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Title: Birds, Illustrated by Color Photography, Vol. 1, No. 6 - June, 1897
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Birds, Illustrated by Color Photography, Vol. 1, No. 6 - June, 1897" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's Note: A couple of unusual spellings in the "ads"
have been left as printed.

       *       *       *       *       *

  #BIRDS Volume I.#
       January to June, 1897

            NOW READY.

A magnificent book, a work of art--complete in two hundred and
twenty-four pages.

Sixty full page illustrations made by the new and wonderful process,
Color Photography.

Adapted to old and young.

Bound in neat and durable form.

For sale by all Newsdealers and Booksellers and by subscription.

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       *       *       *       *       *



                       #A MONTHLY SERIAL#

                       DESIGNED TO PROMOTE

                    #KNOWLEDGE OF BIRD-LIFE#

          "With cheerful hop from perch to spray,
             They sport along the meads;
           In social bliss together stray,
             Where love or fancy leads.

           Through spring's gay scenes each happy pair
             Their fluttering joys pursue;
           Its various charms and produce share,
             Forever kind and true."

                        CHICAGO, U. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


It has become a universal custom to obtain and preserve the likenesses
of one's friends. Photographs are the most popular form of these
likenesses, as they give the true exterior outlines and appearance,
(except coloring) of the subjects. But how much more popular and
useful does photography become, when it can be used as a means of
securing plates from which to print photographs in a regular printing
press, and, what is more astonishing and delightful, to produce the
REAL COLORS of nature as shown in the subject, no matter how brilliant
or varied.

We quote from the December number of the Ladies' Home Journal:

"_An excellent_ suggestion was recently made by the Department of
Agriculture at Washington that the public schools of the country shall
have a new holiday, to be known as Bird Day. Three cities have already
adopted the suggestion, and it is likely that others will quickly
follow. Of course, Bird Day will differ from its successful
predecessor, Arbor Day. We can plant trees but not birds. It is
suggested that Bird Day take the form of bird exhibitions, of bird
exercises, of bird studies--any form of entertainment, in fact, which
will bring children closer to their little brethren of the air, and
in more intelligent sympathy with their life and ways. There is a
wonderful story in bird life, and but few of our children know it. Few
of our elders do, for that matter. A whole day of a year can well and
profitably be given over to the birds. Than such study, nothing can be
more interesting. The cultivation of an intimate acquaintanceship with
our feathered friends is a source of genuine pleasure. We are under
greater obligations to the birds than we dream of. Without them the
world would be more barren than we imagine. Consequently, we have some
duties which we owe them. What these duties are only a few of us know
or have ever taken the trouble to find out. Our children should not be
allowed to grow to maturity without this knowledge. The more they know
of the birds the better men and women they will be. We can hardly
encourage such studies too much."

Of all animated nature, birds are the most beautiful in coloring, most
graceful in form and action, swiftest in motion and most perfect
emblems of freedom.

They are withal, very intelligent and have many remarkable traits, so
that their habits and characteristics make a delightful study for all
lovers of nature. In view of the facts, we feel that we are doing
a useful work for the young, and one that will be appreciated by
progressive parents, in placing within the easy possession of children
in the homes these beautiful photographs of birds.

The text is prepared with the view of giving the children as clear an
idea as possible, of haunts, habits, characteristics and such other
information as will lead them to love the birds and delight in their
study and acquaintance.

                                             NATURE STUDY PUBLISHING

       *       *       *       *       *



  VOL. 1.                       JUNE, 1897.                     No. 6.


    "I cannot love the man who doth not love,
    As men love light, the song of happy birds."

It is indeed fitting that the great poets have ever been the
best interpreters of the songs of birds. In many of the plays of
Shakespeare, especially where the scene is laid in the primeval
forest, his most delicious bits of fancy are inspired by the flitting
throng. Wordsworth and Tennyson, and many of the minor English poets,
are pervaded with bird notes, and Shelley's masterpiece, The Skylark,
will long survive his greater and more ambitious poems. Our own poet,
Cranch, has left one immortal stanza, and Bryant, and Longfellow, and
Lowell, and Whittier, and Emerson have written enough of poetic
melody, the direct inspiration of the feathered inhabitants of the
woods, to fill a good-sized volume. In prose, no one has said finer
things than Thoreau, who probed nature with a deeper ken than any of
his contemporaries. He is to be read, and read, and read.

But just what meaning should be attached to a bird's notes--some of
which are "the least disagreeable of noises"--will probably never be
discovered. They do seem to express almost every feeling of which the
human heart is capable. We wonder if the Mocking Bird understands what
all these notes mean. He is so fine an imitator that it is hard to
believe he is not doing more than mimicking the notes of other birds,
but rather that he really does mock them with a sort of defiant
sarcasm. He banters them less, perhaps, than the Cat Bird, but one
would naturally expect all other birds to fly at him with vengeful
purpose. But perhaps the birds are not so sensitive as their human
brothers, who do not always look upon imitation as the highest

A gentleman who kept a note-book, describes one of the matinee
performances of the Mocker, which he attended by creeping under a tent
curtain. He sat at the foot of a tree on the top of which the bird was
perched unconscious of his presence. The Mocker gave one of the notes
of the Guinea-hen, a fine imitation of the Cardinal, or Red Bird,
an exact reproduction of the note of the Phoebe, and some of the
difficult notes of the Yellow-breasted Chat. "Now I hear a young
chicken peeping. Now the Carolina Wren sings, '_cheerily, cheerily,
cheerily_.' Now a small bird is shrilling with a fine insect tone. A
Flicker, a Wood-pewee, and a Phoebe follow in quick succession. Then a
Tufted Titmouse squeals. To display his versatility, he gives a dull
performance which couples the '_go-back_' of the Guinea fowl with the
plaint of the Wood-pewee, two widely diverse vocal sounds. With all
the performance there is such perfect self-reliance and consciousness
of superior ability that one feels that the singer has but to choose
what bird he will imitate next."

Nor does the plaintive, melancholy note of the Robin, that "pious"
bird, altogether express his character. He has so many lovely traits,
according to his biographers, that we accept him unhesitatingly as a
truly good bird. Didn't he once upon a time tenderly cover with leaves
certain poor little wanderers? Isn't he called "The Bird of the
Morning?" And evening as well, for you can hear his sad voice long
after the sun has himself retired.

