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´╗┐Title: The 1999 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 1999 CIA World Factbook" ***

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The World Factbook 1999


In general, information available as of 1 January 1999 was used in the
preparation of this edition.

the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage,
and content are designed to meet their specific requirements.
Information is provided by the Bureau of the Census (Department of
Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central
Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic
Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Defense
Threat Reduction Agency (Department of Defense), Department of State,
Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime
Administration (Department of Transportation), National Imagery and
Mapping Agency (Department of Defense), Antarctic Information Program
(National Science Foundation), Naval Facilities Engineering Command
(Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department of the
Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense), US
Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), and other
public and private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied
freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The
official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without permission
as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section 403m). Misuse of
the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and criminal
penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Telephone: [1] (703) 482-0623
FAX: [1] (703) 482-1739



=====================================================================



Country Listings


A

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan


B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi


C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic


D

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic


E

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island


F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands


G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana


H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary


I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy


J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island


K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan


L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg


M

Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique


N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway



O

Oman



P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico


Q

Qatar


R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda


S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria


T

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu


U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan


V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands


W

Wake Atoll
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
World


Y

Yemen


Z

Zaire (see Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Zambia
Zimbabwe



Taiwan



=====================================================================



Appendixes


A. Abbreviations

B. United Nations System

C. International Organizations and Groups

D. Selected International Environmental Agreements

E. Weights and Measures

F. Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

G. Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

H. Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names



=====================================================================



Notes and Definitions


In addition to the updating of information, the following
changes have been made in this edition of The World
Factbook. The name Wake Island has been officially changed
to Wake Atoll. The Historical perspective and Current issues
entries in the Introduction category have been combined into
a new Background entry. It appears in only a few country
profiles at this time. There are new entries on Population
below poverty line, Household income or consumption by
percentage share, Electricity--production by source (fossil
fuel, hydro, nuclear, other), Electricity--exports, and
Electricity--imports. A new reference map of Kosovo has been
included and terrain has been added to most of the reference
maps.

Abbreviations: This information is included in Appendix A:
Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms
used in the Factbook, with their expansions.

Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the
numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative
divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names
(BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on
by BGN are noted.

Age structure: This entry provides the distribution of the
population according to age. Information is included by sex
and age group (0-14 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over).
The age structure of a population affects a nation's key
socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high
percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools,
while countries with older populations (high percentage ages
65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The
age structure can also be used to help predict potential
political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young
adult population unable to find employment can lead to
unrest.

Agriculture--products: This entry is a rank ordering of major
crops and products starting with the most important.

Airports: This entry gives the total number of airports. The
runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or
unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces), but must be
usable. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports--with paved runways: This entry gives the total
number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt
surfaces). For airports with more than one runway, only the
longest runway is included according to the following five
groups --(1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to
2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only
airports with usable runways are included in this listing.
Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance,
or air traffic control.

Airports--with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total
number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand,
or gravel surfaces). For airports with more than one runway,
only the longest runway is included according to the
following five groups--(1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047
m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under
914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in
this listing. Not all airports have facilities for
refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Appendixes: This section includes Factbook-related material
by topic.

Area: This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the
sum of all land and water areas delimited by international
boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of
all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes,
reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, including inland water bodies (lakes,
reservoirs, rivers).

Area--comparative: This entry provides an area comparison
based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared
with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area
measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the
Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington,
DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59
sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Background: This entry usually highlights major historic
events, current issues, and may include a statement about
one or two key future trends. This entry appears for only a
few countries at the present time, but will be added to all
countries in the future.

Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of
births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at
midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is
usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of
population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility
and the age structure of the population.

Budget: This entry includes revenues, total expenditures,
and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an
exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity
(PPP) terms.

Capital: This entry gives the location of the seat of
government.

Climate: This entry includes a brief description of typical
weather regimes throughout the year.

Coastline: This entry gives the total length of the boundary
between the land area (including islands) and the sea.

Communications: This category deals with the means of
exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio,
and television entries.

Communications--note: This entry includes miscellaneous
communications information of significance not included
elsewhere.

Constitution: This entry includes the dates of adoption,
revisions, and major amendments.

Country map: Most versions of the Factbook provide a country
map in color. The maps were produced from the best
information available at the time of preparation. Names
and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.

Country name: This entry includes all forms of the country's
name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is
used as an example): conventional long form (Italian
Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form
(Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former
(Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see
the Terminology note.

Currency: This entry identifies the national medium of
exchange and its basic subunit.

Data code: This entry gives the official US Government
digraph that precisely identifies every land entity without
overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the
data code for Afghanistan. This two-letter country code is a
standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the
Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS)
10-4 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology
at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the
Office of the Geographer and Global Issues at the US
Department of State. The data code is used to eliminate
confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing,
and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly
useful for interchanging data between databases. Appendix F
cross-references various country data codes and Appendix G
does the same thing for hydrographic data codes.

Data codes--country: This information is presented in
Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes which
includes the US Government approved Federal Information
Processing Standards (FIPS) codes, the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and Internet
codes for land entities.

Data codes--hydrographic: This information is presented in
Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes
which includes the International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) codes, Aeronautical Chart and Information Center
(ACIC; now National Imagery and Mapping Agency or NIMA)
codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) codes for
hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet
approved a standard for hydrographic data codes similar to
the FIPS 10-4 standard for country data codes.

Date of information: In general, information available as of
1 January 1999, was used in the preparation of this edition.

Death rate: This entry gives the average annual number of
deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also
known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a
rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country,
accurately indicates the current mortality impact on
population growth. This indicator is significantly affected
by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show
a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued
decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility
results in an aging population.

Debt--external: This entry gives the total amount of public
foreign financial obligations.

Dependency status: This entry describes the formal
relationship between a particular nonindependent entity and
an independent state.

Dependent areas: This entry contains an alphabetical listing
of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a
particular independent state.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic
relations with 184 independent states, including 178 of the
185 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran,
Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia, and the US itself). In
addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 6 independent
states that are not in the UN--Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru,
Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes
the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address,
telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the
chief of the foreign mission, chancery address, telephone
number, FAX number, consulate general locations, consulate
locations, honorary consulate general locations, and
honorary consulate locations.

Disputes--international: This entry includes a wide variety
of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary
disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another.
Information regarding disputes over international
terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the
US Department of State. References to other situations
involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as
resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist
issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute
official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Economic aid--donor: This entry refers to net official
development assistance (ODA) from OECD nations to developing
countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as
financial assistance that is concessional in character, has
the main objective to promote economic development and
welfare of LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least
25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or
private flows.

Economic aid--recipient: This entry, which is subject to
major problems of definition and statistical coverage,
refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance
(ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance
from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international
organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal
commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from
the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in
various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry
thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.

Economy: This category includes the entries dealing with the
size, development, and management of productive resources,
i.e., land, labor, and capital.

Economy--overview: This entry briefly describes the type of
economy, including the degree of market orientation, the
level of economic development, the most important natural
resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also
characterizes major economic events and policy changes in
the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about
one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity--consumption: This entry consists of total
electricity generated annually plus imports and minus
exports, expressed in kilowatt hours.

Electricity--exports: This entry is the total exported
electricity in kilowatt hours.

Electricity--imports: This entry is the total imported
electricity in kilowatt hours.

Electricity--production: This entry is the annual electricity
generated expressed in kilowatt hours.

Electricity--production by source: This entry indicates the
percentage share of annual electricity production of each
energy source. These are fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, and
other (solar, geothermal, and wind).

Elevation extremes: This entry includes both the highest
point and the lowest point.

Entities: Some of the independent states, dependencies,
areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in
this publication are not independent, and others are not
officially recognized by the US Government. "Independent
state" refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependencies"
and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad category
of political entities that are associated in some way with
an independent state. "Country" names used in the table of
contents or for page headings are usually the short-form
names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names and
may include independent states, dependencies, and areas of
special sovereignty, or other geographic entities. There are
a total of 266 separate geographic entities in The World
Factbook that may be categorized as follows:


INDEPENDENT STATES

191   Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua
     and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
     Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
     Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia
     and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
     Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
     Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
     Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
     Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
     Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
     Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
     Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
     Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,
     Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
     Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras,
     Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
     Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
     Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,
     Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
     Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav
     Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
     Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
     Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia,
     Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
     Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
     Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
     Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
     Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
     Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San
     Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
     Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
     Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
     South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
     Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
     Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
     Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine,
     UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
     Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

OTHER

1     Taiwa
     n

DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY

6     Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
     Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island
     and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
1     China--Hong Kong
2     Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland
16    France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
     French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and
     Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de
     Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion,
     Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and
     Futuna
2     Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3     New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3     Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1     Portugal--Macau
15    UK--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
     British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands,
     Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat,
     Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the
     South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
14    US--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
     Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway
     Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra
     Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Atoll

MISCELLANEOUS

  6   Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands,
     West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

  4   oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean,
     Pacific Ocean
  1   World


266   Tota
     l
Environment--current issues: This entry lists the most
pressing and important environmental problems.

Environment--international agreements: This entry separates
country participation in international environmental
agreements into two levels--party to and signed but not
ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the
abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements: This information is presented in
Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements,
which includes the name, abbreviation, date opened for
signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties
by category.

Ethnic groups: This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic
groups starting with the largest and normally includes the
percent of total population.

Exchange rates: This entry provides the official value of a
country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given
period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per
US dollar and as determined by international market forces
or official fiat.

Executive branch: This entry includes several subfields.
Chief of state includes the name and title of the titular
leader of the country who represents the state at official
and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the
day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government
includes the name and title of the top administrative leader
who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the
government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body
of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of
members. Elections includes the nature of election process
or accession to power, date of the last election, and date
of the next election. Election results includes the percent
of vote for each candidate in the last election. In the UK,
the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is
the head of government. In the US, the president is both the
chief of state and the head of government.

Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of
exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.

Exports--commodities: This entry provides a rank ordering of
exported products starting with the most important; it
sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Exports--partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of
trading partners starting with the most important; it
sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Fiscal year: This entry identifies the beginning and ending
months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which
often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month.
FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that began in calendar
year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994. All yearly
references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated
as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description: This entry provides a written flag
description produced from actual flags or the best
information available at the time the entry was written. The
flags of independent states are used by their dependencies
unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some
disputed and other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic: Most versions of the Factbook include a color
flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag
graphics were produced from actual flags or the best
information available at the time of preparation. The flags
of independent states are used by their dependencies unless
there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed
and other areas do not have flags.

GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or
value of all final goods and services produced within a
nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook
are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations.
See the note on GDP methodology for more information.

GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GDP dollar
estimates for all countries are derived from purchasing
power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions
at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method involves
the use of standardized international dollar price weights,
which are applied to the quantities of final goods and
services produced in a given economy. The data derived from
the PPP method provide the best available starting point for
comparisons of economic strength and well-being between
countries. The division of a GDP estimate in domestic
currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives
the PPP conversion rate. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD
countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing
countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP
estimates are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers
published by the UN International Comparison Program (UNICP)
and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the
University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In
contrast, currency exchange rates depend on a variety of
international and domestic financial forces that often have
little relation to domestic output. In developing countries
with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in
dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP
estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or
down by 10% or more because of market forces or official
fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12
January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African
Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French
franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of
course, did not cut the real output of these countries by
half. One important caution: the proportion of, say, defense
expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency
accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when
GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example,
when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of
Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: the numbers
for GDP and other economic data can not be chained together
from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes
in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by
statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of
information, and changes in national statistical methods and
practices. For statistical series on GDP and other economic
variables, see the Handbook of International Economic
Statistics available from the same sources as The World
Factbook.

GDP--composition by sector: This entry gives the percentage
contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total
GDP.

GDP--per capita: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power
parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same
year.

GDP--real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an
annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a
percent.

Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude
and longitude figures for the purpose of finding the
approximate geographic center of an entity and is based on
the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August
1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.

Geographic names: This information is presented in Appendix
H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names which indicates
where various geographic names--including alternate names,
former names, political or geographical portions of larger
entities, and the location of all US Foreign Service
posts--can be found in The World Factbook. Spellings are
normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names are included in
parentheses, while additional information is included in
brackets.

Geography: This category includes the entries dealing with
the natural environment and the effects of human activity.

Geography--note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.

GNP: Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final
goods and services produced within a nation in a given year,
plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income
earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Factbook,
following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to
measure national production. However, the user must realize
that in certain countries net remittances from citizens
working abroad may be important to national well-being.

Government: This category includes the entries dealing with
the system for the adoption and administration of public
policy.

Government type: This entry gives the basic form of
government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal
republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).

Government--note: This entry includes miscellaneous
government information of significance not included
elsewhere.

Gross domestic product: see GDP

Gross national product: see GNP

Gross world product: see GWP

GWP: This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or
aggregate value of all final goods and services produced
worldwide in a given year.

Heliports: This entry gives the total number of established
helicopter takeoff and landing sites (which may or may not
have fuel or other services).

Highways: This entry includes the total length of the
highway system as well as the length of the paved and
unpaved components.

Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on
household income or consumption come from household surveys,
the results adjusted for household size. Nations use
different standards and procedures in collecting and
adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally
show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on
consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time,
yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country
comparisons.

Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five
categories of illicit drugs--narcotics, stimulants,
depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These
categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced
and sold outside of medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which
provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and
includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer),
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and
hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that
contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to
be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is
used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca
bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and
anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal,
Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium,
Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden),
and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical,
mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical
substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or
behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD
(acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons,
cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine
(PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy,
TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp
plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical
depressant.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).

Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as
mandrax in Southwest Asia.

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep,
and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic
substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric,
parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine
(Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC),
and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse,
smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics
include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan),
methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon,
Lomotil).

Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe
seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the
natural and semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the
mature, dried opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of
Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone,
a pharmaceutical depressant.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase
energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow,
crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine
(Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert,
Sanorex, Tenuate).

Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of
imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight)or f.o.b.
(free on board) basis.

Imports--commodities: This entry provides a rank ordering of
imported products starting with the most important; it
sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Imports--partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of
trading partners starting with the most important; it
sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date
that sovereignty was achieved, and from which nation,
empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date
given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense,
but rather some significant nationhood event such as
traditional founding date, date of unification, federation,
confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form
of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include
the notation "none" followed by the nature of their
dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the
annual percentage increase in industrial production
(includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Industries: This entry provides a rank ordering of
industries starting with the largest by value of annual
output.

Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths
of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live
births in the same year. This rate is often used an
indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate (consumer prices): This entry furnishes the
annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the
previous year's consumer prices.

International disputes: see Disputes--international

International organization participation: This entry lists
in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international
organizations in which the subject country is a member or
participates in some other way.

International organizations: This information is presented
in Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups which
includes the name, abbreviation, address, telephone, FAX,
date established, aim, and members by category.

Introduction: This category includes one entry, Background.
At present it appears in only a few country profiles, but
will be added to others in the future.

Irrigated land: This entry gives the number of square
kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with
water.

Judicial branch: This entry contains the name(s) of the
highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection
process for members.

Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force
figure.

Labor force--by occupation: This entry contains a rank
ordering of component parts of the labor force by
occupation.

Land boundaries: This entry contains the total length of all
land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the
contiguous border countries.

Land use: This entry contains the percentage shares of total
land area for five different types of land use. Arable
land--land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each
harvest like wheat, maize, and rice. Permanent crops--land
cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each
harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber. Permanent
pastures--land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops.
Forests and woodland--land under dense or open stands of
trees. Other--any land type not specifically mentioned above,
such as urban areas, roads, desert, etc.

Languages: This entry provides a rank ordering of languages
starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent
of total population speaking that language.

Legal system: This entry contains a brief description of the
legal system's historical roots, role in government, and
acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ)
jurisdiction.

Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the
structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name,
number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the
nature of election process or accession to power, date of
the last election, and date of the next election. Election
results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats
held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average
number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the
same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the
future. The entry includes total population as well as the
male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also
a measure of overall quality of life in a country and
summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought
of as indicating the potential return on investment in human
capital and is necessary for the calculation of various
actuarial measures.

Literacy: This entry includes a definition of literacy and
Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males,
and females. There are no universal definitions and
standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates
are based on the most common definition--the ability to read
and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that
individual countries use to assess the ability to read and
write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on
literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational
results, is probably the most easily available and valid for
international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and
education in general, can impede the economic development of
a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven
world.

Location: This entry identifies the country's regional
location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of
water.

Map references: This entry includes the name of the Factbook
reference map on which a country may be found. The entry on
Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some
smaller countries.

Maritime claims: This entry includes the following claims:
contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone,
exclusive fishing zone, extended fishing zone, none (usually
for a landlocked country), other (unique maritime claims
like Libya's Gulf of Sidra Closing Line or North Korea's
Military Boundary Line), and territorial sea. The proximity
of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from
being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: Merchant marine may be defined as all ships
engaged in the carriage of goods; all commercial vessels (as
opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs,
fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; or a grouping of
merchant ships by nationality or register. This entry
contains information in two subfields--total and ships by
type. Total includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or
over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those
ships. Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers,
bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, combination bulk carriers,
combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, intermodal
ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers,
multifunction large--load carriers, oil tankers, passenger
ships, passenger-cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated
cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea
passenger ships, specialized tankers, tanker tug-barges, and
vehicle carriers.

A captive register is a register of ships maintained by a
territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively
for the use of ships owned in the parent country; it is also
referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent
of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will
fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant
of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation
rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a
captive register makes it especially desirable for ships
owned in the parent country, just as in the internal
register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive
register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except
that it is not the register of an independent state.

A flag of convenience register is a national register
offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the
flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract
ships to their registers by virtue of low fees, low or
nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning
requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in the
flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for
ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is
one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned
abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

A flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and
which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship,
whether at home or abroad. Maritime legislation of the flag
state determines how a ship is crewed and taxed and whether
a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register. An
internal register is a register of ships maintained as a
subset of a national register. Ships on the internal
register fly the national flag and have that nationality but
are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those
on the main national register. These differences usually
include lower taxation of profits, use of foreign nationals
as crew members, and, usually, ownership outside the flag
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian
International Ship Register and Danish International Ship
Register are the most notable examples of an internal
register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight
from the national flag to flags of convenience and in
attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish
flags.

A merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against
payment of freight; it is commonly used to denote any
nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial
vessels only.

A register is the record of a ship's ownership and
nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a
country; also, it is the compendium of such individual
ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it
with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the
country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of
the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Military: This category includes the entries dealing with a
country's military structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military branches: This entry lists the names of the ground,
naval, air, marine, and other defense or security forces.

Military expenditures--dollar figure: This entry gives
current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is
calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in
percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP)
calculated on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power
parity (PPP) terms. The figure should be treated with
caution because of different price patterns and accounting
methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the
strength of their currencies.

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: This entry gives
current military expenditures as an estimated percent of
gross domestic product (GDP).

Military manpower--availability: This entry gives the total
numbers of males and females age 15-49 and assumes that
every individual is fit to serve.

Military manpower--fit for military service: This entry gives
the number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military
service. This is a more refined measure of potential
military manpower availability which tries to correct for
the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum
potential number to a more realistic estimate of the actual
number fit to serve.

Military manpower--military age: This entry gives the minimum
age at which an individual may volunteer for military
service or be subject to conscription.

Military manpower--reaching military age annually: This entry
gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the
military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of
the availability of draft-age young adults.

Military--note: This entry includes miscellaneous military
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in
contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National holiday: This entry gives the primary national day
of celebration--usually independence day.

Nationality: This entry provides the identifying terms for
citizens--noun and adjective.

Natural hazards: This entry lists potential natural
disasters.

Natural resources: This entry lists a country's mineral,
petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial
importance.

Net migration rate: This entry includes the figure for the
difference between the number of persons entering and
leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based
on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the
country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56
migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the
country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000
population). The net migration rate indicates the
contribution of migration to the overall level of population
change. High levels of migration can cause problems such as
increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if
people are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force,
perhaps in certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

People: This category includes the entries dealing with the
characteristics of the people and their society.

People--note: This entry includes miscellaneous demographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Personal Names--Capitalization: The Factbook capitalizes the
surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of
our users who are faced with a world of different cultures
and naming conventions. An example would be President SADDAM
Husayn of Iraq. Saddam is his name and Husayn is his
father's name. He may be referred to as President SADDAM
Husayn or President SADDAM, but not President Husayn. The
need for capitalization, bold type, underlining, italics, or
some other indicator of the individual's surname is apparent
in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz,
William Jefferson CLINTON, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz
Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah. By knowing
the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be
used with confidence as in President Saddam, President
Castro, Chairman Mao, President Clinton, or Sultan Tunku
Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is extended to
the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly
used such as Queen ELIZABETH II.

Personal Names--Spelling: The romanization of personal names
in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration
system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling
place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly
indicates a preference for, or the media or official
documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs
from the transliteration derived from the US Government
standard. In such cases, the Factbook uses the alternative
spelling.

Personal Names--Titles: The Factbook capitalizes any valid
title (or short form of it) immediately preceding a person's
name. A title standing alone is lowercased. Examples:
President YEL'TSIN and President CLINTON are chiefs of
state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the
premier is the head of the government, while in the US, the
president is both chief of state and head of government.

Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of
pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude
oil, or petroleum products.

Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing
of significant political organizations and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders: This entry includes a
listing of organizations with leaders involved in politics,
but not standing for legislative election.

Population: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau
of the Census based on statistics from population censuses,
vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys
pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about
future trends. The total population presents one overall
measure of the potential impact of the country on the world
and within its region. Note: starting with the 1993
Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly
African) have taken into account the effects of the growing
incidence of AIDS infections. These countries are Botswana,
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria,
Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda,
Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line: National estimates of the
percentage of the population lying below the poverty line
are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results
weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions
of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example,
rich nations generally employ more generous standards of
poverty than poor nations.

Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in
the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of
births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and
leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The
growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden
would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its
people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals,
housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity),
and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening
by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors: This entry lists the major ports and
harbors selected on the basis of overall importance to each
country. This is determined by evaluating a number of
factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross tonnage,
facilities, military significance).

Radio broadcast stations: This entry includes the total
number of AM, FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.

Radios: This entry gives the total number of radio
receivers.

Railways: This entry includes the total length of the
railway network and component parts by gauge: broad, dual,
narrow, standard, and other.

Reference maps: This section includes world, regional, and
special or current interest maps.

Religions: This entry includes a rank ordering of religions
starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent
of total population.

Sex ratio: This entry includes the number of males for each
female in five age groups--at birth, under 15 years, 15-64
years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex
ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of
certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For
instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries
are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide
due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future
marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually it
could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to
find partners. The sex ratio at birth for the World is 1.06
(1999 est.).

Suffrage: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and
whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers in the Factbook
consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area
code (where required) in parentheses, and the local number.
The one component that is not presented is the international
access code, which varies from country to country. For
example, an international direct dial telephone call placed
from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx where

011 is the international access code for station-to-station
calls

(01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls),

[34] is the country code for Spain,

(1) is the city code for Madrid,

577 is the local exchange, and

xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from
another country to the US would be as follows:

international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where

[1] is the country code for the US,

(202) is the area code for Washington, DC,

939 is the local exchange, and

xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system: This entry includes a brief
characterization of the system with details on the domestic
and international components. The following terms and
abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Arabsat--Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia).

Autodin--Automatic Digital Network (US Department of
Defense).

CB--citizen's band mobile radio communications.

cellular telephone system--the telephones in this system are
radio

transceivers, with each instrument having its own private
radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the
booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone
signal is fed to a regular telephone exchange.

Central American Microwave System--a trunk microwave radio
relay system that links the countries of Central America and
Mexico with each other.

coaxial cable--a multichannel communication cable consisting
of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated
from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of
telephone channels can be made available within the
insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier
frequencies.

Comsat--Communications Satellite Corporation (US).

DSN--Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice
Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice
network of the Defense Communications System (US Department
of Defense).

Eutelsat--European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Paris).

fiber-optic cable--a multichannel communications cable using
a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in
which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a
coded pulse of light.

HF-- high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-kHz range.

Inmarsat--International Mobile Satellite Organization
(London); provider of global mobile satellite communications
for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in
the air, and on land.

Intelsat--International Telecommunications Satellite
Organization (Washington, DC).

Intersputnik--International Organization of Space
Communications (Moscow); first established in the former
Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now
marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in
North America, Africa, and East Asia.

landline--communication wire or cable of any sort that is
installed on poles or buried in the ground.

Marecs--Maritime European Communications Satellite used in
the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.

Marisat--satellites of the Comsat Corporation that
participate in the Inmarsat system.

Medarabtel--the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a
modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave
radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan,
Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria,
Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in
1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was
known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean
Telecommunications Network.

microwave radio relay--transmission of long distance
telephone calls and television programs by highly
directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on
from one booster station to another on an optical path.

NMT--Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone
system that was developed jointly by the national
telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries
(Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

Orbita--a Russian television service; also the trade name of
a packet--switched digital telephone network.

radiotelephone communications--the two-way transmission and
reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized
frequencies using telephone handsets.

satellite communication system--a communication system
consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one
satellite that provides long distance transmission of voice,
data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk
connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth
stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.

satellite earth station--a communications facility with a
microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and
required receiving and transmitting equipment for
communicating with satellites.

satellite link--a radio connection between a satellite and an
earth station permitting communication between them, either
one-way (down link from satellite to earth
station--television receive-only transmission) or two-way
(telephone channels).

SHF--super-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000-
to 30,000-MHz range.

shortwave--radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall
above the commercial broadcast band and are used for
communication over long distances.

Solidaridad--geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.

Statsionar--Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications.

submarine cable--a cable designed for service under water.

TAT--Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-
capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe
with North America.

telefax--facsimile service between subscriber stations via
the public switched telephone network or the international
Datel network.

telegraph--a telecommunications system designed for
unmodulated electric impulse transmission.

telex--a communication service involving teletypewriters
connected by wire through automatic exchanges.

tropospheric scatter--a form of microwave radio transmission
in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a
fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth;
powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit
and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon
communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in
a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this
system for very long distances.

trunk network--a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines.

UHF-- ultra-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 300-
to 3,000-MHz range.

VHF--very-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to
300-MHz range.

Telephones: This entry gives the total number of
subscribers.

Television--broadcast stations: This entry gives the total
number of separate broadcast stations plus any repeater
stations.

Televisions: This entry gives the total number of television
sets.

Terminology: Due to the highly structured nature of the
Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be
used. For example, the word Country in the Country name
entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies, areas of
special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities
in addition to the traditional countries or independent
states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for
various civil defense, security, and defense activities in
many entries. The Independence entry includes the usual
colonial independence dates and former ruling states as well
as other significant nationhood dates such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification,
federation, confederation, establishment, or state
succession that are not strictly independence dates.
Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status
noted in this same entry.

Terrain: This entry contains a brief description of the
topography.

Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the
average number of children that would be born per woman if
all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and
bore children according to a given fertility rate at each
age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of
the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it
refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the
potential for population growth in the country. High rates
will also place some limits on the labor force participation
rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women
indicate large family sizes that might limit the ability of
the families to feed and educate their children.

Transnational Issues: This category includes only two
entries at the present time --Disputes--international and
Illicit drugs--that deal with current issues going beyond
national boundaries.

Transportation: This category includes the entries dealing
with the means for movement of people and goods.

Transportation--note: This entry includes miscellaneous
transportation information of significance not included
elsewhere.

Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the
labor force that is without jobs. Substantial
underemployment might be noted.

United Nations System: This information is presented in
Appendix B: United Nations System as a chart, table, or text
(depending on the version of the Factbook) that shows the
organization of the UN in detail.

Waterways: This entry gives the total length and individual
names of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies
of water.

Weights and measures: This information is presented in
Appendix E: Weights and Measures and includes mathematical
notations (mathematical powers and names), metric
interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length, weight, or
capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY)
unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is
an accounting period of 12 months from 1 January to 31
December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12
months other than 1 January to 31 December. FY93/94 refers
to the fiscal year that began in calendar year 1993 and
ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was
compiled from material in the public domain and does not
represent Intelligence Community estimates. The Handbook of
International Economic Statistics, published annually in
September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains
detailed economic information for the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the
successor nations to the Soviet Union, and selected other
countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever the
Factbook is available.



=====================================================================



A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook


The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired,
converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers.
Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary,
contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong. Intelligence
is information that has been collected, integrated, evaluated,
analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the final product
of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker.

The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and
estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual
reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports
on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes.
The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation
on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence
continually updates the inventory of knowledge; and estimative
intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue
prospects for guidance of basic and current intelligence. The World
Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence
Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since
the days of George Washington, but only since World War II have they
been coordinated on a governmentwide basis. Three programs have
highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since
that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2)
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the
production of basic intelligence by different components of the US
Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting
information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home
to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for
integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed
coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as
Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In
the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch
amphibious operations against many islands about which information was
unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the
United States should never again be caught unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval
Intelligence--ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the Office
of Strategic Services--OSS) decided that a joint effort should be
initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that
recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing
Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy
Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental
basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government
for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic
intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34
JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous
letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm.
Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said,
"JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based
planners."

The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar world
was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on
national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret
Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world
leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than war.
"The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities--not
just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and
officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October
1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational
responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security
Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime
replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country
sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more
comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic
Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced
the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the
structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955
that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication
which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all
areas of the world. . . . There will always be a continuing requirement
for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an
annual summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first
classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first
unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was
terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer
components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the
public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The
1996 edition was printed by GPO and the 1997 edition was reprinted by
GPO. The year 1999 marks the 52nd anniversary of the establishment of
the Central Intelligence Agency and the 56th year of continuous basic
intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and its
two predecessor programs



=====================================================================



Purchasing Information


The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) prepares The World Factbook in
printed, CD-ROM, and Internet versions. US Government officials may
obtain information about availability of the Factbook directly from
their own organizations or through liaison channels to the CIA. Other
users may obtain sales information about printed copies and CD-ROMs
from the following:

Superintendent of Documents
P.O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800
FAX: [1] (202) 512-2250
http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/


National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: [1] (800) 553-6847 (only in the US);
[1] (703) 605-6000 (for outside US)
FAX: [1] (703) 605-6900
http://www.ntis.gov/

The Internet version may be accessed through the following World-Wide
Web uniform resource locator (URL): http://www.cia.gov

Electronic file preparation by Printing and Photography Group, Central
Intelligence Agency.



=====================================================================



@Afghanistan
-----------



Geography



Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total: 647,500 sq km
  land: 647,500 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc,
  barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and
  semiprecious stones

Land use:
  arable land: 12%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 46%
  forests and woodland: 3%
  other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush
  mountains; flooding

Environment--current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing;
  deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for
  fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
  signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography--note: landlocked



People



Population: 25,824,882 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 5,640,841; female 5,422,460)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 7,273,681; female 6,776,750)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 374,666; female 336,484) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.95% (1999 est.)
  note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees

Birth rate: 41.93 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 17.02 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 14.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 140.55 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 47.33 years
  male: 47.82 years
  female: 46.82 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.94 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%,
  minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic
  languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages
  (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 31.5%
  male: 47.2%
  female: 15% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan; note--the
  self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic
  Emirate of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: transitional government

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat,
  singular--velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian,
  Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol,
  Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz,
  Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar,
  Vardak, Zabol
  note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and
  Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign
  affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April;
  Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day,
  19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all
  factions tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the
  Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban
  movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning
  government at this time, and the country remains divided among
  fighting factions
  note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government
  of Afghanistan; the UN has deferred a decision on credentials and
  the Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat
  vacant until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through
  negotiations among the warring factions; the country is essentially
  divided along ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of
  Kabul and approximately two-thirds of the country including the
  predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing
  factions have their stronghold in the ethnically diverse north

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there
  are local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students
  Afghanistan comprised of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic
  other smaller parties are Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party)
  SAYYAF]; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement)
  GAILANI]; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party)

Political pressure groups and leaders: tribal elders represent
  traditional Pashtun leadership; Afghan refugees in Pakistan,
  Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Peshawar,
  Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP,
  FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  note: embassy operations suspended 21 August 1997
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
  chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul
  has been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top),
  white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the
  emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions
  above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by
  a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by
  two crossed scimitars
  note: the Taliban uses a plain white flag



Economy



Economy--overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
  country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep
  and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to
  political and military upheavals during two decades of war,
  including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended
  15 February 1989). During that conflict one-third of the population
  fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak
  of more than 6 million refugees. Now, only 750,000 registered Afghan
  refugees remain in Pakistan and about 1.2 million in Iran. Another 1
  million have probably moved into and around urban areas within
  Afghanistan. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over
  the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the
  disruption of trade and transport. Much of the population continues
  to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical
  care. Inflation remains a serious problem throughout the country,
  with one estimate putting the rate at 240% in Kabul in 1996.
  International aid can deal with only a fraction of the humanitarian
  problem, let alone promote economic development. Government efforts
  to encourage foreign investment have not worked. The economic
  situation did not improve in 1998. Numerical data are likely to be
  either unavailable or unreliable.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$20 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$800 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 53%
  industry: 28.5%
  services: 18.5% (1990)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 240% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 7.1 million

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry
  67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5%, services and
  other 10.7% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
  shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
  coal, copper

Electricity--production: 540 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 35.19%
  hydro: 64.81%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 660 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996) (1996)

Electricity--imports: 120 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool,
  mutton

Exports: $80 million (1996 est.)

Exports--commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool,
  cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports--partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK,
  Belgium, Luxembourg, Czech Republic

Imports: $150 million (1996 est.)

Imports--commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer
  goods

Imports--partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India,
  South Korea, Germany

Debt--external: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $214.6 million (1995); note?US provided
  $450 million in bilateral assistance (1985-93); US continues to
  contribute to multilateral assistance through the UN programs of
  food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid
  to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1--4,750 (February 1999),
  17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994),
  1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note--these rates reflect the free
  market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate, which
  was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until 1996, when it rose
  to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed again at 3,000.00
  per dollar on April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March--20 March



Communications



Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service; in 1997,
  telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif,
  Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and
  microwave systems
  international: satellite earth stations--1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
  linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region);
  commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6 (5 are inactive), FM 1, shortwave
  3 (1998)

Radios: 1.67 million (1998 est.)

Television broadcast stations: NA
  note: in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four
  northern Afghanistan provinces; also, the government ran a central
  television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 30
  provinces; it is unknown if any of these stations currently operate

Televisions: 100,000 (1998 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 24.6 km
  broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
  Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
  Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways:
  total: 21,000 km
  paved: 2,793 km
  unpaved: 18,207 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up
  to about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products--Uzbekistan to Bagram and
  Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 container ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,982
  GRT/14,101 DWT (1998 est.)

Airports: 44 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 33
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 10 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: NA; note--the military does not exist on a
  national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air
  Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police
  Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are
  factionalized among the various groups

Military manpower--military age: 22 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 6,326,135 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 3,392,336 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 248,320 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: support to Islamic militants worldwide by
  some factions; question over which group should hold Afghanistan's
  seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest illicit opium producer
  after Burma (cultivation in 1998--41,720 hectares, a 7% increase over
  1997; potential production in 1998--1,350 metric tons) and a major
  source of hashish; increasing number of heroin-processing
  laboratories being set up in the country; major political factions
  in the country profit from drug trade



======================================================================



@Albania
-------



Geography



Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and
  Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 28,750 sq km
  land: 27,400 sq km
  water: 1,350 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia,
  173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear,
  dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium,
  copper, timber, nickel

Land use:
  arable land: 21%
  permanent crops: 5%
  permanent pastures: 15%
  forests and woodland: 38%
  other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along
  southwestern coast

Environment--current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
  pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
  Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)



People



Population: 3,364,571 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33% (male 568,642; female 530,088)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 957,561; female 1,105,870)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 84,280; female 118,130) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.05% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 20.74 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 42.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69 years
  male: 65.92 years
  female: 72.33 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs,
  Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
  observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
  private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:
  definition: age 9 and over can read and write
  total population: 93%
  male: NA%
  female: NA% (1997 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular--rreth)
  and 1 municipality* (bashki); Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll
  (Bilisht), Diber (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster,
  Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove,
  Kukes, Lac, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik),
  Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin,
  Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode),
  Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana), Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje (Bajram Curri),
  Vlore
  note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
  administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center
  name following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: a new constitution was adopted by popular
  referendum on 28 November 1998; note--the opposition Democratic Party
  boycotted the vote

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24
  July 1997)
  head of government: Prime Minister Pandeli MAJKO (since 2 October
  1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
  approved by the president
  elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA
  2002); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's
  Assembly vote by number--total votes 122, for 110, against 3,
  abstained 2, invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi
  Popullor (155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote
  and some by proportional vote for four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
  election results: percent of vote by party--PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD
  2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK
  1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party--PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK
  3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is
  elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Socialist Party or PS

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI,
  EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
  IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI
  chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Marisa R. LINO
  embassy: Rruga Elbasanit 103, Tirana
  mailing address: American Embassy, Tirana, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20521-9510

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center



Economy



Economy--overview: An extremely poor country by European
  standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more
  open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe
  depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally
  planned system in 1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government
  resolve to maintain stabilization policies in the election year of
  1996 contributed to renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by
  the budget deficit which exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial
  pyramid schemes in early 1997--which had attracted deposits from a
  substantial portion of Albania's population--triggered severe social
  unrest which led to more than 1,500 deaths, widespread destruction
  of property, and an 8% drop in GDP. The new government installed in
  July 1997 has taken strong measures to restore public order and to
  revive economic activity and trade. The economy continues to be
  bolstered by remittances of some 20% of the labor force which works
  abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP
  and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Most agricultural
  land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant
  incomes. In 1998, Albania probably recovered most if not all of the
  7% drop in GDP of 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 7% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,490 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 56%
  industry: 21%
  services: 23% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 19.6% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000
  emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture (nearly all private; but
  some state employed) 49.5%, private business sector 22.2%, state
  business sector 28.3% (including state-owned industry 7.8%);
  note--includes only those domestically employed

Unemployment rate: 14% (October 1997) officially, but likely to
  be as high as 28%

Budget:
  revenues: $624 million
  expenditures: $996 million, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
  cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity--production: 5.12 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 4.3%
  hydro: 95.7%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 5.27 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996) (1996)

Electricity--imports: 150 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wide range of temperate-zone crops and
  livestock

Exports: $212 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores,
  electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports--partners: Italy, Greece, Germany, Belgium, US

Imports: $791 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains

Imports--partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former
  Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Debt--external: $645 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $630 million (1997 pledged)

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1--139.93 (January 1999), 150.63
  (1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996), 92.70 (1995), 94.62 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system:
  domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
  every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
  government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used
  it to build fences
  international: inadequate; international traffic carried by
  microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (1997)

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 447 km (none electrified)
  standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 18,000 km
  paved: 5,400 km
  unpaved: 12,600 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake
  Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural
  gas 64 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,394 GRT/41,429
  DWT (1998 est.)

Airports: 9 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 6
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces,
  Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 763,949 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 622,013 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 32,954 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $60 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: the Albanian Government supports
  protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders
  but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal
  of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks
  independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav
  Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to
  public-sector jobs, and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for
  Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan
  route and--to a far lesser extent--cocaine from South America destined
  for Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic
  Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding
  in Europe



======================================================================



@Algeria
-------



Geography



Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea,
  between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 2,381,740 sq km
  land: 2,381,740 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry
  summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high
  plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in
  summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
  uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 13%
  forests and woodland: 2%
  other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;
  mud slides

Environment--current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and
  other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw
  sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is
  leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean
  Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion,
  and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography--note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)



People



Population: 31,133,486 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37% (male 5,911,910; female 5,696,538)
  15-64 years: 59% (male 9,255,702; female 9,063,954)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 559,570; female 645,812) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.1% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.82 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.24 years
  male: 68.07 years
  female: 70.46 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.27 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and
  Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 61.6%
  male: 73.9%
  female: 49% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Shabiyah
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas,
  singular--wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba,
  Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira,
  Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf,
  Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara,
  Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el
  Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras,
  Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi
  Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976;
  revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996;
  note--referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was
  signed into law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law;
  judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council
  composed of various public officials, including several Supreme
  Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31
  January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995)
  head of government: Interim Prime Minister Smail HAMDANI (since 15
  December 1998); note--appointed as interim prime minister until April
  1999 presidential elections
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 16 November 1995 (next to be held NA April 1999;
  note--ZEROUAL announced in September 1998 his intention to step down
  after early presidential elections); prime minister appointed by the
  president
  election results: Liamine ZEROUAL elected president; percent of
  vote--Liamine ZEROUAL 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
  People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the
  Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by
  the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve
  six-year terms; created as a result of the constitutional revision
  of November 1996)
  elections: National People's Assembly--last held 5 June 1997 (next to
  be held NA 2001); elections for two-thirds of the Council of
  Nations--last held 25 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2003)
  election results: National People's Assembly--percent of vote by
  party--NA%; seats by party--RND 156, MSP 69, FLN 62, Nahda Movement
  34, FFS 20, RCD 19, PT 4, Republican Progressive Party 3, Union for
  Democracy and Freedoms 1, Liberal Social Party 1, independents 11;
  Council of Nations--percent of vote by party--NA%; seats by party--RND
  80, FLN 10, FFS 4, MSP 2 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the
  president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front or FIS
  BENHAMOUDA, secretary general]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS
  note: the government established a multiparty system in September
  1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a
  new party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
  AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
  (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ramtane LAMAMRA
  chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
  embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
  mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side)
  and white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the
  crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
  (the state religion)



Economy



Economy--overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
  economy, accounting for roughly 52% of budget revenues, 25% of GDP,
  and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest
  reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
  exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to
  reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world
  began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the
  country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a
  comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve economic
  stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy.
  Despite substantial progress toward economic adjustment, in 1992 the
  reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political
  turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one
  priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural
  adjustment process. Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers
  concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994
  and the following year signed onto a three-year extended fund
  facility which ended 30 April 1998. Progress on economic reform, a
  Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995, and oil and gas sector
  expansion have contributed to a recovery since 1995. Investments in
  developing hydrocarbon resources have spurred growth, but the
  economy remains heavily dependent on volatile oil and gas revenues.
  The government has continued efforts to diversify the economy by
  attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector
  in order to reduce high unemployment and improve living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$140.2 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3.2% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$4,600 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12%
  industry: 51%
  services: 37% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 22.6% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 7.8 million (1996 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%,
  construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and
  services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $14.4 billion
  expenditures: $15.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.4
  million (1998 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining,
  electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: -4% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 18.4 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 98.91%
  hydro: 1.09%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 18.13 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 490 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 220 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives,
  citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: $14 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97%

Exports--partners: Italy 18.8%, US 14.8%, France 11.8%, Spain 8%,
  Germany 7.9% (1995 est.)

Imports: $8.5 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Imports--commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer
  goods

Imports--partners: France 29%, Spain 10.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 8%,
  Germany 5.6% (1995 est.)

Debt--external: $31.4 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $897.5 million (1994)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1--61.264 (January
  1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997), 54.749 (1996), 47.663 (1995),
  35.059 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 1,381,342 (5,200 cellular telephone subscribers)
  (1997)

Telephone system:
  domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
  France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
  Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations--2
  Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and
  1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 23, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1998 est.)

