 6 o'clock for
deck to be cleaned. A glorious morning. Up at six, went down and
dressed, then came on deck; it was a little misty. We could see
Tangier quite well and all along the coast of Africa. Later on in the
morning, and on the opposite side was Gibraltar. It was quite
interesting. We were inspected, and the captain got our letters taken
back for us. I took a great many photographs. We saw shoals of
porpoises, which followed the boat for some distance. I took a
snapshot of them. The day got hotter and hotter, so we sat in the
lifeboat and enjoyed the view. We had to get out our shady hats, and
we had no coats on. At 12 o'clock we had drill. This afternoon I have
been playing bridge with the doctors, a perfect day. At 4.30 we passed
the most gorgeous snow-capped mountains, Sierra Nevada. This evening
the captain is having dinner with us, and after we are to have a
dance. It is getting very rough again this evening, and all the
portholes have had to be closed.


                                         Friday, _April 9, 1915._

A nice morning. We had drill on deck, then had our Serbian lesson.
After lunch it began to get rough, and a great many of the passengers
are ill again. We passed Algiers to-day, and we have a very bad swell
on to-night, owing to being near the Gulf of Lyons. We have been
playing bridge this afternoon. We had a dance last evening. To-night
we were to have had games, but it has been too rough. We have to learn
two pages of Serbian every day; it is very dry.


                                      Saturday, _April 10, 1915._

A dreadful night. We slept on deck, and at 1 o'clock it began to
thunder, lightning and hail. We got simply drenched. We are having it
quite as rough as in the Bay of Biscay.

It is blowing a gale to-day. We are to have a bridge party to-night.
We had an amusing dinner; we had to hold on to everything. A dish of
chicken was thrown all over the saloon, glasses, plates, knives,
forks, oranges and apples. We could none of us sit in our places.
Great trunks were thrown all over the passages. It will be a wonderful
thing if we get to Salonika. It makes me feel happy to think that I
have so many kind friends at home remembering us in their prayers. I
wish the Admiralty could be sent out on this boat. The food is nearly
all bad; we can scarcely eat anything, and I hear we are getting short
of water. We are not allowed to stop until we get to Salonika.

Our bridge party went off well, but it was a bit slow. Mrs. Claude
Askew got the first prize.

The African niggers are very amusing; they call us all Misses. They
told us if we did go into the sea and drown we should get plenty of
fresh air, as we are so fond of having our portholes open in our
berths. They will come and tuck us up at night.


                                        Sunday, _April 11, 1915._

It still continues to be rough. We are to have our service this
evening. We passed Tunis at 8 o'clock this morning. We had a very bad
thunderstorm last night again; the lightning was very vivid. A good
many of us had to sleep in the saloon.

I am learning Serbian with Mrs. Stobart; she has just heard my lesson
and given me twenty more words to learn. It is a most uninteresting
language.


                                        Monday, _April 12, 1915._

Had drill at 10 o'clock, then "follow my leader" all over the ship. At
10.30 we passed Sicily; we could see the olive groves. An Italian
destroyer has been following us. We erected the English flag, so they
soon left us. I am taking part in some tableaux, so we rehearsed this
afternoon. Since I have been playing bridge. It is dreadfully rough
again, and we have another bad thunderstorm. It will be the greatest
wonder if we land at Salonika safely in this wretched boat. I thought
that our end was near many times last night. I did not get a bit of
sleep.


                                       Tuesday, _April 13, 1915._

It is still stormy and pouring with rain, not at all a nice crossing.
We did not see Malta; we were too far away, but we were only about two
miles from Sicily. We have been playing bridge nearly all day.


                                     Wednesday, _April 14, 1915._

A fine day and the wind has gone down. Four of our unit have been ill,
owing to the bad food (two of them fainted and were in great pain),
and several in the other units. We expect to get to Salonika on
Thursday, midday. We have just passed Belopulo; we shall be passing
Andros and Tinos. To-night we are all to appear in fancy dress. I am
going as a mattress, a pillow arranged on my head, pillows stuffed
inside a mattress ticking, and my feet coming through at the bottom
with bed-socks on. The time has altered; we are 1-½ hours in advance
of England. It is light at 4.30 in the morning, but dark soon after 6
o'clock. We had a swallow following our boat most of yesterday.

The fancy dress was a great success; it was really splendid, as none
of us had many things with us, as we are all in uniform. Mr. Claude
Askew was very amusing, introducing us as Mrs. Jarley's waxworks.


                                      Thursday, _April 15, 1915._

It was a rough and very cold night again. I slept in the lifeboat part
of the night, but had to get on deck at 2 o'clock as it was so cold
and rough. We get to Salonika about 1 o'clock. We have just passed
Mount Olympus; it looks glorious with the sun on it and snow-capped. I
heard the guns in the night--from Smyrna, I suppose. The engineer took
me down to see the engines last night. It is a good thing for us that
we have had a rough crossing. We should have been caught by submarines
if we had not, owing to the cargo we are carrying; it is supposed to
be coal.

We are only forty miles from Salonika; we expect to arrive at 1
o'clock. We telegraphed for rooms at the hotel from Gibraltar. We
expect to stay in Salonika a week, as we have to wait for the stores.
We are all such a happy party, and all the units on board have been so
friendly.

A Greek boat told us that there had been a big battle at the
Dardanelles yesterday, but the result was not known. We have no
wireless on this boat. The sunrise was gorgeous this morning; it is
much finer to-day. I shall post this directly I arrive at Salonika. It
is dreadful not having any news from home. I cannot hear anything for
a month. We shall not be able to send our permanent address for some
time yet.

The most dangerous part of our journey was the forty-eight hours
through the Irish Sea. It is interesting to know that the boat has
gone 1,000,000 revolutions to Salonika from Liverpool, and a
revolution is 25 feet. As we got into the harbour at Salonika there
was a vessel called the _Athena_; it belongs to the Germans. We
arrived at Salonika at 2 o'clock; we had to anchor outside. The
doctor, the English Consul, and the head of the police came on board.
Twenty-three little boats arrived to take us across; the men simply
fought, and we had quite a difficulty. We found we could not get
accommodation at the hotel sufficient for our unit, so the captain
told us to sleep on board. We had our tea and dinner at the Hotel
Olympus. The latter meal the captain of the _Saidieh_ had with us. We
returned to the boat at 10 o'clock.


                                        Friday, _April 16, 1915._

The _Torcello_ arrived with all our equipments at the same time our
boat arrived. Salonika is the most picturesque place; it is so hot,
just like midsummer in England. The yachts sailing about in the
harbour are lovely. There is a wreckage just near. It is April 7
there, and in England it is the 15th.

After breakfast we took a carriage and went to St. Demetrius, the
Greek Church. It is perfectly gorgeous. Large marble pillars and
granite supposed to be extinct. The arches are wonderful and all
inlaid with mosaic. Then we saw sarcophagus or some of the remains
dating back to 136. The pictures all round are gorgeous, very bright
colours. Many people came to pray. One little family went into a
corner where there was a picture of Adam and Eve in the Garden of
Eden, the serpent was up a tree. They prayed at this picture, then
kissed each figure; they crossed the altar, and kissed each figure in
the other pictures. Then we went to the Church Sophia, another Greek
one. We saw many more people praying and kissing the figures in the
pictures and crossing themselves. The Baptistery in St. Demetrius was
wonderful; there was a wonderful shell-like font under a massive stone
canopy. A little distance away there was a huge bell under an arch. We
then went into another church which was being restored. On approaching
we could smell nothing but disinfectant; we thought this strange. The
interior of the church was beautifully arched. We had not been in the
church long when we found that the floor was a mass of fleas and that
all of us were covered. We went into a courtyard and caught hundreds;
women and children helped. We were in a most uncomfortable condition.
Most of the houses are full of them, and also other livestock. One can
see the fleas jumping in the sand in the streets.

Some of the churches are full of Greek refugees from Asia Minor.


                                      Saturday, _April 17, 1915._

We went to see the French Hospital. An English nun took us over. We
also went to see the soup kitchens, and at 12 o'clock one hundred of
the refugees came with tickets for soup. We helped to serve it out to
them; it was most interesting. All of them wanted more than their
share. After we met the remainder of our unit, which had just arrived
by the _Lotos_; they came overland to Marseilles, then by steamer.
They had all had the most delightful time, stopping at most of the
ports. We envied them after our ghastly journey. Dr. Dearmer and
several others of the party and I went into the town, then to St.
Nicholas, a church full of refugees--a sight I shall never forget;
each family had been allotted a corner, and they just sit on a mat.
One family was busy at lunch; they had one large bowl of soup in the
centre of the mat, and they all sat round; father, mother and three
children each had a spoon, and they all ate out of the same bowl. This
seems to be the custom in the poorer quarters in Greece and Serbia.
There were several little babies only a day or two old done up like
brown-paper parcels.

In the afternoon we went to see where Abdul Hamid was imprisoned. He
was allowed eighteen wives. He abdicated. The Germans threatened to
rescue him, so high walls were built all round so that aircraft could
not get near. After eighteen months he was told he might leave the
country, otherwise be shot, so he went to Asia Minor, and now the
house is used for military purposes.


                                        Sunday, _April 18, 1915._

We had Communion Service, which Dr. Dearmer conducted at 8.30. Then
went to Turkish town, which is most interesting. We then went to the
Greek military prison. Then to the Turkish Church. Before entering the
church we had to remove our shoes; the floor was covered with squares
of carpet. In the afternoon we went to St. Demetrius and saw a
christening--most interesting. The priest first covered the baby,
which was naked, with oil--head, eyes, cheeks, ears, body, legs, feet,
back; then the mother poured a handful of oil over the baby's head.
Then the priest took the babe and put it into a font of oil and water
which completely covered it; then the baby was again crossed with oil,
using a brush this time and taking the oil out of a bottle; then the
babe was put into a piece of flannel into the mother's arms. She held
two candles, one in each hand, and the priest took incense, which he
swung backwards and forwards, and then went twice round the font. Then
he read and kissed the book, and the woman kissed it twice, and the
ceremony was finished.

We then went to the Greek cemetery, and saw where all the soldiers
were buried in the last war. The Turkish cemetery was near by. We saw
another large barracks and the Greek Military Hospital.


                                        Monday, _April 19, 1915._

We were shopping all morning, getting ready for our departure for
Kragujevatz to-morrow, Tuesday. We leave soon after 7 o'clock. This
afternoon we went with Mrs. Stobart as far as the tram went, then we
walked to the beach. We were a party of twenty-four; we all had tea
and then paddled and came home. I have just finished packing for
Serbia.


                                       Tuesday, _April 20, 1915._

Got up at 6 o'clock, went to Hotel Splendide for breakfast; then we
all marched behind a funny old cart, which had our luggage, to the
station. I had a tin of honey, fifty-six pounds, which I bought at
Salonika; the tin cracked and it began to run out; a cork came out of
a paraffin bottle, and this began to _run_; then the luggage kept
taking flying leaps off the cart: we had to keep running after it, to
put it back: the man went on, never stopping for any catastrophe. When
we landed at the station we had the time of our life, such a scuffle
and rush to get into the train. Only twelve of us left to-day, and the
other thirty-six follow us on Thursday. All the unit saw us off. The
train left at 9.15; it was to have left at 8.

The smell of formalin in the train was very strong, and all of us were
covered with paraffin, so the two smells _together_ were not very
delightful! Besides this, some of us had carbon balls and camphor in
our pockets.

It took us about half an hour to get out of Greece. The country all
along is simply wonderful; the most glorious scenery, hills, rocks and
valleys, with the most gorgeous colourings. All along we saw herons,
storks and eagles, vultures, magpies and jackdaws. All these birds are
most plentiful and very tame. All the carts are pulled by buffalo oxen
and donkeys. Most of the sheep are black; also the pigs and goats.

The train first stopped at Topsin, then at Amatovar and then Karasuli;
these are all the Greek stations we passed. The first Serbian station
we stopped at one and a half hours. It was at Ghevgheli. There were
many Austrian prisoners and Serbian soldiers on the platform. The
Serbians looked very tired, and their clothes were very shabby. They
are very badly shod, only a kind of moccasin on their feet. A good
many of the Serbians have khaki clothes, but it seems that they have
been given by the English. On lots of the house-tops and chimney-tops
the herons have built their nests; this was most interesting to see. A
great many of the soldiers have lambs following them about like dogs.
They are so pretty.

Eight lovely peacocks were on the platform, and they kept walking
under the train; also one or two white guinea-fowls. We saw no end of
tortoises all along the line, and we got one and brought it into the
carriage, but we had to put it out again as we had no green stuff to
feed it on. All the lakes and reservoirs are full of bull frogs; these
make a tremendous noise just like a lot of ducks quacking. The trees
in this part of the country are quite small ones, and there are no
hedges; the blossom on the trees is perfectly lovely. We watched the
butter being made from goat's milk, and very good it is. Most of the
work in the fields is done by women and oxen, and the women look very
picturesque in their different coloured garments. We had lovely
flowers all the way, especially poppies. We kept passing swamps, full
of different grasses. The mountains are wonderful, covered with snow,
and we hear that when some of the snow melts dead bodies are found
underneath. We crossed over the bridges which were blown up three
weeks ago by the Bulgarians; we came through a wonderful tunnel cut in
the rocks, and we passed no end of churchyards, where the men are
buried in the different battles--Turks, Serbians, and Bulgarians--it
is really pitiful to see them. We are guarded by soldiers all along
the lines and on the trains. We passed lots of rows of little crosses
where all the women, children and men were buried after the Bulgarian
raid a week ago. A rope was put round their necks and they were hung
up on trees to die. All the soldiers come and salute us at each
station and along the line. They all look so sad. Uskub we stopped at
7 o'clock, and we were met by Sir Ralph Paget. We had dinner at the
station: soup floating with grease and omelet as tough as leather; the
bread was almost black and very sour. The room was very dirty, and
many men were sprinkling disinfectants about. This amused me very
much. We slept in the train.


                                      Thursday, _April 22, 1915._

We got up before 6 o'clock; had breakfast. It is much colder, and we
are very near snow-clad mountains. We got to Nish at 8 and had two
hours to wait. We were met by the Serbian Minister and doctor, and
taken in a funny little carriage to the Reserve Hospital, where we
washed.

This was the Hospital which contained 1,500 Serbian wounded when it
fell into the hands of the Bulgarians. We then had breakfast--bread,
raw bacon and eggs; not good; but we must be thankful for anything in
these bad times. The beds in the wards are several planks of wood,
with straw mattress and pillows--quite clean. The women are not a
bad-looking race. The minister showed us a terrible photograph he had
taken of women and children hanging from trees, where the Bulgarians
had strung them up. Two units we left at Nish; one is coming in a few
days to Kragujevatz, the other to Belgrade. We drove back to the
station; impossible to walk; the mud is eight or ten inches deep.

We slept in the train, three in a compartment, and none of us got
bitten. We first cleaned all the carriages out with paraffin. We
passed through vineyards and maize-fields. The women do the ploughing
with the oxen. There are hundreds of wounded Austrians everywhere to
be seen. On arriving at Kragujevatz we were met by doctors and
officers, and were taken out to dinner. Four carriages, two horses to
each carriage, a most quaint turn-out. The horses seem to fly along,
and the roads are in the most awful condition; it was all we could do
to prevent ourselves being pitched out.

We first went to the sanitary department and were introduced round,
and then we all washed our hands in disinfectants, and were taken on
to the Prince's Palace; it is now turned into a dining club for
officers. We had a big dinner, starting with very fine Russian
caviare. The dinner lasted until 10 o'clock. We then returned to the
station and stayed the night in the train. One vanload of luggage had
not then arrived, and it was too late to pitch tents. The bull-frogs
were singing all night. When a Serbian introduces his wife, he says,
"Excuse me, but may I introduce my wife?" When a party is given, the
wife never appears at table. They must think it strange that our women
are treated so differently.


                                        Friday, _April 23, 1915._

Mrs. Stobart has been with some of the officers to find a site for the
Hospital; it is right at the top of the hill, and before the war
started it was a race-course, and it was also used for sports. We
spent the afternoon putting up the tents. The custom in Serbia is,
when a death occurs, they put out a black flag for six days or more,
and it was sad to see two or three dozen flags all along the town. We
have been hard at work all day putting away stores.

The officers are most kind; they invited us to dinner, but we were all
too busy to go, so they sent us a lovely dinner to the tents--some
fried fish, a stew of beef, and a small lamb roasted whole, and a
salad. One of the Government officials joined us.


                                        Sunday, _April 25, 1915._

We had a service at 8.30 a.m., which Dr. Dearmer conducted, and he
conducted another service at 2.30 and 5.30. Several of the nurses and
officers came from other hospitals. The weather is very hot, but the
nights cold. We hear the owls, nightingales and cuckoo all night.
Several of our staff are ill. I have delightful people to work with,
and we are very comfortable. Four of us in a big tent. They call me
the "Little Mother," but my general name is Cookie. The Government
officials all call me Miss Cookie.