The poet Coleridge claims the credit of first using the Owl's cry
in poetry, and his musical note _Tu-whit, tu-who!_ has made him a
favorite with the poets. Tennyson has fancifully played upon it in
his little "Songs to the Owl," the last stanza of which runs:

    "I would mock thy chant anew;
    But I cannot mimic it,
    Not a whit of thy tuhoo,
    Thee to woo to thy tuwhit,
    Thee to woo to thy tuwhit.

    With a lengthen'd loud halloo,
    Tuwhoo, tuwhit, tuwhit, tuhoo-o-o."

But Coleridge was not correct in his claim to precedence in the use of
the Owl's cry, for Shakespeare preceded him, and Tennyson's "First
Song to the Owl" is modeled after that at the end of "Love's Labor

    "When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl,
    Then nightly sings the staring Owl,
    Tu-whit, tu-who, a merry note."

In references to birds, Tennyson is the most felicitous of all poets
and the exquisite swallow-song in "The Princess" is especially
recommended to the reader's perusal.

Birds undoubtedly sing for the same reasons that inspire to utterance
all the animated creatures in the universe. Insects sing and bees,
crickets, locusts, and mosquitos. Frogs sing, and mice, monkeys,
and woodchucks. We have recently heard even an English Sparrow do
something better than chipper; some very pretty notes escaped him,
perchance, because his heart was overflowing with love-thoughts, and
he was very merry, knowing that his affection was reciprocated. The
elevated railway stations, about whose eaves the ugly, hastily built
nests protrude everywhere, furnish ample explanation of his reasons
for singing.

Birds are more musical at certain times of the day as well as at
certain seasons of the year. During the hour between dawn and sunrise
occurs the grand concert of the feathered folk. There are no concerts
during the day--only individual songs. After sunset there seems to be
an effort to renew the chorus, but it cannot be compared to the
morning concert when they are practically undisturbed by man.

Birds sing because they are happy. Bradford Torrey has given with much
felicity his opinion on the subject, as follows:

"I recall a Cardinal Grosbeak, whom I heard several years ago, on the
bank of the Potomac river. An old soldier had taken me to visit the
Great Falls, and as we were clambering over the rocks this Grosbeak
began to sing; and soon, without any hint from me, and without knowing
who the invisible musician was, my companion remarked upon the
uncommon beauty of the song. The Cardinal is always a great singer,
having a voice which, as European writers say, is almost equal to the
Nightingale's; but in this case the more stirring, martial quality of
the strain had given place to an exquisite mellowness, as if it were,
what I have no doubt it was,

                      A Song of Love."
                              --C. C. Marble.


[Illustration: From col. F. M. Woodruff. YELLOW-THROATED VIREO.]


The popular name of this species of an attractive family is Yellow
Throated Greenlet, and our young readers will find much pleasure in
watching its pretty movements and listening to its really delightful
song whenever they visit the places where it loves to spend the happy
hours of summer. In some respects it is the most remarkable of all
the species of the family found in the United States. "The Birds
of Illinois," a book that may be profitably studied by the young
naturalist, states that it is decidedly the finest singer, has the
loudest notes of admonition and reproof, and is the handsomest in
plumage, and hence the more attractive to the student.

A recognized observer says he has found it only in the woods, and
mostly in the luxuriant forests of the bottom lands. The writer's
experience accords with that of Audubon and Wilson, the best
authorities in their day, but the habits of birds vary greatly with
locality, and in other parts of the country, notably in New England,
it is very familiar, delighting in the companionship of man. It breeds
in eastern North America, and winters in Florida, Cuba and Central

The Vireo makes a very deep nest, suspended by its upper edge,
between the forks of a horizontal branch. The eggs are white,
generally with a few reddish brown blotches. All authorities agree as
to the great beauty of the nest, though they differ as to its exact
location. It is a woodland bird, loving tall trees and running water,
"haunting the same places as the Solitary Vireo." During migration the
Yellow-throat is seen in orchards and in the trees along side-walks
and lawns, mingling his golden colors with the rich green of June

The Vireos, or Greenlets, are like the Warblers in appearance and
habits. We have no birds, says Torrey, that are more unsparing of
their music; they sing from morning till night, and--some of them, at
least--continue theirs till the very end of the season. The song of
the Yellow-throat is rather too monotonous and persistent. It is hard
sometimes not to get out of patience with its ceasless and noisy
iteration of its simple tune; especially if you are doing your utmost
to catch the notes of some rarer and more refined songster. This is
true also of some other birds, whose occasional silence would add much
to their attractiveness.


Some bright morning this month, you may hear a Robin's song from a
large tree near by. A Red Bird answers him and then the Oriole chimes
in. I can see you looking around to find the birds that sing so
sweetly. All this time a gay bird sits among the green leaves and
laughs at you as you try to find three birds when only one is there.

It is the Mocking Bird or Mocker, and it is he who has been fooling
you with his song. Nature has given him lots of music and gifted him
with the power of imitating the songs of other birds and sounds of
other animals.

He is certainly the sweetest of our song birds. The English
Nightingale alone is his rival. I think, however, if our Mocker could
hear the Nightingale's song, he could learn it.

The Mocking Bird is another of our Thrushes. By this time you have
surely made up your minds that the Thrushes are sweet singers.

The Mocker seems to take delight in fooling people. One gentleman
while sitting on his porch heard what he thought to be a young bird in
distress. He went in the direction of the sound and soon heard the
same cry behind him. He turned and went back toward the porch, when he
heard it in another direction. Soon he found out that Mr. Mocking Bird
had been fooling him, and was flying about from shrub to shrub making
that sound.

His nest is carelessly made of almost anything he can find. The small,
bluish-green eggs are much like the Catbird's eggs.

Little Mocking Birds look very much like the young of other Thrushes,
and do not become Mockers like their parents, until they are full

Which one of the other Thrushes that you have seen in BIRDS does the
Mocking Bird resemble?

He is the only Thrush that sings while on the wing. All of the others
sing only while perching.

[Illustration: From col. F. M. Woodruff. AMERICAN MOCKING BIRD.]


