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Title: 五孝傳
Author: Tao, Qian, 372?-427
Language: Chinese
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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书名: 五孝傳
陶潛 著


Title: Wuxiaozhuan
Subtitle: Five (sets of) filial piety biographies
Author: Tao Qian



陶潛-孝傳

天子孝傳贊

虞舜、夏禹、殷高宗、周文王。

虞舜父頑母嚚,事之於畎畝之間,以孝烝烝,是以堯聞而授之。富有天下,貴
為天子,以為不順於父母,若窮而無歸,惟(聞)〔順〕親可以得意,苟違朝
夕,若嬰兒之思戀,故稱舜五十而慕。《書》曰:「戛擊鳴球,搏拊琴瑟以詠
,祖考來格。」言思其來而訓之。愛敬盡於事親,是以德教加於百姓,刑於四
海。

夏禹有天下,以奉宗廟,然躬自菲薄,以厚其孝。孔子曰:「禹,吾無間然矣
。菲飲食而致孝乎鬼神,惡衣服而致美乎黻冕。」禹之德於是稱聞。聖人之德
,無以加於孝敬,孝敬之道,美莫大焉。

殷高宗諒陰,三年不言,百官?己而聽於?宰,三年而後言,天下咸歡,德教
大行,殷道以興。詩曰:「一人有慶,兆民賴之。」其此之謂乎!

周文王之為世子也,朝於王季日三,雞鳴至於寢門,問於內豎,內豎曰「安」
,文王乃喜,「不安」,則色憂,行不能正履。日中、暮,亦如之。食上,必
視寒溫之節;食下,必問所膳而後退。文王孝道光大,其化自近至遠,刑於寡
妻,以御於家邦,故得萬國之歡心,以事其先王矣。

贊曰:至哉後德,聖敬自天。陶漁致養,菲薄饗先。親瘠色憂,諒陰寢言。一
人有慶,千載賴旃。

諸侯孝傳贊

周公旦、魯孝公、河間惠王。

周公旦,武王之弟。成王幼少,周公攝政,制禮作樂,郊祀后稷以配天,宗祀
文王於明堂,以配上帝,是以四海之內,各以其職來祭。詩曰:「於穆清廟,
肅雍顯相。」言諸侯樂其位而敬其事也。仲尼曰:「孝莫大於嚴父,嚴父莫大
於配天。」則周公其人也,貴而不驕,位高彌謙,自承文武之休烈,孝道通於
神明,光被四海。武王封之於魯,備其禮樂,以奉宗廟焉。

魯孝公之為公子,周宣王問公子能道訓諸侯者立之。樊穆仲稱其孝曰:「肅恭
明神,而敬事耆老,賦事行刑,必問於遺訓,咨於故實,不干所問,不犯所咨
。」王曰:「然則能訓理其民矣。」乃命之於夷宮,是為孝公。夫宗廟致敬,
不忘親也,有國不亦宜乎!

漢河間惠王,獻王之曾孫也。西京藩臣,多驕放之失,其名德者,唯獻王,而
惠王繼之,《漢書》稱其能修獻王之行。母薨,服喪盡禮。哀帝下詔書褒揚,
以為宗室儀表,增封萬戶。禮,古之人皆然,至於末俗衰薄,固已賢矣,貴而
率禮又難。其見褒賞,不亦宜乎。

贊曰:貴驕殊途,不期而會。周公勞謙,乃成光大。二侯承魯,遵儉去泰。河
間率禮,漢宗是賴。

卿大夫孝傳贊

孔子、孟莊子、潁考叔。

孔子,魯人也。入則事父兄,出則事公卿,喪事不敢不勉,故稱曰:「孝乎惟
孝,友於兄弟,是亦為政也。」君賜腥,必熟而薦之,雖蔬食而齊,祭如在。
鄉人儺,朝服立於阼階,孝之至也。至德要道,莫大於孝,是以曾參受而書之
。游、夏之徒,常咨稟焉。許止不嘗藥,書以殺父。宰我暫言減喪,責以不仁
。言合訓典,行合世范。德義可尊,作事可法,遺文不朽,揚名千載。