We have now started getting up at 4.30, breakfast at 5. We have had to
put on our summer clothes as it is very hot. I bought five lambs
to-day, 15 dinas each. They eat the meat the same day it is killed.
The small lambs and pigs are cooked whole. Forty wounded arrived to
day; they all had a bath with disinfectant in, and then put on clean
clothes, their own baked and tied up and put away with their names on.
Some of the wounded look very ill, but this place will soon do them
good. It makes us very happy to see them improving.


                                       Tuesday, _April 27, 1915._

More wounded are to arrive to-day. We are to have surgical cases. When
the fighting starts our Field Hospital is to move on with the army. We
get quite used to getting up early. We are up at 4.30 and to bed at 9
o'clock; it saves lights. I sleep outside the tent, and many of the
others do likewise. It is perfectly lovely. I shall never want to
sleep in again.

The sun is glorious, rising above the mountain-tops. We are getting
quite used to the noises at night. We have the nightingales, one
singing against the other; the owls calling out; big black crickets,
which live in holes in the ground all over our camp and fields, making
their funny noise. Then there are fireflies, which at first I thought
were searchlights, as they were so very bright; cocks are crowing all
round at the various farms; stray dogs, which seem almost wild, visit
the camp at night and try to get into the kitchens to the stores, and
occasionally they will start barking and howling; in ponds near are
frogs croaking.

My staff are so nice, it makes work so much easier. I went into
Kragujevatz to-day to do some shopping. None of us are allowed to go
on account of typhus, but there is not much fear when one takes
precautions. The shops are quite nice and the shoes and clothes
quaint. Singer's sewing machines are seen everywhere; also Sunlight
soap, Colman's mustard, Peak Frean's biscuits, Peter's milk chocolate.
These things remind us of home. Rice, haricot beans and prunes are
very plentiful, and they form some of the chief articles of diet.


                                     Wednesday, _April 28, 1915._

The wagons are drawn by oxen; they only do twenty miles a day. They
are magnificent beasts and are well cared for. We have bought two of
them and have called them Derry & Toms, as Derry & Toms gave us two or
three of their carts to bring out here.

We have had six officers dining with us to-day. The heat is terrific.
I can't imagine what it will be in June. The Serbian food is very
funny, but good. For breakfast they have a kind of bread-pudding; they
call it our "English" bread-pudding, but the Serbian name is "Popiri."
You put bread cut into dice into boiling water, with salt and fat;
they beat it all together and serve. They like it so much and do not
care for anything else; for a change they have stewed prunes and
bread. They drink tea or coffee and the ones on special diet have
eggs.


                                           Sunday, _May 2, 1915._

We have so much work here we seldom know the day or the date. We have
just had tent drill, as we may move on soon, then we shall have to
pull down our tents ourselves. We have lost several of our stores
coming out: all the bacon and lots of other things. Some of the men
look dreadful and half starved; they seem to like our food. I have
five Austrian prisoners working for me. It is difficult to get much
work out of them, as they say, "No pay, no work"; but I said then
there will be no food, and now they cannot do enough for us; they are
not bad on the whole. I have a funny man who buys for me in the
market. He is too fat to fight, and he is always telling me, with his
arms in the air, that he works only for me. We slept outside on our
camp beds last night; it began to rain and the night nurses had to
carry us in. It is lovely to see how the wounded enjoy this camp life;
they are so happy. When they arrive they have a paraffin bath and
their clothes baked. We brought a lot of clothes with us from England.
Four officers came to see us this morning, and they lent us their
horses for half an hour for us to ride. I am to go next time.

    [Illustration: Mrs. Stobart and part of the unit going out to
    Serbia on the _Saidieh_, having Swedish drill.]

    [Illustration: Hospital at Nish. When captured by the
    Bulgarians, contained 1,500 patients.
    _Face page 32_]

One of the doctors and I went for a lovely evening walk; the frogs
were singing to each other, quite a different noise to what we heard
before. This morning I took all my kitchen orderlies to have a bath,
five of them.

Mrs. Stobart took our photos and I gave the men their new clothes. I
managed to get them each a blanket and they were all very happy. They
built themselves a hut to sleep in. They are all Austrian prisoners.


                                           Monday, _May 3, 1915._

A Dispensary has been started on the road side near our Field
Hospital, and people are coming for miles to get medicine and advice.
There are many cases of diphtheria, typhoid, typhus, scarlet fever,
consumption and other diseases. The civil population are suffering
terribly on account of the war; they have been so neglected. One girl
walked twenty miles to get medicine for her father, mother, sister
and brother who were all down with typhus. A number of the patients
come in ox carts and they travel all right; it is wonderful how
quickly they have got to hear of the Dispensary. Mrs. Stobart has
decided to open many more.


                                         Thursday, _May 6, 1915._

This has been a great festival for the Serbians--St. George's
Day--they keep it as a holiday. We had two of the officers to dinner,
and a bonfire at 8 o'clock, and we all danced and sang; quite a good
evening. The wounded quite enjoyed themselves.


                                           Friday, _May 7, 1915._

I went for a walk with two of the doctors to a cemetery near here.
There are thousands of little wooden crosses where the Serbians fell
in the last battle, also for those who died from typhus. The Austrian
prisoners are digging rows and rows of new graves. The dead are not
buried in coffins; there are several empty coffins lying about.

Many of the crosses have several numbers, so many are buried in the
same grave, four and six. Our Dispensaries are getting on splendidly;
some of the patients walked forty miles; one can scarcely believe it.
We feed all those that come a long distance. We had over 100 patients
to-day. I bought in the market to-day ten sheep, six turkeys, five
geese and nine ducks. We eat two and three lambs just for the staff at
one meal; they are very small.


                                           Sunday, _May 9, 1915._

I was up just after 4 this morning. Mrs. Stobart and three Serbian
officials went off to find another site for a Dispensary. Colonel
Harrison, our English Military Attaché, has been to dinner. I gave
them boiled turkey and white sauce and macaroni. Turkeys are cheap; I
got six for 57 dinas, and you get 36 dinas for a sovereign. After
dinner Colonel Harrison gave us some very good records on his
gramaphone. Our gramaphone has been lost.

The Austrians are still shelling Belgrade. One of my five Austrian
orderlies gives me a lot of trouble. He goes off sometimes for three
or four hours to get drink, so I had to report him; he has had his
ears well boxed in front of me by the sergeant. If he had struck the
sergeant back he would have been shot.

We have several wounded Austrians and one German. When the German is
spoken to he always stands at attention; he is really a nice man!

The camp is quite a swamp. I got up at 4.30 and went to market with
Mr. Greenhalgh. The market did not open till late, so we went into a
café which was not at all nice; beetles were running about on the
tables and floor. I sat with my feet tucked under me.

A lot of young wounded soldiers sat drinking whisky; it is only a
penny for a little decanter out of which they drink. Other people had
Russian coffee with a glass of cold water.

I am very troubled with dogs and cats; they get into the kitchen and
steal the food. I have stopped the dogs getting in, but the cats I
cannot keep out.

The wild flowers are very beautiful; we have different kinds gathered
for the wards and for the tables; they are much finer than ours. I
cannot get out much, I am so tired when off duty.


                                          Monday, _May 17, 1915._

One of my cooks has a revolver, and early this morning she was
unloading it when it went off and hit me on the arm; fortunately it
was not serious. The shot went through her box, then a thick pocket
book, and thence into a tea caddy, where it remained. It was really
very terrifying. A Russian and French Military Attaché came in this
afternoon.

We have ten hospital tents and each one holds ten patients, and as
they are all full more tents have to be put up. At 9 o'clock this
evening a very bad case of typhus arrived in an ox cart--a poor
soldier who was just on leave. His old mother and father came with
him; they were to sleep under the cart, and as the ground was inches
thick with mud, we got them bundles of straw; we also gave them hot
coffee and bread. One sees some sad sights.

I went again to the market; it is very picturesque. Some of the gipsy
women are very handsome and their costumes charming. Most of the
materials for their dresses and aprons are homespun. The different
shades of reds, blues, yellow and green are lovely, they all tone so
well. We are just on 200 at the camp now, but the numbers never worry
me. We bought cheese and great rolls of sausages in the market. My
store tent is almost under water. I have had to put down bricks and
planks and have a trench dug through the centre. We are told we shall
have it wet for three weeks. The rain comes down in torrents, much
heavier than in England. The patients are all looking so much better
and much fatter. I have bought two large copper boilers for soup; one
cost 123 dinas and the other 77 dinas, but I should think they would
last for ever. I have had a brick wall set round them and a flue at
the back and a grate underneath. We only cook with wood; it is really
very excellent as it retains the heat so long, and really I like it
better than coal. But at first the smoke made us all cry until I got
the stoves properly set.


                                         Tuesday, _May 18, 1915._

We have had an exciting day as the Prince Alexandra of Serbia was
expected to see our Field Hospital. He and his suite arrived on
horseback. The Prince is the most delightful man, so very friendly and
easy to get on with. Mrs. Stobart presented me. He was much interested
in the kitchen departments, and shook hands with me three times. He
seemed delighted and interested in all the hospitals. A Field Hospital
seems quite a novelty out here. I talked to his horse, a charming
creature called "Sugar."

Dr. May returns to London to-morrow to bring out new equipments, as we
are to have six more Dispensaries and a Civil Hospital. I have been
doing out lists for new stores all morning.

I am having a lovely Serbian dress given me. I made some good Serbian
cheese to-day; it is quite easy to make and it is really nice. I wish
friends would send me newspapers; they would be very welcome. I picked
up a cannon ball and horseshoe to add to my treasures. We had another
bad storm; the rain drops are as large as a 2_s._ piece. It is really
amusing when it gets windy as every one rushes to their tent to
tighten their guy ropes, and when it has been raining some little time
they have to be loosened. In the night it is not so pleasant turning
out of a nice comfortable bed. But for all this camp life is very
delightful.

The Serbians have been at war for the last four years. They fought
first against Turkey, then against Bulgaria, and twice against
Austria-Hungary.

Valievo was in the hands of the Austrians at the beginning of
December, 1914. Then the Austrians captured Belgrade where they
remained for thirteen days. On December 15 Belgrade was recaptured by
the Serbians. Of the army of 300,000 who crossed the Save River,
nearly half was put out of action. More than 41,500 prisoners were
taken together with 133 guns, 71 maxims, 386 ammunition wagons, 3,350
transport wagons, and more than 3,250 horses and oxen. The dead and
wounded Austro-Hungarians left on the battlefield exceeded 60,000.


                                        Thursday, _May 20, 1915._

The cannon ball that I told you about that I picked up was used 100
years ago against the Turks; there are no end lying about the fields.

Dr. May returned to England this evening; she will be away about six
weeks. She will bring out more stores and will collect fresh funds for
the upkeep of our Hospital and Dispensary.

Transport wagons are passing along the road near our camp all night,
so perhaps we shall move on shortly. Oxen are used and they only
travel about twenty English miles a day.

We have no fresh cases in hospital because there is no fighting at
present. There are over one hundred patients at the road-side
dispensary; each day some of the cases are terrible--typhus, scarlet
fever, diphtheria, and a very bad case of small-pox, but there are no
hospitals to send these sort of cases to. To-day a poor girl arrived
with one foot black, all the flesh eaten off her leg with gangrene;
she had a tubercular foot which she had had a year and it had never
been attended to. Women arrive with dreadful diseases, some with
cancer.

People in dear old England cannot imagine the state of this part of
the world; thousands and thousands are suffering and cannot get
attention.

We are now trying to stop some of the dreadful diseases spreading, and
are starting another Hospital called the Civil, and this Hospital will
take in some of these bad cases. We are also hoping to have the six
dispensaries along the line. Our Field Hospital is only for surgical
cases.

Another wet day; we had a terrible thunderstorm which returned two
nights running; the lightning is much more vivid than in England; in
fact it lights up the hills all round and the sky seems to almost
open.

To-day is only May 9 with the Serbians; thirteen days difference; it
seems so strange.

To-day a man was seen buying Serbian whisky; he gave it to two of the
patients and made them drunk. One of my orderlies did the same and was
sent away last week. Owing to this one man the whole lot of Austrian
orderlies were called into line, twenty-seven in all, and they were
marched to the office tent, where Major Partridge talked to them all,
boxed the man's ears who bought the whisky and sent him to prison for
ten days.

There are three kinds of punishment for prisoners: first, boxing their
ears; second, sending to prison for ten days on bread and water and
solitary confinement; and third, to shoot them. It makes me quite ill
to see the men have their ears boxed. The Serbians seem really good to
their prisoners; I hope ours in Germany are being treated as well.

I had a lovely dish of wild strawberries brought me to-day as a
present; the strawberries were strung on grasses and they are sold for
1_d._ a string. I also had a bunch of cherries and some sweets, and
this evening two of the Austrian prisoners gave me their prison
badges, so I was in luck's way.

All around our camp we have funny round holes. I discovered that
black-looking beetles lived down them, but to-night I found they are
crickets; they sing all night and are such dears. I dug one out of its
hole and put it in the kitchen. We also found some of these funny
holes where great large spiders live with hairy legs, and they spin
such a nice strong web over their holes. I suppose this is their front
door. We have been up to our knees in mud the last few days, and
little streams run through our camp, but one gets used to these
things; the ground is of hard clay and the water does not disperse
quickly unless the sun comes out, then it dries up in quite a short
time. This makes us think of our poor soldiers in the trenches.


                                          Sunday, _May 23, 1915._

This morning one of the doctors came for me to go and see an
operation. It was a poor man who had recovered from typhus, then got
frost-bitten toes, and they had fallen off; new skin had to be grafted
over the stumps, and it was taken from the thigh. It will be
interesting to see how it grows on the foot.

In the afternoon two of the doctors and I went for a long walk. We
went about twelve miles right on the top of the highest hill, and from
there, a few months back, one could see the battle raging from
Belgrade. At the top of these hills we could see great holes where the
shells had burst. Wild flowers are gorgeous. The acacia trees are
wonderful, much finer than ours. Most of the hedges are acacias. The
fields are covered with wild strawberries.

Mrs. Stobart and one of the doctors have gone to Nish till Wednesday
morning.

The girl I told you of, who had the gangrene on her leg, had the leg
off to-day. We put a little tent up for her; we could not let her go
on suffering.

Another terrible day. I have never seen such rain; we are simply
flooded; the storm lasted five or six hours.

Mrs. Stobart and the doctor arrived home at 6 o'clock this morning. We
shall soon hear when our camp moves on. I cannot continue writing as
we have another bad storm. The hailstones were like small marbles. We
have now streams running through our camp.

This evening we had several of the officers to dinner, and Colonel
Harrison's gramaphone after.

We hear that the Italian Military Attaché arrived here to-day, and
that fighting round about here will start in ten days. This morning it
was interesting to see the transport wagons pass on their way to
Belgrade.

This evening, while I was waiting for the last whistle to blow for
lights out, I went a little walk to see the frogs in some ponds near
by; in one pond they were singing in a high key--I suppose they must
have had soprano voices--and in another pond they were croaking as if
they had bass voices, and as they made this quaint noise their jaws
swelled out to a tremendous size. They came to the edge of the pond to
see who I was and seemed to say, What are you doing here! The light
from the hurricane lamp must have attracted them. The crickets are
also singing everywhere; we can see their holes all over the hills.
They work their wings together to make their quaint noise. And the
cuckoo was also singing. With all these different noises it was quite
an entertainment.


                                          Friday, _May 28, 1915._

Got up at 4.15 a.m. and went to market. I bought one sheep, some beef,
five ducks, six kilos of sausages, 200 eggs, some carrots and peas.
The sheep I gave 20 dinas for, and as 35 dinas go to the £1 it is not
much. Ducks vary from 1-½ to 3 dinas. Eggs were 9 dinas a hundred and
very good.

Wild strawberries and cherries are plentiful, but too expensive to buy
at present. Market is over at 12. I got back by 9 o'clock. I have a
man that looks after all the live stock we buy in the market, and he
kills them as they are required for table.

There are three different markets--one for oxen, hay and wood; another
for sheep, goats and pigs; and another for eggs, vegetables, cheese
and fruits.

The pigs are all different colours, yellow, black, white, elephant
colour. They are very tame, as they are made into pets and many of the
little ones live in the houses.

On the way to the sheep market we saw a lot of guns, officers and
transport going to Bosnia. The officers' horses had wreaths of roses
round their necks; it is the usual custom, and the officers are
presented with a bouquet.

There has been a scarcity of sugar in Kragujevatz for about two weeks;
the other day they managed to get about 20,000 kilos, and at the shop
it was being sold there was quite a raid. It was sold for 1_s._ 6_d._
per lb. There is no butter to be got; it cannot be made with the milk
on account of typhus; the milk has to be boiled directly it comes in;
it never tastes or smells nice. It costs 5_d._ per litre.