    Frank-hearted hostess of the field and wood,
    Gipsy, whose roof is every spreading tree,
    June is the pearl of our New England year,
    Still a surprisal, though expected long,
    Her coming startles. Long she lies in wait,
    Makes many a feint, peeps forth, draws coyly back,
    Then, from some southern ambush in the sky,
    With one great gush of blossoms storms the world.
    A week ago the Sparrow was divine;
    The Bluebird, shifting his light load of song
    From post to post along the cheerless fence,
    Was as a rhymer ere the poet came;
    But now, O rapture! sunshine winged and voiced,
    Pipe blown through by the warm, wild breath of the West,
    Shepherding his soft droves of fleecy cloud,
    Gladness of woods, skies, waters, all in one,
    The Bobolink has come, and, like the soul
    Of the sweet season vocal in a bird,
    Gurgles in ecstasy we know not what
    Save _June! Dear June! Now God be praised for June._


[Illustration: From col. Chi. Acad. Sciences. BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT


What a beautiful creature this is! A mounted specimen requires, like
the Snowy Owl, the greatest care and a dust tight glass case to
preserve its beauty. Dr. Coues' account of it should be read by those
who are interested in the science of ornithology. It is a common bird
in the United States and British Provinces, being migratory and
resident in the south. Heronries, sometimes of vast extent, to which
they return year after year, are their breeding places. Each nest
contains three or four eggs of a pale, sea-green color. Observe the
peculiar plumes, sometimes two, in this case three, which spring from
the back of the head. These usually lie close together in one bundle,
but are often blown apart by the wind in the form of streamers. This
Heron derives its name from its habits, as it is usually seen flying
at night, or in the early evening, when it utters a sonorous cry of
_quaw_ or _quawk_. It is often called Quawk or Qua-Bird.

On the return of the Black-Crowned Night Heron in April, he promptly
takes possession of his former home, which is likely to be the most
solitary and deeply shaded part of a cedar swamp. Groves of swamp oak
in retired and water covered places, are also sometimes chosen, and
the males often select tall trees on the bank of the river to roost
upon during the day. About the beginning of twilight they direct their
flight toward the marshes, uttering in a hoarse and hollow tone, the
sound _qua_. At this hour all the nurseries in the swamps are emptied
of their occupants, who disperse about the marshes along the ditches
and river shore in search of food. Some of these nesting places have
been occupied every spring and summer for many years by nearly a
hundred pair of Herons. In places where the cedars have been cut down
and removed the Herons merely move to another part of the swamp, not
seeming greatly disturbed thereby; but when attacked and plundered
they have been known to remove from an ancient home in a body to some
unknown place.

The Heron's nest is plain enough, being built of sticks. On entering
the swamp in the neighborhood of one of the heronries the noise of the
old and young birds equals that made by a band of Indians in conflict.
The instant an intruder is discovered, the entire flock silently rises
in the air and removes to the tops of the trees in another part of the
woods, while sentries of eight or ten birds make occasional circuits
of inspection.

The young Herons climb to the tops of the highest trees, but do not
attempt to fly. While it is probable these birds do not see well by
day, they possess an exquisite facility of hearing, which renders it
almost impossible to approach their nesting places without discovery.
Hawks hover over the nests, making an occasional sweep among the
young, and the Bald Eagle has been seen to cast a hungry eye upon

The male and female can hardly be distinguished. Both have the plumes,
but there is a slight difference in size.

The food of the Night Heron, or Qua-Bird, is chiefly fish, and his two
interesting traits are tireless watchfulness and great appetite. He
digests his food with such rapidity that however much he may eat, he
is always ready to eat again; hence he is little benefited by what he
does eat, and is ever in appearance in the same half-starved state,
whether food is abundant or scarce.


The Ring-billed Gull is a common species throughout eastern North
America, breeding throughout the northern tier of the United States,
whose northern border is the limit of its summer home. As a rule in
winter it is found in Illinois and south to the Gulf of Mexico. It is
an exceedingly voracious bird, continually skimming over the surface
of the water in search of its finny prey, and often following shoals
of fish to great distances. The birds congregate in large numbers at
their breeding places, which are rocky islands or headlands in the
ocean. Most of the families of Gulls are somewhat migratory, visiting
northern regions in summer to rear their young. The following lines
give with remarkable fidelity the wing habits and movements of this
tireless bird:

    "On nimble wing the gull
    Sweeps booming by, intent to cull
    Voracious, from the billows' breast,
    Marked far away, his destined feast.
    Behold him now, deep plunging, dip
    His sunny pinion's sable tip
    In the green wave; now highly skim
    With wheeling flight the water's brim;
    Wave in blue sky his silver sail
    Aloft, and frolic with the gale,
    Or sink again his breast to lave,
    And float upon the foaming wave.
    Oft o'er his form your eyes may roam,
    Nor know him from the feathery foam,
    Nor 'mid the rolling waves, your ear
    On yelling blast his clamor hear."

This Gull lives principally on fish, but also greedily devours
insects. He also picks up small animals or animal substances with
which he meets, and, like the vulture, devours them even in a putrid
condition. He walks well and quickly, swims bouyantly, lying in the
water like an air bubble, and dives with facility, but to no great

As the breeding time approaches the Gulls begin to assemble in flocks,
uniting to form a numerous host. Even upon our own shores their
nesting places are often occupied by many hundred pairs, whilst
further north they congregate in countless multitudes. They literally
cover the rocks on which their nests are placed, the brooding parents
pressing against each other.

Wilson says that the Gull, when riding bouyantly upon the waves and
weaving a sportive dance, is employed by the poets as an emblem of
purity, or as an accessory to the horrors of a storm, by his shrieks
and wild piercing cries. In his habits he is the vulture of the ocean,
while in grace of motion and beauty of plumage he is one of the most
attractive of the splendid denizens of the ocean and lakes.

The Ring-billed Gull's nest varies with localities. Where there is
grass and sea weed, these are carefully heaped together, but where
these fail the nest is of scanty material. Two to four large oval
eggs of brownish green or greenish brown, spotted with grey and brown,
are hatched in three or four weeks, the young appearing in a thick
covering of speckled down. If born on the ledge of a high rock, the
chicks remain there until their wings enable them to leave it, but if
they come from the shell on the sand of the beach they trot about
like little chickens. During the first few days they are fed with
half-digested food from the parents' crops, and then with freshly
caught fish.

The Gull rarely flies alone, though occasionally one is seen far away
from the water soaring in majestic solitude above the tall buildings
of the city.

[Illustration: From col. Chi. Acad. Sciences. RING-BILLED GULL.]