Radios: 3.5 million (1998 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (not including low-power
  stations) (1997)

Televisions: 2 million (1998 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 4,772 km
  standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
  double track)
  narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 102,424 km
  paved: 70,570 km (including 608 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 31,854 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural
  gas 2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf,
  Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
  total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 933,672 GRT/1,094,104
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
  tanker 11, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea
  passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 137 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 51
  over 3,047 m: 8
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 24
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 86
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
  914 to 1,523 m: 40
  under 914 m: 19 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force,
  Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 8,237,682 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 5,046,931 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 359,592 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1994)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.7% (1994)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: part of southeastern region claimed by
  Libya



======================================================================



@American Samoa
--------------



Geography



Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean,
  about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total: 199 sq km
  land: 199 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area--comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds;
  annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to
  April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature
  variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited
  coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 10%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 70%
  other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment--current issues: limited natural fresh water
  resources; the water division of the government has spent
  substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments
  and pipelines

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
  harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough
  seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds;
  strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean



People



Population: 63,786 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39% (male 12,840; female 12,074)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 17,933; female 18,035)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 1,494; female 1,410) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.64% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 26.53 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 4.04 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.19 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.46 years
  male: 71.23 years
  female: 79.95 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.66 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%,
  other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
  Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other
  Polynesian languages), English
  note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97% (1980 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of
  the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department
  of the Interior

Government type: NA

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are
  no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
  Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the
  second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since
  20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20
  January 1993)
  head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997)
  and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997)
  cabinet: NA
  elections: US president and vice president elected on the same
  ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected
  on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election
  last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
  election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor; percent of
  vote--Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID (independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly
  consists of the House of Representatives (21 seats--20 of which are
  elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate
  from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18
  seats; members are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Representatives--last held NA November 1998 (next
  to be held NA November 2000); Senate--last held 3 November 1996 (next
  to be held 7 November 2000)
  election results: House of Representatives--percent of vote by
  party--NA; seats by party--NA; Senate--percent of vote by party--NA;
  seats by party--NA
  note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of
  Representatives; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held
  7 November 2000); results--Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat)
  reelected as delegate for a sixth term

Judicial branch: High Court (chief justice and associate justices
  are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [leader NA];

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate),
  Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue, with a white triangle edged in red that
  is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown
  and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is
  carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a
  war club



Economy



Economy--overview: This is a traditional Polynesian economy in
  which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic
  activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa
  conducts the great bulk of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
  processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with
  canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add
  substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. According to
  one observer, attempts by the government to develop a larger and
  broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its
  limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a
  developing sector, may be held back by the current financial
  difficulties in East Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$150 million (1995 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$2,600 (1995 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 13,949 (1996)

Labor force--by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%,
  other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget:
  revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants )
  expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY96/97)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
  vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 105 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 105 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro,
  breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products,
  livestock

Exports: $313 million (1996)

Exports--commodities: canned tuna 93%

Exports--partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $471 million (1996)

Imports--commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%,
  petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6%

Imports--partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji
  4%, other 7%

Debt--external: $NA

Economic aid--recipient: $NA; note?important financial support
  from the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October--30 September



Communications



Telephones: 9,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular phone
  services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 12,000 (1994 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 350 km
  paved: 150 km
  unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao,
  Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Andorra
-------



Geography



Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 450 sq km
  land: 450 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 125 km
  border countries: France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m
  highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore,
  lead

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 56%
  forests and woodland: 22%
  other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment--current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of
  mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: none of the selected agreements
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: landlocked



People



Population: 65,939 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 14% (male 4,880; female 4,527)
  15-64 years: 73% (male 25,811; female 22,444)
  65 years and over: 13% (male 4,196; female 4,081) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.24% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 10.27 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.46 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 17.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.12 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 83.46 years
  male: 80.55 years
  female: 86.55 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra
  local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that
  retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are
  the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are
  represented locally by officials called veguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies,
  singular--parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les
  Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
  1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no
  judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)
  represented by Veguer Jean-Pierre COURTOIS (since NA); and Spanish
  Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January
  1971) represented by Veguer Francesc BADIA Battalla (since NA)
  head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
  (since 21 December 1994)
  cabinet: Executive Council designated by the Executive Council
  president
  elections: Executive Council president elected by the General
  Council and formally appointed by the coprinces; election last held
  16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
  election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
  president; percent of General Council vote--NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or
  Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by
  direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14
  to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA February
  2001)
  election results: percent of vote by party--UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%,
  ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party--UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan, France,
  (two civil judges appointed by the veguers, one appeals judge
  appointed by the coprinces alternately); Ecclesiastical Court of the
  Bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal
  des Cortes, (presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals
  judge, the veguers, and two members of the General Council)

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group or AND
  note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS,
  Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent
  Representative to the UN)
  chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
  embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to
  Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate
  General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina
  Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227;
  FAX: (3493) 205-7705; note--Consul General Douglas R. SMITH makes
  periodic visits to Andorra

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist
  side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in
  the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield;
  similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national
  coat of arms in the center



Economy



Economy--overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny,
  well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10
  million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free
  status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative
  advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France
  and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of
  goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven"
  status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural
  production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food
  has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep
  raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and
  furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$1.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$18,000 (1995 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
  revenues: $138 million
  expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber,
  tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 140 million kWh (1992)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  nuclear: NA%
  other: NA%

Electricity--consumption: NA kWh

Electricity--exports: NA kWh

Electricity--imports: NA kWh

Agriculture--products: tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats,
  vegetables; sheep

Exports: $47 million (f.o.b., 1995)

Exports--commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture

Exports--partners: France 49%, Spain 47%

Imports: $1 billion (1995)

Imports--commodities: consumer goods, food

Imports--partners: France, Spain, US 4.2%

Debt--external: $NA

Economic aid--recipient: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
  centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.65 (January 1999),
  5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520
  (1994); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1--143.39 (January 1999),
  149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections
  between exchanges
  international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 269 km
  paved: 198 km
  unpaved: 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Angola
------



Geography



Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
  between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 1,246,700 sq km
  land: 1,246,700 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km of which
  220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province, Republic
  of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has
  cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to
  April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior
  plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
  copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 23%
  forests and woodland: 43%
  other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding
  on the plateau

Environment--current issues: the overuse of pastures and
  subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures;
  desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response
  to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use
  as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion
  contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams;
  inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

Geography--note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the
  Democratic Republic of the Congo



People



Population: 11,177,537 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 45% (male 2,545,006; female 2,473,732)
  15-64 years: 52% (male 2,938,178; female 2,909,844)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 143,074; female 167,703) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.84% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 43.11 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.35 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 129.19 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.39 years
  male: 46.08 years
  female: 50.82 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.12 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
  (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant
  15% (1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African
  languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42%
  male: 56%
  female: 28% (1998 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty
  democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias,
  singular--provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango,
  Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda
  Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
  1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary
  law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and
  increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979); note--the president is both chief of state and head
  of government
  head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since January
  1999); note--the president is both chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected without
  opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in
  Angola's first multiparty elections in 28-29 September 1992, the
  last elections to be held (next to be held NA)
  election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote,
  making a run-off election necessary between him and second-place
  finisher Jonas SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
  repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
  Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
  election results: percent of vote by party--MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
  others 12%; seats by party--MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3,
  others 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of
  the Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the
  in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of
  years of armed resistance before joining the current unity
  note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
  but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation
  of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC
  note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
  struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
  ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
  SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
  chancery: 1615 M Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph G. SULLIVAN
  embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
  mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda;
  pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
  20521-2550

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and
  black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed
  star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a
  hammer and sickle)



Economy



Economy--overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of
  more than 20 years of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its
  abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's
  lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85%
  of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are
  vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP. Notwithstanding
  the signing of a peace accord in November 1994, sporadic violence
  continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are
  reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the
  country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich
  resources--gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries,
  arable land, and large oil deposits--Angola will need to implement
  the peace agreement and reform government policies. The increase in
  the pace of civil warfare in late 1998 dims economic prospects for
  1999 especially if the oil sector were to be damaged.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$11 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 0.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 53%
  services: 34% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 90% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services
  15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment
  affecting more than half the population (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $928 million
  expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
  million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
  bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish
  processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar;
  textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 1.86 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 24.73%
  hydro: 75.27%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 1.86 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
  cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock;
  forest products; fish

Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum
  products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
  (1998)

Exports--partners: US 65%, EU, China (1997)

Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles
  and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing; substantial
  military goods

Imports--partners: Portugal 21%, US 15%, France 14%, South Africa
  (1997)

Debt--external: $13 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $493.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1--350,000 (February 1999),
  392,824 (1998), 229,040 (1997), 128,029 (1996), 2,750 (1995), 59,515
  (1994); note--readjusted Kwanzas per US$1,000 through 1994, per US$1
  thereafter

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 8 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1997)

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 2,952 km (limited trackage in use because of land mines still
  in place from the civil war) (1997 est.)
  narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 76,626 km
  paved: 19,156 km
  unpaved: 57,470 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo,
  Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
  total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,384 GRT/78,357 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 9, oil tanker 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 252 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 32
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
  914 to 1,523 m: 6
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 220
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 32
  914 to 1,523 m: 100
  under 914 m: 82 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces,
  National Police Force

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,544,203 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,280,377 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 111,168 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $1 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 25% (FY97/98)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for
  cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African
  states



======================================================================



@Anguilla
--------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto
  Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 91 sq km
  land: 91 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms
  (July to October)

Environment--current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes
  cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution
  system

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA



People



Population: 11,510 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27% (male 1,581; female 1,529)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 3,874; female 3,695)
  65 years and over: 7% (male 366; female 465) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.16% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 16.68 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 20.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.72 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.71 years
  male: 74.72 years
  female: 80.78 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Anguillan(s)
  adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
  Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 12 and over can read and write
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95% (1984 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended
  1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
  represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)
  head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March
  1994)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
  elected members of the House of Assembly
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
  members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total,
  7 elected by direct popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 4 March 1999 (next to be held March 2004)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--ANA 2,
  AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
  Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance or ANA

International organization participation: Caricom (observer),
  CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
  the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory
  of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the
  outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange
  dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background
  with blue wavy water below



Economy



Economy--overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the
  economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster
  fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially
  the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the
  effects of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996.
  Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the
  growth of the construction sector, contributed to economic growth in
  1997-98. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into
  developing the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of
  financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the
  medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism
  sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the
  industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$81 million (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6.5% (1997 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$7,300 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 16%
  services: 80% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.6% (1997)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)

Labor force--by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%,
  construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing
  3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $20.4 million
  expenditures: $23.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.8
  million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: NA kWh

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  nuclear: NA%
  other: NA%

Electricity--consumption: NA kWh

Electricity--exports: NA kWh

Electricity--imports: NA kWh

Agriculture--products: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep,
  goats, pigs, cattle, poultry; fish, lobsters

Exports: $1.6 million (1997)

Exports--commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt

Exports--partners: NA

Imports: $54.2 million (1997)

Imports--commodities: NA

Imports--partners: NA

Debt--external: $8.5 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $3.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.7000
  (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 890

Telephone system:
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
  (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 105 km
  paved: 65 km
  unpaved: 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 2
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Antarctica
----------



Geography



Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 14 million sq km
  land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
  ice-covered) (est.)
  note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Area--comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km
  note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation,
  and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
  Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
  the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January
  along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren
  rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters;
  mountain ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas
  include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic
  Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers
  form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice
  shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
  copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
  hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward
  from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
  plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise
  along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of
  West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment--current issues: in 1998, NASA satellite data showed
  that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27
  million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased
  ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of
  icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion
  earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: none of the selected agreements
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest
  continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface
  at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent
  period; mostly uninhabitable



People



Population: no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally
  staffed research stations
  note: approximately 29 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic
  Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round
  research on the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the
  population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent
  and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the
  region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately
  4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000
  personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard
  research are present in the waters of the treaty region; Summer
  (January) population--3,687 total; Argentina 302, Australia 201,
  Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11,
  France 100, Germany 51, India 60, Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea
  14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway 40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia
  254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden 20, UK 192, US 1,378
  (1998-99); Winter (July) population--964 total; Argentina 165,
  Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France 33, Germany 9,
  India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20, Russia 102,
  South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations--42
  total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4, China 2, Finland
  1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, South Korea 1, NZ
  1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Ukraine 1,
  UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); Summer-only stations--32 total;
  Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Germany 1, India 1,
  Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5 (1998-99) in
  addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous
  occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary
  facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antarctica

Data code: AY

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary--the Antarctic Treaty,
  signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961,
  establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
  Administration is carried out through consultative member
  meetings--the 22nd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in
  Norway in May 1998. At the end of 1998, there were 43 treaty member
  nations: 27 consultative and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting)
  members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica
  as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant
  nations. The US and some other nations that have made no claims have
  reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of
  others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation
  was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date
  indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory.
  Claimant nations are--Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New
  Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations
  are--Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1978) China (1985), Ecuador
  (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987),
  Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland
  (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
  (1985), and the US. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of
  accession in parentheses, are--Austria (1987), Canada (1988),
  Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965),
  Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987),
  Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993),
  Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), and Ukraine (1992). Article
  1--area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity,
  such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and
  equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful
  purpose; Article 2--freedom of scientific investigation and
  cooperation shall continue; Article 3--free exchange of information
  and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international
  agencies; Article 4--does not recognize, dispute, or establish
  territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the
  treaty is in force; Article 5 --prohibits nuclear explosions or
  disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6--includes under the treaty
  all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south;
  Article 7--treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
  observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
  installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and
  of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article
  8--allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own
  states; Article 9--frequent consultative meetings take place among
  member nations; Article 10--treaty states will discourage activities
  by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty;
  Article 11--disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties
  concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14--deal with
  upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved
  nations. Other agreements--some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty
  consultative meetings and ratified by governments include --Agreed
  Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964);
  Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972);
  Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
  (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was
  subsequently rejected; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to
  the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into
  force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of
  the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine
  pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste
  management, and protected areas; it prohibits all activities
  relating to mineral resources except scientific research.

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
  against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
  jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
  Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
  section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
  following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute:
  the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of
  nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected or
  scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the
  importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation
  of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000
  in fines and one year in prison. The Departments of Treasury,
  Commerce, Transportation, and Interior share enforcement
  responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation
  Act of 1978, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to
  notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room
  5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such
  plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more
  information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs,
  National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703)
  306-1031, or see their website at www.nsf.gov.



Economy



Economy--overview: No economic activity is conducted at present,
  except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based
  abroad. Antarctic fisheries in 1997-98 reported landing 92,456
  metric tons. Unregulated fishing landed five to six times more than
  the regulated fishery, and allegedly illegal fishing in antarctic
  waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and Australia) of
  at least eight fishing ships. A total of 9,604 tourists visited in
  the 1997-98 summer, up from the 7,413 who visited the previous year.
  Nearly all of them were passengers on 13 commercial
  (nongovernmental) ships that made 92 trips during the summer. Around
  200 tourists were on yachts or commercial aircraft. Most tourist
  trips lasted approximately two weeks.



Communications



Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 2 (American Forces Antarctic
  Network), shortwave 1 (Argentina Antarctic Base de Egercito
  Esperanza) (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (American Forces Antarctic
  Network-McMurdo) (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 17; 27 stations, operated by 16 national governments
  party to the Antarctic Treaty, have landing facilities for either
  helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises
  operate two additional air facilities; helicopter pads are available
  at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice,
  blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing
  aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between
  2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3
  are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow
  surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing
  aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are
  greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length,
  2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in
  length, and 4 are of unknown length; airports generally subject to
  severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal
  and geographic conditions; airports do not meet ICAO standards;
  advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental
  operating organization required for landing (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 17
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 5 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
  military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
  fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the
  testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military
  personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other
  peaceful purposes



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see
  Antarctic Treaty Summary above); sections (some overlapping) claimed
  by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand
  (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most
  other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other
  nations and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the
  right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector
  between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west



======================================================================



@Antigua and Barbuda
-------------------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 440 sq km
  land: 440 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Redonda

Area--comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some
  higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 9%
  forests and woodland: 11%
  other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to
  October); periodic droughts

Environment--current issues: water management?a major concern
  because of limited natural fresh water resources--is further hampered
  by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing
  rainfall to run off quickly

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



People



Population: 64,246 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26% (male 8,414; female 8,137)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 21,936; female 22,227)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 1,504; female 2,028) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 16.22 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.46 years
  male: 69.06 years
  female: 73.98 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
  adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some
  Roman Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling
  total population: 89%
  male: 90%
  female: 88% (1960 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*;
  Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint
  Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
  1994)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on
  the advice of the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen
  by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister
  appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
  (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
  Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
  representation to serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives--last held 9 March 1999 (next to
  be held NA March 2004)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--ALP
  12, UPP 4, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
  Lucia) (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
  and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
  coalition of three opposition political parties--United National
  Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or
  ACLM, and the Progressive Labor Movement or PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
  chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
  consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
  embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US
  Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based
  on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal
  bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising
  sun in the black band



Economy



Economy--overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant
  activity in the economy accounting directly or indirectly for more
  than half of GDP. Increased tourist arrivals have helped spur growth
  in the construction and transport sectors. The dual island nation's
  agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market;
  the sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor
  shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and
  construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for
  export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and
  electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium
  term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized
  world, especially in the US, which accounts for about half of all
  tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$503 million (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$7,900 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 12.5%
  services: 83.5% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.1% (1997)

Labor force: 30,000

Labor force--by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture
  11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $122.6 million
  expenditures: $141.2 million, including capital expenditures of
  $17.3 million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
  alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 95 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 95 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas,
  coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports: $37.8 million (1997)

Exports--commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%,
  food and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%

Exports--partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and
  Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $325.5 million (1997)

Imports--commodities: food and live animals, machinery and
  transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports--partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

Debt--external: $240 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $2.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.7000
  (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system:
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station--1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands
  Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (repeater
  transmitters for Deutsche Welle and BBC world broadcasts) (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 77 km
  narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
  exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways:
  total: 250 km (1996 est.)
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
  total: 517 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,706,126
  GRT/3,542,664 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 21, cargo 338, chemical tanker 7, combination
  bulk 2, container 111, liquefied gas tanker 2, multifunctional
  large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 9,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 21, vehicle carrier 1
  note: a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 10 ships,
  Slovenia 2, and Cyprus 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
  Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes Coast Guard)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: over the long-term, considered a relatively minor
  transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and
  recently, a transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US;
  potentially more significant as a drug-money-laundering center



======================================================================



@Arctic Ocean
------------



Geography



Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
  total: 14.056 million sq km
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area--comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the
  US; smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean,
  Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean)

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and
  relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized
  by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and
  clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and
  foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar
  icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure
  ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the
  Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the
  New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland
  and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the
  summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends
  to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50%
  continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the
  remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges
  (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
  polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals
  (seals and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from
  northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western
  Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands;
  virtually icelocked from October to June; ships subject to
  superstructure icing from October to May

Environment--current issues: endangered marine species include
  walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to
  recover from disruptions or damage

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: none of the selected agreements
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea
  (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait);
  strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine
  link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating
  research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover
  in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean;
  snow cover lasts about 10 months



Government



Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard
  for hydrographic codes--see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
  Data Codes appendix



Economy



Economy--overview: Economic activity is limited to the
  exploitation of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas,
  fish, and seals.



Communications



Telephone system:
  international: no submarine cables



Transportation



Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe
  Bay (US)

Transportation--note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and
  land routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea
  Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
  states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute
  between Norway and Russia



======================================================================



@Argentina
---------



Introduction



Background: A part of the Spanish empire until independence in
  1816, Argentina subsequently experienced periods of internal
  political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between
  civilian and military factions. Meantime, thanks to rich natural
  resources and foreign investment, a modern agriculture and a
  diversified industry were gradually developed. After World War II, a
  long period of Peronist dictatorship was followed by rule by a
  military junta. Democratic elections finally came in 1983, but both
  the political and economic atmosphere remain susceptible to turmoil.



Geography



Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic
  Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total: 2,766,890 sq km
  land: 2,736,690 sq km
  water: 30,200 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the
  US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,665 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
  southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to
  rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western
  border

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes)
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
  copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 52%
  forests and woodland: 19%
  other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the
  Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that
  can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment--current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood
  controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil
  degradation; desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and
  other major cities; water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming
  polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
  Conservation

Geography--note: second-largest country in South America (after
  Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
  Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle
  Channel, Drake Passage)



People



Population: 36,737,664 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27% (male 5,124,087; female 4,932,060)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 11,457,399; female 11,469,346)
  65 years and over: 11% (male 1,553,158; female 2,201,614) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.29% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 19.91 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.64 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.41 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.76 years
  male: 71.13 years
  female: 78.56 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white 85%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite
  groups 15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20%
  practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 96.2%
  male: 96.2%
  female: 96.2% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina
  local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Government type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias,
  singular--provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal);
  Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes;
  Distrito Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja;
  Mendoza; Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis;
  Santa Cruz; Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego,
  Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989);
  Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989);
  Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 14 May 1995
  (next to be held NA October 1999)
  election results: Carlos Saul MENEM reelected president; percent of
  vote--NA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso
  Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; formerly, three members
  appointed by each of the provincial legislatures; presently
  transitioning to one-third of the members being elected every two
  years to a six-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats;
  one-half of the members elected every two years to four-year terms)
  elections: Senate--transition phase will continue through 2001
  elections when all seats will be fully contested; winners will
  randomly draw to determine whether they will serve a two-year,
  four-year, or full six-year term; Chamber of Deputies--last held 26
  October 1997 (next to be held NA October 1999)
  election results: Senate--percent of vote by party--NA; seats by
  party--PJ 39, UCR 1, others 32; Chamber of Deputies--percent of vote
  by party--NA; seats by party--PJ 119, UCR 69, Frepaso 36, other 33

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme
  Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the
  Senate

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos
  Saul MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical
  NA]; Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party

Political pressure groups and leaders: Peronist-dominated labor
  movement; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning
  umbrella labor organization); Argentine Industrial Union
  (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
  landowners' association); Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical
  Labs (CILFA); business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic
  Church; the Armed Forces

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group,
  BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
  LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA,
  RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR,
  UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Diego Ramiro GUELAR
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
  embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
  mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO
  address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue
  (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a
  radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May



Economy



Economy--overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources,
  a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural
  sector, and a diversified industrial base. However, when President
  Carlos MENEM took office in 1989, the country had piled up huge
  external debts, inflation had reached 200% per month, and output was
  plummeting. To combat the economic crisis, the government embarked
  on a path of trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization.
  In 1991, it implemented radical monetary reforms which pegged the
  peso to the US dollar and limited the growth in the monetary base by
  law to the growth in reserves. Inflation fell sharply in subsequent
  years. The Mexican peso crisis produced capital flight, the loss of
  banking system deposits, and a severe, but short-lived, recession in
  1995; a series of reforms to bolster the domestic banking system
  followed. Real GDP growth recovered strongly, reaching almost 9% in
  1997. In 1998, increasing investor anxiety over Brazil, its largest
  trading partner, produced the highest domestic interest rates in
  more than three years and slowed growth to 4.3%. Despite the
  relatively high level of growth in recent years, double-digit
  unemployment rates have persisted, largely because of rigidities in
  Argentina's labor laws.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$374 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4.3% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$10,300 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 7%
  industry: 37%
  services: 56% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 25.5% (1991 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 14 million (1997)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 31%,
  services 57% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (October 1998)

Budget:
  revenues: $56 billion
  expenditures: $60 billion, including capital expenditures of $4
  billion (1998 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
  textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1998)

Electricity--production: 64.669 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 45%
  hydro: 44.3%
  nuclear: 10.7%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 67.509 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 330 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 3.17 billion kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes,
  corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

Exports: $26 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: cereals, feed, motor vehicles, crude
  petroleum, steel manufactures

Exports--partners: Brazil 31%, US 8%, Chile 7.0%, China 3%,
  Uruguay 3% (1997 est.)

Imports: $32 billion (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: motor vehicles, motor vehicle parts, organic
  chemicals, telecommunications equipment, plastics

Imports--partners: Brazil 23%, US 20%, Italy 6%, Germany 5%,
  France 5% (1997)

Debt--external: $133 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $2.833 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 peso = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: peso is pegged to the US dollar at an exchange
  rate of 1 peso = $1

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 4.6 million (1990)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern
  system but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive
  use of microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently
  grounds out during rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires
  domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with
  40 earth stations serve the trunk network
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 260 (including 10 inactive
  stations), FM NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed),
  shortwave 6 (1998 est.)

Radios: 22.3 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 42 (in addition, there are 444
  repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 7.165 million (1991 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 37,830 km
  broad gauge: 23,992 km 1.676-m gauge (167 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 11,073 km 1.000-m gauge (26 km electrified)

Highways:
  total: 208,350 km
  paved: 47,550 km (including 567 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 160,800 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km;
  natural gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro
  Rivadavia, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata,
  Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
  total: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 233,856 GRT/363,335 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 10, container 1, oil tanker 13, railcar carrier
  1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
  passenger 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1,374 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 141
  over 3,047 m: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 58
  914 to 1,523 m: 45
  under 914 m: 7 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,233
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 67
  914 to 1,523 m: 621
  under 914 m: 541 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic
  (includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air
  Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower--military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 9,169,681 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,435,551 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 343,038 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.4% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: short section of the southwestern
  boundary with Chile is indefinite--process to resolve boundary issues
  is underway; claims UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas
  Malvinas); claims UK-administered South Georgia and the South
  Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for
  cocaine headed for Europe and the US; increasing money-laundering
  center



======================================================================



@Armenia
-------



Introduction



Background: Armenia was one of the 15 successor republics to the
  USSR in December 1991. Its leaders remain preoccupied by the long
  conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. Although
  a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the sides have not
  made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. In January
  1998, differences between President TER-PETROSSIAN and members of
  his cabinet over the Nagorno-Karabakh peace process came to a head.
  With the prime minister, defense minister, and security minister
  arrayed against him, an isolated TER-PETROSSIAN resigned the
  presidency on 3 February 1998. Prime Minister Robert KOCHARIAN was
  elected president in March 1998. Concerns about Armenia's economic
  performance have continued since 1997 with a slowdown in growth and
  the serious impact of the 1998 financial crisis in Russia.



Geography



Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
  total: 29,800 sq km
  land: 28,400 sq km
  water: 1,400 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land;
  fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum,
  zinc, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 17%
  permanent crops: 3%
  permanent pastures: 24%
  forests and woodland: 15%
  other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment--current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals
  such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with
  Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for
  firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the
  draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a
  source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of
  Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate (IAEA-recommended)
  safety and backup systems

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography--note: landlocked



People



Population: 3,409,234 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25% (male 442,117; female 425,561)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 1,100,334; female 1,148,595)
  65 years and over: 9% (male 122,170; female 170,457) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.38% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 13.53 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 9.03 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.12 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 66.56 years
  male: 62.21 years
  female: 71.13 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
  Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
  note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
  Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99%
  male: 99%
  female: 98% (1989 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
  conventional short form: Armenia
  local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
  local short form: Hayastan
  former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular--marz)
  and 1 city* (k'aghak'ner, singular--k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat,
  Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush,
  Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918-2 December 1920 (First Armenian
  Republic); 23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Armen DARBINYAN (since 10 April
  1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  special election last held 30 March 1998 (next election to be held
  March 2003); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of
  vote--Robert KOCHARIAN 59%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 41%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or
  Azgayin Zhoghov (190 seats; members serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 5 July 1995 (next to be held in the spring of
  1999)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by
  party--Republican Bloc 159 (ANM 63, DLP-Hanrapetutyun Bloc 6,
  Republic Party 4, CDU 3, Intellectual Armenia 3, Social Democratic
  Party 2, independents 78), SWM 8, ACP 7, NDU 5, NSDU 3, DLP 1, ARF
  1, other 4, vacant 2; note--seats by party change frequently

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Movement or ANM

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest),
  CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM
  (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Rouben R. SHUGARIAN
  chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael LEMMON
  embassy: 18 General Bagramian Avenue, Yerevan
  mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20521-7020

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top),
  blue, and gold



Economy



Economy--overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system,
  Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
  tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in
  exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the
  USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale
  agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the
  Soviet area. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more
  investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has
  been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the
  current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral
  deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with
  Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of
  Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic
  system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic
  decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian
  Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program
  that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-98. Armenia also
  managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small- and
  medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
  suffered in recent years have been largely offset by the energy
  supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. The Russian
  financial crisis generated concerns about Armenia's economic
  performance in 1998. Although inflation dropped to 10% and GDP grew
  about 6%, the industrial sector remained moribund. Much of Armenia's
  population remains heavily dependent on remittances from relatives
  abroad, and remittances from Russia fell off sharply in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$9.2 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$2,700 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 35%
  industry: 30%
  services: 35% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 1.6 million (1997)

Labor force--by occupation: manufacturing, mining, and
  construction 25%, agriculture 38%, services 37%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $322 million
  expenditures: $424 million, including capital expenditures of $80
  million (1998 est.)

Industries: much of industry is shut down; metal-cutting machine
  tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted
  wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, washing machines, chemicals,
  trucks, watches, instruments, microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 7.6 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 46.05%
  hydro: 26.32%
  nuclear: 27.63%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 7.6 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables;
  livestock

Exports: $230 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport
  equipment, electrical equipment, scrap metal

Exports--partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports: $840 million (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy

Imports--partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

Debt--external: $820 million (of which $75 million to Russia)
  (1997 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $245.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma

Exchange rates: dram per US$1--535.62 (January 1999), 504.92
  (1998), 490.85 (1997), 414.04 (1996), 405.91 (1995), 288.65 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 730,000 (1998 est.)

Telephone system: the Ministry of Communications oversees the
  Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications; the national operator is
  Armentel; the Greek Telecoms Company owns 90% of Armentel and will
  provide a $60 million eight-year loan; Armenia has about 4,000
  Internet users on one satellite channel
  domestic: local--350,000 telephones are located in Yerevan; a
  fiber-optic loop provides digital service to 80,000 of Yerevan's
  customers; GSM cellular is available in Yerevan, as is paging;
  intercity--the former Soviet system provides service to 380,000
  numbers mostly governmental
  international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe line
  through Iran; additional international service is available by
  microwave, land line, and satellite through the Moscow switch; 1
  INTELSAT earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3 (in addition, programs are
  received by relay from Russia; 100% of the population receive
  Armenian and Russian TV programs) (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
  lines
  broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
  total: 8,580 km
  paved: 8,580 km
  unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 5
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Aviation, Air
  Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 922,124 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 732,495 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 32,052 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $72.1 million (1999)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 4% (1999)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding,
  separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional
  demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
  consumption; increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
  drugs--mostly opium and hashish--to Western Europe and the US via
  Iran, Central Asia, and Russia



======================================================================



@Aruba
-----



Geography



Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 193 sq km
  land: 193 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 11%
  permanent crops: NA%
  permanent pastures: NA%
  forests and woodland: NA%
  other: 89% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA



People



Population: 68,675 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22% (male 7,724; female 7,106)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 22,723; female 24,747)
  65 years and over: 9% (male 2,623; female 3,752) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.55% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 13.28 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.48 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.84 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.04 years
  male: 73.33 years
  female: 80.94 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Aruban(s)
  adjective: Aruban

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
  Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese,
  Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: NA



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
  autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from
  the Netherlands Antilles

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
  Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; in
  1990, Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation
  of the agreement to automatically give independence to the island in
  1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
  common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
  (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo
  KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992)
  head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29
  July 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Glenbert F. CROES
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for
  a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime
  minister elected by the Staten for a four-year term; election last
  held 12 July 1997 (next to be held by December 2001)
  election results: inconclusive; no party won majority in December
  1997 parliamentary elections; no new government formed as of May 1998

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats;
  members elected by direct popular vote and serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held by NA
  December 2001)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--AVP
  10, MEP 9, OLA 2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (judges are
  appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party or MEP

International organization participation: Caricom (observer),
  ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO
  (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the
  Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS
  embassy: J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao
  mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao

Flag description: blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow
  stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star
  outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner



Economy



Economy--overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
  although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
  important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last
  decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
  Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
  level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
  1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings,
  has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than
  1% unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job
  vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$1.5 billion (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6% (1997)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$22,000 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1997)

Labor force: NA

Labor force--by occupation: most employment is in the tourist
  industry (1996)

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $345.3 million
  expenditures: $378.5 million, including capital expenditures of $107
  million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 470 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 470 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: aloes; livestock; fish

Exports: $1.73 billion (including oil reexports)(1997)

Exports--commodities: mostly refined petroleum products

Exports--partners: US 64%, EU

Imports: $2.12 billion (1997)

Imports--commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures,
  petroleum products, crude oil for refining and reexport

Imports--partners: US 55.5%, Netherlands 12.3%, Japan 3.5%

Debt--external: $285 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $26 million (1995); note?the Netherlands
  provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1--1.7900 (fixed rate
  since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 22,922 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: more than adequate
  international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
  Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 19,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 300 km
  paved: 130 km
  unpaved: 170 km
  note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
  tracts of the interior

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,366 GRT/1,595 DWT
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of
  the Netherlands



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: drug-money-laundering center and transit point for
  narcotics bound for the US and Europe; added to the US list of major
  drug producing or drug transit countries in December 1996



======================================================================



@Ashmore and Cartier Islands
---------------------------



Geography



Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean,
  northwest of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5 sq km
  land: 5 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island

Area--comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose
  maritime hazards

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established
  in August 1983



People



Population: no indigenous inhabitants
  note: there are only seasonal caretakers



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
  Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and
  Territories

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of
  Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Economy



Economy--overview: no economic activity



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of Australia;
  periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian
  Air Force



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Atlantic Ocean
--------------



Geography



Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and
  the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
  total: 82.217 million sq km
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
  North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other
  tributary water bodies

Area--comparative: slightly less than nine times the size of the
  US; second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific
  Ocean, but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
  Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
  hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent
  from August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea,
  Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise
  warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern
  Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic;
  the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged
  north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: in the Milwaukee Deep at sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals
  (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
  polymetallic nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait,
  and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have
  been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands;
  icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic
  Ocean; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern
  Atlantic from October to May and extreme southern Atlantic from May
  to October; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September

Environment--current issues: endangered marine species include the
  manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
  hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to
  international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US,
  southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean
  Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North
  Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea,
  North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: none of the selected agreements
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait
  of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic
  straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona
  Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator
  divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South
  Atlantic Ocean



Government



Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard
  for hydrographic codes--see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
  Data Codes appendix



Economy



Economy--overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's
  most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern
  and Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the
  exploitation of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of
  aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and
  natural gas (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).



Communications



Telephone system:
  international: numerous submarine cables with most between
  continental Europe and the UK, between North America and the UK, and
  in the Mediterranean; numerous direct links across Atlantic via
  satellite networks



Transportation



Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
  (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
  (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
  Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
  (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal),
  London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal
  (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran
  (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de
  Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg
  (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation--note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two
  important waterways



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
  states)



======================================================================



@Australia
---------



Introduction



Background: Australia became a British commonwealth in 1901.
  Blessed by rich natural resources, the country enjoyed rapid gains
  in herding, agriculture, and manufacturing and made a major
  contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Australia
  subsequently developed its minerals, metals, and fossil fuel
  markets, all of which have become key Australian exports. Long-term
  concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone
  layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially
  the Great Barrier Reef. Sydney will host the 2000 summer Olympics.



Geography



Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the
  South Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total: 7,686,850 sq km
  land: 7,617,930 sq km
  water: 68,920 sq km
  note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
  tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
  uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
  natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 54%
  forests and woodland: 19%
  other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment--current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing,
  industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices;
  soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water;
  desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the
  natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great
  Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the
  world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a
  tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
  Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification

Geography--note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest
  country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern
  coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the
  Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer



People



Population: 18,783,551 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21% (male 2,023,569; female 1,926,901)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 6,317,045; female 6,172,735)
  65 years and over: 13% (male 1,022,485; female 1,320,816) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.9% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 13.21 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 80.14 years
  male: 77.22 years
  female: 83.23 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian
  24.3%, non-Christian 11%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100% (1980 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the
  British monarch as sovereign

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
  Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*,
  Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and
  McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February
  1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Timothy Andrew FISCHER (since 11
  March 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected from among the members of Federal
  Parliament by the governor general on the advice of the prime
  minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the
  leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is
  usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a
  three-year term

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the
  Senate (76 seats--12 from each of the six states and two from each of
  the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three
  years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
  Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the
  basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no
  state can have fewer than five representatives)
  elections: Senate--last held 3 October 1998 (next to be held by
  October 2001); House of Representatives--last held 3 October 1998
  (next to be held by October 2001)
  election results: Senate--percent of vote by party--NA; seats by
  party--Liberal-National 35, Labor 29, Australian Democrats 9, Greens
  1, One Nation 1, independent 1; House of Representatives--percent of
  vote by party--NA; seats by party--Liberal-National 80, Labor 67,
  independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other
  justices are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders:

Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic
  Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and
  Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: ANZUS, APEC, AsDB,
  Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM
  (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Sharp PEACOCK
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and
  San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower
  hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the
  Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed
  star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars



Economy



Economy--overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style
  capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the four
  dominant West European economies. Rich in natural resources,
  Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals,
  metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for 57% of the value
  of total exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices can
  have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for
  increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
  international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered
  from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD
  countries in the early 1990s, but the economy has expanded at
  reasonably steady rates in recent years. Canberra's emphasis on
  reforms is a key factor behind the economy's resilience to the
  regional crisis and its stronger than expected growth rate that
  reached 4.5% last year. After a slow start in 1998, exports
  rebounded in the second half of the year because of a sharp currency
  depreciation and a redirection of sales to Europe, North America,
  and Latin America.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$393.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$21,200 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 31%
  services: 65% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.5%
  highest 10%: 24.8% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1998)

Labor force: 9.2 million (December 1997)

Labor force--by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%,
  agriculture 5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.1% (1998)

Budget:
  revenues: $90.73 billion
  expenditures: $89.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY98/99 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
  processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1995)

Electricity--production: 166.683 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 91.14%
  hydro: 8.84%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0.02% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 166.683 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle,
  sheep, poultry

Exports: $56 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore,
  wheat, machinery and transport equipment

Exports--partners: Japan 20%, ASEAN 16%, EU 10%, South Korea 9%,
  US 9%, NZ 8%, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (1997)

Imports: $61 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers
  and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude
  oil and petroleum products

Imports--partners: EU 25%, US 23%, Japan 13%, China, NZ (1997)

Debt--external: $156 billion (June 1997)

Economic aid--donor: ODA, $1.43 billion (FY97/98)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.56 (February
  1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995),
  1.3668 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: 8.7 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system
  international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea,
  and Indonesia; satellite earth stations--10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean
  and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1
  (Australia's only shortwave station, Radio Australia, broadcasts to
  the world in seven languages, using 23 frequencies) (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 104 (64 of these stations are
  government-owned and 40 are commercial) (1997)

Televisions: 9.2 million (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 38,563 km (2,914 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 6,083 km 1.600-m gauge
  standard gauge: 16,752 km 1.435-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 15,728 km 1.067-m gauge
  dual gauge: 172 km NA gauges

Highways:
  total: 913,000 km
  paved: 353,331 km (including 13,630 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 559,669 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural
  gas 5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport
  (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston
  (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
  total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,767,387 GRT/2,426,710
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 3, chemical tanker 4, container 4,
  liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 8, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 4 (1998 est.)

Airports: 408 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 262
  over 3,047 m: 11
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 112
  914 to 1,523 m: 120
  under 914 m: 8 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 146
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
  914 to 1,523 m: 114
  under 914 m: 13 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
  Australian Air Force

Military manpower--military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 4,882,693 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 4,212,272 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 130,570 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $6.9 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY97/98)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: territorial claim in Antarctica
  (Australian Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of
  licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over
  areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw
  concentrate



======================================================================



@Austria
-------



Introduction



Background: Once the center of power for the large
  Austro-Hungarian empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic
  after its defeat in World War I. After the annexation to Nazi
  Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allied
  powers, Austria's 1955 State Treaty declared the country
  "permanently neutral" as a condition of the Soviet military
  withdrawal. The Soviet collapse relieved the external pressure to
  remain unaligned, but neutrality had evolved into a part of Austrian
  cultural identity, which has led to an ongoing public debate over
  whether Vienna legitimately can remain outside of European security
  structures. A wealthy country, Austria joined the European Union in
  1995 and, like many EU members, is adjusting to the new European
  currency and struggling with high unemployment.



Geography



Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 83,858 sq km
  land: 82,738 sq km
  water: 1,120 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,562 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with
  frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with
  occasional showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
  eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,797 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal,
  lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 17%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 23%
  forests and woodland: 39%
  other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment--current issues: some forest degradation caused by air
  and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of
  agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by
  coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from
  trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol

Geography--note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads
  of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and
  valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on
  eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low
  temperatures elsewhere



People



Population: 8,139,299 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17% (male 702,261; female 666,310)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 2,792,484; female 2,713,397)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 478,071; female 786,776) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 9.62 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 10.04 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.48 years
  male: 74.31 years
  female: 80.82 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other
  0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, other 17%

Languages: German

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99% (1974 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich
  local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender,
  singular--bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich,
  Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial
  review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
  elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
  head of government: Chancellor Viktor KLIMA (since 28 January 1997);
  Vice Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (since 22 April 1995)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice
  of the chancellor
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
  presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in
  the spring of 2004); chancellor chosen by the president from the
  majority party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by
  the president on the advice of the chancellor
  election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of
  vote--Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%,
  Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or
  Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64
  members; members represent each of the states on the basis of
  population, but with each state having at least three
  representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the
  National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by
  direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: National Council--last held 17 December 1995 (next to be
  held in the fall of 1999)
  election results: National Council--percent of vote by party--SPOe
  38.3%, OeVP 28.3%, FPOe 22.1%, LF 5.3%, Greens 4.6%, other 1.4%;
  seats by party--SPOe 71, OeVP 53, FPOe 40, LF 10, Greens 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof;
  Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court
  or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria
  caucus floor leader and Alexander VAN DER BELLEN, party spokesman];

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federal Chamber of Trade
  and Commerce; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist)
  or OeGB; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or
  OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers; OeVP-oriented League
  of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including
  its chief lay organization, Catholic Action

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia
  Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
  EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO,
  UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO,
  UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Walt HALL
  embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top),
  white, and red



Economy



Economy--overview: Austria has a well-developed market economy
  with a high standard of living. As a member of the European Monetary
  Union (EMU), Austria's economy is closely integrated with other EU
  member countries, especially with Germany. Austria's membership in
  the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by
  Austria's access to the single European market. Through
  privatization efforts, the 1996-98 budget consolidation programs,
  and austerity measures, Austria brought its total public sector
  deficit down to 2.5% of GDP in 1997 and public debt--at 66% of GDP in
  1997--more or less in line with the 60% of GDP required by the EU's
  Maastricht criteria. Cuts mainly affect the civil service and
  Austria's generous social system, the two major causes of the
  government deficit. To meet increased competition from both EU and
  Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize
  knowledge-based sectors of the economy and deregulate the service
  sector, particularly telecommunications and energy. The strong GDP
  growth of 1998 is expected to dwindle back to 2.3% in 1999, and
  observers caution that this projection may be revised downwards in
  view of the Asian and Brazilian crises and Germany's lower growth
  projection.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$184.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 2.9% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$22,700 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 30.8%
  services: 67.8% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1998)

Labor force: 3.7 million (1998)

Labor force--by occupation: services 67.7%, industry and crafts
  29%, agriculture and forestry 0.7% (salaried employees, 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $50.4 billion
  expenditures: $55.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1998 est.)

Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food,
  chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard,
  communications equipment, tourism (1997)

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1998 est.)

Electricity--production: 52.15 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 34.4%
  hydro: 65.6%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1997)

Electricity--consumption: 56.1 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--exports: 9.8 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--imports: 9 billion kWh (1997)

Agriculture--products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit;
  dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports: $62.5 billion (1998)

Exports--commodities: vehicles, machinery and equipment, paper and
  paperboard, metal goods, iron and steel, telecommunication
  equipment, textiles, medical and pharmaceutical products (1997)

Exports--partners: EU 62% (Germany 35.1%, Italy 8.3%), Central and
  Eastern Europe 17.6% (Hungary 4.9%), Japan 1.3%, US 3.7% (1997)

Imports: $65.8 billion (1998)

Imports--commodities: vehicles, machinery and equipment, apparel,
  metal goods, oil and oil products, office and data-processing
  machinery, medical and pharmaceutical products, telecommunication
  equipment, textiles (1997)

Imports--partners: EU 68.9% (Germany 41.7%, Italy 8%), Central and
  Eastern Europe 11% (Hungary 3.1%), Asia 7.1% (Japan 2.2%), US 5.4%
  (1997)

Debt--external: $24.33 billion (1997)

Economic aid--donor: ODA, $513 million (1997); of which, bilateral
  $298 million, multilateral $215 million

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (AS) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (AS) per US$1--11.86 (January
  1999), 12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997), 10.587 (1996), 10.081 (1995),
  11.422 (1994)
  note: on 9 January 1999, the European Union introduced a common
  currency that is now being used by financial institutions in some
  member countries at the rate of 0.8597 euros per US$ and a fixed
  rate of 13.7603 Austrian shillings per euro; the euro will replace
  the local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in
  2002

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 3.47 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: highly developed and efficient
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
  and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 61 (several hundred
  repeaters), shortwave 1 (Austria's single shortwave station, Radio
  Austria International, transmits its programs to the world in six
  languages using 12 frequencies and six communication satellite
  relays) (1998)

Radios: 70% of all households had radiosaccoding to the 1993
  census

Television broadcast stations: 51 (in addition, there are 920
  repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 2,418,584 (1984 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 5,849 km (there is also 594 km of private tracks)
  standard gauge: 5,470 km 1.435-m gauge (3,418 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 379 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (84 km electrified)
  (1997)

Highways: 129,061 km
  paved: 129,061 km (including 1,613 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 358 km (1997)

Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km (1997)

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine:
  total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 67,066 GRT/95,693 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 18, combination bulk 2, container 1
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 55 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 22
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 12 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 33
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 29 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,091,902 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,735,469 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 48,872 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $1.8 billion (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 0.82% (1999 est.)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
  South American cocaine destined for Western Europe



======================================================================



@Azerbaijan
----------



Introduction



Background: In 1806, Azerbaijan, a region of Turkic Muslim
  people, was conquered by the Russians. In 1918, Azerbaijan declared
  independence from Russia, but was incorporated into the Soviet Union
  in 1920. It again declared its independence in 1991, following the
  collapse of the USSR. The conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia
  over the Nagorno-Karabakh region is still unresolved after 10 years
  and Baku has yet to settle disputes with its neighbors over oil
  rights in the Caspian Sea. During the war, Karabakh Armenians
  declared independence and seized almost 20% of the country's
  territory, creating some 750,000 Azerbaijani refugees in the
  process. Both sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated
  cease-fire in place since May 1994.