Mrs. Stobart has had a lovely bell given her by the Serbian
Government. It has Mrs. Stobart's Hospital on it in English, and the
Serbian crest. We only had a little goat's bell to ring to bring
people to meals.

To-day I had one of the Army Medical Corps Field Trenches dug, and it
was most successful. We do not require it for cooking, but Mrs.
Stobart wanted one made as they may be required at the Dispensaries. I
have already four lovely stoves with fine ovens and two large stewpans
with wood fire under them. The pans are of copper. We have portable
boilers for the hot water, which are most excellent; and Serbians have
been to take the measurements of the boilers and stoves so that they
can have some made like them.

Just been to help one of the doctors by holding a patient's arm while
it was lanced for an abscess. I constantly regret that I was not
trained to be a doctor. I am most interested in seeing operations, as
one always has the satisfaction in knowing that the patients will soon
be relieved from their sufferings.


                                         Tuesday, _June 1, 1915._

Sir Thomas Lipton arrived for 8 o'clock breakfast this morning. He had
with him the _Daily Chronicle_, _Times_, and one or two other
reporters. Two or three Serbian officers also came with him. Mrs.
Stobart had been down to meet the train from Uskab at 5 a.m.

We had a very big party in the evening. Sir Thomas Lipton and many of
the officers came to dinner, and afterwards a concert of forty
musicians. The convalescent patients thoroughly enjoyed the evening.

We were all overjoyed after our guests had left to hear that our
letters, which were a month overdue from England, had arrived.

I had nineteen letters, three papers and a book. I stayed up nearly
all night reading them.

The sheep I bought the other day for 20 dinas is a great pet, just
like a dog and follows us everywhere. We call it our mascot. It has a
great blue ribbon bow round its neck which one of the nurses gave it.

To-day our sergeant, who helps with secretarial work, has typhus. He
has been sent to the Scottish Fever Hospital. He is such a nice man
and has been with us ever since we arrived at the camp.

We had another terrible storm. I never saw such rain; if one is out
you are soaked through in a minute.

Several of our members have high temperatures to-day; they have been
isolated.

I have been to an operation this afternoon. It was to see a toe
removed and two web fingers cut. I am really proud of our women
surgeons. They are really excellent and so quick.


                                          Friday, _June 4, 1915._

We are still paddling about, up to our ankles. Two more members of our
staff are in bed with high temperatures. We hope it is only malaria.
Two of the Serbian Army Medical Corps came to see our camp.

Mrs. Stobart is still in bed with high temperature. I have to take all
my staff's temperatures every morning and report to the doctors.

Two of Dr. Berry's unit have come to stay in this camp for a few days.
Our six staff invalids are going on well, but they all ask for
different kinds of food which is somewhat trying.

Lady Lethbridge is posting this for me.

We do not know what this fever is. Some of our staff and the doctors
are beginning to think it is typhoid, but the temperature charts are
most curious, not a bit like the ordinary typhoid.

I have felt unhappy to-day for our sanitary inspector has put
disinfectants in all the ponds on the camp as the water was getting
stagnant, and all the happy little frogs are suffering. Thirteen ducks
from the farm near by have been to drink the poisoned water, and they
have just run down to the kitchen gasping and their eyes nearly out of
their heads. They have been given bowls of water and it seems as
though they would never stop drinking. It has taken quite six hours
for them to recover from the chloride of lime and water.


                                          Sunday, _June 6, 1915._

We had service at 5.30 a.m. in the mess tent. Two ducks walked in
during the service. They made a great noise, and after the service we
found that they had laid an egg just outside the tent. We had another
service at 10 and another at 4 o'clock, but the ducks this time did
not visit us.

My pet sheep had to be sent away, as it loved having its afternoon nap
in the other tents. I did not mind it as I had disinfected it, and it
was beautifully white and so clean; it was a great pet. I call it Sir
Thomas. It was killed for dinner, and I went without meat for several
days. It had grown so fat, and it was the best piece of meat we had in
the camp. It was most painful doing the carving.


                                         Tuesday, _June 8, 1915._

We had five visitors to-day, four doctors and Lady Lethbridge. We
again had turkey. This is quite a common dish in Serbia, and they are
so cheap, only 7 dinas each; some are 5 dinas. Many of our units are
down with fever; it makes us very busy.


                                       Wednesday, _June 9, 1915._

To-day Dr. Dearmer and two of my kitchen staff and I went for a lovely
motor ride as we have been too tired to go for walks, and Mr. Black
took us in his car. We started at 2 o'clock and got back at 6. The
weather is very hot, and in some of the tents the temperature is
110°.


                                       Thursday, _June 10, 1915._

At 3.30 this morning I was awakened by a gun being fired; I did not
think anything of this, as one gets so used to the noise of guns. At
4.30 I dressed and went to inquire what the patients were going to
have for breakfast, and when one of the nurses and I were standing
talking we heard a great explosion. I knew at once that it was a bomb,
as I had experienced the same thing in Antwerp. We then heard, as we
thought, the Marconi working, and we looked above us and saw it was a
German aeroplane. Then we saw another German aeroplane, and then two
Austrian ones. We knew at once they were attacking Kragujevatz. They
began dropping bombs first near the arsenal, which did not,
fortunately, do any damage; then one near the King's Palace, which did
no harm but battered several shops and made holes in the walls of the
cathedral. The bomb fell in the middle of the road. Many windows were
broken in the cathedral. Another bomb fell in a cottage and killed a
girl of fourteen who had only been in Kragujevatz three days; her
parents had sent her from Belgrade as she was so afraid of the raids
there. Sixteen people were injured and five killed. Then they came
over our camp, a splendid target for them as the Marconi is only 150
yards away. The next bomb dropped was about 150 yards from our camp.
The smoke was terrible; I felt sure some of us would be the next
victims. Most of our unit turned out in their night attire. I was glad
that I was presentable. The next bomb dropped was about 110 yards and
the pieces were scattered all round the mess tent and the kitchen. One
of the doctors came hurrying along and called for me to pick up some
pieces of shrapnel, but as we got to the spot we found a poor woman
had been struck. Her arm was quite a pulp; I do not think she will
recover.

I got about fourteen pieces of shrapnel, a piece of the
hanger-propeller and the fuse. Lots of trees were struck and I got a
piece of shrapnel out of the bark. A wireless was sent from here and
one of the aeroplanes was brought down.

There has never been a raid on Kragujevatz before. All the guards
round our camp fired their rifles, but there were no air-craft guns
fired. We have not got large guns round us as there had never been a
raid on Kragujevatz before.

Another poor woman was brought in wounded about 11 o'clock. She had a
little baby which was _not_ hurt; she was struck on the leg. The baby
is exactly like a little old man, and it only weighs 6-½ lbs. and is a
year old; its bones are coming nearly out of its flesh.

Some of our staff who have fever are very ill, and some delirious.
Mrs. Stobart is much better.

Dr. Dearmer is going to Salonika. He is meeting some fresh members for
our unit, they are due on June 18. A Civil Hospital and some
Dispensaries are to be started. They will be branches of this one. The
pontoon bridges and the regiments pass our camp every day. The
weather is terribly hot.

We have started to use our mosquito nets. I had an arrow given me
yesterday by a French aviator, one of the kind they throw out of the
aeroplanes; and I have had a very nice Turkish dress given me.

Letters come from England very well now; they take about thirteen
days.

Our convalescents sing and play at nights; some of them have very good
voices. Their songs were generally battle songs, and relate to their
friends who had fallen in the war. They are very clever in making
their instruments--flutes, violins--which are excellent.

Just heard that some more aeroplanes have been seen but they have been
stopped coming over here. The Serbian Government think that they tried
to drop the bombs on our camp; we can be sighted miles away.


                                         Friday, _June 11, 1915._

Eleven of our staff are down with fever; it is getting quite serious.
The strange part of it is the doctors cannot yet discover what the
fever is.

We have 125 patients in the hospital, thirty-seven soldiers as
orderlies, Austrians and Serbs, and fifty-nine of our own staff.

It was very funny the other day. Two large eagles were seen flying
very high. They were taken for aeroplanes, and were immediately fired
upon. The Serbians are quite ready for air raids, as we have some
splendid air-craft guns placed in excellent positions.


                                         Sunday, _June 13, 1915._

The weather is very hot. I have never experienced anything like it,
quite tropical. One of our doctors has been taken ill to-day; that
makes twelve of our staff down with fever.

Mrs. Dearmer has been taken ill. Mrs. Stobart, a doctor and I had a
conference about the disease. It was pronounced by the doctor to be
typhoid. One doctor stated that it was due to flies; but this point
was condemned, as the flies have only become plentiful the last week.
It was suggested that it might be raw salad; but this was again
knocked on the head, as no raw salad has been eaten for about three
weeks, and then it was washed in distilled water and vinegar, and
several of the fever patients never ate salad. The last suggestion was
the camp itself. This is the most probable, as before we arrived this
camp was covered with refugees from all parts; and with the very dry
weather, and then the heavy rains, most of the doctors think it is due
to this. Some of the cases have been pretty bad in spite of the
inoculation. Temperatures are 104.8 and several are delirious.
Fortunately none of the wounded have it.

We have had a terrible hurricane to-day, and a bad thunderstorm. Two
tents were blown down. The hailstones were as big as large marbles.


                                        Tuesday, _June 15, 1915._

I was taken bad to-day with gastritis. Dr. Atkinson is attending me. I
hope to be up in a few days. It is due to overstrain of the nerves. We
have sent for five more nurses to come and help us. I have a lot to be
thankful for that I have not got typhoid.


                                      Wednesday, _June 16, 1915._

Mrs. Stobart is about again.

Prince Alexis came to see our camp this evening. I feel a little
better.

This has been a funny day, one that we shall never forget. At 6.30 a
telephone message came up from the Government Office that we were
going to have an aerial raid, and that we had better clear our camp.
Twenty aeroplanes were expected, six were to throw bombs on
Kragujevatz, and the others were going on to the Danube. All the
patients had to be taken by one road and the staff by another, and
they had to go about half a mile from the camp. Two oxen were put into
one of Derry & Tom's carts, and patients who could not walk were put
in, and these were the first to leave. Then the motors came round for
the staff that could not walk. Dr. May Atkinson did not want me to go;
however, Mrs. Stobart insisted, and I was the last of the poor victims
to be carted away. I was put on a stretcher and jolted down the road
for half a mile with the other members of the unit, and we were
plumped down on the roadside while others were fetched, and this went
on until the camp was actually cleared. This was at 6.30 and the
aeroplanes were expected at 8.

No aeroplanes came after all this excitement. Some kind member of the
unit managed to get me some bovril, as I was not allowed solid food.
At about 10.30 breakfast was sent up, boiled eggs and some cheese. I
expect this was thought a suitable diet for a patient suffering from a
high temperature.

The army camp near was also cleared of its soldiers and oxen. At 11.30
a message came that we could return to our camp as the flight had been
stopped, and that one of the aeroplanes had been brought down by the
French and Italians.

I have five Austrian orderlies; their names are--Mike, Mick, Peet,
Steve and Milko; they are really splendid, and so willing. They are
all so sorry I am ill, and they all come round to see me and wanted to
know if I was "too much sick." Mike works harder than ever, and says
"Missis ill, Mike work hard, Mike good boy."


                                         Friday, _June 18, 1915._

I have been in bed all day but am feeling better. It is very hot
again. Four nurses from the Farmer's unit at Belgrade arrived to help
us; two from the Scotch Hospital came on Wednesday, and four have come
from another unit, so we shall no longer be single-handed.

All the staff who have typhoid are getting on nicely.


                                       Saturday, _June 19, 1915._

I am allowed up for a little this afternoon, so to-morrow I hope to be
about again.

Two great guns have been brought up near this camp. Two of the
patients are about again. Dr. Atkinson will not let me go back to work
again until my temperature has been normal for forty-eight hours. The
work is very hard and there is no end to it. I hear we are to be sent
for a few days' rest to another unit. We constantly have members of
other units coming over for two or three days' rest here; it is so
nice being friendly with all the other different units out here.

Dr. Dearmer has gone to Salonika to fetch the members of the new unit;
they arrive to-morrow.

We have heard that the _Saidieh_ has been torpedoed, and seven of the
crew are lost. The Germans have been after this boat for a long time.
We should have been torpedoed coming out if it had not been for the
rough weather and the sea-fog on Easter Sunday.

The _Saidieh_ had just returned to England under sealed orders by the
Government. I am thankful that our nice captain was saved--John
Reginald Ryall. We are anxious to hear about the chief officer and
chief engineer.

I have a Serbian to take my place while I am away from work in the
patients' kitchen; he is a splendid cook. He amuses us with his
moustache; he keeps it pressed in a frame in the early morning. I
think if it got burnt with his cooking it would be the death of him.

We started working this camp two months ago this Friday. We hear that
Dr. May left England on the 18th with a fresh unit.

The baby belonging to the poor woman who was wounded by shrapnel died
this morning; it is a blessing as the poor little thing had been so
neglected. But the dear nurse that was looking after the baby was
heartbroken. We called her Copper Nob, because she had such lovely red
hair.

Most of the wounded soldiers have quite lost their nerve. When they
hear that aeroplanes are coming they are quite panic-struck. We were
to have had practice this morning with balloons; one man fled.

We have such a number of hooded crows here, and some birds called
golden oriole.


                                         Monday, _June 21, 1915._

Nothing of interest has happened this evening. We still have crowds of
visitors every day to see the camp.


                                        Tuesday, _June 22, 1915._

I am still not allowed out of my tent. I just feel like a naughty
child who has been sent to her room. My temperature will not be
obedient and go to its normal condition. To-day three of our unit who
have been ill have gone for a few days to Vrynatchka Banja to Dr.
Berry's unit. When they return the doctors want me to go. We are just
in the midst of another bad storm.


                                      Wednesday, _June 23, 1915._

Two of the second Farmer's unit have come to see our Field Hospital
to-day; they are from Pojeropatz. We have the most ghastly
thunderstorm every evening; the lightning scarcely ever ceases now;
the thunder generally lasts about two hours; the rain comes down in
pailfuls.


                                       Thursday, _June 24, 1915._

We have _The Times_ Correspondent, a Mr. Robinson, staying here. It is
interesting in the evening to see the little fireflies flying about
all round the camps; they seem to be more and more each night.


                                         Friday, _June 25, 1915._

I am still in the doctor's hands, and am not allowed to work owing to
my having a temperature. I have been in my tent nearly two weeks but
am almost better. I am to be sent for four or five days' change to Dr.
Berry's unit at Vrynatchka Banja. It is almost thirty miles from here,
and a glorious place I hear. We shall motor over. No more of our
patients have typhoid. Twenty-six of our unit have been ill all
together; some have been very serious cases. I have had a greater
power of resistance owing to my inoculation; most of those who have
had typhoid were inoculated just before coming out here.


                                       Saturday, _June 26, 1915._

I have been allowed out to-day. Dr. Dearmer arrived from Salonika
yesterday, with two cooks, five nurses and a chauffeur; he went to
meet them from England. They are for the roadside dispensaries, so
they are staying here for a little time to give us some help. Mrs.
Dearmer has been very ill with typhoid.


                                         Sunday, _June 27, 1915._

Sir Ralph Paget has been over to see us to-day, also a Mr. Petrovitch.
Five of the doctors and my two cooks came over to have tea with me.
To-morrow I am going away.


                                         Monday, _June 28, 1915._

Three of the doctors have been ill, so we did not get off to Dr.
Berry's to-day. We had the most ghastly thunderstorm this evening,
lasting two hours, such big hailstones. Dr. Payne, Nurse Berry and
Nurse Newhall, Mr. Black and myself had breakfast at 6.15. We took
plenty of refreshments with us and left the camp in the motor
ambulance for Vrynatchka Banja. It is sixty miles from Kragujevatz. We
came through the most gorgeous scenery, and it was so picturesque to
see the women and the boys working in the maize fields. The women
never wear hats, only coloured handkerchiefs over their heads, and if
in mourning the handkerchiefs are black. We had lunch when we got
about half way; then another bad storm came on and in a few minutes we
could scarcely see in front of us for thick mist. We soon drove
through it and came into quite dry ground again. The fields are
perfectly wonderful with wild flowers, the most beautiful colours.