孟莊子,魯人也。孔子稱其孝,其他可能也。其不改父之政,與父之臣,是難
能也。夫孝子之事親也,事亡如事存,故當不義則爭之,存所不爭,則亡亦不
敢改,〔三年無改〕父之道,猶謂之孝,況終身乎。

潁考叔,鄭人也。莊公以叔段之故,與母誓曰:「不及黃泉,無相見也。」既
而悔之。考叔為封人,聞之,有獻於公,公賜之食,而舍肉。公問之,對曰:
「小人有母,未嘗君之羹,請以遺之。」公曰:「汝有母遺,繄我獨無!」考
叔曰:「何謂也?」公語之故,且告之悔。考叔曰:「若掘地及泉隧而相見,
其誰曰不然?」公從之,遂為母子如初。君子曰:潁考叔,純孝也,愛其母而
施及莊公,詩云:「孝子不匱,永錫爾類。」其是之謂乎。

贊曰:仁惟本悌,聖亦基孝。恂恂尼父,固天攸造。二子承親,式禮遵誥。永
錫純懿,無改遺操。

士孝傳贊

高柴、樂正子春、孔奮、黃香。

高柴,衛人也。喪親,泣血三年,未嘗見齒,所謂哭不偯,言不文也。為武城
宰而化行,民有不服其親者改之,行喪如禮。君子之德風也,以身先之,而民
不遺其親。

樂正子春,魯人也。下堂傷足,既瘳,數月不出,猶有憂色。曰:「吾聞之曾
子,父母全而生之,已全而歸之,可謂孝矣。故君子一舉足,一出言,不敢忘
父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也。」夫能敬慎若斯,而災患及者,未之有也。

孔奮,扶風人也。少以孝行著名州裡,供養至謹。在官,唯母極甘美,妻息菜
食。歷位以清。夫人情莫不欲厚其親,然亦有分焉,(奮)〔奢〕則難繼,能
致儉以全養者,鮮矣。

黃香,江夏人也。九歲失〔母〕,思慕骨立,事父竭力以致養,冬無被?而盡
滋味,暑則扇床枕,寒則以身溫席。漢和帝嘉之,特加異賜,歷位恭勤,寵祿
榮親,可謂「夙興夜寐,無忝爾所生」者也。

贊曰:顯允群士,行殊名鈞。咸能夙夜,以義榮親。率彼城邑,用化厥民。忠
以悟主,其孝乃純。

庶人孝傳贊

江革、廉范、汝郁、殷陶。

江革,齊人也。漢章帝時,避賊負母而逃,賊賢之,不害而告其生路。竭力傭
債,以致甘暖,和顏悅色,以盡歡心,欲親之安,自挽車以行。鄉人歸之,號
曰江巨孝。位至五官中郎將,天子嘉焉,寵遇甚厚。告歸,詔書褒美,就家禮
其終身,以顯異行。

廉范,京兆人也,少孤,十五入蜀,迎父喪,遇石舡覆,范執骸而沒,船人救
之,僅免於死,遂以喪歸。及仕郡拯太守於危難,送故盡節,章帝時為郡守,
百姓歌詠之。夫孝者,人之本,教之所由生也,是以范之臨危也勇,宰民也惠
,能以義顯也。

汝郁,陳郡人也。五歲,母病不食,郁亦不食。母憐之,強食。郁能察色,知
病,輒復不食。族人號曰「異童」。年十五,著於鄉里,父母終,思慕致毀,
推財與兄弟,隱於草澤,君子以為難。況童齔孝於自然,可謂天性也。

殷陶,汝南人也。年十二,以孝稱,遭父憂,率情合禮,有長蛇帶其門,舉家
奔走,陶以喪柩在(馬)〔焉〕,獨居廬不動。親戚扶持曉喻,莫能移之,(
帝)〔啼〕號益盛。由是顯名,屢辭辟命。夫智者不惑,勇者不懼,陶孝於其
親,而智勇並彰乎弱齡,斯又難矣。

贊曰:事親盡歡,其難在色。彼養以祿,我養以力。義在愛敬,榮不假飾。嗟
爾眾庶,鑑茲前式。





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