Geography



Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between
  Iran and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
  total: 86,600 sq km
  land: 86,100 sq km
  water: 500 sq km
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
  note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much
  of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north,
  Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron
  Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
  highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
  metals, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 18%
  permanent crops: 5%
  permanent pastures: 25%
  forests and woodland: 11%
  other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by
  rising levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment--current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron
  Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the
  Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world
  because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution
  results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic
  defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography--note: landlocked



People



Population: 7,908,224 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32% (male 1,292,018; female 1,240,745)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 2,361,792; female 2,496,721)
  65 years and over: 7% (male 202,755; female 314,193) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.63% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 21.58 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 9.5 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 82.52 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.08 years
  male: 58.76 years
  female: 67.63 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.67 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%,
  Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
  2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
  percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995
  est.)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 99%
  female: 96% (1989 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
  local short form: none
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Government type: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon--singular),
  11 cities* (saharlar; sahar--singular), 1 autonomous republic**
  (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu,
  Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*,
  Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan
  Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu,
  Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca
  Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli
  Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin
  Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli
  Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar
  Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax
  Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu,
  Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki
  Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu,
  Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar
  Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*,
  Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli
  Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala
  Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November
  1996)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the National Assembly
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
  election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held October 2003);
  prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the
  president and confirmed by the National Assembly
  election results: Heydar ALIYEV elected president; percent of
  vote--Heydar ALIYEV 76%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis
  (125 seats; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA
  2000)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--NAP
  and allies 115, APF 4, PNIA 3, Musavat Party 1, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: New Azerbaijan Party or NAP
  ELCHIBEY, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan

Political pressure groups and leaders: self-proclaimed Armenian
  Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Sadval,
  Lezgin movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest),
  CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM
  (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
  chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
  20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley T. ESCUDERO
  embassy: Azadliq Prospekt 83, Baku 370007
  mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20521-7050

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top),
  red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are
  centered in red band



Economy



Economy--overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than
  either Armenia or Georgia, the other Caucasian states. It resembles
  the Central Asian states in its majority Muslim population, high
  structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's
  most prominent products are oil, cotton, and natural gas. Production
  from the Caspian oil field declined through 1997 but registered an
  increase in 1998. Negotiation of more than a dozen
  production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which
  have thus far committed $30 billion to oil field development, should
  generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil
  production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan
  International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan
  shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in
  making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its
  considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku
  has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old
  economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. A major
  short-term obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up
  foreign investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former
  Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building
  up with Turkey, Iran, the UAE, and the nations of Europe. A serious
  long-term challenge is the maintenance of the competitiveness of
  non-oil exports in world markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$12.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 10% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,640 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 22%
  industry: 18%
  services: 60% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -7.6% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 2.9 million (1997)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry
  and construction 15%, services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $565 million
  expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products,
  oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and
  petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 16.035 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 90.55%
  hydro: 9.45%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 16.8 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--exports: 600 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 745 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit,
  vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports: $781 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment,
  textiles, cotton

Exports--partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Imports: $794 million (c.i.f., 1997 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables,
  foodstuffs, textiles

Imports--partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Debt--external: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid--recipient: ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency: manat=100 gopiks

Exchange rates: manats per US$1--3,865.00 (November 1998),
  3,985.38 (1997), 4,301.26 (1996), 4,413.54 (1995), 1,570.23 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 1.414 million (1998)

Telephone system: Azerbaijani telecommunications fall under the
  Ministry of Communications; Azerbaijan's telephone system is a
  combination of old Soviet era technology used by Azerbaijani
  citizens and small- to medium-size commercial establishments, and
  modern cellular phones used by an increasing middle class, large
  commercial ventures, international companies, and most government
  officials; the average citizen waits on a 200,000-person list for
  telephone service; Internet and E-mail service are available in Baku
  domestic: local--the majority of telephones are in Baku or other
  industrial centers; intercity--about 700 villages still do not have
  public phone service; all long distance service must use Azertel's
  (Ministry of Communications) lines; satellite service connects Baku
  to a modern switch in its separated enclave to Nakhichevan
  international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still
  serviceable; satellite service between Baku and Turkey provides
  access to 200 countries; additional satellite providers supply
  services between Baku and specific countries; Azerbaijan is a
  signator of the Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE); their
  lines are not laid but the Turkish satellite and a microwave between
  Azerbaijan and Iran can provide Azerbaijan worldwide access through
  this system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (Azerbaijan's
  single shortwave station transmits its programs to the Middle East
  in eight languages)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2; note--the Ministry of
  Communications is the monopoly broadcaster and rebroadcaster of
  television in Azerbaijan; Azerbaijani, Russian, Armenian, Iranian,
  British broadcasting companies, Voice of America, and other European
  channels are available via satellite; television is broadcast to
  Nakhichevan by satellite

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include
  industrial lines
  broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
  total: 57,770 km
  paved: 54,188 km
  unpaved: 3,582 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural
  gas 1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:
  total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 251,404 GRT/ 306,264 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 12, oil tanker 42, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2,
  short-sea passenger 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 69 (1996 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 29
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 40
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 33 (1996 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
  Guards

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,041,863 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,639,144 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 73,486 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $121 million (1999)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.6% (1999)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding,
  separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea
  boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran,
  Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium
  poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication
  program; transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and
  Russia to Western Europe



======================================================================



@Bahamas, The
------------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic
  Ocean, southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 13,940 sq km
  land: 10,070 sq km
  water: 3,870 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 1%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 32%
  other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause
  extensive flood and wind damage

Environment--current issues: coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba;
  extensive island chain



People



Population: 283,705 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27% (male 39,271; female 38,740)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 92,830; female 96,814)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 6,696; female 9,354) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.36% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 20.58 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.43 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.38 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.25 years
  male: 70.94 years
  female: 77.64 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.31 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahamian(s)
  adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups: black 85%, white 15%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%,
  Methodist 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or
  unknown 3%, other 2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98.2%
  male: 98.5%
  female: 98% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  conventional short form: The Bahamas

Data code: BF

Government type: commonwealth

Capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked
  Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek,
  Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock,
  Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New
  Providence, Nicholls Town and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock
  Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Orville TURNQUEST (since 2
  January 1995)
  head of government: Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since
  19 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since
  December 1994)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
  minister's recommendation
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister
  appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
  (16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of
  the prime minister and the opposition leader for a five-year term)
  and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct
  popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 14 March 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--FNM
  35, PLP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party or PLP
  INGRAHAM]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC,
  CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS,
  OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Arlington Griffith BUTLER
  chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Arthur SCHECHTER
  embassy: Queen Street, Nassau
  mailing address: local or express mail address: P.O. Box N-8197,
  Nassau; stateside address: American Embassy Nassau, P.O. Box 599009,
  Miami, FL 33159-9009; pouch address: Nassau, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20521-3370

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine
  (top), gold, and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based
  on the hoist side



Economy



Economy--overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with
  an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking.
  Tourism alone accounts for more than 60% of GDP and directly or
  indirectly employs 40% of the archipelago's labor force. Moderate
  growth in tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels,
  resorts, and residences led to an increase of the country's GDP by
  an estimated 4% in 1998. Manufacturing and agriculture together
  contribute less than 10% of GDP and show little growth, despite
  government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth
  prospects in the short run will depend heavily on the fortunes of
  the tourism sector and continued income growth in the US, which
  accounts for the majority of tourist visitors.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$5.63 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$20,100 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 5%
  services: 92% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (1997)

Labor force: 148,000 (1996)

Labor force--by occupation: government 30%, tourism 40%, business
  services 10%, agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $766 million
  expenditures: $845 million, including capital expenditures of $97
  million (FY97/98)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and
  transshipment, salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals,
  spiral-welded steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 1 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 1 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports: $300 million (1998)

Exports--commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish,
  refined petroleum products

Exports--partners: US 24.5%, EU (excluding UK) 23.9%, UK 12.6%,
  Singapore 5.6% (1997)

Imports: $1.37 billion (1998)

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil,
  vehicles, electronics

Imports--partners: US 34.9%, EU 24.3%, Japan 15.5%, Russia 6.3%
  (1997)

Debt--external: $381.7 million (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $9.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1--1.000 (fixed rate
  pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: 200,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: 91,183 telephone subscribers; totally automatic system;
  highly developed
  international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida;
  3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station--1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 200,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 60,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,693 km
  paved: 1,546 km
  unpaved: 1,147 km (1997 est.)

Ports and harbors: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,079 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 26,631,924
  GRT/41,196,326 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 209, cargo 241, chemical tanker 43, combination
  bulk 13, combination ore/oil 22, container 61, liquefied gas tanker
  34, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 170, passenger 62,
  passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 140,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 48, short-sea passenger 12, specialized
  tanker 2, vehicle carrier 19
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 49
  countries among which are Norway 177, Greece 141, UK 113, US 61,
  Denmark 39, Finland 27, Japan 25, Sweden 24, France 22, and Italy 22
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 62 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 33
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
  914 to 1,523 m: 13
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 29
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 21 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard
  only), Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $20 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana
  bound for US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money
  laundering



======================================================================



@Bahrain
-------



Geography



Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of
  Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
  total: 620 sq km
  land: 620 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
  escarpment

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
  highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas,
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 1%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 6%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment--current issues: desertification resulting from the
  degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust
  storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and
  sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from
  large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural
  fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only
  sources for all water needs

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum
  sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western
  world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean



People



Population: 629,090 (July 1999 est.)
  note: includes 227,801 non-nationals (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 31% (male 97,316; female 94,708)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 249,594; female 169,337)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 9,241; female 8,894) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 21.86 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 3.24 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.47 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.3 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.81 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.32 years
  male: 72.75 years
  female: 77.96 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian
  8%, other 6%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim 25%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 85.2%
  male: 89.1%
  female: 79.4% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: State of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
  local short form: Al Bahrayn

Data code: BA

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (manatiq,
  singular--mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah,
  Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar
  Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat
  'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
  note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 16 December (1971)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
  Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch,
  born NA 1969)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
  (since 19 January 1970)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
  by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
  August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
  appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Political pressure groups and leaders: several small, clandestine
  leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active; following the
  arrest of a popular Shi'a cleric, Shi'a activists have fomented
  unrest sporadically since late 1994, demanding the return of an
  elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
  ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary),
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR Abdallah
  chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG
  embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
  Block 3119, Zinj District, Manama
  mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE
  09834-5100; International Mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

Flag description: red with a white serrated band (eight white
  points) on the hoist side



Economy



Economy--overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing
  account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government
  revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with
  the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and
  following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed
  communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous
  multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of
  exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude.
  Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects.
  Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both
  oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic
  problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$8.2 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: -2% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$13,100 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 46%
  services: 53% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 150,000 (1997 est.)
  note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
  (July 1998 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: industry, commerce, and service 79%,
  government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.5 billion
  expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1999 budget)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
  offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1995)

Electricity--production: 4.7 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 4.7 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products;
  shrimp, fish

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports--commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 61%,
  aluminum 7%

Exports--partners: India 18%, Japan 11%, Saudi Arabia 8%, South
  Korea 7%, UAE 5% (1997)

Imports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)

Imports--commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%

Imports--partners: Saudi Arabia 45%, US 10%, UK 6%, Japan 5%,
  Germany 4% (1997)

Debt--external: $2 billion (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $48.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1--0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 73,552 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern system; good domestic services and
  excellent international connections
  domestic: NA
  international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave
  radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and
  Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
  and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 320,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1997)

Televisions: 270,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 3,103 km
  paved: 2,374 km
  unpaved: 729 km (1997 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas
  32 km

Ports and harbors: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
  total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 228,273 GRT/304,654 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, container 2, oil tanker 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard,
  Police Force

Military manpower--military age: 15 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 220,670 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 121,451 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: NA

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $276.9 million (1994)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 4.5% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: territorial dispute with Qatar over the
  Hawar Islands and maritime boundary dispute with Qatar currently
  before the International Court of Justice (ICJ)



======================================================================



@Baker Island
------------



Geography



Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about
  one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total: 1.4 sq km
  land: 1.4 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
  fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island
  can be a maritime hazard

Environment--current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation
  consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs;
  primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
  shorebirds, and marine wildlife



People



Population: uninhabited
  note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
  naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
  World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
  special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and
  generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
  remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the
  middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
  Service



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Baker Island

Data code: FQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US;
  administered from Washington, DC by the Fish and Wildlife Service of
  the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife
  Refuge system

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Economy



Economy--overview: no economic activity



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note--there is
  one boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely
  covered with vegetation and unusable

Transportation--note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the
  west coast



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
  annually by the US Coast Guard



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Bangladesh
----------



Geography



Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between
  Burma and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total: 144,000 sq km
  land: 133,910 sq km
  water: 10,090 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,246 km
  border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 18 nm
  continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot,
  humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 73%
  permanent crops: 2%
  permanent pastures: 5%
  forests and woodland: 15%
  other: 5% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country
  routinely flooded during the summer monsoon season

Environment--current issues: many people are landless and forced
  to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable
  water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of
  fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides;
  intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the
  northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation;
  deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
  Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea



People



Population: 127,117,967 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38% (male 24,516,722; female 23,346,904)
  15-64 years: 59% (male 38,441,064; female 36,586,743)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 2,303,613; female 1,922,921) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.59% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 25.2 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 8.5 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.68 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 60.6 years
  male: 60.73 years
  female: 60.46 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.86 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1
  million

Religions: Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, other 1.2%

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 38.1%
  male: 49.4%
  female: 26.1% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  former: East Pakistan

Data code: BG

Government type: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong,
  Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi
  note: there may be one additional division named Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972,
  suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November
  1986, amended many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996);
  note--the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
  13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government
  Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when
  Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed--at
  presidential direction--to supervise the elections
  head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed (since 23
  June 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
  president
  elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
  term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October
  2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that
  wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the
  president
  election results: Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without
  opposition; percent of National Parliament vote--NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya
  Sangsad (330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single
  territorial constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
  election results: percent of vote by party--AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%;
  seats by party--AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 2, election still
  to be held 1; note--the elections of 12 June 1996 brought to power an
  Awami League government for the first time in twenty-one years; held
  under a neutral, caretaker administration, the elections were
  characterized by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter
  turnout, ending a bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and
  opposition parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to
  widespread street violence

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other
  judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party or

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP,
  ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OIC,
  OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH,
  UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Khwaja Mohammad SHEHABUDDIN
  chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John C. HOLZMAN
  embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
  mailing address: G.P.O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000

Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the
  hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood
  shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush
  countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam



Economy



Economy--overview: Despite sustained domestic and international
  efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh
  remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and
  least developed nations. The economy is largely agricultural, with
  the cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the
  economy. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and
  floods, the inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly
  growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays
  in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), inadequate power
  supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Prime
  Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed's Awami League government has made some
  headway improving the climate for foreign investors and liberalizing
  the capital markets; for example, it has negotiated with foreign
  firms for oil and gas exploration, better countrywide distribution
  of cooking gas, and the construction of natural gas pipelines and
  power plants. Progress on other economic reforms has been halting
  because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions,
  and other vested interest groups. Severe floods, lasting from July
  to October 1998, endangered the livelihoods of more than 20 million
  people. Foodgrain production fell by 4 million tons, forcing Dhaka
  to triple its normal foodgrain imports and placing severe pressure
  on Bangladesh's balance of payments. The floods increased the
  country's reliance on large-scale international aid. So far the East
  Asian financial crisis has not had major impact on the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$175.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,380 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 30%
  industry: 17%
  services: 53% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 35.6% (1995-96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 4.1%
  highest 10%: 23.7% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1998)

Labor force: 56 million
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, and
  Oman (1996)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 25%,
  industry and mining 10% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 35.2% (1996)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.8 billion
  expenditures: $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing,
  steel, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 3.6% (1997)

Electricity--production: 11.5 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 97.35%
  hydro: 2.65%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 11.3 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane,
  potatoes; beef, milk, poultry

Exports: $4.4 billion (1997)

Exports--commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather,
  frozen fish and seafood

Exports--partners: Western Europe 42%, US 30%, Hong Kong 4%, Japan
  3% (FY95/96 est.)

Imports: $7.1 billion (1997)

Imports--commodities: capital goods, textiles, food, petroleum
  products

Imports--partners: India 21%, China 10%, Western Europe 8%, Hong
  Kong 7%, Singapore 6% (FY95/96 est.)

Debt--external: $16.7 billion (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $1.475 billion (FY96/97)

Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poisha

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1--48.500 (January 1999), 46.906
  (1998), 43.892 (1997), 41.794 (1996), 40.278 (1995), 40.212 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: 249,800 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: poor domestic telephone service
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
  international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
  neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (one of
  Bangladesh's two shortwave stations, Bangladesh Betar or Radio
  Bangladesh, transmits its programs to the world in six languages on
  four frequencies) (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1997)

Televisions: 350,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 2,745 km
  broad gauge: 923 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (1998 est.)

Highways:
  total: 204,022 km
  paved: 25,095 km
  unpaved: 178,927 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes
  2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Ports and harbors: Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port

Merchant marine:
  total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 315,855 GRT/453,002 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 33, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 16 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 15
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 7 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces
  (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense
  Parties, National Cadet Corps)

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 33,374,195 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 19,772,013 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $559 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY96/97)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: a portion of the boundary with India is
  indefinite; dispute with India over South Talpatty/New Moore Island

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
  neighboring countries



======================================================================



@Barbados
--------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 430 sq km
  land: 430 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 37%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 5%
  forests and woodland: 12%
  other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment--current issues: pollution of coastal waters from
  waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal
  threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography--note: easternmost Caribbean island



People



Population: 259,191 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 23% (male 30,132; female 29,359)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 85,437; female 88,131)
  65 years and over: 10% (male 9,862; female 16,270) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 14.46 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 8.16 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.74 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.98 years
  male: 72.22 years
  female: 77.81 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s)
  adjective: Barbadian

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%,
  Methodist 7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages: English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 97.4%
  male: 98%
  female: 96.8% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Barbados

Data code: BB

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint
  Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint
  Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
  note: the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of
  legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS
  (since 1 June 1996)
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
  September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
  September 1994)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary monarch; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor
  general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
  (21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
  Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Assembly--last held 20 January 1999 (next to be
  held by January 2004)
  election results: House of Assembly--percent of vote by party--NA;
  seats by party--BLP 26, DLP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are
  appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal
  Service)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party or DLP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Workers Union

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
  LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney N. BLACKMAN
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Coral Gables (Florida), Miami, and New York
  consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador E. William CROTTY
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown
  mailing address: P.O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist
  side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on
  the gold band; the trident head represents independence and a break
  with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete
  trident)



Economy



Economy--overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy had been
  dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but
  production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and
  tourism. The start of the Port Charles Marina project in
  Speightstown helped the tourism industry continue to expand in
  1996-98. Offshore finance and informatics are important foreign
  exchange earners, and there is also a light manufacturing sector.
  The government continues its efforts to reduce the unacceptably high
  unemployment rate, encourage direct foreign investment, and
  privatize remaining state-owned enterprises.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$2.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$11,200 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 15%
  services: 79% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1997)

Labor force: 136,000 (1998 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: services 75%, industry 15%,
  agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $725.5 million
  expenditures: $750.6 million, including capital expenditures of
  $126.3 million (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component
  assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity--production: 600 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 600 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports: $280 million (1997)

Exports--commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and
  beverages, chemicals, electrical components, clothing

Exports--partners: Caricom 34.8%, US 18.4%, UK 16.6%, Canada 4.4%
  (1996)

Imports: $982 million (1997)

Imports--commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs,
  construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports--partners: US 40.5%, Caricom 14.7%, UK 8.4%, Canada 5%
  (1996)

Debt--external: $581.4 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $9.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1--2.0000 (fixed
  rate pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 87,343 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: island wide automatic telephone system
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
  tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (in addition, there are two
  cable channels) (1997)

Televisions: 69,350 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,650 km
  paved: 1,582 km
  unpaved: 68 km (1998 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine:
  total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 641,550 GRT/1,087,042
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 26, combination bulk 1, oil tanker 4,
  refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
  Canada owns 2 ships, Hong Kong 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground
  Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 72,111 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 49,600 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
  narcotics bound for the US and Europe



======================================================================



@Bassas da India
---------------



Geography



Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique
  Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 0.2 sq km
  land: 0.2 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about one-third the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 m high

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
  during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic
  cyclones

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA



People



Population: uninhabited



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bassas da India

Data code: BS

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
  commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Economy



Economy--overview: no economic activity



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of France



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: claimed by Madagascar



======================================================================



@Belarus
-------



Introduction



Background: For centuries Byelorussia has been fought over,
  devastated, and partitioned among Russia, Poland, Lithuania, and, in
  World Wars I and II, Germany. After seven decades as a Soviet
  republic, the newly named Belarus declared its independence in
  August 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to
  Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. On 25 December
  1998, Russian President Boris YEL'TSIN and Belarusian President
  Aleksandr LUKASHENKO signed several agreements intended to provide
  greater political, economic, and social integration while preserving
  both states' sovereignty.



Geography



Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
  total: 207,600 sq km
  land: 207,600 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,098 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional
  between continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of
  oil and natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 29%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 15%
  forests and woodland: 34%
  other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment--current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use;
  southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986
  nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Environmental Modification,
  Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography--note: landlocked



People



Population: 10,401,784 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19% (male 1,027,974; female 985,342)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 3,390,552; female 3,591,245)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 463,369; female 943,302) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.09% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 9.7 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 13.71 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.39 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.13 years
  male: 62.04 years
  female: 74.52 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.32 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
  Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic,
  Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 99%
  female: 97% (1989 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
  local short form: none
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: BO

Government type: republic

Capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular--voblasts') and
  one municipality* (harady, singular--horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
  Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
  Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
  note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
  administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center
  name following in parentheses)

Independence: 25 August 1991 (Belarusian Supreme Soviet
  declaration of independence from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note--date set
  by referendum of 24 November 1996; represents Minsk liberation from
  German occupation

Constitution: 30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24
  November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and
  became effective 27 November 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sergey LING (acting since 18
  November 1996, confirmed 19 February 1997); First Deputy Prime
  Ministers Petr PROKOPOVICH (since 23 December 1996) and Vasiliy
  DOLGOLEV (since 2 December 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Valeriy
  KOKOREV (since 23 August 1994), Vladimir ZAMETALIN (since 15 July
  1997), Ural LATYPOV (since 30 December 1997), Gennadiy NOVITSKIY
  (since 11 February 1997), Leonid KOZIK (since 4 February 1997),
  Aleksandr POPKOV (since 10 November 1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 24 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA;
  according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should be in
  1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via the November
  1996 referendum); prime minister and deputy prime ministers
  appointed by the president
  election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO elected president; percent of
  vote--Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15%
  note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye
  Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet
  Respubliki (64 seats; eight appointed by the president and 56
  indirectly elected by deputies of local councils for four-year
  terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley
  (110 seats; note--present members came from the former Supreme Soviet
  which LUKASHENKO disbanded in November 1996)
  elections: last held May and November-December 1995 (two rounds,
  each with a run-off; disbanded after the November 1996 referendum;
  next to be held NA)
  election results: after the November 1996 referendum, seats for the
  Chamber of Representatives were filled by former Supreme Soviet
  members as follows: PKB 24, Agrarian 14, Party of Peoples Concord 5,
  LDPB 1, UPNAZ 1, Green World Party 1, Belarusian Social Sports Party
  1, Ecological Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1,
  independents 61; 58 of the 64 seats in the Council of the Republic
  have been appointed/elected

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  president; Constitutional Court, half of the judges appointed by the
  president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Party of Communists Belarusian or
  chairman]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic

International organization participation: CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC,
  EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
  ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires CHEREPANSKY
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel V. SPECKHARD (recalled to
  Washington in June 1998; Charge d'Affaires Randall LE COCQ)
  embassy: Starovilenskaya #46-220002, Minsk
  mailing address: use embassy street address

Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal
  band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe of
  white on the hoist side bears the Belarusian national ornament in red



Economy



Economy--overview: Belarus has seen little structural reform since
  1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of
  "market socialism". In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO
  re-imposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange
  rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management
  of private enterprise. This produced a climate hostile to private
  business, inhibiting domestic and foreign investment. The Government
  of Belarus has artificially revived economic output since mid-1996
  by pursuing a policy of rapid credit expansion. In a vain attempt to
  keep the rapidly rising inflation in check, the government placed
  strict price controls on food and consumer products, which resulted
  in food shortages. Long lines for dairy products, chicken, and pork
  became common in the closing months of 1998. With the goal of
  slowing down the devaluation of the Belarusian ruble, LUKASHENKO in
  1997 introduced a new, complex system of legal buying/selling hard
  currencies. The new "command" system proved to be totally unworkable
  and resulted in galloping devaluation. In addition to the burdens
  imposed on businesses by high inflation and an artificial currency
  regime, businesses have also been subject to pressure on the part of
  central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in
  regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, and retroactive
  application of new business regulations prohibiting practices that
  had been legal. A further economic problem is the sizable trade
  deficit.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$53.7 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 7% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$5,200 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 20%
  industry: 43%
  services: 37% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 77% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 4.9%
  highest 10%: 19.4% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 182% (1998)

Labor force: 4.3 million (1998)

Labor force--by occupation: industry and construction 40%,
  agriculture and forestry 19%, services 41% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.3% officially registered unemployed
  (December 1998); large number of underemployed workers

Budget:
  revenues: $4 billion
  expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
  million (1997 est.)

Industries: tractors, metal-cutting machine tools, off-highway
  dump trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity, wheel-type earth
  movers for construction and mining, eight-wheel-drive,
  high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use
  in tundra and roadless areas, equipment for animal husbandry and
  livestock feeding, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers,
  fertilizer, linen fabric, wool fabric, radios, refrigerators, other
  consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 11% (1998 est.)

Electricity--production: 26.1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.92%
  hydro: 0.08%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1997)

Electricity--consumption: 33.7 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--exports: 2.7 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--imports: 10.3 billion kWh (1997)

Agriculture--products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets,
  flax; beef, milk

Exports: $7 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment,
  chemicals, foodstuffs

Exports--partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Imports: $8.5 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports--commodities: fuel, natural gas, industrial raw materials,
  textiles, sugar, foodstuffs

Imports--partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Debt--external: $1.03 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $194.3 million (1995)

Currency: Belarusian rubel (BR)

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubels per US$1--139,000 (25 January
  1999 official Belarusian exchange rate), 46,080 (2nd qtr 1998),
  25,964 (1997), 15,500 (yearend 1996), 11,500 (yearend 1995), 10,600
  (yearend 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 2.55 million (October 1998)

Telephone system: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all
  telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company)
  Beltelcom which is a monopoly
  domestic: local--Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a
  cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long;
  local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity--Belarus
  has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving
  at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form
  synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries'
  systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational
  international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL),
  Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE) and has access to the
  Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide
  connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide
  service is available to Belarus due to this infrastructure;
  additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat and
  Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11

Radios: 3.17 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 17 (1997); note--Belarus has a
  state-run television broadcasting network; independent local
  television stations exist

Televisions: 9,686,854 (1996)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 5,563 km
  broad gauge: 5,563 km 1.520-m gauge (894 km electrified)

Highways:
  total: 53,407 km
  paved: 52,446 km
  unpaved: 961 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: NA km; note--Belarus has extensive and widely used
  canal and river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural
  gas 1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Mazyr

Airports: 118 (1996 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 36
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  under 914 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 82
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 9
  under 914 m: 62 (1996 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Interior
  Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,700,034 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,115,121 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 79,905 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $100 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis,
  mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit
  drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe



======================================================================



@Belgium
-------



Introduction



Background: Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in
  1830 and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. In the
  half century following, it has prospered as a small, modern,
  technologically advanced European state and member of the European
  Union. Its unique political circumstance is the long-standing
  differences between the wealthier Dutch-speaking Flemings of the
  north and the poorer French-speaking Walloons of the south,
  differences that are becoming increasingly acute.



Geography



Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France
  and the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 30,510 sq km
  land: 30,230 sq km
  water: 280 sq km

Area--comparative: about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: median line with neighbors
  exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68
  km from coast)
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid,
  cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
  rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 24%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 20%
  forests and woodland: 21%
  other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km including Luxembourg (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed
  coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment--current issues: the environment is exposed to intense
  pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation
  network, industry, intense animal breeding and crop cultivation; air
  and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring
  countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional
  responsibilities (now resolved) have impeded progress in tackling
  environmental challenges

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
  Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol

Geography--note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West
  European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of
  both the EU and NATO



People



Population: 10,182,034 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17% (male 895,987; female 853,494)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 3,389,572; female 3,318,266)
  65 years and over: 17% (male 703,933; female 1,020,782) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.06% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 9.98 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 10.43 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.53 years
  male: 74.31 years
  female: 80.9 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Flemish 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual
  11%

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99% (1980 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
  local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Data code: BE

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a
  constitutional monarch

Capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (French: provinces,
  singular--province; Flemish: provincien, singular--provincie);
  Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg,
  Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams Brabant, West-Vlaanderen
  note: the Brussels Capitol Region is not included within the 10
  provinces

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King
  LEOPOLD I to the throne in 1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993;
  parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English
  constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
  Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March
  1992)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved
  by Parliament
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
  by the monarch and then approved by Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or
  Senaat in Flemish, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are
  directly elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members
  serve four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van
  Volksvertegenwoordigers in Flemish, Chambre des Representants in
  French (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on
  the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies--last held 21 May 1995
  (next to be held in June 1999)
  election results: Senate--percent of vote by party--NA; seats by
  party--CVP 7, SP 6, VLD 6, VU 2, AGALEV 1, VB 3, PS 5, PRL 5, PSC 3,
  ECOLO 2; note--before the 1995 elections, there were 184 seats;
  Chamber of Deputies--percent of vote by party--CVP 17.2%, PS 11.9%, SP
  12.6%, VLD 13.1%, PRL 10.3%, PSC 7.7%, VB 7.8%, VU 4.7%, ECOLO 4.0%,
  AGALEV 4.4%, FN 2.3%; seats by party--CVP 29, PS 21, SP 20, VLD 21,
  PRL 18, PSC 12, VB 11, VU 5, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, FN 2; note--before
  the 1995 elections, there were 212 seats
  note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
  devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
  government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
  complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
  governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other
  acronyms of the listed parties see Political parties and leaders

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie in
  Flemish, Cour de Cassation in French, judges are appointed for life
  by the Belgian monarch

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist
  Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other
  associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class
  artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
  organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and
  Wallonia; various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee
  Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB,
  Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB,
  EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Alexis REYN
  chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CEJAS
  embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
  mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist
  side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France



Economy



Economy--overview: This highly developed private enterprise
  economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly
  developed transport network, and diversified industrial and
  commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous
  Flemish area in the north, although the government is encouraging
  reinvestment in the southern region of Wallonia. With few natural
  resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw
  materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its
  economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets.
  Two-thirds of its trade is with other EU countries. Belgium's public
  debt fell from 127% of GDP in 1996 to 122% of GDP in 1998 and the
  government is trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure
  more into line with other industrialized countries. Belgium became a
  charter member of the European Monetary Union (EMU) in January 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$236 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 2.8% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$23,400 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.9%
  industry: 27.2%
  services: 70.9% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.7%
  highest 10%: 20.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4.283 million (1997)

Labor force--by occupation: services 69.7%, industry 27.7%,
  agriculture 2.6% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle
  assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals,
  textiles, glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: 9.7% (1995)

Electricity--production: 71.066 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 41.73%
  hydro: 0.33%
  nuclear: 57.93%
  other: 0.01% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 75.266 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 5.4 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 9.6 billion kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits,
  grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports: $145.1 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment,
  tractors, diamonds, petroleum products

Exports--partners: EU 67.2% (Germany 19%), US 5.8% (1994)

Imports: $137.1 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports--partners: EU 75% (Germany 22.1%), US 5% (1997)

Debt--external: $22.3 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--donor: ODA, $1 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1--34.77 (January
  1999), 36.229 (1998), 35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995),
  33.456 (1994)
  note: on 1 January 1999, the European Union introduced a common
  currency that is now being used by financial institutions in some
  member countries at the rate of 0.8597 euros per US$ and a fixed
  rate of 40.3399 Belgian francs per euro; the euro will replace the
  local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 5.691 million (1992 est.); 1.7 million cellular
  telephone subscribers (1998)

Telephone system: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations--2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 77, shortwave 1 (Belgium's
  single shortwave station, Radio Vlaanderen Internationaal, transmits
  its programs internationally in Dutch, English, French, and German,
  using 21 shortwave frequencies)

Radios: 100,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 24 (in addition, there are Dutch
  programs on cable, TV-5 Europe by satellite relay, and American
  Forces Network by relay from Germany) (1997)

Televisions: 3,315,662 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 3,380 km (2,459 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
  standard gauge: 3,380 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
  total: 143,175 km
  paved: 143,175 km (including 1,674 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural
  gas 3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports),
  Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
  total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,668 GRT/56,412 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 8, chemical tanker 8, oil tanker 6
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 42 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 24
  over 3,047 m: 6
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 6 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 18
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 16 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,537,544 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,098,883 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 64,180 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1995)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.7% (1995)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
  cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin,
  hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe



======================================================================



@Belize
------



Geography



Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
  Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 22,960 sq km
  land: 22,800 sq km
  water: 160 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 516 km
  border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note--from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
  with Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to
  February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 2%
  forests and woodland: 92%
  other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
  December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment--current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
  sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; Hurricane Mitch
  damage

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertication, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize
  City to Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central
  America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean



People



Population: 235,789 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42% (male 49,991; female 48,074)
  15-64 years: 55% (male 65,507; female 63,796)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 4,129; female 4,292) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 30.22 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.39 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 31.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.2 years
  male: 67.23 years
  female: 71.26 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.74 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belizean(s)
  adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%,
  other 8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%,
  Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal
  2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy:
  definition: age 14 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 70.3%
  male: 70.3%
  female: 70.3% (1991 est.)
  note: other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Belize
  former: British Honduras

Data code: BH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal,
  Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17
  November 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Said MUSA (since 2 August 1998);
  Deputy Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since NA July 1993)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
  the prime minister
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor
  general

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the
  Senate (eight members; members are appointed for five-year terms,
  five on the advice of the prime minister, two on the advice of the
  leader of the opposition, and one after consultation with the Belize
  Advisory Council--this council serves as an independent body to
  advise the governor general with respect to difficult decisions such
  as granting pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the removal
  of justices of appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.) and the
  National Assembly (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular
  vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly--last held 1 August 1998 (next to be
  held NA August 2003)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--PUP
  26, UDP 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by
  the governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said
  GOLDSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion
  Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
  IOM (observer), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James Schofield MURPHY
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Carolyn CURIEL
  embassy: Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
  mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and
  the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of
  arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in
  front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I
  Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a
  green garland



Economy



Economy--overview: The small, essentially private enterprise
  economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
  merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming greater
  importance. Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for nearly half of
  exports, while the banana industry is the country's largest
  employer. The government's tough austerity program in 1997 resulted
  in an economic slowdown that continued in 1998. The trade deficit
  has been growing, mostly as a result of low export prices for sugar
  and bananas. The new government faces important challenges to
  economic stability. Rapid action to improve tax collection has been
  promised, but a lack of progress in reigning in spending could bring
  the exchange rate under pressure.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$700 million (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 0.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$3,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 22%
  industry: 22%
  services: 56% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 71,000
  note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
  (1997 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%,
  government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%

Unemployment rate: 13% (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $140 million
  expenditures: $142 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism,
  construction

Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity--production: 145 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 145 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber;
  fish, cultured shrimp

Exports: $95.3 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: sugar 46%, bananas 26%, citrus fruits,
  clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports--partners: US 45%, UK 30%, Mexico 3%, Canada 3% (1997)

Imports: $149.7 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
  manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports--partners: US 52%, Mexico 13%, UK 5% (1997)

Debt--external: $288 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $23.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1--2.0000 (fixed
  rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 29,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1 (Voice of America relay station),
  FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 27,048 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,248 km
  paved: 427 km
  unpaved: 1,821 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
  seasonally navigable

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
  total: 403 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,740,325
  GRT/2,511,709 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 34, cargo 259, chemical tanker 5, container 9,
  liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 58, passenger-cargo 2,
  refrigerated cargo 21, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea/passenger
  3, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 7 countries:
  Cuba 2, Cyprus 1, Greece 1, Singapore 2, UAE 12, UK 1, and US 1
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 44 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 41
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 10
  under 914 m: 30 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Ground Forces,
  Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 58,201 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 34,531 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 2,619 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $15 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2% (FY97/98)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: border with Guatemala in dispute

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale
  illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
  money-laundering center



======================================================================



@Benin
-----



Geography



Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
  between Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 112,620 sq km
  land: 110,620 sq km
  water: 2,000 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low
  mountains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone,
  marble, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 13%
  permanent crops: 4%
  permanent pastures: 4%
  forests and woodland: 31%
  other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north
  in winter

Environment--current issues: recent droughts have severely
  affected marginal agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations;
  deforestation; desertification

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: no natural harbors



People



Population: 6,305,567 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48% (male 1,510,703; female 1,501,437)
  15-64 years: 50% (male 1,511,114; female 1,637,155)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 62,459; female 82,699) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.3% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 45.37 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 12.4 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 97.76 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 54.08 years
  male: 51.98 years
  female: 56.24 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important
  being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common
  vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in
  north)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 37%
  male: 48.7%
  female: 25.8% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Benin
  conventional short form: Benin
  local long form: Republique du Benin
  local short form: Benin
  former: Dahomey

Data code: BN

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule;
  dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted
  February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital: Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat
  of government

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique,
  Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
  note: six additional provinces have been reported but not confirmed;
  they are Alibori, Collines, Couffo, Donga, Littoral, and Plateau;
  moreover, the term "province" may have been changed to "department"

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001)
  election results: Mathieu KEREKOU elected president; percent of
  vote--Mathieu KEREKOU 52.49%, Nicephore SOGLO 47.51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
  Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
  serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 28 March 1995 (next to be held 28 March 1999)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--PRB
  20, PRD 19, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3, RDL-VIVOTEN 3, PCB 2, AC
  1, RDP 1, other 17

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle,
  Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Civic Renewal or ARC
  Sylvain AKINDES]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD and
  KINA]; Liberal Democrats' Rally for National Reconstruction-Vivoten
  note: as of December 1998, more than 110 political parties were
  officially recognized; among them are Benin Renaissance Party or
  PRB, Our Common Cause or NCC, Cameleon Alliance or AC, Rally for
  Democracy and Pan-Africanism or RDP

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA,
  ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, MINURCA, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
  chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. FELDER
  embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
  mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and
  red with a vertical green band on the hoist side



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
  dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and
  regional trade. Growth in real output has averaged a sound 4% in
  1990-95 and 5% in 1996-98. Rapid population growth has offset much
  of this growth in output. Inflation has subsided over the past three
  years. Commercial and transport activities, which make up a large
  part of GDP, are vulnerable to developments in Nigeria, particularly
  fuel shortages. Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral
  creditors has eased the external debt situation in recent years. The
  government, still burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a
  bloated civil service, has been gradually implementing a World Bank
  supported structural adjustment program since 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$7.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4.4% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,300 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 34%
  industry: 14%
  services: 52% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 33% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $299 million
  expenditures: $445 million, including capital expenditures of $14
  million (1995 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction
  materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 6 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 251 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 245 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams,
  beans, rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports--partners: Brazil 18%, Portugal 11%, Morocco 10%, Libya
  6%, France (1997)

Imports: $314 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum
  products, intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods

Imports--partners: France 21%, UK 9%, Thailand 9%, Hong Kong 8%,
  China (1997)

Debt--external: $1.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $281.2 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1--566.36 (January 1999),
  589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 38,354 (6,286 cellular telephone subscribers) (1998
  est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: fair system of open wire, microwave radio relay, and
  cellular connections
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
  submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998 est.)

Radios: 400,000 (1998 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one privately owned) (1997)

Televisions: 30,000 (1998 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 578 km (single track)
  narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
  total: 6,787 km
  paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 5,430 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
  National Gendarmerie

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,363,878
  females age 15-49: 1,425,987 (1999 est.)
  note: both sexes are liable for military service

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 697,715
  females age 15-49: 722,323 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 67,622
  females: 67,238 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $27 million (1996)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.2% (1996)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
  Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
  Western Europe and the US



======================================================================



@Bermuda
-------



Geography



Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area:
  total: 50 sq km
  land: 50 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
  winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 94% (1997 est.)
  note: developed (55%) and rural/open space (39%) comprise 94% of
  Bermudian land area

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment--current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution;
  preservation of open space

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with
  ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land,
  reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to
  1995



People



Population: 62,472 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20% (male 6,174; female 6,023)
  15-64 years: 70% (male 21,479; female 22,041)
  65 years and over: 10% (male 2,897; female 3,858) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.72% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 11.83 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.27 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.27 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.97 years
  male: 75.19 years
  female: 78.83 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bermudian(s)
  adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist
  Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other
  34% (1991)

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99% (1970 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bermuda

Data code: BD

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
  Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*,
  Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since NA June 1997)
  head of government: Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; premier appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
  (an 11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of
  Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November
  2003)
  election results: percent of vote by party--PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP 1%,
  independents 1%; seats by party--PLP 26, UBP 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party or UBP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union

International organization participation: Caricom (observer),
  CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
  the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER
  consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire,
  Hamilton
  mailing address: P.O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
  General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520-5300

Flag description: red, with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue
  shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking
  of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer
  half of the flag



Economy



Economy--overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita
  incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by
  providing financial services for international firms and luxury
  tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist
  industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84%
  of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small,
  and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
  About 80% of food needs are imported. International business
  contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed
  independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to
  Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$1.9 billion (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3% (1997 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$30,000 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1997)

Labor force: 35,296 (1997)

Labor force--by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers
  17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial
  12%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $504.6 million
  expenditures: $537 million, including capital expenditures of $75
  million (FY97/98)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete
  products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 480 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 480 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy
  products

Exports: $57 million (1997)

Exports--commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports--partners: Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

Imports: $617 million (1997)

Imports--commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles,
  machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals

Imports--partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 4% (1996 est.)

Debt--external: $NA

Economic aid--recipient: $27.9 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1--1.0000 (fixed
  rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
  international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations--3
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 225 km
  paved: 225 km
  unpaved: 0 km (1997 est.)
  note: in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that
  are privately owned

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
  total: 97 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,647,576 GRT/7,612,686
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 18, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, container 20,
  liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 27, refrigerated cargo 15,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 2
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11
  countries among which are UK 24, Canada 12, Hong Kong 11, US 11,
  Nigeria 4, Sweden 4, Norway 3, and Switzerland 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force,
  Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%

Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Bhutan
------



Geography



Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total: 47,000 sq km
  land: 47,000 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,075 km
  border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and
  hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
  Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m
  highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 6%
  forests and woodland: 66%
  other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas
  are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the
  Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment--current issues: soil erosion; limited access to
  potable water

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography--note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
  India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes



People



Population: 1,951,965 (July 1999 est.)
  note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 40% (male 405,745; female 376,738)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 561,754; female 530,420)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 39,251; female 38,057) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 36.76 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 14.26 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.33 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 52.75 years
  male: 53.19 years
  female: 52.29 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.16 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or
  migrant tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and
  Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan
  dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 42.2%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

People--note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of
  approximately 91,000 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven
  United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
  camps



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
  plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
  Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar,
  Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen
  WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights
  note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the
  National Assembly

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972);
  note--the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July
  1972); note--the monarch is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) appointed by the
  monarch, approved by the National Assembly
  note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members
  nominated by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150
  seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent
  religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent
  government and other secular interests; members serve three-year
  terms)
  elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
  election results: NA

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the monarch; High
  Court, judges appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: United Front for Democracy
  (exiled); Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant community; ethnic
  Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
  G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW,
  SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note--Bhutan has a
  Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th
  Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no
  formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
  between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side
  corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is
  orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white
  dragon facing away from the hoist side



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and
  least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide
  the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about
  40% of GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and
  animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the
  building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive.
  The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and
  monetary links. The industrial sector is technologically backward,
  with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development
  projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor.
  Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are
  key resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in
  expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare.
  Model education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are
  underway with support from multilateral development organizations.
  Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to
  protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed
  controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing,
  trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$1.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 38%
  industry: 38%
  services: 24% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA
  note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry
  and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $146 million
  expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY95/96 est.)
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
  beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity--production: 1.717 billion kWh (1996)
  note: exports electricity to India

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.41%
  hydro: 99.59%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 246 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 1.475 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 4 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
  dairy products, eggs

Exports: $99 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts,
  cement, fruit, electricity (to India), precious stones, spices

Exports--partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports: $131 million (c.i.f., 1997 est.)