The Mocking Bird is regarded as the chief of songsters, for in
addition to his remarkable powers of imitation, he is without a rival
in variety of notes. The Brown Thrasher is thought by many to have a
sweeter song, and one equally vigorous, but there is a bold brilliancy
in the performance of the Mocker that is peculiarly his own, and which
has made him _par excellence_ the forest extemporizer of vocal melody.
About this of course there will always be a difference of opinion, as
in the case of the human melodists.

So well known are the habits and characteristics of the Mocking Bird
that nearly all that could be written about him would be but a
repetition of what has been previously said. In Illinois, as in many
other states, its distribution is very irregular, its absence from
some localities which seem in every way suited being very difficult to
account for. Thus, according to "Birds of Illinois," while one or two
pairs breed in the outskirts of Mount Carmel nearly every season, it
is nowhere in that vicinity a common bird. A few miles further north,
however, it has been found almost abundant. On one occasion, during a
three mile drive from town, six males were seen and heard singing
along the roadside. Mr. H. K. Coale says that he saw a mocking bird in
Stark county, Indiana, sixty miles southeast of Chicago, January 1,
1884; that Mr. Green Smith had met with it at Kensington Station,
Illinois, and that several have been observed in the parks and
door-yards of Chicago. In the extreme southern portion of the state
the species is abundant, and is resident through the year.

The Mocking Bird does not properly belong among the birds of the
middle or eastern states, but as there are many records of its
nesting in these latitudes it is thought to be safe to include it.
Mrs. Osgood Wright states that individuals have often been seen in the
city parks of the east, one having lived in Central Park, New York
city, late into the winter, throughout a cold and extreme season. They
have reared their young as far north as Arlington, near Boston, where
they are noted, however, as rare summer residents. Dr. J. A. Allen,
editor of _The Auk_, notes that they occasionally nest in the
Connecticut Valley.

The Mocking Bird has a habit of singing and fluttering in the middle
of the night, and in different individuals the song varies, as is
noted of many birds, particularly canaries. The song is a natural love
song, a rich dreamy melody. The mocking song is imitative of the notes
of all the birds of field, forest, and garden, broken into fragments.

The Mocker's nest is loosely made of leaves and grass, rags, feathers,
etc., plain and comfortable. It is never far from the ground. The eggs
are four to six, bluish green, spattered with shades of brown.

Wilson's description of the Mocking Bird's song will probably never be
surpassed: "With expanded wings and tail glistening with white, and
the bouyant gayety of his action arresting the eye, as his song does
most irresistably the ear, he sweeps around with enthusiastic ecstasy,
and mounts and descends as his song swells or dies away. And he often
deceives the sportsman, and sends him in search of birds that are not
perhaps within miles of him, but whose notes he exactly imitates."

Very useful is he, eating large spiders and grasshoppers, and the
destructive cottonworm.


A rambler in the fields and woodlands during early spring or
the latter part of autumn is often surprised at finding insects,
grasshoppers, dragon flies, beetles of all kinds, and even larger
game, mice, and small birds, impaled on twigs and thorns. This is
apparently cruel sport, he observes, if he is unacquainted with the
Butcher Bird and his habits, and he at once attributes it to the
wanton sport of idle children who have not been led to say,

    With hearts to love, with eyes to see,
    With ears to hear their minstrelsy;
    Through us no harm, by deed or word,
    Shall ever come to any bird.

If he will look about him, however, the real author of this mischief
will soon be detected as he appears with other unfortunate little
creatures, which he requires to sustain his own life and that of his
nestlings. The offender he finds to be the Shrike of the northern
United States, most properly named the Butcher Bird. Like all tyrants
he is fierce and brave only in the presence of creatures weaker than
himself, and cowers and screams with terror if he sees a falcon. And
yet, despite this cruel proceeding, which is an implanted instinct
like that of the dog which buries bones he never seeks again, there
are few more useful birds than the Shrike. In the summer he lives on
insects, ninety-eight per cent. of his food for July and August
consisting of insects, mainly grasshoppers; and in winter, when
insects are scarce, mice form a very large proportion of his food.

The Butcher Bird has a very agreeable song, which is soft and musical,
and he often shows cleverness as a mocker of other birds. He has been
taught to whistle parts of tunes, and is as readily tamed as any of
our domestic songsters.

The nest is usually found on the outer limbs of trees, often from
fifteen to thirty feet from the ground. It is made of long strips of
the inner bark of bass-wood, strengthened on the sides with a few dry
twigs, stems, and roots, and lined with fine grasses. The eggs are
often six in number, of a yellowish or clayey-white, blotched and
marbled with dashes of purple, light brown, and purplish gray. Pretty
eggs to study.

Readers of BIRDS who are interested in eggs do not need to disturb
the mothers on their nests in order to see and study them. In all the
great museums specimens of the eggs of nearly all birds are displayed
in cases, and accurately colored plates have been made and published
by the Smithsonian Institution and others. The Chicago Academy of
Sciences has a fine collection of eggs. Many persons imagine that
these institutions engage in cruel slaughter of birds in order to
collect eggs and nests. This, of course, is not true, only the fewest
number being taken, and with the exclusive object of placing before
the people, not for their amusement but rather for their instruction,
specimens of birds and animals which shall serve for their
identification in forest and field.

The Loggerhead Shrike and nest shown in this number were taken under
the direction of Mr. F. M. Woodruff, at Worth, Ill., about fourteen
miles from Chicago. The nest was in a corner of an old hedge of Osage
Orange, and about eight feet from the ground. He says in the _Osprey_
that it took considerable time and patience to build up a platform of
fence boards and old boxes to enable the photographer to do his work.
The half-eaten body of a young garter snake was found about midway
between the upper surface of the nest and the limb above, where it had
been hung up for future use.

[Illustration: From col. Chi. Acad. Sciences. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE.]


Baltimore Orioles are inhabitants of the whole of North America, from
Canada to Mexico. They enter Louisiana as soon as spring commences
there. The name of Baltimore Oriole has been given it, because its
colors of black and orange are those of the family arms of Lord
Baltimore, to whom Maryland formerly belonged. Tradition has it that
George Calvert, the first Baron Baltimore, worn out and discouraged
by the various trials and rigours of temperature experienced in his
Newfoundland colony in 1628, visited the Virginia settlement. He
explored the waters of the Chesapeake, and found the woods and shores
teeming with birds, among them great flocks of Orioles, which so
cheered him by their beauty of song and splendor of plumage, that
he took them as good omens and adopted their colors for his own.