The hedges are all acacia trees, and the most lovely wild flowers.
Butterflies and beetles are very plentiful. We had only one puncture,
and changed the wheel and went on merrily again. We arrived at
Vrynatchka Banja at about 2.30. We had a lovely welcome from the
members of Dr. Berry's unit; six of them had come out on the _Saidieh_
with us; several of them have been over to see us at our camp. We had
tea at 4 o'clock and at 6 we went to a lecture given by Dr. Berry. In
the evening we had some music. The other members of our unit which
were here when we arrived left at 9 o'clock for Kragujevatz the
following morning, leaving us three here for a rest. We saw them off;
then Nurse Berry and I went to see the town, leaving Nurse Newhall in
bed. This place is simply charming; it is far more beautiful than
Kragujevatz, and is one of the fashionable watering places in Serbia.
This hospital is very large and we have hot and cold water and
electric light. Dr. Berry has several other hospitals besides; they
have only 130 patients. This afternoon I went into the large ward for
some music with the wounded. We sang and played to them. The wounded
are most grateful for all that is done. They call us all "Sistra" and
often "Dobra Sistra," which means good sister. The Serbian men look so
fragile, with the exception of the higher class, who are mostly fine,
strong-looking men. The women are splendid, so handsome and strong
looking; they do most of the manual labour. The magnificent courage of
the Serbian women will never be forgotten. Some have lost father,
brothers, husbands and sons. These women have one simple answer:
"Sistra, they died for their country!" Before such patriotism we can
but kneel and pray for the simple faith which shall teach each one of
us to be brave enough to do the same. Their country, beautiful and
fertile like our own, is ravaged; disease, war and famine, yet they
still go on. The Austrian prisoners do most of the work; they are such
a nice race of men, and so willing, and never mind what they do. They
hate warfare. We are all impressed with them. It seems hard that they
have to fight against the Serbs. We went for a pretty walk after tea;
we all went to bed early.


                                        Thursday, _July 1, 1915._

It is just three months to-day since we left home. This morning I went
into the kitchen and learnt several Serbian dishes. My two companions
were not well, so stayed in bed. I went to see them at 10.30 and found
Nurse Berry very flushed. I took her temperature and found it 103°,
and her pulse 116°, so I fetched the doctor and she has to stay in
bed. I spent this afternoon with Nurse Berry, and this evening we were
taken to see the town. We went over two hospitals, then through the
park, and to the post to get stamps. The Post Office was closed, but
the girl was outside, so she served us; she had not change and trusted
us with 2 dinas' worth of stamps, which shows how the Serbs trust the
English. The town is very picturesque, such lovely trees everywhere;
the shops are very small. I bought some lovely coloured stockings. A
man in the hospital has to be operated on for glands and is not
allowed food. When it was time for his operation he refused to be
done; however, the doctors persuaded him. After the chloroform he was
violently sick, and he brought up nothing but red matter. The doctors
thought at first it was blood and they thought they had cut a vein.
However, it appears the man had gone off and gorged himself with
mulberries as he did not like being starved. White and red mulberry
trees grow wild over here. I went to see a doctor at Dr. Banks' unit
at the Red Cross Hospital for Dr. Dearmer; they told us the story that
Dr. Dearmer had written in the English papers about the man who was
thought to be dead and was put into his coffin. After the coffin was
put into the mortuary the man managed to get out and was found by the
nurse back in his bed.


                                          Friday, _July 2, 1915._

I have had a most interesting day; I spent part of the morning in the
wards, helping with dressings. It is really terrible to see these poor
men; most of them have lost their legs and feet; hundreds and hundreds
of the men have lost their toes and feet through frost-bite; one poor
fellow of only twenty-two has lost both his feet, and often calls me
to show me the two stumps. It would be a blessing if some of these
poor men had been killed right out, instead of all the suffering they
go through. Most of them seem happy, and it is because they won't be
able to go and fight again. Nurse Berry and Nurse Newhall have been in
bed nearly all day; they are in my care. After lunch I spent the
afternoon in the kitchen, learning Serbian cooking; their method of
pastry making is perfectly wonderful. They make the flour into a paste
with water and fat. Then it is stretched over tables and it is pulled
out until it is as thin as paper. This evening I was to have gone into
the town, but we made a call on a French lady and a big storm came on
and we did not get any further.


                                        Saturday, _July 3, 1915._

Dr. and Mrs. Berry went to Kragujevatz in the morning for a
conference. We went into the town, did some shopping and had some
raspberry drink and cakes at a café; we had a glorious walk back. This
afternoon we heard that there was a funeral; then we heard a lot of
wailing in the distance, so we put on our things and went to the
cemetery. We met the procession of about twenty women with a lot of
banners and baskets of food. It seems that the corpse they were
mourning for had been dead some time, forty days, so it was just an
anniversary. When we arrived at the cemetery the women put the flags
against a tree, then knelt down round the grave and began to wail and
cry bitterly. Then they lighted candles and put them on the grave.
They unpacked the baskets and put plates of food all over the
grave--bread, rice, cucumber cut in slices, cherries, little bowls of
jam, onions, little glasses of wine and decanters of water. We watched
this ceremony for about half an hour. Some of the mourners ate the
food and kept kissing the grave. There were no end of mourners at
other graves doing the same thing. It was the most pathetic sight I
have ever seen, so sad to see the poor things.


                                          Sunday, _July 4, 1915._

A very wet day; nothing but rain and thunder. After tea we went down
for a sulphur bath. Such a quaint place; it was a round deep hole with
running water only about six yards wide; the water was warm. After
breakfast we went another walk up to the cemetery. All the food that
had been left on the graves on Saturday had been eaten by the women
who had been wailing round the graves, with the exception of a few
apples and cherries that had been left on the ledges of some of the
crosses. We had a lovely walk back through some woods. There are
crowds of wild cherry trees laden with cherries, wild mulberries and
walnuts. The vine trees are also plentiful and so well trained. The
land is fairly well cultivated, considering that all the men are
fighting. The women are splendid workers. This afternoon I went again
to learn some Serbian dishes. There is such a nice woman here as cook.
As soon as she heard I was interested she said she would show me some
of their dishes, and Dr. Berry's sister is so good in letting me go
down into the kitchen to learn. We have been over most of the
hospitals here; really very good, and they are so clean. The park is
glorious, but it amused me to see spittoons all along the pathways.


                                         Tuesday, _July 6, 1915._

We went shopping this morning and came home through the park. After
lunch we rested till 2.30, then went for a picnic as it was one of the
nurses' birthdays. We did not go far, only to the top of the hill, but
the view round was magnificent, the lights and shades so perfect. Just
before we started for our picnic, Mrs. Berry, who had been spending
the week-end at our camp, arrived back with one nurse to take me back
to the camp. They came by train; Dr. Berry and another of our nurses
came by car. We heard some very sad news, and this was that one of the
nurses was dead, Nurse Ferris, a strong healthy girl of twenty-five
years of age. She was to be married in September. She was taken ill
just about a week before me with typhoid. It does not say much for
inoculation. Nurse Ferris was a good nurse; she had a bright cheerful
manner and was always the same. She knew Serbian better than any one
in the camp, and could sing the Serbian anthem. It seems strange that
she should have picked up Serbian in this manner and then be put to
rest in the country. It seems she died on Sunday afternoon at 3
o'clock. She was taken to the mortuary in the town and then laid to
rest on Monday. She had a large military funeral. All the staff from
our camp went, all the Government officials and the units from the
other hospitals, and all the doctors from these parts who had come
over to Kragujevatz for the doctors' conference. They had a band and
she was buried near the other nurses who had died from the Scotch
Hospital at Kragujevatz. She was only put into a temporary grave as,
when the war is over, the Government will erect a monument to all who
have died. Dr. Dearmer conducted the service. The last I saw of Nurse
Ferris was the night before I came here. I went to have a peep at all
our poor invalids. When the poor girl saw me she looked up and smiled
and waved to me. I little thought it was the last time I should see
her. Nurse Ferris and I always had little jokes together when she came
to meals; she was beloved by all in her ward. It seems this is the
first English service that has been conducted in a Greek cathedral;
the prince gave his consent and sent his secretary.

    [Illustration: A child having an abscess removed outside the
    Operating Theatre.]

    [Illustration: Lady Cook and Austrian prisoner orderlies at Mrs.
    Stobart's camp Hospital, Kragujevatz.
    _Face page 64._]


                                       Wednesday, _July 7, 1915._

We leave this afternoon at 3 o'clock. This morning I went shopping,
bought a lot of handkerchiefs and some Serbian pots. At 2.30 the
carriage came to take the two nurses, who had come over to fetch me,
and myself to the station. Nurse Newhall came with us, and Mrs.
Berry's sister, Miss Dickinson. We had three miles' drive to the
station; we arrived at 3.20 and the train was expected at 4.15 but it
never arrived till 5.10. This is the usual thing in Serbia; we only
have sixty miles to go. We arrived at 9; the train stopped at every
station from 15 to 20 minutes, so the people get out of the train and
sit by the side of the railways. It makes the journey quite enjoyable
when one is not pressed for time. Our train was going on to Belgrade.
We had two French people, and all the rest were Serbians in our
carriage. The train was full of soldiers going to Belgrade. The
soldiers all travel in trucks, the officers in the ordinary way. I
wonder how our Tommies would like this. We were to spend the night at
a little cottage rented by Dr. Banks for the Red Cross at Stellatch. A
boy at the station insisted on saying there was no such place; the
railway officials wanted us to remain at the station, but we insisted
on our little cottage and we soon found it in the dark. A very nice
woman lived at this cottage, and her two children, a girl and a boy.
We were put into this room with two stretchers. A nice Serbian who
could talk French at the station said there were only two stretchers,
so he sent up a third. We had a few sandwiches which we brought with
us, then tucked ourselves up for the night on the stretchers, but it
was impossible to sleep for fleas and mosquitoes. We heard that the
train for Kragujevatz left at 7 o'clock, so we got up soon after 5. It
was very quaint on the way seeing little boys and girls driving along
the roads flocks of sheep, pigs and chickens. All the children here
seem quite grown up; the schools are all closed and they have to help
in the fields with their mothers. The girls are very neat looking;
they all part their hair at the side and have a neat plait at the
back or wound round their head, and they have a handkerchief tied on
their head. The middle-aged women part their hair in the middle and
the hair always covers the ears. It is dreadfully hot. On arriving at
the station we were told that the train would not leave till 1.30. We
have been trying to shade ourselves under a tree all day as it is too
hot to walk. It is now 12.45 and our train is appearing in the
station; our porter had just rushed up the hill to fetch us; it is not
often one gets a train leaving fifty minutes before the time. We got
to Kragujevatz at 7 o'clock, after a most tedious journey. It was so
funny. Half an hour before getting to Kragujevatz I discovered that
Miss Vera Holmes and Mrs. Haverfield were in the same train. It was so
nice to see them; they were going to the Scotch Hospital, so they have
asked me to go to tea with them to-morrow. On arriving at Kragujevatz
we could not get a cab, so we had to telephone for one of the motors
to fetch us.


                                          Friday, _July 9, 1915._

We had such a welcome back. One of the cooks is not well, so I had to
do her work. I went to tea to the Scottish Women's Hospital to meet
Miss Vera Holmes and Mrs. Haverfield. I did not stay long as I had a
lot to do, so many of our unit are ill. Mrs. Dearmer is seriously ill.
This is the most anxious night; she has five doctors with her; she has
typhoid and double pneumonia. Every twenty minutes she has oxygen
given her; it would be terrible if anything happened to her; she is so
nice and we are all so fond of her.


                                       Saturday, _July 10, 1915._

Mrs. Dearmer just a little easier to-day. The stores arrived to-day
for the wayside dispensaries.


                                         Sunday, _July 11, 1915._

This has been a very sad day. Dear Mrs. Dearmer passed away at 7.30;
she was buried this afternoon at 5 o'clock owing to the hot weather,
and it being a general holiday it had to take place at once. At 7
o'clock four of Dr. Berry's unit from Vrynatchka Banja came to stay at
our camp for two days. I have been looking after the invalid dishes
for the typhoid fever patients. I made Mrs. Dearmer a large cross of
some gorgeous white wild flowers with acacia and clematis. The Serbian
Government sent up some lovely wreaths; the coffin was of silver and
gilt, very handsome; it had the Union Jack over and was covered with
wreaths. At 4.30 the remains were brought from her own tent to a tent
we had turned into a little chapel; it really looked sweet. At 5
o'clock the hearse arrived, a ghastly looking thing, with a statue of
a man in armour seated on the top. It gave me a dreadful shock when I
saw it; it reminded me of a circus; then all the Government officials
arrived, officers--the French, English and Serbian, and the prince
sent a representative. Crowds of people arrived from other units. We
had a military band; then the priests arrived, two in pale blue
oriental satin robes decorated with gold, and one a peacock oriental
satin edged with gold, one a rich velvet decorated with gold, one a
red oriental satin edged with gold, and the sixth a black gown edged
with silver. Each priest carried a candle, then two other men came
carrying incense. We all followed the hearse in twos as far as the
Greek cathedral; all the streets were lined with people to the
cathedral, and the cathedral was packed. The coffin was put near the
altar and we all stood round. A large lighted candle was put facing
the coffin and the six priests stood in front. They all took part in
the service. I forgot to say one cross was in silver, with Mabel
Dearmer written on it, and it had a large ribbon bow. The band played
until we got to the cathedral, and when it stopped the people sang.
The Serbs have lovely voices. They remind me of the Welsh. It was
terribly sad; the singing in the cathedral was glorious; the service
lasted about an hour and a half. One of the French officers read a
little address from the cathedral steps, then we walked on to the
cemetery, about a mile; the band led, then the hearse and the
mourners. Dr. Dearmer, Dr. Marsden and Dr. Atkinson met us at the
cemetery gates; the priests continued their prayers in Serbian; then
Rev. Mr. Little, who has come to join our unit, read our English
service. The grave was lined with white and decorated with clematis.
Mrs. Dearmer was buried next to Nurse Ferris. The coffin was lowered
into a box, then the lid was put on. After the service Dr. Dearmer,
Dr. Marsden, Dr. Atkinson went off in the motor for a few days. We all
got into motors and carriages and returned to the camp.


                                         Monday, _July 12, 1915._

We have been busy all day packing and getting ready the roadside
dispensary; this will be the chief depôt; the first dispensary will be
twenty-five miles from here. The units for the dispensary go on
Wednesday. I had the most lovely caterpillar given me to-day; it is
three inches long, and is a most lovely green with lovely pale blue
spots on it, and little tufts of hair come round the blue spots. What
it is I do not know, and a man who is very well up in these kind of
things could not tell me. I went to see two members of our unit off to
Nish this evening. To-day a Frenchman has been practising in a Serbian
aeroplane over our camp; it is most exciting.

Dr. Dearmer has decided to return to England to-morrow.


                                        Tuesday, _July 13, 1915._

We finished getting ready the stores for the dispensary to-day. Dr.
Dearmer and Dr. Marsden left for Malta; Dr. Dearmer has his son there.

                                      Wednesday, _July 14, 1915._

This morning we were up at 4.15 as ten of the new unit were leaving to
start the dispensary, twenty-five miles away; they left with all their
equipments. Just as they were ready to start the Rev. Mr. Sewell
arrived, and Mrs. Sewell from Belgrade. Dr. Hanson and Mr. and Mrs.
Sewell and I had tea together in Dr. Atkinson's tent. This morning
Major Potridge took me to the arsenal to choose a transport kitchen
which the Serbians captured from the Austrians. I was taken all over
the arsenal, which was most interesting. It is most wonderful the
amount of guns which the Serbs have taken from the Austrians. Mr.
Paulhan, the French aviator, is here. He won the _Daily Mail_ prize;
he flies over the camp very often going to Belgrade. Six of our unit
go to Belgrade this evening for a few days. I hope to go before
returning to England.