Imports--commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and
  parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice

Imports--partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt--external: $87 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $73.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note--Indian currency is
  also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1--42.508 (January 1999),
  41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374
  (1994); note--the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: 4,620 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with very few
  telephones in use
  international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
  landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 23,000 (1989 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 200 (1985 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 3,285 km
  paved: 1,994 km
  unpaved: 1,291 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia,
  Royal Police Force

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 477,944 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 254,992 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 19,424 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: with Nepal over 91,000 Bhutanese refugees
  in Nepal



======================================================================



@Bolivia
-------



Introduction



Background: Bolivia broke away from Spanish rule in 1825. Its
  subsequent history has been marked by a seemingly endless series of
  coups, counter-coups, and abrupt changes in leaders and policies.
  Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s,
  but the leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated
  poverty, social unrest, strikes, and drug dealing. Current issues
  include encouraging and negotiating the terms for foreign
  investment; strengthening the educational system; continuing the
  privatization program; pursuing judicial reform and an
  anti-corruption campaign.



Geography



Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total: 1,098,580 sq km
  land: 1,084,390 sq km
  water: 14,190 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly less than three times the size of
  Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,743 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and
  semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau
  (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
  antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 24%
  forests and woodland: 53%
  other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
  efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
  unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast
  (March-April)

Environment--current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural
  purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are
  contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and
  poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture);
  desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water
  supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography--note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca,
  world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru



People



Population: 7,982,850 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39% (male 1,573,391; female 1,540,123)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 2,199,077; female 2,307,490)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 164,213; female 198,556) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.96% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 30.72 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 9.61 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.02 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.43 years
  male: 58.51 years
  female: 64.51 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.93 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
  Amerindian ancestry) 30%, white 15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
  (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.1%
  male: 90.5%
  female: 76% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia

Data code: BL

Government type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and
  seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos,
  singular--departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro,
  Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
  years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997);
  Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August
  1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August
  1997); note--the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from a panel of
  candidates proposed by the Senate
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997
  (next to be held June 2002)
  election results: Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of
  vote--Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%, Juan
  Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA
  (CONDEPA) 17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote;
  Hugo BANZER Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August
  1997 after forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR and
  PDC

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso
  Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27
  seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130
  seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies--last held 1
  June 1997 (next to be held June 2002)
  election results: Chamber of Senators--percent of vote by party--NA;
  seats by party--ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of
  Deputies--percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--ADN 32, MNR 26,
  MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed
  for a 10-year term by National Congress

Political parties and leaders:
  Center-Left Parties: Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR
  SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]
  FERNANDEZ, Hugo VILLEGAS]
  Indigenous Parties: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement

International organization participation: CAN, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES,
  LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Marcelo PEREZ Monasterios
  chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
  embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
  mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top),
  yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band;
  similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed
  star centered in the yellow band



Economy



Economy--overview: With its long history of semifeudal social
  controls, dependence on mineral exports, and bouts of
  hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least
  developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced
  generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro
  administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which
  reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ
  Estenssoro was followed as president by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93)
  who continued the free-market policies of his predecessor, despite
  opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor
  movement. President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-1997) vowed to advance
  the market-oriented economic reforms he helped launch as PAZ
  Estenssoro's planning minister. His successes included the signing
  of a free trade agreement with Mexico and the Southern Cone Common
  Market (Mercosur) as well as the privatization of the state airline,
  telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil
  company. Hugo BANZER Suarez has tried to further improve the
  country's investment climate with an anticorruption campaign. With
  the scheduled completion of a $2 billion natural gas pipeline to
  Brazil in 1999, Bolivia hopes to become an energy hub in the region.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$23.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4.7% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$3,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 17%
  industry: 26%
  services: 57% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: 66%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.3%
  highest 10%: 31.7% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture NA%, services and
  utilities NA%, manufacturing, mining and construction NA%

Unemployment rate: 11.4% (1997) with widespread underemployment

Budget:
  revenues: $2.7 billion
  expenditures: $2.7 billion (1998)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages,
  tobacco, handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity--production: 2.95 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 40.68%
  hydro: 59.32%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 2.948 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 2 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn,
  sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: metals 34%, natural gas 9.4%, soybeans 8.4%,
  jewelry 11%, wood 6.9%

Exports--partners: US 22%, UK 9.3%, Colombia 8.7%, Peru 7.4%,
  Argentina 7.2%

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f. 1998)

Imports--commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum
  5%, food 5% (1993 est.)

Imports--partners: US 20%, Japan 13%, Brazil 12, Chile 7.5% (1996)

Debt--external: $4.1 billion (1998)

Economic aid--recipient: $588 million (1997)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1--5.6491 (January 1999),
  5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997), 5.0746 (1996), 4.8003 (1995), 4.6205
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 144,300 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities
  domestic: microwave radio relay system being expanded
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 177, FM 68, shortwave 112 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 48 (1997)

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 3,691 km (single track)
  narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
  electrified) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 52,216 km
  paved: 2,872 km (including 27 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 49,344 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural
  gas 1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port
  privileges in the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and
  Paraguay

Merchant marine:
  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,948 GRT/58,472 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 5 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1,130 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 12
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,118
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 70
  914 to 1,523 m: 224
  under 914 m: 821 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
  Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
  National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,908,454 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,241,311 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 84,481 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $154 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.8% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the
  South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
  1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after
  Peru and Colombia) with an estimated 46,900 hectares under
  cultivation in 1997, a 2.5% decrease in overall cultivation of coca
  from 1996 levels; Bolivia, however, is the second-largest producer
  of coca leaf; even so, farmer abandonment and voluntary and forced
  eradication programs resulted in leaf production dropping from
  75,100 metric tons in 1996 to 73,000 tons in 1997, a 3% decrease
  from 1996; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit;
  intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through
  Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other
  international drug markets; alternative crop program aims to reduce
  illicit coca cultivation



======================================================================



@Bosnia and Herzegovina
----------------------



Introduction



Background: On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former
  Yugoslavia's three warring parties signed a peace agreement that
  brought to a halt over three years of interethnic civil strife in
  Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement was signed in Paris on
  14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed then by Bosnian
  President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian
  President MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally
  between the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska while
  maintaining Bosnia's currently recognized borders. In 1995-96, a
  NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops
  served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of
  the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
  Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed
  hostilities. SFOR remains in place. A High Representative appointed
  by the UN Security Council is responsible for civilian
  implementation of the accord, including monitoring implementation,
  facilitating any difficulties arising in connection with civilian
  implementation, and coordinating activities of the civilian
  organizations and agencies in Bosnia. The Bosnian conflict began in
  the spring of 1992 when the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  held a referendum on independence and the Bosnian Serbs--supported by
  neighboring Serbia--responded with armed resistance aimed at
  partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held
  areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims
  and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two
  by signing an agreement in Washington creating their joint
  Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation,
  formed by the Muslims and Croats in March 1994, is one of two
  entities (the other being the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska)
  that comprise Bosnia and Herzegovina.



Geography



Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and
  Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area:
  total: 51,233 sq km
  land: 51,233 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,459 km
  border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312
  km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation
  have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy
  winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests,
  copper, chromium, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 14%
  permanent crops: 5%
  permanent pastures: 20%
  forests and woodland: 39%
  other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment--current issues: air pollution from metallurgical
  plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread
  casualties, water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure
  because of the 1992-95 civil strife

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized
  borders, the country is divided into a joint Muslim/Croat Federation
  (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
  Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been
  settled by an ethnic Croat majority



People



Population: 3,482,495 (July 1999 est.)
  note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable
  error because of the dislocations caused by military action and
  ethnic cleansing

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17% (male 310,430; female 294,298)
  15-64 years: 71% (male 1,221,791; female 1,240,097)
  65 years and over: 12% (male 166,876; female 249,003) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.2% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 9.36 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 10.81 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.52 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 66.98 years
  male: 62.55 years
  female: 71.71 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 40%, Muslim 38%, Croat 22% (est.); note--the
  Croats claim they now make up only 17% of the total population

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
  other 10%

Languages: Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy: NA



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: none
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Data code: BK

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order
  administrative divisions--the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian
  Serb-led Republika Srpska; note--the status of Brcko in north eastern
  Bosnia is to be determined by arbitration

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Republika Srpska--"Republic Day," 9 January;
  Independence Day, 1 March; Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina--"Republic Day," 25 November

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995,
  included a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Zivko RADISIC (since 13
  October 1998--Serb); other members of the three-member rotating
  (every 8 months) presidency: Ante JELAVIC (since NA September
  1998--Croat) and Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 14 March 1996--Muslim)
  head of government: Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Haris
  SILAJDZIC (since NA January 1997); Cochairman of the Council of
  Ministers Suetozar MIHAJLOVIC (since 3 February 1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen
  note: President of the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina: Ivo ANDRIC-LUZANIC (since 1 January 1999); Vice
  President is Ejup GANIC; note--president and vice president rotate
  every 3 months; President of the Republika Srpska: Nikola POPLASEN
  (since 29 October 1998)
  elections: the three-person presidency members (one Muslim, one
  Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
  the president with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he was
  the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election last
  held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held September 2002); the
  cochairmen of the Council of Ministers are appointed by the
  presidency
  election results: percent of vote--Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb
  vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first
  8 months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote will follow
  RADISIC in the rotation; Alija IZEBEGOVIC with 87% of the Muslim
  vote won the highest number of votes in the election but was
  ineligible to serve consecutive terms as chairman

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
  consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina
  (42 seats--14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Muslim; members elected by
  popular vote to serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or
  Vijece Gradanstvo (15 seats--5 Muslim, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members
  elected by the Muslim/Croat Federation's House of Representatives
  and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve two-year terms)
  elections: National House of Representatives--elections last held
  12-13 September 1998 (next to be held in the fall 2000); House of
  Peoples--last held NA (next to be held NA)
  election results: National House of Representatives--percent of vote
  by party/coalition--NA; seats by party/coalition--KCD 17, HDZ-BiH 6,
  SDP 4, Sloga 4, SDS 4, SDBIH 2, SRS-RS 2, DNZ 1, NHI 1, RSRS 1;
  House of Peoples--percent of vote by party/coalition--NA; seats by
  party/coalition--NA
  note: the Muslim/Croat Federation has a House of Representatives
  (140 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve NA year terms);
  elections last held NA (next to be held NA); percent of vote by
  party--NA; seats by party/coalition--KCD 68, HDZ-BiH 28, SDP 19, SDBIH
  6, NHI 4, DNZ 3, DSP 2, BPS 2, HSP 2, SPRS 2, BSP 1, KC 1, BOSS 1,
  HSS 1; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve NA year terms); elections
  last held NA (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party--NA;
  seats by party/coalition--SDS 19, KCD 15, SNS 12, SRS-RS 11, SPRS 10,
  SNSD 6, RSRS 3, SKRS 2, SDP 2, KKO 1, HDZ-BiH 1, NHI 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, consists of nine members:
  four members are selected by the Muslim/Croat Federation's House of
  Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska National
  Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
  European Court of Human Rights

Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party of Rights or BSP
  IZETBEGOVIC; includes SDA, SBH, GDS, LS]; Croatian Democratic Union
  BIH or SDP (formerly the Democratic Party of Socialists or DSS)
  note: note--SDP and SDBIH announced a merger in 1999

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, EBRD,
  ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS
  (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Dragan BOZANIC
  chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH
  embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
  mailing address: use street address

Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly
  side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top
  of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven
  full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom
  along the hypotenuse of the triangle

Government--note: Until declaring independence in spring 1992,
  Bosnia and Herzegovina existed as a republic in the former
  Yugoslavia. Bosnia was partitioned by fighting during 1992-95 and
  governed by competing ethnic factions. Bosnia's current governing
  structures were created by the Dayton Agreement, the 1995 peace
  agreement which was officially signed in Paris on 14 December 1995
  by then Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN,
  and then Serbian President MILOSEVIC. This agreement retained
  Bosnia's exterior border and created a joint multi-ethnic and
  democratic government. This national government--based on
  proportional representation similar to that which existed in the
  former socialist regime--is charged with conducting foreign,
  economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a
  second tier of government, comprised of two entities--a joint
  Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska
  (RS)--each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The
  Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal
  functions.



Economy



Economy--overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The
  Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the
  old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
  private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the
  republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has
  been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of
  communist central planning and management. TITO had pushed the
  development of military industries in the republic with the result
  that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The
  bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by
  80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to
  multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output has recovered in
  1996-98 at high percentage rates on a low base, but remains far
  below the 1990 level. Key achievements in 1998 included approval of
  privatization legislation, the introduction of a national
  currency--the convertible mark, agreement with the Paris Club to
  reschedule official debt, and the conclusion of a Standby Agreement
  with the IMF. Economic data are of limited use because, although
  both entities issue figures, national-level statistics are not
  available. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of
  activity that occurs on the black market. The country receives
  substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian
  aid from the international community. Wide regional differences in
  war damage and access to the outside world have resulted in
  substantial variations in living conditions among local areas and
  individual families. In 1999, Bosnia's major goals are to implement
  privatization and make progress in fiscal reform and management. In
  addition, Bosnia will have to prepare for an era of declining
  assistance from the international community.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$5.8 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 30% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,720 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19%
  industry: 23%
  services: 58% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,026,254

Labor force--by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese,
  bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden
  furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil
  refining (much of capacity damaged or shut down) (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: 35% (1998 est.)

Electricity--production: 2.3 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 34.78%
  hydro: 65.22%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 2.504 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 182 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 386 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports: $152 million (1995 est.)

Exports--commodities: NA

Exports--partners: NA

Imports: $1.1 billion (1995 est.)

Imports--commodities: NA

Imports--partners: NA

Debt--external: $3.5 billion (yearend 1995 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $1.2 billion (1997 pledged)

Currency: 1 convertible marka (KM) = 100 convertible pfenniga

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 727,000

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when
  compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 840,000

Television broadcast stations: 21 (1997)

Televisions: 1,012,094



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam
  until grids are repaired)
  standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1995); note--some segments
  still need repair and/or reconstruction

Highways:
  total: 21,846 km
  paved: 11,425 km
  unpaved: 10,421 km (1996 est.)
  note: roads need maintenance and repair

Waterways: NA km; large sections of Sava blocked by downed
  bridges, silt, and debris

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992);
  note--pipelines now disrupted

Ports and harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski
  Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava none of
  which are fully operational), Orasje

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 25 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 9
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 16
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 8 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Federation Army or VF (composed of both
  Croatian and Bosnian Muslim elements), Army of the Serb Republic
  (composed of Bosnian Serb elements); note--within both of these
  forces air and air defense are subordinate commands

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 951,541 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 764,992 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 28,438 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: disputes with Serbia over Serbian
  populated areas

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for marijuana and opiate
  trafficking routes to Western Europe



======================================================================



@Botswana
--------



Geography



Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 600,370 sq km
  land: 585,370 sq km
  water: 15,000 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
  Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash,
  potash, coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
  arable land: 1%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 46%
  forests and woodland: 47%
  other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow
  from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can
  obscure visibility

Environment--current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited
  fresh water resources

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern
  part of the country



People



Population: 1,464,167 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42% (male 310,578; female 303,495)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 379,836; female 416,073)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 20,224; female 33,961) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.05% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 31.46 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.08 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 39.89 years
  male: 39.42 years
  female: 40.37 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.91 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%,
  white 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 69.8%
  male: 80.5%
  female: 59.9% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
  Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi,
  Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*,
  South-East, Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
  judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice
  President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
  Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held
  NA October 1999); vice president appointed by the president
  election results: Sir Ketumile MASIRE elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote--NA
  note: President MASIRE resigned on 31 March 1998; Vice President
  MOGAE assumed the presidency pending elections to be held in 1999;
  on 2 April 1998, Festus MOGAE, then president, designated Seretse
  Ian KHAMA to be vice president

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
  Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs
  of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three
  members selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44
  seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4
  appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly--elections last held 15 October 1994
  (next to be held NA October 1999)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--BDP
  27, BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
  FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Archibald Mooketsa MOGWE
  chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER
  embassy: address NA, Gaborone
  mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black
  stripe in the center



Economy



Economy--overview: Agriculture still provides a livelihood for
  more than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food
  needs and accounts for only 4% of GDP. Subsistence farming and
  cattle raising predominate. Diamond mining and tourism also are
  important to the economy. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall
  and poor soils. Substantial mineral deposits were found in the 1970s
  and the mining sector grew from 25% of GDP in 1980 to 35% in 1997.
  Unemployment officially is 21% but unofficial estimates place it
  closer to 40%.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$5.25 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$3,600 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 45% (including 35% mining)
  services: 51% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 235,000 formal sector employees (1995)

Labor force--by occupation: 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private
  sector, including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South
  Africa; most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence
  agriculture (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20-40% (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.6 billion
  expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560
  million (FY96/97)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash,
  potash; livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity--production: 990 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 1.675 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 685 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts
  (peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: $2.25 billion (f.o.b. 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: diamonds 76%, copper, nickel 4%, meat (1997)

Exports--partners: EU 74%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
  21%, Zimbabwe 3% (1996)

Imports: $2.43 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport
  equipment, textiles, petroleum products

Imports--partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 78%,
  Europe 8%, Zimbabwe 6% (1996)

Debt--external: $610 million (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $73 million (1995)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pulas (P) per US$1--4.5725 (January 1999), 4.2258
  (1998), 3.6508 (1997), 3.3242 (1996), 2.7722 (1995), 2.6846 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 19,109 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations
  international: microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe, and
  South Africa; satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 15, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 13,800 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 971 km
  narrow gauge: 971 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 18,482 km
  paved: 4,343 km
  unpaved: 14,139 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 92 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 12
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 80
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 57
  under 914 m: 21 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
  Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 344,587 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 182,279 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 18,654 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $61 million (FY99/00)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99/00)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and
  Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited
  Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River is presently at
  the ICJ; at least one other island in Linyanti River is contested



======================================================================



@Bouvet Island
-------------



Geography



Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
  south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
  total: 58 sq km
  land: 58 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 m; coast is mostly
  inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: covered by glacial ice



People



Population: uninhabited



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered from Oslo

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Norway)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Norway)

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used



Economy



Economy--overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve



Communications



Communications--note: automatic meteorological station



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of Norway



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Brazil
------



Geography



Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total: 8,511,965 sq km
  land: 8,456,510 sq km
  water: 55,455 sq km
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 14,691 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia
  1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
  Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains,
  hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
  phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 22%
  forests and woodland: 58%
  other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
  occasional frost in south

Environment--current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin
  destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of
  plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water
  pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large
  cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper
  mining activities

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography--note: largest country in South America; shares common
  boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador



People



Population: 171,853,126 (July 1999 est.)
  note: Brazil took a census in August 1996 which reported a
  population of 157,079,573; that figure was about 5% lower than
  projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied
  underenumeration of 4.6% for 1991; the Factbook's demographic
  statistics for Brazil do not take into consideration the results of
  the1996 census since the full results have not been released for
  analysis

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 30% (male 26,059,687; female 25,095,236)
  15-64 years: 65% (male 55,037,161; female 56,727,196)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 3,626,893; female 5,306,953) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 20.42 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 8.79 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.37 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 64.06 years
  male: 59.35 years
  female: 69.01 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.28 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian,
  Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other
  (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.3%
  male: 83.3%
  female: 83.2% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
  local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular--estado)
  and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa,
  Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias,
  Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para,
  Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do
  Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao
  Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
  compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January
  1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1
  January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October
  1998 (next to be held NA October 2002)
  election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected president;
  percent of vote--53%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso
  Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats;
  three members from each state or federal district elected according
  to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third
  elected after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next
  four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos
  Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional
  representation to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Federal Senate--last held 4 October 1998 for one-third of
  Senate (next to be held NA October 2002 for two-thirds of the
  Senate); Chamber of Deputies--last held 4 October 1998 (next to be
  held NA October 2002)
  election results: Federal Senate--percent of vote by party--NA%; seats
  by party--PMDB 27, PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5; Chamber of
  Deputies--percent of vote by party--NA%; seats by party--PFL 106, PSDB
  99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, 11 judges are
  appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
  Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to
  leftist Workers' Party are critical of government's social and
  economic policies

International organization participation: AfDB, BIS, CCC, ECLAC,
  FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
  Mercosur, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA,
  RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA
  chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los
  Angeles, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador-designate J. Brian ATWOOD
  embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito
  Federal Cep 70403-900 Brazil
  mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
  consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
  consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
  bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
  for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same
  pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white
  equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)



Economy



Economy--overview: Possessing large and well-developed
  agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's
  economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is
  expanding its presence in world markets. Prior to the institution of
  a stabilization plan--the Plano Real (Real Plan) in mid-1994,
  stratospheric inflation rates had disrupted economic activity and
  discouraged foreign investment. Since then, tight monetary policy
  has brought inflation under control--consumer prices increased by 2%
  in 1998 compared to more than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP
  growth slowed from 5.7% in 1994 to about 3.0% in 1997 due to tighter
  credit. The Real Plan faced its strongest challenge in 1998, as the
  world financial crisis caused investors to more closely examine the
  country's structural weaknesses. The most severe spillover for
  Brazil--after Russia's debt default in August 1998--created
  unrelenting pressure on the currency which forced the country to
  hike annual interest rates to 50%. Approximately $30 billion in
  capital left the country in August and September. After crafting a
  fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural
  reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international
  support program in November 1998. Capital continued to leach out of
  the country, and investors, concerned about the rising mountain of
  debt and currency widely-viewed as overvalued, stayed on the
  sidelines. In January 1999, Brazil made an abrupt shift of course in
  exchange rate policy, abandoning the strong currency anti-inflation
  anchor of the Real Plan. On 13 January 1999, Central Bank officials
  announced a one-time 8% devaluation of the real, and on 15 January
  1999, the currency was declared to be freely floating. President
  CARDOSO remains committed to limiting inflation and weathering the
  financial crisis through austerity and sacrifice as the country
  rides out a deep recession. He hopes the country will resume
  economic growth in the second half of 1999, so that he can once
  again focus on his longer-term goal of reducing poverty and income
  inequality. CARDOSO still hopes to address mandated revenue sharing
  with the states and cumbersome procedures to amend the constitution
  before the end of his second term.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$1.0352 trillion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 0.5% (1998)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$6,100 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 14%
  industry: 36%
  services: 50% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 0.8%
  highest 10%: 47.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1998)

Labor force: 57 million (1989 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%,
  industry 27%

Unemployment rate: 8.5% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $151 billion
  expenditures: $149 billion, including capital expenditures of $36
  billion (1998)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore,
  tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
  equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 291.63 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 4.38%
  hydro: 92.09%
  nuclear: 0.8%
  other: 2.73% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 323.215 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 8 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 37.5 billion kWh (1996)
  note: imported electricity from Paraguay

Agriculture--products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn,
  sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports: $51 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice,
  footwear, coffee, motor vehicle parts

Exports--partners: EU 28%, Latin America (excluding Argentina)
  23%, US 20%, Argentina 12% (1996)

Imports: $57.6 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products,
  foodstuffs, coal

Imports--partners: EU 26%, US 22%, Argentina 13%, Japan 5% (1996)

Debt--external: $258.1 billion (December 1998)

Economic aid--recipient: $1.012 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: reals (R$) per US$1--1.501 (January 1999), 1.161
  (1998), 1.078 (1997), 1.005 (1996), 0.918 (1995), 0.639 (1994); CR$
  per US$1--390.845 (January 1994)
  note: the real (R$) was introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750
  cruzeiro reais; from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the
  official rate was determined by a managed float; since 15 January
  1999, the official rate floats independently with respect to the US$

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 14,426,673 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth
  stations--3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean
  Region East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,627, FM 251, shortwave 114 (of
  which 91 are associated with AM stations) (1998)

Radios: 60 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 138 (1997)

Televisions: 30 million (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 28,862 km (1,187 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 4,123 km 1.600-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 24,390 km 1.000-m gauge; 13 km 0.760-m gauge
  dual gauge: 336 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails)

Highways:
  total: 1.98 million km
  paved: 184,140 km
  unpaved: 1,795,860 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km;
  natural gas 4,246 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
  Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande,
  Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
  total: 179 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,132,037
  GRT/6,642,442 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 35, cargo 28, chemical tanker 6, combination
  ore/oil 10, container 10, liquefied gas tanker 10, multifunction
  large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 61, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated
  cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 3,265 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 514
  over 3,047 m: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 134
  914 to 1,523 m: 325
  under 914 m: 31 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 2,751
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
  914 to 1,523 m: 1,312
  under 914 m: 1,366 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval
  air and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 47,230,426 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 31,723,597 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 1,841,858 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $14.7 billion (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.9% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: two short sections of boundary with
  Uruguay are in dispute--Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada)
  area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the
  confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca
  cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic
  consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to
  control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian,
  Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe;
  increasingly used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air
  transshipments between Peru and Colombia



======================================================================



@British Indian Ocean Territory
------------------------------



Geography



Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
  one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area:
  total: 60 sq km
  land: 60 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area--comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: NA%
  other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia,
  largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in
  central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility



People



Population: no indigenous inhabitants
  note: approximately 3,000 native inhabitants, known as the
  Chagosians or Ilois, were evacuated to Mauritius before construction
  of UK-US military facilities; now there are UK and US military
  personnel and civilian contractors living on the island



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; administered by
  a commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in
  London

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA
  1994); Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note--both reside in the
  UK
  cabinet: NA
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
  administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
  the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory
  of the UK)

Flag description: white with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a
  palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag



Economy



Economy--overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the
  largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities
  are located. Construction projects and various services needed to
  support the military installations are done by military and contract
  employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There
  are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity--production: NA kWh
  note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity--consumption: NA kWh



Communications



Telephones: NA

Telephone system: facilities for military needs only
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and
  airfield on Diego Garcia
  unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US
  lease on Diego Garcia expires in 2016



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: the Chagos Archipelago is claimed by
  Mauritius and Seychelles



======================================================================



@British Virgin Islands
----------------------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North
  Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 150 sq km
  land: 150 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes the island of Anegada

Area--comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep,
  hilly

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 7%
  permanent pastures: 33%
  forests and woodland: 7%
  other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment--current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
  (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of
  the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and
  Puerto Rico



People



Population: 19,156 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21% (male 2,012; female 1,965)
  15-64 years: 74% (male 7,300; female 6,896)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 539; female 444) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.37% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 15.92 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 4.65 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.21 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.13 years
  male: 74.37 years
  female: 75.92 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
  adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of
  God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses
  2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor David MACKILLIGIN (since NA June 1995)
  head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May
  1995; appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity
  STOUTT)
  cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
  the Legislative Council
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
  members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats;
  members are elected by direct popular vote, one member from each of
  9 electoral districts, four at-large members; members serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February
  2000)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--VIP 6,
  CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of
  the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal; (one judge of the
  Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the
  High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary
  Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: United Party or UP [Conrad

International organization participation: Caricom (associate),
  CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate),
  UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
  the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory
  of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in
  the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked
  on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll
  bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an
  estimated 45% of the national income. In the mid-1980s, the
  government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
  to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
  substantial revenues. An estimated 250,000 companies were on the
  offshore registry by yearend 1997. The adoption of a comprehensive
  insurance law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of
  confidentiality with regulated statutory gateways for investigation
  of criminal offenses, is expected to make the British Virgin Islands
  even more attractive to international business. Livestock raising is
  the most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the
  islands' ability to meet domestic food requirements. Because of
  traditionally close links with the US Virgin Islands, the British
  Virgin Islands has used the dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$183 million (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4.7% (1997)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$10,000 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 1.4%
  services: 97.6% (1991-95 average)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (1997)

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

Labor force--by occupation: tourism NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $121.5 million
  expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
  block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity--production: 42 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 42 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: $23.9 million (1996)

Exports--commodities: rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel,
  sand

Exports--partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $121.5 million (1996)

Imports--commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs,
  machinery

Imports--partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt--external: $34.8 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $2.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 6,291 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 9,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (in addition, there is one cable
  company) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 113 km (1995 est.)
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Brunei
------



Geography



Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
  Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 5,770 sq km
  land: 5,270 sq km
  water: 500 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
  total: 381 km
  border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly
  lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
  highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 1%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 1%
  forests and woodland: 85%
  other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are
  very rare

Environment--current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from
  forest fires in Indonesia

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
  linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
  Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia



People



Population: 322,982 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33% (male 54,154; female 51,766)
  15-64 years: 63% (male 106,492; female 95,921)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 7,945; female 6,704) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.38% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 24.69 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.21 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.83 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.84 years
  male: 70.35 years
  female: 73.42 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.33 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
  indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 88.2%
  male: 92.6%
  female: 83.4% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah,
  singular--daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under
  a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence
  on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic
  Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
  Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
  October 1967); note--the monarch is both the chief of state and head
  of government
  head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka
  Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah
  (since 5 October 1967); note--the monarch is both the chief of state
  and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
  the monarch; deals with executive matters
  note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the
  monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members
  appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters,
  and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch)
  that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis
  Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative
  capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)
  elections: last held in March 1962
  note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by
  decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being
  considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are
  unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are
  sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party
  president]; the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it
  was registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988; it
  has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include
  Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National
  Democratic Party (registered in May 1985, deregistered by the Brunei
  Government in 1988)

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC,
  ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW,
  UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni
  Mohammad Alam
  chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW,
  Washington, DC 20037

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Glen Robert RASE
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan
  mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96534-0001

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top,
  almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side;
  the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
  includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
  upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands



Economy



Economy--overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of
  foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and
  welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally
  supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues
  from the petroleum sector accounting for over half of GDP. Per
  capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and
  substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from
  domestic production. The government provides for all medical
  services and subsidizes food and housing. The government is
  beginning to show progress on its basic policy of diversifying the
  economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are concerned that
  steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine
  internal social cohesion. Because of low world oil prices and the
  Asian crisis, growth in 1999 is expected to be moderate.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$5.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: -1% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$17,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: 46%
  services: 49% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 144,000 (1995 est.); note--includes foreign workers
  and military personnel
  note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)

Labor force--by occupation: government 48%, production of oil,
  natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry,
  and fishing 4%, other 6% (1986 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.5 billion
  expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768
  million (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
  construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 1.48 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 1.48 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water
  buffalo

Exports: $2.62 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

Exports--commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum
  products

Exports--partners: ASEAN 31%, Japan 27%, South Korea 26%, UK,
  Taiwan (1996 est.)

Imports: $2.65 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment,
  manufactured goods, food, chemicals

Imports--partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%,
  Japan 5% (1994 est.)

Debt--external: $0

Economic aid--recipient: $4.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1--1.6781 (January
  1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995),
  1.5274 (1994); note--the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore
  dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 90,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system: service throughout country is excellent;
  international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
  and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 284,000 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 173,000 (1995 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 13 km (private line)
  narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 1,150 km
  paved: 399 km
  unpaved: 751 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural
  gas 920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara,
  Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
  total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
  GRT/340,635 DWT (1998 est.)

Airports: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei
  Police

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 88,628 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 51,270 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 3,078 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $343 million (1997)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 6% (1997)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: possibly involved in a complex dispute
  over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan,
  and Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone
  that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but
  has not publicly claimed the island



======================================================================



@Bulgaria
--------



Introduction



Background: A Slavic state, Bulgaria achieved independence in
  1908 after 500 years of Ottoman rule. Bulgaria fought on the losing
  side in both World Wars. After World War II it fell within the
  Soviet sphere of influence. Communist domination ended in 1991 with
  the dissolution of the USSR, and Bulgaria began the contentious
  process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy.
  In addition to the problems of structural economic reform,
  particularly privatization, Bulgaria faces the serious issues of
  keeping inflation under control and unemployment, combatting
  corruption, and curbing black-market and mafia-style crime.



Geography



Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
  Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 110,910 sq km
  land: 110,550 sq km
  water: 360 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
  with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
  highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber,
  arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 37%
  permanent crops: 2%
  permanent pastures: 16%
  forests and woodland: 35%
  other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment--current issues: air pollution from industrial
  emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals,
  detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and
  resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from
  metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography--note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls
  key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia



People



Population: 8,194,772 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16% (male 674,643; female 641,943)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 2,744,634; female 2,800,816)
  65 years and over: 16% (male 570,766; female 761,970) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.52% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 8.71 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 13.2 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.37 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.27 years
  male: 68.72 years
  female: 76.03 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 85%, Turk 9%, other 6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman
  Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian,
  and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to
  ethnic breakdown

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 98%
  male: 99%
  female: 97% (1992 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Government type: republic

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular--oblast);
  Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse,
  Sofiya, Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997);
  Vice President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
  Minister) Ivan Kostov (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers
  Aleksandur BOZHKOV (since 12 February 1997), Evgeniy BAKURDZHIEV
  (since 21 May 1997), Veselin METODIEV (since 21 May 1997)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October
  and 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the
  Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president;
  deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister
  election results: Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of
  vote--Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno
  Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 19 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
  election results: percent of vote by party--UDF 52%, BSP 22%, ANS 7%,
  Euro-left 5.5%, BBB 4.95%; seats by party--UDF 137, BSP 58, ANS 19,
  Euro-left 14, BBB 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a
  seven-year term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices
  appointed or elected for nine-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP
  (coalition led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS
  cochairmen]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Democratic Alliance for
  the Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Podkrepa Labor
  Confederation; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria
  or CITUB; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union--United or BZNS;
  Bulgarian Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian
  National Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or
  IMRO; agrarian movement; numerous regional, ethnic, and national
  interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC,
  CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member),
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  MONUA, NAM (guest), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Philip DIMITROV
  chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Avis T. BOHLEN
  embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
  mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State,
  Washington, DC 20521-5740

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top),
  green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of
  the white stripe has been removed--it contained a rampant lion within
  a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a
  ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and
  1944 (liberation from Nazi control)



Economy



Economy--overview: In April 1997, the current ruling Union of
  Democratic Forces (UDF) government won pre-term parliamentary
  elections and introduced an IMF currency board system which
  succeeded in stabilizing the economy. The triple digit inflation of
  1996 and 1997 has given way to an official consumer price increase
  of 1% in 1998. Following declines in GDP in both 1996 and 1997, the
  economy grew an officially estimated 4% in 1998. In September 1998,
  the IMF approved a three-year Extended Fund Facility, which provides
  credits worth approximately $864 million, designed to support
  Bulgaria's reform efforts. The government's structural reform
  program includes: (a) privatization and, where appropriate,
  liquidation of state-owned enterprises (SOEs); (b) liberalization of
  agricultural policies, including creating conditions for the
  development of a land market; (c) reform of the country's social
  insurance programs; and, (d) reforms to strengthen contract
  enforcement and fight crime and corruption.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$33.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$4,100 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 26%
  industry: 29%
  services: 45% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.3%
  highest 10%: 24.7% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 3.57 million (1996 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $4.1 billion
  expenditures: $3.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1998 est.)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
  chemicals, textiles, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous
  metals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 41.575 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 51.17%
  hydro: 6.1%
  nuclear: 42.73%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 41.08 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 2.045 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 1.55 billion kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: grain, oilseed, vegetables, fruits,
  tobacco; livestock

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: machinery and equipment; metals, minerals,
  and fuels; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles (1997)

Exports--partners: Italy 12%, Germany 10%, Turkey, Greece, Russia
  (1997)

Imports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials;
  machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics;
  food, textiles (1997)

Imports--partners: Russia 28%, Germany 11%, Italy, Greece, US
  (1997)

Debt--external: $9.3 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1--1,685.10 (January 1999),
  1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997), 177.89 (1996), 67.17 (1995), 54.13
  (1994)
  note: the official rate is pegged to the euro as of 1 January 1999

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 2,773,293 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: almost two-thirds of the lines are residential
  domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial
  cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in
  most villages
  international: direct dialing to 36 countries; satellite earth
  stations--1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); Intelsat available
  through a Greek earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 24, FM 93, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33 (in addition, there are two
  relays of Russian program OK-1 and two relays of TV-5 Europe) (1997)

Televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 4,292 km
  standard gauge: 4,047 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917 km
  double track)
  narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 36,724 km
  paved: 33,786 km (including 314 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 2,938 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural
  gas 1,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
  total: 89 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,005,092 GRT/1,508,614
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 44, cargo 20, chemical tanker 4, container 2,
  oil tanker 8, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated
  cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 61 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 56
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
  under 914 m: 25 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 4 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
  Troops, Internal Troops

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,028,930 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,693,597 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 59,887 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $226.8 million (1997)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.2% (1997)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: twenty bilateral agreements remain
  unsigned in a dispute over Bulgarian nonrecognition of Macedonian as
  a language distinct from Bulgarian

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest
  Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the
  European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals;
  significant producer of amphetamines, much of which are consumed in
  the Middle East



======================================================================



@Burkina Faso
------------



Geography



Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 274,200 sq km
  land: 273,800 sq km
  water: 400 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,192 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in
  west and southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits
  of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
  silver

Land use:
  arable land: 13%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 22%
  forests and woodland: 50%
  other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment--current issues: recent droughts and desertification
  severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution,
  and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography--note: landlocked



People



Population: 11,575,898 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48% (male 2,792,895; female 2,759,072)
  15-64 years: 49% (male 2,700,253; female 2,978,168)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 147,017; female 198,493) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.7% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 45.84 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 17.56 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 107.19 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 45.89 years
  male: 44.97 years
  female: 46.84 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.56 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo,
  Mande, Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly
  Roman Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to
  Sudanic family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 19.2%
  male: 29.5%
  female: 9.2% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
  Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
  Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
  Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
  note: a new electoral code was approved by the National Assembly in
  January 1997; the number of administrative provinces was increased
  from 30 to 45 (Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
  Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga,
  Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala,
  Naumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie,
  Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
  Zondomo, Zoundweogo)

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
  1987)
  head of government: Prime Minister Kadre Desire OUEDRAOGO (since 6
  February 1996)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
  the number of terms which a president may serve is not limited;
  election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
  minister appointed by the president with the consent of the
  legislature
  election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 88%
  percent of the vote, with 56% of voter turnout

Legislative branch: bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or
  Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (ADP) (111 seats; members are
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the purely
  consultative Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants
  (120 seats; members are appointed to serve three-year terms)
  elections: National Assembly election last held 11 May 1997 (next to
  be held NA 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--CDP
  101, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and
  Nongma OUEDRAOGO, president]; Burkinabe Environmentalist Party or

Political pressure groups and leaders: watchdog/political action
  groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities;
  Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or HBDHP; Burkinabe General
  Confederation of Labor or CGTB; National Confederation of Burkinabe
  Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; Group
  of 14 February

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
  MINURCA, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gaetan Rimwangulya OUEDRAOGO
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON
  embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and
  green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the
  popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy



Economy--overview: One of the poorest countries in the world,
  landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural
  resources, and a fragile soil. About 85% of the population is
  engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture which is highly
  vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by
  unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the
  African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government
  updated its development program in conjunction with international
  agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased.
  Maintenance of its macroeconomic progress in 1999-2000 depends on
  continued low inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms
  designed to encourage private investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$11.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 35%
  industry: 25%
  services: 40% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4.679 million (persons 10 years old and over,
  according to a sample survey taken in 1991)
  note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
  neighboring countries for seasonal employment

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry, commerce,
  services, government (1998)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $277 million
  expenditures: $492 million, including capital expenditures of $233
  million (1995 est.)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing,
  soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

Electricity--production: 220 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 63.64%
  hydro: 36.36%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 220 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton,
  sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports: $400 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: cotton, animal products, gold

Exports--partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Italy, Mali

Imports: $700 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum

Imports--partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Togo, Nigeria

Debt--external: $715 million (December 1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $484.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
  US$1--560.01 (December 1998), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55
  (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 21,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 49,000 (1991 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border
  and 105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
  total: 12,506 km
  paved: 2,001 km
  unpaved: 10,505 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 33 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 31
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 13
  under 914 m: 16 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
  National Police, People's Militia

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,399,724 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,230,713 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $66 million (1996)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2% (1996)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Burma
-----



Geography



Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the
  Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 678,500 sq km
  land: 657,740 sq km
  water: 20,760 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
  (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
  mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc,
  copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious
  stones, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 15%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 1%
  forests and woodland: 49%
  other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding
  and landslides common during rainy season (June to September);
  periodic droughts

Environment--current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution
  of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment
  contribute to disease

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean
  shipping lanes



People



Population: 48,081,302 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 36% (male 8,883,099; female 8,542,087)
  15-64 years: 60% (male 14,343,888; female 14,293,233)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 906,517; female 1,112,478) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.61% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 28.48 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 12.39 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.25 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 54.74 years
  male: 53.24 years
  female: 56.32 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.63 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese
  3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic
  1%), Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own
  languages

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 83.1%
  male: 88.7%
  female: 77.7% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Data code: BM

Government type: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular--yin)
  and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular--pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*,
  Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*,
  Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
  national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
  constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
  approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and
  Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note--the
  prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace
  and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992);
  note--the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta,
  so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18
  September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration
  Council; the SPDC oversees the cabinet
  elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation
  of the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu
  Hluttaw (485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA%; seats by party--NLD
  396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal
  system in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial;
  the judiciary is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: National Unity Party or NUP
  SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; Union
  Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (proregime, a social
  eight minor legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition
  individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not
  recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area
  and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel
  government; Kachin Independence Army or KIA; United Wa State Army or
  UWSA; Karen National Union or KNU; several Shan factions; All Burma
  Student Democratic Front or ABSDF

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
  ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU,
  NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador TIN WINN
  chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent M.
  WIEDEMANN
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper
  hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars
  encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars
  represent the 14 administrative divisions



Economy



Economy--overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity
  dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with
  substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy
  industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the last 10
  years, 1989-98, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three
  decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has
  markedly increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far
  with moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the
  efficiency of state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's
  foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume of
  black-market trade. A major ongoing problem is the failure to
  achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Although Burma remains a poor
  Asian country, its rich resources furnish the potential for
  substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and living
  standards. The short-term outlook is for continued sluggish growth
  because of internal unrest, minimal foreign investment, and the
  large trade deficit.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$56.1 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 1.1% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,200 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 59%
  industry: 11%
  services: 30% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 18.8 million (FY95/96 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%,
  trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $7.9 billion
  expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
  billion (FY96/97)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood
  and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction
  materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 9.2% (FY95/96 est.)

Electricity--production: 3.75 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 61.33%
  hydro: 38.67%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 3.75 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane,
  pulses; hardwood

Exports: $940 million (1997)

Exports--commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, rubber,
  hardwood

Exports--partners: India 17%, Singapore 14%, China 11%, Thailand
  9%, Japan 4% (1997)

Imports: $2.2 billion (1997)

Imports--commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction
  materials, food products

Imports--partners: Singapore 30%, Japan 17%, China 10%, Thailand
  10%, Malaysia 7% (1997)

Debt--external: $4.3 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $156.9 million (1995)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1--6.1163 (January 1999), 6.3432
  (1998), 6.2418 (1997), 5.9176 (1996), 5.6670 (1995), 5.9749 (1994);
  unofficial--310-350 (1998)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is good
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1998 est.)

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 3,740 km
  narrow gauge: 3,740 km 1.000-m gauge (1997)

Highways:
  total: 28,200 km
  paved: 3,440 km
  unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial
  vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein,
  Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
  total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 464,478 GRT/695,923 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 20, container 2, oil tanker 3,
  passenger-cargo 2
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
  Japan owns 2 ships, US 3 (1998 est.)

Airports: 80 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 69
  over 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 32 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 12,475,987
  females age 15-49: 12,224,947 (1999 est.)
  note: both sexes liable for military service

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 6,660,309
  females age 15-49: 6,510,730 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 496,912
  females: 477,803 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $3.904 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY97/98)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: sporadic conflict with Thailand over
  alignment of border

Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of illicit opium
  (cultivation in 1998--130,300 hectares, a 16% decline from 1997;
  potential production--1,750 metric tons, down 26% due to drought and
  the first eradication effort since the current government took power
  in 1987) and a minor producer of cannabis for the international drug
  trade; surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January
  1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major counternarcotics success, but
  lack of serious government commitment and resources continues to
  hinder the overall antidrug effort; growing role in the production
  of methamphetamines for regional consumption



======================================================================



@Burundi
-------



Introduction



Background: Since the end of the Belgian trusteeship in 1962,
  Burundi has suffered from ethnic uprisings, coups, and other
  societal dislocations. In a series of waves since October 1993,
  hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the ethnic violence
  between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi and have crossed into
  Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of
  the Congo or DROC). Since October 1996, an estimated 120,000
  Burundian Hutu refugees from the DROC have been compelled to return
  to Burundi because of insecurity in the region. Continuing ethnic
  violence with the Tutsi has caused additional Hutu to flee to
  Tanzania, thus raising their numbers in the United Nations Office of
  the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps in that country to
  about 260,000. Burundian troops have joined armies from Rwanda and
  Uganda and Congolese Tutsi in trying to overthrow DROC President
  KABILA and restore security to their borders with the Democratic
  Republic of the Congo.