When the Orioles first arrive the males are in the majority; they sit
in the spruces calling by the hour, with lonely querulous notes. In a
few days however, the females appear, and then the martial music
begins, the birds' golden trumpeting often turning to a desperate
clashing of cymbals when two males engage in combat, for "the Oriole
has a temper to match his flaming plumage and fights with a will."

This Oriole is remarkably familiar, and fearless of man, hanging its
beautiful nest upon the garden trees, and even venturing into the
street wherever a green tree nourishes. The materials of which its
nest is made are flax, various kinds of vegetable fibers, wool, and
hair, matted together so as to resemble felt in consistency. A
number of long horse-hairs are passed completely through the fibers,
sewing it firmly together with large and irregular, but strong and
judiciously placed stitching. In one of these nests an observer found
that several of the hairs used for this purpose measured two feet in
length. The nest is in the form of a long purse, six or seven inches
in depth, three or four inches in diameter; at the bottom is arranged
a heap of soft material in which the eggs find a warm resting place.
The female seems to be the chief architect, receiving a constant
supply of materials from her mate, occasionally rejecting the fibers
or hairs which he may bring, and sending him off for another load more
to her taste.

Like human builders, the bird improves in nest building by practice,
the best specimens of architecture being the work of the oldest birds,
though some observers deny this.

The eggs are five in number, and their general color is whitish-pink,
dotted at the larger end with purplish spots, and covered at the
smaller end with a great number of fine intersecting lines of the same

In spring the Oriole's food seems to be almost entirely of an animal
nature, consisting of caterpillars, beetles, and other insects, which
it seldom pursues on the wing, but seeks with great activity among
the leaves and branches. It also eats ripe fruit. The males of this
elegant species of Oriole acquire the full beauty of their plumage the
first winter after birth.

The Baltimore Oriole is one of the most interesting features of
country landscape, his movements, as he runs among the branches of
trees, differing from those of almost all other birds. Watch him
clinging by the feet to reach an insect so far away as to require the
full extension of the neck, body, and legs without letting go his
hold. He glides, as it were, along a small twig, and at other times
moves sidewise for a few steps. His motions are elegant and stately.


About the middle of May, when the leaves are all coming out to see the
bright sunshine, you may sometimes see, among the boughs, a bird of
beautiful black and orange plumage.

He looks like the Orchard Oriole, whose picture you saw in May
"Birds." It is the Baltimore Oriole. He has other names, such as
"Golden Robin," "Fire Bird," "Hang-nest." I could tell you how he came
to be called Baltimore Oriole, but would rather you'd ask your teacher
about it. She can tell you all about it, and an interesting story it
is, I assure you.

You see from the picture why he is called "Hang-nest." Maybe you can
tell why he builds his nest that way.

The Orioles usually select for their nest the longest and slenderest
twigs, way out on the highest branches of a large tree. They like the
elm best. From this they hang their bag-like nest.

It must be interesting to watch them build the nest, and it requires
lots of patience, too, for it usually takes a week or ten days to
build it.

They fasten both ends of a string to the twigs between which the nest
is to hang. After fastening many strings like this, so as to cross one
another, they weave in other strings crosswise, and this makes a sort
of bag or pouch. Then they put in the lining.

Of course, it swings and rocks when the wind blows, and what a nice
cradle it must be for the baby Orioles?

Orioles like to visit orchards and eat the bugs, beetles and
caterpillars that injure the trees and fruit.

There are few birds who do more good in this way than Orioles.

Sometimes they eat grapes from the vines and peck at fruit on the
trees. It is usually because they want a drink that they do this.

One good man who had a large orchard and vineyard placed pans of water
in different places. Not only the Orioles, but other birds, would go
to the pan for a drink, instead of pecking at the fruit. Let us think
of this, and when we have a chance, give the birds a drink of water.
They will repay us with their sweetest songs.

[Illustration: From col. F. M. Woodruff. BALTIMORE ORIOLE.]


Few of all the groups of birds have such decided markings, such
characteristic distinctions, as the Owl. There is a singular
resemblance between the face of an Owl and that of a cat, which is the
more notable, as both of these creatures have much the same habits,
live on the same prey, and are evidently representatives of the same
idea in their different classes. The Owl, in fact, is a winged cat,
just as the cat is a furred owl.

The Snowy Owl is one of the handsomest of this group, not so much on
account of its size, which is considerable, as by reason of the
beautiful white mantle which it wears, and the large orange eyeballs
that shine with the lustre of a topaz set among the snowy plumage.

It is a native of the north of Europe and America, but is also found
in the more northern parts of England, being seen, though rather a
scarce bird, in the Shetland and Orkney Islands, where it builds its
nest and rears its young. One will be more likely to find this owl
near the shore, along the line of salt marshes and woody stubble, than
further inland. The marshes do not freeze so easily or deep as the
iron bound uplands, and field-mice are more plentiful in them. It is
so fleet of wing that if its appetite is whetted, it can follow and
capture a Snow Bunting or a Junco in its most rapid flight.

Like the Hawk Owl, it is a day-flying bird, and is a terrible foe
to the smaller mammalia, and to various birds. Mr. Yarrell in his
"History of the British Birds," states that one wounded on the Isle of
Balta disgorged a young rabbit whole, and that a young Sandpiper, with
its plumage entire, was found in the stomach of another.

In proportion to its size the Snowy Owl is a mighty hunter, having
been detected chasing the American hare, and carrying off wounded
Grouse before the sportsman could secure his prey. It is also a good
fisherman, posting itself on some convenient spot overhanging the
water, and securing its finny prey with a lightning-like grasp of the
claw as it passes beneath the white clad fisher. Sometimes it will
sail over the surface of a stream, and snatch the fish as they rise
for food. It is also a great lover of lemmings, and in the destruction
of these quadruped pests does infinite service to the agriculturist.

The large round eyes of this owl are very beautiful. Even by daylight
they are remarkable for their gem-like sheen, but in the evening they
are even more attractive, glowing like balls of living fire.

From sheer fatigue these birds often seek a temporary resting place on
passing ships. A solitary owl, after a long journey, settled on the
rigging of a ship one night. A sailor who was ordered aloft, terrified
by the two glowing eyes that suddenly opened upon his own, descended
hurriedly to the deck, declaring to the crew that he had seen "Davy
Jones a-sitting up there on the main yard."


What do you think of this bird with his round, puffy head? You of
course know it is an Owl. I want you to know him as the Snowy Owl.