                                         Friday, _July 16, 1915._

Mrs. Stobart and three of the Government officials went to choose a
site for another dispensary. I was up at 3.30 and we had breakfast at
4.30. I went to the market to order things for the week. Sunday is the
great day for the market. It is so picturesque to see all the Serbs in
their quaint costumes. The gipsies are lovely. They have gorgeous
striped skirts, homespun, lovely coloured belts with large buckles,
home-made stockings wonderfully embroidered, fancy zouave, and fancy
coloured scarves on their heads. One of the doctors and I were invited
out to an engagement ceremony. It was really most interesting. One of
our interpreters who was single was told that there was a girl who
would make him a suitable wife, so he went to see her early last
week, liked her, so proposed. She is nineteen and he is about
thirty-five years of age. The girl possesses a maize field, a wheat
field and a walnut tree. This is considered a very good dowry. At 3.30
the interpreter called for us; the cottage where the girl and her
people live is about ten minutes walk from the camp. On our way we met
several of the man's relations. On arriving at the house we were met
by her relations, who were standing all along the pathway to the front
door. The men shook hands with us and the women kissed our hands. We
were taken into the front room, a good sized one with a table in the
middle; there was tapestry all round the walls which had been done by
the girl. The Serbs do the most beautiful work with the handlooms, and
it is all done with the pure wool from the sheep, which one sees the
women spinning as they walk along the streets. We sat round the table
and talked till all the guests had arrived. The girl went round
kissing all the women relations on the hands and face, the men and the
guests on the hands, the fiancé did likewise; then the engaged couple
stood in the centre of the room and had the ring presented, a gold
ring with a diamond and ruby. The ring was put on the little finger of
the right hand. The engaged couple kissed all the people again; we
then started with refreshments. The girl did everything. A tray was
handed round first with a dish of cakes and glasses of wine; this was
to drink the health of the guests. We only took a sip of wine and the
glasses were put back on the tray; then the girl went out and brought
in another tray, the same wine and cakes; this was to drink the
bride's health; then a third lot was brought in to drink the
bridegroom's health. Then a tray came in with two dishes of jam and
glasses of cold water and spoons. We all eat a spoonful of jam and
drank a little water; the last tray had little cups of Turkish coffee.
After this we sat and talked; the ceremony was over. Fortunately we
were not far from the camp as a blizzard came up with a terrible sand
storm. We rushed round to help with the tents and patients. This was a
difficult task. We got our patients taken away in the motors to our
new building near. The hospital ward tents stood well; as they are all
double, only three came down, and the poles were not broken, so were
soon put up. Fifteen came down in all, the staff mess tent, the men's
mess tent, the kitchen tent and some of the sleeping tents. We had
several of the military authorities helping us. The storm lasted for
two hours and then all was quite calm again. We had a lovely picnic
supper under a large shelter the Government officials had put up for
us. The next day we were busy putting things straight after the storm.
I was not well again, so was sent to bed. I had to get up in the
afternoon to pack, as Dr. Atkinson had arranged for me to go to
Belgrade to the British Fever Hospital. Four of our unit are returning
to England, so they have come with us to Belgrade. Eight of us left
for Belgrade by the 12 train. We had a through carriage, most
comfortable. Dr. Curcin had arranged it for us. The English military
attaché, Col. Harrison, came to see us off. A motor took us from the
camp; we had a lovely journey and arrived at Belgrade at 10 a.m. It is
sad to see how Belgrade is destroyed. Our driver was too funny. The
roads were terribly bad; we had quite a young boy to drive us. He
jumped off the box part way to shake hands with some of his friends in
a cart; he got a cigar from them, lighted it and then ran after his
carriage again. We had gone on quite a long distance with our two
horses. When we got a little further our driver jumped down again,
this time for a drink of water on the roadside, and to buy a cake. We
arrived at the British Fever Hospital at 11 o'clock; we were given a
very nice ward, and the two nurses and I were sent to bed, and we had
to go on light diet for forty-eight hours. I have been put on milk
only, so I am very cross; it is very dull in bed, but I know many of
the Farmers' unit as so many came out in the _Saidieh_ with us.


                                        Tuesday, _July 20, 1915._

We have had a dull day in bed. Belgrade has been terribly shattered
with bombs. This hospital faces the Danube; it is most interesting.
The snipers have been firing a good deal to-day, and we hear the guns
at night. It seems a shame that so many of these lovely buildings are
in ruins.


                                      Wednesday, _July 21, 1915._

Still in bed on milk diet; it is dull work. This afternoon an
Austrian aeroplane has been flying over us, and the Serbs have been
firing at it.


                                       Thursday, _July 22, 1915._

At 3.40 this morning heavy firing started, and it continued for half
an hour; soon after we heard aeroplanes; there were two Austrian ones
which came over dropping bombs. They flew over this hospital many
times. The Serbs started firing at them, and the shrapnel fell on the
road below, quite a lot of it. If I had been all right I should have
got some. The aeroplanes now have dropped a lot of sealed packets with
long silvery ribbon which floated along for many miles in the air; it
was quite nice to see them in the sun. We have just heard that the
long silver ribbon contained a sealed packet addressed to the governor
of Belgrade, saying that unless the Serbians surrender they will start
bombarding the town. It is the anniversary of the declaration of war
on Serbia to-day. I have just had three more months' extension of
leave from the Governors of the Institute, saying they have
appreciated all the valuable work I have been doing, and have granted
me another three months' leave, from the commencement of next session.



                                 THE BRITISH FEVER HOSPITAL,
                                                BELGRADE,
                                                     SERBIA,
                                         Friday, _July 23, 1915._

Six of our unit arrived over from the camp to say good-bye to us;
they were returning to England; they wanted to see Belgrade before
returning. A few guns were fired at Semlin by the Serbs. It is
splendid to see the way the Serbian women work. Some of the work-rooms
at the arsenal were full of them, and even little boys and girls of
fourteen and fifteen years of age. When the bullets and cartridges are
finished they are tested in another machine, and if they have any
defects they are shot out again. The Austrian kitchens are considered
wonderful, they are so well fitted up.


                                       Saturday, _July 24, 1915._

I was awakened this morning at 5 o'clock by more guns being fired, but
it only lasted a short time. Sir Ralph and Lady Paget called to see
one of their nurses who is at this hospital with typhus (so they came
in to see us). One of the doctors is here with an orderly to look
after her. Lady Paget still looks very ill after her illness of
typhus. I had a long talk with her; she is a charming woman, and Sir
Ralph is very nice. There has been an interesting fête given to-day by
the gipsies; they sent invitations to all the hospitals here. It was
held in a large building. Several trays of refreshments were handed
round; after that they played violins and some other funny
instruments; they play and sing very well, but it is so weird. The
French have sent round to the gipsy villages as their huts were
condemned as not being fit to live in; but the funny part is that the
gipsy quarter has had no cases of disease like other parts of Serbia.
It is pouring with rain and the streets are simply flooded several
inches deep; the children take off their shoes and stockings and
paddle, but most of the children do not wear shoes and stockings. This
is the only place in Serbia where there are wood and asphalt roads,
all the other roads are in a terribly cobbly state, and in a most
deplorable condition. The shops are nearly all closed. Some of the
people just open in the evening. The air raid we had the other day: a
French aviator went up and there was a battle in the air; Monsieur
Paulhan fired on the Austrian aeroplane and brought it down in
Austrian territory; the aviator was killed; a photograph was taken
after shooting. This is the third Austrian aeroplane that has been
brought down by the French aviator since he came here. We hear the
guns each day; the French aeroplane goes over the Austrian territory,
and then we hear the Austrians firing on it. We have some of our
Marines five miles from here with large guns, also French and Russian.
The doctor allowed one of the nurses and me to go for an hour's drive
to-day. We drove all round the town past the King's Palace. Some of
the buildings are very fine but so many are in ruins. No trams or
trains are allowed to run, otherwise the Austrians begin firing. If
any of the nurses are seen near with their caps and aprons the
Austrians begin at once firing; they think they must be Serbian
officers.


                                      Wednesday, _July 28, 1915._

The French aeroplane has been flying round again to-day. One of the
nurses and I went for another drive in a ramshackle carriage with two
horses. When we got a little way the wheel came off; it was soon
mended and we started off again, and the poor old carriage came to
grief a second time, but fortunately we were near a blacksmith's
place.


                                       Thursday, _July 29, 1915._

This has been a dull day. The doctor would not allow me to go out as
my temperature is inclined to go up and I have a bad pulse. The
Austrians are splendid men, and it seems so terrible to see these nice
refined men doing all kinds of dirty work; it makes me think of our
poor English prisoners in Germany.

I am much better to-day and the doctor allowed the nurse to take me
across to the hotel where we had tea; it was such a nice change.
Another of our unit came over from the camp to stay a few days. I had
a letter from Dr. Atkinson telling me that Dr. May had arrived from
England, and that Mrs. Stobart had gone to Lapovo to start another
dispensary. Two Serbian regiments passed last evening, the best
drilled Serbs we have seen since we arrived; there were eighty in each
regiment; then a lot of horses and donkeys passed, laden with wood. I
am proud to say that I have not seen any soldiers march better than
our men in England since I left.


                                        Sunday, _August 1, 1915._

I have not been allowed out the last two days, as the doctor was not
pleased with me. This is a lovely hospital, it will hold over 500
beds; it was an university before the war; the art rooms on the top
floor are splendid.


                                        Monday, _August 2, 1915._

I have been allowed out for a little to-day. I went round to the hotel
to tea with our nurses who were returning to England with eight of
this unit.

In the morning our French aeroplane flew over to spy on the Austrians,
so the Austrians fired on it. It was so curious to see clouds of grey
and red smoke when the shells burst; it was quite different from the
ordinary shot that had been fired at the aeroplanes before. A lot of
the people here had a near shave of being blown up with the bombs. One
fell just near a man I met yesterday and he was blown up four feet and
not hurt at all.


                                       Tuesday, _August 3, 1915._

To-day I had a walk round Belgrade to see the shops; some of them are
very fine, but things are most expensive and the shop-people are very
quaint, they do not care if they sell their goods or not. The sister
who looks after me took me for a little walk this afternoon. We went
down near the Save to look across at Semlin; we are not allowed to go
too near, otherwise the snipers fire upon us. We saw the bridge that
crosses the Save, which the Serbians blew up to prevent the Austrians
crossing. We also went into several houses that have been ruined with
bombs. We could see the cathedral at Semlin quite plainly. The sister
and I went after to see the cathedral; the paintings are very fine. It
is fortunate that--up to the present--it has not been damaged inside.
Malaria is starting here; we had four cases in yesterday. The doctor
is afraid of our getting it, so we are to return to the camp
to-morrow. I am not to go on duty for another two weeks. There has
been much discussion in Serbia about our camp, and it seems that the
site chosen was not a suitable one. First of all a camp should be on a
slope, as I have always learnt from my V.A.D. lectures. Secondly, the
kind of soil should have been taken into consideration; I should have
thought that a porous soil would have been best, but our camp is on
clay. Thirdly, I think inquiries should have been made as to what the
land had been used for before pitching our tents. Another camp had
been on our site before, and we heard that refugees had been living on
the land for some time. When we arrived the land was covered with
bullocks, sheep, goats, pigs, fowls, ducks, which, of course, produced
flies, and as flies carry disease, I should think it was very
unsuitable.


                                        Friday, _August 6, 1915._

I was taken bad in the night, so the doctor would not let me return to
the camp with the other members of our unit. The nurses are giving us
a tea-party, as they have had all kinds of lovely things sent from
England. I had Sister Barnes looking after me, such a nice girl, who
has travelled a great deal; a nurse who was at the Battersea A.V.S.H.
for four years, also a doctor's wife, who is married to one of the
doctors here; she is a Yorkshire girl, very charming. The three
members in our unit return to the camp this evening at Vrynatchka
Banja. One of the patients produced an egg every morning for his
breakfast; it was discovered that he had encouraged a hen to come into
his bed, and then it took to laying its eggs. We have sixteen more
patients brought in to-night with malaria; it seems to be spreading
rapidly, so it is a good thing that our people have returned to
Kragujevatz. All the doctors out here think that mistakes were made at
the first when typhus broke out, by sending the cases all over Serbia
to different hospitals, instead of keeping them in hospitals at Nish,
where it first started, and finding out the cause. It seems that
Serbia still requires more sanitary inspectors, though a great deal
has been done and is being done at the present time.


                                      Saturday, _August 7, 1915._

I was taken bad again in the night, so I am again in bed. The doctor
has given me something to make me sleep, so I feel a little better.
They say I went on duty too soon after enteric. It does seem a shame
that the Austrian prisoners from the hospital have been sent
elsewhere to-day, they were such nice men and they do their work
splendidly. The one that looked after my ward brought me a large bowl
of flowers this morning, and he was always so pleased when the nurse
allowed him to bring me my medicine. I have had forty-five letters in
less than three weeks, people are so good in writing to me. I hear
that I have more letters than any one in the camp. Mrs. Askew is
staying in Belgrade, and she heard I was ill, so came in to see me.
They have no work to do in their unit just now. Mrs. Askew has had a
horse given her, so she goes out riding every morning from 4.30 to
5.30. The chaplain, Mr. Sewell, comes to see me very often; his wife
helps in the kitchen; they are a delightful couple. They come from
Bristol; a good many people here come from the North of England. A
little boy of thirteen years of age was brought in here yesterday; he
has fever, was in the Serbian uniform, and is a sergeant-major, such a
curious little fellow.


                                        Monday, _August 9, 1915._

This morning Mr. Sewell had a little service for one of the nurses who
has had typhus and me; it is very nice having a chaplain with us.
Still in bed, so feel rather dull. Mr. Winch, the head of this unit,
paid me a visit this morning; then Mr. Sewell, the chaplain, came.
Miss Trendle, the matron, brought me books and papers. A nurse was
telling me a story that had been told her: the doctors heard a great
scream, went out to see what had happened; an old woman had fallen
and dislocated her patella; she would not allow any one to touch her,
and they sent off for a funny old woman whom they looked upon as a
witch. She came, and first put some sugar over the fractured part,
then a poached egg; then a bandage was put on; then the old witch got
people to hold the injured woman while she took the bad foot and
pulled and pulled as hard as she could.

We hear that a lot of Austrians swam across the Danube the other day
to join the Serbian Army; the Austrians were drowned; the Serbs sent a
boat to rescue them, but it was too late. A few weeks ago one of the
Serbs swam across and joined the Austrians.


                                     Thursday, _August 12, 1915._

This afternoon at 2 o'clock the Austrians started shelling this town.
The first shell dropped two doors from this hospital, setting the
place in flames; two shells struck two of the hotels. The shelling
lasted about three-quarters of an hour, but our firing soon stopped
them. It was from Semlin the Austrians were firing, and the guns must
have been very big as the shells were a very large size; I have a
piece of one. This is indeed a wicked war, so many people absolutely
ruined and their homes smashed to pieces. The matron from this
hospital returns to England in about ten days' time; she is having a
picnic this afternoon in the Botanical Gardens. One of our naval men
has just come up here. It seems that the Austrians fired two shells
on to Milanovatz; we replied by firing back four shells into one of
their towns. The Austrians replied by firing back eleven shells on
Belgrade; we sent back twenty-two shells into Semlin; then the house
was set on fire two doors from this hospital. A man blew a big whistle
for the fire alarm in the middle of the road. The doctor had me moved
into one of the back wards, as this ward is in the range for firing;
all the patients were removed to the back.


                                       Friday, _August 13, 1915._

We hear that twenty-two bombs fired from here destroyed a lot of
houses and a lot of people in Semlin. Fires were seen blazing all
round; only one man was killed here and very little damage done. The
shells fired by the Austrians were from their 6-inch guns. The ward I
am in is a mass of flowers to-day; a lot of the nurses brought them
for me last night; they are all so kind to me.


                                     Saturday, _August 14, 1915._

This evening about 10 o'clock a fire broke out at the back of this
hospital, about 150 yards away. It was a large brewery and was burnt
to the ground. We watched it until 12 o'clock; the sparks were a sight
floating along in the air. It was a chance for the Austrians to
attack, as Belgrade was lighted up all round. The searchlights look
lovely all along the Danube. We have Serbs, English and French here.


                                       Sunday, _August 15, 1915._

This morning the Serbians have been shelling some of the islands along
the Danube.


                                       Monday, _August 16, 1915._

The Serbians and Austrians have been busy firing all the afternoon and
evening. We hear that the Austrians have found out where the English
guns are. They have smashed one of our English cannons; several
Serbians have been wounded. The Austrians have been trying for some
time to move their camp, as they want to go and help the Turks. The
Serbs, as soon as any attempt is made, fire on them. The sky was
lighted up with searchlights last night; this has never occurred
before, and probably Zeppelins were expected. The searchlights are
generally on the Danube and Save. My doctor here returned from our
camp this evening, so I have had another doctor looking after me.


                                    Wednesday, _August 18, 1915._

Several of our unit came over from the camp to-day; they have two
days' leave, so they have come over to see Belgrade. Two are staying
on for a few days, as one is still feeling ill. I hear Dr. Atkinson is
over at Vrynatchka Banja with one of the orderlies who has had an
operation; they thought she was going to have cancer in the chest, but
it is a cist. I am much better this evening.


                                     Thursday, _August 19, 1915._

We have had no more of the Austrian fireworks over here the last two
days; I expect the Serbs, English and French quieted them down the
other evening; we have plenty of large guns here. King Peter has a
lovely palace, but it has been very much damaged. This afternoon I was
allowed to go for a short walk, then I went to tea with one of the
nurses who has had typhus. Nineteen of us went to her tea-party.


                                       Friday, _August 20, 1915._

Sister Barnes goes to Uskub to-morrow, so it has been arranged that
she takes me with her to stay a few days before returning to
Kragujevatz. We have had a nice wire from Lady Paget this afternoon,
saying that she was sending to meet us. Every one is so kind to me;
the doctors will not allow me to return to the camp until I have had
another change. This morning I went to the fort, as I had not been
anywhere; the commandant took us all over and showed us everything. We
looked through glasses from the trenches and saw the Austrians on the
other side; we could see the damage done by our shells on Semlin. We
could see two monitors on the Danube; they are only allowed to move a
few miles, otherwise we fire on them. We went into the trenches, but
had to be careful not to be seen. We saw a large unexploded bomb; it
was fortunate it had not burst; we also saw a small one which had gone
right into a tree. The buildings round the forts are quite in ruins.
At 4.30 the matron had a carriage for me and let me go to see the
hospital they have got for babies; so many babies had died through
neglect, so they have got this "Baby Farm," as they call it. It looks
on the Danube, and you can see the railway bridge that went over to
Austria, which was blown up by the Serbs. We had tea with a friend of
mine, Miss Bankhart, and the doctor who has been attending me; we
could not stay long as the carriage was waiting for us. I forgot to
say at the forts we went under a dark tunnel, which goes under the
Danube and lands one in Austria; it is blocked up part-way now. I hear
the other three nurses from Kragujevatz returned this evening; they
came to say good-bye to me but I was up at the Baby Farm. I leave for
Lady Paget's this evening.