Geography



Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 27,830 sq km
  land: 25,650 sq km
  water: 2,180 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda
  290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude
  variation (772 m to 2,760 m); average annual temperature varies with
  altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate
  as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is
  about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to
  November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east,
  some plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat,
  cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use:
  arable land: 44%
  permanent crops: 9%
  permanent pastures: 36%
  forests and woodland: 3%
  other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment--current issues: soil erosion as a result of
  overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands;
  deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled
  cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife
  populations

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography--note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
  watershed



People



Population: 5,735,937 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47% (male 1,349,995; female 1,345,201)
  15-64 years: 50% (male 1,392,880; female 1,479,835)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 69,748; female 98,278) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.54% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.27 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 17.23 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.36 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 45.44 years
  male: 43.54 years
  female: 47.41 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.33 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy)
  1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
  indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along
  Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 35.3%
  male: 49.3%
  female: 22.5% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
  local short form: Burundi

Data code: BY

Government type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura,
  Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo,
  Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
  note: there may be a new province named Mwaro

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
  administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a
  plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional
  Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two
  vice presidents

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and
  customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27
  September 1996 and officially sworn in on 11 June 1998) is chief of
  state and head of government and is assisted by First Vice President
  Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA) and Second Vice President
  Mathias SINAMENYA (since NA); note--former President NTIBANTUNGANYA
  was overthrown in a coup on 25 July 1996
  head of government: President Pierre BUYOYA is both chief of state
  and head of government; assisted by First Vice President Frederic
  BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA) and Second Vice President Mathias
  SINAMENYA (since NA)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
  elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
  Nationale (81 seats; note--new Transitional Constitution calls for
  121 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional
  basis to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in
  1998, but suspended by presidential decree in 1996)
  election results: percent of vote by party--FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA
  21.4%; seats by party--FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too
  small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress or
  note: opposition parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi
  African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA; Rally for Democracy and
  BAGAZA]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU,
  NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas NDIKUMANA
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Morris N. HUGHES, Jr.
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red
  panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side)
  with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red
  six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design
  (one star above, two stars below)



Economy



Economy--overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country
  with a poorly developed manufacturing sector. The economy is
  predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the population
  dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on
  the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange
  earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on
  the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market.
  Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based
  violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 250,000 persons
  and the displacement of about 800,000 others. Foods, medicines, and
  electricity remain in short supply.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$4.1 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 4.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$740 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 58%
  industry: 18%
  services: 24% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36.2% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 93%, government 4%,
  industry and commerce 1.5%, services 1.5% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $165 million, including capital expenditures of $42.6
  million (1998 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
  assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
  processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 122 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 1.64%
  hydro: 98.36%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 152 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 30 million kWh (1996)
  note: imports some electricity from Democratic Republic of the Congo

Agriculture--products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet
  potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Exports: $49 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: coffee, tea, cotton, hides

Exports--partners: UK, Germany, Benelux, Switzerland (1997)

Imports: $102 million f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: capital goods, petroleum products,
  foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports--partners: Benelux, France, Germany, Japan (1997)

Debt--external: $1.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $286.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1--508 (January 1999),
  477.77 (1998), 352.35 (1997), 302.75 (1996), 249.76 (1995), 252.66
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 7,200 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 4,500 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 14,480 km
  paved: 1,028 km
  unpaved: 13,452 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 4 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  over 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units),
  paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower--military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,260,909 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 658,115 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 73,271 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $25 million (1993)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.6% (1993)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Cambodia
--------



Geography



Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand,
  between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 181,040 sq km
  land: 176,520 sq km
  water: 4,520 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,572 km
  border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry
  season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
  highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
  phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
  arable land: 13%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 11%
  forests and woodland: 66%
  other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
  occasional droughts

Environment--current issues: illegal logging activities throughout
  the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along
  the border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining
  biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps
  threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a
  majority of the population does not have access to potable water;
  toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom
  (Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography--note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the
  Mekong River and Tonle Sap



People



Population: 11,626,520 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 45% (male 2,667,768; female 2,587,590)
  15-64 years: 52% (male 2,821,772; female 3,197,604)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 143,016; female 208,770) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.49% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.05 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.2 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 105.06 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.24 years
  male: 46.81 years
  female: 49.75 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cambodian(s)
  adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 35%
  male: 48%
  female: 22% (1990 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
  conventional short form: Cambodia
  local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
  local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a
  constitutional monarchy established in September 1993

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and
  plural) and 3 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay
  Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe,
  Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Krachen, Mondol Kiri,
  Otdar Mean Cheay, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*
  (Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab,
  Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
  note: there may be a new municipality called Pailin

Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced
  codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
  (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with
  influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory;
  increasing influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
  by the monarch after a vote of confidence by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (122 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 26 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)
  election results: percent of vote by party--CPP 41%, FUNCINPEC 32%,
  SRP 14%, other 13%; seats by party--CPP 64, FUNCINPEC 43, SRP 15
  note: pursuant to the coalition agreement signed in November 1998, a
  Senate is being created and the legislature will thus become
  bicameral

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy, provided for
  in the constitution, was formed in December 1997; a Supreme Court
  and lower courts exercise judicial authority

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
  Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN
  (observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
  IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH
  chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN
  embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
  mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red
  (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple
  representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red
  band



Economy



Economy--overview: After four years of solid macroeconomic
  performance, Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-98 due
  to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political
  infighting. Foreign investment fell off, and tourism has declined
  from 1996 levels. Also, in 1998 the main harvest was hit by drought.
  The long-term development of the economy after decades of war
  remains a daunting challenge. Human resource levels in the
  population are low, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside.
  The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the countryside
  will continue to hinder development. Recurring political instability
  and corruption within government discourage foreign investment and
  delay foreign aid. Even so, growth may resume in 1999 at, say, 2%.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$7.8 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 0% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$700 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 51%
  industry: 15%
  services: 34% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 80% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $261 million
  expenditures: $496 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products,
  rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1995 est.)

Electricity--production: 195 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 61.54%
  hydro: 38.46%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 195 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports: $736 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: timber, garments, rubber, soybeans, sesame

Exports--partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong,
  Indonesia, Malaysia, US

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Imports--commodities: cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
  petroleum products, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports--partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong
  Kong, Indonesia, Thailand

Debt--external: $2.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $569.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1--3,772.0 (January 1999),
  3,744.4 (1998), 2,946.3 (1997), 2,624.1 (1996), 2,450.8 (1995),
  2,545.3 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: adequate landline and/or cellular service in
  Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little
  telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service
  available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial
  cities; satellite earth station--1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 government-operated station and
  four commercial stations broadcasting to Phnom Penh and major
  provincial cities via relay (1998)

Televisions: 800,000 (1996 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 603 km
  narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 35,769 km
  paved: 4,165 km
  unpaved: 31,604 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m;
  282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong
  Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
  total: 141 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 598,867 GRT/841,240 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 16, cargo 108, container 4,
  livestock carrier 2, multifunctional large-load carrier 1, oil
  tankers 1, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 8 countries:
  Aruba 1, Cyprus 7, Egypt 1, South Korea 1, Malta 1, Panama 1, Russia
  5, Singapore 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 20 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 7
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 13
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 10 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)--created in
  1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the
  two noncommunist resistance armies
  note: there are also resistance forces comprised of the Khmer Rouge
  (also known as the National United Army or NUA) and a separate
  royalist resistance movement

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,562,112 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,428,523 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 119,839 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $85.3 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.4% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: offshore islands and sections of the
  boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
  not defined; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite; maritime
  boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment site for Golden Triangle heroin;
  possible money laundering; narcotics-related corruption reportedly
  involving some in the government, military, and police; possible
  small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large
  producer of cannabis for the international market



======================================================================



@Cameroon
--------



Geography



Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
  Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 475,440 sq km
  land: 469,440 sq km
  water: 6,000 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,591 km
  border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
  Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
  km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to
  semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected
  plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber,
  hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 13%
  permanent crops: 2%
  permanent pastures: 4%
  forests and woodland: 78%
  other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of
  poisonous gases

Environment--current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
  deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83,
  Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography--note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa



People



Population: 15,456,092 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46% (male 3,562,553; female 3,528,778)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 3,907,946; female 3,943,035)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 231,521; female 282,259) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.79% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.84 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 13.95 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population; note--there
  may be some migration but figures are not available

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.32 years
  male: 49.75 years
  female: 52.94 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cameroonian(s)
  adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%,
  Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%,
  other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
  French (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 63.4%
  male: 75%
  female: 52.1% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
  conventional short form: Cameroon
  former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime
  (opposition parties legalized in 1990)

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
  Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
  administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
  influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
  head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
  September 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
  election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October
  2004); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of
  vote--Paul BIYA 93%; note--supporters of the opposition candidates
  boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares
  relatively meaningless

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
  Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
  serve five-year terms; note--the president can either lengthen or
  shorten the term of the legislature)
  elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--CDPM
  109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note--7
  contested seats will be filled in an election at a time to be set by
  the Supreme Court
  note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the
  legislature, to be called Senate, which the government proposed to
  establish in 1998

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  president

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic
  Movement or CPDM (government-controlled and the only party until
  major opposition parties: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC
  Frederick KODOG]; Union of Cameroonian Democratic Forces or UFOC

Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance for Change or
  general]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  C, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UDEAC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
  chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
  embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
  mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
  Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist
  side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in
  the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy



Economy--overview: Because of its oil resources and favorable
  agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed
  primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces
  many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries,
  such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable
  climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has
  embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur
  business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve
  trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. The government, however,
  has failed to press forward vigorously with these programs. The
  latest enhanced structural adjustment agreement was signed in
  October 1997; the parties hope this will prove more successful, yet
  government mismanagement and corruption remain problems. Inflation
  has been brought back under control. Progress toward privatization
  of remaining state industry may support economic growth in 1999-2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$29.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$2,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 42%
  industry: 22%
  services: 36% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (1984 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.23 billion
  expenditures: $2.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing,
  light consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 2.73 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 2.93%
  hydro: 97.07%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 2.73 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas,
  oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber,
  cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

Exports--partners: Italy 25%, Spain 20%, France 16%, Netherlands
  7% (1997 est.)

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: machines and electrical equipment, transport
  equipment, fuel, food

Imports--partners: France 25%, Nigeria 8%, US 8%, Germany 6% (1997
  est.)

Debt--external: $8.7 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $606.1 million (1995); note?France signed
  two loan agreements totaling $55 million in September 1997, and the
  Paris Club agreed in October 1997 to reduce the official debt by 50%
  and to reschedule it on favorable terms with a consolidation of
  payments due through 2000

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
  US$1--575 (January 1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55
  (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: 36,737 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: available only to business and government
  domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 6 million (1998 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1998)

Televisions: 15,000 (1998)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 1,104 km
  narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
  total: 34,300 km
  paved: 4,288 km
  unpaved: 30,012 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports: 52 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 41
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
  914 to 1,523 m: 21
  under 914 m: 12 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air
  Force, National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,388,643 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,716,285 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 165,670 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $155 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY98/99)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: delimitation of international boundaries
  in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border
  incidents in the past, is completed and awaits ratification by
  Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land
  and maritime boundaries around the Bakasi Peninsula and Lake Chad is
  currently before the International Court of Justice



======================================================================



@Canada
------



Introduction



Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources,
  from 1867 on Canada has enjoyed de facto independence while
  retaining, even to the present day, certain formal ties to the
  British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
  developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across
  an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to
  be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its
  French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of
  the country.



Geography



Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic
  Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
  total: 9,976,140 sq km
  land: 9,220,970 sq km
  water: 755,170 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 8,893 km
  border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic
  in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
  southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
  potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 3%
  forests and woodland: 54%
  other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious
  obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky
  Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic,
  Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the
  country's rain and snow

Environment--current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
  severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
  coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
  agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
  contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
  activities

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
  Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law
  of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography--note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
  strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route;
  nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the
  US/Canada border



People



Population: 31,006,347 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20% (male 3,105,944; female 2,960,171)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 10,587,553; female 10,461,455)
  65 years and over: 12% (male 1,652,044; female 2,239,180) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 11.86 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.26 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.37 years
  male: 76.12 years
  female: 82.79 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Canadian(s)
  adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other
  European 20%, Amerindian 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%,
  other 35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97% (1986 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: federation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*;
  Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland,
  Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince
  Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the
  machinery of the government was set up in the British North America
  Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec,
  where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Governor General Romeo Le BLANC (since 8 February
  1995)
  head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
  1993)
  cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among
  the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general
  appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a
  five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated
  by the governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of
  the Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve
  until reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected
  on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104
  senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301
  seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year
  terms)
  elections: House of Commons--last held 2 June 1997 (next to be held
  by NA June 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--Liberal Party 38%, Reform
  Party 19%, Tories 19%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 11%,
  other 2%; seats by party--Liberal Party 155, Reform Party 60, Bloc
  Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 21, Progressive Conservative
  Party 20, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime
  minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN];

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, APEC, AsDB,
  Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer), CP,
  EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G-10,
  IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  ISO, ITU, MINURCA, MIPONUH, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS,
  OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
  chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
  Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
  consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon D. GIFFIN
  embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
  mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
  consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
  and Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
  (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in
  the white band



Economy



Economy--overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
  Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented
  economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards.
  Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing,
  mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a
  largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Real
  rates of growth have averaged nearly 3.0% since 1993. Unemployment
  is falling and government budget surpluses are being partially
  devoted to reducing the large public sector debt. The 1989 US-Canada
  Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade
  Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) have touched off a
  dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US.
  With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern
  capital plant Canada can anticipate solid economic prospects in the
  future. The continuing constitutional impasse between English- and
  French-speaking areas is raising the possibility of a split in the
  federation, making foreign investors somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$688.3 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$22,400 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 31%
  services: 66% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1998)

Labor force: 15.8 million (1998)

Labor force--by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 16%,
  construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 1% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 7.8% (December 1998)

Budget:
  revenues: $121.3 billion
  expenditures: $112.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7
  billion (1998)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products,
  wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
  products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1998 est.)

Electricity--production: 549.162 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 20.34%
  hydro: 63.59%
  nuclear: 16.05%
  other: 0.02% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 511.586 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 45.28 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 7.705 billion kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
  vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports: $210.7 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: motor vehicles and parts, newsprint, wood
  pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum,
  telecommunications equipment

Exports--partners: US 81%, Japan 4%, UK, Germany, South Korea,
  Netherlands, China (1997)

Imports: $202.7 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: machinery and equipment, crude oil,
  chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods

Imports--partners: US 76%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, France, Mexico,
  Taiwan, South Korea (1997)

Debt--external: $253 billion (1996)

Economic aid--donor: ODA, $2.1 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1--1.5192 (January
  1999), 1.4835 (1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.3724 (1995),
  1.3656 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
  domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
  international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth
  stations--5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2
  Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 334, FM 35, shortwave 7 (one of the
  shortwave stations, Radio Canada International, has six
  transmitters, 48 frequencies, and broadcasts in seven languages; the
  transmissions are relayed by repeaters in Europe and Asia) (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 80 (in addition, there are many
  repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 67,773 km; note--there are two major transcontinental freight
  railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and
  Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by
  government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
  standard gauge: 67,773 km 1.435-m gauge (183 km electrified) (1996)

Highways:
  total: 912,200 km
  paved: 246,400 km (including 16,600 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 665,800 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax,
  Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint
  John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney,
  Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
  total: 109 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,489,110
  GRT/2,205,274 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 56, cargo 11, chemical tanker
  5, combination bulk 2, oil tanker 16, passenger 3, passenger-cargo
  1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger
  4, specialized tanker 1
  note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 1,395 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 515
  over 3,047 m: 16
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 154
  914 to 1,523 m: 238
  under 914 m: 91 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 880
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
  914 to 1,523 m: 353
  under 914 m: 454 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 16 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces
  Command or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC,
  Communications Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal
  Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

Military manpower--military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 8,243,859 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,061,937 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 210,884 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $7.1 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY97/98)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: maritime boundary disputes with the US
  (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal
  Island)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
  market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
  quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
  transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market



======================================================================



@Cape Verde
----------



Geography



Location: Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic
  Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
  total: 4,030 sq km
  land: 4,030 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and
  very erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous
  volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin,
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 11%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 6%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
  visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment--current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper
  land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to
  soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in
  deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened
  several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
  Test Ban
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of
  Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications
  station; important sea and air refueling site



People



Population: 405,748 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 45% (male 92,721; female 91,083)
  15-64 years: 49% (male 92,658; female 104,264)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 9,936; female 15,086) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.44% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 33.49 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.78 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.96 years
  male: 67.66 years
  female: 74.36 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.95 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cape Verdean(s)
  adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs);
  Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of creole Portuguese and
  West African words)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 71.6%
  male: 81.4%
  female: 63.8% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
  conventional short form: Cape Verde
  local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
  local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Government type: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos,
  singular--concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto
  Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau,
  Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
  note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 districts
  (Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira
  Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau,
  Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal)

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22
  March 1991)
  head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
  VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister from among the members of the
  National Assembly
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
  2001); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and
  appointed by the president
  election results: Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro elected president;
  percent of vote--Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (independent) 80.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
  Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
  election results: percent of vote by party--MPD 59%, PAICV 28%, PCD
  6%; seats by party--MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal
  de Justia

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy or MPD
  Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
  NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinand Amilcar Spencer LOPES
  chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence Neal BENEDICT
  embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
  mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top,
  double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle
  third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is
  centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the
  upper and lower blue bands



Economy



Economy--overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor
  natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated
  by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented,
  with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for almost
  70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural
  areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 1995 was only 8%, of which
  fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 90% of food must be imported. The
  fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited.
  Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign
  aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances constitute a
  supplement to GDP of more than 20%. Economic reforms, launched by
  the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at developing the
  private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the
  economy. Prospects for 1999 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid
  flows, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development
  program.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$581 million (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 7% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,450 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8%
  industry: 18%
  services: 74% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1998)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA %

Budget:
  revenues: $188 million
  expenditures: $228 million, including capital expenditures of $116
  million (1996)

Industries: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and
  garments, salt mining, ship repair,

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 40 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 40 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes,
  sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports: $43 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: shoes, garments, fish, bananas, hides,

Exports--partners: Portugal, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Malaysia

Imports: $215 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial
  products, transport equipment, fuels

Imports--partners: Portugal 25%, Netherlands, France, UK, Spain, US

Debt--external: $220 million (1998)

Economic aid--recipient: $111.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1--96.400
  (November 1998), 99.41 (1998), 93.177 (1997), 82.591 (1996), 76.853
  (1995), 81.891 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 22,900 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog
  and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine
  fiber-optic cable system which was scheduled for completion in 1998
  international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
  Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station--1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997 est.)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,100 km
  paved: 858 km
  unpaved: 242 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
  total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,620 GRT/13,920 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 6 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 6
  over 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Armed Forces (AF) (includes all armed force
  elements, both ground and naval)

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 84,018 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 47,672 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $3.8 million (1996)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.8% (1996)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs
  moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe



======================================================================



@Cayman Islands
--------------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly
  one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 260 sq km
  land: 260 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October)
  and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 8%
  forests and woodland: 23%
  other: 69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment--current issues: no natural fresh water resources;
  drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: important location between Cuba and Central
  America



People



Population: 39,335 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.19% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 13.66 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
  note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.1 years
  male: 75.37 years
  female: 78.81 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Caymanian(s)
  adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of
  various ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational),
  Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant
  denominations

Languages: English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98% (1970 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland,
  South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
  John Wynne OWEN (since 15 September 1995)
  cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
  four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is
  appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats,
  three official members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: last held 20 November 1996 (next to be held NA November
  2000)
  election results: percent of vote--NA; seats--National Team coalition
  9, independents 6

Judicial branch: Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

International organization participation: Caricom (observer),
  CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
  the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory
  of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk
  centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a
  pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing
  the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE
  HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS



Economy



Economy--overview: With no direct taxation, the islands are a
  thriving offshore financial center. More than 40,000 companies were
  registered in the Cayman Islands as of 1997, including almost 600
  banks and trust companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A
  stock exchange was opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay,
  accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency
  earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and
  caters mainly to visitors from North America. Total tourist arrivals
  exceeded 1.2 million visitors in 1997. About 90% of the islands'
  food and consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one
  of the highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards
  of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$930 million (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5.5% (1997 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$24,500 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 3.2%
  services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1997)

Labor force: 19,820 (1995)

Labor force--by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%,
  construction 12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and
  business managers 5.9% (1979)

Unemployment rate: 5.1% (1996)

Budget:
  revenues: $265.2 million
  expenditures: $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance,
  construction, construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 290 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 290 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Exports: $2.65 million (1996)

Exports--commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports--partners: mostly US

Imports: $379.4 million (1996)

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports--partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands
  Antilles, Japan

Debt--external: $70 million (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1--0.83 (3 November
  1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 21,584 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station--1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4 (the four stations have a
  total of six frequencies), shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 28,200 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 406 km
  paved: 304 km
  unpaved: 102 km

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 76 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,264,113 GRT/1,970,959
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 10, chemical tanker 11, container 4,
  liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 7, refrigerated cargo 22,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11
  countries among which are: Greece 15, US 5, UK 5, Cyprus 2, Denmark
  2, Norway 3 (1998 est.)

Airports: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money laundering and drug
  transshipment



======================================================================



@Central African Republic
------------------------



Introduction



Background: In 1996, the country experienced three mutinies by
  dissident elements of the armed forces, which demanded back pay as
  well as political and military reforms. Subsequent violence between
  the government and rebel military groups over pay issues, living
  conditions, and lack of opposition party representation in the
  government, destroyed many businesses in the capital, reduced tax
  revenues, and exacerbated the government's problems in meeting
  expenses. African peacekeepers restored order in 1997; in April 1998
  the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)
  assumed responsibility for peacekeeping operations.



Geography



Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the
  Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 622,980 sq km
  land: 622,980 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,203 km
  border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic
  Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan
  1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered
  hills in northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
  highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 5%
  forests and woodland: 75%
  other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
  areas; floods are common

Environment--current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching
  has diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife
  refuges; desertification; deforestation

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography--note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa



People



Population: 3,444,951 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44% (male 757,422; female 749,289)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 885,087; female 927,282)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 56,309; female 69,562) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.04% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 38.28 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.46 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 103.42 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 47.19 years
  male: 45.35 years
  female: 49.09 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.03 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Central African(s)
  adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum
  4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic
  25%, Muslim 15%, other 11%
  note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the
  Christian majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
  language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 60%
  male: 68.5%
  female: 52.4% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Central African Republic
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
  local short form: none
  former: Central African Empire
  abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Government type: republic

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
  singular--prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures
  economiques, singular--prefecture economique), and 1 commune**;
  Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,
  Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou,
  Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*,
  Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation
  of the republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7
  January 1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ange-Felix PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Anicet Georges DOLOGUELE (since
  January 1999)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
  election last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1999);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Ange-Felix PATASSE elected president; percent of
  vote--PATASSE 52.45%, Abel GOUMBA 45.62%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
  Nationale (109 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms; note--there were 85 seats in the National Assembly
  before the 1998 election)
  elections: last held 22-23 November and NA December 1998 (next to be
  held NA 2003)
  election results: percent of vote by party--MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD
  9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%,
  independents 6%; seats by party--MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 10, FPP 7, PSD
  5, ADP 4, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7;
  note--results of election are being contested
  note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
  Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together
  they are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, judges appointed
  by the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the
  president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and
  of the president, Ange-Felix PATASSE]; Movement for Democracy and

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC
  (observer), OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA
  chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. PERRY
  embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
  mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top),
  white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there
  is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band



Economy



Economy--overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with
  forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African
  Republic (CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in
  outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates half of GDP.
  Timber has accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the
  diamond industry for nearly 54%. Important constraints to economic
  development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor
  transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy
  of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The 50% devaluation of the
  currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had
  mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond, timber, coffee, and
  cotton exports increased, leading an estimated rise of GDP of 7% in
  1994 and nearly 5% in 1995. Military rebellions and social unrest in
  1996 were accompanied by widespread destruction of property and a
  drop in GDP of 2%. Ongoing violence between the government and rebel
  military groups over pay issues, living conditions, and political
  representation has destroyed many businesses in the capital and
  reduced tax revenues for the government. The IMF approved an
  Extended Structure Adjustment Facility in 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$5.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,640 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 53%
  industry: 21%
  services: 26% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 6% (1993)

Budget:
  revenues: $638 million
  expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888
  million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles,
  footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 100 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 20%
  hydro: 80%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 100 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca),
  yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports: $182 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports--partners: Belgium-Luxembourg 36%, Cote d'Ivoire 5%, Spain
  4%, Egypt 3%, France

Imports: $155 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products,
  machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals,
  pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products

Imports--partners: France 30%, Cote d'Ivoire 18%, Cameroon 11%,
  Germany 4%, Japan

Debt--external: $930 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $172.2 million (1995); note?traditional
  budget subsidies from France

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
  US$1--560.01 (December 1998), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55
  (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 16,867 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
  domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
  low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3 (including Africa No. 1 and
  R. France Internationale stations located in Bangui), shortwave 1
  (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 7,500 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 23,810 km
  paved: 429 km
  unpaved: 23,381 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
  shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 52 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 49
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
  914 to 1,523 m: 23
  under 914 m: 15 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Central African Armed Forces (includes
  Republican Guard and Air Force), Presidential Guard, National
  Gendarmerie, Police Force

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 782,678 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 409,044 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $29 million (1996)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.2% (1996)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Chad
----



Introduction



Background: In 1960, Chad gained full independence from France.
  In December 1990, after Chad had endured three decades of ethnic
  warfare as well as invasions by Libya, former northern guerrilla
  leader Idriss DEBY seized control of the government. His
  transitional government eventually suppressed or came to terms with
  most political-military groups, settled the territorial dispute with
  Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution
  which was ratified by popular referendum in 1996, held multiparty
  national presidential elections in 1996 (DEBY won with 69% of the
  vote), and held multiparty elections for the National Assembly in
  1997 (DEBY's Patriotic Salvation Movement won a majority of the
  seats). But by the end of 1998, DEBY was beset with numerous
  problems including heavy casualties in the Democratic Republic of
  the Congo where Chadian troops had been deployed to support
  embattled President KABILA, a new rebellion in northern Chad, and
  further delays in the Doba Basin oil project in the south.



Geography



Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 1.284 million sq km
  land: 1,259,200 sq km
  water: 24,800 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
  California

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,968 km
  border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
  km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains
  in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
  highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under
  way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 36%
  forests and woodland: 26%
  other: 35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
  periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment--current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
  improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
  pollution; desertification

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography--note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant
  water body in the Sahel



People



Population: 7,557,436 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44% (male 1,675,394; female 1,667,717)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 1,953,251; female 2,034,883)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 99,783; female 126,408) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.65% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 43.06 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.57 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 115.27 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 48.56 years
  male: 46.13 years
  female: 51.09 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.69 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chadian(s)
  adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
  Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba), non-Muslims (Sara,
  Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa), nonindigenous
  150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly
  animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango
  (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
  total population: 48.1%
  male: 62.1%
  female: 34.7% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chad
  conventional short form: Chad
  local long form: Republique du Tchad
  local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
  singular--prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti,
  Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone
  Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian
  customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December
  1990)
  head of government: Prime Minister Nassour Guelengdouksia OUAIDOU
  (since 16 May 1997)
  cabinet: Council of State appointed by the president on the
  recommendation of the prime minister
  elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year
  terms; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the
  two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second
  round of voting; last held 2 June and 11 July 1996 (next to be held
  NA 2001); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: in the first round of voting none of the 15
  candidates received the required 50% of the total vote; percent of
  vote, first round--Lt. Gen. Idress DEBY 47.8%; percent of vote,
  second round--Lt. Gen. DEBY 69.1%, Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE 30.9%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats;
  members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); replaces
  the Higher Transitional Council or the Conseil Superieur de
  Transition
  elections: National Assembly--last held in two rounds on 5 January
  and 23 February 1997, (next to be held NA 2001); in the first round
  of voting some candidates won clear victories by receiving 50% or
  more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two highest scoring
  candidates stood for a second round of voting
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--MPS
  65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
  Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement or
  the party in power and the party of the president); National Union
  mid-1996 Chad had about 60 political parties, of which these are the
  most prominent in the new National Assembly

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MINURCA, NAM,
  OAU, OIC, OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE
  chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David C. HALSTED
  embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
  mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist
  side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar
  to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring
  a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on
  the flag of France



Economy



Economy--overview: Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers
  from it's geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure,
  and political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on
  agriculture, including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's
  Francophone countries, Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation
  of their currencies in January 1994. Financial aid from the World
  Bank, the African Development Fund, and other sources is directed
  largely at the improvement of agriculture, especially livestock
  production. Lack of financing and low oil prices, however, are
  stalling the development of an oil field in the Doba Basin and the
  construction of a proposed oil pipeline through Cameroon.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$7.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 2.9% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 39%
  industry: 15%
  services: 46% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming,
  herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $198 million
  expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146
  million (1998 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron
  (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)

Electricity--production: 90 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 90 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
  potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports: $220 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles

Exports--partners: Portugal 30%, Germany 14%, Thailand, Costa
  Rica, South Africa, France (1997)

Imports: $252 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
  industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports--partners: France 41%, Nigeria 10%, Cameroon 7%, India 6%
  (1997)

Debt--external: $875 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $238.3 million (1995); note?$125 million
  committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African
  Development Bank

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per
  US$1--560.01 (December 1998), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55
  (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 5,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
  domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (one of the
  shortwave stations has three frequencies) (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (broadcasts 1800 to 2100 hours,
  four days per week) (1997)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 33,400 km
  paved: 267 km
  unpaved: 33,133 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 52 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 8
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 44
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
  914 to 1,523 m: 22
  under 914 m: 10 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air
  Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force,
  Police

Military manpower--military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,689,112 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 875,541 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 70,464 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $39 million (1996)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 3.5% (1996)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: delimitation of international boundaries
  in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border
  incidents in the past, is completed and awaits ratification by
  Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria



======================================================================



@Chile
-----



Geography



Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic
  Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total: 756,950 sq km
  land: 748,800 sq km
  water: 8,150 sq km
  note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,171 km
  border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged
  Andes in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
  metals, molybdenum

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 18%
  forests and woodland: 22%
  other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment--current issues: air pollution from industrial and
  vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation
  contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography--note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
  Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
  Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions



People



Population: 14,973,843 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28% (male 2,137,255; female 2,044,605)
  15-64 years: 65% (male 4,845,523; female 4,885,328)
  65 years and over: 7% (male 440,010; female 621,122) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.23% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 17.81 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.53 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.02 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.46 years
  male: 72.33 years
  female: 78.75 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chilean(s)
  adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%,
  other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish less than 1%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.2%
  male: 95.4%
  female: 95% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chile
  conventional short form: Chile
  local long form: Republica de Chile
  local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Government type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular--region);
  Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
  Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins,
  Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
  Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
  note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended
  30 July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
  subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
  review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March
  1994); note--the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11
  March 1994); note--the president is both the chief of state and head
  of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
  election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December
  1999)
  election results: Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle elected president; percent
  of vote--Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%,
  other 17.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso
  Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by
  popular vote; members serve eight-year terms--one-half elected every
  four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120
  seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate--last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA
  December 2001); Chamber of Deputies--last held 11 December 1997 (next
  to be held NA December 2001)
  election results: Senate--percent of vote by party--NA%; seats by
  party--CPD (PDC 14, PS 4, PPD 2), UPP 17 (RN 7, UDI 10), Chile 2000
  (UCCP) 1, independent 10; Chamber of Deputies--percent of vote by
  party--CPD 50.55% (PDC 22.98%, PS 11.10%, PPD 12.55%, PRSD 3.13%),
  UPP 36.23% (RN 16.78%, UDI 14.43%); seats by party--CPD 70 (PDC 39,
  PPD 16, PRSD 4, PS 11), UPP 46 (RN 24, UDI 21, Party of the South
  1), right-wing independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are
  appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of
  candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the
  Supreme Court is elected by the 21-member court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Parties for Democracy
  or CPD consists mainly of: Christian Democratic Party or PDC
  Javier ERRAZURIZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university
  student federations at all major universities; United Labor Central
  or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest
  labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
  G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
  OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP,
  UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Genaro Luis ARRIAGADA Herrera
  chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John O'LEARY
  embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago
  mailing address: APO AA 34033

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and
  red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
  hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
  five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag



Economy



Economy--overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market
  economy. Civilian governments--which took over from the military in
  March 1990--have continued to reduce the government's role in the
  economy while shifting the emphasis of public spending toward social
  programs. Growth in real GDP averaged more than 7.0% in 1991-1997
  but fell to about half of that average in 1998 because of spillover
  from the global financial crisis. Inflation has been on a downward
  trend and hit a 60-year low in 1998. Chile's currency and foreign
  reserves also are strong, as sustained foreign capital
  inflows--including significant direct investment--have more than
  offset current account deficits and public debt buy-backs. President
  FREI, who took office in March 1994, has placed improving Chile's
  education system and developing foreign export markets at the top of
  his economic agenda. The Chilean economy remains largely dependent
  on a few sectors--particularly copper mining, fishing, and forestry.
  Success in meeting the government's goal of sustained annual
  economic growth of 5% depends largely on world prices for these
  commodities, continued foreign investor confidence, and the
  government's ability to maintain a conservative fiscal stance. In
  1996, Chile became an associate member of Mercosur and concluded a
  free trade agreement with Canada.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$184.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$12,500 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 33%
  services: 61% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 20.5% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.4%
  highest 10%: 46.1% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.7% (1998)

Labor force: 5.8 million (1998 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government
  12%), industry and commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and
  fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction 6.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (1998)

Budget:
  revenues: $17 billion
  expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing,
  iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
  textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -1.1% (1998)

Electricity--production: 35.81 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 41.89%
  hydro: 58.11%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 35.81 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
  potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber; fish

Exports: $14.9 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: copper 37%, other metals and minerals 8.2%,
  wood products 7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1994)

Exports--partners: EU 25%, US 15%, Asia 34%, Latin America 20%
  (1995 est.)

Imports: $17.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw
  materials 15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7% (1994)

Imports--partners: EU 18%, US 25%, Asia 16%, Latin America 26%
  (1995 est.)

Debt--external: $31.5 billion (1998)

Economic aid--recipient: ODA, $50.3 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1--475.68 (January
  1999), 460.29 (1998), 419.30 (1997), 412.27 (1996), 396.78 (1995),
  420.08 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 1.5 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave
  radio relay facilities
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
  system with 3 earth stations
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64,
  shortwave 17 (one inactive) (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 63 (in addition, there are 121
  repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 2.85 million (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 6,782 km
  broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km
  electrified) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 79,800 km
  paved: 11,012 km
  unpaved: 68,788 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural
  gas 320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo,
  Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente,
  Talcahuano, Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
  total: 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 527,201 GRT/787,719 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 10, chemical tanker 5, container 2,
  liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4, passenger 3, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 4, vehicle carrier 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 378 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 58
  over 3,047 m: 5
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
  914 to 1,523 m: 19
  under 914 m: 9 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 320
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
  914 to 1,523 m: 73
  under 914 m: 229 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes
  Naval Air, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation,
  Carabineros of Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,968,176 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,943,206 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 132,202 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $2.12 billion (1998);
  note--includes earnings from CODELCO Company and costs of pensions;
  does not include funding for the National Police (Carabineros) and
  Investigations Police

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.79% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: short section of the southwestern
  boundary with Argentina is indefinite--process to resolve boundary
  issues is underway; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the
  South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
  1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
  claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
  Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a growing transshipment country for cocaine
  destined for the US and Europe; economic prosperity has made Chile
  more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits;
  imported precursors pass on to Bolivia



======================================================================



@China
-----



Introduction



Background: For most of its 3,500 years of history, China led the
  world in agriculture, crafts, and science, then fell behind in the
  19th century when the Industrial Revolution gave the West clear
  superiority in military and economic affairs. In the first half of
  the 20th century, China continued to suffer from major famines,
  civil unrest, military defeat, and foreign occupation. After World
  War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship
  that, while ensuring China's autonomy, imposed strict controls over
  all aspects of life and cost the lives of tens of millions of
  people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping decentralized
  economic decision making; output quadrupled in the next 20 years.
  Political controls remain tight at the same time economic controls
  have been weakening. Present issues are: incorporating Hong Kong
  into the Chinese system; closing down inefficient state-owned
  enterprises; modernizing the military; fighting corruption; and
  providing support to tens of millions of displaced workers.



Geography



Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
  Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total: 9,596,960 sq km
  land: 9,326,410 sq km
  water: 270,550 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 22,143.34 km
  border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
  Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
  1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
  4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
  km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in
  north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west;
  plains, deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
  highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas,
  mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium,
  magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential
  (world's largest)

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 43%
  forests and woodland: 14%
  other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along
  southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis;
  earthquakes; droughts

Environment--current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases,
  sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid
  rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution
  from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of
  agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic
  development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear
  Test Ban

Geography--note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia,
  Canada, and US)



People



Population: 1,246,871,951 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26% (male 169,206,275; female 149,115,216)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 435,047,915; female 408,663,265)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 39,824,361; female 45,014,919) (1999
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.77% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 15.1 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.98 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.31 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.92 years
  male: 68.57 years
  female: 71.48 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi,
  Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities
  8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
  (est.)
  note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
  Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei
  (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects,
  minority languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 81.5%
  male: 89.9%
  female: 72.7% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of China
  conventional short form: China
  local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
  local short form: Zhong Guo
  abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and
  plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4
  municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**,
  Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,
  Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
  Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong,
  Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet),
  Yunnan, Zhejiang
  note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entry
  for the special administrative region of Hong Kong

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty
  221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12
  February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
  criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
  new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts
  are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and
  commercial law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
  President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998)
  head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice
  Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March
  1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18
  March 1998)
  cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
  (NPC)
  elections: president and vice president elected by the National
  People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18
  March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the
  president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
  election results: JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth
  National People's Congress with a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates
  voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao
  elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress with
  a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39
  abstained, and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or
  Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by
  municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held NA December-NA February 1998 (next to be held
  late 2002-NA March 2003)
  election results: percent of vote--NA; seats--NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
  National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP
  registered small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no meaningful political
  opposition groups exist

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS,
  CCC, CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM
  (observer), OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMSIL, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador LI Zhaoxing
  chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and
  San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James R. SASSER
  embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
  mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
  consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and
  four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc
  toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner



Economy



Economy--overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership
  has been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style
  centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented economy but
  still within a rigid political framework of Communist Party control.
  To this end the authorities switched to a system of household
  responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
  increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in
  industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in
  services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to
  increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a
  quadrupling of GDP since 1978. Agricultural output doubled in the
  1980s, and industry also posted major gains, especially in coastal
  areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment
  helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. On the darker
  side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the
  worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and
  of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing
  thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at
  intervals. In late 1993 China's leadership approved additional
  long-term reforms aimed at giving still more play to market-oriented
  institutions and at strengthening the center's control over the
  financial system; state enterprises would continue to dominate many
  key industries in what was now termed "a socialist market economy".
  In 1995-97 inflation dropped sharply, reflecting tighter monetary
  policies and stronger measures to control food prices. At the same
  time, the government struggled to (a) collect revenues due from
  provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and
  other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned
  enterprises, most of which had not participated in the vigorous
  expansion of the economy and many of which had been losing the
  ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 60 to 100 million
  surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the
  cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular
  resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by
  rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which
  is essential to maintaining growth in living standards. Another
  long-term threat to continued rapid economic growth is the
  deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil
  erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the
  north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and
  economic development. The next few years may witness increasing
  tensions between a highly centralized political system and an
  increasingly decentralized economic system. Economic growth probably
  will slow to more moderate levels in 1999-2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$4.42 trillion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 7.8% (1998 est.) (official figures may
  substantially overstate growth)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$3,600 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19%
  industry: 49%
  services: 32% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.2%
  highest 10%: 30.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 696 million (1997 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 24%,
  services 26% (1997)

Unemployment rate: officially 3% in urban areas; probably 8%-10%;
  substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (1998
  est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
  textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
  footwear, toys, food processing, autos, consumer electronics,
  telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 8.8% (1998 est.)

Electricity--production: 1.16 trillion kWh (1998)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 93%
  hydro: 6%
  nuclear: 1%
  other: 0% (1996 est.)

Electricity--consumption: 994.921 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 6.025 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 755 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts,
  tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports: $183.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: electrical machinery and equipment,
  machinery and mechanical appliances, woven apparel, knit apparel,
  footwear, toys and sporting goods (1998)

Exports--partners: Hong Kong 21%, US 21%, Japan 14%, Germany,
  South Korea, Netherlands, UK, Singapore, Taiwan (1997)

Imports: $140.17 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports--commodities: electrical machinery and equipment,
  machinery and mechanical appliances, plastics, iron and steel,
  scientific and photograph equipment, paper and paper board (1998)

Imports--partners: Japan 20%, US 12%, Taiwan 12%, South Korea 11%,
  Germany, Hong Kong, Singapore, Russia (1997)

Debt--external: $159 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $6.222 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1--8.28 (February 1999), 8.2779
  (December 1998), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996), 8.3514
  (1995), 8.6187 (1994)
  note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes
  the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
  prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 105 million (1998 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international services are
  increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed
  domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and all
  townships
  domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
  telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system
  with 55 earth stations is in place
  international: satellite earth stations--5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
  and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) and 1
  Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); several international
  fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and
  Germany

Radio broadcast stations: AM 569, FM NA, shortwave 173

Radios: 216.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 209 (China Central Television,
  government-owned; in addition there are 31 provincial TV stations
  and nearly 3,000 city TV stations) (1997)

Televisions: 300 million



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 64,900 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)
  standard gauge: 61,300 km 1.435-m gauge (12,000 km electrified;
  20,000 km double track)
  narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (1998
  est.)
  note: a new total of 68,000 km has been estimated for early 1999

Highways:
  total: 1.21 million km
  paved: 271,300 km (with at least 24,474 km of motorways)
  unpaved: 938,700 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 109,800 km navigable (1997)

Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural
  gas 9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
  Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao,
  Shanghai, Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,759 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,828,349
  GRT/24,801,291 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 330, cargo 855, chemical tanker
  21, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 121,
  liquefied gas tanker 20, multifunction large-load carrier 6, oil
  tanker 245, passenger 8, passenger-cargo 47, refrigerated cargo 25,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 24, short-sea passenger 43, vehicle carrier 1
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 206 (1996 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 192
  over 3,047 m: 18
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 65
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 90
  914 to 1,523 m: 13
  under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 14
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)



Military



Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes
  the Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air
  Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force),
  People's Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally
  subordinate to Ministry of Public Security, but included by the
  Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an
  adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 361,267,706 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 198,398,601 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 10,273,696 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $12.608 billion (FY99);
  note-Western analysts believe that China's real defense spending is
  several times higher than the official figure because several
  significant items are funded elsewhere

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: boundary with India in dispute; dispute
  over at least two small sections of the boundary with Russia remain
  to be settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; most of the boundary
  with Tajikistan in dispute; 33-km section of boundary with North
  Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved in a
  complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines,
  Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with
  Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China,
  but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered
  Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan; sections
  of land border with Vietnam are indefinite

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in
  the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem



======================================================================



@Christmas Island
----------------



Geography



Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
  Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 135 sq km
  land: 135 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  permanent pastures: NA%
  forests and woodland: NA%
  other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island
  can be a maritime hazard

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean



People



Population: 2,373 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 7.77% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
  noun: Christmas Islander(s)
  adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
  indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20%
  (1991)

Languages: English



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
  conventional short form: Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
  Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and
  Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of
  Australia and Australian law

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  head of government: Administrator (acting) Graham NICHOLLS (since NA)
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9
  seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)
  elections: last held NA December 1998 (next to be held NA December
  1999)
  election results: percent of vote--NA; seats--independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of
  Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Economy



Economy--overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
  economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
  closed the mine. In 1990, the mine was reopened by private
  operators. Australian-based Casinos Austria International Ltd. built
  a $45 million casino on Christmas Island.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$NA

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$NA

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force--by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: NA kWh

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  nuclear: NA%
  other: NA%

Electricity--consumption: NA kWh

Electricity--exports: NA kWh

Electricity--imports: NA kWh

Agriculture--products: NA

Exports: $NA

Exports--commodities: phosphate

Exports--partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA

Imports--commodities: consumer goods

Imports--partners: principally Australia

Debt--external: $NA

Economic aid--recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.5853 (January
  1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995),
  1.3667 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: NA
  note: external telephone and telex services are provided by Intelsat
  satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 500 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: NA (1997)

Televisions: 350 (1992)



Transportation



Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Clipperton Island
-----------------



Geography



Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120
  km southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area:
  total: 7 sq km
  land: 7 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C,
  rains May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: subject to tornadoes

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: reef about 8 km in circumference



People



Population: uninhabited



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Clipperton Island
  local long form: none
  local short form: Ile Clipperton
  former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France
  from French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of
  France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory
  of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Economy



Economy--overview: Although 115 species of fish have been
  identified in the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only
  economic activity is a tuna fishing station.