Don't you think his face is some like that of your cat? This fellow is
not full grown, but only a child. If he were full grown he would be
pure white. The dark color you see is only the tips of the feathers.
You can't see his beak very well for the soft feathers almost cover

His large soft eyes look very pretty out of the white feathers. What
color would you call them? Most owls are quiet during the day and very
busy all night. The Snowy Owl is not so quiet day times. He flies
about considerably and gets most of his food in daylight.

A hunter who was resting under a tree, on the bank of a river, tells
this of him:

"A Snowy Owl was perched on the branch of a dead tree that had fallen
into the river. He sat there looking into the water and blinking his
large eyes.

Suddenly he reached out and before I could see how he did it, a fish
was in his claws."

This certainly shows that he can see well in the day time. He can see
best, however, in the twilight, in cloudy weather or moonlight. That
is the way with your cat.

The wing feathers of the owl are different from those of most birds.
They are as soft as down. This is why you cannot hear him when he
flies. Owls while perching are almost always found in quiet places
where they will not be disturbed.

Did you ever hear the voice of an owl in the night? If you never have,
you cannot imagine how dreary it sounds. He surely is "The Bird of the

[Illustration: From col. Chi. Acad. Sciences. SNOWY OWL.]


_From the Forest and Stream._

The advocates of protection for our small birds present two sets of
reasons for preventing their killing; the one sentimental, and the
other economic.

The sentimental reasons are the ones most often urged; they are also
of a kind to appeal with especial force to those whose responsibility
for the destruction of the birds is greatest. The women and girls, for
whose adornment birds' plumage is chiefly used, think little and know
less about the services which birds perform for agriculture, and
indeed it may be doubted whether the sight of a bunch of feathers or a
stuffed bird's skin suggests to them any thought of the life that
those feathers once represented. But when the wearers are reminded
that there was such a life; that it was cheery and beautiful, and that
it was cut short merely that their apparel might be adorned, they are
quick to recognize that bird destruction involves a wrong, and are
ready to do their part toward ending it by refusing to wear plumage.

The small boy who pursues little birds from the standpoint of the
hunter in quest of his game, feels only the ardor of pursuit. His
whole mind is concentrated on that and the hunter's selfishness, the
desire of possession, fills his heart. Ignorance and thoughtlessness
destroy the birds.

Every one knows in a general way that birds render most valuable
service to the farmer, but although these services have long been
recognized in the laws standing on the statute books of the
various states, it is only within a few years that any systematic
investigations have been undertaken to determine just what such
services are, to measure them with some approach to accuracy, to weigh
in the case of each species the good and the evil done, and so to
strike a balance in favor of the bird or against it. The inquiries
carried on by the Agricultural Department on a large scale and those
made by various local experiment stations and by individual observers
have given results which are very striking and which can no longer be

It is a difficult matter for any one to balance the good things that
he reads and believes about any animal against the bad things that he
actually sees. The man who witnesses the theft of his cherries by
robin or catbird, or the killing of a quail by a marsh hawk, feels
that here he has ocular proof of harm done by the birds, while as to
the insects or the field mice destroyed, and the crops saved, he has
only the testimony of some unknown and distant witness. It is only
natural that the observer should trust the evidence of his senses, and
yet his eyes tell him only a small part of the truth, and that small
part a misleading one.

It is certain that without the services of these feathered laborers,
whose work is unseen, though it lasts from daylight till dark through
every day in the year, agriculture in this country would come to an
immediate standstill, and if in the brief season of fruit each one
of these workers levies on the farmer the tribute of a few berries,
the price is surely a small one to pay for the great good done.
Superficial persons imagine that the birds are here only during the
summer, but this is a great mistake. It is true that in warm weather,
when insect life is most abundant, birds are also most abundant. They
wage an effective and unceasing war against the adult insects and
their larvae, and check their active depredations; but in winter the
birds carry on a campaign which is hardly less important in its


One of the most brilliant and striking of all American birds is
the Scarlet Tanager. From its black wings resembling pockets, it
is frequently called the "Pocket Bird." The French call it the
"Cardinal." The female is plain olive-green, and when seen together
the pair present a curious example of the prodigality with which
mother nature pours out her favors of beauty in the adornment of some
of her creatures and seems niggardly in her treatment of others. Still
it is only by contrast that we are enabled to appreciate the quality
of beauty, which in this case is of the rarest sort. In the January
number of BIRDS we presented the Red Rumped Tanager, a Costa Rica
bird, which, however, is inferior in brilliancy to the Scarlet, whose
range extends from eastern United States, north to southern Canada,
west to the great plains, and south in winter to northern South
America. It inhabits woodlands and swampy places. The nesting season
begins in the latter part of May, the nest being built in low thick
woods or on the skirting of tangled thickets; very often also, in an
orchard, on the horizontal limb of a low tree or sapling. It is very
flat and loosely made of twigs and fine bark strips and lined with
rootlets and fibers of inner bark.

The eggs are from three to five in number, and of a greenish blue,
speckled and blotted with brown, chiefly at the larger end.

The disposition of the Scarlet Tanager is retiring, in which respect
he differs greatly from the Summer Tanager, which frequents open
groves, and often visits towns and cities. A few may be seen in our
parks, and now and then children have picked up the bright dead form
from the green grass, and wondered what might be its name. Compare it
with the Redbird, with which it is often confounded, and the contrast
will be striking.

His call is a warble, broken by a pensive call note, sounding like the
syllables _chip-churr_, and he is regarded as a superior musician.

"Passing through an orchard, and seeing one of these young birds that
had but lately left the nest, I carried it with me for about half a
mile to show it to a friend, and having procured a cage," says Wilson,
"hung it upon one of the large pine trees in the Botanic Garden,
within a few feet of the nest of an Orchard Oriole, which also
contained young, hoping that the charity and kindness of the Orioles
would induce them to supply the cravings of the stranger. But charity
with them as with too many of the human race, began and ended at home.
The poor orphan was altogether neglected, and as it refused to be fed
by me, I was about to return it to the place where I had found it,
when, toward the afternoon, a Scarlet Tanager, no doubt its own
parent, was seen fluttering around the cage, endeavoring to get in.
Finding he could not, he flew off, and soon returned with food in his
bill, and continued to feed it until after sunset, taking up his
lodgings on the higher branches of the same tree. In the morning, as
soon as day broke, he was again seen most actively engaged in the
same manner, and, notwithstanding the insolence of the Orioles, he
continued his benevolent offices the whole day, roosting at night as
before. On the third or fourth day he seemed extremely solicitous for
the liberation of his charge, using every expression of distressful
anxiety, and every call and invitation that nature had put in his
power, for him to come out. This was too much for the feelings of my
friend. He procured a ladder, and mounting to the spot where the bird
was suspended, opened the cage, took out his prisoner, and restored
him to liberty and to his parent, who, with notes of great exultation,
accompanied his flight to the woods."