                                     Saturday, _August 21, 1915._

Sister Barnes and I left Belgrade at 6 o'clock; our coachman was a boy
of thirteen. He took us along a forbidden road to Topschaite; we had
to drive furiously on account of the snipers in the hedges on the
river Save which we were skirting, and only fifty miles away. The
horses went at such a speed that Miss Barnes' box took a flying leap
off the carriage; the Jehu turned round and gazed as if we were to get
out and pick it up. We left Topschaite station at 8. We had some
interesting Americans who have a camp at Nish; their camp is called
"Columbia" owing to the unit being chiefly made up from the university
of that name. One specially interested us as he told us that an
American Jew had inoculated him for typhus, a thing that we heard in
London was quite impossible. He was a Dr. Plot from New York; he is
only twenty-five years of age. We are told typhus is due to dirt,
lice, and sanitary conditions, and it was introduced into Serbia by
the Austrian prisoners. Among the other travellers who interested us
was a man with a blue-grey hat, a khaki coat, red knickers and black
top boots. He was very sorry for himself; his bull-dog had taken a
slice out of his trousers. He carried a beautiful embossed sword. We
arrived at Nish, which is a place that seems to be suffering from the
seven plagues of Egypt, from flies, dust, dirt, smells, etc. We were
told that the Serbs have brains like scrambled eggs, as they scatter
their diseases all over their country. We arrived at Nish at 11
o'clock. We were taken to the rest house by the Americans. We visited
the American camp, then went to the Serbian Red Cross office to get
Miss Barnes' typhus medal. We left by the 8 o'clock train for Uskub,
or Scoplie.


                                       Monday, _August 23, 1915._

We had a comfortable night in the train, arriving at Scoplie at 6 a.m.
We saw a lot of buffalo and storks in the fields on the way. Lady
Paget sent to meet us. We had breakfast and then went to bed. Lady
Paget has Lord and Lady Templemore; they are the father and mother of
Mr. Chichester who died a few days ago from typhoid. I shall be here
about a week.

The change is doing me a lot of good here, and I am feeling quite
better again and ready for work. I hope to return to the camp on
Sunday evening, arriving at Kragujevatz early Tuesday morning. I have
thoroughly enjoyed being here, and am quite in love with this place,
it is so Eastern.

After breakfast Sister Barnes and I went to rest, had lunch and then
went to the village in a carriage which was driven by Turks. We bought
a lot of lovely things. This is the most ideal place in Serbia; it is
like an Eastern village, and it is full of Turks, and the costumes are
most picturesque. This has been a wet day; there is a large market
held here every Tuesday. The train for Salonika left at 6 o'clock. I
went down to the station with some of the doctors and Lady Paget; the
latter was seeing Lord and Lady Templemore off. We met some of the
Farmers' unit from Belgrade, who were passing through. We got home
about 8 o'clock and I was sent to rest until luncheon. After lunch I
went into the village to do some shopping with two of the nurses.
Scoplie belonged to the Turks only two years ago; it is more Turkish
than Serbian.


                                    Wednesday, _August 25, 1915._

This morning the four night nurses and I drove down to the market to
do some shopping; I also went to see the park. The market here is very
picturesque. To ring the church bells a man has to sit on the roof.
Some of the roofs of the houses are made of biscuit tins; as long as
the rain does not come in it does not matter what they use.


                                     Thursday, _August 26, 1915._

Have been to the Turkish villages again to-day. We went to see a
chapel which is full of coffins. There was a white cloth over them and
a Turkish hat, and also a stone at the top, and a lighted candle.
These coffins have to be kept for 100 years; they contain the bodies
of priests and Turkish kings. To advertise tailors here, one sees a
large placard of an Englishman in a frock coat and a top hat. To
advertise dentists they have large cases of false teeth, and they
write the name of the dentist with the teeth. Turkish cemeteries are
to be seen everywhere, and one sees skeletons and bones lying about
the fields. The cemeteries are not railed in at all. There are harems
all over the place; one can always tell them as the windows are
barred. Most of the pathways round here are paved with old Turkish
tombstones.


                                       Friday, _August 27, 1915._

We hear that Belgrade is being bombarded again, and that no private
people are allowed to go there. This morning we went into the Turkish
quarter, and we went over some old Turkish baths. I saw over the wards
at the hospital; there are over 400 patients. Malaria is very bad
here, and there have been several deaths from it. It is the malignant
malaria that is so dangerous. Mr. Chichester died of typhoid and
para-typhoid combined. Para-typhoid affects the nervous system. There
is also another kind of typhoid, A and B, and one can be inoculated
for the three.


                                     Saturday, _August 28, 1915._

This morning the night nurses and I drove over to see the melon and
tobacco fields. The tobacco leaves are threaded on string and are
dried on the outside of houses under the eaves; it looks so nice
hanging down. After tea one of the sisters and I went for a drive by
the river, and we passed thousands and thousands of troops coming from
Albania. They were Albanians and Serbians; they had hundreds of
horses, who were laden with ammunition and all kinds of transport on
their backs. Lots of them had goats and fowls on their backs, which
looked perfectly happy and quite tame. I expect all these troops were
going to line the Bulgarian border, but we have not heard yet. 150,000
have passed through Scoplie the last few days. If the roofs of the
small cottages get damaged they are repaired with petrol or biscuit
tins.


                                       Sunday, _August 29, 1915._

We went down into the little village for a drive. On our way back we
saw a quaint band and a lot of Turks and Serbs in the most lovely
costumes, wrestling; it was amusing to watch them. I left Lady Paget's
to catch the 7 o'clock train. Lady Paget came to see me off. Mr. Askew
was on the train, so it was nice knowing some one.


                                       Monday, _August 30, 1915._

We arrived at Nish at 8 a.m. Our carriage was very full: a Serbian
doctor, three Serbian officers, and a French lady who was travelling
with me. The Serbians brought us a beautiful melon; they are quite
different to our English ones. I am writing this at the station at
Nish. My train leaves to-night for Kragujevatz at 8 o'clock. We got off
comfortably. Mr. Askew went down and got me a nice sleeping-carriage,
but unfortunately I had to change at 3 o'clock at Lapovo. I arrived at
Kragujevatz at 6 o'clock.


                                      Tuesday, _August 31, 1915._

On arriving at the camp, Mrs. Stobart was just off to another
dispensary. We have five dispensaries working now. Another is to be
started on Saturday; this is the last. The chief, I hear, is to return
to England in about three weeks, as her son has returned from America.
Dr. May will be left in charge of this camp. Colonel Harrison came to
dinner; he is the English Military Attaché. He is returning to England
as his health has broken down. Very few English people can stand the
climate for very long.


                                  Wednesday, _September 1, 1915._

Mrs. Stobart returned from the dispensary. Colonel Harrison came to
dinner with the new English Attaché; Colonel Harrison left directly
after for England. He has left us the most beautiful gramaphone.

We heard the sad news to-day that Nurse Berry died on arriving in
England. She was a beautiful girl and a splendid nurse. She was my
nurse when I first became ill, and she was taken bad a few days after
we were together at Vrynatchka Banja; she was craving to get home.


                                   Thursday, _September 2, 1915._

Nothing of interest has happened to-day. I am not on duty, but hope to
be in a day or two.

The weather is still very hot, but we have a good deal of wind; the
guy ropes constantly want tightening.


                                     Sunday, _September 5, 1915._

We had service at 5.30 a.m. I helped one of the sisters get ready for
Mr. Little. Several of the Scotch unit came up. Friday and Saturday I
was busy doing the accounts, as my part has not been done since I
left, and we have about fifty of the staff and 125 patients.


                                     Monday, _September 6, 1915._

I have been for two walks to-day, first with one of the doctors, and
then with one of the sisters, the first walk since I was ill. This
morning we went through maize fields, and on our way met several women
spinning; they are always at their knitting or spinning working on the
fields. Their knitting is wonderful as they make such lovely patterns
with different coloured wools. We saw a man making baskets. He first
gathered the willow sticks, which he put into boiling water, removed
the skin, then he started his basket work. This morning I went up to
the cemetery. Fancy, over 11,000 graves since November, 1914, all
soldiers, and there are just plain little wooden crosses to each, and
four in a grave. Dr. and Lady Finlay came over to see our camp; she
came out with us on the _Saidieh_.

I got the accounts finished up to date, and in the afternoon about
fifteen of us went off on two bullock wagons to get blackberries, as
we have scarcely any jam left. Mrs. Stobart had asked us at lunch who
would volunteer. We took tea with us. We went about two miles but did
not get any, only one of our unit who lost us, and she found a hedge
covered and so managed to get a bowl full. The fields are full of
maize, and amongst the maize they grow pumpkins and marrows, and large
sunflowers, and up the maize stalks they grow beans. The soil is
wonderfully rich. Some of our party brought a large pumpkin back with
them. The peasant women are much to be admired; they do all the field
work, and one will meet them driving the oxen and nursing a baby. The
oxen are lovely beasts and so well cared for, but they are very slow
in their movements. The hills round are lovely; the most wonderful
colourings.


                                    Tuesday, _September 7, 1915._

I am not on duty yet, so this morning I have been doing a little
washing and ironing. This afternoon I went for a short walk and got
some lovely cape gooseberries and flowers; they are very plentiful.
The Serbians make quite a nice jam out of the cape gooseberries.


                                  Wednesday, _September 8, 1915._

I went into Kragujevatz this morning to do some shopping; met Miss
Vera Holmes. We bought a hat for one of the sisters going to a
dispensary. You never saw such things; the hats are just like those at
the sales in London for which we give 6-½_d._ I went for a walk with
Dr. Coxon, and as we were passing a vineyard such a nice woman called
us in and gave us grapes and flowers. It is wonderful the richness of
the soil, for when we arrived here in April there was very little on
the land, and it all seems to spring up at once. We are getting short
of provisions here; we managed to get some Serbian bacon, but when you
want anything of this kind you find there is a long line of people
outside the shop waiting for it to open, and my commissionaire goes in
at the back door and buys it all up; it seems too bad. Tea is 15_s._
per lb.; bread, 8-½_d._ per loaf; sugar, 1_s._ 6_d._; butter, 7_s._


                                   Thursday, _September 9, 1915._

I went to see a camp of Serbian soldiers; they had many large guns and
carts full of shells which they showed us. Sixteen shells in each
cart; they were 15 cc. They also had boxes full of rings of gun
cotton, with powder in the centre; these they put on the top part of
the shell before firing it off. There are about 200 bullocks and carts
at this camp. The hood part of the ox-cart is used as a shelter for
two soldiers to sleep under, and very comfortable it looks, and they
only have a very few tents to pitch and quite small ones, low to the
ground; one cannot stand up in them. Six men sleep in one tent. We
went to see the air-craft guns and were shown how they were worked; it
was most interesting. We then went on to where the Serbs were
practising firing the shells. They have high stone walls which they
use as a target, and there are two or three trenches near the walls.
We saw lots of bursted shells. In the afternoon we went for another
walk and saw the women making wine out of plums. They pack large
barrels full of plums, then fill them up with water and put some sugar
in; these are left for a month or longer; then the liquor is drawn off
and bottled. I wish the plums had been washed! We met some women
knitting some elaborate coloured stockings; the colour is worked in
after the stockings are knitted. Some of the walnuts here are almost
as large as a hen's egg.


                                  Saturday, _September 11, 1915._

To-day I have been in the wards taking the numbers down of all the
patients. I also did some washing, then I got some lovely wild flowers
and arranged them in our sitting-room. We have a gorgeous Indian tent;
it is cool in the hot weather and warm in cold; it is lined inside
with yellow. I have a very large tent all to myself; it would hold
quite six or eight beds, so I am in luck's way. On my table I
constantly find dishes of grapes, and to-night I found a dish of
boiled corn--so good, I invited four of the nurses up to help eat it.
The farm girls bring me all these good things, but of course I have to
be careful what I eat. Five of the Second Farmers' unit have been to
spend the day with us; one of them comes from St. Leonards. She has
asked me to go and see her when I return to England. I also met a
nurse from Holland; she knows me quite well by sight; she used to work
for Dr. Stanley Turner at Battersea.


                                    Sunday, _September 12, 1915._

I have been for two short walks to-day. The fields are still a mass of
lovely wild flowers, and the hedges full of red berries. I keep the
sitting-room supplied with flowers as I am not allowed to do work, so
I do all kinds of odd jobs.


                                    Monday, _September 13, 1915._

A wet day, so I wrote cards this morning and mended stockings. Letters
and papers are coming very badly from home. We have seven dispensaries
at work; Mrs. Stobart has just started the last one.


                                   Tuesday, _September 14, 1915._

I went for a walk with one of the sisters. We saw a large Serbian
camp, then on to a gipsy village. We had crowds of little children
after us; they are not used to seeing strangers about. We then saw a
cemetery where some Austrian prisoners were digging up some old
graves; the skulls and bones they were collecting and putting into
handkerchiefs to re-bury them; it was a ghastly sight. In this
cemetery they had little arched fireplaces made of brick at the head
of each grave. I suppose in the cold weather when they come to wail
over the grave they light a fire. I have picked up seven horseshoes,
so I ought to have some good luck.

    [Illustration: A waggon drawn by oxen at Kragujevatz.]

    [Illustration: Gun captured from the Turks in the last war. Used
    by the Serbs to bring down German aeroplanes.
    _Face page 96._]


                                 Wednesday, _September 15, 1915._

I was not well again to-day, so I stayed in bed all day. The doctors
say I am not to do any work for six months in the kitchen departments;
it is very annoying.


                                  Thursday, _September 16, 1915._

It seems that the peasants only have three sets of clothes to last
them their life; the cloth is homespun, very strong and heavy, and a
dark brown colour, most serviceable. It is trimmed with black braid.


                                  Saturday, _September 18, 1915._

Two of the sisters arrived last night from the dispensary. They have
had several cases of small-pox; out of six cases in the village, two
died. The peasants are the most funny people. Three days before the
death of one of the smallpox patients everything was got ready for the
burial. The coffin was made by friends on the premises. The girl was
told, when our nurse went to feed her, not to take any more food.
Before the girl was actually dead she was put in her very best clothes
to be buried in; she was also laid out before the breath was out of
her body. The coffin was left open until just before putting into the
grave. There were no priests in the village, and the girl was buried
by her friends.


                                    Sunday, _September 19, 1915._

We had service at 5.30 a.m. The priests in Serbia are not allowed to
go into the church until they are married. In war time no priests are
allowed to marry, so they are not able to go into the church. The
priest at Natalintse went to have dinner at our dispensary. He took
with him all the things that he thought they would not have, cheese
and wine. They were having goose for dinner. He took this course, and
then he kept stretching across the table, took a fork without asking,
and kept helping himself; he had five helpings of goose. Pudding he
refused, but our interpreter was sitting next to him, so he took a
fork and took a taste of his pudding without asking. Five little boys
keep the church in order and they ring the bell. The priests and
people think nothing of spitting on the floor of the church. I thought
this habit was bad enough in the streets in England, but I find that
it is worse abroad. This morning a Red Cross ambulance corps, pulled
by bullock-wagons, passed this camp; they were the first to go to
Malanovatz to join the first field ambulance, the Bevis unit. This
afternoon I went up to see another Serbian camp, and took photographs.


                                    Monday, _September 20, 1915._

We are having lovely weather, but the nights are terribly cold, and
there is a thick frost in the morning. The days are very hot. It seems
that when the Austrians last year got into Belgrade they were there
for thirteen days. When the Serbs drove them out, they found a
freshly-made cemetery full of wooden crosses. The Serbs thought that
it was strange within such a short time, and the graves were a curious
shape. The Serbs turned up the soil and found about 80,000 pieces of
ammunition.


                                   Tuesday, _September 21, 1915._

Mrs. Stobart, Mr. Greenhalgh, Colonel Gentnich, Mr. Little and myself
motored over to Vilanovatz to see the dispensary. There is one doctor,
a nurse, a cook and two orderlies; the dispensary site is very
beautiful. They are doing good work and they have about 70 to 100
patients every day; they come for miles; some of them are in a
terrible condition. This dispensary is fifteen miles away; the ride is
lovely, the scenery being so very beautiful. The fields are looking so
pretty with wild crocuses. There is only one shop in the village.
Paprica grows very plentifully out here; the stews are quite red with
it. The paprica is also eaten in the green state filled with meat
minced.