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of France



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Cocos (Keeling) Islands
-----------------------



Geography



Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian
  Ocean, south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia
  to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total: 14 sq km
  land: 14 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area--comparative: about 24 times the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about
  nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  permanent pastures: NA%
  forests and woodland: NA%
  other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the
  year

Environment--current issues: fresh water resources are limited to
  rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut
  palms and other vegetation



People



Population: 636 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.21% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA
  male: NA
  female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
  noun: Cocos Islander(s)
  adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups: Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English, Malay



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Data code: CK

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
  Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and
  Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by the Australian governor general
  head of government: Administrator (acting) Maureen ELLIS (since NA)
  cabinet: NA
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed
  by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
  Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire
  Council (NA seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of
  Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Economy



Economy--overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the
  sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export
  earners. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food
  supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be
  imported from Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$NA

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$NA

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force--by occupation: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society
  Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage worker
  operations; tourism employs others

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: NA kWh

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  nuclear: NA%
  other: NA%

Electricity--consumption: NA kWh

Electricity--exports: NA kWh

Electricity--imports: NA kWh

Agriculture--products: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA

Exports--commodities: copra

Exports--partners: Australia

Imports: $NA

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs

Imports--partners: Australia

Debt--external: $NA

Economic aid--recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.5853 (January
  1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995),
  1.3667 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with
  Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of
  NA type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Colombia
--------



Introduction



Background: Colombia gained its independence from Spain in 1819.
  Earlier than most countries in the area, it established traditions
  of civilian government with regular, free elections. In recent
  years, however, assassinations, widespread guerrilla activities, and
  drug trafficking have severely disrupted normal public and private
  activities.



Geography



Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea,
  between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean,
  between Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 1,138,910 sq km
  land: 1,038,700 sq km
  water: 100,210 sq km
  note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
  Serranilla Bank

Area--comparative: slightly less than three times the size of
  Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 7,408 km
  border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km,
  Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean
  1,448 km)

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in
  highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
  Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore,
  nickel, gold, copper, emeralds

Land use:
  arable land: 4%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 39%
  forests and woodland: 48%
  other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions;
  occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment--current issues: deforestation; soil damage from
  overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from
  vehicle emissions

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
  Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
  Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography--note: only South American country with coastlines on
  both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea



People



Population: 39,309,422 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33% (male 6,556,566; female 6,402,115)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 11,966,306; female 12,593,685)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 807,282; female 983,468) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.85% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 24.45 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.59 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.48 years
  male: 66.54 years
  female: 74.54 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Colombian(s)
  adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%,
  mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 91.3%
  male: 91.2%
  female: 91.4% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
  conventional short form: Colombia
  local long form: Republica de Colombia
  local short form: Colombia

Data code: CO

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government
  structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos,
  singular--departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital);
  Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
  Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
  Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte
  de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
  Providencia, Distrito Capital de Santa Fe de Bogota*, Santander,
  Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled
  after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of
  executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998);
  Vice President Gustavo BELL (since 7 August 1998); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998);
  Vice President Gustavo BELL (since 7 August 1998); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
  election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); vice
  president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new
  procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice
  presidents by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 May
  1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)
  election results: no candidate received more than 50% of the total
  vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the
  two leading candidates was held 21 June 1998; Andres PASTRANA
  elected president; percent of vote--NA; Gustavo BELL elected vice
  president; percent of vote--NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of
  the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote
  to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara
  de Representantes (161 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate--last held NA March 1998 (next to be held NA March
  2002); House of Representatives--last held NA March 1998 (next to be
  held NA March 2002)
  election results: Senate--percent of vote by party--PL 50%, PC 24%,
  smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 26%; seats by
  party--PL 51, PC 24, smaller parties 27; House of
  Representatives--percent of vote by party--PL 52%, PC 17%, other 31%;
  seats by party--NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
  Justical), highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from
  the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms;
  Council of State, highest court of administrative law, judges are
  selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for
  eight-year terms; Constitutional Court, guards integrity and
  supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws,
  amendments to the constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party or PL [Horaero
  AD/M-19 is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident
  legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent
  groups active in Colombia--Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or
  FARC; and National Liberation Army or ELN

International organization participation: BCIE, CAN, Caricom
  (observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO
  (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia
  chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
  Washington, DC
  consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN
  embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
  mailing address: APO AA 34038

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top,
  double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which
  is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the
  center



Economy



Economy--overview: Colombia ended 1998 in recession with 0.2% GDP
  growth due to a combination of low world oil prices, reduced export
  demand, guerrilla violence, and diminished investment flows. The
  Central Bank resorted to interest rate hikes and tight monetary
  policy to defend the peso against pressure from Colombia's worsening
  trade and fiscal deficits. President PASTRANA'S well-respected
  financial team is working to deal with the myriad economic problems
  the country faces, including the highest unemployment level in
  decades and a fiscal deficit of close to 5% of GDP in 1998. The
  government implemented austerity measures, declared emergency
  measures to guard against a potential banking crisis resulting from
  the country's economic slowdown, and is seeking international
  assistance to fund a peace plan with the guerrillas. Guerrilla
  violence and low world oil prices will likely continue to undermine
  the economy in 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$254.7 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 0.2% (1998)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$6,600 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19%
  industry: 26%
  services: 55% (1996)

Population below poverty line: 17.7% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1%
  highest 10%: 46.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.7% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 16.8 million (1997 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%,
  industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 15.7% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $26 billion (1996 est.)
  expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and
  footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: -1.2% (1996)

Electricity--production: 53.725 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 19.26%
  hydro: 80.74%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 53.857 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 132 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice,
  tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest
  products; shrimp

Exports: $11.3 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, gold, bananas, cut
  flowers

Exports--partners: US 38%, EU 23%, Andean Community 18%, Japan 3%
  (1997)

Imports: $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: industrial equipment, transportation
  equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels

Imports--partners: US 42%, EU 23%, Andean Community 14%, Japan 4%
  (1997)

Debt--external: $18 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $40.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1--1,562.0 (February
  1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96 (1997), 1,036.69 (1996), 912.83
  (1995), 844.84 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 1.89 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects
  domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic
  satellite system with 11 earth stations
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 463, FM 35, shortwave 45 (1998 est.)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 60 (includes seven low-power
  stations) (1997)

Televisions: 5.5 million (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 3,380 km
  standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines
  to maritime port at Bahia de Portete)
  narrow gauge: 3,230 km 0.914-m gauge (1,830 km in use) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 115,564 km
  paved: 13,868 km
  unpaved: 101,696 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km;
  natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura,
  Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco,
  Turbo

Merchant marine:
  total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 64,7575 GRT/84,518 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 5, container 1, multifunction
  large-load carrier 2, oil tanker 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1,120 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 89
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
  914 to 1,523 m: 35
  under 914 m: 7 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1,031
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 63
  914 to 1,523 m: 339
  under 914 m: 628 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada
  Nacional, includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
  Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 10,418,211 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 6,980,700 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 360,820 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $4 billion (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 4.2% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela
  in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over
  Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and
  cannabis; cultivation of coca in 1997--79,500 hectares, an 18%
  increase over 1996; potential production of cocaine in 1997--125
  metric tons, a 14% increase over 1996; cultivation of opium in
  1997--6,600 hectares, a 5% increase over 1996; potential production
  of opium in 1997--66 metric tons, a 5% increase over 1996; the
  world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier
  of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets; active
  aerial eradication program seeks to virtually eliminate coca and
  opium crops



======================================================================



@Comoros
-------



Introduction



Background: Comoros has had difficulty in achieving political
  stability, having endured 18 coups or attempted coups since
  receiving independence from France in 1975. Most recently, in August
  1997, the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence
  from Comoros. An attempt in September 1997 by the government to
  reestablish control over the rebellious islands by force failed, and
  presently the Organization of African Unity is brokering
  negotiations to effect a reconciliation.



Geography



Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique
  Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and
  northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 2,170 sq km
  land: 2,170 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to
  low hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 35%
  permanent crops: 10%
  permanent pastures: 7%
  forests and woodland: 18%
  other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December
  to April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment--current issues: soil degradation and erosion results
  from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing;
  deforestation

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
  Channel



People



Population: 562,723 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 120,397; female 119,945)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 150,851; female 154,990)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 7,878; female 8,662) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.11% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 40.29 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 9.23 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 81.63 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 60.85 years
  male: 58.39 years
  female: 63.38 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.43 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Comoran(s)
  adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend
  of Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 57.3%
  male: 64.2%
  female: 50.4% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
  conventional short form: Comoros
  local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
  local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Government type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grande Comore
  (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
  note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
  Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Interim President TADJIDDINE Ben Said Massounde
  (since 6 November 1998); note--President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim died
  in office 6 November 1998 and was succeeded by Interim President
  MASSOUNDE
  head of government: Prime Minister Abbas DJOUSSOUF (since 22
  November 1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
  election last held 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA); prime
  minister appointed by the president
  election results: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; percent
  of vote--64%
  note: the Comoran constitution stipulates that upon the death of the
  president, a new president is to be elected within 90 days; however,
  Interim President TADJIDDINE has stated that a new election cannot
  be held until Anjouan is reunited with the rest of the country

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate
  (15 seats; members selected by regional councils for six-year terms)
  and a Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Federal Assembly--last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to
  be held NA)
  election results: Federal Assembly--percent of vote by party--NA;
  seats by party--RND 39, RND candidate running as independent 1, FNJ 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes, two members are
  appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal
  Assembly, one by the Council of each island, and former presidents
  of the republic

Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement National pour le
  NA]
  note: under a new constitution ratified in October 1996, a two-party
  system was established; former President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim
  called for all parties to dissolve and join him in creating the RND;
  the constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats in
  the Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in
  opposition, but if no party accomplishes that the second most
  successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December
  1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD,
  AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS
  (associate), ILO, IMF, InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU,
  NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Ahmed DJABIR (ambassador to
  the US and Canada and permanent representative to the UN)
  chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal
  and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East
  45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
  embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to
  Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of
  the field, its points facing downward; there are four white
  five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the
  crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional
  symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of
  the archipelago--Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial
  collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros); the design, the
  most recent of several, is described in the constitution approved by
  referendum on 7 June 1992



Economy



Economy--overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros
  is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation
  links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural
  resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes
  to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and
  a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance.
  Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the
  leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs
  80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The
  country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main
  staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government is
  struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize
  commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services,
  to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high
  population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if
  the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be maintained.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$400 million (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3.5% (1997 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$700 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 40%
  industry: 14%
  services: 46% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1997)

Labor force: 144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $48 million
  expenditures: $53 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture,
  jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 15 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 86.67%
  hydro: 13.33%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 15 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra,
  coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: $11.4 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

Exports--commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil,
  copra

Exports--partners: France 43%, US 43%, Germany 7% (1996)

Imports: $70 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

Imports--commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods;
  petroleum products, cement, transport equipment

Imports--partners: France 59%, South Africa 15%, Kenya 6% (1996)

Debt--external: $219 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $43.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1--420.01 (December
  1998), 442.46 (1998), 437.75 (1997), 383.66 (1996), 374.36 (1995),
  416.40 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
  radiotelephone communication stations
  domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
  international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
  Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 81,000 (1994)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1998)

Televisions: 200 (1994



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 880 km
  paved: 673 km
  unpaved: 207 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 132,969 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 79,224 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $3 million (1994 est.)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: claims French-administered Mayotte; the
  islands of Anjouan (Nzwani) and Moheli (Mwali) have moved to secede
  from Comoros



======================================================================



@Congo, Democratic Republic of the
---------------------------------



Geography



Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 2,345,410 sq km
  land: 2,267,600 sq km
  water: 77,810 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 10,271 km
  border countries: Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African
  Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km,
  Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin;
  cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern
  highlands; north of Equator--wet season April to October, dry season
  December to February; south of Equator--wet season November to March,
  dry season April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in
  east

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110
  m

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial
  and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium,
  uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential,
  timber

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 7%
  forests and woodland: 77%
  other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity

Environment--current issues: poaching threatens wildlife
  populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in
  mid-1994 were responsible for significant deforestation, soil
  erosion, and wildlife poaching in the eastern part of the country
  (most of those refugees were repatriated in November and December
  1996)

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
  Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
  Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography--note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that
  controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic
  Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern
  highlands



People



Population: 50,481,305 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48% (male 12,200,532; female 12,136,372)
  15-64 years: 49% (male 12,135,901; female 12,692,057)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 564,084; female 752,359) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.96% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 46.37 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 14.99 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
  note: in 1994, about a million refugees fled into Zaire (now called
  the Democratic Republic of the Congo or DROC), to escape the
  fighting between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda and Burundi; the
  outbreak of widespread fighting in the DROC between rebels and
  government forces in October 1996 spurred about 875,000 refugees to
  return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early 1997; additionally,the DROC
  is host to 200,000 Angolan, 110,000 Burundi, 100,000 Sudanese, and
  15,000 Ugandan refugees; renewed fighting in the DROC in August 1998
  resulted in more internal displacement and refugee outflows

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.45 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 49.44 years
  male: 47.28 years
  female: 51.67 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.45 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the
  majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes--Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all
  Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the
  population

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%,
  Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade
  language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo,
  Tshiluba

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala,
  Kingwana, or Tshiluba
  total population: 77.3%
  male: 86.6%
  female: 67.7% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
  local short form: none
  former: Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
  abbreviation: DROC

Data code: CG

Government type: dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition
  to representative government

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provinces,
  singular--province) and one city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo,
  Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*,
  Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: anniversary of independence from Belgium, 30
  June (1960)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15
  February 1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution
  promulgated in April 1994; following successful rebellion the new
  government announced on 29 May 1997 a program of constitutional
  reform and, in November 1998, a draft constitution was approved by
  President KABILA and awaits ratification by national referendum

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997); note--the
  president is both chief of state and head of government
  head of government: Laurent Desire KABILA (since 17 May 1997);
  note--the president is both chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president
  elections: before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power, the president
  was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last
  held 29 July 1984 (next was to be held in May 1997); formerly, the
  prime minister was elected by the High Council of the Republic;
  note--the term of the former government expired in 1991, elections
  were not held, and former president MOBUTU continued in office until
  his government was militarily defeated by KABILA on 17 May 1997
  election results: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga
  reelected president in 1984 without opposition
  note: Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga was
  president from 24 November 1965 until forced into exile on 16 May
  1997 when his government was overturned militarily by Laurent Desire
  KABILA, who immediately assumed governing authority; in his 29 May
  1997 inaugural address, President KABILA announced a two-year time
  table for political reform leading to elections by April 1999;
  subsequently, in December 1998, President KABILA announced that
  elections would be postponed until all foreign military forces
  attempting his overthrow had withdrawn from the country

Legislative branch: legislative activity has been suspended
  pending the establishment of KABILA's promised constitutional
  reforms and the elections to be held by April 1999 (now postponed
  indefinitely)
  elections: the country's first multi-party presidential and
  legislative elections had been scheduled for May 1997 but were not
  held; instead KABILA overthrew the MOBUTU government and seized
  control of the country

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January
  parties include Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS
  note: President KABILA, who has banned political party activity
  indefinitely, currently leads the Alliance of Democratic Forces for
  the Liberation of Congo-Zaire or AFDL

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU
  chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING
  embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
  mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow five-pointed
  star in the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow
  five-pointed stars along the hoist side



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy of the Democratic Republic of the
  Congo--a nation endowed with vast potential wealth--has declined
  significantly since the mid-1980s. The new government instituted a
  tight fiscal policy that initially curbed inflation and currency
  depreciation, but these small gains were quickly reversed when the
  foreign-backed rebellion in the eastern part of the country began in
  August 1998. The war has dramatically reduced government revenue,
  and increased external debt. Foreign businesses have curtailed
  operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict and
  because of increased government harassment and restrictions. Poor
  infrastructure, an uncertain legal framework, corruption, and lack
  of transparency in government economic policy remain a brake on
  investment and growth. A number of IMF and World Bank missions have
  met with the new government to help it develop a coherent economic
  plan but associated reforms are on hold.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$34.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: -3.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$710 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 59%
  industry: 15%
  services: 26% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 147% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 14.51 million (1993 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 16%,
  services 19% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $269 million
  expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24
  million (1996 est.)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products
  (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and
  beverages), cement, diamonds

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 6.4 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 6.25%
  hydro: 93.75%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 6.265 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 195 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 60 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea,
  quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn,
  fruits; wood products

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: diamonds, copper, coffee, cobalt, crude oil

Exports--partners: Benelux 43%, US 22%, South Africa 8%, France,
  Germany, Italy, UK, Japan (1997)

Imports: $819 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other
  machinery, transport equipment, fuels

Imports--partners: South Africa 21%, Benelux 14%, China 8%,
  Netherlands, US, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK (1997)

Debt--external: $15 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $195.3 million (1995)

Currency: Congolese franc (CF)

Exchange rates: Congolese francs (CF) per US$1--2.5 (January
  1999); new zaires (Z) per US$1--115,000 (January 1998), 83,764
  (October 1996), 7,024 (1995), 1,194 (1994)
  note: on 30 June 1998 the Congolese franc (CF) was introduced,
  replacing the new zaire; 1 Congolese franc (CF)=100,000 new zaires

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 34,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in
  and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth
  stations
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.87 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (1997)

Televisions: 55,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 5,138 km (1995); note--severely reduced route-distance in use
  because of damage to facilities by civil strife
  narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km
  1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 145,000 km
  paved: 2,500 km
  unpaved: 142,500 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and
  unconnected lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Ports and harbors: Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie,
  Kindu, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 233 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 23
  over 3,047 m: 4
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 210
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
  914 to 1,523 m: 95
  under 914 m: 94 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Security
  Group, Gendarmerie

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 10,874,744 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 5,536,277 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $250 million (1997)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 4.6% (1997)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: the Democratic Republic of the Congo is
  in the grip of a civil war that has drawn in military forces from
  neighboring states, with Uganda and Rwanda supporting the rebel
  movement which occupies much of the eastern portion of the state;
  most of the Congo River boundary with the Republic of the Congo is
  indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the
  river or its islands, except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic
  consumption



======================================================================



@Congo, Republic of the
----------------------



Geography



Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
  between Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 342,000 sq km
  land: 341,500 sq km
  water: 500 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,504 km
  border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
  Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon
  1,903 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June
  to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
  enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
  basin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc,
  uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 29%
  forests and woodland: 62%
  other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonal flooding

Environment--current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions;
  water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not
  potable; deforestation

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography--note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville,
  Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them



People



Population: 2,716,814 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42% (male 579,940; female 573,847)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 718,820; female 751,911)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 36,987; female 55,309) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.16% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 37.96 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.33 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100.58 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 47.14 years
  male: 45.42 years
  female: 48.92 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.89 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%,
  Europeans NA%; note--Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French,
  before the 1997 civil war; may be half of that in 1998, following
  the widespread destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua
  franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which
  Kikongo has the most users)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 74.9%
  male: 83.1%
  female: 67.2% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique du Congo
  local short form: none
  former: Congo/Brazzaville, Congo

Data code: CF

Government type: republic

Capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular--region)
  and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou,
  Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992
  but is now being redrafted by President SASSOU-NGUESSO

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October
  1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president
  Pascal LISSOUBA); note--the president is both the chief of state and
  head of government
  head of government: normally the prime minister, appointed from the
  majority party by the president; however, since his inauguration,
  President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO has been both chief of state and head
  of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997
  but will be delayed for several years pending the drafting of a new
  constitution)
  election results: Pascal LISSOUBA elected president in 1992; percent
  of vote--Pascal LISSOUBA 61%, Bernard KOLELAS 39%; note--LISSOUBA was
  deposed in 1997, replaced by Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO

Legislative branch: unicameral National Transitional Council (75
  seats, members elected by reconciliation forum of 1,420 delegates;
  note--the National Transitioanl Council replaced the bicameral
  Paarliament in mid-1997
  elections: National Transitional Council--last held NA January 1998
  (next to be held NA 2001); note--at that election the National
  Transitional Council is to be replaced by a bicameral assembly
  election results: National Transitional Council--percent of vote by
  party--NA; seats by party--NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: the most important of the many
  SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Association for Democracy and
  TCHICAYA, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral
  BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Union of Congolese
  Socialist Youth or UJSC; Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC;
  Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; General Union of
  Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MONUA, NAM,
  OAU, OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Serge
  MOMBOULI
  chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador J. Aubrey HOOKS
  embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
  mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville
  note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in
  the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310
  Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by
  a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the
  lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of
  Ethiopia



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy is a mixture of village agriculture
  and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support
  services, and a government characterized by budget problems and
  overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
  economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports.
  In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the
  government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP
  growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa.
  Subsequently, falling oil prices cut GDP growth by half. Moreover,
  the government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil
  earnings, contributing to the government's shortage of revenues. The
  12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted
  in inflation of 61% in 1994 but inflation has subsided since.
  Economic reform efforts continued with the support of international
  organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. The reform
  program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis
  SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in October
  1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic
  reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with
  international financial institutions. However, economic progress was
  badly hurt by slumping oil prices in 1998, which worsened the
  Republic of the Congo's budget deficit. A second blow was the
  resumption of armed conflict in December 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$3.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 2.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,500 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 10%
  industry: 59%
  services: 31% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $870 million
  expenditures: $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering,
  brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 438 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 0.68%
  hydro: 99.32%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 553 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 115 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn,
  peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports--commodities: petroleum 50%, lumber, plywood, sugar,
  cocoa, coffee, diamonds

Exports--partners: US 37%, Belgium-Luxembourg 34%, Taiwan, China
  (1997 est.)

Imports: $803 million (f.o.b. 1997)

Imports--commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital
  equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Imports--partners: France 22%, Italy 16%, US 9%, UK 6% (1997 est.)

Debt--external: $6 billion (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $159.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
  US$1--550 (January 1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55
  (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 18,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: services barely adequate for government use;
  key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo;
  inter-city lines frequently out-of-order
  domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
  coaxial cable
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 8,500 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 795 km (includes 285 km private track)
  narrow gauge: 795 km 1.067-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
  total: 12,800 km
  paved: 1,242 km
  unpaved: 11,558 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120
  km of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used
  for local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports and harbors: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo,
  Pointe-Noire

Airports: 36 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 4
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 32
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
  914 to 1,523 m: 14
  under 914 m: 10 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: NA

Military manpower--military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 641,543 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 326,834 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 28,976 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $110 million (1993)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 3.8% (1993)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: most of the Congo River boundary with the
  Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has
  been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in
  the Stanley Pool/Pool Malebo area)



======================================================================



@Cook Islands
------------



Introduction



Background: Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770,
  the islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900,
  administrative control was transferred to New Zealand. Residents
  chose self-government with free association with New Zealand in
  1965. The emigration of Cook Islanders to New Zealand in large
  numbers and resulting loss of skilled labor and government deficits
  are continuing problems.



Geography



Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean,
  about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total: 240 sq km
  land: 240 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in
  south

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 13%
  permanent pastures: NA%
  forests and woodland: NA%
  other: 78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertication, Law of the Sea
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



People



Population: 20,200 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.04% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 22.35 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.14 years
  male: 69.2 years
  female: 73.1 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.17 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cook Islander(s)
  adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
  European 7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%,
  other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the
  Cook Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: NA



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
  Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
  Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
  with the Cook Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association
  with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to
  move to full independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
  represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High
  Commissioner Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998), representative of
  New Zealand
  head of government: Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey A. HENRY (since 1
  February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1
  February 1989)
  cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
  responsible to Parliament
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is
  appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is
  appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative
  elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually
  becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 6 March 1994 (next to be held by June 1999)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--Cook
  Islands Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Democratic Alliance Party 2
  note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters,
  but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party [Sir Geoffrey

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP
  (associate), FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
  IOC, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free
  association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in
  free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed
  stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag



Economy



Economy--overview: Like many other South Pacific island nations,
  the Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation
  of the country from foreign markets, lack of natural resources,
  periodic devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate
  infrastructure. Agriculture provides the economic base with major
  exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities
  are limited to fruit-processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade
  deficits are made up for by remittances from emigrants and by
  foreign aid, overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In 1996, the
  government declared bankruptcy, citing a $120 million public debt.
  Efforts to exploit tourism potential and expanding the mining and
  fishing industries have not been enough to adequately deal with the
  financial crisis. In an effort to stem further erosion of the
  economy, the government slashed public service salaries by 50%,
  condensed the number of government ministries from 52 to 22, reduced
  the number of civil servants by more than half, began selling
  government assets, and closed all overseas diplomatic posts except
  for the one in New Zealand.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$79 million (1994 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$4,000 (1994 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 17%
  industry: 6%
  services: 77% (FY90/91)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 6,601 (1993)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%,
  services 25%, industry 15%, other 4% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 15 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 15 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans,
  pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee

Exports: $4.2 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Exports--commodities: copra, fresh and canned citrus fruit,
  coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing

Exports--partners: NZ 80%, Japan, Hong Kong (1993)

Imports: $85 million (c.i.f., 1994)

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital
  goods

Imports--partners: NZ 49%, Italy, Australia (1993)

Debt--external: $160 million (1994)

Economic aid--recipient: $13.1 million (1995); note?New Zealand
  furnishes the greater part

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.8560
  (January 1999), 1.8629 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235
  (1995), 1.6844 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 4,180 (1994)

Telephone system:
  domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
  satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
  radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
  exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and
  fiber-optic cable
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 13,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (in addition, eight low-power
  repeaters provide good coverage on the island of Rarotonga) (1997)

Televisions: 3,500 (1995 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 187 km
  paved: 35 km
  unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,310 GRT/2,181 DWT
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 7 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in
  consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Coral Sea Islands
-----------------



Geography



Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of
  Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total: less than 3 sq km
  land: less than 3 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
  area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
  important

Area--comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones

Environment--current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: important nesting area for birds and turtles



People



Population: no indigenous inhabitants
  note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological station



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
  conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from
  Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered from Canberra by the Department of
  the Environment, Sport and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of
  Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Economy



Economy--overview: no economic activity



Communications



Communications--note: there are automatic weather relay stations
  on many of the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of Australia;
  visited regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has
  control over the activities of visitors



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Costa Rica
----------



Introduction



Background: Costa Rica declared its independence from Spain in
  1821. After a turbulent beginning it inaugurated an era of peaceful
  democracy in 1889, subsequently interrupted only twice, by a
  dictatorial interlude in 1917-19 and an armed uprising in 1948.
  Increasing the role of the private sector while maintaining the
  government's social safety net and keeping under control the budget
  deficit, unemployment, and inflation are key current issues.



Geography



Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and
  the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 51,100 sq km
  land: 50,660 sq km
  water: 440 sq km
  note: includes Isla del Coco

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 639 km
  border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season
  (May to November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 5%
  permanent pastures: 46%
  forests and woodland: 31%
  other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along
  Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy
  season; active volcanoes

Environment--current issues: deforestation, largely a result of
  the clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
  Conservation



People



Population: 3,674,490 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33% (male 622,260; female 593,720)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 1,150,900; female 1,121,970)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 85,526; female 100,114) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 22.46 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 4.16 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.89 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.04 years
  male: 73.6 years
  female: 78.61 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.76 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Costa Rican(s)
  adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%,
  Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94.8%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 95% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
  conventional short form: Costa Rica
  local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
  local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Government type: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias,
  singular--provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon,
  Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review
  of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998);
  First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998), Second
  Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998);
  note--president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May
  1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998),
  Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998);
  note--president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
  elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February
  1998 (next to be held NA February 2002)
  election results: Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ elected president; percent
  of vote--Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 46.6%, Jose Miguel CORRALES
  (PLN) 44.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
  Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
  serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held NA February
  2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--PUSC 41%, PLN 35%,
  minority parties 24%; seats by party--PUSC 27, PLN 23, minority
  parties 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are
  elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Unity Party or
  NA]
  note: mainly a two-party system--PUSC and PLN; numerous small parties
  share less than 25% of population's support

Political pressure groups and leaders: Costa Rican Confederation
  of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate);
  Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate);
  Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist
  Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association
  for Economic Development or ANFE; Free Costa Rica Movement or MCRL
  (rightwing militants); National Association of Educators or ANDE;
  Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UN
  Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime DAREMBLUM
  chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham,
  Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia,
  San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
  Tampa
  consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD
  embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
  mailing address: APO AA 34020

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
  (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white
  disk on the hoist side of the red band



Economy



Economy--overview: Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends
  on tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been
  substantially reduced over the past 15 years and a strong social
  safety net has been put into place. Economic growth has rebounded
  from -0.9% in 1996 to 3% in 1997 and an estimated 5.5% in 1998.
  Inflation rose to 22.5% in 1995, dropped to 11.1% in 1997, and
  reached an estimated 12% in 1998. Unemployment appears moderate at
  5.6%, but substantial underemployment continues. Furthermore, large
  government deficits--fueled by interest payments on the massive
  internal debt--have undermined efforts to maintain the quality of
  social services. Curbing inflation, reducing the deficit, and
  improving public sector efficiency remain key challenges to the
  government. President RODRIGUEZ has called for an increased economic
  role for the private sector, but political resistance to
  privatization has stalled much of his economic program.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$24 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$6,700 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 15%
  industry: 24%
  services: 61% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.3%
  highest 10%: 34.7% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 868,300

Labor force--by occupation: industry and commerce 23.3%,
  government and services 55.1%, agriculture 21.6% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.6% (1998 est.); much underemployment

Budget:
  revenues: $1.1 billion
  expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110
  million (1991 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
  materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1992)

Electricity--production: 4.785 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 14.11%
  hydro: 75.44%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 10.45% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 4.931 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 44 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 190 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans,
  potatoes; beef; timber

Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: manufactured products, coffee, bananas,
  textiles, sugar (1997)

Exports--partners: US, Benelux, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El
  Salvador, Netherlands, UK, France (1997)

Imports: $4.5 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports--commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital
  equipment, petroleum (1997)

Imports--partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Venezuela, Guatemala,
  Germany (1997)

Debt--external: $3.2 billion (October 1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $107.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1--272.58 (January
  1999), 257.23 (1998), 232.60 (1997), 207.69 (1996), 179.73 (1995),
  157.07 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 281,042 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
  satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6 (in addition, there are 11
  repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 340,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 950 km
  narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified)

Highways:
  total: 35,597 km
  paved: 6,051 km
  unpaved: 29,546 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto
  Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 156 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 28
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 18
  under 914 m: 7 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 128
  914 to 1,523 m: 29
  under 914 m: 99 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public
  Security Force (Fuerza Publica); note--during 1996, the Ministry of
  Public Security reorganized and eliminated the Civil Guard, Rural
  Assistance Guard, and Frontier Guards as separate entities; they are
  now under the Ministry and operate on a geographic command basis
  performing ground security, law enforcement, counternarcotics, and
  national security (border patrol) functions; the constitution
  prohibits armed forces

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 988,887 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 662,827 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 36,751 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $55 million (1995)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2% (1995)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from
  South America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered
  plots



======================================================================



@Cote d'Ivoire
-------------



Geography



Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
  between Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 322,460 sq km
  land: 318,000 sq km
  water: 4,460 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,110 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
  Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three
  seasons--warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to
  May), hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
  highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore,
  cobalt, bauxite, copper

Land use:
  arable land: 8%
  permanent crops: 4%
  permanent pastures: 41%
  forests and woodland: 22%
  other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors;
  during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment--current issues: deforestation (most of the country's
  forests--once the largest in West Africa--have been cleared by the
  timber industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and
  agricultural effluents

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
  Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
  83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



People



Population: 15,818,068 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47% (male 3,702,051; female 3,664,672)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 4,154,440; female 3,952,999)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 174,065; female 169,841) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.35% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.76 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.17 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
  note: after Liberia's civil war started in 1990, more than 350,000
  refugees fled to Cote d'Ivoire and, by September 1998, according to
  the UNHCR, about 85,000 remain

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 94.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 46.05 years
  male: 44.48 years
  female: 47.67 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.89 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ivorian(s)
  adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic groups: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%,
  Agni, Africans from other countries (mostly Burkinabe and Malians,
  about 3 million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and
  Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)

Religions: Muslim 60%, Christian 22%, indigenous 18% (some of
  these are also numbered among the Christians and Muslims)

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the
  most widely spoken

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 48.5%
  male: 57%
  female: 40%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
  conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
  local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  former: Ivory Coast

Data code: IV

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime
  established 1960

Capital: Yamoussoukro
  note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan
  remains the administrative center; the US, like other countries,
  maintains its Embassy in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements,
  singular--departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope,
  Agboville, Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou,
  Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa,
  Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa,
  Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono,
  Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela,
  Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi,
  Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
  note: Cote d'Ivoire may have a new administrative structure
  consisting of 58 departments; the following additional departments
  have been reported but not yet confirmed by the US Board on
  Geographic Names (BGN); Adiake', Ale'pe', Dabon, Grand Bassam,
  Jacqueville, Tiebissou, Toulepleu, Bocanda

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 August

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times,
  last time July 1998

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
  judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993);
  note--succeeded to the presidency following the death of President
  Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY, who had served continuously since November
  1960
  head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10
  December 1993)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 22 October 1995 (next to be held October 2000);
  prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Henri Konan BEDIE elected president; percent of
  vote--Henri Konan BEDIE 96%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
  Nationale (175 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
  serve five-year terms)
  elections: elections last held 27 November 1995 (next to be held NA
  November 2000)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--PDCI
  150, RDR 13, FPI 12
  note: a Senate will be created in 2000

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
  Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINURCA, NAM, OAU, OPCW,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Koffi Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI
  chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George MU
  embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist
  side), white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is
  longer and has the colors reversed--green (hoist side), white, and
  orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist
  side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France



Economy



Economy--overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest
  producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm oil.
  Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in
  international prices for these products and to weather conditions.
  Despite attempts by the government to diversify the economy, it is
  still largely dependent on agriculture and related activities, which
  engage roughly 68% of the population. After several years of lagging
  performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994, due to
  the devaluation of the CFA franc and improved prices for cocoa and
  coffee, growth in nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples
  and rubber, limited trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil
  and gas discoveries, and generous external financing and debt
  rescheduling by multilateral lenders and France. The 50% devaluation
  of Franc Zone currencies on 12 January 1994 caused a one-time jump
  in the inflation rate to 26% in 1994, but the rate fell sharply in
  1996-98. Moreover, government adherence to donor-mandated reforms
  led to a jump in growth to 6% annually in 1996-98. Growth may slow
  in 1999-2000 because of the difficulty of meeting the conditions of
  international donors and continued low prices of key exports.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$24.2 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,680 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 31%
  industry: 20%
  services: 49% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.8%
  highest 10%: 28.5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $2.3 billion
  expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $640
  million (1997 est.)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining,
  automobile assembly, textiles, fertilizer, construction materials,
  electricity

Industrial production growth rate: 15% (annual rate, first half
  1998)

Electricity--production: 1.88 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 22%
  hydro: 47%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 31% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 1.88 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels,
  corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber;
  timber

Exports: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: cocoa 36%, coffee, tropical woods,
  petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish

Exports--partners: Netherlands 17%, France 15%, Germany 7%, US 6%,
  Italy 5% (1997)

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: food, consumer goods; capital goods, fuel,
  transport equipment

Imports--partners: France 28%, Nigeria 20%, US 6%, Italy 5%,
  Germany 4% (1997)

Debt--external: $16.8 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: ODA, $1 billion (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1--560.01 (January 1999),
  589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 200,000 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: well-developed by African standards but
  operating well below capacity
  domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
  and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 4, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 14 (1997)

Televisions: 810,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 660 km
  narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track (1995
  est.)

Highways:
  total: 50,400 km
  paved: 4,889 km
  unpaved: 45,511 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
  lagoons

Ports and harbors: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,200 GRT/1,500 DWT
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 36 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 7
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 29
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
  914 to 1,523 m: 12
  under 914 m: 9 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary
  Gendarmerie, Republican Guard (includes Presidential Guard),
  Sapeur-Pompier (Military Fire Group)

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,677,627 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,917,433 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 178,860 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $94 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 0.9% (1996)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local
  consumption; minor transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast
  Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US, and for Latin
  American cocaine destined for Europe



======================================================================



@Croatia
-------



Geography



Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea,
  between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 56,538 sq km
  land: 56,410 sq km
  water: 128 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,197 km
  border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
  Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with
  Montenegro), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
  predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
  summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian
  border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline,
  and islands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
  calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
  arable land: 21%
  permanent crops: 2%
  permanent pastures: 20%
  forests and woodland: 38%
  other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment--current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical
  plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal
  pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties
  and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil
  strife

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
  Desertification

Geography--note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
  Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits



People



Population: 4,676,865 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17% (male 404,761; female 383,088)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 1,591,831; female 1,591,106)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 272,219; female 433,860) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 10.34 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 11.14 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.84 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74 years
  male: 70.69 years
  female: 77.52 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.52 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Croat(s)
  adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
  Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Muslim 1.2%,
  Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian,
  Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 97%
  male: 99%
  female: 95% (1991 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
  conventional short form: Croatia
  local long form: Republika Hrvatska
  local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanije,
  zupanija--singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb,
  Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci,
  Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja,
  Pozega-Slavonia, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina,
  Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin,
  Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb
  note: there are two special self-governing districts (kotari,
  kotar--singular) under local Serb control: Glina, Knin

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if
  employed)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
  head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since 7 November
  1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992),
  Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October
  1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAK
  (since November 1995)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
  election last held 15 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
  minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
  election results: President Franjo TUDJMAN reelected; percent of
  vote--Franjo TUDJMAN 61%, Zdravko TOMAC 21%, Vlado GOTOVAC 18%

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the
  House of Counties or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats--63 directly elected by
  popular vote, 5 appointed by the president; members serve four-year
  terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (127
  seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve
  four-year terms)
  elections: House of Counties--last held 13 April 1997 (next to be
  held NA 2001); House of Representatives--last held 29 October 1995
  (next to be held NA 1999)
  election results: House of Counties--percent of vote by party--NA;
  seats by party--HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2,
  SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note--in some districts certain
  parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of
  Representatives--percent of vote by party--HDZ 45.23%,
  HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%;
  seats by party--HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2,
  SNS 2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year
  terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by
  the House of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed
  for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which
  is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS (pending member),
  CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW,
  OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
  chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
  embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
  mailing address: use street address

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with
  Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)



Economy



Economy--overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the
  Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and
  industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third
  above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic
  problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime communist
  mismanagement of the economy; damage during the internecine fighting
  to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large
  refugee and displaced population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the
  disruption of economic ties. Western aid and investment, especially
  in the tourist and oil industries, would help restore the economy.
  The government has been successful in some reform efforts--partially
  macroeconomic stabilization policies--and it has normalized relations
  with its creditors. Yet it still is struggling with privatization of
  large state enterprises and with bank reform. In 1998, Croatia made
  progress in reducing its current account deficit to about 8% of GDP
  from 12% the previous year. Economic growth continues to lag,
  however, and growing levels of inter-enterprise debt plague the
  domestic economy. Four commercial banks were put under government
  control and a major conglomerate is teetering on collapse.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$23.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$5,100 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12%
  industry: 24%
  services: 64% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1998)

Labor force: 1.63 million (1998)

Labor force--by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture
  4.3%, government 19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5%
  (1993)

Unemployment rate: 18.6% (yearend 1998)

Budget:
  revenues: $5.3 billion
  expenditures: $6.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $78.5
  million (1997 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated
  metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum,
  paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles,
  shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages;
  tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1998 est.)

Electricity--production: 10.682 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 29.25%
  hydro: 70.75%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 14.632 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 1 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 4.95 billion kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
  alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock,
  dairy products

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%,
  miscellaneous manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live
  animals 12.2%, raw materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%,
  beverages and tobacco 2.7% (1993)

Exports--partners: Germany 22%, Italy 21%, Slovenia 18% (1994)

Imports: $8.4 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%,
  fuels and lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals
  14.2%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials
  3.5%, beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993)

Imports--partners: Germany 21%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 10% (1994)

Debt--external: $8 billion (October 1998)

Economic aid--recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 lipas

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1--6.317 (January 1999),
  6.362 (1998), 6.157 (1997), 5.434 (1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 18 (in addition, there are 145
  repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 2,296 km
  standard gauge: 2,296 km 1.435-m gauge (796 km electrified)
  note: some lines remain inoperative or not in use; disrupted by
  territorial dispute (1997)

Highways:
  total: 27,840 km
  paved: 22,690 km (including 330 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 5,150 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; large sections of Sava
  blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural
  gas 310 km (1992); note--under repair following territorial dispute

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula,
  Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube),
  Zadar

Merchant marine:
  total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 810,226 GRT/1,227,468
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 26, chemical tanker 2, combination
  bulk 5, container 5, liquefied gas 1, multifunction large-load
  carrier 3, oil tanker 1, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2,
  short-sea passenger 3 (1998 est.)

Airports: 72 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 21
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 7 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 51
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 8
  under 914 m: 42 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air
  Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Military manpower--military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,188,898 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 943,719 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 33,722 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $950 million (1999)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 5% (1999)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by
  ethnic Serbs during the ethnic conflict, was returned to Croatian
  control by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia
  on 15 January 1998; Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving
  a bilateral issue dating from World War II over property and ethnic
  minority rights; significant progress has been made with Slovenia
  toward resolving a maritime border dispute over direct access to the
  sea in the Adriatic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's
  claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it
  controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is
  currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in
  Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest
  Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime
  shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe



======================================================================



@Cuba
----



Introduction



Background: Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959, and
  his guiding vision has defined Cuba's Communist revolution while his
  iron will has held the country together for more than four decades.
  CASTRO brought Cuba onto the world stage by inviting Soviet support
  in the 1960s, inciting revolutionary movements throughout Latin
  America and Africa in the 1970s, and sending his army to fight in
  Angola in the 1980s. At home, Havana provided Cubans with high
  levels of healthcare, education, and social security while
  suppressing the Roman Catholic Church and arresting political
  dissidents. Cuba is slowly recovering from severe economic recession
  following the withdrawal of former-Soviet subsidies, worth
  $4billion-$6 billion per year, in 1990.



Geography



Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 110,860 sq km
  land: 110,860 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 29 km
  border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
  note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains
  part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November
  to April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and
  mountains in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese,
  salt, timber, silica, petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 24%
  permanent crops: 7%
  permanent pastures: 27%
  forests and woodland: 24%
  other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from
  August to October (in general, the country averages about one
  hurricane every other year); droughts are common

Environment--current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting
  threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Marine
  Life Conservation

Geography--note: largest country in Caribbean



People



Population: 11,096,395 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22% (male 1,236,899; female 1,172,560)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 3,820,255; female 3,801,768)
  65 years and over: 9% (male 496,772; female 568,141) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.4% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 12.9 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.38 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.81 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.78 years
  male: 73.41 years
  female: 78.3 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.58 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cuban(s)
  adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming
  power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
  represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 95.7%
  male: 96.2%
  female: 95.3% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
  conventional short form: Cuba
  local long form: Republica de Cuba
  local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias,
  singular--provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio
  especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La
  Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La
  Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus,
  Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898;
  administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day,
  1 January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large
  elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of
  the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
  February 1959 until 24 February 1976, when office was abolished;
  president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the
  Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
  Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President of the Council of State and President
  of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
  February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
  president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the
  Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
  Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the
  Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly
  note: there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by
  the National Assembly
  elections: president and vice president elected by the National
  Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next election
  unscheduled)
  election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of
  legislative vote--100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president;
  percent of legislative vote--100%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's
  Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected
  directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions;
  members serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held in 2003)
  election results: percent of vote--PCC 94.39%; seats--PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo
  Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by
  the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Cuban Communist Party

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
  IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat
  (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES,
  LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962),
  OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note--Cuba has an
  Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
  Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
  (202) 797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note--the US has an
  Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
  Michael G. KOZAK; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L
  and M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through
  3559 and 33-3543 through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX:
  33-3700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and
  bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on
  the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center



Economy



Economy--overview: The state plays the primary role in the economy
  and controls practically all foreign trade. The government has
  undertaken several reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity,
  increase labor incentives, and alleviate serious shortages of food,
  consumer goods, and services. The liberalized agricultural markets
  introduced in October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell
  above-quota production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal
  consumption alternatives and reduced black market prices. Government
  efforts to lower subsidies to unprofitable enterprises and to shrink
  the money supply caused the semi-official exchange rate for the
  Cuban peso to move from a peak of 120 to the dollar in the summer of
  1994 to 21 to the dollar by yearend 1998. New taxes introduced in
  1996 helped drive down the number of self-employed workers from
  208,000 in January 1996 to 155,000 by July 1998. Havana announced in
  1995 that GDP declined by 35% during 1989-93, the result of lost
  Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. The drop in GDP apparently
  halted in 1994, when Cuba reported 0.7% growth, followed by
  increases of 2.5% in 1995 and 7.8% in 1996. Growth slowed again in
  1997 and 1998 to 2.5% and 1.2% respectively. Export earnings
  declined 22% in 1998, to $1.4 billion, the result of lower sugar
  export volume and lower world prices for nickel and sugar. Import
  expenditures also fell 15% to $3.0 billion, in part due to lower
  world oil prices. Tourism and remittances play a key role in foreign
  currency earnings. Living standards for the average Cuban remain at
  a depressed level compared with 1990.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$17.3 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 1.2% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,560 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 7.4%
  industry: 36.5%
  services: 56.1% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 4.5 million economically active population (1996
  est.)
  note: state sector 76%, non-state sector 24% (1996 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: services and government 30%, industry
  22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation
  and communications 7% (June 1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.8% (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $12.3 billion
  expenditures: $13 billion , including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1998 est.)