[Illustration: From col. F. M. Woodruff. SCARLET TANAGER.]


What could be more beautiful to see than this bird among the green
leaves of a tree? It almost seems as though he would kindle the dry
limb upon which he perches. This is his holiday dress. He wears it
during the nesting season. After the young are reared and the summer
months gone, he changes his coat. We then find him dressed in a dull
yellowish green--the color of his mate the whole year.

Do you remember another bird family in which the father bird changes
his dress each spring and autumn?

The Scarlet Tanager is a solitary bird. He likes the deep woods, and
seeks the topmost branches. He likes, too, the thick evergreens. Here
he sings through the summer days. We often pass him by for he is
hidden by the green leaves above us.

He is sometimes called our "Bird of Paradise."

Tanagers feed upon winged insects, caterpillars, seeds, and berries.
To get these they do not need to be on the ground. For this reason it
is seldom we see them there.

Both birds work in building the nest, and both share in caring for the
little ones. The nest is not a very pretty one--not pretty enough for
so beautiful a bird, I think. It is woven so loosely that if you were
standing under it, you could see light through it.

Notice his strong, short beak. Now turn to the picture of the
Rose-Breasted Grosbeaks in April BIRDS. Do you see how much alike they
are? They are near relatives.

I hope that you may all have a chance to see a Scarlet Tanager dressed
in his richest scarlet and most jetty black.


The Ruffed Grouse, which is called Partridge in New England and
Pheasant in the Middle and Southern States, is the true Grouse, while
Bob White is the real Partridge. It is unfortunate that they continue
to be confounded. The fine picture of his grouseship, however, which
we here present should go far to make clear the difference between

The range of the Ruffed Grouse is eastern United States, south to
North Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, and Arkansas. They hatch in
April, the young immediately leaving the nest with the mother. When
they hear the mother's warning note the little ones dive under leaves
and bushes, while she leads the pursuer off in an opposite direction.
Building the nest and sitting upon the eggs constitute the duties of
the female, the males during this interesting season keeping separate,
not rejoining their mates until the young are hatched, when they begin
to roam as a family.

Like the Turkey, the Ruffed Grouse has a habit of pluming and
strutting, and also makes the drumming noise which has caused so much
discussion. This noise "is a hollow vibrating sound, beginning softly
and increasing as if a small rubber ball were dropped slowly and then
rapidly bounced on a drum." While drumming the bird contrives to make
himself invisible, and if seen it is difficult to get the slightest
clue to the manner in which the sound is produced. And observers say
that it beats with its wings on a log, that it raises its wings and
strikes their edges above its back, that it claps them against its
sides like a crowing rooster, and that it beats the air. The writer
has seen a grouse drum, appearing to strike its wings together over
its back. But there is much difference of opinion on the subject, and
young observers may settle the question for themselves. When preparing
to drum he seems fidgety and nervous and his sides are inflated.
Letting his wings droop, he flaps them so fast that they make one
continuous humming sound. In this peculiar way he calls his mate, and
while he is still drumming, the hen bird may appear, coming slyly from
the leaves.

The nest is on the ground, made by the female of dry leaves and a few
feathers plucked from her own breast. In this slight structure she
lays ten or twelve cream-colored eggs, specked with brown.

The eyes of the Grouse are of great depth and softness, with deep
expanding pupils and golden brown iris.

Coming suddenly upon a young brood squatted with their mother near a
roadside in the woods, an observer first knew of their presence by the
old bird flying directly in his face, and then tumbling about at his
feet with frantic signs of distress and lameness. In the meantime the
little ones scattered in every direction and were not to be found. As
soon as the parent was satisfied of their safety, she flew a short
distance and he soon heard her clucking call to them to come to her
again. It was surprising how quickly they reached her side, seeming to
pop up as from holes in the ground.

[Illustration: From col. F. M. Woodruff. RUFFED GROUSE.]


At first sight most of you will think this is a turkey. Well, it does
look very much like one. He spreads his tail feathers, puffs himself
up, and struts about like a turkey. You know by this time what his
name is and I think you can easily see why he is called Ruffed.

This proud bird and his mate live with us during the whole year. They
are found usually in grassy lands and in woods.

Here they build their rude nest of dried grass, weeds and the like.
You will generally find it at the foot of a tree, or along side of an
old stump in or near swampy lands.

The Ruffed Grouse has a queer way of calling his mate. He stands on a
log or stump, puffed up like a turkey--just as you see him in the
picture. Then he struts about for a time just as you have seen a
turkey gobbler do. Soon he begins to work his wings--slowly at first,
but faster and faster, until it sounds like the beating of a drum.

His mate usually answers his call by coming. They set up housekeeping
and build their rude nest which holds from eight to fourteen eggs. As
soon as the young are hatched they can run about and find their own
food. So you see they are not much bother to their parents. When they
are a week old they can fly. The young usually stay with their parents
until next Spring. Then they start out and find mates for themselves.

I said at the first that the Ruffed Grouse stay with us all the year.
In the winter, when it is very cold, they burrow into a snowdrift to
pass the night. During the summer they always roost all night.


This sprightly little bird is met with in various sections of the
country. It occurs in all parts of New England and New York, and has
been found in the interior as far north as Fort Simpson. It is common
in the Bahamas and most of the West India Islands, generally as a
migrant; in Texas, in the Indian Territory, in Mexico, and throughout
eastern America.

Dr. Coues states that this warbler is a very common summer resident
near Washington, the greater number going farther north to breed. They
arrive there during the first week in April and are exceedingly
numerous until May.

In its habits this bird seems to be more of a creeper than a Warbler.
It is an expert and nimble climber, and rarely, if ever, perches
on the branch of a tree or shrub. In the manner of the smaller
Woodpecker, the Creepers, Nuthatches, and Titmice, it moves rapidly
around the trunks and larger limbs of the trees of the forest in
search of small insects and their larvae. It is graceful and rapid in
movement, and is often so intent upon its hunt as to be unmindful of
the near presence of man.