                                 Wednesday, _September 22, 1915._

This morning one of the sisters and I went on the top of some hills to
see the Serbians practising and testing some Turkish shells. It was
most interesting, for they were telephoning up to the arsenal after
every one that was fired, stating the distances. In the afternoon we
both went up to get a shell; there were fourteen unexploded ones.


                                  Thursday, _September 23, 1915._

We have heard nothing but firing most of the day. I forgot to say that
on Tuesday a message came up from the Government to say that an aerial
raid was expected, but they were again driven back.


                                    Friday, _September 24, 1915._

To-day we hear that the Bulgarians have joined with the Austrians, and
that fighting has started on the Bulgarian frontier. All along the
Danube and at Belgrade the Austrians were bombarding. One hundred
shells were fired.


                                  Saturday, _September 25, 1915._

To-day we had a message from the Serbian Government to say that part
of our unit had to go to form a hospital near the Bulgarian frontier.
The Serbians have a splendid equipment ready. Twenty of this unit are
going: Mrs. Stobart, Mr. Greenhalgh, two doctors, six chauffeurs, two
cooks, two orderlies, and six nurses. They are taking six motors. We
shall be very busy here with so many of the staff away. The doctors
want me to stay a little longer to help in the wards, do the diet
sheets and the accounts, and help the nurses.


                                    Sunday, _September 26, 1915._

We had two services to-day, one at 5 a.m., the other at 5 p.m. We are
still having very hot days but the nights are cold. The wild flowers
are beautiful, and there are lots of butterflies, little blues, and a
dark yellow with black edge round the wings, and swallow-tail. There
are scarcely any cabbage butterflies here, but there are some quite
small white, like the cabbage.


                                    Monday, _September 27, 1915._

The part of our unit that was to go to the Bulgarian frontier had to
be inspected to-day, with all their baggage. There is some difficulty
in getting through to Salonika, owing to the troops going to the
frontier.


                                   Tuesday, _September 28, 1915._

I hope to be back on duty in a few days. To-night the sky was most
gorgeous, quite indescribable; there were two of the most beautiful
rainbows, absolutely perfect, with a sunset which illuminated the
mountains all round. Moles are very plentiful here; they make a
dreadful mess of all the fields. One lived under the ground-sheet in
our sleeping-tent, but, poor thing, it got trodden on and we found it
dead. There are a few bats; they are a tremendous size, much larger
than they are in England. Grasshoppers and locusts are also plentiful.
Small birds are scarce, only a few sparrows and swallows and
sand-martins and larks. The swallows have their nests right inside
some of the houses on the tops of the electric light and in some of
the corners. They fly about at night, catching flies, not caring for
any one. We heard last night that the Scottish unit had lost one of
their nurses, with typhoid; it was at Valievo. Dr. Inglis, from
Kragujevatz, and the head of the Scottish women's hospital, a woman
doctor, had to read the burial service. I had a lovely large bunch of
hyssop given to me this morning; it is used in the churches at
christenings to sprinkle the infant with holy water.


                                 Wednesday, _September 29, 1915._

To-day we had a medal presented to us from King Peter. It is a coat of
arms on a cross of Serbia, and is called the Cross of Charity. Two of
the Government officials came up to present us with them, and they
gave us a testimonial of their appreciation of our services. We hear
to-day that the Bulgarians have started fighting. I saw some of the
Serbian cavalry starting for the Bulgarian frontier; they were going
to Nish, then towards Pirot. The Serbs are very brave and some of them
stand pain so well. One man had an operation on his spine, some broken
bone removed, and he was walking about two hours after. Another man
had some varicose veins removed and he was walking ten minutes after.


                                  Thursday, _September 30, 1915._

This morning at 7 o'clock we had an air raid; six German aeroplanes
came over dropping thirty bombs on Kragujevatz. Most of the bombs
dropped near the arsenal and at the station; they tried to get the
magazine, but did not succeed. The bombs did little damage, but six
people were killed and several wounded. We brought one aeroplane
down; we saw quite plainly and the bombs seemed to drop right on the
aeroplane--a great blaze of fire we could see--and the aeroplane fell
to the ground only a few minutes' walk from this camp in the main
street, just near the cathedral. It came down quite gently, and as it
got to the ground there was a great crash; the men were both Germans;
they were smashed to pieces. I have taken two photographs; all the
woodwork was burnt away. I have several interesting pieces of the
aeroplane. The Germans had their diaries on them; these of course were
taken to the Government office. An officer was killed at the arsenal,
so they had a military funeral for him this afternoon. The other
portion of our unit may go to the front any time now; they are only
waiting for orders.


                                       Friday, _October 1, 1915._

This morning at 6.45 we had another air raid. We soon cleared the camp
of the patients. Three aeroplanes came over in all, and dropped about
fifteen bombs on Kragujevatz. Five fell in the arsenal, but little
damage was done; several fell round about the station. Several of the
station men got into a truck for shelter. One shell fell just outside
smashing up the pavement along the line. A piece of the shell went
through the truck; no one was injured, and it was given to me
afterwards. The air raid lasted about one hour. When all was over Dr.
May and Dr. Berry asked me to take them to see the aircraft guns.
These were about seven minutes' walk from the camp on the top of a
hill; two of the Serbian camps were also near by. I knew several of
the officers at the camp. On arriving we were met by some of them;
they took us round and showed us the guns and the shells, explaining
and describing all about them. There are three very large guns, and
these took the 12 inch shells; they were of French make, and two
smaller ones which were captured from the Turks in the last war.

We had only been up on the firing ground about five minutes when the
signal was given that enemy aeroplanes were sighted. All men were at
their posts in a second, and it was splendid to see the order and
discipline.

It was no use our retiring, as it would not have been safe, so we
stood by while the firing was going on. The vibration and noise were
terrific; one could not see even these large shells coming out of the
guns, only fire and smoke. I took a photograph while the firing was
going on. Five bombs were dropped in Kragujevatz, one on our camp,
which fortunately did not explode. It was only a few yards away from
the night nurse's tent and mine, otherwise we should have had our poor
tents in pieces. Two bombs fell on the magazine, destroying lots of
our stores; three tents were burnt, but the fire was soon
extinguished. Nine 7 lb. tins of marmalade were smashed to pieces;
marmalade was all over the floor, windows, ceilings and walls, making
the place in the most terrible mess; other stores were also spoilt;
pieces of shrapnel were found in the sugar. About eighty shells were
fired on the aeroplanes, and it got so hot for them that they soon
fled. The air raid was over at 10, so our patients were allowed to
return.

In the evening we had a farewell party, given by one of the sisters,
as she was leaving for Lady Paget's hospital, and twenty of our unit
were leaving for the Bulgarian frontier with Mrs. Stobart, and they
were to go to Perot. They left at 10 p.m., and slept in the train all
night; the train left at 7.20 in the morning. They have taken five
motor ambulances, three bullock wagons, one kitchen that was captured
from the Austrians by the Serbs, a few bandages and medical stores. A
Serbian army was supplying all the other necessary medical stores and
equipments for "The Flying Field Hospital." I was to have gone, but
owing to having had typhoid was not allowed. It was arranged that the
doctors, nurses, cooks and orderlies should change over every month,
so that all could get a variety of work.


                                     Saturday, _October 2, 1915._

Another telephone message arrived at 7 a.m., to say that three
aeroplanes had crossed the frontier. We got breakfast over at 5.30 and
the camp was cleared of all the patients, and then we left ourselves.
It is interesting to see all the townspeople going out miles into the
country for safety. Fortunately the wind got up and the flyers had to
return, but they managed to drop their fifteen bombs on another town
close by. On our return home to the camp we went by the guns, and I
was introduced to the man who brought down the aeroplane on Thursday,
September 30. It was the Turkish aircraft gun he was using, quite a
small one. We expect air raids every day now; this means breakfast at
5.30. We are clearing this hospital of the old patients, and are
getting ready for the fresh wounded, and it will not take us long to
be straight.

We can do nothing much in the mornings now, so we work hard all
afternoon. The arsenal is also closed in the mornings.


                                       Sunday, _October 3, 1915._

It has been too cloudy and too windy for an air raid to-day, so we
have had a day of rest. Pontoon bridges have been passing most of the
afternoon on the road by our camp. I expect these are going to the
Bulgarian frontier.

A very young student at a village near here was full of mischief, and
for a lark he poured a pot of red paint into the holy water. The
priest at the early service looked up, and found that all his
congregation had red crosses on their foreheads. The priest told us
this story, and the boy got into great trouble over it.

The name of the aeroplane that was brought down at Kragujevatz was the
"Albatross." The younger German killed was an engineer twenty-six
years of age.

Pieces of aeroplane were found at Ratcher, but nothing else. Another
aeroplane was seen to turn over outside a small village, but has not
been found.


                                       Monday, _October 4, 1915._

The camp was cleared about 7 o'clock, as we received a message that
six aeroplanes had been sighted over the frontier; they were prevented
from getting to Kragujevatz. The Germans say they will smash up
Kragujevatz, also the railway line. A very little damage has been done
considering.

We had a card from the other part of our unit which left for Perot,
saying that they had arrived safely, and that they liked their
position; they were on the top of a hill, and looked down on the
enemy.


                                      Tuesday, _October 5, 1915._

Two aeroplanes flew over Lapovo, dropped three bombs on the line, but
no damage was done. We cleared our camp as on previous days but
nothing happened.


                                    Wednesday, _October 6, 1915._

We are about ready for the fresh wounded; we have put up one or two
fresh marquees, which hold each about twenty-six beds. We have
seventy-two tents in all, and a number in reserve if required. We have
long buildings when the weather gets cold, which have been built
during the summer by the Austrian prisoners; these were intended for
cholera, but fortunately we did not get this disease in Serbia, so the
buildings have been promised us by the Government for wards for our
patients during the winter months. They are very long low buildings
and would hold about thirty or forty beds; there were about six
buildings in all.

On one occasion, in our ward, a patient who was on light diet, was
found to have a parcel under his pillow. This parcel was found to
contain a little roasted pig, from which he had been helping himself
to small pieces. His relations had been to visit him that afternoon
and had given it to him, regardless of whether it was a suitable
present or not. Pigs in this country are cooked when they are quite
tiny, and a leg is only sufficient for one person's meal. Lambs are
also killed and cooked about the same age, and it is really difficult
to find any meat on the bones after they are roasted. The Serbs do not
consider meat good when it is fully grown, excepting oxen, and beef in
Serbia is one of the worst classes of meat, probably on account of
their being used for labour. Milk is scarce owing to the cows being
used for transport.

They have an extraordinary one-stringed instrument which they will
play for the whole of the day; crowds of people will sit round
listening; this was most trying when the patients got hold of it in
the wards, very monotonous and trying, and some of the singing is also
very weird, being only on one or two notes, but on the whole they are
the most musical people. In the cathedrals the singing is perfectly
lovely, such well trained voices.

We hear that the Germans started shelling Belgrade at 3 a.m.; it
lasted for many hours. We had a thick fog at night, which reminded one
of London, being equally dense but not so yellow.


                                     Thursday, _October 7, 1915._

Still a thick fog, and we hear that Belgrade is still being bombarded.
The English and French troops have been expected for some time to help
the poor Serbs, and we are told that Nish and many other towns are
decorated in their honour.

I understand that the bombardment of Belgrade has not been quite so
severe to-day, but all English missions have been told to leave. The
Germans have landed in three places. They crossed the Save in boats
and by pontoon bridges; there were about 3,000 of them. It was a misty
night, and they thought they would not be noticed. The Serbs allowed
them to cross, and then took 2,000 prisoners. The pontoon bridges and
boats were sunk; then they had a hand-to-hand fight in the streets,
knives being principally used, and we heard that even the women joined
in. Many bodies were floating in the Danube and the Save; we heard
that two of our Marines were killed and several wounded.

This afternoon we went over the wounded Allies' hospital at
Kragujevatz with one of the sisters. In one ward there was a brigand
who was wounded; he had told the nurses that that was his profession.
We also saw an Austrian who was an artist, and he had obtained in the
hospital several orders for his pictures, for which he made the sum of
10_s._ We also saw a German who had had both his legs amputated; he
was allowed to make baskets, and was selling them.

This evening one of the doctors consented to my leaving, as having an
appointment in England I had only another two or three weeks leave of
absence and as we heard it might be rather difficult later on to get
away. I was asked to look after an orderly from the second Farmers'
unit, who had just recovered from typhoid; she would not have been
able to do any work for some weeks so it was decided she should return
to England in my care.


                                       Friday, _October 8, 1915._

I was busy packing most of the morning, then I did up the accounts and
the diet sheets for the wards, finishing up this part of my work. In
the afternoon one of the sisters and I went to the arsenal and I was
presented with a medal of King Peter. We also saw many of the
treasures which were taken off the German aeroplane which was brought
down. They showed us an orange printed paper with full instructions
on. It was of course in German and it said that they had to come to
Kragujevatz and drop four bombs.

It was very painful saying good-bye to my kitchen staff, principally
Austrian prisoners who had done such good work. When they first came
they said, "No pay, therefore no work." I replied, "No work, therefore
no food," and they quickly fell in with my views, which they never
resented but really worked well. The commissionaire came up to say
good-bye with his daughter, and brought from his wife two cooked
chickens for our journey, a dozen eggs, walnuts, apples and jam. I
packed these up, then went in to dinner. When I returned I found my
parcels had been unpacked by the dogs from the farm near by; the
chickens had gone, the eggs eaten, and bits of shell all over the
floor of my tent. Eggs when boiled hard out here the white will often
be found soft no matter how long one boils it. Also the apples and the
nuts scattered about; my tent was a sight to behold, but fortunately
we had other things provided for the journey.

At 9 o'clock fifteen wounded men were brought in from Belgrade. They
were in the most terrible condition, and they described to us the most
awful slaughter that had taken place there.

At 10 o'clock one of the Government officials came up to say good-bye,
and to bring my pass on the railway as far as the Greek frontier, and
also gave me some sweets.

At 11.30 the carriage came to take us to the station. The train was
leaving at 12 o'clock. A terrible night, pouring with rain, and we all
got wet through before starting. We had a comfortable journey as far
as Lapovo, where we arrived at 2 a.m. Here we had to change, and were
supposed to get a train on in an hour's time, but waited about till 5
o'clock, and were then told that there would not be a train on till
noon. We piled our luggage up and went to our dispensary, which is on
the line. We found the windows open and the door unlocked and every
one in bed. They had left it like this as they were expecting the
doctor from Nish, who had gone to fetch fresh supplies of stores. We
took off our boots and lay down on the beds in the ward until 7
o'clock, then we had breakfast and took it in turns to go back to the
station to take charge of the luggage. It was a pitiful sight while in
the station, watching the train loads of refugees coming in from
Belgrade. Many of the women were crying as they related their sad
experiences to the people on the platform. Also train loads of wounded
were coming in; many had been to our dispensary on the Thursday to
have their wounds dressed before going on to a permanent hospital.

We were told that 6,000 or 7,000 shells had been fired in Belgrade,
and that many places were on fire.

At 11 o'clock a train came in from Belgrade, and I heard several
voices calling to me, and I found there were some of Admiral
Troubridge's unit on the train, and three or four of the first
Farmers' unit. They all looked very ill and were covered with mud.
They had left Belgrade at 6 o'clock the night before, and had had to
walk many miles before they could get the train, and had left
everything behind them, only having the clothes they stood up in. They
had only had bread to eat and were almost famished, so I told them to
come and get into our carriage, as we could give them some of the food
we had for our journey. I then went to the guard and asked where this
train was going to, and he replied "to Nish"; but there was only a
cattle truck for us, so we all got into it, and as it was very
doubtful about our getting a train at 12 o'clock we thought it better
to go on. We gave them all a good meal of tongue and beef sandwiches,
bread and cheese and apples and lemonade, and they were indeed
thankful, poor things! for they had gone through a terrible time. They
told us many sad stories of our brave Serbians, who ran into the
hospitals, had their wounds dressed, and then went back to fight. All
the patients in the hospitals who were suffering from bronchitis,
pneumonia, and consumption, and many other diseases, put on their
clothes and went to the trenches. They also told us that the American
hospital was staying on, so all their luggage was sent to this
hospital for safety; later on the American hospital was seen in
flames. The members of these units got out of the train at Chupria, to
join Admiral Troubridge. We heard that the English batteries, with the
exception of one, had been quieted at Belgrade. At Chupria many
wounded soldiers got into our truck. They were going to the hospital
at Nish, we to the rest station which belonged to Sir Ralph and Lady
Paget, and it was for the use of the different English units that were
coming to Serbia. We arrived at 9.30, and as we were very tired we
went to bed at once.


                                      Sunday, _October 10, 1915._

We had breakfast at 7.30, then went to see Sir Ralph Paget, then to
the bank, which fortunately we found open, then to the Serbian Red
Cross.