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals,
  paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
  fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity--production: 14.1 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 98.96%
  hydro: 1.04%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 14.1 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice,
  potatoes, beans; livestock

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports--commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, shellfish, medical
  products, citrus, coffee

Exports--partners: Russia 27%, Canada 18%, Spain 8% (1998 est.)

Imports: $3 billion (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals

Imports--partners: Spain 17%, France 9%, Canada 9% (1998 est.)

Debt--external: $10.1 billion (convertible currency, 1997);
  another $20 billion owed to Russia (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $46 million (1997 est.)

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1--1.0000
  (nonconvertible, official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 229,000

Telephone system: among the world's least developed telephone
  systems
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
  Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 1

Radios: 2.14 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 58 (1997)

Televisions: 2.5 million (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 4,807 km
  standard gauge: 4,807 km 1.435-m gauge (147 km electrified)
  note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways:
  total: 60,858 km
  paved: 29,820 km (including 638 km of expressway)
  unpaved: 31,038 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel,
  Matanzas, Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
  total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 89,091 GRT/125,463 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 9, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker
  2, refrigerated cargo 5 (1998 est.)

Airports: 170 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 77
  over 3,047 m: 7
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
  914 to 1,523 m: 11
  under 914 m: 36 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 93
  914 to 1,523 m: 32
  under 914 m: 61 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes
  ground forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force
  (DAAFAR), Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army
  (EJT); the Border Guard (TGF) is controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower--military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,068,140
  females age 15-49: 3,014,686 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,900,893
  females age 15-49: 1,862,411 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 76,328
  females: 72,551 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: roughly 4% (1995 est.)

Military--note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
  supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased
  to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
  terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: territory serves as transshipment zone for cocaine
  bound for the US and Europe



======================================================================



@Cyprus
------



Geography



Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
  total: 9,250 sq km (note--of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish
  Cypriot area)
  land: 9,240 sq km
  water: 10 sq km

Area--comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool,
  wet winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south;
  scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber,
  salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
  arable land: 12%
  permanent crops: 5%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 13%
  other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity

Environment--current issues: water resource problems (no natural
  reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall; sea water
  intrusion to island's largest aquifer; increased salination in the
  north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal
  degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants



People



Population: 754,064 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24% (male 92,626; female 88,127)
  15-64 years: 65% (male 249,083; female 244,750)
  65 years and over: 11% (male 34,612; female 44,866) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.67% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 13.64 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.1 years
  male: 74.91 years
  female: 79.39 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cypriot(s)
  adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek
  Cypriot area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot area),
  Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 98.7%
  of the Turks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), other 4% (99.2% of
  the other ethnic groups live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.8% of the
  other ethnic groups live in the Turkish Cypriot area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
  Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 94%
  male: 98%
  female: 91% (1987 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
  conventional short form: Cyprus
  note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish
  Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Government type: republic
  note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
  island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
  separation was further solidified following the Turkish intervention
  in July 1974 following a Greek junta-based coup attempt, which gave
  the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots
  control the only internationally recognized government; on 15
  November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared
  independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern
  Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides
  publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and
  creation of a new federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia
  note: the Turkish Cypriot area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia,
  Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note--Turkish Cypriot area's
  administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of
  Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
  note: Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975
  from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October; note--Turkish
  Cypriot area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis
  for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
  relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
  intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
  constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated
  State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of
  Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot
  area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the
  1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
  head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February
  1993); note--the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the
  1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and
  vice president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for five-year terms;
  election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February
  2003)
  election results: Glafcos CLERIDES elected president; percent of
  vote--Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%
  note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot
  area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for
  a five-year term); elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to
  be held NA April 2000); results--Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis
  EROGLU 37.5%; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish
  Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers
  (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area

Legislative branch: unicameral--Greek Cypriot area: House of
  Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the
  Greek Cypriots. 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note--only those assigned to
  Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to
  serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the
  Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by
  popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: Greek area: last held 26 May 1996 (next to be held May
  2001); Turkish area: last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held
  December 2003)
  election results: Greek area: House of Representatives--percent of
  vote by party--DISY 34.5%, AKEL (Communist) 33.0%, DIKO 16.4%, EDEK
  8.1%, KED 3.7%, others 4.3%; seats by party--DISY 20, AKEL
  (Communist) 19, DIKO 10, EDEK 5, KED 2; Turkish area: Assembly of
  the Republic--percent of vote by party--UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKP
  15.4%, CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by party--UBP
  24, DP 13, TKP 7, CTP 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  Supreme Council of Judicature
  note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Restorative
  PERDHIKIS]; Turkish Cypriot area: National Unity Party or UBP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Pan-Cyprian Labor
  Federation or PEO (Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot
  Workers or SEK (pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor
  Unions or Turk-Sen; Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or
  Dev-Is

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE,
  EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS
  chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: New York
  note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Ahmet
  (202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth C. BRILL
  embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
  mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the
  island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper)
  above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag;
  the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between
  the Greek and Turkish communities
  note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the
  top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a
  white field



Economy



Economy--overview: Economic affairs are dominated by the division
  of the country into the southern (Greek) area controlled by the
  Cyprus Government and the northern Turkish Cypriot-administered
  area. The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly susceptible
  to external shocks. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s reflect the
  economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals, caused by
  political instability on the island and fluctuations in economic
  conditions in Western Europe. Economic policy in the south is
  focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the
  Turkish sector, water shortage is a growing problem, and several
  desalination plants are planned. The Turkish Cypriot economy has
  about one-fifth the population and one-third the per capita GDP of
  the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much
  difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have
  hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on
  agriculture and government service, which together employ about half
  of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has
  suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. To compensate for
  the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to
  nearly every sector, e.g. tourism, education, and industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$10 billion (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 2.3% (1997 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$13,000 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector: Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.4%;
  industry 22.4%; services 73.2% (1996); Turkish Cypriot area:
  agriculture 10%; industry 24.6%; services 65.4% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): Greek Cypriot area: 2.3% (1998
  est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 87.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: Greek Cypriot area: 299,700; Turkish Cypriot area:
  76,500 (1996)

Labor force--by occupation: Greek Cypriot area: services 62%,
  industry 25%, agriculture 13% (1995); Turkish Cypriot area: services
  66%, industry 11%, agriculture 23% (1995)

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.3% (1998 est.); Turkish
  Cypriot area: 6.4% (1996)

Budget:
  revenues: Greek Cypriot area--$2.9 billion, Turkish Cypriot area--$171
  million
  expenditures: Greek Cypriot area--$3.4 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $345 million, Turkish Cypriot area--$306 million,
  including capital expenditures of $56.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
  tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: -4%
  (1996); Turkish Cypriot area: 5.1% (1995)

Electricity--production: 2.2 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 2.2 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley,
  grapes, olives, vegetables

Exports: Greek Cypriot area: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.);
  Turkish Cypriot area: $70.5 million (f.o.b., 1996)

Exports--commodities: Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes,
  grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes (1996); Turkish Cypriot
  area: citrus, potatoes, textiles (1996)

Exports--partners: Greek Cypriot area: Russia 19.1%, Bulgaria
  16.4%, UK 11.3%, Greece 6.3%, Germany 4.8%; Turkish Cypriot area:
  Turkey 48.2%, UK 21.3%, other EU 13.7% (1997)

Imports: Greek Cypriot area: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.);
  Turkish Cypriot area: $318.4 million (f.o.b., 1996)

Imports--commodities: Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods,
  petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery (1996);
  Turkish Cypriot area: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery (1996)

Imports--partners: Greek Cypriot area: US 17.8%, UK 11.9%, Italy
  9.7%, Germany 7.5%, Greece 7.6% (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey
  55.3%, UK 13.8%, other EU 11.6% (1997)

Debt--external: Greek Cypriot area: $1.56 billion (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: Greek Cypriot area?$187 million in grants
  (1990-94); Turkish Cypriot area-- $700 million from Turkey in grants
  and loans (1990-97) that are usually forgiven

Currency: Greek Cypriot area: 1 Cypriot pound (LC) = 100 cents;
  Turkish Cypriot area: 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$--0.5013 (January 1999),
  0.5170 (1998), 0.5135 (1997), 0.4663 (1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915
  (1994); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1--331,400 (January 1999), 260,724
  (1998), 151,865 (1997), 81,405 (1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: Greek Cypriot area: 367,000 (1996 est.); Turkish
  Cypriot area: 80,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish
  Cypriot areas
  domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
  international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
  submarine cables; satellite earth stations--3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: AM 4, FM 36,
  shortwave 1, Turkish Cypriot area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: Greek Cypriot area: 500,000 (1996 est.); Turkish Cypriot
  area: 130,000 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: 7 (in
  addition, there are 35 low-power repeaters) (1997); Turkish Cypriot
  area: 3 (in addition, there are 4 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: Greek Cypriot area: 300,000 (1996 est.); Turkish
  Cypriot area: 90,000 (1996 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: Greek Cypriot area: 10,415 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km
  paved: Greek Cypriot area: 5,947 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 1,370 km
  unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,468 km; Turkish Cypriot area: 980 km
  (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos,
  Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,469 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,362,067
  GRT/36,945,331 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 430, cargo 530, chemical tanker
  23, combination bulk 42, combination ore/oil 11, container 141,
  liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 152, passenger 7, refrigerated
  cargo 58, roll-on/roll-off cargo 49, short-sea passenger 14,
  specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 37
  countries among which are Greece 611, Germany 129, Russia 49, Latvia
  278, Netherlands 20, Japan 28, Cuba 16, China 15, Hong Kong 13, and
  Poland 15 (1998 est.)

Airports: 15 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 12
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Greek Cypriot area: Greek Cypriot National
  Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval elements), Hellenic Forces
  Regiment on Cyprus (ELDYK), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish Cypriot
  area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), Turkish Forces Regiment
  on Cyprus (KTKA), Turkish mainland army units

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 194,337 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 133,559 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 6,410 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $405 million (1996)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 5.4% (1996)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into
  two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by
  the internationally recognized Cypriot Government (59% of the
  island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island),
  that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are
  two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek Cypriot portion of the
  island

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin and hashish via air
  routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and
  Turkey; some cocaine transits as well



======================================================================



@Czech Republic
--------------



Introduction



Background: Once part of the Holy Roman Empire and, later, the
  Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Czechoslovakia became an independent
  nation at the end of World War I. Independence ended with the German
  takeover in 1939. After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the
  Soviet sphere of influence, and in 1968 an invasion by Warsaw Pact
  troops snuffed out anti-communist demonstrations and riots. With the
  collapse of Soviet authority in 1991, Czechoslovakia regained its
  freedom. On 1 January 1993, the country peacefully split into its
  two ethnic components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech
  Republic, largely by aspiring to become a NATO and EU member, has
  moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses
  both opportunities and risks. But Prague has had a difficult time
  convincing the public that membership in NATO is crucial to Czech
  security. At the same time, support for eventual EU membership is
  waning. Coupled with the country's worsening economic situation,
  Prague's political scene, troubled for the past three years, will
  remain so for the foreseeable future.



Geography



Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 78,703 sq km
  land: 78,645 sq km
  water: 58 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,881 km
  border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
  Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills,
  and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east
  consists of very hilly country

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
  highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use:
  arable land: 41%
  permanent crops: 2%
  permanent pastures: 11%
  forests and woodland: 34%
  other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment--current issues: air and water pollution in areas of
  northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
  health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol

Geography--note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of
  oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is
  a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and
  the Danube in central Europe



People



Population: 10,280,513 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17% (male 888,292; female 845,662)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 3,569,677; female 3,558,844)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 545,305; female 872,733) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.01% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 9.84 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 10.86 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.67 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.35 years
  male: 71.01 years
  female: 77.88 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Czech(s)
  adjective: Czech
  note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic groups: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%,
  Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
  Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy:
  definition: NA
  total population: 99% (est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Czech Republic
  conventional short form: Czech Republic
  local long form: Ceska Republika
  local short form: Ceska Republika

Data code: EZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 73 districts (okresi, singular--okres)
  and 4 municipalities* (mesta, singular--mesto); Benesov, Beroun,
  Blansko, Breclav, Brno*, Brno-Venkov, Bruntal, Ceske Budejovice,
  Ceska Lipa, Cesky Krumlov, Cheb, Chomutov, Chrudim, Decin,
  Domazlice, Frydek-Mistek, Havlickuv Brod, Hodonin, Hradec Kralove,
  Jablonec nad Nisou, Jesenik, Jicin, Jihlava, Jindrichuv Hradec,
  Karlovy Vary, Karvina, Kladno, Klatovy, Kolin, Kromeriz, Kutna Hora,
  Liberec, Litomerice, Louny, Melnik, Mlada Boleslav, Most, Nachod,
  Novy Jicin, Nymburk, Olomouc, Opava, Ostrava*, Pardubice, Pelhrimov,
  Pisek, Plzen*, Plzen-Jih, Plzen-Sever, Prachatice, Praha*,
  Praha-Vychod, Praha Zapad, Prerov, Pribram, Prostejov, Rakovnik,
  Rokycany, Rychnov nad Kneznou, Semily, Sokolov, Strakonice, Sumperk,
  Svitavy, Tabor, Tachov, Teplice, Trebic, Trutnov, Uherske Hradiste,
  Usti nad Labem, Usti nad Orlici, Vsetin, Vyskov, Zdar nad Sazavou,
  Zlin, Znojmo

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the
  Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to
  bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in
  Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal
  theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17 July 1998);
  Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 17 July 1998), Pavel
  RYCHETSKY since 17 July 1998), Egon LANSKY (since 17 July 1998),
  Pavel MERTLIK (since 17 July 1998)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
  the prime minister
  elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
  election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January
  2003); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL
  received 47 of 81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the
  Chamber of Deputies (second round of voting)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of
  the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote
  to serve staggered two-, four-, and six-year terms) and the Chamber
  of Deputies or Snemovna Poslancu (200 seats; members are elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate--last held 13-14 and 20-21 November 1998 (next to
  be held NA November 2000--to replace/reelect 20 senators serving
  two-year terms); Chamber of Deputies--last held 19-20 June 1998
  (early elections to be held NA June 2000)
  election results: Senate--percent of vote by party--NA; seats by
  party--governing coalition (CSSD 23), opposition (ODS 26, KDU-CSL 16,
  KCSM 4, ODA 7, US 4, DEU 1); Chamber of Deputies--percent of vote by
  party--NA; seats by party--governing coalition (CSSD 74), opposition
  (ODS 63, KDU-CSL 20, US 19, KCSM 24)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are
  appointed by the president for life; Constitutional Court, chairman
  and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for life

Political parties and leaders: Civic Democratic Party or ODS
  KROUPA, chairman]; Christian Democratic Union-Czech People's Party

Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Chamber of
  Trade Unions; Civic Movement

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS,
  CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NEA, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksandr VONDRA
  chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John SHATTUCK
  embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
  mailing address: use embassy street address

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and
  red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost
  identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)



Economy



Economy--overview: Political and financial crises in 1997
  shattered the Czech Republic's image as one of the most stable and
  prosperous of post-Communist states. Delays in enterprise
  restructuring and failure to develop a well-functioning capital
  market played major roles in Czech economic troubles, which
  culminated in a currency crisis in May. The currency was forced out
  of its fluctuation band as investors worried that the current
  account deficit, which reached nearly 8% of GDP in 1996, would
  become unsustainable. After expending $3 billion in vain to support
  the currency, the central bank let it float. The growing current
  account imbalance reflected a surge in domestic demand and poor
  export performance, as wage increases outpaced productivity. The
  government was forced to introduce two austerity packages later in
  the spring which cut government spending by 2.5% of GDP. A tough
  1998 budget continued the painful medicine. These problems were
  compounded in the summer of 1997 by unprecedented flooding which
  inundated much of the eastern part of the country. Czech
  difficulties contrast with earlier achievements of strong GDP
  growth, a balanced budget, and inflation and unemployment that were
  among the lowest in the region. The Czech economy's transition
  problems continue to be too much direct and indirect government
  influence on the privatized economy, the sometimes ineffective
  management of privatized firms, and a shortage of experienced
  financial analysts for the banking system. The country slipped into
  a mild recession in 1998, but hopes to rebound with 1% growth in
  1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$116.7 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: -1.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$11,300 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: 33.8%
  services: 61.2% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 4.6%
  highest 10%: 23.5% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.7% (1998)

Labor force: 3.655 million (1998)

Labor force--by occupation: industry 33.1%, agriculture 6.9%,
  construction 9.1%, transport and communications 7.2%, services 43.7%
  (1994)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $16.1 billion
  expenditures: $16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment,
  coal, motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 6.7% (1998 est.)

Electricity--production: 60.214 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 76.69%
  hydro: 3.04%
  nuclear: 20.27%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 60.164 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 8.8 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 8.75 billion kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
  pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports: $23.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: manufactured goods 40.5%, machinery and
  transport equipment 37.7%, chemicals 8.8%, raw materials and fuel
  7.8% (1997)

Exports--partners: Germany 35.7%, Slovakia 12.9%, Austria 6.4%,
  Poland 5.7%, Russia 3.4%, Italy 3.3%, France 2.5% (1997)

Imports: $26.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment 38.1%,
  manufactured goods 19.3%, raw materials and fuels 12.4%, chemicals
  12.2%, and food 5.2% (1997)

Imports--partners: Germany 26.6%, Slovakia 8.4%, Italy 5.3%,
  Austria 4.4%, FSU 3.4%, UK 3.4%, Poland 3.2% (1997)

Debt--external: $21.6 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $351.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1--30.214 (December 1998),
  32.294 (1998), 31.698 (1997), 27.145 (1996), 26.541 (1995), 28.785
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 3,349,539 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and
  Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 67 (in addition, there are 35
  low-power stations and about 51 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 9,440 km
  standard gauge: 9,344 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2,743 km
  electrified at three voltages; 1,885 km double track)
  narrow gauge: 96 km 0.760-m narrow gauge (1996)

Highways:
  total: 55,489 km
  paved: 55,489 km (including 423 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Airports: 69 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 35
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
  914 to 1,523 m: 1
  under 914 m: 13 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 34
  914 to 1,523 m: 17
  under 914 m: 17 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil
  Defense, Railroad Units

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,684,817 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,046,079 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 73,072 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $1.1 billion (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.8% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Liechtenstein claims restitution for
  1,600 sq km of property in the Czech Republic confiscated from its
  royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution
  does not go back before February 1948, when the communists seized
  power; individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property
  confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II;
  unresolved property issues with Slovakia over redistribution of
  former Czechoslovak federal property

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
  hashish and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic
  consumption--especially of locally produced synthetic drugs--on the
  rise



======================================================================



@Denmark
-------



Introduction



Background: Once the seat of rapacious Viking raiders and later a
  major power in northwestern Europe, Denmark has evolved into a
  modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the political and
  economic integration of Europe. So far, however, they have opted out
  of some aspects of the European Union's Maastricht Treaty including
  the new monetary system launched on 1 January 1999.



Geography



Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North
  Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 43,094 sq km
  land: 42,394 sq km
  water: 700 sq km
  note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
  of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area--comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
  Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 68 km
  border countries: Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 4 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and
  cool summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
  highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone,
  stone, gravel and sand

Land use:
  arable land: 60%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 5%
  forests and woodland: 10%
  other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the
  country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the
  island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of
  dikes

Environment--current issues: air pollution, principally from
  vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution
  of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from
  animal wastes and pesticides

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine
  Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography--note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat)
  linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population
  lives in Copenhagen



People



Population: 5,356,845 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18% (male 504,182; female 478,547)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 1,811,445; female 1,765,038)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 331,207; female 466,426) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 11.57 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 10.97 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.51 years
  male: 73.83 years
  female: 79.33 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Dane(s)
  adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
  Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect),
  German (small minority)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 99% (1980 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
  conventional short form: Denmark
  local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
  local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark--14 counties
  (amter, singular--amt) and 2 kommunes*; Arhus, Bornholm,
  Fredericksberg*, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavns*,
  Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom,
  Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg
  note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland,
  which are part of the Kingdom of Denmark and are self-governing
  administrative divisions

Independence: first organized as a unified state in 10th century;
  in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a
  major overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature
  and a female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative
  acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir
  Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26
  May 1968)
  head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25
  January 1993)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
  by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179
  seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of
  proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 11 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by
  party--progovernment parties: Social Democrats 65, Socialist People's
  Party 13, Radical Liberal Party 7, Unity Party 5; opposition:
  Liberal Party 43, Conservative Party 17, Danish People's Party 13,
  Center Democrats 8, Christian People's Party 4, Progress Party 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  monarch for life

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Poul

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia
  Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO,
  G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  ISO, ITU, MTCR, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOT,
  UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO,
  ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN
  chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
  embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
  mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the
  edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
  hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
  was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
  Iceland, Norway, and Sweden



Economy



Economy--overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features
  high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate
  industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living
  standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net
  exporter of food. The center-left coalition government will
  concentrate on reducing the persistently high unemployment rate and
  the budget deficit as well as following the previous government's
  policies of maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus.
  The coalition also vows to maintain a stable currency. The coalition
  has lowered marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax
  revenues; boosted industrial competitiveness through labor market
  and tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and
  improved welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork
  and delays. Denmark chose not to join the 11 other EU members who
  launched the euro on 1 January 1999. Because of the global slowdown,
  GDP growth may fall to 1% in 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$124.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 2.6% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$23,300 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 27%
  services: 69% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.6%
  highest 10%: 20.5% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 2,895,950

Labor force--by occupation: private services 40%, government
  services 30%, manufacturing and mining 19%, construction 6%,
  agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $62.1 billion
  expenditures: $66.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles
  and clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction,
  furniture, and other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1996)

Electricity--production: 50.608 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 97.6%
  hydro: 0.05%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 2.35% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 35.208 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 19.2 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 3.8 billion kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; beef,
  dairy products; fish

Exports: $48.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: machinery and instruments, meat and meat
  products, fuels, dairy products, ships, fish, chemicals

Exports--partners: Germany 21.4%, Sweden 11.6%, UK 9.6%, Norway
  6.2%, France 5.3%, US 4.6%, Netherlands 4.5% (1997)

Imports: $46.1 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports--commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum,
  chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, textiles, paper

Imports--partners: Germany 21.7%, Sweden 12.7%, Netherlands 7.8%,
  UK 7.6%, France 5.6%, Norway 5.2%, US 5.0%, Japan (1997)

Debt--external: $44 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid--donor: ODA, $1.6 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--6.408 (January
  1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 3.2 million (1995 est.); 822,000 cellular telephone
  subscribers

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services
  domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form
  trunk network, four cellular radio communications systems
  international: 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with
  Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe
  Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations--6 Intelsat,
  10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note--the
  Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
  share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for
  world-wide Inmarsat access

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 78 (of which 35 are low-power
  stations; in addition, there are 51 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3 million (1996 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 3,323 km (458 km privately owned and operated)
  standard gauge: 3,323 km 1.435-m gauge (440 km electrified; 760 km
  double track) (1996)

Highways:
  total: 71,600 km
  paved: 71,600 km (including 880 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural
  gas 700 km

Ports and harbors: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg,
  Fredericia, Grena, Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine:
  total: 337 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,130,643
  GRT/6,880,248 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 130, chemical tanker 19, container 73,
  liquefied gas tanker 26, livestock carrier 6, oil tanker 20, railcar
  carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 21,
  short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 3
  note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the
  Danish International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to
  meet Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of
  convenience within the Danish register (1998 est.)

Airports: 118 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 28
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
  914 to 1,523 m: 13
  under 914 m: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 90
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 7
  under 914 m: 82 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal
  Danish Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower--military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,316,584 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,129,870 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 32,130 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $2.5 billion (1999)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.6% (1999)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Rockall continental shelf dispute
  involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have
  signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)



======================================================================



@Djibouti
--------



Geography



Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red
  Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 22,000 sq km
  land: 21,980 sq km
  water: 20 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 508 km
  border countries: Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
  highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  permanent pastures: 9%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
  disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment--current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
  desertification

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping
  lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into
  Ethiopia; mostly wasteland



People



Population: 447,439 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 96,222; female 96,023)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 128,506; female 114,767)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 6,155; female 5,766) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.23 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 14.41 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -11.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100.24 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.54 years
  male: 49.48 years
  female: 53.67 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.87 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Djiboutian(s)
  adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
  Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 46.2%
  male: 60.3%
  female: 32.7% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
  conventional short form: Djibouti
  former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Government type: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular--cercle);
  'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
  September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional
  practices, and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June
  1977); note--President HASSAN GOULED announced early in the year that
  he would resign in April 1999
  head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
  September 1978)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
  election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held 9 April 1999); prime
  minister appointed by the president
  election results: President HASSAN GOULED reelected; percent of
  vote--NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
  Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year
  terms)
  elections: last held 19 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
  election results: percent of vote--NA; seats--RPP 65; note--RPP (the
  ruling party) dominated

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders:
  Aptidon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration
  of Unity and Democracy or FRUD, and affiliates; Movement for Unity
  and Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD,
  AL, AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user),
  Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine
  chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lange SCHERMERHORN
  embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
  mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top)
  and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist
  side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy is based on service activities
  connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free
  trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live
  in the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders.
  Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and
  most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a
  transit port for the region and an international transshipment and
  refueling center. It has few natural resources and little industry.
  The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to
  help support its balance of payments and to finance development
  projects. An unemployment rate of 40% to 50% continues to be a major
  problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the
  last seven years because of recession, civil war, and a high
  population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Also,
  renewed fighting between Ethiopia and Eritrea has disturbed normal
  external channels of commerce. Faced with a multitude of economic
  difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term
  external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of
  foreign aid donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$530 million (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 0.6% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,200 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 20%
  services: 77% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 282,000

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%,
  services 14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $156 million
  expenditures: $175 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as
  dairy products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity--production: 175 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 175 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports: $39.6 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

Exports--commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit) (1995)

Exports--partners: Ethiopia 45%, Somalia, Yemen, Saudi Arabia
  (1996)

Imports: $200.5 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

Imports--commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment,
  chemicals, petroleum products (1995)

Imports--partners: France, Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Thailand
  (1996)

Debt--external: $276 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $106.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1--177.721 (fixed
  rate since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 7,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti
  are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to
  outlying areas of the country
  domestic: microwave radio relay network
  international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles,
  Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations--1 Intelsat (Indian
  Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay
  telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 35,000

Television broadcast stations: 1 (in addition, there are 5
  low-power repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 17,000 (1998)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
  narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge
  note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to
  revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals

Highways:
  total: 2,890 km
  paved: 364 km
  unpaved: 2,526 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 11 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 9
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 5
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air
  Force)

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 105,075 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 61,712 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $22.5 million (1997)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 4.5% (1997)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Dominica
--------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to
  Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 15 25 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 750 sq km
  land: 750 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly more than four times the size of
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy
  rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 13%
  permanent pastures: 3%
  forests and woodland: 67%
  other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
  hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



People



Population: 64,881 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27% (male 8,680; female 8,530)
  15-64 years: 64% (male 21,090; female 20,294)
  65 years and over: 9% (male 2,570; female 3,717) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.41% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 16.92 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.35 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -24.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.75 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.01 years
  male: 75.15 years
  female: 81.01 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Dominican(s)
  adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
  Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%),
  none 2%, other 6%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
  total population: 94%
  male: 94%
  female: 94% (1970 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
  conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
  Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark,
  Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Vernon Lorden SHAW (since 7 October 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Edison C. JAMES (since 12 June
  1995)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the
  prime minister
  elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a
  five-year term; election last held 7 October 1998 (next to be held
  NA October 2003); prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Vernon Lorden SHAW elected president; percent of
  legislative vote--NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9
  appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote representatives;
  members serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 12 June 1995 (next to be held by October 2000);
  byelections held 13 August 1996
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--UWP
  12, DLP 5, DFP 4

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in
  Saint Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and
  preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation
  Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom,
  CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS,
  OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (resident in
  Dominica)
  chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
  embassy in Dominica; the Ambassador to Dominica resides in
  Bridgetown (Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag description: green, with a centered cross of three equal
  bands--the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and
  the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed
  in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot
  encircled by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10
  stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy depends on agriculture and is
  highly vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms.
  Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 20% of GDP and employs
  40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains
  difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the
  lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the
  country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped
  out one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The economy began to
  recover in mid-1998, fueled by increases in construction, soap
  production, and tourist arrivals. The government is attempting to
  develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the
  island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$216 million (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 1.8% (1997)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$3,300 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 20%
  industry: 16%
  services: 64% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (1997)

Labor force: 25,000

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce
  32%, services 28%

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $72 million
  expenditures: $79.9 million, including capital expenditures of $11.5
  million (FY97/98)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
  blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 40 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 50%
  hydro: 50%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 40 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops,
  coconuts; forest and fishery potential not exploited

Exports: $50.4 million (1997)

Exports--commodities: bananas 50%, soap, bay oil, vegetables,
  grapefruit, oranges

Exports--partners: Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: $104.2 million (1997)

Imports--commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
  food, chemicals

Imports--partners: US 41%, Caricom 25%, UK 13%, Netherlands, Canada

Debt--external: $105 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $24.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.7000
  (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: 14,613 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: fully automatic network
  international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to
  Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint
  Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 45,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (there is one cable television
  company) (1997)

Televisions: 5,200 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 780 km
  paved: 393 km
  unpaved: 387 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force
  (includes Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US
  and Europe; minor cannabis producer; banking industry is vulnerable
  to money laundering



======================================================================



@Dominican Republic
------------------



Geography



Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of
  Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 48,730 sq km
  land: 48,380 sq km
  water: 350 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New
  Hampshire

Land boundaries:
  total: 275 km
  border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature
  variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
  interspersed

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
  highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
  arable land: 21%
  permanent crops: 9%
  permanent pastures: 43%
  forests and woodland: 12%
  other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and
  subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding;
  periodic droughts

Environment--current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into
  the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography--note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
  two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)



People



Population: 8,129,734 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 1,447,435; female 1,393,122)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 2,501,206; female 2,426,564)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 171,049; female 190,358) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.62% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 25.97 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 42.52 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.07 years
  male: 67.86 years
  female: 72.4 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.03 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Dominican(s)
  adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 82.1%
  male: 82%
  female: 82.2% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Dominican Republic
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republica Dominicana
  local short form: none

Data code: DR

Government type: republic

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias,
  singular--provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco,
  Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo,
  Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
  Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte
  Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez
  Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago,
  Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married
  persons regardless of age
  note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
  1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
  1996); note--the president is both the chief of state and head of
  government
  head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16
  August 1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16
  August 1996); note--the president is both the chief of state and head
  of government
  cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996;
  runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000)
  election results: Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna elected president; percent
  of vote--Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (PLD) 51.25%, Jose Francisco PENA
  Gomez (PRD) 48.75%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso
  Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are
  elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of
  Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by
  popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: Senate--last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA May
  2002); Chamber of Deputies--last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA
  May 2002)
  election results: Senate--percent of vote by party--NA; seats by
  party--PRD 24, PLD 4, PRSC 2; Chamber of Deputies--percent of vote by
  party--NA; seats by party--PRD 83, PLD 49, PRSC 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are
  elected by a Council made up of legislative and executive members
  with the president presiding)

Political parties and leaders:
  Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier]; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or
  note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
  form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain
  individual party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
  Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom
  (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest),
  OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo VEGA Boyrie
  chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto
  Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco,
  and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
  consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
  Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
  embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
  Navarro, Santo Domingo
  mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the
  edges divides the flag into four rectangles--the top ones are blue
  (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue;
  a small coat of arms is at the center of the cross



Economy



Economy--overview: In December 1996, incoming President FERNANDEZ
  presented a bold reform package for this Caribbean economy--including
  the devaluation of the peso, income tax cuts, a 50% increase in
  sales taxes, reduced import tariffs, and increased gasoline
  prices--in an attempt to create a market-oriented economy that can
  compete internationally. Even though most reforms are stalled in the
  legislature, the economy grew vigorously in 1997-98, with tourism
  and telecommunications leading the advance. The government is
  working to increase electric generating capacity, a key to continued
  economic growth, but the privatization of the state electricity
  company has met numerous delays. In late September 1998, Hurricane
  Georges caused approximately $1.3 billion in damages, largely to
  agriculture and infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$39.8 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 7% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$5,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19%
  industry: 25%
  services: 56% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: 20.6% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.6%
  highest 10%: 39.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 50%, services and
  government 32%, industry 18% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.3 billion
  expenditures: $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $867
  million (1999 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold
  mining, textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity--production: 6.7 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 70.15%
  hydro: 29.85%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 6.7 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco,
  rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products,
  beef, eggs

Exports: $997 million (1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa

Exports--partners: US 45%, EU 19.9%, Canada 3.6%, South Korea 3.3%
  (1996)

Imports: $3.6 billion (1998)

Imports--commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics,
  chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Imports--partners: US 44%, EU 16%, Venezuela 11%, Netherlands
  Antilles, Mexico, Japan (1995)

Debt--external: $3.6 billion (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $239.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1--15.949 (January
  1999), 15.267 (1998), 14.265 (1997), 13.775 (1996), 13.597 (1995),
  13.160 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 190,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
  radio relay network
  international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station--1
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1997)

Televisions: 728,000 (1993 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 757 km
  standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)
  narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominica Government Railway);
  240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m,
  0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 12,600 km
  paved: 6,224 km
  unpaved: 6,376 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro
  de Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
  (1998 est.)

Airports: 36 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 14
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 22
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 6
  under 914 m: 15 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,156,827 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 1,355,342 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 82,902 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $180 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.1% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs
  destined for the US



======================================================================



@Ecuador
-------



Geography



Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at
  the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total: 283,560 sq km
  land: 276,840 sq km
  water: 6,720 sq km
  note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,010 km
  border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
  Galapagos Islands
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
  (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 5%
  permanent pastures: 18%
  forests and woodland: 56%
  other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
  activity; periodic droughts

Environment--current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
  desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production
  wastes

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography--note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in
  world



People



Population: 12,562,496 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 2,250,690; female 2,172,302)
  15-64 years: 60% (male 3,745,390; female 3,833,841)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 261,090; female 299,183) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.78% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 22.26 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 5.06 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.16 years
  male: 69.54 years
  female: 74.9 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ecuadorian(s)
  adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 55%,
  Amerindian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
  Quechua)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 90.1%
  male: 92%
  female: 88.2% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
  conventional short form: Ecuador
  local long form: Republica del Ecuador
  local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias,
  singular--provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo,
  Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los
  Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
  Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
  note: a new province, Orellana, was reported to have been formed in
  1998

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809)
  (independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate
  persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jamil MAHUAD (since 10 August 1998); Vice
  President Gustavo NOBOA (since 10 August 1998); note--the president
  is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Jamil MAHUAD (since 10 August 1998);
  Vice President Gustavo NOBOA (since 10 August 1998); note--the
  president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 31 May 1998;
  runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
  election results: Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote--51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso
  Nacional (121 seats; 79 members are popularly elected at-large
  nationally to serve four-year terms; 42 members are popularly
  elected by province--two per province--for four-year terms)
  elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--DP 32,
  PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1;
  note--defections by members of National Congress are commonplace,
  resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the
  various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), new justices are
  elected by the full Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
  BRAVO]
  director]
  EHLERS]
  Gonzalez]

International organization participation: CAN, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
  chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie M. ALEXANDER
  embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
  mailing address: APO AA 34039
  consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double
  width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the
  center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter
  and does not bear a coat of arms



Economy



Economy--overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
  agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products
  such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market
  prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the
  World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many
  of its accession commitments. In recent years, growth has been
  uneven due to ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The
  populist government of Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz proposed a major
  currency reform in 1996, but popular discontent with BUCARAM'S
  austerity measures and rampant official corruption led to his
  replacement by National Congress with Fabian ALARCON in February
  1997. ALARCON adopted a minimalist economic program that put off
  necessary reforms until August 1998 when President Jamil MAHUAD was
  elected. MAHAUD inherited an economy in crisis due to mismanagement,
  El Nino damage to key export sectors such as agriculture, and low
  world commodity prices in the wake of the Asian financial crisis.
  MAHAUD announced a fiscal austerity package and expressed interest
  in an IMF agreement but faces major difficulties in promoting
  economic growth, including possible political objections to further
  reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$58.7 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 1% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$4,800 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12%
  industry: 37%
  services: 51% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 2.3%
  highest 10%: 37.6% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 43% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 29%, manufacturing 18%,
  commerce 15%, services and other activities 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% with widespread underemployment (November
  1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: planned $5.1 billion not including revenue from potential
  privatizations
  expenditures: $5.1 billion (1999)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work,
  paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 8.45 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 17.16%
  hydro: 82.84%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 8.45 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes,
  manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef,
  pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports--commodities: petroleum 30%, bananas 26%, shrimp 16%, cut
  flowers 2%, fish 1.9%

Exports--partners: US 39%, Latin America 25%, EU countries 22%,
  Asia 12%

Imports: $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports--commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods,
  vehicles, machinery, chemicals

Imports--partners: US 32%, EU 19%, Latin America 35%, Asia 11%

Debt--external: $12.5 billion (1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $695.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1--7,133.1 (January 1999),
  5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996), 2,564.5 (1995),
  2,196.7 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 586,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 15 (including one station on the
  Galapagos Islands) (1997)

Televisions: 940,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 965 km (single track)
  narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 42,874 km
  paved: 5,752 km
  unpaved: 37,122 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta,
  Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
  total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 99,078 GRT/162,423 DWT
  ships by type: chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker
  17, passenger 3 (1998 est.)

Airports: 183 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 56
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
  914 to 1,523 m: 14
  under 914 m: 19 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 127
  914 to 1,523 m: 37
  under 914 m: 90 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
  Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
  Ecuatoriana), National Police

Military manpower--military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,259,534 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 2,199,704 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 130,208 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $720 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 3.4% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: on October 26, 1998, Peru and Ecuador
  concluded treaties on commerce and navigation and on boundary
  integration, to complete a package of agreements settling the
  long-standing boundary dispute between them; demarcation of the
  agreed-upon boundary was scheduled to begin in mid-January 1999

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of
  coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; importer of
  precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics;
  important money-laundering hub



======================================================================



@Egypt
-----



Introduction



Background: One of the four great ancient civilizations, Egypt,
  ruled by powerful pharaohs, bequeathed to Western civilization
  numerous advances in technology, science, and the arts. For the last
  two millennia, however, Egypt has served a series of foreign
  masters--Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, and the
  British. Formal independence came in 1922, and the remnants of
  British control ended after World War II. The completion of the
  Aswan High Dam in 1981 altered the time-honored place of the Nile
  River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing
  population will stress Egyptian society and resources as it enters
  the new millenium.



Geography



Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea,
  between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 1,001,450 sq km
  land: 995,450 sq km
  water: 6,000 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New
  Mexico

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,689 km
  border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
  Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
  highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
  manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
  floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
  khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment--current issues: agricultural land being lost to
  urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below
  Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral
  reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from
  agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very
  limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is
  the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population
  overstraining natural resources

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge
  between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez
  Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea;
  size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in
  Middle Eastern geopolitics



People



Population: 67,273,906 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 36% (male 12,260,845; female 11,712,752)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 20,604,620; female 20,211,012)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 1,099,517; female 1,385,160) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.82% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 26.8 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 8.27 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 67.46 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 62.39 years
  male: 60.39 years
  female: 64.49 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.33 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Egyptian(s)
  adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
  Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
  Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
  Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely
  understood by educated classes

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 51.4%
  male: 63.6%
  female: 38.8% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
  conventional short form: Egypt
  local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
  local short form: Misr
  former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat,
  singular--muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah,
  Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah,
  Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid,
  Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id,
  Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina',
  Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and
  Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of
  State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October
  1981)
  head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed El-GANZOURI (since 4
  January 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
  elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a
  six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national,
  popular referendum; national referendum last held 4 October 1993
  (next to be held NA October 1999); prime minister appointed by the
  president
  election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's
  nomination by the People's Assembly to a third term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's
  Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote,
  10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and
  the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura--which functions only in a
  consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88
  appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
  elections: People's Assembly--last held 29 November 1995 (next to be
  held NA 2000); Advisory Council--last held 7 June 1995 (next to be
  held NA)
  election results: People's Assembly--percent of vote by party--NDP
  72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party--NDP 317,
  independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1,
  Liberals 1; Advisory Council--percent of vote by party--NDP 99%,
  independents 1%; seats by party--NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party or NDP
  legal opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party or NWP
  note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional
  ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
  Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
  political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity
  by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
  aggressively in the past two years to block its influence; trade
  unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
  (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD,
  ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA, MINURSO, MONUA,
  NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNOMIL,
  UNOMSIL, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed MAHER al-Sayed
  chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER
  embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City,
  Cairo
  mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top),
  white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on
  a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name
  of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the
  flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the
  flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq,
  which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
  horizontal line centered in the white band



Economy



Economy--overview: At the end of the 1980s, Egypt faced problems
  of low productivity and poor economic management, compounded by the
  adverse social effects of excessive population growth, high
  inflation, and massive urban overcrowding. In the face of these
  pressures, in 1991 Egypt undertook wide-ranging macroeconomic
  stabilization and structural reform measures. This reform effort has
  been supported by three IMF arrangements, the last of which expired
  in September 1998. Egypt's reform efforts--and its participation in
  the Gulf war coalition--also led to massive debt relief under the
  Paris Club arrangements. Substantial progress has been made in
  improving macroeconomic performance. Cairo tamed inflation, slashed
  budget deficits, and built up foreign reserves to an all-time high.
  Although the pace of structural reforms--such as privatization and
  new business legislation--has been slower than envisioned under the
  IMF program, Egypt's steps toward a more market-oriented economy
  have prompted increased foreign investment. The November 1997
  massacre of foreign tourists in Luxor affected tourism enough to
  slow the GDP growth rate for 1998 compared to earlier projections.
  Tourism's slow recovery, coupled with low world oil prices, caused a
  downturn in foreign exchange earnings in 1998, but external payments
  are not in crisis.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$188 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$2,850 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 16%
  industry: 31%
  services: 53% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.9%
  highest 10%: 26.7% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1998)

Labor force: 17.4 million (1998 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 40%, services, including
  government 38%, industry 22% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $20 billion
  expenditures: $20.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.4
  billion (FY97/98)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals,
  petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 9.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 46 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 76.09%
  hydro: 23.91%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 46 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
  vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; fish

Exports: $5.5 billion (f.o.b., FY97/98 est.)

Exports--commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton
  yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals

Exports--partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports: $16.7 billion (c.i.f., FY97/98 est.)

Imports--commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers,
  wood products, durable consumer goods, capital goods

Imports--partners: US, EU, Japan

Debt--external: $28 billion (FY97/98 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: ODA, $2.4 billion (1996)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (LE) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (LE) per US$1--3.4 (November
  1994); market rate--3.3880 (January 1999), 3.3880 (1998), 3.3880
  (1997), 3.3880 (1996), 3.3900 (1995), 3.3910 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 July--30 June



Communications



Telephones: 3.168 million (1996); 70,000 digital cellular
  telephone subscribers (1998); 7,400 analog cellular telephone
  subscribers (1997)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but
  inadequate for present requirements and undergoing extensive
  upgrading
  domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
  Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and
  microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth stations--2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean
  and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine
  cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to
  Israel; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 57, FM 14, shortwave 3 (1998 est.)