It is found chiefly in thickets, where its food is most easily
obtained, and has been known to breed in the immediate vicinity of a

The song of this Warbler is sweet and pleasing. It begins to sing from
its first appearance in May and continues to repeat its brief refrain
at intervals almost until its departure in August and September. At
first it is a monotonous ditty, says Nuttall, uttered in a strong but
shrill and filing tone. These notes, as the season advances, become
more mellow and warbling.

The Warbler's movements in search of food are very interesting to the
observer. Keeping the feet together they move in a succession of
short, rapid hops up the trunks of trees and along the limbs, passing
again to the bottom by longer flights than in the ascent. They make
but short flight from tree to tree, but are capable of flying far when
they choose.

They build on the ground. One nest containing young about a week old
was found on the surface of shelving rock. It was made of coarse
strips of bark, soft decayed leaves, and dry grasses, and lined with a
thin layer of black hair. The parents fed their young in the presence
of the observer with affectionate attention, and showed no uneasiness,
creeping head downward about the trunks of the neighboring trees, and
carrying large smooth caterpillars to their young.

They search the crevices in the bark of the tree trunks and branches,
look among the undergrowth, and hunt along the fences for bunches
of eggs, the buried larvae of the insects, which when undisturbed,
hatch out millions of creeping, crawling, and flying things that
devastate garden and orchard and every crop of the field.

[Illustration: From col. Chi. Acad. Sciences. BLACK AND WHITE CREEPING

       *       *       *       *       *



 Birds, The Return of the                                pages 101
 Bird Song                                                 "   187-8
 Bird Day in the Schools                                   "   129-138
 Birds and Farmers                                         "   213
 Black Bird, Red-winged, _Agelaeus Phoeniceus_             "   64-68-70-71
 Blue Bird, _Sialia Sialis_                                "   75-76-78
 Bobolink, _Dolichonyx Gryzivorus_                         "   92-3-4
 Bunting, Indigo, _Passerina Cyanea_                       "   172-3

 Catbird, _Galeoscoptes Carolinensis_                      "   183-4-6
 Chickadee, Black-capped, _Parus Atricopillus_             "   164-5-7
 Cock of the Rock                                          "   19-21
 Crossbill, American, _Loxia Curvirostra_                  "   126-7
 Crow, American, _Corvus Americanus_                       "   97-8-100

 Duck, Mandarin, _A. Galericulata_                         "   8-9-11

 Flicker, _Colaptes Auratus_                               "   89-90
 Fly-catcher, Scissor-tailed, _Milvulus Forficatus_        "   161-3

 Gallinule, Purple, _Ionoruis Martinica_                   "   120-1
 Grebe, Pied-billed, _Podilymbus Podiceps_                 "   134-5-7
 Grosbeak, Rose-breasted, _Habia Ludoviciana_              "   113-115
 Grouse, Ruffed, _Bonasa Umbellus_                         "   218-220-221
 Gull, Ring-billed, _Larus Delawarensis_                   "   198-199

 Halo, The                                                 "   150
 Hawk, Marsh, _Circus Hudsonius_                           "   158-159
 Hawk, Night, _Chordeiles Virginianus_                     "   175-6-8
 Heron, Black-crowned, _Nycticorax Nycticorax Naevius_     "   196-7

 Jay, American Blue, _Cyanocitta Cristata_                 "   39-41
 Jay, Arizona Green, _Xanthoura Luxuosa_                   "   146-148
 Jay, Canada, _Perisoreus Canadensis_                      "   116-17-19

 Kingfisher, American, _Ceryle Alcyon_                     "   60-61-63

 Lark, Meadow, _Sturnella Magna_                           "   105-7-8
 Longspur, Smith's, _Calcarius Pictus_                     "   123-5
 Lory, Blue Mountain                                       "   66-67

 Mocking Bird, American, _Mimus Polyglottos_               "   192-193-201
 Mot Mot, Mexican                                          "   49-57

 Nesting Time                                              "   149-150
 Nonpareil, _Passerina Ciris_                              "   1-3-15

 Oriole, Baltimore, _Icterus Galbula_                      "   205-6-7
 Oriole, Golden, _Icterus Icterus_                         "   34-36
 Oriole, Orchard, _Icterus Spurius_                        "   154-5
 Owl, Long-eared, _Asio Wilsonianus_                       "   109-111-112
 Owl, Screech, _Megascops Asio_                            "   151-3-7
 Owl, Snowy, _Nyctea Nivea_                                "   209-210-211

 Paradise, Red Bird of, _Paradisea Rubra_                  "   22-23-25
 Parrakeet, Australian                                     "   16-18
 Parrot, King                                              "   50-51
 Pheasant, Golden, _P. Pictus_                             "   12-13
 Pheasant, Japan                                           "   86-88

 Red Bird, American, _Cardinalis Cardinalis_               "   72-74
 Robin, American, _Merula Migratoria_                      "   53-4-5-9
 Roller, Swallow-tailed, Indian                            "   42-43

 Shrike, Loggerhead, _Lanius Ludovicianus_                 "   202-203
 Swallow, Barn, _Chelidon Erythrogaster_                   "   79-80

 Tanager, Red-rumped, _Tanagridæ_                          "   30-31-33
 Tanager, Scarlet, _Piranga Erythromelas_                  "   214-216-217
 Tern, Black, _Hydrochelidon Ingra Surinamensis_           "   103-104
 Thrush, Brown, _Harporhynchus Rufus_                      "   82-83-84
 Thrush, Wood, _Turdus Mustelinus_                         "   179-180-183
 Toucan, Yellow-throated, _Ramphastos_                     "   26-27-29
 Trogon, Resplendent, _Trogonidæ_                          "   4-7

 Vireo, Yellow-throated, _Vireo Flavifrons_                "   189-191

 Warbler, Black-and-white Creeping, _Mniotilta Varia_      "   222-224
 Warbler, Prothonotary, _Protonotaria Citrea_              "   168-169-171
 Wax Wing, Bohemian, _Ampelis Garrulus_                    "   140-141
 Woodpecker, California, _Melanerpes Formicivorus Bairdi_  "   130-131-133
 Woodpecker, Red-headed, _Melanerpes Erythrocephalus_      "   45-46-47
 Wren, Long-billed Marsh, _Cistothorus Palustris_          "   142-144-145

       *       *       *       *       *

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