Several other members of different units arrived from Belgrade during
the day.

At 2.30 an enemy aeroplane came over Nish. No bombs were dropped, so
they had come to spy. Three French aeroplanes went after it and drove
it away; they also fired on it with the aircraft guns. We heard that
one of the trains from Belgrade had been fired at by the Germans and
that twenty-five civilians had been killed. We had a service at the
rest house at 5 o'clock. Two aeroplanes had arrived during the
afternoon and were going on to Kragujevatz.

We left by the 8.30 p.m. train for Salonika.


                                      Monday, _October 11, 1915._

It was a lovely day and most interesting journey. All along there are
camps, wire entanglements and trenches. Some of the camps are amongst
the trees and can scarcely be seen, as they are made of sticks and
mud. The sentry guards also along the line have curious dug-outs, to
which they go down by steps. The haystacks, instead of being on the
ground as in England, are fixed up in trees, like huge beehives, as
the ground gets so swampy. The Serbs and the Albanians look most
picturesque. These must have been the regiments I saw coming along
when I was staying at Uskub. We have just seen a wolf chasing a young
deer; they passed close by the train. It seems dreadful to leave this
glorious country with its brilliant sunshine and bright colours, until
we see all the horrors that are going on so near to us.

We arrived at Uskub at 7 o'clock; had breakfast at the station, and a
few minutes before our train arrived 170 Bulgarian prisoners had been
brought in. They were tied together in batches by ropes. I saw one or
two of the nurses from Lady Paget's on the platform; they had been to
see some friends off. Our train left again at 7.25; then we passed
through wonderful gorges; this of course would make the fighting very
difficult.

Our next stop was the frontier Ghevghili(?). Most of the passengers'
luggage was examined; it was also weighed, and we had to pay on ours.

We arrived at Salonika at 8.30 p.m. We found the station full of Greek
soldiers; many of them were on the ground asleep. We had to leave our
large luggage for the night, then we took a carriage and went to the
hotel _Olympus_, where we had wired for rooms. We saw many of our
English and French troops as we drove down; this of course cheered us
up. We heard there were 25,000 French and 11,000 English, and that
they had been detained by the Greeks, as they were expected in Serbia
some days before.

On arriving at the hotel we made ourselves tidy, went down to dinner,
found the room full of English and French; several of them gave us a
hearty welcome as there were no English women in Salonika. One officer
told us that an American, sitting at their table had insisted on it
that we were Americans, and what a great deal the Americans had been
doing in Serbia, and the point had been argued, so there was great
excitement to know what nationality we were, and the English officers
were delighted to find they were right.

We are all hoping that the Greeks will join us, and that they will all
be going up to Serbia in a day or so.


                                     Tuesday, _October 12, 1915._

Two English officers invited us out to tea to the café near, and were
much interested in hearing all our experiences in Serbia. In the
evening we went to a cinema.


                                   Wednesday, _October 13, 1915._

We had to go and have our passports inspected by the English, French,
and Italian consuls; we got some money changed and did some shopping.

The Turkish markets are very interesting and the salesmen very
amusing, and bargaining is very necessary as they begin by asking
often more than double the amount they are prepared to take.

The Greek shops are very fine, full of beautiful things, and the
fashions quite up to date. We have a nice little Greek lady staying
here from Athens; she told us it was a known fact that the Germans had
lost over three million men. She also told us that seven French
officers had escaped from Stuttgart; they were let out of prison as
they bribed the man who was looking after them. They walked all the
way from Stuttgart through Switzerland to France, having been given
sufficient food for their journey, a compass and a map, and advised
not to speak to any one on the way. They said they never met a man all
the way through Germany; women were armed outside forts, railways and
along roads; every man had gone to fight.


                                    Thursday, _October 14, 1915._

There are eight battleships in the harbour, French and English. The
Greeks are mobilized, and are ready to join whichever side they think
the best. They have copied the English in their uniform.

A Turkish aeroplane passed over to-day. Our boat, the _Sydney_, has
arrived in the harbour, so we went to choose our berths.

About forty boats arrived to-day with English, French, and Greek
troops. We went to watch the horses and mules being unloaded at the
docks; there are more mules than horses; they find them much hardier.


                                      Friday, _October 15, 1915._

We had an interesting day; one of the doctors from Lady Paget's came
to see me, then the captain from the _Abbassieh_, who had brought out
some of the units and knew the three sisters who were with me. He
invited us to lunch on his ship; he had brought in troops from the
Dardanelles, and was doing transport work. He told us that he had
brought 1,300 and that he had only sufficient life boats for 300. In
Salonika we had the Dorsets, the Norfolks, the Herefords, Royal West
Kent, Royal Engineers, the Army Service Corps, and the Royal Army
Medical Corps, and several other regiments that were going up to
Serbia.

The captain asked what boat I had come out on to Serbia. When I said
"the _Saidieh_," he said, "Why, the chief officer is now on my boat,
as the _Saidieh_ was torpedoed some time ago"; and he sent for him to
see us. It was very pleasant meeting again and hearing his story; he
was made captain of another boat, but it had been so much damaged with
shell fire that it could not be used.


                                    Saturday, _October 16, 1915._

In the afternoon the commander from the battleship H.M.S. _Albion_
came to have tea with us, and invited us to tea on his ship the
following day.

We heard to-day that some of the French troops had gone up to the
Bulgarian frontier; we also heard that Perot had been taken by the
Bulgarians, and that the line between Nish and Uskub had been blown
up.

Martial law is in force here, and pickets are all along the front. The
English, French, and Greek officers all had to salute each other.


                                      Sunday, _October 17, 1915._

This morning we went over two old Greek temples, Demetrius and St.
George; they were taken by the Turks and turned into mosques. The
Turks had whitewashed all over the mosaic and marble pillars;
fortunately the whitewash is crumbling away, and one can see the
mosaic through.

A story is told that one of the large panels of marble is supposed to
bleed when anything serious is going to happen; it is a kind of
grey-red, very lovely, and the blood trickles through the cracks. The
priest in Demetrius was standing with a cross and a piece of bosaliac,
known to us as hyssop. The Greek soldiers were going up to him,
kissing the cross, and then he sprinkled their heads with holy water
with the bosaliac.

We went to see the wonderful old bridge that Hadrian, the Roman
Emperor, built.

In the afternoon we went to H.M.S. _Albion_ to tea; it is a very fine
ship, and of course of great interest to us. It has been damaged many
times with shell fire; we went all over and it was most interesting.

Lady Paget arrived here last evening, and five of the sisters from
Admiral Troubridge's unit, as they had been staying the night with her
at Uskub. Two of them were returning to England with us.


                                      Monday, _October 18, 1915._

We hear that the _Sydney_ sails to-morrow at 4 o'clock, so we made our
preparations for leaving.

We have seen crowds of refugees coming into the town to-day, many of
them sleeping on the doorsteps, huddled up in the corners. One poor
man died on the road, and I expect many others will not survive as
they had walked so many miles.


                                     Tuesday, _October 19, 1915._

We got our luggage on our boat the _Sydney_ early, then we took a
small boat out to the hospital ship, the _Grantully Castle_, London,
as the military doctor said the matron would so much like to see us.
On arriving we were received by the matron and the English chaplain;
we were taken all over the ship; it was beautifully fitted up, and
they had every convenience. There were three of our naval men from
Belgrade, two of whom had been wounded, and the other one was
threatened with appendicitis. Forty English soldiers had been taken on
board the night before, suffering from illnesses of different kinds.
The nine nurses were Australians, the matron English. We were invited
to lunch, but could not spare the time, as we had to get back early to
the hotel on account of leaving in the afternoon. We left the hotel at
3.30 and at once went on board. One of the doctors from Lady Paget's
hospital is with us, two of the nurses from Admiral Troubridge's unit,
six of the Scottish nurses from the women's hospital, Valievo, two
French doctors, and an English lady from Bulgaria who had been
teaching there for the last six years, also the military attaché from
Bulgaria, a naval member of Parliament who was carrying dispatches,
also Brigadier General Koe, who was engaged in transport work.

We left Solonika at 5 o'clock. This boat is quite nice and beautifully
clean, very different from the one we came out in. It is a French boat
belonging to the Maritime Line. We had a good passage as far as
Lemnos, where we arrived at 7 p.m. General Koe got off here.


                                   Wednesday, _October 20, 1915._

Lemnos is a barren-looking place, mountainous all round, no trees, and
it is covered with the English and French camps. There is a new
hospital being built at the water's edge. There is no fresh water, and
experts have been sent from England to sink artesian wells. The water
had to be taken out in tanks. One lady at Marseilles sent out
ship-loads of soda water for the soldiers. The harbour is full of
battleships, chiefly French, and there are several hospital ships,
also many transports. The largest ship is the _Aquitania_ from
Liverpool, with four large funnels. Mines and nets are all round us;
at several points of the island guns are fixed; we could hear firing
this afternoon, and we were told that at Imbros one could see the
shells bursting at the Dardanelles. We stayed at Lemnos eight hours;
it is a lovely day and very calm.


                                    Thursday, _October 21, 1915._

We arrived at Piraeus at 6 a.m., landed at 8, then took the train to
Athens, and went straight to Cook's office and wrote letters to
friends staying here, arranging to return for any answers. We then
took a carriage and went to the museum; the statuary is very fine and
beautiful. We returned to Cook's and found a letter from our Greek
friends, inviting us to luncheon at 1 o'clock. We had an hour and a
half more to spare, so took a carriage and went to the Acropolis. It
is indeed wonderful the view of Athens from the top, most beautiful.
We thoroughly enjoyed this sight; the trees all along are most
interesting--avenues of pepper trees, date palms, aloes and cactus; we
also saw a few orange trees. We then went to our friend's house at 1
o'clock. There were three married sisters and their children, and an
English girl, governess to the children. After luncheon they took us
sight-seeing, first to the Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1837 by
some wealthy Greek, and containing memoirs of the Greek War of
Independence, portraits and native costumes, and the clothes of the
Greek King who was shot at Salonika. A tomb has been erected on the
pavement there where he was shot, and a chapel is to be built near.
The pistol that shot him was in the case with the clothes. We also saw
many flags that the Greeks had captured in many different wars, a
sword of Lord Byron's, and his portrait and visiting card.

After leaving here we took the carriage and drove round the principal
streets, then went to the Keremakos market, where there are wonderful
tombs containing the remains of three people in each; the bones are
visible, and the statue of the bull. We then went down the oldest
streets, and to the ancient Church Eglise de Capnicarea. We saw the
temple, the bank, the general post office and the theatre; had tea at
a café and took the train back to the port, and arrived on the boat in
time for dinner. Another lovely night; I slept on deck. I forgot to
mention we passed, on Wednesday, some burning rocks; the chief officer
told us they are set on fire by oil by the shepherds, to watch their
flocks by night.


                                      Friday, _October 22, 1915._

We did not leave Athens until 8.30 this morning. We were held up much
longer than we expected. An aeroplane followed our boat for a little
way, but it was a Greek one, so we had nothing to fear. At 3 p.m. we
had quite an excitement; a message was sent to the ship to say we had
to go into the Island of Milos for orders; submarines had been seen
round the neighbourhood. We got into Milos and found five French
battleships, submarine destroyers. One of the maritime ships was in
the harbour that had been torpedoed two weeks ago. The island is very
picturesque; the houses are built in the Turkish style. We remained in
the harbour for about two hours. We have a submarine destroyer
escorting us, also another ship was with us, so we feel quite safe.
Written notices were sent round to each passenger with instructions
what to do in case we were struck. The captain had an anxious voyage
from here on, keeping watch all the time. We kept going out of our
course and the destroyer and our boat were constantly signalling to
each other. We had to come round by Crete instead of Cape Matapan. The
wind has risen and it is very rough; most of the people are ill. We
had a bad night, continuous thunderstorms and heavy rain. The boat is
rolling as well as pitching.


                                    Saturday, _October 23, 1915._

It still continues very rough and very few passengers are visible.
Nothing exciting has happened; our two escorts are still in front of
us.


                                      Sunday, _October 24, 1915._

This morning a large steamer signalled to our destroyer, so it left us
for two or three hours and then returned. In the night it was
exchanged for another one. We were told that they had to be very
careful along this route, as nine boats were torpedoed in one week;
naturally we were all more or less anxious, looking down into the cold
water. I much dreaded the risk we ran as I should much prefer to be
shot or shelled to being drowned. We heard that we reach Malta in the
evening, but owing to our having to go so much out of our course we
did not arrive until the following morning at 6 a.m. It was an anxious
night; neither the captain nor the chief officer appeared for dinner;
no end of men were on the watch for enemy submarines; it seems that
there are many in the Mediterranean just now, and we were told that
this is the worst danger zone at present. The Germans have a specially
large new one here which is doing a lot of damage. It has been very
rough all night, and the boat had to slacken speed as we were not
allowed to enter Malta before 6 a.m. I met a very interesting English
lady from Constantinople on board this morning. She has lived there
for forty years. Her husband is a doctor. She had three sons--two
solicitors, the third an invalid. He suffers from fits. The youngest
son's name was down on the list to be sent to Gallipoli with the
English and French prisoners, whom the Turks were sending from
Constantinople, in the hope that this would prevent our troops from
bombarding Gallipoli. This poor mother was so distressed, and pleaded
so hard to the Turkish officials that they consented that her son
should be released. She then made another plea for her husband to be
allowed to leave the country, and he left for Malta. Then she procured
the release of her delicate son, and he also joined his father, and
now she herself is on her way to join them. The other two sons were
not allowed to leave; they are being kindly treated, but have come
down to breaking stones. I felt very sorry for her, but admired her
courage and cheerfulness in such distressing circumstances. All her
valuables from her lovely home she sent to the Turkish bank, but of
course has no hope of seeing them again; they are sure to be
confiscated. Fifty or more of our men were sent to Gallipoli from
Constantinople, so that should the place be bombarded they would be
the first to fall; but the English and French threatened the Turks
with other reprisals, and they were withdrawn. They left the ship and
spent five days in a mosque, where they had to rough it terribly,
though the officials were very kind to them, and on their return to
Constantinople gave them a good dinner. Everybody out here speaks so
well of the Turks, and all those we have met seem so very sorry that
they are fighting against the English, and they said it would be their
ruin joining the Germans, their great dread being the loss of
Constantinople. Three little birds are following our boat, often
coming on board; one is a robin, but the other two we do not know. We
had several cats on board and were much afraid for the safety of the
birds. Two sparrowhawks also pursued them.


                                      Monday, _October 25, 1915._

We were allowed to land at Malta at 8 a.m. As we only had three hours
on land we took a carriage, only 1 fr.80 the hour, and drove all
round. The carriages are different from ours, so picturesque, and the
Maltese women, with their curious headgear, are very fascinating. We
went first to the gardens to see flowers and palms, which were looking
lovely, then to the Church of St. John's, where a service was taking
place, so we remained a little time. We saw the Governor's Palace,
then the Chapel of Bones, formerly attached to the hospital. Over
2,000 skulls are shown, and the remaining framework of the body is
most artistically arranged, but very gruesome. We had not time to
enter the museum as we had to do a little shopping before returning to
the boat. We sailed at 11.30, still very rough, and we could not keep
a straight course; our escort was with us.

There were three suspicious characters on board, and we hear they had
been locked up.


                                     Tuesday, _October 26, 1915._

Still very rough, and most of the passengers have had to retire;
those who were able to remain played bridge.

We have no butter for tea, only biscuits and dry bread; this was not
such a hardship to me as to some of the other passengers. We had had
no butter in Serbia for more than three months as butter cost there
7_s._ per pound, and as we could only obtain such small quantities,
even at that price, it was not worth buying for our large unit.


                                   Wednesday, _October 27, 1915._

We had a bad thunderstorm to-day, and the sea is still very rough.
Nothing of any importance happened.


                                    Thursday, _October 28, 1915._

We arrived at Marseilles at 8 a.m., for which we were all truly
thankful, as it is not much pleasure to be facing such dangers as we
had done.

At the Customs our luggage was most carefully searched, even the
leaves of our Bibles and other books being turned over. We were all
much amused and wondered if we should be searched next. This I believe
happened to some of the women, but not any of our party.

We had our passports seen, and also paid a visit to the police station
to obtain a pass to Boulogne. This took up most of the day, and we
remained two nights in Marseilles. There is an Indian camp, as they
come here to be climatized before going to the front. It was
interesting seeing them about the town.


                                    Saturday, _October 30, 1915._

We left at 7 p.m., and on our arrival at Boulogne found the times had
been altered, and our boat did not leave until the next day at 3 p.m.


                                      Monday, _November 1, 1915._

When we got on to the quay a hospital train came along, and we were
told our King was in it, and his boat left just before ours, so we
felt quite safe--and not at all sorry when we arrived once more in
England.



Butler & Tanner Frome and London



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