Radios: 16.45 million (1998 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 42 (in addition, there are nine
  channels received from Europe by satellite) (1997)

Televisions: 5 million (1998 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 4,751 km
  standard gauge: 4,751 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km
  double track)

Highways:
  total: 64,000 km
  paved: 49,984 km
  unpaved: 14,016 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
  Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the
  delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by
  oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural
  gas 460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
  Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
  total: 180 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,334,406
  GRT/2,022,785 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 63, container 1, liquefied gas tanker
  1, oil tanker 14, passenger 56, refrigerated cargo 1,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 16, short-sea passenger 3 (1998 est.)

Airports: 89 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 70
  over 3,047 m: 10
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 37
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
  914 to 1,523 m: 3
  under 914 m: 4 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 19
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 6
  under 914 m: 9 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower--military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 17,756,706 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 11,507,058 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 694,468 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 8.2% (FY95/96)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Egypt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib
  Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial Sudanese
  administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which
  supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast
  Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit
  stop for Nigerian couriers



======================================================================



@El Salvador
-----------



Geography



Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean,
  between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total: 21,040 sq km
  land: 20,720 sq km
  water: 320 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 545 km
  border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season
  (November to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central
  plateau

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 27%
  permanent crops: 8%
  permanent pastures: 29%
  forests and woodland: 5%
  other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
  sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment--current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
  pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes;
  Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography--note: smallest Central American country and only one
  without a coastline on Caribbean Sea



People



Population: 5,839,079 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37% (male 1,091,500; female 1,044,658)
  15-64 years: 58% (male 1,612,847; female 1,786,318)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 138,052; female 165,704) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.53% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 26.19 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.2 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.38 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.02 years
  male: 66.7 years
  female: 73.5 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.99 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Salvadoran(s)
  adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 94%, Amerindian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
  note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout
  the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
  Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 71.5%
  male: 73.5%
  female: 69.8% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
  conventional short form: El Salvador
  local long form: Republica de El Salvador
  local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Government type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos,
  singular--departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango,
  Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San
  Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common
  law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
  note: Legislative Assembly passed landmark judicial reforms in 1996

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994);
  Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June
  1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket
  by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 20 March
  1994, with a run-off election held 24 April 1994 (next to be held 7
  March 1999)
  election results: Armando CALDERON Sol elected president; percent of
  vote--Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas
  (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%;
  because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election was
  held and the results were as follows--Armando CALDERON Sol (ARENA)
  68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
  note: in the election held 7 March 1999, Francisco FLORES elected
  president, Carlos QUINTANILLA elected vice president (will take
  office 1 June 1999); percent of vote--Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%,
  Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN/USC) 29%, Ruben ZAMORA (CD) 8%, other parties
  11%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
  Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
  serve three-year terms)
  elections: last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2000)
  election results: percent of vote by party--ARENA 35.4%, FMLN 34.3%,
  PCN 8.1%, PDC 7.9%, CD 3.8%, PRSC 3.4%, PLD 3.2%, MU 2.1%, PD 1.0%,
  other 0.8%; seats by party--ARENA 28, FMLN 27, PCN 9, PDC 8, PRSC 3,
  CD 2, PLD 2, MU 1, PD 1, independent 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are
  selected by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance or
  MARTINEZ, president]
  note: the Social Christian Union or USC is formed by the union of
  the Social Christian Renovation Party or PRSC, the Unity Movement or
  MU, and the MSN

Political pressure groups and leaders:
  labor organizations: National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or
  CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Federation of
  the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities,
  or FESINCONTRANS; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Port Industry
  Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Electrical Industry Union of El
  Salvador or SIES; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL
  business organizations: Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI;
  Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; National
  Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
  OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Rene A. LEON
  chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
  consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
  embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Antiguo Cuscatlan, San Salvador
  mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top),
  white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white
  band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the
  words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the
  flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in
  the white band--it features a triangle encircled by the words
  REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom;
  also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars
  arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band



Economy



Economy--overview: In recent years inflation has fallen to
  unprecedented levels, and exports have grown substantially. Even so,
  El Salvador has experienced sizable deficits in both its trade and
  its fiscal accounts. The trade deficit has been offset by
  remittances from the large number of Salvadorans living abroad and
  from external aid. El Salvador sustained damage from Hurricane
  Mitch, but not as much as other Central American countries.
  Inflation and the trade deficit are expected to rise somewhat as a
  result.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$17.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 3.7% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$3,000 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 15%
  industry: 24%
  services: 61% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 48.3% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 1.2%
  highest 10%: 38.3% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1998)

Labor force: 2.26 million (1997 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%,
  manufacturing 15%, government 13%, financial services 9%,
  transportation 6%, other 1%

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.75 billion
  expenditures: $1.82 billion, including capital expenditures of $317
  million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals,
  fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

Electricity--production: 3.575 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 22.38%
  hydro: 61.54%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 16.08% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 3.547 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 60 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 32 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans,
  oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Exports: $1.96 billion (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports--commodities: coffee, sugar; shrimp; textiles

Exports--partners: US, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica, Honduras

Imports: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997 est.)

Imports--commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital
  goods, fuels

Imports--partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Japan

Debt--external: $2.6 billion (yearend 1997)

Economic aid--recipient: $391.7 million (1995); note?US has
  committed $280 million in economic assistance to El Salvador for
  1995-97 (excludes military aid)

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 (end of
  period)--8.755 (January 1999-1995), 8.750 (1994)
  note: as of 1 June 1990, the rate is based on the average of the
  buying and selling rates, set on a weekly basis, for official
  receipts and payments, imports of petroleum, and coffee exports;
  prior to that date, a system of floating was in effect

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 350,000 (1997 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
  connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 80, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.5 million (1997 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1997)

Televisions: 700,000 (1997 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 602 km (single track; note--some sections abandoned, unusable,
  or operating at reduced capacity)
  narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 10,029 km
  paved: 1,986 km (including 327 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 8,043 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La
  Union, Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 86 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 4
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 82
  914 to 1,523 m: 17
  under 914 m: 65 (1998 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,393,986 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 884,093 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 65,224 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $105 million (1998)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 0.9% (1998)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: demarcation of boundary with Honduras
  defined by 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision has
  not been completed; small boundary section left unresolved by ICJ
  decision not yet reported to have been settled; with respect to the
  maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, ICJ referred to an
  earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite
  resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be
  required

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana
  produced for local consumption



======================================================================



@Equatorial Guinea
-----------------



Geography



Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
  Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 28,050 sq km
  land: 28,050 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 539 km
  border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are
  volcanic

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, small unexploited deposits
  of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 4%
  permanent pastures: 4%
  forests and woodland: 46%
  other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: violent windstorms, flash floods

Environment--current issues: tap water is not potable;
  desertification

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of
  the Sea, Ship Pollution
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: insular and continental regions rather widely
  separated



People



Population: 465,746 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 100,334; female 99,826)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 118,248; female 129,777)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 7,801; female 9,760) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.55% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 38.49 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 12.98 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
  note: migration to Spain is a traditional and continuing factor;
  between 80% and 90% of Equatorial Guinean nationals going to Spain
  do not return

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 91.18 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 54.39 years
  male: 52.03 years
  female: 56.83 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
  adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
  (primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic,
  pagan practices

Languages: Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English,
  Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 78.5%
  male: 89.6%
  female: 68.1% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
  local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
  local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
  former: Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Government type: republic in transition to multiparty democracy
  (the transition appears to have halted)

Capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias,
  singular--provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur,
  Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: approved by national referendum 17 November 1991;
  amended January 1995

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
  MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979)
  head of government: Prime Minister Serafin Seriche DOUGAN (since NA
  April 1996); First Vice Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs Miguel
  OYONO NDONG (since NA January 1998); Second Vice Prime Minister for
  Internal Affairs Demetrio Elo NDONG NGEFUMU (since NA January 1998)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
  elections: president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term;
  election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
  2003); prime minister and vice prime ministers appointed by the
  president
  election results: President OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected with 98%
  of popular vote in elections marred by widespread fraud

Legislative branch: unicameral House of People's Representatives
  or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members directly
  elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
  elections: last held 21 November 1993 (next to be held NA 1999)
  election results: percent of vote by party--NA; seats by party--PDGE
  68, CSDP 6, UDS 5, CLD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
  ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE
  opposition parties: Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS
  BOKESA, president]; Party of the Social Democratic Coalition or PCSD
  mayor of Malabo]; Social Democratic and Popular Convergence or CSDP

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
  OAU, OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO,
  WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE
  chancery: 1712 I Street NW, Suite 410, Washington, DC 20005

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an
  embassy in Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US
  relations with Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy
  in Yaounde, Cameroon; the US State Department is considering opening
  a Consulate Agency in Malabo

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top),
  white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist
  side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of
  arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and
  five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton
  tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ,
  JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)



Economy



Economy--overview: The discovery and exploitation of large oil
  reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent
  years. Several large oil companies are expected to bid on oil
  licenses by May 1999. Forestry, farming, and fishing are also major
  components of GDP. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
  pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
  hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
  successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for
  agriculture-led growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the
  World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of the
  government's gross corruption and mismanagement. Businesses, for the
  most part, are owned by government officials and their family
  members. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore,
  manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. The country responded
  favorably to the devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$660 million (1997 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$1,500 (1997 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 46%
  industry: 33%
  services: 21% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $47 million
  expenditures: $43 million, including capital expenditures of $7
  million (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity--production: 19 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 89.47%
  hydro: 10.53%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 19 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava
  (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts, manioc (tapioca); livestock;
  timber

Exports: $197 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

Exports--commodities: petroleum, timber, cocoa

Exports--partners: US 34%, Japan 17%, Spain 13%, China 13%, Nigeria

Imports: $248 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)

Imports--commodities: petroleum, food, beverages, clothing,
  machinery

Imports--partners: Cameroon 40%, Spain 18%, France 14%, US 8%

Debt--external: $254 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $33.8 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) is used

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
  US$1--560.01 (December 1998), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55
  (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994)

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 2,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services
  domestic: NA
  international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
  African and European countries; satellite earth station--1 Intelsat
  (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,880 km
  paved: 0 km
  unpaved: 2,880 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
  total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,370 GRT/25,194 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 9, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 3 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention
  Force, National Police

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 102,269 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 51,979 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $2.5 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon
  because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay;
  maritime boundary dispute with Nigeria because of disputed
  jurisdiction over oil-rich areas in the Gulf of Guinea



======================================================================



@Eritrea
-------



Introduction



Background: On 29 May 1991, ISAIAS Afworki, secretary general of
  the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which then
  served as the country's legislative body, announced the formation of
  the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the
  23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence from Ethiopia. The
  referendum resulted in a landslide vote for independence, which
  became effective on 24 May 1993.



Geography



Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti
  and Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 121,320 sq km
  land: 121,320 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,630 km
  border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands
  in Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and
  wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually);
  semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during
  June-September except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
  highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
  northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
  plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: near Kulul within the Denakil depression -75 m
  highest point: Soira 3,018 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil
  and natural gas (currently under exploration), fish

Land use:
  arable land: 12%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 48%
  forests and woodland: 20%
  other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts

Environment--current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil
  erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: strategic geopolitical position along world's
  busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
  Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia
  on 27 April 1993



People



Population: 3,984,723 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 859,899; female 852,329)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 1,061,921; female 1,078,102)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 67,969; female 64,503) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.88% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 42.56 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 12.32 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
  note: it is estimated that approximately 315,000 Eritrean refugees
  were still living in Sudan by the end of 1997 according to the UNHCR

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female
  total population: 1 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.84 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 55.74 years
  male: 53.61 years
  female: 57.95 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.96 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Eritrean(s)
  adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar
  4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya,
  minor ethnic group languages

Literacy: NA



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: State of Eritrea
  conventional short form: Eritrea
  local long form: Hagere Ertra
  local short form: Ertra
  former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Government type: transitional government
  note: following a successful referendum on independence for the
  Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National
  Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and
  Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a
  Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a
  constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the
  transitional legislature

Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular--awraja); Akale
  Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye
  note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating
  that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been
  established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six
  provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, became
  effective in 1997; the new provinces, the names of which had not
  been recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for recognition
  by the US Government, pending acceptable definition of the
  boundaries, were: Anseba, Debub, Debubawi Keyih Bahri, Gash-Barka,
  Maakel, and Semanawi Keyih Bahri; more recently, it has been
  reported that these provinces have been redesignated regions and
  renamed Southern Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Anseba, Gash-Barka,
  Southern, and Central

Independence: 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
  Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24
  May (1993)

Constitution: the transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May
  1993, was replaced by a new constitution that was promulgated in May
  1997

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA; note--it seems likely that the final version of the
  constitution would follow the example set in the referendum of 1993
  and extend suffrage to all persons 18 years of age or older

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993);
  note--the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority
  note: the president is head of the State Council and National
  Assembly
  elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last
  held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA)
  election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of
  National Assembly vote--ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term
  limits not established)
  elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new
  constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old
  Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member
  Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss
  and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans
  living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to
  serve as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections
  to a National Assembly are held; only 75 members will be elected to
  the National Assembly--the other 75 will be members of the Central
  Committee of the PFDJ

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court; 10 provincial courts; 29
  district courts

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
  Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or
  NAWUD]; Eritrean Liberation Front-Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
  FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Intelsat (nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador SEMERE Russom
  chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William CLARK
  embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara
  mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist
  side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle
  is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold
  olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle



Economy



Economy--overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993,
  Eritrea faced the bitter economic problem of a small, desperately
  poor African country. The economy is largely based on subsistence
  agriculture, with over 70% of the population involved in farming and
  herding. The small industrial sector consists mainly of light
  industries with outmoded technologies. Domestic output (GDP) is
  substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad.
  Government revenues come from custom duties and taxes on income and
  sales. Road construction is a top domestic priority. Eritrea has
  long-term prospects for revenues from the development of offshore
  oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. Eritrea's economic future
  depends on its ability to master fundamental social and economic
  problems, e.g., overcoming illiteracy, promoting job creation,
  expanding technical training, attracting foreign investment, and
  streamlining the bureaucracy. The most immediate threat to the
  economy, however, is the possible expansion of the armed conflict
  with Ethiopia.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$2.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$660 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 18%
  industry: 20%
  services: 62% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $226 million
  expenditures: $453 million, including capital expenditures of $88
  million (1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: NA kWh

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: NA%
  hydro: NA%
  nuclear: NA%
  other: NA%

Electricity--consumption: NA kWh

Electricity--exports: NA kWh

Electricity--imports: NA kWh

Agriculture--products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, maize,
  cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish

Exports: $95 million (1996 est.)

Exports--commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small
  manufactures

Exports--partners: Ethiopia 67%, Sudan 10%, US 8%, Italy 4%, Saudi
  Arabia, Yemen (1996)

Imports: $514 million (1996 est.)

Imports--commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum
  products

Imports--partners: Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Italy, United Arab
  Emirates (1996)

Debt--external: $46 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $149.9 million (1995)

Currency: 1 nafka = 100 cents

Exchange rates: nakfa per US$1 = 7.6 (January 1999), 7.2 (March
  1998 est.)
  note: following independence from Ethiopia, Eritrea continued to use
  Ethiopian currency until November 1997 when Eritrea issued its own
  currency, the nakfa, at approximately the same rate as the birr,
  i.e., 7.2 nakfa per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: very inadequate; about 4 telephones per 100 families, most
  of which are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders
  to improve the system
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government controlled) (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 307 km
  narrow gauge: 307 km 0.950-m gauge (1995 est.)
  note: nonoperational since 1978 except for about a 5 km stretch that
  was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and
  of the rolling stock is under way; links Ak'ordat and Asmara
  (formerly Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)

Highways:
  total: 4,010 km
  paved: 874 km
  unpaved: 3,136 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:
  total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,947 GRT/5,747 DWT
  ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 20 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 18
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
  914 to 1,523 m: 6
  under 914 m: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $196 million (1997)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 28.6% (1997)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: dispute over alignment of boundary with
  Ethiopia led to armed conflict in 1998, which is still unresolved
  despite arbitration efforts; Hanish Islands dispute with Yemen
  resolved by arbitral tribunal in October 1998



======================================================================



@Estonia
-------



Introduction



Background: In and out of Swedish and Russian control over the
  centuries, this little Baltic state was re-incorporated into the
  USSR after German occupation in World War II. Independence came with
  the collapse of the USSR in 1991; the last Russian troops left in
  1994. Estonia thus became free to promote economic and political
  ties with Western Europe. The position of ethnic Russians (29% of
  the population) remains an issue of concern to Moscow. European
  Union (EU) membership negotiations, which began in 1998, remain a
  domestic issue.



Geography



Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
  Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 45,226 sq km
  land: 43,211 sq km
  water: 2,015 sq km
  note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont
  combined

Land boundaries:
  total: 633 km
  border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with
  neighboring states
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite,
  amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite

Land use:
  arable land: 25%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 11%
  forests and woodland: 44%
  other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment--current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur
  dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast;
  contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products,
  chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than
  1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in
  agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal
  sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
  Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
  signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



People



Population: 1,408,523 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18% (male 130,883; female 126,112)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 455,112; female 491,819)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 66,700; female 137,897) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.82% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 9.05 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 14.21 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.83 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.65 years
  male: 62.61 years
  female: 75 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Estonian(s)
  adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.1%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%,
  Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.8% (1998)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian
  Orthodox, others include Baptist, Methodist, Seventh Day Adventist,
  Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Seventh Day Baptist,
  Judaism

Languages: Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, English,
  Finnish, other

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100% (1998 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
  conventional short form: Estonia
  local long form: Eesti Vabariik
  local short form: Eesti
  former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad,
  singular--maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa
  (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu),
  Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva),
  Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa
  (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)
  note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
  administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center
  name following in parentheses)

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
  legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)
  head of government: Prime Minister Mart SIIMANN (since 12 March 1997)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
  approved by Parliament
  elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if
  he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds
  of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus
  members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between
  the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election
  last held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime
  minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
  election results: Lennart MERI elected president by an electoral
  assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between
  MERI and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote--Lennart MERI
  61%, Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101
  seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held 7 March 1999)
  election results: percent of vote by party--KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K
  14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and
  Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats by party--KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria
  8, Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: National Court, chairman appointed by Parliament
  for life

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union or
  SAVISAAR, chairman]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League
  ANDREJEV] made up of two parties: United People's Party and the
  Russian Party of Estonia; note--Our Home is Estonia split when two
  Russian Party of Estonia members withdrew; United People's Party
  parties: Social Democratic Party or ESDP and Rural Center Party or
  VEIDEMANN, chairwoman] (created by defectors from Center Party in
  late spring 1996, Development Party faction split and now holds five

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE,
  EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
  ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNTSO, UPU, WEU
  (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Grigore-Kaleu STOICESCU
  chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Melissa WELLS
  embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
  mailing address: use embassy street address

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May
  1990--three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white



Economy



Economy--overview: Estonia's continued adherence to market
  reforms, disciplined fiscal and monetary policies, and a liberal
  free trade regime resulted in GDP growth in 1998 of 5.5% and a
  decrease in inflation to 6.5% from 11.2% in 1997. A high but
  slightly decreased current account deficit was estimated at 8.6%.
  The fall in GDP growth is largely due to the impact of Russia's
  financial crisis and reduced investment in emerging markets in the
  wake of the Asian financial crisis. Like other small emerging
  markets, Estonia will face difficulties in 1999 as a result of
  continuing fallout from Asia. Key events of 1998 were the start of
  official EU accession talks, banking sector consolidation--nine banks
  were reduced to five--and the important role that Swedish capital
  played in the large banks (Swedbank's acquisition of a majority
  stake in Hansapank has accounted for the large increase in foreign
  direct investment). The IMF urged Estonia to maintain a stable
  economy and good reputation in international markets and to avoid
  populist policies in the run-up to March 1999 parliamentary
  elections. The government completed restructuring of
  state-controlled Estonian Telecom, the sale of 49% of which will be
  the flagship privatization in 1999 and the largest public equity
  transaction in the Baltics. Estonia expects to join the World Trade
  Organization in 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$7.8 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5.5% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$5,500 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6.2%
  industry: 24.3%
  services: 69.5% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 6.3% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: 3.2%
  highest 10%: 28.5% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 717,000 (1997 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: industry 42%, agriculture and forestry
  11%, services 47% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.6% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.37 billion
  expenditures: $1.37 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997 est.)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
  excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
  apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity--production: 8.065 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 99.96%
  hydro: 0.04%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 5.581 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--exports: 1.2 billion kWh (1997)

Electricity--imports: 210 million kWh (1997)

Agriculture--products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and
  dairy products; fish

Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: machinery and equipment 17%, textiles 16%,
  food products 8%, transport equipment 8%, mineral products 8%,
  chemical products 8% (1997)

Exports--partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Latvia (1997)

Imports: $3.9 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports--commodities: machinery and equipment 21%, transport
  equipment 12%, foodstuffs 10%, minerals 9%, textiles 8%, metals 8%,
  chemical products 8% (1997)

Imports--partners: Finland, Germany, Russia, Sweden, Japan, US
  (1997)

Debt--external: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $137.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1--13.473 (January 1999),
  14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997), 12.034 (1996), 11.465 (1995), 12.991
  (1994); note--krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed
  rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 531,000 (1997)

Telephone system: the Ministry of Transportation and
  Communications (MOTC) administers Estonia's telephone system;
  Internet services available throughout most of the country; about
  150,000 unfilled subscriber requests
  domestic: local--cellular phones services are growing and expanding
  to develop rural networks under direction of the MOTC;
  intercity--Estonia has a highly developed fiber-optic backbone
  (double loop) system presently serving at least 16 major cities
  (1998)
  international: foreign investment in the form of joint business
  ventures greatly improved Estonia's telephone service; fiber-optic
  cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide
  packet switched service

Radio broadcast stations: 27 commercial broadcast stations, 1
  government broadcast station (1997); note--by law 51% of shows must
  be produced within the EU; equal air time must be given to all
  candidates during elections by public and private stations

Radios: 1.12 million (1997 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1997); note--Ministry of Culture
  administers television licensing; mainly Estonian, European, and
  Russian programming; by law 51% of shows must be produced within the
  EU; equal air time must be given to all candidates during elections
  by public and private stations

Televisions: 1.132 million (1997 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include
  dedicated industrial lines
  broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 16,437 km
  paved: 8,343 km (including 65 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 8,094 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 320 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu,
  Tallinn

Merchant marine:
  total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 337,163 GRT/348,749 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 22, combination bulk 1, container 5,
  oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 6 (1998
  est.)

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 5
  over 3,047 m: 1
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)



Military



Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air
  Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard,
  Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and
  border troops)

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 349,263 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 274,276 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 10,503 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $70 million (1999)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.2% (1999)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached
  a technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been
  ratified

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
  Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, and cocaine from Latin
  America to Western Europe and Scandinavia; possible precursor
  manufacturing and/or trafficking



======================================================================



@Ethiopia
--------



Introduction



Background: On 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
  Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of
  MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa. A new
  constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and
  regional popular elections were held in May and June 1995.



Geography



Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 1,127,127 sq km
  land: 1,119,683 sq km
  water: 7,444 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,311 km
  border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
  Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by
  Great Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Denakil -125 m
  highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper,
  potash, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 12%
  permanent crops: 1%
  permanent pastures: 40%
  forests and woodland: 25%
  other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley
  susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment--current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil
  erosion; desertification

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Ozone Layer Protection
  signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the
  Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography--note: landlocked?entire coastline along the Red Sea was
  lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993



People



Population: 59,680,383 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46% (male 13,787,810; female 13,703,546)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 15,398,123; female 15,141,892)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 745,737; female 903,275) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.16% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 44.34 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 21.43 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
  note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan, Kenya, and
  Somalia for refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected
  to continue slowly in 1998; small numbers of Sudanese and Somali
  refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting in their own
  countries, began returning to their homes in 1998

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 124.57 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 40.46 years
  male: 39.22 years
  female: 41.73 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.81 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ethiopian(s)
  adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%,
  Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist
  12%, other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic, Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali,
  Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 35.5%
  male: 45.5%
  female: 25.3% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  conventional short form: Ethiopia
  local long form: YeItyop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
  local short form: YeItyop'iya
  abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 states and 2 chartered cities*: Addis
  Ababa*; Afar; Amhara; Benshangul/Gumuz (Benishangul-Gumaz); Dire
  Dawa*; Gambela (Gambella); Harari (Harar); Oromia (Oromiya); Somalia
  (Somali); Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP);
  Tigray (Tigre)

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
  oldest in the world--at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of MENGISTU
  regime)

Constitution: promulgated December 1994

Legal system: currently transitional mix of national and regional
  courts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)
  head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since August 1995)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided in the December 1994
  constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and
  approved by the House of People's Representatives
  elections: president elected by the House of People's
  Representatives for a six-year term; election last held June 1995
  (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister designated by the party in
  power following legislative elections
  election results: NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote
  by the House of People's Representatives--NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
  Federation or upper chamber (117 seats; members are chosen by state
  assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's
  Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly
  elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: regional and national popular elections were held in May
  and June 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
  election results: percent of vote--NA; seats--NA; note--EPRDF won
  nearly all seats

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court; the president and vice
  president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime
  minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for
  other federal judges, the prime minister submits candidates selected
  by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council to the House of
  People's Representatives for appointment

Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary

Political pressure groups and leaders: Oromo Liberation Front or
  OLF; All Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's
  Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnically-based groups have
  formed since former President MENGISTU'S defeat, including several
  Islamic militant groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
  FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
  OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
  chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David H. SHINN
  embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
  mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top),
  yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays
  emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk
  centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent
  country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted
  by other African countries upon independence that they became known
  as the pan-African colors



Economy



Economy--overview: Ethiopia remains one of the least developed
  countries in the world. Its economy is based on agriculture, which
  accounts for more than half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total
  employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The
  agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor
  cultivation practices, and deterioration of internal security
  conditions. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs
  from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but
  less than 10% of agriculture, is state-run. The government is
  considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants and is
  implementing reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the
  economy. A major medium-term problem is the improvement of roads,
  water supply, and other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected
  during years of civil strife. Renewed fighting with Eritrea dims
  economic prospects for 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$32.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$560 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 55%
  industry: 12%
  services: 33% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%,
  government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $1 billion
  expenditures: $1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415
  million (FY96/97)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals,
  metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 1.32 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 7.58%
  hydro: 87.12%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 5.3% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 1.32 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed,
  sugarcane, potatoes; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $550 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports--commodities: coffee, leather products, gold, oilseeds
  (1995)

Exports--partners: Germany 26%, Japan 11%, Italy 10%, UK 8%,
  Djibouti, Saudi Arabia (1996 est.)

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports--commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and
  petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles and
  aircraft (1994)

Imports--partners: Italy 11%, US 11%, Germany 7%, Saudi Arabia 4%
  (1996 est.)

Debt--external: $10 billion (1996)

Economic aid--recipient: $367 million (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of period)--7.58 (January
  1999), 6.8640 (1997), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995), 5.9500 (1994)
  note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
  interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to
  that date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: 8 July--7 July



Communications



Telephones: 100,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system
  adequate for government use
  domestic: open wire and microwave radio relay
  international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio
  relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations--3 Intelsat (1
  Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 1

Radios: 9 million (1998 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1998)

Televisions: 150,000 (1998 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti
  railroad)
  narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
  note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to
  revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals

Highways:
  total: 28,500 km
  paved: 4,275 km
  unpaved: 24,225 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was by
  agreement with Eritrea using the ports of Assab and Massawa, but
  since the border dispute with Eritrea flared, Ethiopia has used the
  port of Djibouti

Merchant marine:
  total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,264 GRT/94,489 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 7, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 (1998
  est.)

Airports: 84 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 11
  over 3,047 m: 3
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 73
  over 3,047 m: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
  914 to 1,523 m: 36
  under 914 m: 18 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police
  note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the de jure
  independence of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in
  Eritrean possession and ships which belonged to the former Ethiopian
  Navy and based at Djibouti have been sold

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 13,520,302 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 7,052,710 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 655,290 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $138 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY98/99)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: most of the southern half of the boundary
  with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial
  dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden; dispute over alignment of
  boundary with Eritrea led to armed conflict in 1998, which is still
  unresolved despite arbitration efforts

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest
  and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well
  as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat
  (chat) for local use and regional export



======================================================================



@Europa Island
-------------



Geography



Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel,
  about one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern
  Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total: 28 sq km
  land: 28 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  permanent pastures: NA%
  forests and woodland: NA%
  other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: wildlife sanctuary



People



Population: no indigenous inhabitants
  note: there is a small French military garrison



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Europa Island
  local long form: none
  local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
  commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Legal system: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Economy



Economy--overview: no economic activity



Communications



Communications--note: 1 meteorological station



Transportation



Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military--note: defense is the responsibility of France



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: claimed by Madagascar



======================================================================



@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
---------------------------------



Geography



Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic
  Ocean, east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total: 12,173 sq km
  land: 12,173 sq km
  water: 0 sq km
  note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
  about 200 small islands

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
  occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
  except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating
  plains

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 99%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 1% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: deeply indented coast provides good natural
  harbors; short growing season



People



Population: 2,758 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA years
  male: NA years
  female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
  noun: Falkland Islander(s)
  adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic groups: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free
  Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran,
  Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: English



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Colony of the Falkland Islands
  conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Data code: FA

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by
  Argentina

Government type: NA

Capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK;
  also claimed by Argentina)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by
  Argentina)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985; amended 1997

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
  head of government: Governor Richard RALPH (since 29 January 1996;
  to be replaced in May 1999 by Donald LAMONT); Chief Executive A. M.
  GURR (since NA); Financial Secretary D. F. HOWATT (since NA)
  cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative
  Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial
  secretary), and the governor
  elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by
  the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats--8
  elected, 2 ex officio; members are elected by popular vote to serve
  five-year terms)
  elections: last held 9 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2001)
  election results: percent of vote--NA; seats--independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is a nonresident

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
  the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory
  of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white
  disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms
  contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity)
  above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands)
  with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT



Economy



Economy--overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture,
  mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of
  economic activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing
  licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands
  exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40
  million per year, which goes to support the island's health,
  education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of the fish
  taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish
  winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the
  UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. To encourage tourism,
  the Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges
  for visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing.
  The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British
  Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around
  the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial
  reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no
  exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina
  and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty
  conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential
  oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$NA

GDP--real growth rate: NA%

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$NA

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,100 (est.)

Labor force--by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding
  and fishing)

Unemployment rate: full employment; labor shortage

Budget:
  revenues: $66.1 million
  expenditures: $66.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 10 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 100%
  hydro: 0%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 10 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy
  products

Exports: $7.6 million (1995)

Exports--commodities: wool, hides, meat

Exports--partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1992)

Imports: $24.7 million (1995)

Imports--commodities: fuel, food and drink, building materials,
  clothing

Imports--partners: UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan (1992)

Debt--external: $NA

Economic aid--recipient: $1.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Falkland pound (LF) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (LF) per US$1--0.6057 (January
  1999), 0.5037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995),
  0.6529 (1994); note--the Falkland pound is at par with the British
  pound

Fiscal year: 1 April--31 March



Communications



Telephones: 1,180 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB
  radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all
  points on both islands
  international: satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
  with links through London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Radios: 1,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (operated by the British Forces
  Broadcasting Service) (1997)

Televisions: NA



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 348 km
  paved: 83 km
  unpaved: 265 km

Ports and harbors: Stanley

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 2
  2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
  under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 3
  under 914 m: 3 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes
  Army, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%

Military--note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: claimed by Argentina



======================================================================



@Faroe Islands
-------------



Geography



Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea
  and the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland
  to Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 1,399 sq km
  land: 1,399 sq km
  water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams)

Area--comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,117 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy,
  windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish, whales

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 0%
  permanent pastures: 0%
  forests and woodland: 0%
  other: 94% (1996)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment--current issues: NA

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: NA
  signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography--note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one
  uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically
  located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic;
  precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands



People



Population: 41,059 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 23% (male 4,819; female 4,629)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 13,600; female 11,811)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 2,786; female 3,414) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -2.03% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 12.54 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 9.08 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -23.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.56 years
  male: 75.66 years
  female: 81.58 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.36 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Faroese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Faroese

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: NA
  note: similar to Denmark proper



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Faroe Islands
  local long form: none
  local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing
  overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1948

Government type: NA

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark;
  self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark;
  self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January
  1972), represented by High Commissioner Bente KLINTE, chief
  administrative officer (since NA)
  head of government: Prime Minister Anfinn KALLSBERG (since 9 May
  1998)
  cabinet: Landsstyri elected by the Faroese Parliament
  elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by
  the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
  party that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister by
  the Faroese Parliament; election last held 30 April 1998 (next to be
  held NA 2002)
  election results: Anfinn KALLSBERG elected prime minister; percent
  of parliamentary vote--NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32
  seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis
  from the seven constituencies to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held by NA July 2002)
  election results: percent of vote by party--Republicans 23.8%,
  People's Party 21.3%, Social Democrats 21.9%, Coalition Party (Union
  Party, Labor Front, Home Rule Party) 15%; seats by party--Republicans
  8, People's Party 8, Social Democrats 7, Coalition Party 6, other
  parties 3
  note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on
  11 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002); results--percent of vote
  by party--NA; seats by party--Social Democrats 1, Conservatives 1

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Joannes
  KALLSBERG]

International organization participation: NC, NIB

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing
  overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing
  overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that
  extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is
  shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Economy



Economy--overview: After the severe economic troubles of the early
  1990s, brought on by a drop in the vital fish catch, the Faroe
  Islands have come back in the last few years, with unemployment down
  to 5% in mid-1998. Nevertheless the total dependence on fishing
  means the economy remains extremely vulnerable. The Faroese hope to
  broaden their economic base by building new fish-processing plants.
  Oil finds close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits in the
  immediate Faroese area, which may lay the basis for sustained
  economic prosperity. The Faroese are supported by a substantial
  annual subsidy from Denmark.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$700 million (1996 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$16,000 (1996 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 20%
  industry: 16%
  services: 64% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 20,345 (1995 est.)

Labor force--by occupation: largely engaged in fishing,
  manufacturing, transportation, and commerce

Unemployment rate: 5% (1998 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $467 million
  expenditures: $468 million, including capital expenditures of $11
  million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity--production: 170 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 52.94%
  hydro: 47.06%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 170 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon,
  other fish

Exports: $362 million (f.o.b., 1995)

Exports--commodities: fish and fish products 92%, animal
  feedstuffs, transport equipment (ships)

Exports--partners: Denmark 22.2%, UK 25.8%, Germany 9.7%, France
  8.3%, Norway 6.2%, US 2.0%

Imports: $315.6 (c.i.f., 1995)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment 17.0%,
  consumer goods 33%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 26.9%, fuels
  11.4%, fish and salt 6.7%

Imports--partners: Denmark 34.5%, Norway 15.9%, UK 8.4% Germany
  7.8%, Sweden 5.8%, US 1.5%

Debt--external: $767 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $150 million (annual subsidy from
  Denmark) (1995)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--6.408 (January
  1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1966), 5.602 (1995), 6.361
  (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 22,500 (3,500 cellular telephone subscribers) (1996)

Telephone system: good international communications; good
  domestic facilities
  domestic: digitalization was to hve been completed in 1998
  international: satellite earth stations--1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic
  submarine cable linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (repeaters 13), shortwave 0

Radios: 11,800 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (in addition, there are 29
  low-power repeaters; satellite relays of MTV Europe, BBC World, and
  Scansat TV3 Eurosport are also available) (1997)

Televisions: 11,600 (1996 est.)



Transportation



Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 458 km
  paved: 450 km
  unpaved: 8 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik,
  Fuglafjorour

Merchant marine:
  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,853 GRT/13,481 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 2, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: no organized native military forces; only a
  small Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: NA%

Military--note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Fiji
----



Geography



Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
  two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total: 18,270 sq km
  land: 18,270 sq km
  water: 0 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
  rectilinear shelf claim added
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature
  variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil
  potential

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 4%
  permanent pastures: 10%
  forests and woodland: 65%
  other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to
  January

Environment--current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
  Protocol, Desertication, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography--note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110
  are inhabited



People



Population: 812,918 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33% (male 138,796; female 133,428)
  15-64 years: 63% (male 257,130; female 256,834)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 12,527; female 14,203) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 22.76 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 66.59 years
  male: 64.19 years
  female: 69.11 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Fijian(s)
  adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: Fijian 51%, Indian 44%, European, other Pacific
  Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%),
  Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
  note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is
  a Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 91.6%
  male: 93.8%
  female: 89.3% (1995 est.)



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands
  conventional short form: Fiji

Data code: FJ

Government type: republic
  note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally
  declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
  Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
  constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
  July 1990; amended 25 July 1997 to allow non-ethnic Fijians greater
  say in government and to make multi-party government mandatory;
  entered into force 28 July 1998; note-- the May 1999 election will be
  the first test of the amended constitution and will introduce open
  voting--not racially prescribed--for the first time at the national
  level

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (acting president
  since 15 December 1993, president since 12 January 1994); Vice
  President Ratu Josefa Iloilo ULUIVUDA (since 18 January 1999)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June
  1992); Deputy Prime Minister Taufa VAKATALE (since 7 August 1997)
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
  members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
  note: there is also a Presidential Council that advises the
  president on matters of national importance and a Great Council of
  Chiefs which consists of the highest ranking members of the
  traditional chiefly system
  elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a
  five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president
  election results: Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA elected president; percent
  of Great Council of Chiefs vote--NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
  (34 seats; 24 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 9 for Indians and others,
  and 1 for the island of Rotuma; members appointed by the president
  to serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (70
  seats; 37 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 27 reserved for ethnic
  Indians, and 6 for independents and others; members elected by
  popular vote on a communal basis to serve five-year terms)
  elections: House of Representatives--last held 18-25 February 1994
  (next to be held 11 May 1999)
  election results: House of Representatives--percent of vote by
  party--NA; seats by party--SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FAP 5, GVP 4,
  independents 2, ANC 1; note--results are for the last election before
  the new constitution came into force
  note: when the new constitution is applied to the upcoming May
  elections, the composition of the legislative branch will change to
  the following: Senate--32 seats (14 appointed by the Great Council of
  Chiefs, nine appointed by the prime minister, eight appointed by the
  leader of the opposition, and one appointed by the council of
  Rotuma) and House of Representatives--71 seats (23 reserved for
  ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved for ethnic Indians, three reserved for
  other ethnic groups, one reserved for the Rotuman constituency
  encompassing the whole of Fiji, and 25 open seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  president

Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party or SVT
  Lewenivanua Vakarisito Party or VLV or Christian Fellowship Party
  note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
  Congress or ANC merged with the Fijian Association or FA; the
  remaining members of the ANC have renamed their party the General
  Electors' Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, CP,
  ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
  OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
  UNIKOM, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador "Ratu" Napolioni MASIREWA
  chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Larry M.
  DINGER
  embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
  mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half
  of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field
  quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of
  sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove



Economy



Economy--overview: Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish
  resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island
  economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar
  exports and a growing tourist industry are the major sources of
  foreign exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial
  activity. Roughly 250,000 tourists visit each year. Political
  uncertainty and drought, however, contribute to substantial
  fluctuations in earnings from tourism and sugar and to the
  emigration of skilled workers. Fiji's growth slowed in 1997 because
  the sugar industry suffered from low world prices and rent disputes
  between farmers and landowners. Drought in 1998 further damaged the
  sugar industry. Overall growth in 1991-98 has averaged less than 2%
  per year, with long-term problems of low investment and uncertain
  property rights. The central bank predicts growth of 2% to 3% in
  1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$5.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 2.4% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$6,700 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19%
  industry: 22%
  services: 59% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 235,000

Labor force--by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage
  earners 18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $540.65 million
  expenditures: $742.65 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1997 est.)

Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing,
  lumber, small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1995)

Electricity--production: 545 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--production by source:
  fossil fuel: 21.1%
  hydro: 78.9%
  nuclear: 0%
  other: 0% (1996)

Electricity--consumption: 545 million kWh (1996)

Electricity--exports: 0 kWh (1996)

Electricity--imports: 0 kWh (1996)

Agriculture--products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca),
  rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish

Exports: $655 million (f.o.b., 1996)

Exports--commodities: sugar 32%, clothing, gold, processed fish,
  lumber

Exports--partners: Australia 27%, UK 14%, NZ 12%, US 8%, Japan
  (1996)

Imports: $838 million (f.o.b., 1996)

Imports--commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum
  products, food, chemicals

Imports--partners: Australia 44%, NZ 15%, US 9%, Japan 5%,
  Singapore 5% (1996)

Debt--external: $217 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid--recipient: $40.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1--1.9556 (January
  1999), 1.9868 (1998), 1.4437 (1997), 1.4033 (1996), 1.4063 (1995),
  1.4641 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Communications



Telephones: 60,017 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international
  (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone,
  telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications
  center
  domestic: NA
  international: access to important cable link between US and Canada
  and NZ and Australia; satellite earth station--1 Intelsat (Pacific
  Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 12,000 (1992 est.)



Transportation



Railways:
  total: 597 km; note--belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar
  Corporation
  narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 3,440 km
  paved: 1,692 km
  unpaved: 1,748 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
  200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
  total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,721 GRT/13,145 DWT
  ships by type: chemical tanker 2, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 1, specialized tanker 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 24 (1998 est.)

Airports--with paved runways:
  total: 3
  over 3,047 m: 1
  1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
  914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports--with unpaved runways:
  total: 21
  914 to 1,523 m: 4
  under 914 m: 17 (1998 est.)



Military



Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF;
  includes ground and naval forces)

Military manpower--military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower--availability:
  males age 15-49: 218,853 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--fit for military service:
  males age 15-49: 120,555 (1999 est.)

Military manpower--reaching military age annually:
  males: 9,326 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures--dollar figure: $34 million (1997)

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: 1.6% (1997)



Transnational Issues



Disputes--international: none



======================================================================



@Finland
-------



Introduction



Background: Long ruled by foreign powers, including Sweden and
  the pre-revolutionary Russian Empire, Finland finally declared
  independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland fought the USSR
  twice and then the Germans toward the end of the war. In the
  following half-century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation
  from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial
  economy. Per capita income has risen to the West European level;
  Finland is a member of the European Union and is the only Nordic
  state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.



Geography



Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of
  Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total: 337,030 sq km
  land: 305,470 sq km
  water: 31,560 sq km

Area--comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,628 km
  border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 6 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland--3 nm)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively
  mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current,
  Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with
  lakes and low hills

Elevation extremes:
  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
  arable land: 8%
  permanent crops: NA%
  permanent pastures: NA%
  forests and woodland: 76%
  other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment--current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and
  power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from
  industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens
  wildlife populations

Environment--international agreements:
  party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic
  Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography--note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is
  northernmost national capital on European continent; population
  concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain



People



Population: 5,158,372 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18% (male 483,700; female 464,431)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 1,743,340; female 1,706,873)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 289,405; female 470,623) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 10.77 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 9.67 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.32 years
  male: 73.81 years
  female: 80.98 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Finn(s)
  adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Lapp 0.11%, Gypsy 0.12%, Tatar
  0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%,
  other 1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official),
  small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 100% (1980 est.)
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government



Country name:
  conventional long form: Republic of Finland
  conventional short form: Finland
  local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
  local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular--laani);
  Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Lanni, Lansi-Suomen Laani,
  Lappi, Oulun Laani

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme
  Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
  1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
  cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the
  president, responsible to Parliament
  elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
  election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held NA
  January 2000); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed
  from the majority party by the president after parliamentary
  elections
  election results: Martti AHTISAARI elected president; percent of
  vote--Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200
  seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis
  to serve four-year terms)
  elections: last held 21 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
  election results: percent of vote by party--Social Democratic Party
  22.9%, Center Party 22.5%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party
  21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.9%, Swedish People's Party
  5.1%, Green Union 7.2%, Finnish Christian League 4.2%; seats by
  party--Social Democratic Party 51, Center Party 48, National
  Coalition (Conservative) Party 46, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 20,
  Swedish People's Party 11, Green Union 11, Finnish Christian League
  10, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus, judges
  appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:
  Alliance (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and

Political pressure groups and leaders: Finnish Communist

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia
  Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU,
  FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer),
  OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UPU,
  WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jaakko Tapani LAAJAVA
  chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Eric EDELMAN
  embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
  mailing address: APO AE 09723

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the
  edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
  hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Economy



Economy--overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
  free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK,
  France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is
  manufacturing--principally the wood, metals, engineering,
  telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important,
  with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for
  timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw
  materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods.
  Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to
  maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an
  important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the
  rural population. The economy has come back from the recession of
  1990-92, which had been caused by economic overheating, depressed
  foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between
  Finland and the former Soviet Union. Rapidly increasing integration
  with Western Europe--Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the
  euro monetary system (EMU) on 1 January 1999--will dominate the
  economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 1999
  probably will slow, perhaps to 3%, a barrier to any substantial drop
  in unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity--$103.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP--real growth rate: 5.1% (1998 est.)

GDP--per capita: purchasing power parity?$20,100 (1998 est.)

GDP--composition by sector:
  ag